Shock wave interaction with turbulence: Pseudospectral simulations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Buckingham, A.C.
1986-01-01
Shock waves amplify pre-existing turbulence. Shock tube and shock wave boundary layer interaction experiments provide qualitative confirmation. However, shock pressure, temperature, and rapid transit complicate direct measurement. Computational simulations supplement the experimental data base and help isolate the mechanisms responsible. Simulations and experiments, particularly under reflected shock wave conditions, significantly influence material mixing. In these pseudospectral Navier-Stokes simulations the shock wave is treated as either a moving (tracked or fitted) domain boundary. The simulations assist development of code mix models. Shock Mach number and pre-existing turbulence intensity initially emerge as key parameters. 20 refs., 8 figs
Shock wave physics group (M-6)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Morris, C.E.
1981-01-01
Experimental facilities and activities of the shock wave physics group at LASL are described. The facilities include a compressed gas gun, two-stage gas gun, high explosive facilities, and a pulsed megagauss field facility
Computer simulations of collisionless shock waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leroy, M.M.
1984-01-01
A review of the contributions of particle computer simulations to the understanding of the physics of magnetic shock waves in collisionless plasmas is presented. The emphasis is on the relation between the computer simulation results, spacecraft observations of shocks in space, and related theories, rather than on technical aspects of the numerics. It is shown that much has been learned from the comparison of ISEE spacecraft observations of the terrestrial bow shock and particle computer simulations concerning the quasi-perpendicular, supercritical shock (ion scale structure, ion reflection mechanism and ultimate dissipation processes). Particle computer simulations have also had an appreciable prospective role in the investigation of the physics of quasi-parallel shocks, about which still little is known observationally. Moreover, these numerical techniques have helped to clarify the process of suprathermal ion rejection by the shock into the foreshock, and the subsequent evolution of the ions in the foreshock. 95 references
Jing Fu Qian
2002-01-01
Progress made in recent years on three topics that have been investigated at the Laboratory for Shock Wave and Detonation Physics Research are presented in this report. (1) A new equation of state (EOS) has been derived which can be used from a standard state to predict state variable change along an isobaric path. Good agreements between calculations for some representative metals using this new EOS and experiments have been found, covering a wide range from hundreds of MPa to hundreds of GPa and from ambient temperature to tens of thousands of GPa. (2) An empirical relation of Y/G = constant (Y is yield strength, G is shear modulus) at HT-HP has been reinvestigated and confirmed by shock wave experiment. 93W alloy was chosen as a model material. The advantage of this relation is that it is beneficial to formulate a kind of simplified constitutive equation for metallic solids under shock loading, and thus to faithfully describe the behaviours of shocked solids through hydrodynamic simulations. (3) An attempt...
Yılmaz, Bülent; Çiftçi, Emre
2013-06-01
Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy (ESWL) is based on disintegration of the kidney stone by delivering high-energy shock waves that are created outside the body and transmitted through the skin and body tissues. Nowadays high-energy shock waves are also used in orthopedic operations and investigated to be used in the treatment of myocardial infarction and cancer. Because of these new application areas novel lithotriptor designs are needed for different kinds of treatment strategies. In this study our aim was to develop a versatile computer simulation environment which would give the device designers working on various medical applications that use shock wave principle a substantial amount of flexibility while testing the effects of new parameters such as reflector size, material properties of the medium, water temperature, and different clinical scenarios. For this purpose, we created a finite-difference time-domain (FDTD)-based computational model in which most of the physical system parameters were defined as an input and/or as a variable in the simulations. We constructed a realistic computational model of a commercial electrohydraulic lithotriptor and optimized our simulation program using the results that were obtained by the manufacturer in an experimental setup. We, then, compared the simulation results with the results from an experimental setup in which oxygen level in water was varied. Finally, we studied the effects of changing the input parameters like ellipsoid size and material, temperature change in the wave propagation media, and shock wave source point misalignment. The simulation results were consistent with the experimental results and expected effects of variation in physical parameters of the system. The results of this study encourage further investigation and provide adequate evidence that the numerical modeling of a shock wave therapy system is feasible and can provide a practical means to test novel ideas in new device design procedures
Simulation and Analysis of Converging Shock Wave Test Problems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ramsey, Scott D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shashkov, Mikhail J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2012-06-21
Results and analysis pertaining to the simulation of the Guderley converging shock wave test problem (and associated code verification hydrodynamics test problems involving converging shock waves) in the LANL ASC radiation-hydrodynamics code xRAGE are presented. One-dimensional (1D) spherical and two-dimensional (2D) axi-symmetric geometric setups are utilized and evaluated in this study, as is an instantiation of the xRAGE adaptive mesh refinement capability. For the 2D simulations, a 'Surrogate Guderley' test problem is developed and used to obviate subtleties inherent to the true Guderley solution's initialization on a square grid, while still maintaining a high degree of fidelity to the original problem, and minimally straining the general credibility of associated analysis and conclusions.
Simulation of hypersonic shock wave - laminar boundary layer interactions
Kianvashrad, N.; Knight, D.
2017-06-01
The capability of the Navier-Stokes equations with a perfect gas model for simulation of hypersonic shock wave - laminar boundary layer interactions is assessed. The configuration is a hollow cylinder flare. The experimental data were obtained by Calspan-University of Buffalo (CUBRC) for total enthalpies ranging from 5.07 to 21.85 MJ/kg. Comparison of the computed and experimental surface pressure and heat transfer is performed and the computed §ow¦eld structure is analyzed.
NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF SHOCK WAVE REFRACTION ON INCLINED CONTACT DISCONTINUITY
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. V. Bulat
2016-05-01
Full Text Available We consider numerical simulation of shock wave refraction on plane contact discontinuity, separating two gases with different density. Discretization of Euler equations is based on finite volume method and WENO finite difference schemes, implemented on unstructured meshes. Integration over time is performed with the use of the third-order Runge–Kutta stepping procedure. The procedure of identification and classification of gas dynamic discontinuities based on conditions of dynamic consistency and image processing methods is applied to visualize and interpret the results of numerical calculations. The flow structure and its quantitative characteristics are defined. The results of numerical and experimental visualization (shadowgraphs, schlieren images, and interferograms are compared.
Simulations of Shock Wave Interaction with a Particle Cloud
Koneru, Rahul; Rollin, Bertrand; Ouellet, Frederick; Annamalai, Subramanian; Balachandar, S.'Bala'
2016-11-01
Simulations of a shock wave interacting with a cloud of particles are performed in an attempt to understand similar phenomena observed in dispersal of solid particles under such extreme environment as an explosion. We conduct numerical experiments in which a particle curtain fills only 87% of the shock tube from bottom to top. As such, the particle curtain upon interaction with the shock wave is expected to experience Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) and Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) instabilities. In this study, the initial volume fraction profile matches with that of Sandia Multiphase Shock Tube experiments, and the shock Mach number is limited to M =1.66. In these simulations we use a Eulerian-Lagrangian approach along with state-of-the-art point-particle force and heat transfer models. Measurements of particle dispersion are made at different initial volume fractions of the particle cloud. A detailed analysis of the evolution of the particle curtain with respect to the initial conditions is presented. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Advanced Simulation and Computing Program, as a Cooperative Agreement under the Predictive Science Academic Alliance Program, Contract No. DE-NA0002378.
Shock Mechanism Analysis and Simulation of High-Power Hydraulic Shock Wave Simulator
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Xiaoqiu Xu
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The simulation of regular shock wave (e.g., half-sine can be achieved by the traditional rubber shock simulator, but the practical high-power shock wave characterized by steep prepeak and gentle postpeak is hard to be realized by the same. To tackle this disadvantage, a novel high-power hydraulic shock wave simulator based on the live firing muzzle shock principle was proposed in the current work. The influence of the typical shock characteristic parameters on the shock force wave was investigated via both theoretical deduction and software simulation. According to the obtained data compared with the results, in fact, it can be concluded that the developed hydraulic shock wave simulator can be applied to simulate the real condition of the shocking system. Further, the similarity evaluation of shock wave simulation was achieved based on the curvature distance, and the results stated that the simulation method was reasonable and the structural optimization based on software simulation is also beneficial to the increase of efficiency. Finally, the combination of theoretical analysis and simulation for the development of artillery recoil tester is a comprehensive approach in the design and structure optimization of the recoil system.
Shock waves: a new physical principle in medicine.
Brendel, W
1986-01-01
Shock wave therapy of kidney- and gallstones, i.e. extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL), is a new, noninvasive technique to destroy concrements in the kidney, the gallbladder and in the ductus choledochus. This method was developed by the Dornier Company, Friedrichshafen, FRG, and tested in animal experiments at the Institute for Surgical Research of the University of Munich. In the meantime, kidney lithotripsy has gained world-wide acceptance. More than 60,000 patients suffering from urolithiasis have been treated successfully, what made surgical removal of their kidney stones obsolete. Gallstone lithotripsy is, however, still at the very beginning of clinical trial. Lithotripsy of gallbladder stones will have to be applied in combination with urso- or chenodesoxycholic acid in order to obtain complete dissolution of the fragments. Potential hazards to living tissues are briefly mentioned. Since the lung is particularly susceptible, shock waves must enter the body at an angle which ensures that lung tissue is not affected.
Some health physics implications of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Henderson, J.E.
1987-01-01
Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy (ESWL) is a relatively new, noninvasive technique for the destruction of renal calculi (kidney stones) in vivo. X-ray localizing techniques are used to position the stone for shock wave destruction. The combination of radiographic and fluoroscopic exposure contributes significantly to patient dose. This presentation considers alternative techniques for measuring patient exposure during ESWL and details many of the problems attendant to those measurements. Factors that contribute to patient dose are described. Comparisons are made to previous interventions for renal calculi involving radiological considerations. Operator exposures are negligible for this procedure, but skin entrance exposures for patients have been found on the order of 10 R to 17 R. Attempts to quantify gonadal doses during ESWL treatment at the University of Virginia are described. A rationale for continued studies in this area is offered
Molecular dynamics simulation of shock-wave loading of copper and titanium
Bolesta, A. V.; Fomin, V. M.
2017-10-01
At extreme pressures and temperatures common materials form new dense phases with compacted atomic arrangements. By classical molecular dynamics simulation we observe that FCC copper undergo phase transformation to BCC structure. The transition occurs under shock wave loading at the pressures above 80 GPa and corresponding temperatures above 2000 K. We calculate phase diagram, show that at these pressures and low temperature FCC phase of copper is still stable and discuss the thermodynamic reason for phase transformation at high temperature shock wave regime. Titanium forms new hexagonal phase at high pressure as well. We calculate the structure of shock wave in titanium and observe that shock front splits in three parts: elastic, plastic and phase transformation. The possibility of using a phase transition behind a shock wave with further unloading for designing nanocrystalline materials with a reduced grain size is also shown.
3D dynamic simulation of crack propagation in extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy
Wijerathne, M. L. L.; Hori, Muneo; Sakaguchi, Hide; Oguni, Kenji
2010-06-01
Some experimental observations of Shock Wave Lithotripsy(SWL), which include 3D dynamic crack propagation, are simulated with the aim of reproducing fragmentation of kidney stones with SWL. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) is the fragmentation of kidney stones by focusing an ultrasonic pressure pulse onto the stones. 3D models with fine discretization are used to accurately capture the high amplitude shear shock waves. For solving the resulting large scale dynamic crack propagation problem, PDS-FEM is used; it provides numerically efficient failure treatments. With a distributed memory parallel code of PDS-FEM, experimentally observed 3D photoelastic images of transient stress waves and crack patterns in cylindrical samples are successfully reproduced. The numerical crack patterns are in good agreement with the experimental ones, quantitatively. The results shows that the high amplitude shear waves induced in solid, by the lithotriptor generated shock wave, play a dominant role in stone fragmentation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Johnsen, Eric; Larsson, Johan; Bhagatwala, Ankit V.; Cabot, William H.; Moin, Parviz; Olson, Britton J.; Rawat, Pradeep S.; Shankar, Santhosh K.; Sjoegreen, Bjoern; Yee, H.C.; Zhong Xiaolin; Lele, Sanjiva K.
2010-01-01
Flows in which shock waves and turbulence are present and interact dynamically occur in a wide range of applications, including inertial confinement fusion, supernovae explosion, and scramjet propulsion. Accurate simulations of such problems are challenging because of the contradictory requirements of numerical methods used to simulate turbulence, which must minimize any numerical dissipation that would otherwise overwhelm the small scales, and shock-capturing schemes, which introduce numerical dissipation to stabilize the solution. The objective of the present work is to evaluate the performance of several numerical methods capable of simultaneously handling turbulence and shock waves. A comprehensive range of high-resolution methods (WENO, hybrid WENO/central difference, artificial diffusivity, adaptive characteristic-based filter, and shock fitting) and suite of test cases (Taylor-Green vortex, Shu-Osher problem, shock-vorticity/entropy wave interaction, Noh problem, compressible isotropic turbulence) relevant to problems with shocks and turbulence are considered. The results indicate that the WENO methods provide sharp shock profiles, but overwhelm the physical dissipation. The hybrid method is minimally dissipative and leads to sharp shocks and well-resolved broadband turbulence, but relies on an appropriate shock sensor. Artificial diffusivity methods in which the artificial bulk viscosity is based on the magnitude of the strain-rate tensor resolve vortical structures well but damp dilatational modes in compressible turbulence; dilatation-based artificial bulk viscosity methods significantly improve this behavior. For well-defined shocks, the shock fitting approach yields good results.
Fourth American Physical Society Topical Conference on Shock Waves in Condensed Matter
Shock Waves in Condensed Matter
1986-01-01
The Fourth American Physical Society Topical Conference on Shock Waves in Condensed Matter was held in Spokane, Washington, July 22-25, 1985. Two hundred and fifty scientists and engineers representing thirteen countries registered at the conference. The countries represented included the United States of America, Australia, Canada, The People's Repub lic of China, France, India, Israel, Japan, Republic of China (Taiwan), United Kingdom, U. S. S. R, Switzerland and West Germany. One hundred and sixty-two technical papers, cov ering recent developments in shock wave and high pressure physics, were presented. All of the abstracts have been published in the September 1985 issue of the Bulletin of the American Physical Society. The topical conferences, held every two years since 1979, have become the principal forum for shock wave studies in condensed materials. Both formal and informal technical discussions regarding recent developments conveyed a sense of excitement. Consistent with the past conferences, th...
Tripathi, B. B.; Espíndola, D.; Pinton, G. F.
2017-11-01
The recent discovery of shear shock wave generation and propagation in the porcine brain suggests that this new shock phenomenology may be responsible for a broad range of traumatic injuries. Blast-induced head movement can indirectly lead to shear wave generation in the brain, which could be a primary mechanism for injury. Shear shock waves amplify the local acceleration deep in the brain by up to a factor of 8.5, which may tear and damage neurons. Currently, there are numerical methods that can model compressional shock waves, such as comparatively well-studied blast waves, but there are no numerical full-wave solvers that can simulate nonlinear shear shock waves in soft solids. Unlike simplified representations, e.g., retarded time, full-wave representations describe fundamental physical behavior such as reflection and heterogeneities. Here we present a piecewise parabolic method-based solver for one-dimensional linearly polarized nonlinear shear wave in a homogeneous medium and with empirical frequency-dependent attenuation. This method has the advantage of being higher order and more directly extendable to multiple dimensions and heterogeneous media. The proposed numerical scheme is validated analytically and experimentally and compared to other shock capturing methods. A Riemann step-shock problem is used to characterize the numerical dissipation. This dissipation is then tuned to be negligible with respect to the physical attenuation by choosing an appropriate grid spacing. The numerical results are compared to ultrasound-based experiments that measure planar polarized shear shock wave propagation in a tissue-mimicking gelatin phantom. Good agreement is found between numerical results and experiment across a 40 mm propagation distance. We anticipate that the proposed method will be a starting point for the development of a two- and three-dimensional full-wave code for the propagation of nonlinear shear waves in heterogeneous media.
Physics of Collisionless Shocks Space Plasma Shock Waves
Balogh, André
2013-01-01
The present book provides a contemporary systematic treatment of shock waves in high-temperature collisionless plasmas as are encountered in near Earth space and in Astrophysics. It consists of two parts. Part I develops the complete theory of shocks in dilute hot plasmas under the assumption of absence of collisions among the charged particles when the interaction is mediated solely by the self-consistent electromagnetic fields. Such shocks are naturally magnetised implying that the magnetic field plays an important role in their evolution and dynamics. This part treats both subcritical shocks, which dissipate flow energy by generating anomalous resistance or viscosity, and supercritical shocks. The main emphasis is, however, on super-critical shocks where the anomalous dissipation is insufficient to retard the upstream flow. These shocks, depending on the direction of the upstream magnetic field, are distinguished as quasi-perpendicular and quasi-parallel shocks which exhibit different behaviours, reflecti...
Discrete Element Simulation of Elastoplastic Shock Wave Propagation in Spherical Particles
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Shoaib
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Elastoplastic shock wave propagation in a one-dimensional assembly of spherical metal particles is presented by extending well-established quasistatic compaction models. The compaction process is modeled by a discrete element method while using elastic and plastic loading, elastic unloading, and adhesion at contacts with typical dynamic loading parameters. Of particular interest is to study the development of the elastoplastic shock wave, its propagation, and reflection during entire loading process. Simulation results yield information on contact behavior, velocity, and deformation of particles during dynamic loading. Effects of shock wave propagation on loading parameters are also discussed. The elastoplastic shock propagation in granular material has many practical applications including the high-velocity compaction of particulate material.
Numerical Simulation of Wave Propagation and Phase Transition of Tin under Shock-Wave Loading
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hai-Feng, Song; Hai-Feng, Liu; Guang-Cai, Zhang; Yan-Hong, Zhao
2009-01-01
We undertake a numerical simulation of shock experiments on tin reported in the literature, by using a multiphase equation of state (MEOS) and a multiphase Steinberg Guinan (MSG) constitutive model for tin in the β, γ and liquid phases. In the MSG model, the Bauschinger effect is considered to better describe the unloading behavior. The phase diagram and Hugoniot of tin are calculated by MEOS, and they agree well with the experimental data. Combined with the MEOS and MSG models, hydrodynamic computer simulations are successful in reproducing the measured velocity profile of the shock wave experiment. Moreover, by analyzing the mass fraction contour as well as stress and temperature profiles of each phase for tin, we further discuss the complex behavior of tin under shock-wave loading. (condensed matter: structure, mechanical and thermal properties)
Reflection of a shock wave from a thermally accommodating wall - Molecular simulation.
Deiwert, G. S.
1973-01-01
Reflection of a plane shock wave from a wall has been simulated on a microscopic scale using a direct simulation Monte Carlo technique of the type developed by Bird. A monatomic gas model representing argon was used to describe the fluid medium and a simple one-parameter accommodation coefficient model was used to describe the gas-surface interaction. The influence of surface accommodation was studied parametrically by varying the accommodation coefficient from zero to one. Results are presented showing the temporal variations of flow field density, and mass, momentum, and energy fluxes to the wall during the shock wave reflection process. The energy flux was used to determine the wall temperature history. Comparisons with experiment are found to be satisfactory where data are available.
Comparison of Hydrocode Simulations with Measured Shock Wave Velocities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hixson, R. S.; Veeser, L. R.
2014-01-01
We have conducted detailed 1- and 2-dimensional hydrodynamics calculations to assess the quality of simulations commonly made to understand various shock processes in a sample and to design shock experiments. We began with relatively simple shock experiments, where we examined the effects of the equation of state and the viscoplastic strength models. Eventually we included spallation in copper and iron and a solid-solid phase transformation in iron to assess the quality of the damage and phase transformation simulations.
Analysis of Z Pinch Shock Wave Experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Asay, James; Budge, Kent G.; Chandler, Gordon; Fleming, Kevin; Hall, Clint; Holland, Kathleen; Konrad, Carl; Lawrence, Jeffery; Trott, Wayne; Trucano, Timothy
1999-01-01
In this paper, we report details of our computational study of two shock wave physics experiments performed on the Sandia Z machine in 1998. The novelty of these particular experiments is that they represent the first successful application of VISAR interferometry to diagnose shock waves generated in experimental payloads by the primary X-ray pulse of the machine. We use the Sandia shock-wave physics code ALEGRA to perform the simulations reported in this study. Our simulations are found to be in fair agreement with the time-resolved VISAR experimental data. However, there are also interesting and important discrepancies. We speculate as to future use of time-resolved shock wave data to diagnose details of the Z machine X-ray pulse in the future
Microscale Shock Wave Physics Using Photonic Driver Techniques; TOPICAL
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
SETCHELL, ROBERT E.; TROTT, WAYNE M.; CASTANEDA, JAIME N.; FARNSWORTH JR.,A. V.; BERRY, DANTE M.
2002-01-01
This report summarizes a multiyear effort to establish a new capability for determining dynamic material properties. By utilizing a significant reduction in experimental length and time scales, this new capability addresses both the high per-experiment costs of current methods and the inability of these methods to characterize materials having very small dimensions. Possible applications include bulk-processed materials with minimal dimensions, very scarce or hazardous materials, and materials that can only be made with microscale dimensions. Based on earlier work to develop laser-based techniques for detonating explosives, the current study examined the laser acceleration, or photonic driving, of small metal discs (''flyers'') that can generate controlled, planar shockwaves in test materials upon impact. Sub-nanosecond interferometric diagnostics were developed previously to examine the motion and impact of laser-driven flyers. To address a broad range of materials and stress states, photonic driving levels must be scaled up considerably from the levels used in earlier studies. Higher driving levels, however, increase concerns over laser-induced damage in optics and excessive heating of laser-accelerated materials. Sufficiently high levels require custom beam-shaping optics to ensure planar acceleration of flyers. The present study involved the development and evaluation of photonic driving systems at two driving levels, numerical simulations of flyer acceleration and impact using the CTH hydrodynamics code, design and fabrication of launch assemblies, improvements in diagnostic instrumentation, and validation experiments on both bulk and thin-film materials having well-established shock properties. The primary conclusion is that photonic driving techniques are viable additions to the methods currently used to obtain dynamic material properties. Improvements in launch conditions and diagnostics can certainly be made, but the main challenge to future applications
Evolution of elastic precursor and plastic shock wave in copper via molecular dynamics simulations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Perriot, Romain; Zhakhovsky, Vasily V; Oleynik, Ivan I; Inogamov, Nail A
2014-01-01
Large-scale molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are performed to investigate shock propagation in single crystal copper. It is shown that the P-V plastic Hugoniot is unique regardless of the sample's orientation, its microstructure, or its length. However, the P-V pathway to the final state is not, and depends on many factors. Specifically, it is shown that the pressure in the elastic precursor (the Hugoniot elastic limit (HEL)) decreases as the shock wave propagates in a micron-sized sample. The attenuation of the HEL in sufficiently-long samples is the main source of disagreement between previous MD simulations and experiment: while single crystal experiments showed that the plastic shock speed is orientation-independent, the simulated plastic shock speed was observed to be orientation-dependent in relatively short single-crystal samples. Such orientation dependence gradually disappears for relatively long, micrometer-sized, samples for all three low-index crystallographic directions (100), (110), and (111), and the plastic shock velocities for all three directions approach the one measured in experiment. The MD simulations also demonstrate the existence of subsonic plastic shock waves generated by relatively weak supporting pressures.
Large-eddy simulation of passive shock-wave/boundary-layer interaction control
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pasquariello, Vito; Grilli, Muzio; Hickel, Stefan; Adams, Nikolaus A.
2014-01-01
Highlights: • The present study investigates a passive flow-control technique for shock-wave/boundary-layer interaction. • The control configuration consists of local suction and injection through a pressure feedback duct. • Implicit LES have been conducted for three different suction locations. • Suction reduces the size of the separation zone. • Turbulence amplification and reflected shock dynamics can be significantly reduced. - Abstract: We investigate a passive flow-control technique for the interaction of an oblique shock generated by an 8.8° wedge with a turbulent boundary-layer at a free-stream Mach number of Ma ∞ =2.3 and a Reynolds number based on the incoming boundary-layer thickness of Re δ 0 =60.5×10 3 by means of large-eddy simulation (LES). The compressible Navier–Stokes equations in conservative form are solved using the adaptive local deconvolution method (ALDM) for physically consistent subgrid scale modeling. Emphasis is placed on the correct description of turbulent inflow boundary conditions, which do not artificially force low-frequency periodic motion of the reflected shock. The control configuration combines suction inside the separation zone and blowing upstream of the interaction region by a pressure feedback through a duct embedded in the wall. We vary the suction location within the recirculation zone while the injection position is kept constant. Suction reduces the size of the separation zone with strongest effect when applied in the rear part of the separation bubble. The analysis of wall-pressure spectra reveals that all control configurations shift the high-energy low-frequency range to higher frequencies, while the energy level is significantly reduced only if suction acts in the rear part of the separated zone. In that case also turbulence production within the interaction region is significantly reduced as a consequence of mitigated reflected shock dynamics and near-wall flow acceleration
The Numerical Simulation of the Shock Wave of Coal Gas Explosions in Gas Pipe*
Chen, Zhenxing; Hou, Kepeng; Chen, Longwei
2018-03-01
For the problem of large deformation and vortex, the method of Euler and Lagrange has both advantage and disadvantage. In this paper we adopt special fuzzy interface method(volume of fluid). Gas satisfies the conditions of conservation equations of mass, momentum, and energy. Based on explosion and three-dimension fluid dynamics theory, using unsteady, compressible, inviscid hydrodynamic equations and state equations, this paper considers pressure gradient’s effects to velocity, mass and energy in Lagrange steps by the finite difference method. To minimize transport errors of material, energy and volume in Finite Difference mesh, it also considers material transport in Euler steps. Programmed with Fortran PowerStation 4.0 and visualized with the software designed independently, we design the numerical simulation of gas explosion with specific pipeline structure, check the key points of the pressure change in the flow field, reproduce the gas explosion in pipeline of shock wave propagation, from the initial development, flame and accelerate the process of shock wave. This offers beneficial reference and experience to coal gas explosion accidents or safety precautions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roth, Johannes
2002-01-01
Quasicrystals and ordinary crystals both possess long-range translational order. But quasicrystals are aperiodic since their symmetry is non-crystallographic. The aim of this project is to study the behavior of shock waves in periodic and aperiodic structures and to compare the results. The expectation is that new types of defects are generated in the aperiodic materials. The materials studied are two models of (AlCu)Li quasicrystals and the C15 Laves phase, a low-order approximant of the quasicrystals. An elastic wave is found in the simulations up to a piston velocity of about up < 0.25 cl. Between 0.5 < up/cl < 0.5 the slope of elastic wave velocity slows down, and a new plastic wave is observed. Extended defect are generated, but no simple two-dimensional walls. The defect bands have finite width and a disordered structure. If the crystal is quenched a polycrystalline phase is obtained. For the quasicrystal the transformation is more complex since ring processes occur in the elastic regime already. Starting at about up < 0.5 cl a single plastic shock wave is observed. In this range all structures are destroyed completely
Jiang, Z
2005-01-01
The International Symposium on Shock Waves (ISSW) is a well established series of conferences held every two years in a different location. A unique feature of the ISSW is the emphasis on bridging the gap between physicists and engineers working in fields as different as gas dynamics, fluid mechanics and materials sciences. The main results presented at these meetings constitute valuable proceedings that offer anyone working in this field an authoritative and comprehensive source of reference.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Luquet, David; Marchiano, Régis; Coulouvrat, François, E-mail: francois.coulouvrat@upmc.fr [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, CNRS, UMR 7190, Institut Jean Le Rond d’Alembert, F-75005, Paris (France)
2015-10-28
Many situations involve the propagation of acoustical shock waves through flows. Natural sources such as lightning, volcano explosions, or meteoroid atmospheric entries, emit loud, low frequency, and impulsive sound that is influenced by atmospheric wind and turbulence. The sonic boom produced by a supersonic aircraft and explosion noises are examples of intense anthropogenic sources in the atmosphere. The Buzz-Saw-Noise produced by turbo-engine fan blades rotating at supersonic speed also propagates in a fast flow within the engine nacelle. Simulating these situations is challenging, given the 3D nature of the problem, the long range propagation distances relative to the central wavelength, the strongly nonlinear behavior of shocks associated to a wide-band spectrum, and finally the key role of the flow motion. With this in view, the so-called FLHOWARD (acronym for FLow and Heterogeneous One-Way Approximation for Resolution of Diffraction) method is presented with three-dimensional applications. A scalar nonlinear wave equation is established in the framework of atmospheric applications, assuming weak heterogeneities and a slow wind. It takes into account diffraction, absorption and relaxation properties of the atmosphere, quadratic nonlinearities including weak shock waves, heterogeneities of the medium in sound speed and density, and presence of a flow (assuming a mean stratified wind and 3D turbulent ? flow fluctuations of smaller amplitude). This equation is solved in the framework of the one-way method. A split-step technique allows the splitting of the non-linear wave equation into simpler equations, each corresponding to a physical effect. Each sub-equation is solved using an analytical method if possible, and finite-differences otherwise. Nonlinear effects are solved in the time domain, and others in the frequency domain. Homogeneous diffraction is handled by means of the angular spectrum method. Ground is assumed perfectly flat and rigid. Due to the 3D
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Luquet, David; Marchiano, Régis; Coulouvrat, François
2015-01-01
Many situations involve the propagation of acoustical shock waves through flows. Natural sources such as lightning, volcano explosions, or meteoroid atmospheric entries, emit loud, low frequency, and impulsive sound that is influenced by atmospheric wind and turbulence. The sonic boom produced by a supersonic aircraft and explosion noises are examples of intense anthropogenic sources in the atmosphere. The Buzz-Saw-Noise produced by turbo-engine fan blades rotating at supersonic speed also propagates in a fast flow within the engine nacelle. Simulating these situations is challenging, given the 3D nature of the problem, the long range propagation distances relative to the central wavelength, the strongly nonlinear behavior of shocks associated to a wide-band spectrum, and finally the key role of the flow motion. With this in view, the so-called FLHOWARD (acronym for FLow and Heterogeneous One-Way Approximation for Resolution of Diffraction) method is presented with three-dimensional applications. A scalar nonlinear wave equation is established in the framework of atmospheric applications, assuming weak heterogeneities and a slow wind. It takes into account diffraction, absorption and relaxation properties of the atmosphere, quadratic nonlinearities including weak shock waves, heterogeneities of the medium in sound speed and density, and presence of a flow (assuming a mean stratified wind and 3D turbulent ? flow fluctuations of smaller amplitude). This equation is solved in the framework of the one-way method. A split-step technique allows the splitting of the non-linear wave equation into simpler equations, each corresponding to a physical effect. Each sub-equation is solved using an analytical method if possible, and finite-differences otherwise. Nonlinear effects are solved in the time domain, and others in the frequency domain. Homogeneous diffraction is handled by means of the angular spectrum method. Ground is assumed perfectly flat and rigid. Due to the 3D
Euler-Lagrange Simulations of Shock Wave-Particle Cloud Interaction
Koneru, Rahul; Rollin, Bertrand; Ouellet, Frederick; Park, Chanyoung; Balachandar, S.
2017-11-01
Numerical experiments of shock interacting with an evolving and fixed cloud of particles are performed. In these simulations we use Eulerian-Lagrangian approach along with state-of-the-art point-particle force and heat transfer models. As validation, we use Sandia Multiphase Shock Tube experiments and particle-resolved simulations. The particle curtain upon interaction with the shock wave is expected to experience Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) and Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) instabilities. In the simulations evolving the particle cloud, the initial volume fraction profile matches with that of Sandia Multiphase Shock Tube experiments, and the shock Mach number is limited to M =1.66. Measurements of particle dispersion are made at different initial volume fractions. A detailed analysis of the influence of initial conditions on the evolution of the particle cloudis presented. The early time behavior of the models is studied in the fixed bed simulations at varying volume fractions and shock Mach numbers.The mean gas quantities are measured in the context of 1-way and 2-way coupled simulations. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Advanced Simulation and Computing Program, as a Cooperative Agreement under the Predictive Science Academic Alliance Program, Contract No. DE-NA0002378.
Oscillating nonlinear acoustic shock waves
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gaididei, Yuri; Rasmussen, Anders Rønne; Christiansen, Peter Leth
2016-01-01
We investigate oscillating shock waves in a tube using a higher order weakly nonlinear acoustic model. The model includes thermoviscous effects and is non isentropic. The oscillating shock waves are generated at one end of the tube by a sinusoidal driver. Numerical simulations show that at resona......We investigate oscillating shock waves in a tube using a higher order weakly nonlinear acoustic model. The model includes thermoviscous effects and is non isentropic. The oscillating shock waves are generated at one end of the tube by a sinusoidal driver. Numerical simulations show...... polynomial in the space and time variables, we find analytical approximations to the observed single shock waves in an infinitely long tube. Using perturbation theory for the driven acoustic system approximative analytical solutions for the off resonant case are determined....
An Analysis of an Implicit Factored Scheme for Simulating Shock Waves
1988-05-01
can cope with a wide range of boundary conditions and equations of state, For modelling -( shock waves in solids, elastic- plastic terms must also be...positive caracteristic speeds. One-sided schemes have superior dissipative and dispersive properties compared to those of centered schemes (Steger and...Elastic- plastic con. ditions must be- incorporated into the problem and usually the addition of suitable bource or sink terms to c-’ustion (1
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kao, Jim; Flicker, Dawn; Ide, Kayo; Ghil, Michael
2006-01-01
This paper builds upon our recent data assimilation work with the extended Kalman filter (EKF) method [J. Kao, D. Flicker, R. Henninger, S. Frey, M. Ghil, K. Ide, Data assimilation with an extended Kalman filter for an impact-produced shock-wave study, J. Comp. Phys. 196 (2004) 705-723.]. The purpose is to test the capability of EKF in optimizing a model's physical parameters. The problem is to simulate the evolution of a shock produced through a high-speed flyer plate. In the earlier work, we have showed that the EKF allows one to estimate the evolving state of the shock wave from a single pressure measurement, assuming that all model parameters are known. In the present paper, we show that imperfectly known model parameters can also be estimated accordingly, along with the evolving model state, from the same single measurement. The model parameter optimization using the EKF can be achieved through a simple modification of the original EKF formalism by including the model parameters into an augmented state variable vector. While the regular state variables are governed by both deterministic and stochastic forcing mechanisms, the parameters are only subject to the latter. The optimally estimated model parameters are thus obtained through a unified assimilation operation. We show that improving the accuracy of the model parameters also improves the state estimate. The time variation of the optimized model parameters results from blending the data and the corresponding values generated from the model and lies within a small range, of less than 2%, from the parameter values of the original model. The solution computed with the optimized parameters performs considerably better and has a smaller total variance than its counterpart using the original time-constant parameters. These results indicate that the model parameters play a dominant role in the performance of the shock-wave hydrodynamic code at hand
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Abdulmadjid, Syahrun Nur, E-mail: syahrun-madjid@yahoo.com; Lahna, Kurnia, E-mail: kurnialahna@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Syiah Kuala University, Darussalam, Banda Aceh 23111, Aceh (Indonesia); Desiyana, Lydia Septa, E-mail: lydia-septa@yahoo.com [Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Syiah Kuala University, Darussalam, Banda Aceh 23111, Aceh (Indonesia)
2016-03-11
An experimental study has been performed to examine the physical characteristics of pharmaceutical products, such as tablet, by employing an emission plasma induced by Nd-YAG laser at a low pressure of Helium gas. The hardness of tablet is one of the parameters that examined during the production process for standard quality of pharmaceutical products. In the Laser-Induced Shock Wave Plasma Spectroscopy (LISPS), the shock wave has a significant role in inducing atomic excitation. It was known that, the speed of the shock wavefront depends on the hardness of the sample, and it correlates with the ionization rate of the ablated atoms. The hardness of the tablet is examined using the intensity ratio between the ion of Mg (II) 275.2 nm and the neutral of Mg (I) 285.2 nm emission lines detected from the laser-induced plasma. It was observed that the ratio changes with respect to the change in the tablet hardness, namely the ratio is higher for the hard tablet. Besides the ratio measurements, we also measured the depth profile of a tablet by focusing 60 shots of irradiation of laser light at a fixed position on the surface of the tablet. It was found that the depth profile varies differently with the hardness of the tablet. These experiment results show that the technique of LISPS can be applied to examine the quality of pharmaceutical products.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abdulmadjid, Syahrun Nur; Lahna, Kurnia; Desiyana, Lydia Septa
2016-01-01
An experimental study has been performed to examine the physical characteristics of pharmaceutical products, such as tablet, by employing an emission plasma induced by Nd-YAG laser at a low pressure of Helium gas. The hardness of tablet is one of the parameters that examined during the production process for standard quality of pharmaceutical products. In the Laser-Induced Shock Wave Plasma Spectroscopy (LISPS), the shock wave has a significant role in inducing atomic excitation. It was known that, the speed of the shock wavefront depends on the hardness of the sample, and it correlates with the ionization rate of the ablated atoms. The hardness of the tablet is examined using the intensity ratio between the ion of Mg (II) 275.2 nm and the neutral of Mg (I) 285.2 nm emission lines detected from the laser-induced plasma. It was observed that the ratio changes with respect to the change in the tablet hardness, namely the ratio is higher for the hard tablet. Besides the ratio measurements, we also measured the depth profile of a tablet by focusing 60 shots of irradiation of laser light at a fixed position on the surface of the tablet. It was found that the depth profile varies differently with the hardness of the tablet. These experiment results show that the technique of LISPS can be applied to examine the quality of pharmaceutical products.
Suppression of transverse instabilities of dark solitons and their dispersive shock waves
Armaroli, Andrea; Trillo, Stefano; Fratalocchi, Andrea
2009-01-01
single soliton input and in the regime where dispersive shock waves develop (multisoliton regime). Such conclusions are supported by the linear stability analysis and numerical simulation of the propagation. © 2009 The American Physical Society.
Shock waves in binary oxides memristors
Tesler, Federico; Tang, Shao; Dobrosavljević, Vladimir; Rozenberg, Marcelo
2017-09-01
Progress of silicon based technology is nearing its physical limit, as minimum feature size of components is reaching a mere 5 nm. The resistive switching behavior of transition metal oxides and the associated memristor device is emerging as a competitive technology for next generation electronics. Significant progress has already been made in the past decade and devices are beginning to hit the market; however, it has been mainly the result of empirical trial and error. Hence, gaining theoretical insight is of essence. In the present work we report a new connection between the resistive switching and shock wave formation, a classic topic of non-linear dynamics. We argue that the profile of oxygen ions that migrate during the commutation in insulating binary oxides may form a shock wave, which propagates through a poorly conductive region of the device. We validate the scenario by means of model simulations.
Woo, Myeung-Jouh; Greber, Isaac
1995-01-01
Molecular dynamics simulation is used to study the piston driven shock wave at Mach 1.5, 3, and 10. A shock tube, whose shape is a circular cylinder, is filled with hard sphere molecules having a Maxwellian thermal velocity distribution and zero mean velocity. The piston moves and a shock wave is generated. All collisions are specular, including those between the molecules and the computational boundaries, so that the shock development is entirely causal, with no imposed statistics. The structure of the generated shock is examined in detail, and the wave speed; profiles of density, velocity, and temperature; and shock thickness are determined. The results are compared with published results of other methods, especially the direct simulation Monte-Carlo method. Property profiles are similar to those generated by direct simulation Monte-Carlo method. The shock wave thicknesses are smaller than the direct simulation Monte-Carlo results, but larger than those of the other methods. Simulation of a shock wave, which is one-dimensional, is a severe test of the molecular dynamics method, which is always three-dimensional. A major challenge of the thesis is to examine the capability of the molecular dynamics methods by choosing a difficult task.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Prokopov, P A; Zakharov, Yu P; Tishchenko, V N; Shaikhislamov, I F; Boyarintsev, E L; Melekhov, A V; Ponomarenko, A G; Posukh, V G; Terekhin, V A
2016-01-01
Generation of Alfven waves propagating along external magnetic field B 0 and Collisionless Shock Waves propagating across B 0 are studied in experiments with laser- produced plasma and magnetized background plasma. The collisionless interaction of interpenetrating plasma flows takes place through a so-called Magnetic Laminar Mechanism (MLM) or Larmor Coupling. At the edge of diamagnetic cavity LP-ions produce induction electric field E φ which accelerates BP-ions while LP-ions rotate in opposite direction. The ions movement generates sheared azimuthal magnetic field B φ which could launches torsional Alfven wave. In previous experiments at KI-1 large scale facility a generation of strong perturbations propagating across B 0 with magnetosonic speed has been studied at a moderate value of interaction parameter δ∼0.3. In the present work we report on experiments at conditions of 5∼R2 and large Alfven-Mach number M A ∼10 in which strong transverse perturbations traveling at a scale of ∼1 m in background plasma at a density of ∼3*10 13 cm -3 is observed. At the same conditions but smaller M A ∼ 2 a generation, the structure and dynamic of Alfven wave with wavelength ∼0.5 m propagating along fields B 0 ∼100÷500 G for a distance of ∼2.5 m is studied. (paper)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Komatsu, Nobuyoshi; Abe, Takashi
2007-01-01
Why does not an expansion shock wave exist in a gaseous medium in nature? The reason has been widely believed to be the irreversibility in nature, while an obvious demonstration for this belief has not been accomplished yet. In order to resolve the question from a microscopic viewpoint, an implosion process dual to an explosion process was investigated by means of the molecular-dynamics method (MD). To this aim, we employed a ''bit-reversible algorithm (Bit MD)'' that was completely time-reversible in a microscopic viewpoint and was free from any round-off error. Here we show that, through a dual implosion simulation (i.e., a time-reversible simulation of the explosion), a kind of expansion shock wave is successfully formed in the Bit MD simulation. Furthermore, we show that when the controlled noise is intentionally added to the Bit MD, the expansion shock wave disappears dramatically and turns into an isentropic expansion wave, even if the noise is extremely small. Since the controlled noise gives rise to the irreversibility in the Bit MD simulation, it can be concluded that the irreversibility in the system prohibits the expansion shock wave from appearing in the system
Sachdev, PL
2004-01-01
Understanding the causes and effects of explosions is important to experts in a broad range of disciplines, including the military, industrial and environmental research, aeronautic engineering, and applied mathematics. Offering an introductory review of historic research, Shock Waves and Explosions brings analytic and computational methods to a wide audience in a clear and thorough way. Beginning with an overview of the research on combustion and gas dynamics in the 1970s and 1980s, the author brings you up to date by covering modeling techniques and asymptotic and perturbative methods and ending with a chapter on computational methods.Most of the book deals with the mathematical analysis of explosions, but computational results are also included wherever they are available. Historical perspectives are provided on the advent of nonlinear science, as well as on the mathematical study of the blast wave phenomenon, both when visualized as a point explosion and when simulated as the expansion of a high-pressure ...
Giammarinaro, Bruno; Espíndola, David; Coulouvrat, François; Pinton, Gianmarco
2018-01-01
Focusing is a ubiquitous way to transform waves. Recently, a new type of shock wave has been observed experimentally with high-frame-rate ultrasound: shear shock waves in soft solids. These strongly nonlinear waves are characterized by a high Mach number, because the shear wave velocity is much slower, by 3 orders of magnitude, than the longitudinal wave velocity. Furthermore, these waves have a unique cubic nonlinearity which generates only odd harmonics. Unlike longitudinal waves for which only compressional shocks are possible, shear waves exhibit cubic nonlinearities which can generate positive and negative shocks. Here we present the experimental observation of shear shock wave focusing, generated by the vertical motion of a solid cylinder section embedded in a soft gelatin-graphite phantom to induce linearly vertically polarized motion. Raw ultrasound data from high-frame-rate (7692 images per second) acquisitions in combination with algorithms that are tuned to detect small displacements (approximately 1 μ m ) are used to generate quantitative movies of gel motion. The features of shear shock wave focusing are analyzed by comparing experimental observations with numerical simulations of a retarded-time elastodynamic equation with cubic nonlinearities and empirical attenuation laws for soft solids.
Experimental investigation of shock wave - bubble interaction
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alizadeh, Mohsen
2010-04-09
In this work, the dynamics of laser-generated single cavitation bubbles exposed to lithotripter shock waves has been investigated experimentally. The energy of the impinging shock wave is varied in several steps. High-speed photography and pressure field measurements simultaneously with image acquisition provide the possibility of capturing the fast bubble dynamics under the effect of the shock wave impact. The pressure measurement is performed using a fiber optic probe hydrophone (FOPH) which operates based on optical diagnostics of the shock wave propagating medium. After a short introduction in chapter 1 an overview of the previous studies in chapter 2 is presented. The reported literatures include theoretical and experimental investigations of several configurations of physical problems in the field of bubble dynamics. In chapter 3 a theoretical description of propagation of a shock wave in a liquid like water has been discussed. Different kinds of reflection of a shock wave at an interface are taken into account. Undisturbed bubble dynamics as well as interaction between a planar shock wave and an initially spherical bubble are explored theoretically. Some physical parameters which are important in this issue such as the velocity of the shock-induced liquid jet, Kelvin impulse and kinetic energy are explained. The shock waves are generated in a water filled container by a focusing piezoelectric generator. The shock wave profile has a positive part with pulse duration of ∼1 μs followed by a longer tension tail (i.e. ∼3 μs). In chapter 4 high-speed images depict the propagation of a shock wave in the water filled tank. The maximum pressure is also derived for different intensity levels of the shock wave generator. The measurement is performed in the free field (i.e. in the absence of laser-generated single bubbles). In chapter 5 the interaction between lithotripter shock waves and laserinduced single cavitation bubbles is investigated experimentally. An
Theoretical and experimental investigation of shock wave stressing of metal powders by an explosion
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lukyanov Ya.L.
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Joint theoretical and experimental investigations have allowed to realize an approach with use of mathematical and physical modeling of processes of a shock wave loading of powder materials. Hugoniot adiabats of the investigated powder have been measured with a noncontact electromagnetic method. The mathematical model of elastic-plastic deformation of the powder media used in the investigation has been validated. Numerical simulation of shock wave propagation and experimental assembly deformation has been performed.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiankai Meng
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The laser shock wave (LSW generated by the interaction between a laser and a material has been widely used in laser manufacturing, such as laser shock peening and laser shock forming. However, due to the high strain rate, the propagation of LSW in materials, especially LSW at elevated temperatures, is difficult to study through experimental methods. A molecular dynamics simulation was used in this study to investigate the propagation of LSW in an Al-Cu alloy. The Hugoniot relations of LSW were obtained at different temperatures and the effects of elevated temperatures on shock velocity and shock pressure were analyzed. Then the elastic and plastic wave of the LSW was researched. Finally, the evolution of dislocations induced by LSW and its mechanism under elevated temperatures was explored. The results indicate that the shock velocity and shock pressure induced by LSW both decrease with the increasing temperatures. Moreover, the velocity of elastic wave and plastic wave both decrease with the increasing treatment temperature, while their difference decreases as the temperature increases. Moreover, the dislocation atoms increases with the increasing temperatures before 2 ps, while it decreases with the increasing temperatures after 2 ps. The reason for the results is related to the formation and evolution of extended dislocations.
Skripnyak, Vladimir
2011-06-01
Features of mechanical behavior of nanostructured (NS) and ultrafine grained (UFG) metal and ceramic materials under quasistatic and shock wave loadings are discussed in this report. Multilevel models developed within the approach of computational mechanics of materials were used for simulation mechanical behavior of UFG and NS metals and ceramics. Comparisons of simulation results with experimental data are presented. Models of mechanical behavior of nanostructured metal alloys takes into account a several structural factors influencing on the mechanical behavior of materials (type of a crystal lattice, density of dislocations, a size of dislocation substructures, concentration and size of phase precipitation, and distribution of grains sizes). Results show the strain rate sensitivity of the yield stress of UFG and polycrystalline alloys is various in a range from 103 up to 106 1/s. But the difference of the Hugoniot elastic limits of a UFG and coarse-grained alloys may be not considerable. The spall strength, the yield stress of UFG and NS alloys are depend not only on grains size, but a number of factors such as a distribution of grains sizes, a concentration and sizes of voids and cracks, a concentration and sizes of phase precipitation. Some titanium alloys with grain sizes from 300 to 500 nm have the quasi-static yield strength and the tensile strength twice higher than that of coarse grained counterparts. But the spall strength of the UFG titanium alloys is only 10 percents above than that of coarse grained alloys. At the same time it was found the spall strength of the bulk UFG aluminium and magnesium alloys with precipitation strengthening is essentially higher in comparison of coarse-grained counterparts. The considerable decreasing of the strain before failure of UFG alloys was predicted at high strain rates. The Hugoniot elastic limits of oxide nanoceramics depend not only on the porosity, but also on sizes and volume distribution of voids.
Experimental methods of shock wave research
Seiler, Friedrich
2016-01-01
This comprehensive and carefully edited volume presents a variety of experimental methods used in Shock Waves research. In 14 self contained chapters this 9th volume of the “Shock Wave Science and Technology Reference Library” presents the experimental methods used in Shock Tubes, Shock Tunnels and Expansion Tubes facilities. Also described is their set-up and operation. The uses of an arc heated wind tunnel and a gun tunnel are also contained in this volume. Whenever possible, in addition to the technical description some typical scientific results obtained using such facilities are described. Additionally, this authoritative book includes techniques for measuring physical properties of blast waves and laser generated shock waves. Information about active shock wave laboratories at different locations around the world that are not described in the chapters herein is given in the Appendix, making this book useful for every researcher involved in shock/blast wave phenomena.
Medical and biomedical applications of shock waves
Loske, Achim M
2017-01-01
This book provides current, comprehensive, and clear explanations of the physics behind medical and biomedical applications of shock waves. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy is one of the greatest medical advances of our time, and its techniques and clinical devices are continuously evolving. Further research continues to improve the understanding of calculi fragmentation and tissue-damaging mechanisms. Shock waves are also used in orthopedics and traumatology. Possible applications in oncology, cardiology, dentistry, gene therapy, cell transfection, transformation of fungi and bacteria, as well as the inactivation of microorganisms are promising approaches for clinical treatment, industrial applications and research. Medical and Biomedical Applications of Shock Waves is useful as a guide for students, technicians and researchers working in universities and laboratories. Chemists, biologists, physicians and veterinarians, involved in research or clinical practice will find useful advice, but also engineer...
Fascinating World of Shock Waves
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Srimath
travelling at supersonic speeds (more than the sound speed at ... actual earth- quake, travel at supersonic speeds. .... The time scale of the shock wave is also important ..... real lithotripsy where a shock wave is used shatter the kidney stones!
Takayama, Kazuyoshi; Obara, Tetsuro; Onodera, Osamu
1991-04-01
Underwater shock wave focusing is successfully applied to disintegrate and remove kidney stones or gallbladder stones without using surgical operations. This treatment is one of the most peaceful applications ofshock waves and is named as the Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy. Ajoint research project is going on between the Institute ofFluid Science, Tohoku University and the School ofMedicine, Tohoku University. The paper describes a result of the fundamental research on the underwater shock wave focusing applied to the ESWL. Quantitatively to visualize the underwater shock waves, various optical flow visualization techniques were successfully used such as holographic interferometry, and shadowgraphs combined with Ima-Con high speed camera. Double exposure holographic interferometric observation revealed the mechanism of generation, propagation and focusing of underwater shock waves. The result of the present research was already used to manufacture a prototype machine and it has already been applied successfully to ESWL crinical treatments. However, despite of success in the clinical treatments, important fundamental questions still remain unsolved, i.e., effects of underwater shock wave focusing on tissue damage during the treatment. Model experiments were conducted to clarify mechanism of the tissue damage associated with the ESWL. Shock-bubble interactions were found responsible to the tissue damage during the ESWL treatment. In order to interprete experimental findings and to predict shock wave behavior and high pressures, a numerical simulation was carried. The numerical results agreed with the experiments.
Bubbles with shock waves and ultrasound: a review.
Ohl, Siew-Wan; Klaseboer, Evert; Khoo, Boo Cheong
2015-10-06
The study of the interaction of bubbles with shock waves and ultrasound is sometimes termed 'acoustic cavitation'. It is of importance in many biomedical applications where sound waves are applied. The use of shock waves and ultrasound in medical treatments is appealing because of their non-invasiveness. In this review, we present a variety of acoustics-bubble interactions, with a focus on shock wave-bubble interaction and bubble cloud phenomena. The dynamics of a single spherically oscillating bubble is rather well understood. However, when there is a nearby surface, the bubble often collapses non-spherically with a high-speed jet. The direction of the jet depends on the 'resistance' of the boundary: the bubble jets towards a rigid boundary, splits up near an elastic boundary, and jets away from a free surface. The presence of a shock wave complicates the bubble dynamics further. We shall discuss both experimental studies using high-speed photography and numerical simulations involving shock wave-bubble interaction. In biomedical applications, instead of a single bubble, often clouds of bubbles appear (consisting of many individual bubbles). The dynamics of such a bubble cloud is even more complex. We shall show some of the phenomena observed in a high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) field. The nonlinear nature of the sound field and the complex inter-bubble interaction in a cloud present challenges to a comprehensive understanding of the physics of the bubble cloud in HIFU. We conclude the article with some comments on the challenges ahead.
INTERFERENCE OF UNIDIRECTIONAL SHOCK WAVES
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. V. Bulat
2015-05-01
Full Text Available Subject of study.We consider interference of unidirectional shock waves or, as they are called, catching up shock waves. The scope of work is to give a classification of the shock-wave structures that arise in this type of interaction of shock waves, and the area of their existence. Intersection of unidirectional shock waves results in arising of a shock-wave structure at the intersection point, which contains the main shock wave, tangential discontinuity and one more reflected gas-dynamic discontinuity of unknown beforehand type. The problem of determining the type of reflected discontinuity is the main problem that one has to solve in the study of catching shock waves interference. Main results.The paper presents the pictures of shock-wave structures arising at the interaction of catching up shock waves. The areas with a regular and irregular unidirectional interaction of shocks are described. Characteristic shock-wave structures are of greatest interest, where reflected gas-dynamic discontinuity degenerates into discontinuous characteristics. Such structures have a number of extreme properties. We have found the areas of existence for such shock-wave structures. There are also areas in which the steady-state solution is not available. The latter has determined revival of interest for the theoretical study of the problem, because the facts of sudden shock-wave structure destruction inside the air intake of supersonic aircrafts at high Mach numbers have been discovered. Practical significance.The theory of interference for unidirectional shock waves and design procedure are usable in the design of supersonic air intakes. It is also relevant for application possibility investigation of catching up oblique shock waves to create overcompressed detonation in perspective detonation air-jet and rocket engines.
Kasimov, Aslan R; Faria, Luiz M; Rosales, Rodolfo R
2013-03-08
We propose the following model equation, u(t) + 1/2(u(2)-uu(s))x = f(x,u(s)) that predicts chaotic shock waves, similar to those in detonations in chemically reacting mixtures. The equation is given on the half line, xorder partial differential equation. The chaos arises in the equation thanks to an interplay between the nonlinearity of the inviscid Burgers equation and a novel forcing term that is nonlocal in nature and has deep physical roots in reactive Euler equations.
Transient shock waves in heliosphere and Sun-Earth relations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Voeroes, Z.
1990-01-01
The problem of shock waves, caused by solar activity in the Earth's magnetosphere and its magnetic field, is discussed. All types of shock waves have their origin either in solar corona effects or in solar eruptions. Ionospheric and magnetospheric effects, such as X and gamma radiation, particle production, geomagnetic storms and shock waves, caused by solar activity, are dealt with and attempts are made to explain their interdependence. The origin and propagation of coronal shock waves, interplanetary shock waves and geomagnetic field disorders are described and their relations discussed. The understanding of the solar corona and wind phenomena seems to allow prediction of geomagnetic storms. The measurement and analysis of solar activity and its effects could yield useful information about shock waves physics, geomagnetosphere structure and relations between the Earth and the Sun. (J.J.). 7 figs., 1 tab., 37 refs
Kasimov, Aslan R.
2013-03-08
We propose the following model equation, ut+1/2(u2−uus)x=f(x,us) that predicts chaotic shock waves, similar to those in detonations in chemically reacting mixtures. The equation is given on the half line, x<0, and the shock is located at x=0 for any t≥0. Here, us(t) is the shock state and the source term f is taken to mimic the chemical energy release in detonations. This equation retains the essential physics needed to reproduce many properties of detonations in gaseous reactive mixtures: steady traveling wave solutions, instability of such solutions, and the onset of chaos. Our model is the first (to our knowledge) to describe chaos in shock waves by a scalar first-order partial differential equation. The chaos arises in the equation thanks to an interplay between the nonlinearity of the inviscid Burgers equation and a novel forcing term that is nonlocal in nature and has deep physical roots in reactive Euler equations.
Temperature maxima in stable two-dimensional shock waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kum, O.; Hoover, W.G.; Hoover, C.G.
1997-01-01
We use molecular dynamics to study the structure of moderately strong shock waves in dense two-dimensional fluids, using Lucy pair potential. The stationary profiles show relatively broad temperature maxima, for both the longitudinal and the average kinetic temperatures, just as does Mott-Smith model for strong shock waves in dilute three-dimensional gases. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society
Biological effects of tandem shock waves demonstrated on magnetic resonance
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Beneš, J.; Zeman, J.; Poučková, P.; Zadinová, M.; Šunka, Pavel; Lukeš, Petr
Roč. 113, č. 6 ( 2012 ), s. 335-338 ISSN 0006-9248 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/09/1151 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : electrical discharges in water * focused shock waves * cavitations * tandem shock waves Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 0.472, year: 2012
Pseudo-shock waves and their interactions in high-speed intakes
Gnani, F.; Zare-Behtash, H.; Kontis, K.
2016-04-01
In an air-breathing engine the flow deceleration from supersonic to subsonic conditions takes places inside the isolator through a gradual compression consisting of a series of shock waves. The wave system, referred to as a pseudo-shock wave or shock train, establishes the combustion chamber entrance conditions, and therefore influences the performance of the entire propulsion system. The characteristics of the pseudo-shock depend on a number of variables which make this flow phenomenon particularly challenging to be analysed. Difficulties in experimentally obtaining accurate flow quantities at high speeds and discrepancies of numerical approaches with measured data have been readily reported. Understanding the flow physics in the presence of the interaction of numerous shock waves with the boundary layer in internal flows is essential to developing methods and control strategies. To counteract the negative effects of shock wave/boundary layer interactions, which are responsible for the engine unstart process, multiple flow control methodologies have been proposed. Improved analytical models, advanced experimental methodologies and numerical simulations have allowed a more in-depth analysis of the flow physics. The present paper aims to bring together the main results, on the shock train structure and its associated phenomena inside isolators, studied using the aforementioned tools. Several promising flow control techniques that have more recently been applied to manipulate the shock wave/boundary layer interaction are also examined in this review.
Gravitational shock waves and extreme magnetomaterial shock waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lichnerowicz, Andre.
