WorldWideScience

Sample records for shoes brake shoes

  1. Automated visual inspection of brake shoe wear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shengfang; Liu, Zhen; Nan, Guo; Zhang, Guangjun

    2015-10-01

    With the rapid development of high-speed railway, the automated fault inspection is necessary to ensure train's operation safety. Visual technology is paid more attention in trouble detection and maintenance. For a linear CCD camera, Image alignment is the first step in fault detection. To increase the speed of image processing, an improved scale invariant feature transform (SIFT) method is presented. The image is divided into multiple levels of different resolution. Then, we do not stop to extract the feature from the lowest resolution to the highest level until we get sufficient SIFT key points. At that level, the image is registered and aligned quickly. In the stage of inspection, we devote our efforts to finding the trouble of brake shoe, which is one of the key components in brake system on electrical multiple units train (EMU). Its pre-warning on wear limitation is very important in fault detection. In this paper, we propose an automatic inspection approach to detect the fault of brake shoe. Firstly, we use multi-resolution pyramid template matching technology to fast locate the brake shoe. Then, we employ Hough transform to detect the circles of bolts in brake region. Due to the rigid characteristic of structure, we can identify whether the brake shoe has a fault. The experiments demonstrate that the way we propose has a good performance, and can meet the need of practical applications.

  2. Industrial research on the quality of brake shoes meant for rolling stock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, E.; Pascu, L.; Socalici, A.; Lascufoni, A.

    2016-02-01

    Brake shoes wear appears as a normal exploitation process and depends both on the braking force and on the material the shoe is made of. Brake shoes are made of molded sulfurous cast iron. The industrial research and experiments aim at determining the specific characteristics of the phosphorous cast iron (chemical and structural homogeneity, hardness) and their optimization in view of improving the quality of the brake shoes meant for the rolling stock

  3. Investigation of Friction Behaviors of Brake Shoe Materials using Metallic Filler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Surojo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Some vehicles use brake shoe made from semi-metallic materials. Semi-metallic brake shoes are made from a combination of metallic and non-metallic materials. Metallic particles are added in the formulation of brake shoe material to improve composites characteristics. In this paper, friction behaviors of brake shoe material using metallic filler were investigated. Machining chips of cast iron and copper wire of electric motor used were incorporated in composite as metallic fillers with amount 0, 2, and 4 vol. %. Friction testing was performed to measure coefficient of friction by pressing surface specimen against the surface of rotating disc. The results show that cast iron chip and Cu short wire have effect on increasing coefficient of friction of brake shoe material. They form contact plateau at contact surface. At contact surface, the Cu short wires which have parallel orientation to the sliding contact were susceptible to detach from the matrix.

  4. The influence of the cast iron structure upon the hardness of brake shoes meant for the rolling sock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Socalici, A; Pascu, L; Popa, E; Hepuţ, T

    2015-01-01

    An important characteristic with a high impact upon the exploitation durability of the brake shoes is hardness. The paper introduces the influence of the phosphorous cast iron structure upon the hardness of the brake shoes meant for the tractive and trailing rolling stock. The results presented show the variation of hardness on the surface and the cross section of the braking shoe (paper)

  5. Radioisotopic measurement methods for determining the wear railway brake shoe and its rim wearing effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doman, P.

    1979-01-01

    Under operating conditions the wear of brake shoe was tested by a measuring method based on the principle of radioisotopic thickness measurement. It is characteristic to the sensitivity of the method that the wear caused by the fast braking of a train (speed: 100 km/h) as well as the uneven wear distribution were determinable. Surface activating methods assuring the periodic and continuous evaluation were also developed. A test was performed with galvanic surface activation under operating conditions to determine the rim wearing effect of the brake shoe. Apart from the operational tests a new method based on activated wear measurement was also developed. (author)

  6. Study on friction behaviour of brake shoe materials for mining hoist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungureanu, M.; Ungureanu, N. S.; Crăciun, I.

    2017-02-01

    The friction coefficient in the brake linkages has an important influence on the braking efficiency and safety of machines. The paper presents a method for the study of the friction coefficient of the friction couple brake shoe-drum for mining hoist. In this context, it is interesting to define the friction coefficient, not just according to the materials in contact, but according to the entire ensemble of tribological factors of the friction couple.

  7. Exposure to chrysotile asbestos associated with unpacking and repacking boxes of automobile brake pads and shoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madl, A K; Scott, L L; Murbach, D M; Fehling, K A; Finley, B L; Paustenbach, D J

    2008-08-01

    Industrial hygiene surveys and epidemiologic studies of auto mechanics have shown that these workers are not at an increased risk of asbestos-related disease; however, concerns continue to be raised regarding asbestos exposure from asbestos-containing brakes. Handling new asbestos-containing brake components has recently been suggested as a potential source of asbestos exposure. A simulation study involving the unpacking and repacking of 105 boxes of brakes (for vehicles ca. 1946-80), including 62 boxes of brake pads and 43 boxes of brake shoes, was conducted to examine how this activity might contribute to both short-term and 8-h time-weighted average exposures to asbestos. Breathing zone samples on the lapel of a volunteer worker (n = 80) and area samples at bystander (e.g., 1.5 m from worker) (n = 56), remote area (n = 26) and ambient (n = 10) locations collected during the unpacking and repacking of boxes of asbestos-containing brakes were analyzed by phase contrast microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Exposure to airborne asbestos was characterized for a variety of parameters including the number of boxes handled, brake type (i.e. pads versus shoes) and the distance from the activity (i.e. worker, bystander and remote area). This study also evaluated the fiber size and morphology distribution according to the International Organization for Standardization analytical method for asbestos. It was observed that (i) airborne asbestos concentrations increased with the number of boxes unpacked and repacked, (ii) handling boxes of brake pads resulted in higher worker asbestos exposures compared to handling boxes of brake shoes, (iii) cleanup and clothes-handling tasks produced less airborne asbestos than handling boxes of brakes and (iv) fiber size and morphology analysis showed that while the majority of fibers were free (e.g. not associated with a cluster or matrix), 20 microm length) considered to pose the greatest risk of asbestos-related disease. It

  8. Effect of surgical shoes on brake response time after first metatarsal osteotomy--a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dammerer, Dietmar; Braito, Matthias; Biedermann, Rainer; Ban, Michael; Giesinger, Johannes; Haid, Christian; Liebensteiner, Michael C; Kaufmann, Gerhard

    2016-01-20

    The aim of this study is to assess patients' driving ability when wearing surgical shoes following right-sided first metatarsal osteotomy. From August 2013 to August 2015, 42 consecutive patients (mean age 54.5 years) with right-sided hallux valgus deformity underwent first metatarsal osteotomy. Patients were tested for brake response time (BRT) 1 day preoperatively (control run) and at 2 and 6 weeks postoperatively. Two different types of foot orthosis were investigated. BRT was assessed using a custom-made driving simulator. Preoperative BRT was 712 msec (standard deviation (SD), 221 msec). BRT was significantly slower at all tested postoperative times than preoperatively (p shoes. Mean global American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) outcome score and AOFAS pain and alignment subscores increased postoperatively (p shoe after bunionectomy. However, patients should have sufficient recovery, exercise, and training before resuming driving a car, because safety is always a priority. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02354066.

  9. Effect of surgical shoes on brake response time after first metatarsal osteotomy?a prospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Dammerer, Dietmar; Braito, Matthias; Biedermann, Rainer; Ban, Michael; Giesinger, Johannes; Haid, Christian; Liebensteiner, Michael C.; Kaufmann, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study is to assess patients? driving ability when wearing surgical shoes following right-sided first metatarsal osteotomy. Methods From August 2013 to August 2015, 42 consecutive patients (mean age 54.5?years) with right-sided hallux valgus deformity underwent first metatarsal osteotomy. Patients were tested for brake response time (BRT) 1?day preoperatively (control run) and at 2 and 6?weeks postoperatively. Two different types of foot orthosis were investigated. B...

  10. Multivariate research in areas of phosphorus cast-iron brake shoes manufacturing using the statistical analysis and the multiple regression equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, I.; Cioată, V. G.; Alexa, V.; Raţiu, S. A.

    2017-05-01

    The braking system is one of the most important and complex subsystems of railway vehicles, especially when it comes for safety. Therefore, installing efficient safe brakes on the modern railway vehicles is essential. Nowadays is devoted attention to solving problems connected with using high performance brake materials and its impact on thermal and mechanical loading of railway wheels. The main factor that influences the selection of a friction material for railway applications is the performance criterion, due to the interaction between the brake block and the wheel produce complex thermos-mechanical phenomena. In this work, the investigated subjects are the cast-iron brake shoes, which are still widely used on freight wagons. Therefore, the cast-iron brake shoes - with lamellar graphite and with a high content of phosphorus (0.8-1.1%) - need a special investigation. In order to establish the optimal condition for the cast-iron brake shoes we proposed a mathematical modelling study by using the statistical analysis and multiple regression equations. Multivariate research is important in areas of cast-iron brake shoes manufacturing, because many variables interact with each other simultaneously. Multivariate visualization comes to the fore when researchers have difficulties in comprehending many dimensions at one time. Technological data (hardness and chemical composition) obtained from cast-iron brake shoes were used for this purpose. In order to settle the multiple correlation between the hardness of the cast-iron brake shoes, and the chemical compositions elements several model of regression equation types has been proposed. Because a three-dimensional surface with variables on three axes is a common way to illustrate multivariate data, in which the maximum and minimum values are easily highlighted, we plotted graphical representation of the regression equations in order to explain interaction of the variables and locate the optimal level of each variable for

  11. Shoe allergic contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthys, Erin; Zahir, Amir; Ehrlich, Alison

    2014-01-01

    Foot dermatitis is a widespread condition, affecting men and women of all ages. Because of the location, this condition may present as a debilitating problem to those who have it. Allergic contact dermatitis involving the feet is frequently due to shoes or socks. The allergens that cause shoe dermatitis can be found in any constituent of footwear, including rubber, adhesives, leather, dyes, metals, and medicaments. The goal of treatment is to identify and minimize contact with the offending allergen(s). The lack of product information released from shoe manufacturers and the continually changing trends in footwear present a challenge in treating this condition. The aim of this study is to review the current literature on allergic contact shoe dermatitis; clinical presentation, allergens, patch testing, and management will be discussed. PubMed and MEDLINE databases were used for the search, with a focus on literature updates from the last 15 years.

  12. Rocker shoe, minimalist shoe, and standard running shoe : A comparison of running economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sobhani, Sobhan; Bredeweg, Steven; Dekker, Rienk; Kluitenberg, Bas; van den Heuvel, Edwin; Hijmans, Juha; Postema, Klaas

    Objectives: Running with rocker shoes is believed to prevent lower limb injuries. However, it is not clear how running in these shoes affects the energy expenditure. The purpose of this study was, therefore, to assess the effects of rocker shoes on running economy in comparison with standard and

  13. Statistical experiments using the multiple regression research for prediction of proper hardness in areas of phosphorus cast-iron brake shoes manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, I.; Cioată, V. G.; Ratiu, S. A.; Rackov, M.; Penčić, M.

    2018-01-01

    Multivariate research is important in areas of cast-iron brake shoes manufacturing, because many variables interact with each other simultaneously. This article focuses on expressing the multiple linear regression model related to the hardness assurance by the chemical composition of the phosphorous cast irons destined to the brake shoes, having in view that the regression coefficients will illustrate the unrelated contributions of each independent variable towards predicting the dependent variable. In order to settle the multiple correlations between the hardness of the cast-iron brake shoes, and their chemical compositions several regression equations has been proposed. Is searched a mathematical solution which can determine the optimum chemical composition for the hardness desirable values. Starting from the above-mentioned affirmations two new statistical experiments are effectuated related to the values of Phosphorus [P], Manganese [Mn] and Silicon [Si]. Therefore, the regression equations, which describe the mathematical dependency between the above-mentioned elements and the hardness, are determined. As result, several correlation charts will be revealed.

  14. The Athletic Shoe in Football

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastifer, James; Kent, Richard; Crandall, Jeff; Sherwood, Chris; Lessley, David; McCullough, Kirk A.; Coughlin, Michael J.; Anderson, Robert B.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Foot and ankle injuries are common in sports, particularly in cleated athletes. Traditionally, the athletic shoe has not been regarded as a piece of protective equipment but rather as a part of the uniform, with a primary focus on performance and subjective feedback measures of comfort. Changes in turf and shoe design have poorly understood implications on the health and safety of players. Evidence Acquisition: A literature search of the MEDLINE and PubMed databases was conducted. Keywords included athletic shoewear, cleated shoe, football shoes, and shoewear, and search parameters were between the years 2000 and 2016. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 5. Results: The athletic shoe is an important piece of protective sports equipment. There are several important structural considerations of shoe design, including biomechanical compliance, cleat and turf interaction, and shoe sizing/fit, that affect the way an athlete engages with the playing surface and carry important potential implications regarding player safety if not understood and addressed. Conclusion: Athletic footwear should be considered an integral piece of protective equipment rather than simply an extension of the uniform apparel. More research is needed to define optimal shoe sizing, the effect that design has on mechanical load, and how cleat properties, including pattern and structure, interact with the variety of playing surfaces. PMID:28151702

  15. The Athletic Shoe in Football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastifer, James; Kent, Richard; Crandall, Jeff; Sherwood, Chris; Lessley, David; McCullough, Kirk A; Coughlin, Michael J; Anderson, Robert B

    Foot and ankle injuries are common in sports, particularly in cleated athletes. Traditionally, the athletic shoe has not been regarded as a piece of protective equipment but rather as a part of the uniform, with a primary focus on performance and subjective feedback measures of comfort. Changes in turf and shoe design have poorly understood implications on the health and safety of players. A literature search of the MEDLINE and PubMed databases was conducted. Keywords included athletic shoewear, cleated shoe, football shoes, and shoewear, and search parameters were between the years 2000 and 2016. Clinical review. Level 5. The athletic shoe is an important piece of protective sports equipment. There are several important structural considerations of shoe design, including biomechanical compliance, cleat and turf interaction, and shoe sizing/fit, that affect the way an athlete engages with the playing surface and carry important potential implications regarding player safety if not understood and addressed. Athletic footwear should be considered an integral piece of protective equipment rather than simply an extension of the uniform apparel. More research is needed to define optimal shoe sizing, the effect that design has on mechanical load, and how cleat properties, including pattern and structure, interact with the variety of playing surfaces.

  16. Arming shoes of the fifteenth century

    OpenAIRE

    Volken Marquita

    2017-01-01

    Military footwear for the fifteenth century includes arming shoes worn under sabatons. Written sources suggest arming shoes and footwear used for fighting were ordinary shoes adapted for the purpose. Archaeological footwear was examined for signs of such modifications. Medieval shoe technology is presented, showing the range of footwear and its uses and gait biomechanics. Based on experiences from re-enactors wearing armours, medieval shoe styles are discussed for appropriateness as arming sh...

  17. Arming shoes of the fifteenth century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volken Marquita

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Military footwear for the fifteenth century includes arming shoes worn under sabatons. Written sources suggest arming shoes and footwear used for fighting were ordinary shoes adapted for the purpose. Archaeological footwear was examined for signs of such modifications. Medieval shoe technology is presented, showing the range of footwear and its uses and gait biomechanics. Based on experiences from re-enactors wearing armours, medieval shoe styles are discussed for appropriateness as arming shoes. The question of why medieval military footwear shows no purposed development is addressed.

  18. Investigation into the Factors that Dtermine Shoe Fitting Using MRI

    OpenAIRE

    吉田, 宏昭

    2014-01-01

    It is essential to purchase suitable shoes that fit the size of users' feet in order to prevent foot injuries in daily life. Although shoe fitting significantly affects the performance of shoes, there are few studies that have either investigated the factors that control shoe fitting or established a method to evaluate shoe fitting. While, the shape of each foot and shoe was measured to estimate shoe fitting in previous studies, the deformation of feet when wearing shoes had not been taken in...

  19. How to Select the Right Athletic Shoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this site from a secured browser on the server. Please enable scripts and reload this page. Home ... a shoe store that employs a pedorthist or professional shoe fitter and/or following these guidelines: Don' ...

  20. Gait characteristics in women's safety shoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Kanako; Abe, Kaoru

    2017-11-01

    Although workers in Japan are required to wear safety footwear, there is concern about occupational accidents that occur when wearing safety shoes. This study aimed to analyze the effect of wearing hardsoled safety shoes on both spatiotemporal gait characteristics and the muscle activity in the lower extremities. Seventeen young women participated in this study. A 5-m gait trial and a surface electromyography trial were conducted while the women walked in either safety shoes or sports shoes. Paired t-tests were performed to analyze the differences in gait characteristics when walking in the two different pairs of shoes. Walking in safety shoes was associated with a significant increase in vastus lateralis, biceps femoris and tibialis anterior activity. This increased muscle activity in the lower extremities is likely compensating for the lower flexibility of the safety shoes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Increased Athletic Performance in Lighter Basketball Shoes: Shoe or Psychology Effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Maurice; Trudeau, Matthieu B; Nigg, Sandro R; Nigg, Benno M

    2016-01-01

    To determine the effect of shoe mass on performance in basketball-specific movements and how this affects changes if an athlete is aware or not of the shoe's mass relative to other shoes. In an experimental design, 22 male participants were assigned to 2 groups. In the "aware" group, differences in the mass of the shoes were disclosed, while participants in the other group were blinded to the mass of shoes. For both groups lateral shuffle-cut and vertical-jump performances were quantified in 3 different basketball-shoe conditions (light, 352 ± 18.4 g; medium, 510 ± 17 g; heavy, 637 ± 17.7 g). A mixed ANOVA compared mean shuffle-cut and vertical-jump performances across shoes and groups. For blinded participants, perceived shoe-weight ratings were collected and compared across shoe conditions using a Friedman 2-way ANOVA. In the aware group, performance in the light shoes was significantly increased by 2% (vertical jump 2%, P vertical-jump and shuffle-cut performance across shoes. Differences in performance of the aware participants were most likely due to psychological effects such as positive and negative expectancies toward the light and heavy shoes, respectively. These results underline the importance for coaches and shoe manufacturers to communicate the performance-enhancing benefits of products or other interventions to athletes to optimize their performance outcome.

  2. Radiation exposure from shoe-fitting fluoroscopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busch, Uwe

    2015-01-01

    It is 40 years ago that a very popular X-ray device disappeared in German shoe shops: the shoe-fitting fluoroscope or Pedoskop. Since the 1930s, these X-ray machines were an integral part of any good shoe business. Following the entry into force X-Ray Regulation (RoeV 1973) the use of these devices was prohibited in Germany.

  3. Patient compliance and effect of orthopaedic shoes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philipsen, A B; Ellitsgaard, N; Krogsgaard, M R

    1999-01-01

    Orthopaedic shoes are individually handmade after a prescription from an orthopaedic surgeon, hence relatively expensive. Bad compliance is mentioned in the literature but not investigated. In order to evaluate patient compliance and the effect of orthopaedic shoes, 85 patients who were prescribed...

  4. Contact allergens in shoe leather among patients with foot eczema.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coevorden, A.M. van; Coenraads, P.J.; Pas, H.H.; Valk, P.G.M. van der

    2002-01-01

    Some patients with relapsing foot eczema and a shoe leather allergy, who fail to show positive results with standard series and shoe wear screening tray patch testing, do not respond to the use of hypoallergenic shoe leather. We assume that relevant allergens are present in hypoallergenic shoe

  5. Contact allergens in shoe leather among patients with foot eczema

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Coevorden, AM; Coenraads, PJ; Pas, HH; van der Valk, PGM

    Some patients with relapsing foot eczema and a shoe leather allergy, who fail to show positive results with standard series and shoe wear screening tray patch testing, do not respond to the use of hypoallergenic shoe leather. We assume that relevant allergens are present in hypoallergenic shoe

  6. Dream for a Pair of Shoes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江大洪; 章思英

    2005-01-01

    The boy was 1.7 meters tall when he just started his third year at primary school. As his feet had outgrown even Father's shoes,his parents had to look up and down the streets for size-46 shoes. At 16,he shot to a height of 2.2 meters,and no store or market in the whole of China had stock of size-53 shoes for his big feet. The parents watched rather alarmingly their son shooting up wildly like a sapling.

  7. Can Unstable Shoe Be Used As a Safety Training Shoe for Rehabilitation Exercises?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Gandomkar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Unstable shoes have been recommended to osteoarthritis patients in order to reduce walking injuries. The aim of this study was to test the effect of unstable shoe on biomechanical selected variables related to injury during stanse phase of running. Materials & Methods: Twenty five healthy young male students available men (21±2.27years participated in this study. Subjects were asked to ran on the force plate in barefoot, with unstable and control shoe conditions. Active and passive joint power, peak anterior-posterior forces, active and passive vertical force, loading rate and impulse of posterior and passive vertical forces variables were recorded using synchronizing force plate and video camera and calculated in MATLAB software. A repeated measure of ANOVA used to test the hypothesis in SPSS software (version 20, p<0.05. Results: negative power at Ankle joint decreased significantly by 49%, 35% using unstable shoe compared to contol shoe and barefoot conditions respectively (P=0.02,P<0.05. Furthemore, unstable shoe decreased significantly the active ankle power compared to barefoot condition by 23% (P=0.01. Loading rate and peak of passive vertical force, impulse and peak of posterior force increased significantly in unstable shoe compared to control shoe (P<0.05. Conclusion: Unstable shoe increased some of running related injuries risk factors such as Loading rate and peak of passive vertical force, impulse and peak of posterior force. Furthemore, this shoe could decrease absorption potential shank muscles and ankle active stability compared to control shoe. However, with increase of ankle active power compared to barefoot and lower anterior force, Unstable shoe could improve the ankle joint force generation and propulsion potential.

  8. The Red Shoes : Motion picture (1948)

    OpenAIRE

    Lauri Lucente, Gloria; Buhagiar, Celaine

    2011-01-01

    Black Swan : A ballet dancer wins the lead in "Swan Lake" and is perfect for the role of the delicate White Swan - Princess Odette - but slowly loses her mind as she becomes more and more like Odile, the Black Swan. The Red Shoes : A young ballet dancer is torn between the man she loves and her pursuit to become a prima ballerina.

  9. 49 CFR 236.801 - Shoe, latch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shoe, latch. 236.801 Section 236.801 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.801...

  10. Stiffness Effects in Rocker-Soled Shoes: Biomechanical Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Pei-Fang; Chung, Chia-Hua; Hsia, Chi-Chun; Chang, Chih-Han

    2017-01-01

    Rocker-soled shoes provide a way to reduce the possible concentration of stress, as well as change movement patterns, during gait. This study attempts to examine how plantar force and spatio-temporal variables are affected by two rocker designs, one with softer and one with denser sole materials, by comparing them with the barefoot condition and with flat-soled shoes. Eleven subjects’ gait parameters during walking and jogging were recorded. Our results showed that compared with barefoot walking, plantar forces were higher for flat shoes while lower for both types of rocker shoes, the softer-material rocker being the lowest. The plantar force of flat shoes is greater than the vertical ground reaction force, while that of both rocker shoes is much less, 13.87–30.55% body weight. However, as locomotion speed increased to jogging, for all shoe types, except at the second peak plantar force of the denser sole material rocker shoes, plantar forces were greater than for bare feet. More interestingly, because the transmission of force was faster while jogging, greater plantar force was seen in the rocker-soled shoes with softer material than with denser material; results for higher-speed shock absorption in rocker-soled shoes with softer material were thus not as good. In general, the rolling phenomena along the bottom surface of the rocker shoes, as well as an increase in the duration of simultaneous curve rolling and ankle rotation, could contribute to the reduction of plantar force for both rocker designs. The possible mechanism is the conversion of vertical kinetic energy into rotational kinetic energy. To conclude, since plantar force is related to foot-ground interface and deceleration methods, rocker-design shoes could achieve desired plantar force reduction through certain rolling phenomena, shoe-sole stiffness levels, and locomotion speeds. PMID:28046009

  11. Stiffness Effects in Rocker-Soled Shoes: Biomechanical Implications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Yun Lin

    Full Text Available Rocker-soled shoes provide a way to reduce the possible concentration of stress, as well as change movement patterns, during gait. This study attempts to examine how plantar force and spatio-temporal variables are affected by two rocker designs, one with softer and one with denser sole materials, by comparing them with the barefoot condition and with flat-soled shoes. Eleven subjects' gait parameters during walking and jogging were recorded. Our results showed that compared with barefoot walking, plantar forces were higher for flat shoes while lower for both types of rocker shoes, the softer-material rocker being the lowest. The plantar force of flat shoes is greater than the vertical ground reaction force, while that of both rocker shoes is much less, 13.87-30.55% body weight. However, as locomotion speed increased to jogging, for all shoe types, except at the second peak plantar force of the denser sole material rocker shoes, plantar forces were greater than for bare feet. More interestingly, because the transmission of force was faster while jogging, greater plantar force was seen in the rocker-soled shoes with softer material than with denser material; results for higher-speed shock absorption in rocker-soled shoes with softer material were thus not as good. In general, the rolling phenomena along the bottom surface of the rocker shoes, as well as an increase in the duration of simultaneous curve rolling and ankle rotation, could contribute to the reduction of plantar force for both rocker designs. The possible mechanism is the conversion of vertical kinetic energy into rotational kinetic energy. To conclude, since plantar force is related to foot-ground interface and deceleration methods, rocker-design shoes could achieve desired plantar force reduction through certain rolling phenomena, shoe-sole stiffness levels, and locomotion speeds.

  12. Development of inexpensive prosthetic feet for high-heeled shoes using simple shoe insole model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Margrit R; Tucker, Kerice A; Hansen, Andrew H

    2014-01-01

    The large majority of prosthetic feet are aimed at low-heeled shoes, with a few models allowing a heel height of up to 5 cm. However, a survey by the American Podiatric Medical Association indicates that most women wear heels over 5 cm; thus, current prosthetic feet limit most female prosthesis users in their choice. Some prosthetic foot components are heel-height adjustable; however, their plantar surface shapes do not change to match the insole shapes of the shoes with different heel heights. The aims of the study were therefore (1) to develop a model that allows prediction of insole shape for various heel height shoes in combination with different shoe sizes and (2) to develop and field-test low-cost prototypes of prosthetic feet whose insole shapes were based on the new model. An equation was developed to calculate insole shapes independent of shoe size. Field testing of prototype prosthetic feet fabricated based on the equation was successful and demonstrated the utility of the equation.

  13. Injuries And Footwear (Part 2): Minimalist Running Shoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapik, Joseph J; Orr, Robin; Pope, Rodney; Grier, Tyson

    2016-01-01

    This article defines minimalist running shoes and examines physiological, biomechanical, and injury rate differences when running in conventional versus minimalist running shoes. A minimalist shoe is one that provides "minimal interference with the natural movement of the foot, because of its high flexibility, low heel to toe drop, weight and stack height, and the absence of motion control and stability devices." Most studies indicate that running in minimalist shoes results in a lower physiological energy cost than running in conventional shoes, likely because of the lower weight of the minimalist shoe. Most individuals running in conventional shoes impact the ground heel first (rearfoot strike pattern), whereas most people running in minimalist shoes tend to strike with the front of the foot (forefoot strike pattern). The rate at which force is developed on ground impact (i.e., the loading rate) is generally higher when running in conventional versus minimalist shoes. Findings from studies that have looked at associations between injuries and foot strike patterns or injuries and loading rates are conflicting, so it is not clear if these factors influence injury rates; more research is needed. Better-designed prospective studies indicate that bone stress injuries and the overall injury incidence are higher in minimalist shoes during the early weeks (10-12 weeks) of transition to this type of footwear. Longer-term studies are needed to define injury rates once runners are fully transitioned to minimalist shoes. At least one longer-term minimalist-shoe investigation is ongoing and, hopefully, will be published soon. 2016.

  14. iShoes for blind and visually impaired people

    OpenAIRE

    Assairi, Bandar; Holmes, Violeta

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the development of an iShoes system for blind and visually impaired people. The iShoes system utilizes a microcontroller with sound output interfaced with ultrasonic sensors. The prototype system is designed to be specifically mounted on/in the shoes to aid navigation in urban routes. The ultrasonic transducers determine the range from an obstacle and then play an audio message to reflect the distance from the target. This system will assist blind and visually impaired peo...

  15. [The functional sport shoe parameter "torsion" within running shoe research--a literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, F I; Kälin, X; Metzger, A; Westphal, K; Schweizer, F; Campe, S; Segesser, B

    2009-12-01

    Within the sport shoe area torsion is described as the twisting and decoupling of the rear-, mid- and forefoot along the longitudinal axis of the foot. Studies have shown that running shoes restrict the torsion of the foot and thus they increase the pronation of the foot. Based on the findings, it is recommended to design running shoes, which allow the natural freedom of movement of the foot. The market introduction of the first torsion concept through adidas(R) took place in 1989. Independently of the first market introduction, only one epidemiological study was conducted in the running shoe area. The study should investigate the occurrence of Achilles tendon problems of the athletes running in the new "adidas Torsion(R) shoes". However, further studies quantifying the optimal region of torsionability concerning the reduction of injury incidence are still missing. Newer studies reveal that the criterion torsion only plays a secondary roll regarding the buying decision. Moreover, athletes are not able to perceive torsionability as a discrete functional parameter. It is to register, that several workgroups are dealing intensively with the detailed analysis of the foot movement based on kinematic multi-segment-models. However, scientific as well as popular scientific contributions display that the original idea of the torsion concept is still not completely understood. Hence, the "inverse" characteristic is postulated. The present literature review leads to the deduction that the functional characteristics of the torsion concept are not fully implemented within the running shoe area. This implies the necessity of scientific studies, which investigate the relevance of a functional torsion concept regarding injury prevention based on basic and applied research. Besides, biomechanical studies should analyse systematically the mechanism and the effects of torsion relevant technologies and systems.

  16. Development of inexpensive prosthetic feet for high-heeled shoes using simple shoe insole model

    OpenAIRE

    Margrit R. Meier, PhD; Kerice A. Tucker, BSc; Andrew H. Hansen, PhD

    2014-01-01

    The large majority of prosthetic feet are aimed at low-heeled shoes, with a few models allowing a heel height of up to 5 cm. However, a survey by the American Podiatric Medical Association indicates that most women wear heels over 5 cm; thus, current prosthetic feet limit most female prosthesis users in their choice. Some prosthetic foot components are heel-height adjustable; however, their plantar surface shapes do not change to match the insole shapes of the shoes with different heel height...

  17. EVA Moccasin : Creating a research archetype to explore shoe use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nachtigall, T.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper three separate approaches to recording use data are encompassed in a single shoe sole prototype. A shoe sole with electronic and nonelectronic sensors is crafted using 3D printing of flexible materials from programed g-Code. The sole is inserted into a laser cut, 3D printing reinforced

  18. The influence of shoe aging on children running biomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbaut, Alexis; Chavet, Pascale; Roux, Maxime; Guéguen, Nils; Barbier, Franck; Simoneau-Buessinger, Emilie

    2017-07-01

    Athletic children are prone to overuse injuries, especially at the heel and knee. Since footwear is an extrinsic factor of lower limb injury risk, the aim of this study was to assess the influence of shoe aging on children running biomechanics. Fourteen children active in sports participated in a laboratory biomechanical evaluation. A new pair of shoes was provided to each participant at an inclusion visit. Four months later, the participants performed a running task and their kinematics and kinetics were assessed both with their used shoes and with a new pair of shoes identical to the first. Furthermore, mechanical cushioning properties of shoes were evaluated before and after in-vivo aging. After 4months of use, the sole stiffness increased by 16% and the energy loss capacity decreased by 18% (pknee kinematic adjustment was found at foot strike in used shoes but changes were observed later during stance. Running with used shoes produced a higher loading rate of the vertical ground reaction force (+23%, p=0.016), suggesting higher compressive forces under the heel and placing children at risk to experience impact-related injuries. Nevertheless, the decreased peak ankle and knee power absorption in used shoes (-11%, p=0.010 and -12%, p=0.029, respectively) suggests a lower ankle and knee joints loading during the absorption phase that may be beneficial regarding stretch-related injuries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Clutches and brakes design and selection

    CERN Document Server

    Orthwein, William C

    2004-01-01

    FRICTION MATERIALSFriction CodeWearBrake FadeFriction MaterialsNotationReferencesBAND BRAKESDerivation of EquationsApplicationLever-Actuated Band Brake: Backstop DesignExample: Design of a BackstopNotationFormula CollectionReferencesEXTERNALLY AND INTERNALLY PIVOTED SHOE BRAKESPivoted External Drum BrakesPivoted Internal Drum BrakesDesign of Dual-Anchor Twin-Shoe Drum BrakesDual-Anchor Twin-Shoe Drum Brake Design ExamplesDesign of Single-Anchor Twin-Shoe Drum BrakesSingle-Anchor Twin-Shoe Drum Brake Design Exam

  20. Effect of rocker shoes on plantar pressure pattern in healthy female runners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sobhani, Sobhan; van den Heuvel, Edwin; Bredeweg, Steven; Kluitenberg, Bas; Postema, Klaas; Hijmans, Juha M.; Dekker, Rienk

    Rocker profile shoes (rocker shoes) are one of the treatment options of metatarsalgia and forefoot stress fractures. The efficacy of rocker shoes in unloading the forefoot pressure has been shown in walking. In running, however, the effect of rocker shoes on forefoot pressure is unknown. Eighteen

  1. Differences in friction and torsional resistance in athletic shoe-turf surface interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidt, R S; Dormer, S G; Cawley, P W; Scranton, P E; Losse, G; Howard, M

    1996-01-01

    This study evaluated the shoe-surface interaction of 15 football shoes made by 3 manufacturers in both anterior translation and rotation using a specially designed pneumatic testing system. The shoes included traditional cleated football shoes, "court" shoes (basketball-style shoes), molded-cleat shoes, and turf shoes. Under an 11.35-kg (25-pound) axial load, all shoes were tested on synthetic turf under wet and dry conditions and on natural stadium grass. Test-retest reliability, as calculated using the Pearson Product-Moment Correlation test, was 0.85 for force of translation and 0.55 for the moment of rotation. The wet versus dry surface values on translation were significantly different for rotation about the tibial axis. Spatting, which is protective taping of the ankle and heel applied on the outside of the shoe, resulted in a reduction of forces generated in both translation and rotation. No overall difference between shoes on grass versus AstroTurf was noted. However, there were significant differences for cleated and turf shoes. Shoes tested in conditions for which they were not designed exhibited reproducible excessive or extreme minimal friction characteristics that may have safety implications. On the basis of this study, we urge shoe manufacturers to display suggested indications and playing surface conditions for which their shoes are recommended.

  2. Identification of fungi from children's shoes and application of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-24

    Oct 24, 2011 ... ... for Clean Technology of Leather Manufacture, Institute of Life Sciences, Sichuan ... treated insole against yeasts and molds from children's shoes were evaluated by the ... was produced by a conventional process in factory.

  3. Parents: Avoid Kids Foot Problems with the Right Shoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Print | Share Avoid Kids Foot Problems with the Right Shoes Before you head to the store to ... College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons (ACFAS), All Rights Reserved. Privacy Statement | Disclaimer | Terms and Conditions | Site ...

  4. SAFETY SHOES WEARER'S COMFORT PERCEPTION AND EFFECTS AMONG MANUFACTURING EMPLOYEES

    OpenAIRE

    Deros, Baba Md; Rahman, Mohd Iezalman Ab; Baba, Nurul Huda; Yusof, Ahmed Rithauddeen

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates ergonomicproblems faced by manufacturing employees due to wearing inappropriate safetyshoes. A total of 30 survey respondents was recruited based on the shoes theywear. Pedar-X was used in the experiment to measure the pressure that acts onthe wearer’ feet. Survey results showed the wearer’ experienced the highestpain with the frequency of 80% for right and 83.33% for the left heel forwearing safety shoes two to three times a week. Meanwhile, Pedar-X recordedaverage pe...

  5. Impact of shoe size in a sample of elderly individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel López-López

    Full Text Available Summary Introduction: The use of an improper shoe size is common in older people and is believed to have a detrimental effect on the quality of life related to foot health. The objective is to describe and compare, in a sample of participants, the impact of shoes that fit properly or improperly, as well as analyze the scores related to foot health and health overall. Method: A sample of 64 participants, with a mean age of 75.3±7.9 years, attended an outpatient center where self-report data was recorded, the measurements of the size of the feet and footwear were determined and the scores compared between the group that wears the correct size of shoes and another group of individuals who do not wear the correct size of shoes, using the Spanish version of the Foot Health Status Questionnaire. Results: The group wearing an improper shoe size showed poorer quality of life regarding overall health and specifically foot health. Differences between groups were evaluated using a t-test for independent samples resulting statistically significant (p<0.05 for the dimension of pain, function, footwear, overall foot health, and social function. Conclusion: Inadequate shoe size has a significant negative impact on quality of life related to foot health. The degree of negative impact seems to be associated with age, sex, and body mass index (BMI.

  6. Rotational and peak torque stiffness of rugby shoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballal, Moez S; Usuelli, Federico Giuseppe; Montrasio, Umberto Alfieri; Molloy, Andy; La Barbera, Luigi; Villa, Tomaso; Banfi, Giuseppe

    2014-09-01

    Sports people always strive to avoid injury. Sports shoe designs in many sports have been shown to affect traction and injury rates. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the differing stiffness and torque in rugby boots that are designed for the same effect. Five different types of rugby shoes commonly worn by scrum forwards were laboratory tested for rotational stiffness and peak torque on a natural playing surface generating force patterns that would be consistent with a rugby scrum. The overall internal rotation peak torque was 57.75±6.26 Nm while that of external rotation was 56.55±4.36 Nm. The Peak internal and external rotational stiffness were 0.696±0.1 and 0.708±0.06 Nm/deg respectively. Our results, when compared to rotational stiffness and peak torques of football shoes published in the literature, show that shoes worn by rugby players exert higher rotational and peak torque stiffness compared to football shoes when tested on the same natural surfaces. There was significant difference between the tested rugby shoes brands. In our opinion, to maximize potential performance and lower the potential of non-contact injury, care should be taken in choosing boots with stiffness appropriate to the players main playing role. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Shoe-Insole Technology for Injury Prevention in Walking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanatsu Nagano

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Impaired walking increases injury risk during locomotion, including falls-related acute injuries and overuse damage to lower limb joints. Gait impairments seriously restrict voluntary, habitual engagement in injury prevention activities, such as recreational walking and exercise. There is, therefore, an urgent need for technology-based interventions for gait disorders that are cost effective, willingly taken-up, and provide immediate positive effects on walking. Gait control using shoe-insoles has potential as an effective population-based intervention, and new sensor technologies will enhance the effectiveness of these devices. Shoe-insole modifications include: (i ankle joint support for falls prevention; (ii shock absorption by utilising lower-resilience materials at the heel; (iii improving reaction speed by stimulating cutaneous receptors; and (iv preserving dynamic balance via foot centre of pressure control. Using sensor technology, such as in-shoe pressure measurement and motion capture systems, gait can be precisely monitored, allowing us to visualise how shoe-insoles change walking patterns. In addition, in-shoe systems, such as pressure monitoring and inertial sensors, can be incorporated into the insole to monitor gait in real-time. Inertial sensors coupled with in-shoe foot pressure sensors and global positioning systems (GPS could be used to monitor spatiotemporal parameters in real-time. Real-time, online data management will enable ‘big-data’ applications to everyday gait control characteristics.

  8. Sporadic wind wave horse-shoe patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yu. Annenkov

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The work considers three-dimensional crescent-shaped patterns often seen on water surface in natural basins and observed in wave tank experiments. The most common of these 'horse-shoe-like' patterns appear to be sporadic, i.e., emerging and disappearing spontaneously even under steady wind conditions. The paper suggests a qualitative model of these structures aimed at explaining their sporadic nature, physical mechanisms of their selection and their specific asymmetric form. First, the phenomenon of sporadic horse-shoe patterns is studied numerically using the novel algorithm of water waves simulation recently developed by the authors (Annenkov and Shrira, 1999. The simulations show that a steep gravity wave embedded into widespectrum primordial noise and subjected to small nonconservative effects typically follows the simple evolution scenario: most of the time the system can be considered as consisting of a basic wave and a single pair of oblique satellites, although the choice of this pair tends to be different at different instants. Despite the effective low-dimensionality of the multimodal system dynamics at relatively sho ' rt time spans, the role of small satellites is important: in particular, they enlarge the maxima of the developed satellites. The presence of Benjamin-Feir satellites appears to be of no qualitative importance at the timescales under consideration. The selection mechanism has been linked to the quartic resonant interactions among the oblique satellites lying in the domain of five-wave (McLean's class II instability of the basic wave: the satellites tend to push each other out of the resonance zone due to the frequency shifts caused by the quartic interactions. Since the instability domain is narrow (of order of cube of the basic wave steepness, eventually in a generic situation only a single pair survives and attains considerable amplitude. The specific front asymmetry is found to result from the interplay of quartic

  9. Mechanics of jazz shoes and their effect on pointing in child dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong Yan, Alycia; Smith, Richard; Vanwanseele, Benedicte; Hiller, Claire

    2012-07-01

    There has been little scientific investigation of the impact of dance shoes on foot motion or dance injuries. The pointed (plantar-flexed) foot is a fundamental component of both the technical requirements and the traditional aesthetic of ballet and jazz dancing. The aims of this study were to quantify the externally observed angle of plantar flexion in various jazz shoes compared with barefoot and to compare the sagittal plane bending stiffness of the various jazz shoes. Sixteen female recreational child dancers were recruited for 3D motion analysis of active plantar flexion. The jazz shoes tested were a split-sole jazz shoe, full-sole jazz shoe, and jazz sneaker. A shoe dynamometer measured the stiffness of the jazz shoes. The shoes had a significant effect on ankle plantar flexion. All jazz shoes significantly restricted the midfoot plantar flexion angle compared with the barefoot condition. The split-sole jazz shoe demonstrated the least restriction, whereas the full-sole jazz shoe the most midfoot restriction. A small restriction in metartarsophalangeal plantar flexion and a greater restriction at the midfoot joint were demonstrated when wearing stiff jazz shoes. These restrictions will decrease the aesthetic of the pointed foot, may encourage incorrect muscle activation, and have an impact on dance performance.

  10. Determining the maximum diameter for holes in the shoe without compromising shoe integrity when using a multi-segment foot model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, Rebecca; Jenkyn, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Measuring individual foot joint motions requires a multi-segment foot model, even when the subject is wearing a shoe. Each foot segment must be tracked with at least three skin-mounted markers, but for these markers to be visible to an optical motion capture system holes or 'windows' must be cut into the structure of the shoe. The holes must be sufficiently large avoiding interfering with the markers, but small enough that they do not compromise the shoe's structural integrity. The objective of this study was to determine the maximum size of hole that could be cut into a running shoe upper without significantly compromising its structural integrity or changing the kinematics of the foot within the shoe. Three shoe designs were tested: (1) neutral cushioning, (2) motion control and (3) stability shoes. Holes were cut progressively larger, with four sizes tested in all. Foot joint motions were measured: (1) hindfoot with respect to midfoot in the frontal plane, (2) forefoot twist with respect to midfoot in the frontal plane, (3) the height-to-length ratio of the medial longitudinal arch and (4) the hallux angle with respect to first metatarsal in the sagittal plane. A single subject performed level walking at her preferred pace in each of the three shoes with ten repetitions for each hole size. The largest hole that did not disrupt shoe integrity was an oval of 1.7cm×2.5cm. The smallest shoe deformations were seen with the motion control shoe. The least change in foot joint motion was forefoot twist in both the neutral shoe and stability shoe for any size hole. This study demonstrates that for a hole smaller than this size, optical motion capture with a cluster-based multi-segment foot model is feasible for measure foot in shoe kinematics in vivo. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. The reliability of the Adelaide in-shoe foot model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Chris; Hillier, Susan; Thewlis, Dominic

    2017-07-01

    Understanding the biomechanics of the foot is essential for many areas of research and clinical practice such as orthotic interventions and footwear development. Despite the widespread attention paid to the biomechanics of the foot during gait, what largely remains unknown is how the foot moves inside the shoe. This study investigated the reliability of the Adelaide In-Shoe Foot Model, which was designed to quantify in-shoe foot kinematics and kinetics during walking. Intra-rater reliability was assessed in 30 participants over five walking trials whilst wearing shoes during two data collection sessions, separated by one week. Sufficient reliability for use was interpreted as a coefficient of multiple correlation and intra-class correlation coefficient of >0.61. Inter-rater reliability was investigated separately in a second sample of 10 adults by two researchers with experience in applying markers for the purpose of motion analysis. The results indicated good consistency in waveform estimation for most kinematic and kinetic data, as well as good inter-and intra-rater reliability. The exception is the peak medial ground reaction force, the minimum abduction angle and the peak abduction/adduction external hindfoot joint moments which resulted in less than acceptable repeatability. Based on our results, the Adelaide in-shoe foot model can be used with confidence for 24 commonly measured biomechanical variables during shod walking. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Shoe rim and shoe buckle pseudotumor of the ankle in elite and professional figure skaters and snowboarders: MR imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, S.E.; Weber, M.; Steinbach, L.S.; Ballmer, F.T.

    2004-01-01

    To review MR imaging of figure skaters and snowboarders presenting with painful soft-tissue swelling of the lateral supramalleolar region with a clinical provisional diagnosis of soft-tissue tumor. MR imaging was prospectively reviewed by two sub-specialized musculoskeletal radiologists. The findings were correlated with a second clinical review and examination of the shoe wear. The patients were four female athletes undergoing heavy training regimes, ranging in age between 16 and 25 years. Two patients were elite figure skaters, and two were professional snowboarders. Three patients had unilateral masses with pain, and one patient presented with bilateral clinical findings. MR imaging showed subcutaneous, focal soft-tissue masses of the supramalleolar region in five ankles at the same level above the ankle joint. MR imaging prompted a second clinical review and correlation with the shoe wear. The MR imaging findings correlated to the level of the shoe rim or shoe buckle in all patients, confirming the suspected MR imaging diagnosis of an impingement syndrome. All four sportswomen were training excessively, ignoring safety advice regarding training duration, timing of breaks, and shoe wear rotation. (orig.)

  13. The Risks and Benefits of Running Barefoot or in Minimalist Shoes

    OpenAIRE

    Perkins, Kyle P.; Hanney, William J.; Rothschild, Carey E.

    2014-01-01

    Context: The popularity of running barefoot or in minimalist shoes has recently increased because of claims of injury prevention, enhanced running efficiency, and improved performance compared with running in shoes. Potential risks and benefits of running barefoot or in minimalist shoes have yet to be clearly defined. Objective: To determine the methodological quality and level of evidence pertaining to the risks and benefits of running barefoot or in minimalist shoes. Data Sources: In Septem...

  14. A consensus definition and rating scale for minimalist shoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esculier, Jean-Francois; Dubois, Blaise; Dionne, Clermont E; Leblond, Jean; Roy, Jean-Sébastien

    2015-01-01

    While minimalist running shoes may have an influence on running biomechanics and on the incidence of overuse injuries, the term "minimalist" is currently used without standardisation. The objectives of this study were to reach a consensus on a standard definition of minimalist running shoes, and to develop and validate a rating scale that could be used to determine the degree of minimalism of running shoes, the Minimalist Index (MI). For this modified Delphi study, 42 experts from 11 countries completed four electronic questionnaires on an optimal definition of minimalist shoes and on elements to include within the MI. Once MI was developed following consensus, 85 participants subjectively ranked randomly assigned footwear models from the most to the least minimalist and rated their degree of minimalism using visual analog scales (VAS), before evaluating the same footwear models using MI. A subsample of thirty participants reassessed the same shoes on another occasion. Construct validity and inter- and intra-rater reliability (intraclass correlation coefficients [ICC]; Gwet's AC1) of MI were evaluated. The following definition of minimalist shoes was agreed upon by 95 % of participants: "Footwear providing minimal interference with the natural movement of the foot due to its high flexibility, low heel to toe drop, weight and stack height, and the absence of motion control and stability devices". Characteristics to be included in MI were weight, flexibility, heel to toe drop, stack height and motion control/stability devices, each subscale carrying equal weighing (20 %) on final score. Total MI score was highly correlated with VAS (r = 0.91). A significant rank effect (p minimalism, and may help to decrease injuries related to footwear transition.

  15. Modified distal shoe appliance--fabrication and clinical performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gujjar, Kumar Raghav; Indushekar, K R; Amith, H V; Sharma, Shefali Li

    2012-01-01

    When the primary second molar is prematurely lost, mesial movement and migration of the permanent first molar often occurs. This is one of the most difficult problems of the developing dentition confronted by pediatric dentists. Use of a space maintainer that will guide the permanent first molar into its normal position is indicated. In cases with bilateral premature loss of primary molars, the conventional design of distal shoe poses a variety of problems and, therefore, necessitates a customized design for the eruption guidance of permanent first molars. The purpose of this case report is to discuss an innovative design of a distal shoe appliance, which was used with good clinical results.

  16. Impact attenuation properties of jazz shoes alter lower limb joint stiffness during jump landings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong Yan, Alycia; Smith, Richard M; Hiller, Claire E; Sinclair, Peter J

    2017-05-01

    To quantify the impact attenuation properties of the jazz shoes, and to investigate the in-vivo effect of four jazz shoe designs on lower limb joint stiffness during a dance-specific jump. Repeated measures. A custom-built mechanical shoe tester similar to that used by athletic shoe companies was used to vertically impact the forefoot and heel region of four different jazz shoe designs. Additionally, dancers performed eight sautés in second position in bare feet and the shoe conditions. Force platforms and 3D-motion capture were used to analyse the joint stiffness of the midfoot, ankle, knee and hip during the jump landings. Mechanical testing of the jazz shoes revealed significant differences in impact attenuation characteristics among each of the jazz shoe designs. Gross knee and midfoot joint stiffness were significantly affected by the jazz shoe designs in the dancers' jump landings. The tested jazz shoe designs altered the impact attenuating capacity of jump landing technique in dancers. The cushioned jazz shoes are recommended particularly for injured dancers to reduce impact on the lower limb. Jazz shoe design should consider the impact attenuation properties of the forefoot region, due to the toe-strike landing technique in dance movement. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Kinematic and kinetic comparison of running in standard and minimalist shoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willy, Richard W; Davis, Irene S

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether running in a minimalist shoe results in a reduction in ground reaction forces and alters kinematics over standard shoe running. The secondary purpose of this study was to determine whether within-session accommodation to a novel minimalist shoe occurs. Subjects were 14 male, rearfoot striking runners who had never run in a minimalist shoe. Subjects were tested while running 3.35 m·s(-1) for 10 min on an instrumented treadmill in a minimalist and a standard shoe as three-dimensional lower extremity kinematics and kinetics were evaluated. Data were collected at minute 1 and then again after 10 min of running in both shoe conditions to evaluate accommodation to the shoe conditions. Shoe-time interactions were not found for any of the variables of interest. Minimalist shoe running resulted in no changes in step length (P = 0.967) or in step rate (P = 0.230). At footstrike, greater knee flexion (P = 0.001) and greater dorsiflexion angle (P = 0.025) were noted in the minimalist shoe. Vertical impact peak (P = 0.017) and average vertical loading rate (P < 0.000) were greater during minimalist shoe running. There were main effects of time as dorsiflexion angle decreased (P = 0.035), foot inclination at footstrike decreased (P = 0.048), and knee flexion at footstrike increased (P = 0.002), yet the vertical impact peak (P = 0.002) and average vertical loading rate (P < 0.000) increased. Running in a minimalist shoe appears to, at least in the short term, increase loading of the lower extremity over standard shoe running. The accommodation period resulted in less favorable landing mechanics in both shoes. These findings bring into question whether minimal shoes will provide enough feedback to induce an alteration that is similar to barefoot running.

  18. Experimental Study of Heat Dissipation in Indoor Sports Shoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dessing, O.; Jansen, A.J.; Leihitu, C.; Overhage, D.

    2014-01-01

    As indoor sports shoes are intensively used in a warm and sweaty environment for periods of up to three consecutive hours, the built-up heat inside is insufficiently released causing warm and perspiring feet. This results in an increased chance of blisters and skin irritations. Experimental research

  19. Biomechanics of slow running and walking with a rocker shoe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sobhani, Sobhan; Hijmans, Juha; van den Heuvel, Edwin; Zwerver, Johannes; Dekker, Rienk; Postema, Klaas

    Evidence suggests a link between the loading of the Achilles tendon and the magnitude of the ankle internal plantar flexion moment during late stance of gait, which is clinically relevant in the management of Achilles tendinopathy. Some studies showed that rocker shoes can reduce the ankle internal

  20. Barefoot versus shoe running: from the past to the present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Yonatan

    2014-02-01

    Barefoot running is not a new concept, but relatively few people choose to engage in barefoot running on a regular basis. Despite the technological developments in modern running footwear, as many as 79% of runners are injured every year. Although benefits of barefoot running have been proposed, there are also potential risks associated with it. To review the evidence-based literature concerning barefoot/minimal footwear running and the implications for the practicing physician. Multiple publications were reviewed using an electronic search of databases such as Medline, Cinahl, Embase, PubMed, and Cochrane Database from inception until August 30, 2013 using the search terms barefoot running, barefoot running biomechanics, and shoe vs. barefoot running. Ninety-six relevant articles were found. Most were reviews of biomechanical and kinematic studies. There are notable differences in gait and other parameters between barefoot running and shoe running. Based on these findings and much anecdotal evidence, one could conclude that barefoot runners should have fewer injuries, better performance, or both. Several athletic shoe companies have designed running shoes that attempt to mimic the barefoot condition, and thus garner the purported benefits of barefoot running. Although there is no evidence that confirms or refutes improved performance and reduced injuries in barefoot runners, many of the claimed disadvantages to barefoot running are not supported by the literature. Nonetheless, it seems that barefoot running may be an acceptable training method for athletes and coaches, as it may minimize the risks of injury.

  1. The re-emergence of the minimal running shoe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Irene S

    2014-10-01

    The running shoe has gone through significant changes since its inception. The purpose of this paper is to review these changes, the majority of which have occurred over the past 50 years. Running footwear began as very minimal, then evolved to become highly cushioned and supportive. However, over the past 5 years, there has been a reversal of this trend, with runners seeking more minimal shoes that allow their feet more natural motion. This abrupt shift toward footwear without cushioning and support has led to reports of injuries associated with minimal footwear. In response to this, the running footwear industry shifted again toward the development of lightweight, partial minimal shoes that offer some support and cushioning. In this paper, studies comparing the mechanics between running in minimal, partial minimal, and traditional shoes are reviewed. The implications for injuries in all 3 conditions are examined. The use of minimal footwear in other populations besides runners is discussed. Finally, areas for future research into minimal footwear are suggested.

  2. The distal shoe space maintainer chairside fabrication and clinical performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brill, Warren A

    2002-01-01

    The chairside-fabricated distal shoe appliance, with a stainless steel crown as the retainer, is an efficacious and cost-effective appliance for guiding the unerupted permanent first molar into position after premature loss or extraction of the second primary molar. The fabrication technique is illustrated in this case report and data is presented on the success rate of the appliance.

  3. Effect of shoe type on plantar pressure: a gender comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Queen, Robin M.; Abbey, Alicia N.; Wiegerinck, Johannes I.; Yoder, Jordan C.; Nunley, James A.

    2010-01-01

    Despite the differences in materials, racing flats have begun to be used not only for racing, but also for daily training. As there are data suggesting a gender difference in overuse injuries in runners, shoe choice may affect loading patterns during running. The purpose was to determine differences

  4. Effect of hoof boots and toe-extension shoes on the forelimb kinetics of horses during walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amitrano, Fernando N; Gutierrez-Nibeyro, Santiago D; Schaeffer, David J

    2016-05-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine and compare the effect of hoof boots (HBs) and shoes with a toe extension on stance duration, ground reaction force, and sole length in contact with the ground in nonlame horses during walking. ANIMALS 6 nonlame Standardbreds. PROCEDURES Force plate gait analyses of the forelimbs were performed while the horses were walking barefoot before manipulation of feet (baseline), while the horses were walking fitted with HBs, while the horses were walking shod with toe-extension shoes, and while the horses were walking barefoot after shoe removal. Horses underwent radiography of both forelimb feet to determine the sole length in contact with the ground when barefoot, wearing HBs, and shod with toe-extension shoes. Stance duration, ground reaction force, and sole length were compared among the various walking sessions. RESULTS Compared with baseline findings, stance duration increased significantly when horses were fitted with HBs (7%) or toe-extension shoes (5%). Peak forelimb ground reaction force was similar among walking sessions; however, time of braking force peak was significantly greater during the stance phase only when horses wore HBs. Also, the sole length in contact with the ground was significantly longer in horses fitted with HBs (14.3 cm) or shod with the toe-extension shoes (17.6 cm), compared with that for one of the barefoot hooves (12.7 cm). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE In nonlame horses, use of HBs prolonged the stance time and time of braking force peak, which is indicative of a slower deceleration phase during limb impact with the ground. Also, the use of HBs prolonged the deceleration phase of the stride and increased the sole length in contact with the ground.

  5. Factors associated with use of slip-resistant shoes in US limited-service restaurant workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Santosh K; Courtney, Theodore K; Corns, Helen L; Huang, Yueng-Hsiang; Lombardi, David A; Chang, Wen-Ruey; Brennan, Melanye J; Perry, Melissa J

    2012-06-01

    Slips and falls are a leading cause of injury at work. Several studies have indicated that slip-resistant shoes can reduce the risk of occupational slips and falls. Few studies, however, have examined the determinants of slip-resistant shoe use. This study examined the individual and workplace factors associated with slip-resistant shoe use. 475 workers from 36 limited-service restaurants in the USA participated in a study of workplace slipping. Demographic and job characteristic information about each participant was collected. Restaurant managers provided information on whether slip-resistant shoes were provided and paid for by the employer and whether any guidance was given regarding slip-resistant shoe use when they were not provided. Kitchen floor coefficient of friction was measured. Slip-resistant status of the shoes was determined by noting the presence of a 'slip-resistant' marking on the sole. Poisson regression with robust SE was used to calculate prevalence ratios. 320 participants wore slip-resistant shoes (67%). In the multivariate analysis, the prevalence of slip-resistant shoe use was lowest in 15-19-year age group. Women were more likely to wear slip-resistant shoes (prevalence ratio 1.18, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.31). The prevalence of slip-resistant shoe use was lower when no guidance regarding slip-resistant shoes was given as compared to when they were provided by the employer (prevalence ratio 0.66, 95% CI 0.55 to 0.79). Education level, job tenure and the mean coefficient of friction had no significant effects on the use of slip-resistant shoes. Provision of slip-resistant shoes was the strongest predictor of their use. Given their effectiveness and low cost, employers should consider providing slip-resistant shoes at work.

  6. Pengaruh Intensitas Mengakses Media Sosial Adidas dan Citra Merek terhadap Keputusan Pembelian Sport Shoes Adidas di Kalangan Remaja Wanita

    OpenAIRE

    Purnama, Ayu Sri; Herieningsih, Sri Widowati; Pradekso, Tandiyo; Rakhmad, Wiwid Noor

    2016-01-01

    Sport shoes merupakan salah satu jenis sepatu yang di minati oleh masyarakat saat ini, Selain itu akhir-akhir ini salah satu jenis sport shoes yakni running shoes menjadi fashion baru dikalangan remaja di Indonesia. Namun salah satu produsen sports shoes yaitu adidas saat ini kurang diminati bila dibandingkan dengan kompetitornya hasil survey mengenai sport shoes yang digunakan dan diminati oleh remaja wanita di Indonesia menunjukkan bahwa Adidas menempati urutan ke- tiga setelah nike dan con...