1975-01-01
Within an astrophysical context corresponding to high densities, a self-gravitating model is studied, which is the set of an extreme material medium of infinite conductivity and of a magnetic field. Corresponding shock waves generate necessarily, in general, gravitational shock waves [fr
Introduction to Shock Waves and Shock Wave Research
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Anderson, William Wyatt [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2017-02-02
M-9 and a number of other organizations at LANL and elsewhere study materials in dynamic processes. Often, this is described as “shock wave research,” but in reality is broader than is implied by that term. Most of our work is focused on dynamic compression and associated phenomena, but you will find a wide variety of things we do that, while related, are not simple compression of materials, but involve a much richer variety of phenomena. This tutorial will introduce some of the underlying physics involved in this work, some of the more common types of phenomena we study, and common techniques. However, the list will not be exhaustive by any means.
Bui, Trong T.; Mankbadi, Reda R.
1995-01-01
Numerical simulation of a very small amplitude acoustic wave interacting with a shock wave in a quasi-1D convergent-divergent nozzle is performed using an unstructured finite volume algorithm with a piece-wise linear, least square reconstruction, Roe flux difference splitting, and second-order MacCormack time marching. First, the spatial accuracy of the algorithm is evaluated for steady flows with and without the normal shock by running the simulation with a sequence of successively finer meshes. Then the accuracy of the Roe flux difference splitting near the sonic transition point is examined for different reconstruction schemes. Finally, the unsteady numerical solutions with the acoustic perturbation are presented and compared with linear theory results.
Shock wave convergence in water with parabolic wall boundaries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yanuka, D.; Shafer, D.; Krasik, Ya.
2015-01-01
The convergence of shock waves in water, where the cross section of the boundaries between which the shock wave propagates is either straight or parabolic, was studied. The shock wave was generated by underwater electrical explosions of planar Cu wire arrays using a high-current generator with a peak output current of ∼45 kA and rise time of ∼80 ns. The boundaries of the walls between which the shock wave propagates were symmetric along the z axis, which is defined by the direction of the exploding wires. It was shown that with walls having a parabolic cross section, the shock waves converge faster and the pressure in the vicinity of the line of convergence, calculated by two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations coupled with the equations of state of water and copper, is also larger
Shock wave treatment in medicine
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 30; Issue 2 ... In the present paper we discuss the basic theory and application of shock waves and its history in medicine. The idea behind using shock wave therapy for orthopedic diseases is the stimulation of healing in tendons, surrounding tissue and bones. This is a ...
Electro-acoustic shock waves in dusty plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mamun, A.A.; Rahman, A.
2005-10-01
A rigorous theoretical investigation has been made of electro- acoustic [particularly, dust-ion acoustic (DIA) and dust-acoustic (DA)] shock waves in unmagnetized dusty plasmas. The reductive perturbation method has been employed for the study of the small but finite amplitude DIA and DA shock waves. It has been reported that the dust grain charge fluctuation can be one of the candidates for the source of dissipation, and can be responsible for the formation of DIA shock waves in an unmagnetized dusty plasma with static charged dust particles. It has also been reported that the strong co-relation among dust particles can be one of the candidates for the source of dissipation, and can be responsible for the formation of DA shock waves in an unmagnetized strongly coupled dusty plasma. The basic features and the underlying physics of DIA and DA shock waves, which are relevant to space and laboratory dusty plasmas, are briefly discussed. (author)
Bubble Dynamics and Shock Waves
2013-01-01
This volume of the Shock Wave Science and Technology Reference Library is concerned with the interplay between bubble dynamics and shock waves. It is divided into four parts containing twelve chapters written by eminent scientists. Topics discussed include shock wave emission by laser generated bubbles (W Lauterborn, A Vogel), pulsating bubbles near boundaries (DM Leppinen, QX Wang, JR Blake), interaction of shock waves with bubble clouds (CD Ohl, SW Ohl), shock propagation in polydispersed bubbly liquids by model equations (K Ando, T Colonius, CE Brennen. T Yano, T Kanagawa, M Watanabe, S Fujikawa) and by DNS (G Tryggvason, S Dabiri), shocks in cavitating flows (NA Adams, SJ Schmidt, CF Delale, GH Schnerr, S Pasinlioglu) together with applications involving encapsulated bubble dynamics in imaging (AA Doinikov, A Novell, JM Escoffre, A Bouakaz), shock wave lithotripsy (P Zhong), sterilization of ships’ ballast water (A Abe, H Mimura) and bubbly flow model of volcano eruptions ((VK Kedrinskii, K Takayama...
Shock wave dynamics derivatives and related topics
Emanuel, George
2012-01-01
"...this monograph develops an esoteric niche within shock wave theory. …treats shock waves from an analytical approach assuming perfect gas. Emanuel has made significant contributions to the theory of shock waves and has selected a number of topics that reflect those contributions."-Shock Waves, 2013.
Weinberg, Kerstin; Ortiz, Michael
2009-08-01
In shock-wave lithotripsy--a medical procedure to fragment kidney stones--the patient is subjected to hypersonic waves focused at the kidney stone. Although this procedure is widely applied, the physics behind this medical treatment, in particular the question of how the injuries to the surrounding kidney tissue arise, is still under investigation. To contribute to the solution of this problem, two- and three-dimensional numerical simulations of a human kidney under shock-wave loading are presented. For this purpose a constitutive model of the bio-mechanical system kidney is introduced, which is able to map large visco-elastic deformations and, in particular, material damage. The specific phenomena of cavitation induced oscillating bubbles is modeled here as an evolution of spherical pores within the soft kidney tissue. By means of large scale finite element simulations, we study the shock-wave propagation into the kidney tissue, adapt unknown material parameters and analyze the resulting stress states. The simulations predict localized damage in the human kidney in the same regions as observed in animal experiments. Furthermore, the numerical results suggest that in first instance the pressure amplitude of the shock wave impulse (and not so much its exact time-pressure profile) is responsible for damaging the kidney tissue.
30th International Symposium on Shock Waves
Sadot, Oren; Igra, Ozer
2017-01-01
These proceedings collect the papers presented at the 30th International Symposium on Shock Waves (ISSW30), which was held in Tel-Aviv Israel from July 19 to July 24, 2015. The Symposium was organized by Ortra Ltd. The ISSW30 focused on the state of knowledge of the following areas: Nozzle Flow, Supersonic and Hypersonic Flows with Shocks, Supersonic Jets, Chemical Kinetics, Chemical Reacting Flows, Detonation, Combustion, Ignition, Shock Wave Reflection and Interaction, Shock Wave Interaction with Obstacles, Shock Wave Interaction with Porous Media, Shock Wave Interaction with Granular Media, Shock Wave Interaction with Dusty Media, Plasma, Magnetohyrdrodynamics, Re-entry to Earth Atmosphere, Shock Waves in Rarefied Gases, Shock Waves in Condensed Matter (Solids and Liquids), Shock Waves in Dense Gases, Shock Wave Focusing, Richtmyer-Meshkov Instability, Shock Boundary Layer Interaction, Multiphase Flow, Blast Waves, Facilities, Flow Visualization, and Numerical Methods. The two volumes serve as a reference ...
INTERFERENCE OF COUNTERPROPAGATING SHOCK WAVES
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. V. Bulat
2015-03-01
Full Text Available The subject of study. We examined the interaction of counterpropagating shock waves. The necessity of counterpropagating shock waves studying occurs at designing of high Mach number modern internal compression air intakes, Ramjets with subsonic and supersonic combustion, in asymmetrical supersonic nozzles and in some other cases. In a sense, this problem is a generalization of the case of an oblique shock reflection from the wall or from the plane of symmetry. With the renewed vigor, the interest to this problem emerged at the end of the 90s. This was due to the start of the programs for flight study at hypersonic speeds. The first experiments performed with air intakes, which realized the interaction of counterpropagating shock waves have shown that the change in flow velocity is accompanied by abrupt alteration of shock-wave structure, the occurrence of nonstationary and oscillatory phenomena. With an increase of flow velocity these phenomena undesirable for aircraft structure became more marked. The reason is that there are two fundamentally different modes of interaction of counterpropagating shock waves: a four-wave regular and a five-wave irregular. The transition from one mode to another can be nonstationary abrupt or gradual, it can also be accompanied by hysteresis. Main results. Criteria for the transition from regular reflection of counterpropagating shock waves to irregular are described: the criterion of von Neumann and the stationary Mach configuration criterion. We described areas in which the transition from one reflection type to another is possible only in abrupt way, as well as areas of possible gradual transition. Intensity dependences of the reflected shock waves from the intensity of interacting counterpropagating shocks were given. Qualitative pictures of shock-wave structures arising from the interaction of counterpropagating shock waves were shown. Calculation results of the intensity of outgoing gas
Nonstandard jump functions for radically symmetric shock waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baty, Roy S.; Tucker, Don H.; Stanescu, Dan
2008-01-01
Nonstandard analysis is applied to derive generalized jump functions for radially symmetric, one-dimensional, magnetogasdynamic shock waves. It is assumed that the shock wave jumps occur on infinitesimal intervals and the jump functions for the physical parameters occur smoothly across these intervals. Locally integrable predistributions of the Heaviside function are used to model the flow variables across a shock wave. The equations of motion expressed in nonconservative form are then applied to derive unambiguous relationships between the jump functions for the physical parameters for two families of self-similar flows. It is shown that the microstructures for these families of radially symmetric, magnetogasdynamic shock waves coincide in a nonstandard sense for a specified density jump function.
Shock wave science and technology reference library
2009-01-01
This book is the second of several volumes on solids in the Shock Wave Science and Technology Reference Library. These volumes are primarily concerned with high-pressure shock waves in solid media, including detonation and high-velocity impact and penetration events. Of the four extensive chapters in this volume, the first two describe the reactive behavior of condensed phase explosives, - Condensed-Phase Explosives: Shock Initiation and Detonation Phenomena (SA Sheffield and R Engelke) - First Principles Molecular Simulations of Energetic Materials at High-Pressures (F Zhang, S Alavi, and TK Woo), and the remaining two discuss the inert, mechanical response of solid materials. - Combined Compression and Shear Plane Waves (ZP Tang and JB Aidun), and - Dynamic Fragmentation of Solids (D Grady). All chapters are each self-contained, and can be read independently of each other. They offer a timely reference, for beginners as well as professional scientists and engineers, on the foundations of detonation phenomen...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smith, P.R.; Gregory, W.S.
1985-04-01
Pressure transients in nuclear facility air cleaning systems can originate from natural phenomena such as tornadoes or from accident-induced explosive blast waves. This study was concerned with the effective efficiency of high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters during pressure surges resulting from simulated tornado and explosion transients. The primary objective of the study was to examine filter efficiencies at pressure levels below the point of structural failure. Both standard and high-capacity 0.61-m by 0.61-m HEPA filters were evaluated, as were several 0.2-m by 0.2-m HEPA filters. For a particular manufacturer, the material release when subjected to tornado transients is the same (per unit area) for both the 0.2-m by 0.2-m and the 0.61-m by 0.61-m filters. For tornado transients, the material release was on the order of micrograms per square meter. When subjecting clean HEPA filters to simulated tornado transients with aerosol entrained in the pressure pulse, all filters tested showed a degradation of filter efficiency. For explosive transients, the material release from preloaded high-capacity filters was as much as 340 g. When preloaded high-capacity filters were subjected to shock waves approximately 50% of the structural limit level, 1 to 2 mg of particulate was released
High Temperature Phenomena in Shock Waves
2012-01-01
The high temperatures generated in gases by shock waves give rise to physical and chemical phenomena such as molecular vibrational excitation, dissociation, ionization, chemical reactions and inherently related radiation. In continuum regime, these processes start from the wave front, so that generally the gaseous media behind shock waves may be in a thermodynamic and chemical non-equilibrium state. This book presents the state of knowledge of these phenomena. Thus, the thermodynamic properties of high temperature gases, including the plasma state are described, as well as the kinetics of the various chemical phenomena cited above. Numerous results of measurement and computation of vibrational relaxation times, dissociation and reaction rate constants are given, and various ionization and radiative mechanisms and processes are presented. The coupling between these different phenomena is taken into account as well as their interaction with the flow-field. Particular points such as the case of rarefied flows an...
Gnoffo, Peter A.; Berry, Scott A.; VanNorman, John W.
2011-01-01
This paper is one of a series of five papers in a special session organized by the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program that addresses uncertainty assessments for CFD simulations in hypersonic flow. Simulations of a shock emanating from a compression corner and interacting with a fully developed turbulent boundary layer are evaluated herein. Mission relevant conditions at Mach 7 and Mach 14 are defined for a pre-compression ramp of a scramjet powered vehicle. Three compression angles are defined, the smallest to avoid separation losses and the largest to force a separated flow engaging more complicated flow physics. The Baldwin-Lomax and the Cebeci-Smith algebraic models, the one-equation Spalart-Allmaras model with the Catrix-Aupoix compressibility modification and two-equation models including Menter SST, Wilcox k-omega 98, and Wilcox k-omega 06 turbulence models are evaluated. Each model is fully defined herein to preclude any ambiguity regarding model implementation. Comparisons are made to existing experimental data and Van Driest theory to provide preliminary assessment of model form uncertainty. A set of coarse grained uncertainty metrics are defined to capture essential differences among turbulence models. Except for the inability of algebraic models to converge for some separated flows there is no clearly superior model as judged by these metrics. A preliminary metric for the numerical component of uncertainty in shock-turbulent-boundary-layer interactions at compression corners sufficiently steep to cause separation is defined as 55%. This value is a median of differences with experimental data averaged for peak pressure and heating and for extent of separation captured in new, grid-converged solutions presented here. This value is consistent with existing results in a literature review of hypersonic shock-turbulent-boundary-layer interactions by Roy and Blottner and with more recent computations of MacLean.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kartavykh, Y. Y.; Dröge, W. [Institut für Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik, Universität Würzburg, D-97074 Würzburg (Germany); Gedalin, M. [Department of Physics, Ben-Gurion Unversity of the Negev, Beer-Sheva (Israel)
2016-03-20
We use numerical solutions of the focused transport equation obtained by an implicit stochastic differential equation scheme to study the evolution of the pitch-angle dependent distribution function of protons in the vicinity of shock waves. For a planar stationary parallel shock, the effects of anisotropic distribution functions, pitch-angle dependent spatial diffusion, and first-order Fermi acceleration at the shock are examined, including the timescales on which the energy spectrum approaches the predictions of diffusive shock acceleration theory. We then consider the case that a flare-accelerated population of ions is released close to the Sun simultaneously with a traveling interplanetary shock for which we assume a simplified geometry. We investigate the consequences of adiabatic focusing in the diverging magnetic field on the particle transport at the shock, and of the competing effects of acceleration at the shock and adiabatic energy losses in the expanding solar wind. We analyze the resulting intensities, anisotropies, and energy spectra as a function of time and find that our simulations can naturally reproduce the morphologies of so-called mixed particle events in which sometimes the prompt and sometimes the shock component is more prominent, by assuming parameter values which are typically observed for scattering mean free paths of ions in the inner heliosphere and energy spectra of the flare particles which are injected simultaneously with the release of the shock.
On the interplay between cosmological shock waves and their environment
Martin-Alvarez, Sergio; Planelles, Susana; Quilis, Vicent
2017-05-01
Cosmological shock waves are tracers of the thermal history of the structures in the Universe. They play a crucial role in redistributing the energy within the cosmic structures and are also amongst the main ingredients of galaxy and galaxy cluster formation. Understanding this important function requires a proper description of the interplay between shocks and the different environments where they can be found. In this paper, an Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) Eulerian cosmological simulation is analysed by means of a shock-finding algorithm that allows to generate shock wave maps. Based on the population of dark matter halos and on the distribution of density contrast in the simulation, we classify the shocks in five different environments. These range from galaxy clusters to voids. The shock distribution function and the shocks power spectrum are studied for these environments dynamics. We find that shock waves on different environments undergo different formation and evolution processes, showing as well different characteristics. We identify three different phases of formation, evolution and dissipation of these shock waves, and an intricate migration between distinct environments and scales. Shock waves initially form at external, low density regions and are merged and amplified through the collapse of structures. Shock waves and cosmic structures follow a parallel evolution. Later on, shocks start to detach from them and dissipate. We also find that most of the power that shock waves dissipate is found at scales of k ˜0.5 Mpc^{-1}, with a secondary peak at k ˜8 Mpc^{-1}. The evolution of the shocks power spectrum confirms that shock waves evolution is coupled and conditioned by their environment.
Experimental and numerical investigations of shock wave propagation through a bifurcation
Marty, A.; Daniel, E.; Massoni, J.; Biamino, L.; Houas, L.; Leriche, D.; Jourdan, G.
2018-02-01
The propagation of a planar shock wave through a split channel is both experimentally and numerically studied. Experiments were conducted in a square cross-sectional shock tube having a main channel which splits into two symmetric secondary channels, for three different shock wave Mach numbers ranging from about 1.1 to 1.7. High-speed schlieren visualizations were used along with pressure measurements to analyze the main physical mechanisms that govern shock wave diffraction. It is shown that the flow behind the transmitted shock wave through the bifurcation resulted in a highly two-dimensional unsteady and non-uniform flow accompanied with significant pressure loss. In parallel, numerical simulations based on the solution of the Euler equations with a second-order Godunov scheme confirmed the experimental results with good agreement. Finally, a parametric study was carried out using numerical analysis where the angular displacement of the two channels that define the bifurcation was changed from 90° , 45° , 20° , and 0° . We found that the angular displacement does not significantly affect the overpressure experience in either of the two channels and that the area of the expansion region is the important variable affecting overpressure, the effect being, in the present case, a decrease of almost one half.
Microgravity Experiment: The Fate of Confined Shock Waves
Kobel, P.; Obreschkow, D.; Dorsaz, N.; de Bosset, A.; Farhat, M.
2007-11-01
Shockwave induced cavitation is a form of hydrodynamic cavitation generated by the interaction of shock waves with vapor nuclei and microscopic impurities. Both the shock waves and the induced cavitation are known as sources of erosion damage in hydraulic industrial systems and hence represent an important research topic in fluid dynamics. Here we present the first investigation of shock wave induced cavitation inside closed and isolated liquid volumes, which confine the shock wave by reflections and thereby promise a particularly strong coupling with cavitation. A microgravity platform (ESA, 42^nd parabolic flight campaign) was used to produce stable water drops with centimetric diameters. Inside these drops, a fast electrical discharge was generated to release a strong shock wave. This setting results in an amplified form of shockwave induced cavitation, visible in high-speed images as a transient haze of sub-millimetric bubbles synchronized with the shockwave radiation. A comparison between high-speed visualizations and 3D simulations of a shock front inside a liquid sphere reveals that focus zones within the drop lead to a significantly increased density of induced cavitation. Considering shock wave crossing and focusing may hence prove crucially useful to understand the important process of cavitation erosion.
Shock wave, fluid instability and implosion studies with a kinetic particle approach
Sagert, Irina; Even, Wesley P.; Strother, Terrance T.
2016-10-01
Many problems in laboratory plasma physics are subject to flows that move between the continuum and the kinetic regime. The correct description of these flows is crucial in order to capture their impact on the system's dynamical evolution. Examples are capsule implosions in inertial confinement fusion (ICF). Although their dynamics is predominantly shaped by shock waves and fluid instabilities, non-equilibrium flows in form of deuterium/tritium ions have been shown to play a significant role. We present recent studies with our Monte Carlo kinetic particle code that is designed to capture continuum and kinetic flows in large physical systems with possible applications in ICF studies. Discussed results will include standard shock wave and fluid instability tests and simulations that are adapted towards future ICF studies with comparisons to hydrodynamic simulations. This work used the Wolf TriLAB Capacity Cluster at LANL. I.S. acknowledges support through a Director's fellowship (20150741PRD3) from Los Alamos National Laboratory.
Shock wave treatment in medicine
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Unknown
to open surgery, the cost of the ESWT is very reasonable. But nevertheless it is necessary to improve the basic un ... In second group, shock waves are used to measure distances because of the low energy loss over large distances ... pared to a piezoelectric hydrophone. The rise time of an electrohydraulic generated shock ...
EXTRACORPOREAL SHOCK WAVE LITHOTRIPSY AS ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Objective To evaluate extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) as a monotherapy for urolithiasis in patients with solitary kidney and to determine the factors that may affect its results. Patients and Methods Using the Dornier MFL 5000 lithotriptor, 106 patients with solitary kidney (80 men and 26 women) were treated for ...
Kasimov, Aslan R.; Faria, Luiz; Rosales, Rodolfo R.
2013-01-01
: steady traveling wave solutions, instability of such solutions, and the onset of chaos. Our model is the first (to our knowledge) to describe chaos in shock waves by a scalar first-order partial differential equation. The chaos arises in the equation
Osnes, A. N.; Vartdal, M.; Pettersson Reif, B. A.
2018-05-01
The formation of jets from a shock-accelerated cylindrical shell of particles, confined in a Hele-Shaw cell, is studied by means of numerical simulation. A number of simulations have been performed, systematically varying the coupling between the gas and solid phases in an effort to identify the primary mechanism(s) responsible for jet formation. We find that coupling through drag is sufficient for the formation of jets. Including the effect of particle volume fraction and particle collisions did not alter the general behaviour, but had some influence on the length, spacing and number of jets. Furthermore, we find that the jet selection process starts early in the dispersal process, during the initial expansion of the particle layer.
Zhakhovsky, Vasily; Demaske, Brian; Inogamov, Nail; Oleynik, Ivan
2010-03-01
Femtosecond laser irradiation of metals is an effective technique to create a high-pressure frontal layer of 100-200 nm thickness. The associated ablation and spallation phenomena can be studied in the laser pump-probe experiments. We present results of a large-scale MD simulation of ablation and spallation dynamics developing in 1,2,3μm thick Al and Au foils irradiated by a femtosecond laser pulse. Atomic-scale mechanisms of laser energy deposition, transition from pressure wave to shock, reflection of the shock from the rear-side of the foil, and the nucleation of cracks in the reflected tensile wave, having a very high strain rate, were all studied. To achieve a realistic description of the complex phenomena induced by strong compression and rarefaction waves, we developed new embedded atom potentials for Al and Au based on cold pressure curves. MD simulations revealed the complex interplay between spallation and ablation processes: dynamics of spallation depends on the pressure profile formed in the ablated zone at the early stage of laser energy absorption. It is shown that the essential information such as material properties at high strain rate and spall strength can be extracted from the simulated rear-side surface velocity as a function of time.
Suppression of transverse instabilities of dark solitons and their dispersive shock waves
Armaroli, Andrea
2009-11-03
We investigate the impact of nonlocality, owing to diffusive behavior, on transverse instabilities of a dark stripe propagating in a defocusing cubic medium. The nonlocal response turns out to have a strongly stabilizing effect both in the case of a single soliton input and in the regime where dispersive shock waves develop (multisoliton regime). Such conclusions are supported by the linear stability analysis and numerical simulation of the propagation. © 2009 The American Physical Society.
Stability of stagnation via an expanding accretion shock wave
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Velikovich, A. L.; Giuliani, J. L.; Murakami, M.; Taylor, B. D.; Zalesak, S. T.; Iwamoto, Y.
2016-01-01
Stagnation of a cold plasma streaming to the center or axis of symmetry via an expanding accretion shock wave is ubiquitous in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and high-energy-density plasma physics, the examples ranging from plasma flows in x-ray-generating Z pinches [Maron et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 035001 (2013)] to the experiments in support of the recently suggested concept of impact ignition in ICF [Azechi et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 235002 (2009); Murakami et al., Nucl. Fusion 54, 054007 (2014)]. Some experimental evidence indicates that stagnation via an expanding shock wave is stable, but its stability has never been studied theoretically. We present such analysis for the stagnation that does not involve a rarefaction wave behind the expanding shock front and is described by the classic ideal-gas Noh solution in spherical and cylindrical geometry. In either case, the stagnated flow has been demonstrated to be stable, initial perturbations exhibiting a power-law, oscillatory or monotonic, decay with time for all the eigenmodes. This conclusion has been supported by our simulations done both on a Cartesian grid and on a curvilinear grid in spherical coordinates. Dispersion equation determining the eigenvalues of the problem and explicit formulas for the eigenfunction profiles corresponding to these eigenvalues are presented, making it possible to use the theory for hydrocode verification in two and three dimensions.
Stability of stagnation via an expanding accretion shock wave
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Velikovich, A. L.; Giuliani, J. L. [Plasma Physics Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Murakami, M. [Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Taylor, B. D. [Laboratory for Computational Physics and Fluid Dynamics, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Zalesak, S. T. [Berkeley Research Associates, Beltsville, Maryland 20705 (United States); Iwamoto, Y. [Ehime University, Matsuyama, Ehime Pref. 790-8577 (Japan)
2016-05-15
Stagnation of a cold plasma streaming to the center or axis of symmetry via an expanding accretion shock wave is ubiquitous in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and high-energy-density plasma physics, the examples ranging from plasma flows in x-ray-generating Z pinches [Maron et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 035001 (2013)] to the experiments in support of the recently suggested concept of impact ignition in ICF [Azechi et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 235002 (2009); Murakami et al., Nucl. Fusion 54, 054007 (2014)]. Some experimental evidence indicates that stagnation via an expanding shock wave is stable, but its stability has never been studied theoretically. We present such analysis for the stagnation that does not involve a rarefaction wave behind the expanding shock front and is described by the classic ideal-gas Noh solution in spherical and cylindrical geometry. In either case, the stagnated flow has been demonstrated to be stable, initial perturbations exhibiting a power-law, oscillatory or monotonic, decay with time for all the eigenmodes. This conclusion has been supported by our simulations done both on a Cartesian grid and on a curvilinear grid in spherical coordinates. Dispersion equation determining the eigenvalues of the problem and explicit formulas for the eigenfunction profiles corresponding to these eigenvalues are presented, making it possible to use the theory for hydrocode verification in two and three dimensions.
Stability of stagnation via an expanding accretion shock wave
Velikovich, A. L.; Murakami, M.; Taylor, B. D.; Giuliani, J. L.; Zalesak, S. T.; Iwamoto, Y.
2016-05-01
Stagnation of a cold plasma streaming to the center or axis of symmetry via an expanding accretion shock wave is ubiquitous in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and high-energy-density plasma physics, the examples ranging from plasma flows in x-ray-generating Z pinches [Maron et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 035001 (2013)] to the experiments in support of the recently suggested concept of impact ignition in ICF [Azechi et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 235002 (2009); Murakami et al., Nucl. Fusion 54, 054007 (2014)]. Some experimental evidence indicates that stagnation via an expanding shock wave is stable, but its stability has never been studied theoretically. We present such analysis for the stagnation that does not involve a rarefaction wave behind the expanding shock front and is described by the classic ideal-gas Noh solution in spherical and cylindrical geometry. In either case, the stagnated flow has been demonstrated to be stable, initial perturbations exhibiting a power-law, oscillatory or monotonic, decay with time for all the eigenmodes. This conclusion has been supported by our simulations done both on a Cartesian grid and on a curvilinear grid in spherical coordinates. Dispersion equation determining the eigenvalues of the problem and explicit formulas for the eigenfunction profiles corresponding to these eigenvalues are presented, making it possible to use the theory for hydrocode verification in two and three dimensions.
Decay of a laser generated shock wave in an aluminium target
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Werdiger, M.
1993-09-01
When a shock wave arrives at the near surface of a solid material, a radical and fast change occurs in the reflection properties of the material. The phenomenon is used in the present work in order to develop a new way to measure the transit time of a shock wave in a target. A 10 milliwatt He:Ne laser is directed toward the rear surface of the target. The reflected beam arrives at a photo-diode with a fast rise time of 150 psec which detects the instant of the change in the reflection. This technique, called 'continuous back lightning', is used in experiments with aluminium foil thickness in the range of 40μm ≤x≥ 1000μm. The shock wave is induced by a laser pulse of an intensity of 3*10 13 W/cm 2 . The results show two main physical regimes: in the first one 40μ ≤x≥ 210μm, there is a constant shock wave velocity which in our experiments was measured to be (12.81±0.67)km/s. In the second range of the thickness where 300μm there is a decay of the shock velocity. For x ≥ 210μm the geometry is one dimensional for our experimental conditions, while for x ≥ 300μm the 1-D geometry changes to 2 dimensional (2-D) geometry. The 2-D shock wave decay asymptotically (x→∞ to an acoustic wave. shock wave is described by a pressure scaling as x -n (n is a positive constant). The phenomenological equation of the state is taken to be P=A**u s + B*u s 2 +Bu s , where P is the pressure, u s - the shock velocity, A and B are constants. Applying our experimental results to the solution of the differential equation in this model A*x 2 ± B*x=C*x -n yields a value of n in the range 3.16 ≤n≥ 3.51. This pressure scaling law agrees with the self-similar solution of a concentrated impact on a surface between two media. This situation is well simulated by the laser deposition energy on a metal surface. In the experiment a 5% accuracy is achieved. Such a good accuracy has not been achieved so far in a laser induced shock-wave measurements in solids. (author). 52 refs
Shock wave interactions with detonable clouds
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ripley, R.C.; Josey, T.; Donahue, L.; Whitehouse, D.R.
2004-01-01
This paper presents results from the numerical simulation of compressible multi-species gases in an unstructured mesh CFD code called Chinook. Multiple species gases are significant to a wide range of CFD applications that involve chemical reactions, in particular detonation. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the interaction of shock waves with localized regions of reactive and non-reactive gas species. Test cases are chosen to highlight shock reflection and acceleration through combustion products resulting from the detonation of an explosive charge, and detonation wave propagation through a fuel-air cloud. Computations are performed in a 2D axi-symmetric framework. (author)
Diaphragmless shock wave generators for industrial applications of shock waves
Hariharan, M. S.; Janardhanraj, S.; Saravanan, S.; Jagadeesh, G.
2011-06-01
The prime focus of this study is to design a 50 mm internal diameter diaphragmless shock tube that can be used in an industrial facility for repeated loading of shock waves. The instantaneous rise in pressure and temperature of a medium can be used in a variety of industrial applications. We designed, fabricated and tested three different shock wave generators of which one system employs a highly elastic rubber membrane and the other systems use a fast acting pneumatic valve instead of conventional metal diaphragms. The valve opening speed is obtained with the help of a high speed camera. For shock generation systems with a pneumatic cylinder, it ranges from 0.325 to 1.15 m/s while it is around 8.3 m/s for the rubber membrane. Experiments are conducted using the three diaphragmless systems and the results obtained are analyzed carefully to obtain a relation between the opening speed of the valve and the amount of gas that is actually utilized in the generation of the shock wave for each system. The rubber membrane is not suitable for industrial applications because it needs to be replaced regularly and cannot withstand high driver pressures. The maximum shock Mach number obtained using the new diaphragmless system that uses the pneumatic valve is 2.125 ± 0.2%. This system shows much promise for automation in an industrial environment.
Internal energy relaxation in shock wave structure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Josyula, Eswar; Suchyta, Casimir J.; Boyd, Iain D.; Vedula, Prakash
2013-01-01
The Wang Chang-Uhlenbeck (WCU) equation is numerically integrated to characterize the internal structure of Mach 3 and Mach 5 shock waves in a gas with excitation in the internal energy states for the treatment of inelastic collisions. Elastic collisions are modeled with the hard sphere collision model and the transition rates for the inelastic collisions modified appropriately using probabilities based on relative velocities of the colliding particles. The collision integral is evaluated by the conservative discrete ordinate method [F. Tcheremissine, “Solution of the Boltzmann kinetic equation for high-speed flows,” Comput. Math. Math. Phys. 46, 315–329 (2006); F. Cheremisin, “Solution of the Wang Chang-Uhlenbeck equation,” Dokl. Phys. 47, 487–490 (2002)] developed for the Boltzmann equation. For the treatment of the diatomic molecules, the internal energy modes in the Boltzmann equation are described quantum mechanically given by the WCU equation. As a first step in the treatment of the inelastic collisions by the WCU equation, a two- and three-quantum system is considered to study the effect of the varying of (1) the inelastic cross section and (2) the energy gap between the quantum energy states. An alternative method, the direct simulation Monte Carlo method, is used for the Mach 3 shock wave to ensure the consistency of implementation in the two methods and there is an excellent agreement between the two methods. The results from the WCU implementation showed consistent trends for the Mach 3 and Mach5 standing shock waves simulations. Inelastic contributions change the downstream equilibrium state and allow the flow to transition to the equilibrium state further upstream
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Takayama, K. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Inst. of Fluid Science
1999-11-05
Outlined herein are the topics at the 22nd. International Symposium on Shock Waves, held in July 1999 in London. Prof. Takayama of Tohoku University gave an invited lecture on application of shock waves to medical area, stressing significance of shock waves on a human body. A total of 81 papers were presented from Japan. Number of Japanese papers and number of Japanese attendees both accounted for approximately 25%. The themes of these papers are centered by behavior of shock waves (e.g., propagation, reflection, and diffraction), extreme supersonic flows, interference between shock wave and boundary layer, aerodynamics (e.g., interference between vortex and shock wave), numerical simulation of shock wave phenomena, development of a new shock wave tube and measurement method, researches on elementary steps in chemical reactions, shock wave phenomena in condensed media and multi-phase media, shock wave noise produced while a high-speed train is running in a tunnel, and application of shock waves to industrial and medical areas. Japan contributes much to the application to medical area, and a method dispensing with injection is reported. Japan's aerospace-related researches include interference between shock wave and boundary layer, in which the real gas effect is taken into consideration, designs for protection from heat during the re-entry into the atmosphere, and construction of the world largest free-piston type wind tunnel. (NEDO)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Niu, K.
1996-01-01
A shock wave is a discontinuous surface that connects supersonic flow with subsonic flow. After a shock wave, flow velocity is reduced, and pressure and temperature increase; entropy especially increases across a shock wave. Therefore, flow is in nonequilibrium, and irreversible processes occur inside the shock layer. The thickness of a shock wave in neutral gas is of the order of the mean free path of the fluid particle. A shock wave also appears in magnetized plasma. Provided that when the plasma flow is parallel to the magnetic field, a shock wave appears if the governing equation for velocity potential is in hyperbolic type in relation with the Mach number and the Alfven number. When the flow is perpendicular to the magnetic field, the Maxwell stress, in addition to the pressure, plays a role in the shock wave in plasma. When the plasma temperature is so high, as the plasma becomes collision-free, another type of shock wave appears. In a collision-free shock wave, gyromotions of electrons around the magnetic field lines cause the shock formation instead of collisions in a collision-dominant plasma or neutral gas. Regardless of a collision-dominant or collision-free shock wave, the fluid that passes through the shock wave is heated in addition to being compressed. In inertial confinement fusion, the fuel must be compressed. Really, implosion motion performs fuel compression. A shock wave, appearing in the process of implosion, compresses the fuel. The shock wave, however, heats the fuel more intensively, and it makes it difficult to compress the fuel further because high temperatures invite high pressure. Adiabatic compression of the fuel is the desired result during the implosion, without the formation of a shock wave. (Author)
Effects of shock waves on Rayleigh-Taylor instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Yongtao; Shu Chiwang; Zhou Ye
2006-01-01
A numerical simulation of two-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equations using a high-order weighted essentially nonoscillatory finite difference shock capturing scheme is carried out in this paper, to study the effect of shock waves on the development of Rayleigh-Taylor instability. Shocks with different Mach numbers are introduced ahead or behind the Rayleigh-Taylor interface, and their effect on the transition to instability is demonstrated and compared. It is observed that shock waves can speed up the transition to instability for the Rayleigh-Taylor interface significantly. Stronger shocks are more effective in this speed-up process
Shock Wave Diffraction Phenomena around Slotted Splitters
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Francesca Gnani
2015-01-01
Full Text Available In the field of aerospace engineering, the study of the characteristics of vortical flows and their unsteady phenomena finds numerous engineering applications related to improvements in the design of tip devices, enhancement of combustor performance, and control of noise generation. A large amount of work has been carried out in the analysis of the shock wave diffraction around conventional geometries such as sharp and rounded corners, but the employment of splitters with lateral variation has hardly attracted the attention of researchers. The investigation of this phenomenon around two-dimensional wedges has allowed the understanding of the basic physical principles of the flow features. On the other hand, important aspects that appear in the third dimension due to the turbulent nature of the vortices are omitted. The lack of studies that use three-dimensional geometries has motivated the current work to experimentally investigate the evolution of the shock wave diffraction around two splitters with spike-shaped structures for Mach numbers of 1.31 and 1.59. Schlieren photography was used to obtain an insight into the sequential diffraction processes that take place in different planes. Interacting among them, these phenomena generate a complicated turbulent cloud with a vortical arrangement.
Simple model for decay of laser generated shock waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Trainor, R.J.
1980-01-01
A simple model is derived to calculate the hydrodynamic decay of laser-generated shock waves. Comparison with detailed hydrocode simulations shows good agreement between calculated time evolution of shock pressure, position, and instantaneous pressure profile. Reliability of the model decreases in regions of the target where superthermal-electron preheat effects become comparable to shock effects
Cosmic Rays Accelerated at Cosmological Shock Waves Renyi Ma1 ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Cosmic Rays Accelerated at Cosmological Shock Waves. Renyi Ma1,2,∗ ... ratio of CR to thermal energy in the ICM and WHIM based on numerical simulations and diffusive shock ... Hence, the nonthermal radiation of CRs may provide us a.
Maximum intensity of rarefaction shock waves for dense gases
Guardone, A.; Zamfirescu, C.; Colonna, P.
2009-01-01
Modern thermodynamic models indicate that fluids consisting of complex molecules may display non-classical gasdynamic phenomena such as rarefaction shock waves (RSWs) in the vapour phase. Since the thermodynamic region in which non-classical phenomena are physically admissible is finite in terms of
Shock Waves Science and Technology Library
2012-01-01
This book, as a volume of the Shock Wave Science and Technology Reference Library, is primarily concerned with the fundamental theory of detonation physics in gaseous and condensed phase reactive media. The detonation process involves complex chemical reaction and fluid dynamics, accompanied by intricate effects of heat, light, electricity and magnetism - a contemporary research field that has found wide applications in propulsion and power, hazard prevention as well as military engineering. The seven extensive chapters contained in this volume are: - Chemical Equilibrium Detonation (S. Bastea and LE Fried) - Steady One-Dimensional Detonations (A Higgins) - Detonation Instability (HD Ng and F Zhang) - Dynamic Parameters of Detonation (AA Vasiliev) - Multi-Scaled Cellular Detonation (D Desbordes and HN Presles) - Condensed Matter Detonation: Theory and Practice (C Tarver) - Theory of Detonation Shock Dynamics (JB Bdzil and DS Stewart) The chapters are thematically interrelated in a systematic descriptive appro...
Overview of shock waves in medicine
Cleveland, Robin O.
2003-10-01
A brief overview of three applications of shock waves is presented. Shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) has been in clinical use for more than 20 years. In the United States it is used to treat more than 80% of kidney stone cases and has wide acceptance with patients because it is a noninvasive procedure. Despite SWLs enormous success there is no agreement on how shock waves comminute stones. There is also a general acceptance that shock waves lead to trauma to the soft tissue of the kidney. Yet there has been little forward progress in developing lithotripters which provide comminution with less side-effects, indeed the original machine is still considered the gold standard. The last decade has seen the advent of new shock wave devices for treating principally musculoskeletal indications, such as plantar fasciitis, tennis elbow, and bone fractures that do not heal. This is referred to as shock wave therapy (SWT). The mechanisms by which SWT works are even less well understood than SWL and the consequences of bioeffects have also not been studied in detail. Shock waves have also been shown to be effective at enhancing drug delivery into cells and assisting with gene transfection. [Work partially supported by NIH.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bischoff, A. J.; Arabi-Hashemi, A.; Ehrhardt, M.; Lorenz, P.; Zimmer, K.; Mayr, S. G.
2016-01-01
Combining experimental methods and classical molecular dynamics (MD) computer simulations, we explore the martensitic transformation in Fe_7_0Pd_3_0 ferromagnetic shape memory alloy thin films induced by laser shock peening. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope measurements at shock wave pressures of up to 2.5 GPa reveal formation of martensitic variants with preferred orientation of the shorter c-axis of the tetragonal unit cell perpendicular to the surface plane. Moreover, consequential merging of growth islands on the film surface is observed. MD simulations unveil the underlying physics that are characterized by an austenite-martensite transformation with a preferential alignment of the c-axis along the propagation direction of the shock wave, resulting in flattening and in-plane expansion of surface features.
Li, Liuxia; Qian, Dun; Zou, Xiaobing; Wang, Xinxin
2018-05-01
The shock waves generated by an underwater electrical wire explosion were investigated. A microsecond time-scale pulsed current source was used to trigger the electrical explosion of copper wires with a length of 5 cm and a diameter of 200 μm. The energy-storage capacitor was charged to a relatively low energy so that the energy deposited onto the wire was not large enough to fully vaporize the whole wire. Two shock waves were recorded with a piezoelectric gauge that was located at a position of 100 mm from the exploding wire. The first and weak shock wave was confirmed to be the contribution from wire melting, while the second and stronger shock wave was the contribution from wire vaporization. The phenomenon whereby the first shock wave generated by melting being overtaken by the shock wave due to vaporization was observed.
The Basic Research for Pulverization of Rice Using Underwater Shock Wave by Electric Discharge
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M Ide
2016-09-01
Full Text Available In recent years, the food self-support rate of Japan is 40%, and this value is the lowest level in major developed countries. This reason includes decreasing of diverting rice consumption in Japan and increasing abandonment of cultivation. Therefore, these problems are solved by using rice powder instead of expensive flour, and we manage to increase the food selfsupport rate. Previously, the rice powder is manufactured by two methods. One is dry type, and the other is wet type. The former is the method getting rice powder by running dried rice to rotating metal, and has a problem which that starch is damaged by heat when processing was performed. The latter is performed same method against wet rice, and has a problem which a large quantity of water is used. As a method to solve these problems, an underwater shock wave is used. Shock wave is the pressure wave which is over speed of sound by discharging high energy in short time. Propagating shock wave in water is underwater shock wave. The characters of underwater shock wave are long duration of shock wave because water density is uniform, water is low price and easy to get and not heat processing. Thinking of industrialization, the electric discharge is used as the generating source of underwater shock wave in the experiment. As the results, the efficiency of obtaining enough grain size, 100ìm, of rice powder was too bad only using the simple processing using underwater shock wave. Therefore, in Okinawa National College of Technology collaborating with us, obtaining rice powder with higher efficiency by using converged underwater shock wave is the goal of this research. In this research, the underwater shock wave with equal energy of the experimental device of underwater shock wave is measured by the optical observation. In addition, the appearance converging underwater shock wave is simulated by numerical analysis, and the pressure appreciation rate between the first wave and converged
29th International Symposium on Shock Waves
Ranjan, Devesh
2015-01-01
This proceedings present the results of the 29th International Symposium on Shock Waves (ISSW29) which was held in Madison, Wisconsin, U.S.A., from July 14 to July 19, 2013. It was organized by the Wisconsin Shock Tube Laboratory, which is part of the College of Engineering of the University of Wisconsin-Madison. The ISSW29 focused on the following areas: Blast Waves, Chemically Reactive Flows, Detonation and Combustion, Facilities, Flow Visualization, Hypersonic Flow, Ignition, Impact and Compaction, Industrial Applications, Magnetohydrodynamics, Medical and Biological Applications, Nozzle Flow, Numerical Methods, Plasmas, Propulsion, Richtmyer-Meshkov Instability, Shock-Boundary Layer Interaction, Shock Propagation and Reflection, Shock Vortex Interaction, Shock Waves in Condensed Matter, Shock Waves in Multiphase Flow, as well as Shock Waves in Rarefield Flow. The two Volumes contain the papers presented at the symposium and serve as a reference for the participants of the ISSW 29 and individuals interes...
Collisions on relativistic nuclei: shock waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gudima, K.K.; Toneev, V.D.
1976-01-01
Experiments are analysed which indicate the possible generation of shock waves in collisions of two nuclei. Another interpretation of these data is proposed and the concerned new experiments are discussed
Rarefaction shock waves and Hugoniot curve in the presence of free and trapped particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Niknam, A. R.; Hashemzadeh, M.; Shokri, B.; Rouhani, M. R.
2009-01-01
The effects of the relativistic ponderomotive force and trapped particles in the presence of ponderomotive force on the rarefaction shock waves are investigated. The ponderomotive force alters the electron density distribution. This force and relativistic mass affect the plasma frequency. These physical parameters modify the total pressure and the existence condition of the rarefaction shock wave. Furthermore, the trapping of particles by the high frequency electromagnetic field considerably changes the existence condition of the rarefaction shock wave. The total pressure and Hugoniot curve are obtained by considering the relativistic ponderomotive force and trapped particles.
Rarefaction shock waves and Hugoniot curve in the presence of free and trapped particles
Niknam, A. R.; Hashemzadeh, M.; Shokri, B.; Rouhani, M. R.
2009-12-01
The effects of the relativistic ponderomotive force and trapped particles in the presence of ponderomotive force on the rarefaction shock waves are investigated. The ponderomotive force alters the electron density distribution. This force and relativistic mass affect the plasma frequency. These physical parameters modify the total pressure and the existence condition of the rarefaction shock wave. Furthermore, the trapping of particles by the high frequency electromagnetic field considerably changes the existence condition of the rarefaction shock wave. The total pressure and Hugoniot curve are obtained by considering the relativistic ponderomotive force and trapped particles.
Shock wave and flame front induced detonation in a rapid compression machine
Wang, Y.; Qi, Y.; Xiang, S.; Mével, R.; Wang, Z.
2018-05-01
The present study focuses on one mode of detonation initiation observed in a rapid compression machine (RCM). This mode is referred to as shock wave and flame front-induced detonation (SWFID). Experimental high-speed imaging and two-dimensional numerical simulations with skeletal chemistry are combined to unravel the dominant steps of detonation initiation under SWFID conditions. It is shown that the interaction between the shock wave generated by the end-gas auto-ignition and the spherical flame creates a region of high pressure and temperature which enables the acceleration of the flame front and the detonation onset. The experimental observation lacks adequate spatial and temporal resolution despite good reproducibility of the detonation onset. Based on the numerical results, phenomenological interpretation of the event within the framework of shock wave refraction indicates that the formation of a free-precursor shock wave at the transition between regular and irregular refraction may be responsible for detonation onset. The present results along with previous findings on shock wave reflection-induced detonation in the RCM indicate that super-knock occurs after the interaction of the shock wave generated by end-gas auto-ignition with the RCM walls, preignition flame, or another shock wave.
Flow control for oblique shock wave reflections
Giepman, R.H.M.
2016-01-01
Shock wave-boundary layer interactions are prevalent in many aerospace applications that involve transonic or supersonic flows. Such interactions may lead to boundary layer separation, flow unsteadiness and substantial losses in the total pressure. Flow control techniques can help to mitigate these adverse effects and stabilize the interaction. This thesis focuses on passive flow control techniques for oblique shock wave reflections on flat plates and presents experimental results for both la...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Qian Wan
2015-04-01
Full Text Available Research on shock wave mitigation in channels has been a topic of much attention in the shock wave community. One approach to attenuate an incident shock wave is to use obstacles of various geometries arranged in different patterns. This work is inspired by the study from Chaudhuri et al. (2013, in which cylinders, squares and triangles placed in staggered and non-staggered subsequent columns were used to attenuate a planar incident shock wave. Here, we present numerical simulations using a different obstacle pattern. Instead of using a matrix of obstacles, an arrangement of square or cylindrical obstacles placed along a logarithmic spiral curve is investigated, which is motivated by our previous work on shock focusing using logarithmic spirals. Results show that obstacles placed along a logarithmic spiral can delay both the transmitted and the reflected shock wave. For different incident shock Mach numbers, away from the logarithmic spiral design Mach number, this shape is effective to either delay the transmitted or the reflected shock wave. Results also confirm that the degree of attenuation depends on the obstacle shape, effective flow area and obstacle arrangement, much like other obstacle configurations.
Sonoluminescence, shock waves, and micro-thermonuclear fusion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moss, W.C.; Clarke, D.B.; White, J.W.; Young, D.A.
1995-08-01
We have performed numerical hydrodynamic simulations of the growth and collapse of a sonoluminescing bubble in a liquid. Our calculations show that spherically converging shock waves are generated during the collapse of the bubble. The combination of the shock waves and a realistic equation of state for the gas in the bubble provides an explanation for the measured picosecond optical pulse widths and indicates that the temperatures near the center of the bubble may exceed 3O eV. This leads naturally to speculation about obtaining micro-thermonuclear fusion in a bubble filled with deuterium (D 2 ) gas. Consequently, we performed numerical simulations of the collapse of a D 2 bubble in D 2 0. A pressure spike added to the periodic driving amplitude creates temperatures that may be sufficient to generate a very small, but measurable number of thermonuclear D-D fusion reactions in the bubble
On cylindrically converging shock waves shaped by obstacles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Eliasson, V; Henshaw, W D; Appelo, D
2007-07-16
Motivated by recent experiments, numerical simulations were performed of cylindrically converging shock waves. The converging shocks impinged upon a set of zero to sixteen regularly space obstacles. For more than two obstacles the resulting diffracted shock fronts formed polygonal shaped patterns near the point of focus. The maximum pressure and temperature as a function of number of obstacles were studied. The self-similar behavior of cylindrical, triangular and square-shaped shocks were also investigated.
Admissibility region for rarefaction shock waves in dense gases
Zamfirescu, C.; Guardone, A.; Colonna, P.
2008-01-01
In the vapour phase and close to the liquid–vapour saturation curve, fluids made of complex molecules are expected to exhibit a thermodynamic region in which the fundamental derivative of gasdynamic ? is negative. In this region, non-classical gasdynamic phenomena such as rarefaction shock waves are physically admissible, namely they obey the second law of thermodynamics and fulfil the speed-orienting condition for mechanical stability. Previous studies have demonstrated that the thermodynami...
Observation and Control of Shock Waves in Individual Nanoplasmas
2014-03-18
quasimonoenergetic ions with an energy spread of less than 15%. Numerical hydrodynamic calculations confirm the appearance of accelerating shock waves and provide...and observed ion energies indicates that the hydrodynamic calculations capture the physics of the plasma expansion. The hydrodynamic calculations ...2006). [23] A. Kawabata and R. Kubo , J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 21, 1765 (1966). [24] M.M. Marinak, G. D. Kerbel, N. A. Gentile, O. Jones, D. Munro, S
Modeling shock waves in an ideal gas: combining the Burnett approximation and Holian's conjecture.
He, Yi-Guang; Tang, Xiu-Zhang; Pu, Yi-Kang
2008-07-01
We model a shock wave in an ideal gas by combining the Burnett approximation and Holian's conjecture. We use the temperature in the direction of shock propagation rather than the average temperature in the Burnett transport coefficients. The shock wave profiles and shock thickness are compared with other theories. The results are found to agree better with the nonequilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD) and direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) data than the Burnett equations and the modified Navier-Stokes theory.
Focused tandem shock waves in water and their potential application in cancer treatment
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Lukeš, Petr; Šunka, Pavel; Hoffer, Petr; Stelmashuk, Vitaliy; Poučková, P.; Zadinová, M.; Zeman, J.; Dibdiak, L.; Kolářová, H.; Tománková, K.; Binder, S.; Beneš, J.
2014-01-01
Roč. 24, č. 1 (2014), s. 51-57 ISSN 0938-1287. [International Symposium on Shock Waves/28./. Manchester, 17.07.2011-22.07.2011] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/09/1151 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : focused shock waves * underwater discharge * cancer treatment Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 0.885, year: 2014
Bioeffects on an In Vitro Model by Small-Scale Explosives and Shock Wave Overpressure Impacts
2017-11-01
Many TBIs are associated with blast from improvised explosive devices.2–4 Explosions are physical, chemical , or nuclear reactions involving a rapid...ARL-TR-8210 ● NOV 2017 US Army Research Laboratory Bioeffects on an In Vitro Model by Small-Scale Explosives and Shock Wave...Research Laboratory Bioeffects on an In Vitro Model by Small-Scale Explosives and Shock Wave Overpressure Impacts by Nicole E Zander, Thuvan
Stationary Shock Waves with Oscillating Front in Dislocation Systems of Semiconductors
Gestrin, S. G.; Shchukina, E. V.
2018-05-01
The paper presents a study of weakly nonlinear wave processes in the cylindrical region of a hole gas surrounding a negatively charged dislocation in an n-type semiconductor crystal. It is shown that shock waves propagating along the dislocation are the solutions of the Korteweg-de Vries-Burgers equation when the dispersion and dissipation of medium are taken into account. Estimates are obtained for the basic physical parameters characterizing the shock wave and the region inside the Reed cylinder.
Resonant ion acceleration by collisionless magnetosonic shock waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ohsawa, Y.
1985-01-01
Resonant ion acceleration ( the ν/sub rho/xΒ acceleration ) in laminar magnetosonic shock waves is studied by theory and simulation. Theoretical analysis based on a two-fluid model shows that, in laminar shocks, the electric field strength in the direction of the wave normal is about (m/sub i/m/sub e/) 1 2 times large for quasi-perpendicular shocks than that for the quasi-parallel shocks, which is a reflection of the fact that the width of quasi-perpendicular shocks is much smaller than that of the quasi-parallel shocks. Trapped ions can be accelerated up to the speed about ν/sub A/(m/sub i/m/sub e/) 1 2(M/sub A/-1) 3 2 in quasi-perpendicular shocks. Time evolution of self-consistent magnetosonic shock waves is studied by using a 2-12 dimensional fully relativistic, fully electromagnetic particle simulation with full ion and electron dynamics. Even a low-Mach-number shock wave can significantly accelerate trapped ions by the ν/sub rho/xΒ acceleration. The resonant ion acceleration occurs more strongly in quasi-perpendicular shocks, because the magnitude of this acceleration is proportional to the electric field strength
Takayama, Kazuyoshi
1993-05-01
This paper describes a summary of a research project for the development of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL), which has been carried out, under close collaboration between the Shock Wave Research Center of Tohoku University and the School of Medicine, Tohoku University. The ESWL is a noninvasive clinical treatment of disintegrating human calculi and one of the most peaceful applications of shock waves. Underwater spherical shock waves were generated by explosion of microexplosives. Characteristics of the underwater shock waves and of ultrasound focusing were studied by means of holographic interferometric flow visualization and polyvinyliden-difluoride (PVDF) pressure transducers. These focused pressures, when applied to clinical treatments, could effectively and noninvasively disintegrate urinary tract stones or gallbladder stones. However, despite clincal success, tissue damage occurs during ESWL treatments, and the possible mechanism of tissue damage is briefly described.
Investigation on the Vibration Effect of Shock Wave in Rock Burst by In Situ Microseismic Monitoring
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mingshi Gao
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Rock burst is a physical explosion associated with enormous damage at a short time. Due to the complicity of mechanics of rock burst in coal mine roadway, the direct use of traditional investigation method applied in tunnel is inappropriate since the components of surrounding rock are much more complex in underground than that of tunnel. In addition, the reliability of the results obtained through these methods (i.e., physical simulation, theoretical analysis, and monitoring in filed application is still not certain with complex geological conditions. Against this background, present experimental study was first ever conducted at initial site to evaluate the effect of shock wave during the rock burst. TDS-6 microseismic monitoring system was set up in situ to evaluate the propagation of shock wave resulting in microexplosions of roadway surrounding rock. Various parameters including the distance of epicentre and the characteristic of response have been investigated. Detailed test results revealed that (1 the shock wave attenuated exponentially with the increase of the distance to seismic source according to the equation of E=E0e-ηl; particularly, the amplitude decreased significantly after being 20 m apart from explosive resource and then became very weak after being 30 m apart from the seismic source; (2 the response mechanics are characteristic with large scatter based on the real location of surrounding rock despite being at the same section. That is, the surrounding rock of floor experienced serious damage, followed by ribs, the roof, and the humeral angles. This in situ experimental study also demonstrated that microseismic monitoring system can be effectively used in rock burst through careful setup and data investigation. The proposed in situ monitoring method has provided a new way to predict rock burst due to its simple instalment procedure associated with direct and reasonable experimental results.
Multiscale modeling, coarse-graining and shock wave computer simulationsin materials science
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Martin O. Steinhauser
2017-12-01
Full Text Available My intention in this review article is to briefly discuss several major topics of presentdaycomputational materials science in order to show their importance for state-of-the-art materialsmodeling and computer simulation. The topics I discuss are multiscale modeling approaches forhierarchical systems such as biological macromolecules and related coarse-graining techniques, whichprovide an effcient means to investigate systems on the mesoscale, and shock wave physics whichhas many important and interesting multi- and interdisciplinary applications in research areas wherephysics, biology, chemistry, computer science, medicine and even engineering meet. In fact, recently,as a new emerging field, the use of coarse-grained approaches for the simulation of biologicalmacromolecules such as lipids and bilayer membranes and the investigation of their interaction withshock waves has become very popular. This emerging area of research may contribute not only toan improved understanding of the microscopic details of molecular self-assembly but may also leadto enhanced medical tumor treatments which are based on the destructive effects of High IntensityFocused Ultrasound (HIFU or shock waves when interacting with biological cells and tissue; theseare treatments which have been used in medicine for many years, but which are not well understoodfrom a fundamental physical point of view.
Characteristics of shock waves in neutrino-thick medium of collapsing stars
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Imshennik, V.S.; Murzina, M.V.
1989-01-01
Hugoniot relations for shock waves in neutrino-thick medium of colapsing stars are formulated. The equations obtained are solved numerically for rather wide range of shock wave velocities (D=(1,3,5)x10 9 cm/s) as well as for values of medium physical parameters against the shock wave front ( temperature T=(3,5,10)x1 -9 K; medium degree Θ 0 =n n /n p =10;100; at ρ 0 =10 11 g/cm 3 density).Presence of neutrino radiation is shown to result in matter essential deneutronization (up to Θ=10-30) at shock wave passage though contribution of leptonic component into the matter main characteristics (pressure, internal energy, temperature etc.) is rather small. 17 refs.; 3 figs.; 3 tabs
A History of constitutive modeling via molecular dynamics: Shock waves in fluids and gases
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Holian B.L.
2011-01-01
Full Text Available From its inception in the mid-Fifties, the method of molecular-dynamics (MD computer simulations has been used to probe the foundations of statistical mechanics, first for equilibrium equation-of-state averages, and then for transport properties from equilibrium fluctuations. Traditional statistical mechanical theoreticians were shocked to see that this new-fangled computational physics approach was feasible, even with incredibly tiny samples (on the order of a hundred atoms. When direct measurement of transport coefficients by non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD was proposed in the early Seventies, even greater resistance was encountered from the traditionalists – though evidence for convergence with the equilibrium fluctuation method gradually accumulated. In the late Seventies and early Eighties, shock-wave simulations by NEMD made it possible to test directly the principal continuum constitutive theory for fluids, namely, Navier-Stokes viscous flow and Fourier’s Law of heat conduction. To everyone’s surprise – and the consternation of many – NEMD, once again, demonstrated that continuum theory applies at embarrassingly small (atomistic time and length scales. We pursue this early line of work into the modern era, showing how NEMD shock-wave simulations can still provide surprising insights and improvements upon our understanding of constitutive modeling.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wen, S.-B.; Mao Xianglei; Greif, Ralph; Russo, Richard E.