  7. In-shoe plantar tri-axial stress profiles during maximum-effort cutting maneuvers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Yan; Lam, Wing Kai; Cheung, Jason Tak-Man; Zhang, Ming

    2014-12-18

    Soft tissue injuries, such as anterior cruciate ligament rupture, ankle sprain and foot skin problems, frequently occur during cutting maneuvers. These injuries are often regarded as associated with abnormal joint torque and interfacial friction caused by excessive external and in-shoe shear forces. This study simultaneously investigated the dynamic in-shoe localized plantar pressure and shear stress during lateral shuffling and 45° sidestep cutting maneuvers. Tri-axial force transducers were affixed at the first and second metatarsal heads, lateral forefoot, and heel regions in the midsole of a basketball shoe. Seventeen basketball players executed both cutting maneuvers with maximum efforts. Lateral shuffling cutting had a larger mediolateral braking force than 45° sidestep cutting. This large braking force was concentrated at the first metatarsal head, as indicated by its maximum medial shear stress (312.2 ± 157.0 kPa). During propulsion phase, peak shear stress occurred at the second metatarsal head (271.3 ± 124.3 kPa). Compared with lateral shuffling cutting, 45° sidestep cutting produced larger peak propulsion shear stress (463.0 ± 272.6 kPa) but smaller peak braking shear stress (184.8 ± 181.7 kPa), of which both were found at the first metatarsal head. During both cutting maneuvers, maximum medial and posterior shear stress occurred at the first metatarsal head, whereas maximum pressure occurred at the second metatarsal head. The first and second metatarsal heads sustained relatively high pressure and shear stress and were expected to be susceptible to plantar tissue discomfort or injury. Due to different stress distribution, distinct pressure and shear cushioning mechanisms in basketball footwear might be considered over different foot regions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Influence of different safety shoes on gait and plantar pressure: a standardized examination of workers in the automotive industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochsmann, Elke; Noll, Ulrike; Ellegast, Rolf; Hermanns, Ingo; Kraus, Thomas

    2016-09-30

    Working conditions, such as walking and standing on hard surfaces, can increase the development of musculoskeletal complaints. At the interface between flooring and musculoskeletal system, safety shoes may play an important role in the well-being of employees. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of different safety shoes on gait and plantar pressure distributions on industrial flooring. Twenty automotive workers were individually fitted out with three different pairs of safety shoes ( "normal" shoes, cushioned shoes, and midfoot bearing shoes). They walked at a given speed of 1.5 m/s. The CUELA measuring system and shoe insoles were used for gait analysis and plantar pressure measurements, respectively. Statistical analysis was conducted by ANOVA analysis for repeated measures. Walking with cushioned safety shoes or a midfoot bearing safety shoe led to a significant decrease of the average trunk inclination (pshoes as well as midfoot bearing shoes (pshoes. As expected, plantar pressure distributions varied significantly between cushioned or midfoot bearing shoes and shoes without ergonomic components. The overall function of safety shoes is the avoidance of injury in case of an industrial accident, but in addition, safety shoes could be a long-term preventive instrument for maintaining health of the employees' musculoskeletal system, as they are able to affect gait parameters. Further research needs to focus on safety shoes in working situations.

  9. Effect of rocker-soled shoes on parameters of knee joint load in knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Elizabeth G; Kean, Crystal O; Wrigley, Tim V; Bennell, Kim L; Hinman, Rana S

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the immediate effects of rocker-soled shoes on parameters of the knee adduction moment (KAM) and pain in individuals with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Three-dimensional gait analysis was performed on 30 individuals (mean (SD): age, 61 (7) yr; 15 (50%) male) with radiographic and symptomatic knee OA under three walking conditions in a randomized order: i) wearing rocker-soled shoes (Skechers Shape-ups), ii) wearing non-rocker-soled shoes (ASICS walking shoes), and iii) barefoot. Peak KAM and KAM angular impulse were measured as primary indicators of knee load distribution. Secondary measures included the knee flexion moment (KFM) and knee pain during walking. Peak KAM was significantly lower when wearing the rocker-soled shoes compared with that when wearing the non-rocker-soled shoes (mean difference (95% confidence interval), -0.27 (-0.42 to -0.12) N·m/BW × Ht%; P < 0.001). Post hoc tests revealed no significant difference in KAM impulse between rocker-soled and non-rocker-soled shoe conditions (P = 0.13). Both peak KAM and KAM impulse were significantly higher during both shoe conditions compared with those during the barefoot condition (P < 0.001). There were no significant differences in KFM (P = 0.36) or knee pain (P = 0.89) between conditions. Rocker-soled shoes significantly reduced peak KAM when compared with non-rocker-soled shoes, without a concomitant change in KFM, and thus may potentially reduce medial knee joint loading. However, KAM parameters in the rocker-soled shoes remained significantly higher than those during barefoot walking. Wearing rocker-soled shoes did not have a significant immediate effect on walking pain. Further research is required to evaluate whether rocker-soled shoes can influence symptoms and progression of knee OA with prolonged wear.

  10. Optimal fit of chairside-fabricated distal shoe space maintainer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouri, M R; Kennedy, D B

    2013-10-01

    Premature loss of a primary second molar may lead to space loss in the dental arch. This space loss tends to be more severe in unfavourable malocclusions. The distal shoe space maintainer (DSSM) may be beneficial in controlling the path of eruption of an unerupted permanent first molar from the primary into the early mixed dentition. This article describes the technique for achieving optimal fit of a chairside-fabricated band and DSSM in a single visit by contouring the distal shoe blade, and by extending it to the mesial surface of the permanent first molar. Upon the eruption of the permanent first molar DSSM may be modified to a reverse band-and-loop, or replaced by a lingual holding arch.

  11. Breathing shoes and complementarities: strategic innovation in a mature industry

    OpenAIRE

    A. Camuffo; A. Furlan; P. Romano; A. Vinelli

    2008-01-01

    This paper tells the story of Geox, an Italian footwear manufacturer that, in less than a decade, has become one of the world's largest shoe manufacturers. Applying the related notions of complementarity and performance landscape to study strategic positioning in the footwear industry, we show that, though grounded on product innovation (the original Geox breathes® patented system which allows ventilation in waterproof rubber sole), Geox's competitive advantage has not grown out of operationa...

  12. Fundamentals of equine podiatry: balanced trimming and physiological shoeing

    OpenAIRE

    Estrada, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    The concepts of balanced trimming and physiological shoeing of the equine hoof as a way to prevent asymmetrical weight bearing and related orthopedic problems are discussed in this paper. Suggestions are given for the technical training of the personnel involved.  Considering the quantity and quality of the existing equine herd in Costa Rica, it is recommended to create a Farrier School as well as to coordinate the necessary efforts with other educational institutions related to the animal in...

  13. Hand and shoe monitor using air ionization probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fergus, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    A hand and shoe radiation monitor is provided which includes a probe support body defining a plurality of cells, within each cell there being an ionization probe. The support body provides structural strength for protecting the ionization probes from force applied to the support body during a radiation monitoring event. There is also provided a fast response time amplifier circuit for the output from the ionization probes

  14. A Randomized Comparison of the Biomechanical Effect of Two Commercially Available Rocker Bottom Shoes to a Conventional Athletic Shoe During Walking in Healthy Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaty, Mukul; Patel, Sona; Esquenazi, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Rocker bottom shoes have recently gained considerable popularity, likely in part because of the many purported benefits, including reducing joint loading and toning muscles. Scientific inquiry about these benefits has not kept pace with the increased usage of this shoe type. A fundamental premise of rocker bottom shoes is that they transform hard, flat, level surfaces into more uneven ones. Published studies have described a variety of such shoes-all having a somewhat rounded bottom and a cut heel region or a cut forefoot region, or both (double rocker). Despite the fundamentally similar shoe geometries, the reported effects of rocker bottom shoes on gait biomechanics have varied considerably. Ten healthy subjects agreed to participate in the present study and were given appropriately sized Masai Barefoot Technology (St. Louis, MO), Skechers(™) (Manhattan Beach, CA), and New Balance (Boston, MA) conventional walking shoes. After a 12-day accommodation period, the subjects walked wearing each shoe while 3-dimensional motion and force data were collected in the gait laboratory. The key findings included (1) increased trunk flexion, decreased ankle plantarflexion range, and reduced plantarflexion moment in the early stance; (2) increased ankle dorsiflexion and knee flexor moment in the midstance; (3) decreased peak ankle plantarflexion in the late stance; and (4) decreased ankle plantarflexion and decreased hip flexor and knee extensor moments in the pre-swing and into swing phase. The walking speed was unconstrained and was maintained across all shoe types. A biomechanical explanation is suggested for the observed changes. Suggestions for cautions are provided for using rocker bottom shoes in patients with neuromuscular insufficiency. Copyright © 2016 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Adolescent runners: the effect of training shoes on running kinematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, Scott; Toby, E Bruce

    2013-06-01

    The modern running shoe typically features a large cushioned heel intended to dissipate the energy at heel strike to the knees and hips. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect that shoes have upon the running biomechanics among competitive adolescent runners. We wish to answer the question of whether running style is altered in these athletes because of footwear. Twelve competitive adolescent athletes were recruited from local track teams. Each ran on a treadmill in large heel trainers, track flats, and barefoot. Four different speeds were used to test each athlete. The biomechanics were assessed with a motion capture system. Stride length, heel height during posterior swing phase, and foot/ground contact were recorded. Shoe type markedly altered the running biomechanics. The foot/ground contact point showed differences in terms of footwear (Ptrainers, the athletes landed on their heels 69.79% of the time at all speeds (Ptrainers promote a heel strike pattern, whereas track flats and barefoot promote a forefoot or midfoot strike pattern. Training in heavily cushioned trainers by the competitive runner has not been clearly shown to be detrimental to performance, but it does change the gait pattern. It is not known whether the altered biomechanics of the heavily heeled cushioned trainer may be detrimental to the adolescent runner who is still developing a running style.

  16. [Technical aspects in the provision of orthopedic shoes for athletes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, M; Volkering, C; Röser, A

    2013-03-01

    From the technical point of view different groups must be distinguished in the provision of orthopedic shoes for athletes. The one group encompasses athletes who are provided with insoles in the hope of improved comfort or better performance. The other group includes athletes with diseases or injuries of the lower limbs for whom the provision of appropriate shoes and insoles makes it possible for them to participate again actively in their chosen sport. In such cases one has to differentiate between the purely physical disorder of the foot and biomechanical disorders. For the first group the correct fitting of the shoe is the most important factor whereas in the second group attempts are made to correct and/or compensate for the deficit by means of insoles and wedges as well as supporting or bedding elements. The particular challenge for all such measures is to achieve an as small as possible impairment on the sport activity or, in the ideal cases, even to support it. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Inherent variation in multiple shoe-sole test impressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shor, Yaron; Wiesner, Sarena; Tsach, Tsadok; Gurel, Ron; Yekutieli, Yoram

    2018-04-01

    Shoeprints left at crime scenes are seldom perfect. Many prints are distorted or contaminated by various materials. Noisy background often contributes to vagueness on the shoeprints as well. Test impressions made from the suspect's shoes in the laboratory are considered a genuine replication of the shoe-sole. This naïve attitude is far from being correct. Consecutive test impressions made in the laboratory under strict similar conditions revealed differences among the exemplars of the same sole. Some of them are minor, but some are major, and can mislead the less experienced practitioners during the comparison process. This article focuses on the inherent within source variability between controlled shoeprints made from the same shoe, as it appears on the RACs. To describe and analyze this variability, repeated test impressions were prepared, and datasets were created. Several RACs were marked on each test impression, using an expert assisting software tool (developed in the authors' lab). The variance in repeated test impressions is demonstrated and possible sources are discussed. This variance should be considered when trying to establish the degree of matching between individual characteristics. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Improving Quality of Shoe Soles Product using Six Sigma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesslyn Wijaya, Athalia; Trusaji, Wildan; Akbar, Muhammad; Ma’ruf, Anas; Irianto, Dradjad

    2018-03-01

    A manufacture in Bandung produce kind of rubber-based product i.e. trim, rice rollers, shoe soles, etc. After penetrating the shoe soles market, the manufacture has met customer with tight quality control. Based on the past data, defect level of this product was 18.08% that caused the manufacture’s loss of time and money. Quality improvement effort was done using six sigma method that included phases of define, measure, analyse, improve, and control (DMAIC). In the design phase, the object’s problem and definition were defined. Delphi method was also used in this phase to identify critical factors. In the measure phase, the existing process stability and sigma quality level were measured. Fishbone diagram and failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) were used in the next phase to analyse the root cause and determine the priority issues. Improve phase was done by designing alternative improvement strategy using 5W1H method. Some improvement efforts were identified, i.e. (i) modifying design of the hanging rack, (ii) create pantone colour book and check sheet, (iii) provide pedestrian line at compound department, (iv) buying stop watch, and (v) modifying shoe soles dies. Some control strategies for continuous improvement were proposed such as SOP or reward and punishment system.

  19. CAD-based intelligent robot system integrated with 3D scanning for shoe roughing and cementing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiu Cheng-Chang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Roughing and cementing are very essential to the process of bonding shoe uppers and the corresponding soles; however, for shoes with complicated design, such as sport shoes, roughing and cementing greatly relied on manual operation. Recently, shoe industry is progressing to 3D design, thus 3D model of the shoe upper and sole will be created before launching into mass production. Taking advantage of the 3D model, this study developed a plug-in program on Rhino 3D CAD platform, which realized the complicated roughing and cementing route planning to be performed by the plug-in program, integrated with real-time 3D scanning information to compensate the planned route, and then converted to working trajectory of robot arm to implement roughing and cementing. The proposed 3D CAD-based intelligent robot arm system integrated with 3D scanning for shoe roughing and cementing is realized and proved to be feasible.

  20. The study of mildew proof effect of 60Co γ irradiation on leather shoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Caixuan; Deng Zhiqun; Yu Qin; Zeng Daonan; Deng Guili

    1992-01-01

    Leather products occupy an important place in the national economy. In order to prevent from mildewing of leather products in storage, transportation and sale, the packed shoes were irradiated with 60 Co γ ray. Test materials are cattle, sheep and pig leather shoes. The results shows that: 1. There are 11 types of molds which make leather shoes mildewed: Oospora sp, Rhizopus oryzae Went and Grrelings, Aspergillus flavus Link, Aspergillus terreus thom, Monilia sp, Botrytis sp, Aspergillus niger V. Tiegh, Penicillum Lividum Westling, Penicillum Corylophilum Dieckx, Penicillum Cyaneum (B. and S.) Biourge and Penicillum Verrulosum Peeyrone. 2. The three types of shoes packed with polyethylene film can be prevented from mildewing after irradiation at level of 12 kGy. 3. The irradiation at 30 kGy does not change the physical properties of the shoes. 4. The irradiated shoes packed with polyethylene film can prevent mildewing, but unpacked ones would be mildewed again

  1. Analysing Factors That Drives Customer Loyalty Of Shoes Laundry Quickcares Manado

    OpenAIRE

    Mawa, Maria; Tumbuan, Willem J.F.Alfa; Tielung, Maria V.J

    2017-01-01

    This research is to analyzing what are the factors that drive customer loyalty of shoe laundry Quickcares Manado. Shoe Laundry is the services that offer to clean and taking care shoe, Customer Loyalty is the result of consistently positive emotional experience, physical attribute-based satisfaction and perceived value of an experience, which includes the product or services. It is important to know factors that drive customer Loyalty in business, in order to guarantee business continuity and...

  2. Rotational stiffness of American football shoes affects ankle biomechanics and injury severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Button, Keith D; Braman, Jerrod E; Davison, Mark A; Wei, Feng; Schaeffer, Maureen C; Haut, Roger C

    2015-06-01

    While previous studies have investigated the effect of shoe-surface interaction on injury risk, few studies have examined the effect of rotational stiffness of the shoe. The hypothesis of the current study was that ankles externally rotated to failure in shoes with low rotational stiffness would allow more talus eversion than those in shoes with a higher rotational stiffness, resulting in less severe injury. Twelve (six pairs) cadaver lower extremities were externally rotated to gross failure while positioned in 20 deg of pre-eversion and 20 deg of predorsiflexion by fixing the distal end of the foot, axially loading the proximal tibia, and internally rotating the tibia. One ankle in each pair was constrained by an American football shoe with a stiff upper, while the other was constrained by an American football shoe with a flexible upper. Experimental bone motions were input into specimen-specific computational models to examine levels of ligament elongation to help understand mechanisms of ankle joint failure. Ankles in flexible shoes allowed 6.7±2.4 deg of talus eversion during rotation, significantly greater than the 1.7±1.0 deg for ankles in stiff shoes (p = 0.01). The significantly greater eversion in flexible shoes was potentially due to a more natural response of the ankle during rotation, possibly affecting the injuries that were produced. All ankles failed by either medial ankle injury or syndesmotic injury, or a combination of both. Complex (more than one ligament or bone) injuries were noted in 4 of 6 ankles in stiff shoes and 1 of 6 ankles in flexible shoes. Ligament elongations from the computational model validated the experimental injury data. The current study suggested flexibility (or rotational stiffness) of the shoe may play an important role in both the severity of ankle injuries for athletes.

  3. Effects of an unstable shoe construction on balance in women aged over 50 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramstrand, Nerrolyn; Thuesen, Anna Helena; Nielsen, Dennis Brandborg

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Shoes with an unstable sole construction are commonly used as a therapeutic tool by physiotherapists and are widely available from shoe and sporting goods retailers. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of using an unstable shoe (Masai Barefoot Technology) on standing ....... INTERPRETATION: Results from the present study suggest that, for this group of individuals, use of unstable footwear may improve certain aspects of balance....

  4. The Effect of Training in Minimalist Running Shoes on Running Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridge, Sarah T; Standifird, Tyler; Rivera, Jessica; Johnson, A Wayne; Mitchell, Ulrike; Hunter, Iain

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of minimalist running shoes on oxygen uptake during running before and after a 10-week transition from traditional to minimalist running shoes. Twenty-five recreational runners (no previous experience in minimalist running shoes) participated in submaximal VO2 testing at a self-selected pace while wearing traditional and minimalist running shoes. Ten of the 25 runners gradually transitioned to minimalist running shoes over 10 weeks (experimental group), while the other 15 maintained their typical training regimen (control group). All participants repeated submaximal VO2 testing at the end of 10 weeks. Testing included a 3 minute warm-up, 3 minutes of running in the first pair of shoes, and 3 minutes of running in the second pair of shoes. Shoe order was randomized. Average oxygen uptake was calculated during the last minute of running in each condition. The average change from pre- to post-training for the control group during testing in traditional and minimalist shoes was an improvement of 3.1 ± 15.2% and 2.8 ± 16.2%, respectively. The average change from pre- to post-training for the experimental group during testing in traditional and minimalist shoes was an improvement of 8.4 ± 7.2% and 10.4 ± 6.9%, respectively. Data were analyzed using a 2-way repeated measures ANOVA. There were no significant interaction effects, but the overall improvement in running economy across time (6.15%) was significant (p = 0.015). Running in minimalist running shoes improves running economy in experienced, traditionally shod runners, but not significantly more than when running in traditional running shoes. Improvement in running economy in both groups, regardless of shoe type, may have been due to compliance with training over the 10-week study period and/or familiarity with testing procedures. Key pointsRunning in minimalist footwear did not result in a change in running economy compared to running in traditional footwear

  5. Assessment of plantar pressure in forefoot relief shoes of different designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl, Hans-Dieter; Pfander, David; Swoboda, Bernd

    2006-02-01

    After reconstructive forefoot surgery, patients require complete or partial forefoot relief, which can be obtained with a variety of shoe designs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of two different types of forefoot-relief shoes frequently used after surgery, especially their safety against unintentional forefoot load. Ten healthy volunteers were asked to perform five trials on a treadmill at self-selected speeds. In the first trial, mean peak pressure values in mass-produced shoes and insoles were evaluated and considered as 100%. Two different shoe designs (short heel-short sole, ii: short heel-complete sole) were compared in two trials each with appropriate and inappropriate use (attempting to put weight on the forefoot) gait pattern. Plantar pressure values were obtained using the Pedar cable system (Novel Inc., Munich, Germany). For analysis, pedobarographic pictures were subdivided into midfoot (31% to 60% of the total insole length) and forefoot (61% to 100% of the total insole length). ANOVA was used for statistical analysis, and p values less than 0.01 were considered significant. With the short-soled shoe, forefoot and midfoot relief was 100% in both compliant and in noncompliant use. With wearing a complete sole, compliant use led to a significant reduction (p shoe produced mean peak pressure values significantly higher (p shoes under the forefoot, but not under the midfoot. Forefoot-relief shoes are effective in reducing both mean and peak plantar pressures. Shoes with a nonsupported midfoot and forefoot may be safer with inappropriate use than shoes with a complete sole. The kind of forefoot shoe should be carefully chosen to regulate weightbearing after reconstructive forefoot surgery.

  6. Nasal Cancer in the Northamptonshire Boot and Shoe Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acheson, E. D.; Cowdell, R. H.; Jolles, B.

    1970-01-01

    A survey of the incidence of nasal cancer in Northamptonshire during the period 1953 to 1967 is reported. Of the 46 patients with nasal cancer ascertained during the 15-year period 21 (19 males and 2 females) had been employed at some time in the boot and shoe industry. Five other cases diagnosed either before 1953 or after 1967 in persons who had worked in the boot and shoe industry in Northamptonshire were ascertained from various sources. The incidence of nasal cancer (all histological types considered together) was significantly higher in male boot and shoe operatives in Northamptonshire than in males of all occupational classes in the Cancer Register areas selected for comparison and in males working in other occupations in Northamptonshire. The excess incidence has recently given rise to the occurrence of between 1 and 2 new cases per annum in the Northamptonshire boot and shoe industry. The cases within the Northamptonshire industry occurred almost entirely in the relatively small number of workers who are exposed to the dust of the materials used in the manufacture of footwear. Possibly there are two carcinogenic factors in the industry—one related to the production of nasal adenocarcinoma, and the other to squamous and possibly other types of carcinoma in the nasal cavity and sinuses. This requires further study. Our best estimate of the latent period for the adenocarcinoma cases was 54·6 years, which is substantially longer than for the patients with squamous, transitional, and anaplastic tumours (41·7 years). We have no evidence to answer the question whether the facts are still present in the industrial environment, though undoubtedly the standards of hygiene in the industry has improved substantially since these men were first exposed. There is probably an increased risk of nasal adenocarcinoma in the footwear repairing industry, but this requires further study. Our evidence suggests that snuff taking should be considered as a possible contributory

  7. Tactile shoe inlays for high speed pressure monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drimus, Alin; Mátéfi-Tempfli, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    This work describes the development of flexible tactile sensor shoe inlays for humanoid robots. Their design is based on a sandwich structure of flexible layers with a thin sheet of piezoresistive rubber as main transducer element. The layout and patterning of top and bottom electrodes give 1024...... pressure sensitive cells and the use of high speed electronics and multiplexing algorithms provides frame rates of 100 Hz. The sensors tolerate overloads while showing a consistent output. The developed prototypes show a high potential not only for robotics, but also for use in sensorised human prosthetics....

  8. Effect of Shoes on Stiffness and Energy Efficiency of Ankle-Foot Orthosis: Bench Testing Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Toshiki; Gao, Fan; LeCursi, Nicholas; Foreman, K Bo; Orendurff, Michael S

    2017-12-01

    Understanding the mechanical properties of ankle-foot orthoses (AFOs) is important to maximize their benefit for those with movement disorders during gait. Though mechanical properties such as stiffness and/or energy efficiency of AFOs have been extensively studied, it remains unknown how and to what extent shoes influence their properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of shoes on stiffness and energy efficiency of an AFO using a custom mechanical testing device. Stiffness and energy efficiency of the AFO were measured in the plantar flexion and dorsiflexion range, respectively, under AFO-alone and AFO-Shoe combination conditions. The results of this study demonstrated that the stiffness of the AFO-Shoe combination was significantly decreased compared to the AFO-alone condition, but no significant differences were found in energy efficiency. From the results, we recommend that shoes used with AFOs should be carefully selected not only based on their effect on alignment of the lower limb, but also their effects on overall mechanical properties of the AFO-Shoe combination. Further study is needed to clarify the effects of differences in shoe designs on AFO-Shoe combination mechanical properties.

  9. Running with a minimalist shoe increases plantar pressure in the forefoot region of healthy female runners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, S. A.; Kluitenberg, B.; Dekker, R.; Bredeweg, S. W.; Postema, K.; Van den Heuvel, E. R.; Hijmans, J. M.; Sobhani, S.

    OBJECTIVES: Minimalist running shoes have been proposed as an alternative to barefoot running. However, several studies have reported cases of forefoot stress fractures after switching from standard to minimalist shoes. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to investigate the differences in

  10. The influence of cadence and shoes on patellofemoral joint kinetics in runners with patellofemoral pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonacci, Jason; Hall, Michelle; Fox, Aaron; Saunders, Natalie; Shipsides, Tristan; Vicenzino, Bill

    2018-06-01

    To determine the effect of a combination of a minimalist shoe and increased cadence on measures of patellofemoral joint loading during running in individuals with patellofemoral pain. Within-participant repeated measures with four conditions presented in random order: (1) control shoe at preferred cadence; (2) control shoe with +10% cadence; (3) minimalist shoe at preferred cadence; (4) minimalist shoe with +10% cadence. Fifteen recreational runners with patellofemoral pain ran on an instrumented treadmill while three-dimensional motion capture data were acquired. Peak patellofemoral joint stress, joint reaction force, knee extensor moment and knee joint angle during the stance phase of running were calculated. One-way repeated measures ANOVA was used to compare the control condition (1) to the three experimental conditions (2-4). Running in a minimalist shoe at an increased cadence reduced patellofemoral stress and joint reaction force on average by approximately 29% (ppatellofemoral joint stress by 15% and joint reaction force by 17% (ppatellofemoral joint stress and joint reaction force by 16% and 19% (ppatellofemoral pain, running in a minimalist shoe at an increased cadence had the greatest reduction in patellofemoral joint loading compared to a control shoe at preferred cadence. This may be an effective intervention to modulate biomechanical factors related to patellofemoral pain. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Occupational skin hazards and prevalence of occupational skin diseases in shoe manufacturing workers in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Febriana, Sri Awalia; Soebono, Hardyanto; Coenraads, Pieter-Jan

    Purpose Shoe manufacturing workers are exposed daily to an extensive range of potential physical and chemical occupational hazards. Shoe manufacturing in Indonesia is one of the industrial sectors that has shown sustained growth amongst the newly industrialized countries (NICs). In this study, we

  12. Contact dermatitis caused by a new rubber compound detected in canvas shoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulstaert, Eva; Bergendorff, Ola; Persson, Christina; Goossens, An; Gilissen, Liesbeth; Engfeldt, Malin; Bruze, Magnus; Schuttelaar, Marie L.; Meijer, Joost M; Lapeere, Hilde

    Background. In 2015 and 2016, female patients in Flanders consulted a dermatologist because they developed skin lesions after wearing a specific brand of canvas shoes. Objectives. To identify the culprit allergen in the shoes. Methods. Eighteen young females aged 14-22 years presented with itching

  13. Effect of shoes containing nanosilica particles on knee valgus in active females during landing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Bassiri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: The effect of silica nanoparticles (SNPs in sport shoes outsoles on the  parameters related to anterior cruciate ligament (ACL Injury has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of shoes outsole containing a composite of thermoplastic elastomer based on styrene-butadiene and silica nanoparticles (TPEN shoe on Knee Valgus Angle (KVA as a risk factor of ACL injuries during landing Materials and Methods: Fourteen active healthy women without knee injuries and disorders performed bilateral drop jump (DJ and single leg drop landing (SLL tasks in barefoot, wearing shoes fabricated with polyvinyl chloride outsole (PVC shoe and TPEN shoes conditions , randomly. The knee valgus angle values of right and left legs were calculated in the landing conditions. Two factors repeated measures ANOVA were used to investigate the effect of landing and footwear conditions on KVA of right and left legs.  Results: For both left and right limbs, the KVA was at maximum and minimum values during landing with barefoot and TPEN shoes, respectively. PVC shoe significantly reduced the knee valgus by 3.84% in left and 4.18% in right knee (P

  14. Immediate effect of Masai Barefoot Technology shoes on knee joint moments in women with knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tateuchi, Hiroshige; Taniguchi, Masashi; Takagi, Yui; Goto, Yusuke; Otsuka, Naoki; Koyama, Yumiko; Kobayashi, Masashi; Ichihashi, Noriaki

    2014-01-01

    Footwear modification can beneficially alter knee loading in patients with knee osteoarthritis. This study evaluated the effect of Masai Barefoot Technology shoes on reductions in external knee moments in patients with knee osteoarthritis. Three-dimensional motion analysis was used to examine the effect of Masai Barefoot Technology versus control shoes on the knee adduction and flexion moments in 17 women (mean age, 63.6 years) with radiographically confirmed knee osteoarthritis. The lateral and anterior trunk lean values, knee flexion and adduction angles, and ground reaction force were also evaluated. The influence of the original walking pattern on the changes in knee moments with Masai Barefoot Technology shoes was evaluated. The knee flexion moment in early stance was significantly reduced while walking with the Masai Barefoot Technology shoes (0.25±0.14Nm/kgm) as compared with walking with control shoes (0.30±0.19 Nm/kgm); whereas the knee adduction moment showed no changes. Masai Barefoot Technology shoes did not increase compensatory lateral and anterior trunk lean. The degree of knee flexion moment in the original walking pattern with control shoes was correlated directly with its reduction when wearing Masai Barefoot Technology shoes by multiple linear regression analysis (adjusted R2=0.44, Pknee flexion moment during walking without increasing the compensatory trunk lean and may therefore reduce external knee loading in women with knee osteoarthritis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Reported shoes size during GH therapy: is foot overgrowth a myth or reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lago, Débora C F; Coutinho, Cláudia A; Kochi, Cristiane; Longui, Carlos A

    2015-10-01

    To describe population reference values for shoes size, and to identify possible disproportional foot growth during GH therapy. Construction of percentile chart based on 3,651 controls (male: 1,838; female: 1,813). The GH treated group included 13 children with idiopathic short stature (ISS) and 50 children with normal height, but with height prediction below their target height; male: 26 and female: 37 mean ± SD age 13.3 ± 1.9 and 12.9 ± 1.5 years, respectively. GH (0.05 mg/kg/day) was used for 3.2 ± 1.6 years, ranging from 1.0-10.3 years. Height expressed as SDS, target height (TH) SDS, self-reported shoes size and target shoes size (TSS) SDS were recorded. Reference values were established showed as a foot SDS calculator available online at www.clinicalcaselearning.com/v2. Definitive shoes size was attained in controls at mean age of 13y in girls and 14y in boys (average values 37 and 40, respectively). In the study group, shoes size was -0.15 ± 0.9 and -0.02 ± 1.3 SDS, with target feet of 0.08 ± 0.8 and -0.27 ± 0.7 SDS in males and females, respectively. There was a significant positive correlation between shoes size and familial TSS, between shoes size and height and between TSS and TH. There was no correlation between duration of GH treatment and shoes size. Our data suggest that during long-term treatment with GH, patients maintain proportional growth in shoes size and height, and the expected correlation with the familial target. We conclude that there is no excessive increase in the size of foot as estimated by the size of shoes in individuals under long term GH therapy.

  16. A Shoe-Embedded Piezoelectric Energy Harvester for Wearable Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Zhao

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Harvesting mechanical energy from human motion is an attractive approach for obtaining clean and sustainable electric energy to power wearable sensors, which are widely used for health monitoring, activity recognition, gait analysis and so on. This paper studies a piezoelectric energy harvester for the parasitic mechanical energy in shoes originated from human motion. The harvester is based on a specially designed sandwich structure with a thin thickness, which makes it readily compatible with a shoe. Besides, consideration is given to both high performance and excellent durability. The harvester provides an average output power of 1 mW during a walk at a frequency of roughly 1 Hz. Furthermore, a direct current (DC power supply is built through integrating the harvester with a power management circuit. The DC power supply is tested by driving a simulated wireless transmitter, which can be activated once every 2–3 steps with an active period lasting 5 ms and a mean power of 50 mW. This work demonstrates the feasibility of applying piezoelectric energy harvesters to power wearable sensors.

  17. Vertical ground reaction force analysis during gait with unstable shoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Pereira

    Full Text Available AbstractIntroduction Footwear is no longer just an accessory but also a protection for the musculoskeletal system, and its most important characteristic is comfort.Objectives This study aims to identify and to analyze the vertical ground reaction force in barefoot women and women with unstable shoes.Methodology Five women aged 25 ± 4 years old and mass of 50 ± 7 kg participated in this study. An AMTI force plate was used for data acquisition. The 10 trials for each situation were considered valid where the subject approached the platform with the right foot and at the speed of 4 km/h ± 5%. The instable shoe of this study is used in the practice of physical activity.Results The results showed that the first peak force was higher for the footwear situation, about 5% and significant differences between the barefoot and footwear situation. This significant difference was in the first and second peaks force and in the time of the second peak.Conclusion The values showed that the footwear absorbs approximately 45% of the impact during gait.

  18. Mortality of workers employed in shoe manufacturing: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Everett J; Hein, Misty J

    2006-07-01

    In the late 1970s, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health identified two shoe manufacturing facilities where workers experienced relatively "pure" exposures to toluene. A mortality study was conducted through December 31, 1982. An original study did not detect elevated leukemia mortality but did detect increased lung cancer mortality. The present study is an update of the mortality of the original cohort. The study cohort consisted of workers employed 1 month or more between 1940 and 1979 at two Ohio shoe manufacturing plants. Vital status was ascertained through December 31, 1999. Seven thousand eight hundred twenty eight workers, contributing 300,777 person years, were available for analysis. An excess of lung cancer deaths persisted with additional years of follow-up (SMR = 1.36, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.19-1.54). Trend tests did not indicate a positive trend between lung cancer risk and duration of employment. Mortality from leukemia was not significantly elevated in the updated analysis. Results indicate a possible association between lung cancer mortality and exposure to chronic, low-levels of organic solvents. Although the strength of this conclusion was weakened by the lack of increasing lung cancer risk in relation to duration of employment, other studies have supported this association. Published 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Redistribution of Mechanical Work at the Knee and Ankle Joints During Fast Running in Minimalist Shoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Joel T; Buckley, Jonathan D; Tsiros, Margarita D; Brown, Nicholas A T; Thewlis, Dominic

    2016-10-01

    Minimalist shoes have been suggested as a way to alter running biomechanics to improve running performance and reduce injuries. However, to date, researchers have only considered the effect of minimalist shoes at slow running speeds. To determine if runners change foot-strike pattern and alter the distribution of mechanical work at the knee and ankle joints when running at a fast speed in minimalist shoes compared with conventional running shoes. Crossover study. Research laboratory. Twenty-six trained runners (age = 30.0 ± 7.9 years [age range, 18-40 years], height = 1.79 ± 0.06 m, mass = 75.3 ± 8.2 kg, weekly training distance = 27 ± 15 km) who ran with a habitual rearfoot foot-strike pattern and had no experience running in minimalist shoes. Participants completed overground running trials at 18 km/h in minimalist and conventional shoes. Sagittal-plane kinematics and joint work at the knee and ankle joints were computed using 3-dimensional kinematic and ground reaction force data. Foot-strike pattern was classified as rearfoot, midfoot, or forefoot strike based on strike index and ankle angle at initial contact. We observed no difference in foot-strike classification between shoes (χ 2 1 = 2.29, P = .13). Ankle angle at initial contact was less (2.46° versus 7.43°; t 25 = 3.34, P = .003) and strike index was greater (35.97% versus 29.04%; t 25 = 2.38, P = .03) when running in minimalist shoes compared with conventional shoes. We observed greater negative (52.87 J versus 42.46 J; t 24 = 2.29, P = .03) and positive work (68.91 J versus 59.08 J; t 24 = 2.65, P = .01) at the ankle but less negative (59.01 J versus 67.02 J; t 24 = 2.25, P = .03) and positive work (40.37 J versus 47.09 J; t 24 = 2.11, P = .046) at the knee with minimalist shoes compared with conventional shoes. Running in minimalist shoes at a fast speed caused a redistribution of work from the knee to the ankle joint. This finding suggests that runners changing from conventional to minimalist

  20. Cross-Domain Shoe Retrieval with a Semantic Hierarchy of Attribute Classification Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Huijing; Shi, Boxin; Kot, Alex C

    2017-08-04

    Cross-domain shoe image retrieval is a challenging problem, because the query photo from the street domain (daily life scenario) and the reference photo in the online domain (online shop images) have significant visual differences due to the viewpoint and scale variation, self-occlusion, and cluttered background. This paper proposes the Semantic Hierarchy Of attributE Convolutional Neural Network (SHOE-CNN) with a three-level feature representation for discriminative shoe feature expression and efficient retrieval. The SHOE-CNN with its newly designed loss function systematically merges semantic attributes of closer visual appearances to prevent shoe images with the obvious visual differences being confused with each other; the features extracted from image, region, and part levels effectively match the shoe images across different domains. We collect a large-scale shoe dataset composed of 14341 street domain and 12652 corresponding online domain images with fine-grained attributes to train our network and evaluate our system. The top-20 retrieval accuracy improves significantly over the solution with the pre-trained CNN features.

  1. Shoe Orthotics for the Treatment of Chronic Low Back Pain: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambron, Jerrilyn A; Dexheimer, Jennifer M; Duarte, Manuel; Freels, Sally

    2017-09-01

    To investigate the efficacy of shoe orthotics with and without chiropractic treatment for chronic low back pain compared with no treatment. Randomized controlled trial. Integrative medicine teaching clinic at a university. Adult subjects (N=225) with symptomatic low back pain of ≥3 months were recruited from a volunteer sample. Subjects were randomized into 1 of 3 treatment groups (shoe orthotic, plus, and waitlist groups). The shoe orthotic group received custom-made shoe orthotics. The plus group received custom-made orthotics plus chiropractic manipulation, hot or cold packs, and manual soft tissue massage. The waitlist group received no care. The primary outcome measures were change in perceived back pain (numerical pain rating scale) and functional health status (Oswestry Disability Index) after 6 weeks of study participation. Outcomes were also assessed after 12 weeks and then after an additional 3, 6, and 12 months. After 6 weeks, all 3 groups demonstrated significant within-group improvement in average back pain, but only the shoe orthotic and plus groups had significant within-group improvement in function. When compared with the waitlist group, the shoe orthotic group demonstrated significantly greater improvements in pain (Ppain (P=.3431). Group differences at 12 weeks and later were not significant. Six weeks of prescription shoe orthotics significantly improved back pain and dysfunction compared with no treatment. The addition of chiropractic care led to higher improvements in function. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of environmental temperature on shock absorption properties of running shoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dib, Mansour Y; Smith, Jay; Bernhardt, Kathie A; Kaufman, Kenton R; Miles, Kevin A

    2005-05-01

    To determine the effect of temperature changes on the shock attenuation of 4 running shoe shock absorption systems. Prospective. Motion analysis laboratory. The shock attenuation of 4 different running shoes representing common shock absorption systems (Nike Air Triax, Asics Gel Nimbus IV, Adidas a3 cushioning, Adidas Supernova cushion) was measured at ambient temperatures of -20 degrees C, -10 degrees C, 0 degrees C, +10 degrees C, +20 degrees C, +30 degrees C, +40 degrees C, and +50 degrees C. Repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to determine differences between shoes. Shock attenuation as indicated by peak deceleration (g) measured by a mechanical impactor following ASTM Standard F1614-99. Shock attenuation decreased significantly with reduced temperature for each shoe tested. The Adidas a3 shoe exhibited significantly higher peak decelerations (lower shock attenuation) at cold temperatures compared with the other shoes. Cold ambient temperatures significantly reduce the shock attenuation of commonly used running shoes. These findings have important clinical implications for individuals training in extreme weather environments, particularly those with a history of lower limb overuse injuries.

  3. Role of EVA viscoelastic properties in the protective performance of a sport shoe: computational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Even-Tzur, Nurit; Weisz, Ety; Hirsch-Falk, Yifat; Gefen, Amit

    2006-01-01

    Modern sport shoes are designed to attenuate mechanical stress waves, mainly through deformation of the viscoelastic midsole which is typically made of ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) foam. Shock absorption is obtained by flow of air through interconnected air cells in the EVA during shoe deformation under body-weight. However, when the shoe is overused and air cells collapse or thickness of the EVA is reduced, shock absorption capacity may be affected, and this may contribute to running injuries. Using lumped system and finite element models, we studied heel pad stresses and strains during heel-strike in running, considering the viscoelastic constitutive behavior of both the heel pad and EVA midsole. In particular, we simulated wear cases of the EVA, manifested in the modeling by reduced foam thickness, increased elastic stiffness, and shorter stress relaxation with respect to new shoe conditions. Simulations showed that heel pad stresses and strains were sensitive to viscous damping of the EVA. Wear of the EVA consistently increased heel pad stresses, and reduced EVA thickness was the most influential factor, e.g., for a 50% reduction in thickness, peak heel pad stress increased by 19%. We conclude that modeling of the heel-shoe interaction should consider the viscoelastic properties of the tissue and shoe components, and the age of the studied shoe.

  4. Does shoe heel design influence ground reaction forces and knee moments during maximum lunges in elite and intermediate badminton players?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Wing-Kai; Ryue, Jaejin; Lee, Ki-Kwang; Park, Sang-Kyoon; Cheung, Jason Tak-Man; Ryu, Jiseon

    2017-01-01

    Lunge is one frequently executed movement in badminton and involves a unique sagittal footstrike angle of more than 40 degrees at initial ground contact compared with other manoeuvres. This study examined if the shoe heel curvature design of a badminton shoe would influence shoe-ground kinematics, ground reaction forces, and knee moments during lunge. Eleven elite and fifteen intermediate players performed five left-forward maximum lunge trials with Rounded Heel Shoe (RHS), Flattened Heel Shoe (FHS), and Standard Heel Shoes (SHS). Shoe-ground kinematics, ground reaction forces, and knee moments were measured by using synchronized force platform and motion analysis system. A 2 (Group) x 3 (Shoe) ANOVA with repeated measures was performed to determine the effects of different shoes and different playing levels, as well as the interaction of two factors on all variables. Shoe effect indicated that players demonstrated lower maximum vertical loading rate in RHS than the other two shoes (P badminton lunge. The differences in impact loads and knee moments between elite and intermediate players may be useful in optimizing footwear design and training strategy to minimize the potential risks for impact related injuries in badminton.

  5. Does Shoe Collar Height Influence Ankle Joint Kinematics and Kinetics in Sagittal Plane Maneuvers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Fang, Ying; Zhang, Xini; He, Junliang; Fu, Weijie

    2017-01-01

    The Objective of the study is to investigate the effects of basketball shoes with different collar heights on ankle kinematics and kinetics and athletic performance in different sagittal plane maneuvers. Twelve participants who wore high-top and low-top basketball shoes (hereafter, HS and LS, respectively) performed a weight-bearing dorsiflexion (WB-DF) maneuver, drop jumps (DJs), and lay-up jumps (LJs). Their sagittal plane kinematics and ground reaction forces were recorded using the Vicon motion capture system and Kistler force plates simultaneously. Moreover, ankle dorsiflexion and plantarflexion angles, moment, power, stiffness, and jump height were calculated. In the WB-DF test, the peak ankle dorsiflexion angle (p = 0.041) was significantly smaller in HS than in LS. Additionally, the peak ankle plantarflexion moment (p = 0.028) and power (p = 0.022) were significantly lower in HS than in LS during LJs but not during DJs. In both jumping maneuvers, no significant differences were found in the jump height or ankle kinematics between the two shoe types. According to the WB-DF test, increasing shoe collar height can effectively reduce the ankle range of motion in the sagittal plane. Although the HS did not restrict the flexion–extension performance of the ankle joint during two jumping maneuvers, an increased shoe collar height can reduce peak ankle plantarflexion moment and peak power during the push-off phase in LJs. Therefore, a higher shoe collar height should be used to circumvent effects on the partial kinetics of the ankle joint in the sagittal plane. Key points An increased shoe collar height effectively reduced ankle joint ROM in the sagittal plane in weight-bearing dorsiflexion maneuver. Shoe collar height did not affect sagittal plane ankle kinematics and had no effect on performance during realistic jumping. Shoe collar height can affect the ankle plantarflexion torque and peak power during the push-off phase in lay-up jump. PMID:29238255

  6. A COMPARISON OF GOLF SHOE DESIGNS HIGHLIGHTS GREATER GROUND REACTION FORCES WITH SHORTER IRONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Worsfold

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In an effort to reduce golf turf damage the traditional metal spike golf shoe has been redesigned, but shoe-ground biomechanical evaluations have utilised artificial grass surfaces. Twenty-four golfers wore three different golf shoe traction designs (traditional metal spikes, alternative spikes, and a flat-soled shoe with no additional traction when performing shots with a driver, 3 iron and 7 iron. Ground action forces were measured beneath the feet by two natural grass covered force platforms. The maximum vertical force recorded at the back foot with the 3 iron and 7 iron was 0.82 BW (body weight and at the front foot 1.1 BW approximately in both the metal spike and alternative spike golf shoe designs. When using the driver these maximal vertical values were 0.49 BW at the back foot and 0.84 BW at the front foot. Furthermore, as performance of the backswing and then downswing necessitates a change in movement direction the range of force generated during the complete swing was calculated. In the metal spike shoe the vertical force generated at the back foot with both irons was 0.67 BW and at the front foot 0.96 BW with the 3 iron and 0.92 BW with the 7 iron. The back foot vertical force generated with the driver was 0.33 BW and at the front foot 0.83 BW wearing the metal spike shoe. Results indicated the greater force generation with the irons. When using the driver the more horizontal swing plane associated with the longer club reduced vertical forces at the back and front foot. However, the mediolateral force generated across each foot in the metal and alternative spike shoes when using the driver was greater than when the irons were used. The coefficient of friction was 0. 62 at the back and front foot whichever shoe was worn or club used

  7. Evaluation of lower limb electromyographic activity when using unstable shoes for the first time: a pilot quasi control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branthwaite, Helen; Chockalingam, Nachiappan; Pandyan, Anand; Khatri, Gaurav

    2013-08-01

    Unstable shoes, which have recently become popular, claim to provide additional physiological and biomechanical advantages to people who wear them. Alterations in postural stability have been shown when using the shoe after training. However, the immediate effect on muscle activity when walking in unstable shoes for the first time has not been investigated. To evaluate muscle activity and temporal parameters of gait when wearing Masai Barefoot Technology shoes(®) for the first time compared to the subject's own regular trainer shoes. A pilot repeated-measures quasi control trial. Electromyographic measurements of lower leg muscles (soleus, medial gastrocnemius, lateral gastrocnemius, tibialis anterior, peroneus longus, rectus femoris, biceps femoris and gluteus medius) were measured in 15 healthy participants using Masai Barefoot Technology shoes and trainer shoes over a 10-m walkway. Muscle activity of the third and sixth steps was used to study the difference in behaviour of the muscles under the two shoe conditions. Temporal parameters were captured with footswitches to highlight heel strike, heel lift and toe off. Paired samples t-test was completed to compare mean muscle activity for Masai Barefoot Technology and trainer shoes. Indicated that the use of Masai Barefoot Technology shoes increased the intensity of the magnitude of muscle activity. While this increase in the activity was not significant across the subjects, there were inter-individual differences in muscle activity. This variance between the participants demonstrates that some subjects do alter muscle behaviour while wearing such shoes. A more rigorous and specific assessment is required when advising patients to purchase the Masai Barefoot Technology shoe. Not all subjects respond positively to using unstable shoes, and the point in time when muscle behaviour can change is variable. Use of Masai Barefoot Technology shoe in patient management should be monitored closely as the individual muscle

  8. Does shoe heel design influence ground reaction forces and knee moments during maximum lunges in elite and intermediate badminton players?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wing-Kai Lam

    Full Text Available Lunge is one frequently executed movement in badminton and involves a unique sagittal footstrike angle of more than 40 degrees at initial ground contact compared with other manoeuvres. This study examined if the shoe heel curvature design of a badminton shoe would influence shoe-ground kinematics, ground reaction forces, and knee moments during lunge.Eleven elite and fifteen intermediate players performed five left-forward maximum lunge trials with Rounded Heel Shoe (RHS, Flattened Heel Shoe (FHS, and Standard Heel Shoes (SHS. Shoe-ground kinematics, ground reaction forces, and knee moments were measured by using synchronized force platform and motion analysis system. A 2 (Group x 3 (Shoe ANOVA with repeated measures was performed to determine the effects of different shoes and different playing levels, as well as the interaction of two factors on all variables.Shoe effect indicated that players demonstrated lower maximum vertical loading rate in RHS than the other two shoes (P < 0.05. Group effect revealed that elite players exhibited larger footstrike angle, faster approaching speed, lower peak horizontal force and horizontal loading rates but higher vertical loading rates and larger peak knee flexion and extension moments (P < 0.05. Analysis of Interactions of Group x Shoe for maximum and mean vertical loading rates (P < 0.05 indicated that elite players exhibited lower left maximum and mean vertical loading rates in RHS compared to FHS (P < 0.01, while the intermediate group did not show any Shoe effect on vertical loading rates.These findings indicate that shoe heel curvature would play some role in altering ground reaction force impact during badminton lunge. The differences in impact loads and knee moments between elite and intermediate players may be useful in optimizing footwear design and training strategy to minimize the potential risks for impact related injuries in badminton.

  9. Influence of sports flooring and shoes on impact forces and performance during jump tasks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Malisoux

    Full Text Available We aim to determine the influence of sports floorings and sports shoes on impact mechanics and performance during standardised jump tasks. Twenty-one male volunteers performed ankle jumps (four consecutive maximal bounds with very dynamic ankle movements and multi-jumps (two consecutive maximal counter-movement jumps on force plates using minimalist and cushioned shoes under 5 sports flooring (SF conditions. The shock absorption properties of the SF, defined as the proportion of peak impact force absorbed by the tested flooring when compared with a concrete hard surface, were: SF0 = 0% (no flooring, SF1 = 19%, SF2 = 26%, SF3 = 37% and SF4 = 45%. Shoe and flooring effects were compared using 2x5 repeated-measures ANOVA with post-hoc Bonferroni-corrected comparisons. A significant interaction between SF and shoe conditions was found for VILR only (p = 0.003. In minimalist shoes, SF influenced Vertical Instantaneous Loading Rate (VILR during ankle jumps (p = 0.006 and multi-jumps (p<0.001, in accordance with shock absorption properties. However, in cushioned shoes, SF influenced VILR during ankle jumps only (p<0.001. Contact Time was the only additional variable affected by SF, but only during multi-jumps in minimalist shoes (p = 0.037. Cushioned shoes induced lower VILR (p<0.001 and lower Contact Time (p≤0.002 during ankle jumps and multi-jumps compared to minimalist shoes. During ankle jumps, cushioned shoes induced greater Peak Vertical Ground Reaction Force (PVGRF, p = 0.002, greater Vertical Average Loading Rate (p<0.001, and lower eccentric (p = 0.008 and concentric (p = 0.004 work. During multi-jumps, PVGRF was lower (p<0.001 and jump height was higher (p<0.001 in cushioned compared to minimalist shoes. In conclusion, cushioning influenced impact forces during standardised jump tasks, whether it was provided by the shoes or the sports flooring. VILR is the variable that was the most affected.

  10. The effect of shoe type on gait in forefoot strike runners during a 50-km run

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark E. Kasmer

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: More runners adopted a more posterior initial contact area after the 50-km run in the traditional shoe type than in the minimalist shoe type. The runners who adopted a more posterior initial contact area were more closely associated with an increased median frequency of the medial gastrocnemius, which suggests there may be a change in motor unit recruitment pattern during long-distance, sustained velocity running. The increased peak pressures observed in the medial forefoot in the minimalist shoe type may predispose to metatarsal stress fractures in the setting of improper training.

  11. [Occupational risks of a shoe industry from the workers' perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Fernanda Reinher da; Loro, Marli Maria; Zeitoune, Regina Célia Gollner; Kolankiewicz, Adriane Cristina Bernat; Rosanelli, Cleci Schmidt Piovesan

    2013-01-01

    This is a qualitative and descriptive study, which aimed to identify the occupational risks of a shoe industry, as well as the preventive measures taken against those risks, from the workers' perspective. The sample consisted of fifteen workers. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews and analyzed according to content analysis. The ethical aspects were respected and the research was approved by the Committee of Ethics in Research of the Northwest Regional University of Rio Grande do Sul. The results showed that the workers are aware of the risks of their work process, made use of safety measures for personal protection, and the company offers safety devices, informing and performing periodical visits to the sectors, aiming to develop educational actions.

  12. Shoe concerns and foot problems of wearers of safety footwear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marr, S J; Quine, S

    1993-05-01

    In Australia workers in many industries are required to wear safety footwear (footwear incorporating a steel toe cap). An investigation of the problems reported by 321 workers (70 per cent male) employed in a broad range of work activities and required to wear safety footwear was conducted in 1990 and 1991. Respondents were interviewed by a professionally trained podiatrist using a structured questionnaire followed by a foot examination. An extremely high percentage (91 per cent) of subjects reported one or more foot problems (which were verified by the podiatrist), and most considered that the safety footwear either caused the problem or adversely affected an existing foot condition. The main shoe concerns reported were excessive heat (65 per cent of all respondents), inflexible soles (52 per cent), weight (48 per cent) and pressure from steel toe cap (47 per cent). Certain gender differences were identified. General recommendations are made.

  13. The effects of high custom made shoes on gait characteristics and patient satisfaction in hemiplegic gait

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eckhardt, Martine M.; Mulder, Mascha C. Borgerhoff; Horemans, Herwin L.; van der Woude, Luc H.; Ribbers, Gerard M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effects of a temporary high custom made orthopaedic shoe on functional mobility, walking speed, and gait characteristics in hemiplegic stroke patients. In addition, interference of attentional demands and patient satisfaction were studied. Design: Clinical experimental

  14. Concerns and Intentions among Young Migrants in the Shoe-shine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Ghana, the shoe-shine business is one of the informal sector businesses that ... and methods, results and discussion, conclusions and recommendations. .... that in both Kumasi and Accra, some female migrants are engaged in the kaya yei.

  15. The effects of high custom made shoes on gait characteristics and patient satisfaction in hemiplegic gait

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eckhardt, Martine M; Mulder, Mascha C Borgerhoff; Horemans, Herwin L; van der Woude, Lucas; Ribbers, Gerard M

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of a temporary high custom made orthopaedic shoe on functional mobility, walking speed, and gait characteristics in hemiplegic stroke patients. In addition, interference of attentional demands and patient satisfaction were studied. DESIGN: Clinical experimental

  16. Antropometric parameters problem solving of shoe lasts by deforming membranes with medium weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albu, A. V.; Anghel Drugarin, C. V.; Barla, E. M.; Porav, V.

    2018-01-01

    The paper presents research results into getting a virtual model of shoe last and anthropometric parameters change. The most important change occurs in the fingers region. Alternatives CAD-CAM technology for next generation is based on DELCAM software for the CAM procedure and simulation of MATLAB software. This research has led to the virtual changes of the last, anthropometric parameter - the width of the fingers (ld) and shoe last length - (Lp) and images have been achieved with the representation in section of the shoe last changed from the original shoe lasts by FEM method (Finite element method) in MATLAB environment. The results are applied in the textile industry and in the elaboration of linings consumption or in the development of leather substitutes on fabric, knitted or woven material type.

  17. Comparison of plantar pressure distribution between three different shoes and three common movements in futsal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghdad Teymouri

    Full Text Available Analysis of in-shoe pressure distribution during sport-specific movements may provide a clue to improve shoe design and prevent injuries. This study compared the mean and the peak pressures over the whole foot and ten separate areas of the foot, wearing different shoes during specific movements.Nine male adult recreational futsal players performed three trials of three sport-specific movements (shuffle, sprint and penalty kick, while they were wearing three brands of futsal shoes (Adidas, Lotto and Tiger. Plantar pressures on dominant feet were collected using the F-SCAN system. Peak and mean pressures for whole foot and each separate area were extracted. For statistical analysis, the mean differences in outcome variables between different shoes and movements were estimated using random-effects regression model using STATA ver.10.In the average calculation of the three movements, the peak pressure on the whole foot in Adidas shoe was less than Lotto [8.8% (CI95%: 4.1-13.6%] and Tiger shoes [11.8% (CI95%:7-16.7%], (P<0.001. Also, the recorded peak pressure on the whole foot in penalty kick was 61.1% (CI95%: 56.3-65.9% and 57.6% (CI95%: 52.8-62.3% less than Shuffle and Sprint tests, respectively (P<0.001.Areas with the highest peak pressure during all 3 movements were not different between all shoes. This area was medial forefoot in cases of shuffle and sprint movements and medial heel in case of penalty kick.

  18. The Relationship of Foot Shape and Sensitivity to Comfort of Shoe-Inserts

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-07-30

    tension of the plantar fascia have been implicated by several authors as a cause of plan tar fasciitis which results in symptomatic heel pain and...Pressure distribution Relationship Between Foot Sensitivity and Plantar Pressure RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The shoe and insert factors Factor Sl...sensitivity of the plantar surface of the foot). For activities which are typical for army personal the choice of an appropriate shoe is essential

  19. Comparison of plantar pressure distribution between three different shoes and three common movements in futsal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teymouri, Meghdad; Halabchi, Farzin; Mirshahi, Maryam; Mansournia, Mohammad Ali; Mousavi Ahranjani, Ali; Sadeghi, Amir

    2017-01-01

    Analysis of in-shoe pressure distribution during sport-specific movements may provide a clue to improve shoe design and prevent injuries. This study compared the mean and the peak pressures over the whole foot and ten separate areas of the foot, wearing different shoes during specific movements. Nine male adult recreational futsal players performed three trials of three sport-specific movements (shuffle, sprint and penalty kick), while they were wearing three brands of futsal shoes (Adidas, Lotto and Tiger). Plantar pressures on dominant feet were collected using the F-SCAN system. Peak and mean pressures for whole foot and each separate area were extracted. For statistical analysis, the mean differences in outcome variables between different shoes and movements were estimated using random-effects regression model using STATA ver.10. In the average calculation of the three movements, the peak pressure on the whole foot in Adidas shoe was less than Lotto [8.8% (CI95%: 4.1-13.6%)] and Tiger shoes [11.8% (CI95%:7-16.7%)], (P<0.001). Also, the recorded peak pressure on the whole foot in penalty kick was 61.1% (CI95%: 56.3-65.9%) and 57.6% (CI95%: 52.8-62.3%) less than Shuffle and Sprint tests, respectively (P<0.001). Areas with the highest peak pressure during all 3 movements were not different between all shoes. This area was medial forefoot in cases of shuffle and sprint movements and medial heel in case of penalty kick.