2007-01-01
By fitting simulation results with experimentally measured trajectories of the shock wave and the vapor/background gas contact surface, we found that inclusion of ionization energy in the analysis leads to a change in the evolution of the pressure, mass density, electron number density, and temperature of the vapor plume. The contribution of ionization energy to both the plasma and shock wave has been neglected in most studies of laser ablation. Compared to previous simulations, the densities, pressures, and temperatures are lower shortly after the laser pulse ( 50 ns). The predicted laser energy conversion ratio also showed about a 20% increase (from 35% to 45%) when the ionization energy is considered. The changes in the evolution of the physical quantities result from the retention of the ionization energy in the vapor plume, which is then gradually transformed to kinetic and thermal energies. When ionization energy is included in the simulation, the vapor plume attains higher expansion speeds and temperatures for a longer time after the laser pulse. The better determination of the temperature history of the vapor plume not only improves the understanding of the expansion process of the laser induced vapor plume but also is important for chemical analysis. The accurate temperature history provides supplementary information which enhances the accuracy of chemical analysis based on spectral emission measurements (e.g., laser induced breakdown spectroscopy)
Convergence of shock waves between conical and parabolic boundaries
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yanuka, D.; Zinowits, H. E.; Antonov, O.; Efimov, S.; Virozub, A.; Krasik, Ya. E. [Physics Department, Technion, Haifa 32000 (Israel)
2016-07-15
Convergence of shock waves, generated by underwater electrical explosions of cylindrical wire arrays, between either parabolic or conical bounding walls is investigated. A high-current pulse with a peak of ∼550 kA and rise time of ∼300 ns was applied for the wire array explosion. Strong self-emission from an optical fiber placed at the origin of the implosion was used for estimating the time of flight of the shock wave. 2D hydrodynamic simulations coupled with the equations of state of water and copper showed that the pressure obtained in the vicinity of the implosion is ∼7 times higher in the case of parabolic walls. However, comparison with a spherical wire array explosion showed that the pressure in the implosion vicinity in that case is higher than the pressure in the current experiment with parabolic bounding walls because of strong shock wave reflections from the walls. It is shown that this drawback of the bounding walls can be significantly minimized by optimization of the wire array geometry.
Viscoelastic shock wave in ballistic gelatin behind soft body armor.
Liu, Li; Fan, Yurun; Li, Wei
2014-06-01
Ballistic gelatins are widely used as a surrogate of biological tissue in blunt trauma tests. Non-penetration impact tests of handgun bullets on the 10wt% ballistic gelatin block behind soft armor were carried out in which a high-speed camera recorded the crater׳s movement and pressure sensors imbedded in the gelatin block recorded the pressure waves at different locations. The observed shock wave attenuation indicates the necessity of considering the gelatin׳s viscoelasticity. A three-element viscoelastic constitutive model was adopted, in which the relevant parameters were obtained via fitting the damping free oscillations at the beginning of the creep-mode of rheological measurement, and by examining the data of published split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) experiments. The viscoelastic model is determined by a retardation time of 5.5×10(-5)s for high oscillation frequencies and a stress relaxation time of 2.0-4.5×10(-7)s for shock wave attenuation. Using the characteristic-line method and the spherical wave assumption, the propagation of impact pressure wave front and the subsequent unloading profile can be simulated using the experimental velocity boundary condition. The established viscoelastic model considerably improves the prediction of shock wave attenuation in the ballistic gelatin. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Critical point anomalies include expansion shock waves
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nannan, N. R., E-mail: ryan.nannan@uvs.edu [Mechanical Engineering Discipline, Anton de Kom University of Suriname, Leysweg 86, PO Box 9212, Paramaribo, Suriname and Process and Energy Department, Delft University of Technology, Leeghwaterstraat 44, 2628 CA Delft (Netherlands); Guardone, A., E-mail: alberto.guardone@polimi.it [Department of Aerospace Science and Technology, Politecnico di Milano, Via La Masa 34, 20156 Milano (Italy); Colonna, P., E-mail: p.colonna@tudelft.nl [Propulsion and Power, Delft University of Technology, Kluyverweg 1, 2629 HS Delft (Netherlands)
2014-02-15
From first-principle fluid dynamics, complemented by a rigorous state equation accounting for critical anomalies, we discovered that expansion shock waves may occur in the vicinity of the liquid-vapor critical point in the two-phase region. Due to universality of near-critical thermodynamics, the result is valid for any common pure fluid in which molecular interactions are only short-range, namely, for so-called 3-dimensional Ising-like systems, and under the assumption of thermodynamic equilibrium. In addition to rarefaction shock waves, diverse non-classical effects are admissible, including composite compressive shock-fan-shock waves, due to the change of sign of the fundamental derivative of gasdynamics.
28th International Symposium on Shock Waves
2012-01-01
The University of Manchester hosted the 28th International Symposium on Shock Waves between 17 and 22 July 2011. The International Symposium on Shock Waves first took place in 1957 in Boston and has since become an internationally acclaimed series of meetings for the wider Shock Wave Community. The ISSW28 focused on the following areas: Blast Waves, Chemically Reacting Flows, Dense Gases and Rarefied Flows, Detonation and Combustion, Diagnostics, Facilities, Flow Visualisation, Hypersonic Flow, Ignition, Impact and Compaction, Multiphase Flow, Nozzle Flow, Numerical Methods, Propulsion, Richtmyer-Meshkov, Shockwave Boundary Layer Interaction, Shock Propagation and Reflection, Shock Vortex Interaction, Shockwave Phenomena and Applications, as well as Medical and Biological Applications. The two Volumes contain the papers presented at the symposium and serve as a reference for the participants of the ISSW 28 and individuals interested in these fields.
Shock Wave Science and Technology Reference Library
2007-01-01
Shock waves in multiphase flows refers to a rich variety of phenomena of interest to physicists, chemists, and fluid dynamicists, as well as mechanical, biomedical and aeronautical engineers. This volume treats shock and expansion waves in (bullet) complex, bubbly liquids (L van Wijngaarden, Y Tomita, V Kedrinskii) and (bullet) cryogenic liquids (M Murakami) and examines the relationship of shock waves with (bullet) phase transitions (A Guha, CF Delale, G Schnerr, MEH van Dongen) (bullet) induced phase transitions (GEA Meier) as well as their interaction with (bullet) solid foams, textiles, porous and granular media (B Skews, DMJ Smeulders, MEH van Dongen, V Golub, O Mirova) All chapters are self-contained, so they can be read independently, although they are of course thematically interrelated. Taken together, they offer a timely reference on shock waves in multiphase flows, including new viewpoints and burgeoning developments. The book will appeal to beginners as well as professional scientists and engineer...
Shock waves in weakly compressed granular media.
van den Wildenberg, Siet; van Loo, Rogier; van Hecke, Martin
2013-11-22
We experimentally probe nonlinear wave propagation in weakly compressed granular media and observe a crossover from quasilinear sound waves at low impact to shock waves at high impact. We show that this crossover impact grows with the confining pressure P0, whereas the shock wave speed is independent of P0-two hallmarks of granular shocks predicted recently. The shocks exhibit surprising power law attenuation, which we model with a logarithmic law implying that shock dissipation is weak and qualitatively different from other granular dissipation mechanisms. We show that elastic and potential energy balance in the leading part of the shocks.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wei, Wenfu; Li, Xingwen, E-mail: xwli@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Wu, Jian; Yang, Zefeng; Jia, Shenli; Qiu, Aici [State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Shaanxi 710049 (China)
2014-08-15
This paper describes our efforts to reveal the underlying physics of laser-triggered discharges in atmospheric air using a Mach-Zehnder interferometer and schlieren photography. Unlike the hemispherical shock waves that are produced by laser ablation, bell-like morphologies are observed during laser-triggered discharges. Phase shifts are recovered from the interferograms at a time of 1000 ns by the 2D fast Fourier transform method, and then the values of the refractive index are deduced using the Abel inversion. An abundance of free electrons is expected near the cathode surface. The schlieren photographs visualize the formation of stagnation layers at ∼600 ns in the interaction zones of the laser- and discharge-produced plasmas. Multiple reflected waves are observed at later times with the development of shock wave propagations. Estimations using the Taylor-Sedov self-similar solution indicated that approximately 45.8% and 51.9% of the laser and electrical energies are transferred into the gas flow motions, respectively. Finally, numerical simulations were performed, which successfully reproduced the main features of the experimental observations, and provided valuable insights into the plasma and shock wave dynamics during the laser-triggered discharge.
Lee, Ji-Hyun; Lee, Sangyong; Choi, SeokJoo; Choi, Yoon-Hee; Lee, Kwansub
2017-03-01
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of extracorporeal shock wave therapy on the pain and function of patients with degenerative knee arthritis. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty patients with degenerative knee arthritis were divided into a conservative physical therapy group (n=10) and an extracorporeal shock wave therapy group (n=10). Both groups received general conservative physical therapy, and the extracorporeal shock wave therapy was additionally treated with extracorporeal shock wave therapy after receiving conservative physical therapy. Both groups were treated three times a week over a four-week period. The visual analogue scale was used to evaluate pain in the knee joints of the subjects, and the Korean Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index was used to evaluate the function of the subjects. [Results] The comparison of the visual analogue scale and Korean Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index scores within each group before and after the treatment showed statistically significant declines in scores in both the conservative physical therapy group and extracorporeal shock wave therapy group. A group comparison after the treatment showed statistically significant differences in these scores in the extracorporeal shock wave therapy group and the conservative physical therapy group. [Conclusion] extracorporeal shock wave therapy may be a useful nonsurgical intervention for reducing the pain of patients with degenerative knee arthritis and improving these patients' function.
Flow control for oblique shock wave reflections
Giepman, R.H.M.
2016-01-01
Shock wave-boundary layer interactions are prevalent in many aerospace applications that involve transonic or supersonic flows. Such interactions may lead to boundary layer separation, flow unsteadiness and substantial losses in the total pressure. Flow control techniques can help to mitigate these
Geodesics analysis of colliding gravitational shock waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pozdeeva, E.
2011-01-01
Full text: (author)We consider collision of charged gravitational shock waves with infinite transverse extension (charged gravitational walls). We study the influence of the charges on the trapped surface formation in the charged walls collision. This consideration has applications in the in heavy ion collisions using a holographic approach in which the charge plays the role of the chemical potential
Particle acceleration and shock wave structure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
DRURY, L.O'C.
1989-01-01
A significant determinant in the large-scale structure and evolution of strong collisionless shocks under astrophysical conditions is probably the acceleration of charged particles. The reaction of these particles on the dynamical structure of the shock wave is discussed both theoretically and in the light of recent numerical calculations. Astrophysical implications for the evolution of supernova remnants, are considered. (author). 15 refs
Success of electromagnetic shock wave lithotripter asmonotherapy ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Objectives: To evaluate the success of shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) as monotherapy for solitary renalstones larger than 2 cm without ureteral stenting. Hence, if our study result demonstrates acceptable successand safety, we can recommend ESWL as a treatment option for patients with large renal calculi. Subjects and ...
Shock waves in collective field theories for many particle systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Oki, F; Saito, T [Kyoto Prefectural Univ. of Medicine (Japan); Shigemoto, K
1980-10-01
We find shock wave solutions to collective field equations for quantum mechanical many particle system. Importance of the existence of a ''tension'' working on the surface of the shock-wave front is pointed out.
State of the art extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kandel, L.B. (State Univ. of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY (US)); Harrison, L.H.; McCullough, D.L. (Wake Forest Univ. Medical Center, Winston-Salem, NC (US))
1987-01-01
This book contains 16 chapters. Some of the topics that are covered are: Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Development; Laser-Generated Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripter; Radiation Exposure during ESWL; Caliceal Calculi; and Pediatric ESWL.
State of the art extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kandel, L.B.; Harrison, L.H.; McCullough, D.L.
1987-01-01
This book contains 16 chapters. Some of the topics that are covered are: Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Development; Laser-Generated Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripter; Radiation Exposure during ESWL; Caliceal Calculi; and Pediatric ESWL
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tang, Zhijing; Anderson, K.
1991-11-01
The deposition of large amount of beam energy in short time will cause high temperature and pressure in the center of P-bar Target, and this disturbance will propagate outwards as a shock wave. Shock wave induced material changes which are of our concern include void growth and accompanying density decrease which will decrease antiproton yield, and crack formation and fracture as was observed in tungsten target which will destroy the integrity of the target. Our objective is to analyze the shock wave behavior in the target, optimize its design so that the destructive effects of shock wave can be minimized, the integrity of the target can be maintained, and a reasonably high yield of antiproton production can be achieved. In this report we put together some results of our analysis of a cylindrical copper target. We hope that it will provide a general overview of the shock wave phenomena in the target, establish a basis for further research, and facilitate the target design. First, energy deposition data are analyzed, and it is justified that as an approximation, the problem can be treated as axi-symmetric. The average data therefore are used as energy profile, however, the maximum energy deposition are still used as the peak value. Next some basic estimations are made as to what temperature and pressure can reach at present level of energy deposition. Then some characteristics of wave propagation in a thermal shock loaded solid are illustrated with a one-dimensional model. Since there is no analytical solution available for cylindrical geometry, our understanding of the problem relies on numerical model, which are performed via finite element package ANSYS. results of numerical analysis are summarized, sources of potential danger are identified, and design ideas to minimize the damage are proposed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tang, Zhijing; Anderson, K.
1991-11-01
The deposition of large amount of beam energy in short time will cause high temperature and pressure in the center of P-bar Target, and this disturbance will propagate outwards as a shock wave. Shock wave induced material changes which are of our concern include void growth and accompanying density decrease which will decrease antiproton yield, and crack formation and fracture as was observed in tungsten target which will destroy the integrity of the target. Our objective is to analyze the shock wave behavior in the target, optimize its design so that the destructive effects of shock wave can be minimized, the integrity of the target can be maintained, and a reasonably high yield of antiproton production can be achieved. In this report we put together some results of our analysis of a cylindrical copper target. We hope that it will provide a general overview of the shock wave phenomena in the target, establish a basis for further research, and facilitate the target design. First, energy deposition data are analyzed, and it is justified that as an approximation, the problem can be treated as axi-symmetric. The average data therefore are used as energy profile, however, the maximum energy deposition are still used as the peak value. Next some basic estimations are made as to what temperature and pressure can reach at present level of energy deposition. Then some characteristics of wave propagation in a thermal shock loaded solid are illustrated with a one-dimensional model. Since there is no analytical solution available for cylindrical geometry, our understanding of the problem relies on numerical model, which are performed via finite element package ANSYS. results of numerical analysis are summarized, sources of potential danger are identified, and design ideas to minimize the damage are proposed
21 CFR 876.5990 - Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripter.
2010-04-01
..., control console, imaging/localization system, and patient table. Prior to treatment, the urinary stone is targeted using either an integral or stand-alone localization/imaging system. Shock waves are typically... shock wave lithotripter. (a) Identification. An extracorporeal shock wave lithotripter is a device that...
Shock wave response of ammonium perchlorate single crystals to 6 GPa
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yuan, G.; Feng, R.; Gupta, Y. M.; Zimmerman, K.
2000-01-01
Plane shock wave experiments were carried out on ammonium perchlorate single crystals compressed along [210] and [001] orientations to peak stresses ranging from 1.2 to 6.2 GPa. Quartz gauge and velocity interferometer techniques were used to measure the elastic and plastic shock wave velocities, and stress and particle velocity histories in the shocked samples. The measured Hugoniot elastic limit (HEL) was 0.48±0.09 GPa. Above the HEL and up to about 6 GPa, the data show a clear two-wave structure, indicating an elastic-plastic response. Time-dependent elastic precursor decay and plastic wave ramping are discernable and orientation dependent in the low stress data. However, the orientation dependence of the peak state response is small. Hence, data for both orientations were summarized into a single isotropic, elastic-plastic-stress relaxation model. Reasonable agreement was obtained between the numerical simulations using this model and the measured wave profiles. At a shock stress of about 6 GPa and for the time duration and crystal orientations examined, we did not observe any features that may be identified as a sustained chemical reaction or a phase transformation. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics
Effect of target-fixture geometry on shock-wave compacted copper powders
Kim, Wooyeol; Ahn, Dong-Hyun; Yoon, Jae Ik; Park, Lee Ju; Kim, Hyoung Seop
2018-01-01
In shock compaction with a single gas gun system, a target fixture is used to safely recover a powder compact processed by shock-wave dynamic impact. However, no standard fixture geometry exists, and its effect on the processed compact is not well studied. In this study, two types of fixture are used for the dynamic compaction of hydrogen-reduced copper powders, and the mechanical properties and microstructures are investigated using the Vickers microhardness test and electron backscatter diffraction, respectively. With the assistance of finite element method simulations, we analyze several shock parameters that are experimentally hard to control. The results of the simulations indicate that the target geometry clearly affects the characteristics of incident and reflected shock waves. The hardness distribution and the microstructure of the compacts also show their dependence on the geometry. With the results of the simulations and the experiment, it is concluded that the target geometry affects the shock wave propagation and wave interaction in the specimen.
Shock waves in helium at low temperatures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liepmann, H.W.; Torczynski, J.R.
1986-01-01
Results are reported from studies of the properties of low temperature He-4 using shock waves as a probe. Ideal shock tube theory is used to show that sonic speeds of Mach 40 are attainable in He at 300 K. Viscosity reductions at lower temperatures minimize boundary layer effects at the side walls. A two-fluid model is described to account for the phase transition which He undergoes at temperatures below 2.2 K, after which the quantum fluid (He II) and the normal compressed superfluid (He I) coexist. Analytic models are provided for pressure-induced shocks in He I and temperature-induced shock waves (called second sound) which appear in He II. The vapor-fluid interface of He I is capable of reflecting second and gasdynamic sound shocks, which can therefore be used as probes for studying phase transitions between He I and He II. 17 references
International Shock-Wave Database: Current Status
Levashov, Pavel
2013-06-01
Shock-wave and related dynamic material response data serve for calibrating, validating, and improving material models over very broad regions of the pressure-temperature-density phase space. Since the middle of the 20th century vast amount of shock-wave experimental information has been obtained. To systemize it a number of compendiums of shock-wave data has been issued by LLNL, LANL (USA), CEA (France), IPCP and VNIIEF (Russia). In mid-90th the drawbacks of the paper handbooks became obvious, so the first version of the online shock-wave database appeared in 1997 (http://www.ficp.ac.ru/rusbank). It includes approximately 20000 experimental points on shock compression, adiabatic expansion, measurements of sound velocity behind the shock front and free-surface-velocity for more than 650 substances. This is still a useful tool for the shock-wave community, but it has a number of serious disadvantages which can't be easily eliminated: (i) very simple data format for points and references; (ii) minimalistic user interface for data addition; (iii) absence of history of changes; (iv) bad feedback from users. The new International Shock-Wave database (ISWdb) is intended to solve these and some other problems. The ISWdb project objectives are: (i) to develop a database on thermodynamic and mechanical properties of materials under conditions of shock-wave and other dynamic loadings, selected related quantities of interest, and the meta-data that describes the provenance of the measurements and material models; and (ii) to make this database available internationally through the Internet, in an interactive form. The development and operation of the ISWdb is guided by an advisory committee. The database will be installed on two mirrored web-servers, one in Russia and the other in USA (currently only one server is available). The database provides access to original experimental data on shock compression, non-shock dynamic loadings, isentropic expansion, measurements of sound
Shock wave science and technology reference library
2009-01-01
This book, as a volume of the Shock Wave Science and Technology Reference Library, is primarily concerned with detonation waves or compression shock waves in reactive heterogeneous media, including mixtures of solid, liquid and gas phases. The topics involve a variety of energy release and control processes in such media - a contemporary research field that has found wide applications in propulsion and power, hazard prevention as well as military engineering. The six extensive chapters contained in this volume are: - Spray Detonation (SB Murray and PA Thibault) - Detonation of Gas-Particle Flow (F Zhang) - Slurry Detonation (DL Frost and F Zhang) - Detonation of Metalized Composite Explosives (MF Gogulya and MA Brazhnikov) - Shock-Induced Solid-Solid Reactions and Detonations (YA Gordopolov, SS Batsanov, and VS Trofimov) - Shock Ignition of Particles (SM Frolov and AV Fedorov) Each chapter is self-contained and can be read independently of the others, though, they are thematically interrelated. They offer a t...
Elastic-plastic collapse of super-elastic shock waves in face-centered-cubic solids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhakhovsky, Vasily V; Demaske, Brian J; Oleynik, Ivan I; Inogamov, Nail A; White, Carter T
2014-01-01
Shock waves in the [110] and [111] directions of single-crystal Al samples were studied using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Piston-driven simulations were performed to investigate the split shock-wave regime. At low piston velocities, the material is compressed initially to a metastable over-compressed elastic state leading to a super-elastic single shock wave. This metastable elastic state later collapses to a plastic state resulting in the formation of a two-wave structure consisting of an elastic precursor followed by a slower plastic wave. The single two-zone elastic-plastic shock-wave regime appearing at higher piston velocities was studied using moving window MD. The plastic wave attains the same average speed as the elastic precursor to form a single two-zone shock wave. In this case, repeated collapse of the highly over-compressed elastic state near the plastic shock front produces ultrashort triangle pulses that provide the pressure support for the leading elastic precursor.
Dissociation of NF3 in shock waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Breshears, W.D.; Bird, P.F.
1978-01-01
The thermal dissociation rate of NF 3 in mixtures of 5% and 10%NF 3 in Ar has been measured behind incident shock waves over the temperature range 1330-2000 K. Dissociation rates were determined from postshock density gradients measured by laser beam deflection. The second order rate coefficient determined for NF 3 -Ar collisions is k/sub d/=2.31 x 10 15 exp(-20500/T) cm 3 mole sec
Kidney changes after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yoshioka, Hiroyasu; Shindo, Hiroshi; Mabuchi, Nobuhisa; Kawakami, Akira; Fujii, Koichi; Hamada, Tatsumi; Ishida, Osamu; Umekawa, Toru; Kohri, Kenjiro
1991-01-01
MRI was performed before and after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) to determine the effects of ESWL on the kidney and perinephric tissues. Of the 40 kidneys studied, 24 showed one or more changes on MRI: loss of the corticomedullary junction (n=15), subcapsular fluid (n=14), subcapsular hematoma (n=1), thickening of bridging septa (n=8), high intensity area in the muscle (n=8). These relatively subtle changes detected on MRI may not be apparent with other imaging techniques. (author)
Arrhythmia during extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy.
Zeng, Z R; Lindstedt, E; Roijer, A; Olsson, S B
1993-01-01
A prospective study of arrhythmia during extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) was performed in 50 patients, using an EDAP LT01 piezoelectric lithotriptor. The 12-lead standard ECG was recorded continuously for 10 min before and during treatment. One or more atrial and/or ventricular ectopic beats occurred during ESWL in 15 cases (30%). The occurrence of arrhythmia was similar during right-sided and left-sided treatment. One patient developed multifocal ventricular premature beats and ventricular bigeminy; another had cardiac arrest for 13.5 s. It was found that various irregularities of the heart rhythm can be caused even by treatment with a lithotriptor using piezoelectric energy to create the shock wave. No evidence was found, however, that the shock wave itself rather than vagal activation and the action of sedo-analgesia was the cause of the arrhythmia. For patients with severe underlying heart disease and a history of complex arrhythmia, we suggest that the ECG be monitored during treatment. In other cases, we have found continuous monitoring of oxygen saturation and pulse rate with a pulse oximeter to be perfectly reliable for raising the alarm when depression of respiration and vaso-vagal reactions occur.
Laser shock wave and its applications
Yang, Chaojun; Zhang, Yongkang; Zhou, Jianzhong; Zhang, Fang; Feng, Aixin
2007-12-01
The technology of laser shock wave is used to not only surface modification but also metal forming. It can be divided into three parts: laser shock processing, laser shock forming (LSF) and laser peenforming(LPF). Laser shock processing as a surface treatment to metals can make engineering components have a residual compressive stress so that it obviously improves their fatigue strength and stress corrosion performances, while laser shock forming (LSF) is a novel technique that is used in plastic deformation of sheet metal recently and Laser peen forming (LPF) is another new sheet metal forming process presented in recent years. They all can be carried out by a high-power and repetition pulse Nd:Glass laser device made by Jiangsu University. Laser shock technology has characterized of ultrahigh pressure and high strain rate (10 6 - 10 7s -1). Now, for different materials, we are able to form different metals to contours and shapes and simultaneity leave their surfaces in crack-resistant compressive stress state. The results show that the technology of laser shock wave can strengthen surface property and prolong fatigue life and especially can deform metals to shapes that could not be adequately made using conventional methods. With the development of the technology of laser shock wave, the applied fields of laser will become greater and greater.
Two-zone elastic-plastic single shock waves in solids.
Zhakhovsky, Vasily V; Budzevich, Mikalai M; Inogamov, Nail A; Oleynik, Ivan I; White, Carter T
2011-09-23
By decoupling time and length scales in moving window molecular dynamics shock-wave simulations, a new regime of shock-wave propagation is uncovered characterized by a two-zone elastic-plastic shock-wave structure consisting of a leading elastic front followed by a plastic front, both moving with the same average speed and having a fixed net thickness that can extend to microns. The material in the elastic zone is in a metastable state that supports a pressure that can substantially exceed the critical pressure characteristic of the onset of the well-known split-elastic-plastic, two-wave propagation. The two-zone elastic-plastic wave is a general phenomenon observed in simulations of a broad class of crystalline materials and is within the reach of current experimental techniques.
The relationship between elastic constants and structure of shock waves in a zinc single crystal
Krivosheina, M. N.; Kobenko, S. V.; Tuch, E. V.
2017-12-01
The paper provides a 3D finite element simulation of shock-loaded anisotropic single crystals on the example of a Zn plate under impact using a mathematical model, which allows for anisotropy in hydrostatic stress and wave velocities in elastic and plastic ranges. The simulation results agree with experimental data, showing the absence of shock wave splitting into an elastic precursor and a plastic wave in Zn single crystals impacted in the [0001] direction. It is assumed that the absence of an elastic precursor under impact loading of a zinc single crystal along the [0001] direction is determined by the anomalously large ratio of the c/a-axes and close values of the propagation velocities of longitudinal and bulk elastic waves. It is shown that an increase in only one elastic constant along the [0001] direction results in shock wave splitting into an elastic precursor and a shock wave of "plastic" compression.
Effect of a transverse plasma jet on a shock wave induced by a ramp
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hongyu WANG
2017-12-01
Full Text Available We conducted experiments in a wind tunnel with Mach number 2 to explore the evolution of a transverse plasma jet and its modification effect on a shock wave induced by a ramp with an angle of 24Â°. The transverse plasma jet was created by arc discharge in a small cylindrical cavity with a 2â¯mm diameter orifice. Three group tests with different actuator arrangements in the spanwise or streamwise direction upstream from the ramp were respectively studied to compare their disturbances to the shock wave. As shown by a time-resolved schlieren system, an unsteady motion of the shock wave by actuation was found: the shock wave was significantly modified by the plasma jet with an upstream motion and a reduced angle. Compared to spanwise actuation, a more intensive impact was obtained with two or three streamwise actuators working together. From shock wave structures, the control effect of the plasma jet on the shock motion based on a thermal effect, a potential cause of shock modification, was discussed. Furthermore, we performed a numerical simulation by using the Improved Delayed Detached Eddy Simulation (IDDES method to simulate the evolution of the transverse plasma jet plume produced by two streamwise actuators. The results show that flow structures are similar to those identified in schlieren images. Two streamwise vortices were recognized, which indicates that the higher jet plume is the result of the overlap of two streamwise jets. Keywords: Flow control, Improved delayed detached eddy simulation (IDDES method, Plasma synthetic jet, Shock wave/boundary layer interaction, Time resolved schlieren system
[Research on Energy Distribution During Osteoarthritis Treatment Using Shock Wave Lithotripsy].
Zhang, Shinian; Wang, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Dong
2015-04-01
Extracorporeal shock wave treatment is capable of providing a non-surgical and effective treatment modality for patients suffering from osteoarthritis. The major objective of current works is to investigate how the shock wave (SW) field would change if a bony structure exists in the path of the acoustic wave. Firstly, a model of finite element method (FEM) was developed based on Comsol software in the present study. Then, high-speed photography experiments were performed to record cavitation bubbles with the presence of mimic bone. On the basis of comparing experimental with simulated results, the effectiveness of FEM model could be verified. Finally, the energy distribution during extracorporeal shock wave treatment was predicted. The results showed that the shock wave field was deflected with the presence of bony structure and varying deflection angles could be observed as the bone shifted up in the z-direction relative to shock wave geometric focus. Combining MRI/CT scans to FEM modeling is helpful for better standardizing the treatment dosage and optimizing treatment protocols in the clinic.
Interaction of rippled shock wave with flat fast-slow interface
Zhai, Zhigang; Liang, Yu; Liu, Lili; Ding, Juchun; Luo, Xisheng; Zou, Liyong
2018-04-01
The evolution of a flat air/sulfur-hexafluoride interface subjected to a rippled shock wave is investigated. Experimentally, the rippled shock wave is produced by diffracting a planar shock wave around solid cylinder(s), and the effects of the cylinder number and the spacing between cylinders on the interface evolution are considered. The flat interface is created by a soap film technique. The postshock flow and the evolution of the shocked interface are captured by a schlieren technique combined with a high-speed video camera. Numerical simulations are performed to provide more details of flows. The wave patterns of a planar shock wave diffracting around one cylinder or two cylinders are studied. The shock stability problem is analytically discussed, and the effects of the spacing between cylinders on shock stability are highlighted. The relationship between the amplitudes of the rippled shock wave and the shocked interface is determined in the single cylinder case. Subsequently, the interface morphologies and growth rates under different cases are obtained. The results show that the shock-shock interactions caused by multiple cylinders have significant influence on the interface evolution. Finally, a modified impulsive theory is proposed to predict the perturbation growth when multiple solid cylinders are present.
Acoustic wave focusing in an ellipsoidal reflector for extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy
Lottati, Itzhak; Eidelman, Shmuel
1993-07-01
Simulations of acoustic wave focusing in an ellipsoidal reflector for extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL) are presented. The simulations are done on a structured/unstructured grid with a modified Tait equation of state for water. The Euler equations are solved by applying a second-order Godunov method. The computed results compare very well with the experimental results.
History of Shock Waves, Explosions and Impact A Chronological and Biographical Reference
Krehl, Peter O. K
2009-01-01
This unique and encyclopedic reference work charts the evolution of the physics of shock waves and detonations from the earliest investigations into percussion and impact phenomena right up to the most recent groundbreaking research in the field. The history of this long and complex process is first reviewed in a general survey that encompasses everything from the earliest observations and interpretations of puzzling high-rate dynamic phenomena associated with natural and man-made explosions to a discussion of the merits of modern numerical computer simulations. The subject is then treated in more detail and in chronological order in the central section of the book, while also being richly illustrated in form of a picture gallery. The bibliographic index provides 122 short biographies of eminent researchers who have contributed to the field. Further references for biographical sources are given, and both name and subject indices (with over 4500 and 2700 entries, respectively) are provided. "This book is of tr...
Ducousso, M.; Bardy, S.; Rouchausse, Y.; Bergara, T.; Jenson, F.; Berthe, L.; Videau, L.; Cuvillier, N.
2018-03-01
Intense acoustic shock waves were applied to evaluate the mechanical strength of structural epoxy bonds between a TA6V4 titanium alloy and a 3D woven carbon/epoxy composite material. Two bond types with different mechanical strengths were obtained from two different adhesive reticulations, at 50% and 90% of conversion, resulting in longitudinal static strengths of 10 and 39 MPa and transverse strengths of 15 and 35 MPa, respectively. The GPa shock waves were generated using ns-scale intense laser pulses and reaction principles to a confined plasma expansion. Simulations taking into account the laser-matter interaction, plasma relaxation, and non-linear shock wave propagation were conducted to aid interpretation of the experiments. Good correlations were obtained between the experiments and the simulation and between different measurement methods of the mechanical strength (normalized tests vs laser-generated shock waves). Such results open the door toward certification of structural bonding.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yakubovich, Alexander V.; Surdutovich, Eugene; Solov’yov, Andrey V.
2012-01-01
We report on the results of full-atom molecular dynamics simulations of the heat spike in the water medium caused by the propagation of the heavy ion in the vicinity of its Bragg peak. High rate of energy transfer from an ion to the molecules of surrounding water environment leads to the rapid increase of the temperature of the molecules in the vicinity of ions trajectory. As a result of an abrupt increase of the temperature we observe the formation of the nanoscale shock wave propagating through the medium. We investigate the thermomechanical damage caused by the shock wave to the nucleosome located in the vicinity of heavy ion trajectory. We observe the substantial deformation of the DNA secondary structure. We show that the produced shock wave can lead to the thermomechanical breakage of the DNA backbone covalent bonds and present estimates for the number of such strand brakes per one cell nucleus.
Numerical Investigation of Rockburst Effect of Shock Wave on Underground Roadway
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cai-Ping Lu
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Using UDEC discrete element numerical simulation software and a cosine wave as vibration source, the whole process of rockburst failure and the propagation and attenuation characteristics of shock wave in coal-rock medium were investigated in detail based on the geological and mining conditions of 1111(1 working face at Zhuji coal mine. Simultaneously, by changing the thickness and strength of immediate roof overlying the mining coal seam, the whole process of rockburst failure of roadway and the attenuation properties of shock wave were understood clearly. The presented conclusions can provide some important references to prevent and control rockburst hazards triggered by shock wave interferences in deep coal mines.
Eikonal Approximation in AdS/CFT From Shock Waves to Four-Point Functions
Cornalba, L; Costa, Miguel S; Penedones, Joao; Cornalba, Lorenzo; Costa, M S; Penedones, J; Schiappa, Ricardo
2007-01-01
We initiate a program to generalize the standard eikonal approximation to compute amplitudes in Anti-de Sitter spacetimes. Inspired by the shock wave derivation of the eikonal amplitude in flat space, we study the two-point function E ~ _{shock} in the presence of a shock wave in Anti-de Sitter, where O_1 is a scalar primary operator in the dual conformal field theory. At tree level in the gravitational coupling, we relate the shock two-point function E to the discontinuity across a kinematical branch cut of the conformal field theory four-point function A ~ , where O_2 creates the shock geometry in Anti-de Sitter. Finally, we extend the above results by computing E in the presence of shock waves along the horizon of Schwarzschild BTZ black holes. This work gives new tools for the study of Planckian physics in Anti-de Sitter spacetimes.
Zhong, P; Chuong, C J
1993-07-01
To understand the physical process of the impingement of cavitation microjet and the resultant shock wave propagation in an elastic solid, a theoretical model using geometrical acoustics was developed. Shock waves induced in both the jet head (water) and the solid were analyzed during a tri-supersonic impact configuration when the contact edge between the jet head and the elastic boundary expands faster than the longitudinal wave speed in the solid. Impact pressure at the boundary was solved using continuity conditions along the boundary normal. Reflection and refraction of shock waves from a solid-water interface were also included in the model. With this model, the impact pressure at the solid boundary and the stress, strain as well as velocity discontinuities at the propagating shock fronts were calculated. A comparison with results from previous studies shows that this model provides a more complete and general solution for the jet impact problem.
State equations and stability of shock wave fronts in homogeneous and heterogeneous metallic medium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Romain, Jean-Pierre
1977-01-01
This research thesis in physical sciences reports a theoretical and experimental study of some mechanical and thermodynamic aspects related to a shock wave propagation in homogeneous and heterogeneous metallic media: state equations, stability and instability of shock wave fronts. In the first part, the author reports the study of the Grueneisen coefficient for some metallic elements with known static and dynamic compression properties. The second part reports the experimental investigation of dynamic compressibility of some materials (lamellar Al-Cu compounds). The front shock wave propagation has been visualised, and experimental Hugoniot curves are compared with those deduced from a developed numeric model and other models. The bismuth Hugoniot curve is also determined, and the author compares the existence and nature of phase transitions obtained by static and dynamic compression
Laser driven shock wave experiments for equation of state studies at megabar pressures
Pant, H C; Senecha, V K; Bandyopadhyay, S; Rai, V N; Khare, P; Bhat, R K; Gupta, N K; Godwal, B K
2002-01-01
We present the results from laser driven shock wave experiments for equation of state (EOS) studies of gold metal. An Nd:YAG laser chain (2 J, 1.06 mu m wavelength, 200 ps pulse FWHM) is used to generate shocks in planar Al foils and Al + Au layered targets. The EOS of gold in the pressure range of 9-13 Mbar is obtained using the impedance matching technique. The numerical simulations performed using the one-dimensional radiation hydrodynamic code support the experimental results. The present experimental data show remarkable agreement with the existing standard EOS models and with other experimental data obtained independently using laser driven shock wave experiments.
Determining integral density distribution in the mach reflection of shock waves
Shevchenko, A. M.; Golubev, M. P.; Pavlov, A. A.; Pavlov, Al. A.; Khotyanovsky, D. V.; Shmakov, A. S.
2017-05-01
We present a method for and results of determination of the field of integral density in the structure of flow corresponding to the Mach interaction of shock waves at Mach number M = 3. The optical diagnostics of flow was performed using an interference technique based on self-adjusting Zernike filters (SA-AVT method). Numerical simulations were carried out using the CFS3D program package for solving the Euler and Navier-Stokes equations. Quantitative data on the distribution of integral density on the path of probing radiation in one direction of 3D flow transillumination in the region of Mach interaction of shock waves were obtained for the first time.
Blast effects physical properties of shock waves
2018-01-01
This book compiles a variety of experimental data on blast waves. The book begins with an introductory chapter and proceeds to the topic of blast wave phenomenology, with a discussion Rankine-Hugoniot equations and the Friedlander equation, used to describe the pressure-time history of a blast wave. Additional topics include arrival time measurement, the initiation of detonation by exploding wires, a discussion of TNT equivalency, and small scale experiments. Gaseous and high explosive detonations are covered as well. The topics and experiments covered were chosen based on the comparison of used scale sizes, from small to large. Each characteristic parameter of blast waves is analyzed and expressed versus scaled distance in terms of energy and mass. Finally, the appendix compiles a number of polynomial laws that will prove indispensable for engineers and researchers.
The theory of ionizing shock waves in a magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liberman, M.A.; Velikovich, A.L.
1981-01-01
The general theory of ionizing shock waves in a magnetic field is constructed. The theory takes into account precursor ionization of a neutral gas ahead of the shock wave front, caused by photo-ionization, as well as by the impact ionization with electrons accelerated by a transverse electric field induced by the shock front in the incident flow of a neutral gas. The concept of shock wave ionization stability, being basic in the theory of ionizing shock waves in a magnetic field, is introduced. The ionizing shock wave structures are shown to transform from the GD regime at a low shock velocity to the MHD regime at an enhanced intensity of the shock wave. The abruptness of such a transition is determined by precursor photo-ionization. (author)
[Extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy of gallstones].
Freund, H R; Lebensart, P D; Muggia-Sullam, M; Durst, A L
1989-08-01
We performed 16 extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsies (ESWL) to fragment gallstones in 11 women and 2 men, aged 19 to 57 (mean 41 +/- 10) years, during the past 10 months. Criteria for selection included a history of biliary colic, not more than 3 stones with a total diameter of not more than 30 mm, and a functioning gallbladder. 210 patients were examined, of whom 98 were referred for additional screening by combined ultrasonography and oral cholecystography. This resulted in rejection of another 71 patients due to multiple stones (38%), nonfunctioning gallbladder (22%), calcified stones (12%), stones not visualized in the prone position (9%), excessively large stones (3%) and other reasons (16%). Only 27 patients fulfilled all the criteria. Under epidural or general anesthesia (11 and 2 patients, respectively), we administered 1200-3500 (mean 2250 +/- 750) shock waves at 20-24 KV with the Tripter X1 (Direx, Israel-USA). This is an ultrasound-guided, modular portable, shock-wave generator utilizing underwater high energy spark discharge. Chenodeoxycholic or ursodeoxycholic acid, 10 mg/kg/day, was started 1 week prior to ESWL and continued for 3 months after disappearance of fragments and debris. We encountered skin petechiae in all patients, transient hematuria in 8, mild biliary colic in 1 and a small liver hematoma in 1. To date, 3 patients are free of stones, while in 7 only sludge and tiny fragments are present which we expect to disappear as a result of the litholytic therapy. 3 patients had fragments larger than 5 mm and required a second ESWL. Thus ESWL, which was indicated in only 13% of screened patients, proved to be safe and can be expected to be successful in 75% of selected candidates.
Extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) in urology
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fojecki, Grzegorz Lukasz; Thiessen, Stefan; Osther, Palle Jörn Sloth
2017-01-01
PURPOSE: The objective was to evaluate high-level evidence studies of extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) for urological disorders. METHODS: We included randomized controlled trials reporting outcomes of ESWT in urology. Literature search on trials published in English using EMBASE, Medline...... deviation and plaque size were observed. Four studies on erectile dysfunction (ED) including 337 participants were included. Using International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-EF) and erectile hardness scale (EHS) data suggested a significant positive effect of ESWT in phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor (PDE-5...
Fluid dynamics of the shock wave reactor
Masse, Robert Kenneth
2000-10-01
High commercial incentives have driven conventional olefin production technologies to near their material limits, leaving the possibility of further efficiency improvements only in the development of entirely new techniques. One strategy known as the Shock Wave Reactor, which employs gas dynamic processes to circumvent limitations of conventional reactors, has been demonstrated effective at the University of Washington. Preheated hydrocarbon feedstock and a high enthalpy carrier gas (steam) are supersonically mixed at a temperature below that required for thermal cracking. Temperature recovery is then effected via shock recompression to initiate pyrolysis. The evolution to proof-of-concept and analysis of experiments employing ethane and propane feedstocks are presented. The Shock Wave Reactor's high enthalpy steam and ethane flows severely limit diagnostic capability in the proof-of-concept experiment. Thus, a preliminary blow down supersonic air tunnel of similar geometry has been constructed to investigate recompression stability and (especially) rapid supersonic mixing necessary for successful operation of the Shock Wave Reactor. The mixing capabilities of blade nozzle arrays are therefore studied in the air experiment and compared with analytical models. Mixing is visualized through Schlieren imaging and direct photography of condensation in carbon dioxide injection, and interpretation of visual data is supported by pressure measurement and flow sampling. The influence of convective Mach number is addressed. Additionally, thermal behavior of a blade nozzle array is analyzed for comparison to data obtained in the course of succeeding proof-of-concept experiments. Proof-of-concept is naturally succeeded by interest in industrial adaptation of the Shock Wave Reactor, particularly with regard to issues involving the scaling and refinement of the shock recompression. Hence, an additional, variable geometry air tunnel has been constructed to study the parameter
Multi-layer protective armour for underwater shock wave mitigation
Ahmed Hawass; Hosam Mostafa; Ahmed Elbeih
2015-01-01
The effect of underwater shock wave on different target plates has been studied. An underwater shock wave generator (shock tube) was used to study the interactions between water and different constructed targets which act as shock wave mitigation. Target plates, composed of sandwich of two aluminum sheets with rubber and foam in between, were prepared and studied. For comparison, the target plates composed of triple aluminum sheets were tested. The study includes the testing of the selected p...
Muller, Milos; Garen, Walter; Koch, Sandra; Marsik, Frantisek; Neu, Walter; Saburov, Eduado
2004-04-01
Temporal evolution of laser generated cavitation bubbles and shock waves were studied. Q-switched Nd-Yag laser pulses at 1064 nm are focused into the liquid. An Imager 3 CCD camera with multi exposure mode allows recording of 10 images with minimal exposure delay of 100 ns and minimal exposure time of 100 ns. Illumination is provided by xenon flash lamp for single exposure (shock wave recording) and by halogen lamp for multi exposure mode (bubble recording). Distilled water and a retrograde fluid, isooctane, have been under investigation to identify the differences in the cavitation process and shock wave propagation. The calculation of the shock wave velocities in water and isooctane are based on image recording at constant exposure time of 100 ns and using laser differential interferometry. Strong differences of bubble oscillation were observed in water and isooctane. Gilmore's model is used for numerical simulation of bubble dynamics.
Underwater Shock Wave Research Applied to Therapeutic Device Developments
Takayama, K.; Yamamoto, H.; Shimokawa, H.
2013-07-01
The chronological development of underwater shock wave research performed at the Shock Wave Research Center of the Institute of Fluid Science at the Tohoku University is presented. Firstly, the generation of planar underwater shock waves in shock tubes and their visualization by using the conventional shadowgraph and schlieren methods are described. Secondly, the generation of spherical underwater shock waves by exploding lead azide pellets weighing from several tens of micrograms to 100 mg, that were ignited by irradiating with a Q-switched laser beam, and their visualization by using double exposure holographic interferometry are presented. The initiation, propagation, reflection, focusing of underwater shock waves, and their interaction with various interfaces, in particular, with air bubbles, are visualized quantitatively. Based on such a fundamental underwater shock wave research, collaboration with the School of Medicine at the Tohoku University was started for developing a shock wave assisted therapeutic device, which was named an extracorporeal shock wave lithotripter (ESWL). Miniature shock waves created by irradiation with Q-switched HO:YAG laser beams are studied, as applied to damaged dysfunctional nerve cells in the myocardium in a precisely controlled manner, and are effectively used to design a catheter for treating arrhythmia.
Interactions of Delta Shock Waves for Zero-Pressure Gas Dynamics with Energy Conservation Law
Wei Cai; Yanyan Zhang
2016-01-01
We study the interactions of delta shock waves and vacuum states for the system of conservation laws of mass, momentum, and energy in zero-pressure gas dynamics. The Riemann problems with initial data of three piecewise constant states are solved case by case, and four different configurations of Riemann solutions are constructed. Furthermore, the numerical simulations completely coinciding with theoretical analysis are shown.
Tandem shock waves in medicine and biology: a review of potential applications and successes
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Lukeš, Petr; Fernández, F.; Gutiérrez-Aceves, J.; Fernández, E.; Alvarez, U.M.; Šunka, Pavel; Loske, A.M.
2016-01-01
Roč. 26, č. 1 (2016), s. 1-23 ISSN 0938-1287 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Tandem shock waves * Acoustic cavitation * Clinical applications * Bactericidal effect * Genetic transformation * Cancer treatment Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.107, year: 2016 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00193-015-0577-0
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ross, M.; Ahrens, T.J.; Nellis, W.J.
1979-01-01
Shock-wave experiments on condensed matter currently achieve pressures up to 5 Mbar, and temperatures over 20,000 0 K. In this report we survey a number of experimental methods that, in the next decade, may increase the conditions by an order of magnitude. These advanced experiments will allow us to investigate a new range of physics problems
On the evolution of normal ionizing shock waves in helium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Synakh, V.S.; Zakajdakov, V.V.
1982-01-01
The generation, structure and propagation of one-dimensional ionizing MHD shock waves in helium under a pressure of 100 mTorr are investigated with the help of numerical simulation. The normal magnetic field varies within 3 to 10 kG and the longitudinal magnetic field varies up to 2.5 kG. The model includes the kinetics of ionization and photo-processes. If a solid conducting piston is a source of perturbation, it may give rise to generation and further development of an MHD switch-on wave. Its evolution at an advanced stage depends weakly on the source. The curves for the dependence of the shock speed on time and the driving magnetic field as well as the profiles for the main quantities are presented. A possibility of comparison with real experiments is discussed. Algorithms based on Godunov's sliding meshes and the imbedding methods are used for numerical simulation. (author)
Oblique shock waves in granular flows over bluff bodies
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gopan Nandu
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Granular flows around an object have been the focus of numerous analytical, experimental and simulation studies. The structure and nature of the oblique shock wave developed when a quasi-two dimensional flow of spherical granular particles streams past an immersed, fixed cylindrical obstacle forms the focus of this study. The binary granular mixture, consisting of particles of the same diameter but different material properties, is investigated by using a modified LIGGGHTS package as the simulation engine. Variations in the solid fraction and granular temperature within the resulting flow are studied. The Mach number is calculated and is used to distinguish between the subsonic and the supersonic regions of the bow shock.
Ionospheric shock waves triggered by rockets
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. H. Lin
2014-09-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a two-dimensional structure of the shock wave signatures in ionospheric electron density resulting from a rocket transit using the rate of change of the total electron content (TEC derived from ground-based GPS receivers around Japan and Taiwan for the first time. From the TEC maps constructed for the 2009 North Korea (NK Taepodong-2 and 2013 South Korea (SK Korea Space Launch Vehicle-II (KSLV-II rocket launches, features of the V-shaped shock wave fronts in TEC perturbations are prominently seen. These fronts, with periods of 100–600 s, produced by the propulsive blasts of the rockets appear immediately and then propagate perpendicularly outward from the rocket trajectory with supersonic velocities between 800–1200 m s−1 for both events. Additionally, clear rocket exhaust depletions of TECs are seen along the trajectory and are deflected by the background thermospheric neutral wind. Twenty minutes after the rocket transits, delayed electron density perturbation waves propagating along the bow wave direction appear with phase velocities of 800–1200 m s−1. According to their propagation character, these delayed waves may be generated by rocket exhaust plumes at earlier rocket locations at lower altitudes.
Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy: What is new?
Bach, Christian; Karaolides, Theocharis; Buchholz, Noor
2012-01-01
Objectives Thirty years after its introduction, extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) is still first-line treatment for more than half of all urinary tract stones, but machines and treatment strategies have significantly developed over time. In this review, we summarise the latest knowledge about the clinically important aspects of ESWL. Methods We searched PubMed to identify relevant reports and the latest European Association of Urology guidelines, and standard urological textbooks were consulted. Results New technical developments include: Twin-head and tandem-pulse shock-wave generators; wide-focus, low-pressure systems; optimised coupling; and automated location and acoustic tracking systems. Indications have been refined, making possible the identification of patients in whom ESWL treatment is likely to fail. By lowering the shock-wave rate, improving coupling, applying abdominal compression, power ‘ramping’ and postoperative medical expulsion therapy, treatment protocols have been optimised. Conclusions Promising new technical developments are under development, with the potential to increase the stone-free rate after ESWL. For optimal results, the refined indications need to be respected and optimised treatment protocols should be applied. PMID:26558039
Principles underlying the Fourth Power Nature of Structured Shock Waves
Grady, Dennis
2017-06-01
Steady structured shock waves in materials including metals, glasses, compounds and solid mixtures, when represented through plots of Hugoniot stress against a measure of the strain rate through which the Hugoniot state is achieved, have consistently demonstrated a dependence to the fourth power. A perhaps deeper observation is that the product of the energy dissipated through the transition to the Hugoniot state and the time duration of the Hugoniot state event exhibits invariance independent of the Hugoniot amplitude. Invariance of the energy-time product and the fourth-power trend are to first order equivalent. Further, constancy of this energy-time product is observed in other dynamic critical state failure events including spall fracture, dynamic compaction and adiabatic shear failure. The presentation pursues the necessary background exposing the foregoing shock physics observations and explores possible statistical physics principals that may underlie the collective dynamic observations.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kobayashi, Kazumichi [Division of Mechanical and Space Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Kita 13, Nishi 8, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8628 (Japan); Kodama, Tetsuya [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Graduate School of Biomedical Engineering, Tohoku University, 2-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Takahira, Hiroyuki, E-mail: kobakazu@eng.hokudai.ac.jp [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku, Sakai 599-8531 (Japan)
2011-10-07
In the case of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL), a shock wave-bubble interaction inevitably occurs near the focusing point of stones, resulting in stone fragmentation and subsequent tissue damage. Because shock wave-bubble interactions are high-speed phenomena occurring in tissue consisting of various media with different acoustic impedance values, numerical analysis is an effective method for elucidating the mechanism of these interactions. However, the mechanism has not been examined in detail because, at present, numerical simulations capable of incorporating the acoustic impedance of various tissues do not exist. Here, we show that the improved ghost fluid method (IGFM) can treat shock wave-bubble interactions in various media. Nonspherical bubble collapse near a rigid or soft tissue boundary (stone, liver, gelatin and fat) was analyzed. The reflection wave of an incident shock wave at a tissue boundary was the primary cause for the acceleration or deceleration of bubble collapse. The impulse that was obtained from the temporal evolution of pressure created by the bubble collapse increased the downward velocity of the boundary and caused subsequent boundary deformation. Results of this study showed that the IGFM is a useful method for analyzing the shock wave-bubble interaction near various tissues with different acoustic impedance.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kobayashi, Kazumichi; Kodama, Tetsuya; Takahira, Hiroyuki
2011-01-01
In the case of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL), a shock wave-bubble interaction inevitably occurs near the focusing point of stones, resulting in stone fragmentation and subsequent tissue damage. Because shock wave-bubble interactions are high-speed phenomena occurring in tissue consisting of various media with different acoustic impedance values, numerical analysis is an effective method for elucidating the mechanism of these interactions. However, the mechanism has not been examined in detail because, at present, numerical simulations capable of incorporating the acoustic impedance of various tissues do not exist. Here, we show that the improved ghost fluid method (IGFM) can treat shock wave-bubble interactions in various media. Nonspherical bubble collapse near a rigid or soft tissue boundary (stone, liver, gelatin and fat) was analyzed. The reflection wave of an incident shock wave at a tissue boundary was the primary cause for the acceleration or deceleration of bubble collapse. The impulse that was obtained from the temporal evolution of pressure created by the bubble collapse increased the downward velocity of the boundary and caused subsequent boundary deformation. Results of this study showed that the IGFM is a useful method for analyzing the shock wave-bubble interaction near various tissues with different acoustic impedance.
Kobayashi, Kazumichi; Kodama, Tetsuya; Takahira, Hiroyuki
2011-10-01
In the case of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL), a shock wave-bubble interaction inevitably occurs near the focusing point of stones, resulting in stone fragmentation and subsequent tissue damage. Because shock wave-bubble interactions are high-speed phenomena occurring in tissue consisting of various media with different acoustic impedance values, numerical analysis is an effective method for elucidating the mechanism of these interactions. However, the mechanism has not been examined in detail because, at present, numerical simulations capable of incorporating the acoustic impedance of various tissues do not exist. Here, we show that the improved ghost fluid method (IGFM) can treat shock wave-bubble interactions in various media. Nonspherical bubble collapse near a rigid or soft tissue boundary (stone, liver, gelatin and fat) was analyzed. The reflection wave of an incident shock wave at a tissue boundary was the primary cause for the acceleration or deceleration of bubble collapse. The impulse that was obtained from the temporal evolution of pressure created by the bubble collapse increased the downward velocity of the boundary and caused subsequent boundary deformation. Results of this study showed that the IGFM is a useful method for analyzing the shock wave-bubble interaction near various tissues with different acoustic impedance.
Rarefaction Shock Waves in Collisionless Plasma with Electronic Beam
Gurovich, Victor Ts.; Fel, Leonid G.
2011-01-01
We show that an electronic beam passing through the collisionless plasma of the "cold" ions and the "hot" Boltzmann electrons can give rise to the propagation of the supersonic ion-acoustic rarefaction shock waves. These waves are analogous to those predicted by Zeldovich [5] in gasodynamics and complementary to the ion-acoustic compression shock waves in collisionless plasma described by Sagdeev [3].
EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF SHOCK WAVE DYNAMICS IN MAGNETIZED PLASMAS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Podder, Nirmol K.
2009-01-01
In this four-year project (including one-year extension), the project director and his research team built a shock-wave-plasma apparatus to study shock wave dynamics in glow discharge plasmas in nitrogen and argon at medium pressure (1-20 Torr), carried out various plasma and shock diagnostics and measurements that lead to increased understanding of the shock wave acceleration phenomena in plasmas. The measurements clearly show that in the steady-state dc glow discharge plasma, at fixed gas pressure the shock wave velocity increases, its amplitude decreases, and the shock wave disperses non-linearly as a function of the plasma current. In the pulsed discharge plasma, at fixed gas pressure the shock wave dispersion width and velocity increase as a function of the delay between the switch-on of the plasma and shock-launch. In the afterglow plasma, at fixed gas pressure the shock wave dispersion width and velocity decrease as a function of the delay between the plasma switch-off and shock-launch. These changes are found to be opposite and reversing towards the room temperature value which is the initial condition for plasma ignition case. The observed shock wave properties in both igniting and afterglow plasmas correlate well with the inferred temperature changes in the two plasmas
Transonic shock wave. Boundary layer interaction at a convex wall
Koren, B.; Bannink, W.J.
1984-01-01
A standard finite element procedure has been applied to the problem of transonic shock wave – boundary layer interaction at a convex wall. The method is based on the analytical Bohning-Zierep model, where the boundary layer is perturbed by a weak normal shock wave which shows a singular pressure
Tandem shock wave cavitation enhancement for extracorporeal lithotripsy
Loske, Achim M.; Prieto, Fernando E.; Fernández, Francisco; van Cauwelaert, Javier
2002-11-01
Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) has been successful for more than twenty years in treating patients with kidney stones. Hundreds of underwater shock waves are generated outside the patient's body and focused on the kidney stone. Stones fracture mainly due to spalling, cavitation and layer separation. Cavitation bubbles are produced in the vicinity of the stone by the tensile phase of each shock wave. Bubbles expand, stabilize and finally collapse violently, creating stone-damaging secondary shock waves and microjets. Bubble collapse can be intensified by sending a second shock wave a few hundred microseconds after the first. A novel method of generating two piezoelectrically generated shock waves with an adjustable time delay between 50 and 950 µs is described and tested. The objective is to enhance cavitation-induced damage to kidney stones during ESWL in order to reduce treatment time. In vitro kidney stone model fragmentation efficiency and pressure measurements were compared with those for a standard ESWL system. Results indicate that fragmentation efficiency was significantly enhanced at a shock wave delay of about 400 and 250 µs using rectangular and spherical stone phantoms, respectively. The system presented here could be installed in clinical devices at relatively low cost, without the need for a second shock wave generator.
Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy of biliary and pancreatic stones
R. den Toom (Rene)
1993-01-01
textabstractThe aim of the study was to answer the following questions: Is extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy for gallbladder stones a safe and effective therapy? (Chapter 2) Is simultaneous treatment with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy and the solvent methyl te.rt-butyl ether feasible,
Shock wave propagation in neutral and ionized gases
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Podder, N. K.; Wilson IV, R. B.; Bletzinger, P.
2008-01-01
Preliminary measurements on a recently built shock tube are presented. Planar shock waves are excited by the spark discharge of a capacitor, and launched into the neutral argon or nitrogen gas as well as its ionized glow discharge in the pressure region 1-17 Torr. For the shock wave propagation in the neutral argon at fixed capacitor charging voltage, the shock wave velocity is found to increase nonlinearly at the lower pressures, reach a maximum at an intermediate pressure, and then decrease almost linearly at the higher pressures, whereas the shock wave strength continues to increase at a nonlinear rate over the entire range of pressure. However, at fixed gas pressure the shock wave velocity increases almost monotonically as the capacitor charging voltage is increased. For the shock wave propagation in the ionized argon glow, the shock wave is found to be most influenced by the glow discharge plasma current. As the plasma current is increased, both the shock wave propagation velocity and the dispersion width are observed to increase nonlinearly
Shock-Wave Acceleration of Protons on OMEGA EP
Haberberger, D.; Froula, D. H.; Pak, A.; Link, A.; Patel, P.; Fiuza, F.; Tochitsky, S.; Joshi, C.
2015-11-01
Recent experimental results using shock-wave acceleration (SWA) driven by a CO2 laser in a H2 gas-jet plasma have shown the possibility of producing proton beams with energy spreads emission from a UV ablated material. The desired characteristics optimal for SWA are met: (a) peak plasma density is overcritical for the 1- μm main pulse and (b) the plasma profile exponentially decays over a long scale length on the rear side. Results will be shown using a 4 ω probe to experimentally characterize the plasma density profile. Scaling from simulations of the SWA mechanism shows that ion energies in the range of 100 MeV/amu are achievable with a focused a0 of 5 from the OMEGA EP Laser System. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.
SHOCK WAVE ANALYSIS OF THE CONSEQUENCES OF A REACTOR ACCIDENT
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Klickman, A E; Nicholson, R B; Nims, J B
1963-06-15
The solution to the problem of transmission and attenuation of the shock wave resulting from a large reactor accident is demonstrated for a configuration typical of many reactors. The particular configuration is that of a spherical gas bubble surrounded by one or more concentric regions of compressible material. A systematic parameter study was made in which the physical characteristics of the compressible shield regions and the expansion characteristics of a gas were assumed to be parameters. Results for seven cases are shown, and similar cases with only one important difference are compared. From these comparisons it was concluded that under certain conditions alternative materials can be substituted for reactor materials in model experiments and TNT can be used as an energy source instead of uranium. In the outer crushable region the total mass of material is the important factor. (A.G.W.)
Shock-wave lithotripsy of gallstones
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Torres, W.E.; Baumgartner, B.R.; Nelson, R.C.; Morris, S.J.
1990-01-01
This paper evaluates the American Dornier MPL-9000 gallstone study on the effectiveness and safety of biliary extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) and, in a prospective double blind manner, the need for ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA). At our institution, 174 symptomatic patients with gallstones (149 with noncalcified stones and 25 with calcified stones) were randomized to receive UDCA or placebo for 6 months. The gallstones were fragmented in 171/174 patients (98%). Evaluation by ultrasound was done at 6 weeks following ESWL; retreatment was done on 42/174 patients for fragments larger than 5 mm. Cholecystectomy was done in 6/174 patients. The 6- and 12- month stone-free rates were noncalcified stones + UDCA, 31% and 41%; noncalcified stones + placebo, 24% and 15%; calcified gallstones, 8% and 8%
Nonequilibrium recombination after a curved shock wave
Wen, Chihyung; Hornung, Hans
2010-02-01
The effect of nonequilibrium recombination after a curved two-dimensional shock wave in a hypervelocity dissociating flow of an inviscid Lighthill-Freeman gas is considered. An analytical solution is obtained with the effective shock values derived by Hornung (1976) [5] and the assumption that the flow is ‘quasi-frozen’ after a thin dissociating layer near the shock. The solution gives the expression of dissociation fraction as a function of temperature on a streamline. A rule of thumb can then be provided to check the validity of binary scaling for experimental conditions and a tool to determine the limiting streamline that delineates the validity zone of binary scaling. The effects on the nonequilibrium chemical reaction of the large difference in free stream temperature between free-piston shock tunnel and equivalent flight conditions are discussed. Numerical examples are presented and the results are compared with solutions obtained with two-dimensional Euler equations using the code of Candler (1988) [10].
Analysis of a cylindrical imploding shock wave
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mishkin, E.A.; Fujimoto, Y.
1978-01-01
the self-similar solution of the gasdynamic equations of a strong cylindrical shock wave moving through an ideal gas, with γ = csub(p)/csub(v), is considered. These equations are greatly simplified following the transformation of the reduced velocity U 1 (xi) → U 1 = 1/2(γ + 1 ) (U + xi). The requirement of a single maximum pressure, dsub(xi)P = 0, leads to an analytical determination of the self-similarity exponent α(γ). For gases with γ = 2 + 3sup(1/2), this maximum ensues right at the shock front and the pressure distribution then decreases monotonically. The postulate of analyticity by Gelfand and Butler is shown to concur with the requirement dsub(xi)P 0. The saturated density of the gas left in the wake of the shock is computed and - U is shown to be the reduced velocity of sound at P = P sub(m). (author)
Shock wave overtake measurements on cesium iodide
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Swenson, C.A.
1986-01-01
The luminosity of the shock front for CsI makes it an ideal material for which to measure directly sound velocities along the Hugoniot using shock wave overtake methods. In these measurements, the occurrence of melting along the Hugoniot is marked by a discontinuous decrease in the measured sound velocity. In addition, CsI is isoelectronic with xenon and is expected to begin to show metallic behavior along the Hugoniot near 0.9 Mbar. The directly-determined sound velocities and corresponding elastic moduli would be expected to be more sensitive to this transition than either Hugoniot equations of state or optical pyrometry experiments. This paper presents a brief description of the present experiments and results
Plane shock wave studies of geologic media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anderson, G.D.; Larson, D.B.
1977-01-01
Plane shock wave experiments have been conducted on eight geologic materials in an effort to determine the importance of time-dependent mechanical behavior. Of the eight rocks studied, only Westerly granite and nugget sandstone appear to show time independence. In the slightly porous materials (1-5 percent), Blair dolomite and sodium chloride, and in the highly porous (15 to 40 percent) rock, Mt. Helen tuff and Indiana limestone, time-dependent behavior is associated with the time required to close the available porosity. In water-saturated rocks the time dependence arises because the water that is present shows no indication of transformation to the higher pressure ice phases, thus suggesting the possibility that a metastable form of water exists under dynamic conditions
Shock Wave Dynamics in Weakly Ionized Plasmas
Johnson, Joseph A., III
1999-01-01
An investigation of the dynamics of shock waves in weakly ionized argon plasmas has been performed using a pressure ruptured shock tube. The velocity of the shock is observed to increase when the shock traverses the plasma. The observed increases cannot be accounted for by thermal effects alone. Possible mechanisms that could explain the anomalous behavior include a vibrational/translational relaxation in the nonequilibrium plasma, electron diffusion across the shock front resulting from high electron mobility, and the propagation of ion-acoustic waves generated at the shock front. Using a turbulence model based on reduced kinetic theory, analysis of the observed results suggest a role for turbulence in anomalous shock dynamics in weakly ionized media and plasma-induced hypersonic drag reduction.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eibl, J.; Ockert, J.
1994-01-01
Especially the need to design safe reactor containments, but also the necessity to protect facilities and human beings against impacts induced secondarily by explosions and detonations, demand simulations and design calculations of concrete under shock wave loading. The necessary computer codes are available, but the relevant constitutive laws for concrete with volumetric pressures up to more than 10000 MPa are lacking. Therefore shock wave tests have been carried out to develop such constitutive laws by loading concrete slabs with contact explosions. By the use of hot-molded carbon composition resistors shock waves propagating through the slab were measured. Pressures up to 13900 MPa were registered. Additionally shock wave velocities were determined from the different arrival times of the wave at the gages. By these two measured values and the conservation equations of mass and momentum the needed p-V relationship, the so called Hugoniot-Curve, was established up to 13900 MPa. Using the theory of Mie-Grueneisen and the so called P-α model the Hugoniot-Curve was extended to the equation of state for concrete. In a first step the deviatoric part of the constitutive law was attached from own static experiments considering the existing knowledge of strain rate effects since relevant dynamic tests under extreme loads are not available. With this constitutive law the analysis of the experiments then was backward verified in detail. (orig.) [de
Osada, Takashi; Endo, Youichi; Kanazawa, Chikara; Ota, Masanori; Maeno, Kazuo
2009-02-01
The hypervelocity strong shock waves are generated, when the space vehicles reenter the atmosphere from space. Behind the shock wave radiative and non-equilibrium flow is generated in front of the surface of the space vehicle. Many studies have been reported to investigate the phenomena for the aerospace exploit and reentry. The research information and data on the high temperature flows have been available to the rational heatproof design of the space vehicles. Recent development of measurement techniques with laser systems and photo-electronics now enables us to investigate the hypervelocity phenomena with greatly advanced accuracy. In this research strong shock waves are generated in low-density gas to simulate the reentry range gas flow with a free-piston double-diaphragm shock tube, and CARS (Coherent Anti-stokes Raman Spectroscopy) measurement method is applied to the hypervelocity flows behind the shock waves, where spectral signals of high space/time resolution are acquired. The CARS system consists of YAG and dye lasers, a spectroscope, and a CCD camera system. We obtain the CARS signal spectrum data by this special time-resolving experiment, and the vibrational and rotational temperatures of N2 are determined by fitting between the experimental spectroscopic profile data and theoretically estimated spectroscopic data.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Osada, Takashi; Endo, Youichi [Graduate Student, Chiba University 1-33 Yayoi, Inage, Chiba, 263-8522 (Japan); Kanazawa, Chikara [Undergraduate, Chiba University 1-33 Yayoi, Inage, Chiba, 63-8522 (Japan); Ota, Masanori; Maeno, Kazuo, E-mail: maeno@faculty.chiba-u.j [Graduate School of Engineering, Chiba University 1-33 Yayoi, Inage, Chiba, 263-8522 (Japan)
2009-02-01
The hypervelocity strong shock waves are generated, when the space vehicles reenter the atmosphere from space. Behind the shock wave radiative and non-equilibrium flow is generated in front of the surface of the space vehicle. Many studies have been reported to investigate the phenomena for the aerospace exploit and reentry. The research information and data on the high temperature flows have been available to the rational heatproof design of the space vehicles. Recent development of measurement techniques with laser systems and photo-electronics now enables us to investigate the hypervelocity phenomena with greatly advanced accuracy. In this research strong shock waves are generated in low-density gas to simulate the reentry range gas flow with a free-piston double-diaphragm shock tube, and CARS (Coherent Anti-stokes Raman Spectroscopy) measurement method is applied to the hypervelocity flows behind the shock waves, where spectral signals of high space/time resolution are acquired. The CARS system consists of YAG and dye lasers, a spectroscope, and a CCD camera system. We obtain the CARS signal spectrum data by this special time-resolving experiment, and the vibrational and rotational temperatures of N{sub 2} are determined by fitting between the experimental spectroscopic profile data and theoretically estimated spectroscopic data.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Osada, Takashi; Endo, Youichi; Kanazawa, Chikara; Ota, Masanori; Maeno, Kazuo
2009-01-01
The hypervelocity strong shock waves are generated, when the space vehicles reenter the atmosphere from space. Behind the shock wave radiative and non-equilibrium flow is generated in front of the surface of the space vehicle. Many studies have been reported to investigate the phenomena for the aerospace exploit and reentry. The research information and data on the high temperature flows have been available to the rational heatproof design of the space vehicles. Recent development of measurement techniques with laser systems and photo-electronics now enables us to investigate the hypervelocity phenomena with greatly advanced accuracy. In this research strong shock waves are generated in low-density gas to simulate the reentry range gas flow with a free-piston double-diaphragm shock tube, and CARS (Coherent Anti-stokes Raman Spectroscopy) measurement method is applied to the hypervelocity flows behind the shock waves, where spectral signals of high space/time resolution are acquired. The CARS system consists of YAG and dye lasers, a spectroscope, and a CCD camera system. We obtain the CARS signal spectrum data by this special time-resolving experiment, and the vibrational and rotational temperatures of N 2 are determined by fitting between the experimental spectroscopic profile data and theoretically estimated spectroscopic data.
Xiong, Jia-ming; Li, Lee; Dai, Hong-yu; Wu, Hai-bo; Peng, Ming-yang; Lin, Fu-chang
2018-03-01
During the formation of a high current impulse discharge arc, objects near the discharge arc will be strongly impacted. In this paper, a high power, high current gas switch is used as the site of the impulse discharge arc. The explosion wave theory and the arc channel energy balance equation are introduced to analyze the development of the shock wave overpressure driven by the high current impulse discharge arc, and the demarcation point of the arc channel is given, from which the energy of the arc channel is no longer converted into shock waves. Through the analysis and calculation, it is found that the magnitude of the shock wave overpressure caused by impulse discharge arc expansion is closely related to the arc current rising rate. The arc shock wave overpressure will undergo a slow decay process and then decay rapidly. The study of this paper will perform the function of deepening the understanding of the physical nature of the impulse arc discharge, which can be used to explain the damage effect of the high current impulse discharge arc.
Gojani, Ardian B.; Danehy, Paul M.; Alderfer, David W.; Saito, Tsutomu; Takayama, Kazuyoshi
2004-02-01
In Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy (ESWL) underwater shock wave focusing generates high pressures at very short duration of time inside human body. However, it is not yet clear how high temperatures are enhanced at the spot where a shock wave is focused. The estimation of such dynamic temperature enhancements is critical for the evaluation of tissue damages upon shock loading. For this purpose in the Interdisciplinary Shock Wave Research Center a technique is developed which employs laser induced thermal acoustics or Laser Induced Grating Spectroscopy. Unlike most of gas-dynamic methods of measuring physical quantities this provides a non-invasive one having spatial and temporal resolutions of the order of magnitude of 1.0 mm 3 and 400 ns, respectively. Preliminary experiments in still water demonstrated that this method detected sound speed and hence temperature in water ranging 283 K to 333 K with errors of 0.5%. These results are used to empirically establish the equation of states of water, gelatin or agar cell which will work as alternatives of human tissues.
Influence of shock waves from plasma actuators on transonic and supersonic airflow
Mursenkova, I. V.; Znamenskaya, I. A.; Lutsky, A. E.
2018-03-01
This paper presents experimental and numerical investigations of high-current sliding surface discharges of nanosecond duration and their effect on high-speed flow as plasma actuators in a shock tube. This study deals with the effectiveness of a sliding surface discharge at low and medium air pressure. Results cover the electrical characteristics of the discharge and optical visualization of the discharge and high-speed post-discharge flow. A sliding surface discharge is first studied in quiescent air conditions and then in high-speed flow, being initiated in the boundary layer at a transverse flow velocity of 50-950 m s-1 behind a flat shock wave in air of density 0.04-0.45 kg m-3. The discharge is powered by a pulse voltage of 25-30 kV and the electric current is ~0.5 kA. Shadow imaging and particle image velocimetry (PIV) are used to measure the flow field parameters after the pulse surface discharge. Shadow imaging reveals shock waves originating from the channels of the discharge configurations. PIV is used to measure the velocity field resulting from the discharge in quiescent air and to determine the homogeneity of energy release along the sliding discharge channel. Semicylindrical shock waves from the channels of the sliding discharge have an initial velocity of more than 600 m s-1. The shock-wave configuration floats in the flow along the streamlined surface. Numerical simulation based on the equations of hydrodynamics matched with the experiment showed that 25%-50% of the discharge energy is instantly transformed into heat energy in a high-speed airflow, leading to the formation of shock waves. This energy is comparable to the flow enthalpy and can result in significant modification of the boundary layer and the entire flow.
Hoefer, Mark A.
This thesis examines nonlinear wave phenomena, in two physical systems: a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) and thin film ferromagnets where the magnetization dynamics are excited by the spin momentum transfer (SMT) effect. In the first system, shock waves generated by steep gradients in the BEC wavefunction are shown to be of the disperse type. Asymptotic and averaging methods are used to determine shock speeds and structure in one spatial dimension. These results are compared with multidimensional numerical simulations and experiment showing good, qualitative agreement. In the second system, a model of magnetization dynamics due to SMT is presented. Using this model, nonlinear oscillating modes---nano-oscillators---are found numerically and analytically using perturbative methods. These results compare well with experiment. A Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) is a quantum fluid that gives rise to interesting shock wave nonlinear dynamics. Experiments depict a BEC that exhibits behavior similar to that of a shock wave in a compressible gas, e.g. traveling fronts with steep gradients. However, the governing Gross-Pitaevskii (GP) equation that describes the mean field of a BEC admits no dissipation hence classical dissipative shock solutions do not explain the phenomena. Instead, wave dynamics with small dispersion is considered and it is shown that this provides a mechanism for the generation of a dispersive shock wave (DSW). Computations with the GP equation are compared to experiment with excellent agreement. A comparison between a canonical 1D dissipative and dispersive shock problem shows significant differences in shock structure and shock front speed. Numerical results associated with laboratory experiments show that three and two-dimensional approximations are in excellent agreement and one dimensional approximations are in qualitative agreement. The interaction of two DSWs is investigated analytically and numerically. Using one dimensional DSW theory it is argued
Shock waves in water at low energy pulsed electric discharges
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pinchuk, M E; Kolikov, V A; Rutberg, Ph G; Leks, A G; Dolinovskaya, R V; Snetov, V N; Stogov, A Yu
2012-01-01
Experimental results of shock wave formation and propagation in water at low energy pulsed electric discharges are presented. To study the hydrodynamic structure of the shock waves, the direct shadow optical diagnostic device with time resolution of 5 ns and spatial resolution of 0.1 mm was designed and developed. Synchronization of the diagnostic and electrodischarge units by the fast optocouplers was carried out. The dependences of shock wave velocities after breakdown of interelectrode gap for various energy inputs (at range of ≤1 J) into discharge were obtained. Based on the experimental results the recommendations for the adjustment parameters of the power supply and load were suggested.
Particle acceleration by coronal and interplanetary shock waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pesses, M.E.
1982-01-01
Utilizing many years of observation from deep space and near-earth spacecraft a theoretical understanding has evolved on how ions and electrons are accelerated in interplanetary shock waves. This understanding is now being applied to solar flare-induced shock waves propagating through the solar atmosphere. Such solar flare phenomena as gamma-ray line and neutron emissions, interplanetary energetic electron and ion events, and Type II and moving Type IV radio bursts appear understandable in terms of particle acceleration in shock waves
Shock wave equation of state of powder material
Dijken, D.K.; Hosson, J.Th.M. De
1994-01-01
A model is proposed to predict the following quantities for powder materials compacted by shock waves: the pressure, the specific volume, the internal energy behind the shock wave, and the shock-wave velocity U-s. They are calculated as a function of flyerplate velocity u(p) and initial powder specific volume V-00. The model is tested on Cu, Al2024, and Fe. Calculated U-s vs u(p) curves agree well with experiments provided V-00 is smaller than about two times the solid specific volume. The mo...
Quantum field theory in a gravitational shock wave background
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Klimcik, C.
1988-01-01
A scalar massless non-interacting quantum field theory on an arbitrary gravitational shock wave background is exactly solved. S-matrix and expectation values of the energy-momentum tensor are computed for an arbitrarily polarized sourceless gravitational shock wave and for a homogeneous infinite planar shell shock wave, all performed in any number of space-time dimensions. Expectation values of the energy density in scattering states exhibit a singularity which lies exactly at the location of the curvature singularity found in the infinite shell collision. (orig.)
US evaluation in extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baumgartner, B.R.; Steinberg, H.V.; Ambrose, S.S.; Walton, K.N.; Bernardino, M.E.
1986-01-01
Real-time US was performed in 100 consecutive patients the day preceding and/or 24 and 48 hours after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) therapy. In the 87 treated kidneys containing three or fewer stones, a total of 111 stones were found; 104 were radiopaque. Pre-ESWL US was not available for six stones. Sixty-eight stones (64.5%) were visualized. Of the 37 stones not seen, 10 (27%) were ≤ 5 mm in diameter, and of the larger stones, 19 (51%) were in the ureter or ureteropelvic junction; only six (16%) were in the calyces, and two (5%) were in the renal pelvis. Comparison of pre-ESWL and post-ESWL in 80 kidneys revealed no change in 37 (46%), more stones or fragments detected in 23 (29%), fewer stones or a change in location of stones in 12 (15%), and decreased size of the original stone in eight (10%). The ability of US to detect renal calculi seems to be related not only to stone size but also to location. Hydronephrosis was detected on pre-ESWL US in 16 kidneys (20%). After ESWL the hydronephrosis did not change in seven, decreased or resolved in eight, and increased in only one. Hydronephrosis was noted to develop after ESWL in 21 (26%) other kidneys. Pre-ESWL and post-ESWL hydronephrosis found on US must be considered in conjunction with the clinical picture and other radiographic studies
Outcome of Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
B Shrestha
2010-03-01
Full Text Available NTRODUCTION: Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy is an effective noninvasive method to treat urolithiasis. This study aims to evaluate itsoutcome and determine appropriate management strategies for urolithiasis. METHODS: It was a prospective study which included one hundred patients who underwent ESWL for the management of solitary urolithiasis during a period of eight months (December 2007-August 2008. Status of stone and complications were observed and managed accordingly within a period of six postoperative weeks. RESULTS: Out of 100 patients, 93% had complete clearance of stone by the end of six postoperative weeks. Seven percent of the patients required adjunct invasive intervention including open surgery in 3%. Number of sessions of ESWL was found to increase as the size of stone increased. However, in three patients stones were completely refractory to ESWL even after two consecutive sessions. CONCLUSIONS: ESWL is highly effective noninvasive modality in the management of urolithiasis in appropriately selected patients. Keywords: double J stent, extracorporal shockwave lithotripsy, steinstrasse, ultrasonography, ureterorenoscopy.
Dust acoustic shock wave at high dust density
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ghosh, Samiran; Sarkar, Susmita; Khan, Manoranjan; Avinash, K.; Gupta, M. R.
2003-01-01
Dust acoustic (DA) shock wave at high dust density, i.e., the dust electroacoustic (DEA) or dust Coulomb (DC) shock wave has been investigated incorporating the nonadiabatic dust charge variation. The nonlinear DEA (DC) shock wave is seen to be governed by the Korteweg-de Vries Burger equation, in which the Burger term is proportional to the nonadiabaticity generated dissipation. It is seen that the shock strength decreases but after reaching minimum, it increases as the dust space charge density |q d n d | increases and the shock strength of DA wave is greater than that of DEA (DC) wave. Moreover the DEA (DC) shock width increases appreciably with increase mass m i of the ion component of the dusty plasma but for DA shock wave the effect is weak
Direct measurement technique for shock wave velocity with irradiation drive
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Feng; Peng Xiaoshi; Liu Shenye; Jiang Xiaohua; Ding Yongkun
2011-01-01
According to the ionization mechanism of transparent material under super high pressure, the direct diagnosis method of shock wave has been analyzed. With the Drude free electron model, the reflectivity difference of shock wave front under different pressures was analyzed. The blank effect in the detector was studied, which is caused by the X-ray ionization of transparent material, after analyzing the reflectivity data in space-time scale. The experiment shows that the beginning point and duration of blank effect are consistent with the start point and duration of laser pulse, respectively. And the reflectivity of shock wave front is about 35% when the shock velocity is 32 km/s. The reason and solution for blank effect was presented. The formula to calculate the shock wave velocity in transparent material was also deduced and verified. (authors)
The Shock Wave in the ionosphere during an Earthquake
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kuznetsov Vladimir
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Fundamentally new model of the shock wave (SW generation in atmosphere and ionosphere during earthquake is proposed. The model proceeds from the idea of cooperative shock water crystallization in a cloud.
Experimental observation of azimuthal shock waves on nonlinear acoustical vortices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brunet, Thomas; Thomas, Jean-Louis; Marchiano, Regis; Coulouvrat, Francois
2009-01-01
Thanks to a new focused array of piezoelectric transducers, experimental results are reported here to evidence helical acoustical shock waves resulting from the nonlinear propagation of acoustical vortices (AVs). These shock waves have a three-dimensional spiral shape, from which both the longitudinal and azimuthal components are studied. The inverse filter technique used to synthesize AVs allows various parameters to be varied, especially the topological charge which is the key parameter describing screw dislocations. Firstly, an analysis of the longitudinal modes in the frequency domain reveals a wide cascade of harmonics (up to the 60th order) leading to the formation of the shock waves. Then, an original measurement in the transverse plane exhibits azimuthal behaviour which has never been observed until now for acoustical shock waves. Finally, these new experimental results suggest interesting potential applications of nonlinear effects in terms of acoustics spanners in order to manipulate small objects.
Multi-layer protective armour for underwater shock wave mitigation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ahmed Hawass
2015-12-01
The strain gauge data and displacement sensors results showed that the multi-layer plates have higher level of underwater shock wave mitigation than the triple aluminum plates with strain and deflection of nearly 50%.
Success of electromagnetic shock wave lithotripter as monotherapy ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
K.S. Meitei
Objectives: To evaluate the success of shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) as monotherapy for solitary .... history of previous renal surgery on the affected side were excluded .... energy. Twelve (63.2%) of the steinstrasse cases were managed con-.
Kinematical Compatibility Conditions for Vorticity Across Shock Waves
Baty, Roy
2015-11-01
This work develops the general kinematical compatibility conditions for vorticity across arbitrary shock waves in compressible, inviscid fluids. The vorticity compatibility conditions are derived from the curl of the momentum equation using singular distributions defined on two-dimensional shock wave surfaces embedded in three-dimensional flow fields. The singular distributions are represented as generalized differential operators concentrated on moving shock wave surfaces. The derivation of the compatibility conditions for vorticity requires the application of second-order generalized derivatives and elementary tensor algebra. The well-known vorticity jump conditions across a shock wave are then shown to follow from the general kinematical compatibility conditions for vorticity by expressing the flow field velocity in vectorial components normal and tangential to a shock surface.
Dynamics of ionizing shock waves on adiabatic motions of gases
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zorev, N.N.; Sklizkov, G.V.; Shikanov, A.S.
1982-01-01
Results are presented of an experimental investigation of free (adiabatic) motion of a spherical ionizing wave in deuterium produced by an expanding laser plasma. It is shown that the discrepancy between the free movement of shock waves (which lead to total ionization of the gas) and the Sedov-Taylor model of a spontaneous point explosion is not related to variations in the adiabat exponent γ and the motion occurs for a constant γ=5/3. The effect is ascribed to the influence of the shock wave front structure on the dynamics of its propagation. An analytic expression for the motion of symmetric ionizing shock waves is found which has an accuracy of better than 1%. As a result the adiabat exponent was determined experimentally. A method for determining the energy of a shock wave on the basis of its dynamics of motion is developed which has an accuracy of approximately 5% [ru
Transverse MHD shock waves in a partly ionized plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mathers, C.D.
1980-01-01
The structure of transverse MHD shock waves in a partly ionized hydrogen plasma is studied using a three-fluid model with collisional transport coefficients. The morphology of the various sublayers in the shock front is analyzed in detail and it is shown that strong shock waves have a characteristic viscous structure. Weak to moderate strength shock waves display a resistive structure in which the enhanced transverse resistivity due to ion-slip plays a significant role, leading to a pronounced peak in the ion temperature profile. Calculated shock structure profiles are also compared with experimental temperature data. Results in the form of tables and figures are presented for shock waves with fast Mach number ranging from 1-10 in hydrogen plasma with initial degree of ionization ranging from 5-100%. (author)
Orientation Dependence in Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Shocked Single Crystals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Germann, Timothy C.; Holian, Brad Lee; Lomdahl, Peter S.; Ravelo, Ramon
2000-01-01
We use multimillion-atom molecular dynamics simulations to study shock wave propagation in fcc crystals. As shown recently, shock waves along the direction form intersecting stacking faults by slippage along {111} close-packed planes at sufficiently high shock strengths. We find even more interesting behavior of shocks propagating in other low-index directions: for the case, an elastic precursor separates the shock front from the slipped (plastic) region. Shock waves along the direction generate a leading solitary wave train, followed (at sufficiently high shock speeds) by an elastic precursor, and then a region of complex plastic deformation. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society
Improvement of an installation to generate shock waves
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
1974-04-29
An installation to generate a shock wave in a fluid layer is described. A water projectile is moved at a high velocity. It leaves behind an underpressure in which the adjacent water implodes, therby generating the desired shock wave. The installation is characterized by a tube-shaped hull in which a piston can move freely. One side of the hull is connected to the pressure-generator chamber of the piston. (6 claims)
Fundamental structure of steady plastic shock waves in metals
Molinari, A.; Ravichandran, G.
2004-01-01
The propagation of steady plane shock waves in metallic materials is considered. Following the constitutive framework adopted by R. J. Clifton [Shock Waves and the Mechanical Properties of Solids, edited by J. J. Burke and V. Weiss (Syracuse University Press, Syracuse, N.Y., 1971), p. 73] for analyzing elastic–plastic transient waves, an analytical solution of the steady state propagation of plastic shocks is proposed. The problem is formulated in a Lagrangian setting appropriate for large de...
On Maximally Dissipative Shock Waves in Nonlinear Elasticity
Knowles, James K.
2010-01-01
Shock waves in nonlinearly elastic solids are, in general, dissipative. We study the following question: among all plane shock waves that can propagate with a given speed in a given one-dimensional nonlinearly elastic bar, which one—if any—maximizes the rate of dissipation? We find that the answer to this question depends strongly on the qualitative nature of the stress-strain relation characteristic of the given material. When maximally dissipative shocks do occur, they propagate according t...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bershader, D.; Hanson, R.
1986-01-01
A detailed survey is presented of shock tube experiments, theoretical developments, and applications being carried out worldwide. The discussions explore shock tube physics and the related chemical, physical and biological science and technology. Extensive attention is devoted to shock wave phenomena in dusty gases and other multiphase and heterogeneous systems, including chemically reactive mixtures. Consideration is given to techniques for measuring, visualizing and theoretically modeling flowfield, shock wave and rarefaction wave characteristics. Numerical modeling is explored in terms of the application of computational fluid dynamics techniques to describing flowfields in shock tubes. Shock interactions and propagation, in both solids, fluids, gases and mixed media are investigated, along with the behavior of shocks in condensed matter. Finally, chemical reactions that are initiated as the result of passage of a shock wave are discussed, together with methods of controlling the evolution of laminar separated flows at concave corners on advanced reentry vehicles
A computational study on oblique shock wave-turbulent boundary layer interaction
Joy, Md. Saddam Hossain; Rahman, Saeedur; Hasan, A. B. M. Toufique; Ali, M.; Mitsutake, Y.; Matsuo, S.; Setoguchi, T.
2016-07-01
A numerical computation of an oblique shock wave incident on a turbulent boundary layer was performed for free stream flow of air at M∞ = 2.0 and Re1 = 10.5×106 m-1. The oblique shock wave was generated from a 8° wedge. Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) simulation with k-ω SST turbulence model was first utilized for two dimensional (2D) steady case. The results were compared with the experiment at the same flow conditions. Further, to capture the unsteadiness, a 2D Large Eddy Simulation (LES) with sub-grid scale model WMLES was performed which showed the unsteady effects. The frequency of the shock oscillation was computed and was found to be comparable with that of experimental measurement.
Influence of plasma shock wave on the morphology of laser drilling in different environments
Zhai, Zhaoyang; Wang, Wenjun; Mei, Xuesong; Wang, Kedian; Yang, Huizhu
2017-05-01
Nanosecond pulse laser was used to study nickel-based alloy drilling and compare processing results of microholes in air environment and water environment. Through analysis and comparison, it's found that environmental medium had obvious influence on morphology of laser drilling. High-speed camera was used to shoot plasma morphology during laser drilling process, theoretical formula was used to calculate boundary dimension of plasma and shock wave velocity, and finally parameters were substituted into computational fluid dynamics simulation software to obtain solutions. Obtained analysis results could intuitively explain different morphological features and forming reasons between laser drilling in air environment and water environment in the experiment from angle of plasma shock waves. By comparing simulation results and experimental results, it could help to get an understanding of formation mechanism of microhole morphology, thus providing basis for further improving process optimization of laser drilling quality.
Modeling of shock wave propagation in large amplitude ultrasound.
Pinton, Gianmarco F; Trahey, Gregg E
2008-01-01
The Rankine-Hugoniot relation for shock wave propagation describes the shock speed of a nonlinear wave. This paper investigates time-domain numerical methods that solve the nonlinear parabolic wave equation, or the Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya-Kuznetsov (KZK) equation, and the conditions they require to satisfy the Rankine-Hugoniot relation. Two numerical methods commonly used in hyperbolic conservation laws are adapted to solve the KZK equation: Godunov's method and the monotonic upwind scheme for conservation laws (MUSCL). It is shown that they satisfy the Rankine-Hugoniot relation regardless of attenuation. These two methods are compared with the current implicit solution based method. When the attenuation is small, such as in water, the current method requires a degree of grid refinement that is computationally impractical. All three numerical methods are compared in simulations for lithotripters and high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) where the attenuation is small compared to the nonlinearity because much of the propagation occurs in water. The simulations are performed on grid sizes that are consistent with present-day computational resources but are not sufficiently refined for the current method to satisfy the Rankine-Hugoniot condition. It is shown that satisfying the Rankine-Hugoniot conditions has a significant impact on metrics relevant to lithotripsy (such as peak pressures) and HIFU (intensity). Because the Godunov and MUSCL schemes satisfy the Rankine-Hugoniot conditions on coarse grids, they are particularly advantageous for three-dimensional simulations.
Fractionated Repetitive Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy: A New Standard in Shock Wave Therapy?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tobias Kisch
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Background. ESWT has proven clinical benefit in dermatology and plastic surgery. It promotes wound healing and improves tissue regeneration, connective tissue disorders, and inflammatory skin diseases. However, a single treatment session or long intervals between sessions may reduce the therapeutic effect. The present study investigated the effects of fractionated repetitive treatment in skin microcirculation. Methods. 32 rats were randomly assigned to two groups and received either fractionated repetitive high-energy ESWT every ten minutes or placebo shock wave treatment, applied to the dorsal lower leg. Microcirculatory effects were continuously assessed by combined laser Doppler imaging and photospectrometry. Results. In experimental group, cutaneous tissue oxygen saturation was increased 1 minute after the first application and until the end of the measuring period at 80 minutes after the second treatment (P<0.05. The third ESWT application boosted the effect to its highest extent. Cutaneous capillary blood flow showed a significant increase after the second application which was sustained for 20 minutes after the third application (P<0.05. Placebo group showed no statistically significant differences. Conclusions. Fractionated repetitive extracorporeal shock wave therapy (frESWT boosts and prolongs the effects on cutaneous hemodynamics. The results indicate that frESWT may provide greater benefits in the treatment of distinct soft tissue disorders compared with single-session ESWT.
Hisasue, Shin-ichi; China, Toshiyuki; Horiuchi, Akira; Kimura, Masaki; Saito, Keisuke; Isotani, Shuji; Ide, Hisamitsu; Muto, Satoru; Yamaguchi, Raizo; Horie, Shigeo
2016-01-01
To evaluate the efficacy of low-intensity shock wave therapy and to identify the predictive factors of its efficacy in Japanese patients with erectile dysfunction. The present study included 57 patients with erectile dysfunction who satisfied all the following conditions: more than 6-months history of erectile dysfunction, sexual health inventory for men score of ≤ 12 without phosphodiesterase type-5 inhibitor, erection hardness score grade 1 or 2, mean penile circumferential change by erectometer assessing sleep related erection of energy shock waves generator (ED1000; Medispec, Gaithersburg, MD, USA). A total of 12 shock wave treatments were applied. Sexual health inventory for men score, erection hardness score with or without phosphodiesterase type-5 inhibitor, and mean penile circumferential change were assessed at baseline, 1, 3 and 6 months after the termination of low-intensity shock wave therapy. Of 57 patients who were assigned for the low-intensity shock wave therapy trial, 56 patients were analyzed. Patients had a median age of 64 years. The sexual health inventory for men and erection hardness score (with and without phosphodiesterase type-5 inhibitor) were significantly increased (P wave therapy (P wave therapy seems to be an effective physical therapy for erectile dysfunction. Age and comorbidities are negative predictive factors of therapeutic response. © 2015 The Japanese Urological Association.
Assessment of CFD Capability for Hypersonic Shock Wave Laminar Boundary Layer Interactions
Mehrnaz Rouhi Youssefi; Doyle Knight
2017-01-01
The goal of this study is to assess CFD capability for the prediction of shock wave laminar boundary layer interactions at hypersonic velocities. More specifically, the flow field over a double-cone configuration is simulated using both perfect gas and non-equilibrium Navier–Stokes models. Computations are compared with recent experimental data obtained from measurements conducted in the LENS XX (Large Energy National Shock Expansion Tunnel Version 2) at the Calspan University of Buffalo Rese...
Interactions of Delta Shock Waves for Zero-Pressure Gas Dynamics with Energy Conservation Law
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wei Cai
2016-01-01
Full Text Available We study the interactions of delta shock waves and vacuum states for the system of conservation laws of mass, momentum, and energy in zero-pressure gas dynamics. The Riemann problems with initial data of three piecewise constant states are solved case by case, and four different configurations of Riemann solutions are constructed. Furthermore, the numerical simulations completely coinciding with theoretical analysis are shown.
Supersonic flow with shock waves. Monte-Carlo calculations for low density plasma. I
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Almenara, E.; Hidalgo, M.; Saviron, J. M.
1980-01-01
This Report gives preliminary information about a Monte Carlo procedure to simulate supersonic flow past a body of a low density plasma in the transition regime. A computer program has been written for a UNIVAC 1108 machine to account for a plasma composed by neutral molecules and positive and negative ions. Different and rather general body geometries can be analyzed. Special attention is played to tho detached shock waves growth In front of the body. (Author) 30 refs
[Extracorporeal shock wave therapy in chronic prostatitis].
Kul'chavenya, E V; Shevchenko, S Yu; Brizhatyuk, E V
2016-04-01
Chronic prostatitis is a prevalent urologic disease, but treatment outcomes are not always satisfactory. As a rule, chronic prostatitis results in chronic pelvic pain syndrome, significantly reducing the patient's quality of life. Open pilot prospective non-comparative study was conducted to test the effectiveness of extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) using Aries (Dornier) machine in patients with chronic prostatitis (CP) of IIIb category. A total of 27 patients underwent ESWL as monotherapy, 2 times a week for a course of 6 sessions. Exposure settings: 5-6 energy level (by sensation), the frequency of 5 Hz, 2000 pulses per session; each patient received a total energy up to 12000 mJ. per procedure. Treatment results were evaluated using NIH-CPSI (National Institute of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index) upon completing the 3 week course of 6 treatments and at 1 month after ESWT. Immediately after the ESWT course positive trend was not significant: pain index decreased from 9.1 to 7.9, urinary symptom score remained almost unchanged (4.2 at baseline, 4.1 after treatment), quality of life index also showed a slight improvement, dropping from 7.2 points to 6.0. Total NIH-CPSI score decreased from 20.5 to 18.0. One month post-treatment pain significantly decreased to 3.2 points, the urinary symptom score fell to 2.7 points, the average quality of life score was 3.9 points. ESWT, performed on Aries (Dornier) machine, is highly effective as monotherapy in patients with category IIIb chronic prostatitis.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Stelmashuk, Vitaliy; Hoffer, Petr
2012-01-01
Roč. 40, č. 7 (2012), s. 1907-1912 ISSN 0093-3813 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Corona * impedance matching * shock waves Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 0.868, year: 2012 http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6205646&contentType=Journals+%26+ Magazines &queryText%3Dstelmashuk
Generation of Two Successive Shock Waves Focusedto a Common Focal Point
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Šunka, Pavel; Stelmashuk, Vitaliy; Babický, Václav; Člupek, Martin; Beneš, J.; Poučková, P.; Kašpar, J.; Bodnár, M.
2006-01-01
Roč. 34, č. 4 (2006), s. 1382-1385 ISSN 0093-3813. [International Power Modulator Conference. Washington D.C., 14.5.2006-18.5.2006] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA202/05/0685 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Cavitation collpse * double shocks * focused shock waves * liver injury * secondary shocks Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.144, year: 2006
Data assimilation with an extended Kalman filter for impact-produced shock-wave dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kao, Jim; Flicker, Dawn; Henninger, Rudy; Frey, Sarah; Ghil, Michael; Ide, Kayo
2004-01-01
Model assimilation of data strives to determine optimally the state of an evolving physical system from a limited number of observations. The present study represents the first attempt of applying the extended Kalman filter (EKF) method of data assimilation to shock-wave dynamics induced by a high-speed impact. EKF solves the full nonlinear state evolution and estimates its associated error-covariance matrix in time. The state variables obtained by the blending of past model evolution with currently available data, along with their associated minimized errors (or uncertainties), are then used as initial conditions for further prediction until the next time at which data becomes available. In this study, a one-dimensional (1D) finite-difference code is used along with data measured from a 1D flyer plate experiment. An ensemble simulation suggests that the nonlinearity of the modeled system can be reasonably tracked by EKF. The results demonstrate that the EKF assimilation of a limited amount of pressure data, measured at the middle of the target plate alone, helps track the evolution of all the state variables. The fidelity of EKF is further investigated with numerically generated synthetic data from so-called 'identical-twin experiments', in which the true state is known and various measurement techniques and strategies can be made easily simulated. We find that the EKF method can effectively assimilate the density fields, which are distributed sparsely in time to mimic radiographic data, into the modeled system
Radial shock wave therapy in dogs with hip osteoarthritis.
Souza, Alexandre N A; Ferreira, Marcio P; Hagen, Stefano C F; Patrício, Geni C F; Matera, Julia M
2016-01-01
The study aims were to evaluate the effects of radial shock wave therapy (RSWT) in dogs with hip osteoarthritis (OA) using clinical assessment and kinetic analysis. Thirty dogs diagnosed with bilateral hip OA and 30 healthy dogs were used. In OA dogs, one limb was randomly selected for treatment with RSWT while the contralateral limb served as an untreated control. Dogs were evaluated while walking on a pressure walkway. Peak vertical force (PVF) and vertical impulse (VI) were documented; symmetry index (SI) was also calculated. Blinded clinical evaluation was performed using a visual analogue scale (VAS). Owner perception data regarding levels of physical activity were also collected. The RSWT protocol (2000 pulses, 10 Hz, 2-3.4 bars) consisted of three weekly treatment sessions (days 1, 8 and 16). Follow-up data were collected 30, 60 and 90 days after the first session. Data were compared between time points, groups and limbs pairs. At the end of the experimental period, mean PVF and VI values had increased (25.9 to 27.6%BW and 2.1 to 12.7%BW × s respectively) in treated limbs, with no significant differences in control limbs; SI values suggest improvement. Mean PVF and VI remained lower in the treated compared to the healthy group following treatment. The VAS scores suggested improvement in pain and lameness in treated dogs. Owner perception data suggested improved levels of physical activity following treatment. Outcomes of this study suggested beneficial effects of RSWT in dogs with hip osteoarthritis.
Revisiting the thermal effect on shock wave propagation in weakly ionized plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhou, Qianhong; Dong, Zhiwei; Yang, Wei
2016-01-01
Many researchers have investigated shock propagation in weakly ionized plasmas and observed the following anomalous effects: shock acceleration, shock recovery, shock weakening, shock spreading, and splitting. It was generally accepted that the thermal effect can explain most of the experimental results. However, little attention was paid to the shock recovery. In this paper, the shock wave propagation in weakly ionized plasmas is studied by fluid simulation. It is found that the shock acceleration, weakening, and splitting appear after it enters the plasma (thermal) region. The shock splits into two parts right after it leaves the thermal region. The distance between the splitted shocks keeps decreasing until they recover to one. This paper can explain a whole set of features of the shock wave propagation in weakly ionized plasmas. It is also found that both the shock curvature and the splitting present the same photoacoustic deflection (PAD) signals, so they cannot be distinguished by the PAD experiments.
Criterion for vortex breakdown on shock wave and streamwise vortex interactions.
Hiejima, Toshihiko
2014-05-01
The interactions between supersonic streamwise vortices and oblique shock waves are theoretically and numerically investigated by three-dimensional (3D) Navier-Stokes equations. Based on the two inequalities, a criterion for shock-induced breakdown of the streamwise vortex is proposed. The simple breakdown condition depends on the Mach number, the swirl number, the velocity deficit, and the shock angle. According to the proposed criterion, the breakdown region expands as the Mach number increases. In numerical simulations, vortex breakdown appeared under conditions of multiple pressure increases and the helicity disappeared behind the oblique shock wave along the line of the vortex center. The numerical results are consistent with the predicted breakdown condition at Mach numbers 2.0 and 3.0. This study also found that the axial velocity deficit is important for classifying the breakdown configuration.
Heat-flow equation motivated by the ideal-gas shock wave.
Holian, Brad Lee; Mareschal, Michel
2010-08-01
We present an equation for the heat-flux vector that goes beyond Fourier's Law of heat conduction, in order to model shockwave propagation in gases. Our approach is motivated by the observation of a disequilibrium among the three components of temperature, namely, the difference between the temperature component in the direction of a planar shock wave, versus those in the transverse directions. This difference is most prominent near the shock front. We test our heat-flow equation for the case of strong shock waves in the ideal gas, which has been studied in the past and compared to Navier-Stokes solutions. The new heat-flow treatment improves the agreement with nonequilibrium molecular-dynamics simulations of hard spheres under strong shockwave conditions.
Laser driven shock wave experiments for equation of state studies at megabar pressures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pant, H C; Shukla, M; Senecha, V K; Bandyopadhyay, S; Rai, V N; Khare, P; Bhat, R K; Gupta, N K; Godwal, B K
2002-01-01
We present the results from laser driven shock wave experiments for equation of state (EOS) studies of gold metal. An Nd:YAG laser chain (2 J, 1.06 μm wavelength, 200 ps pulse FWHM) is used to generate shocks in planar Al foils and Al + Au layered targets. The EOS of gold in the pressure range of 9-13 Mbar is obtained using the impedance matching technique. The numerical simulations performed using the one-dimensional radiation hydrodynamic code support the experimental results. The present experimental data show remarkable agreement with the existing standard EOS models and with other experimental data obtained independently using laser driven shock wave experiments
Shock Wave Propagation in Layered Planetary Interiors: Revisited
Arkani-Hamed, J.; Monteux, J.
2017-12-01
The end of the terrestrial planet accretion is characterized by numerous large impacts. About 90% of the mass of a large planet is accreted while the core mantle separation is occurring, because of the accretionary and the short-lived radio-isotope heating. The characteristics of the shockwave propagation, hence the existing scaling laws are poorly known within the layered planets. Here, we use iSALE-2D hydrocode simulations to calculate shock pressure in a differentiated Mars type body for impact velocities of 5-20 km/s, and impactor sizes of 100-400 km. We use two different rheologies for the target interior, an inviscid model ("no-stress model") and a pressure and damage-dependent strength model ("elaborated model"). To better characterize the shock pressure within the whole mantle as a function of distance from the impact site, we propose the following distribution: (1) a near field zone larger than the isobaric core that extends to 7-15 times the projectile radius into the target, where the peak shock pressure decays exponentially with increasing distance, (2) a far field zone where the pressure decays with distance following a power law. The shock pressure decreases more rapidly with distance in the near field for the elaborated model than for the no-stress model because of the influence of acoustic fluidization and damage. However to better illustrate the influence of the rheology on the shock propagation, we use the same expressions to fit the shock pressure with distance for both models. At the core-mantle boundary, CMB, the peak shock pressure jumps as the shock wave enters the core. We derived the boundary condition at CMB for the peak shock pressure. It is less sensitive to the impact velocity or the impactor size, but strongly depends on the rheology of the planet's mantle. Because of the lower shock wave velocity in the core compared to that in the mantle, the refracted shockwave propagates toward the symmetry axis of the planet, and the shock
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bianchi, M.P.
1991-01-01
The discrete Boltzmann equation is a mathematical model in the kinetic theory of gases which defines the time and space evolution of a system of gas particles with a finite number of selected velocities. Discrete kinetic theory is an interesting field of research in mathematical physics and applied mathematics for several reasons. One of the relevant fields of application of the discrete Boltzmann equation is the analysis of nonlinear shock wave phenomena. Here, a new multiple collision regular plane model for binary gas mixtures is proposed within the discrete theory of gases and applied to the analysis of the classical problems of shock wave propagation
Potential for the Vishniac instability in ionizing shock waves propagating into cold gases
Robinson, A. P. L.; Pasley, J.
2018-05-01
The Vishniac instability was posited as an instability that could affect supernova remnants in their late stage of evolution when subject to strong radiative cooling, which can drive the effective ratio of specific heats below 1.3. The potential importance of this instability to these astrophysical objects has motivated a number of laser-driven laboratory studies. However, the Vishniac instability is essentially a dynamical instability that should operate independently of whatever physical processes happen to reduce the ratio of specific heats. In this paper, we examine the possibility that ionization and molecular dissociation processes can achieve this, and we show that this is possible for a certain range of shock wave Mach numbers for ionizing/dissociating shock waves propagating into cold atomic and molecular gases.
Analysis on shock wave speed of water hammer of lifting pipes for deep-sea mining
Zhou, Zhi-jin; Yang, Ning; Wang, Zhao
2013-04-01
Water hammer occurs whenever the fluid velocity in vertical lifting pipe systems for deep-sea mining suddenly changes. In this work, the shock wave was proven to play an important role in changing pressures and periods, and mathematical and numerical modeling technology was presented for simulated transient pressure in the abnormal pump operation. As volume concentrations were taken into account of shock wave speed, the experiment results about the pressure-time history, discharge-time history and period for the lifting pipe system showed that: as its concentrations rose up, the maximum transient pressure went down, so did its discharges; when its volume concentrations increased gradually, the period numbers of pressure decay were getting less and less, and the corresponding shock wave speed decreased. These results have highly coincided with simulation results. The conclusions are important to design lifting transporting system to prevent water hammer in order to avoid potentially devastating consequences, such as damage to components and equipment and risks to personnel.
Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy for urinary stones
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shinn, Kyung Sub; Kim, Hyun; Byun, Jae Young; Lee, Myung Hee; Bahk, Yong Whee; Park, Yong Hyun
1988-01-01
Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) is a new noninvasive treatment modality for urinary stones, and it sometimes is to necessitate endourologic techniques. ESWL with an Edap lithotripter which uses piezo-electric elements, was performed in 142 cases (130 patients) with urinary stones including 68 in calices, 30 in pelves, and 44 in ureters. Technical factors were 100 storages at 5 to 10 pulse rates/sec and 70-100% adjustable power for about 60 minutes (15-90) for renal stones, and 200 storages at 20 pulse rates/sec and 100% adjustable power for about 60 minutes for ureteral stones in a single treatment under stone localization by 5 MHz ultrasonic sector scanner. All patients were treated at Kangnam St.Mary's Hospital of Catholic University Medical College during the 5 months period from May 1, 1987. Every patient had pre-treatment chest, plain abdomen, intravenous urogram and ultrasonogram studies and post-treatment follow-up abdominal radiograms in 1 to 3 months after ESWL.The overall success rate of ESWL in 142 cases was 94.4%. Eight out of 142 cases were successful. Thus, 134 cases were analysed. Of these, 58 cases (43.3%) received one treatment, 33 cases (24.6%) two treatments, 16 cases (11.9%) three treatments and 27 cases (20.2%) more than four treatments. Renal stones were more successfully treated (98.0%) than ureteral stones (88.1%), and calyceal stones presented the highest success rate (98.5%). The stones as small as 5 to 10 mm in size were easily fragmented and the stones of round of oval shape were more easily pulverized than those of staghorn or amorphous shape. The adjunctive endourlogic techniques such as percutaneous nephrostomy, ureteral catheterization or internal ureteral stenting with a double pigtail catheter were required in 17 cases (11.9%). Complications of ESWL for urolithiasis included hematuria (84.5%), flank pain (8.5%) and fever (5.6%), which were controlled without specific treatment. ESWL using ultrasonic localization was
Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy for urinary stones
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shinn, Kyung Sub; Kim, Hyun; Byun, Jae Young; Lee, Myung Hee; Bahk, Yong Whee; Park, Yong Hyun [Kangnam St. Mary' s Hospital, Catholic University Medical College, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
1988-06-15
Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) is a new noninvasive treatment modality for urinary stones, and it sometimes is to necessitate endourologic techniques. ESWL with an Edap lithotripter which uses piezo-electric elements, was performed in 142 cases (130 patients) with urinary stones including 68 in calices, 30 in pelves, and 44 in ureters. Technical factors were 100 storages at 5 to 10 pulse rates/sec and 70-100% adjustable power for about 60 minutes (15-90) for renal stones, and 200 storages at 20 pulse rates/sec and 100% adjustable power for about 60 minutes for ureteral stones in a single treatment under stone localization by 5 MHz ultrasonic sector scanner. All patients were treated at Kangnam St.Mary's Hospital of Catholic University Medical College during the 5 months period from May 1, 1987. Every patient had pre-treatment chest, plain abdomen, intravenous urogram and ultrasonogram studies and post-treatment follow-up abdominal radiograms in 1 to 3 months after ESWL.The overall success rate of ESWL in 142 cases was 94.4%. Eight out of 142 cases were successful. Thus, 134 cases were analysed. Of these, 58 cases (43.3%) received one treatment, 33 cases (24.6%) two treatments, 16 cases (11.9%) three treatments and 27 cases (20.2%) more than four treatments. Renal stones were more successfully treated (98.0%) than ureteral stones (88.1%), and calyceal stones presented the highest success rate (98.5%). The stones as small as 5 to 10 mm in size were easily fragmented and the stones of round of oval shape were more easily pulverized than those of staghorn or amorphous shape. The adjunctive endourlogic techniques such as percutaneous nephrostomy, ureteral catheterization or internal ureteral stenting with a double pigtail catheter were required in 17 cases (11.9%). Complications of ESWL for urolithiasis included hematuria (84.5%), flank pain (8.5%) and fever (5.6%), which were controlled without specific treatment. ESWL using ultrasonic localization
Nonstandard Analysis and Shock Wave Jump Conditions in a One-Dimensional Compressible Gas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Roy S. Baty, F. Farassat, John A. Hargreaves
2007-05-25
Nonstandard analysis is a relatively new area of mathematics in which infinitesimal numbers can be defined and manipulated rigorously like real numbers. This report presents a fairly comprehensive tutorial on nonstandard analysis for physicists and engineers with many examples applicable to generalized functions. To demonstrate the power of the subject, the problem of shock wave jump conditions is studied for a one-dimensional compressible gas. It is assumed that the shock thickness occurs on an infinitesimal interval and the jump functions in the thermodynamic and fluid dynamic parameters occur smoothly across this interval. To use conservations laws, smooth pre-distributions of the Dirac delta measure are applied whose supports are contained within the shock thickness. Furthermore, smooth pre-distributions of the Heaviside function are applied which vary from zero to one across the shock wave. It is shown that if the equations of motion are expressed in nonconservative form then the relationships between the jump functions for the flow parameters may be found unambiguously. The analysis yields the classical Rankine-Hugoniot jump conditions for an inviscid shock wave. Moreover, non-monotonic entropy jump conditions are obtained for both inviscid and viscous flows. The report shows that products of generalized functions may be defined consistently using nonstandard analysis; however, physically meaningful products of generalized functions must be determined from the physics of the problem and not the mathematical form of the governing equations.
Sophistication of computational science and fundamental physics simulations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ishiguro, Seiji; Ito, Atsushi; Usami, Shunsuke; Ohtani, Hiroaki; Sakagami, Hitoshi; Toida, Mieko; Hasegawa, Hiroki; Horiuchi, Ritoku; Miura, Hideaki
2016-01-01
Numerical experimental reactor research project is composed of the following studies: (1) nuclear fusion simulation research with a focus on specific physical phenomena of specific equipment, (2) research on advanced simulation method to increase predictability or expand its application range based on simulation, (3) visualization as the foundation of simulation research, (4) research for advanced computational science such as parallel computing technology, and (5) research aiming at elucidation of fundamental physical phenomena not limited to specific devices. Specifically, a wide range of researches with medium- to long-term perspectives are being developed: (1) virtual reality visualization, (2) upgrading of computational science such as multilayer simulation method, (3) kinetic behavior of plasma blob, (4) extended MHD theory and simulation, (5) basic plasma process such as particle acceleration due to interaction of wave and particle, and (6) research related to laser plasma fusion. This paper reviews the following items: (1) simultaneous visualization in virtual reality space, (2) multilayer simulation of collisionless magnetic reconnection, (3) simulation of microscopic dynamics of plasma coherent structure, (4) Hall MHD simulation of LHD, (5) numerical analysis for extension of MHD equilibrium and stability theory, (6) extended MHD simulation of 2D RT instability, (7) simulation of laser plasma, (8) simulation of shock wave and particle acceleration, and (9) study on simulation of homogeneous isotropic MHD turbulent flow. (A.O.)
Intraluminal bubble dynamics induced by lithotripsy shock wave
Song, Jie; Bai, Jiaming; Zhou, Yufeng
2016-12-01
Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) has been the first option in the treatment of calculi in the upper urinary tract since its introduction. ESWL-induced renal injury is also found after treatment and is assumed to associate with intraluminal bubble dynamics. To further understand the interaction of bubble expansion and collapse with the vessel wall, the finite element method (FEM) was used to simulate intraluminal bubble dynamics and calculate the distribution of stress in the vessel wall and surrounding soft tissue during cavitation. The effects of peak pressure, vessel size, and stiffness of soft tissue were investigated. Significant dilation on the vessel wall occurs after contacting with rapid and large bubble expansion, and then vessel deformation propagates in the axial direction. During bubble collapse, large shear stress is found to be applied to the vessel wall at a clinical lithotripter setting (i.e. 40 MPa peak pressure), which may be the mechanism of ESWL-induced vessel rupture. The decrease of vessel size and viscosity of soft tissue would enhance vessel deformation and, consequently, increase the generated shear stress and normal stresses. Meanwhile, a significantly asymmetric bubble boundary is also found due to faster axial bubble expansion and shrinkage than in radial direction, and deformation of the vessel wall may result in the formation of microjets in the axial direction. Therefore, this numerical work would illustrate the mechanism of ESWL-induced tissue injury in order to develop appropriate counteractive strategies for reduced adverse effects.
Design of compact piezoelectric transducers for shock wave applications
Dreyer, Thomas; Liebler, Marko; Riedlinger, Rainer E.; Ginter, Siegfried
2003-10-01
The application of focused intense sound pulses to treat several orthopedic diseases has gained in importance during the past years. Self-focusing piezoelectric transducers known from ESWL are not well suited for this purpose due to their size. Therefore compact transducers have to be designed. This implies an increase of the pressure pulse amplitude generated at the radiating surface. A stacked placement of two piezoelectric layers driven by two high-voltage pulses with an adjustable delay accomplishes this. Several designs are presented here representing transducers of different sizes. In principle piezoelectric transducers have the ability to vary the pressure pulse shape to a wider extent than other shock wave sources. Based on FEM simulations of the transducer the influence of some driving parameters, like a variation of the interpulse delay or shape of the driving voltage, on the resulting focal pressure signal is demonstrated. The results show the feasibility to control some parameters of the signal, for example the peak negative pressure amplitude. This possibility could provide new aspects in basic research as well as in clinical applications.