  20. The influence of motion control shoes on the running gait of mature and young females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilley, Kim; Stiles, Vicky; Dixon, Sharon

    2013-03-01

    This study compared the running gait of mature and young females, and investigated the effect of a motion control shoe. First, it was hypothesised that in a neutral shoe, mature females would display significantly greater rearfoot eversion, knee internal rotation and external adductor moments when compared to a younger group. Secondly, the motion control shoe would reduce rearfoot eversion and knee internal rotation in both groups. Thirdly it was hypothesised that the motion control shoe would increase knee external adductor moment, through an increase in knee varus and moment arm. 15 mature (40-60 years) and 15 young (18-25 years) females performed 10 running trials at 3.5ms(-1)±5% over a force platform. Two shoes were tested, the Adidas Supernova Glide (neutral), and the Adidas Supernova Sequence (motion control). Ankle and knee joint dynamics were analysed for the right leg, and the mean of ten trials was calculated. Joint moments were calculated using inverse dynamics. In the neutral condition, mature females presented greater peak rearfoot eversion, knee internal rotation, and external adductor moments than young females (p<0.05). A motion control shoe significantly reduced peak rearfoot eversion and knee internal rotation among both groups (p<0.05). No between shoe differences in knee external adductor moment were observed. A motion control shoe is recommended to reduce risk of injury associated with rearfoot eversion and knee internal rotation in mature females. However since the knee external adductor moment is a variable commonly associated with medial knee loading it is suggested that alternative design features are required to influence this moment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Shoes alter the spring-like function of the human foot during running

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Luke A.; Lichtwark, Glen A.; Farris, Dominic J.; Cresswell, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    The capacity to store and return energy in legs and feet that behave like springs is crucial to human running economy. Recent comparisons of shod and barefoot running have led to suggestions that modern running shoes may actually impede leg and foot-spring function by reducing the contributions from the leg and foot musculature. Here we examined the effect of running shoes on foot longitudinal arch (LA) motion and activation of the intrinsic foot muscles. Participants ran on a force-instrumented treadmill with and without running shoes. We recorded foot kinematics and muscle activation of the intrinsic foot muscles using intramuscular electromyography. In contrast to previous assertions, we observed an increase in both the peak (flexor digitorum brevis +60%) and total stance muscle activation (flexor digitorum brevis +70% and abductor hallucis +53%) of the intrinsic foot muscles when running with shoes. Increased intrinsic muscle activation corresponded with a reduction in LA compression (−25%). We confirm that running shoes do indeed influence the mechanical function of the foot. However, our findings suggest that these mechanical adjustments are likely to have occurred as a result of increased neuromuscular output, rather than impaired control as previously speculated. We propose a theoretical model for foot–shoe interaction to explain these novel findings. PMID:27307512

  2. Predictive multiscale computational model of shoe-floor coefficient of friction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddam, Seyed Reza M; Acharya, Arjun; Redfern, Mark S; Beschorner, Kurt E

    2018-01-03

    Understanding the frictional interactions between the shoe and floor during walking is critical to prevention of slips and falls, particularly when contaminants are present. A multiscale finite element model of shoe-floor-contaminant friction was developed that takes into account the surface and material characteristics of the shoe and flooring in microscopic and macroscopic scales. The model calculates shoe-floor coefficient of friction (COF) in boundary lubrication regime where effects of adhesion friction and hydrodynamic pressures are negligible. The validity of model outputs was assessed by comparing model predictions to the experimental results from mechanical COF testing. The multiscale model estimates were linearly related to the experimental results (p < 0.0001). The model predicted 73% of variability in experimentally-measured shoe-floor-contaminant COF. The results demonstrate the potential of multiscale finite element modeling in aiding slip-resistant shoe and flooring design and reducing slip and fall injuries. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Ipsilateral deficits in 1-handed shoe tying after left or right hemisphere stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Janet L; Sadek, Joseph; Haaland, Kathleen Y

    2009-10-01

    Poole JL, Sadek J, Haaland KY. Ipsilateral deficits in 1-handed shoe tying after left or right hemisphere stroke. To examine 1-handed shoe tying performance and whether cognitive deficits more associated with left or right hemisphere damage differentially affect it after unilateral stroke. Observational cohort comparing ipsilesional shoe tying, spatial and language skills, and limb praxis. Primary care Veterans Affairs and private medical center. Not applicable. Volunteer right-handed sample of adults with left or right hemisphere damage and healthy demographically matched adults. The number of correct trials and the total time to complete 10 trials tying a shoe using the 1-handed method. Both stroke groups had fewer correct trials and were significantly slower tying the shoe than the control group. Spatial skills predicted accuracy and speed after right hemisphere damage. After left hemisphere damage, accuracy was predicted by spatial skills and limb praxis, while speed was predicted by limb praxis only. Ipsilesional shoe tying is similarly impaired after left or right hemisphere damage, but for different reasons. Spatial deficits had a greater influence after right hemisphere damage, and limb apraxia had a greater influence after left hemisphere damage. Language deficits did not affect performance, indicating that aphasia does not preclude using this therapy approach. These results suggest that rehabilitation professionals should consider assessment of limb apraxia and ipsilesional skill training in the performance of everyday tasks.

  4. A case of contact dermatitis to dimethylfumarate in shoes identified in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franca Davanzo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper describes a case of shoe contact dermatitis from DMF identified by the Poison Control Centre of Milan (PCCM, Italy, in 2009. A 35 year old woman was affected by irritant reactions while wearing shoes contaminated with DMF. Exposure to these shoes was limited to a 8 hour period and was not repeated. In the following days the patient suffered feet blistering and swelling limited to the area in contact with shoe vamp. Topical application of cortisone did not prevent development of bullous eczema. After 20 days from exposure, the lesions were healed but the skin remained red, dry and very sensitive. Chemical analyses of shoes quantified an average concentration of DMF of 383 mg/kg. The patient refused to be patch tested. The observation here reported confirm that DMF should be considered a possible causal agent in shoe contact dermatitis. Documentation of cases exposed to this chemical provide a relevant support to characterize clinical manifestations and to identifying contaminated articles.

  5. Shoe heel abrasion and its possible biomechanical cause: a transversal study with infantry recruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumfeld, Daniel; Raduan, Fernando C; Macedo, Benjamim; Silva, Thiago Alexandre Alves; Baumfeld, Tiago; Favato, Danilo Fabrino; de Andrade, Marco Antonio Percope; Nery, Caio

    2015-11-19

    Excessive shoe heel abrasion is of concern to patients and shoe manufacturers, but little scientific information is available about this feature and its possible causes. The purpose of this study was to relate this phenomenon with biomechanical factors that could predispose to shoe heel abrasion. Ninety-seven recruits (median age 25) were enrolled in this study. Shoe abrasion was assessed manually with a metric plastic tape on the posterior part of the heel that comes in contact with the ground. The number of sprains, foot alignment, and calf muscle shortening (Silfverskiold test) was also assessed in order to relate it with shoe heel abrasion. After using our exclusion criteria, 86 recruits and 172 were considered for this study. The most common abrasion site was the lateral portion of the heel surface (50 %). Forty-four percent of the participants had neutral hind-foot alignment and 39 % had valgus alignment. Twenty-six (30 %) patients have had previous ankle or foot sprains. Neutral foot was related with less calf muscle shortening. On the other hand, valgus hind-foot alignment was more associated with Achilles shortening (p study was able to correlate shoe heel abrasion with biomechanical causes (neutral alignment-uniform abrasion/varus alignment-central and lateral abrasion). More effort has to be done to continue evaluating outsole abrasion with its possible biomechanical cause in order to predict and treat possible associated injuries.

  6. The effects of high custom made shoes on gait characteristics and patient satisfaction in hemiplegic gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckhardt, Martine M; Mulder, Mascha C Borgerhoff; Horemans, Herwin L; van der Woude, Luc H; Ribbers, Gerard M

    2011-10-01

    To determine the effects of a temporary high custom made orthopaedic shoe on functional mobility, walking speed, and gait characteristics in hemiplegic stroke patients. In addition, interference of attentional demands and patient satisfaction were studied. Clinical experimental study. University Medical Centre. Nineteen stroke patients (12 males; mean age 55 years (standard deviation (SD) 10 years); mean time post onset 3.6 months (SD 1.4 months)) with a spastic paresis of the lower extremity. Functional mobility was assessed with the timed up and go test, walking speed and gait characteristics were measured with clinical gait analysis and performed with and without a verbal dual task. Patient satisfaction was determined with a questionnaire. Walking with the high orthopaedic shoe resulted in improved functional mobility (22%; pshoes. The dual task interfered with functional mobility during walking. The interference was equally big for normal shoes as for the orthopaedic shoe. Patients evaluated walking with the high orthopaedic shoe as an improvement (psafety, walking distance and walking speed. In the early recovery phase after stroke, when regaining walking ability, a temporary high orthopaedic shoe can improve hemiplegic gait, even with dual task interference. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. An innovative sealed shoe to off-load and heal diabetic forefoot ulcers - a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarl, Gustav; Tranberg, Roy

    2017-01-01

    Background : Non-removable knee-high devices are the gold standard to treat diabetic foot ulcers located on the plantar forefoot, but they immobilize the ankle, which restricts daily life activities and has negative effects on joint functioning. Objective : To investigate the feasibility of sealing a therapeutic shoe to off-load and heal diabetic forefoot ulcers. Design : A case series of seven men with type 2 diabetes and a metatarsal head ulcer were prescribed therapeutic shoes and custom-made insoles. The shoe was sealed with a plastic band. Off-loading was assessed with the F-scan pressure measurement system. Adherence to wearing the shoe was assessed with a temperature sensor and by documenting the status of the seal. Results : The off-loading was effective and all ulcers healed. Median time to healing was 56 days (range 8-160). Complications were secondary ulcer ( n  = 1) and plantar hematoma ( n  = 1). Five of seven participants did not disturb the seal. Conclusions : Sealing a therapeutic shoe is a feasible way to off-load and heal forefoot ulcers. A controlled trial is needed to compare the effectiveness and safety of a sealed shoe to other non-removable devices.

  8. Shoe adaptation after amputation of the II - V phalangeal bones of the foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rommers, G M; Diepstraten, H J M; Bakker, E; Lindeman, E

    2006-12-01

    In The Netherlands, about 50% of all amputations of the lower limb are toes and forefoot amputations. Traumata of toes and mid-foot are rare. Preservation of the foot is the primary goal for treatment. Crush injuries of the foot may be associated with prolonged morbidity. This case study presents an insole solution for the solitary first phalangeal bone after amputation of the phalangeal bones II - V. The normal adaptation for forefoot amputations is stiffening of the sole of the shoe and a rocker bar to improve the toe off phase with load reduction of the forefoot. Because the patient had to do excessive stair climbing during work another solution was chosen. As a foot orthosis, a metal soleplate was made in order to have free movement during loading and toe-off during walking. The soleplate gives safety and provides self-adjusting properties after toe off. This enables the shoe technician to make a shoe without a rocker bar or an extra stiff insole. The 0.5 mm custom-made spring-steel plate is also used as a protective in industrial safety shoes. To improve shoe adaptation more research and case reports have to be published in order to inform doctors and shoe technicians about everyday solutions to partial foot amputations.

  9. Effects of Running Shoes with Abrasion Resistant Rubber Sole on the Exercise Capacity of the Human Body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Wang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available With the development of industrialization, rubber has been gradually used in the manufacture of sports equipment for its favourable properties. This study involved the addition of C5 petroleum resin into brominated isobutylene-isoprene rubber (BIIR and butadiene rubber (BR while manufacturing the sole of running shoes. The effects of running shoes with abrasion resistant rubber sole on the exercise capacity of the human body were investigated by analysing the skid resistance and abrasion resistance of the running shoes, and conducting biomechanical study on naked feet and feet wearing the shoes. The results demonstrated that the rubber sole had favourable slip resistance property and mechanical properties such as stretching, abrasion resistance, and hardness. Compared to naked feet, the peak pressure intensity of the whole step of feet wearing the newly developed shoes, was significantly lower than that of feet wearing ordinary shoes. In the future, rubber can bring more comfortable experience because of its favourable properties.

  10. Metallurgical Design and Development of NASA Crawler/Transporter Tread Belt Shoe Castings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Donald S.

    2006-01-01

    The NASA Crawler/Transporters (CT-1 and CT-2) used to transport the Space Shuffles are one of the largest tracked vehicles in existence today. Two of these machines have been used to move space flight vehicles at Kennedy Space Center since the Apollo missions of the 1960's and relatively few modifications have been made to keep them operational. In September of 2003 during normal Crawler/Transporter operations cracks were observed along the roller pad surfaces of several tread belt shoes. Further examination showed 20 cracked shoes on CT-1 and 40 cracked shoes on CT-2 and a formal failure analysis investigation was undertaken while the cracked shoes were replaced. Six shoes were cross-sectioned with the fracture surfaces exposed and it was determined that the cracks were due to fatigue that initiated on the internal casting web channels at pre-existing casting defects and propagated through thickness both transgranularly and intergranularly between internal shrinkage cavities, porosity, and along austenitic and ferritic grain boundaries. The original shoes were cast during the 1960's using a modified 861330 steel with slightly higher levels of chromium, nickel and molybdenum followed by heat treatment to achieve a minimum tensile strength of 11 Oksi. Subsequent metallurgical analysis of the tread belt shoes after multiple failures showed excessive internal defects, alloy segregation, a nonuniform ferritic/ bainitic/martensitic microstructure, and low average tensile properties indicative of poor casting and poor heat-treatment. As a result, NASA funded an initiative to replace all of the tread belt shoes on both crawler/transporters along with a redesign of the alloy, manufacturing, and heat-treatment to create a homogeneous cast structure with uniform mechanical and metallurgical properties. ME Global, a wholly owned subsidiary of ME Elecmetal based in Minneapolis, MN was selected as manufacturing and design partner to develop the new shoes and this paper

  11. LOW HANDICAP GOLFERS GENERATE MORE TORQUE AT THE SHOE-NATURAL GRASS INTERFACE WHEN USING A DRIVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Worsfold

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to determine the rotational torque occurring at the shoe-natural grass interface during golf swing performance with different clubs, and to determine the influence of handicap and golf shoe design. Twenty-four golfers (8 low 0-7; 8 medium 8-14; and 8 high 15+ performed 5 shots with a driver, 3-iron and 7-iron when 3 shoes were worn: a modern 8 mm metal 7-spike shoe, an alternative 7-spike shoe and a flat soled shoe. Torque was measured at the front and back foot by grass covered force platforms in an outdoor field. Torque at the shoe- natural turf interface was similar at the front foot when using a driver, 3-iron and 7-iron with maximum mean torque (Tzmax 17-19 Nm and torque generation in the entire backswing and downswing approximately 40 Nm. At the back foot, torque was less than at the front foot when using the driver, 3-iron and 7-iron. At the back foot Tzmax was 6-7 Nm, and torque generation was 10-16 Nm, with a trend for greater torque generation when using the driver rather than the irons. The metal spike shoe allowed significantly more back foot torque generation when using a driver than a flat- soled shoe (p 0.05, although back foot mean torques generated tended to be greater for the metal spike shoe. The golf shot outcomes were similar for low, medium and high handicappers in both metal and alternative spike shoes (metal: 87%; 76%; 54%; alternative: 85%; 74%; 54% respectively. The better, low handicap golfers generated significantly more back foot torque (metal spike: 18.2 Nm; alternative: 15.8 Nm; p < 0.05 when using a driver. Further research should consider back foot shoe-grass interface demands during driver usage by low handicap and lighter body-weight golfers

  12. ERGONOMIC WORK ANALYSIS APPLICATION IN A SMALL SHOE BUSINESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Marian Callegaro

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to presentthe results after conducting an Ergonomic Work Analysis (EWA in a smallbusiness located in Porto Alegre. The ergonomic intervention was performed basedon Guérin et al. (2001 and aimed to analyze the process organization and thelayout of the shoemaker workstations to provide improvements to these areas.The starting point was the account of the small shoe business owner’s need hadto hire one more shoemaker without increasing the company physical space. The EWAwas used focusing the work organization, how the flow of information ran fromthe entry of an order to the final stage of the product repairing. Thediagnosis showed the company main problems were related to the shop assistantsdependence on the shoemakers to provide budget information and delivery time tocustomers and the layout organization. Among the results, a temporal analysisof two company recurrent tasks was performed in order to ascertain possiblelosses related to the displacement and the search for material. A new layoutscheme was also proposed, aiming to organize the work stations, making easierthe stock, tools and equipment removal, providing a free space to make possiblethe hiring of the new shoemakers within the current company boundaries.

  13. The gearing function of running shoe longitudinal bending stiffness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willwacher, Steffen; König, Manuel; Braunstein, Björn; Goldmann, Jan-Peter; Brüggemann, Gert-Peter

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether altered longitudinal bending stiffness (LBS) levels of the midsole of a running shoe lead to a systematic change in lower extremity joint lever arms of the ground reaction force (GRF). Joint moments and GRF lever arms in the sagittal plane were determined from 19 male subjects running at 3.5 m/s using inverse dynamics procedures. LBS was manipulated using carbon fiber insoles of 1.9 mm and 3.2 mm thickness. Increasing LBS led to a significant shift of joint lever arms to a more anterior position. Effects were more pronounced at distal joints. Ankle joint moments were not significantly increased in the presence of higher GRF lever arms when averaged over all subjects. Still, two individual strategies (1: increase ankle joint moments while keeping push-off times almost constant, 2: decrease ankle joint moments and increase push-off times) could be identified in response to increased ankle joint lever arms that might reflect individual differences between subjects with respect to strength capacities or anthropometric characteristics. The results of the present study indicate that LBS systematically influences GRF lever arms of lower extremity joints during the push-off phase in running. Further, individual responses to altered LBS levels could be identified that could aid in finding optimum LBS values for a given individual. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. VIDEO-ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECT OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF ADAPTED SHOES ON KNEE ADDUCTION MOMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Yu. Aksenov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. The effect of different footwear profiles on knee adduction moment have not been fully studied. Methods. Fifteen healthy volunteer subjects, age 25.3 (±2.73, undertook a series of gait laboratory trials with adapted shoes. Kinematic and kinetic data were collect using 16 Oqus 3+ cameras and the walking speed was controlled using timing gates. High street shoes were adapted to include five different heel heights (varying from a 1.5 cm to 5.5 cm heels, two heel profile conditions (curved and semi-curved heels, three varying apex angles (10, 15, and 20 degrees, and barefoot and 3CR footwear conditions. The baseline shoe had no heel curve, a heel height of 3.5cm, an apex position of 62.5% of the shoe length, an apex angle of 15 deg, and a rigid forepart of the shoe. Results. The shoe with 5.5 cm heel height significantly increased the mean knee adduction moment during 50%–100% of the stance phase compared to the 1.5 cm heel (p = 0.008. The high heel shoe also significantly increased knee adduction impulse (area under the curve versus the 1.5, 2.5, and 3.5 cm heels, and the 10° toe angle and barefoot condition. Ten degrees of toe angle reduced mean knee adduction moment during 0%–50% of the stance phase versus 20° and significantly reduced mean knee adduction moment during the late stance phase versus 15° and 20° toe angle footwear conditions. Walking with the curved heel for the healthy subjects increased mean knee adduction moment during 0%–50% of the stance phase compared to the heel without curvature (p < 0.0009. Conclusion. Further study is required to investigate those changes in patients with high risk of knee osteoarthritis.

  15. Evaluating the injury incidence from skate shoes in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruth, Erin; Shah, Binisa; Fales, Willliam

    2009-05-01

    The goals of this study were to evaluate whether the increased use of skate shoes may lead to an increase in injuries for children and adolescents aged 5 to 14 years in the United States and to describe the types of injuries reported by emergency departments as a result of skate shoe use. Retrospective analysis of the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System database from January 1, 2002 to December 31, 2006 for injuries resulting from footwear in children and adolescents aged 5 to 14 years. Injuries resulting from skate shoe use were identified by manual review of the data. For the 5-year period, an estimated 3525 patients between 5 and 14 years of age were treated in United States emergency departments for injuries resulting from skate shoe use. The percentage of injuries resulting from skate shoes of total footwear-related injuries varied by year, however, with 1.0%, 1.0%, 0.8%, and 1.9% occurring in 2002 to 2005, respectively, and 11.8% occurring in 2006. This substantial increase in 2006 accounts for 73.6% of skate shoe-related injuries and is statistically significant (chi, P = skate shoe sales, with a correlation coefficient of 0.9982.Most of the injured children and adolescents were white, and there was a slight, nonsignificant predominance of boys. Most injuries in all 5-year-olds were fractures (46.7%), followed by contusions (17.9%) and sprains (17.2%). The most frequent site of fracture was the forearm (38.4%), followed by the wrist (35.1%) and the leg (14.9%). Other injuries included lacerations (7.3%), concussions (6.6%), internal organ injuries (0.9%), hematomas (0.2%), dislocations (0.2%), and injuries not otherwise specified (3.1%). Based on national estimates, 104 (0.01%) patients required admission to the hospital. No injuries recorded in the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System database resulted in death. As the first study analyzing injury rates as a result of skate shoe use in the United States, this study demonstrated a recent

  16. The Preferred Movement Path Paradigm: Influence of Running Shoes on Joint Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigg, Benno M; Vienneau, Jordyn; Smith, Aimée C; Trudeau, Matthieu B; Mohr, Maurice; Nigg, Sandro R

    2017-08-01

    (A) To quantify differences in lower extremity joint kinematics for groups of runners subjected to different running footwear conditions, and (B) to quantify differences in lower extremity joint kinematics on an individual basis for runners subjected to different running footwear conditions. Three-dimensional ankle and knee joint kinematics were collected for 35 heel-toe runners when wearing three different running shoes and when running barefoot. Absolute mean differences in ankle and knee joint kinematics were computed between running shoe conditions. The percentage of individual runners who displayed differences below a 2°, 3°, and 5° threshold were also calculated. The results indicate that the mean kinematics of the ankle and knee joints were similar between running shoe conditions. Aside from ankle dorsiflexion and knee flexion, the percentage of runners maintaining their movement path between running shoes (i.e., less than 3°) was in the order of magnitude of about 80% to 100%. Many runners showed ankle and knee joint kinematics that differed between a conventional running shoe and barefoot by more than 3°, especially for ankle dorsiflexion and knee flexion. Many runners stay in the same movement path (the preferred movement path) when running in various different footwear conditions. The percentage of runners maintaining their preferred movement path depends on the magnitude of the change introduced by the footwear condition.

  17. Influence of sports flooring and shoes on impact forces and performance during jump tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malisoux, Laurent; Gette, Paul; Urhausen, Axel; Bomfim, Joao; Theisen, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    We aim to determine the influence of sports floorings and sports shoes on impact mechanics and performance during standardised jump tasks. Twenty-one male volunteers performed ankle jumps (four consecutive maximal bounds with very dynamic ankle movements) and multi-jumps (two consecutive maximal counter-movement jumps) on force plates using minimalist and cushioned shoes under 5 sports flooring (SF) conditions. The shock absorption properties of the SF, defined as the proportion of peak impact force absorbed by the tested flooring when compared with a concrete hard surface, were: SF0 = 0% (no flooring), SF1 = 19%, SF2 = 26%, SF3 = 37% and SF4 = 45%. Shoe and flooring effects were compared using 2x5 repeated-measures ANOVA with post-hoc Bonferroni-corrected comparisons. A significant interaction between SF and shoe conditions was found for VILR only (p = 0.003). In minimalist shoes, SF influenced Vertical Instantaneous Loading Rate (VILR) during ankle jumps (p = 0.006) and multi-jumps (pflooring. VILR is the variable that was the most affected.

  18. Technical evaluation of a CAD system for orthopaedic shoe-upper design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, M; Foulston, J; Smith, P J

    1991-01-01

    Computer aided design is now employed routinely in the volume shoe trade. New styles are developed on a three-dimensional image of the last followed by automated pattern generation and engineering. It is suggested that such systems could be useful in the orthopaedic footwear industry although the different requirements for these bespoke products need careful consideration. A clinical trial has been conducted on the Shoemaster (Clarks Shoes) upper design system both to assess its technical capabilities and to consider its role in improvement of service and cosmetic appearance. This particular system works throughout on a three-dimensional representation of the shoe last, which offers particular advantages for integration with shape capture and reproduction. The report concentrates on the technical evaluation to assess (a) its ability to work with unusual last shapes dictated by medical requirements and (b) its potential for integration into a complete computer system for design of both shoe lasts and shoe uppers. The trial indicates that this particular system is promising in both respects.

  19. Multibody Dynamic Stress Simulation of Rigid-Flexible Shovel Crawler Shoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Frimpong

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Electric shovels are used in surface mining operations to achieve economic production capacities. The capital investments and operating costs associated with the shovels deployed in the Athabasca oil sands formation are high due to the abrasive conditions. The shovel crawler shoes interact with sharp and abrasive sand particles, and, thus, are subjected to high transient dynamic stresses. These high stresses cause wear and tear leading to crack initiation, propagation and premature fatigue failure. The objective of this paper is to develop a model to characterize the crawler stresses and deformation for the P&H 4100C BOSS during propel and loading using rigid-flexible multi-body dynamic theory. A 3-D virtual prototype model of the rigid-flexible crawler track assembly and its interactions with oil sand formation is simulated to capture the model dynamics within multibody dynamics software MSC ADAMS. The modal and stress shapes and modal loads due to machine weight for each flexible crawler shoes are generated from finite element analysis (FEA. The modal coordinates from the simulation are combined with mode and stress shapes using modal superposition method to calculate real-time stresses and deformation of flexible crawler shoes. The results show a maximum von Mises stress value of 170 MPa occurring in the driving crawler shoe during the propel motion. This study provides a foundation for the subsequent fatigue life analysis of crawler shoes for extending crawler service life.

  20. Effect of soccer shoe upper on ball behaviour in curve kicks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Hideyuki; Sakurai, Yoshihisa; Maruyama, Takeo

    2014-08-01

    New soccer shoes have been developed by considering various concepts related to kicking, such as curving a soccer ball. However, the effects of shoes on ball behaviour remain unclear. In this study, by using a finite element simulation, we investigated the factors that affect ball behaviour immediately after impact in a curve kick. Five experienced male university soccer players performed one curve kick. We developed a finite element model of the foot and ball and evaluated the validity of the model by comparing the finite element results for the ball behaviour immediately after impact with the experimental results. The launch angle, ball velocity, and ball rotation in the finite element analysis were all in general agreement with the experimental results. Using the validated finite element model, we simulated the ball behaviour. The simulation results indicated that the larger the foot velocity immediately before impact, the larger the ball velocity and ball rotation. Furthermore, the Young's modulus of the shoe upper and the coefficient of friction between the shoe upper and the ball had little effect on the launch angle, ball velocity, and ball rotation. The results of this study suggest that the shoe upper does not significantly influence ball behaviour.

  1. Effects of unstable shoes on chronic low back pain in health professionals: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armand, Stéphane; Tavcar, Ziva; Turcot, Katia; Allet, Lara; Hoffmeyer, Pierre; Genevay, Stéphane

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of unstable shoes in reducing low back pain in health professionals. Of a volunteer sample of 144 participants, 40 with nonspecific chronic low back pain were eligible and enrolled in this study. Participants were randomized to an intervention group, who wore unstable shoes (model MBT Fora), or a control group, who wore conventional sports shoes (model Adidas Bigroar). The participants had to wear the study shoes during their work hours, and at least 6 hours per workday, over a period of 6 weeks. The primary outcome was low back pain assessed on a Visual Analog Scale. The secondary outcomes were patient satisfaction, disability evaluated using Roland-Morris questionnaire and quality of life evaluated using EQ-VAS. The intervention group showed a significant decrease in pain scores compared to the control group. The rate of satisfaction was higher in the intervention group (79%) compared to the control group (25%). There was no significant difference for the Roland-Morris disability questionnaire score and the EQ-VAS scale. The results of this clinical trial suggest that wearing unstable shoes for 6 weeks significantly decreases low back pain in patients suffering from chronic low back pain but had no significant effect on quality of life and disability scores. Copyright © 2014 Société française de rhumatologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Computer vision for shoe upper profile measurement via upper and sole conformal matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhongxu; Bicker, Robert; Taylor, Paul; Marshall, Chris

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a structured light computer vision system applied to the measurement of the 3D profile of shoe uppers. The trajectory obtained is used to guide an industrial robot for automatic edge roughing around the contour of the shoe upper so that the bonding strength can be improved. Due to the specific contour and unevenness of the shoe upper, even if the 3D profile is obtained using computer vision, it is still difficult to reliably define the roughing path around the shape. However, the shape of the corresponding shoe sole is better defined, and it is much easier to measure the edge using computer vision. Therefore, a feasible strategy is to measure both the upper and sole profiles, and then align and fit the sole contour to the upper, in order to obtain the best fit. The trajectory of the edge of the desired roughing path is calculated and is then smoothed and interpolated using NURBS curves to guide an industrial robot for shoe upper surface removal; experiments show robust and consistent results. An outline description of the structured light vision system is given here, along with the calibration techniques used.

  3. Comparison of shoe-length fit between people with and without diabetic peripheral neuropathy: a case–control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McInnes Alistair D

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Amongst the many identified mechanisms leading to diabetic foot ulceration, ill-fitting footwear is one. There is anecdotal evidence that people with diabetic peripheral neuropathy wear shoes that are too small in order to increase the sensation of fit. The aim of this study was to determine whether people with diabetic sensory neuropathy wear appropriate length footwear. Methods A case–control design was used to compare internal shoe length and foot length differences between a group of people with diabetes and peripheral sensory neuropathy and a group of people without diabetes and no peripheral sensory neuropathy. Shoe and foot length measurements were taken using a calibrated Internal Shoe Size Gauge® and a Brannock Device®, respectively. Results Data was collected from 85 participants with diabetes and 118 participants without diabetes. The mean difference between shoe and foot length was not significantly different between the two groups. However, a significant number of participants within both groups had a shoe to foot length difference that lay outside a previously suggested 10 to 15 mm range. From the diabetic and non-diabetic groups 82% (70/85 and 66% (78/118, respectively had a foot to shoe length difference outside this same range. Conclusions This study shows that although there is no significant difference in shoe-length fit between participants with and without neuropathy, a significant proportion of these populations wear shoes that are either too long or too short for their foot length according to the 10 to 15 mm value used for comparison. The study has highlighted the need for standardised approaches when considering the allowance required between foot and internal shoe length and for the measurement and comparison of foot and shoe dimensions.

  4. The effects of common footwear on stance-phase mechanical properties of the prosthetic foot-shoe system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Matthew J; Scham, Joel; Orendurff, Michael

    2018-04-01

    Prosthetic feet are prescribed based on their mechanical function and user functional level. Subtle changes to the stiffness and hysteresis of heel, midfoot, and forefoot regions can influence the dynamics and economy of gait in prosthesis users. However, the user's choice of shoes may alter the prosthetic foot-shoe system mechanical characteristics, compromising carefully prescribed and rigorously engineered performance of feet. Observe the effects of footwear on the mechanical properties of the prosthetic foot-shoe system including commonly prescribed prosthetic feet. Repeated-measures, Mechanical characterization. The stiffness and energy return was measured using a hydraulic-driven materials test machine across combinations of five prosthetic feet and four common shoes as well as a barefoot condition. Heel energy return decreased by an average 4%-9% across feet in all shoes compared to barefoot, with a cushioned trainer displaying the greatest effect. Foot designs that may improve perceived stability by providing low heel stiffness and rapid foot-flat were compromised by the addition of shoes. Shoes altered prosthesis mechanical characteristics in the sagittal and frontal planes, suggesting that shoe type should be controlled or reported in research comparing prostheses. Understanding of how different shoes could alter certain gait-related characteristics of prostheses may aid decisions on footwear made by clinicians and prosthesis users. Clinical relevance Shoes can alter function of the prosthetic foot-shoe system in unexpected and sometimes undesirable ways, often causing similar behavior across setups despite differences in foot design, and prescribing clinicians should carefully consider these effects on prosthesis performance.

  5. Corrective shoeing in horses: analysis of the adaptation period to the new condition imposed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel M. Albernaz

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Corrective shoeing is a method commonly used to alter the locomotion pattern in animals or as therapy for various disorders of the locomotive system of horses. However, to date, there have been no scientific studies discussing the period during which animals adapt to this type of intervention. The goal of this study was to evaluate the horseshoe adaptation period with the toe or heel elevated by six degrees at 0, 48, and 96 hours after each type of shoeing. For this analysis, the horses were recorded while walking on a treadmill. Stride length and gait qualitative analyzes were performed using Dvideow software. The level of significance adopted was 5%. In the present study, there was no significant difference between the evaluation times; elevating the toe or heel by six degrees do not generates discomfort during locomotion, therefore, horses are able to return to a regular exercise or training routine immediately after shoeing.

  6. Development of non-destructive testing system of shoes for infrared rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Yeol; Park, Chang Sun; Oh, Ki Jang; Ma, Sang Dong; Kim, Bong Jae [Chosun Univesity, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Dong Jo [Research Institute of Industrial Science and Technology, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-05-15

    Diagnosis or measurements using Infrared thermo-image hasn't been available. A quick diagnosis and thermal analysis can be possible when that kind of system is introduced to the investigation of each part. In this study, Infrared Camera, Thermo-vision 900 of AGEMA Company was used in order to investigate. Infrared Camera usually detects only Infrared wave from the light in order to illustrate the temperature distribution. Infrared diagnosis system can be applied to various field. But the defect discrimination can be automatic or mechanization on the special shoes total inspection system. Also, it is more effective to development and composition on the shoes total inspection system. In this study, it is introduction method of special shoes nondestructive total inspection. Performance of the proposed method are shown by through thermo-Image.

  7. Allergic contact dermatitis caused by dimethylthiocarbamylbenzothiazole sulfide (DMTBS) in canvas shoes: in search of the culprit allergen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuttelaar, Marie L; Meijer, Joost M; Engfeldt, Malin; Lapeere, Hilde; Goossens, An; Bruze, Magnus; Persson, Christina; Bergendorff, Ola

    2018-01-01

    During rubber vulcanization, new compounds can be formed. To report a case of allergic shoe dermatitis in which the search for the allergen ultimately led to the identification of dimethylthiocarbamylbenzothiazole sulfide (DMTBS). A female presented with eczema on her feet after wearing Sperry Top Sider® canvas sneakers. Patch testing was performed with the European baseline series, additional series, shoe materials, and extracts of shoe materials. Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) was performed for additional patch testing, and high-performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectometry were used for chemical analysis. Positive reactions were found to thiuram mix (+), tetramethylthiuram monosulfide (TMTM) (+), shoe material (+), and shoe extracts in eth. (++) and acetone (+). The extracts did not contain TMTM or other components of thiuram mix. TLC strips yielded a positive reaction (+) to one spot, whereas chemical analysis gave a negative result. Thereafter, a similar sneaker from another patient with shoe dermatitis was analysed, and DMBTS was identified. New extracts of the shoe of our first patient were then also shown to contain DMTBS. DMTBS as culprit allergen was confirmed by positive patch testing with a dilution series with DMTBS. DMBTS was identified as the culprit allergen in shoe dermatitis, giving rise to compound allergy. The positive reaction to TMTM was considered to represent cross-reactivity. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. The effect of shoe design and lateral wedges on knee load and neuromuscular control in healthy subjects during walking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølgaard, Carsten Møller; Kersting, Uwe G.

    2013-01-01

    and second peak knee adduction moments. However, the variability of this moment between shoe designs was of similar magnitude as the effect of laterally wedged insoles. Only marginal changes in muscle activity for gastrocnemius when walking with the wedged Oxford shoe were revealed. Conclusion: Lateral...

  9. Differences in plantar loading between training shoes and racing flats at a self-selected running speed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegerinck, Johannes I.; Boyd, Jennifer; Yoder, Jordan C.; Abbey, Alicia N.; Nunley, James A.; Queen, Robin M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the difference in plantar loading between two different running shoe types. We hypothesized that a higher maximum force, peak pressure, and contact area would exist beneath the entire foot while running in a racing flat when compared to a training shoe. 37

  10. Effect of Product Quality, Promotion, and Brand Image on Purchase Decision of Nike Sports Shoes (Case Study on S1 Fisip Undip Students)

    OpenAIRE

    Saputra, Denny; Waluyo, Handoyo Djoko; Listyorini, Sari

    2014-01-01

    Complex consumer needs all critical and followed increasingly competitive market competition lead to Nike Sports Shoes must to compete and also maintain their market consumer seized from its competitors. Consumers who take the decision to choose Nike Sports Shoes will consider various things before buying it. Consideration to make a decision consist of influenced the quality of the product, promotion, and brand image of Nike Sport Shoes. The problem in this research is Sports Shoes Nike fluct...

  11. The Role of Shoe Design in Ankle Sprain Rates Among Collegiate Basketball Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Claudia K; Laudner, Kevin G; McLoda, Todd A; McCaw, Steven T

    2008-01-01

    Context: Much of the recent focus in shoe design and engineering has been on improving athletic performance. Currently, this improvement has been in the form of “cushioned column systems,” which are spring-like in design and located under the heel of the shoe in place of a conventional heel counter. Concerns have been raised about whether this design alteration has increased the incidence of ankle sprains. Objective: To examine the incidence of lateral ankle sprains in collegiate basketball players with regard to shoe design. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: Certified athletic trainers at 1014 National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA)-affiliated schools sponsoring basketball during the 2005–2006 regular season were notified of an online questionnaire. Athletic trainers at 22 of the 1014 schools participated. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 230 basketball players (141 males, 89 females; age  =  20.2 ± 1.5 years) from NCAA Division I–III basketball programs sustained lateral ankle sprains. Main Outcome Measure(s): Ankle sprain information and type of shoe worn (cushioned column or noncushioned column) were collected via online survey. The incidence of lateral ankle sprains and type of shoes worn were compared using a chi-square analysis. Results: No difference was noted in ankle sprain incidence between groups (χ2  =  2.44, P  =  .20, relative risk  =  1.47, 95% confidence interval [CI]  =  0.32, 6.86). The incidence of ankle sprains was 1.33 per 1000 exposures in the cushioned column group (95% CI  =  0.62, 3.51) and 1.96 per 1000 exposures in the noncushioned column group (95% CI  =  0.51, 4.22). Conclusions: No increased incidence of ankle sprains was associated with shoe design. PMID:18523571

  12. Biomechanical variables and perception of comfort in running shoes with different cushioning technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinato, Roberto C; Ribeiro, Ana P; Butugan, Marco K; Pereira, Ivye L R; Onodera, Andrea N; Sacco, Isabel C N

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the relationships between the perception of comfort and biomechanical parameters (plantar pressure and ground reaction force) during running with four different types of cushioning technology in running shoes. Randomized repeated measures. Twenty-two men, recreational runners (18-45 years) ran 12km/h with running shoes with four different cushioning systems. Outcome measures included nine items related to perception of comfort and 12 biomechanical measures related to the ground reaction forces and plantar pressures. Repeated measure ANOVAs, Pearson correlation coefficients, and step-wise multiple regression analyses were employed (p≤0.05). No significant correlations were found between the perception of comfort and the biomechanical parameters for the four types of investigated shoes. Regression analysis revealed that 56% of the perceived general comfort can be explained by the variables push-off rate and pressure integral over the forefoot (p=0.015) and that 33% of the perception of comfort over the forefoot can be explained by second peak force and push-off rate (p=0.016). The results did not demonstrate significant relationships between the perception of comfort and the biomechanical parameters for the three types of shoes investigated (Gel, Air, and ethylene-vinyl acetate). Only the shoe with Adiprene+ technology had its general comfort and cushioning perception predicted by the loads over the forefoot. Thus, in general, one cannot predict the perception of comfort of a running shoe through impact and plantar pressure received. Copyright © 2013 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Does Shoe Collar Height Influence Ankle Joint Kinematics and Kinetics in Sagittal Plane Maneuvers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yang, Ying Fang, Xini Zhang, Junliang He, Weijie Fu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Objective of the study is to investigate the effects of basketball shoes with different collar heights on ankle kinematics and kinetics and athletic performance in different sagittal plane maneuvers. Twelve participants who wore high-top and low-top basketball shoes (hereafter, HS and LS, respectively performed a weight-bearing dorsiflexion (WB-DF maneuver, drop jumps (DJs, and lay-up jumps (LJs. Their sagittal plane kinematics and ground reaction forces were recorded using the Vicon motion capture system and Kistler force plates simultaneously. Moreover, ankle dorsiflexion and plantarflexion angles, moment, power, stiffness, and jump height were calculated. In the WB-DF test, the peak ankle dorsiflexion angle (p = 0.041 was significantly smaller in HS than in LS. Additionally, the peak ankle plantarflexion moment (p = 0.028 and power (p = 0.022 were significantly lower in HS than in LS during LJs but not during DJs. In both jumping maneuvers, no significant differences were found in the jump height or ankle kinematics between the two shoe types. According to the WB-DF test, increasing shoe collar height can effectively reduce the ankle range of motion in the sagittal plane. Although the HS did not restrict the flexion–extension performance of the ankle joint during two jumping maneuvers, an increased shoe collar height can reduce peak ankle plantarflexion moment and peak power during the push-off phase in LJs. Therefore, a higher shoe collar height should be used to circumvent effects on the partial kinetics of the ankle joint in the sagittal plane.

  14. The risks and benefits of running barefoot or in minimalist shoes: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Kyle P; Hanney, William J; Rothschild, Carey E

    2014-11-01

    The popularity of running barefoot or in minimalist shoes has recently increased because of claims of injury prevention, enhanced running efficiency, and improved performance compared with running in shoes. Potential risks and benefits of running barefoot or in minimalist shoes have yet to be clearly defined. To determine the methodological quality and level of evidence pertaining to the risks and benefits of running barefoot or in minimalist shoes. In September 2013, a comprehensive search of the Ovid MEDLINE, SPORTDiscus, and CINAHL databases was performed by 2 independent reviewers. Included articles were obtained from peer-reviewed journals in the English language with no limit for year of publication. Final inclusion criteria required at least 1 of the following outcome variables: pain, injury rate, running economy, joint forces, running velocity, electromyography, muscle performance, or edema. Systematic review. Level 3. Two reviewers appraised each article using the Downs and Black checklist and appraised each for level of evidence. Twenty-three articles met the criteria for this review. Of 27 possible points on the Downs and Black checklist, articles scored between 13 and 19 points, indicating a range of evidence from very limited to moderate. Moderate evidence supports the following biomechanical differences when running barefoot versus in shoes: overall less maximum vertical ground reaction forces, less extension moment and power absorption at the knee, less foot and ankle dorsiflexion at ground contact, less ground contact time, shorter stride length, increased stride frequency, and increased knee flexion at ground contact. Because of lack of high-quality evidence, no definitive conclusions can be drawn regarding specific risks or benefits to running barefoot, shod, or in minimalist shoes.

  15. Influence of midsole hardness of standard cushioned shoes on running-related injury risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theisen, Daniel; Malisoux, Laurent; Genin, Joakim; Delattre, Nicolas; Seil, Romain; Urhausen, Axel

    2014-03-01

    In this double-blind randomised controlled trial, we tested if leisure-time runners using shoes with less compliant midsoles have a higher running-related injury (RRI) risk. We provided 247 runners with standard running shoes having either a soft study shoes (soft-SS) or a hard study shoes (hard-SS) midsole and followed them prospectively for 5 months regarding RRI. All information about sports practice and injuries was uploaded on a dedicated internet platform and checked for consistency and completeness. RRI was defined as any first-time pain sustained during or as a result of running practice and impeding normal running activity for at least 1 day. Cox proportional hazards regressions were used to identify RRI risk factors. The type of study shoes used for running was not associated with RRIs (HR=0.92; 95% CI 0.57 to 1.48). The hard-SS had a 15% greater overall stiffness in the heel region. The two study groups were similar regarding personal and sports participation characteristics, except for years of running experience, which was higher (prunning. No between-group differences were found regarding injury location, type, severity or category. Nevertheless, the adjusted regression model revealed positive associations with RRI risk for body mass index (HR=1.126; 95% CI 1.033 to 1.227), previous injury (HR=1.735; 95% CI 1.037 to 2.902) and mean session intensity (HR=1.396; 95% CI 1.040 to 1.874). Protective factors were previous regular running activity (HR=0.422; 95% CI 0.228 to 0.779) and weekly volume of other sports activities (HR=0.702; 95% CI 0.561 to 0.879). Midsole hardness of modern cushioned running shoes does not seem to influence RRI risk.

  16. Does Shoe Collar Height Influence Ankle Joint Kinematics and Kinetics in Sagittal Plane Maneuvers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Fang, Ying; Zhang, Xini; He, Junliang; Fu, Weijie

    2017-12-01

    The Objective of the study is to investigate the effects of basketball shoes with different collar heights on ankle kinematics and kinetics and athletic performance in different sagittal plane maneuvers. Twelve participants who wore high-top and low-top basketball shoes (hereafter, HS and LS, respectively) performed a weight-bearing dorsiflexion (WB-DF) maneuver, drop jumps (DJs), and lay-up jumps (LJs). Their sagittal plane kinematics and ground reaction forces were recorded using the Vicon motion capture system and Kistler force plates simultaneously. Moreover, ankle dorsiflexion and plantarflexion angles, moment, power, stiffness, and jump height were calculated. In the WB-DF test, the peak ankle dorsiflexion angle (p = 0.041) was significantly smaller in HS than in LS. Additionally, the peak ankle plantarflexion moment (p = 0.028) and power (p = 0.022) were significantly lower in HS than in LS during LJs but not during DJs. In both jumping maneuvers, no significant differences were found in the jump height or ankle kinematics between the two shoe types. According to the WB-DF test, increasing shoe collar height can effectively reduce the ankle range of motion in the sagittal plane. Although the HS did not restrict the flexion-extension performance of the ankle joint during two jumping maneuvers, an increased shoe collar height can reduce peak ankle plantarflexion moment and peak power during the push-off phase in LJs. Therefore, a higher shoe collar height should be used to circumvent effects on the partial kinetics of the ankle joint in the sagittal plane.

  17. Exploiting Fashion Features for Floor Storage Systems in the Shoe Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Meneghetti

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Floor storage systems are used in the shoe industry to store fashion products of seasonal collections of low quantity and high variety. Since space is valuable and order picking must be sped up, stacking of shoeboxes should be optimized. The problem is modelled based on shoe features (model, type, colour, and size and with the goal of forcing similar boxes into locations close to each other in order to improve workers’ ability to retrieve orders fast. The model is encoded in Constraint Logic Programming and solved comparing different strategies, also using Large Neighbourhood Search. Simulation experiments are run to evaluate how the stacking model affects picking performance.

  18. The effect of shoe design and lateral wedging on knee loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølgaard, Carsten; Kersting, Uwe G.

    The increasing number of patients with developing osteoarthritis is accompanied by a growing scientific interest in non-operative early treatment strategies. It is generally believed that laterally wedged insoles can change the distribution of the knee loading, but the importance of footwear design...... shoe were revealed. Conclusion: Lateral wedging is effective regardless of shoe design. Differences between the four neutral walking conditions underline the importance of footwear choice in individuals. It is safe to apply lateral wedges without jeopardizing muscular control during walking regardless...

  19. Effect of children's shoes on gait: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burns Joshua

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effect of footwear on the gait of children is poorly understood. This systematic review synthesises the evidence of the biomechanical effects of shoes on children during walking and running. Methods Study inclusion criteria were: barefoot and shod conditions; healthy children aged ≤ 16 years; sample size of n > 1. Novelty footwear was excluded. Studies were located by online database-searching, hand-searching and contact with experts. Two authors selected studies and assessed study methodology using the Quality Index. Meta-analysis of continuous variables for homogeneous studies was undertaken using the inverse variance approach. Significance level was set at P 2. Where I2 > 25%, a random-effects model analysis was used and where I2 Results Eleven studies were included. Sample size ranged from 4-898. Median Quality Index was 20/32 (range 11-27. Five studies randomised shoe order, six studies standardised footwear. Shod walking increased: velocity, step length, step time, base of support, double-support time, stance time, time to toe-off, sagittal tibia-rearfoot range of motion (ROM, sagittal tibia-foot ROM, ankle max-plantarflexion, Ankle ROM, foot lift to max-plantarflexion, 'subtalar' rotation ROM, knee sagittal ROM and tibialis anterior activity. Shod walking decreased: cadence, single-support time, ankle max-dorsiflexion, ankle at foot-lift, hallux ROM, arch length change, foot torsion, forefoot supination, forefoot width and midfoot ROM in all planes. Shod running decreased: long axis maximum tibial-acceleration, shock-wave transmission as a ratio of maximum tibial-acceleration, ankle plantarflexion at foot strike, knee angular velocity and tibial swing velocity. No variables increased during shod running. Conclusions Shoes affect the gait of children. With shoes, children walk faster by taking longer steps with greater ankle and knee motion and increased tibialis anterior activity. Shoes reduce foot motion and

  20. Effects of aluminum hinged shoes on the structure of contracted feet in Thoroughbred yearlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kousuke; Hiraga, Atsushi; Takahashi, Toshiyuki; Kuwano, Atsutoshi; Morrison, Scott Edward

    2015-01-01

    We applied aluminum hinged shoes (AHSs) to the club foot-associated contracted feet of 11 Thoroughbred yearlings to examine the effects of the shoes on the shape of the hoof and third phalanx (P III). After 3 months of AHS use, the size of the affected hooves increased significantly, reaching the approximate size of the healthy contralateral hooves with respect to the maximum lateral width of the foot, the mean ratio of the bearing border width to the coronary band width, and the mean ratio of the solar surface width to the articular surface width. These results suggest that the AHSs corrected the contracted feet in these yearling horses.

  1. Effects of aluminum hinged shoes on the structure of contracted feet in Thoroughbred yearlings

    OpenAIRE

    TANAKA, Kousuke; HIRAGA, Atsushi; TAKAHASHI, Toshiyuki; KUWANO, Atsutoshi; MORRISON, Scott Edward

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT We applied aluminum hinged shoes (AHSs) to the club foot-associated contracted feet of 11 Thoroughbred yearlings to examine the effects of the shoes on the shape of the hoof and third phalanx (P III). After 3 months of AHS use, the size of the affected hooves increased significantly, reaching the approximate size of the healthy contralateral hooves with respect to the maximum lateral width of the foot, the mean ratio of the bearing border width to the coronary band width, and the mea...

  2. Mobile gait analysis via eSHOEs instrumented shoe insoles: a pilot study for validation against the gold standard GAITRite®.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagos, Harald; Pils, Katharina; Haller, Michael; Wassermann, Claudia; Chhatwal, Christa; Rafolt, Dietmar; Rattay, Frank

    2017-07-01

    Clinical gait analysis contributes massively to rehabilitation support and improvement of in-patient care. The research project eSHOE aspires to be a useful addition to the rich variety of gait analysis systems. It was designed to fill the gap of affordable, reasonably accurate and highly mobile measurement devices. With the overall goal of enabling individual home-based monitoring and training for people suffering from chronic diseases, affecting the locomotor system. Motion and pressure sensors gather movement data directly on the (users) feet, store them locally and/or transmit them wirelessly to a PC. A combination of pattern recognition and feature extraction algorithms translates the motion data into standard gait parameters. Accuracy of eSHOE were evaluated against the reference system GAITRite in a clinical pilot study. Eleven hip fracture patients (78.4 ± 7.7 years) and twelve healthy subjects (40.8 ± 9.1 years) were included in these trials. All subjects performed three measurements at a comfortable walking speed over 8 m, including the 6-m long GAITRite mat. Six standard gait parameters were extracted from a total of 347 gait cycles. Agreement was analysed via scatterplots, histograms and Bland-Altman plots. In the patient group, the average differences between eSHOE and GAITRite range from -0.046 to 0.045 s and in the healthy group from -0.029 to 0.029 s. Therefore, it can be concluded that eSHOE delivers adequately accurate results. Especially with the prospect as an at home supplement or follow-up to clinical gait analysis and compared to other state of the art wearable motion analysis systems.

  3. Identification of virtual grounds using virtual reality haptic shoes and sound synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serafin, Stefania; Turchet, Luca; Nordahl, Rolf

    2010-01-01

    We describe a system which simulates in real-time the auditory and haptic sensation of walking on different surfaces. The system is based on physical models, that drive both the haptic and audio synthesizers, and a pair of shoes enhanced with sensors and actuators. In a discrimination experiment,...

  4. Do running speed and shoe cushioning influence impact loading and tibial shock in basketball players?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wing-Kai Lam

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Tibial stress fracture (TSF is a common injury in basketball players. This condition has been associated with high tibial shock and impact loading, which can be affected by running speed, footwear condition, and footstrike pattern. However, these relationships were established in runners but not in basketball players, with very little research done on impact loading and speed. Hence, this study compared tibial shock, impact loading, and foot strike pattern in basketball players running at different speeds with different shoe cushioning properties/performances. Methods Eighteen male collegiate basketball players performed straight running trials with different shoe cushioning (regular-, better-, and best-cushioning and running speed conditions (3.0 m/s vs. 6.0 m/s on a flat instrumented runway. Tri-axial accelerometer, force plate and motion capture system were used to determine tibial accelerations, vertical ground reaction forces and footstrike patterns in each condition, respectively. Comfort perception was indicated on a 150 mm Visual Analogue Scale. A 2 (speed × 3 (footwear repeated measures ANOVA was used to examine the main effects of shoe cushioning and running speeds. Results Greater tibial shock (P 0.14; η2 = 0.13. Discussion There may be an optimal band of shoe cushioning for better protection against TSF. These findings may provide insights to formulate rehabilitation protocols for basketball players who are recovering from TSF.

  5. Customization of consumer goods: First steps to fully customizable fashionable ladies′ shoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zande, M. van der; Bergmans, S.; Kamperman, N.; Vorst, B. van de

    2009-01-01

    The production of fashionable footwear has basically been the same for almost a century. It consists of combining elements of various materials together formed around a physical shape - the last - thereby making a product that fits around the foot - the shoe. This process requires different stages

  6. Customization of consumer goods: First steps to fully customizable fashionable ladies′ shoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zande, M. van der; Bergmans, S.; Kamperman, N.; Vorst, B. van de

    2009-01-01

    The production of fashionable footwear has basically been the same for almost a century. It consists of combining elements of various materials together around a physical shape – the last – and thereby making a product around the foot – the shoe. This process requires different stages in production,

  7. A Novel Method for Measuring In-Shoe Navicular Drop during Gait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Karstoft

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of foot movement is essential in the treatment and prevention of foot-related disorders. Measuring the in-shoe foot movement during everyday activities, such as sports, has the potential to become an important diagnostic tool in clinical practice. The current paper describes the development of a thin, flexible and robust capacitive strain sensor for the in-shoe measurement of the navicular drop. The navicular drop is a well-recognized measure of foot movement. The position of the strain sensor on the foot was analyzed to determine the optimal points of attachment. The sensor was evaluated against a state-of-the-art video-based system that tracks reflective markers on the bare foot. Preliminary experimental results show that the developed strain sensor is able to measure navicular drop on the bare foot with an accuracy on par with the video-based system and with a high reproducibility. Temporal comparison of video-based, barefoot and in-shoe measurements indicate that the developed sensor measures the navicular drop accurately in shoes and can be used without any discomfort for the user.

  8. The Oblique Art of Shoes: Popular Culture, Aesthetic Pleasure, and the Humanities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindner, C.

    2015-01-01

    This article addresses popular culture and the humanities. It uses shoes as an object of analysis to interrogate the place and function of aesthetic pleasure in critical thinking and cultural practice in the age of globalization and the neoliberal university. Tracking contemporary articulations of

  9. Novel Thermal Analysis Model of the Foot-Shoe Sole Interface during Gait Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhiro Shimazaki

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Excessive heat at the foot-shoe sole interface negatively affects a human’s thermal comfort. An understanding of the thermal behavior at this interface is important for alleviating this discomfort. During gait motion, a human’s body weight cyclically compresses a shoe sole (commonly constructed of viscoelastic materials, generating heat during loading. To evaluate the thermal effects of this internal heat generation on foot comfort, we developed and empirically validated a thermal analysis model during gait motion. A simple, one-dimensional prediction model for heat conduction with heat generation during compressive loading was used. Heat generation was estimated as a function of the shoe sole’s material properties (e.g., elastic modulus and various gait parameters. When compared with experimental results, the proposed model proved effective in predicting thermal behavior at the foot-shoe sole interface under various conditions and shows potential for improving a human’s thermal comfort during gait motion through informed footwear design.

  10. The knee adduction moment measured with an instrumented force shoe in patients with knee osteoarthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Noort, J.C.; van den Noort, Josien C.; van der Esch, Martin; Steultjens, Martijn P.M.; Dekker, Joost; Schepers, H. Martin; Veltink, Petrus H.; Harlaar, Jaap

    2012-01-01

    The external knee adduction moment (KAdM) during gait is an important parameter in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). KAdM measurement is currently restricted to instruments only available in gait laboratories. However, ambulatory movement analysis technology, including instrumented force shoes

  11. Evaluation of radiation exposure from shoe-deodorants as radioactive consumer products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuta, Etsuko; Yokota, Shigeaki; Aburai, Tamaru; Yoshizawa, Yukio

    2007-01-01

    Six shoe-deodorants on the market were analyzed using gamma-ray spectroscopy and radionuclide imaging techniques. The results reveal that at least three deodorants were 'radioactive consumer products' containing radionuclides of thorium (Th) series, uranium series, and potassium-40 that were added intentionally. Equivalent dose rates and effective dose rates were calculated using the activities in these deodorants. There were no samples breaking the nuclear reactor and fuel regulation law. Radioactive concentration of the deodorant for a shoe-shelf is higher than other deodorants, and the total concentrations of daughter nuclides of Th which are radioactive equilibrium with 224 Ra exceeded 90 Bq·g -1 . The effective dose rate at one meter from the shoe-shelf-deodorant is 8.6x10 -4 μSv·h -1 . Another type of shoe-deodorants is an insole that causes the surface dose of plantar skin. The equivalent dose was calculated as 1.9 μSv·h -1 at one millimeter from the insole. This study suggested that it needs to watch severely over the deodorants because many kinds of deodorants are used in home and some deodorants are radioactive consumer products. (author)

  12. Statistical fluctuations of an ocean surface inferred from shoes and ships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerche, Ian; Maubeuge, Frédéric

    1995-12-01

    This paper shows that it is possible to roughly estimate some ocean properties using simple time-dependent statistical models of ocean fluctuations. Based on a real incident, the loss by a vessel of a Nike shoes container in the North Pacific Ocean, a statistical model was tested on data sets consisting of the Nike shoes found by beachcombers a few months later. This statistical treatment of the shoes' motion allows one to infer velocity trends of the Pacific Ocean, together with their fluctuation strengths. The idea is to suppose that there is a mean bulk flow speed that can depend on location on the ocean surface and time. The fluctuations of the surface flow speed are then treated as statistically random. The distribution of shoes is described in space and time using Markov probability processes related to the mean and fluctuating ocean properties. The aim of the exercise is to provide some of the properties of the Pacific Ocean that are otherwise calculated using a sophisticated numerical model, OSCURS, where numerous data are needed. Relevant quantities are sharply estimated, which can be useful to (1) constrain output results from OSCURS computations, and (2) elucidate the behavior patterns of ocean flow characteristics on long time scales.

  13. Quantitative self-assessment of exposure to solvents among shoe repair men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hertsenberg, S.; Brouwer, D.; Lurvink, M.; Rubingh, C.; Rijnders, E.; Tielemans, E.

    2007-01-01

    Self-assessment of exposure (SAE) refers to any exposure assessment methodology wherein the worker takes an active role in establishing his or her exposure status. The objective of this study was to investigate the reliability and feasibility of SAE approaches among shoe repair workers collecting

  14. The effect of textured ballet shoe insoles on ankle proprioception in dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Nili; Waddington, Gordon; Adams, Roger; Karin, Janet; Tirosh, Oren

    2016-01-01

    Impaired ankle inversion movement discrimination (AIMD) can lead to ankle sprain injuries. The aim of this study was to explore whether wearing textured insoles improved AIMD compared with barefoot, ballet shoes and smooth insoles, among dancers. Forty-four adolescent male and female dancers, aged 13-19, from The Australian Ballet School were tested for AIMD while barefoot, wearing ballet shoes, smooth insoles, and textured insoles. No interaction was found between the four different footwear conditions, the two genders, or the two levels of dancers in AIMD (p > .05). An interaction was found between the four different footwear conditions and the three tertiles when tested in ballet shoes (p = .006). Although significant differences were found between the upper tertiles and the lower tertiles when tested with ballet shoes, barefoot and with smooth insoles (p < .001; p < .001; p = .047, respectively), when testing with textured insoles dancers in the lower tertile obtained similar scores to those obtained by dancers in the upper tertile (p = .911). Textured insoles improved the discrimination scores of dancers with low AIMD, suggesting that textured insoles may trigger the cutaneous receptors in the plantar surface, increasing the awareness of ankle positioning, which in turn might decrease the chance of ankle injury. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect on injuries of assigning shoes based on foot shape in air force basic training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapik, Joseph J; Brosch, Lorie C; Venuto, Margaret; Swedler, David I; Bullock, Steven H; Gaines, Lorraine S; Murphy, Ryan J; Tchandja, Juste; Jones, Bruce H

    2010-01-01

    This study examined whether assigning running shoes based on the shape of the bottom of the foot (plantar surface) influenced injury risk in Air Force Basic Military Training (BMT) and examined risk factors for injury in BMT. Data were collected from BMT recruits during 2007; analysis took place during 2008. After foot examinations, recruits were randomly consigned to either an experimental group (E, n=1042 men, 375 women) or a control group (C, n=913 men, 346 women). Experimental group recruits were assigned motion control, stability, or cushioned shoes for plantar shapes indicative of low, medium, or high arches, respectively. Control group recruits received a stability shoe regardless of plantar shape. Injuries during BMT were determined from outpatient visits provided from the Defense Medical Surveillance System. Other injury risk factors (fitness, smoking, physical activity, prior injury, menstrual history, and demographics) were obtained from a questionnaire, existing databases, or BMT units. Multivariate Cox regression controlling for other risk factors showed little difference in injury risk between the groups among men (hazard ratio [E/C]=1.11, 95% CI=0.89-1.38) or women (hazard ratio [E/C]=1.20, 95% CI= 0.90-1.60). Independent injury risk factors among both men and women included low aerobic fitness and cigarette smoking. This prospective study demonstrated that assigning running shoes based on the shape of the plantar surface had little influence on injury risk in BMT even after controlling for other injury risk factors. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Modified distal shoe appliance for premature loss of multiple deciduous molars: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Prasanna Kumar; K, Navin H; Idris, Mohammed; Christopher, Pradeep; Rai, Niharika

    2014-08-01

    Preservation of the primary dentition until the normal time of exfoliation is one of the most important factor involved in preventive and interceptive dentistry. The premature loss of second primary molar before the eruption of permanent first molar can create a significant arch space/tooth size discrepancy. Distal shoe space maintainer is a valuable part of the Paediatric Dentist's armamentarium in those cases where the second primary molar is prematurely lost and it helps to guide the first permanent molar into place. Conventional design poses various limitations in cases of premature loss of multiple deciduous molars. Thus, it is required to modify the conventional designs according to the needs of the patient. This case report describes an innovative modification of distal shoe appliance in cases of premature loss of multiple deciduous molars. In the present case, modification of distal shoe space maintainer was advocated because of inadequate abutments caused due to multiple loss of deciduous molars. Bilateral design of distal shoe was planned for unilateral loss of deciduous molars.