Shock Wave Propagation in Functionally Graded Mineralized Tissue
Nelms, Matthew; Hodo, Wayne; Livi, Ken; Browning, Alyssa; Crawford, Bryan; Rajendran, A. M.
2017-06-01
In this investigation, the effects of shock wave propagation in bone-like biomineralized tissue was investigated. The Alligator gar (Atractosteus spatula) exoskeleton is comprised of many disparate scales that provide a biological analog for potential design of flexible protective material systems. The gar scale is identified as a two-phase, (1) hydroxyapatite mineral and (2) collagen protein, biological composite with two distinct layers where a stiff, ceramic-like ganoine overlays a soft, highly ductile ganoid bone. Previous experimentations has shown significant softening under compressive loading and an asymmetrical stress-strain response for analogous mineralized tissues. The structural features, porosity, and elastic modulus were determined from high-resolution scanning electron microscopy, 3D micro-tomography, and dynamic nanoindentation experiments to develop an idealized computational model for FE simulations. The numerical analysis employed Gurson's yield criterion to determine the influence of porosity and pressure on material strength. Functional gradation of elastic moduli and certain structural features, such as the sawtooth interface, are explicitly modeled to study the plate impact shock profile for a full 3-D analysis using ABAQUS finite element software.
Magnetic field amplification in interstellar collisionless shock waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chevalier, R.A.
1977-01-01
It is stated that it is commonly assumed that a simple compression of the magnetic field occurs in interstellar shock waves. Recent space observations of the Earth's bow shock have shown that turbulent amplification of the magnetic field can occur in a collisionless shock. It is shown here that radio observations of Tycho's supernova remnant indicate the presence of a shock wave with such magnetic field amplification. There is at present no theory for the microinstabilities that give rise to turbulent amplification of the magnetic field. Despite the lack of theoretical understanding the possibility of field amplification in interstellar shock waves is here considered. In Tycho's supernova remnant there is evidence for the presence of a collisionless shock, and this is discussed. On the basis of observations of the Earth's bow shock, it is expected that turbulent magnetic field amplification occurs in the shock wave of this remnant, and this is supported by radio observations of the remnant. Consideration is given as to what extent the magnetic field is amplified in the shock wave on the basis of the non-thermal radio flux. (U.K.)
Shock wave interaction with pulsed glow discharge and afterglow plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Podder, N.K.; LoCascio, A.C.
2009-01-01
Acoustic shock waves are launched by the spark-discharge of a high voltage capacitor in pulsed glow discharge and afterglow plasmas. The glow discharge section of the shock tube is switched on for a period of less than one second at a time, during which a shock wave is launched starting with a large delay between the plasma switch-on and the shock-launch. In the subsequent runs this delay is decremented in equal time intervals up to the plasma switch-on time. A photo acoustic deflection method sensitive to the density gradient of the shock wave is used to study the propagating shock structure and velocity in the igniting plasma. A similar set of measurements are also performed at the plasma switch-off, in which the delay time is incremented in equal time intervals from the plasma switch-off time until the afterglow plasma fully neutralizes itself into the room-temperature gas. Thus, complete time histories of the shock wave propagation in the igniting plasma, as well as in the afterglow plasma, are produced. In the igniting plasma, the changes in the shock-front velocity and dispersion are found to be a strong non-linear function of delay until a saturation point is reached. On the other hand, in the afterglow plasma the trend has been opposite and reversing towards the room temperature values. The observed shock wave properties in both igniting and afterglow plasmas correlate well with the inferred temperature changes in the two plasmas
[Renal hematomas after extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL)].
Pastor Navarro, Héctor; Carrión López, Pedro; Martínez Ruiz, Jesús; Pastor Guzmán, José Ma; Martínez Martín, Mariano; Virseda Rodríguez, Julio A
2009-03-01
The use of fragmentation due to shock- waves as a treatment of urinary stone was one of the most important therapeutics findings in the history of urology. It's the first election treatment for most of the calculus at renal and urethral location due to the fact that it is a low invasive treatment and it has a few number of complications, but this method also has a few negative side effects, it can caused a more or less important traumatic lesion at the organs which crosses the shock-waves, including the kidney where it can caused a small contusion or renal hematoma with different resolution and treatment. We reviewed 4815 extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy that we performed in our department in which we found six cases with subcapsular and perirenal hematoma which we followed up and treated. After the urological complications (pain, obstruction and infection) the renal and perirenal hematic collections are the most frequent adverse effects of shock-waves used in lithotripsy, these are related to the power of energy used and patient age. Between the years 1992-2007 we performed 4.815 extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy finding seven cases of severe hematoma, less then 1%. Treatment of these complications is usually not aggressive though sometimes it is necessary to perform surgical drainage and even nephrectomy.
Shock wave collisions and thermalization in AdS5
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kovchegov, Yuri V.
2011-01-01
We study heavy ion collisions at strong 't Hooft coupling using AdS/CFT correspondence. According to the AdS/CFT dictionary heavy ion collisions correspond to gravitational shock wave collisions in AdS 5 . We construct the metric in the forward light cone after the collision perturbatively through expansion of Einstein equations in graviton exchanges. We obtain an analytic expression for the metric including all-order graviton exchanges with one shock wave, while keeping the exchanges with another shock wave at the lowest order. We read off the corresponding energy-momentum tensor of the produced medium. Unfortunately this energy-momentum tensor does not correspond to ideal hydrodynamics, indicating that higher order graviton exchanges are needed to construct the full solution of the problem. We also show that shock waves must completely stop almost immediately after the collision in AdS 5 , which, on the field theory side, corresponds to complete nuclear stopping due to strong coupling effects, likely leading to Landau hydrodynamics. Finally, we perform trapped surface analysis of the shock wave collisions demonstrating that a bulk black hole, corresponding to ideal hydrodynamics on the boundary, has to be created in such collisions, thus constructing a proof of thermalization in heavy ion collisions at strong coupling. (author)
Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Hennebelle, Patrick; Fukui, Yasuo; Matsumoto, Tomoaki; Iwasaki, Kazunari; Inutsuka, Shu-ichiro
2018-05-01
Recent observations suggest an that intensive molecular cloud collision can trigger massive star/cluster formation. The most important physical process caused by the collision is a shock compression. In this paper, the influence of a shock wave on the evolution of a molecular cloud is studied numerically by using isothermal magnetohydrodynamics simulations with the effect of self-gravity. Adaptive mesh refinement and sink particle techniques are used to follow the long-time evolution of the shocked cloud. We find that the shock compression of a turbulent inhomogeneous molecular cloud creates massive filaments, which lie perpendicularly to the background magnetic field, as we have pointed out in a previous paper. The massive filament shows global collapse along the filament, which feeds a sink particle located at the collapse center. We observe a high accretion rate \\dot{M}_acc> 10^{-4} M_{⊙}yr-1 that is high enough to allow the formation of even O-type stars. The most massive sink particle achieves M > 50 M_{⊙} in a few times 105 yr after the onset of the filament collapse.
Dispersive shock waves in systems with nonlocal dispersion of Benjamin-Ono type
El, G. A.; Nguyen, L. T. K.; Smyth, N. F.
2018-04-01
We develop a general approach to the description of dispersive shock waves (DSWs) for a class of nonlinear wave equations with a nonlocal Benjamin-Ono type dispersion term involving the Hilbert transform. Integrability of the governing equation is not a pre-requisite for the application of this method which represents a modification of the DSW fitting method previously developed for dispersive-hydrodynamic systems of Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) type (i.e. reducible to the KdV equation in the weakly nonlinear, long wave, unidirectional approximation). The developed method is applied to the Calogero-Sutherland dispersive hydrodynamics for which the classification of all solution types arising from the Riemann step problem is constructed and the key physical parameters (DSW edge speeds, lead soliton amplitude, intermediate shelf level) of all but one solution type are obtained in terms of the initial step data. The analytical results are shown to be in excellent agreement with results of direct numerical simulations.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Takayama, K. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Inst. of Fluid Science
1999-03-15
A shock wave appears when the release of accumulated energy is instantaneous. For instance, it accompanies gunpowder explosion, electric discharge, laser beam convergence, collision of high-speed objects, release of high-pressure gas, and supersonic flight. The shock wave research center of Institute of Fluid Science, Tohoku University, is engaged in researches to elucidate the basics of various shock wave phenomena and to apply the fruit to engineering, science, and medicine. In this report, some examples of recent application studies at the center are described, and the trend of shock wave researches in the future is introduced. The ultimate state of the stagnation point of a nozzle flow simulating a reentry into the atmosphere is produced by shock wave compression in a free piston shock tube which is a ground-borne experimental apparatus. Los Alamos National Laboratory, U.S., succeeded in generating metallic hydrogen of a crystalline structure by subjecting liquid hydrogen to shock wave compression, in which effort a two-stage light gas gun augmented with an accelerator was operated. A high-performance two-stage light gas gun can simulate on the ground a collision of space debris in a high vacuum. Other researches involve the elucidation of the mechanism of sonic noise. (NEDO)
Time-history of shock waves overrunning three-dimensional, cylindrical models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Langheim, H.; Loeffler, E.
To investigate the time-history of the Mach-stem of a shock wave overrunning a nuclear power plant shadowgraphs of threedimensional, cylindrical models with a globe cap were analysed. These models simulating the containment building differ only in the height of the cylinder. They were exposed with shock waves of shock strengths of 1.2 and 1.4, being equal to a peak reflexion overpressure of 0.45 resp. 1.0 bar. The time-histories of the Mach-stem differ only slightly. For this reason it can be stated that these time-histories are independent of the shock strength and the height of the cylinder in the prescribed range of the research program. In comparison with values given in the literature great differences were found at the rear side near the stagnation point of the globe cap resp. the stagnation line of the cylinder. The measured time for overrunning of the shock wave is the same as the time of arrival of the pressure-pulse at the interesting point of the model. This knowledge is a necessary premise for pressure-measurings from which the total load of structure can be determined. (orig.) [de
Test of a new heat-flow equation for dense-fluid shock waves.
Holian, Brad Lee; Mareschal, Michel; Ravelo, Ramon
2010-09-21
Using a recently proposed equation for the heat-flux vector that goes beyond Fourier's Law of heat conduction, we model shockwave propagation in the dense Lennard-Jones fluid. Disequilibrium among the three components of temperature, namely, the difference between the kinetic temperature in the direction of a planar shock wave and those in the transverse directions, particularly in the region near the shock front, gives rise to a new transport (equilibration) mechanism not seen in usual one-dimensional heat-flow situations. The modification of the heat-flow equation was tested earlier for the case of strong shock waves in the ideal gas, which had been studied in the past and compared to Navier-Stokes-Fourier solutions. Now, the Lennard-Jones fluid, whose equation of state and transport properties have been determined from independent calculations, allows us to study the case where potential, as well as kinetic contributions are important. The new heat-flow treatment improves the agreement with nonequilibrium molecular-dynamics simulations under strong shock wave conditions, compared to Navier-Stokes.
Fovargue, Daniel E; Mitran, Sorin; Smith, Nathan B; Sankin, Georgy N; Simmons, Walter N; Zhong, Pei
2013-08-01
A multiphysics computational model of the focusing of an acoustic pulse and subsequent shock wave formation that occurs during extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy is presented. In the electromagnetic lithotripter modeled in this work the focusing is achieved via a polystyrene acoustic lens. The transition of the acoustic pulse through the solid lens is modeled by the linear elasticity equations and the subsequent shock wave formation in water is modeled by the Euler equations with a Tait equation of state. Both sets of equations are solved simultaneously in subsets of a single computational domain within the BEARCLAW framework which uses a finite-volume Riemann solver approach. This model is first validated against experimental measurements with a standard (or original) lens design. The model is then used to successfully predict the effects of a lens modification in the form of an annular ring cut. A second model which includes a kidney stone simulant in the domain is also presented. Within the stone the linear elasticity equations incorporate a simple damage model.
Numerical study of shock-wave/boundary layer interactions in premixed hydrogen-air hypersonic flows
Yungster, Shaye
1991-01-01
A computational study of shock wave/boundary layer interactions involving premixed combustible gases, and the resulting combustion processes is presented. The analysis is carried out using a new fully implicit, total variation diminishing (TVD) code developed for solving the fully coupled Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations and species continuity equations in an efficient manner. To accelerate the convergence of the basic iterative procedure, this code is combined with vector extrapolation methods. The chemical nonequilibrium processes are simulated by means of a finite-rate chemistry model for hydrogen-air combustion. Several validation test cases are presented and the results compared with experimental data or with other computational results. The code is then applied to study shock wave/boundary layer interactions in a ram accelerator configuration. Results indicate a new combustion mechanism in which a shock wave induces combustion in the boundary layer, which then propagates outwards and downstream. At higher Mach numbers, spontaneous ignition in part of the boundary layer is observed, which eventually extends along the entire boundary layer at still higher values of the Mach number.
Interaction of a weak shock wave with a discontinuous heavy-gas cylinder
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Xiansheng; Yang, Dangguo; Wu, Junqiang [High Speed Aerodynamics Institute, China Aerodynamics Research and Development Center, Mianyang 621000 (China); Luo, Xisheng, E-mail: xluo@ustc.edu.cn [Advanced Propulsion Laboratory, Department of Modern Mechanics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China)
2015-06-15
The interaction between a cylindrical inhomogeneity and a weak planar shock wave is investigated experimentally and numerically, and special attention is given to the wave patterns and vortex dynamics in this scenario. A soap-film technique is realized to generate a well-controlled discontinuous cylinder (SF{sub 6} surrounded by air) with no supports or wires in the shock-tube experiment. The symmetric evolving interfaces and few disturbance waves are observed in a high-speed schlieren photography. Numerical simulations are also carried out for a detailed analysis. The refracted shock wave inside the cylinder is perturbed by the diffracted shock waves and divided into three branches. When these shock branches collide, the shock focusing occurs. A nonlinear model is then proposed to elucidate effects of the wave patterns on the evolution of the cylinder. A distinct vortex pair is gradually developing during the shock-cylinder interaction. The numerical results show that a low pressure region appears at the vortex core. Subsequently, the ambient fluid is entrained into the vortices which are expanding at the same time. Based on the relation between the vortex motion and the circulation, several theoretical models of circulation in the literature are then checked by the experimental and numerical results. Most of these theoretical circulation models provide a reasonably good prediction of the vortex motion in the present configuration.
Blast Shock Wave Mitigation Using the Hydraulic Energy Redirection and Release Technology
Chen, Yun; Huang, Wei; Constantini, Shlomi
2012-01-01
A hydraulic energy redirection and release technology has been developed for mitigating the effects of blast shock waves on protected objects. The technology employs a liquid-filled plastic tubing as a blast overpressure transformer to transfer kinetic energy of blast shock waves into hydraulic energy in the plastic tubings. The hydraulic energy is redirected through the plastic tubings to the openings at the lower ends, and then is quickly released with the liquid flowing out through the openings. The samples of the specifically designed body armor in which the liquid-filled plastic tubings were installed vertically as the outer layer of the body armor were tested. The blast test results demonstrated that blast overpressure behind the body armor samples was remarkably reduced by 97% in 0.2 msec after the liquid flowed out of its appropriate volume through the openings. The results also suggested that a volumetric liquid surge might be created when kinetic energy of blast shock wave was transferred into hydraulic energy to cause a rapid physical movement or displacement of the liquid. The volumetric liquid surge has a strong destructive power, and can cause a noncontact, remote injury in humans (such as blast-induced traumatic brain injury and post-traumatic stress disorder) if it is created in cardiovascular system. The hydraulic energy redirection and release technology can successfully mitigate blast shock waves from the outer surface of the body armor. It should be further explored as an innovative approach to effectively protect against blast threats to civilian and military personnel. PMID:22745740
International shock-wave database project : report of the requirements workshop.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aidun, John Bahram (Institute of Problems of chemical Physics of Russian Academy of Sciences); Lomonosov, Igor V. (Institute of Problems of chemical Physics of Russian Academy of Sciences); Levashov, Pavel R. (Joint Institute for High Temperatures of Russian Academy of Sciences)
2012-03-01
We report on the requirements workshop for a new project, the International Shock-Wave database (ISWdb), which was held October 31 - November 2, 2011, at GSI, Darmstadt, Germany. Participants considered the idea of this database, its structure, technical requirements, content, and principles of operation. This report presents the consensus conclusions from the workshop, key discussion points, and the goals and plan for near-term and intermediate-term development of the ISWdb. The main points of consensus from the workshop were: (1) This international database is of interest and of practical use for the shock-wave and high pressure physics communities; (2) Intermediate state information and off-Hugoniot information is important and should be included in ISWdb; (3) Other relevant high pressure and auxiliary data should be included to the database, in the future; (4) Information on the ISWdb needs to be communicated, broadly, to the research community; and (5) Operating structure will consist of an Advisory Board, subject-matter expert Moderators to vet submitted data, and the database Project Team. This brief report is intended to inform the shock-wave research community and interested funding agencies about the project, as its success, ultimately, depends on both of these groups finding sufficient value in the database to use it, contribute to it, and support it.
Measuring the flexoelectric coefficient of bulk barium titanate from a shock wave experiment
Hu, Taotao; Deng, Qian; Liang, Xu; Shen, Shengping
2017-08-01
In this paper, a phenomenon of polarization introduced by shock waves is experimentally studied. Although this phenomenon has been reported previously in the community of physics, this is the first time to link it to flexoelectricity, the coupling between electric polarization and strain gradients in dielectrics. As the shock waves propagate in a dielectric material, electric polarization is thought to be induced by the strain gradient at the shock front. First, we control the first-order hydrogen gas gun to impact and generate shock waves in unpolarized bulk barium titanate (BT) samples. Then, a high-precision oscilloscope is used to measure the voltage generated by the flexoelectric effect. Based on experimental results, strain elastic wave theory, and flexoelectric theory, a longitudinal flexoelectric coefficient of the bulk BT sample is calculated to be μ 11 = 17.33 × 10 - 6 C/m, which is in accord with the published transverse flexoelectric coefficient. This method effectively suppresses the majority of drawbacks in the quasi-static and low frequency dynamic techniques and provides more reliable results of flexoelectric behaviors.
Plasma acceleration by magnetic nozzles and shock waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hattori, Kunihiko; Murakami, Fumitake; Miyazaki, Hiroyuki; Imasaki, Atsushi; Yoshinuma, Mikirou; Ando, Akira; Inutake, Masaaki
2001-01-01
We have measured axial profiles of ion acoustic Mach number, M i , of a plasma flow blowing off from an MPD (magneto-plasma-dynamic) arc-jet in various magnetic configurations. It is found that the Mach number increases in a divergent nozzle up to 3, while it stays at about unity in a uniform magnetic channel. When a magnetic bump is added in the exit of the divergent magnetic nozzle, the Mach number suddenly decreases below unity, due to an occurrence of shock wave. The subsonic flow after the shock wave is re-accelerated to a supersonic flow through a magnetic Laval nozzle. This behavior is explained well by the one-dimensional isotropic flow model. The shock wave is discussed in relation to the Rankine-Hugoniot relation. (author)
Shock wave focusing in water inside convergent structures
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C Wang
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Experiments on shock focusing in water-filled convergent structures have been performed. A shock wave in water is generated by means of a projectile, launched from a gas gun, which impacts a water-filled convergent structure. Two types of structures have been tested; a bulk material and a thin shell structure. The geometric shape of the convergent structures is given by a logarithmic spiral, and this particular shape is chosen because it maximizes the amount of energy reaching the focal region. High-speed schlieren photography is used to visualize the shock dynamics during the focusing event. Results show that the fluid-structure interaction between the thin shell structure and the shock wave in the water is different from that of a bulk structure; multiple reflections of the shock wave inside the thin shell are reflected back into the water, thus creating a wave train, which is not observed for shock focusing in a bulk material.
Influence of interface scattering on shock waves in heterogeneous solids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhuang Shiming; Ravichandran, Guruswami; Grady, Dennis E.
2002-01-01
In heterogeneous media, the scattering due to interfaces between dissimilar materials play an important role in shock wave dissipation and dispersion. In this work the influence of interface scattering effect on shock waves was studied by impacting flyer plates onto periodically layered polycarbonate/6061 aluminum, polycarbonate/304 stainless steel and polycarbonate/glass composites. The experimental results (using VISAR and stress gauges) indicate that the rise time of the shock front decreases with increasing shock strength, and increases with increasing mechanical impedance mismatch between layers; the strain rate at the shock front increases by about the square of the shock stress. Experimental and numerical results also show that due to interface scattering effect the shock wave velocity in periodically layered composites decreases. In some cases the shock velocity of a layered heterogeneous composite can be lower than that of either of its components
Development of a Novel Shock Wave Catheter Ablation System
Yamamoto, H.; Hasebe, Yuhi; Kondo, Masateru; Fukuda, Koji; Takayama, Kazuyoshi; Shimokawa, Hiroaki
Although radio-frequency catheter ablation (RFCA) is quite effective for the treatment tachyarrhythmias, it possesses two fundamental limitations, including limited efficacy for the treatment of ventricular tachyarrhythmias of epicardial origin and the risk of thromboembolism. Consequently, new method is required, which can eradicate arrhythmia source in deep part of cardiac muscle without heating. On the other hand, for a medical application of shock waves, extracorporeal shock wave lithotripter (ESWL) has been established [1]. It was demonstrated that the underwater shock focusing is one of most efficient method to generate a controlled high pressure in a small region [2]. In order to overcome limitations of existing methods, we aimed to develop a new catheter ablation system with underwater shock waves that can treat myocardium at arbitrary depth without causing heat.
On possible structures of transverse ionizing shock waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liberman, M.A.; Velikovich, A.L.
1978-01-01
The possible structures of ionizing shock waves propagating in gases across the magnetic field are investigated taking account of both ionization kinetics and the non-isothermality of the plasma which is formed within the shock front. It is shown that a definite factor in shaping the structure of the transverse ionizing shock wave is photo-ionization of the neutral gas across the front. The paper includes a study of the evolution of the transverse ionizing shock front with regard to photo-ionization, disclosing that a stable stationary shock structure emerges only in boundary conditions which are close to magnetohydrodynamic ones, i.e. upsilon 1 H 1 = upsilon 2 H 2 . In the case of strong transverse ionizing shock waves, when the flux of ionizing radiation across the front is great, the shock structure is obviously magnetohydrodynamic. (author)
Shock wave attenuation in a micro-channel
Giordano, J.; Perrier, P.; Meister, L.; Brouillette, M.
2018-05-01
This work presents optical measurements of shock wave attenuation in a glass micro-channel. This transparent facility, with a cross section ranging from 1 mm× 150 μm to 1 mm× 500 μm, allowed for the use of high-speed schlieren videography to visualize the propagation of a shock wave within the entire micro-channel and to quantify velocity attenuation of the wave due to wall effects. In this paper, we present the experimental technique and the relevant data treatment we have used to increase the sensitivity of shock wave detection. Then, we compared our experimental results for different channel widths, lengths, and shock wave velocities with the analytical model for shock attenuation proposed by Russell (J Fluid Mech 27(2):305-314, 1967), which assumes laminar flow, and by Mirels (Attenuation in a shock tube due to unsteady-boundary-layer action, NACA Report 1333, 1957) for turbulent flow. We found that these models are inadequate to predict the observed data, owing to the presence of fully developed flow which violates the basic assumption of these models. The data are also compared with the empirical shock attenuation models proposed by Zeitoun (Phys Fluids 27(1):011701, 2015) and Deshpande and Puranik (Shock Waves 26(4):465-475, 2016), where better agreement is observed. Finally, we presented experimental data for the flow field behind the shock wave from measurements of the Mach wave angle which shows globally decreasing flow Mach numbers due to viscous wall effects.
Effects of explosion-generated shock waves in ducts
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Busby, M.R.; Kahn, J.E.; Belk, J.P.
1976-01-01
An explosion in a space causes an increase in temperature and pressure. To quantify the challenge that will be presented to essential components in a ventilation system, it is necessary to analyze the dynamics of a shock wave generated by an explosion, with attention directed to the propagation of such a wave in a duct. Using the equations of unsteady flow and shock tube theory, a theoretical model has been formulated to provide flow properties behind moving shock waves that have interacted with various changes in duct geometry. Empirical equations have been derived to calculate air pressure, temperature, Mach number, and velocity in a duct following an explosion
The importance of microjet vs shock wave formation in sonophoresis.
Wolloch, Lior; Kost, Joseph
2010-12-01
Low-frequency ultrasound application has been shown to greatly enhance transdermal drug delivery. Skin exposed to ultrasound is affected in a heterogeneous manner, thus mass transport through the stratum corneum occurs mainly through highly permeable localized transport regions (LTRs). Shock waves and microjets generated during inertial cavitations are responsible for the transdermal permeability enhancement. In this study, we evaluated the effect of these two phenomena using direct and indirect methods, and demonstrated that the contribution of microjets to skin permeability enhancement is significantly higher than shock waves. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Have shock waves been observed in nuclear collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gudima, K.K.; Toneev, V.D.
Experimental data on shock wave phenomena in nuclear reactions are analyzed within the kinetic theory rather than that of the hydrodynamic approach. Beginning with a presentation of the model, which is a generalization of the cascade--evaporation model to the case of the interaction of two nuclei, it is then ascertained to what degree the developed approach is valid. Next on the basis of this model the results of experiments performed are examined to find the effects of a shock wave. The results of this analysis and the related set-up of new experiments are discussed also. 34 references
Geometry of fast magnetosonic rays, wavefronts and shock waves
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Núñez, Manuel, E-mail: mnjmhd@am.uva.es
2016-11-25
Fast magnetosonic waves in a two-dimensional plasma are studied in the geometrical optics approximation. The geometry of rays and wavefronts influences decisively the formation and ulterior evolution of shock waves. It is shown that the curvature of the curve where rays start and the angle between rays and wavefronts are the main parameters governing a wide variety of possible outcomes. - Highlights: • Magnetosonic waves are studied in a genuinely multidimensional setting. • Curvature and the angle between rays and wavefronts are the main parameters. • Shock waves may exist or not, depending on initial conditions. • Both velocity and shape of those waves present a large variety of possible outcomes.
Characterization and modification of cavitation pattern in shock wave lithotripsy
Arora, Manish; Ohl, Claus Dieter; Liebler, Marko
2004-01-01
The temporal and spatial dynamics of cavitation bubble cloud growth and collapse in extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) is studied experimentally. The first objective is obtaining reproducible cloud patterns experimentally and comparing them with FDTD-calculations. Second, we describe a method to modify the cavitation pattern by timing two consecutive pressure waves at variable delays. It is found that the spatial and temporal dynamics of the cavitation bubble can be varied in large ranges. The ability to control cavitation dynamics allows discussing strategies for improvement of medical and biological applications of shock waves such as cell membrane poration and stone fragmentation.
Spatiotemporal dynamics of underwater conical shock wave focusing
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Hoffer, Petr; Lukeš, Petr; Akiyama, H.; Hosseini, H.
2017-01-01
Roč. 27, č. 4 (2017), s. 685-690 ISSN 0938-1287 Grant - others:Rada Programu interní podpory projektů mezinárodní spolupráce AV ČR(CZ) M100431203 Program:M Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Underwater shock wave focusing * multichannel * electrohydraulic discharge * conical shock wave reflection * medical application Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics OBOR OECD: Applied mechanics Impact factor: 1.107, year: 2016 https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00193-016-0703-7
Dispersive shock waves in nonlinear and atomic optics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kamchatnov Anatoly
2017-01-01
Full Text Available A brief review is given of dispersive shock waves observed in nonlinear optics and dynamics of Bose-Einstein condensates. The theory of dispersive shock waves is developed on the basis of Whitham modulation theory for various situations taking place in these two fields. In particular, the full classification is established for types of wave structures evolving from initial discontinuities for propagation of long light pulses in fibers with account of steepening effect and for dynamics of the polarization mode in two-component Bose-Einstein condensates.
Shock wave effects in copper: Design of an experimental device for post recovery mechanical testing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Buy, Francois; Llorca, Fabrice
2002-01-01
The mechanical behavior of metals may prove high changes with strain rate and pressure loading history. In order to investigate the effect of a shock on the ulterior mechanical behavior of high purity copper, we set up an experimental device inspired from G. T. Gray III's works. This device, based on the trapping of shock waves after a plane plate impact is validated by numerical simulations. The aim of these simulations is the evaluation of the heterogeneity of plastic deformation. Shock pressures up to 10 GPa have been investigated. The plastic strain levels subsequent to the shock are between 0.08 and 0.15 in the sample
Admissibility region for rarefaction shock waves in dense gases
Zamfirescu, C.; Guardone, A.; Colonna, P.
2008-01-01
In the vapour phase and close to the liquid–vapour saturation curve, fluids made of complex molecules are expected to exhibit a thermodynamic region in which the fundamental derivative of gasdynamic ? is negative. In this region, non-classical gasdynamic phenomena such as rarefaction shock waves are
Disintegration of a profiled shock wave at the cumulation point
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaliski, S.
1978-01-01
The disintegration at the cumulation point is analyzed of a shock wave generated with the aid of a profiled pressure. The quantitative relations are analyzed for the disintegration waves for typical compression parameters in systems of thermonuclear microfusion. The quantitative conclusions are drawn for the application of simplifying approximate calculations in problems of microfusion. (author)
CALCULATION OF SHOCK-WAVE PULSE EFFECT ON OUTSTRETCHED SPINE
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G. A. Esman
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Combined effects of a shock-wave pulse method and mechanotherapy on a spine is considered as an alternative to conservative and operative methods.Methodology for spinal disease treatment while applying a shock-wave therapy is characterized by the following specific features. Firstly, it is necessary to limit a penetration depth of shock pulses in a biological object in order to exclude damage to a spinal cord. Secondly, it is necessary to limit an energy flux density:Imax≤ 0,280 J∕m2and pressure in focus:PFmax≤ 0,040 MPа,in order to exclude traumatizing of spinal tissue and only stimulate blood circulation and metabolic processes in them.Where an acceptable value of the force acting on the inter-vertebral disc while a shock wave is passing is determined by the following formula: F max = PFmaxS = PFmax πr02 = 0,040 ∙106 ∙3,14 ∙(8∙10-32 = 9 N, where r0 – a focal spot radius, mm.Mechanotherapy is applied in combination with the shock-wave therapy and it presupposes the following: an outstretching force acts created in a longitudinal direction of the spine and it is directed across a vertebral column, whose value usually ranges from 50 to 500 N.
Dynamics of Laser-Driven Shock Waves in Solid Targets
Aglitskiy, Y.; Karasik, M.; Velikovich, A. L.; Serlin, V.; Weaver, J.; Schmitt, A. J.; Obenschain, S. P.; Grun, J.; Metzler, N.; Zalesak, S. T.; Gardner, J. H.; Oh, J.; Harding, E. C.
2009-11-01
Accurate shock timing is a key issue of both indirect- and direct-drive laser fusions. The experiments on the Nike laser at NRL presented here were made possible by improvements in the imaging capability of our monochromatic x-ray diagnostics based on Bragg reflection from spherically curved crystals. Side-on imaging implemented on Nike makes it possible to observe dynamics of the shock wave and ablation front in laser-driven solid targets. We can choose to observe a sequence of 2D images or a continuous time evolution of an image resolved in one spatial dimension. A sequence of 300 ps snapshots taken using vanadium backlighter at 5.2 keV reveals propagation of a shock wave in a solid plastic target. The shape of the shock wave reflects the intensity distribution in the Nike beam. The streak records with continuous time resolution show the x-t trajectory of a laser-driven shock wave in a 10% solid density DVB foam.
Dust acoustic solitary and shock waves in strongly coupled dusty ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
between nonlinear and dispersion effects can result in the formation of symmetrical solitary waves. Also shock ... et al have studied the effect of nonadiabatic dust charge variation on the nonlinear dust acoustic wave with ..... Figure 5 presents the border between oscillatory- and monotonic-type shock waves as functions of ...
The gravitational shock wave of a massless particle
Hooft, G. 't; Dray, T
1985-01-01
The (spherical) gravitational shock wave due to a massless particle moving at the speed of light along the horizon of the Schwarzchild black hole is obtained. Special cases of our procedure yield previous results by Aichelburg and Sexl[1] for a photon in Minkowski vpace and by Penrose [2] for
Changing the Window of Shock Wave Application. How it improves ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Objectives: The aim of this work is to study the impact of using multiple windows of shock wave application on the results of ESWL therapy for renal calculi. Patients and Methods: Between January 1996 and October 2002, 676 patients with single pelvic stones ≤ 2.5 cm and either no or mild back pressure changes were ...
paediatric ureteric calculi: in-situ extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Objective To evaluate prospectively the efficacy of in-situ extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) in the treatment of ureteric calculi in the paediatric age group. Patients and Methods Twenty children (aged 2.2 16 years) with 22 ureteric stones were evaluated and treated with in-situ ESWL using the Dornier S lithotripter ...
Characterization and modification of cavitation pattern in shock wave lithotripsy
Arora, M.; Ohl, C.D.; Liebler, Marko
2004-01-01
The temporal and spatial dynamics of cavitation bubble cloud growth and collapse in extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) is studied experimentally. The first objective is obtaining reproducible cloud patterns experimentally and comparing them with FDTD-calculations. Second, we describe a
Cell detachment method using shock wave induced cavitation
Junge, L.; Junge, L.; Ohl, C.D.; Wolfrum, B.; Arora, M.; Ikink, R.
2003-01-01
The detachment of adherent HeLa cells from a substrate after the interaction with a shock wave is analyzed. Cavitation bubbles are formed in the trailing, negative pressure cycle following the shock front. We find that the regions of cell detachment are strongly correlated with spatial presence of
Cavitation cluster dynamics in shock-wave lithotripsy: Part I
Arora, M.; Junge, L.; Junge, L.; Ohl, C.D.
2005-01-01
The spatiotemporal dynamics of cavitation bubble growth and collapse in shock-wave lithotripsy in a free field was studied experimentally. The lithotripter was equipped with two independently triggerable layers of piezoceramics. The front and back layers generated positive pressure amplitudes of 30
Dynamic Theory: some shock wave and energy implications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Williams, P.E.
1981-02-01
The Dynamic Theory, a unifying five-dimensional theory of space, time, and matter, is examined. The theory predicts an observed discrepancy between shock wave viscosity measurements at low and high pressures in aluminum, a limiting mass-to-energy conversion rate consistent with the available data, and reduced pressures in electromagneticaly contained controlled-fusion plasmas
Corona-like multistreamer discharge in water for cylindrical shock wave generation
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Prukner, Václav; Koláček, Karel; Schmidt, Jiří; Štraus, Jaroslav; Frolov, Oleksandr; Martínková, M.
2006-01-01
Roč. 56, suppl.B (2006), s. 342-348 ISSN 0011-4626. [Symposium on Plasma Physics and Technology/22nd./. Praha, 26.6.2006-29.6.2006] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/06/1324; GA MŠk 1P04LA235 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Shock wave in water * Corona-like multi-streamer discharge Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 0.568, year: 2006
The structure of steady shock waves in porous metals
Czarnota, Christophe; Molinari, Alain; Mercier, Sébastien
2017-10-01
The paper aims at developing an understanding of steady shock wave propagation in a ductile metallic material containing voids. Porosity is assumed to be less than 0.3 and voids are not connected (foams are not considered). As the shock wave is traveling in the porous medium, the voids are facing a rapid collapse. During this dynamic compaction process, material particles are subjected to very high acceleration in the vicinity of voids, thus generating acceleration forces at the microscale that influence the overall response of the porous material. Analyzing how stationary shocks are influenced by these micro-inertia effects is the main goal of this work. The focus is essentially on the shock structure, ignoring oscillatory motion of pores prevailing at the tail of the shock wave. Following the constitutive framework developed by Molinari and Ravichandran (2004) for the analysis of steady shock waves in dense metals, an analytical approach of steady state propagation of plastic shocks in porous metals is proposed. The initial void size appears as a characteristic internal length that scales the overall dynamic response, thereby contributing to the structuring of the shock front. This key feature is not captured by standard damage models where the porosity stands for the single damage parameter with no contribution of the void size. The results obtained in this work provide a new insight in the fundamental understanding of shock waves in porous media. In particular, a new scaling law relating the shock width to the initial void radius is obtained when micro-inertia effects are significant.
Shock wave treatment in medicine; J. Biosci. 30 269–275
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Unknown
269. Keywords. Acoustical energy; electromagnetic field; piezoelectric effect; shock wave ... life without being noticed. The sound of ... A typical pressure profile of a shock wave in the focus of an ... shock waves create low side effects on the way through muscles, fat- ... luation of the ESWT for orthopedic diseases many clini-.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
AKM Zamanul Islam Bhuiyan
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Background: Renal calculi are frequent causes of ureteric colic. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy is the most common treatment of these stones. It uses focused sound waves to break up stones externally. Objective: To compare the efficiency of slow and fast delivery rate of shock waves on stone fragmentation and treatment outcome in patients with renal calculi. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was done in the department of Urology, National Institute of Kidney diseases and Urology, Sher-e-Bangla Nagar, Dhaka from July 2006 to June 2007. Total 90 patients were treated using the Storz Medical Modulith ® SLX lithotripter. Patients were divided into Group A, Group B and Group C – each group having 30 subjects. Group A was selected for extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL by 60 shock waves per minute, Group B by 90 shock waves per minute and Group C by 120 shock waves per minute. Results: Complete clearance of stone was observed in 24 patients in Group A and 13 patients in both Group B and Group C in first session. In Group A only 3 patients needed second session but in Group B and Group C, 12 and 8 patients needed second session. In Group A only one patient needed third session but third session was required for 3 patients in Group B and 5 patients in Group C for complete clearance of stone. In Group A, subsequent sessions were performed under spinal anesthesia and in Group B under sedation and analgesia (p>0.001. Mean number of sessions for full clearance of stones in group A was 1.37 ± 0.85, in Group B was 1.8 ± 0.887 and in Group C was 2.0 ± 1.083. Significant difference was observed in term of sessions among groups (p>0.05. In first follow-up, complete clearance of stones was seen in 24 patients in Group A and 13 in both Group B and Group C. In second follow-up, 3 patients in Group A, 12 in Group B and 8 in Group C showed complete clearance of stones. It was observed that rate of stone clearance was higher in Group A
Modeling shock waves in an ideal gas: Going beyond the Navier-Stokes level
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Holian, B.L.; Patterson, C.W.; Mareschal, M.; Salomons, E.
1993-01-01
We model a shock wave in an ideal gas by solving a modified version of the compressible Navier-Stokes equations of hydrodynamics, where, following an earlier conjecture by Holian [Phys. Rev. A 37, 2562 (1988)], we use the temperature in the direction of shock propagation T xx , rather than the average temperature T=(T xx +T yy +T zz )/3, in the evaluation of the linear transport coefficients. The results are found to agree much better with the molecular-dynamics simulations of Salomons and Mareschal [Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 269 (1992)] than standard Navier-Stokes theory
Kittell, D. E.; Yarrington, C. D.; Lechman, J. B.; Baer, M. R.
2018-05-01
A new paradigm is introduced for modeling reactive shock waves in heterogeneous solids at the continuum level. Inspired by the probability density function methods from turbulent reactive flows, it is hypothesized that the unreacted material microstructures lead to a distribution of heat release rates from chemical reaction. Fluctuations in heat release, rather than velocity, are coupled to the reactive Euler equations which are then solved via the Riemann problem. A numerically efficient, one-dimensional hydrocode is used to demonstrate this new approach, and simulation results of a representative impact calculation (inert flyer into explosive target) are discussed.
Ion-acoustic shock waves with negative ions in presence of dust particulates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sarma, Arun; Nakamura, Y.
2009-01-01
Dust acoustics shock waves have been investigated experimentally in a homogeneous unmagnetized dusty plasma device containing negative ions. When the negative ion density larger than a critical concentration 'r c ' negative shock waves were observed instead of positive shock waves. Again when it is nearly equal to 'r c ' both positive and negative shock waves propagate. The experimental findings are compared with modified KdV-Burgers equation. The velocity of the shock waves are also measured and compared with the numerical integration of modified KdV-Burgers equation.
Transonic Shock-Wave/Boundary-Layer Interactions on an Oscillating Airfoil
Davis, Sanford S.; Malcolm, Gerald N.
1980-01-01
Unsteady aerodynamic loads were measured on an oscillating NACA 64A010 airfoil In the NASA Ames 11 by 11 ft Transonic Wind Tunnel. Data are presented to show the effect of the unsteady shock-wave/boundary-layer interaction on the fundamental frequency lift, moment, and pressure distributions. The data show that weak shock waves induce an unsteady pressure distribution that can be predicted quite well, while stronger shock waves cause complex frequency-dependent distributions due to flow separation. An experimental test of the principles of linearity and superposition showed that they hold for weak shock waves while flows with stronger shock waves cannot be superimposed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shooshtari, S.H. Rajaee; Shahsavand, A.
2017-01-01
Natural gases provide around a quarter of energy consumptions around the globe. Supersonic separators (3S) play multifaceted role in natural gas industry processing, especially for water and hydrocarbon dew point corrections. These states of the art devices have minimum energy requirement and favorable process economy compared to conventional facilities. Their relatively large pressure drops may limit their application in some situations. To maximize the energy recovery of the dew point correction facility, the pressure loss across the 3S unit should be minimized. The optimal structure of 3s unit (including shock wave location and diffuser angle) is selected using simultaneous combination of normal shock occurrence and condensation in the presence of nucleation and growth processes. The condense-free gas enters the non-isentropic normal shock wave. The simulation results indicate that the normal shock location, pressure recovery coefficient and onset position strongly vary up to a certain diffuser angle (β = 8°) with the maximum pressure recovery of 0.88 which leads to minimum potential energy loss. Computational fluid dynamic simulations show that separation of boundary layer does not happen for the computed optimal value of β and it is essentially constant when the inlet gas temperatures and pressures vary over a relatively broad range. - Highlights: • Supersonic separators have found numerous applications in oil and gas industries. • Maximum pressure recovery is crucial for such units to maximize energy efficiency. • Simultaneous condensation and shock wave occurrence are studied for the first time. • Diverging nozzle angle of 8° can provide maximum pressure recovery of 0.88. • The optimal diffuser angle remains constant over a broad range of inlet conditions.
Shock wave loading of a magnetic guide
Kindt, L.
2011-01-01
The atom laser has long been a holy grail within atom physics and with the creation of an atom laser we hope to bring a similar revolution in to the field of atom optics. With the creation of the Bose-Einstein Condensate (BEC) in 1995 the path to an atom laser was initiated. An atom laser is
The microphysics of collisionless shock waves
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Marcowith, Alexandre; Bret, Antoine; Bykov, Andrei
2016-01-01
Collisionless shocks, that is shocks mediated by electromagnetic processes, are customary in space physics and in astrophysics. They are to be found in a great variety of objects and environments: magnetospheric and heliospheric shocks, supernova remnants, pulsar winds and their nebulæ, active ga...
Incidence of cavitation in the fragmentation process of extracorporeal shock wave lithotriptors
Rink, K.; Delacrétaz, G.; Pittomvils, G.; Boving, R.; Lafaut, J. P.
1994-05-01
The fragmentation mechanism occurring in extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) is investigated using a fiber optic stress sensing technique. With our technique, we demonstrate that cavitation is a major cause of fragmentation in ESWL procedures. When a target is placed in the operating area of the lithotriptor, two shock waves are detected. The first detected shock wave corresponds to the incoming shock wave generated by the lithotriptor. The second shock wave, detected some hundreds of microseconds later, is generated in situ. It results from the collapse of a cavitation bubble, formed by the reflection of the incoming shock wave at the target boundary. This cavitation induced shock wave generates the largest stress in the target area according to our stress sensing measurements.
Extracorporeal shock wave therapy in periodontics: A new paradigm
Venkatesh Prabhuji, Munivenkatappa Lakshmaiah; Khaleelahmed, Shaeesta; Vasudevalu, Sujatha; Vinodhini, K.
2014-01-01
The quest for exploring new frontiers in the field of medical science for efficient and improved treatment modalities has always been on a rise. Extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) has been enormously used in medical practice, principally, for the management of urolithiasis, cholelithiasis and also in various orthopedic and musculoskeletal disorders. The efficacy of ESWT in the stimulation of osteoblasts, fibroblasts, induction of neovascularization and increased expression of bone morphogenic proteins has been well documented in the literature. However, dentistry is no exception to this trend. The present article enlightens the various applications of ESWT in the field of dentistry and explores its prospective applications in the field of periodontics, and the possibility of incorporating the beneficial properties of shock waves in improving the treatment outcome. PMID:25024562
Extracorporeal shock wave therapy in periodontics: A new paradigm.
Venkatesh Prabhuji, Munivenkatappa Lakshmaiah; Khaleelahmed, Shaeesta; Vasudevalu, Sujatha; Vinodhini, K
2014-05-01
The quest for exploring new frontiers in the field of medical science for efficient and improved treatment modalities has always been on a rise. Extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) has been enormously used in medical practice, principally, for the management of urolithiasis, cholelithiasis and also in various orthopedic and musculoskeletal disorders. The efficacy of ESWT in the stimulation of osteoblasts, fibroblasts, induction of neovascularization and increased expression of bone morphogenic proteins has been well documented in the literature. However, dentistry is no exception to this trend. The present article enlightens the various applications of ESWT in the field of dentistry and explores its prospective applications in the field of periodontics, and the possibility of incorporating the beneficial properties of shock waves in improving the treatment outcome.
Extracorporeal shock wave therapy in periodontics: A new paradigm
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Munivenkatappa Lakshmaiah Venkatesh Prabhuji
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The quest for exploring new frontiers in the field of medical science for efficient and improved treatment modalities has always been on a rise. Extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT has been enormously used in medical practice, principally, for the management of urolithiasis, cholelithiasis and also in various orthopedic and musculoskeletal disorders. The efficacy of ESWT in the stimulation of osteoblasts, fibroblasts, induction of neovascularization and increased expression of bone morphogenic proteins has been well documented in the literature. However, dentistry is no exception to this trend. The present article enlightens the various applications of ESWT in the field of dentistry and explores its prospective applications in the field of periodontics, and the possibility of incorporating the beneficial properties of shock waves in improving the treatment outcome.
Excitation of intense shock waves by soft X-radiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Branitskij, A.V.; Fortov, V.E.; Danilenko, K.N.; Dyabilin, K.S.; Grabovskij, E.V.; Vorobev, O. Yu.; Lebedev, M.E.; Smirnov, V.P.; Zakharov, A.E.; Persyantsev, I.V.
1996-01-01
Investigation of the shock waves generated by soft x radiation in Al, Sn, Fe, and Pb targets is reported. The soft x radiation was induced by the dynamic compression and heating of the cylindrical z-pinch plasma generated in the ANGARA-5-1 pulsed power machine. The temperature of the z-pinch plasma was as high as 60 - 120 eV, and the duration of the x-ray pulse reached 30 ns FWHM. Thick stepped Al/Pb, Sn/Pb, and pure Pb targets were used. The results of experiments show that uniform intense shock waves can be generated by z-pinch plasma soft x-ray radiation. The uniformity of the shock is very high. At a flux power of the order of several TW/cm 2 , a shock pressure of some hundreds of GPa was achieved. (J.U.). 3 figs., 11 refs
Shock-wave structure formation in a dusty plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Popel', S.I.; Golub', A.P.; Loseva, T.V.; Bingkhem, R.; Benkadda, S.
2001-01-01
Nonstationary problem on evolution perturbation and its transformation into nonlinear wave structure is considered. The method developed permits finding solution to the system of nonlinear evolution equations describing dust particles with variable charge, Boltzmann electron and inertia ions. An accurate stationary solution as ion-sonic wave structures explained by anomalous dissipation due to electric discharge of dust particles was found. Evolution of two types of initial perturbations was studied, i.e.: soliton and immobile region with increased density of ions - a step. Soliton evolution in plasma with variable charge of dust particles results in the appearance on nonstationary shock-wave structure, whereas the step evolution gives rise to appearance of a shock wave similar to the stationary one along with rarefaction wave [ru
Excitation of intense shock waves by soft X-radiation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Branitskij, A V; Fortov, V E; Danilenko, K N; Dyabilin, K S; Grabovskij, E V; Vorobev, O Yu; Lebedev, M E; Smirnov, V P; Zakharov, A E; Persyantsev, I V [Troitsk Inst. of Innovative and Fusion Research, Troitsk (Russian Federation)
1997-12-31
Investigation of the shock waves generated by soft x radiation in Al, Sn, Fe, and Pb targets is reported. The soft x radiation was induced by the dynamic compression and heating of the cylindrical z-pinch plasma generated in the ANGARA-5-1 pulsed power machine. The temperature of the z-pinch plasma was as high as 60 - 120 eV, and the duration of the x-ray pulse reached 30 ns FWHM. Thick stepped Al/Pb, Sn/Pb, and pure Pb targets were used. The results of experiments show that uniform intense shock waves can be generated by z-pinch plasma soft x-ray radiation. The uniformity of the shock is very high. At a flux power of the order of several TW/cm{sup 2}, a shock pressure of some hundreds of GPa was achieved. (J.U.). 3 figs., 11 refs.
Renal pelvic stones: choosing shock wave lithotripsy or percutaneous nephrolithotomy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Robert Marcovich
2003-06-01
Full Text Available Introduction of minimally invasive techniques has revolutionized the surgical management of renal calculi. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy and percutaneous nephrolithotomy are now both well-established procedures. Each modality has advantages and disadvantages, and the application of each should be based on well-defined factors. These variables include stone factors such as number, size, and composition; factors related to the stone's environment, including the stone's location, spatial anatomy of the renal collecting system, presence of hydronephrosis, and other anatomic variables, such as the presence of calyceal diverticula and renal anomalies; and clinical or patient factors like morbid obesity, the presence of a solitary kidney, and renal insufficiency. The morbidity of each procedure in relation to its efficacy should be taken in to account. This article will review current knowledge and suggest an algorithm for the rational management of renal calculi with shock wave lithotripsy and percutaneous nephrolithotomy.
Rogue and shock waves in nonlinear dispersive media
Resitori, Stefania; Baronio, Fabio
2016-01-01
This self-contained set of lectures addresses a gap in the literature by providing a systematic link between the theoretical foundations of the subject matter and cutting-edge applications in both geophysical fluid dynamics and nonlinear optics. Rogue and shock waves are phenomena that may occur in the propagation of waves in any nonlinear dispersive medium. Accordingly, they have been observed in disparate settings – as ocean waves, in nonlinear optics, in Bose-Einstein condensates, and in plasmas. Rogue and dispersive shock waves are both characterized by the development of extremes: for the former, the wave amplitude becomes unusually large, while for the latter, gradients reach extreme values. Both aspects strongly influence the statistical properties of the wave propagation and are thus considered together here in terms of their underlying theoretical treatment. This book offers a self-contained graduate-level text intended as both an introduction and reference guide for a new generation of scientists ...
Shock wave compression and metallization of simple molecules
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ross, M.; Radousky, H.B.
1988-03-01
In this paper we combine shock wave studies and metallization of simple molecules in a single overview. The unifying features are provided by the high shock temperatures which lead to a metallic-like state in the rare gases and to dissociation of diatomic molecules. In the case of the rare gases, electronic excitation into the conduction band leads to a metallic-like inert gas state at lower than metallic densities and provides information regarding the closing of the band gap. Diatomic dissociation caused by thermal excitation also leads to a final metallic-like or monatomic state. Ina ddition, shock wave data can provide information concerning the short range intermolecular force of the insulator that can be useful for calculating the metallic phase transition as for example in the case of hydrogen. 69 refs., 36 figs., 2 tabs
Shock waves from non-spherically collapsing cavitation bubbles
Supponen, Outi; Obreschkow, Danail; Farhat, Mohamed
2017-11-01
Combining simultaneous high-speed imaging and hydrophone measurements, we uncover details of the multiple shock wave emission from laser-induced cavitation bubbles collapsing in a non-spherical way. For strongly deformed bubbles collapsing near a free surface, we identify the distinct shock waves caused by the jet impact onto the opposite bubble wall and by the individual collapses of the remaining bubble segments. The energy carried by each of these shocks depends on the level of bubble deformation, quantified by the anisotropy parameter ζ, the dimensionless equivalent of the Kelvin impulse. For jetting bubbles, at ζ water hammer as ph = 0.45 (ρc2 Δp) 1 / 2ζ-1 .
MR imaging of kidneys following extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baumgartner, B.R.; Dickey, K.W.; Nelson, R.C.; Ambrose, S.S.; Walton, K.N.; Bernardino, M.E.
1986-01-01
MR images were obtained the day after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) therapy in 34 patients; the untreated kidneys served as controls. Five patients underwent ESWL of both kidneys before MR imaging. The kidneys were imaged with a spin-echo technique. Multisection coronal, sagittal, and axial images were obtained with T1-weighted pulse sequences. MR imaging studies of 39 kidneys after ESWL showed no abnormality in ten (25%) cases. The other kidneys (75%) had one or more of several findings. Small subcapsular or perinephric fluid collections were noted in ten (25%) patients. Generalized loss of corticomedullary junction (CMJ) was noted in eight (21%) cases and focal loss in 16 (24%). The more pronounced alterations in the CMJ correlated with increased numbers of shock waves received by the kidney
Frontiers in Anisotropic Shock-Wave Modeling
2012-02-01
Epoxy IFPT simulated and experimental back surface velocities for 572, 788, and 1015 m/s. The experimental data Kevlar / Epoxy materials recovered after...model development for the Nextel and Kevlar / Epoxy materials subject to hypervelocity impact. They also performed the experimental inverse flyer test...IFPT) for Nextel and Kevlar / Epoxy . Their models were to be macro-mechanically based and suitable for implementation into a hydrocode coupled with EOS
Acceleration mechanisms flares, magnetic reconnection and shock waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Colgate, S.A.
1979-01-01
Several mechanisms are briefly discussed for the acceleration of particles in the astrophysical environment. Included are hydrodynamic acceleration, spherically convergent shocks, shock and a density gradient, coherent electromagnetic acceleration, the flux tube origin, symmetries and instabilities, reconnection, galactic flares, intergalactic acceleration, stochastic acceleration, and astrophysical shocks. It is noted that the supernova shock wave models still depend critically on the presupernova star structure and the assumption of highly compact presupernova models for type I supernovae. 37 references
Data collected by the Shock Wave Data Center
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Van Thiel, M.
1976-01-01
The Shock Wave Data Center of the Lawrence Livermore Lab collects and disseminates P.V.E. data obtained with shock waves. It has been in existence since 1964. An extensive number of papers reporting shock data had become available by that time. This was so in spite of the fact that the technology was developed only during the 2nd World War. Collection and partial evaluation of this data was therefore of value to facilitate its use by our laboratory and others who were involved with science and engineering in the high pressure field. The pressure range of the data collected is quite extensive and extends from 1 MPa to 1 TPa. One very important difference between shock wave compression data and those obtained with static presses must be emphasized, since it is often not fully appreciated. The pressure-volume locus of shock wave states (Hugoniot), which is obtained by passing increasingly stronger shocks into samples with the same initial state, rapidly increases in temperature as the shocks get stronger and the pressure and compression get higher. As a consequence, this Hugoniot locus must have a lower compressibility than isotherms obtained under static conditions. In fact, if porous or otherwise expanded samples are used, states at or near the critical region of metals can be obtained if the shock pressure is allowed to decrease in a controlled manner. Such pressure release measurements have so far only been utilized to a limited extent since the compression process has been of primary interest to workers in the field. As the use of this data in the energy field increases, however, such data will be needed more often. Applications are discussed that involve transient high pressure processes, practically all of which involve both compressed and expanded states
Production of high energy neutrinos in relativistic supernova shock waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Weaver, T.A.
1979-01-01
The possibility of producing high-energy neutrinos (> approx. 10 GeV) in relativistic supernova shock waves is considered. It is shown that, even if the dissipation in such shocks is due to hard hadron--hadron collisions, the resulting flux of neutrinos is too small to be observed by currently envisioned detectors. The associated burst of hard γ-rays, however, may be detectable. 3 tables
Remote effects of extracorporeal shock wave therapy on cutaneous microcirculation.
Kisch, Tobias; Sorg, Heiko; Forstmeier, Vinzent; Knobloch, Karsten; Liodaki, Eirini; Stang, Felix; Mailänder, Peter; Krämer, Robert
2015-11-01
Extracorporeal shock wave treatment (ESWT) has proven its clinical benefits in different fields of medicine. Tissue regeneration and healing is improved after shock wave treatment. Even in the case of burn wounds angiogenesis and re-epithelialization is accelerated, but ESWT in extensive burn wounds is impracticable. High energy ESWT influences cutaneous microcirculation at body regions remote from application site. Eighteen Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned to two groups and received either high energy ESWT (Group A: total 1000 impulses, 10 J) or placebo shock wave treatment (Group B: 0 impulses, 0 J), applied to the dorsal lower leg of the hind limb. Ten minutes later microcirculatory effects were assessed at the contralateral lower leg of the hind limb (remote body region) by combined Laser-Doppler-Imaging and Photospectrometry. In Group A cutaneous capillary blood velocity was significantly increased by 152.8% vs. placebo ESWT at the remote body location (p = 0.01). Postcapillary venous filling pressure remained statistically unchanged (p > 0.05), while cutaneous tissue oxygen saturation increased by 12.7% in Group A (p = 0.220). High energy ESWT affects cutaneous hemodynamics in body regions remote from application site in a standard rat model. The results of this preliminary study indicate that ESWT might be beneficial even in disseminated and extensive burn wounds by remote shock wave effects and should therefore be subject to further scientific evaluation. Copyright © 2015 Tissue Viability Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The thickness of the interplanetary collisionless shock waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pinter, S.
1980-05-01
The thicknesses of magnetic structures of the interplanetary shock waves related to the upstream solar wind plasma parameters are studied. From this study the following results have been obtained: the measured shock thickness increases for decreasing upstream proton number density and decreases for increasing proton flux energy. The shock thickness strongly depends on the ion plasma β, i.e. for higher values of the β the thickness decreases. (author)
Attenuation of shock waves in copper and stainless steel
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Harvey, W.B.
1986-06-01
By using shock pins, data were gathered on the trajectories of shock waves in stainless steel (SS-304L) and oxygen-free-high-conductivity copper (OFHC-Cu). Shock pressures were generated in these materials by impacting the appropriate target with thin (approx.1.5 mm) flying plates. The flying plates in these experiments were accelerated to high velocities (approx.4 km/s) by high explosives. Six experiments were conducted, three using SS-304L as the target material and three experiments using OFHC-Cu as the target material. Peak shock pressures generated in the steel experiments were approximately 109, 130, and 147 GPa and in the copper experiments, the peak shock pressures were approximately 111, 132, and 143 GPa. In each experiment, an attenuation of the shock wave by a following release wave was clearly observed. An extensive effort using two characteristic codes (described in this work) to theoretically calculate the attenuation of the shock waves was made. The efficacy of several different constitutive equations to successfully model the experiments was studied by comparing the calculated shock trajectories to the experimental data. Based on such comparisons, the conclusion can be drawn that OFHC-Cu enters a melt phase at about 130 GPa on the principal Hugoniot. There was no sign of phase changes in the stainless-steel experiments. In order to match the observed attenuation of the shock waves in the SS-304L experiments, it was necessary to include strength effects in the calculations. It was found that the values for the parameters in the strength equations were dependent on the equation of state used in the modeling of the experiments. 66 refs., 194 figs., 77 tabs
Attenuation of shock waves in copper and stainless steel
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Harvey, W.B.
1986-06-01
By using shock pins, data were gathered on the trajectories of shock waves in stainless steel (SS-304L) and oxygen-free-high-conductivity copper (OFHC-Cu). Shock pressures were generated in these materials by impacting the appropriate target with thin (approx.1.5 mm) flying plates. The flying plates in these experiments were accelerated to high velocities (approx.4 km/s) by high explosives. Six experiments were conducted, three using SS-304L as the target material and three experiments using OFHC-Cu as the target material. Peak shock pressures generated in the steel experiments were approximately 109, 130, and 147 GPa and in the copper experiments, the peak shock pressures were approximately 111, 132, and 143 GPa. In each experiment, an attenuation of the shock wave by a following release wave was clearly observed. An extensive effort using two characteristic codes (described in this work) to theoretically calculate the attenuation of the shock waves was made. The efficacy of several different constitutive equations to successfully model the experiments was studied by comparing the calculated shock trajectories to the experimental data. Based on such comparisons, the conclusion can be drawn that OFHC-Cu enters a melt phase at about 130 GPa on the principal Hugoniot. There was no sign of phase changes in the stainless-steel experiments. In order to match the observed attenuation of the shock waves in the SS-304L experiments, it was necessary to include strength effects in the calculations. It was found that the values for the parameters in the strength equations were dependent on the equation of state used in the modeling of the experiments. 66 refs., 194 figs., 77 tabs.
Spectrally modified chirped pulse generation of sustained shock waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McGrane, S.D.; Moore, D.S.; Funk, D.J.; Rabie, R.L.
2002-01-01
A method is described for generating shock waves with 10-20 ps risetime followed by >200 ps constant pressure, using spectrally modified (clipped) chirped laser pulses. The degree of spectral clipping alters the chirped pulse temporal intensity profile and thereby the time-dependent pressure (tunable via pulse energy) generated in bare and nitrocellulose-coated Al thin films. The method is implementable in common chirped amplified lasers, and allows synchronous probing with a <200 fs pulse
Kidney changes after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy; MR evaluation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yoshioka, Hiroyasu; Shindo, Hiroshi; Mabuchi, Nobuhisa; Kawakami, Akira; Fujii, Koichi; Hamada, Tatsumi; Ishida, Osamu; Umekawa, Toru; Kohri, Kenjiro (Kinki Univ., Osakasayama, Osaka (Japan). School of Medicine)
1991-02-01
MRI was performed before and after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) to determine the effects of ESWL on the kidney and perinephric tissues. Of the 40 kidneys studied, 24 showed one or more changes on MRI: loss of the corticomedullary junction (n=15), subcapsular fluid (n=14), subcapsular hematoma (n=1), thickening of bridging septa (n=8), high intensity area in the muscle (n=8). These relatively subtle changes detected on MRI may not be apparent with other imaging techniques. (author).
Pediatric extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy: Predicting successful outcomes.
McAdams, Sean; Shukla, Aseem R
2010-10-01
Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) is currently a first-line procedure of most upper urinary tract stones ionizing radiation, perhaps utilizing advancements in ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging. This report provides a review of the current literature evaluating the patient attributes and stone factors that may be predictive of successful ESWL outcomes along with reviewing the role of pre-operative imaging and considerations for patient safety.
Extracorporeal shock wave therapy for treatment of plantar fasciitis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dastgir, N.
2014-01-01
Objective: To explore the effect of extracorporeal shock wave therapy in patients with chronic plantar faciitis. Methods: The prospective study was conducted at Department of Orhopaedic, Regional Hospital, Limerick, Ireland from January to December 2004 and comprised 70 heels in 62 patients with chronic plantar fasciitis in whom conventional conservative treatment consisting of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, heel cup, orthoses and/or shoe modifications, local steroid injections had failed, and they were treated with low energy extracorporeal shock wave therapy. Patients were reviewed at 6, 12 and 24 weeks post treatment. Results: At follow-up there was significant decrease in pain on the visual analogue scale (p<0.027), with significant improvement in pain score (p<0.009) and in functional score (p<0.001). The comfortable walking distance had increased significantly and there were no reported side effects. Conclusion: Extracorporeal shock wave therapy is a new modality providing good pain relief and a satisfactory clinical outcome in patients with chronic plantar fasciitis. (author)
Experimental research on crossing shock wave boundary layer interactions
Settles, G. S.; Garrison, T. J.
1994-10-01
An experimental research effort of the Penn State Gas Dynamics Laboratory on the subject of crossing shock wave boundary layer interactions is reported. This three year study was supported by AFOSR Grant 89-0315. A variety of experimental techniques were employed to study the above phenomena including planar laser scattering flowfield visualization, kerosene lampblack surface flow visualization, laser-interferometer skin friction surveys, wall static pressure measurements, and flowfield five-hole probe surveys. For a model configuration producing two intersecting shock waves, measurements were made for a range of oblique shock strengths at freestream Mach numbers of 3.0 and 3.85. Additionally, measurements were made at Mach 3.85 for a configuration producing three intersecting waves. The combined experimental dataset was used to formulate the first detailed flowfield models of the crossing-shock and triple-shock wave/boundary layer interactions. The structure of these interactions was found to be similar over a broad range of interaction strengths and is dominated by a large, separated, viscous flow region.
Propagation and dispersion of shock waves in magnetoelastic materials
Crum, R. S.; Domann, J. P.; Carman, G. P.; Gupta, V.
2017-12-01
Previous studies examining the response of magnetoelastic materials to shock waves have predominantly focused on applications involving pulsed power generation, with limited attention given to the actual wave propagation characteristics. This study provides detailed magnetic and mechanical measurements of magnetoelastic shock wave propagation and dispersion. Laser generated rarefacted shock waves exceeding 3 GPa with rise times of 10 ns were introduced to samples of the magnetoelastic material Galfenol. The resulting mechanical measurements reveal the evolution of the shock into a compressive acoustic front with lateral release waves. Importantly, the wave continues to disperse even after it has decayed into an acoustic wave, due in large part to magnetoelastic coupling. The magnetic data reveal predominantly shear wave mediated magnetoelastic coupling, and were also used to noninvasively measure the wave speed. The external magnetic field controlled a 30% increase in wave propagation speed, attributed to a 70% increase in average stiffness. Finally, magnetic signals propagating along the sample over 20× faster than the mechanical wave were measured, indicating these materials can act as passive antennas that transmit information in response to mechanical stimuli.
Electron beams by shock waves in the solar corona
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mann, G.; Klassen, A.
2005-07-01
Beams of energetic electrons can be generated by shock waves in the solar corona. At the Sun shock waves are produced either by flares and/or by coronal mass ejections (CMEs). They can be observed as type II bursts in the solar radio radiation. Shock accelerated electron beams appear as rapidly drifting emission stripes (so-called ''herringbones'') in dynamic radio spectra of type II bursts. A large sample of type II bursts showing ''herringbones'' was statistically analysed with respect to their properties in dynamic radio spectra. The electron beams associated with the ''herringbones'' are considered to be generated by shock drift acceleration. Then, the accelerated electrons establish a shifted loss-cone distribution in the upstream region of the associated shock wave. Such a distribution causes plasma instabilities leading to the emission of radio waves observed as ''herringbones''. Consequences of a shifted loss-cone distribution of the shock accelerated electrons are discussed in comparison with the observations of ''herringbones'' within solar type II radio bursts. (orig.)
ShockWave science and technology reference library
2007-01-01
This book is the first of several volumes on solids in the Shock Wave Science and Technology Reference Library. These volumes are primarily concerned with high-pressure shock waves in solid media, including detonation, high-velocity impact, and penetration. Of the eight chapters in this volume three chapters survey recent, exciting experimental advances in - ultra-short shock dynamics at the atomic and molecular scale (D.S. More, S.D. Mcgrane, and D.J. Funk), - Z accelerator for ICE and Shock compression (M.D. Knudson), and - failure waves in glass and ceramics (S.J. Bless and N.S. Brar). The subsequent four chapters are foundational, and cover the subjects of - equation of state (R. Menikoff), - elastic-plastic shock waves (R. Menikoff), - continuum plasticity (R. M. Brannon), and - numerical methods (D. J. Benson). The last chapter, but not the least, describes a tour de force illustration of today’s computing power in - modeling heterogeneous reactive solids at the grain scale (M.R. Baer). All chapters a...
Applications of Shock Wave Research to Developments of Therapeutic Devices.
Takayama, Kazuyoshi
2007-06-01
Underwater shock wave research applied to medicine started in 1980 by exploding micro lead azide pellets in water. Collaboration with urologists in the School of Medicine, Tohoku University at the same time was directed to disintegration of kidney stones by controlling shock waves. We initially proposed a miniature truncated ellipsoidal cavity for generating high-pressures enough to disintegrate the stone but gave up the idea, when encountering the Dornie Systems' invention of an extracorporeal shock wave lithotripter (ESWL). Then we confirmed its effectiveness by using 10 mg silver azide pellets and constructed our own lithotripter, which was officially approved for a clinical use in 1987. Tissue damage during ESWL was attributable to bubble collapse and we convinced it could be done in a controlled fashion. In 1996, we used 160 mJ pulsed Ho:YAG laser beam focusing inside a catheter for shock generation and applied it to the revascularization of cerebral embolism, which is recently expanded to the treatment of pulmonary infarction. Micro water jets discharged in air were so effective to dissect soft tissues preserving small blood vessels. Animal experiments are successfully performed with high frequency water jets driven by an actuator-assisted micro-pump. A metal foil is deformed at high speed by a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser beam loading. We used this technique to project micro-particles or dry drugs attached on its reverse side and extended it to a laser ablation assisted dry drug delivery or DNA introductory system.
Laser shock wave consolidation of nanodiamond powders on aluminum 319
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Molian, Pal [Laboratory for Lasers, MEMS, and Nanotechnology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011-2161 (United States)], E-mail: molian@iastate.edu; Molian, Raathai; Nair, Rajeev [Laboratory for Lasers, MEMS, and Nanotechnology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011-2161 (United States)
2009-01-01
A novel coating approach, based on laser shock wave generation, was employed to induce compressive pressures up to 5 GPa and compact nanodiamond (ND) powders (4-8 nm) on aluminum 319 substrate. Raman scattering indicated that the coating consisted of amorphous carbon and nanocrystalline graphite with peaks at 1360 cm{sup -1} and 1600 cm{sup -1} respectively. Scanning electron microscopy revealed a wavy, non-uniform coating with an average thickness of 40 {mu}m and absence of thermal effect on the surrounding material. The phase transition from nanodiamond to other phases of carbon is responsible for the increased coating thickness. Vicker's microhardness test showed hardness in excess of 1000 kg{sub f}/mm{sup 2} (10 GPa) while nanoindentation test indicated much lower hardness in the range of 20 MPa to 2 GPa. Optical surface profilometry traces displayed slightly uneven surfaces compared to the bare aluminum with an average surface roughness (R{sub a}) in the range of 1.5-4 {mu}m depending on the shock wave pressure and type of confining medium. Ball-on-disc tribometer tests showed that the coefficient of friction and wear rate were substantially lower than the smoother, bare aluminum sample. Laser shock wave process has thus aided in the generation of a strong, wear resistant, durable carbon composite coating on aluminum 319 substrate.
Sirmas, N; Radulescu, M I
2015-02-01
Previous experiments have revealed that shock waves driven through dissipative gases may become unstable, for example, in granular gases and in molecular gases undergoing strong relaxation effects. The mechanisms controlling these instabilities are not well understood. We successfully isolated and investigated this instability in the canonical problem of piston-driven shock waves propagating into a medium characterized by inelastic collision processes. We treat the standard model of granular gases, where particle collisions are taken as inelastic, with a constant coefficient of restitution. The inelasticity is activated for sufficiently strong collisions. Molecular dynamic simulations were performed for 30,000 particles. We find that all shock waves investigated become unstable, with density nonuniformities forming in the relaxation region. The wavelength of these fingers is found to be comparable to the characteristic relaxation thickness. Shock Hugoniot curves for both elastic and inelastic collisions were obtained analytically and numerically. Analysis of these curves indicates that the instability is not of the Bethe-Zeldovich-Thompson or D'yakov-Kontorovich type. Analysis of the shock relaxation rates and rates for clustering in a convected fluid element with the same thermodynamic history ruled out the clustering instability of a homogeneous granular gas. Instead, wave reconstruction of the early transient evolution indicates that the onset of instability occurs during repressurization of the gas following the initial relaxation of the medium behind the lead shock. This repressurization gives rise to internal pressure waves in the presence of strong density gradients. This indicates that the mechanism of instability is more likely of the vorticity-generating Richtmyer-Meshkov type, relying on the action of the inner pressure wave development during the transient relaxation.
Uniform shock waves in disordered granular matter.
Gómez, Leopoldo R; Turner, Ari M; Vitelli, Vincenzo
2012-10-01
The confining pressure P is perhaps the most important parameter controlling the properties of granular matter. Strongly compressed granular media are, in many respects, simple solids in which elastic perturbations travel as ordinary phonons. However, the speed of sound in granular aggregates continuously decreases as the confining pressure decreases, completely vanishing at the jamming-unjamming transition. This anomalous behavior suggests that the transport of energy at low pressures should not be dominated by phonons. In this work we use simulations and theory to show how the response of granular systems becomes increasingly nonlinear as pressure decreases. In the low-pressure regime the elastic energy is found to be mainly transported through nonlinear waves and shocks. We numerically characterize the propagation speed, shape, and stability of these shocks and model the dependence of the shock speed on pressure and impact intensity by a simple analytical approach.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xin-ling LI
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Objective To observe the characteristics of rat brain injury induced by shock wave propagation in solids resulting from underwater explosion and explore the related mechanism. Methods Explosion source outside the simulated ship cabin underwater was detonated for establishing a model of brain injury in rats by shock wave propagation in solid; 72 male SD rats were randomly divided into normal control group (n=8, injury group 1 (600mg RDX paper particle explosion source, n=32, injury group 2 (800mg RDX paper particle explosion source, n=32. The each injury group was randomly divided into 4 subgroups (n=8, 3, 6, 24 and 72h groups. The division plate as a whole and the head of 8 rats in each injury group were measured for the peak value of the solid shock wave, its rising time and the duration time of shock wave propagation in solid. To observe the physiological changes of animals after injury, plasma samples were collected for determination of brain damage markers, NSE and S-100β. All the animals were sacrificed, the right hemisphere of the brain was taken in each group of animals, weighting after baking, and the brain water content was calculated. Pathological examination was performed for left cerebral hemisphere in 24-h group. The normal pyramidal cells in the hippocampal CA1 region were counted. Results The peak value, rising time and duration time of shock wave propagation on the division plate and head were 1369.74±91.70g, 0.317±0.037ms and 24.85±2.53ms, 26.83±3.09g, 0.901±0.077ms and 104.21±6.26ms respectively in injury group 1, 1850.11±83.86g, 0.184±0.031ms and 35.61±2.66ms, 39.75±3.14g, 0.607±0.069ms and 132.44±7.17ms in injury group 2 (P<0.01. After the injury, there was no abnormality in the anatomy, and brain damage markers NSE, S-100β increased, reached the peak at 24 h, and they were highest in injury group 2 and lowest in control group with a statistically significant difference (P<0.05. The brain water content
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S Tanaka
2016-09-01
Full Text Available In order to develop composite materials, new attempting was conducted. When an explosive is exploded in water, underwater shock wave is generated. Metal plate is accelerated by the underwater shock wave and collided with diamond particles at high velocity. In this paper, pure aluminum and magnesium alloy plates are used as matrix. Micro and nano sized diamond particles were used as reinforcement. Micro diamond particles were closely coated on metal surface. Some of micro diamond particles were penetrated into aluminum. Improvement of base metal property (wearing resistance was verified by wear test for recovering metal plate. In order to confirm the deformation of the aluminum plate during the collision with diamond particles, simplified numerical simulation was conducted by using LS-DYNA software. From the result of numerical simulation, large deformation of aluminum and process of particle penetration were verified.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Velikovich, A.L.; Schmitt, A.J.; Metzler, N.; Gardner, J.H.
2003-01-01
When a rippled surface of a planar target is irradiated with a short (subnanosecond) laser pulse, the shock wave launched into the target and the mass distribution of the shocked plasma will oscillate. These oscillations are found to be surprisingly strong compared, for example, to the case when the laser radiation is not turned off but rather keeps pushing the shock wave into the target. Being stronger than the areal mass oscillations due to ablative Richtmyer-Meshkov instability and feedout in planar targets, which have recently been observed at the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) [Aglitskiy et al., Phys. Plasmas 9, 2264 (2002)], these oscillations should therefore be directly observable with the same diagnostic technique. Irradiation of a target with a short laser pulse represents a particular case of an impulsive loading, a fast release of finite energy in a thin layer near the surface of a target. Renewed interest to the impulsive loading in the area of direct-drive laser fusion is due to the recent proposals of using a short pulse prior to the drive pulse to make the target more resistant to laser imprint and Rayleigh-Taylor growth. Impulsive loading produces a shock wave that propagates into the target and is immediately followed by an expansion wave, which gradually reduces the shock strength. If the irradiated surface is rippled, then, while the shock wave propagates through the target, its modulation amplitude grows, exceeding the initial ripple amplitude by a factor of 2 or more. The oscillating areal mass reaches the peak values that exceed the initial mass modulation amplitude (density times ripple height) by a factor of 5-7 or more, and reverses its phase several times after the laser pulse is over. The oscillatory growth is more pronounced in fluids with higher shock compressibility and is probably related to the Vishniac's instability of a blast wave. Frequency of the oscillations is determined by the speed of sound in the shocked material, and
Propagation of acoustic shock waves between parallel rigid boundaries and into shadow zones
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Desjouy, C.; Ollivier, S.; Dragna, D.; Blanc-Benon, P.; Marsden, O.
2015-01-01
The study of acoustic shock propagation in complex environments is of great interest for urban acoustics, but also for source localization, an underlying problematic in military applications. To give a better understanding of the phenomenon taking place during the propagation of acoustic shocks, laboratory-scale experiments and numerical simulations were performed to study the propagation of weak shock waves between parallel rigid boundaries, and into shadow zones created by corners. In particular, this work focuses on the study of the local interactions taking place between incident, reflected, and diffracted waves according to the geometry in both regular or irregular – also called Von Neumann – regimes of reflection. In this latter case, an irregular reflection can lead to the formation of a Mach stem that can modify the spatial distribution of the acoustic pressure. Short duration acoustic shock waves were produced by a 20 kilovolts electric spark source and a schlieren optical method was used to visualize the incident shockfront and the reflection/diffraction patterns. Experimental results are compared to numerical simulations based on the high-order finite difference solution of the two dimensional Navier-Stokes equations
Study on the propagation law of shock wave resulting from coal and gas outburst
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Kai; ZHOU Ai-tao; ZHANG Pin; LI Chuan; GUO Yan-wei
2011-01-01
According to the formation of shock wave resulting from coal and gas outburst, the gas flow of coal and gas outburst was transformed from an unsteady flow to a steady one based on selected appropriate reference coordinates, and the mathematical expressions were then established by applying mass conservation, momentum conservation equation, and energy conservation equation. On this basis, analyzed gas flow mitigation of variable cross-section area and the outburst intensity, and the relations between cross-section area, velocity, and density; the relations between overpressures and outburst intensity were deduced. Furthermore, shock waves resulting from coal and gas outburst and outburst intensity were measured by experimental setup, the overpressure and outburst intensity of different gas pressures were obtained, and the similar conditions of the experiment were numerically simulated. The averaged overpressure and gas flow velocity of variable cross-section under different gas pressures were numerically derived. The results show that the averaged overpressure and outburst intensity obtained from simulation are in good agreement with the experimental results. Moreover, the gas flow velocity of variable cross-sections approximates to the theoretical analysis.
Shock Wave Speed and Transient Response of PE Pipe with Steel-Mesh Reinforcement
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wuyi Wan
2016-01-01
Full Text Available A steel mesh can improve the tensile strength and stability of a polyethylene (PE pipe in a water supply pipeline system. However, it can also cause more severe water hammer hazard due to increasing wave speed. In order to analyze the influence of the steel mesh on the shock wave speed and transient response processes, an improved wave speed formula is proposed by incorporating the equivalent elastic modulus. A field measurement validates the wave speed formula. Moreover, the transient wave propagation and extreme pressures are simulated and compared by the method of characteristics (MOC for reinforced PE pipes with various steel-mesh densities. Results show that a steel mesh can significantly increase the shock wave speed in a PE pipe and thus can cause severe peak pressure and hydraulic surges in a water supply pipeline system. The proposed wave speed formula can more reasonably evaluate the wave speed and improve the transient simulation of steel-mesh-reinforced PE pipes.
Experimental Research of Machineless Energy Separation Effect Influenced by Shock Waves
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. S. Popovich
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The paper presents experimental research results of machineless energy separation effect with transversal ribs in supersonic channel. The energy separation effect assumes a physical division of the inlet flow into two or more flows, each having different stagnation temperature. Among well-known energy separation effects noted there are Ranque-Hilsch vortex tubes, Hartmann-Sprenger resonance tubes, pulsating tubes and some others.A working principle of device under study is based on thermal interaction between subsonic and supersonic gas flows through a heat-conducting division wall. This energy separation method was proposed by academician Leontiev and was patented in 1998. A number of references for PhD theses, articles, and conference proceedings devoted to the research of “Leontiev tube” have been mentioned in the paper. Efficiency factors for energy separation device performability have been analyzed in detail. The main attention was focused on the phenomenon of shock waves generation in supersonic channel of Leontiev tube.Experiment was carried out in the air prototype of energy separation device with supersonic flow Mach numbers 1.9 and 2.5, stagnation temperatures 40°С and 70°С, and for uni-flow and counter-flow air moving direction in subsonic and supersonic channels. Shock waves have been generated by means of circular ribs in supersonic channel of energy separation device. The research was carried out by means of infrared thermal imaging, thermocouples, total and static pressure probes, and modern National Insturments automation equipment. The work shows that shock waves have no negative influence on energy separation effect. A conclusion is made that unexpected shock wave generation in supersonic channel will not cause operability loss. It was gained that counter-flow regime is more efficient than uni-flow. Energy separation effect also appears to be higher with the rise of Mach number and flow initial stagnation temperature
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Magdalenic, J.; Marqué, C.; Krupař, Vratislav; Mierla, M.; Zhukov, A. N.; Rodriguez, L.; Maksimovic, M.; Cecconi, B.
2014-01-01
Roč. 791, č. 2 (2014), s. 1-14 ISSN 0004-637X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/10/2279 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : coronal mass ejections (CMEs) * shock waves * Sun: corona * Sun: flares * Sun: radio radiation Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 5.993, year: 2014 http://iopscience.iop.org/0004-637X/791/2/115
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grabovskij, E.V.; Smirnov, V.P.; Zakharov, S.V.; Vorob'ev, O.Yu.; Dyabilin, K.S.; Lebedev, M.E.; Fortov, V.E.; Frolov, A.A.
1996-01-01
Paper presents the results of theoretical analysis of processes occurring in Z-pinch plasma under conditions initiating a powerful pulse of soft X-radiation. The main attention is focused on double liner circuit designs. Estimations of power of radiation and spectrum are studied. The results are used to simulate processes occurring at generation of shock waves under the effect of soft X-radiation on the target. Experiments to generate shock waves with up to 3 Mbar amplitude pressure in lead under the effect of soft X-radiation were conducted using Angara-5 plant. 24 refs., 9 figs
Formation and damping of a shock wave induced by laser in a metallic target
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cottet, F.
1981-01-01
In the first part of this work, a numerical simulation of the formation and of the damping of the shock wave induced in a solid target by a laser impulse is developed. It allows to interpret the experimental obtained in the second part of the study. Two series of experiments have been realized. An iron target metallographic study is intended to verify if laser shocks produce effects comparable with conventional shocks, particularly a deformation by albite twinning the existence of which is related to the shock amplitude and its evolution during the propagation in the target. Macles observation become a possible mean to estimate the value of the induced pressures. Another experiment series has been realized to determine more directly the shock parameters. Piezoelectric cermets have been used to detect a shock-wave passage and to measure the time taken to go through targets of variable thickness. The numerical solution allows, afterwards, to deduce the maximum pressure of the induced shock. The most part of the tests have been done on copper targets, the behaviour of which is well known in a large pressure domain. Some tests have been realized on aluminium and iron targets [fr
Laser-driven shock-wave propagation in pure and layered targets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Salzmann, D.; Eliezer, S.; Krumbein, A.D.; Gitter, L.
1983-01-01
The propagation properties of laser-driven shock waves in pure and layered polyethylene and aluminum slab targets are studied for a set of laser intensities and pulse widths. The laser-plasma simulations were carried out by means of our one-dimensional Lagrangian hydrodynamic code. It is shown that the various parts of a laser-driven compression wave undergo different thermodynamic trajectories: The shock front portion is on the Hugoniot curve whereas the rear part is closer to an adiabat. It is found that the shock front is accelerated into the cold material till troughly-equal0.8tau (where tau is the laser pulse width) and only later is a constant velocity propagation attained. The scaling laws obtained for the pressure and temperature of the compression wave in pure targets are in good agreement with those published in other works. In layered targets, high compression and pressure were found to occur at the interface of CH 2 on Al targets due to impedance mismatch but were not found when the layers were reversed. The persistence time of the high pressure on the interface in the CH 2 on Al case is long enough relative to the characteristic times of the plasma to have an appreciable influence on the shock-wave propagation into the aluminum layer. This high pressure and compression on the interface can be optimized by adjusting the CH 2 layer thickness
Development of a particle method of characteristics (PMOC) for one-dimensional shock waves
Hwang, Y.-H.
2018-03-01
In the present study, a particle method of characteristics is put forward to simulate the evolution of one-dimensional shock waves in barotropic gaseous, closed-conduit, open-channel, and two-phase flows. All these flow phenomena can be described with the same set of governing equations. The proposed scheme is established based on the characteristic equations and formulated by assigning the computational particles to move along the characteristic curves. Both the right- and left-running characteristics are traced and represented by their associated computational particles. It inherits the computational merits from the conventional method of characteristics (MOC) and moving particle method, but without their individual deficiencies. In addition, special particles with dual states deduced to the enforcement of the Rankine-Hugoniot relation are deliberately imposed to emulate the shock structure. Numerical tests are carried out by solving some benchmark problems, and the computational results are compared with available analytical solutions. From the derivation procedure and obtained computational results, it is concluded that the proposed PMOC will be a useful tool to replicate one-dimensional shock waves.
Experimental investigation of flow induced dust acoustic shock waves in a complex plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jaiswal, S., E-mail: surabhijaiswal73@gmail.com; Bandyopadhyay, P.; Sen, A. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat 382428 (India)
2016-08-15
We report on experimental observations of flow induced large amplitude dust-acoustic shock waves in a complex plasma. The experiments have been carried out in a Π shaped direct current glow discharge experimental device using kaolin particles as the dust component in a background of Argon plasma. A strong supersonic flow of the dust fluid is induced by adjusting the pumping speed and neutral gas flow into the device. An isolated copper wire mounted on the cathode acts as a potential barrier to the flow of dust particles. A sudden change in the gas flow rate is used to trigger the onset of high velocity dust acoustic shocks whose dynamics are captured by fast video pictures of the evolving structures. The physical characteristics of these shocks are delineated through a parametric scan of their dynamical properties over a range of flow speeds and potential hill heights. The observed evolution of the shock waves and their propagation characteristics are found to compare well with model numerical results based on a modified Korteweg-de-Vries-Burgers type equation.
Nonequilibrium radiation behind a strong shock wave in CO{sub 2}-N{sub 2}
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rond, C. [Universite de Provence - IUSTI, 5 rue Enrico Fermi, Marseille 13013 (France)], E-mail: rond@coria.fr; Boubert, P.; Felio, J.-M.; Chikhaoui, A. [Universite de Provence - IUSTI, 5 rue Enrico Fermi, Marseille 13013 (France)
2007-11-09
This work presents experiments reproducing plasma re-entry for one trajectory point of a Martian mission. The typical facility to investigate such hypersonic flow is shock tube; here we used the free-piston shock tube TCM2. Measurements of radiative flux behind the shock wave are realized thanks to time-resolved emission spectroscopy which is calibrated in intensity. As CN violet system is the main radiator in near UV-visible range, we have focused our study on its spectrum. Moreover a physical model, based on a multi-temperature kinetic code and a radiative code, for calculation of non equilibrium radiation behind a shock wave is developed for CO{sub 2}-N{sub 2}-Ar mixtures. Comparisons between experiments and calculations show that standard kinetic models (Park, McKenzie) are inefficient to reproduce our experimental results. Therefore we propose new rate coefficients in particular for the dissociation of CO{sub 2}, showing the way towards a better description of the chemistry of the mixture.
Nonequilibrium radiation behind a strong shock wave in CO 2-N 2
Rond, C.; Boubert, P.; Félio, J.-M.; Chikhaoui, A.
2007-11-01
This work presents experiments reproducing plasma re-entry for one trajectory point of a Martian mission. The typical facility to investigate such hypersonic flow is shock tube; here we used the free-piston shock tube TCM2. Measurements of radiative flux behind the shock wave are realized thanks to time-resolved emission spectroscopy which is calibrated in intensity. As CN violet system is the main radiator in near UV-visible range, we have focused our study on its spectrum. Moreover a physical model, based on a multi-temperature kinetic code and a radiative code, for calculation of non equilibrium radiation behind a shock wave is developed for CO 2-N 2-Ar mixtures. Comparisons between experiments and calculations show that standard kinetic models (Park, McKenzie) are inefficient to reproduce our experimental results. Therefore we propose new rate coefficients in particular for the dissociation of CO 2, showing the way towards a better description of the chemistry of the mixture.
Ultrafast Fiber Bragg Grating Interrogation for Sensing in Detonation and Shock Wave Experiments.
Rodriguez, George; Gilbertson, Steve M
2017-01-27
Chirped ﬁber Bragg grating (CFBG) sensors coupled to high speed interrogation systems are described as robust diagnostic approaches to monitoring shock wave and detonation front propagation tracking events for use in high energy density shock physics applications. Taking advantage of the linear distributed spatial encoding of the spectral band in single-mode CFBGs, embedded ﬁber systems and associated photonic interrogation methodologies are shown as an effective approach to sensing shock and detonation-driven loading processes along the CFBG length. Two approaches, one that detects spectral changes in the integrated spectrum of the CFBG and another coherent pulse interrogation approach that fully resolves its spectral response, shows that 100-MHz-1-GHz interrogation rates are possible with spatial resolution along the CFBG in the 50 µm to sub-millimeter range depending on the combination of CFBG parameters (i.e., length, chirp rate, spectrum) and interrogator design speciﬁcs. Results from several dynamic tests are used to demonstrate the performance of these high speed systems for shock and detonation propagation tracking under strong and weak shock pressure loading: (1) linear detonation front tracking in the plastic bonded explosive (PBX) PBX-9501; (2) tracking of radial decaying shock with crossover to non-destructive CFBG response; (3) shock wave tracking along an aluminum cylinder wall under weak loading accompanied by dynamic strain effects in the CFBG sensor.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xin Liu
2018-01-01
Full Text Available During the first-stage project of the main channel of Ningbo-Zhoushan Port’s Shipu Harbor, underwater shock waves were monitored. By analyzing a typical measured pressure time history curve, the characteristics of underwater shock waves in an engineering context were obtained. We obtained a traditional exponential attenuation formula for underwater shock waves based on the measured data, simplified the model of underwater drilling blasting based on engineering practice, deduced a revised formula for underwater shock wave peak overpressure on the basis of dimensional analysis, established a linear fitting model, and obtained the undetermined coefficients of the revised formula using a linear regression analysis. In addition, the accuracies of the two formulas used to predict underwater shock wave peak overpressure and the significance order of influence and influence mechanism of factors included in the revised formula on the underwater shock wave peak overpressure were discussed.
Budget of Turbulent Kinetic Energy in a Shock Wave Boundary-Layer Interaction
Vyas, Manan A.; Waindim, Mbu; Gaitonde, Datta V.
2016-01-01
Implicit large-eddy simulation (ILES) of a shock wave/boundary-layer interaction (SBLI) was performed. Quantities present in the exact equation of the turbulent kinetic energy transport were accumulated and used to calculate terms like production, dissipation, molecular diffusion, and turbulent transport. The present results for a turbulent boundary layer were validated by comparison with direct numerical simulation data. It was found that a longer development domain was necessary for the boundary layer to reach an equilibrium state and a finer mesh resolution would improve the predictions. In spite of these findings, trends of the present budget match closely with that of the direct numerical simulation. Budgets for the SBLI region are presented at key axial stations. These budgets showed interesting dynamics as the incoming boundary layer transforms and the terms of the turbulent kinetic energy budget change behavior within the interaction region.
Modeling secondary accidents identified by traffic shock waves.
Junhua, Wang; Boya, Liu; Lanfang, Zhang; Ragland, David R
2016-02-01
The high potential for occurrence and the negative consequences of secondary accidents make them an issue of great concern affecting freeway safety. Using accident records from a three-year period together with California interstate freeway loop data, a dynamic method for more accurate classification based on the traffic shock wave detecting method was used to identify secondary accidents. Spatio-temporal gaps between the primary and secondary accident were proven be fit via a mixture of Weibull and normal distribution. A logistic regression model was developed to investigate major factors contributing to secondary accident occurrence. Traffic shock wave speed and volume at the occurrence of a primary accident were explicitly considered in the model, as a secondary accident is defined as an accident that occurs within the spatio-temporal impact scope of the primary accident. Results show that the shock waves originating in the wake of a primary accident have a more significant impact on the likelihood of a secondary accident occurrence than the effects of traffic volume. Primary accidents with long durations can significantly increase the possibility of secondary accidents. Unsafe speed and weather are other factors contributing to secondary crash occurrence. It is strongly suggested that when police or rescue personnel arrive at the scene of an accident, they should not suddenly block, decrease, or unblock the traffic flow, but instead endeavor to control traffic in a smooth and controlled manner. Also it is important to reduce accident processing time to reduce the risk of secondary accident. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Fundamental structure of steady plastic shock waves in metals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Molinari, A.; Ravichandran, G.
2004-01-01
The propagation of steady plane shock waves in metallic materials is considered. Following the constitutive framework adopted by R. J. Clifton [Shock Waves and the Mechanical Properties of Solids, edited by J. J. Burke and V. Weiss (Syracuse University Press, Syracuse, N.Y., 1971), p. 73] for analyzing elastic-plastic transient waves, an analytical solution of the steady state propagation of plastic shocks is proposed. The problem is formulated in a Lagrangian setting appropriate for large deformations. The material response is characterized by a quasistatic tensile (compression) test (providing the isothermal strain hardening law). In addition the elastic response is determined up to second order elastic constants by ultrasonic measurements. Based on this simple information, it is shown that the shock kinetics can be quite well described for moderate shocks in aluminum with stress amplitude up to 10 GPa. Under the later assumption, the elastic response is assumed to be isentropic, and thermomechanical coupling is neglected. The model material considered here is aluminum, but the analysis is general and can be applied to any viscoplastic material subjected to moderate amplitude shocks. Comparisons with experimental data are made for the shock velocity, the particle velocity and the shock structure. The shock structure is obtained by quadrature of a first order differential equation, which provides analytical results under certain simplifying assumptions. The effects of material parameters and loading conditions on the shock kinetics and shock structure are discussed. The shock width is characterized by assuming an overstress formulation for the viscoplastic response. The effects on the shock structure of strain rate sensitivity are analyzed and the rationale for the J. W. Swegle and D. E. Grady [J. Appl. Phys. 58, 692 (1985)] universal scaling law for homogeneous materials is explored. Finally, the ability to deduce information on the viscoplastic response of
Fundamental structure of steady plastic shock waves in metals
Molinari, A.; Ravichandran, G.
2004-02-01
The propagation of steady plane shock waves in metallic materials is considered. Following the constitutive framework adopted by R. J. Clifton [Shock Waves and the Mechanical Properties of Solids, edited by J. J. Burke and V. Weiss (Syracuse University Press, Syracuse, N.Y., 1971), p. 73] for analyzing elastic-plastic transient waves, an analytical solution of the steady state propagation of plastic shocks is proposed. The problem is formulated in a Lagrangian setting appropriate for large deformations. The material response is characterized by a quasistatic tensile (compression) test (providing the isothermal strain hardening law). In addition the elastic response is determined up to second order elastic constants by ultrasonic measurements. Based on this simple information, it is shown that the shock kinetics can be quite well described for moderate shocks in aluminum with stress amplitude up to 10 GPa. Under the later assumption, the elastic response is assumed to be isentropic, and thermomechanical coupling is neglected. The model material considered here is aluminum, but the analysis is general and can be applied to any viscoplastic material subjected to moderate amplitude shocks. Comparisons with experimental data are made for the shock velocity, the particle velocity and the shock structure. The shock structure is obtained by quadrature of a first order differential equation, which provides analytical results under certain simplifying assumptions. The effects of material parameters and loading conditions on the shock kinetics and shock structure are discussed. The shock width is characterized by assuming an overstress formulation for the viscoplastic response. The effects on the shock structure of strain rate sensitivity are analyzed and the rationale for the J. W. Swegle and D. E. Grady [J. Appl. Phys. 58, 692 (1985)] universal scaling law for homogeneous materials is explored. Finally, the ability to deduce information on the viscoplastic response of
Formation and decay of laser-generated shock waves
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cottet, F.; Romain, J.P.
1982-01-01
The process of formation and decay of laser-generated shock waves is described by a hydrodynamic model. Measurements of shock velocities are performed on copper foils for incident intensities between 3 x 10/sup 11/ and 3 x 10/sup 12/ W/cm/sup 2/, with the use of piezoelectric detectors. Maximum induced pressures are found between 0.5 and 1.2 Mbar in the intensity range considered. Analysis of the results with the shock-evolution model outlines the importance of the decay process of laser-generated shocks.
CT evaluation of the kidneys following extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rubin, J.I.; Arger, P.H.; Pollack, H.M.; Banner, M.P.; Coleman, B.G.; Mintz, M.C.; Van Arsdalen, K.N.
1986-01-01
CT scans of the kidneys were obtained iln 50 patients before and after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL). Post-ESWL scans demonstrated subcapsular hematomas in eight (15%) and intrarenal hematomas in two (4%) patients. Water-density subcapsular collections were seen in three (6%) patients. Treated kidneys showed a mean increase in renal size of 9%. Perinephric stranding and fascial thickening were seen in 37 (70%) of 53 treated renal fossae. While most patients undergoing ESWL will show some posttreatment abnormality on CT, the procedure appears to be associated with a low incidence of serious renal trauma
CT appearance of renal hemorrhage after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kanazawa, Susumu; Araki, Toru; Takamoto, Hitoshi; Hata, Kazuhiro
1988-07-01
Computed Tomography (CT) was performed in three patients who were suspicious of renal hemorrhage after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL). Post-ESWL scans demonstrated subcapsular hematoma in all three cases, and intrarenal hemorrhage in two cases, one of which had fluid collection in the pararenal space and hemorrhage in the posterior pararenal space on CT. Thickening of gerota fascia and bridging septa in the perirenal space was visualized on CT in all of them. CT demonstrated clearly the anatomic distribution and extent of renal hemorrhage, and it is important to comprehend the imaging anatomy of the perirenal area for CT evaluation.
Experiments on second-sound shock waves in superfluid helium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cummings, J.C.; Schmidt, D.W.; Wagner, W.J.
1978-01-01
The waveform and velocity of second-sound waves in superfluid helium have been studied experimentally using superconducting, thin-film probes. The second-sound waves were generated with electrical pulses through a resistive film. Variations in pulse power, pulse duration, and bath temperature were examined. As predicted theoretically, the formation of a shock was observed at the leading or trailing edge of the waves depending on bath temperature. Breakdown of the theoretical model was observed for large pulse powers. Accurate data for the acoustic second-sound speed were derived from the measurements of shock-wave velocities and are compared with previous results
Subcritical collisionless shock waves. [in earth space plasma
Mellott, M. M.
1985-01-01
The development history of theoretical accounts of low Mach number collisionless shock waves is related to recent observational advancements, with attention to weaker shocks in which shock steepening is limited by dispersion and/or anomalous resistivity and whose character is primarily determined by the dispersive properties of the ambient plasma. Attention has focused on nearly perpendicular shocks where dispersive scale lengths become small and the associated cross-field currents become strong enough to generate significant plasma wave turbulence. A number of oblique, low Mach number bow shocks have been studied on the basis of data from the ISEE dual spacecraft pair, allowing an accurate determination of shock scale lengths.
PENETRATION OF A SHOCK WAVE IN A FLAME FRONT
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dan PANTAZOPOL
2009-09-01
Full Text Available The present paper deals with the interactions between a fully supersonic flame front, situated in a supersonic two-dimensional flow of an ideal homogeneous combustible gas mixture, and an incident shock wawe, which is penetrating in the space of the hot burnt gases. A possible configuration, which was named ,,simple penetration” is examined. For the anlysis of the interference phenomena, shock polar and shock-combustion polar are used. At the same time, the paper shows the possibility to produce similar but more complicated configurations, which may contain expansion fans and reflected shock waves.
Investigation of supersonic jets shock-wave structure
Zapryagaev, V. I.; Gubanov, D. A.; Kavun, I. N.; Kiselev, N. P.; Kundasev, S. G.; Pivovarov, A. A.
2017-10-01
The paper presents an experimental studies overview of the free supersonic jet flow structure Ma = 1.0, Npr = 5, exhausting from a convergent profiled nozzle into a ambient space. Also was observed the jets in the presence of artificial streamwise vortices created by chevrons and microjets located on the nozzle exit. The technique of experimental investigation, schlieren-photographs and schemes of supersonic jets, and Pitot pressure distributions, are presented. A significant effect of vortex generators on the shock-wave structure of the flow is shown.
Shock wave of vapor-liquid two-phase flow
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Liangju ZHAO; Fei WANG; Hong GAO; Jingwen TANG; Yuexiang YUAN
2008-01-01
The shock wave of vapor-liquid two-phase flow in a pressure-gain steam injector is studied by build-ing a mathematic model and making calculations. The results show that after the shock, the vapor is nearly com-pletely condensed. The upstream Mach number and the volume ratio of vapor have a great effect on the shock. The pressure and Mach number of two-phase shock con-form to the shock of ideal gas. The analysis of available energy shows that the shock is an irreversible process with entropy increase.
Radiation exposure to patients during extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marti, J.M.; Robles, J.E.; Arbizu, J.; Castro, F. de; Berian, J.M.; Richter, J.A.
1992-01-01
We analyzed the radiological exposure to patients during Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy (ESWL) using a second generator lithotriptor. Stone location is accomplished by fluoroscopy and 'quick pics' or snapshots. A prospective study over 55 patients showed a mean exposure of 32.2 R. The introduction of the ALARA criterion reduced it to 16.1 R in the following 145 patients. Mean radiation exposure to patient varies according to treatment difficulty. A mean increase of radiation exposure of 1.6 between low and high difficulty treatment groups was observed. This variation was about 96% when the physician who performed the treatment was considered. (author)
CT appearance of renal hemorrhage after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kanazawa, Susumu; Araki, Toru; Takamoto, Hitoshi; Hata, Kazuhiro
1988-01-01
Computed Tomography (CT) was performed in three patients who were suspicious of renal hemorrhage after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL). Post-ESWL scans demonstrated subcapsular hematoma in all three cases, and intrarenal hemorrhage in two cases, one of which had fluid collection in the pararenal space and hemorrhage in the posterior pararenal space on CT. Thickening of gerota fascia and bridging septa in the perirenal space was visualized on CT in all of them. CT demonstrated clearly the anatomic distribution and extent of renal hemorrhage, and it is important to comprehend the imaging anatomy of the perirenal area for CT evaluation. (author)
Expansion and compression shock wave calculation in pipes with the C.V.M. numerical method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Raymond, P.; Caumette, P.; Le Coq, G.; Libmann, M.
1983-03-01
The Control Variables Method for fluid transients computations has been used to compute expansion and compression shock waves propagations. In this paper, first analytical solutions for shock wave and rarefaction wave propagation are detailed. Then after a rapid description of the C.V.M. technique and its stability and monotonicity properties, we will present some results about standard shock tube problem, reflection of shock wave, finally a comparison between experimental results obtained on the ELF facility and calculations is given
Application of holographic interferometric studies of underwater shock-wave focusing to medicine
Takayama, Kazuyoshi; Nagoya, H.; Obara, Tetsuro; Kuwahara, M.
1993-01-01
Holographic interferometric flow visualization was successfully applied to underwater shock wave focusing and its application to extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL). Real time diffuse holograms revealed the shock wave focusing process in an ellipsoidal reflector made from PMMA and double exposure holographic interferometry also clarified quantitatively the shock focusing process. Disintegration of urinary tract stones and gallbladder stones was observed by high speed photogrammetry. Tissue damage associated with the ESWL treatment is discussed in some detail.
Marvin, Joseph G.; Brown, James L.; Gnoffo, Peter A.
2013-01-01
A database compilation of hypersonic shock-wave/turbulent boundary layer experiments is provided. The experiments selected for the database are either 2D or axisymmetric, and include both compression corner and impinging type SWTBL interactions. The strength of the interactions range from attached to incipient separation to fully separated flows. The experiments were chosen based on criterion to ensure quality of the datasets, to be relevant to NASA's missions and to be useful for validation and uncertainty assessment of CFD Navier-Stokes predictive methods, both now and in the future. An emphasis on datasets selected was on surface pressures and surface heating throughout the interaction, but include some wall shear stress distributions and flowfield profiles. Included, for selected cases, are example CFD grids and setup information, along with surface pressure and wall heating results from simulations using current NASA real-gas Navier-Stokes codes by which future CFD investigators can compare and evaluate physics modeling improvements and validation and uncertainty assessments of future CFD code developments. The experimental database is presented tabulated in the Appendices describing each experiment. The database is also provided in computer-readable ASCII files located on a companion DVD.
Kroonblawd, Matthew P; Sewell, Thomas D; Maillet, Jean-Bernard
2016-02-14
In this report, we characterize the kinetics and dynamics of energy exchange between intramolecular and intermolecular degrees of freedom (DoF) in crystalline 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB). All-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are used to obtain predictions for relaxation from certain limiting initial distributions of energy between the intra- and intermolecular DoF. The results are used to parameterize a coarse-grained Dissipative Particle Dynamics at constant Energy (DPDE) model for TATB. Each TATB molecule in the DPDE model is represented as an all-atom, rigid-molecule mesoparticle, with explicit external (molecular translational and rotational) DoF and coarse-grained implicit internal (vibrational) DoF. In addition to conserving linear and angular momentum, the DPDE equations of motion conserve the total system energy provided that particles can exchange energy between their external and internal DoF. The internal temperature of a TATB molecule is calculated using an internal equation of state, which we develop here, and the temperatures of the external and internal DoF are coupled using a fluctuation-dissipation relation. The DPDE force expression requires specification of the input parameter σ that determines the rate at which energy is exchanged between external and internal DoF. We adjusted σ based on the predictions for relaxation processes obtained from MD simulations. The parameterized DPDE model was employed in large-scale simulations of shock compression of TATB. We show that the rate of energy exchange governed by σ can significantly influence the transient behavior of the system behind the shock.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kroonblawd, Matthew P.; Sewell, Thomas D.; Maillet, Jean-Bernard
2016-01-01
In this report, we characterize the kinetics and dynamics of energy exchange between intramolecular and intermolecular degrees of freedom (DoF) in crystalline 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB). All-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are used to obtain predictions for relaxation from certain limiting initial distributions of energy between the intra- and intermolecular DoF. The results are used to parameterize a coarse-grained Dissipative Particle Dynamics at constant Energy (DPDE) model for TATB. Each TATB molecule in the DPDE model is represented as an all-atom, rigid-molecule mesoparticle, with explicit external (molecular translational and rotational) DoF and coarse-grained implicit internal (vibrational) DoF. In addition to conserving linear and angular momentum, the DPDE equations of motion conserve the total system energy provided that particles can exchange energy between their external and internal DoF. The internal temperature of a TATB molecule is calculated using an internal equation of state, which we develop here, and the temperatures of the external and internal DoF are coupled using a fluctuation-dissipation relation. The DPDE force expression requires specification of the input parameter σ that determines the rate at which energy is exchanged between external and internal DoF. We adjusted σ based on the predictions for relaxation processes obtained from MD simulations. The parameterized DPDE model was employed in large-scale simulations of shock compression of TATB. We show that the rate of energy exchange governed by σ can significantly influence the transient behavior of the system behind the shock
Kroonblawd, Matthew P.; Sewell, Thomas D.; Maillet, Jean-Bernard
2016-02-01
In this report, we characterize the kinetics and dynamics of energy exchange between intramolecular and intermolecular degrees of freedom (DoF) in crystalline 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB). All-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are used to obtain predictions for relaxation from certain limiting initial distributions of energy between the intra- and intermolecular DoF. The results are used to parameterize a coarse-grained Dissipative Particle Dynamics at constant Energy (DPDE) model for TATB. Each TATB molecule in the DPDE model is represented as an all-atom, rigid-molecule mesoparticle, with explicit external (molecular translational and rotational) DoF and coarse-grained implicit internal (vibrational) DoF. In addition to conserving linear and angular momentum, the DPDE equations of motion conserve the total system energy provided that particles can exchange energy between their external and internal DoF. The internal temperature of a TATB molecule is calculated using an internal equation of state, which we develop here, and the temperatures of the external and internal DoF are coupled using a fluctuation-dissipation relation. The DPDE force expression requires specification of the input parameter σ that determines the rate at which energy is exchanged between external and internal DoF. We adjusted σ based on the predictions for relaxation processes obtained from MD simulations. The parameterized DPDE model was employed in large-scale simulations of shock compression of TATB. We show that the rate of energy exchange governed by σ can significantly influence the transient behavior of the system behind the shock.
Howard, Danny Dwayne
Part I - Shock waves are focused in extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) machines to strengths sufficient to fracture kidney stones. Substantial side effects-most of them acute-have resulted from this procedure, including injury to soft tissue. The focusing of shock waves through various layers of tissue is a complex process which stimulates many bio-mechano-chemical responses.This thesis presents results of an in vitro study of the initial mechanical stimulus. Planar nitrocellulose membranes of order 10 um thick were used as models of thin tissue structures. Two modes of failure were recorded: Failure due to cavitation collapsing on or near the membranes, and failure induced by altering the structure of shock waves. Tests were done in water at and around F2 to characterize the extent of cavitation damage, and was found to be confined within the focal region, 1.2 cm along the axis of focus.Scattering media were used to simulate the effects of acoustic nonuniformity of tissue and to alter the structure of focusing shock waves. 40 um diameter (average) hollow glass spheres were added to ethylene glycol, glycerine and castor oil to vary the properties of the scattering media. Multiple layer samples of various types of phantom tissue were tested in degassed castor oil to gauge the validity of the scattering media. The scattering media and tissue samples increased the rise time decreased strain rate in a similar fashion. Membranes were damaged by the decreased strain rate and accumulated effects of the altered structure: After about 20 or so shocks immersed in the scattering media and after about 100 shocks behind the tissue samples. The mode of failure was tearing with multiple tears in some cases from about .1 cm to about 3 cm depending of the number of shocks and membrane thickness.Part II - This work examines the exsolution of volatiles-carbon dioxide from water-in a cylindrical test cell under different pressure conditions. Water was supersaturated with
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Stelmashuk, Vitaliy
2014-01-01
Roč. 47, č. 49 (2014), s. 495204-495204 ISSN 0022-3727 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : underwater discharge * streamers * spark * cavitation bubble * shock wave Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.721, year: 2014 http://iopscience.iop.org/0022-3727/47/49/495204/pdf/0022-3727_47_49_495204.pdf
Assessment of CFD Capability for Hypersonic Shock Wave Laminar Boundary Layer Interactions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mehrnaz Rouhi Youssefi
2017-04-01
Full Text Available The goal of this study is to assess CFD capability for the prediction of shock wave laminar boundary layer interactions at hypersonic velocities. More specifically, the flow field over a double-cone configuration is simulated using both perfect gas and non-equilibrium Navier–Stokes models. Computations are compared with recent experimental data obtained from measurements conducted in the LENS XX (Large Energy National Shock Expansion Tunnel Version 2 at the Calspan University of Buffalo Research Center (CUBRC. Four separate cases of freestream conditions are simulated to examine the models for a range of stagnation enthalpies from 5.44 MJ/kg to 21.77 MJ/kg and Mach numbers from 10.9 to 12.82.
Assessment of thermodynamic parameters of plasma shock wave
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vasileva, O V; Isaev, Yu N; Budko, A A; Filkov, A I
2014-01-01
The work is devoted to the solution of the one-dimensional equation of hydraulic gas dynamics for the coaxial magneto plasma accelerator by means of Lax-Wendroff modified algorithm with optimum choice of the regularization parameter artificial viscosity. Replacement of the differential equations containing private derivatives is made by finite difference method. Optimum parameter of regularization artificial viscosity is added using the exact known decision of Soda problem. The developed algorithm of thermodynamic parameter calculation in a braking point is proved. Thermodynamic parameters of a shock wave in front of the plasma piston of the coaxial magneto plasma accelerator are calculated on the basis of the offered algorithm. Unstable high-frequency fluctuations are smoothed using modeling and that allows narrowing the ambiguity area. Results of calculation of gas dynamic parameters in a point of braking coincide with literary data. The chart 3 shows the dynamics of change of speed and thermodynamic parameters of a shock wave such as pressure, density and temperature just before the plasma piston
Shock parameter calculations at weak interplanetary shock waves
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. M. Gloag
2005-02-01
Full Text Available A large set of interplanetary shock waves observed using the Ulysses spacecraft is analysed in order to determine their local parameters. For the first time a detailed analysis is extended to the thermodynamic properties of a large number of events. The intention is to relate the shock parameters to the requirements set by MHD shock theory. A uniform approach is adopted in the selection of up and downstream regions for this analysis and applied to all the shock waves. Initially, the general case of a 3 component adiabatic plasma is considered. However, the calculation of magnetosonic and Alfvénic Mach numbers and the ratio of downstream to upstream entropy produce some unexpected results. In some cases there is no clear increase in entropy across the shock and also the magnetosonic Mach number can be less than 1. It is found that a more discerning use of data along with an empirical value for the polytropic index can raise the distribution of downstream to upstream entropy ratios to a more acceptable level. However, it is also realised that many of these shocks are at the very weakest end of the spectrum and associated phenomena may also contribute to the explanation of these results.
Evolution of Shock Waves in Silicon Carbide Rods
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Balagansky, I. A.; Balagansky, A. I.; Razorenov, S. V.; Utkin, A. V.
2006-01-01
Evolution of shock waves in self-bonded silicon carbide bars in the shape of 20 mm x 20 mm square prisms of varying lengths (20 mm, 40 mm, and 77.5 mm) is investigated. The density and porosity of the test specimens were 3.08 g/cm3 and 2%, respectively. Shock waves were generated by detonating a cylindrical shaped (d=40 mm and 1=40 mm) stabilized RDX high explosive charge of density 1.60 g/cm3. Embedded manganin gauges at various distances from the impact face were used to monitor the amplitude of shock pressure profiles. Propagation velocity of the stress pulse was observed to be equal to the elastic bar wave velocity of 11 km/s and was independent of the amplitude of the impact pulse. Strong fuzziness of the stress wave front is observed. This observation conforms to the theory on the instability of the shock formation in a finite size elastic body. This phenomenon of wave front fuzziness may be useful for desensitization of heterogeneous high explosives
Renal tissue damage induced by focused shock waves
Ioritani, N.; Kuwahara, M.; Kambe, K.; Taguchi, K.; Saitoh, T.; Shirai, S.; Orikasa, S.; Takayama, K.; Lush, P. A.
1990-07-01
Biological evidence of renal arterial wall damage induced by the microjet due to shock wave-cavitation bubble interaction was demonstrated in living dog kidneys. We also intended to clarify the mechanism of renal tissue damage and the effects of different conditions of shock wave exposure (peak pressure of focused area, number of shots, exposure rate) on the renal tissue damage in comparison to stone disintegration. Disruption of arterial wall was the most remarkable histological change in the focused area of the kidneys. This lesion appeared as if the wall had been punctured by a needle. Large hematoma formation in the renal parenchym, and interstitial hemorrhage seemed to be the results of the arterial lesion. This arterial disorder also led to ischemic necrosis of the tubules surrounding the hematoma. Micro-angiographic examination of extracted kidneys also proved such arterial puncture lesions and ischemic lesions. The number of shots required for model stone disintegration was not inversely proportional to peak pressure. It decreased markedly when peak pressure was above 700 bar. Similarly thenumber of shots for hematoma formation was not inversely proportional to peak pressure, however, this decreased markedly above 500 bar. These results suggested that a hematoma could be formed under a lower peak pressure than that required for stone disintegration.
Extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy of bile duct stones
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Jong Tae; Kim, Myung Joon; Yoo, Hyung Sik; Suh, Jung Ho; Lee, Moo Sang; Jo, Jang Hwan; Kim, Byung Ro
1989-01-01
During the past one and half year, we performed ESWL therapy in 13 patients with common bile duct and intrahepatic duct stones, applying Lithostar-R (Siemens co. West Germany) and analyzed their results. In 13 patients, 9 residual common bile duct stones and 7 intrahepatic duct stones were selected postoperatively. The size of stones were ranged from 0.7 cm to 3.5 cm in diameter. 2 stones were multiple and the remained 14 were single in number. The visualization of stones were done with fluoroscopy after the injection of contrast media via cholangiographic T-tube or ERCP. ESWL were applied continuously until stone disintegration was visible, or upto maximum number of 3500 discharge of shock wave. If not disintegrated upto 3500, patients were underwent second or third lithotripsy session with interval of one week. Our results showed that among 9 common bile duct stones, 4 were completely disintegrated and passed out spontaneously, but 3 partially fragmented and removed by the additional procedure. 2 were failed. Among 7 intrahepatic stones, 3 completely and 2 partially were succeeded. One stone partially fragmented were retained without removal and other one were failed. Skin petechia in all patients were revealed on the entry port of shock wave, but no serous complication was not occurred
Detecting cavitation in vivo from shock-wave therapy devices
Matula, Thomas J.; Yu, Jinfei; Bailey, Michael R.