  17. Local outcomes of globalization: manufacturing decline and labor response in the Philippine garment and shoe industries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beerepoot, N.

    2008-01-01

    In the past few decades, globalisation has led to major international shifts in labour intensive manufacturing generating ‘winners’ and ‘losers’ among countries, industries and workers. This paper uses case studies of the shoe industry in Marikina City and the garments sector in Metro Manila in

  18. Shoe sole tread designs and outcomes of slipping and falling on slippery floor surfaces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Wen Liu

    Full Text Available A gait experiment was conducted under two shoe sole and three floor conditions. The shoe soles and floors were characterized by the tread and groove designs on the surface. The coefficients of friction (COF on the floor in the target area were measured. The subjects were required to walk on a walkway and stepping on a target area covered with glycerol. The motions of the feet of the subjects were captured. Gait parameters were calculated based on the motion data. Among the 240 trials, there were 37 no-slips, 81 microslips, 45 slides, and 77 slips. It was found that the condition with shoe sole and floor had both tread grooves perpendicular to the walking direction had the highest COF, the shortest slip distance, and the lowest percentages of slide and slip. The condition with shoe sole and floor had both tread grooves parallel to the walking direction had the lowest COF and the longest slip distance among all experimental conditions. The Pearson's correlation coefficients between slip distance and slip velocity, time to foot flat, foot angle, and compensatory step length were 0.82 (p<0.0001, 0.33 (p<0.0001, -0.54 (p<0.0001, and -0.51 (p<0.0001, respectively.

  19. Assessment of asymmetric leg loading before and after total hip arthroplasty using instrumented shoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martínez-Ramírez, Alicia; Weenk, D.; Lecumberri, Pablo; Verdonschot, Nicolaas Jacobus Joseph; Pakvis, Dean; Veltink, Petrus H.

    2013-01-01

    The stance time and the average vertical ground reaction force measured with the instrumented shoes during walking, and their symmetry index, showed significant differences before and after total hip arthroplasty. However, the data obtained with the sit to stand test did not reveal this improvement

  20. Influence of footwear designed to boost energy return on running economy in comparison to a conventional running shoe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, J; Mcgrath, R; Brook, O; Taylor, P J; Dillon, S

    2016-01-01

    Running economy is a reflection of the amount of inspired oxygen required to maintain a given velocity and is considered a determining factor for running performance. Athletic footwear has been advocated as a mechanism by which running economy can be enhanced. New commercially available footwear has been developed in order to increase energy return, although their efficacy has not been investigated. This study aimed to examine the effects of energy return footwear on running economy in relation to conventional running shoes. Twelve male runners completed 6-min steady-state runs in conventional and energy return footwear. Overall, oxygen consumption (VO2), heart rate, respiratory exchange ratio, shoe comfort and rating of perceived exertion were assessed. Moreover, participants subjectively indicated which shoe condition they preferred for running. Differences in shoe comfort and physiological parameters were examined using Wilcoxon signed-rank tests, whilst shoe preferences were tested using a chi-square analysis. The results showed that VO2 and respiratory exchange ratio were significantly lower, and shoe comfort was significantly greater, in the energy return footwear. Given the relationship between running economy and running performance, these observations indicate that the energy return footwear may be associated with enhanced running performance in comparison to conventional shoes.

  1. Acute effect of different minimalist shoes on foot strike pattern and kinematics in rearfoot strikers during running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squadrone, Roberto; Rodano, Renato; Hamill, Joseph; Preatoni, Ezio

    2015-01-01

    Despite the growing interest in minimalist shoes, no studies have compared the efficacy of different types of minimalist shoe models in reproducing barefoot running patterns and in eliciting biomechanical changes that make them differ from standard cushioned running shoes. The aim of this study was to investigate the acute effects of different footwear models, marketed as "minimalist" by their manufacturer, on running biomechanics. Six running shoes marketed as barefoot/minimalist models, a standard cushioned shoe and the barefoot condition were tested. Foot-/shoe-ground pressure and three-dimensional lower limb kinematics were measured in experienced rearfoot strike runners while they were running at 3.33 m · s⁻¹ on an instrumented treadmill. Physical and mechanical characteristics of shoes (mass, heel and forefoot sole thickness, shock absorption and flexibility) were measured with laboratory tests. There were significant changes in foot strike pattern (described by the strike index and foot contact angle) and spatio-temporal stride characteristics, whereas only some among the other selected kinematic parameters (i.e. knee angles and hip vertical displacement) changed accordingly. Different types of minimalist footwear models induced different changes. It appears that minimalist footwear with lower heel heights and minimal shock absorption is more effective in replicating barefoot running.

  2. If the shoe fits: development of an on-line tool to aid practitioner/patient discussions about 'healthy footwear'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farndon, Lisa; Robinson, Victoria; Nicholls, Emily; Vernon, Wesley

    2016-01-01

    A previous study highlighted the importance of footwear to individuals' sense of their identity, demonstrating that shoes must 'fit' someone socially, as well as functionally. However, unhealthy shoes can have a detrimental effect on both foot health and mobility. This project utilises qualitative social science methods to enable podiatrists to understand the broader contribution of footwear to patients' sense of themselves and from this an online toolkit was developed to aid footwear education. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with six podiatrists/shoe-fitters and 13 people with foot pathologies, some of whom also completed shoe diaries. These were supplemented with some follow-up interviews and photographs of participants' own shoes were taken to allow in-depth discussions. Four areas related to 'fit' were identified; practicalities, personal, purpose and pressures, all of which need to be considered when discussing changes in footwear. These were incorporated into an online toolkit which was further validated by service users and practitioners in a focus group. This toolkit can support podiatrists in partnership with patients to identify and address possible barriers to changing footwear towards a more suitable shoe. Enabling patients to make healthier shoe choices will help contribute to improvements in their foot health and mobility.

  3. The Effect of Advertising, Perceived Quality and Brand Awareness on Consumer Purchase Intention (Case Study: Adidas Sport Shoes)

    OpenAIRE

    Laluyan, Wanda Nadya; Pangemanan, Sifrid S; Worang, Frederik G

    2017-01-01

    Sports as needs, which is read by the companies manufacturers who produce a sport shoes product. In Indonesia, the competition in footwear industry is getting tight and variety. It makes so much many shoes retail opened and developing. With that situation, the companies are trying to create a variety shoes and trying to adding new value on their product to keep their customer and getting new consumers and of course to make them still survive in the market. The aims of this study are to analyz...

  4. [Analysis of the protective effect of shock-absorbing shoes for patients treated with hip and knee endoprostheses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebauer, D; Cziuk, N

    1988-01-01

    Biomechanical loading of total knee and hip replacement is one of the essential factors which limit the longterm-function of the implant components. A simple and cheap safety provision to avoid mechanical overload seems to be wearing of shock-absorbing shoes. The performed study analyzes the effect of that type of shoe. For judgement the parameters: energy absorption while slow shock, damping while hard shock and safety against sliding were taken. The experiments showed the shock-absorbing shoe is an easy, inexpensive, but very efficient protection measure to improve the longterm-stability of endoprosthesis of the lower extremity.

  5. Leukaemia incidence among workers in the shoe and boot manufacturing industry: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forand Steven P

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous reports have indicated an excess of leukaemia in Broome County, New York, particularly in the Town of Union. Surveillance of cancer incidence data indicates that a large proportion of these cases occurred among males ages 65 and older. Shoe and boot manufacturing has been the largest single industry in this area throughout much of the past century. Occupational studies from Europe suggest a link between leukaemia and employment in the shoe and boot manufacturing industry. However, researchers have not found a positive association between leukaemia and employment in the shoe industry among workers in the United States. Methods A matched case-control study was conducted to investigate the association between leukaemia incidence among males 65 and older and employment in the shoe and boot manufacturing industry. Thirty-six cases of leukaemia occurring between 1981–1990; among males age 65 and older; residing in the town of Union met the study case criteria. Death certificates were obtained for each of the cases. These were matched to death certificates of 144 controls on date of death and date of birth +/- 1 year. Death certificates were then examined to determine the employer and occupation of each study subject. Conditional logistic regression was used to determine the risk of leukaemia among those working in the industry. Results The risk of both leukaemia (OR = 1.47; 95% CI 0.70, 3.09 and acute myeloid leukaemia (OR = 1.19; 95% CI 0.33, 4.28 were elevated among those employed in the shoe and boot manufacturing industry, however neither was statistically significant. Conclusion The results, though suggestive of an association between leukaemia and employment in the shoe and boot manufacturing industry, were not statistically conclusive due mainly to limited study power. Several additional limitations may also have prevented the observance of more conclusive findings. Better exposure assessment, information on

  6. Injury Reduction Effectiveness of Prescribing Running Shoes Based on Foot Shape in Air Force Basic Military Training

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Knapik, Joseph J; Brosch, Lorie C; Venuto, Margaret; Swedler, David I; Bullock, Steven H; Gaines, Lorraine S; Murphy, Ryan J; Canada, Sara E; Hoedebecke, Edward L; Tobler, Steven K

    2008-01-01

    In response to a request from the Military Training Task Force of the Defense Safety Oversight Council this study examined whether prescribing running shoes based on the shape of the plantar surface...

  7. The bending stiffness of shoes is beneficial to running energetics if it does not disturb the natural MTP joint flexion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Keonyoung; Park, Sukyung

    2017-02-28

    A local minimum for running energetics has been reported for a specific bending stiffness, implying that shoe stiffness assists in running propulsion. However, the determinant of the metabolic optimum remains unknown. Highly stiff shoes significantly increase the moment arm of the ground reaction force (GRF) and reduce the leverage effect of joint torque at ground push-off. Inspired by previous findings, we hypothesized that the restriction of the natural metatarsophalangeal (MTP) flexion caused by stiffened shoes and the corresponding joint torque changes may reduce the benefit of shoe bending stiffness to running energetics. We proposed the critical stiffness, k cr , which is defined as the ratio of the MTP joint (MTPJ) torque to the maximal MTPJ flexion angle, as a possible threshold of the elastic benefit of shoe stiffness. 19 subjects participated in a running test while wearing insoles with five different bending stiffness levels. Joint angles, GRFs, and metabolic costs were measured and analyzed as functions of the shoe stiffness. No significant changes were found in the take-off velocity of the center of mass (CoM), but the horizontal ground push-offs were significantly reduced at different shoe stiffness levels, indicating that complementary changes in the lower-limb joint torques were introduced to maintain steady running. Slight increases in the ankle, knee, and hip joint angular impulses were observed at stiffness levels exceeding the critical stiffness, whereas the angular impulse at the MTPJ was significantly reduced. These results indicate that the shoe bending stiffness is beneficial to running energetics if it does not disturb the natural MTPJ flexion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Immediate effects of EVA midsole resilience and upper shoe structure on running biomechanics: a machine learning approach

    OpenAIRE

    Onodera, Andrea N.; Gavi?o Neto, Wilson P.; Roveri, Maria Isabel; Oliveira, Wagner R.; Sacco, Isabel CN

    2017-01-01

    Background Resilience of midsole material and the upper structure of the shoe are conceptual characteristics that can interfere in running biomechanics patterns. Artificial intelligence techniques can capture features from the entire waveform, adding new perspective for biomechanical analysis. This study tested the influence of shoe midsole resilience and upper structure on running kinematics and kinetics of non-professional runners by using feature selection, information gain, and artificial...

  9. Injury Reduction Effectiveness of Prescribing Running Shoes Based on Foot Shape in Air Force Basic Military Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    resulted in excessive pronation, creating a torsional force that repeatedly overstretched the plantar fascia leading to the fasciitis. However, the...Defense Safety Oversight Council, this study examined whether prescribing running shoes based on the shape of the plantar surface influenced injury risk...prescribed motion control, stability, or cushioned shoes for plantar shapes indicative of low, medium, or high arches, respectively. A control group (C, n

  10. Influence of different safety shoes on gait and plantar pressure: a standardized examination of workers in the automotive industry

    OpenAIRE

    Ochsmann, Elke; Noll, Ulrike; Ellegast, Rolf; Hermanns, Ingo; Kraus, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Working conditions, such as walking and standing on hard surfaces, can increase the development of musculoskeletal complaints. At the interface between flooring and musculoskeletal system, safety shoes may play an important role in the well-being of employees. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of different safety shoes on gait and plantar pressure distributions on industrial flooring. Methods: Twenty automotive workers were individually fitted out with three differe...

  11. Shoe drop reduction influences the lower limb biomechanics of children tennis players during an open stance forehand: A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbaut, Alexis; Simoneau-Buessinger, Emilie; Barbier, Franck; Gillet, Christophe; Roux, Maxime; Guéguen, Nils; Chavet, Pascale

    2017-11-01

    Compared to traditional tennis shoes, using 0-drop shoes was shown to induce an immediate switch from rear- to forefoot strike pattern to perform an open stance tennis forehand for 30% of children tennis players. The purpose of the study was to examine the long-term effects of a gradual reduction in the shoe drop on the biomechanics of children tennis players performing open stance forehands. Thirty children tennis players participated in 2 laboratory biomechanical test sessions (intermediate: +4 months and final: +8 months) after an inclusion visit where they were randomly assigned to control (CON) or experimental (EXP) group. CON received 12-mm-drop shoes twice, whereas EXP received 8 mm then 4-mm-drop shoes. Strike index indicated that all CON were rearfoot strikers in intermediate and final test sessions. All EXP were rearfoot strikers in intermediate test session, but half the group switched towards a forefoot strike pattern in final test session. This switch resulted in a decreased loading rate of the ground reaction force (-73%, p = .005) but increased peak ankle plantarflexors moment (+47%, p = .050) and peak ankle power absorption (+107%, p = .005) for these participants compared with CON. Biomechanical changes associated with the long-term use of partial minimalist shoes suggest a reduction in heel compressive forces but an increase in Achilles tendon tensile forces.

  12. Effects of forefoot bending stiffness of badminton shoes on agility, comfort perception and lower leg kinematics during typical badminton movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang-Kyoon; Lam, Wing-Kai; Yoon, Sukhoon; Lee, Ki-Kwang; Ryu, Jiseon

    2017-09-01

    This study investigated whether an increase in the forefoot bending stiffness of a badminton shoe would positively affect agility, comfort and biomechanical variables during badminton-specific movements. Three shoe conditions with identical shoe upper and sole designs with different bending stiffness (Flexible, Regular and Stiff) were used. Elite male badminton players completed an agility test on a standard badminton court involving consecutive lunges in six directions, a comfort test performed by a pair of participants conducting a game-like practice trial and a biomechanics test involving a random assignment of consecutive right forward lunges. No significant differences were found in agility time and biomechanical variables among the three shoes. The players wearing the shoe with a flexible forefoot outsole demonstrated a decreased perception of comfort in the forefoot cushion compared to regular and stiffer conditions during the comfort test (p badminton-specific tasks. It was concluded that an optimisation of forefoot structure and materials in badminton shoes should consider the individual's perception to maximise footwear comfort in performance.

  13. BRAKE DEVICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, T.J.

    1959-03-10

    A brake device is described for utilization in connection with a control rod. The device comprises a pair of parallelogram link mechanisms, a control rod moveable rectilinearly therebetween in opposite directions, and shoes resiliently supported by the mechanism for frictional engagement with the control rod.

  14. [Dancing with Pointe Shoes: Characteristics and Assessment Criteria for Pointe Readiness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanke, Eileen M; Exner-Grave, Elisabeth

    2017-12-01

    Training with pointe shoes is an integral part of professional dance education and ambitious hobby dancing. Pointe shoes - developed more than hundred years ago and almost unaltered since then - are highly specific and strike a balance between aesthetics, function, protection, and health care. Therefore, pointe readiness should be tested prior to all dance training or career training. Medical specialists are often confronted with this issue. Specific anatomical dance technique-orientated general conditional and coordinative preconditions as well as dance-technical prerequisites must be met by pointe readiness tests in order to keep traumatic injuries or long-term damage at a minimum. In addition to a (training) history, medical counselling sessions have come to include various tests that enable a reliable decision for or against pointe work. This article suggests adequate testing procedures (STT TEST), taking account of professional dancing as well as hobby dancing. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. The barefoot debate: can minimalist shoes reduce running-related injuries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rixe, Jeffrey A; Gallo, Robert A; Silvis, Matthew L

    2012-01-01

    Running has evolved throughout history from a necessary form of locomotion to an athletic and recreational pursuit. During this transition, our barefoot ancestors developed footwear. By the late 1970s, running popularity surged, and footwear manufacturers developed the running shoe. Despite new shoe technology and expert advice, runners still face high injury rates, which have yet to decline. Recently, "minimalist" running, marked by a soft forefoot strike and shorter, quicker strides, has become increasingly popular within the running community. Biomechanical studies have suggested that these features of barefoot-style running may lead to a reduction in injury rates. After conducting more outcomes-based research, minimalist footwear and gait retraining may serve as new methods to reduce injuries within the running population.

  16. A Portable Ultrasonic Nondestructive Inspection System for Metal Matrix Composite Track Shoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mi Bao; Zhao Xiaoliang; Qian Tao; Stevenson, Mark; Kwan, Chiman; Owens, Steven E.; Royer, Roger L. Jr.; Tittmann, Bernhard R.; Raju, Basavaraju B.

    2007-01-01

    Cast aluminum track shoes reinforced with metal matrix composite (MMC) inserts at heavy loading areas such as center splines and sprocket windows are light in weight, and can resist high temperature and wear. Various defects such as disbonds at the insert-substrate interface, cracks and porosity in the MMC layer, etc. can be introduced during the manufacturing process and/or in service. This paper presents a portable ultrasonic system to automatically inspect tank track shoes for disbond. Ultrasonic pulse/echo inspection has shown good reliability for disbond detection. A prototype sensor array fixture has been designed and fabricated to prove the feasibility. Good agreements between the sensor fixture results and ultrasonic C-scan images were obtained

  17. EFFECT OF SHOE RAISE ALONG WITH MOTOR RELEARNING PROGRAMME (MRP ON AMBULATION IN CHRONIC STROKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajanan Bhalerao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stroke subjects face reduced tolerance to activity and sedentary lifestyle due to various impairments, such as muscle weakness, pain, spasticity, and poor balance. Thus, loss of independent ambulation especially outdoors is generally observed in them. Methods: Chronic stroke patients (> 6 months with Functional Ambulation Category score > 2 and able to walk at least 10 meters of distance with and without assistance from a tertiary healthcare centre were selected and treated. Subjects were randomly divided into 2 groups control group (n=14 and experimental group (n=13. Each group received Motor Relearning Programme for 60 minutes, 6 times a week for 4 weeks. The experimental group received an additional shoe-raise of 1 cm on the unaffected side along with while ambulating during therapy as well as at home. Pre and post treatment the patients were assessed for spatio-temporal parameters using foot print analysis method and Rivermead Visual Gait Assessment (RVGA Score using RVGA scale. Results: There was significant improvement seen in almost all the spatio-temporal gait parameters and RVGA score in within group analysis. Whereas on between group the results from between group comparison suggests that subjects in MRP with shoe-raise group showed better results in spatio-temporal parameters of gait than subjects receiving MRPalone. But there was no additional benefit of shoe-raise seen on RGVA score and angle of toe-out parameter. Conclusion: Additional use of shoe-raise helps to improve spatio-temporal gait parameters. However, there was no additional change seen in RVGA score.

  18. The influence of shoe drop on the kinematics and kinetics of children tennis players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbaut, Alexis; Chavet, Pascale; Roux, Maxime; Guéguen, Nils; Gillet, Christophe; Barbier, Franck; Simoneau-Buessinger, Emilie

    2016-11-01

    This study investigated the immediate effects of reducing the shoe drop (i.e. the difference between the heel and the forefoot height) on the kinematics and kinetics of the lower extremities of children tennis players performing a tennis-specific movement. Thirteen children tennis players performed a series of simulated open stance forehands wearing 3 pairs of shoes differing only in the drop: 0 (D0), 6 (D6) and the control condition of 12 mm (D12). Two embedded forceplates and a motion capture system were used to analyse the ground reaction forces and ankle and knee joint angles and moments of the leading lower limb. In D6 compared with D12, the peak impact force was reduced by 24% (p = .004) and the ankle was less dorsiflexed at foot strike (p = .037). In D0 compared with D12, the peak impact force was reduced by 17% (p = .049), the ankle was less dorsiflexed at foot strike (p = .045) and the knee was more flexed at foot strike (p = .007). In addition, 4 out of 13 participants (31%) presented a forefoot strike pattern for some of the trials in D0. No difference was observed across shoe conditions for the peak knee extensor moment (p = .658) or the peak ankle plantarflexor moment (p = .071). The results provide preliminary data supporting the hypothesis that for children tennis players, using a 6-mm lower shoe drop might reduce heel impact forces and thus limit potentially impact-related injuries.

  19. FOOTBALL PLAYERS’ LEGS BIOMECHANICS DURING THE GAME AND THE REQUIREMENTS FOR FOOTBALL SHOES

    OpenAIRE

    Cornelia Ionescu Luca; Cristina Secan

    2013-01-01

    Football players, during the game, find themselves in both static and dynamic positions. Movement may be accomplished through walking, marching, running and jumping. While walking, the step may be simple, if referred to a single leg or double when talking about both legs. The simple steps have different phases for the bare-foot, the impact phase, supported foot and oscillating shank-bone and propulsion. Football shoes for walking make contact with the support surface through cleats. The back...

  20. Occupational skin hazards and prevalence of occupational skin diseases in shoe manufacturing workers in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Febriana, Sri Awalia; Soebono, Hardyanto; Coenraads, Pieter-Jan

    2014-02-01

    Shoe manufacturing workers are exposed daily to an extensive range of potential physical and chemical occupational hazards. Shoe manufacturing in Indonesia is one of the industrial sectors that has shown sustained growth amongst the newly industrialized countries (NICs). In this study, we investigated the possible potential exposure of the workers to physical and occupational hazards and determined the prevalence of occupational skin diseases at a shoe manufacturing factory in Indonesia. A cross-sectional study on the observation of the working process and an inventory and risk assessment of exposure to the chemicals used. Classification of chemicals as potential sensitizers/irritants and qualitative assessments of these chemicals were done. Workers were examined and interviewed using the Nordic Occupational Skin Questionnaire-2002/LONG. The risk of Occupational skin diseases (OSD) at the shoe factory was mainly related to the exposure of the workers' skin to potential physical and chemical hazards in hot and humid environmental conditions. From a total of 514 workers, 8.5 % reported current OSD and 4.8 % reported a history of OSD. Occupational skin diseases were diagnosed in 29 % of the workers by dermatologists and 7.6 % had an occupational contact dermatitis (OCD). Of the 39 workers with contact dermatitis, 33 consented to being patch tested, 14 (3 %) workers showed a positive results and considered as having an occupational allergic contact dermatitis (OACD) and 25 (4.9 %) had an occupational irritant contact dermatitis (OICD). We observed a repeated and prolonged exposure of the workers to numerous physical and chemical skin hazards at this factory.

  1. Stepping into others’ shoes: a cognitive perspective on target audience orientation in written translation

    OpenAIRE

    Apfelthaler, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    This paper suggests what might allow translators to orient themselves towards their target audience in the translation process. To shed light on translators’ ability to put themselves into their target audience’s shoes, I adopt a cognitive perspective by drawing on current findings from psychology, cognitive science and neuroscience. I depart from the notion of target audience as applied to written translation. Aspects to this concept and the terminology of audience in translation studies are...

  2. Influence of an unstable shoe on compensatory postural adjustments: An experimental evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Andreia S. P. Sousa; Rui Macedo; Rubim Santos; João Manuel R. S. Tavares

    2010-01-01

    This study attempted to evaluate the influence of using an unstable shoe in muscle re-cruitment strategies and center of pressure (CoP) displacement after the application of an external perturba-tion. Fourteen healthy female subjects participated in this study. The electromyographic activity of medial ga-strocnemius, tibialis anterior, rectus femoris, biceps femoris, rectus abdominis and erector spinae muscles and the kinetic values to calculate the CoP were collected and analyzed after the a...

  3. SPORTS SHOES PURCHASE INTENTION AMONG MALAYSIAN VOLLEYBALL PLAYERS VS. NON-VOLLEYBALL PLAYERS: A CONCEPTUAL PAPER

    OpenAIRE

    GOH PIN SIANG; ZURAIDAH SULAIMAN

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to advance the understanding of volleyball players’ purchase intention toward sport shoes by investigating the relationship between the independent variables (endorsement, advertising, pricing and electronic word-of-mouth) and purchase intention. Descriptive research and causal research will be used as the research design, thus questionnaire and experimentation will be used to obtain data. Primary data in this study is attained by distributing the questionnaire to...

  4. Modified Distal Shoe Appliance for Premature Loss of Multiple Deciduous Molars: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Bhat, Prasanna Kumar; K., Navin H.; Idris, Mohammed; Christopher, Pradeep; Rai, Niharika

    2014-01-01

    Preservation of the primary dentition until the normal time of exfoliation is one of the most important factor involved in preventive and interceptive dentistry. The premature loss of second primary molar before the eruption of permanent first molar can create a significant arch space/tooth size discrepancy. Distal shoe space maintainer is a valuable part of the Paediatric Dentist’s armamentarium in those cases where the second primary molar is prematurely lost and it helps to guide the first...

  5. Body Mass and Weekly Training Distance Influence the Pain and Injuries Experienced by Runners Using Minimalist Shoes: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Joel T; Thewlis, Dominic; Buckley, Jonathan D; Brown, Nicholas A T; Hamill, Joseph; Tsiros, Margarita D

    2017-04-01

    Minimalist shoes have been popularized as a safe alternative to conventional running shoes. However, a paucity of research is available investigating the longer-term safety of minimalist shoes. To compare running-related pain and injury between minimalist and conventional shoes in trained runners and to investigate interactions between shoe type, body mass, and weekly training distance. Randomized clinical trial; Level of evidence, 2. Sixty-one trained, habitual rearfoot footfall runners (mean ± SD: body mass, 74.6 ± 9.3 kg; weekly training distance, 25 ± 14 km) were randomly allocated to either minimalist or conventional shoes. Runners gradually increased the time spent running in their allocated shoes over 26 weeks. Running-related pain intensity was measured weekly by use of 100-mm visual analog scales. Time to first running-related injury was also assessed. Interactions were found between shoe type and weekly training distance for weekly running-related pain; greater pain was experienced with minimalist shoes ( P 10 mm) were noted when the weekly training distance was more than 35 km/wk. Eleven of 30 runners sustained an injury in conventional shoes compared with 16 of 31 runners in minimalist shoes (hazard ratio, 1.64; 95% confidence interval, 0.63-4.27; P = .31). A shoe × body mass interaction was found for time to first running-related injury ( P = .01). For runners using minimalist shoes, relative to runners using conventional shoes, the risk of sustaining an injury became more likely with increasing body mass above 71.4 kg, and the risk was moderately increased (hazard ratio, 2.00; 95% confidence interval, 1.10-3.66; P = .02) for runners using minimalist shoes who had a body mass of 85.7 kg. Runners should limit weekly training distance in minimalist shoes to avoid running-related pain. Heavier runners are at greater risk of injury when running in minimalist shoes. Registration: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12613000642785).

  6. Shoe-Floor Interactions in Human Walking With Slips: Modeling and Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trkov, Mitja; Yi, Jingang; Liu, Tao; Li, Kang

    2018-03-01

    Shoe-floor interactions play a crucial role in determining the possibility of potential slip and fall during human walking. Biomechanical and tribological parameters influence the friction characteristics between the shoe sole and the floor and the existing work mainly focus on experimental studies. In this paper, we present modeling, analysis, and experiments to understand slip and force distributions between the shoe sole and floor surface during human walking. We present results for both soft and hard sole material. The computational approaches for slip and friction force distributions are presented using a spring-beam networks model. The model predictions match the experimentally observed sole deformations with large soft sole deformation at the beginning and the end stages of the stance, which indicates the increased risk for slip. The experiments confirm that both the previously reported required coefficient of friction (RCOF) and the deformation measurements in this study can be used to predict slip occurrence. Moreover, the deformation and force distribution results reported in this study provide further understanding and knowledge of slip initiation and termination under various biomechanical conditions.

  7. The effect of material characteristics of shoe soles on muscle activation and energy aspects during running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigg, B M; Stefanyshyn, D; Cole, G; Stergiou, P; Miller, J

    2003-04-01

    The purposes of this study were (a) to determine group and individual differences in oxygen consumption during heel-toe running and (b) to quantify the differences in EMG activity for selected muscle groups of the lower extremities when running in shoes with different mechanical heel characteristics. Twenty male runners performed heel-toe running using two shoe conditions, one with a mainly elastic and a visco-elastic heel. Oxygen consumption was quantified during steady state runs of 6 min duration, running slightly above the aerobic threshold providing four pairs of oxygen consumption results for comparison. Muscle activity was quantified using bipolar surface EMG measurements from the tibialis anterior, medial gastrocnemius, vastus medialis and the hamstrings muscle groups. EMG data were sampled for 5 s every minute for the 6 min providing 30 trials. EMG data were compared for the different conditions using an ANOVA (alpha=0.05). The findings of this study showed that changes in the heel material characteristics of running shoes were associated with (a) subject specific changes in oxygen consumption and (b) subject and muscle specific changes in the intensities of muscle activation before heel strike in the lower extremities. It is suggested that further study of these phenomena will help understand many aspects of human locomotion, including work, performance, fatigue and possible injuries.

  8. EFFECTS OF UNSTABLE SHOES ON ENERGY COST DURING TREADMILL WALKING AT VARIOUS SPEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiji Koyama

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, shoes having rounded soles in the anterior- posterior direction have been commercially introduced, which are commonly known as unstable shoes (US. However, physiological responses during walking in US, particularly at various speeds, have not been extensively studied to date. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of wearing unstable shoes while walking at low to high speeds on the rate of perceived exertion (RPE, muscle activation, oxygen consumption (VO2, and optimum speed. Healthy male adults wore US or normal walking shoes (WS, and walked at various speeds on a treadmill with no inclination. In experiment 1, subjects walked at 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 km·h-1 (duration, 3 min for all speeds and were recorded on video from the right sagittal plane to calculate the step length and cadence. Simultaneously, electromyogram (EMG was recorded from six different thigh and calf muscles, and the integrated EMG (iEMG was calculated. In experiment 2, RPE, heart rate and VO2 were measured with the walking speed being increased from 3.6 to 7.2 km·h-1 incrementally by 0.9 km·h-1 every 6 min. The optimum speed, defined by the least oxygen cost, was calculated from the fitted quadratic relationship between walking speed and oxygen cost. Wearing US resulted in significantly longer step length and lower cadence compared with WS condition at any given speed. For all speeds, iEMG in the medial gastrocnemius and soleus muscles, heart rate, and VO2 were significantly higher in US than WS. However, RPE and optimum speed (US, 4.75 ± 0.32 km·h-1; WS, 4. 79 ± 0.18 km·h-1 did not differ significantly between the two conditions. These results suggest that unstable shoes can increase muscle activity of lower legs and energy cost without influencing RPE and optimum speed during walking at various speeds

  9. Post-marathon wearing of Masai Barefoot Technology shoes facilitates recovery from race-induced fatigue: an evaluation utilizing a visual analog scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakagawa K

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Kento Nakagawa, Takashi Obu, Kazuyuki KanosueFaculty of Sport Sciences, Waseda University, Tokorozawa, Saitama, Japan Purpose: To investigate the potential benefit of post-race wearing of unstable shoes (Masai Barefoot Technology [MBT] on recovery from marathon race–induced fatigue.Patients and methods: Forty-five runners who participated in a full marathon race were divided into three groups: 1 MBT shoes, 2 trail running shoes, and 3 control (CON. Participants ran a full marathon with their own running shoes, and then put on the assigned shoes immediately after the race. They continued to wear the assigned shoes for the ensuing 3 days. The CON group wore their usual shoes. Estimates of post-race fatigue were made by the participants on questionnaires that utilized a visual analog scale. Estimates were made just after the race, as well as for the next 3 days.Results: The subjective fatigue of the MBT group was lower than that of the CON (P<0.05 or trail running shoe groups (P<0.05 on day 3.Conclusion: MBT shoe intervention can promote recovery from the fatigue induced by running a full marathon.Keywords: footwear, VAS, full marathon

  10. Indoor and outdoor concentrations of RSP, NO2 and selected volatile organic compounds at 32 shoe stalls located near busy roadways in Seoul, Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Hyunjoo; Chung, Moonho; Yang, Wonho

    2004-01-01

    It is suspected that persons who work in indoor environments near busy roadways are exposed to elevated levels of air pollutants during working hours. This study evaluated the potential exposure and source contribution associated with traffic-related air pollution for workers (polishers and repairmen) in shoe stalls from each of 32 districts during working hours in Seoul, Korea. The shoe stalls have been located at very close distances to the busy roadways. In this study, shoe stall workers could be exposed to high levels of respirable suspended particulate (RSP), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from outdoor sources such as traffic exhaust, as well as indoor sources in the shoe stalls such as dust on the shoes, portable gas ranges, organic solvents, adhesives and shoe polish. Compounds of particular note included indoor mean concentrations of benzene, toluene, m/p-xylene and o-xylene were 0.732, 6.777, 4.080 and 1.302 mg/m 3 , respectively, in all shoe stalls. Mean indoor/outdoor ratios for toluene and m/p-xylene concentrations were 54.52 and 20.84, respectively. The contribution of vehicle exhaust emissions to indoor air quality of shoe stalls was identified by means of correlating the relationships between simultaneously measured air pollutant concentrations indoors and outdoors. Unlike RSP and NO 2 , indoor VOCs concentrations of shoe stalls mainly originated from indoor sources vs. outdoor sources

  11. Effect of Five-Finger Shoes on Vertical Ground Reaction Force Loading Rates and Perceived Comfort during the Stance Phase of the Running

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyede Zeynab Hoseini

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective:  Increased vertical ground reaction force loading rates and lack of comfort footwear in the early stance phase can increase the risk of overuse injuries. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of Five-finger shoes on vertical ground reaction force loading rate and perceived comfort during the stance phase of running. Methods: 15 male students (aged 24 ± 5/24 years, weight 75/8 ± 4/61 kg, height 178/6 ± 6/64 cm were selected. Subjects were asked to run over a force plate, in control shoe, five finger shoe and barefoot conditions. Loading rate using the slope of the vertical reaction force and perceived comfort were determined using a visual analogue scale. One factor repeated measures ANOVA was used to test the loading rate hypothesis and Paired t-tests was used to test the meaningfulness of perceived comfort (P<0/05. Results: The effect of shoes on loading rate was found to be not significant (P=0.1. However, comfort of control shoes increased by 10. 92% as compared to that of five-finger shoes (P=0.001.  Conclusion: The loading rate of five-finger shoes is the same as that of barefoot during running; however, as subjects did not perceive them as comfortable as regular shoes are five-finger shoes cannot be advised as a desirable choice in exercises.

  12. The long-term effect of minimalist shoes on running performance and injury: design of a randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Joel T; Thewlis, Dominic; Tsiros, Margarita D; Brown, Nicholas A T; Buckley, Jonathan D

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The outcome of the effects of transitioning to minimalist running shoes is a topic of interest for runners and scientists. However, few studies have investigated the longer term effects of running in minimalist shoes. The purpose of this randomised controlled trial (RCT) is to investigate the effects of a 26 week transition to minimalist shoes on running performance and injury risk in trained runners unaccustomed to minimalist footwear. Methods and analysis A randomised parallel intervention design will be used. Seventy-six trained male runners will be recruited. To be eligible, runners must be aged 18–40 years, run with a habitual rearfoot footfall pattern, train with conventional shoes and have no prior experience with minimalist shoes. Runners will complete a standardised transition to either minimalist or control shoes and undergo assessments at baseline, 6 and 26 weeks. 5 km time-trial performance (5TT), running economy, running biomechanics, triceps surae muscle strength and lower limb bone mineral density will be assessed at each time point. Pain and injury will be recorded weekly. Training will be standardised during the first 6 weeks. Primary statistical analysis will compare 5TT between shoe groups at the 6-week time point and injury incidence across the entire 26-week study period. Ethics and dissemination This RCT has been approved by the Human Research Ethics Committee of the University of South Australia. Participants will be required to provide their written informed consent prior to participation in the study. Study findings will be disseminated in the form of journal publications and conference presentations after completion of planned data analysis. Trial registration number This RCT has been registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12613000642785). PMID:26297368

  13. Injury-reduction effectiveness of prescribing running shoes on the basis of foot arch height: summary of military investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapik, Joseph J; Trone, Daniel W; Tchandja, Juste; Jones, Bruce H

    2014-10-01

    Secondary analysis of 3 randomized controlled trials. Objective Analysis of studies that examined whether prescribing running shoes on the basis of foot arch height influenced injury risk during military basic training. Prior to 2007, running magazines and running-shoe companies suggested that imprints of the bottom of the feet (plantar shape) could be used as an indication of foot arch height and that this could be used to select individually appropriate types of running shoes. Similar studies were conducted in US Army (2168 men, 951 women), Air Force (1955 men, 718 women), and Marine Corps (840 men, 571 women) basic training. After foot examinations, recruits were randomized to either an experimental or a control group. Recruits in the experimental group selected or were assigned motion-control, stability, or cushioned shoes to match their plantar shape, which represented a low, medium, or high foot arch, respectively. The control group received a stability shoe regardless of plantar shape. Injuries during basic training were assessed from outpatient medical records. Meta-analyses that pooled results of the 3 investigations showed little difference between the experimental and control groups in the injury rate (injuries per 1000 person-days) for either men (summary rate ratio = 0.97; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.88, 1.06) or women (summary rate ratio = 0.97; 95% CI: 0.85, 1.08). When injury rates for specific types of running shoes were compared, there were no differences. Selecting running shoes based on arch height had little influence on injury risk in military basic training. Prevention, level 1b.

  14. Shoe contact dermatitis from dimethyl fumarate: clinical manifestations, patch test results, chemical analysis, and source of exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez-Arnau, Ana; Silvestre, Juan Francisco; Mercader, Pedro; De la Cuadra, Jesus; Ballester, Isabel; Gallardo, Fernando; Pujol, Ramón M; Zimerson, Erik; Bruze, Magnus

    2009-11-01

    The methyl ester form of fumaric acid named dimethyl fumarate (DMF) is an effective mould-growth inhibitor. Its irritating and sensitizing properties were demonstrated in animal models. Recently, DMF has been identified as responsible for furniture contact dermatitis in Europe. To describe the clinical manifestations, patch test results, shoe chemical analysis, and source of exposure to DMF-induced shoe contact dermatitis. Patients with suspected shoe contact dermatitis were studied in compliance with the Declaration of Helsinki. Patch test results obtained with their own shoe and the European baseline series, acrylates and fumaric acid esters (FAE), were recorded according to international guidelines. The content of DMF in shoes was analysed with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Acute, immediate irritant contact dermatitis and non-immunological contact urticaria were observed in eight adults and two children, respectively. All the adult patients studied developed a delayed sensitization demonstrated by a positive patch testing to DMF Global preventive measures for avoiding contact with DMF are necessary.

  15. Implementation of a Shoe-Embedded Human Interface and Collaborative Supplementation of Service Requirements on Smartphone System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaname Takaochi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although a handsfree man-machine interface is useful when the user’s hands are not free, existing handsfree input devices are not the type of device that are normally worn by people. We have focused on a shoe as an input device because people normally wear it when they go out, and proposed a shoe-embedded interface. The input device is a sensor shoe. Weight sensors have been attached at three positions on a sole: the first metatarsal, the fifth metatarsal, and the calcaneal tuberosity. These positions have been selected based on the characteristics of the human foot skeleton. Two types of foot operation have been used: tap and push. By combining these operations, 10 commands have been defined. To make it possible to use web applications with a limited number of commands, we have proposed a method of supplementing the user’s service requirements using collaborative filtering. The sensor shoe houses an insole with hetero-core optical fiber sensor elements attached to it. These elements are sensitive to weight. We have built an experimental system that runs on a smartphone and provides the shoe-embedded interface, and conducted experiments with three test subjects to evaluate the system. The average rate of successful command identification was 89 %. We have also evaluated this service requirements supplementation method theoretically, and confirmed that the proposed service recommendation function can be applied to smartphone systems.

  16. Correlation Of An E-Nose System For Odor Assessment Of Shoe/Sock Systems With A Human Sensory Panel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horras, Stephan; Reimann, Peter; Schuetze, Andreas; Gaiotto, Alessandra; Mayer, Maria

    2009-01-01

    Evaluation of strength and quality of smell is today still primarily done with human sensory panels. For a range of applications, technical systems for an objective smell assessment would provide a great benefit in R and D and also day-to-day application. The project presented here specifically addresses the problem of assessing the strength and unpleasantness of smell caused by sweat in shoes and socks by an E-nose system. The ultimate goal is to provide a tool for developing improved shoe/sock systems with optimized materials.The main approach to achieve this goal is to find a correlation between the assessment of a human sensory panel and the complex sensor response patterns of an E-Nose system to appraise the smell of sweat in shoes and socks. Therefore a range of test persons wear shoes and socks under defined ambient conditions in a controlled test environment as well as during everyday use. Afterwards the smell of the shoes and socks is both measured with the E-Nose system and assessed by a human sensory panel. We report here the results of the first larger test series and the identified correlation between the E-Nose system and the human assessment of the smell of sweat.

  17. Running shoes and running injuries: mythbusting and a proposal for two new paradigms: 'preferred movement path' and 'comfort filter'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigg, B M; Baltich, J; Hoerzer, S; Enders, H

    2015-10-01

    In the past 100 years, running shoes experienced dramatic changes. The question then arises whether or not running shoes (or sport shoes in general) influence the frequency of running injuries at all. This paper addresses five aspects related to running injuries and shoe selection, including (1) the changes in running injuries over the past 40 years, (2) the relationship between sport shoes, sport inserts and running injuries, (3) previously researched mechanisms of injury related to footwear and two new paradigms for injury prevention including (4) the 'preferred movement path' and (5) the 'comfort filter'. Specifically, the data regarding the relationship between impact characteristics and ankle pronation to the risk of developing a running-related injury is reviewed. Based on the lack of conclusive evidence for these two variables, which were once thought to be the prime predictors of running injuries, two new paradigms are suggested to elucidate the association between footwear and injury. These two paradigms, 'the preferred movement path' and 'the comfort filter', suggest that a runner intuitively selects a comfortable product using their own comfort filter that allows them to remain in the preferred movement path. This may automatically reduce the injury risk and may explain why there does not seem to be a secular trend in running injury rates. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  18. Brake wear warning device: A concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, S. F.

    1973-01-01

    Heat-insulated wire is introduced through brake shoe and partially into brake lining. Wire is connected to positive terminal and light bulb. When brakes wear to critical point, contact between wire and wheel drum grounds circuit and turns on warning light.

  19. Contamination Control of Freeze Shoe Coring System for Collection of Aquifer Sands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homola, K.; van Geen, A.; Spivack, A. J.; Grzybowski, B.; Schlottenmier, D.

    2017-12-01

    We have developed and tested an original device, the freeze-shoe coring system, designed to recover undisturbed samples of water contained in sand-dominated aquifers. Aquifer sands are notoriously difficult to collect together with porewater from coincident depths, as high hydraulic permeability leads to water drainage and mixing during retrieval. Two existing corer designs were reconfigured to incorporate the freeze-shoe system; a Hydraulic Piston (HPC) and a Rotary (RC) Corer. Once deployed, liquid CO­2 contained in an interior tank is channeled to coils at the core head where it changes phase, rapidly cooling the deepest portion of the core. The resulting frozen core material impedes water loss during recovery. We conducted contamination tests to examine the integrity of cores retrieved during a March 2017 yard test deployment. Perfluorocarbon tracer (PFC) was added to the drill fluid and recovered cores were subsampled to capture the distribution of PFC throughout the core length and interior. Samples were collected from two HPC and one RC core and analyzed for PFC concentrations. The lowest porewater contamination, around 0.01% invasive fluid, occurs in the center of both HPC cores. The greatest contamination (up to 10%) occurs at the disturbed edges where core material contacts drill fluid. There was lower contamination in the core interior than top, bottom, and edges, as well as significantly lower contamination in HPC cores that those recovered with the RC. These results confirm that the freeze-shoe system, proposed for field test deployments in West Bengal, India, can successfully collect intact porewater and sediment material with minimal if any contamination from drill fluid.

  20. Can parallel use of different running shoes decrease running-related injury risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malisoux, L; Ramesh, J; Mann, R; Seil, R; Urhausen, A; Theisen, D

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if runners who use concomitantly different pairs of running shoes are at a lower risk of running-related injury (RRI). Recreational runners (n = 264) participated in this 22-week prospective follow-up and reported all information about their running session characteristics, other sport participation and injuries on a dedicated Internet platform. A RRI was defined as a physical pain or complaint located at the lower limbs or lower back region, sustained during or as a result of running practice and impeding planned running activity for at least 1 day. One-third of the participants (n = 87) experienced at least one RRI during the observation period. The adjusted Cox regression analysis revealed that the parallel use of more than one pair of running shoes was a protective factor [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.614; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.389-0.969], while previous injury was a risk factor (HR = 1.722; 95%CI = 1.114-2.661). Additionally, increased mean session distance (km; HR = 0.795; 95%CI = 0.725-0.872) and increased weekly volume of other sports (h/week; HR = 0.848; 95%CI = 0.732-0.982) were associated with lower RRI risk. Multiple shoe use and participation in other sports are strategies potentially leading to a variation of the load applied to the musculoskeletal system. They could be advised to recreational runners to prevent RRI. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Epidemiology of High-Heel Shoe Injuries in U.S. Women: 2002 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Justin Xavier; Lambert, Brice; Jenkins, Gabrielle P; McGwin, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the epidemiology of high-heel-related injuries among a nationally representative population of women in the United States and to analyze the demographic differences within this group. The data used in the present study were collected from the Consumer Product Safety Commission's National Electronic Injury Surveillance System. A total of 3294 injuries, representing an estimated 123,355 high-heel-related injuries, were treated in emergency departments within the United States from 2002 to 2012. The overall rate of high-heel-related injuries for the study was 7.32 per 100,000 females (95% confidence interval 7.08 to 7.56). The injury rate was greatest for young adult females, with the greatest rates observed for those aged 20 to 29 years (18.38 per 100,000 females) and those aged 30 to 39 years (11.07 per 100,000 females). The results from the present study suggest that high-heel-related injuries have nearly doubled during the 11-year period from 2002 to 2012. Injuries from high heels are differential by body region, with most injuries occurring as sprains and strains to the foot and ankle. Although high heels might be stylish, from a health standpoint, it could be worthwhile for females and those interested in wearing high heels to understand the risks of wearing high-heeled shoes and the potential harm that precarious activities in high-heeled shoes can cause. The results of the present study can be used in the development of a prospective cohort study to investigate the risk of injury from high-heeled shoes, accounting for the exposure time and studying differences in demographics (e.g., age and race). Copyright © 2015 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The shoelace book a mathematical guide to the best (and worst) ways to lace your shoes

    CERN Document Server

    Polster, Burkard

    2006-01-01

    Crisscross, zigzag, bowtie, devil, angel, or star: which are the longest, the shortest, the strongest, and the weakest lacings? Pondering the mathematics of shoelaces, the author paints a vivid picture of the simple, beautiful, and surprising characterizations of the most common shoelace patterns. The mathematics involved is an attractive mix of combinatorics and elementary calculus. This book will be enjoyed by mathematically minded people for as long as there are shoes to lace. Burkard Polster is a well-known mathematical juggler, magician, origami expert, bubble-master, shoelace charmer, an

  3. ORTHOPEDIC AND BIOMECHANICAL FEATURES FOR RUNNING SHOES FOR SPRINTS, MEDIUM AND LONG DISTANCES

    OpenAIRE

    Cornelia Ionescu Luca; Cristina Secan

    2013-01-01

    Athletics is the sport discipline that has 3 simple event types and 2 multiple events competitions. The simple events are: running, jumps, and throws and the multiple events competitions are: decathlon and heptathlon. The running events are 100 m, 200 m and 400 m dash and 800 m, 1500 m, 5000 m and 10000 m; 100m, 400 m and 3000 m hurdles; marathon, 20 km and 50 km march and cross-country. Different athletics events will require different types of sport shoes, designed for the specific events....

  4. Measurement of oil film thickness and friction force on a guide shoe bearing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vølund, Anders

    2002-01-01

    An experimental program was carried out in order to reveal oil film thickness, and friction force of the guide shoe bearing of a large two stroke marine diesel engine. The experiment was conducted on a full size engine located at the research facility at MAN B&W Diesel A/S. The experiment...... was conducted such that the influence from the experiment on the characteristics were as small as possible. The objective of the experiment was to determine the frictional loss of this bearing and to check whether a suggested numerical model was applicable or not. Some future aspects for this bearing...

  5. The Influence of Outdoor Shoe Sole Stiffness on the Metatarsophalangeal Joint Kinematics When Walking and Running in Different Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Mistretta

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the action of the metatarsophalangeal joint (MTP is fundamental to improving the design process of a new outdoor shoe. Coming from the stated consideration, the aim of this research is to study the influence of shoe sole stiffness and terrain slope on the MTP joint angle of subjects walking in different conditions. To pursue this intent, different data collection sessions have been carried out in-vitro and in-vivo, indoor and outdoor. Two different approaches have been used to collect gait kinematics: an IMU (Inertial Measurement Unit based system for the first campaign of tests, and a 2D video analysis for the second. Major findings showed a linear correlation between shoe sole stiffness and peak MTP joint angle during gait, as well as consistency in the value of the slope of the linear regression curves corresponding to the different conditions examined.

  6. Duration of slip-resistant shoe usage and the rate of slipping in limited-service restaurants: results from a prospective and crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Santosh K; Zhao, Zhe; Courtney, Theodore K; Chang, Wen-Ruey; Lombardi, David A; Huang, Yueng-Hsiang; Brennan, Melanye J; Perry, Melissa J

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have indicated that slip-resistant shoes may have a positive effect on reducing the risk of slips and falls, a leading cause of injury at work. Few studies, however, have examined how duration of shoe usage affects their slip-resistance properties. This study examined the association between the duration of slip-resistant shoes usage and the self-reported rate of slipping in limited-service restaurant workers. A total of 475 workers from 36 limited-service restaurants in the USA were recruited to participate in a 12-week prospective study of workplace slipping. Of the 475 participants, 83 reported changing to a new pair of shoes at least once during the 12-week follow-up. The results show that slip-resistant shoes worn for less than six months were moderately more effective than those worn for more than six months. Changing to a new pair of shoes among those wearing slip-resistant shoes at baseline was associated with a 55% reduction in the rate of slipping (RR = 0.45, 95% CI = 0.23-0.89). Further research is needed to develop criteria for the replacement of slip-resistant shoes.

  7. Fluid Pressures at the Shoe-Floor-Contaminant Interface During Slips: Effects of Tread & Implications on Slip Severity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beschorner, Kurt E.; Albert, Devon L.; Chambers, April J.; Redfern, Mark S.

    2018-01-01

    Previous research on slip and fall accidents has suggested that pressurized fluid between the shoe and floor is responsible for initiating slips yet this effect has not been verified experimentally. This study aimed to 1) measure hydrodynamic pressures during slipping for treaded and untreaded conditions; 2) determine the effects of fluid pressure on slip severity; and 3) quantify how fluid pressures vary with instantaneous resultant slipping speed, position on the shoe surface, and throughout the progression of the slip. Eighteen subjects walked on known dry and unexpected slippery floors, while wearing treaded and untreaded shoes. Fluid pressure sensors, embedded in the floor, recorded hydrodynamic pressures during slipping. The maximum fluid pressures (mean+/−standard deviation) were significantly higher for the untreaded conditions (124 +/−75 kPa) than the treaded conditions (1.1 +/−0.29 kPa). Maximum fluid pressures were positively correlated with peak slipping speed (r = 0.87), suggesting that higher fluid pressures, which are associated with untreaded conditions, resulted in more severe slips. Instantaneous resultant slipping speed and position of sensor relative to the shoe sole and walking direction explained 41% of the fluid pressure variability. Fluid pressures were primarily observed for untreaded conditions. This study confirms that fluid pressures are relevant to slipping events, consistent with fluid dynamics theory (i.e. the Reynolds equation), and can be modified with shoe tread design. The results suggest that the occurrence and severity of unexpected slips can be reduced by designing shoes/floors that reduce underfoot fluid pressures. PMID:24267270

  8. Kinematic analysis of postural reactions to a posterior translation in rocker bottom shoes in younger and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimel-Scott, Dorothy R; Gulledge, Elisha N; Bolena, Ryan E; Albright, Bruce C

    2014-01-01

    Shoes with rocker bottom soles are utilized by persons with diabetic peripheral neuropathy to reduce plantar pressures during gait. The risk of falls increases with age and is compounded by diabetic neuropathy. The purpose of this study was to analyze how rocker bottom shoes affect posture control of older adults (50-75 years old) and younger adults (20-35 years old) in response to posterior slide perturbations. The postural response to a posterior platform translation was normalized among subjects by applying the below threshold stepping velocity (BTSV) for each subject. The BTSV was the fastest velocity of platform translation that did not cause a stepping response while wearing the rocker bottom shoes. Joint excursion, time to first response, response time, and variability of mean peak joint angles were analyzed at the ankle, knee, hip, trunk, and head in the sagittal plane. The statistical analysis was a 2-factor mixed repeated measures design to determine interactions between and within shoe types and age groups. While wearing rocker bottom shoes, both age groups exhibited increased joint excursion, differences in time to initial response, and longer response time. The older group demonstrated decreased joint excursion and increased time to initial response compared to the younger group, as well as a significantly slower mean BTSV. These findings support the conclusion that in healthy older adults and in populations at risk for falls, the use of rocker bottom or other unstable shoes may increase the potential of falls when confronted with a standing perturbation such as a forceful slip or trip. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Epidemiology of Shoe Wearing Patterns Over Time in Older Women: Associations With Foot Pain and Hallux Valgus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menz, Hylton B; Roddy, Edward; Marshall, Michelle; Thomas, Martin J; Rathod, Trishna; Peat, George M; Croft, Peter R

    2016-12-01

    Foot problems are prevalent in older women and are thought to be associated with footwear. This study examined women's shoe wearing patterns over time and evaluated associations between footwear characteristics and foot pain and hallux valgus. Women aged 50-89 years (n = 2,627) completed a survey that included drawings of four toe-box shapes and four heel heights. For each life decade, participants indicated which footwear style they wore most of the time. Foot pain in the past 12 months and hallux valgus were documented by self-report. Logistic regression examined associations between heel height, toe-box shape, foot pain and hallux valgus. Wearing shoes with a high heel and very narrow toe box between the ages of 20 and 29 was common, but decreased to less than 10% by the age of 40. Compared with women who had worn shoes with a very wide toe box, the likelihood of hallux valgus increased in those who had worn shoes with a wide (odds ratio [OR] 1.96, 95% CI 1.03-3.71), narrow (2.39, 1.29-4.42) and very narrow (2.70, 1.46-5.00) toe box between the ages of 20 and 29 and those who wore shoes with a very narrow toe box (1.93, 1.10-3.39) between the ages of 30 and 39. Women wear shoes with a lower heel and broader toe box as they age. Wearing constrictive footwear between the ages of 20 and 39 may be critical for developing hallux valgus in later life. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America.

  10. The effect of shoe design and lateral wedges on knee load and neuromuscular control in healthy subjects during walking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølgaard, Carsten; Kersting, Uwe G.

    2014-01-01

    The increasing number of patients with developing osteoarthritis is accompanied by a growing scientific interest in non-operative early treatment strategies. It is generally believed that laterally wedged insoles can change the distribution of knee loading. However, the importance of footwear...... wedging is effective regardless of shoe design. Differences between the three neutral walking conditions underline the importance of footwear choice in individuals. It is safe to apply lateral wedges without jeopardising muscular control during walking regardless of shoe type. Possible effects of altering...

  11. Exposure to dust and its particle size distribution in shoe manufacture and repair workplaces measured with GRIMM laser dust monitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroszejn-Mrowca, Grazyna; Szadkowska-Stańczyk, Irena

    2003-01-01

    Owing to a diversified technological process and a great variety of products and materials used in shoe manufacture, workers may be exposed to dusts that contain different chemicals and particles of various shapes and sizes. The aim of this study was to assess the dust exposure, taking account of concentration of particular size fractions according to the European Standard Norm, and to analyze particle size distribution in inhalable dust at selected workplaces in a modern shoe manufacture plant and in a small shoe repair workshop in comparison with other industrial branches. In these two workplaces, the concentrations of dust, representing the inhalable, thoracic, and respirable fractions, were measured with the GRIMM 1.105 laser dust monitor. The particle size distribution in inhaled dust in the most characteristic workposts was analyzed. In the shoe manufacture plant, the concentrations ranged from 124 microg/m3 (leather cutting out) to 724 microg/m3 (scouring and milling of soles); concentrations of the thoracic and respirable fractions in the same workposts ranged from 74 microg/m3 to 412 microg/m3 and from 24 microg/m3 to 120 microg/m3, respectively. In the shoe repair workshop, the recorded concentrations were higher: the values ranged from 521 microg/m3 (gluing of shoes and soles, zipper exchange and heel abrasion) to 916 microg/m3 (uppers sewing and heel scouring) for the inhaled fraction; from 335 microg/m3 to 499 microg/m3 for the thoracic fraction; and from 88 microg/m3 to 120 microg/m3 for the respirable fraction. The mass median aerodynamic diameters of inhalable dust particles fell within the limits of 6.2-25.0 mm. Dust with the smallest particles (MMAD = 6.2 mm) was observed in shoe brushing and polishing, and with the largest particles (MMAD = 25.0 mm) in uppers sewing. The modern process of shoe manufacture is characterized by very low concentrations of inhalable dust and its fractions, they are considerably lower than occupational exposure limits

  12. Shoe cleat position during cycling and its effect on subsequent running performance in triathletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viker, Tomas; Richardson, Matt X

    2013-01-01

    Research with cyclists suggests a decreased load on the lower limbs by placing the shoe cleat more posteriorly, which may benefit subsequent running in a triathlon. This study investigated the effect of shoe cleat position during cycling on subsequent running. Following bike-run training sessions with both aft and traditional cleat positions, 13 well-trained triathletes completed a 30 min simulated draft-legal triathlon cycling leg, followed by a maximal 5 km run on two occasions, once with aft-placed and once with traditionally placed cleats. Oxygen consumption, breath frequency, heart rate, cadence and power output were measured during cycling, while heart rate, contact time, 200 m lap time and total time were measured during running. Cardiovascular measures did not differ between aft and traditional cleat placement during the cycling protocol. The 5 km run time was similar for aft and traditional cleat placement, at 1084 ± 80 s and 1072 ± 64 s, respectively, as was contact time during km 1 and 5, and heart rate and running speed for km 5 for the two cleat positions. Running speed during km 1 was 2.1% ± 1.8 faster (P beneficial effects of an aft cleat position on subsequent running in a short distance triathlon.

  13. Hot Shoes in the Room: Authentication of Thermal Imaging for Quantitative Forensic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin H. J. Chua

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal imaging has been a mainstay of military applications and diagnostic engineering. However, there is currently no formalised procedure for the use of thermal imaging capable of standing up to judicial scrutiny. Using a scientifically sound characterisation method, we describe the cooling function of three common shoe types at an ambient room temperature of 22 °C (295 K based on the digital output of a consumer-grade FLIR i50 thermal imager. Our method allows the reliable estimation of cooling time from pixel intensity values within a time interval of 3 to 25 min after shoes have been removed. We found a significant linear relationship between pixel intensity level and temperature. The calibration method allows the replicable determination of independent thermal cooling profiles for objects without the need for emissivity values associated with non-ideal black-body thermal radiation or system noise functions. The method has potential applications for law enforcement and forensic research, such as cross-validating statements about time spent by a person in a room. The use of thermal images can thus provide forensic scientists, law enforcement officials, and legislative bodies with an efficient and cost-effective tool for obtaining and interpreting time-based evidence.

  14. Study on Walking Training System using High-Performance Shoes constructed with Rubber Elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, Y; Kawanaka, S; Doi, S; Kanezaki, K

    2016-01-01

    The number of accidental falls has been increasing among the elderly as society has aged. The main factor is a deteriorating center of balance due to declining physical performance. Another major factor is that the elderly tend to have bowlegged walking and their center of gravity position of the body tend to swing from side to side during walking. To find ways to counteract falls among the elderly, we developed walking training system to treat the gap in the center of balance. We also designed High-Performance Shoes that showed the status of a person's balance while walking. We also produced walk assistance from the insole in which insole stiffness corresponded to human sole distribution could be changed to correct the person's walking status. We constructed our High- Performances Shoes to detect pressure distribution during walking. Comparing normal sole distribution patterns and corrected ones, we confirmed that our assistance system helped change the user's posture, thereby reducing falls among the elderly. (paper)

  15. Novel In-Shoe Exoskeleton for Offloading of Forefoot Pressure for Individuals With Diabetic Foot Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roser, Mark C; Canavan, Paul K; Najafi, Bijan; Cooper Watchman, Marcy; Vaishnav, Kairavi; Armstrong, David G

    2017-09-01

    Infected diabetic foot ulcers are the leading cause of lower limb amputation. This study evaluated the ability of in-shoe exoskeletons to redirect forces outside of body and through an exoskeleton as an effective means of offloading plantar pressure, the major contributing factor of ulceration. We compared pressure in the forefoot and hind-foot of participants (n = 5) shod with novel exoskeleton footwear. Plantar pressure readings were taken during a 6-m walk at participant's self-selected speed, and five strides were averaged. Results were taken with Achilles exotendon springs disengaged as a baseline, followed by measurements taken with the springs engaged. When springs were engaged, all participants demonstrated a decrease in forefoot pressure, averaging a 22% reduction ( P exoskeleton solution. Results suggest that when the novel exoskeletons were deployed in footwear and exotendon springs engaged, force was successfully transferred from the lower leg through the exoskeleton-enabled shoe to ground, reducing load on the forefoot. The results need to be confirmed in a larger sample. Another study is warranted to examine the effectiveness of this offloading to prevent diabetic foot ulcer, while minimizing gait alteration in daily physical activities.

  16. Shoe and field surface risk factors for acute lower extremity injuries among female youth soccer players

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Kane, John W.; Gray, Kristen E.; Levy, Marni R.; Neradilek, Moni; Tencer, Allan F.; Polissar, Nayak L.; Schiff, Melissa A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Describe acute lower extremity injuries and evaluate extrinsic risk factors in female youth soccer Design Nested case-control study Setting Youth soccer clubs in Washington State, USA. Participants Female soccer players (N= 351) ages 11 to 15 years randomly selected from 4 soccer clubs from which 83% of their players were enrolled with complete follow-up for 92% of players. Interventions Injured players were interviewed regarding injury, field surface, shoe type, and position. Uninjured controls, matched on game or practice session, were also interviewed. Main Outcome Measures The association between risk factors and acute lower extremity injury using logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results One hundred seventy-three acute lower extremity injuries occurred involving primarily the ankle (39.3%), knee (24.9%), and thigh (11.0%). Over half (52.9%) recovered within 1 week, while 30.2% lasted beyond 2 weeks. During practices, those injured were approximately 3-fold ( OR 2.83, 95% CI 1.49-5.31) more likely to play on grass than artificial turf and 2.4-fold (95% CI 1.03-5.96) more likely to wear cleats on grass than other shoe and surface combinations. During games injured players were 89% (95% CI 1.03-4.17) more likely to play defender compared to forward. Conclusions Half of the acute lower extremity injuries affected the ankle or knee. Grass surface and wearing cleats on grass increased training injuries. PMID:26327288

  17. Shoe midsole longitudinal bending stiffness and running economy, joint energy, and EMG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Jean-Pierre R; Stefanyshyn, Darren J

    2006-03-01

    It has been shown that mechanical energy is dissipated at the metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint during running and jumping. Furthermore, increasing the longitudinal bending stiffness of the midsole significantly reduced the energy dissipated at the MTP joint and increased jump performance. It was hypothesized that increasing midsole longitudinal bending stiffness would also lead to improvements in running economy. This study investigated the influence of midsole longitudinal bending stiffness on running economy (performance variable) and evaluated the local effects on joint energetics and muscular activity. Carbon fiber plates were inserted into running shoe midsoles and running economy, joint energy, and electromyographic (EMG) data were collected on 13 subjects. Approximately a 1% metabolic energy savings was observed when subjects ran in a stiff midsole relative to the control midsole. Subjects with a greater body mass had a greater decrease in oxygen consumption rates in the stiff midsole relative to the control midsole condition. The stiffer midsoles showed no significant differences in energy absorption at the MTP joint compared with the control shoe. Finally, no significant changes were observed in muscular activation. Increasing midsole longitudinal bending stiffness led to improvements in running economy, yet the underlying mechanisms that can be attributed to this improvement are still not fully understood.

  18. Single leg balancing in ballet: effects of shoe conditions and poses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo da Costa, Paula H; Azevedo Nora, Fernanda G S; Vieira, Marcus Fraga; Bosch, Kerstin; Rosenbaum, Dieter

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the effects of lower limb positioning and shoe conditions on stability levels of selected single leg ballet poses performed in demi-pointe position. Fourteen female non-professional ballet dancers (mean age of 18.4±2.8 years and mean body mass index of 21.5±2.8kg/m(2)) who had practiced ballet for at least seven years, without any musculoskeletal impairment volunteered to participate in this study. A capacitive pressure platform allowed for the assessment of center of pressure variables related to the execution of three single leg ballet poses in demi pointé position: attitude devant, attitude derriére, and attitude a la second. Peak pressures, contact areas, COP oscillation areas, anterior-posterior and medio-lateral COP oscillations and velocities were compared between two shoe conditions (barefoot versus slippers) and among the different poses. Barefoot performances produced more stable poses with significantly higher plantar contact areas, smaller COP oscillation areas and smaller anterior-posterior COP oscillations. COP oscillation areas, anterior-posterior COP oscillations and medio-lateral COP velocities indicated that attitude a la second is the least challenging and attitude derriére the most challenging pose. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A New Error Analysis and Accuracy Synthesis Method for Shoe Last Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bian Xiangjuan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the manufacturing precision of the shoe last machine, a new error-computing model has been put forward to. At first, Based on the special topological structure of the shoe last machine and multi-rigid body system theory, a spatial error-calculating model of the system was built; Then, the law of error distributing in the whole work space was discussed, and the maximum error position of the system was found; At last, The sensitivities of error parameters were analyzed at the maximum position and the accuracy synthesis was conducted by using Monte Carlo method. Considering the error sensitivities analysis, the accuracy of the main parts was distributed. Results show that the probability of the maximal volume error less than 0.05 mm of the new scheme was improved from 0.6592 to 0.7021 than the probability of the old scheme, the precision of the system was improved obviously, the model can be used for the error analysis and accuracy synthesis of the complex multi- embranchment motion chain system, and to improve the system precision of manufacturing.

  20. SPORTS SHOES PURCHASE INTENTION AMONG MALAYSIAN VOLLEYBALL PLAYERS VS. NON-VOLLEYBALL PLAYERS: A CONCEPTUAL PAPER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GOH PIN SIANG

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to advance the understanding of volleyball players’ purchase intention toward sport shoes by investigating the relationship between the independent variables (endorsement, advertising, pricing and electronic word-of-mouth and purchase intention. Descriptive research and causal research will be used as the research design, thus questionnaire and experimentation will be used to obtain data. Primary data in this study is attained by distributing the questionnaire to the Malaysian volleyball players throughout several volleyball tournament venues in Malaysia. The experiment will be conducted by comparing two groups of respondents, including volleyball players and non-volleyball players. This study is limited to several independent variables such as endorsement, advertising, pricing and electronic word-of-mouth. This study is significant for marketers for solving the challenges faced in the sport industry. It also helps to identify consumers’ purchase preferences for sport shoes. The marketer would understand more about their targeted customers’ intentions to purchase, thus the sport industry related with sport marketing in Malaysia might gain more profit.

  1. Work-related depression and associated factors in a shoe manufacturing factory in Haiphong City, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khue Pham Minh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To determine the prevalence and associated factors of work-related depression among the employees of a shoe manufacturing factory in Haiphong City, Vietnam. Material and Methods: We carried out this cross-sectional study among 420 workers in 2012 in Le Lai II Shoe Manufacturing Factory in Haiphong City, Vietnam using Karasek’s Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition (DSM IV tool for measuring depression. Results: The study results show that a relatively high proportion of workers (20.7% belongs to the high-strain group based on Karasek’s model. The prevalence of work-related depression among workers was relatively high (18.8%. The factors associated with depression at work were high psychological demand (adjusted OR = 3.0, 95% CI: 1.1–8.3, low social support (adjusted OR = 4.7, 95% CI: 1.2–12.8, inadequate work protection materials (OR = 4.1, 95% CI: 2.2–10.1 and work absenteeism (OR = 6.2, 95% CI: 2.5–18.9. Conclusions: Strengthening the social support network (involving supervisors and co‑workers, reducing psychological job demand and assuring work protection materials at the workplace may highly facilitate reducing work-related depression.

  2. Validation of Energy Expenditure Prediction Models Using Real-Time Shoe-Based Motion Detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shih-Yun; Lai, Ying-Chih; Hsia, Chi-Chun; Su, Pei-Fang; Chang, Chih-Han

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to verify and compare the accuracy of energy expenditure (EE) prediction models using shoe-based motion detectors with embedded accelerometers. Three physical activity (PA) datasets (unclassified, recognition, and intensity segmentation) were used to develop three prediction models. A multiple classification flow and these models were used to estimate EE. The "unclassified" dataset was defined as the data without PA recognition, the "recognition" as the data classified with PA recognition, and the "intensity segmentation" as the data with intensity segmentation. The three datasets contained accelerometer signals (quantified as signal magnitude area (SMA)) and net heart rate (HR net ). The accuracy of these models was assessed according to the deviation between physically measured EE and model-estimated EE. The variance between physically measured EE and model-estimated EE expressed by simple linear regressions was increased by 63% and 13% using SMA and HR net , respectively. The accuracy of the EE predicted from accelerometer signals is influenced by the different activities that exhibit different count-EE relationships within the same prediction model. The recognition model provides a better estimation and lower variability of EE compared with the unclassified and intensity segmentation models. The proposed shoe-based motion detectors can improve the accuracy of EE estimation and has great potential to be used to manage everyday exercise in real time.

  3. Available friction of ladder shoes and slip potential for climbing on a straight ladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wen-Ruey; Chang, Chien-Chi; Matz, Simon

    2005-07-15

    Straight ladder accidents are a major safety problem. As a leading cause of injuries involving straight ladders, slips at the ladder base occur when the required friction exceeds the available friction at the ladder shoe and floor interface. The objectives of this experiment were to measure the available friction at the base of a portable straight ladder in contact with a floor and to estimate the slip potential of the ladder. The results of friction measurements indicated that the measured friction coefficient on the oily surfaces differed among the six commercially available ladder shoes evaluated. A statistical model was used to compare the available friction results from the current study with the friction requirements under different climbing conditions from a previous study based on their stochastic distributions to estimate the slip potential at the base of the ladder. The results showed that different climbing conditions used in the previous study could be supported by available friction on dry surfaces. However, when the ladder was put onto oily surfaces, resulting in a significant reduction in the available friction due to contamination, slip potential was significantly increased.

  4. Physical Behavior in Older Persons during Daily Life: Insights from Instrumented Shoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Moufawad el Achkar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Activity level and gait parameters during daily life are important indicators for clinicians because they can provide critical insights into modifications of mobility and function over time. Wearable activity monitoring has been gaining momentum in daily life health assessment. Consequently, this study seeks to validate an algorithm for the classification of daily life activities and to provide a detailed gait analysis in older adults. A system consisting of an inertial sensor combined with a pressure sensing insole has been developed. Using an algorithm that we previously validated during a semi structured protocol, activities in 10 healthy elderly participants were recorded and compared to a wearable reference system over a 4 h recording period at home. Detailed gait parameters were calculated from inertial sensors. Dynamics of physical behavior were characterized using barcodes that express the measure of behavioral complexity. Activity classification based on the algorithm led to a 93% accuracy in classifying basic activities of daily life, i.e., sitting, standing, and walking. Gait analysis emphasizes the importance of metrics such as foot clearance in daily life assessment. Results also underline that measures of physical behavior and gait performance are complementary, especially since gait parameters were not correlated to complexity. Participants gave positive feedback regarding the use of the instrumented shoes. These results extend previous observations in showing the concurrent validity of the instrumented shoes compared to a body-worn reference system for daily-life physical behavior monitoring in older adults.

  5. Footloose Shoes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, Jochen

    2003-01-01

    the (partial) geographic fragmentation of local supply chains, dislocating select local parts manufacturers in its wake. The findings suggest that when international competition threatens the viability of local production, firms with the requisite organisational capabilities delocalise parts of the value chain....... This helps them to retain competitive advantages but it also reduces agglomeration. This insight should inform regional development policy.Keywords: Industrial districts, footwear industry, international competition, delocalisation......ABSTRACTThe paper analyses the effect on manufacturers in Italy's footwear districts of international competition, and investigates the underresearched nature of the link between international competition and the internal cohesion of districts. It addresses if and how global competition provokes...

  6. A method to investigate the effect of shoe-hole size on surface marker movement when describing in-shoe joint kinematics using a multi-segment foot model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Chris; Arnold, John B; Fraysse, Francois; Thewlis, Dominic

    2015-01-01

    To investigate in-shoe foot kinematics, holes are often cut in the shoe upper to allow markers to be placed on the skin surface. However, there is currently a lack of understanding as to what is an appropriate size. This study aimed to demonstrate a method to assess whether different diameter holes were large enough to allow free motion of marker wands mounted on the skin surface during walking using a multi-segment foot model. Eighteen participants underwent an analysis of foot kinematics whilst walking barefoot and wearing shoes with different size holes (15 mm, 20mm and 25 mm). The analysis was conducted in two parts; firstly the trajectory of the individual skin-mounted markers were analysed in a 2D ellipse to investigate total displacement of each marker during stance. Secondly, a geometrical analysis was conducted to assess cluster deformation of the hindfoot and midfoot-forefoot segments. Where movement of the markers in the 15 and 20mm conditions were restricted, the marker movement in the 25 mm condition did not exceed the radius at any anatomical location. Despite significant differences in the isotropy index of the medial and lateral calcaneus markers between the 25 mm and barefoot conditions, the differences were due to the effect of footwear on the foot and not a result of the marker wands hitting the shoe upper. In conclusion, the method proposed and results can be used to increase confidence in the representativeness of joint kinematics with respect to in-shoe multi-segment foot motion during walking. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation and Optimization of Therapeutic Footwear for Neuropathic Diabetic Foot Patients Using In-Shoe Plantar Pressure Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bus, Sicco A.; Haspels, Rob; Busch-Westbroek, Tessa E.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Therapeutic footwear for diabetic foot patients aims to reduce the risk of ulceration by relieving mechanical pressure on the foot. However, footwear efficacy is generally not assessed in clinical practice. The purpose of this study was to assess the value of in-shoe plantar pressure analysis to evaluate and optimize the pressure-reducing effects of diabetic therapeutic footwear. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Dynamic in-shoe plantar pressure distribution was measured in 23 neuropathic diabetic foot patients wearing fully customized footwear. Regions of interest (with peak pressure >200 kPa) were selected and targeted for pressure optimization by modifying the shoe or insole. After each of a maximum of three rounds of modifications, the effect on in-shoe plantar pressure was measured. Successful optimization was achieved with a peak pressure reduction of >25% (criterion A) or below an absolute level of 200 kPa (criterion B). RESULTS In 35 defined regions, mean peak pressure was significantly reduced from 303 (SD 77) to 208 (46) kPa after an average 1.6 rounds of footwear modifications (P diabetic foot. This result provides an objective approach to instantly improve footwear quality, which should reduce the risk for pressure-related plantar foot ulcers. PMID:21610125

  8. Allergic contact dermatitis caused by dimethylthiocarbamylbenzothiazole sulfide (DMTBS) in canvas shoes : in search of the culprit allergen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuttelaar, Marie L; Meijer, Joost M; Engfeldt, Malin; Lapeere, Hilde; Goossens, An; Bruze, Magnus; Persson, Christina; Bergendorff, Ola

    Background. During rubber vulcanization, new compounds can be formed. Objectives. To report a case of allergic shoe dermatitis in which the search for the allergen ultimately led to the identification of dimethylthiocarbamylbenzothiazole sulfide (DMTBS). Methods. A female presented with eczema on

  9. Questionnaire for usability evaluation of orthopaedic shoes: construction and reliability in patients with degenerative disorders of the foot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jannink, M.J.A.; de Vries, Jaap; Stewart, Roy E.; Groothoff, Johan W.; Lankhorst, Gustaaf J.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To develop a self-report questionnaire for patients with degenerative disorders of the foot to evaluate the usability of their orthopaedic shoes, and to assess the reproducibility and responsiveness of the instrument. Design: Development of the Questionnaire for Usability Evaluation of

  10. The effect of gait training with shoe inserts on the improvement of pain and gait in sacroiliac joint patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Byung-Yun; Yoon, Jung-Gyu

    2015-08-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the current research was to identify how gait training with shoe inserts affects the pain and gait of sacroiliac joint dysfunction patients. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty subjects were randomly selected and assigned to be either the experimental group (gait training with shoe insert group) or control group. Each group consisted of 15 patients. Pain was measured by Visual Analogue Scale, and foot pressure in a standing position and during gait was measured with a Gateview AFA-50 system (Alpus, Seoul, Republic of Korea). A paired sample t-test was used to compare the pain and gait of the sacroiliac joint before and after the intervention. Correlation between pain and walking after gait training with shoe inserts was examined by Pearson test. The level of significance was set at α=0.05. [Results] It was found that application of the intervention to the experimental group resulted in a significant decrease in sacroiliac joint pain. It was also found that there was a significant correlation between Visual Analogue Scale score and dynamic asymmetric index (r= 0.796) and that there was a negative correlation between Visual Analogue Scale score and forefoot/rear foot peak pressure ratio (r=-0.728). [Conclusion] The results of our analysis lead us to conclude that the intervention with shoe inserts had a significant influence on the pain and gait of sacroiliac joint patients.

  11. Questionnaire for usability evaluation of orthopaedic shoes : Construction and reliability in patients with degenerative disorders of the foot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jannink, MJA; de Vries, J; Stewart, RE; Groothoff, JW; Lankhorst, GJ

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To develop a self-report questionnaire for patients with degenerative disorders of the foot to evaluate the usability of their orthopaedic shoes, and to assess the reproducibility and responsiveness of the instrument. Design: Development of the Questionnaire for Usability Evaluation of

  12. Questionnaire for usability evaluation of orthopaedic shoes : Construction and reliability in patients with degenerative disorders of the foot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jannink, MJA; de Vries, J; Stewart, RE; Groothoff, JW; Lankhorst, GJ

    Objective: To develop a self-report questionnaire for patients with degenerative disorders of the foot to evaluate the usability of their orthopaedic shoes, and to assess the reproducibility and responsiveness of the instrument. Design: Development of the Questionnaire for Usability Evaluation of

  13. Immediate effects of EVA midsole resilience and upper shoe structure on running biomechanics: a machine learning approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea N. Onodera

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Resilience of midsole material and the upper structure of the shoe are conceptual characteristics that can interfere in running biomechanics patterns. Artificial intelligence techniques can capture features from the entire waveform, adding new perspective for biomechanical analysis. This study tested the influence of shoe midsole resilience and upper structure on running kinematics and kinetics of non-professional runners by using feature selection, information gain, and artificial neural network analysis. Methods Twenty-seven experienced male runners (63 ± 44 km/week run ran in four-shoe design that combined two resilience-cushioning materials (low and high and two uppers (minimalist and structured. Kinematic data was acquired by six infrared cameras at 300 Hz, and ground reaction forces were acquired by two force plates at 1,200 Hz. We conducted a Machine Learning analysis to identify features from the complete kinematic and kinetic time series and from 42 discrete variables that had better discriminate the four shoes studied. For that analysis, we built an input data matrix of dimensions 1,080 (10 trials × 4 shoes × 27 subjects × 1,254 (3 joints × 3 planes of movement × 101 data points + 3 vectors forces × 101 data points + 42 discrete calculated kinetic and kinematic features. Results The applied feature selection by information gain and artificial neural networks successfully differentiated the two resilience materials using 200(16% biomechanical variables with an accuracy of 84.8% by detecting alterations of running biomechanics, and the two upper structures with an accuracy of 93.9%. Discussion The discrimination of midsole resilience resulted in lower accuracy levels than did the discrimination of the shoe uppers. In both cases, the ground reaction forces were among the 25 most relevant features. The resilience of the cushioning material caused significant effects on initial heel impact, while the effects

  14. Immediate effects of EVA midsole resilience and upper shoe structure on running biomechanics: a machine learning approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onodera, Andrea N; Gavião Neto, Wilson P; Roveri, Maria Isabel; Oliveira, Wagner R; Sacco, Isabel Cn

    2017-01-01

    Resilience of midsole material and the upper structure of the shoe are conceptual characteristics that can interfere in running biomechanics patterns. Artificial intelligence techniques can capture features from the entire waveform, adding new perspective for biomechanical analysis. This study tested the influence of shoe midsole resilience and upper structure on running kinematics and kinetics of non-professional runners by using feature selection, information gain, and artificial neural network analysis. Twenty-seven experienced male runners (63 ± 44 km/week run) ran in four-shoe design that combined two resilience-cushioning materials (low and high) and two uppers (minimalist and structured). Kinematic data was acquired by six infrared cameras at 300 Hz, and ground reaction forces were acquired by two force plates at 1,200 Hz. We conducted a Machine Learning analysis to identify features from the complete kinematic and kinetic time series and from 42 discrete variables that had better discriminate the four shoes studied. For that analysis, we built an input data matrix of dimensions 1,080 (10 trials × 4 shoes × 27 subjects) × 1,254 (3 joints × 3 planes of movement × 101 data points + 3 vectors forces × 101 data points + 42 discrete calculated kinetic and kinematic features). The applied feature selection by information gain and artificial neural networks successfully differentiated the two resilience materials using 200(16%) biomechanical variables with an accuracy of 84.8% by detecting alterations of running biomechanics, and the two upper structures with an accuracy of 93.9%. The discrimination of midsole resilience resulted in lower accuracy levels than did the discrimination of the shoe uppers. In both cases, the ground reaction forces were among the 25 most relevant features. The resilience of the cushioning material caused significant effects on initial heel impact, while the effects of different uppers were distributed along the

  15. The effect of the heel- to- toe rocker shoe on moments of ankle joint and temporal-spatial of gait in female student

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    masoomeh Veiskarami

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Rocker shoes are the most commonly prescribed external therapeutic shoe modification and are used for treatment of the ankle and midfoot problems. The aim of this study was to assesse the effects of the heel- to-toe rocker shoes on temporal-spatial and ankle joint moments in sagital and frontal plane. Materials and Methods: In this quasi-exprimental study, three-dimentional gait analysis was carried out on 20 healthy university female students with normal normal gait pattern selected by convenience sampling method. A Vicon 470 system(Oxford Metrix, U.K. consisting of 6 cameras operating at 60Hz and kistler forceplate (A9286 was used.The paired samples T test was used to statistical analysis. Results: The results showed that there is no significant change in temporal-spatial parameters while wearing this modified shoe ,but the ankle moments while wearing rocker shoes in sagittal plane was significantly less than that while wearing traditional shoes(p=0.002 but in frontal plane significantly increased(p=0.007. Conclusion: Based on the current findings the major benefits of this modified shoe appear to be significantly restricted sagital plane moments with maintenance of walking speed so the loads on ankle joint and achilles tendon reduced, but increases frontal plain moments which leads to increase of mediolateral instability of ankle joint.

  16. Influence of running shoes and cross-trainers on Achilles tendon forces during running compared with military boots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Jonathan; Taylor, P J; Atkins, S

    2015-06-01

    Military recruits are known to be susceptible to Achilles tendon pathology. The British Army have introduced footwear models, the PT-03 (cross-trainer) and PT1000 (running shoes), in an attempt to reduce the incidence of injuries. The aim of the current investigation was to examine the Achilles tendon forces of the cross-trainer and running shoe in relation to conventional army boots. Ten male participants ran at 4.0 m/s in each footwear condition. Achilles tendon forces were obtained throughout the stance phase of running and compared using repeated-measures ANOVAs. The results showed that the time to peak Achilles tendon force was significantly shorter when running in conventional army boots (0.12 s) in comparison with the cross-trainer (0.13 s) and running shoe (0.13 s). Achilles tendon loading rate was shown to be significantly greater in conventional army boots (38.73 BW/s) in comparison with the cross-trainer (35.14 BW/s) and running shoe (33.57 BW/s). The results of this study suggest that the running shoes and cross-trainer footwear are associated with reductions in Achilles tendon parameters that have been linked to the aetiology of injury, and thus it can be hypothesised that these footwear could be beneficial for military recruits undertaking running exercises. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  17. A prospective study of floor surface, shoes, floor cleaning and slipping in US limited-service restaurant workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Santosh K; Chang, Wen Ruey; Courtney, Theodore K; Lombardi, David A; Huang, Yueng-Hsiang; Brennan, Melanye J; Mittleman, Murray A; Ware, James H; Perry, Melissa J

    2011-04-01

    Slips and falls are a leading cause of injury at work. Few studies, however, have systematically examined risk factors of slipping outside the laboratory environment. This study examined the association between floor surface characteristics, slip-resistant shoes, floor cleaning frequency and the risk of slipping in limited-service restaurant workers. 475 workers from 36 limited-service restaurants from three major chains in six states in the USA were recruited to participate in a prospective cohort study of workplace slipping. Kitchen floor surface roughness and coefficient of friction (COF) were measured in eight working areas and then averaged within each restaurant. The use of slip-resistant shoes was determined by examining the participant's shoes and noting the presence of a 'slip-resistant' marking on the sole. Restaurant managers reported the frequency of daily kitchen floor cleaning. Participants reported their slip experience and work hours weekly for up to 12 weeks. The survey materials were made available in three languages: English, Spanish and Portuguese. The associations between rate of slipping and risk factors were assessed using a multivariable negative binomial generalised estimating equation model. The mean of individual slipping rate varied among the restaurants from 0.02 to 2.49 slips per 40 work hours. After adjusting for age, gender, BMI, education, primary language, job tenure and restaurant chain, the use of slip-resistant shoes was associated with a 54% reduction in the reported rate of slipping (95% CI 37% to 64%), and the rate of slipping decreased by 21% (95% CI 5% to 34%) for each 0.1 increase in the mean kitchen COF. Increasing floor cleaning frequency was significantly associated with a decreasing rate of slipping when considered in isolation but not after statistical adjustment for other factors. These results provide support for the use of slip-resistant shoes and measures to increase COF as preventive interventions to reduce slips

  18. The reliability, accuracy and minimal detectable difference of a multi-segment kinematic model of the foot-shoe complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Chris; Paul, Gunther; Thewlis, Dominic

    2013-04-01

    Kinematic models are commonly used to quantify foot and ankle kinematics, yet no marker sets or models have been proven reliable or accurate when wearing shoes. Further, the minimal detectable difference of a developed model is often not reported. We present a kinematic model that is reliable, accurate and sensitive to describe the kinematics of the foot-shoe complex and lower leg during walking gait. In order to achieve this, a new marker set was established, consisting of 25 markers applied on the shoe and skin surface, which informed a four segment kinematic model of the foot-shoe complex and lower leg. Three independent experiments were conducted to determine the reliability, accuracy and minimal detectable difference of the marker set and model. Inter-rater reliability of marker placement on the shoe was proven to be good to excellent (ICC=0.75-0.98) indicating that markers could be applied reliably between raters. Intra-rater reliability was better for the experienced rater (ICC=0.68-0.99) than the inexperienced rater (ICC=0.38-0.97). The accuracy of marker placement along each axis was <6.7 mm for all markers studied. Minimal detectable difference (MDD90) thresholds were defined for each joint; tibiocalcaneal joint--MDD90=2.17-9.36°, tarsometatarsal joint--MDD90=1.03-9.29° and the metatarsophalangeal joint--MDD90=1.75-9.12°. These thresholds proposed are specific for the description of shod motion, and can be used in future research designed at comparing between different footwear. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Value generation in the context of manufacturing strategy: an analysis in shoe manufactories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Evangelista Silva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The manufacturing function has the role of provide to the customers products with generate value. However this task is not unique of this function, it has to work with the functions research and development (R&D and marketing and sales (M&S. This paper call these three functions as generating value functions, and discuss their mutual role in the process of generating value in the products of a firm. The validation of this model is performed by three comparative case studies, conducted in three shoe manufactories (SMs, with different value generation strategies. The empirical study shows that the mutual role of generating value functions in the value generating process, and that the configuration and the relative role of each function change according to the firm strategy followed.

  20. Plantar pressure measurements. Rational shoe-wear in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, J P

    1976-03-15

    Objective measurements of forefoot plantar pressures were taken on 25 patients with rheumatoid arthritis. The Harris mat footprint test and the Brand slipper sock test were used to assess both compressive shearing forces. The Harris mat footprint test is a static used when the patient is unshod. The Brand slipper sock test is a dynamic test used while the shoe is worn. An experimental sandal was designed and used for the treatment of symptomatic forefoot callosities. The Harris mat footprint test results improved dramatically after the patients had worn an experimental sandal for six months. The Brand slipper sock test results showed marked diminution in the pressure profile while the patients wore the experimental sandal. All of the patients improved in their functional abilities while wearing the experimental sandal.

  1. Modified distal shoe appliance for the loss of a primary second molar: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhull, Kanika Singh; Bhojraj, Nandlal; Yadav, Shweta; Prabhakaran, Sheeja Devi

    2011-01-01

    Preservation of primary teeth until their normal exfoliation plays a crucial role in preventive and interceptive dentistry. Premature loss of the primary second molar prior to the eruption of the permanent first molar in the absence of the primary second molar can lead to mesial movement and migration of the permanent molar before and during its eruption. In such cases, an intra-alveolar type of space maintainer to guide the eruption of the permanent first molar is indicated. In certain cases, however, the conventional design is not practical. This paper describes a new design for distal shoe appliances in cases of primary second molar loss prior to the eruption of the permanent mandibular first molar.

  2. The influence of store image on customer satisfaction: a case study of a shoe store

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarsis Souza Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of customers' image of a store is an essential factor in the management of retail outlets. This article presents a case study of the effect of the image customers have of a shoe store on their satisfaction, based on a descriptive and quantitative survey, with the application of a structured questionnaire. We then employed factor analysis to obtain seven store image factors: assortment, convenience, reputation, price, atmosphere, layout and service. The results show that the factor that most affects customer satisfaction in the store studied is service, and that atmosphere and layout have no effect in this respect. The results provide a better understanding of the role store image plays in customer satisfaction and loyalty.

  3. 49 CFR 238.313 - Class I brake test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... intercity passenger train shall receive a Class I brake test once each calendar day that the train is placed...-distance intercity passenger train shall receive a Class I brake test: (1) Prior to the train's departure... shoes or pads are firmly seated against the wheel or disc with the brakes applied; (3) Piston travel is...

  4. Why forefoot striking in minimal shoes might positively change the course of running injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene S. Davis

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available It is believed that human ancestors evolved the ability to run bipedally approximately 2 million years ago. This form of locomotion may have been important to our survival and likely has influenced the evolution of our body form. As our bodies have adapted to run, it seems unusual that up to 79% of modern day runners are injured annually. The etiology of these injuries is clearly multifactorial. However, 1 aspect of running that has significantly changed over the past 50 years is the footwear we use. Modern running shoes have become increasingly cushioned and supportive, and have changed the way we run. In particular, they have altered our footstrike pattern from a predominantly forefoot strike (FFS landing to a predominantly rearfoot strike (RFS landing. This change alters the way in which the body is loaded and may be contributing to the high rate of injuries runners experience while engaged in an activity for which they were adapted. In this paper, we will examine the benefits of barefoot running (typically an FFS pattern, and compare the lower extremity mechanics between FFS and RFS. The implications of these mechanical differences, in terms of injury, will be discussed. We will then provide evidence to support our contention that FFS provides an optimal mechanical environment for specific foot and ankle structures, such as the heel pad, the plantar fascia, and the Achilles tendon. The importance of footwear will then be addressed, highlighting its interaction with strike pattern on mechanics. This analysis will underscore why footwear matters when assessing mechanics. Finally, proper preparation and safe transition to an FFS pattern in minimal shoes will be emphasized. Through the discussion of the current literature, we will develop a justification for returning to running in the way for which we were adapted to reduce running-related injuries.

  5. Effects of shoe sole geometry on toe clearance and walking stability in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thies, S B; Price, C; Kenney, L P J; Baker, R

    2015-07-01

    Thirty-five percent of people above age 65 fall each year, and half of their falls are associated with tripping: tripping, an apparently 'mundane' everyday problem, therefore, significantly impacts on older people's health and associated medical costs. To avoid tripping and subsequent falling, sufficient toe clearance during the swing phase is crucial. We previously found that a rocker-shaped shoe sole enhances toe clearance in young adults, thereby decreasing their trip-risk. This study investigates whether such sole design also enhances older adults' toe clearance, without inadvertently affecting their walking stability. Toe clearance and its variability are reported together with measures of walking stability for twelve older adults, walking in shoes with rocker angles of 10°, 15°, and 20°. Surface inclinations (flat, incline, decline) were chosen to reflect a potential real-world environment. Toe clearance increased substantially from the 10° to the 15° rocker angle (p=0.003) without compromising measures of walking stability (p>0.05). A further increase in rocker angle to 20° resulted in less substantial enhancement of toe clearance and came at the cost of a decrease in gait speed on the decline. The novelty of this investigation lies in the exploration of the trade-off between reduction of trip-risk through footwear design and adverse effects on walking stability on real-life relevant surfaces. Our two studies suggest that the current focus on slip-resistance in footwear design may need to be generalised to include other factors that affect trip-risk. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Establishing state of motion through two-dimensional foot and shoe print analysis: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Fernando Bueno; Arnold, Graham P; Nasir, Sadiq; Wang, Weijie; MacDonald, Calum; Christie, Ian; Abboud, Rami J

    2018-03-01

    According to the College of Podiatry, footprints rank among the most frequent forms of evidence found at crime scenes, and the recent ascension of forensic podiatry reflects the importance of footwear and barefoot traces in contemporary forensic practice. In this context, this pilot study focused on whether it is possible to distinguish between walking and running states using parameters derived from two-dimensional foot or shoe prints. Eleven subjects moved along four tracks (barefoot walking; barefoot running; footwear walking; footwear running) while having their bare feet or footwear stained with artificial blood and their footstep patterns recorded. Contact stains and associated bloodstain patterns were collected, and body movements were recorded through three-dimensional motion capture. Barefoot walking prints were found to be larger than barefoot static prints (1.789±0.481cm; pprints (0.635±0.405cm; p=0.006). No correlation was observed for footwear prints. Running trials were more associated with the presence of both passive and cast off stains than walking trials, and the quantity of additional associated stains surrounding individual foot and shoe prints was also higher in running states. Furthermore, a previously proposed equation predicted speed with a high degree of accuracy (within 6%) and may be used for clinical assessment of walking speed. Contact stains, associated bloodstain patterns and stride length measurements may serve to ascertain state of motion in real crime scene scenarios, and future studies may be capable of designing statistical frameworks which could be used in courts of law. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The design of brake fatigue testing system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang, Xiaoya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Brake is used to reduce the operating speed of the machinery equipment or to make it stop. It is essential for vehicles, climbing machines and many fixed equipment in their safety work. Brake tester is an experimental apparatus to measure and analyse the braking performance. Based on the PLC technology and for the purpose of testing brake shoe friction material’s life, this paper designed a virtual brake test platform. In it, inverter were used to control the motor, so that it can load automatically and ensure brake drum constant speed output; what is more, closed loop control system were used to control the brake shoe, so that the cylinder pressure keeps stable in the process of dynamic braking.

  8. A novel magnet based 3D printed marker wand as basis for repeated in-shoe multi segment foot analysis: a proof of concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eerdekens, Maarten; Staes, Filip; Pilkington, Thomas; Deschamps, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    Application of in-shoe multi-segment foot kinematic analyses currently faces a number of challenges, including: (i) the difficulty to apply regular markers onto the skin, (ii) the necessity for an adequate shoe which fits various foot morphologies and (iii) the need for adequate repeatability throughout a repeated measure condition. The aim of this study therefore was to design novel magnet based 3D printed markers for repeated in-shoe measurements while using accordingly adapted modified shoes for a specific multi-segment foot model. Multi-segment foot kinematics of ten participants were recorded and kinematics of hindfoot, midfoot and forefoot were calculated. Dynamic trials were conducted to check for intra and inter-session repeatability when combining novel markers and modified shoes in a repeated measures design. Intraclass correlation coefficients were calculated to determine reliability. Both repeatability and reliability were proven to be good to excellent with maximum joint angle deviations of 1.11° for intra-session variability and 1.29° for same-day inter-session variability respectively and ICC values of >0.91. The novel markers can be reliably used in future research settings using in-shoe multi-segment foot kinematic analyses with multiple shod conditions.

  9. Influence of dorsiflexion shoes on neuromuscular fatigue of the plantar flexors after combined tapping-jumping exercises in volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapole, Thomas; Ahmaidi, Said; Gaillien, Benjamin; Leprêtre, Pierre-Marie

    2013-07-01

    Dorsiflexion shoes could be useful to increase jumping performance. The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of wearing shoes inducing moderate dorsiflexion (2°) on neuromuscular fatigue induced by volleyball exercises involving multiple stretch-shortening cycles. Squat jump (SJ) and countermovement jump (CMJ) performance, and plantar flexors isometric voluntary and evoked contractile properties were assessed in 10 unfamiliarized trained volleyball players before and after a 10-minute intensive combined tapping-jumping volleyball exercise performed, in blinded randomized conditions, with neutral (0°) or moderate dorsiflexion (2°). No significant difference was observed on SJ performance in neutral and moderate dorsiflexion conditions. However, CMJ height was initially lower with 2° dorsiflexion compared with 0° (p volleyball exercise also induced a significant decrease in maximal voluntary contraction (p volleyball players.

  10. Characterisation of Q and T steel pole shoes manufactured by sand casting; Charakterisierung mit Sandguss hergestellter Polschuhe aus verguetetem Stahl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asensio-Lozano, J.; Alvarez-Antolin, J.F. [Oviedo Univ. (Spain). Dept. of Materials Science and Metallurgical Engineering; Panta-Mesones, J.T. [National Univ. of Trujillo, La Libertad (Peru). Faculty of Mines, Metallurgy and Materials; Vander-Voort, G.F. [Buehler Ltd., Lake Bluff, IL (United States)

    2008-04-15

    This paper presents a study of the microstructural and mechanical characterization of the GS 35 CrMoV 10 4 alloy employed in the manufacture of sand-cast pole shoes for 4-pole synchronous electric power generators working at a frequency of 60 Hz. In addition, the most appropriate treatment for ensuring compliance with the technical specifications defined in DIN Standard No. 1.7755 has been designed. (orig.)

  11. The Effect of Shoe Sole Tread Groove Depth on the Gait Parameters during Walking on Dry and Slippery Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ziaei

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prevention of slipping accidents requires provision of adequate friction through the use of suitable combinations of footwear and underfoot surfaces. Shoe sole tread groove is one of the important factors on friction coefficient during walking. Objective: To measure the effect of different shoe sole tread groove depths and different surfaces on the required quotient of friction (Q, heel strike velocity and occurrence time of ground reaction forces (GRF in stance phase during walking on slippery and dry surfaces. Methods: In this semi-experimental study, 22 healthy men were studied under different conditions. The studied independent variables were shoe groove depths (included 1, 2.5 and 5 mm and type of walking surface (dry and slippery. Biomechanical gait analysis was carried out with 396 single steps. Data were collected by motion analysis system and two force platform. Results: The occurrence time of GRF was significantly faster on dry surface than slippery surface (p<0.01. Q was significantly lower on slippery surface and with groove depths of 1 and 2.5 mm. The highest value of Q was observed with the deepest groove depth of 5 mm. Heel strike velocity did not differ significantly in the 6 conditions tested. Conclusion: Tread groove depth is a significant factor affecting the Q at the shoes-surface interface on dry and slippery floors. It seems that deeper groove is more appropriate for maintaining the stability during walking. The walking surface affects the occurrence time of GRF; the force components occur sooner on the dry than slippery surface.

  12. Shoe factories VOC emission factors assessment in the main italian shoe manufacturing pole; La stima dei fattori di emissione di SOV dei calzaturifici del principale polo calzaturiero italiano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunghi, S. [Urbino Univ., Urbino (Italy). Centro per la Diffusione della Cultura e delle Tecnologie Ambientali

    2001-03-01

    In 1991, 1.1 thousand million footwears have been produced in the European Union. Italy is the most important manufacturing pole with 411 million pairs produced. In Italy, the region Marche holds the manufacture supremacy (provinces of Macerata and Ascoli Piceno) with a production share of 27 {+-} 5 %; that means about 89-129 million pairs produced in 1999 and about 38.000 workers employed. During a research program ordered by the region Marche to the Diffusion Centre of the Environmental Culture and Technology, Urbino University of Studies, the VOC emission factors relevant to footwears manufacture cycle (except those of soles manufacture) have been assessed. The assessment was carried on the basis of emissions in the atmosphere, on basis of industrial accounting data directly acquired among a shoe-factories sample, and on basis of a wide statistic sample of technical reports according emissions local regulations. Such results may be useful both for the drawing up of guidelines for the emissions authorizations and as fundamental components of LCA (Life Cycle Analysis) footwear inventories. [Italian] Nel 1991 sono state prodotte nell'Unione Europea 1,1 miliardi di calzature. L'Italia e' la piu' importante produttrice con 411 milioni di paia. In Italia le Marche detengono il primato di produzione (provincie di Macerata ed Ascoli Piceno), con una quota di produzione pari al 27 {+-} 5 %, equivalente a circa 89-129 milioni di paia prodotte nel 1999, e con una forza lavoro complessiva di quasi 38.000 addetti. Nel corso di un programma di ricerca commissionato dalla regione Marche al Centro per la diffusione della Cultura e delle Tecnologie Ambientali dell'Universita' degli Studi di Urbino, sono stati stimati i fattori di emissione di SOV relativi al ciclo di produzione delle calzature (ad esclusione della produzione delle suole), sulla base di un vasto campione statistico di analisi alle emissioni in atmosfera, sulla base di dati di

  13. The effect of shoe type on static and dynamic balance during treadmill walking in young healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi-Kyoung; Kong, Byung-Sun; Yoo, Kyung-Tae

    2017-09-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of various shoes on the static and dynamic balance of young women in their 20s. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of the study were 15 healthy young women and repeated measured design. The subjects walked on the treadmill at a speed of 4 km/h for 30 minutes wearing three types of shoes: sneaker, rain boots, and combat boots. Balance was measured by a Romberg test and a limits of stability test. One-way ANOVA was used for statistical analysis. [Results] As the results of the Romberg test, the main effect of time was shown in the EO-COG area, EO-COG length, and EO-COG velocity. As the results of the limits of stability test, the main effects of time in LT, RT, FW, and total. There were significant differences in the LT in the sneaker group, the rain boots group, and the LT and RT in the combat boots group between the pre- and post-test. [Conclusion] The characteristics of shoes such as the materials, hardness, and thickness of the soles, the coefficient of friction of the outsoles, and the collar height affected the static and dynamic balance.

  14. Influence of the Heel-to-Toe Drop of Standard Cushioned Running Shoes on Injury Risk in Leisure-Time Runners: A Randomized Controlled Trial With 6-Month Follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malisoux, Laurent; Chambon, Nicolas; Urhausen, Axel; Theisen, Daniel

    2016-11-01

    Modern running shoes are available in a wide range of heel-to-toe drops (ie, the height difference between the forward and rear parts of the inside of the shoe). While shoe drop has been shown to influence strike pattern, its effect on injury risk has never been investigated. Therefore, the reasons for such variety in this parameter are unclear. The first aim of this study was to determine whether the drop of standard cushioned running shoes influences running injury risk. The secondary aim was to investigate whether recent running regularity modifies the relationship between shoe drop and injury risk. Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 1. Leisure-time runners (N = 553) were observed for 6 months after having received a pair of shoes with a heel-to-toe drop of 10 mm (D10), 6 mm (D6), or 0 mm (D0). All participants reported their running activities and injuries (time-loss definition, at least 1 day) in an electronic system. Cox regression analyses were used to compare injury risk between the 3 groups based on hazard rate ratios (HRs) and their 95% CIs. A stratified analysis was conducted to evaluate the effect of shoe drop in occasional runners (running regularity, low-drop shoes (D6 and D0) were found to be associated with a lower injury risk in occasional runners (HR, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.23-0.98), whereas these shoes were associated with a higher injury risk in regular runners (HR, 1.67; 95% CI, 1.07-2.62). Overall, injury risk was not modified by the drop of standard cushioned running shoes. However, low-drop shoes could be more hazardous for regular runners, while these shoes seem to be preferable for occasional runners to limit injury risk. © 2016 The Author(s).

  15. Does a 4–6 Week Shoeing Interval Promote Optimal Foot Balance in the Working Equine?

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    Kirsty Leśniak

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Variation in equine hoof conformation between farriery interventions lacks research, despite associations with distal limb injuries. This study aimed to determine linear and angular hoof variations pre- and post-farriery within a four to six week shoeing/trimming interval. Seventeen hoof and distal limb measurements were drawn from lateral and anterior digital photographs from 26 horses pre- and post-farriery. Most lateral view variables changed significantly. Reductions of the dorsal wall, and weight bearing and coronary band lengths resulted in an increased vertical orientation of the hoof. The increased dorsal hoof wall angle, heel angle, and heel height illustrated this further, improving dorsopalmar alignment. Mediolateral measurements of coronary band and weight bearing lengths reduced, whilst medial and lateral wall lengths from the 2D images increased, indicating an increased vertical hoof alignment. Additionally, dorsopalmar balance improved. However, the results demonstrated that a four to six week interval is sufficient for a palmer shift in the centre of pressure, increasing the loading on acutely inclined heels, altering DIP angulation, and increasing the load on susceptible structures (e.g., DDFT. Mediolateral variable asymmetries suit the lateral hoof landing and unrollment pattern of the foot during landing. The results support regular (four to six week farriery intervals for the optimal prevention of excess loading of palmar limb structures, reducing long-term injury risks through cumulative, excessive loading.

  16. The computer-assisted interview In My Shoes can benefit shy preschool children's communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salari, Raziye; Eriksson, Maria; Sarkadi, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Interviewing children is a cognitively, socially, and emotionally challenging situation, especially for young and shy children. Thus, finding methods that aid rapport and increase these children’s communication is important. The present study investigated whether children’s verbal and non-verbal communicative behavior developed differently during the rapport phase, depending on whether children were situationally shy or not, and whether the interview was conducted using the computer-assisted interview In My Shoes (IMS) or a Standard verbal interview. The sample consisted of 60 children aged 4 to 5-years-old. The results showed that for the shy children in the IMS group their talkativeness increased and their answer latency decreased including the amount of encouragement the child needed to talk, while no changes were observed for the shy children in the Standard verbal interview group. There were no significant differences in the non-verbal behavior for the shy children regardless of the interview method used. For the non-shy children, overall, the interview method did not affect either the verbal or the non-verbal outcomes. Our findings indicate that IMS can be a useful tool during the rapport-building phase with shy children as it helps these children to improve their verbal communication. PMID:28813534

  17. Communicating Sustainable Shoes to Mainstream Consumers: The Impact of Advertisement Design on Buying Intention

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    Mirjam Visser

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, marketing of sustainable products addresses green buyers, thus missing out on the mainstream consumers and volume necessary to cover the potentially higher cost of more sustainable materials. However, how to effectively communicate more sustainable products to mainstream consumers and to increase their buying intention is still underexplored. Combining personal and environmental benefits, called double benefit theory, is promoted as an effective green marketing strategy but so far not supported by quantitative research as being effective to reach mainstream consumers. We studied the effect of advertisement elements (layout color, benefit type, and heritage on the products’ perceived sustainability, quality and fashion image, and buying intentions of mainstream consumers. Two hundred adults participated in a study that was based on a 2 (red vs. green layout × 2 (personal vs. environmental benefit × 2 (local vs. global heritage between-subjects factorial design of a sustainable shoe advertisement. The impact of these independent variables on product image as well as on buying intention was analyzed by means of three-way ANOVAs. In line with the double benefit theory, combining a personal benefit with a green layout led to the highest buying intention. Moreover, a mediation analysis revealed the effect of emphasizing a personal benefit on buying intention was mediated by fashion image but not by sustainability. Sustainability, however, did have a positive effect on buying intentions independent of benefit type.

  18. Walking a mile in another's shoes: The impact of wearing an Age Suit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavallière, Martin; D'Ambrosio, Lisa; Gennis, Angelina; Burstein, Arielle; Godfrey, Kathryn M; Waerstad, Hilde; Puleo, Rozanne M; Lauenroth, Andreas; Coughlin, Joseph F

    2017-01-01

    The "Age Suit" described in this article was developed to enable future designers, business leaders, and engineers to experience navigating the world as many older adults must. Tools such as this Age Suit offer the opportunity to "walk a mile" in another's shoes to develop empathy that can result in better design of spaces, goods, and services to meet the needs of a rapidly growing older population. This work first examined, through a series of clinical tests, whether younger adults' physical capacities were reduced in a direction consistent with aging by wearing a suit developed by the MIT AgeLab. An experiential learning task was then completed with the suit to understand its impact on completion of an instrumental activity of daily living. Results showed that younger adults wearing the suit experienced changes in task performance consistent with expected changes associated with aging. Participants' self-reports from the experiential learning task indicated that they were able to empathize with older adults regarding some issues they face while completing a grocery shopping task. Future research with the suit should involve a wider range of individuals from the population and examine what effect participants' levels of fitness have on the experience of wearing the suit.

  19. Assessment of a Smart Sensing Shoe for Gait Phase Detection in Level Walking

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    Nicola Carbonaro

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Gait analysis and more specifically ambulatory monitoring of temporal and spatial gait parameters may open relevant fields of applications in activity tracking, sports and also in the assessment and treatment of specific diseases. Wearable technology can boost this scenario by spreading the adoption of monitoring systems to a wide set of healthy users or patients. In this context, we assessed a recently developed commercial smart shoe—the FootMoov—for automatic gait phase detection in level walking. FootMoov has built-in force sensors and a triaxial accelerometer and is able to transmit the sensor data to the smartphone through a wireless connection. We developed a dedicated gait phase detection algorithm relying both on force and inertial information. We tested the smart shoe on ten healthy subjects in free level walking conditions and in a laboratory setting in comparison with an optical motion capture system. Results confirmed a reliable detection of the gait phases. The maximum error committed, on the order of 44.7 ms, is comparable with previous studies. Our results confirmed the possibility to exploit consumer wearable devices to extract relevant parameters to improve the subject health or to better manage his/her progressions.

  20. Temperature Changes on the Foot during Pregnancy Affected by Wearing Biomechanical Shoes

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    Martin Zvonar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Everyone needs to walk; however, many people have problems with walking caused by non-standard condition or function of their feet, which in some cases can be easily recognized by thermography methods. The question is which internal actors can influence plantar temperature. 20 pregnant women from Czech and Slovak Republic in early stage of pregnancy, aged from 24 to 38 years old were included in the research. In this research, we followed the course of temperature-rested feet and feet after exercise for pregnant mothers in the different trimesters of pregnancy. Our task during the experimental research was to verify the functionality of special shoes. When we examined the temperatures of left and right sole in pregnant women, we noticed significant differences between right and left leg on 1 % level of statistical significance. Body weight gain is directly proportional with increased pressure on future mother’s sole. Increased body weight and pressure on the sole connected with it increases blood flow of the tissue. More blood flowing increases the friction and the temperature of the sole. Surprisingly, from second to third trimester we noticed decrease in temperature after walking.

  1. The novel measuring method for screening and assessing chromium content in clothes and shoes materials

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    Salerno-Kochan, R.

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this paper is to propose the bioindicative measuring method for screening and assessing the safety of textile and leather materials in relation to chemical threats. This method is based on toxicological assay in which Tetrahymena pyriformis, unicellular organism belonging to protozoans, is used as a test organism. For the realization of the research goal the sensitivity threshold of test organisms to chromium(VI) solutions was identified. The changes in cell development of test organisms in chromium solutions were registered by colorimetric measurements in the presence of alamarBlue® cell viability reagent. Empirical data enabled to fit logistic curves on the base of which the level of chromium toxicity was estimated. In the second step, harmfulness of aqueous extracts obtained from textile and leather samples containing chromium in relation to test organisms was evaluated. The performed research confirmed the high efficiency of the proposed method in screening and assessing chromium content in clothes and shoes materials and showed possibilities of using it in safety assessment of products with regard to chemical risks.

  2. 'Choosing shoes': a preliminary study into the challenges facing clinicians in assessing footwear for rheumatoid patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Footwear has been accepted as a therapeutic intervention for the foot affected by rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Evidence relating to the objective assessment of footwear in patients with RA is limited. The aims of this study were to identify current footwear styles, footwear characteristics, and factors that influence footwear choice experienced by patients with RA. Methods Eighty patients with RA were recruited from rheumatology clinics during the summer months. Clinical characteristics, global function, and foot impairment and disability measures were recorded. Current footwear, footwear characteristics and the factors associated with choice of footwear were identified. Suitability of footwear was recorded using pre-determined criteria for assessing footwear type, based on a previous study of foot pain. Results The patients had longstanding RA with moderate-to severe disability and impairment. The foot and ankle assessment demonstrated a low-arch profile with both forefoot and rearfoot structural deformities. Over 50% of shoes worn by patients were open-type footwear. More than 70% of patients' footwear was defined as being poor. Poor footwear characteristics such as heel rigidity and sole hardness were observed. Patients reported comfort (17%) and fit (14%) as important factors in choosing their own footwear. Only five percent (5%) of patients wore therapeutic footwear. Conclusions The majority of patients with RA wear footwear that has been previously described as poor. Future work needs to aim to define and justify the specific features of footwear that may be of benefit to foot health for people with RA. PMID:20959016

  3. The Effect of Body Mass on the Shoe-Athlete Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsouknidas, A; Pantazopoulos, M; Sagris, D; Fasnakis, D; Maropoulos, S; Arabatzi, F; Michailidis, N

    2017-01-01

    Long-distance running is known to induce joint overloading and elevate cytokine levels, which are the hallmarks for a variety of running-related injuries. To address this, footwear systems incorporate cushioning midsoles to mitigate injurious mechanical loading. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of athlete body mass on the cushioning capacity of technical footwear. An artificial heel was prototyped to fit the impact pattern of a heel-strike runner and used to measure shock attenuation by an automated drop test. Impact mass and velocity were modulated to simulate runners of various body mass and speeds. The investigation provided refined insight on running-induced impact transmission to the human body. The examined midsole system was optimized around anthropometric data corresponding to an average (normal) body mass. The results suggest that although modern footwear is capable of attenuating the shock waves occurring during foot strike, improper shoe selection could expose an athlete to high levels of peak stress that could provoke an abnormal cartilage response. The selection of a weight-specific cushioning system could provide optimum protection and could thus prolong the duration of physical exercise beneficial to maintaining a simulated immune system.

  4. The Effect of Body Mass on the Shoe-Athlete Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tsouknidas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-distance running is known to induce joint overloading and elevate cytokine levels, which are the hallmarks for a variety of running-related injuries. To address this, footwear systems incorporate cushioning midsoles to mitigate injurious mechanical loading. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of athlete body mass on the cushioning capacity of technical footwear. An artificial heel was prototyped to fit the impact pattern of a heel-strike runner and used to measure shock attenuation by an automated drop test. Impact mass and velocity were modulated to simulate runners of various body mass and speeds. The investigation provided refined insight on running-induced impact transmission to the human body. The examined midsole system was optimized around anthropometric data corresponding to an average (normal body mass. The results suggest that although modern footwear is capable of attenuating the shock waves occurring during foot strike, improper shoe selection could expose an athlete to high levels of peak stress that could provoke an abnormal cartilage response. The selection of a weight-specific cushioning system could provide optimum protection and could thus prolong the duration of physical exercise beneficial to maintaining a simulated immune system.

  5. A miniature shoe-mounted orientation determination system for accurate indoor heading and trajectory tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shengzhi; Yu, Shuai; Liu, Chaojun; Liu, Sheng

    2016-06-01

    Tracking the position of pedestrian is urgently demanded when the most commonly used GPS (Global Position System) is unavailable. Benefited from the small size, low-power consumption, and relatively high reliability, micro-electro-mechanical system sensors are well suited for GPS-denied indoor pedestrian heading estimation. In this paper, a real-time miniature orientation determination system (MODS) was developed for indoor heading and trajectory tracking based on a novel dual-linear Kalman filter. The proposed filter precludes the impact of geomagnetic distortions on pitch and roll that the heading is subjected to. A robust calibration approach was designed to improve the accuracy of sensors measurements based on a unified sensor model. Online tests were performed on the MODS with an improved turntable. The results demonstrate that the average RMSE (root-mean-square error) of heading estimation is less than 1°. Indoor heading experiments were carried out with the MODS mounted on the shoe of pedestrian. Besides, we integrated the existing MODS into an indoor pedestrian dead reckoning application as an example of its utility in realistic actions. A human attitude-based walking model was developed to calculate the walking distance. Test results indicate that mean percentage error of indoor trajectory tracking achieves 2% of the total walking distance. This paper provides a feasible alternative for accurate indoor heading and trajectory tracking.