2005-04-01
Extracorporeal shock-wave therapy (ESWT) has been used as a treatment for plantar faciitis, lateral epicondylitis, shoulder tendonitis, non-unions, and other indications where conservative treatments have been unsuccessful. However, in many areas, the efficacy of SW treatment has not been well established, and the mechanism of action, particularly the role of cavitation, is not well understood. Research indicates cavitation plays an important role in other ultrasound therapies, such as lithotripsy and focused ultrasound surgery, and in some instances, cavitation has been used as a means to monitor or detect a biological effect. Although ESWT can generate cavitation easily in vitro, it is unknown whether or not cavitation is a significant factor in vivo. The purpose of this investigation is to use diagnostic ultrasound to detect and monitor cavitation generated by ESWT devices in vivo. Diagnostic images are collected at various times during and after treatment. The images are then post-processed with image-processing algorithms to enhance the contrast between bubbles and surrounding tissue. The ultimate goal of this research is to utilize cavitation as a means for optimizing shock wave parameters such as amplitude and pulse repetition frequency. [Work supported by APL internal funds and NIH DK43881 and DK55674.
Wireless device for activation of an underground shock wave absorber
Chikhradze, M.; Akhvlediani, I.; Bochorishvili, N.; Mataradze, E.
2011-10-01
The paper describes the mechanism and design of the wireless device for activation of energy absorber for localization of blast energy in underground openings. The statistics shows that the greatest share of accidents with fatal results associate with explosions in coal mines due to aero-methane and/or air-coal media explosion. The other significant problem is terrorist or accidental explosions in underground structures. At present there are different protective systems to reduce the blast energy. One of the main parts of protective Systems is blast Identification and Registration Module. The works conducted at G. Tsulukidze Mining Institute of Georgia enabled to construct the wireless system of explosion detection and mitigation of shock waves. The system is based on the constant control on overpressure. The experimental research continues to fulfill the system based on both threats, on the constant control on overpressure and flame parameters, especially in underground structures and coal mines. Reaching the threshold value of any of those parameters, the system immediately starts the activation. The absorber contains a pyrotechnic device ensuring the discharge of dispersed water. The operational parameters of wireless device and activation mechanisms of pyrotechnic element of shock wave absorber are discussed in the paper.
Extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy of bile duct stones
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Jong Tae; Kim, Myung Joon; Yoo, Hyung Sik; Suh, Jung Ho; Lee, Moo Sang; Jo, Jang Hwan; Kim, Byung Ro [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
1989-12-15
During the past one and half year, we performed ESWL therapy in 13 patients with common bile duct and intrahepatic duct stones, applying Lithostar-R (Siemens co. West Germany) and analyzed their results. In 13 patients, 9 residual common bile duct stones and 7 intrahepatic duct stones were selected postoperatively. The size of stones were ranged from 0.7 cm to 3.5 cm in diameter. 2 stones were multiple and the remained 14 were single in number. The visualization of stones were done with fluoroscopy after the injection of contrast media via cholangiographic T-tube or ERCP. ESWL were applied continuously until stone disintegration was visible, or upto maximum number of 3500 discharge of shock wave. If not disintegrated upto 3500, patients were underwent second or third lithotripsy session with interval of one week. Our results showed that among 9 common bile duct stones, 4 were completely disintegrated and passed out spontaneously, but 3 partially fragmented and removed by the additional procedure. 2 were failed. Among 7 intrahepatic stones, 3 completely and 2 partially were succeeded. One stone partially fragmented were retained without removal and other one were failed. Skin petechia in all patients were revealed on the entry port of shock wave, but no serous complication was not occurred.
Massive retroperitoneal haemorrhage after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL).
Inoue, Hiromasa; Kamphausen, Thomas; Bajanowski, Thomas; Trübner, Kurt
2011-01-01
A 76-year-old male suffering from nephrolithiasis developed a shock syndrome 5 days after extracorporal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL). CT scan of the abdomen showed massive haemorrhage around the right kidney. Although nephrectomy was performed immediately, the haemorrhage could not be controlled. Numerous units of erythrocytes were transfused, but the patient died. The autopsy revealed massive retroperitoneal haemorrhage around the right kidney. The kidney showed a subcapsular haematoma and a rupture of the capsule. The right renal artery was dissected. The inferior vena cava was lacerated. Accordingly, a hemorrhagic shock as the cause of death was determined, which might mainly have resulted from the laceration of the inferior vena cava due to ESWL. ESWL seems to be a relatively non-invasive modality, but one of its severe complications is perirenal hematoma. The injuries of the blood vessels might have been caused by excessive shock waves. Subsequently, anticoagulation therapy had been resumed 3 days after EWSL, which might have triggered the haemorrhage. Physicians should note that a haemorrhage after an ESWL can occur and they should pay attention to the postoperative management in aged individuals especially when they are under anticoagulation therapy.
Prediction of separation of gases and gaseous isotopes in a curved shock wave
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tunstall, J.N.; Harris, W.L.; Childs, K.W.
1976-01-01
An examination of the species separation induced by a curved shock wave in a supersonic flow of a binary gas mixture has been undertaken. The objectives of this investigation are to determine the importance of physical mechanisms operative in such flows per the species separation and to develop a self-consistent model for predicting species separation in such flows. The formulation of the model examined in this paper is based on the continuum Navier-Stokes equations. The effects of a specified flow field downstream of the shock have been neglected. The parameters which characterize the separation induced by the shock have been identified. Results show a mathematically self-consistent and physically plausible dependence on the parameters which characterize the phenomenon. A comparison with existing theoretical models and experimental data shows good agreement
Imaging Shock Waves in Diamond with Both High Temporal and Spatial Resolution at an XFEL.
Schropp, Andreas; Hoppe, Robert; Meier, Vivienne; Patommel, Jens; Seiboth, Frank; Ping, Yuan; Hicks, Damien G; Beckwith, Martha A; Collins, Gilbert W; Higginbotham, Andrew; Wark, Justin S; Lee, Hae Ja; Nagler, Bob; Galtier, Eric C; Arnold, Brice; Zastrau, Ulf; Hastings, Jerome B; Schroer, Christian G
2015-06-18
The advent of hard x-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) has opened up a variety of scientific opportunities in areas as diverse as atomic physics, plasma physics, nonlinear optics in the x-ray range, and protein crystallography. In this article, we access a new field of science by measuring quantitatively the local bulk properties and dynamics of matter under extreme conditions, in this case by using the short XFEL pulse to image an elastic compression wave in diamond. The elastic wave was initiated by an intense optical laser pulse and was imaged at different delay times after the optical pump pulse using magnified x-ray phase-contrast imaging. The temporal evolution of the shock wave can be monitored, yielding detailed information on shock dynamics, such as the shock velocity, the shock front width, and the local compression of the material. The method provides a quantitative perspective on the state of matter in extreme conditions.
Brandt, Douglas; Hiller, John R.; Moloney, Michael J.
1995-10-01
The Consortium for Upper Level Physics Software (CUPS) has developed a comprehensive series of Nine Book/Software packages that Wiley will publish in FY `95 and `96. CUPS is an international group of 27 physicists, all with extensive backgrounds in the research, teaching, and development of instructional software. The project is being supported by the National Science Foundation (PHY-9014548), and it has received other support from the IBM Corp., Apple Computer Corp., and George Mason University. The Simulations being developed are: Astrophysics, Classical Mechanics, Electricity & Magnetism, Modern Physics, Nuclear and Particle Physics, Quantum Mechanics, Solid State, Thermal and Statistical, and Wave and Optics.
Zhong, P; Chuong, C J; Preminger, G M
1993-07-01
To better understand the mechanism of stone fragmentation during extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL), the model developed in Part I [P. Zhong and C.J. Chuong, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 94, 19-28 (1993)] is applied to study cavitation microjet impingement and its resultant shock wave propagation in renal calculi. Impact pressure at the stone boundary and stress, strain at the propagating shock fronts in the stone were calculated for typical ESWL loading conditions. At the anterior surface of the stone, the jet induced compressive stress can vary from 0.82 approximately 4 times that of the water hammer pressure depending on the contact angles; whereas the jet-induced shear stress can achieve its maximum, with a magnitude of 30% approximately 54% of the water hammer pressure, near the detachment of the longitudinal (or P) wave in the solid. Comparison of model predictions with material failure strengths of renal calculi suggests that jet impact can lead to stone surface erosion by combined compressive and shear loadings at the jet impacting surface, and spalling failure by tensile forces at the distal surface of the stone. Comparing responses from four different stone types suggests that cystine is the most difficult stone to fragment in ESWL, as observed from clinical experience.
Energy convergence of shock waves and its destruction mechanism in cone-roof combustion chambers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu, Han; Yao, Anren; Yao, Chunde; Gao, Jian
2016-01-01
Highlights: • Experiments with simulations are designed to probe into engine severe knock. • Energy convergence at central and edge region is observed in closed-limited space. • Modes with different intensities and mechanism of energy convergence are revealed. • Chamber shape and equivalence ratio can affect the energy convergence. • The destruction effects of energy convergence on pistons are recognized. - Abstract: Energy convergence is considered as an important phenomenon in internal combustion engines under severe knock, in which shock waves caused by violent combustion may aggregate the energy released by fuel burning to damage engine parts like pistons and spark plugs easily. In order to reveal such convergence mechanism and its destruction effects, a novel detonation bomb experiment combined with numerical simulations are conducted. In bomb experiments, a detonation wave is forcibly introduced into a clearance-variable cone-roof combustion chamber by a high energy spark ignition. Four pressure transducers were installed in different positions to monitor the energy convergence. Combined with the experiments, numerical simulations were conducted to reveal the convergence modes and mechanisms. Finally, destruction samples were presented to validate this research. It’s found that the energy convergence of shock waves always occurs in middle and edge region, which are vulnerable to be damaged. Three modes of energy convergence are concluded for middle region while several ways of energy convergence are concluded for edge region, which are all related with the chamber shape and may result in different levels of convergence. It’s also found that though detonation strength (knock intensity) can be changed by both equivalence ratios and initial pressures, only the equivalence ratios can change the convergence modes while the initial pressures cannot.
Berendsen, Herman J. C.
2004-06-01
The simulation of physical systems requires a simplified, hierarchical approach which models each level from the atomistic to the macroscopic scale. From quantum mechanics to fluid dynamics, this book systematically treats the broad scope of computer modeling and simulations, describing the fundamental theory behind each level of approximation. Berendsen evaluates each stage in relation to its applications giving the reader insight into the possibilities and limitations of the models. Practical guidance for applications and sample programs in Python are provided. With a strong emphasis on molecular models in chemistry and biochemistry, this book will be suitable for advanced undergraduate and graduate courses on molecular modeling and simulation within physics, biophysics, physical chemistry and materials science. It will also be a useful reference to all those working in the field. Additional resources for this title including solutions for instructors and programs are available online at www.cambridge.org/9780521835275. The first book to cover the wide range of modeling and simulations, from atomistic to the macroscopic scale, in a systematic fashion Providing a wealth of background material, it does not assume advanced knowledge and is eminently suitable for course use Contains practical examples and sample programs in Python
Development of fiber optic sensors at TNO for explosion and shock wave measurements
Cheng, L.K.; Smorenburg, C.; Bree, J.L.M.J. van; Bouma, R.H.B.; Meer, B.J. van der; Prinse, W.C.; Scholtes, J.H.G.
2000-01-01
Fiber Optic sensors are found to be very suitable for explosion and shock wave measurements because they are immune to Electromagnetic Interference (EMI). In the past few years, TNO has developed a number of sensor systems for explosion and shock wave measurements in which the optical fiber is a
Furia, John P
2008-03-01
High-energy extracorporeal shock wave therapy has been shown to be an effective treatment for chronic insertional Achilles tendinopathy. The results of high-energy shock wave therapy for chronic noninsertional Achilles tendinopathy have not been determined. Shock wave therapy is an effective treatment for noninsertional Achilles tendinopathy. Case control study; Level of evidence, 3. Thirty-four patients with chronic noninsertional Achilles tendinopathy were treated with a single dose of high-energy shock wave therapy (shock wave therapy group; 3000 shocks; 0.21 mJ/mm(2); total energy flux density, 604 mJ/mm(2)). Thirty-four patients with chronic noninsertional Achilles tendinopathy were treated not with shock wave therapy but with additional forms of nonoperative therapy (control group). All shock wave therapy procedures were performed using regional anesthesia. Evaluation was by change in visual analog score and by Roles and Maudsley score. One month, 3 months, and 12 months after treatment, the mean visual analog scores for the control and shock wave therapy groups were 8.4 and 4.4 (P wave therapy and control groups were 12 and 0 (P wave therapy group than in the control group (P wave therapy is an effective treatment for chronic noninsertional Achilles tendinopathy.
Transonic shock wave. Turbulent boundary layer interaction on a curved surface
Nebbeling, C.; Koren, B.
1988-01-01
This paper describes an experimental investigation of a transonic shock wave - turbulent boundary layer interaction in a curved test section, in which the flow has been computed by a 2-D Euler flow method. The test section has been designed such that the flow near the shock wave on the convex curved
Dust acoustic shock wave generation due to dust charge variation in ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
to generation of shock wave in the dusty plasma described as collisionless shock wave. ... Trans- forming to the frame of the wave with velocity λ ζ = x λd -λωpdt =X -λT. (2) .... Jd =0, there exists steady state (apart from the initial state) defined.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. V. Bulat
2016-03-01
Full Text Available The paper deals with current issues of the interference theory development of gas-dynamic discontinuities as applied to a problem of propulsion refinement for the air-spacecrafts, designed for hypersonic flight speeds. In the first part of the review we have presented the history of detonation study and different concepts of detonation engines, as well as air intakes designed for hypersonic flight speeds. The second part provides an overview of works on the interference theory development for gas-dynamic discontinuities. We report about classification of the gas-dynamic discontinuities, shock wave propagation, shock-wave structures and triple configurations of shock waves. We have shown that many of these processes are accompanied by a hysteresis phenomenon, there are areas of ambiguity; therefore, in the design of engines and air intakes optimal shock-wave structures should be provided and their sustainability should be ensured. Much attention has recently been given to the use of the air intakes in the shock-wave structures with the rereflection of shock waves and the interference of shock waves in the opposite directions. This review provides increased focus on it, contains references to landmark works, the last calculated and experimental results. Unfortunately, foreign surveys missed many landmark works of the Soviet and Russian researchers, as they were not published in English. At the same time, it was the Soviet school of gas dynamics that has formulated the interference theory of gas-dynamic discontinuities in its present form. To fill this gap is one of this review scopes. The review may be recommended for professionals, engineers and scientists working in the field of aerospace engineering.
Observation of Self-Cavitating Envelope Dispersive Shock Waves in Yttrium Iron Garnet Thin Films
Janantha, P. A. Praveen; Sprenger, Patrick; Hoefer, Mark A.; Wu, Mingzhong
2017-07-01
The formation and properties of envelope dispersive shock wave (DSW) excitations from repulsive nonlinear waves in a magnetic film are studied. Experiments involve the excitation of a spin wave step pulse in a low-loss magnetic Y3Fe5O12 thin film strip, in which the spin wave amplitude increases rapidly, realizing the canonical Riemann problem of shock theory. Under certain conditions, the envelope of the spin wave pulse evolves into a DSW that consists of an expanding train of nonlinear oscillations with amplitudes increasing from front to back, terminated by a black soliton. The onset of DSW self-cavitation, indicated by a point of zero power and a concomitant 180° phase jump, is observed for sufficiently large steps, indicative of the bidirectional dispersive hydrodynamic nature of the DSW. The experimental observations are interpreted with theory and simulations of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation.
Vignati, F.; Guardone, A.
2017-11-01
An analytical model for the evolution of regular reflections of cylindrical converging shock waves over circular-arc obstacles is proposed. The model based on the new (local) parameter, the perceived wedge angle, which substitutes the (global) wedge angle of planar surfaces and accounts for the time-dependent curvature of both the shock and the obstacle at the reflection point, is introduced. The new model compares fairly well with numerical results. Results from numerical simulations of the regular to Mach transition—eventually occurring further downstream along the obstacle—point to the perceived wedge angle as the most significant parameter to identify regular to Mach transitions. Indeed, at the transition point, the value of the perceived wedge angle is between 39° and 42° for all investigated configurations, whereas, e.g., the absolute local wedge angle varies in between 10° and 45° in the same conditions.
Zhang, Wen-shuai; Cai, Hong-bo; Zhu, Shao-ping
2018-05-01
The role of ion–ion acoustic instabilities in the formation and dissipation of collisionless electrostatic shock waves driven by counter-streaming supersonic plasma flows has been investigated via two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. The nonlinear evolution of unstable waves and ion velocity distributions has been analyzed in detail. It is found that for electrostatic shocks driven by moderate-velocity flows, longitudinal and oblique ion–ion acoustic instabilities can be excited in the downstream and upstream regions, which lead to thermalization of the transmitted and reflected ions, respectively. For high-velocity flows, oblique ion–ion acoustic instabilities can develop in the overlap layer during the shock formation process and impede the shock formation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carter, H.B.; Naeslund, E.B.R.; Riehle, R.A. Jr.
1987-01-01
Retrospective review of 298 extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) treatments was undertaken to determine the factors which influence radiation exposure during ESWL. Fluoroscopy time averaged 160 seconds (3-509), and the average number of spot films taken per patient was 26 (5-68). The average stone burden was 19.3 mm (3-64). Average calculated skin surface radiation exposure was 17.8 R per treatment. Radiation exposure increased with increasing stone burden and patient weight. Stones treated in the ureter resulted in a higher average patient radiation exposure than for renal stones (19 R vs 16 R), even though the average size of these ureteral stones (11.3 mm) was significantly less than the mean. However, type of anesthetic (general or regional) used was not a significant factor. Operator training, experience, and familiarity with radiation physics should significantly decrease the amount of imaging time and consequent patient radiation exposure during ESWL
Extracorporeal shock wave treatment for shoulder calcific tendonitis: a systematic review
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mouzopoulos, G.; Tzurbakis, M.; Stamatakos, M.; Mouzopoulos, D.
2007-01-01
The treatment of patients with calcific tendonitis is typically conservative, including physical therapy, iontophoresis, deep friction, local or systemic application of noninflammatory drugs, needle irrigation-aspiration of calcium deposit, and subacromial bursal steroid injection. If the pain becomes chronic or intermittent after several months of conservative treatment, arthroscopic and open procedures are available to curette the calcium deposit, and additional subacromial decompression can be performed if necessary. As an alternative, minimally invasive extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) has been postulated to be an effective treatment option for treating calcific tendinitis of the shoulder, before surgery. Herein we discuss the indications, mechanism of therapeutic effect, efficacy of treatment, and complications after ESWT application. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Carter, H.B.; Naeslund, E.B.R.; Riehle, R.A. Jr.
1987-12-01
Retrospective review of 298 extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) treatments was undertaken to determine the factors which influence radiation exposure during ESWL. Fluoroscopy time averaged 160 seconds (3-509), and the average number of spot films taken per patient was 26 (5-68). The average stone burden was 19.3 mm (3-64). Average calculated skin surface radiation exposure was 17.8 R per treatment. Radiation exposure increased with increasing stone burden and patient weight. Stones treated in the ureter resulted in a higher average patient radiation exposure than for renal stones (19 R vs 16 R), even though the average size of these ureteral stones (11.3 mm) was significantly less than the mean. However, type of anesthetic (general or regional) used was not a significant factor. Operator training, experience, and familiarity with radiation physics should significantly decrease the amount of imaging time and consequent patient radiation exposure during ESWL.
Tracking shocked dust: State estimation for a complex plasma during a shock wave
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oxtoby, Neil P.; Ralph, Jason F.; Durniak, Celine; Samsonov, Dmitry
2012-01-01
We consider a two-dimensional complex (dusty) plasma crystal excited by an electrostatically-induced shock wave. Dust particle kinematics in such a system are usually determined using particle tracking velocimetry. In this work we present a particle tracking algorithm which determines the dust particle kinematics with significantly higher accuracy than particle tracking velocimetry. The algorithm uses multiple extended Kalman filters to estimate the particle states and an interacting multiple model to assign probabilities to the different filters. This enables the determination of relevant physical properties of the dust, such as kinetic energy and kinetic temperature, with high precision. We use a Hugoniot shock-jump relation to calculate a pressure-volume diagram from the shocked dust kinematics. Calculation of the full pressure-volume diagram was possible with our tracking algorithm, but not with particle tracking velocimetry.
Use of extracorporeal shock waves in the treatment of tendinopathy and other orthopedic diseases
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dushyant Nadar
2000-01-01
Full Text Available Objective: Use of extracorporeal shock waves in the treatment of tendinopathy and other orthopedic diseases. Patients and methods: 35 patients received shock wave therapy using Econolith 2000 lithotripter 19 patients had isolated lateral epicondylitis, 12 medical epicondylitis and 4 plantar fascitis. A total of 120 shock waves were given in the first sitting. Each patient received a total of three sittings with a gap of one week between each of them. Results: Based on the patients′ self-assessment, about 75% pain relief was observed in 60% of the patients. Fur-ther, in patients having isolated tendinopathies, the pain relief was better. Conclusion: The study indicated that the application of shock waves is not restricted to the fragmentation of urinary calculi. The shock waves can be effectively used for the pain relief in the common orthopedic diseases. Thus, the urologists can widen the application of lithotripters, in a cost-effective manner, to the other medical speciali-ties.
Various continuum approaches for studying shock wave structure in carbon dioxide
Alekseev, I. V.; Kosareva, A. A.; Kustova, E. V.; Nagnibeda, E. A.
2018-05-01
Shock wave structure in carbon dioxide is studied using different continuum models within the framework of one-temperature thermal equilibrium flow description. Navier-Stokes and Euler equations as well as commonly used Rankine-Hugoniot equations with different specific heat ratios are used to find the gas-dynamic parameters behind the shock wave. The accuracy of the Rankine-Hugoniot relations in polyatomic gases is assessed, and it is shown that they give a considerable error in the predicted values of fluid-dynamic variables. The effect of bulk viscosity on the shock wave structure in CO2 is evaluated. Taking into account bulk viscosity yields a significant increase in the shock wave width; for the complete model, the shock wave thickness varies non-monotonically with the Mach number.
In-tube shock wave driven by atmospheric millimeter-wave plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oda, Yasuhisa; Kajiwara, Ken; Takahashi, Koji; Kasugai, Atsushi; Sakamoto, Keishi; Komurasaki, Kimiya
2009-01-01
A shock wave in a tube supported by atmospheric millimeter-wave plasma is discussed. After atmospheric breakdown, the shock wave supported by the millimeter wave propagates at a constant velocity in the tube. In this study, a driving model of the millimeter-wave shock wave is proposed. The model consists of a normal shock wave supported by a propagating heat-supply area in which an ionization front is located. The flow properties predicted by the model show good agreement with the measured properties of the shock wave generated in the tube using a 170 GHz millimeter wave beam. The shock propagation velocity U shock is identical to the propagation velocity of the ionization front U ioniz when U ioniz is supersonic. Then the pressure increment at the tube end is independent of the power density. (author)
Experimental analysis of shock wave effects in copper
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Llorca, Fabrice; Buy, Francois; Farre, Jose
2002-01-01
This paper proposes the analysis of shock wave effects for a high purity copper. The method developed is based on the analysis of the mechanical behavior of as received and shocked materials. Shock effect is generated through plates impact tests performed in the range 9 GPa to 12 GPa on a single stage light gas gun. Therefore, as-received and impacted materials are characterized on quasi static and Split Hopkinson apparatus. The difference between measured stresses between as received and shocked materials allows to understand shock effects in the low pressure range of study. A specific modeling approach is engaged in order to give indications about the evolution of the microstructure of the materials
Stenting and extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy in chronic pancreatitis
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Holm, M; Matzen, Peter
2003-01-01
BACKGROUND: Early observational studies of endoscopic treatment and extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) reported considerable or complete relief of pain in 50%-80% of patients with chronic pancreatitis. There is no consensus on the measurement of pain, making comparison of observational...... studies difficult, and little attention has been paid to the type and amount of analgesics used by patients before and after decompressive treatment. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of all patients with chronic pancreatitis and large-duct disease and receiving decompressing treatment between 1...... November 1994 and 31 July 1999. Primary parameters were type and amount of analgesics used. RESULTS: Forty-nine patients with chronic pancreatitis and large-duct disease received stenting of the pancreatic duct (28 patients), ESWL (6 patients) or both (15 patients). After a median follow-up of 21 months...
Radiation exposure to patients during extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Van Swearingen, F.L.; McCullough, D.L.; Dyer, R.; Appel, B.
1987-01-01
Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy is rapidly becoming an accepted treatment of renal calculi. Since fluoroscopy is involved to image the stones it is important to know how much radiation the patient receives during this procedure. Surface radiation exposure to the patient was measured in more than 300 fluoroscopic and radiographic procedures using thermoluminescent dosimeters. Initial results showed an average skin exposure of 10.1 rad per procedure for each x-ray unit, comparing favorably with exposure rates for percutaneous nephrostolithotomy and other routine radiological procedures. Factors influencing exposure levels include stone characteristics (location, size and opacity), physician experience and number of shocks required. Suggestions are given that may result in a 50 per cent reduction of radiation exposure
Plastic flow in weak shock waves in uranium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tonks, D.L.
1992-01-01
Measurements of the particle velocity in weak shock waves in metals are available for a number of materials. These measurements use the laser interferometer or VISAR technique in conjunction with a plate impact experiment. These measurements are important for determining the elastic -- plastic behavior of materials at high strain rates. Strain rates up to 10 7 /s are measurable with this technique, while more conventional mechanical testing machines, such as the Hopkinson bar, achieve rates only up to about 10 4 /s. In this paper, the VISAR measurements of Grady on uranium are analyzed using the weak shock analysis of Wallace to extract the plastic and total strains, the deviatoric and total stresses, and the plastic strain rates. A brief error analysis of the results will be given. 7 refs
The Curious Events Leading to the Theory of Shock Waves
Salas, Manuel D.
2006-01-01
We review the history of the development of the modern theory of shock waves. Several attempts at an early-theory quickly collapsed for lack of foundations in mathematics and thermodynamics. It is not until the works of Rankine and later Hugoniot that a full theory is established. Rankine is the first to show that within the shock a non-adiabatic process must occur. Hugoniot showed that in the absence of viscosity and heat conduction conservation of energy implies conservation of entropy in smooth regions and a jump in entropy across a shock. Even after the theory is fully developed, old notions continue to pervade the literature well into the early part of the 20th Century.
Experimental particle acceleration by water evaporation induced by shock waves
Scolamacchia, T.; Alatorre Ibarguengoitia, M.; Scheu, B.; Dingwell, D. B.; Cimarelli, C.
2010-12-01
Shock waves are commonly generated during volcanic eruptions. They induce sudden changes in pressure and temperature causing phase changes. Nevertheless, their effects on flowfield properties are not well understood. Here we investigate the role of gas expansion generated by shock wave propagation in the acceleration of ash particles. We used a shock tube facility consisting of a high-pressure (HP) steel autoclave (450 mm long, 28 mm in internal diameter), pressurized with Ar gas, and a low-pressure tank at atmospheric conditions (LP). A copper diaphragm separated the HP autoclave from a 180 mm tube (PVC or acrylic glass) at ambient P, with the same internal diameter of the HP reservoir. Around the tube, a 30 cm-high acrylic glass cylinder, with the same section of the LP tank (40 cm), allowed the observation of the processes occurring downstream from the nozzle throat, and was large enough to act as an unconfined volume in which the initial diffracting shock and gas jet expand. All experiments were performed at Pres/Pamb ratios of 150:1. Two ambient conditions were used: dry air and air saturated with steam. Carbon fibers and glass spheres in a size range between 150 and 210 μm, were placed on a metal wire at the exit of the PVC tube. The sudden decompression of the Ar gas, due to the failure of the diaphragm, generated an initial air shock wave. A high-speed camera recorded the processes between the first 100 μsec and several ms after the diaphragm failure at frame rates ranging between 30,000 and 50,000 fps. In the experiments with ambient air saturated with steam, the high-speed camera allowed to visualize the condensation front associated with the initial air shock; a maximum velocity of 788 m/s was recorded, which decreases to 524 m/s at distance of 0.5 ±0.2 cm, 1.1 ms after the diaphragm rupture. The condensation front preceded the Ar jet front exhausting from the reservoir, by 0.2-0.5 ms. In all experiments particles velocities following the initial
Improvements in the electromechanical conversion of energy using shock waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Landure, Yves
1971-01-01
This report concerns the electrical mechanical conversion. In this study it was obtained by the depolarization of a ferroelectric ceramic. We are particularly interested by the high electrical horse-power. Shock wave which produces depolarization is created by a gun powder. The speed of the projectile is measured and the pressures generated in the ceramic is determined graphically. The energy freed is released on a linear resistive load. We were able to prove by different parameters how to obtain the maximum electrical energy. On a resistive load of 26 ohms, it was freed 0,91 J/cm 3 in less than 0,5 μs corresponding to an electrical horse-power superior to 2 MW/cm 3 . (author) [fr
Grain Destruction in a Supernova Remnant Shock Wave
Raymond, John C.; Ghavamian, Parviz; Williams, Brian J.; Blair, William P.; Borkowski, Kazimierz J.; Gaetz, Terrance J.; Sankrit, Ravi
2014-01-01
Dust grains are sputtered away in the hot gas behind shock fronts in supernova remnants, gradually enriching the gas phase with refractory elements. We have measured emission in C IV (lambda)1550 from C atoms sputtered from dust in the gas behind a non-radiative shock wave in the northern Cygnus Loop. Overall, the intensity observed behind the shock agrees approximately with predictions from model calculations that match the Spitzer 24 micron and the X-ray intensity profiles. Thus these observations confirm the overall picture of dust destruction in SNR shocks and the sputtering rates used in models. However, there is a discrepancy in that the CIV intensity 10'' behind the shock is too high compared to the intensities at the shock and 25'' behind it. Variations in the density, hydrogen neutral fraction and the dust properties over parsec scales in the pre- shock medium limit our ability to test dust destruction models in detail.
Approach to Residual Kidney Stone Fragments After Shock Wave Therapy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tumay Ipekci
2014-04-01
Full Text Available For kidney stones up to 2 cm in diameter shock wave therapy (SDT is safely applied and kidney stones smaller than 5mm remaining in the kidney after treatment are regarded as clinically insignificant. Management of this condition is still controversial among clinicians. These stones in the kidney may continue to persist without any clinical symptoms or begin to cause clinical signs. In the event that the clinical symptoms are present, it requires detailed urological examination and treatment. The aim in the surgical treatment of urinary tract stones is completely stone clearance but in stones that are not infected, not causing urinary tract obstruction and without clinical symptoms medical treatment is also beneficial fort he prevention of growth and recurrence. In addition, surgical intervention is also possible for the residual stone fragments which become symptomatic during follow-up.
Unusual behaviour of usual materials in shock waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kanel, G I
2014-01-01
Exotic results of investigations of inelastic deformation and fracture under shock wave loading are presented and briefly discussed. Temperature effects on the flow stress at high strain rate may differ even in sign from those we observe at low and moderate strain rates. Investigations of the temperature-rate dependence of the yield stress at shock compression demonstrate intense multiplication of dislocations. At the highest strain rates, so-called ideal (ultimate) shear and tensile strength is reached in experiments with picosecond durations of shock loading. Although grain boundaries, in general, reduce resistance to fracture as compared to single crystals, the spall strength of ultra-fine-grained metals usually slightly exceeds that of coarse-grain samples. Failure wave phenomena have been observed in shock-compressed glasses.
Factors influencing radiation exposure during the extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wei Chuan Chen; Ying Huei Lee; Ming Tsun Chen; Jong Khing Huang; Luke S Chang (Division of Urology, Dept. of Surgery, National Yang-Ming Medical College and Veterans General Hospital-Taipei, Taiwan (China))
1991-01-01
A prospective evaluation of 89 consecutive sessions of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) was undertaken to try and find the best way of minimising the amount of exposure to radiation. Forty-two patients were randomly allocated to undergo ESWL treatment by experienced surgeons (group A), and 47 to undergo the treatment by inexperienced surgeons (group B). The mean calculated entrance radiation exposure was 3.01 rads (group A: 2.64 (0.97) rads, range 1.00-4.48, group B: 3.38 (0.86) rads, range 1.11-5.75). Among factors that influenced radiation exposure, the tissue: air ratio should be borne in mind and the level of skill in controlling movement of gantry was the most important in reducing the exposure to radiation. (au).
Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy for renal stone with infundibular stenosis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Won Hong; Son, Soon Yong; Kang, Seong Ho; Lee, Yong Moon; Yoon, Seok Hwan
2006-01-01
We analyzed retrospectively our experience to evaluate an effect of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) for renal stone with infundibular stenosis. From January 2002 to August 2005, 35 patients with renal stone with infundibular stenosis were treated with ESWL. The diagnosis of infundibular stenosis was made by intravenous pyelography or retrograde pyelography. The final follow-up check was performed by simple abdominal film or computed tomography and interview after 6 months to 24 months (mean 10 months). 7 (20.0%) of 35 patients was freed completely, but Stone free rate including less than 2 mm size was 80% (28/35). 30 (85.7%) patients became asymptomatic, 4 (11.4%) patients were continued, and 1 (2.9%) patient was required the percutaneous nephrostolithotomy. Although ESWL has a low complete stone free rate, We suggest that renal stone with infundibular stenosis should be treated with ESWL, because that is likely to produce a high symptom free and low complications
Factors influencing radiation exposure during the extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wei Chuan Chen; Ying Huei Lee; Ming Tsun Chen; Jong Khing Huang; Luke S Chang
1991-01-01
A prospective evaluation of 89 consecutive sessions of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) was undertaken to try and find the best way of minimising the amount of exposure to radiation. Forty-two patients were randomly allocated to undergo ESWL treatment by experienced surgeons (group A), and 47 to undergo the treatment by inexperienced surgeons (group B). The mean calculated entrance radiation exposure was 3.01 rads (group A: 2.64 (0.97) rads, range 1.00-4.48, group B: 3.38 (0.86) rads, range 1.11-5.75). Among factors that influenced radiation exposure, the tissue: air ratio should be borne in mind and the level of skill in controlling movement of gantry was the most important in reducing the exposure to radiation. (au)
Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy for renal stone with infundibular stenosis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Won Hong; Son, Soon Yong; Kang, Seong Ho; Lee, Yong Moon [Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Seok Hwan [Dongnam Health College, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)
2006-06-15
We analyzed retrospectively our experience to evaluate an effect of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) for renal stone with infundibular stenosis. From January 2002 to August 2005, 35 patients with renal stone with infundibular stenosis were treated with ESWL. The diagnosis of infundibular stenosis was made by intravenous pyelography or retrograde pyelography. The final follow-up check was performed by simple abdominal film or computed tomography and interview after 6 months to 24 months (mean 10 months). 7 (20.0%) of 35 patients was freed completely, but Stone free rate including less than 2 mm size was 80% (28/35). 30 (85.7%) patients became asymptomatic, 4 (11.4%) patients were continued, and 1 (2.9%) patient was required the percutaneous nephrostolithotomy. Although ESWL has a low complete stone free rate, We suggest that renal stone with infundibular stenosis should be treated with ESWL, because that is likely to produce a high symptom free and low complications.
Shock waves in luminous early-type stars
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Castor, J.I.
1986-01-01
Shock waves that occur in stellar atmospheres have their origin in some hydrodynamic instability of the atmosphere itself or of the stellar interior. In luminous early-type stars these two possibilities are represented by shocks due to an unstable radiatively-accelerated wind, and to shocks generated by the non-radial pulsations known to be present in many or most OB stars. This review is concerned with the structure and development of the shocks in these two cases, and especially with the mass loss that may be due specifically to the shocks. Pulsation-produced shocks are found to be very unfavorable for causing mass loss, owing to the great radiation efficiency that allows them to remain isothermal. The situation regarding radiatively-driven shocks remains unclear, awaiting detailed hydrodynamics calculations. 20 refs., 2 figs
Acceleration of galactic cosmic rays in shock waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lagage, P.O.
1981-06-01
The old problem of the origin of cosmic rays has triggered off fresh interest owing to the discovery of a new model which enables a lot of energy to be transferred to a small number of particles on the one hand and the discovery of the coronal environment in which this transfer occurs, on the other. In this paper, interest is taken in the galactic cosmic rays and an endeavour is made to find out if the model can reveal the existence of cosmic rays over a wide energy range. The existence of an energy break, predicted by the model, was recognized fairly early but, in the literature, it varies from 30 GeV ro 10 6 GeV according to the authors. A study has been made of the two main causes of an energy break: the sphericity of the shock and the life time of the shock wave [fr
Development and Realization of a Shock Wave Test on Expert Flap Qualification Model
De Fruytier, C.; Dell'Orco, F.; Ullio, R.; Gomiero, F.
2012-07-01
This paper presents the methodology and the results of the shock test campaign conducted by TAS-I and TAS ETCA to qualify the EXPERT Flap in regards of shock wave and acoustic load generated by pyrocord detonation at stages 2/3 separation phase of the EXPERT vehicle. The design concept of the open flap (manufactured by MT AEROSPACE) is a fully integral manufactured, four sided control surface, with an additional stiffening rib and flanges to meet the first eigenfrequency and the allowable deformation requirement with a minimum necessary mass. The objectives were to reproduce equivalent loading at test article level in terms of pulse duration, front pressure, front velocity and acoustic emission. The Thales Alenia Space ETCA pyrotechnic shock test device is usually used to produce high level shocks by performing a shock on a test fixture supporting the unit under test. In this case, the facility has been used to produce a shock wave, with different requested physical characteristics, directed to the unit under test. Different configurations have been tried on a dummy of the unit to test, following an empirical process. This unusual work has lead to the definition of a nominal set- up meeting the requested physical parameters. Two blast sensors have been placed to acquire the pressure around the flap. The distance between the two sensors has allowed estimating the front pressure velocity. Then, several locations have been selected to acquire the acceleration responses on the unit when it was submitted to this environment. Additionally, a “standard” shock test has been performed on this model. The qualification of the flap, in regards of shock environment, has been successfully conducted.
Does extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy cause hearing impairment?
Tuncer, Murat; Erdogan, Banu A; Yazici, Ozgur; Sahin, Cahit; Altin, Gokhan; Faydaci, Gokhan; Eryildirim, Bilal; Sarica, Kemal
2014-07-01
To evaluate the possible effects of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) on the hearing status of the patients in this prospective controlled study. A total of 40 patients with normal hearing function were included to the study. We had 20 patients each in the study group and control group. The treatment parameters were standardized in all 3 sessions in which a total of 3000 shock waves with a rate of 90/min along with a total energy value of 126 J at the fourth energy level have been applied (Dornier Compact Sigma, Medtech, Germany). In addition to the testing of hearing functions and possible cochlear impairment by Transient Evoked Otoacoustic Emissions test at 1.0, 1.4, 2.0, 2.8, and 4.0 kHz frequencies, complications such as ear pain, tinnitus, and hearing loss have been well evaluated in each patient before the procedure and 2 hours and 1 month after the completion of the third session of ESWL in the study group. The same evaluation procedures were performed before the study and after 7-weeks in the control group. Regarding Transient Evoked Otoacoustic Emissions data obtained in study group and control group patients, there was no significant alteration in values obtained after ESWL when compared with the values before the procedure. A well-planned ESWL procedure is a safe and effective treatment in urinary stones and causes no detectable harmful effect on the hearing function of treated patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Shock Wave Therapy Promotes Cardiomyocyte Autophagy and Survival during Hypoxia
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Ling Du
2017-06-01
Full Text Available Background: Autophagy plays an important role in cardiovascular disease. Controversy still exists regarding the effect of autophagy on ischemic/hypoxic myocardium. Cardiac shock wave therapy (CSWT is an effective alternative treatment for refractory ischemic heart disease. Whether CSWT can regulate cardiomyocyte autophagy under hypoxic conditions is not clear. We established a myocardial hypoxia model using the H9c2 cell line and performed shock waves (SWs treatment to evaluate the effect of SW on autophagy. Methods: The H9c2 cells were incubated under hypoxic conditions, and SW treatment was then performed at energies of 0.02, 0.05, or 0.10 mJ/mm2. The cell viability and intracellular ATP level were examined. Western blot analysis was used to assess the expression of LC3B, AMPK, mTOR, Beclin-1, Sirt1, and HIF-1α. Autophagic vacuoles were visualized by monodansylcadaverine staining. Results: After the 24-hour hypoxic period, cardiomyocyte viability and ATP levels were decreased and autophagy was significantly increased in H9c2 cells. SW treatment with an energy of 0.05 mJ/mm2 significantly increased the cellular viability, ATP level, LC3B-II/I, and number of autophagic vacuoles. In addition, phosphorylated AMPK and Sirt1 were increased and phosphorylated mTOR and HIF-1α were decreased after SW treatment. Conclusion: SW treatment can potentially promote cardiomyocyte autophagy during hypoxia and protect cardiomyocyte function by regulating the AMPK/mTOR pathway.
Pre-plasma effect on energy transfer from laser beam to shock wave generated in solid target
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Pisarczyk, T.; Gus’kov, S.Yu.; Kalinowska, Z.; Badziak, J.; Batani, D.; Antonelli, L.; Folpini, G.; Maheut, Y.; Baffigi, F.; Borodziuk, S.; Chodukowski, T.; Cristoforetti, G.; Demchenko, N. N.; Gizzi, L.A.; Kasperczuk, A.; Koester, P.; Krouský, Eduard; Labate, L.; Parys, P.; Pfeifer, Miroslav; Renner, Oldřich; Šmíd, Michal; Rosinski, M.; Skála, Jiří; Dudžák, Roman; Ullschmied, Jiří; Pisarczyk, P.
2014-01-01
Roč. 21, č. 1 (2014), 012708/1-012708/7 ISSN 1070-664X R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2010014; GA MŠk ED1.1.00/02.0061; GA MŠk EE2.3.20.0279 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 ; RVO:68378271 Keywords : Energy transfer * laser ablation * shock waves * plasma waves * laser beam effects Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics; BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics (FZU-D) Impact factor: 2.142, year: 2014 http://scitation.aip.org/content/aip/journal/pop/21/1/10.1063/1.4862784
Kuwahara, M.; Ioritani, N.; Kambe, K.; Taguchi, K.; Saito, T.; Igarashi, M.; Shirai, S.; Orikasa, S.; Takayama, K.
1990-07-01
On an ultrasonic imaging system a hyperechoic region was observed in a focal area of fucused shock waves in the dog kidney. This study was performed to learn whether cavitation bubbles are responsible for this hyperechoic region. The ultrasonic images in water of varying temperatures were not markedly different. In the flowing stream of distilled water, the stream was demonstrated as a hyperechoic region only with a mixture of air bubbles. Streams of 5%-50% glucose solutions were also demonstrated as a hyperechoic region. However, such concentration changes in living tissue, as well as thermal changes, are hardly thought to be induced. The holographic interferometry showed that the cavitation bubbles remained for more than 500 msec. in the focal area in water. This finding indicate that the bubble can remain for longer period than previously supposed. These results support the contentions that cavitation bubbles are responsible for the hyperechoic region in the kidney in situ.
Shock wave synthesis of amino acids from solutions of ammonium formate and ammonium bicarbonate
Suzuki, Chizuka; Furukawa, Yoshihiro; Kobayashi, Takamichi; Sekine, Toshimori; Nakazawa, Hiromoto; Kakegawa, Takeshi
2015-07-01
The emergence of life's building blocks, such as amino acids and nucleobases, on the prebiotic Earth was a critical step for the beginning of life. Reduced species with low mass, such as ammonia, amines, or carboxylic acids, are potential precursors for these building blocks of life. These precursors may have been provided to the prebiotic ocean by carbonaceous chondrites and chemical reactions related to meteorite impacts on the early Earth. The impact of extraterrestrial objects on Earth occurred more frequently during this period than at present. Such impacts generated shock waves in the ocean, which have the potential to progress chemical reactions to form the building blocks of life from reduced species. To simulate shock-induced reactions in the prebiotic ocean, we conducted shock-recovery experiments on ammonium bicarbonate solution and ammonium formate solution at impact velocities ranging from 0.51 to 0.92 km/s. In the products from the ammonium formate solution, several amino acids (glycine, alanine, ß-alanine, and sarcosine) and aliphatic amines (methylamine, ethylamine, propylamine, and butylamine) were detected, although yields were less than 0.1 mol % of the formic acid reactant. From the ammonium bicarbonate solution, smaller amounts of glycine, methylamine, ethylamine, and propylamine were formed. The impact velocities used in this study represent minimum cases because natural meteorite impacts typically have higher velocities and longer durations. Our results therefore suggest that shock waves could have been involved in forming life's building blocks in the ocean of prebiotic Earth, and potentially in aquifers of other planets, satellites, and asteroids.
MONOTONIC DERIVATIVE CORRECTION FOR CALCULATION OF SUPERSONIC FLOWS WITH SHOCK WAVES
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P. V. Bulat
2015-07-01
Full Text Available Subject of Research. Numerical solution methods of gas dynamics problems based on exact and approximate solution of Riemann problem are considered. We have developed an approach to the solution of Euler equations describing flows of inviscid compressible gas based on finite volume method and finite difference schemes of various order of accuracy. Godunov scheme, Kolgan scheme, Roe scheme, Harten scheme and Chakravarthy-Osher scheme are used in calculations (order of accuracy of finite difference schemes varies from 1st to 3rd. Comparison of accuracy and efficiency of various finite difference schemes is demonstrated on the calculation example of inviscid compressible gas flow in Laval nozzle in the case of continuous acceleration of flow in the nozzle and in the case of nozzle shock wave presence. Conclusions about accuracy of various finite difference schemes and time required for calculations are made. Main Results. Comparative analysis of difference schemes for Euler equations integration has been carried out. These schemes are based on accurate and approximate solution for the problem of an arbitrary discontinuity breakdown. Calculation results show that monotonic derivative correction provides numerical solution uniformity in the breakdown neighbourhood. From the one hand, it prevents formation of new points of extremum, providing the monotonicity property, but from the other hand, causes smoothing of existing minimums and maximums and accuracy loss. Practical Relevance. Developed numerical calculation method gives the possibility to perform high accuracy calculations of flows with strong non-stationary shock and detonation waves. At the same time, there are no non-physical solution oscillations on the shock wave front.
THE EFFECTS OF AREA CONTRACTION ON SHOCK WAVE STRENGTH AND PEAK PRESSURE IN SHOCK TUBE
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A. M. Mohsen
2012-06-01
Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental investigation into the effects of area contraction on shock wave strength and peak pressure in a shock tube. The shock tube is an important component of the short duration, high speed fluid flow test facility, available at the Universiti Tenaga Nasional (UNITEN, Malaysia. The area contraction was facilitated by positioning a bush adjacent to the primary diaphragm section, which separates the driver and driven sections. Experimental measurements were performed with and without the presence of the bush, at various diaphragm pressure ratios, which is the ratio of air pressure between the driver (high pressure and driven (low pressure sections. The instantaneous static pressure variations were measured at two locations close to the driven tube end wall, using high sensitivity pressure sensors, which allow the shock wave strength, shock wave speed and peak pressure to be analysed. The results reveal that the area contraction significantly reduces the shock wave strength, shock wave speed and peak pressure. At a diaphragm pressure ratio of 10, the shock wave strength decreases by 18%, the peak pressure decreases by 30% and the shock wave speed decreases by 8%.
Energy of a shock wave generated in different metals under irradiation by a high-power laser pulse
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Gus'kov, S. Yu.; Kasperczuk, A.; Pisarczyk, T.; Borodziuk, S.; Ullschmied, Jiří; Krouský, Eduard; Mašek, Karel; Pfeifer, Miroslav; Skála, Jiří; Pisarczyk, P.
2007-01-01
Roč. 105, č. 4 (2007), s. 793-802 ISSN 1063-7761 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC528 Grant - others:HPC Europa(XE) RII3-CT-2003-506350 Program:FP6 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508; CEZ:AV0Z10100523 Source of funding: R - rámcový projekt EK Keywords : shock waves * laser radiation * laser plasma * inertial confinement * PALS laser Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.075, year: 2007
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zeyer, G.
1975-01-01
In the present work results of experimental investigations on the structure of resistive MHD shock waves are reported. The anomaly of the electric conductivity possibly occurring in such shock waves is an effect which has given new insight on the interaction mechanims of a plasma. In a modified Theta-Pinch setup deuterium plasma shock waves perpendicular to the magnetic field are studied with the aid of probes and scattering of laser light to determine the internal magnetic field and electron temperature and density. (GG) [de
SOME PROBLEMS ON JUMP CONDITIONS OF SHOCK WAVES IN 3-DIMENSIONAL SOLIDS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI Yong-chi; YAO Lei; HU Xiu-zhang; CAO Jie-dong; DONG Jie
2006-01-01
Based on the general conservation laws in continuum mechanics, the Eulerian and Lagrangian descriptions of the jump conditions of shock waves in 3-dimensional solids were presented respectively. The implication of the jump conditions and their relations between each other, particularly the relation between the mass conservation and the displacement continuity, were discussed. Meanwhile the shock wave response curves in 3-dimensional solids, i.e. the Hugoniot curves were analysed, which provide the foundation for studying the coupling effects of shock waves in 3-dimensional solids.
Numerical study of the Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equation and dispersive shock waves
Grava, T.; Klein, C.; Pitton, G.
2018-02-01
A detailed numerical study of the long time behaviour of dispersive shock waves in solutions to the Kadomtsev-Petviashvili (KP) I equation is presented. It is shown that modulated lump solutions emerge from the dispersive shock waves. For the description of dispersive shock waves, Whitham modulation equations for KP are obtained. It is shown that the modulation equations near the soliton line are hyperbolic for the KPII equation while they are elliptic for the KPI equation leading to a focusing effect and the formation of lumps. Such a behaviour is similar to the appearance of breathers for the focusing nonlinear Schrödinger equation in the semiclassical limit.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andriyash, A. V.; Astashkin, M. V.; Baranov, V. K.; Golubinskii, A. G.; Irinichev, D. A.; Kondrat’ev, A. N.; Kuratov, S. E.; Mazanov, V. A.; Rogozkin, D. B.; Stepushkin, S. N.; Khatunkin, V. Yu.
2016-01-01
The results of optoheterodyne Doppler measurements of the ballistic expansion of the products of surface destruction under shock-wave loading are presented. The possibility of determining the physical characteristics of a rapidly flying dust cloud, including the microparticle velocities, the microparticle sizes, and the areal density of the dust cloud, is shown. A compact stand for performing experiments on shock-wave loading of metallic samples is described. Shock-wave loading is performed by a 100-µm-thick tantalum flyer plate accelerated to a velocity of 2.8 km/s. As the samples, lead plates having various thicknesses and the same surface roughness are used. At a shock-wave pressure of 31.5 GPa, the destruction products are solid microparticles about 50 µm in size. At a pressure of 42 and 88 GPa, a liquid-drop dust cloud with a particle size of 10–15 µm is formed. To interpret the spectral data on the optoheterodyne Doppler measurements of the expansion of the surface destruction products (spalled fragments, dust microparticles), a transport equation for the function of mutual coherence of a multiply scattered field is used. The Doppler spectra of a backscattered signal are calculated with the model developed for the dust cloud that appears when a shock wave reaches the sample surface at the parameters that are typical of an experimental situation. Qualitative changes are found in the spectra, depending on the optical thickness of the dust cloud. The obtained theoretical results are in agreement with the experimental data.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Andriyash, A. V. [All-Russia Research Institute of Automatics (Russian Federation); Astashkin, M. V.; Baranov, V. K.; Golubinskii, A. G.; Irinichev, D. A. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center, All-Russia Research Institute of Experimental Physics (VNIIEF) (Russian Federation); Kondrat’ev, A. N., E-mail: an.kondratev@physics.msu.ru; Kuratov, S. E. [All-Russia Research Institute of Automatics (Russian Federation); Mazanov, V. A. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center, All-Russia Research Institute of Experimental Physics (VNIIEF) (Russian Federation); Rogozkin, D. B. [All-Russia Research Institute of Automatics (Russian Federation); Stepushkin, S. N.; Khatunkin, V. Yu. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center, All-Russia Research Institute of Experimental Physics (VNIIEF) (Russian Federation)
2016-06-15
The results of optoheterodyne Doppler measurements of the ballistic expansion of the products of surface destruction under shock-wave loading are presented. The possibility of determining the physical characteristics of a rapidly flying dust cloud, including the microparticle velocities, the microparticle sizes, and the areal density of the dust cloud, is shown. A compact stand for performing experiments on shock-wave loading of metallic samples is described. Shock-wave loading is performed by a 100-µm-thick tantalum flyer plate accelerated to a velocity of 2.8 km/s. As the samples, lead plates having various thicknesses and the same surface roughness are used. At a shock-wave pressure of 31.5 GPa, the destruction products are solid microparticles about 50 µm in size. At a pressure of 42 and 88 GPa, a liquid-drop dust cloud with a particle size of 10–15 µm is formed. To interpret the spectral data on the optoheterodyne Doppler measurements of the expansion of the surface destruction products (spalled fragments, dust microparticles), a transport equation for the function of mutual coherence of a multiply scattered field is used. The Doppler spectra of a backscattered signal are calculated with the model developed for the dust cloud that appears when a shock wave reaches the sample surface at the parameters that are typical of an experimental situation. Qualitative changes are found in the spectra, depending on the optical thickness of the dust cloud. The obtained theoretical results are in agreement with the experimental data.
Wang, Xiaofeng; Matula, Thomas J.; Ma, Yong; Liu, Zheng; Tu, Juan; Guo, Xiasheng; Zhang, Dong
2013-06-01
It is well known that extracorporeal shock wave treatment is capable of providing a non-surgical and relatively pain free alternative treatment modality for patients suffering from musculoskeletal disorders but do not respond well to conservative treatments. The major objective of current work is to investigate how the shock wave (SW) field would change if a bony structure exists in the path of the acoustic wave. Here, a model of finite element method (FEM) was developed based on linear elasticity and acoustic propagation equations to examine SW propagation and deflection near a mimic musculoskeletal bone. High-speed photography experiments were performed to record cavitation bubbles generated in SW field with the presence of mimic bone. By comparing experimental and simulated results, the effectiveness of FEM model could be verified and strain energy distributions in the bone were also predicted according to numerical simulations. The results show that (1) the SW field will be deflected with the presence of bony structure and varying deflection angles can be observed as the bone shifted up in the z-direction relative to SW geometric focus (F2 focus); (2) SW deflection angels predicted by the FEM model agree well with experimental results obtained from high-speed photographs; and (3) temporal evolutions of strain energy distribution in the bone can also be evaluated based on FEM model, with varied vertical distance between F2 focus and intended target point on the bone surface. The present studies indicate that, by combining MRI/CT scans and FEM modeling work, it is possible to better understand SW propagation characteristics and energy deposition in musculoskeletal structure during extracorporeal shock wave treatment, which is important for standardizing the treatment dosage, optimizing treatment protocols, and even providing patient-specific treatment guidance in clinic.
EXTRACORPOREAL SHOCK WAVE LITHOTRIPSY IN TREATMENT OF PEDIATRIC UROLITHIASIS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Emilija Golubovic
2006-04-01
Full Text Available The paper presents the experiences in the treatment of urinary tract calculosis in 114 children aged 6 months to 14 years by means of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL.The treatment was performed at the Institute of Radiology and the Clinic for Pediatric Surgery and Orthopedics in Nis, in the period 1988-2000 on Siemens Litostar lithotriptor. The children were treated after clinical, laboratory and radiological preparation, provided that the stone was not greater than 3 cm (measured in native urinary tract graph and that it was not located in the pelvic part of the ureter. In the present study, the success in application of ESWL for treating pediatric patients was 88%. The total clearance of fragments was found in 57% of patients, whereas retention of fragments smaller than 4 mm three months after the last treatment was present in 31% of patients. ESWL treatment failed in 12% of patients since they had retained fragments greater than 4 mm.The authors recommend this method as a method of choice in the treatment of renal and urethral calculi in children.
Interaction of weak shock waves with rectangular meshes in plate
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
O.A. Mikulich
2016-09-01
Full Text Available In mechanical engineering, building and other industries a significant part of the process includes the presence of various dynamic loads due to technological and mechanical impacts. Consideration of such load effects allows more accurate assessment of the structural elements strength or machine parts. Aim: The aim is to develop an algorithm for calculating of dynamic stress state of plates with meshes for pulse loading in the form of a weak shock wave. Materials and Methods: An integral and discrete Fourier transform were used to solve the problem. An application of Fourier transform by time allowed reducing the dynamic problem of flat deformation to the solution of a finite number of problems for the established oscillations at fixed cyclic frequency values. In the area of Fourier-images the method of boundary integral equations and the apparatus of a complex variable function theory are used to study the dynamic stress concentration. Results: Based on the developed methodology the distribution change of the dynamic circle stress over time on the edge of a rectangular hole is studied. The time sections of stress distribution fields under the influence of pulse dynamic load is constructed.
Efficient transformation of Mycosphaerella fijiensis by underwater shock waves.
Escobar-Tovar, Lina; Magaña-Ortíz, Denis; Fernández, Francisco; Guzmán-Quesada, Mauricio; Sandoval-Fernández, Jorge A; Ortíz-Vázquez, Elizabeth; Loske, Achim M; Gómez-Lim, Miguel A
2015-12-01
Black leaf streak disease, also known as black Sigatoka, causes dramatic losses in production of banana and plantains fruits. The disease is caused by the pathogenic fungus Mycosphaerella fijiensis (anamorph Pseudocercospora fijiensis; Mycosphaerellaceae). Genetic transformation of M. fijiensis would allow a better understanding of molecular basis of pathogenicity and design novel approaches to control the infection caused by this pathogen. However, transformation of this fungus has not been easy. We report here a protocol for genetic transformation of M. fijiensis employing underwater shock waves and intact conidia. The recombinant strains recovered showed genetic stability over >10 generations. The frequency of transformation obtained was between 75 and 150 times higher than the efficiency reported in the only article published on transformation of M. fijiensis using spheroplasts. This improvement allowed the use of a thousand times less cells than the amount employed before, avoiding the need for cumbersome successive batch cultures. Our protocol is simple, highly efficient, fast and reproducible and together with the available genomes of M. fijiensis and Musa acuminata, it offers new possibilities to study the diverse mechanisms of pathogenesis of the fungus. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
DESTRUCTION OF INTERSTELLAR DUST IN EVOLVING SUPERNOVA REMNANT SHOCK WAVES
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Slavin, Jonathan D.; Dwek, Eli; Jones, Anthony P.