  6. Adaptation of running pattern to the drop of standard cushioned shoes: A randomised controlled trial with a 6-month follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malisoux, Laurent; Gette, Paul; Chambon, Nicolas; Urhausen, Axel; Theisen, Daniel

    2017-08-01

    While several cross-sectional studies have investigated the acute effects of shoe drop on running biomechanics, the long-term consequences are currently unknown. This study aimed to investigate if the drop of standard cushioned shoes induces specific adaptations in running technique over a six-month period in leisure-time runners. Double-blinded randomised controlled trial. The participants (n=59) received a pair of shoes with a heel-to-toe drop of 10mm (D10), 6mm (D6) or 0mm (D0) and were followed-up regarding running training over 6 months or 500km, whichever came first. Spatio-temporal variables and kinematics (foot/ground, ankle and knee joint angles) were investigated while running at preferred speed on a treadmill before and after the follow-up. The participants ran 332±178km in the study shoes between pre- and post-tests. There was no shoe version by time interaction for any of the spatio-temporal variables nor for lower limb angles at initial ground contact. A small but significant shoe drop effect was found for knee abduction at mid-stance (p=0.032), as it decreased for the D0 version (-0.3±3.1 vs. -1.3±2.6°) while it increased for the D6 (0.3±2.7 vs. 1.3±3.1°) and D10 version (-0.2±3.2 vs. 0.5±3.1°). However, none of the pairwise comparisons was significant in the post-hoc analysis. Apart from knee abduction at mid-stance, no specific adaptation in spatio-temporal variables and kinematics was found between the three shoe versions during this 6-month follow-up. Thus, shoe drop of standard cushioned shoes does not seem to influence running biomechanics in the long term. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Full Step Cycle Kinematic and Kinetic Comparison of Barefoot Walking and a Traditional Shoe Walking in Healthy Youth: Insights for Barefoot Technology

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    Yi Xu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Barefoot technology shoes are becoming increasingly popular, yet modifications are still needed. The present study aims to gain valuable insights by comparing barefoot walking to neutral shoe walking in a healthy youth population. Methods. 28 healthy university students (22 females and 6 males were recruited to walk on a 10-meter walkway both barefoot and in neutral running shoes at their comfortable walking speed. Full step cycle kinematic and kinetic data were collected using an 8-camera motion capture system. Results. In the early stance phase, the knee extension moment (MK1, the first peak absorbed joint power at the knee joint (PK1, and the flexion angle of knee/dorsiflexion angle of the ankle were significantly reduced when walking in neutral running shoes. However, in the late stance, barefoot walking resulted in decreased hip joint flexion moment (MH2, second peak extension knee moment (MK3, hip flexors absorbed power (PH2, hip flexors generated power (PH3, second peak absorbed power by knee flexors (PK2, and second peak anterior-posterior component of joint force at the hip (APFH2, knee (APFK2, and ankle (APFA2. Conclusions. These results indicate that it should be cautious to discard conventional elements from future running shoe designs and rush to embrace the barefoot technology fashion.

  8. Shoe collar height effect on athletic performance, ankle joint kinematics and kinetics during unanticipated maximum-effort side-cutting performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Gilbert Wing Kai; Park, Eun Jung; Lee, Ki-Kwang; Cheung, Jason Tak-Man

    2015-01-01

    Side-step cutting manoeuvres comprise the coordination between planting and non-planting legs. Increased shoe collar height is expected to influence ankle biomechanics of both legs and possibly respective cutting performance. This study examined the shoe collar height effect on kinematics and kinetics of planting and non-planting legs during an unanticipated side-step cutting. Fifteen university basketball players performed maximum-effort side-step cutting to the left 45° direction or a straight ahead run in response to a random light signal. Seven successful cutting trials were collected for each condition. Athletic performance, ground reaction force, ankle kinematics and kinetics of both legs were analysed using paired t-tests. Results indicated that high-collar shoes resulted in less ankle inversion and external rotation during initial contact for the planting leg. The high-collar shoes also exhibited a smaller ankle range of motion in the sagittal and transverse planes for both legs, respectively. However, no collar effect was found for ankle moments and performance indicators including cutting performance time, ground contact time, propulsion ground reaction forces and impulses. These findings indicated that high-collar shoes altered ankle positioning and restricted ankle joint freedom movements in both legs, while no negative effect was found for athletic cutting performance.

  9. Effects of shoe cleat position on physiology and performance of competitive cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paton, Carl D

    2009-12-01

    Aerobic economy is an important factor that affects the performance of competitive cyclists. It has been suggested that placing the foot more anteriorly on the bicycle pedals may improve economy over the traditional foot position by improving pedaling efficiency. The current study examines the effects of changing the anterior-posterior pedal foot position on the physiology and performance of well-trained cyclists. In a crossover study, 10 competitive cyclists completed two maximal incremental and two submaximal tests in either their preferred (control) or a forward (arch) foot position. Maximum oxygen consumption and peak power output were determined from the incremental tests for both foot positions. On two further occasions, cyclists also completed a two-part 60-min submaximal test that required them to maintain a constant power output (equivalent to 60% of their incremental peak power) for 30 min, during which respiratory and blood lactate samples were taken at predetermined intervals. Thereafter, subjects completed a 30-min self-paced maximal effort time trial. Relative to the control, the mean changes (+/-90% confidence limits) in the arch condition were as follows: maximum oxygen consumption, -0.5% (+/-2.0%); incremental peak power output, -0.8% (+/-1.3%); steady-state oxygen consumption at 60%, -2.4% (+/-1.1%); steady-state heart rate 60%, 0.4% (+/-1.7%); lactate concentration 60%, 8.7% (+/-14.4%); and mean time trial power, -1.5% (+/-2.9%). We conclude that there was no substantial physiological or performance advantage in this group using an arch-cleat shoe position in comparison with a cyclist's normal preferred condition.

  10. A preliminary case study of the effect of shoe-wearing on the biomechanics of a horse’s foot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Panagiotopoulou

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Horse racing is a multi-billion-dollar industry that has raised welfare concerns due to injured and euthanized animals. Whilst the cause of musculoskeletal injuries that lead to horse morbidity and mortality is multifactorial, pre-existing pathologies, increased speeds and substrate of the racecourse are likely contributors to foot disease. Horse hooves have the ability to naturally deform during locomotion and dissipate locomotor stresses, yet farriery approaches are utilised to increase performance and protect hooves from wear. Previous studies have assessed the effect of different shoe designs on locomotor performance; however, no biomechanical study has hitherto measured the effect of horseshoes on the stresses of the foot skeleton in vivo. This preliminary study introduces a novel methodology combining three-dimensional data from biplanar radiography with inverse dynamics methods and finite element analysis (FEA to evaluate the effect of a stainless steel shoe on the function of a Thoroughbred horse’s forefoot during walking. Our preliminary results suggest that the stainless steel shoe shifts craniocaudal, mediolateral and vertical GRFs at mid-stance. We document a similar pattern of flexion-extension in the PIP (pastern and DIP (coffin joints between the unshod and shod conditions, with slight variation in rotation angles throughout the stance phase. For both conditions, the PIP and DIP joints begin in a flexed posture and extend over the entire stance phase. At mid-stance, small differences in joint angle are observed in the PIP joint, with the shod condition being more extended than the unshod horse, whereas the DIP joint is extended more in the unshod than the shod condition. We also document that the DIP joint extends more than the PIP after mid-stance and until the end of the stance in both conditions. Our FEA analysis, conducted solely on the bones, shows increased von Mises and Maximum principal stresses on the forefoot phalanges

  11. Modified hydraulic braking system limits angular deceleration to safe values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, R. S.; Council, M.; Green, P. M.

    1966-01-01

    Conventional spring actuated, hydraulically released, fail-safe disk braking system is modified to control the angular deceleration of a massive antenna. The hydraulic system provides an immediate preset pressure to the spring-loaded brake shoes and holds it at this value to decelerate the antenna at the desired rate.

  12. Discrimination of gender-, speed-, and shoe-dependent movement patterns in runners using full-body kinematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Christian; Federolf, Peter; von Tscharner, Vinzenz; Stirling, Lisa; Nigg, Benno M

    2012-05-01

    Changes in gait kinematics have often been analyzed using pattern recognition methods such as principal component analysis (PCA). It is usually just the first few principal components that are analyzed, because they describe the main variability within a dataset and thus represent the main movement patterns. However, while subtle changes in gait pattern (for instance, due to different footwear) may not change main movement patterns, they may affect movements represented by higher principal components. This study was designed to test two hypotheses: (1) speed and gender differences can be observed in the first principal components, and (2) small interventions such as changing footwear change the gait characteristics of higher principal components. Kinematic changes due to different running conditions (speed - 3.1m/s and 4.9 m/s, gender, and footwear - control shoe and adidas MicroBounce shoe) were investigated by applying PCA and support vector machine (SVM) to a full-body reflective marker setup. Differences in speed changed the basic movement pattern, as was reflected by a change in the time-dependent coefficient derived from the first principal. Gender was differentiated by using the time-dependent coefficient derived from intermediate principal components. (Intermediate principal components are characterized by limb rotations of the thigh and shank.) Different shoe conditions were identified in higher principal components. This study showed that different interventions can be analyzed using a full-body kinematic approach. Within the well-defined vector space spanned by the data of all subjects, higher principal components should also be considered because these components show the differences that result from small interventions such as footwear changes. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Impact of payroll taxes for small shoe manufacturing enterprises profit generation in Bogota city 15th district

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    José Armando Hernández Bernal

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we illustrate the financial difficulties that payroll taxes would impose on small shoe manufacturing enterprises in Bogota City 15th district and how this would impose some restrictions for firms profit generation, when such contributions turns out to be a fixed cost. We present a brief on the legal framework as well as an econometric exercise that shows the relations between labor costs and profit generation for the footwear industry in the 15th urban district of Bogotá city.

  14. Urban prevalence of Listeria spp. and Listeria monocytogenes in public lavatories and on shoe soles of facility patrons in the European capital city Vienna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoder, D; Schmalwieser, A; Szakmary-Brändle, K; Stessl, B; Wagner, M

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Listeria spp. and Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes) in urban public lavatories and on shoe soles of facility patrons in a European capital city. More than 91% of all municipal public lavatories in Vienna close to public hubs were included in this study. Overall, 373 swab samples of public lavatories and shoes of facility patrons were enriched, according to ISO 11290-1. Listeria monocytogenes isolates were subtyped using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. A total of 24 samples were positive for Listeria spp., yielding an overall prevalence of 6.4% (24/373). Listeria monocytogenes was found in 2.1% (8/373) of all samples. Swabs from lavatories in parks, container lavatories and lavatories at markets had the highest prevalences of 20.7% (6/29), 20% (2/10) and 12.5% (1/8) Listeria spp., respectively. These detection rates were statistically significantly higher than those associated with lavatories in shopping centres (P = 0.003, P = 0.002, P = 0.02) and at public transport locations (P = 0.0004, P = 0.005, P = 0.02). Shoes sampled at Christmas markets showed the highest Listeria spp. and L. monocytogenes prevalences of 80% (4/5) and 40% (2/5), respectively. With regard to shoe type, Listeria spp. detection rates were 14.3% (3/21; winter boots), 13.3% (2/15; hiking boots), sport shoes (5.9%; 2/34) and brogues (5.1%; 4/79). No Listeria spp. were found on shoe soles that had smooth treads (0/76), while Listeria spp. were detected on 19.5% (8/41) of medium depth tread shoe types and on 9.4% (3/32) of deep tread shoes. These data suggest that soil environment is still one of the most important reservoirs for the foodborne pathogen L. monocytogenes. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Nickel-Graphite Composite Compliant Interface and/or Hot Shoe Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firdosy, Samad A.; Chun-Yip Li, Billy; Ravi, Vilupanur A.; Fleurial, Jean-Pierre; Caillat, Thierry; Anjunyan, Harut

    2013-01-01

    Next-generation high-temperature thermoelectric-power-generating devices will employ segmented architectures and will have to reliably withstand thermally induced mechanical stresses produced during component fabrication, device assembly, and operation. Thermoelectric materials have typically poor mechanical strength, exhibit brittle behavior, and possess a wide range of coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) values. As a result, the direct bonding at elevated temperatures of these materials to each other to produce segmented leg components is difficult, and often results in localized microcracking at interfaces and mec hanical failure due to the stresses that arise from the CTE mismatch between the various materials. Even in the absence of full mechanical failure, degraded interfaces can lead to increased electrical and thermal resistances, which adversely impact conversion efficiency and power output. The proposed solution is the insertion of a mechanically compliant layer, with high electrical and thermal conductivity, between the low- and high-temperature segments to relieve thermomechanical stresses during device fabrication and operation. This composite material can be used as a stress-relieving layer between the thermoelectric segments and/or between a thermoelectric segment and a hot- or cold-side interconnect material. The material also can be used as a compliant hot shoe. Nickel-coated graphite powders were hot-pressed to form a nickel-graphite composite material. A freestanding thermoelectric segmented leg was fabricated by brazing the compliant pad layer between the high-temperature p- Zintl and low-temperature p-SKD TE segments using Cu-Ag braze foils. The segmented leg stack was heated in vacuum under a compressive load to achieve bonding. The novelty of the innovation is the use of composite material that re duces the thermomechanical stresses en - countered in the construction of high-efficiency, high-temperature therm - o-electric devices. The

  16. Evaluation of musculoskeletal disorders in sewing machine operators of a shoe manufacturing factory in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghili, Mir Masih Moslemi; Asilian, Hasan; Poursafa, Parinaz

    2012-03-01

    A 15-year research conducted in USA showed that compensation expenses paid to workers for musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) of back exceeded 128 million Dollars calculated on the basis of 0.97 Dollars per hour of work. In addition, according to the latest studies carried out in relation with disease burdens with risk factors in Iran, DALYs indices for low back pain, knee arthrosis and other musculoskeletal disorders have been reported to be 307772, 291305 and 872633 respectively, which have caused the work related diseases to occupy the second position in the country, after cardiovascular diseases. On the other hand, in accordance with occupational health indices of Iranian health ministry, 37% of all working population had had poor work postures with 15% of all working population had been working with inappropriate working tools in the year 2009. This was a case study comparing exposed workers with control group using Standard Nordic Questionnair in sewing machine operators of a shoe manufacturing factory in Iran. In this study, the mentioned questionnaires were filled out for the exposed group (25 sewing machine operators with average age of 43.5 years with work records of 16.8 years) and control group (15 employees from administrative department with average age of 39.8 years with work records of 13.4 years) which both were selected through simple random method. There were statistically significant differences in age between musculoskeletal disorders of right elbow (p = 0.033), thigh (p = 0.044), both knees (p = 0.019) and ankles (p = 0.039). There were also statistically significant association between gender and musculoskeletal disorders of right elbow (p = 0.028), thigh (p = 0.026) both knees (p = 0.011); right shoulder disorders (p = 0.018) and work records; disorders of both knees (p = 0.031) and number of cigarettes smoked. In general, prevalence of disorders of cervical area, shoulders with hands, vertebral column, back, knees, thigh with feet were higher

  17. Clinical assessment of dynamic coefficient of friction effects in shoe-sole trituration of patients with drop foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nima, Jamshidi; Firooz, Salami

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was examining the effect of human factors such as plantar friction, contact period time, and impulse on shoe-sole trituration of drop foot patients. Twenty-five patients with drop foot and twenty normal subjects were recruited in the study. The force plate and its related software's recorded human factor (coefficient of friction, ground reaction force, time of stance phase) as time dependent parameters. Dynamic coefficient of friction patterns were categorized based on their magnitude versus time when the longitudinal axis of the sole was plotted as the Y-axis and the transverse axis of the sole as X-axis during stance phase. The result of this research indicated that the average coefficient of friction among drop foot patients is 77.53 % (p value <0.05) lower than the normal subjects. Also the time of stance phase among drop foot patients is 7.56 % (p value <0.05) greater than normal subjects. There is no difference in the peaks, of vertical ground reaction force between normal and control group. The findings of this research revealed that the time of stance phase has a key role in shoe-sole trituration of patients with drop foot.

  18. Effect of shoe heel height on vastus medialis and vastus lateralis electromyographic activity during sit to stand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hodgson David

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been proposed that high-heeled shoes may contribute to the development and progression of knee pain. However, surprisingly little research has been carried out on how shoe heel height affects muscle activity around the knee joint. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of differing heel height on the electromyographic (EMG activity in vastus medialis (VM and vastus lateralis (VL during a sit to stand activity. This was an exploratory study to inform future research. Methods A repeated measures design was used. Twenty five healthy females carried out a standardised sit to stand activity under 4 conditions; barefoot, and with heel wedges of 1, 3, and 5 cm in height. EMG activity was recorded from VM and VL during the activity. Data were analysed using 1 × 4 repeated measures ANOVA. Results Average rectified EMG activity differed with heel height in both VM (F2.2, 51.7 = 5.24, p 3, 72 = 5.32, p 3, 72 = 0.61, p = 0.609. Conclusion We found that as heel height increased, there was an increase in EMG activity in both VM and VL, but no change in the relative EMG intensity of VM and VL as measured by the VM: VL ratio. This showed that no VM: VL imbalance was elicited. This study provides information that will inform future research on how heel height affects muscle activity around the knee joint.

  19. To what extent does not wearing shoes affect the local dynamic stability of walking?: effect size and intrasession repeatability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrier, Philippe; Reynard, Fabienne

    2014-04-01

    Local dynamic stability (stability) quantifies how a system responds to small perturbations. Several experimental and clinical findings have highlighted the association between gait stability and fall risk. Walking without shoes is known to slightly modify gait parameters. Barefoot walking may cause unusual sensory feedback to individuals accustomed to shod walking, and this may affect stability. The objective was therefore to compare the stability of shod and barefoot walking in healthy individuals and to analyze the intrasession repeatability. Forty participants traversed a 70 m indoor corridor wearing normal shoes in one trial and walking barefoot in a second trial. Trunk accelerations were recorded with a 3D-accelerometer attached to the lower back. The stability was computed using the finite-time maximal Lyapunov exponent method. Absolute agreement between the forward and backward paths was estimated with the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Barefoot walking did not significantly modify the stability as compared with shod walking (average standardized effect size: +0.11). The intrasession repeatability was high (ICC: 0.73-0.81) and slightly higher in barefoot walking condition (ICC: 0.81-0.87). Therefore, it seems that barefoot walking can be used to evaluate stability without introducing a bias as compared with shod walking, and with a sufficient reliability.

  20. Study on the production of kanvas shoes adhesive from natural rubber latex grafted with methyl methacrylate (NRL-g PMMA) copolymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utama, Marga; Sudirman; Setyowati, Penny

    2002-01-01

    The optimation condition of radiation copolymerization of MMA into natural rubber latex at the doses of radiation : 5; 7.5 and 10 kGy with concentration of MMA 25; 50; 75; and 100 phr (Part Hundred Ratio of Rubber) expectially and optimazation condition of the adhesive process all the production of canvas shoes have been carried out. The properties of NRL-g-MMA and its rubber such as total solid contain, viscosity, pH, modulus, tensile, strenght, hardnes, elongation at break, and adhesive strenght for producting canvas shoes where evaluated. The at adhesive results show that NRL-g-MMA with the 75 phr of MMA and iradiation dose 5 kGy is adhesive will good stability during storage. The adhesive strenght of shoes its 16-18 N/6mm, more here than SNI 1-0172-1987 with the value 10N/6mm. Besic there is a tendency that adhesive strengt of product shoes at rome temperature (30-50 o C). stronger than at high temperature (100 o C)

  1. An Overview of Smart Shoes in the Internet of Health Things: Gait and Mobility Assessment in Health Promotion and Disease Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjoern M. Eskofier

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available New smart technologies and the internet of things increasingly play a key role in healthcare and wellness, contributing to the development of novel healthcare concepts. These technologies enable a comprehensive view of an individual’s movement and mobility, potentially supporting healthy living as well as complementing medical diagnostics and the monitoring of therapeutic outcomes. This overview article specifically addresses smart shoes, which are becoming one such smart technology within the future internet of health things, since the ability to walk defines large aspects of quality of life in a wide range of health and disease conditions. Smart shoes offer the possibility to support prevention, diagnostic work-up, therapeutic decisions, and individual disease monitoring with a continuous assessment of gait and mobility. This overview article provides the technological as well as medical aspects of smart shoes within this rising area of digital health applications, and is designed especially for the novel reader in this specific field. It also stresses the need for closer interdisciplinary interactions between technological and medical experts to bridge the gap between research and practice. Smart shoes can be envisioned to serve as pervasive wearable computing systems that enable innovative solutions and services for the promotion of healthy living and the transformation of health care.

  2. Effectiveness of custom-made orthopaedic shoes in the reduction of foot pain and pressure in patients with degenerative disorders of the foot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jannink, Michiel; van Dijk, Henk; IJzerman, Maarten; Groothuis-Oudshoorn, Karen; Groothoff, Johan; Lankhorst, Gustaaf

    2006-01-01

    Background: Degenerative disorders of the foot often are painful during standing and walking. It is assumed that, because of bone deformity, callus, and deformity of the plantar pads, the plantar pressure distribution changes. Prescription of orthopaedic shoes for patients with degenerative

  3. Foot pronation is not associated with increased injury risk in novice runners wearing a neutral shoe : a 1-year prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Oestergaard; Buist, Ida; Parner, Erik Thorlund; Nohr, Ellen Aagaard; Sorensen, Henrik; Lind, Martin; Rasmussen, Sten

    Objective To investigate if running distance to first running-related injury varies between foot postures in novice runners wearing neutral shoes. Design A 1-year epidemiological observational prospective cohort study. Setting Denmark. Participants A total of 927 novice runners equivalent to 1854

  4. Effect of application timing and grass height on the nitrogen fertilizer replacement value of cattle slurry applied with a trailing-shoe application system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lalor, S.T.J.; Schroder, J.J.; Lantinga, E.A.; Schulte, R.P.O.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of using a trailing-shoe system to apply cattle slurry, under different conditions of grass height (low [LG]: freshly cut sward [4–5 cm height] vs. high [HG]: application delayed by 7–19 d and applied to taller grass sward [4–11 cm] height) and month of application

  5. Effectiveness and safety of a nonremovable fiberglass off-bearing cast versus a therapeutic shoe in the treatment of neuropathic foot ulcers: a randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caravaggi, C; Faglia, E; De Giglio, R; Mantero, M; Quarantiello, A; Sommariva, E; Gino, M; Pritelli, C; Morabito, A

    2000-12-01

    To evaluate and compare the rate of reduction of the surface area of neuropathic plantar ulcers in diabetic patients treated with nonremovable rigidity-differentiated fiberglass off-bearing casts or a cloth shoe with a rigid sole with unloading alkaform insoles. The secondary aim was to evaluate the side effects and degree of patient acceptance of treatment. Fifty diabetic patients with neuropathic plantar ulcers were consecutively enrolled and randomized to one of two treatment groups. Of the 50 patients, 24 were treated with a specialized cloth shoe with a rigid sole and an unloading alkaform insole (shoe group), and 26 patients were treated with a nonremovable off-bearing fiberglass cast (cast group). All patients in both study groups returned to the clinic for weekly control visits. Their ulcers were treated with a standard dressing. Tracings of the ulcer area using a transparent dressing were performed on the day of entry to the study and after 30 days of treatment. The presence of new ulcerations caused by the use of the pressure-relief apparatus was recorded. Patient acceptance of the treatment was measured using a visual analog scale. At the end of the treatment period, an 8.3% increase of the ulcer area was observed in two patients in the shoe group, whereas in the cast group, no patient presented an increase. The reduction of the ulcer area was statistically more rapid in the cast group (Mann-Whitney test, P = 0.0004). Furthermore, the number of ulcers completely healed at the 30-day time point was 13 (50%) in the cast group and 5 (20.8%) in the shoe group (P = 0.03). In both groups, no side effects were recorded. The average score +/- SD of patient acceptance was 91.15 +/- 9.9 in the shoe group and 88.33 +/- 17.3 (NS) in the cast group. Our study has shown a significant difference in the speed of the reduction of neuropathic plantar ulcers treated with a fiberglass cast compared with a specialized cloth shoe. The use of fiberglass material with variable

  6. The influence of cadence and power output on force application and in-shoe pressure distribution during cycling by competitive and recreational cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, D J; Hennig, E M; Black, A H

    2000-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the response of cyclists to manipulations of cadence and power output in terms of force application and plantar pressure distribution. Two groups of cyclists, 17 recreational and 12 competitive, rode at three nominal cadences (60, 80, 100 rev x min(-1)) and four power outputs (100, 200, 300, 400 W) while simultaneous force and in-shoe pressure data were collected. Two piezoelectric triaxial force transducers mounted in the right pedal measured components of the pedal force and orientation, and a discrete transducer system with 12 transducers recorded the in-shoe pressures. Force application was characterized by calculating peak resultant and peak effective pedal forces and positive and negative impulses. In-shoe pressures were analysed as peak pressures and as the percent relative load. The force data showed no significant group effect but there was a cadence and power main effect. The impulse data showed a significant three-way interaction. Increased cadence resulted in a decreased positive impulse, while increased power output resulted in an increased impulse. The competitive group produced less positive impulse but the difference became less at higher cadences. Few between-group differences were found in pressure, notable only in the pressure under the first metatarsal region. This showed a consistent pattern of in-shoe pressure distribution, where the primary loading structures were the first metatarsal and hallux. There was no indication that pressure at specific sites influenced the pedal force application. The absence of group differences indicated that pressure distribution was not the result of training, but reflected the intrinsic relationship between the foot, the shoe and the pedal.

  7. Review Of Implementation In Bunut Shoes Assistance Program In Order Of Micro, Small And Medium Enterprises Economic In Asahan Regency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh Malawat, M.; Putra, M. Umar Maya

    2018-03-01

    This paper studies the implementation of business opportunities that can improve the revenue of Bunut Shoes Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises. Probit model with E Views 6 program was used to see how far the opportunity of variable efforts to improve the revenue such as education, training, capital assistance, technological procurement of them. The data used was the primary data by conducting a survey using questionnaires to members of them with the observation period from 2013 to 2015. The results showed that all variables of implementation did not have a business opportunity correlation to the increase in revenue and Asahan District Governments are asked to create a creative breakthrough in order to achieve optimal business revenue and cooperate with other private institutions related to increase the business income.

  8. Estimating Sound Intensity and its Effect on the Hearing Status of the Workers in an Industrial Shoe Factory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vida Ameri

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: We estimated the noise in an industrial shoe factory to determine the effect of noise in the workplace on the hearing status of the workers in such environments.Materials and method: the intensity of noise in dB in different parts of the factory was estimated. Then working people in each part was selected randomly and their hearing thresholds were evaluated by Conventional audiometry.Results: The results demonstrated that 23% were required to estimate thresholds more precisely and 95 needed close examination by Otolaryngologist. Besides, 10% of the workers suffered sensory neural hearing loss whose 2% of them diagnosed as NIHL.Discussion: Since the mentioned factory has good hearing conservation program for the workers, it seems that promoting the program can decline the number of noise induced hearing losses to the least numbers.

  9. Injury Reduction Effectiveness of Prescribing Running Shoes Based on Plantar Shape in Marine Corps Basic Training San Diego, CA and Parris Island, SC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    in excessive pronation, creating a torsional force that repeatedly overstretched the plantar fascia , leading to the fasciitis. On the basis of one...COVERED (From – To) MARCH 2007–OCTOBER 2007 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Injury-Reduction Effectiveness of Assigning Running Shoes Based on Plantar Shape... plantar surface influenced injury risk in Marine Corps basic training. After foot examinations, Marine Corps recruits in an experimental group (E

  10. Injury-Reduction Effectiveness of Prescribing Running Shoes Based on Plantar Shape in Marine Corps Basic Training, San Diego, CA, and Parris Island, SC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-10-01

    in excessive pronation, creating a torsional force that repeatedly overstretched the plantar fascia , leading to the fasciitis. On the basis of one...COVERED (From – To) MARCH 2007–OCTOBER 2007 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Injury-Reduction Effectiveness of Assigning Running Shoes Based on Plantar Shape... plantar surface influenced injury risk in Marine Corps basic training. After foot examinations, Marine Corps recruits in an experimental group (E

  11. The influence of high-heeled shoes on strain and tension force of the anterior talofibular ligament and plantar fascia during balanced standing and walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jia; Wong, Duo Wai-Chi; Zhang, Hongtao; Luo, Zong-Ping; Zhang, Ming

    2016-10-01

    High-heeled shoes have the capability to alter the strain and tension of ligamentous structures between the foot and ankle, which may result in ankle instability. However, high-heeled shoes can also reduce the strain on plantar fascia, which may be beneficial for the treatment of plantar fasciitis. In this study, the influence of heel height on strain and tension force applied to the anterior talofibular ligament (ATL) and plantar fascia were investigated. A three-dimensional finite element model of coupled foot-ankle-shoe complex was constructed. Four heel heights were studied in balanced standing: 0 in. (0cm), 1 in. (2.54cm), 2 in. (5.08cm), and 3 in. (7.62cm). A walking analysis was performed using 2-in. (5.08cm) high-heeled shoes. During balanced standing, the tension force on the ATL increased from 14.8N to 97.0N, with a six-fold increase in strain from 0 in. to 3 in. (0-7.62cm). The tension force and the average strain on the plantar fascia decreased from 151.0N (strain: 0.74%) to 59.6N (strain: 0.28%) when the heel height increased from 0 in. to 2 in. (0-5.08cm). When heel height reached 3 in. (7.62cm), the force and average strain increased to 278.3N (strain: 1.33%). The walking simulation showed that the fascia stretched out while the ATL loading decreased during push off. The simulation outcome demonstrated the influence of heel height on ATL alteration and plantar fascia strain, which implies risks for ankle injury and suggests guidance for the treatment of plantar fasciitis. Copyright © 2016 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Shoe cushioning, body mass and running biomechanics as risk factors for running injury: a study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malisoux, Laurent; Delattre, Nicolas; Urhausen, Axel; Theisen, Daniel

    2017-08-21

    Repetitive loading of the musculoskeletal system is suggested to be involved in the underlying mechanism of the majority of running-related injuries (RRIs). Accordingly, heavier runners are assumed to be at a higher risk of RRI. The cushioning system of modern running shoes is expected to protect runners again high impact forces, and therefore, RRI. However, the role of shoe cushioning in injury prevention remains unclear. The main aim of this study is to investigate the influence of shoe cushioning and body mass on RRI risk, while exploring simultaneously the association between running technique and RRI risk. This double-blinded randomised controlled trial will involve about 800 healthy leisure-time runners. They will randomly receive one of two running shoe models that will differ in their cushioning properties (ie, stiffness) by ~35%. The participants will perform a running test on an instrumented treadmill at their preferred running speed at baseline. Then they will be followed up prospectively over a 6-month period, during which they will self-report all their sports activities as well as any injury in an internet-based database TIPPS (Training and Injury Prevention Platform for Sports). Cox regression analyses will be used to compare injury risk between the study groups and to investigate the association among training, biomechanical and anatomical risk factors, and injury risk. The study was approved by the National Ethics Committee for Research (Ref: 201701/02 v1.1). Outcomes will be disseminated through publications in peer-reviewed journals, presentations at international conferences, as well as articles in popular magazines and on specialised websites. NCT03115437, Pre-results. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  13. The Comparison of two models of marker – placement for identifying the rear foot angle in normal people with and without shoes during the stance phase of walking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare the two models of marker placement for identifying of rear foot angle in normal people with and without shoes during the different stage of stance phase of walking. Methods: Fifteen male students in Birjand University were selected based on Navicular Drop Index. After marker placement based on Clarke and Nigg models, the rear foot angle were recorded with two-dimensional analysis (Panasonic Camera from behind position while subjects walked with 1.7 m/s on a treadmill with and without shoes. For statistical analysis, independent samples t-test was used (p≤0.05. Results: The Results showed a significant difference in rear foot angle during the stance phase between the two models of Clarke and Nigg during walking with and without shoes (p≤0.001. Conclusion: Based on the results of the present study, due to their specific features care must be considered when using any of these two models to investigate the angular kinematics of the foot.

  14. Effectiveness of a long-term use of a minimalist footwear versus habitual shoe on pain, function and mechanical loads in knee osteoarthritis: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trombini-Souza, Francis; Fuller, Ricardo; Matias, Alessandra; Yokota, Mariane; Butugan, Marco; Goldenstein-Schainberg, Claudia; Sacco, Isabel C N

    2012-07-12

    Recent studies have shown an important reduction of joint overload during locomotion in elderly women with knee osteoarthritis (OA) after short-term use of minimalist shoes. Our aim is to investigate the chronic effect of inexpensive and minimalist footwear on the clinical and functional aspects of OA and gait biomechanics of elderly women with knee OA. Fifty-six elderly women with knee OA grade 2 or 3 (Kellgren and Lawrence) are randomized into blocks and allocated to either the intervention group, which will use flexible, non-heeled shoes- Moleca®-for six months for at least six hours daily, or the control group, which could not use these shoes. Neither group is undergoing physical therapy treatment throughout the intervention period. Moleca® is a women's double canvas, flexible, flat walking shoe without heels, with a 5-mm anti-slip rubber sole and a 3-mm internal wedge of ethylene vinyl acetate. Both groups will be followed for six months and will be assessed at baseline condition, after three months, and after six months (end of intervention). All the assessments will be performed by a physiotherapist that is blind to the group allocation. The primary outcome is the pain Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis (WOMAC) score. The secondary outcomes are global WOMAC score; joint stiffness and disability WOMAC scores; knee pain with a visual analogue scale; walking distance in the six-minute walk test; Lequesne score; amount and frequency (number of days) of paracetamol (500 mg) intake over six months; knee adduction moment during gait; global medical assessment score; and global patient auto-assessment score. At baseline, all patients receive a diary to record the hours of daily use of the footwear intervention; every two weeks, the same physiotherapist makes phone calls to all patients in order to verify adherence to treatment. The statistical analysis will be based on intention-to-treat analysis, as well as general linear models of

  15. Strategy Development Micro Small And Medium Business Performance In Small And Medium Enterprises Smes Cibaduyut Shoe Bandung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoyo Sudaryo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Indonesias economic fundamentals have not prompted the government to build the economic structures to the existence of Micro. Small and Medium Enterprises SMEs. This sector has been proven to provide jobs and provide opportunities for SMEs to thrive in the community. MSMEs cant be doubted because it proved able to survive and become the economic driving especially after the economic crisis. On the other hand SMEs are also facing many problems the limited working capital human resources is low and less clever mastery of science and technology. Another obstacle faced by SMEs is the relationship with the business outlook is less clear and the vision and mission planning is not yet stable. Provision of information and networking markets ease of access to funding and mentoring and capacity building in information technology are some strategies for improving the competitiveness of SMEs in Indonesia. Therefore it is necessary synergy between all parties especially the government and microfinance institutions. This model is based on the consideration of SMEs as the largest group of economic actors in the Indonesian economy. The method used in this study is a survey explanatory with the technique of data collection through questionnaires interviews and observation. The population of the Small and Medium Industries SMI Shoes Cibaduyut Bandung. Then analyzed with descriptive scoring system and non-parametric statistics through different test average.

  16. The effect of brand, design, and price on intention to purchase mediated by quality perception at sport shoes X

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Ruswanti

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Product cues have been identified as a major factor and are used by customers when they evaluate a product before deciding to buy. Customers evaluate products based on the product manual cues; generally, they use the brand, design and price, and produce quality perception and ceases on purchase intentions. This process also occurs in the prospective buyer's sport shoes X that have the largest sales in Indonesia. Therefore, the researchers are interested to test whether there is a relationship between the product cues on the quality perception and purchase intention for sports footwear products. This research was done by using a survey for the data collection, by distributing the questionnaires to 161 respondents. The data were analyzed using Structural Equation Modeling with Lisrel analysis tool. The result showed that the product cues have an influence mediated by the quality perception on purchase intentions. This study suggests that the perception of quality is as a full mediating variable between products cues and purchase intention.

  17. Recognition of a Person Wearing Sport Shoes or High Heels through Gait Using Two Types of Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Derlatka

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Biometrics is currently an area that is both very interesting as well as rapidly growing. Among various types of biometrics the human gait recognition seems to be one of the most intriguing. However, one of the greatest problems within this field of biometrics is the change in gait caused by footwear. A change of shoes results in a significant lowering of accuracy in recognition of people. The following work presents a method which uses data gathered by two sensors: force plates and Microsoft Kinect v2 to reduce this problem. Microsoft Kinect is utilized to measure the body height of a person which allows the reduction of the set of recognized people only to those whose height is similar to that which has been measured. The entire process is preceded by identifying the type of footwear which the person is wearing. The research was conducted on data obtained from 99 people (more than 3400 strides and the proposed method allowed us to reach a Correct Classification Rate (CCR greater than 88% which, in comparison to earlier methods reaching CCR’s of <80%, is a significant improvement. The work presents advantages as well as limitations of the proposed method.

  18. Recognition of a Person Wearing Sport Shoes or High Heels through Gait Using Two Types of Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derlatka, Marcin; Bogdan, Mariusz

    2018-05-21

    Biometrics is currently an area that is both very interesting as well as rapidly growing. Among various types of biometrics the human gait recognition seems to be one of the most intriguing. However, one of the greatest problems within this field of biometrics is the change in gait caused by footwear. A change of shoes results in a significant lowering of accuracy in recognition of people. The following work presents a method which uses data gathered by two sensors: force plates and Microsoft Kinect v2 to reduce this problem. Microsoft Kinect is utilized to measure the body height of a person which allows the reduction of the set of recognized people only to those whose height is similar to that which has been measured. The entire process is preceded by identifying the type of footwear which the person is wearing. The research was conducted on data obtained from 99 people (more than 3400 strides) and the proposed method allowed us to reach a Correct Classification Rate (CCR) greater than 88% which, in comparison to earlier methods reaching CCR’s of <80%, is a significant improvement. The work presents advantages as well as limitations of the proposed method.

  19. Shock absorbency of factors in the shoe/heel interaction--with special focus on role of the heel pad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, U; Bojsen-Møller, F

    1989-06-01

    The heel pad acts as a shock absorber in walking and in heel-strike running. In some patients, a reduction of its shock-absorbing capacity has been connected to the development of overuse injuries. In this article, the shock absorption of the heel pad as well as external shock absorbers are studied. Individual variation and the effect of trauma and confinement on the heel pad were specifically investigated. Drop tests, imitating heel impacts, were performed on a force plate. The test specimens were cadaver heel pads (n = 10); the shoe sole component consisted of ethyl vinyl acetate (EVA) foam and Sorbothane inserts. The shock absorption was significantly greater in the heel pad than in the external shock absorbers. The mean heel pad shock absorption was 1.1 times for EVA foam and 2.1 times for Sorbothane. The shock absorption varied by as much as 100% between heel pads. Trauma caused a decrease in the heel pad shock absorbency (24%), whereas heel pad confinement increased the shock absorbency (49% in traumatized heel pads and 29.5% in nontraumatized heel pads). These findings provide a biomechanical rationale for the clinical observations of a correlation between heel pad shock absorbency loss and heel strike-dependent overuse injuries. To increase shock absorbency, confinement of the heel pad should be attempted in vivo.

  20. Comercio electrónico del flamenco: textiles, zapatos y complementos. Electronic-commerce of flamenco: textiles, shoes and accessories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Hurtado Guapo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available El flamenco forma parte del patrimonio inmaterial de la humanidad y también es considerado un sector económico de gran potencial, formando parte de las industrias culturales de España. En los últimos años las nuevas tecnologías han hecho que los productos que antes adquiríamos en las tiendas tradicionales, lleguen a nuestras casas con tan solo un click. En el siguiente artículo se realiza una búsqueda a través del motor de búsqueda Google con las palabras clave “tiendas flamenco”, recuperándose 980.000 resultados, de los cuales 482 son tiendas en línea. Tras seleccionar 100 de éstos websites de forma aleatoria, se realiza un análisis por fases, que se corresponden con las etapas de la compra de un producto en la Red basándose en el comportamiento de la búsqueda de información. Los resultados muestran, que los aspectos relacionados con los proceso de compra del producto, son los parámetros más desatendidos en las webs de las tiendas estudiadas. Flamenco is Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity, it is an economic sector and it is also part of the Cultural industries of Spain. Information and Communication Technologies (ICT can provide online purchase with (filtered to your specifications, from your desk just one click. This study began with the search engine Google using “Flamenco shops” as search term. The results showed 980,000 websites, we retrieved 482 online shops and we analyzed 100 random websites. The target of our research has been studying the cycle of purchase of flamenco textiles, shoes and accessories on each shop. Our methodology is based on human information behavior.

  1. A Direct Method for Mapping the Center of Pressure Measured by an Insole Pressure Sensor System to the Shoe's Local Coordinate System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Brian T; Braman, Jerrod E; Haut, Roger C

    2016-06-01

    A direct method to express the center of pressure (CoP) measured by an insole pressure sensor system (IPSS) into a known coordinate system measured by motion tracking equipment is presented. A custom probe was constructed with reflective markers to allow its tip to be precisely tracked with motion tracking equipment. This probe was utilized to activate individual sensors on an IPSS that was placed in a shoe fitted with reflective markers used to establish a local shoe coordinate system. When pressed onto the IPSS the location of the probe's tip was coincident with the CoP measured by the IPSS (IPSS-CoP). Two separate pushes (i.e., data points) were used to develop vectors in each respective coordinate system. Simple vector mathematics determined the rotational and translational components of the transformation matrix needed to express the IPSS-CoP into the local shoe coordinate system. Validation was performed by comparing IPSS-CoP with an embedded force plate measured CoP (FP-CoP) from data gathered during kinematic trials. Six male subjects stood on an embedded FP and performed anterior/posterior (AP) sway, internal rotation, and external rotation of the body relative to a firmly planted foot. The IPSS-CoP was highly correlated with the FP-CoP for all motions, root mean square errors (RMSRRs) were comparable to other research, and there were no statistical differences between the displacement of the IPSS-CoP and FP-CoP for both the AP and medial/lateral (ML) axes, respectively. The results demonstrated that this methodology could be utilized to determine the transformation variables need to express IPSS-CoP into a known coordinate system measured by motion tracking equipment and that these variables can be determined outside the laboratory anywhere motion tracking equipment is available.

  2. Orthosis-Shaped Sandals Are as Efficacious as In-Shoe Orthoses and Better than Flat Sandals for Plantar Heel Pain: A Randomized Control Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Vicenzino

    Full Text Available To investigate efficacy of a contoured sandal being marketed for plantar heel pain with comparison to a flat flip-flop and contoured in-shoe insert/orthosis.150 volunteers aged 50 (SD: 12 years with plantar heel pain (>4 weeks were enrolled after responding to advertisements and eligibility determined by telephone and at first visit. Participants were randomly allocated to receive commercially available contoured sandals (n = 49, flat flip-flops (n = 50 or over the counter, pre-fabricated full-length foot orthotics (n = 51. Primary outcomes were a 15-point Global Rating of Change scale (GROC: 1 = a very great deal worse, 15 = a very great deal better, 13 to 15 representing an improvement and the 20-item Lower Extremity Function Scale (LEFS on which participants rate 20 common weight bearing activities and activities of daily living on a 5-point scale (0 = extreme difficulty, 4 = no difficulty. Secondary outcomes were worst level of heel pain in the preceding week, and the foot and ankle ability measure. Outcomes were collected blind to allocation. Analyses were done on an intention to treat basis with 12 weeks being the primary outcome time of interest.The contoured sandal was 68% more likely to report improvement in terms of GROC compared to flat flip-flop. On the LEFS the contoured sandal was 61% more likely than flat flip-flop to report improvement. The secondary outcomes in the main reflected the primary outcomes, and there were no differences between contoured sandal and shoe insert.Physicians can have confidence in supporting a patient's decision to wear contoured sandals or in-shoe orthoses as one of the first and simple strategies to manage their heel pain.The Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12612000463875.

  3. Effectiveness of a long-term use of a minimalist footwear versus habitual shoe on pain, function and mechanical loads in knee osteoarthritis: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trombini-Souza Francis

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies have shown an important reduction of joint overload during locomotion in elderly women with knee osteoarthritis (OA after short-term use of minimalist shoes. Our aim is to investigate the chronic effect of inexpensive and minimalist footwear on the clinical and functional aspects of OA and gait biomechanics of elderly women with knee OA. Methods/Design Fifty-six elderly women with knee OA grade 2 or 3 (Kellgren and Lawrence are randomized into blocks and allocated to either the intervention group, which will use flexible, non-heeled shoes— Moleca®—for six months for at least six hours daily, or the control group, which could not use these shoes. Neither group is undergoing physical therapy treatment throughout the intervention period. Moleca® is a women’s double canvas, flexible, flat walking shoe without heels, with a 5-mm anti-slip rubber sole and a 3-mm internal wedge of ethylene vinyl acetate. Both groups will be followed for six months and will be assessed at baseline condition, after three months, and after six months (end of intervention. All the assessments will be performed by a physiotherapist that is blind to the group allocation. The primary outcome is the pain Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis (WOMAC score. The secondary outcomes are global WOMAC score; joint stiffness and disability WOMAC scores; knee pain with a visual analogue scale; walking distance in the six-minute walk test; Lequesne score; amount and frequency (number of days of paracetamol (500 mg intake over six months; knee adduction moment during gait; global medical assessment score; and global patient auto-assessment score. At baseline, all patients receive a diary to record the hours of daily use of the footwear intervention; every two weeks, the same physiotherapist makes phone calls to all patients in order to verify adherence to treatment. The statistical analysis will be based on intention

  4. THE IMPACT OF FX (FOREIGN CURRENCY EXCHANGE) ON THE BOTTOM LINE OF TEXTILE/SHOES INDUSTRIES LISTED IN INDONESIA STOCK EXCHANGE 2006-2008

    OpenAIRE

    Subekti, Hendro

    2015-01-01

    During 2006-2008, Indonesia has been experiencing depreciation of IDR against world currency US$. The situation was triggered by global crisis October 2008, and IDR currency plunged. Furthermore, 17 textile/shoes industries publicly listed in ISX have been severely hit by depreciation of IDR The “Huge Loss of Bottom Line” in 2008 was recorded (IDR 617 billions) more than half of trillion IDR. To be curious the most of industry are manufacturer-exporter.Year 2007, national textile industry ove...

  5. Perceived risks for slipping and falling at work during wintertime and criteria for a slip-resistant winter shoe among Swedish outdoor workers

    OpenAIRE

    Norlander, Anna; Miller, Michael; Gard, Gunvor

    2015-01-01

    The leading cause of work related accidents in Sweden is falls. Many slips and falls occur on icy and snowy surfaces, but there is limited knowledge about how to prevent accidents during outdoor work in winter conditions. The purpose of this study was to describe risk factors of slips and falls and criteria for slip-resistant winter shoes from a user perspective. The result is based on focus group interviews with 20 men and women working in mail delivery, construction and home care in Sweden....

  6. A Personalized Self-Management Rehabilitation System with an Intelligent Shoe for Stroke Survivors: A Realist Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawson, Susan; Nasr, Nasrin; Parker, Jack; Davies, Richard; Zheng, Huiru; Mountain, Gail

    2016-01-07

    In the United Kingdom, stroke is the most significant cause of adult disability. Stroke survivors are frequently left with physical and psychological changes that can profoundly affect their functional ability, independence, and social participation. Research suggests that long-term, intense, task- and context-specific rehabilitation that is goal-oriented and environmentally enriched improves function, independence, and quality of life after a stroke. It is recommended that rehabilitation should continue until maximum recovery has been achieved. However, the increasing demand on services and financial constraints means that needs cannot be met through traditional face-to-face delivery of rehabilitation. Using a participatory design methodology, we developed an information communication technology-enhanced Personalized Self-Managed rehabilitation System (PSMrS) for stroke survivors with integrated insole sensor technology within an "intelligent shoe.". The intervention model was based around a rehabilitation paradigm underpinned by theories of motor relearning and neuroplastic adaptation, motivational feedback, self-efficacy, and knowledge transfer. To understand the conditions under which this technology-based rehabilitation solution would most likely have an impact on the motor behavior of the user, what would work for whom, in what context, and how. We were interested in what aspects of the system would work best to facilitate the motor behavior change associated with self-managed rehabilitation and which user characteristics and circumstances of use could promote improved functional outcomes. We used a Realist Evaluation (RE) framework to evaluate the final prototype PSMrS with the assumption that the intervention consists of a series of configurations that include the Context of use, the underlying Mechanisms of change and the potential Outcomes or impacts (CMOs). We developed the CMOs from literature reviews and engagement with clinicians, users, and

  7. MONTE CARLO SIMULATION: IMPORTANT MANAGEMENT TOOL IN EVALUATING DECISIONS UNDER RISK. CASE STUDY: LAUNCH A NEW PRODUCT OF SHOES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veres Vincentiu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Decisions are a result of choices made between several alternatives and will affect all participants in the decision-making process. In this paper we analyze the Monte Carlo simulation as an important management tool in evaluating decisions under risk. The method is particularly useful in simulating decision problems. For example, the profit that could be achieved if a company launches a new product may depend on a number of factors (market share, advertising, production costs, launch costs, the lifetime of the product, etc. The company manager should identify all factors that could affect profit and then to consider the large number of ways in which these factors may interrelate. In such situations it is recommended company manager to divide the problem into smaller parts, asking him to estimate the probability distribution for market share, for advertising, for the cost of launch. Once they were obtained it can be determined their combined effect in order to obtain the probability distribution of profit. Through computer can generate a large number of possible combinations of situations where you choose a particular course of action. Upon completion of the simulation possible combination will be generated mostly while the least possible combination will be generated less frequently. For exemplification we selected a company producing shoes in Cluj market who wants to launch a new model for autumn-winter 2013-2014. In the current period the company has limited production capacity, has a number of additional contracts honored and general economic crisis situation makes money availability to be extremely limited. Accordingly, the company will have to choose a single product to be launched next season. The company will have to decide which of the two new products to be launched on the market: a model of boots for men in business class or a new model of women\\'s boots of the same class business. The company is not sure either production costs or

  8. The Effect of Minarex B Oil and Gamma Irradiation on the Mechanical Properties of Vulcanized Natural Rubber-LDPE Mixture for Shoe Sole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudradjat Iskandar; Isni Marliyanti

    2004-01-01

    To obtain the optimum concentration of minarex B oil and gamma irradiation dose on natural rubber compound for shoe sole, study on the effect of minarex B oil and gamma radiation on the mechanical properties of vulcanized natural rubber-LDPE mixture has been done. Natural rubber was masticated and mixed with additive and filler using two-roll machine, at 120 o C of forward roll and 100 o C of backward roll, with rotation speed of 18 rpm. The additives added with irganox 1076, paraffin wax, stearic acid, and minarex B oil, while fillers used were polyethylene (LDPE) and calcium carbonate. Minarex B oil mixed was vary such as 5, 10 and 20 phr (part per hundred of rubber). The amount of filler and other additives mixed was not varied. The natural rubber film was obtained by pressing the mixture using hot and cold press machine at 135 o C and room temperature for about 3 minutes. The film then irradiated with gamma rays from cobalt-60 source, at the doses of 150, 300, and 500 kGy. The results show that the mechanical properties of natural rubber vulcanized decreases by increasing minarex B oil, and increases by increasing of irradiation dose. The concentration optimum of minarex B oil in the natural rubber compound for shoe sole and irradiation dose about 5 phr and 300 kGy were agree with SII 0944-84. (author)

  9. Put on My Shoes

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-11-01

    This podcast encourages increased physical activity to the tune of original music.  Created: 11/1/2007 by National Diabetes Education Program (NDEP), a joint program of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Institutes of Health.   Date Released: 11/29/2007.

  10. Exercise clothing and shoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... form-fitting, stretchy clothing for activities like: Running Biking Advanced yoga/Pilates Swimming You may be able ... A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Exercise and Physical Fitness Browse the Encyclopedia ...

  11. Effects of long-term wearing of high-heeled shoes on the control of the body's center of mass motion in relation to the center of pressure during walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Hui-Lien; Lu, Tung-Wu; Liu, Ming-Wei

    2014-04-01

    High-heeled shoes are associated with instability and falling, leading to injuries such as fracture and ankle sprain. This study investigated the effects of habitual wearing of high-heeled shoes on the body's center of mass (COM) motion relative to the center of pressure (COP) during gait. Fifteen female experienced wearers and 15 matched controls walked with high-heeled shoes (7.3cm) while kinematic and ground reaction force data were measured and used to calculate temporal-distance parameters, joint moments, COM-COP inclination angles (IA) and the rate of IA changes (RCIA). Compared with inexperienced wearers, experienced subjects showed significantly reduced frontal IA with increased ankle pronator moments during single-limb support (pheel-strike, and reduced DLS time (pheel-strike (pknee extensor moments at toe-off (pheeled shoes, providing a basis for future design of strategies to minimize the risk of falling during high-heeled gait. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The Effect of Shoe Insole Stiffness on Leg Stiffness during Stance Phase of Running in Two Different Speeds ‎among Active Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeinab Tazike-Lemeski

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The effect of shoe insoles with different characteristics and in different running speeds on lower-limb stiffness is still ‎controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of two types of insoles (soft and semi-rigid in two ‎different running speeds on leg stiffness during stance phase of running among active men.‎ Materials and Methods: ‎15 male students without any background of lower extremity injury were selected. Subjects were asked to run with ‎two controlled velocities of 3.0 ± 0.2 and 5.0 ± 0.1 m/s in control and insole conditions (soft and semi-rigid on a ‎force plate, placed on the middle of 15-meter runway. The cinematics and cinetics of motion were measured and ‎calculated using 5 video cameras and one force plate. The leg stiffness was achieved via dividing the vertical ‎ground reaction force by leg compression. Two-factor repeated measures ANOVA was used to test the hypothesis at ‎the significance level of P £ 0.050.‎ Results: There was a significant difference between the two types of insoles on leg stiffness. In fact, semi-rigid insole significantly increased leg stiffness (P < 0.001. However, this discrepancy was not related to the running speed (P = 0.999. In addition, there was no significant difference between the two different speeds on leg stiffness (P = 0.632. Conclusion: It seems that the increase in shoe insole stiffness may increase the leg stiffness. Furthermore, the effect of insole ‎stiffness is not related to the running speed, and leg stiffness will remains constant in low to medium running speeds.‎

  13. The Comparison of Forces Applied to the Knee Extensor Mechanism during Stance Phase of Gait in Flat Footed Females Three Different in-Shoe Orthotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Razeghi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: It has been postulated that subtalar position and movement would influence the function of the foot and the lower limb’s biomechanical alignment as a whole. The aim of this study was to compare the changes of force applied to the knee extensor mechanism of the female subjects while applying three different in-shoe orthotic appliances. Materials & Methods: Feiss Line test was used to assign a group of 10 healthy female subjects aged at 19-25 years as flat foot group. Retro reflective calibration and tracking markers were placed on the subjects over anatomically relevant locations. Kinematic and kinetic data were collected by employing a three dimensional motion capture system (Qualisys®Ltd, Sweden and a force platform (Kistler®, Switzerland respectively, while subjects walked at their preferred speed with 3 different in-shoe orthotics: simple insole, insole with medial arch support, insole with medial arch support and medial heel wedge, and insole with medial arch support and lateral forefoot wedge. Results: A statistically significant lower amount of the force applied to the extensor mechanism was found while applying medial arch support combined with lateral wedge (P=0.005. Conclusion: It could be concluded that changes of the different foot insoles would alter the force applied to the knee extensor mechanism. Results of this study emphasize the immediate effect of applying a medial arch support combined lateral wedge on reduction of the force applied to the extensor mechanism through which decrease a tendency towards musculoskeletal injuries.

  14. Determining the frequency of asbestos use in automotive brakes from a fleet of on-road California vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vita, Joseph; Wall, Stephen; Wagner, Jeff; Wang, Zhong-Min; Rao, Leela E

    2012-02-07

    Asbestos is a known human carcinogen, and recent regulation in California limits asbestiform fibers in brakes to trace levels beginning in 2014, although there is no corresponding federal requirement. In order to gauge the current prevalence of asbestos use in automotive brake applications, the California Air Resources Board tested brake linings from 137 light- and medium-duty vehicles and 54 heavy-duty vehicles. Only about 3% of the light- and medium-duty vehicle brake linings contained chrysotile asbestos. All of those brake linings were drum-type shoes, which are generally being phased out. No asbestos was found in low mileage vehicles presumed to have their original stock linings from the vehicle manufacturer. Additionally, no asbestos was found in the heavy-duty vehicle brake shoe linings sampled. Given the small percentage of vehicle brake linings with asbestos observed, it appears that the prior federal ban that was subsequently overturned, in combination with a threat of litigation, has reduced asbestos use in brake linings. However, our study was limited in scope and without a national ban, the current and future prevalence of asbestos in brakes is uncertain, suggesting the need for continued monitoring of materials released as toxic air contaminants in normal braking operations.

  15. These Shoes Are Made for Walking: Sensitivity Performance Evaluation of Commercial Activity Monitors under the Expected Conditions and Circumstances Required to Achieve the International Daily Step Goal of 10,000 Steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Sandra; ÓLaighin, Gearóid; Kelly, Lisa; Murphy, Elaine; Beirne, Sorcha; Burke, Niall; Kilgannon, Orlaith; Quinlan, Leo R

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity is a vitally important part of a healthy lifestyle, and is of major benefit to both physical and mental health. A daily step count of 10,000 steps is recommended globally to achieve an appropriate level of physical activity. Accurate quantification of physical activity during conditions reflecting those needed to achieve the recommended daily step count of 10,000 steps is essential. As such, we aimed to assess four commercial activity monitors for their sensitivity/accuracy in a prescribed walking route that reflects a range of surfaces that would typically be used to achieve the recommended daily step count, in two types of footwear expected to be used throughout the day when aiming to achieve the recommended daily step count, and in a timeframe required to do so. Four commercial activity monitors were worn simultaneously by participants (n = 15) during a prescribed walking route reflective of surfaces typically encountered while achieving the daily recommended 10,000 steps. Activity monitors tested were the Garmin Vivofit ™, New Lifestyles' NL-2000 ™ pedometer, Withings Smart Activity Monitor Tracker (Pulse O2) ™, and Fitbit One ™. All activity monitors tested were accurate in their step detection over the variety of different surfaces tested (natural lawn grass, gravel, ceramic tile, tarmacadam/asphalt, linoleum), when wearing both running shoes and hard-soled dress shoes. All activity monitors tested were accurate in their step detection sensitivity and are valid monitors for physical activity quantification over the variety of different surfaces tested, when wearing both running shoes and hard-soled dress shoes, and over a timeframe necessary for accumulating the recommended daily step count of 10,000 steps. However, it is important to consider the accuracy of activity monitors, particularly when physical activity in the form of stepping activities is prescribed as an intervention in the treatment or prevention of a disease state.

  16. Treatment of forefoot problems in older people: study protocol for a randomised clinical trial comparing podiatric treatment to standardised shoe advice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peeraer Louis

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Foot problems in general and forefoot problems in particular can lead to a decrease in mobility and a higher risk of falling. Forefoot problems increase with age and are more common in women than in men. Around 20% of people over 65 suffer from non-traumatic foot problems and 60% of these problems are localised in the forefoot. Little is known about the best way to treat forefoot problems in older people. The aim of this study is to compare the effects of two common modes of treatment in the Netherlands: shoe advice and podiatric treatment. This paper describes the design of this study. Methods The study is designed as a pragmatic randomised clinical trial (RCT with 2 parallel intervention groups. People aged 50 years and over who have visited their general practitioner (GP with non traumatic pain in the forefoot in the preceding year and those who will visit their GP during the recruitment period with a similar complaint will be recruited for this study. Participants must be able to walk unaided for 7 metres and be able to fill in questionnaires. Exclusion criteria are: rheumatoid arthritis, neuropathy of the foot or pain caused by skin problems (e.g. warts, eczema. Inclusion and exclusion criteria will be assessed by a screening questionnaire and baseline assessment. Those consenting to participation will be randomly assigned to either a group receiving a standardised shoe advice leaflet (n = 100 or a group receiving podiatric treatment (n = 100. Primary outcomes will be the severity of forefoot pain (0-10 on a numerical rating scale and foot function (Foot Function 5-pts Index and Manchester Foot Pain and Disability Index. Treatment adherence, social participation and quality of life will be the secondary outcomes. All outcomes will be obtained through self-administered questionnaires at the start of the study and after 3, 6, 9 and 12 months. Data will be analysed according to the "intention-to-treat" principle using

  17. Exclusive wearing of shoes of impregnated cloth by an adolescent girl during a cold winter: late effects in osseous tomo-scintigraphy and in magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Als, C.; Marugg, S.; Als, C.

    2009-01-01

    We present a rare clinical case of a 14-year-old adolescent girl from central Switzerland with an algoneurodystrophy of the left foot and leg 6 months after grade I frostbite(s) of the feet. After 6 months of constant pain of the digits, not attenuated by non steroid anti-inflammatory drugs, MRI of the feet reveals a predominantly left-sided and distal medullary edema, limited to the phalanges. Bone scintigraphy shows a predominantly left-sided diffuse feet hypoperfusion, coupled with an increased bone uptake of the left leg at late images. Inadequate life-style of adolescents, i.e., exclusively wearing shoes made of cloth and not of leather - even with temperatures below 0 Celsius degree in winter - might be a cause of chronic pain of foot digits. This is a rare demonstration of late effects of cold on foot digits by combined MRI and bone scintigraphy. Algoneurodystrophy in children and adolescents is an under diagnosed clinical entity. (authors)

  18. Research on squeal noise of tread brake system in rail freight vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Li, Yong-hua; Fang, Ji; Zhao, Wen-zhong

    2017-07-01

    Brake squeal is a result of a unstable flutter from brake system, it results to the noise pollution in railway side and excessive wear of wheel tread. A finite element model of brake system for rail freight vehicle is set up, the contact and friction between the brake shoe and wheel tread is considered, the complex modals of brake system are calculated, the possibility of happening chatter and squeal noise are analyzed. The results show that the pressure angle or the brake force direction have a important influence on the unstable chatter and squeal noise, the more greater the pressure angle deviates from the wheel center, the more greater the possibility of happening chatter and squeal noise is, and the possibility of happening chatter and squeal noise is also increased along with the addition of friction factor.

  19. Efeito agudo do calçado de diferentes alturas sobre o comportamento angular do tornozelo Acute effect of shoes with different heights on the ankle angular behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirieli Denardi Limana

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Estudos descrevem que o uso de salto alto exige do corpo uma série de ajustes compensatórios, a fim de manter os seus movimentos e equilíbrio próximos à normalidade. No andar, a interferência do salto alto sobre o pé e sobre a articulação do tornozelo parece desencadear uma postura diferente da posição anatômica. O presente estudo teve como objetivos comparar a cinemática sagital do tornozelo em diferentes calçados e verificar a existência de um limite de altura de salto que possa levar a articulação do tornozelo a adaptações durante o andar. Esta pesquisa, caracterizada como experimental, foi constituída por uma análise cinemática bidimensional do tornozelo no plano sagital. A amostra foi composta por dez universitárias, com média de idade de 19,2 (±1,8 anos, que caminharam sobre uma esteira utilizando um tênis e três sandálias do tipo tamanco, com saltos de 3, 7 e 10 cm. Para cada ciclo de passada, foram identificados picos de movimento do tornozelo referentes à dorsiflexão e à flexão plantar. Os resultados mostraram que na flexão plantar, com o aumento da altura do salto, há uma tendência de acentuação do pico angular do tornozelo. Concluiu-se que saltos acima de 3 cm de altura induzem a articulação do tornozelo a realizar uma flexão plantar sustentada, mudando as características da marcha na fase de apoio e de balanço. Tais evidências sugerem alturas de saltos menores de 3 cm como limites de segurança para manutenção do padrão normal da marcha em mulheres jovens.Studies have described that using high heels requires a series of compensatory adjustments of the body to keep its movements and balance close to normality. When walking, the interference of high heels on the foot and on the ankle joint seems to initiate a different posture from the anatomical position. The present study aimed at comparing the sagittal kinematics of the ankle in different shoes and at verifying the existence of a height

  20. German-Russian project PLOT: new postglacial-glacial-preglacial pollen records from the Lakes Ladoga and Bol'shoe Shuch'e

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreev, A.; Savelieva, L.; Shumilovskikh, L.; Gromig, R.; Wennrich, V.; Fedorov, G.; Wagner, B.; Melles, M.

    2017-12-01

    The German-Russian project PLOT (PaleolimnoLOgical Transect) investigates the Late Quaternary environmental history along the Northern Eurasia transect. Within the scope of a pilot phase of the project we have investigated Lake Ladoga, the largest lake in Europe. Although the postglacial history of the lake was studied over the last decades, the preglacial history remained unknown. It is assumed that during the Last Interglacial Lake Ladoga was part of a precursor of the Baltic Sea, which had a connection via Ladoga and Onega Lakes to the White Sea. Sediment coring at two sites in western Ladoga Lake in September 2013 has revealed sediment succession subdivided into 5 main lithological units. The sediments studied in a 22.7 m lake core were also palynologically investigated. Pollen assemblages indicate that the lowermost sediments with pollen of Betula, Alnus, Pinus, Carpinus, Quercus, Corylus, Ulmus, Tilia, remains of fresh-water Pediastrum and Botryococcus colonies as well as cysts of marine dinoflagellates and brackish water acritarchs) were accumulated during an interglacial with climate more favorable than in the Holocene. The OSL-dated samples show the late Eemian and post Eemian ages. Lake Bol'shoe Shuch'e (Polar Urals) was cored in April 2016. The thickness of the lacustrine sediments was 54 m. According to the previous studies, most of the study area has remained ice-free over the last 50-60 ka. However, the configuration and timing of the preceding glaciations has remained unclear, because of lack continuous, long-term paleoenvironmental records in the area. Preliminary studies show that the uppermost 9 m of the sediments were accumulated during the Holocene, between 11 and 9 m - in Younger Dryas, between 11 and 9 m - in Allerod, between 11 and 25 m - in MIS 2, between 25 and 54 m - in the MIS 3. We expect that the core will provide the most continuous sediment records from the whole region which can be used to reconstruct the environmental changes.

  1. Put yourself in their shoes … the vulnerability of children and their families when attending for radiotherapy treatment: The role of the specialist paediatric radiotherapy radiographer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodman, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Childhood cancer is rare; only 1 in 600 children under the age of 15 years develop a cancer. The treatment of childhood cancers is usually a multimodality approach and can involve surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Radiotherapy is used in the management of tumours of the central nervous system, solid tumours, leukaemia's and Hodgkin's Lymphoma in the paediatric setting. Paediatric patients make up just 1% of the workload in radiotherapy departments, therefore they tend to be very adult orientated environments and treating children can be complex and challenging for staff. As healthcare professionals we must acknowledge the vulnerability of children and their families when they are coming for radiotherapy treatment. The role of the specialist paediatric radiographer has evolved to work alongside the children and their families to alleviate some of the families and staff anxieties, acting as an advocate, a key point of contact and resource. The very nature of radiotherapy treatment means parents will be separated from their children whilst the treatment is delivered. As radiographers we must ensure we put ourselves in their shoes and acknowledge how difficult this is for children and their parents. The key to every interaction with families is excellent communication and this is not just between professionals, the children and families but also between colleagues to ensure care is co-ordinated. Radiographers working with paediatric patients must have refined communication skills, be able to build rapports, offer support and comfort to children and their parents to ensure they receive the best possible care that is tailored to the individual families holistic needs. The specialist paediatric radiotherapy radiographer is in a unique position to deliver this expert care and support

  2. Prevention of recurrent foot ulcers with plantar pressure-based in-shoe orthoses: the CareFUL prevention multicenter randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulbrecht, Jan S; Hurley, Timothy; Mauger, David T; Cavanagh, Peter R

    2014-07-01

    To assess the efficacy of in-shoe orthoses that were designed based on shape and barefoot plantar pressure in reducing the incidence of submetatarsal head plantar ulcers in people with diabetes, peripheral neuropathy, and a history of similar prior ulceration. Single-blinded multicenter randomized controlled trial with subjects randomized to wear shape- and pressure-based orthoses (experimental, n = 66) or standard-of-care A5513 orthoses (control, n = 64). Patients were followed for 15 months, until a study end point (forefoot plantar ulcer or nonulcerative plantar forefoot lesion) or to study termination. Proportional hazards regression was used for analysis. There was a trend in the composite primary end point (both ulcers and nonulcerative lesions) across the full follow-up period (P = 0.13) in favor of the experimental orthoses. This trend was due to a marked difference in ulcer occurrence (P = 0.007) but no difference in the rate of nonulcerative lesions (P = 0.76). At 180 days, the ulcer prevention effect of the experimental orthoses was already significant (P = 0.003) when compared with control, and the benefit of the experimental orthoses with respect to the composite end point was also significant (P = 0.042). The hazard ratio was 3.4 (95% CI 1.3-8.7) for the occurrence of a submetatarsal head plantar ulcer in the control compared with experimental arm over the duration of the study. We conclude that shape- and barefoot plantar pressure-based orthoses were more effective in reducing submetatarsal head plantar ulcer recurrence than current standard-of-care orthoses, but they did not significantly reduce nonulcerative lesions. © 2014 by the American Diabetes Association.

  3. Prevention of Recurrent Foot Ulcers With Plantar Pressure–Based In-Shoe Orthoses: The CareFUL Prevention Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulbrecht, Jan S.; Hurley, Timothy; Mauger, David T.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the efficacy of in-shoe orthoses that were designed based on shape and barefoot plantar pressure in reducing the incidence of submetatarsal head plantar ulcers in people with diabetes, peripheral neuropathy, and a history of similar prior ulceration. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Single-blinded multicenter randomized controlled trial with subjects randomized to wear shape- and pressure-based orthoses (experimental, n = 66) or standard-of-care A5513 orthoses (control, n = 64). Patients were followed for 15 months, until a study end point (forefoot plantar ulcer or nonulcerative plantar forefoot lesion) or to study termination. Proportional hazards regression was used for analysis. RESULTS There was a trend in the composite primary end point (both ulcers and nonulcerative lesions) across the full follow-up period (P = 0.13) in favor of the experimental orthoses. This trend was due to a marked difference in ulcer occurrence (P = 0.007) but no difference in the rate of nonulcerative lesions (P = 0.76). At 180 days, the ulcer prevention effect of the experimental orthoses was already significant (P = 0.003) when compared with control, and the benefit of the experimental orthoses with respect to the composite end point was also significant (P = 0.042). The hazard ratio was 3.4 (95% CI 1.3–8.7) for the occurrence of a submetatarsal head plantar ulcer in the control compared with experimental arm over the duration of the study. CONCLUSIONS We conclude that shape- and barefoot plantar pressure–based orthoses were more effective in reducing submetatarsal head plantar ulcer recurrence than current standard-of-care orthoses, but they did not significantly reduce nonulcerative lesions. PMID:24760263

  4. A Walk in My Shoes: A Mixed-Method Study of the Role of Interprofessional Job Shadowing in Shaping Staff Attitudes at a Large Acute Care Hospital in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piechnik, Melinda; Dempster, Linda

    2018-01-01

    Poor hospital unit culture and staff morale, and dysfunctional multidisciplinary cooperation leads to worse patient safety and satisfaction. The Walk in My Shoes research project aimed to understand how interprofessional job shadowing impacts the attitudes of colleagues. Thirty-three registered nurses at an acute care hospital observed the daily work of social workers. Nurses' attitudes towards social workers were measured by surveys and interviews. Quantitative data indicated a change in nurses' perception of social workers' communication, teamwork and autonomy. Qualitative data indicate that job shadowing helped participants identify personal misperceptions, provided new understanding of roles and gave insight into co-worker job similarities. © 2018 Longwoods Publishing.

  5. EFFECTS OF COMBINED FOOT/ANKLE ELECTROMYOSTIMULATION AND RESISTANCE TRAINING ON THE IN-SHOE PLANTAR PRESSURE PATTERNS DURING SPRINT IN YOUNG ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Fourchet

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have already reported that specific foot/ankle muscle reinforcement strategies induced strength and joint position sense performance enhancement. Nevertheless the effects of such protocols on sprint performance and plantar loading distribution have not been addressed yet. The objective of the study is to investigate the influence of a 5-wk foot/ankle strength training program on plantar loading characteristics during sprinting in adolescent males. Sixteen adolescent male athletes of a national training academy were randomly assigned to either a combined foot/ankle electromyostimulation and resistance training (FAST or a control (C group. FAST consisted of foot medial arch and extrinsic ankle muscles reinforcement exercises, whereas C maintained their usual training routine. Before and after training, in-shoe loading patterns were measured during 30-m running sprints using pressure sensitive insoles (right foot and divided into nine regions for analysis. Although sprint times remained unchanged in both groups from pre- to post- training (3.90 ± 0.32 vs. 3.98 ± 0.46 s in FAST and 3.83 ± 0.42 vs. 3.81 ± 0.44 s in C, changes in force and pressure appeared from heel to forefoot between FAST and C. In FAST, mean pressure and force increased in the lateral heel area from pre- to post- training (67.1 ± 44.1 vs. 82.9 ± 28.6 kPa [p = 0.06]; 25.5 ± 17.8 vs. 34.1 ± 14.3 N [p = 0.05] and did not change in the medial forefoot (151.0 ± 23.2 vs. 146.1 ± 30.0 kPa; 142.1 ± 29.4 vs. 136.0 ± 33.8; NS. Mean area increased in FAST under the lateral heel from pre- to post- (4.5 ± 1.3 vs. 5.7 ± 1.6 cm2 [p < 0.05] and remained unchanged in C (5.5 ± 2.8 vs. 5.0 ± 3.0 cm2. FAST program induced significant promising lateral and unwanted posterior transfer of the plantar loads without affecting significantly sprinting performance

  6. Equilíbrio e retração muscular em jovens estudantes usuárias de calçado de salto alto Equilibrium and muscle retraction in young female students users of high-heeled shoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dernival Bertoncello

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Verifica-se precocidade na utilização de calçado de salto alto, mas não há muitos estudos identificando suas conseqüências. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar alterações de equilíbrio e eventual retração muscular em estudantes universitárias habituadas a utilizar salto alto diariamente. Foram avaliadas 30 jovens (média de 20 anos de idade que anotaram, durante duas semanas, o tempo diário em que permaneciam com o calçado. Foram avaliadas quanto a desvios posturais, quanto às retrações musculares da cadeia posterior, pelo teste de alcance horizontal, e quanto ao equilíbrio, pelo teste de Romberg. Os resultados foram analisados estatisticamente. A média de estatura foi 1,63 m e a de massa corporal, 58,5 kg. O tempo médio de uso dos sapatos de salto alto foi de 34 h por semana. Ao relacionar o alcance horizontal com o tempo semanal de uso do salto alto, verificou-se forte correlação negativa (r=-0,8692; pPrecocity has been noticed in the use of high-heeled shoes. However, there are not many studies on its consequences. The aim of this work was to search for equilibrium alterations in young women used to daily wearing high-heeled shoes. Thirty female undergraduates (mean aged 20 years old were asked to write down, for two weeks, the number of hours per day they remained with the shoes on. They were then assessed as to posture deviations, as to muscle retractions of the posterior chain by means of the sit and reach test, and as to equilibrium by the Romberg test. Results were statistically analysed. Mean volunteers' height was 1.63 m and mean body mass, 58.5 kg. A negative, strong correlation (r=-0.8692; p<0.0001 was noticed between reach range and weekly time (in hours of high-heeled shoe wearing. No correlation was found between reach range and time of high-heel use in years. Seventeen out of the 30 volunteers presented positive test for loss of equilibrium when barefoot with closed eyes. A weak, negative correlation (r

  7. Impact Isolation of Training Shoes

    OpenAIRE

    Daly, Nicci; Tiernan, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT The increase in popularity of physical activities from fun runs to competitive marathons has lead to a huge industry in sports footwear, which is now worth $20bn annually. There is a resultant increase in injuries, largely due to the repeated and prolonged nature of the impact forces experienced by the leg. Clinical data indicates that the knee is the most common site of running related injury, followed by the lower leg and foot. The complexity of the ankle structure means that injur...

  8. Walking Shoes: Features and Fit

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Science. 2015;27:3833. Manske RC, et al. Running injuries: Etiology and recovery-based treatment. Clinical Orthopaedic Rehabilitation: An Evidence-Based Approach. 3rd ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2011. ... American Academy of Pediatrics. https://www.healthychildren.org/ ...

  9. Shoes and Orthotics for Diabetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this site from a secured browser on the server. Please enable scripts and reload this page. Home ... By working with a physician and a footwear professional, such as a certified pedorthist, many patients can ...

  10. How to Select Children's Shoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this site from a secured browser on the server. Please enable scripts and reload this page. Home ... The content is not intended to substitute for professional medical advice, diagnoses or treatments. If you need ...

  11. Excreção urinária de fenol em trabalhadores de indústrias de calçados expostos ao benzeno Urinary output of phenol in workmen exposed to benzene in the shoe industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilda Gallego Gándara de Fernícola

    1976-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi utilizada a excreção urinária de fenol como indicador biológico de exposição profissional ao benzeno, em uma amostra populacional de 79 trabalhadores de indústrias de calçados no município de Franca, SP, Brasil e em 65 pessoas que realizam trabalhos domésticos com colas, contendo benzeno, para indústrias de calçados no município de São Paulo. Os valores médios encontrados, respectivamente 6,5 e 4,2 mg/g de creatinina, permitiram caracterizar diferentes graus de exposição. A primeira população (trabalhadores de indústrias de calçados de Franca, pôde ser considerada como um todo, pelo menos, no ((período pré-patogênico" da intoxicação profissional pelo benzeno.The authors analised the urinary excretion of phenol of a group of 79 shoemakers from Franca (State of S. Paulo - Brazil and of 65 persons who make shoes at home for shoe factories in the city of São Paulo, in order to evaluate their occupational exposure to "benzene present in the adhesives they use. The average values of 6.5 mg/g and 4.2 mg/g creat, respectively, lead the authors to conclude that the two populations have different degress of exposure. The first population (workers from Franca ought to be placed, at least in the prepathogenic period of chronic occupational poisoning.

  12. Analysis of heat conduction in a drum brake system of the wheeled armored personnel carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puncioiu, A. M.; Truta, M.; Vedinas, I.; Marinescu, M.; Vinturis, V.

    2015-11-01

    This paper is an integrated study performed over the Braking System of the Wheeled Armored Personnel Carriers. It mainly aims to analyze the heat transfer process which is present in almost any industrial and natural process. The vehicle drum brake systems can generate extremely high temperatures under high but short duration braking loads or under relatively light but continuous braking. For the proper conduct of the special vehicles mission in rough terrain, we are talking about, on one hand, the importance of the possibility of immobilization and retaining position and, on the other hand, during the braking process, the importance movement stability and reversibility or reversibility, to an encounter with an obstacle. Heat transfer processes influence the performance of the braking system. In the braking phase, kinetic energy transforms into thermal energy resulting in intense heating and high temperature states of analyzed vehicle wheels. In the present work a finite element model for the temperature distribution in a brake drum is developed, by employing commercial finite element software, ANSYS. These structural and thermal FEA models will simulate entire braking event. The heat generated during braking causes distortion which modifies thermoelastic contact pressure distribution drum-shoe interface. In order to capture the effect of heat, a transient thermal analysis is performed in order to predict the temperature distribution transitional brake components. Drum brakes are checked both mechanical and thermal. These tests aim to establish their sustainability in terms of wear and the variation coefficient of friction between the friction surfaces with increasing temperature. Modeling using simulation programs led eventually to the establishment of actual thermal load of the mechanism of brake components. It was drawn the efficiency characteristic by plotting the coefficient of effectiveness relative to the coefficient of friction shoe-drum. Thus induced

  13. Research on brake noise. Concerning LT drum brake; Brake noise ni kansuru kenkyu. LT Drum brake ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chikamori, S; Shimizu, Y [Seikei University, Tokyo (Japan); Yano, M [Mitsubishi Motor Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    The four degrees of freedom of shoe motion were adopted by considering the bending for the shoe vibration, and the simulation model was derived. Using this model, the mechanism by which the squeal is generated was reviewed. And conditions for the occurrence of squeal vibration were determined by a series of simulations. Then father analysis was conducted on the influences of various parameters upon the occurrence of squeal vibration. 2 refs., 10 figs.

  14. "I could cry, the amount of shoes I can't get into": A qualitative exploration of the factors that influence retail footwear selection in women with rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naidoo Serena

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have reported that women with rheumatoid arthritis (RA are not wearing NHS supplied therapeutic footwear; therefore it is likely they are wearing footwear sourced through retailers. Previous research gives limited information (largely associated with cosmesis on people's perceptions on the relationships that exist between retail footwear, well-being and quality of life. This study aimed to explore the perceptions of women with RA regarding their choice of retail footwear and identify the factors influencing retail footwear selection. Methods Eleven women with RA wearing normal retail footwear were recruited from an out-patient podiatry clinic in the south east of England. Semi-structured interviews were carried out and an interpretative phenomenological approach was adopted for data collection and transcript analysis. Results Six key themes were revealed from the analysis: (1 the nature of foot complaints and deformities, (2 aesthetic appearance and design of footwear, (3 body image, (4 psychosocial aspects, (5 Perceptions of footwear and (6 the therapeutic value of retail shoes. These contributed to an overarching concept of loss of choice associated with retail footwear. In particular, the areas discussed most frequently throughout were themes (2, (3 and (4, which were notably more 'emotional' in nature. Conclusions Limitations in retail footwear for these women have impacted on their individuality, linking significantly with their body image. The loss of choice in footwear as a consequence of the disease impacts negatively on emotions, wellbeing and was identified in reduced self-perceived quality of life.

  15. "I could cry, the amount of shoes I can't get into": A qualitative exploration of the factors that influence retail footwear selection in women with rheumatoid arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Studies have reported that women with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are not wearing NHS supplied therapeutic footwear; therefore it is likely they are wearing footwear sourced through retailers. Previous research gives limited information (largely associated with cosmesis) on people's perceptions on the relationships that exist between retail footwear, well-being and quality of life. This study aimed to explore the perceptions of women with RA regarding their choice of retail footwear and identify the factors influencing retail footwear selection. Methods Eleven women with RA wearing normal retail footwear were recruited from an out-patient podiatry clinic in the south east of England. Semi-structured interviews were carried out and an interpretative phenomenological approach was adopted for data collection and transcript analysis. Results Six key themes were revealed from the analysis: (1) the nature of foot complaints and deformities, (2) aesthetic appearance and design of footwear, (3) body image, (4) psychosocial aspects, (5) Perceptions of footwear and (6) the therapeutic value of retail shoes. These contributed to an overarching concept of loss of choice associated with retail footwear. In particular, the areas discussed most frequently throughout were themes (2), (3) and (4), which were notably more 'emotional' in nature. Conclusions Limitations in retail footwear for these women have impacted on their individuality, linking significantly with their body image. The loss of choice in footwear as a consequence of the disease impacts negatively on emotions, wellbeing and was identified in reduced self-perceived quality of life. PMID:21794134

  16. An evaluation of short-term exposures of brake mechanics to asbestos during automotive and truck brake cleaning and machining activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Richard O; Finley, Brent L; Paustenbach, Dennis J; Williams, Pamela R D; Sheehan, Patrick J

    2009-07-01

    Historically, the greatest contributions to airborne asbestos concentrations during brake repair work were likely due to specific, short-duration, dust-generating activities. In this paper, the available short-term asbestos air sampling data for mechanics collected during the cleaning and machining of vehicle brakes are evaluated to determine their impact on both short-term and daily exposures. The high degree of variability and lack of transparency for most of the short-term samples limit their use in reconstructing past asbestos exposures for brake mechanics. However, the data are useful in evaluating how reducing short-term, dust-generating activities reduced long-term exposures, especially for auto brake mechanics. Using the short-term dose data for grinding brake linings from these same studies, in combination with existing time-weighted average (TWA) data collected in decades after grinding was commonplace in rebuilding brake shoes, an average 8-h TWA of approximately 0.10 f/cc was estimated for auto brake mechanics that performed arc grinding of linings during automobile brake repair (in the 1960s or earlier). In the 1970s and early 1980s, a decline in machining activities led to a decrease in the 8-h TWA to approximately 0.063 f/cc. Improved cleaning methods in the late 1980s further reduced the 8-h TWA for most brake mechanics to about 0.0021 f/cc. It is noteworthy that when compared with the original OSHA excursion level, only 15 of the more than 300 short-term concentrations for brake mechanics measured during the 1970s and 1980s possibly exceeded the standard. Considering exposure duration, none of the short-term exposures were above the current OSHA excursion level.

  17. Evidência de eficácia de cobertura de sapatos e sapatos privativos no controle e prevenção de infecção do sítio cirúrgico: revisão sistemática de literatura Evidencias de control y prevención de infecciones del sitio quirúrgico con calzados de seguridad y zapatos exclusivos: revisión sistemática de literatura Evidence of control and prevention of surgical site infection by shoe covers and private shoes: a systematic literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Medeiros Lutz Santos

    2005-02-01

    referencias de artículos de relevancia, en el período de 1950 a 2003, que fueron analizadas de acuerdo con: el objetivo, el tipo de investigación, el diseño metodológico, los resultados, las conclusiones y los comentarios de los investigadores. Los resultados no sugieren evidencia directa de esta eficacia, aunque hay evidencias de que la capacidad de barrera y de transferencia de microorganismos de un área para otra del piso depende del tipo de calzados de seguridad, siendo menor con zapatos exclusivos y calzados de seguridad. El riesgo de contaminación ocupacional durante la remoción y la puesta de calzados de seguridad también es evidente. La decisión por la continuidad del uso de estos elementos necesita ser controlada técnica y administrativamente.The study is about shoe cover and private shoe usage and aimed to find scientific evidence on their direct relation in the control of surgical site contamination and/or infection transmitted by floor microorganisms. A systematic review of basic research on shoe covers and private shoes usage was carried out, covering the period from 1950 to 2003, by means of a search in electronic sources, bibliographies of relevant studies and proceedings of scientific events. The analysis was supported by two researchers, both of whom were experienced in this theme and one of them in research methodology. The research methods revealed a diverse range and various problems. Only 4 studies obtained a dispersion of floor microorganisms to the air environment, although not significant, and none of them was directly related to surgical site contamination and/or infection. Results do not suggest direct evidence on their efficacy but there is evidence, nonetheless, that barrier and microorganisms transfer from one specific area to another depend on the type of shoe cover, with lower transfer rates when private shoes and shoe covers are employed. Occupational contamination risk during shoe cover attire and removal is also evident and the

  18. Cascade: a Knowledge-Based System Supporting Shoe Depths Selection and Casing Design CASCADE : un système à base de connaissances pour l'aide au choix de la profondeur des sabots et à la conception du tubage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sansone A.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available CASCADE is a decisional support system for shoe depth selection and casing design in exploration and production wells. This expert system is part of the ADIS project (Advanced Drilling Information System, jointly developed by three ENI companies : AGIP, ENIDATA, SAIPEM. The purpose of ADIS is to provide drilling engineering software tools for well planning and drilling operations support both at the office and rig site, to monitor real time operations and to diagnose drilling problems. To support real-time operations, ADIS project team developed tools for satellite communication between rigs and districts or headquarters, and expert systems to monitor operations, such as the status analyzer, on-line pressure gradients forecasts, alarms monitoring and management. The communication between different applications is provided by databases, both for the real time and the off line parts. The real time database is volatile; measurements are recorded on micrologs, which are in due time stored in the permanent, off line relational database for future use. Therefore, ADIS will provide better operations support and improved accuracy in well planning, with the ultimate aim of reducing risks and costs. CASCADE is part of the well planning tools developed for ADIS project: other software tools are related to directional well planning, hydraulics modelling, temperature prediction and gradients forecast. Casing shoe depth selection, and the consequent determination of geometrical and mechanical characteristics of casings, is a crucial activity. It heavily influences well planning and affects both safety and economical aspects of drilling operations. Accurate well and casing design can significantly reduce drilling costs and risks. Currently, casing design is carried out according to several requirements : company standards, common practice procedures, drilling engineers' experience and local regulations. Therefore, the choice of the best casing parameters which

  19. If the Shoe Fits, Sort It!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Daniel J.

    2017-01-01

    Classroom implementation of the "Next Generation Science Standards" (NGSS Lead States 2013) does not necessarily require complete curricular overhaul. In many cases, teachers can review previously used lessons with respect to the "NGSS," evaluate alignment, and make subsequent modifications. One science activity the author has…

  20. Shirts and Shoes Required, Sheepskin Optional?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weldy Boyd, Amanda C.

    2011-01-01

    The author challenges the current trend of seeing college as mandatory and questions whether schools and students alike might be better served by academic administrators, parents, and other well-meaning role models acknowledging that education has many forms, and that not every student will have the same aptitude or investment in the outcome.…

  1. ABC Kinga kauplused = ABC King shoe stores

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Tallinnas Kristiine keskuses, Tartu Kaubamajas ja Pärnus Port Artur 2 asuvate ABC Kinga kaupluste sisekujundusest. Sisearhitekid Andres Labi ja Janno Roos (Ruumilabor OÜ), loetletud nende ühiselt tehtud töid

  2. Stepping Into Their Shoes: The Ostomy Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Donna G; Haskins, Tara L; Roberson, Sherrie C

    2018-04-01

    Empathetic patient care and reflective practice are linked to improved patient outcomes. Nurse educators play a key role in facilitating the development of empathy in nursing students. Research reveals an interest in reflective learning using a variety of approaches. Taking cues from the previous literature, "The Ostomy Experience" was developed, implemented, and evaluated qualitatively. The Ostomy Experience included paired learning, simulated ostomy stories, skills application in a laboratory setting, personal experience of an ostomate appliance, and structured reflective journaling throughout the process. Responses were evaluated for emerging themes. Data analysis revealed themes of Encountering Emotions, Becoming Aware, and Impacting Personal Practice. The structured reflective journaling yielded rich student learning data. Responses were evident of self-proclaimed change in attitudes, deeper understanding of the patient experience, and achievement of the learning objectives. [J Nurs Educ. 2018;57(4):233-236.]. Copyright 2018, SLACK Incorporated.

  3. District profile: the shoe fits at Northampton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-04-18

    An old county town that has retained its individuality through all the changes of the last three centuries, and is expanding vigorously to meet the challenge of the next--that is Northampton. The health services of the district reflect the town, and draw strength, as they always have done, from close links with the community they serve.

  4. Prescription Custom Orthotics and Shoe Inserts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in Podiatry What is a Podiatrist? Student Profiles Council on Podiatric Medical Education (CPME) American Association of Colleges of Podiatric ... 581-9200 Contact Us Copyright © 2018 American Podiatric Medical Association Useful Links Corporate Opportunities ... Agreement Privacy Policy Connect With Us

  5. Riding a mile in their shoes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thompson, K.; Hirsch, L.; Mueller Loose, Simone

    2012-01-01

    situations. This paper reports findings from a two year study of rail passenger crowding in five Australian capital cities which involved a novel mixed-methodology including ethnography, focus groups and an online stated preference choice experiment. The resulting data address the following four fundamental...... research questions: 1) to what extent are Australian rail passengers concerned by crowding, 2) what conditions exacerbate feelings of crowdedness, 3) what conditions mitigate feelings of crowdedness, and 4) how can we usefully understand passengers’ experiences of crowding? It concludes with some...

  6. How to Assess Your Shoe IQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this site from a secured browser on the server. Please enable scripts and reload this page. Home ... The content is not intended to substitute for professional medical advice, diagnoses or treatments. If you need ...

  7. Monitoramento da ação genotóxica em trabalhadores de sapatarias através do teste de micronúcleos, Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul Monitoring the genotoxic action in shoe workers by micronucleus test, Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Silveira Corrêa

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, investigou-se a frequência de micronúcleos em células esfoliadas da mucosa bucal de trabalhadores de sapatarias, na cidade de Pelotas (RS. O estudo constou de 54 trabalhadores de sapatarias expostos à cola e solventes e 54 controles. Avaliou-se a incidência de células com micronúcleos(CMN, binucleadas(CBN, núcleos ligados(CNL e total de anomalias(TA, em 2.000 células por indivíduo. Elaborou-se um banco de dados no programa SPSS "for Windows" pelo teste de Mann-Whitney U, pIn this paper it was investigated the micronuclei frequency in exfoliated oral mucosa cells in shoe shop workers in the city of Pelotas, RS. The study counted on 54 shoe workers exposed to glue and solvents and 54 controls. It was evaluated the incidence of cells with micronucleus (CMN, bi-nucleus (CBN, linked nucleus (CLN and total amount of anomalies (TAA, in 2000 cells per person. A database was created in the SPSS "for Windows" software using the Mann-Whitney U, p<0.05 test. The average of anomalies among shoe workers was 8.69±6.49CMN; 8.85±4.92CBN; 5.78±4.78CNL; 23.31±10.01TA, in the controlled 4.00±5.05CMN; 4.63±4.35CBN; 4.76±5.00CNL; 13.39±9.43TA (p=0.0001; p=0.0001; p=0.144 and p=0.0001 respectively. It was also evaluated the age, gender, time of work, family income, smoke, alcohol beverages, the influence of dermatological, ophthalmological, respiratory and central nervous system (CNS diseases in the number of cell anomalies. These items did not have any influence. It was only observed that among the age group of 15 to 29 years old the number of CNL was bigger than among the age group of 45 to 72. Among those with time of work of 0.1 and 10 years presented a higher CNM than in the other group range.

  8. Tribological properties of nonasbestos brake pad material by using coconut fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craciun, A. L.; Pinca-Bretotean, C.; Utu, D.; Josan, A.

    2017-01-01

    In automotive industry, the brake system is influenced by a large number of variables including geometry of components, materials of brakes, components interaction and many operating condition. Organic fiber reinforced metallic friction composites are increasingly being used in automotive brake shoes, disc and pads, linings, blocks, clutch facings, primarily because of awareness of health hazards of asbestos. Current trend in the research field of automotive industry is to utilization of different wastes as a source of raw materials for composite materials. This will provide more economical benefit and also environmental preservation by utilize the waste of natural fibre In this paper it has performed a tribological study to determine the characteristics of the friction product by using coconut natural fibred reinforced in aluminium composite. In this sense, two different laboratory formulation were prepared with 5% and 10% coconut fibre and other constitutes like binder, friction modifiers, abrasive material and solid lubrificant using powder mettallurgy. These dnew materials for brake pads are tested for tribological behaviour in a standard pin on disc tribometer. To know the wear behavior of composite materials will determine the parameters that characterize there tribological properties.

  9. STUDY OF TECHNICAL STATE IMPACT OF BRAKE RETARDERS AT THE PROCESSING ABILITY OF HUMPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Kozachenko

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The research aims development of methods for calculating the estimated capacity humps for the loss conditions of brake power retarders. Methodology. The operation of humps is connected with large number of random factors, such as the characteristics of cuts, environmental conditions, the value of braking power implemented by retardants and others. In this regard, to research the set tasks the methods of simulation modeling and mathematical statistics are used. Determination of speed and motion time of cuts on the routes is carried out on the basis of rolling down modeling of their rolling down from the humps. Findings. If the brake power of retarders of the rolling down part of humps is not enough to stop the cuts, it should be provided the intervals during break-up to release the rolling routes from the preliminary cuts. The dependencies allowing to set the duration of these intervals were determined using the methods of the probability theory If the brake power of retarders at the rolling down part of humps and at the classification tracks is not enough to meet the requirements of the aimed regulation of the cuts rolling speed, it is necessary the use the additional brake shoes. The work develops the methods that on the basis of simulation modeling of the humping process allow one to set the desired value of the break-up duration increase. They ensure the traffic safety at the given number of car motion speed regulators. Originality. Authors firstly proposed the improved methods for determining the estimated capacity of humps. Unlike the existing ones, allow taking into account the technological limitations caused by the requirements of the humping process safety and can be used to assess the performance of the humps in the conditions of parametric failures of the retarders. Practical value. The use of the proposed methods allows assessing the influence of the retarders’ disrepair on the performance degradation of humps for the

  10. AN EMPIRIC STUDY ON THE STORE IMAGE DIMENSIONS IN THE RETAIL SHOE SECTOR UN ESTUDIO EMPÍRICO SOBRE LAS DIMENSIONES DE LA IMAGEN DE TIENDA EN EL SECTOR MINORISTA DE CALZADOS UM ESTUDO EMPÍRICO SOBRE AS DIMENSÕES DA IMAGEM DE LOJA NO VAREJO CALÇADISTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarsis Souza Silva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering that the store image is an important marketing tool, which makes possible to identify the attributes with larger influence on  consumers' satisfaction, the objective of the present research was to identify the image that consumers possess of a shoe store. The focus is to present the image that consumers have a shoe store. The study begins with a brief discussion on the retail footwear, starting soon after, a review of store image and its components and measurement scales. Thus, an empiric research was accomplished, through a descriptive approach, with the application of structured questionnaires. The target population was defined as being the customers of a shoe store in the city of São Sebastião do Paraíso (MG, whose sample was constituted by 123 respondents. In the data analysis, the factorial analysis was applied to identify the store image dimensions.  As a result, seven factors of store image were obtained, that were nominated like this: assortment, convenience, reputation, price, atmosphere, layout and service. With this research’s results, it is believed that professionals and theoretical of the retail sector can better understand the role of the store image construct.Considerándose que la imagen de tienda  es una importante herramienta de  marketing que permite identificar los atributos que tienen una mayor influencia en la satisfacción de los consumidores, el objetivo de la presente investigación fue identificar la imagen que los consumidores poseen de una tienda de calzados. El énfasis esta dado en la presentación   de la imagen que los consumidores tienen de una zapatería. El estudio inicia con un breve abordaje sobre los minoristas del calzado; en seguida, presenta una revisión sobre imagen de tienda, sus componentes y escalas de mensuración. De esta forma, se realizó una investigación empírica, a través de un abordaje  descriptivo, con la aplicación de cuestionarios

  11. Gravity brake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lujan, Richard E.

    2001-01-01

    A mechanical gravity brake that prevents hoisted loads within a shaft from free-falling when a loss of hoisting force occurs. A loss of hoist lifting force may occur in a number of situations, for example if a hoist cable were to break, the brakes were to fail on a winch, or the hoist mechanism itself were to fail. Under normal hoisting conditions, the gravity brake of the invention is subject to an upward lifting force from the hoist and a downward pulling force from a suspended load. If the lifting force should suddenly cease, the loss of differential forces on the gravity brake in free-fall is translated to extend a set of brakes against the walls of the shaft to stop the free fall descent of the gravity brake and attached load.

  12. Better Brakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Through continuing studies on high-temperature space materials useful for better brake linings, Bendix Corporation worked with Ames Research Center to develop a novel composite. This team worked to fabricate several combinations of composite materials and evaluated results. The one selected increases wear rates and lowers costs. It exhibits constant coefficient of friction at temperatures as high as 650 degrees Fahrenheit, a region where conventional brake linings fade markedly. Other suitable markets include brakes for trucks and industrial equipment such as overhead cranes and hoists. Afterwards brake linings could find successful application in passenger cars.

  13. Braking system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norgren, D.U.

    1982-09-23

    A balanced braking system comprising a plurality of braking assemblies located about a member to be braked. Each of the braking assemblies consists of a spring biased piston of a first material fitted into a body of a different material which has a greater contraction upon cooling than the piston material. The piston is provided with a recessed head portion over which is positioned a diaphragm and forming a space therebetween to which is connected a pressurized fluid supply. The diaphragm is controlled by the fluid in the space to contact or withdraw from the member to be braked. A cooling means causes the body within which the piston is fitted to contract more than the piston, producing a tight shrink fit therebetween. The braking system is particularly applicable for selectively braking an arbor of an electron microscope which immobilizes, for example, a vertically adjustable low temperature specimen holder during observation. The system provides balanced braking forces which can be easily removed and re-established with minimal disturbance to arbor location.

  14. Sprag solenoid brake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dane, P. H.

    1972-01-01

    Operation of solenoid braking mechanism is discussed. Illustrations of construction of the brake are provided. Device is used for braking low or medium speed shaft rotations and produces approximately ten times braking torque of similar solenoid brakes.

  15. Magnetostrictive Brake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diftler, Myron A.; Hulse, Aaron

    2010-01-01

    A magnetostrictive brake has been designed as a more energy-efficient alternative to a magnetic fail-safe brake in a robot. (In the specific application, failsafe signifies that the brake is normally engaged; that is, power must be supplied to allow free rotation.) The magnetic failsafe brake must be supplied with about 8 W of electric power to initiate and maintain disengagement. In contrast, the magnetostrictive brake, which would have about the same dimensions and the same torque rating as those of the magnetic fail-safe brake, would demand only about 2 W of power for disengagement. The brake (see figure) would include a stationary base plate and a hub mounted on the base plate. Two solenoid assemblies would be mounted in diametrically opposed recesses in the hub. The cores of the solenoids would be made of the magnetostrictive alloy Terfenol-D or equivalent. The rotating part of the brake would be a ring-and spring- disk subassembly. By means of leaf springs not shown in the figure, this subassembly would be coupled with the shaft that the brake is meant to restrain. With no power supplied to the solenoids, a permanent magnet would pull axially on a stepped disk and on a shelf in the hub, causing the ring to be squeezed axially between the stepped disk and the hub. The friction associated with this axial squeeze would effect the braking action. Supplying electric power to the solenoids would cause the magnetostrictive cylinders to push radially inward against a set of wedges that would be in axial contact with the stepped disk. The wedges would convert the radial magnetostrictive strain to a multiplied axial displacement of the stepped disk. This axial displacement would be just large enough to lift the stepped disk, against the permanent magnetic force, out of contact with the ring. The ring would then be free to turn because it would no longer be squeezed axially between the stepped disk and the hub.

  16. Riscos ocupacionais de uma indústria calçadista sob a ótica dos trabalhadores Riesgos laborales de una industria de calzado en la visión de los trabajadores Occupational risks of a shoe industry from the workers' perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Reinher da Luz

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available O estudo teve como objetivo identificar os riscos ocupacionais de uma indústria calçadista sob a ótica dos trabalhadores, bem como as medidas preventivas adotadas por eles contra os riscos. Realizou-se um estudo qualitativo, descritivo. A amostra foi composta por quinze trabalhadores. Os dados foram coletados por entrevista semiestruturada e analisados à luz da análise de conteúdo. Foram respeitados os aspectos éticos e a pesquisa foi aprovada pelo Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa da Universidade Regional do Noroeste do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Os resultados apontam que os trabalhadores são conhecedores dos riscos do seu processo de trabalho, faziam uso de medidas de proteção individual e a empresa disponibilizava dispositivos de segurança, informando e realizando, periodicamente, visitas aos setores, na perspectiva de desenvolver ações educativas.Estudio cualitativo descriptivo, que tuve como objetivo identificar los riesgos laborales de una industria de calzado, así como las medidas preventivas adoptadas frente a los riesgos, en la visión de los trabajadores. La muestra fue compuesta por quince trabajadores y los datos fueran obtenidos por entrevista semi-estructurada y analizados a luz de la analísis de contenido. Los aspectos éticos fueran respetados y la investigación fue aprobada por el Comité de Ética en Pesquisa de la Universidad Regional del Estado de Rio Grande do Sul. Los resultados apuntaran que los trabajadores conocen los riesgos de su proceso de trabajo, hacen uso de medidas de protección personal, y que la empresa proporciona dispositivos de seguridad, informando y realizando visitas periódicas a los sectores con el fin de desarrollar actividades educativas.This is a qualitative and descriptive study, which aimed to identify the occupational risks of a shoe industry, as well as the preventive measures taken against those risks, from the workers' perspective. The sample consisted of fifteen workers. Data

  17. Variable friction device for structural control based on duo-servo vehicle brake: Modeling and experimental validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Liang; Downey, Austin; Laflamme, Simon; Taylor, Douglas; Ricles, James

    2015-07-01

    Supplemental damping can be used as a cost-effective method to reduce structural vibrations. In particular, passive systems are now widely accepted and have numerous applications in the field. However, they are typically tuned to specific excitations and their performances are bandwidth-limited. A solution is to use semi-active devices, which have shown to be capable of substantially enhanced mitigation performance. The authors have recently proposed a new type of semi-active device, which consists of a variable friction mechanism based on a vehicle duo-servo drum brake, a mechanically robust and reliable technology. The theoretical performance of the proposed device has been previously demonstrated via numerical simulations. In this paper, we further the understanding of the device, termed Modified Friction Device (MFD) by fabricating a small scale prototype and characterizing its dynamic behavior. While the dynamics of friction is well understood for automotive braking technology, we investigate for the first time the dynamic behavior of this friction mechanism at low displacements and velocities, in both forward and backward directions, under various hydraulic pressures. A modified 3-stage dynamic model is introduced. A LuGre friction model is used to characterize the friction zone (Stage 1), and two pure stiffness regions to characterize the dynamics of the MFD once the rotation is reversed and the braking shoes are sticking to the drum (Stage 2) and the rapid build up of forces once the shoes are held by the anchor pin (Stage 3). The proposed model is identified experimentally by subjecting the prototype to harmonic excitations. It is found that the proposed model can be used to characterize the dynamics of the MFD, and that the largest fitting error arises at low velocity under low pressure input. The model is then verified by subjecting the MFD to two different earthquake excitations under different pressure inputs. The model is capable of tracking the

  18. Preliminary Experiment Combining Virtual Reality Haptic Shoes and Audio Synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordahl, Rolf; Berrezag, Amir; Dimitrov, Smilen

    2010-01-01

    We describe a system that provides combined auditory and haptic sensations to simulate walking on different grounds. It uses a physical model that drives haptic transducers embedded in sandals and headphones. The model represents walking interactions with solid surfaces that can creak, or be cove...

  19. Therapy of solid cancers using T cells and running shoes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Straten, Per Thor

    2017-01-01

    of tumor specific T cells at the tumor site, and underscores the need to define ways as how to increase immune cell infiltration to the tumor site. Regular exercise reduces the risk of cancer and disease recurrence, by largely unknown mechanisms. We recently demonstrated that voluntary wheel running showed...

  20. Research Report-Introduction of 'Servis' (Shoes Brand) in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Rob T. Rosales

    2017-01-01

    There are many things that companies need to be considered when entering into the international market. Banalieva and Dhanaraj (2013) stated that when making an entry into the international market, it is important to set up the development process and conduct a thorough market research so as to maximize everything into account and analyzed before the first delivery of the goods to the warehouse of the company (Banalieva & Dhanaraj, 2013, pp. 89-116). To be successful you must adhere to a spec...

  1. The Other Shoe: An Early Operant Conditioning Chamber for Pigeons

    OpenAIRE

    Sakagami, Takayuki; Lattal, Kennon A.

    2016-01-01

    We describe an early operant conditioning chamber fabricated by Harvard University instrument maker Ralph Gerbrands and shipped to Japan in 1952 in response to a request of Professor B. F. Skinner by Japanese psychologists. It is a rare example, perhaps the earliest still physically existing, of such a chamber for use with pigeons. Although the overall structure and many of the components are similar to contemporary pigeon chambers, several differences are noted and contrasted to evolutionary...

  2. Comparative study of performance of shoe polishes formulated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GARZALI

    1Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, Bayero University, Kano. 2College of Science ... carbon black pigment. Polyethylene polish like the one formulated using carbon black pigment was ... into fine black powder. Purification of Wax.

  3. Medial shoe-ground pressure and specific running injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brund, René B K; Rasmussen, Sten; Nielsen, Rasmus O

    2017-01-01

    pressure. Foot balance was categorized into those which presented a higher lateral shod pressure (LP) than medial pressure, and those which presented a higher medial shod pressure (MP) than lateral pressure during the stance phase. A time-to-event model was used to compare differences in incidence between...

  4. [Parkinson gait analysis using in-shoe plantar pressure measurements].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pihet, D; Moretto, P; Defebvre, L; Thevenon, A

    2006-02-01

    The literature reports some studies describing the walking pattern of patients with Parkinson's disease, its deterioration with disease severity and the effects of various treatments. Other studies concerned the plantar pressure distribution when walking. The aim of this study was to validate the use of baropodometric measurements for gait analysis of parkinsonian patients at various stages of disease severity and in on and off phases. Fifteen normal control subjects and fifteen parkinsonian patients equipped with a plantar pressure measurement system performed walking tests. The parkinsonian patients performed the walking tests in off phase then in on phase. A clinical examination was performed to score the motor handicap on the UPDRS scale. Analysis of the plantar pressures of the parkinsonian subjects under various footprint areas detected significant baropodometric differences compared with controls, between groups with different UPDRS scores, and before and after L-Dopa treatment. Plantar pressures measurements allow a sufficiently fine discrimination for using it to detect parkinsonism and monitor patients with Parkinson's disease.

  5. Purchasing preferences for sports shoes: An investigation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Several factors from literature such as comfort, advertising, brand, price, style and quality have ... A sample (N=120) of University of Botswana sport marketing students ... purchasing preferences in order to develop better marketing strategies.

  6. The Other Shoe: An Early Operant Conditioning Chamber for Pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakagami, Takayuki; Lattal, Kennon A

    2016-05-01

    We describe an early operant conditioning chamber fabricated by Harvard University instrument maker Ralph Gerbrands and shipped to Japan in 1952 in response to a request of Professor B. F. Skinner by Japanese psychologists. It is a rare example, perhaps the earliest still physically existing, of such a chamber for use with pigeons. Although the overall structure and many of the components are similar to contemporary pigeon chambers, several differences are noted and contrasted to evolutionary changes in this most important laboratory tool in the experimental analysis of behavior. The chamber also is testimony to the early internationalization of behavior analysis.

  7. ELECTROCHEMICAL TECHNOLOGIES FOR OBTAINING MOULDS FOR SOLES OF SHOES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia LUCA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents contributions in the designing of some electrochemical technologiesfor the manufacturing of the moulds used in the footwear soles obtaining. There are presented a fewmethods for the moulds obtaining, using electro-deposit processes. There are presented thetechnological phases of the obtaining process of the electrolytes and electrodes preparing and thetechnological stages of the moulds manufacturing.

  8. [Ski shoe versus knee joint--3: Risk for falling backward].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaff, P; Hauser, W

    1990-12-01

    In contrast to the drop in the incidence of fractures of the lower leg that has been observed in recent years, the incidence of knee injuries has not decreased in skiing. There has even been a relative increase of severe knee lesions and isolated ACL ruptures, prompting us to conduct a comprehensive study of the causes of this phenomena. The goal of the study was to develop a new measuring device for alpine skiing research by combining motion analysis, pressure and force measurement, comprehensive examine the forward/backward movement in skiboots in the lab and by means of telemetry on the slope (Skiboot versus knee joint part 1/Sportverlerletzung. Sportschaden 3, 1989, pp. 149-161) and to come up with a proposal for a new safety concept to reduce the high number of knee injuries in alpine skiing in the future. The first study was devoted to the forward movement in skiboots (Skiboot versus knee joint part 2/Sportverletzung. Sportschaden 4, 1990, pp. 1-13). The results showed that a skiing style in backward lean position was adopted by skiers wearing boots with a stiff forward flexion and was supported by the fixed backward spoiler. In order to quantify the influence of the backward spoiler a special skiboot was constructed allowing the rear spoiler to give way at a variable, defined stiffness and register the angular displacement and horizontal force Fh. The results showed most clearly that even a medium rear spoiler resistance will sign, reduce the peak force values by a factor of 5.5. The acceleration at the knee joint level is significantly higher (factor 1.6, p less than 0.05) in case of a rigid spoiler. The lab tests could be confirmed on the slope (sign. reduction of max. force by factor 8). It also proved that normal skiing can be performed in such a boot without limitations. In consideration of our facts it is concluded that the principle of safety bindings must definitely apply in future in equal measure also to the ski boot. As a proposal for future safety ski boot, that allowed for the first time the rear part to give way after a certain amount of force (adjustable preload). The backward release bindings, which can often produce dangerous malfunctions if a strong force acts on them for a short period of time, could thus be complemented by a safety system in the boots. In all probability this would be a contributing factor to reducing the high incidence of knee injuries in skiing.

  9. Characterization of vehicular brake service personnel exposure to airborne asbestos and particulate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, F W; Tolar, G; Meraz, L B

    2001-12-01

    Evaluation of fibers and total particulate generated during the servicing of drum brakes on motor vehicles as well as during the resurfacing (arcing) of brake shoes was conducted. Conditions for the studies were based on review of contemporary (approximately 1950-1980) working practices in the industry. This work was conducted in two parts. Phase 1 estimated the release of asbestos fibers and total particulate during brake inspection and replacement of light-duty vehicle rear drum brakes at an auto/truck repair facility. Two distinct work practices were evaluated: One rear wheel from each vehicle was serviced using compressed air to remove dust while the second rear wheel was serviced without compressed air. Area and personal monitoring of fiber levels demonstrated counts (without compressed air) that ranged from 0.05 to 0.2 f/cc. Fiber counts when using compressed air averaged from 0.05 to 0.9 f/cc. Results from real-time aerosol monitoring indicated elevated dust levels for about 15 minutes after blow out. With shop doors open, dust levels increased to 5.0 mg/m3 at blow out and returned to 0.08 mg/m3 within two minutes. When the shop doors were closed, the dust levels reached 13.5 mg/m3 at blow out and decreased to 1.68 mg/m3 within one minute and to background within 14 minutes. The Phase 2 series evaluated the release of fibers and other particulate from are grinding. For operations conducted under conditions simulating a workplace, a mean of 0.19 f/cc +/- 0.16 was determined. Dust levels averaged 0.25 mg/m3 +/- 0.05. Brake service monitoring in these tests demonstrates that asbestos fiber concentrations, considered on a time weighted average basis, should not exceed currently acceptable workplace standards whether or not the worker uses compressed air, nor during the arc grinding process when arcing is conducted in accord with the design of the equipment.

  10. Automotive Brake Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    This correspondence course, orginally developed for the Marine Corps, is designed to provide mechanics with an understanding of the basic operations of automotive brake systems on military vehicles. The course contains four study units covering hydraulic brakes, air brakes, power brakes, and auxiliary brake systems. A troubleshooting guide for…

  11. Emergency braking : research summary.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlösser, L.H.M.

    1976-01-01

    This report deals with an investigation concerning braking capacity of trucks if somewhere a failure occurs in the normal service brake. Purpose of research was to get an insight in various secondary braking systems for trucks. It is shown that with almost all of the secondary braking system it was

  12. 14 CFR 25.735 - Brakes and braking systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brakes and braking systems. 25.735 Section... braking systems. (a) Approval. Each assembly consisting of a wheel(s) and brake(s) must be approved. (b... an automatic braking system is installed, means are provided to: (i) Arm and disarm the system, and...

  13. Antiskid braking system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazdera, J. S.

    1974-01-01

    Published report describes analytical development and simulation of braking system. System prevents wheels from skidding when brakes are applied, significantly reducing stopping distance. Report also presents computer simulation study on system as applied to aircraft.

  14. Deployable Brake for Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rausch, J. R.; Maloney, J. W.

    1987-01-01

    Aerodynamic shield that could be opened and closed proposed. Report presents concepts for deployable aerodynamic brake. Brake used by spacecraft returning from high orbit to low orbit around Earth. Spacecraft makes grazing passes through atmosphere to slow down by drag of brake. Brake flexible shield made of woven metal or ceramic withstanding high temperatures created by air friction. Stored until needed, then deployed by set of struts.

  15. Roller Locking Brake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranish, John M.

    1993-01-01

    Roller locking brake is normally braking rotary mechanism allowing free rotation when electromagnet in mechanism energized. Well suited to robots and other machinery which automatic braking upon removal of electrical power required. More compact and reliable. Requires little electrical power to maintain free rotation and exhibits minimal buildup of heat.

  16. Brake Fundamentals. Automotive Articulation Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Larry; And Others

    Designed for secondary and postsecondary auto mechanics programs, this curriculum guide contains learning exercises in seven areas: (1) brake fundamentals; (2) brake lines, fluid, and hoses; (3) drum brakes; (4) disc brake system and service; (5) master cylinder, power boost, and control valves; (6) parking brakes; and (7) trouble shooting. Each…

  17. Reel safety brake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carle, C. E. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A braking apparatus is described for a tape transport device having two stacked coaxial reels and feelers mounted in proximity to the reels for sensing the tape being wound on each reel. A device is mounted in proximity to adjacent central hubs of the reels to a simultaneously, frictionally engage both hubs and brake both reels. A mechanical actuator is coupled to both feelers and to the brake device. The brake means comprises a pair of rubber shoulders that extend in opposite directions relative to a common axis, and turns about the axis in response to either of the feelers.

  18. An antilock molecular braking system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei-Ting; Huang, Shou-Ling; Yao, Hsuan-Hsiao; Chen, I-Chia; Lin, Ying-Chih; Yang, Jye-Shane

    2012-08-17

    A light-driven molecular brake displaying an antilock function is constructed by introducing a nonradiative photoinduced electron transfer (PET) decay channel to compete with the trans (brake-off) → cis (brake-on) photoisomerization. A fast release of the brake can be achieved by deactivating the PET process through addition of protons. The cycle of irradiation-protonation-irradiation-deprotonation conducts the brake function and mimics the antilock braking system (ABS) of vehicles.

  19. Brake for rollable platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, A. L.

    1974-01-01

    Frame-mounted brake is independent of wheels and consists of simple lever-actuated foot. Brake makes good contact with surface even though foot pad is at higher or lower level than wheels, this is particularly important when a rollable platform is used on irregular surface.

  20. Magnetorheological suspension electromagnetic brake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bica, Ioan

    2004-01-01

    The magnetorheological suspension (MRS) brake is of the monoblock type. The main part of the electromagnetic brake is an electromagnet, between whose poles two MRS disks are placed. For distances between disks of 0.65x10 -3 m±10%, revolutions of the electric motor, coupled to the electromagnetic brake, ranging between 200 and 1600 rev/min and braking powers of up to 85 W, there are no differences in revolutions between the disks of the electromagnetic brake. For fixed revolutions of the electric motor, the revolution of the parallel disk can be modified continuously by means of the intensity of the magnetic field. In all cases, the quantity of MRS is of 0.35x10 -3 kg

  1. WIND BRAKING OF MAGNETARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong, H.; Xu, R. X.; Qiao, G. J.; Song, L. M.

    2013-01-01

    We explore the wind braking of magnetars considering recent observations challenging the traditional magnetar model. There is evidence for strong multipole magnetic fields in active magnetars, but the dipole field inferred from spin-down measurements may be strongly biased by particle wind. Recent observations challenging the traditional model of magnetars may be explained naturally by the wind braking scenario: (1) the supernova energies of magnetars are of normal value; (2) the non-detection in Fermi observations of magnetars; (3) the problem posed by low magnetic field soft gamma-ray repeaters; (4) the relation between magnetars and high magnetic field pulsars; and (5) a decreasing period derivative during magnetar outbursts. Transient magnetars with L x rot may still be magnetic dipole braking. This may explain why low luminosity magnetars are more likely to have radio emissions. A strong reduction of the dipole magnetic field is possible only when the particle wind is very collimated at the star surface. A small reduction of the dipole magnetic field may result from detailed considerations of magnetar wind luminosity. In the wind braking scenario, magnetars are neutron stars with a strong multipole field. For some sources, a strong dipole field may no longer be needed. A magnetism-powered pulsar wind nebula will be one of the consequences of wind braking. For a magnetism-powered pulsar wind nebula, we should see a correlation between the nebula luminosity and the magnetar luminosity. Under the wind braking scenario, a braking index smaller than three is expected. Future braking index measurement of a magnetar may tell us whether magnetars are wind braking or magnetic dipole braking.

  2. Improved Electromagnetic Brake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Toby B.

    2004-01-01

    A proposed design for an electromagnetic brake would increase the reliability while reducing the number of parts and the weight, relative to a prior commercially available electromagnetic brake. The reductions of weight and the number of parts could also lead to a reduction of cost. A description of the commercial brake is prerequisite to a description of the proposed electromagnetic brake. The commercial brake (see upper part of figure) includes (1) a permanent magnet and an electromagnet coil on a stator and (2) a rotor that includes a steel contact plate mounted, with tension spring loading, on an aluminum hub. The stator is mounted securely on a stationary object, which would ordinarily be the housing of a gear drive or a motor. The rotor is mounted on the shaft of the gear drive or motor. The commercial brake nominally operates in a fail-safe (in the sense of normally braking) mode: In the absence of current in the electromagnet coil, the permanent magnet pulls the contact plate, against the spring tension, into contact with the stator. To release the brake, one excites the electromagnet with a current of the magnitude and polarity chosen to cancel the magnetic flux of the permanent magnet, thereby enabling the spring tension to pull the contact plate out of contact with the stator. The fail-safe operation of the commercial brake depends on careful mounting of the rotor in relation to the stator. The rotor/stator gap must be set with a tolerance between 10 and 15 mils (between about 0.25 and about 0.38 mm). If the gap or the contact pad is thicker than the maximum allowable value, then the permanent magnetic field will not be strong enough to pull the steel plate across the gap. (For this reason, any contact pad between the contact plate and the stator must also be correspondingly thin.) If the gap exceeds the maximum allowable value because of shaft end play, it becomes impossible to set the brake by turning off the electromagnet current. Although it may

  3. On friction braking demand with regenerative braking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walker, A.M.; Lampérth, M.U.; Wilkins, S.