2015-01-01
Supernova generated shock waves are responsible for most of the destruction of dust grains in the interstellar medium (ISM). Calculations of the dust destruction timescale have so far been carried out using plane parallel steady shocks, however, that approximation breaks down when the destruction timescale becomes longer than that for the evolution of the supernova remnant (SNR) shock. In this paper we present new calculations of grain destruction in evolving, radiative SNRs. To facilitate comparison with the previous study by Jones et al., we adopt the same dust properties as in that paper. We find that the efficiencies of grain destruction are most divergent from those for a steady shock when the thermal history of a shocked gas parcel in the SNR differs significantly from that behind a steady shock. This occurs in shocks with velocities ≳200 km s −1 for which the remnant is just beginning to go radiative. Assuming SNRs evolve in a warm phase dominated ISM, we find dust destruction timescales are increased by a factor of ∼2 compared to those of Jones et al., who assumed a hot gas dominated ISM. Recent estimates of supernova rates and ISM mass lead to another factor of ∼3 increase in the destruction timescales, resulting in a silicate grain destruction timescale of ∼2–3 Gyr. These increases, while not able to resolve the problem of the discrepant timescales for silicate grain destruction and creation, are an important step toward understanding the origin and evolution of dust in the ISM
Nucleus-acoustic shock waves in white dwarfs
Jannat, S.; Mamun, A. A.
2018-04-01
The nucleus-acoustic shock waves (NASWs) propagating in a white dwarf plasma system, which contain non-relativistically or ultrarelativistically degenerate electrons, non-relativistically degenerate, viscous fluid of light nuclei, and immobile nuclei of heavy elements, have been theoretically investigated. We have used the reductive perturbation method, which is valid for small but finite-amplitude NASWs to derive the Burgers equation. The NASWs are, in fact, associated with the nucleus-acoustic (NA) waves in which the inertia is provided by the light nuclei, and restoring force is provided by the degenerate pressure of electrons. On the other hand, the stationary heavy nuclei participate only in maintaining the background charge neutrality condition at equilibrium. It is found that the viscous force acting in the fluid of light nuclei is a source of dissipation, and is responsible for the formation of NASWs. It is also observed that the basic features (polarity, amplitude, width, etc.) of the NASWs are significantly modified by the presence of heavy nuclei, and that NASWs are formed with either positive or negative potential depending on the values of the charge density of the heavy nuclei. The basic properties are also found to be significantly modified by the effects of ultrarelativistically degenerate electrons. The implications of our results in white dwarfs are briefly discussed.
Gas-gun facility for shock wave research at BARC
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gupta, S.C.; Jyoti, G.; Suresh, N.; Sikka, S.K.; Chidambaram, R.; Agarwal, R.G.; Roy, S.; Kakodkar, A.
1995-01-01
For carrying out shock-wave experiments on materials, we have built a 63 mm diameter gas-gun facility at our laboratory. It is capable of accelerating projectiles (about half kg in weight) to velocities up to 1 km/s using N 2 and He gases. These on impacting a target generate shock pressures up to 40 GPa, depending upon the impedance of the impactor and the target. The barrel of the gun is slotted so that a keyed projectile can be fired for combined compression- shear studies. Large samples can be shocked (about 60 mm diameter and 5-10 mm thick), with pressures lasting for a few microseconds. The gun is similar in design to the one at Washington State University. A number of diagnostic techniques have also been developed. These include measurement of projectile velocity, tilt between the impactor and the target, shock velocity in the target, and time resolved in-material stress wave histories in the shock loaded samples. Recovery capsules have also been made to retrieve shocked samples on unloading, which are then analysed using microscopic techniques like x-ray diffraction, Raman and electron microscopy. The gun has been performing well and has already been used for a few phase transition studies. (author). 73 refs., 42 figs
A new shock wave assisted wood preservative injection system
Rao, K. S.; Ravikumar, G.; Lai, Ram; Jagadeesh, G.
Preservative treatment of many tropical hard woods and bamboo pose severe problem. A number of wood preservatives (chemical formulations toxic to wood decay/ destroying organisms like fungi, wood destroying termites, marine borers etc.) and wood impregnating techniques are currently in use for improving bio resistance of timber and bamboo and thereby enhancing service life for different end uses. How ever, some species of tropical hardwoods and many species of bamboo are difficult to treat, posing technical problems. In this paper we report preliminary results of treatment of bamboo with a novel Shockwave assisted injection treatment. Samples (30×2.5×1.00 cm) of an Indian species of bamboo Dendrocalamus strictus prepared from defect free culms of dry bamboo are placed in the driven section of a vertical shock tube filled with the 4Coppepr-Chrome-Arsenic(CCA) preservative solution.The bamboo samples are subjected to repeated shock wave loading (3 shots) with typical over pressures of 30 bar. The results from the study indicate excellent penetration and retention of CCA preservative in bamboo samples. The method itself is much faster compared to the conventional methods like pressure treatment or hot and cold process.
Emergency extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) for obstructing ureteral stones.
Tligui, M; El Khadime, M R; Tchala, K; Haab, F; Traxer, O; Gattegno, B; Thibault, P
2003-05-01
To evaluate emergency treatment of obstructing ureteral stones by in situ extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) during acute renal colic. From January 1994 to February 2000, 200 patients (mean age: 42 years) were treated by ESWL (EDAP LT-02) for obstructing ureteral stones causing acute renal colic refractory to medical treatment or recurring within 24hours of such treatment. Stones were visualised by fluoroscopic imaging and/or ultrasound. Follow-up included radiological and/or ultrasound examinations and lasted three months. Mean stone size was 7mm (3-20mm). At three months, 164/200 (82%) patients were stone-free. This rate ranged from 79% to 83% according to the location of the stone, and from 75% to 86% according to the size of the stone. These differences in rate were not significant. Two or three ESWL sessions were required in 79 patients. ESWL was well tolerated in 90% of patients. The only complication was a case of pyelonephritis requiring the placement of a JJ stent, administration of antibiotics, and distant ureteroscopy. The 36 patients, in whom ESWL failed, underwent ureteroscopy (n=23) or lithotripsy with a Dornier machine (n=13). Non-deferred ESWL for acute renal colic secondary to obstructing ureteral stones has a satisfactory success rate and very low morbidity.
Pediatric extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy: Predicting successful outcomes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sean McAdams
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL is currently a first-line procedure of most upper urinary tract stones <2 cm of size because of established success rates, its minimal invasiveness and long-term safety with minimal complications. Given that alternative surgical and endourological options exist for the management of stone disease and that ESWL failure often results in the need for repeat ESWL or secondary procedures, it is highly desirable to identify variables predicting successful outcomes of ESWL in the pediatric population. Despite numerous reports and growing experience, few prospective studies and guidelines for pediatric ESWL have been completed. Variation in the methods by which study parameters are measured and reported can make it difficult to compare individual studies or make definitive recommendations. There is ongoing work and a need for continuing improvement of imaging protocols in children with renal colic, with a current focus on minimizing exposure to ionizing radiation, perhaps utilizing advancements in ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging. This report provides a review of the current literature evaluating the patient attributes and stone factors that may be predictive of successful ESWL outcomes along with reviewing the role of pre-operative imaging and considerations for patient safety.
Reynolds-Stress Budgets in an Impinging Shock Wave/Boundary-Layer Interaction
Vyas, Manan A.; Yoder, Dennis A.; Gaitonde, Datta V.
2018-01-01
Implicit large-eddy simulation (ILES) of a shock wave/boundary-layer interaction (SBLI) was performed. Comparisons with experimental data showed a sensitivity of the current prediction to the modeling of the sidewalls. This was found to be common among various computational studies in the literature where periodic boundary conditions were used in the spanwise direction, as was the case in the present work. Thus, although the experiment was quasi-two-dimensional, the present simulation was determined to be two-dimensional. Quantities present in the exact equation of the Reynolds-stress transport, i.e., production, molecular diffusion, turbulent transport, pressure diffusion, pressure strain, dissipation, and turbulent mass flux were calculated. Reynolds-stress budgets were compared with past large-eddy simulation and direct numerical simulation datasets in the undisturbed portion of the turbulent boundary layer to validate the current approach. The budgets in SBLI showed the growth in the production term for the primary normal stress and energy transfer mechanism was led by the pressure strain term in the secondary normal stresses. The pressure diffusion term, commonly assumed as negligible by turbulence model developers, was shown to be small but non-zero in the normal stress budgets, however it played a key role in the primary shear stress budget.
Guda Vishnu, Karthik; Strachan, Alejandro
2017-06-01
SWED materials play a crucial role in protecting both personnel and structures in close proximity to blasts or ballistic impact. Exposure to shock waves with intensities as low as 1 MPa can cause brain injury in personnel and, hence, it is extremely important to understand the mechanisms operating in SWED materials and help design improved formulations. Recent experimental studies show that NILs containing di-ammonium cations and citrate anions with glass transition temperatures (Tg) below room temperature exhibit shockwave absorption characteristics that outperform polyurea (PU), a benchmark SWED assessment material. The experimentalists further hypothesized that the increased SWED ability in NILs with longer side chains (in di-ammonium cation) is due to a permanent structural ordering and nano-scale segregation. We use molecular dynamics simulations with the Dreiding force field to study shock propagation mechanisms in NILs. Shock propagation mechanisms in these materials are explored by performing both Hugoniostat and large scale non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD) simulations at 300 K. The simulation results show that the NIL 5-6 (5 C atoms (back bone) and 6 C atoms (side chain)) attenuates shocks better than NIL 5-3 (3 C atoms (side chain) and higher Tg) and PMMA in agreement with experimental observation. The simulations show that under shock loading the structures lose long range order; we find no evidence of nano-segregation nor or permanent structural changes.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baryshev, Yu.V.; Morozov, V.N.
1988-01-01
It is shown that MHD turbulence can be generated by collisionless shock waves due to anisotropy of the pressure behind the front of the reverse sock at the hot spot of a powerful radio galaxy. The energy density of the MHD turbulence generated behind the shock front is estimated. Analysis of the theoretical studies and experimental data on collisionless shock waves in the solar wind indicates that an important part is played by streams of ions reflected by the shock fronts, the streams generating plasma and MHD turbulence in the region ahead of the front. The extension of these ideas to shock waves in powerful radio galaxies must be made with care because of the great difference between the parameters of the shock waves in the two cases
Constrained reaction volume approach for studying chemical kinetics behind reflected shock waves
Hanson, Ronald K.; Pang, Genny A.; Chakraborty, Sreyashi; Ren, Wei; Wang, Shengkai; Davidson, David Frank
2013-01-01
We report a constrained-reaction-volume strategy for conducting kinetics experiments behind reflected shock waves, achieved in the present work by staged filling in a shock tube. Using hydrogen-oxygen ignition experiments as an example, we
Liver fibrosis after extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy of gallbladder stones - A case report
P.W. Plaisier; J.F. Hamming (Jaap); R.L. van der Hul (René); R. den Toom (Rene); H.A. Bruining (Hajo)
1994-01-01
textabstractWe encountered significant liver fibrosis in a healthy young patient undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy for symptomatic gallstone disease. Twelve months prior to cholecystectomy the patient underwent multiple extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL) sessions with adjuvant oral
Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy 25 years later: complications and their prevention
Skolarikos, Andreas; Alivizatos, Gerasimos; de la Rosette, Jean
2006-01-01
OBJECTIVE: We review the pathophysiology and possible prevention measures of complications after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL). METHODS: A literature search was performed with the Medline database on ESWL between 1980 and 2004. RESULTS: ESWL application has been intuitively connected
Laser Induced Shock Waves and Vaporization in Biological System and Material Science
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Gerstman, Bernard S
2008-01-01
.... We have developed a computational model that allows the calculation of damage resulting from a laser pulse of any duration or energy due to temperature rise, explosive bubble formation, and shock wave production...
Fabrication of visible-light-driven Ag/TiO{sub 2} heterojunction composites induced by shock wave
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Xu, Chunxiao [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Chen, Pengwan, E-mail: pwchen@bit.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); State Key Laboratory of Explosion Science and Technology, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Liu, Jianjun [State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Yin, Hao [Institute of Systems Engineering, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 612900, Sichuan Province (China); Gao, Xin; Mei, Xiaofeng [State Key Laboratory of Explosion Science and Technology, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China)
2016-09-15
Using metatitanic acid (H{sub 2}TiO{sub 3}) and silver nitrate (AgNO{sub 3}) as titanium precursor and silver source respectively, a visible-light responsible Ag/TiO{sub 2} heterojunction photocatalyst is successfully prepared by shock wave with detonation-driven flyer impact. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV–visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV–Vis DRS) and photoluminescence (PL) emission spectra are employed to characterize the phase structure, morphology, chemical composition and optical property of the recovered samples. The results indicate the metatitanic acid transforms to pure rutile TiO{sub 2} phase by shock wave which possess large surface area. Ag nanoparticles cover on the surface of TiO{sub 2} uniformly and a nanojunction structure is formed efficiently, which play important roles as an electron-conduction bridge and in the surface plasmon resonance effect. Ag modification feasibly improves the separation efficiency for photoinduced electron–hole pairs and enhances the visible-light response. Furthermore, due to the further enhanced separation for photogenerated charges resulting from close interfacial contact of the hetero structure, the obtained Ag/TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst exhibit remarkably improved photocatalytic activities (88% within 2 h) than that of P25 and shock induced pure TiO{sub 2} for the degradation of Rhodamine B under simulated sunlight irradiation. The experimental result shows the shock loading is an effective method to get Ag/TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst and offers new ideas to fabricate other heterojunction composite materials. - Highlights: • Shock wave was a new method of material modification. • The Ag/TiO{sub 2} hetero structure was formed efficiently by shock loading. • The visible-light responsible sample showed an enhanced photocatalytic activity. • This work gave new ideas to fabricate other heterojunction materials.
Interfacial instability induced by a shock wave in a gas-liquid horizontal stratified system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sutradhar, S.C.; Chang, J.S.; Yoshida, H.
1987-01-01
The experiments are performed in a rectangular lucite duct equipped with the facility of generating shock waves. Piezo-type pressure transducers are used to monitor the strength and propagation velocity of the shock wave. As the liquid phase has high sound velocity, a prepulse wave system of flow amplitude travels in this phase at a speed faster than the principal shock wave. The magnitude of the transmitted wave in the liquid phase is estimated using a transmission coefficient for gas-liquid system. From the initial pressure ratio of the shock wave, the amplitude of the prepulse as well as the induced interfacial fluid velocity are calculated. The wave length and height of the ripples during the passage of the shock wave are estimated for a specific strength of shock wave moving through the phases. From the high speed photographs, the wave length of the ripples can be assessed. The interfacial friction factor is calculated using colebrook's equation for high speed flow. At least five distinct phenomena are observed to exist during the propagation of a shock wave. These are - (1) the energy carried by the pre-pulse is utilized in perturbing the interface; (2) shock wave induces a mass velocity at the interface; (3) the wavelength of the ripples at the interface is the product of induced interfacial mass velocity and the time period of the prepulse; (4) a portion of the liquid mass of the perturbed interface is entrained in the gas phase may be due to the hydrodynamic lift in that phase; and finally (5) waves with long wavelength are established at the interface
A Numerical Method for Blast Shock Wave Analysis of Missile Launch from Aircraft
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sebastian Heimbs
2015-01-01
Full Text Available An efficient empirical approach was developed to accurately represent the blast shock wave loading resulting from the launch of a missile from a military aircraft to be used in numerical analyses. Based on experimental test series of missile launches in laboratory environment and from a helicopter, equations were derived to predict the time- and position-dependent overpressure. The method was finally applied and validated in a structural analysis of a helicopter tail boom under missile launch shock wave loading.
Compendium of shock wave data. Section A2. Inorganic compounds. Section B. Hydrocarbons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
van Thiel, M.; Shaner, J.; Salinas, E.
1977-06-01
This volume lists in a concise manner the thermodynamic data in condensed media obtained by shock wave techniques. The volume should be useful both to people working in the shockwave field and to others interested primarily in thermodynamic properties at high pressure. Therefore, both dynamic variables and volumetric quantities associated with the shock wave are given. The format was selected to make the volume useful in engineering as well as scientific reserch activities. Data on the elements are contained in this volume
Secondary sound classification for the assessment of focus positioning in shock-wave lithotripsy
Grennberg, Anders; Almquist, Lars-Olof; Holmner, Nils-Gunnar; Olsson, Lennart
1993-01-01
A problem encountered when using acoustic shock-waves for kidney stone disintegration is that the positioning of the focus relative to a stone, for the best possible fragmenting effect, is crtitical. The standard methods for focus positioning are ultrasound or x-ray imaging. These methods are, however, not always sufficient and a better indication of a well positioned focus would be valuable. The secondary sound emitted as a result of each shock-wave has been found to contain valuable informa...
Bifurcation parameters of a reflected shock wave in cylindrical channels of different roughnesses
Penyazkov, O.; Skilandz, A.
2018-03-01
To investigate the effect of bifurcation on the induction time in cylindrical shock tubes used for chemical kinetic experiments, one should know the parameters of the bifurcation structure of a reflected shock wave. The dynamics and parameters of the shock wave bifurcation, which are caused by reflected shock wave-boundary layer interactions, are studied experimentally in argon, in air, and in a hydrogen-nitrogen mixture for Mach numbers M = 1.3-3.5 in a 76-mm-diameter shock tube without any ramp. Measurements were taken at a constant gas density behind the reflected shock wave. Over a wide range of experimental conditions, we studied the axial projection of the oblique shock wave and the pressure distribution in the vicinity of the triple Mach configuration at 50, 150, and 250 mm from the endwall, using side-wall schlieren and pressure measurements. Experiments on a polished shock tube and a shock tube with a surface roughness of 20 {μ }m Ra were carried out. The surface roughness was used for initiating small-scale turbulence in the boundary layer behind the incident shock wave. The effect of small-scale turbulence on the homogenization of the transition zone from the laminar to turbulent boundary layer along the shock tube perimeter was assessed, assuming its influence on a subsequent stabilization of the bifurcation structure size versus incident shock wave Mach number, as well as local flow parameters behind the reflected shock wave. The influence of surface roughness on the bifurcation development and pressure fluctuations near the wall, as well as on the Mach number, at which the bifurcation first develops, was analyzed. It was found that even small additional surface roughness can lead to an overshoot in pressure growth by a factor of two, but it can stabilize the bifurcation structure along the shock tube perimeter.
Predictability of the individual clinical outcome of extracorporeal shock wave therapy for cellulite
Schlaudraff, Kai-Uwe; Kiessling, Maren C; Császár, Nikolaus BM; Schmitz, Christoph
2014-01-01
Kai-Uwe Schlaudraff,1 Maren C Kiessling,2 Nikolaus BM Császár,2 Christoph Schmitz21Concept Clinic, Geneva, Switzerland; 2Department of Anatomy II, Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Munich, GermanyBackground: Extracorporeal shock wave therapy has been successfully introduced for the treatment of cellulite in recent years. However, it is still unknown whether the individual clinical outcome of cellulite treatment with extracorporeal shock wave therapy can be predict...
Holfeld, Johannes; Zimpfer, Daniel; Albrecht-Schgoer, Karin; Stojadinovic, Alexander; Paulus, Patrick; Dumfarth, Julia; Thomas, Anita; Lobenwein, Daniela; Tepeköylü, Can; Rosenhek, Raphael; Schaden, Wolfgang; Kirchmair, Rudolf; Aharinejad, Seyedhossein; Grimm, Michael
2016-12-01
Previously we have shown that epicardial shock-wave therapy improves left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) in a rat model of myocardial infarction. In the present experiments we aimed to address the safety and efficacy of epicardial shock-wave therapy in a preclinical large animal model and to further evaluate mechanisms of action of this novel therapy. Four weeks after left anterior descending (LAD) artery ligation in pigs, the animals underwent re-thoracotomy with (shock-wave group, n = 6) or without (control group, n = 5) epicardial shock waves (300 impulses at 0.38 mJ/mm 2 ) applied to the infarcted anterior wall. Efficacy endpoints were improvement of LVEF and induction of angiogenesis 6 weeks after shock-wave therapy. Safety endpoints were haemodynamic stability during treatment and myocardial damage. Four weeks after LAD ligation, LVEF decreased in both the shock-wave (43 ± 3%, p wave animals 6 weeks after treatment (62 ± 9%, p = 0.006); no improvement was observed in controls (41 ± 4%, p = 0.36), yielding a significant difference. Quantitative histology revealed significant angiogenesis 6 weeks after treatment (controls 2 ± 0.4 arterioles/high-power field vs treatment group 9 ± 3; p = 0.004). No acute or chronic adverse effects were observed. As a potential mechanism of action in vitro experiments showed stimulation of VEGF receptors after shock-wave treatment in human coronary artery endothelial cells. Epicardial shock-wave treatment in a large animal model of ischaemic heart failure exerted a positive effect on LVEF improvement and did not show any adverse effects. Angiogenesis was induced by stimulation of VEGF receptors. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Relativistic shock waves and the excitation of plerions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Arons, J. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (USA)); Gallant, Y.A. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (USA). Dept. of Physics); Hoshino, Masahiro; Max, C.E. (California Univ., Livermore, CA (USA). Inst. of Geophysics and Planetary Physics); Langdon, A.B. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA))
1991-01-07
The shock termination of a relativistic magnetohydrodynamic wind from a pulsar is the most interesting and viable model for the excitation of the synchrotron sources observed in plerionic supernova remnants. We have studied the structure of relativistic magnetosonic shock waves in plasmas composed purely of electrons and positrons, as well as those whose composition includes heavy ions as a minority constituent by number. We find that relativistic shocks in symmetric pair plasmas create fully thermalized distributions of particles and fields downstream. Therefore, such shocks are not good candidates for the mechanism which converts rotational energy lost from a pulsar into the nonthermal synchrotron emission observed in plerions. However, when the upstream wind contains heavy ions which are minority constituent by number density, but carry the bulk of the energy density, much of the energy of the shock goes into a downstream, nonthermal power law distribution of positrons with energy distribution N(E)dE {proportional to}E{sup {minus}s}. In a specific model presented in some detail, s = 3. These characteristics are close to those assumed for the pairs in macroscopic MHD wind models of plerion excitation. The essential mechanism is collective synchrotron emission of left-handed extraordinary modes by the ions in the shock front at high harmonics of the ion cyclotron frequency, with the downstream positrons preferentially absorbing almost all of this radiation, mostly at their fundamental (relativistic) cyclotron frequencies. Possible applications to models of plerions and to constraints on theories of energy loss from pulsars are briefly outlines. 27 refs., 5 figs.
Second sound shock waves in rotating superfluid helium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Torczynski, J.R.
1983-01-01
Second sound shock waves have been used to examine the breakdown of superfluidity in bulk He II. The maximum counterflow velocity achieved in this manner was measured at a variety of temperatures and pressures. The results are found to agree with predictions of vortex nucleation theories (Langer and Fisher, 1967) in their pressure and temperature dependences although it was shown that dissipation occurred only near the heater. A simple scaling argument is suggested, assuming breakdown occurs near the heater. A vortex dynamics model of breakdown (following the method of Turner, private communication) is developed. To examine the effect of vorticity on breakdown, second sound shocks were produced in rotating helium. Experiments were performed in which the shocks propagated either along or normal to the axis of rotation, called axial and transverse cases, respectively. In both cases the decay was seen to increase monotonically with the rotation rate. Furthermore, the decay was ongoing rather than being confined to a narrow region near the heater. However, the extraordinary dissipation in the transverse case seemed to be related primarily to the arrival of secondary waves from the heater-sidewall boundary. An explanation of this difference is put forth in terms of vortex nucleation in the bulk fluid, using ideas similar to Crocco's Theorem. In order to examine the breakdown of superfluidity away from walls in nonrotation fluid, spherically converging second shocks were produced. The temperature jumps of the waves were measured, and exact numerical solutions of the two-fluid jump conditions (Moody, 1983) were used to calculate the relative velocity in each case
Melting Behaviour of Mo by Shock Wave Experiment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xiu-Lu, Zhang; Ling-Cang, Cai; Jun, Chen; Ji-An, Xu; Fu-Qian, Jing
2008-01-01
In order to clarify the apparent discrepancy in determinations of melting temperature T m of Mo between diamond-anvil cell (DAC) measurements from 0 to about 100 GPa and shock wave (SW) measurement at only one pressure of about 390 GPa by comparison with visual extrapolation, we perform SW experiments to replenish more T m data on purpose to make this comparison more directly and rationally as well. The techniques adopted consist of Hügoniot sound velocity measurement for porous Mo and shock-induced release T m measurements for both solid and porous Mo. Totally five SW T m data, which extends the measured pressure range from previous about 390 GPa down to about 136 GPa that is close to the highest pressure (about 100 GPa) attained by previous DAC experiments, are therefore obtained. These measured Tm data, other than the extrapolated as mentioned above, exhibit a manner of continuous variation with pressure and can be fitted well with Lindemann melting description. More significantly, the measured T m data at lowest pressure are still much higher than that of the DACs and the overall trend of these T m data is against to the two-segment melting curve model, with a sudden change in dT m /d P at about 210 GPa, previously proposed by Errandonea [Physica B 357 (2005) 356]. Though the problem of large discrepancy in T m data measured between DAC and SW has not been completely explained, our knowledge on this matter achieves indubitable progress since it is of value to programme the next clarification. Some suggestions for further clarifying the issue of large discrepancy between DAC and SW measurements are also proposed. (condensed matter: structure, mechanical and thermal properties)
Gallbladder Dynamics Before and After Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Myung Hea; Suk, Jae Dong; Moon, Dae Hyuk; Kim, Myung Hwan; Min, Young Il [Asian Medical Center, Ulsan University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
1991-03-15
Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWI.) with adjunctive oral litholytic therapy has proven to be a useful treatment in selected patients with gallbladder stones. To study the effect of ESWL on gallbladder dynamics, {sup 99m}Tc-DISIDA hepatobiliary scintigraphy was done for 25 patients with symptomatic gallstones and 10 normal controls. Of these 25 patients, 15 were treated with ESWL and adjunctive oral litholytic agents (ESWL group) and 10 were treated only with oral litholytic agents (UDCA group). After overnight fast and gallbladder visualization on a routine hepatobiliary scintigraphy with 7 mCi of {sup 99m}Tc-DISIDA, subjects were given fatty meal and imaged with a gamma camera interfaced to a computer (I frame/minute for 70 minutes). A gallbladder time-activity curve was generated and latent period (LP), ejection period (EP), ejection fraction (EF) and ejection rate (ER) were calculated, ESWL group were studied before, l day after and 2 weeks after ESWL, and UDCA group were studied before and 2 weeks after starting oral medication Mean basal EF was significantly reduced in patients but other parameters were not reduced. In ESlVL group, mean EF and mean ER at 1 day after ESWL were reduced. In 3 of them, gallbladder was not visualized at all. Two weeks after ESWL, however, all parameters were recovered to basal level. In UDCA group, all parameters were not changed significantly during medication. We can conclude that ESWL has such immediate adverse effect on gallbladder dynamics as reducing contractility and nonvisualization of gallbladder but it has no long-term effect.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Iwakami, Wakana; Nagakura, Hiroki [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Oiwake-cho, Kitashirakawa, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Yamada, Shoichi, E-mail: wakana@heap.phys.waseda.ac.jp [Advanced Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1, Okubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan)
2014-05-10
In this study, we conduct three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations systematically to investigate the flow patterns behind the accretion shock waves that are commonly formed in the post-bounce phase of core-collapse supernovae. Adding small perturbations to spherically symmetric, steady, shocked accretion flows, we compute the subsequent evolutions to find what flow pattern emerges as a consequence of hydrodynamical instabilities such as convection and standing accretion shock instability for different neutrino luminosities and mass accretion rates. Depending on these two controlling parameters, various flow patterns are indeed realized. We classify them into three basic patterns and two intermediate ones; the former includes sloshing motion (SL), spiral motion (SP), and multiple buoyant bubble formation (BB); the latter consists of spiral motion with buoyant-bubble formation (SPB) and spiral motion with pulsationally changing rotational velocities (SPP). Although the post-shock flow is highly chaotic, there is a clear trend in the pattern realization. The sloshing and spiral motions tend to be dominant for high accretion rates and low neutrino luminosities, and multiple buoyant bubbles prevail for low accretion rates and high neutrino luminosities. It is interesting that the dominant pattern is not always identical between the semi-nonlinear and nonlinear phases near the critical luminosity; the intermediate cases are realized in the latter case. Running several simulations with different random perturbations, we confirm that the realization of flow pattern is robust in most cases.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ohsawa, Yukiharu.
1984-12-01
A 2-1/2 dimensional fully relativistic, fully electromagnetic particle code is used to study a time evolution of nonlinear magnetosonic pulse propagating in the direction perpendicular to a magnetic field. The pulse is excited by an instantaneous piston acceleration, and evolves totally self-consistently. Large amplitude pulse traps some ions and accelerates them parallel to the wave front. They are detrapped when their velocities become of the order of the sum of the ExB drift velocity and the wave phase velocity, where E is the electric field in the direction of wave propagation. The pulse develops into a quasi-shock wave in a collisionless plasma by a dissipation due to the resonant ion acceleration. Simple nonlinear wave theory for a cold plasma well describes the shock properties observed in the simulation except for the effects of resonant ions. In particular, magnitude of an electric potential across the shock region is derived analytically and is found to be in good agreement with our simulations. The potential jump is proportional to B 2 , and hence the ExB drift velocity of the trapped ions is proportional to B. (author)
Modeling elastic wave propagation in kidney stones with application to shock wave lithotripsy.
Cleveland, Robin O; Sapozhnikov, Oleg A
2005-10-01
A time-domain finite-difference solution to the equations of linear elasticity was used to model the propagation of lithotripsy waves in kidney stones. The model was used to determine the loading on the stone (principal stresses and strains and maximum shear stresses and strains) due to the impact of lithotripsy shock waves. The simulations show that the peak loading induced in kidney stones is generated by constructive interference from shear waves launched from the outer edge of the stone with other waves in the stone. Notably the shear wave induced loads were significantly larger than the loads generated by the classic Hopkinson or spall effect. For simulations where the diameter of the focal spot of the lithotripter was smaller than that of the stone the loading decreased by more than 50%. The constructive interference was also sensitive to shock rise time and it was found that the peak tensile stress reduced by 30% as rise time increased from 25 to 150 ns. These results demonstrate that shear waves likely play a critical role in stone comminution and that lithotripters with large focal widths and short rise times should be effective at generating high stresses inside kidney stones.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Boss, Alan P.; Keiser, Sandra A., E-mail: boss@dtm.ciw.edu, E-mail: keiser@dtm.ciw.edu [Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution, 5241 Broad Branch Road, NW, Washington, DC 20015-1305 (United States)
2013-06-10
A variety of stellar sources have been proposed for the origin of the short-lived radioisotopes that existed at the time of the formation of the earliest solar system solids, including Type II supernovae (SNe), asymptotic giant branch (AGB) and super-AGB stars, and Wolf-Rayet star winds. Our previous adaptive mesh hydrodynamics models with the FLASH2.5 code have shown which combinations of shock wave parameters are able to simultaneously trigger the gravitational collapse of a target dense cloud core and inject significant amounts of shock wave gas and dust, showing that thin SN shocks may be uniquely suited for the task. However, recent meteoritical studies have weakened the case for a direct SN injection to the presolar cloud, motivating us to re-examine a wider range of shock wave and cloud core parameters, including rotation, in order to better estimate the injection efficiencies for a variety of stellar sources. We find that SN shocks remain as the most promising stellar source, though planetary nebulae resulting from AGB star evolution cannot be conclusively ruled out. Wolf-Rayet (WR) star winds, however, are likely to lead to cloud core shredding, rather than to collapse. Injection efficiencies can be increased when the cloud is rotating about an axis aligned with the direction of the shock wave, by as much as a factor of {approx}10. The amount of gas and dust accreted from the post-shock wind can exceed that injected from the shock wave, with implications for the isotopic abundances expected for a SN source.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wen, C.Y.; Chang-Jian, S.K.; Chuang, M.C. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Da-Yeh University, Chang-Hwa (Taiwan)
2003-02-01
This paper presents an experimental investigation of one-dimensional moving shock waves in vertical soap films. The shock waves were generated by bursting the films with a perforating spark. Images of propagating shock waves and small disturbances were recorded using a fast line scan CCD camera. An aureole and a shock wave preceding the rim of the expanding hole were clearly observed. These images are similar to the x-t diagrams in gas dynamics and give the velocities of shock and sound waves. The moving shock waves cause jumps in thickness. The variations of the induced Mach number, M{sub 2} and the ratio of film thickness across the shock wave, {delta}{sub 2}/{delta}{sub 1}, are plotted versus the shock Mach number, M{sub s}. Both results suggest that soap films are analogous to compressible gases with a specific heat ratio of {gamma}{approx_equal}1.0. (orig.)
Application of extracorporeal shock wave on bone: preliminary report.
Ikeda, K; Tomita, K; Takayama, K
1999-11-01
We have studied the effect of extracorporeal shock waves (ESW) on bone. ESW emitted by the new powerful generator provides three to six times greater energy than a common lithotriptor. Because the ESW causes fracture of rabbit femurs and induces new bone formation, we have called this treatment as ESWIB (ESW-induced bone formation). The purpose of this study is to confirm the effect of ESWIB on a canine model, which is more similar to clinical cases, and to apply ESWIB on nonunion of clinical cases. In our basic research, ESWIB was applied on six canine femurs as follows: group I with 100, 500, 1,000 shots and group II with 100, 500, 1,000 shots. A femur was extracted immediately after ESWIB in group I and 2 months after ESWIB in group II. Blood tests, including blood cell counts and blood chemistry studies, were performed before and after ESWIB in group II. In our clinical research, we applied ESWIB to six patients of delayed or nonunion of the fracture. The sites of the ESWIB application were three tibiae, one radius, one femur, and one humerus. Average age of the patients, the period from the previous surgery, and the period until fusion was achieved were 38.6 years, 14.0 months, and 4.3 months, respectively. In our basic research, group I, 500 or more shots caused periosteum detachment. In addition, small fractures of the inner surface of the cortex were observed. However, gross fracture with displacement was not observed. In group II, 500 or more shots caused callus formation beneath the detached periosteum. Subcutaneous hemorrhage was seen in all dogs, and the degree of bleeding was directly proportional to the number of the shots. The blood was absorbed within a week. The level of serum creatine kinase was significantly high 2 days after ESWIB, but it recovered in a week. In our clinical research, four of the patients achieved union without any complications except mild subcutaneous bleeding. We predict that ESWIB will be one of the tactics for treatment of
Numerical simulation in plasma physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Samarskii, A.A.
1980-01-01
Plasma physics is not only a field for development of physical theories and mathematical models but also an object of application of the computational experiment comprising analytical and numerical methods adapted for computers. The author considers only MHD plasma physics problems. Examples treated are dissipative structures in plasma; MHD model of solar dynamo; supernova explosion simulation; and plasma compression by a liner. (Auth.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Godefroit J.-L.
2012-08-01
Full Text Available Conventional shock wave experiments need interferometric windows in order to determine the equation of state of a large variety of metals. Lithium fluoride (LiF and sapphire are extensively used for that purpose because their optical transparencies enable the optical diagnostics at interfaces under a given range of shock pressure. In order to simulate and analyse the experiments it is necessary to gather a correct knowledge of the optical and mechanical properties of these windows. Therefore, our window supplies are systematically characterized and an experimental campaign under shock loading is conducted. Our preliminary work on LiF windows at 532 nm is in good agreement with literature data at room temperature and the new characterization at 450 K enables a better interpretation of our preheated target experiments. It confirms the predominant effect of density on optical properties under pressure and temperature. The present work demonstrates that the initial density determination is a key point and that the uncertainties need to be improved. For that purpose, complementary experiments are conducted on LiF windows with simplified target designs and enriched diagnostics, coupling VISAR (532 nm and PdV (1550 nm diagnostics. Furthermore, a similar campaign is conducted on sapphire windows with symmetric impact configuration.
Study of laser-driven shock wave propagation in Plexiglas targets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dhareshwar, L.J.; Naik, P.A.; Pant, H.C.; Kaushik, T.C.
1992-01-01
An experimental study of laser-driven shock wave propagation in a transparent material such as Plexiglas using a high-speed optical shadowgraphy technique is presented in this paper. A Nd: glass laser was used to produce laser intensity in the range 10 12 -10 14 W/cm 2 on the target. Optical shadowgrams of the propagating shock front were recorded with a second-harmonic (0.53-μm) optical probe beam. Shock pressures were measured at various laser intensities, and the scaling was found to agree with the theoretically predicted value. Shock pressure values have also been obtained from a one-dimensional Lagrangian hydrodynamic simulation, and they match well with experimental results. Shadowgrams of shock fronts produced by nonuniform spatial laser beam irradiation profiles have shown complete smoothing when targets with a thin coating of a material of high atomic number such as gold were used. Shock pressures in such coated targets are also found to be considerably higher compared with those in uncoated targets. (Author)
Dynamics in a one-dimensional ferrogel model: relaxation, pairing, shock-wave propagation.
Goh, Segun; Menzel, Andreas M; Löwen, Hartmut
2018-05-23
Ferrogels are smart soft materials, consisting of a polymeric network and embedded magnetic particles. Novel phenomena, such as the variation of the overall mechanical properties by external magnetic fields, emerge consequently. However, the dynamic behavior of ferrogels remains largely unveiled. In this paper, we consider a one-dimensional chain consisting of magnetic dipoles and elastic springs between them as a simple model for ferrogels. The model is evaluated by corresponding simulations. To probe the dynamics theoretically, we investigate a continuum limit of the energy governing the system and the corresponding equation of motion. We provide general classification scenarios for the dynamics, elucidating the touching/detachment dynamics of the magnetic particles along the chain. In particular, it is verified in certain cases that the long-time relaxation corresponds to solutions of shock-wave propagation, while formations of particle pairs underlie the initial stage of the dynamics. We expect that these results will provide insight into the understanding of the dynamics of more realistic models with randomness in parameters and time-dependent magnetic fields.
Two-temperature hydrodynamics of laser-generated ultrashort shock waves in elasto-plastic solids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ilnitsky, Denis K; Migdal, Kirill P; Khokhlov, Viktor A; Inogamov, Nail A; Petrov, Yurii V; Anisimov, Sergey I; Zhakhovsky, Vasily V; Khishchenko, Konstantin V
2014-01-01
Shock-wave generation by ultrashort laser pulses opens new doors for study of hidden processes in materials happened at an atomic-scale spatiotemporal scales. The poorly explored mechanism of shock generation is started from a short-living two-temperature (2T) state of solid in a thin surface layer where laser energy is deposited. Such 2T state represents a highly non-equilibrium warm dense matter having cold ions and hot electrons with temperatures of 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than the melting point. Here for the first time we present results obtained by our new hybrid hydrodynamics code combining detailed description of 2T states with a model of elasticity together with a wide-range equation of state of solid. New hydro-code has higher accuracy in the 2T stage than molecular dynamics method, because it includes electron related phenomena including thermal conduction, electron-ion collisions and energy transfer, and electron pressure. From the other hand the new code significantly improves our previous version of 2T hydrodynamics model, because now it is capable of reproducing the elastic compression waves, which may have an imprint of supersonic melting like as in MD simulations. With help of the new code we have solved a difficult problem of thermal and dynamic coupling of a molten layer with an uniaxially compressed elastic solid. This approach allows us to describe the recent femtosecond laser experiments.
General Relativistic Radiant Shock Waves in the Post-Quasistatic Approximation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
H, Jorge A Rueda [Centro de Fisica Fundamental, Universidad de Los Andes, Merida 5101, Venezuela Escuela de Fisica, Universidad Industrial de Santander, A.A. 678, Bucaramanga (Colombia); Nunez, L A [Centro de Fisica Fundamental, Universidad de Los Andes, Merida 5101, Venezuela Centro Nacional de Calculo Cientifico, Universidad de Los Andes, CeCalCULA, Corporacion Parque Tecnologico de Merida, Merida 5101, Venezuela (Venezuela)
2007-05-15
An evolution of radiant shock wave front is considered in the framework of a recently presented method to study self-gravitating relativistic spheres, whose rationale becomes intelligible and finds full justification within the context of a suitable definition of the post-quasistatic approximation. The spherical matter configuration is divided into two regions by the shock and each side of the interface having a different equation of state and anisotropic phase. In order to simulate dissipation effects due to the transfer of photons and/or neutrinos within the matter configuration, we introduce the flux factor, the variable Eddington factor and a closure relation between them. As we expected the strong of the shock increases the speed of the fluid to relativistic ones and for some critical values is larger than light speed. In addition, we find that energy conditions are very sensible to the anisotropy, specially the strong energy condition. As a special feature of the model, we find that the contribution of the matter and radiation to the radial pressure are the same order of magnitude as in the mant as in the core, moreover, in the core radiation pressure is larger than matter pressure.
General Relativistic Radiant Shock Waves in the Post-Quasistatic Approximation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
H, Jorge A Rueda; Nunez, L A
2007-01-01
An evolution of radiant shock wave front is considered in the framework of a recently presented method to study self-gravitating relativistic spheres, whose rationale becomes intelligible and finds full justification within the context of a suitable definition of the post-quasistatic approximation. The spherical matter configuration is divided into two regions by the shock and each side of the interface having a different equation of state and anisotropic phase. In order to simulate dissipation effects due to the transfer of photons and/or neutrinos within the matter configuration, we introduce the flux factor, the variable Eddington factor and a closure relation between them. As we expected the strong of the shock increases the speed of the fluid to relativistic ones and for some critical values is larger than light speed. In addition, we find that energy conditions are very sensible to the anisotropy, specially the strong energy condition. As a special feature of the model, we find that the contribution of the matter and radiation to the radial pressure are the same order of magnitude as in the mant as in the core, moreover, in the core radiation pressure is larger than matter pressure
Dynamics of shock wave propagation and interphase process in liquid-vapor medium
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pokusaev, B.G. [Moscow State Academy of Chemical Mechanical Engineering (Russian Federation); Pribaturin, N.A. [Institute of Thermophysics, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)
1995-09-01
This paper considers the experimental results and physical effects on the pressure wave dynamics of a vapour-liquid two-phase medium of bubble and slug structure. The role of destruction and collapse of bubbles and slugs, phase transition (condensation and evaporation) on pressure wave dynamics is also studied. The general mechanisms of the wave formation, behavior and instability of a vapour-liquid structure under pressure waves, basic peculiarities of the interface heat transfer are obtained. In the experiments it has been shown that for the bubble medium the shock wave can be transformed into the powerful pressure pulse with an amplitude greater then the amplitude of the initial pressure wave. For the slug medium a characteristic structure of the amplificated wave is {open_quotes}comb{close_quotes} - like wave. It has been shown that the wave amplification caused by generation of secondary waves in a medium caused by destruction and collapse of bubbles and slugs. The obtained results can be useful at transient and emergency operational regimes of nuclear reactors, fuel tank, pipelines with two-phase flows and for development of safety models for chemical industry.
PIV measurements in two hypersonic shock wave / turbulent boundary layer interactions
Schreyer, Anne-Marie; Williams, Owen; Smits, Alexander J.
2017-11-01
Particle Image Velocimetry measurements were performed to study two compression corner interactions in hypersonic flow. The experiments, carried out at Mach 7.2 and at a Reynolds number based on momentum thickness of 3500, included mean flow surveys as well as turbulence measurements in the near-field of the interaction. For the 8° compression corner, the flow remained attached, and for the 33° compression corner a large separation bubble formed. For the attached case, the influence of the shock wave on the streamwise turbulence intensities is weak, but the wall-normal component and the Reynolds shear stress show considerable amplification. In the fully separated case, both the streamwise and wall normal velocity fluctuations, as well as the Reynolds shear stresses, show strong amplification across the interaction. In contrast with the behavior in the attached case, equilibrium flow is approached much more rapidly in the separated case. Turbulence measurements in such complex hypersonic flows are far from trivial, with particle frequency response limitations often significantly reducing the measured wall-normal turbulence. We will therefore discuss these influences on overall data quality as well as the interpretation of flow physics based on these results.
Shock waves and rarefaction waves in magnetohydrodynamics. Pt. 1: A model system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Myong, R.S.; Roe, P.L.
1997-01-01
The present study consists of two parts. Here in Part I, a model set of conservation laws exactly preserving the MHD hyperbolic singularities is investigated to develop the general theory of the nonlinear evolution of MHD shock waves. Great emphasis is placed on shock admissibility conditions. By developing the viscosity admissibility condition, it is shown that the intermediate shocks are necessary to ensure that the planar Riemann problem is well-posed. In contrast, it turns out that the evolutionary condition is inappropriate for determining physically relevant MHD, shocks. In the general non-planar case, by studying canonical cases, we show that the solution of the Riemann problem is not necessarily unique - in particular, that it depends not only on reference states but also on the associated internal structure. Finally, the stability of intermediate shocks is discussed, and a theory of their nonlinear evolution is proposed. In Part 2, the theory of nonlinear waves developed for the model is applied to the MHD problem. It is shown that the topology of the MHD Hugoniot and wave curves is identical to that of the model problem. (Author)
Shock wave plasticity in Mo at 293K and 1673K
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tonks, D.L.
1996-01-01
The shock wave plasticity of Mo is extracted from two VISAR wave profiles; of about 110 kbar strength at 293 K and of about 120 kbar strength at 1673 K. The Wallace weak shock analysis is used to obtain the plastic strain and deviatoric stress, and the normal stress and volumetric strain, through the shock rise from the velocity profile data. The Wallace analysis uses the steady wave assumption for the plastic portion of the shock rise, a plausible evolution for the precursor portion, a thermoelastic model, and the mechanical equations of motion. Comparison of the high and low temperature results is of interest in assessing the mechanisms of plastic flow. In the results, the (von Mises equivalent) peak deviatoric stresses are 12.8 kbar and 20.3 kbar, for the hot and cold Mo, respectively, while the peak plastic strain rate of the hot Mo is about 2.6 times that of the cold Mo. These values rule out thermal activation. In addition, they are not consistent with a simple phonon viscosity linear in the temperature. Additional effects are needed to explain the results, e.g. evolution of the mobile dislocation density. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics
Lee, Sang Seok; Kang, Sangkuk; Park, Noh Kyoung; Lee, Chan Woo; Song, Ho Sup; Sohn, Min Kyun; Cho, Kang Hee; Kim, Jung Hwan
2012-10-01
To evaluate the effectiveness of initial extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) for patients newly diagnosed with lateral or medial epicondylitis, compared to local steroid injection. An analysis was conducted of twenty-two patients who were newly confirmed as lateral or medial epicondylitis through medical history and physical examination. The ESWT group (n=12) was treated once a week for 3 weeks using low energy (0.06-0.12 mJ/mm(2), 2,000 shocks), while the local steroid injection group (n=10) was treated once with triamcinolone 10 mg mixed with 1% lidocaine solution. Nirschl score and 100 point score were assessed before and after the treatments of 1st, 2nd, 4th and 8th week. And Roles and Maudsley score was assessed one and eight weeks after the treatments. Both groups showed significant improvement in Nirschl score and 100 point score during the entire period. The local steroid injection group improved more in Nirschl score at the first week and in 100 point score at the first 2 weeks, compared to those of the ESWT group. But the proportion of excellent and good grades of Roles and Maudsley score in the ESWT group increased more than that of local steroid injection group by the final 8th week. The ESWT group improved as much as the local steroid injection group as treatment for medial and lateral epicondylitis. Therefore, ESWT can be a useful treatment option in patients for whom local steroid injection is difficult.
Development of a new diagnostic sensor for extra-corporeal shock-wave lithotripsy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fedele, F; Coleman, A J; Leighton, T G; White, P R; Hurrell, A M
2004-01-01
Extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy is the leading technique used in urology for the non-invasive treatment of kidney and ureteric stones. The stone is comminuted by thousands of ultrasound shocks, into fragments small enough to be naturally passed. Since the technique was introduced in the 1980 different generations of lithotripters have been developed. Nevertheless the alignment systems (x-ray, ultrasound) still have some limitations (indeed, the tighter focusing of newer lithotripter reduces the tolerance for misalignment) and there is no capability for on-line monitoring of the degree of fragmentation of the stone. There is 50% incidence of re-treatments, possibly due to these deficiencies. The objective of this research is to design a new passive acoustic sensor, exploiting the secondary acoustic emission generated during the treatment, which could be used as a diagnostic device for lithotripsy. With a passive cylindrical cavitation detector, developed by the National Physical Laboratory, it was possible to detect these emissions in a laboratory lithotripter, and it was shown that they contain information on the degree of stone fragmentation and stone location. This information could be used to perform the desired monitoring and to improve the stone targeting. In collaboration with Precision Acoustic Ltd, some clinical prototypes were developed and tested to verify the relevance of these preliminary results. Clinical results are presented
Development of a new diagnostic sensor for extra-corporeal shock-wave lithotripsy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fedele, F [Medical Physics Department, Guy' s and St Thomas' NHS Trust, London, SE1 7EH (United Kingdom); Coleman, A J [Medical Physics Department, Guy' s and St Thomas' NHS Trust, London, SE1 7EH (United Kingdom); Leighton, T G [Institute of Sound and Vibration Research, University of Southampton, Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); White, P R [Institute of Sound and Vibration Research, University of Southampton, Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Hurrell, A M [Precision Acoustics Ltd, Dorchester, DT1 1PY (United Kingdom)
2004-01-01
Extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy is the leading technique used in urology for the non-invasive treatment of kidney and ureteric stones. The stone is comminuted by thousands of ultrasound shocks, into fragments small enough to be naturally passed. Since the technique was introduced in the 1980 different generations of lithotripters have been developed. Nevertheless the alignment systems (x-ray, ultrasound) still have some limitations (indeed, the tighter focusing of newer lithotripter reduces the tolerance for misalignment) and there is no capability for on-line monitoring of the degree of fragmentation of the stone. There is 50% incidence of re-treatments, possibly due to these deficiencies. The objective of this research is to design a new passive acoustic sensor, exploiting the secondary acoustic emission generated during the treatment, which could be used as a diagnostic device for lithotripsy. With a passive cylindrical cavitation detector, developed by the National Physical Laboratory, it was possible to detect these emissions in a laboratory lithotripter, and it was shown that they contain information on the degree of stone fragmentation and stone location. This information could be used to perform the desired monitoring and to improve the stone targeting. In collaboration with Precision Acoustic Ltd, some clinical prototypes were developed and tested to verify the relevance of these preliminary results. Clinical results are presented.
Extracorporeal shock wave therapy for injection site panniculitis in multiple sclerosis patients.
Stieger, Marco; Schmid, Jean-Paul; Yawalkar, Nikhil; Hunziker, Thomas
2015-01-01
Painful cutaneous injection site reactions may hamper treatment with interferon β (IFN-β) and glatiramer acetate (GA) in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. To maintain therapy adherence, efficient therapeutic modalities for these subcutaneous inflammatory lesions are urgently needed. We tested the application of local extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT). We applied 5 sessions of ESWT to 8 patients suffering from MS who had developed painful panniculitis at the injection sites of either IFN-β or GA. Clinical outcomes, i.e. pain reduction and regression of induration, were assessed 3 and 6 months after completion of the ESWT using a visual analogue score. All patients showed both significant pain reduction and reduction of the skin induration in the treated lesions, while in untreated control lesions there was no improvement. ESWT proved to be a non-invasive, safe and efficient physical treatment modality for injection-induced painful cutaneous side effects of disease-modifying drugs in MS. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Confinement effects of shock waves on laser-induced plasma from a graphite target
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Huang, Feiling; Liang, Peipei; Yang, Xu; Cai, Hua; Wu, Jiada; Xu, Ning; Ying, Zhifeng; Sun, Jian, E-mail: jsun@fudan.edu.cn [Shanghai Ultra-Precision Optical Manufacturing Engineering Center, Department of Optical Science and Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)
2015-06-15
The spatial confinement effects of shock waves on the laser-induced plasma (LIP) from a graphite target in air were studied by probe beam deflection (PBD) measurements and optical emission spectroscopy (OES). A clear relationship between the confinement of the LIP by the shock wave and the effects on the LIP emission was observed, and the underlying mechanisms are discussed. PBD monitoring revealed that the laser-ablation induced shock wave could be well analogized to the shock wave generated by a point explosion and would be reflected by a block. OES measurements indicated that the optical emission of the LIP exhibited significant variations with the block placement. A first enhancement and then a fast decay of CN molecular emission as well as a suppression of carbon atomic emission were observed in the presence of the block. The results revealed that the reflected shock wave spatially confined the expansion of the LIP and compressed the LIP after encountering it, pushing back the species of the LIP and changing the density of the LIP species including luminous carbon atoms and CN molecules. It is suggested that the change of the LIP emission is attributed to the density variation of the LIP species due to the compression of the LIP and the reactions occurring in the plasma.
Analytical solution of the problem of a shock wave in the collapsing gas in Lagrangian coordinates
Kuropatenko, V. F.; Shestakovskaya, E. S.
2016-10-01
It is proposed the exact solution of the problem of a convergent shock wave and gas dynamic compression in a spherical vessel with an impermeable wall in Lagrangian coordinates. At the initial time the speed of cold ideal gas is equal to zero, and a negative velocity is set on boundary of the sphere. When t > t0 the shock wave spreads from this point into the gas. The boundary of the sphere will move under the certain law correlated with the motion of the shock wave. The trajectories of the gas particles in Lagrangian coordinates are straight lines. The equations determining the structure of the gas flow between the shock front and gas border have been found as a function of time and Lagrangian coordinate. The dependence of the entropy on the velocity of the shock wave has been found too. For Lagrangian coordinates the problem is first solved. It is fundamentally different from previously known formulations of the problem of the self-convergence of the self-similar shock wave to the center of symmetry and its reflection from the center, which was built up for the infinite area in Euler coordinates.
Observation of a flare-generated shock wave at 9.7 AU by Pioneer 10
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dryer, M.; Shea, M.A.; Smart, D.F.; Collard, H.R.; Mihalov, J.D.; Wolfe, J.H.; Warwick, J.W.
1978-01-01
The period March 15 to May 15, 1976, was declared in advance to be the internationally recognized Study of Traveling Interplanetary Phenomena Interval II. A variety of ground- and space-based equipment was requested to make coordinated studies during this part of the minimum of solar cycle 20. Following an absence of solar activity for a long period, several type II radio bursts on March 20, 1976, produced by two solar flares behind the east limb heralded a series of solar interplanetary, and terrestrial events. These solar radio astronomical observations were followed by non-Io-associated radio emission from Jupiter and solar wind plasma detection at Pioneer 10 at 9.7 AU of an apparent shock wave on March 30 and April 9, 1976, respectively. In view of the fact that the solar flares on March 20 were essentially at central meridian with respect to Jupiter and Pioneer 10 and also that the sun was extremely inactive prior to that date we consider the circumstantial evidence that at least one solar-flare-generated shock wave propagated to the position of Pioneer 10. The average velocities of this shock wave, together with the inferred type II velocity, support previous observations and theory concerning the rapid deceleration and survival of interplanetary shock waves to distances at least as large as approx.10 AU. It is therefore believed that dissipation (other than that within shocks themselves) plays an insignificant role in shock wave dynamics within the solar wind
In situ measurement of plasma and shock wave properties inside laser-drilled metal holes
Brajdic, Mihael; Hermans, Martin; Horn, Alexander; Kelbassa, Ingomar
2008-10-01
High-speed imaging of shock wave and plasma dynamics is a commonly used diagnostic method for monitoring processes during laser material treatment. It is used for processes such as laser ablation, cutting, keyhole welding and drilling. Diagnosis of laser drilling is typically adopted above the material surface because lateral process monitoring with optical diagnostic methods inside the laser-drilled hole is not possible due to the hole walls. A novel method is presented to investigate plasma and shock wave properties during the laser drilling inside a confined environment such as a laser-drilled hole. With a novel sample preparation and the use of high-speed imaging combined with spectroscopy, a time and spatial resolved monitoring of plasma and shock wave dynamics is realized. Optical emission of plasma and shock waves during drilling of stainless steel with ns-pulsed laser radiation is monitored and analysed. Spatial distributions and velocities of shock waves and of plasma are determined inside the holes. Spectroscopy is accomplished during the expansion of the plasma inside the drilled hole allowing for the determination of electron densities.
Characteristics of coronal shock waves and solar type 2 radio bursts
Mann, G.; Classen, H.-T.
1995-01-01
In the solar corona shock waves generated by flares and/or coronal mass ejections can be observed by radio astronomical methods in terms of solar type 2 radio bursts. In dynamic radio spectra they appear as emission stripes slowly drifting from high to low frequencies. A sample of 25 solar type 2 radio bursts observed in the range of 40 - 170 MHz with a time resolution of 0.1 s by the new radiospectrograph of the Astrophvsikalisches Institut Potsdam in Tremsdorf is statistically investigated concerning their spectral features, i.e, drift rate, instantaneous bandwidth, and fundamental harmonic ratio. In-situ plasma wave measurements at interplanetary shocks provide the assumption that type 2 radio radiation is emitted in the vicinity of the transition region of shock waves. Thus, the instantaneous bandwidth of a solar type 2 radio burst would reflect the density jump across the associated shock wave. Comparing the inspection of the Rankine-Hugoniot relations of shock waves under coronal circumstances with those obtained from the observational study, solar type 2 radio bursts should be regarded to be generated by weak supercritical, quasi-parallel, fast magnetosonic shock waves in the corona.
A study on early microstructural changes in the rabbit gallbladder induced by shock waves
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Oh, Eun Oak [Hong-Sung Koryo Hospital, Hongsung (Korea, Republic of); Shim, Hyung Jin; Kim, Kun Sang; Ryo, Dae Sik; Choi, Yun Sun; Song, In Sup; Kim, Young Koo [College of Medicine, Chung Ang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
1994-05-15
In order to evaluate microstructural changes after shock wave exposure, gross, light microscopic and transmission electron microscopic findings were analyzed with rabbit gallbladders. A preliminary study(2 rabbits) was performed to determine the dosage intensity of shock waves needed to inflict damage, using a EDAP LT 01 piezoelectric extracorporeal shock wave lothotriptor. The Gallbladders of three different groups of rabbits were given shock waves of various intensity. A storage value of 100, 50, 25 at rate of 20/sec under 80% power were given to group I (4 rabbits), group II (4 rabbits), and group III (3 rabbits), respectively. The rabbits were sacrificed 6-12 hours later. The observed pathologic changes in the transmission electron microscopy were vaculization of cytoplasm and swelling of epithelial cells with dilatation and structural alteration of intracellular organelles, especially endoplasmic reticulum. Cell membrane rupture and necrosis were observed at the markedly affected area. The structural changes of intracellular organelles were minimally found at a storage value of 25. However, above pathologic changes with dilatation and structural alterations of endoplasmic reticulums were more profound at value of 100. Early histologic changes induced by shocked waves are dose dependent and findings of cellular damage caused by ESWL might be explained as above.