    2002-01-01

    Developments in Hybrid Electric and pure Electric Vehicles are intended to improve the operational efficiency of road vehicles. Regenerative braking, which has long been established in rail vehicles, is integral to efficiency improvement, with up to 30% of overall traction energy demand satisfied by

  4. Vehicle brake testing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Samuel S [Harriman, TN; Hodgson, Jeffrey W [Lenoir City, TN

    2002-11-19

    This invention relates to a force measuring system capable of measuring forces associated with vehicle braking and of evaluating braking performance. The disclosure concerns an invention which comprises a first row of linearly aligned plates, a force bearing surface extending beneath and beside the plates, vertically oriented links and horizontally oriented links connecting each plate to a force bearing surface, a force measuring device in each link, a transducer coupled to each force measuring device, and a computing device coupled to receive an output signal from the transducer indicative of measured force in each force measuring device. The present invention may be used for testing vehicle brake systems.

  5. Braking System for Wind Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krysiak, J. E.; Webb, F. E.

    1987-01-01

    Operating turbine stopped smoothly by fail-safe mechanism. Windturbine braking systems improved by system consisting of two large steel-alloy disks mounted on high-speed shaft of gear box, and brakepad assembly mounted on bracket fastened to top of gear box. Lever arms (with brake pads) actuated by spring-powered, pneumatic cylinders connected to these arms. Springs give specific spring-loading constant and exert predetermined load onto brake pads through lever arms. Pneumatic cylinders actuated positively to compress springs and disengage brake pads from disks. During power failure, brakes automatically lock onto disks, producing highly reliable, fail-safe stops. System doubles as stopping brake and "parking" brake.

  6. Load proportional safety brake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciola, M. J.

    1979-01-01

    This brake is a self-energizing mechanical friction brake and is intended for use in a rotary drive system. It incorporates a torque sensor which cuts power to the power unit on any overload condition. The brake is capable of driving against an opposing load or driving, paying-out, an aiding load in either direction of rotation. The brake also acts as a no-back device when torque is applied to the output shaft. The advantages of using this type of device are: (1) low frictional drag when driving; (2) smooth paying-out of an aiding load with no runaway danger; (3) energy absorption proportional to load; (4) no-back activates within a few degrees of output shaft rotation and resets automatically; and (5) built-in overload protection.

  7. Development of hydraulic brake actuator for active brake control; Active brake seigyoyo yuatsu booster no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konishi, Y; Hattori, M. Sugisawa, M.; Nishii, M [Aisin Seiki Co. Ltd., Aichi (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Recently, application of active brake control systems of the vehicle are increasing. (Vehicle stability control, Panic brake assist ) We have developed a new hydraulic brake actuator for active brake control systems. New hydraulic brake actuator is composed of the three parts. (Hydraulic booster unit, Power supply unit, Control valve unit) This report describes the construction of the new hydraulic booster unit. 2 refs., 10 figs.

  8. Unidirectional high gain brake stop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, David J. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    This invention relates to a unidirectional high gain brake arrangement that includes in combination a shaft mounted for rotation within a housing. The shaft is rotatable in either direction. A brake is selectively releasably coupled to the housing and to the shaft. The brake has a first member. An intermittent motion device is respectively coupled through the first member to the housing and through a one-way clutch to the shaft. The brake also has a second member that is mechanically coupled to the first brake member and to the housing. The intermittent motion device causes the brake to be activated by movement imparted to the first brake member after a preset number of revolutions of the shaft in one direction. The brake is released by rotation of the shaft in an opposite direction whereby torque transmitted through the one-way clutch to the first brake member is removed.

  9. Research on Braking Stability of Electro-mechanical Hybrid Braking System in Electric Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Ji, Fenzhu; Tian, Mi

    2010-01-01

    For the electro-mechanical hybrid braking system, which is composed of electric brake and general friction brake, the models of electric braking force, total braking force and the utilization adhesion coefficient for front and rear axles were established based on the analysis of braking torque distribution. The variation relationship between electric braking force and friction braking force in different braking intensity was calculated and analyzed with the paralleled-hybridized braking contr...

  10. Braking System Modeling and Brake Temperature Response to Repeated Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaini Dalimus

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Braking safety is crucial while driving the passenger or commercial vehicles. Large amount of kinetic energy is absorbed by four brakes fitted in the vehicle. If the braking system fails to work, road accident could happen and may result in death. This research aims to model braking system together with vehicle in Matlab/Simulink software and measure actual brake temperature. First, brake characteristic and vehicle dynamic model were generated to estimate friction force and dissipated heat. Next, Arduino based prototype brake temperature monitoring was developed and tested on the road. From the experiment, it was found that brake temperature tends to increase steadily in long repeated deceleration and acceleration cycle.

  11. Development of mechanical brake assist; Mechanical brake assist no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konishi, M; Shingyoji, S; Nakamura, I; Tagawa, T; Saito, Y; Ishihara, T; Kobayashi, S; Yoshida, M [Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    We have recognized that there are drivers who cannot apply strong brake pedal force , in spite of the necessity of hard braking in emergencies. We have developed a `mechanical brake assist system` which assists drivers appropriately, according to the drivers` characteristics based on studying the characteristic`s of conditions of drivers applying the brake pedal force in emergency conditions. 2 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Development of brake assist system. Summary of hydraulic brake assist system; Brake assist system no kaihatsu. Ekiatsushiki brake assist system no gaiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hara, M; Ota, M; Shimizu, S [Toyota, Motor Corp., Aichi (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    We have already developed vacuum-booster-type Brake Assist System that supplies additional braking power when panic braking is recognized. We are convinced that the expansion of Brake Assist System will become more important issue in the future. Therefore we have developed hydraulic Brake Assist System with increasing its controllability and reducing its discomfort. This system have a brake pressure sensor to detect emergency braking operation and an antilock device to supply additional braking power. 8 refs., 11 figs.

  13. Safety brake for tape reels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carle, C. E.

    1977-01-01

    All-mechanical device senses end of tape and stops reel, even in event of electronic system failure. Assembly includes stop to prevent brake from overriding tape. Recentering mechanism returns brake to neutral position after torque is removed from reels.

  14. 16 CFR 20.0 - Scope and purpose of the guides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., air conditioners, alternators, armatures, air brakes, brake cylinders, ball bearings, brake shoes... pumps, power brake units, power steering gears, power steering pumps, power window motors, rack and... wiper motors, and water pumps. Tires are not included. (Tires are covered by the Tire Advertising and...

  15. Cooperative Control of Regenerative Braking and Antilock Braking for a Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Yin, Guodong; Jin, XianJian

    2013-01-01

    A new cooperative braking control strategy (CBCS) is proposed for a parallel hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) with both a regenerative braking system and an antilock braking system (ABS) to achieve improved braking performance and energy regeneration. The braking system of the vehicle is based on a new method of HEV braking torque distribution that makes the antilock braking system work together with the regenerative braking system harmoniously. In the cooperative braking control strategy, a sli...

  16. Development of combined brake system on front and rear brakes for scooter; Scooter yo zenkorin rendo brake system no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okazaki, Y; Itabashi, T; Shinohara, S; Honda, Y [Honda R and D Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Scooters need appropriate front and rear wheel braking power distribution and each of front and rear brakes have been operated using right and left levers. This time, a low cost brakes with cable type combined brake system for small size scooter and a brakes with hydraulic type combined brake system for middle size scooter have been developed to obtain appropriate front and rear wheel braking power distribution. Both systems use convenient left lever to operate. 3 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Shoe leather epidemiology: active travel and transport infrastructure in the urban landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogilvie, David; Mitchell, Richard; Mutrie, Nanette; Petticrew, Mark; Platt, Stephen

    2010-05-11

    Building new transport infrastructure could help to promote changes in patterns of mobility, physical activity, and other determinants of population health such as economic development. However, local residents may not share planners' goals or assumptions about the benefits of such interventions. A particularly contentious example is the construction of major roads close to deprived residential areas. We report the qualitative findings of the baseline phase of a longitudinal mixed-method study of a new urban section of the M74 motorway in Glasgow, Scotland, that aims to combine quantitative epidemiological and spatial data with qualitative interview data from local residents. We interviewed 12 residents purposively sampled from a larger study cohort of 1322 to include men and women, different age groups, and people with and without cars, all living within 400 metres of the proposed route of the new motorway. We elicited their views and experiences of the local urban environment and the likely impact of the new motorway using a topic guide based on seven key environmental constructs (aesthetics, green space, convenience of routes, access to amenities, traffic, road danger and personal danger) reflecting an overall ecological model of walking and cycling. Traffic was widely perceived to be heavy despite a low local level of car ownership. Few people cycled, and cycling on the roads was widely perceived to be dangerous for both adults and children. Views about the likely impacts of the new motorway on traffic congestion, pollution and the pleasantness of the local environment were polarised. A new motorway has potential to cause inequitable psychological or physical severance of routes to local amenities, and people may not necessarily use local walking routes or destinations such as parks and shops if these are considered undesirable, unsafe or 'not for us'. Public transport may have the potential to promote or discourage active travel in different socioeconomic contexts. Altering the urban landscape may influence walking and cycling in ways that vary between individuals, may be inequitable, and may not be predictable from quantitative data alone. A more applied ecological behavioural model may be required to capture these effects.

  18. Perwujudan Brand Image Dalam Penataan Interior Rotelli Shoes Di Galaxy Mall

    OpenAIRE

    Sriti Mayang Sari, Maria Sulistya C

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays the economic developmentis increasing in Surabaya. This has a positive impact on retail companies in Surabaya. In order to remain competitive shop among many other stores, they need a unique interior design, comfortable and functional that can attract customers to shop. An attractive interior design alone is not enough, however they need an interior design that canreflect the image and strategies.Rotelli is one of the famous shoesbrand from Italy and has a vision to be a trendsetter ...

  19. Leave the Running Shoes at Home: Addressing Elopement in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, Robert; Strange, Connie; Stenhoff, Don; Delano, Monica; Ferguson, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Students' leaving a designated area without permission or supervision is referred to as "elopement," and such behavior clearly presents a unique set of challenges for educational professionals. Elopement is seen in children and youth with a variety of developmental disabilities, including those with intellectual disabilities or autism, as well as…

  20. Moccasins into Slippers: Woodlands Indian Hats, Bags, and Shoes in Tradition and Transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Ruth B.

    1990-01-01

    In the mid-nineteenth century, an abrupt transformation occurred in textiles and other art forms of northeastern Woodlands Indians. Trade, tourism, and survival needs sparked changes in materials used and garment types produced, as well as substitution of a new vocabulary of floral imagery for "pagan" iconographic traditions. (SV)

  1. Engineering specification and system design for CAD/CAM of custom shoes: UMC project effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Han P.

    1990-01-01

    Further experimentations were made to improve the design and fabrication techniques of the integrated sole. The sole design is shown to be related to the foot position requirements and the actual shape of the foot including presence of neurotropic ulcers or other infections. Factors for consideration were: heel pitch, balance line, and rigidity conditions of the foot. Machining considerations were also part of the design problem. Among these considerations, widths of each contour, tool motion, tool feed rate, depths of cut, and slopes of cut at the boundary were the key elements. The essential fabrication techniques evolved around the idea of machining a mold then, using quick-firm latex material, casting the sole through the mold. Two main mold materials were experimented with: plaster and wood. Plaster was very easy to machine and shape but could barely support the pressure in the hydraulic press required by the casting process. Wood was found to be quite effective in terms of relative cost, strength, and surface smoothness except for the problem of cutting against the fibers which could generate ragged surfaces. The programming efforts to convert the original dBase programs into C programs so that they could be executed on the SUN Computer at North Carolina State University are discussed.

  2. Online simulation as a collision prevention layer in automated shoe sole adhesive spraying

    OpenAIRE

    Román Ibáñez, Vicente; Jimeno-Morenilla, Antonio; Pujol, Francisco A.; Salas Pérez, Faustino

    2018-01-01

    Robotisation in the footwear sector is a major challenge for the industry with difficulties present due to the inherent adaptive needs of some of the automated tasks performed by robotic arms. One of those of particular concern is collision prevention: working with those robots in automated online environments, considering they have limited awareness of the environment, may lead to dangerous situations with the movement of the robot along the calculated paths. To overcome this problem, a coll...

  3. "Try Walking in Our Shoes": Teaching Acculturation and Related Cultural Adjustment Processes through Role-Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamboanga, Byron L.; Ham, Lindsay S.; Tomaso, Cara C.; Audley, Shannon; Pole, Nnamdi

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we describe several role-playing exercises on acculturation and relevant cultural adjustment processes that we incorporated into Tomcho and Foel's classroom activity on acculturation, and we report data that examine subsequent changes in students' responses on pretest and posttest measures shortly after the activity and present…

  4. Improving one’s choices by putting oneself in others’ shoes – An experimental analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Z. (Zhihua); K.I.M. Rohde (Kirsten); P.P. Wakker (Peter)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThis paper investigates how letting people predict others’ choices under risk affects subsequent own choices. We find an improvement of strong rationality (risk neutrality) for losses in own choices, but no such improvement for gains. There is no improvement of weak rationality (avoiding

  5. Pengaruh Kualitas Produk, Kualitas Layanan, Dan Harga Terhadap Kepuasan Konsumen Pada Toko Kopinkra-Kotama Shoes

    OpenAIRE

    Pohan, Reny Asifa

    2015-01-01

    The company can perform a variety of ways to meet customer satisfaction. One of the things that can be done is to learn about and pay attention to factors that affect customer satisfaction. Some of the factors that must be considered by the company in determining the level of customer satisfaction, product quality, service quality, and price. This research was done at the store Kopinkra JL. A.R. Hakim No. 206 C Medan. The purpose of this research is to analyze on 4 assessments: 1. Effect ...

  6. Injury Reduction Effectiveness of Prescribing Running Shoes Based on Foot Shape in Basic Combat Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    Smoking, oral contraceptives , and obesity. Effects on white blood cell count. Journal of the American Medical Association, 234: 500-506. 196...O, Makela P, Palmgren J, and Seppanen R (1994). Exercise, smoking, and calcium intake during adolescence and early adulthood as determinants of peak...study. Gynecological Endocrinology, 19: 169-177. 232. Elgan C, Samsioe G, and Dykes AK (2003). Influence of smoking and oral contraceptives on bone

  7. In-Shoe Plantar Pressures and Ground Reaction Forces during Overweight Adults' Overground Walking

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Marcelo P.; Abreu, Sofia C.; Sousa, Helena; Machado, Leandro; Santos, Rubim; Vilas-Boas, João Paulo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Because walking is highly recommended for prevention and treatment of obesity and some of its biomechanical aspects are not clearly understood for overweight people, we compared the absolute and normalized ground reaction forces (GRF), plantar pressures, and temporal parameters of normal-weight and overweight participants during…

  8. Properties of SBS and sisal fiber composites: ecological material for shoe manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Krause de Verney

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The worldwide trend toward using cheap, atoxic and durable materials from renewable resources contributes to sustainable development. Thus, the investigation of the potential use of vegetal fibers as reinforcing agent in polymeric composites has gained new significance. Sisal fiber has emerged as a reinforcing material for polymers used in automobile, footwear and civil industries. In this work, properties such as hardness, tensile strength and tear strength of polymer composites composed by block copolymer styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS and 5, 10 and 20% by weight of sisal fiber were evaluated. The influence of conventional polymer processing techniques such as single-screw and double-screw extrusion, as well as the addition of coupling agent on the composite mechanical performance was investigated. Also, the morphology and thermal stability of the composites were analyzed. The addition of 2 wt. (% maleic anhydride as coupling agent between sisal fiber and SBS has improved the composite mechanical performance and the processing in a double-screw extruder has favored the sisal fiber distribution in the SBS matrix.

  9. Surface effects on in-shoe plantar pressure and tibial impact during running

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weijie Fu

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: There may not be an inevitable relationship between the surface and the lower-limb impact in runners. It is, however, still noteworthy that the effects of different treadmill surfaces should be considered in the interpretation of plantar pressure performance and translation of such results to overground running.

  10. The effect of minimal shoes on arch structure and intrinsic foot muscle strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth E. Miller

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: These results suggest that endurance running in minimal support footwear with 4 mm offset or less makes greater use of the spring-like function of the longitudinal arch, thus leading to greater demands on the intrinsic muscles that support the arch, thereby strengthening the foot.

  11. In Others' Shoes: Do Individual Differences in Empathy and Theory of Mind Shape Social Preferences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artinger, Florian; Exadaktylos, Filippos; Koppel, Hannes; Sääksvuori, Lauri

    2014-01-01

    Abundant evidence across the behavioral and social sciences suggests that there are substantial individual differences in pro-social behavior. However, little is known about the psychological mechanisms that underlie social preferences. This paper investigates whether empathy and Theory of Mind shape individual differences in pro-social behavior as conventionally observed in neutrally framed social science experiments. Our results show that individual differences in the capacity for empathy do not shape social preferences. The results qualify the role of Theory of Mind in strategic interaction. We do not only show that fair individuals exhibit more accurate beliefs about the behavior of others but that Theory of Mind can be effectively used to pursue both self-interest and pro-social goals depending on the principle objectives of a person. PMID:24743312

  12. Introduction: lesbians and work: the advantages and disadvantages of comfortable shoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Pamela A

    2008-01-01

    This collection of research articles and personal essays on Lesbians and Work is introduced, highlighting some of the advantages and disadvantages that lesbians experience when they engage in paid work outside the home. Although lesbians in the U.S. and elsewhere experience similar workplace discrimination and stress, there are many different ways in which lesbian women respond to discrimination and manage stress.

  13. Shoe leather epidemiology: active travel and transport infrastructure in the urban landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutrie Nanette

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Building new transport infrastructure could help to promote changes in patterns of mobility, physical activity, and other determinants of population health such as economic development. However, local residents may not share planners' goals or assumptions about the benefits of such interventions. A particularly contentious example is the construction of major roads close to deprived residential areas. We report the qualitative findings of the baseline phase of a longitudinal mixed-method study of a new urban section of the M74 motorway in Glasgow, Scotland, that aims to combine quantitative epidemiological and spatial data with qualitative interview data from local residents. Methods We interviewed 12 residents purposively sampled from a larger study cohort of 1322 to include men and women, different age groups, and people with and without cars, all living within 400 metres of the proposed route of the new motorway. We elicited their views and experiences of the local urban environment and the likely impact of the new motorway using a topic guide based on seven key environmental constructs (aesthetics, green space, convenience of routes, access to amenities, traffic, road danger and personal danger reflecting an overall ecological model of walking and cycling. Results Traffic was widely perceived to be heavy despite a low local level of car ownership. Few people cycled, and cycling on the roads was widely perceived to be dangerous for both adults and children. Views about the likely impacts of the new motorway on traffic congestion, pollution and the pleasantness of the local environment were polarised. A new motorway has potential to cause inequitable psychological or physical severance of routes to local amenities, and people may not necessarily use local walking routes or destinations such as parks and shops if these are considered undesirable, unsafe or 'not for us'. Public transport may have the potential to promote or discourage active travel in different socioeconomic contexts. Conclusions Altering the urban landscape may influence walking and cycling in ways that vary between individuals, may be inequitable, and may not be predictable from quantitative data alone. A more applied ecological behavioural model may be required to capture these effects.

  14. Reliability of in-Shoe Plantar Pressure Measurements in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidmar, Gaj; Novak, Primoz

    2009-01-01

    Plantar pressures measurement is a frequently used method in rehabilitation and related research. Metric characteristics of the F-Scan system have been assessed from different standpoints and in different patients, but not its reliability in rheumatoid arthritis patients. Therefore, our objective was to assess reliability of the F-Scan plantar…

  15. Shoe leather epidemiology: active travel and transport infrastructure in the urban landscape

    OpenAIRE

    Mutrie Nanette; Mitchell Richard; Ogilvie David; Petticrew Mark; Platt Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Building new transport infrastructure could help to promote changes in patterns of mobility, physical activity, and other determinants of population health such as economic development. However, local residents may not share planners' goals or assumptions about the benefits of such interventions. A particularly contentious example is the construction of major roads close to deprived residential areas. We report the qualitative findings of the baseline phase of a longitudin...

  16. Fecundity of the Indian Horse-shoe crab, Carcinoscorpius rotundicauda (Latreille)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chatterji, A.; Parulekar, A.H.

    and per g ovary weight were 48, 18 and 164 respectively. Maximum fecundity was observed in crabs ranging in size from 174-179 mm. Relationships between fecundity, carapace length, body weight and ovary weight were linear...

  17. Rocker shoes for ankle and foot overuse injuries : a biomechanical and physiological evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sobhani, Sobhan

    2013-01-01

    Speciale hardloopschoen voorkomt overbelasting van enkel en voet Een hardloopschoen met afwikkelingscorrectie zou mogelijk blessures, zoals een overbelaste achillespees, kunnen voorkomen. Ook zouden deze schoenen hardlopers met blessures aan de achillespees of voorvoet kunnen helpen bij de

  18. Strike type variation among Tarahumara Indians in minimal sandals versus conventional running shoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel E. Lieberman

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: These data reinforce earlier studies that there is variation among foot strike patterns among minimally shod runners, but also support the hypothesis that foot stiffness and important aspects of running form, including foot strike, differ between runners who grow up using minimal versus modern, conventional footwear.

  19. Communicating Sustainable Shoes to Mainstream Consumers : The Impact of Advertisement Design on Buying Intention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, M.C.; Gattol, V.; Van der Helm, R.

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, marketing of sustainable products addresses green buyers, thus missing out on the mainstream consumers and volume necessary to cover the potentially higher cost of more sustainable materials. However, how to effectively communicate more sustainable products to mainstream consumers and

  20. Foot worn inertial sensors for gait assessment and rehabilitation based on motorized shoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aminian, K.; Mariani, B.; Paraschiv-Ionescu, A.; Hoskovec, C.; Bula, C.; Penders, J.; Tacconi, C.; Marcellini, F.

    2011-01-01

    Fall prevention in elderly subjects is often based on training and rehabilitation programs that include mostly traditional balance and strength exercises. By applying such conventional interventions to improve gait performance and decrease fall risk, some important factors are neglected such as the

  1. `Whose Shoes?` Can an educational board game engage Ugandan men in pregnancy and childbirth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladur, Alice Norah; van Teijlingen, Edwin; Hundley, Vanora

    2018-03-27

    Men can play a significant role in reducing maternal morbidity and mortality in low-income countries. Maternal health programmes are increasingly looking for innovative interventions to engage men to help improve health outcomes for pregnant women. Educational board games offer a unique approach to present health information where learning is reinforced through group discussions supporting peer-to-peer interactions. A qualitative study with men from Uganda currently living in the UK on their views of an educational board game. Men were purposively sampled to play a board game and participate in a focus group discussion. The pilot study explored perceptions on whether a board game was relevant as a health promotional tool in maternal health prior to implementation in Uganda. The results of the pilot study were promising; participants reported the use of visual aids and messages were easy to understand and enhanced change in perspective. Men in this study were receptive on the use of board games as a health promotional tool and recommended its use in rural Uganda. This study provides preliminary data on the relevancy and efficacy of using board games in maternal health. Key messages from the focus group appeared to be that the board game is more than acceptable to fathers and that it needs to be adapted to the local context to make it suitable for men in rural Uganda.

  2. A Review in Detection and Monitoring Gait Disorders Using In-Shoe Plantar Measurement Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Bautista, Julian Andres; Huerta-Ruelas, Jorge Adalberto; Chaparro-Cardenas, Silvia Liliana; Hernandez-Zavala, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Gait is an important part of our life, as it affects many daily activities. Special footwear is fundamental to obtain an ergonomic gait and to extract data for analysis. The plantar foot pressure can be employed to detect many kinds of disorders, suggest improvements in treatments, rehabilitation tasks, patient monitoring, development of orthopedic devices, and other applications. In recent years, attention to this topic has grown and is reflected in many works issued in both commercial and academic groups, and has focused on the development of devices for foot plantar pressure measurement with applications in medicine, sports, and research. First works on this subject appeared around 1963 and have continuously evolved with emerging technologies. This paper reviews the reported developments in the field of footwear-embedded sensors for gait measurement, monitoring, diagnosis, and analysis in rehabilitation. Future work is proposed to improve the field of measurement of the footprint with electronic devices.

  3. Is the banning of importation of second-hand clothes and shoes a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to investigate if the banning of importation of ... Qualitative and quantitative secondary data were employed to validate the research ... conducive business and investment environment necessary for the growth of the ... By Country · List All Titles · Free To Read Titles This Journal is Open Access.

  4. Inferring Perspective Versus Getting Perspective: Underestimating the Value of Being in Another Person's Shoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Haotian; Majka, Elizabeth A; Epley, Nicholas

    2017-04-01

    People use at least two strategies to solve the challenge of understanding another person's mind: inferring that person's perspective by reading his or her behavior (theorization) and getting that person's perspective by experiencing his or her situation (simulation). The five experiments reported here demonstrate a strong tendency for people to underestimate the value of simulation. Predictors estimated a stranger's emotional reactions toward 50 pictures. They could either infer the stranger's perspective by reading his or her facial expressions or simulate the stranger's perspective by watching the pictures he or she viewed. Predictors were substantially more accurate when they got perspective through simulation, but overestimated the accuracy they had achieved by inferring perspective. Predictors' miscalibrated confidence stemmed from overestimating the information revealed through facial expressions and underestimating the similarity in people's reactions to a given situation. People seem to underappreciate a useful strategy for understanding the minds of others, even after they gain firsthand experience with both strategies.

  5. "White shoes to a football match!": Female experiences of football's golden age in England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacey Pope

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Although many British historians claim that English football in the post–World War II period was substantially the passion of working-class men, oral history accounts also reveal a largely hidden history of active female sports fans, women who keenly followed football. These female fans often faced opposition from fellow supporters and from other women. In many ways, academic research on sports fandom has worked to omit serious discussion of the role of women. Taken from a wider project aimed at making more visible the historical experiences of female spectators in sport in Britain, this paper draws on interviews with 16 older female fans of the Leicester City football club based in the East Midlands in England. It explores their experiences in the so-called golden age of the game with regard to the football stadium, styles of female support, and relationships with and perceptions of football players. Via oral history research, the paper offers a wider context for understanding the sporting experiences of female fans. But it also analyzes and explicates the meaning of sport in the lives of female fans during a period when football players were paradoxically glamorous and unobtainable local figures, but also, in some contexts, still accessible, ordinary members of local communities.

  6. 'A little hard piece of grass in your shoe': understanding student ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In particular, I focus on moments of resistance in a critical reading course using South African literature, exploring the students' difficulties in dealing with the apartheid past. I theorise these moments of resistance in relation to Kress's challenge to the notion of 'critique' and in relation to the feminist post-structuralist theorising ...

  7. SHOES-Supernovae, HO, for the Equation of State of Dark energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riess, Adam

    2006-07-01

    The present uncertainty in the value of the Hubble constant {resulting in anuncertainty in Omega_M} and the paucity of Type Ia supernovae at redshiftsexceeding 1 are now the leading obstacles to determining the nature of darkenergy. We propose a single, integrated set of observations for Cycle 15 thatwill provide a 40% improvement in constraints on dark energy. This programwill observe known Cepheids in six reliable hosts of Type Ia supernovae withNICMOS, reducing the uncertainty in H_0 by a factor of two because of thesmaller dispersion along the instability strip, the diminished extinction, andthe weaker metallicity dependence in the infrared. In parallel with ACS, atthe same time the NICMOS observations are underway, we will discover andfollow a sample of Type Ia supernovae at z > 1. Together, these measurements,along with prior constraints from WMAP, will provide a great improvement inHST's ability to distinguish between a static, cosmological constant anddynamical dark energy. The Hubble Space Telescope is the only instrument inthe world that can make these IR measurements of Cepheids beyond the LocalGroup, and it is the only telescope in the world that can be used to find andfollow supernovae at z > 1. Our program exploits both of these uniquecapabilities of HST to learn more about one of the greatest mysteries inscience.

  8. The value of shoe size for prediction of the timing of the pubertal growth spurt.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busscher, I.; Kingma, I.; Wapstra, F.H.; Bulstra, S.K.; Verkerke, G.J.; Veldhuizen, A.G.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Knowing the timing of the pubertal growth spurt of the spine, represented by sitting height, is essential for the prognosis and therapy of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. There are several indicators that reflect growth or remaining growth of the patient. For example, distal body parts

  9. Profiling Community College Journals: An Exercise in Putting Shoes on an Octopus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumsden, D. Barry; Singleton-Jackson, Jill

    2000-01-01

    Identifies (1) which community college journals have gone out of business since 1984; (2) which new journals have been launched since 1984; and (3) the current names of journals that, since 1984, have changed their names. Provides contact information for eighteen journals still in business. (PGS)

  10. Shoe adaptation after amputation of the II-V phalangeal bones of the foot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rommers, G. M.; Diepstraten, H. J. M.; Bakker, E.; Lindeman, E.

    2006-01-01

    In The Netherlands, about 50% of all amputations of the lower limb are toes and forefoot amputations. Traumata of toes and mid-foot are rare. Preservation of the foot is the primary goal for treatment. Crush injuries of the foot may be associated with prolonged morbidity. This case study presents an

  11. CONTRIBUTIONS TO DIVERSIFY SOLES MOULDS THAT FORMS DIRECTLY ON FACES SHOES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IONESCU Cozmin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The classical moulds which are currently used for forming the soles directly on the uppers, allow obtaining one sole model. One mould for each foot is made, and at least one mould for each size number in the size number series. To manufacture one single sole model in the sizes series an average set of 16 moulds are needed. Changing the model implies the entire production of a new set of moulds. Therefore, a large diversification of the soles requires the manufacturing a quantity of moulds sets equal with the quantity of sole models. In this paper are presented solutions to obtain more cavity shapes in the same mould, through the use of modular interchangeable pieces. The moulds with versatile cavities have the same functional characteristics as the moulds with unique cavities, are usable on the same type of machines and can be used independently or together with the classical moulds. A brief analysis on the technological processes for manufacturing moulds with versatile cavities reveals a significant lowering of the manufacturing time for moulds in which will be obtained other sole models. This is due to the fact that some of the mould parts are reused. In conclusion, the producers that chose this type of moulds can launch on the market new models in a shorter time and at lower prices.

  12. Variation in the location of the shoe sole flexion point influences plantar loading patterns during gait

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zwaard, B.C.; Vanwanseele, B.; Holtkamp, F.; van der Horst, H.E.; Elders, P.J.M.; Menz, H.B.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Several footwear design characteristics are known to have detrimental effects on the foot. However, one characteristic that has received relatively little attention is the point where the sole flexes in the sagittal plane. Several footwear assessment forms assume that this should ideally

  13. Variation in the location of the shoe sole flexion point influences plantar loading patterns during gait

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. van der Horst; H.B. Menz; ing., M.Sc F.C. Holtkamp; P. Elders; B. Vanwanseele; B. van der Zwaard

    2014-01-01

    Background Several footwear design characteristics are known to have detrimental effects on the foot. However, one characteristic that has received relatively little attention is the point where the sole flexes in the sagittal plane. Several footwear assessment forms assume that this should ideally

  14. Change Your Shoes, Change Your Life: On Object Play and Transformation in a Woman's Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Kay

    2012-01-01

    This article asks why adults play dress-up and investigates the role of object play in the making of magical thinking and the reforming of adult identity. The author looks at a wide spectrum of narratives and their genres--the fairy tale "Cinderella," the film comedy "Some Like it Hot", the epistolary novel "Pamela", the film melodrama "Now,…

  15. Effect of minimal shoes and slope on vertical and leg stiffness during running

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thibault Lussiana

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: This study showed that kvert and kleg during running respond differently to change in footwear and/or slope. These two stiffness measures can hence provide a unique insight on the biomechanical adaptations of running under varying conditions and their respective quantification may assist in furthering our understanding of training, performance, and/or injury in this sport.

  16. Running Shoes, Auto Workers, and Labor: Business Writing Pedagogy in the Working-Class College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurek, Raymond A.

    2002-01-01

    Considers how the introductory business writing course is appropriate for the development of critical literacy, especially for students at second-tier, working-class colleges. Notes that the opposition between labor and management offers rich opportunities for the critical examination of corporate rhetoric, opportunities that are as relevant in…

  17. Energy efficiency improving opportunities in a large Chinese shoe-making enterprise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ming Yang

    2010-01-01

    Energy consumption and energy intensity reduction opportunities are quite different from one enterprise to another. It is necessary to understand how much energy is used at individual enterprise, where the most energy is consumed and what the best opportunities are to invest in energy efficiency. Auditing energy efficiency was recently undertaken in one of the top 1000 largest Chinese enterprises. The objectives of this paper are to fill a gap in the literature of auditing energy efficiency for a Chinese manufacturing enterprise and to share the audited energy efficiency results. This paper concludes that if the enterprise invests USD 1.9 million to improve energy efficiency, the investment will be recovered in about 18 months. The net present value of the investment would be about USD 9.8 million at a discount rate of 12%. The investment will reduce a large amount of energy consumption at the enterprise based on its figures in 2008, including 15% of electricity, 40% of fuel oil, and 54% of diesel. Carbon reduction is also very cost-effective. Investment of one dollar in the enterprise will help cut carbon emission by 7.95 kg per year and generate $5.3 net revenue in the economic lifetime of the invested technology.

  18. [Occupational injury risk in the shoe industry: frequency, types of injuries and equipment involved, improvement interventions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tognon, Ilaria Desirée

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the work has been to evaluate the risk of injuries connected to the use of machinery and work tools in the footwear industry. The analysis of the data related to injuries in the footwear industry, deduced from the registers of injuries collected in the investigated factories, shows that most accidents arise from the contact of the operator's hands with tools and machinery parts during their use. Risk factors generally include the inherent specific danger of some work tools and machines, the lack or inadequacy of safety devices, the obsolescence of the equipment, the imprudence and underestimation of risk.

  19. Designing an Ergonomically Correct CNC Workstation on a Shoe String Budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightner, Stan

    2001-01-01

    Describes research to design and construct ergonomically correct work stations for Computer Numerical Control machine tools. By designing ergonomically correct work stations, industrial technology teachers help protect students from repetitive motion injuries. (Contains 12 references.) (JOW)

  20. Walking a mile in their shoes... Symbolic interactionism for families living with severe mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, J

    1997-06-01

    1. With deinstitutionalization and changes in legal rights of patients, care of patients with severe mental illness has shifted from a hospital-based to a community-centered system. 2. Families often serve as an extension of the mental health system, providing important case management functions such as assessment, monitoring, crisis management, and advocacy. 3. Symbolic interactionism provides a framework for understanding the role of meaning in individual and family responses to the disruption of life that results from severe mental illness.

  1. Governance and Innovation in Industrial Networks: a study of the productive sector of bags and shoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Tiêssa de Jesus Alves

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study of the production network configuration determined from the actions of government policies, market players and this innovation in enterprises cluster network. To this end, we applied 21 questionnaires and 26 interviews with network owners of enterprises and organizations support, and made it a documentary research on the history of cluster. Data on types of innovations occurring in companies between 2009 and 2013, and its influence factors were analyzed and categorized by descriptive statistics. The influence of agents in innovations was examined with indicators of social networks. Thus, we proceeded to the analysis and triangulation of data sources to make the case. It was found that the practices of firms are influenced by leading companies in the market. Have the support entities, responsible for the actions of public governance, not assume prominence as the centrality, closeness and intermediation of innovation network.

  2. Shoes, Cars, and Other Love Stories : Investigating The Experience of Love for Products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Russo, B.

    2010-01-01

    People often say they love a product. What do they really mean when they say this, and is this a phenomenon that is relevant to the field of design? Findings from a preliminary study in this thesis indicated that people describe their love as a rewarding, long-term, and dynamic experience that

  3. Cried because I had no shoes : The impact of price caps on the Ontario electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, A.

    2002-01-01

    In late 2002, the Ontario Premier announced a Nine-Point response to the competitive electricity regime in the province, which was followed by the release of draft legislation. This draft legislation called for a government imposed retail price cap of 4.3 cent kilo watt hour for the cost of energy, effective December 1, 2002 to 2006. In addition, the Premier indicated a retroactive refund would be forwarded to customers from May 1, 2002, for charges above the price cap. In this document, the author argued for a lessening of the price cap proposals, and supporting a market allowed to hold its course toward competitive markets in the future. The arguments put forth by the author were: (1) the imposition of price caps will hinder long-term economic viability in Ontario, (2) the benefits of competition cannot be interrupted by politically-motivated responses, (3) if the current path is followed Ontario may be headed towards blackouts, (4) deregulation is essential if Ontario is to remain competitive in the electricity marketplace, and (5) upcoming downgrade in Ontario's red index score. 3 tabs

  4. Correlative analysis of shoe insoles acting in moist and cold/warm environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braun Barbu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Insoles represent a mean by which humans can improve postural comfort or existence and manifestation of posture static and dynamic. The variety of materials and sizes for different kinds of foot insoles are for manufacturers a challenge in terms of getting products flexible, versatile and easily adaptable to a larger range of subjects. Biomechanical foot dysfunction influences plantar load distribution and mechanical tissue stress. Greater influence over plantar loads and tissue stress may lead to optimize the insole design to improve foot biomechanics. Some investigations founded that the use of cushioned insoles reduces the risk of stress fractures and injuries; other research has shown no protective effect. The use of cushioned or shock-absorbing insoles invoked reducing the impact forces associated with running, protecting against injuries. The paper emphasizes a new method for analysis of the insoles materials behavior in different alkalis and acids, similar to those encountered in real situations when walking and standing. The behavior study of composite structure insoles started to establish constructive variants and the modality of exposure of these samples at different degrees of softening in simple water, in water with salinity and under negative and positive temperature, also to mechanical stress.

  5. Medial shoe-ground pressure and specific running injuries: A 1-year prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brund, René B K; Rasmussen, Sten; Nielsen, Rasmus O; Kersting, Uwe G; Laessoe, Uffe; Voigt, Michael

    2017-09-01

    Achilles tendinitis, plantar fasciopathy and medial tibial stress syndrome injuries (APM-injuries) account for approximately 25% of the total number of running injuries amongst recreational runners. Reports on the association between static foot pronation and APM-injuries are contradictory. Possibly, dynamic measures of pronation may display a stronger relationship with the risk of APM-injuries. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to investigate if running distance until the first APM-injury was dependent on the foot balance during stance phase in recreational male runners. Prospective cohort study. Foot balance for both feet was measured during treadmill running at the fastest possible 5000-m running pace in 79 healthy recreational male runners. Foot balance was calculated by dividing the average of medial pressure with the average of lateral pressure. Foot balance was categorized into those which presented a higher lateral shod pressure (LP) than medial pressure, and those which presented a higher medial shod pressure (MP) than lateral pressure during the stance phase. A time-to-event model was used to compare differences in incidence between foot balance groups. Compared with the LP-group (n=59), the proportion of APM-injuries was greater in the MP-group (n=99) after 1500km of running, resulting in a cumulative risk difference of 16%-points (95% CI=3%-point; 28%-point, p=0.011). Runners displaying a more medial pressure during stance phase at baseline sustained a greater amount of APM-injuries compared to those displaying a lateral shod pressure during stance phase. Prospective studies including a greater amount of runners are needed to confirm this relationship. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Why forefoot striking in minimal shoes might positively change the course of running injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Irene S. Davis; Hannah M. Rice; Scott C. Wearing

    2017-01-01

    It is believed that human ancestors evolved the ability to run bipedally approximately 2 million years ago. This form of locomotion may have been important to our survival and likely has influenced the evolution of our body form. As our bodies have adapted to run, it seems unusual that up to 79% of modern day runners are injured annually. The etiology of these injuries is clearly multifactorial. However, 1 aspect of running that has significantly changed over the past 50 years is the footwear...

  7. The Influence of Running on Foot Posture and In-Shoe Plantar Pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo-Aguilar, María; Gijón-Noguerón, Gabriel; Luque-Suarez, Alejandro; Abian-Vicen, Javier

    2016-03-01

    Running can be considered a high-impact practice, and most people practicing continuous running experience lower-limb injuries. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of 45 min of running on foot posture and plantar pressures. The sample comprised 116 healthy adults (92 men and 24 women) with no foot-related injuries. The mean ± SD age of the participants was 28.31 ± 6.01 years; body mass index, 23.45 ± 1.96; and training time, 11.02 ± 4.22 h/wk. Outcome measures were collected before and after 45 min of running at an average speed of 12 km/h, and included the Foot Posture Index (FPI) and a baropodometric analysis. The results show that foot posture can be modified after 45 min of running. The mean ± SD FPI changed from 6.15 ± 2.61 to 4.86 ± 2.65 (P running. Peak plantar pressures in the forefoot decreased after running. The pressure-time integral decreased during the heel strike phase in the internal edge of the foot. In addition, a decrease was found in the pressure-time integral during the heel-off phase in the internal and rearfoot edges. The findings suggest that after 45 min of running, a pronated foot tends to change into a more neutral position, and decreased plantar pressures were found after the run.

  8. The Effect of Body Mass on the Shoe-Athlete Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Tsouknidas, A.; Pantazopoulos, M.; Sagris, D.; Fasnakis, D.; Maropoulos, S.; Arabatzi, F.; Michailidis, N.

    2017-01-01

    Long-distance running is known to induce joint overloading and elevate cytokine levels, which are the hallmarks for a variety of running-related injuries. To address this, footwear systems incorporate cushioning midsoles to mitigate injurious mechanical loading. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of athlete body mass on the cushioning capacity of technical footwear. An artificial heel was prototyped to fit the impact pattern of a heel-strike runner and used to measure shock atte...

  9. Influence Of Brand Loyalty On Consumer Satisfaction Towards Sportswear (Futsal Shoes)

    OpenAIRE

    Tumewu, Ferdinand; Lodjo, Riefaldo Akwila

    2015-01-01

    Sportswear has become a common and popular category among young people as it identifies them with a more relaxed lifestyle, greater versatility and comfort. Many companies, especially those in the sportswear industry try to enhance brand loyalty among their customers. The purposes of this research is to know the impact of brand loyalty of sportswear based on customer satisfaction on marketing. This research use quantitative research with Multiple Regressions analysis method by using validity ...

  10. A socio-technical approach for improving a Brazilian shoe manufacturing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, J S; de M Guimarães, L B; de Oliveira, P A B

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a macroergonomic intervention in a footwear company in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, to improve both the quality of life of the employees and productivity by optimizing the traditional Taylor/Ford work organization. Multi-functionality and team working were implemented as means of making tasks more flexible and richer and the working hours were changed. The results showed a reduction in human and material resource costs and a consequent improvement in health and workers quality of life. Although middle managerial staff displayed strong resistance to the project and to breaking traditional production paradigms, the socio-technical system has been implemented throughout the plant and is expected to end up becoming the benchmark for other companies in the sector. Macro-ergonomics, footwear industry, organization work.

  11. Walking a mile in their patients' shoes: empathy and othering in medical students' education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shapiro Johanna

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract One of the major tasks of medical educators is to help maintain and increase trainee empathy for patients. Yet research suggests that during the course of medical training, empathy in medical students and residents decreases. Various exercises and more comprehensive paradigms have been introduced to promote empathy and other humanistic values, but with inadequate success. This paper argues that the potential for medical education to promote empathy is not easy for two reasons: a Medical students and residents have complex and mostly unresolved emotional responses to the universal human vulnerability to illness, disability, decay, and ultimately death that they must confront in the process of rendering patient care b Modernist assumptions about the capacity to protect, control, and restore run deep in institutional cultures of mainstream biomedicine and can create barriers to empathic relationships. In the absence of appropriate discourses about how to emotionally manage distressing aspects of the human condition, it is likely that trainees will resort to coping mechanisms that result in distance and detachment. This paper suggests the need for an epistemological paradigm that helps trainees develop a tolerance for imperfection in self and others; and acceptance of shared emotional vulnerability and suffering while simultaneously honoring the existence of difference. Reducing the sense of anxiety and threat that are now reinforced by the dominant medical discourse in the presence of illness will enable trainees to learn to emotionally contain the suffering of their patients and themselves, thus providing a psychologically sound foundation for the development of true empathy.

  12. Assessment and Treatment of Foot-Shoe Fetish Displayed by a Man with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dozier, Claudia L.; Iwata, Brian A.; Worsdell, April S.

    2011-01-01

    Results of a functional analysis indicated that a man diagnosed with autism engaged in bizarre sexual behavior in the presence of women wearing sandals. Several treatments proved to be ineffective or impractical. By contrast, a response-interruption/time-out procedure quickly eliminated the problem behavior in multiple settings. (Contains 1…

  13. Working on nonprofit boards. Don't assume the shoe fits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarlan, F W

    1999-01-01

    Contrary to popular perception, businesspeople can be benevolent. For instance, one recent study notes that four-fifths of all Harvard Business School graduates are involved with nonprofits, with more than half of those serving on boards. Most business professionals will spend some time on a nonprofit board. That's the good news, the author says. The bad news is that the involvement of businesspeople can easily backfire. That's because they often try to take what they have learned from business school and the corporate world and apply it to their duties in the nonprofit sector. On the surface, there are similarities between the for-profit and nonprofit sectors. Both have boards of directors, trustees and chairpeople, regular meetings, and so forth. But the governance of nonprofit organizations is very different from the governance of for-profit businesses in several critical areas, including missions, measurements, and board composition. For instance, the CEO in the nonprofit world must manage a relationship with a nonexecutive board chair. In the for-profit world, the CEO is the chair. Such significant differences make it difficult to transfer ideas and practices between the for-profit and nonprofit worlds. In this article, F. Warren McFarlan describes the main differences between serving on a for-profit board and serving on a nonprofit board. As he points out, understanding the differences will make it easier for businesspeople to move smoothly from one environment to the other and will therefore make their commitments more effective. Nonprofits need businesspeople, but only on the right terms.

  14. Being in the Users' Shoes: Anticipating Experience while Designing Online Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapanta, Chrysi; Cantoni, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    While user-centred design and user experience are given much attention in the e-learning design field, no research has been found on how users are actually represented in the discussions during the design of online courses. In this paper we identify how and when end-users' experience--be they students or tutors--emerges in designers'…

  15. Putting Raters in Ratees' Shoes: Perspective Taking and Assessment of Creative Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jiantao; Long, Haiying; Pang, Weiguo

    2017-01-01

    This study reported 2 experiments that studied the effect of perspective taking on assessment of creative products by using human raters. Forty responses of 2 alternative uses tasks (AUTs) and 15 alien stories generated by 6th-grade students were used as assessment materials. Undergraduate students as the novice raters assessed the products under…

  16. Injury Reduction Effectiveness of Prescribing Running Shoes Based on Foot Shape in Basic Combat Training

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baski, A. A; Whitman, L. J; Knapik, Joseph J; Swedler, David; Grier, Tyson; Hauret, Keith G; Bullock, Steven H; Williams, Kelly; Darakjy, Salima; Lester, Mark; Tobler, Steve; Clemmons, Nakia; Jones, Bruce H

    2008-01-01

    ... (reflecting longitudinal arch height). In response to a request from the Military Training Task Force of the Defense Safety Oversight Council, this study examined whether or not this prescription technique influenced injury risk...

  17. Injury Reduction Effectiveness of Prescribing Running Shoes Based on Foot Shape in Basic Combat Training

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Knapik, Joseph J; Swedler, David; Grier, Tyson; Hauret, Keith G; Bullock, Steven H; Williams, Kelly; Darakjy, Salima; Lester, Mark; Tobler, Steve; Clemmons, Nakia

    2008-01-01

    ... (reflecting longitudinal arch height). In response to a request from the Military Training Task Force of the Defense Safety Oversight Council this study examined whether or not this prescription technique influenced injury risk...

  18. The importance of proper shoe gear and safety stirrups in the prevention of equestrian foot injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceroni, Dimitri; De Rosa, Vicenzo; De Coulon, Geraldo; Kaelin, André

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compile specific foot injuries occurring in pediatric patients that result from equestrian sports and to highlight the importance of wearing adequate riding boots to protect the feet. During a 12-year period, 258 children were admitted to Children's Hospital of Geneva for injuries resulting from horseback riding. Amongst these children, 8 sustained foot lesions that required hospital admission. Four children had compression-type fractures of the cuboid (nutcracker fracture of the cuboid) associated with other complex midfoot fractures, 2 had Lisfranc fracture dislocations, 1 had a fracture of the talus with associated intern malleolar fracture, and the last had a fracture of the 5 metatarsals with lateral displacement. All the noted lesions complied with the same traumatic mechanisms. The horse fell on the patient, and the child's foot, entrapped in the stirrup, was caught in between the animal and the ground. The forefoot was bent by indirect violence in abduction by the stirrup, which acted as a fulcrum. Serious foot injuries may occur in children during equestrian activities. These lesions may be very disabling. Therefore, it is important for doctors, instructors, and parents to promote the use of appropriate safety equipment, including strengthened riding boots and safety stirrups.

  19. In others' shoes: do individual differences in empathy and theory of mind shape social preferences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artinger, Florian; Exadaktylos, Filippos; Koppel, Hannes; Sääksvuori, Lauri

    2014-01-01

    Abundant evidence across the behavioral and social sciences suggests that there are substantial individual differences in pro-social behavior. However, little is known about the psychological mechanisms that underlie social preferences. This paper investigates whether empathy and Theory of Mind shape individual differences in pro-social behavior as conventionally observed in neutrally framed social science experiments. Our results show that individual differences in the capacity for empathy do not shape social preferences. The results qualify the role of Theory of Mind in strategic interaction. We do not only show that fair individuals exhibit more accurate beliefs about the behavior of others but that Theory of Mind can be effectively used to pursue both self-interest and pro-social goals depending on the principle objectives of a person.

  20. [Operative guidelines for the shoe industry: risk assessment and environmental hygiene].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraluppi, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Considering the most relevant factors for occupational safety and health, the Safety Check application in the footwear industry makes little and medium size factories employers able to carry out risk assessment. However, in specific cases, it is necessary to achieve an in-depth evaluation.

  1. Deployable Engine Air Brake

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    On approach, next-generation aircraft are likely to have airframe noise levels that are comparable to or in excess of engine noise. ATA Engineering, Inc. (ATA) is developing a novel quiet engine air brake (EAB), a device that generates "equivalent drag" within the engine through stream thrust reduction by creating a swirling outflow in the turbofan exhaust nozzle. Two Phase II projects were conducted to mature this technology: (1) a concept development program (CDP) and (2) a system development program (SDP).

  2. Tether Deployer And Brake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Joseph A.; Alexander, Charles M.

    1993-01-01

    Design concept promises speed, control, and reliability. Scheme for deploying tether provides for fast, free, and snagless payout and fast, dependable braking. Developed for small, expendable tethers in outer space, scheme also useful in laying transoceanic cables, deploying guidance wires to torpedoes and missiles, paying out rescue lines from ship to ship via rockets, deploying antenna wires, releasing communication and power cables to sonobuoys and expendable bathythermographs, and in reeling out lines from fishing rods.

  3. Sprag solenoid brake. [development and operations of electrically controlled brake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dane, D. H. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    The development and characteristics of an electrically operated brake are discussed. The action of the brake depends on energizing a solenoid which causes internally spaced sprockets to contact the inner surface of the housing. A spring forces the control member to move to the braking position when the electrical function is interrupted. A diagram of the device is provided and detailed operating principles are explained.

  4. Hydraulic brake-system for a bicycle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Frankenhuyzen, J.

    2007-01-01

    The invention relates to a hydraulic brake system for a bicycle which may or may not be provided with an auxiliary motor, comprising a brake disc and brake claws cooperating with the brake disc, as well as fluid-containing channels (4,6) that extend between an operating organ (1) and the brake

  5. 49 CFR 393.52 - Brake performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...: Type of motor vehicle Service brake systems Braking force as a percentage of gross vehicle or... specifications for performance-based brake testers for commercial motor vehicles, where braking force is the sum of the braking force at each wheel of the vehicle or vehicle combination as a percentage of gross...

  6. Dynamometer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — TTCI's unique single-ended inertia dynamometer is used to conduct research and tests on railroad wheels, axles, and brake shoes. The dynamometer has the capability...

  7. Combined hydraulic and regenerative braking system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkataperumal, R.R.; Mericle, G.E.

    1979-08-09

    A combined hydraulic and regenerative braking system and method for an electric vehicle is disclosed. The braking system is responsive to the applied hydraulic pressure in a brake line to control the braking of the vehicle to be completely hydraulic up to a first level of brake line pressure, to be partially hydraulic at a constant braking force and partially regenerative at a linearly increasing braking force from the first level of applied brake line pressure to a higher second level of brake line pressure, to be partially hydraulic at a linearly increasing braking force and partially regenerative at a linearly decreasing braking force from the second level of applied line pressure to a third and higher level of applied line pressure, and to be completely hydraulic at a linearly increasing braking force from the third level to all higher applied levels of line pressure.

  8. Emergency Brake for Tracked Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, G. L.; Hooper, S. L.

    1986-01-01

    Caliper brake automatically stops tracked vehicle as vehicle nears end of travel. Bar on vehicle, traveling to right, dislodges block between brake pads. Pads then press against bar, slowing vehicle by friction. Emergencybraking system suitable for elevators, amusement rides and machine tools.

  9. 49 CFR 230.76 - Piston travel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piston travel. 230.76 Section 230.76... Tenders Brake and Signal Equipment § 230.76 Piston travel. (a) Minimum piston travel. The minimum piston travel shall be sufficient to provide proper brake shoe clearance when the brakes are released. (b...

  10. Brakes Specialist. Teacher Edition. Automotive Service Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This document contains teacher's materials for a course on becoming an automotive brakes specialist, based on the National Institute of Automotive Service Excellence task lists. The course consists of three instructional units: service brake hydraulic system and wheel bearings, service drum brakes, and service disc brakes. Depending on the…

  11. Adjustable Tooling for Bending Brake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, J. M.

    1986-01-01

    Deep metal boxes and other parts easily fabricated. Adjustable tooling jig for bending brake accommodates spacing blocks and either standard male press-brake die or bar die. Holds spacer blocks, press-brake die, bar window die, or combination of three. Typical bending operations include bending of cut metal sheet into box and bending of metal strip into bracket with multiple inward 90 degree bends. By increasing free space available for bending sheet-metal parts jig makes it easier to fabricate such items as deep metal boxes or brackets with right-angle bends.

  12. Thermal Characterisation of Brake Pads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramousse, Séverine; Høj, Jakob Weiland; Sørensen, O. T.

    2001-01-01

    The chemical-physical decomposition processes that occur in a brake pad heated to 1000degreesC have been studied. This temperature can be reached when a brake pad is applied. Thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis were used in combination with evolved gas analysis, and image analysis...... using a scanning electron microscope.A brake pad is essentially a mixture of iron, carbon and binder. Combined techniques have been used, because of chemical reaction overlap, to determine how and at what temperature the binder decomposes, the coal and graphite combust and the iron oxidises.This work...

  13. Transient switching control strategy from regenerative braking to anti-lock braking with a semi-brake-by-wire system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liang; Li, Xujian; Wang, Xiangyu; Liu, Yahui; Song, Jian; Ran, Xu

    2016-02-01

    Regenerative braking is an important technology in improving fuel economy of an electric vehicle (EV). However, additional motor braking will change the dynamic characteristics of the vehicle, leading to braking instability, especially when the anti-lock braking system (ABS) is triggered. In this paper, a novel semi-brake-by-wire system, without the use of a pedal simulator and fail-safe device, is proposed. In order to compensate for the hysteretic characteristics of the designed brake system while ensure braking reliability and fuel economy when the ABS is triggered, a novel switching compensation control strategy using sliding mode control is brought forward. The proposed strategy converts the complex coupling braking process into independent control of hydraulic braking and regenerative braking, through which a balance between braking performance, braking reliability, braking safety and fuel economy is achieved. Simulation results show that the proposed strategy is effective and adaptable in different road conditions while the large wheel slip rate is triggered during a regenerative braking course. The research provides a new possibility of low-cost equipment and better control performance for the regenerative braking in the EV and the hybrid EV.

  14. Intelligent Braking System using the IR Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Gajanan Koli

    2017-01-01

    Most of the accidents in four wheeled vehicles occur because of failure of braking systems. Manual method of applying brakes is always dangerous as it leads to accidents. Unconsciousness of driver, failure in the linkages of braking systems, road conditions, uncontrollable speed of the vehicle and manual operation of braking systems are the reasons of accidents. It is necessary to control brakes automatically through electronics devices to minimize the accident problems. In this research pape...

  15. Single acting translational/rotational brake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allred, Johnny W. (Inventor); Fleck, Jr., Vincent J. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A brake system is provided that applies braking forces on surfaces in both the translational and rotational directions using a single acting self-contained actuator that travels with the translational mechanism. The brake engages a mechanical lock and creates a frictional force on the translational structure preventing translation while simultaneously creating a frictional torque that prevents rotation of the vertical support. The system may include serrations on the braking surfaces to provide increased braking forces.

  16. Brake Stops Both Rotation And Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allred, Johnny W.; Fleck, Vincent J., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Combination of braking and positioning mechanisms allows both rotation and translation before brake engaged. Designed for use in positioning model airplane in wind tunnel. Modified version used to position camera on tripod. Brake fast and convenient to use; contains single actuator energizing braking actions against both rotation and translation. Braking actuator electric, but pneumatic actuator could be used instead. Compact and lightweight, applies locking forces close to load, and presents minimal cross section to airflow.

  17. Mountain Plains Learning Experience Guide: Automotive Repair. Course: Brake Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, C.; Osland, Walt

    One of twelve individualized courses included in an automotive repair curriculum, this course covers theory, operation, and repair of drum brakes, disc brakes, and brake system components. The course is comprised of six units: (1) Fundamentals of Brake Systems, (2) Master Cylinder, (3) Drum Brakes, (4) Disc Brakes, (5) Power Brakes, and (6)…

  18. An analysis of braking measures

    OpenAIRE

    De Groot, S.; De Winter, J.C.F.; Wieringa, P.A.; Mulder, M.

    2010-01-01

    Braking to a full stop at a prescribed target position is a driving manoeuvre regularly used in experiments to investigate driving behaviour or to test vehicle acceleration feedback systems in simulators. Many different performance measures have been reported in the literature for analysing braking. These may or may not be useful to analyse the stopping manoeuvre, because a number of potential problems exist: 1) the scores on a measure may be insufficiently reliable, 2) the measure may be inv...

  19. Slowly braked, rotating neutron stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, H.

    1975-01-01

    A slowly braked, rotating neutron star is believed to be a star which rapidly rotates, has no nebula, is nonpulsing, and has a long initial braking time of ten thousand to a million years because of a low magnetic field. Such an object might be observable as an extended weak source of infrared or radio wave radiation due to the scattering of low-frequency strong-wave photons by accelerated electrons. If these objects exist abundantly in the Galaxy, they would act as sources of relatively low-energy cosmic rays. Pulsars (rapidly braked neutron stars) are shown to have difficulties in providing an adequate amount of cosmic-ray matter, making these new sources seem necessary. The possibility that the acceleration mechanism around a slowly braked star may be not a direct acceleration by the strong wave but an acceleration due to plasma turbulence excited by the strong wave is briefly explored. It is shown that white dwarfs may also be slowly braked stars with braking times longer than 3.15 million years.

  20. Brake Performance Analysis of ABS for Eddy Current and Electrohydraulic Hybrid Brake System

    OpenAIRE

    Ren He; Xuejun Liu; Cunxiang Liu

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces an eddy current and electro-hydraulic hybrid brake system to solve problems such as wear, thermal failure, and slow response of traditional vehicle brake system. Mathematical model was built to calculate the torque of the eddy current brake system and hydraulic brake system and analyze the braking force distribution between two types of brake systems. A fuzzy controller on personal computer based on LabVIEW and Matlab was designed and a set of hardware in the loop system...