WorldWideScience

Sample records for shock tube part

  1. Shock tube Multiphase Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middlebrooks, John; Allen, Roy; Paudel, Manoj; Young, Calvin; Musick, Ben; McFarland, Jacob

    2017-11-01

    Shock driven multiphase instabilities (SDMI) are unique physical phenomena that have far-reaching practical applications in engineering and science. The instability is present in high energy explosions, scramjet combustors, and supernovae events. The SDMI arises when a multiphase interface is impulsively accelerated by the passage of a shockwave. It is similar in development to the Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) instability however, particle-to-gas coupling is the driving mechanism of the SDMI. As particle effects such as lag and phase change become more prominent, the SDMI's development begins to significantly deviate from the RM instability. We have developed an experiment for studying the SDMI in our shock tube facility. In our experiments, a multiphase interface is created using a laminar jet and flowed into the shock tube where it is accelerated by the passage of a planar shockwave. The interface development is captured using CCD cameras synchronized with planar laser illumination. This talk will give an overview of new experiments conducted to examine the development of a shocked cylindrical multiphase interface. The effects of Atwood number, particle size, and a second acceleration (reshock) of the interface will be discussed.

  2. Miniature shock tube for laser driven shocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busquet, Michel; Barroso, Patrice; Melse, Thierry; Bauduin, Daniel

    2010-02-01

    We describe in this paper the design of a miniature shock tube (smaller than 1 cm(3)) that can be placed in a vacuum vessel and allows transverse optical probing and longitudinal backside extreme ultraviolet emission spectroscopy in the 100-500 A range. Typical application is the study of laser launched radiative shocks, in the framework of what is called "laboratory astrophysics."

  3. Free Piston Double Diaphragm Shock Tube

    OpenAIRE

    OGURA, Eiji; FUNABIKI, Katsushi; SATO, Shunichi; ABE, Takashi; 小倉, 栄二; 船曳, 勝之; 佐藤, 俊逸; 安部, 隆士

    1997-01-01

    A free piston double diaphragm shock tube was newly developed for generation of high Mach number shock wave. Its characteristics was investigated for various operation parameters; such as a strength of the diaphragm at the end of the comparession tube, an initial pressure of low pressure tube, an initial pressure of medium pressure tube and the volume of compression tube. Under the restriction of fixed pressures for the driver high pressure tube (32×10^5Pa) and the low pressure tube (40Pa) in...

  4. SPECIAL PURPOSE SHOCK TUBE for BLAST ASSESSMENT

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This device is a specially designed shock tube for testing fabric samples in a controlled environment. The device determines the appropriate types of sensors to be...

  5. Shock Tube Measurements for Liquid Fuels Combustion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hanson, Ronald K

    2006-01-01

    ...) fundamental studies of fuel spray evaporation rates and ignition times of low-vapor pressure fuels such as JP-8, diesel fuel and normal alkane surrogates in a new aerosol shock tube using state...

  6. Shock Tube Ignition Delay Data Affected by Localized Ignition Phenomena

    KAUST Repository

    Javed, Tamour; Badra, J.; Jaasim, Mohammed; Es-sebbar, Et-touhami; Labastida, M.F.; Chung, Suk-Ho; Im, Hong G.; Farooq, Aamir

    2016-01-01

    Shock tubes have conventionally been used for measuring high-temperature ignition delay times ~ O(1 ms). In the last decade or so, the operating regime of shock tubes has been extended to lower temperatures by accessing longer observation times

  7. Shock Tube as an Impulsive Application Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumya Ranjan Nanda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Current investigations solely focus on application of an impulse facility in diverse area of high-speed aerodynamics and structural mechanics. Shock tube, the fundamental impulse facility, is specially designed and calibrated for present objectives. Force measurement experiments are performed on a hemispherical test model integrated with the stress wave force balance. Similar test model is considered for heat transfer measurements using coaxial thermocouple. Force and heat transfer experiments demonstrated that the strain gauge and thermocouple have lag time of 11.5 and 9 microseconds, respectively. Response time of these sensors in measuring the peak load is also measured successfully using shock tube facility. As an outcome, these sensors are found to be suitable for impulse testing. Lastly, the response of aluminum plates subjected to impulsive loading is analyzed by measuring the in-plane strain produced during deformation. Thus, possibility of forming tests in shock is also confirmed.

  8. Chemical kinetics studies at high temperatures using shock tubes

    OpenAIRE

    Rajakumar, B; Anandraj, D; Reddy, KPJ; Arunan, E

    2002-01-01

    Shock tube is an unique facility to create temperature gradients exceeding million degrees Kelvin per second. We have established two shock tubes for measuring the kinetic reaction rates at high temperatures with two different but complementary detection techniques. The first one is a single pulse shock tube, in which the reflected shock is used to heat the molecules. The equilibrated products are analyzed by gas chromatograph and infrared spectrometer. The second one uses laser-schlieren sys...

  9. Experimental study of micro-shock tube flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jin Ouk; Kim, Gyu Wan; Rasel, Md. Alim Iftakhar [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Andong National University, Andong (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Heuy Dong [Fire Research Center, Korea Institute of Civil Engineering and Building Technology, Hwasung (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-03-15

    The flow characteristics in micro shock tube are investigated experimentally. Studies were carried out using a stainless steel micro shock tube. Shock and expansion wave was measured using 8 pressure sensors. The initial pressure ratio was varied from 4.3 to 30.5, and the diameter of tube was also changed from 3 mm to 6 mm. Diaphragm conditions were varied using two types of diaphragms. The results obtained show that the shock strength in the tube becomes stronger for an increase in the initial pressure ratio and diameter of tube. For the thinner diaphragm, the highest shock strength was found among varied diaphragm condition. Shock attenuation was highly influenced by the diameter of tube.

  10. Study on Reflected Shock Wave/Boundary Layer Interaction in a Shock Tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Wook; Kim, Tae Ho; Kim, Heuy Dong [Andong Nat’l Univ., Andong (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-07-15

    The interaction between a shock wave and a boundary layer causes boundary layer separation, shock train, and in some cases, strong unsteadiness in the flow field. Such a situation is also observed in a shock tube, where the reflected shock wave interacts with the unsteady boundary layer. However, only a few studies have been conducted to investigate the shock train phenomenon in a shock tube. In the present study, numerical studies were conducted using the two-dimensional axisymmetric domain of a shock tube, and compressible Navier-Stokes equations were solved to clarify the flow characteristics of shock train phenomenon inside a shock tube. A detailed wave diagram was developed based on the present computational results, which were validated with existing experimental data.

  11. Flash photolysis-shock tube studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael, J.V. [Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States)

    1993-12-01

    Even though this project in the past has concentrated on the measurement of thermal bimolecular reactions of atomic species with stable molecules by the flash or laser photolysis-shock tube (FP- or LP-ST) method using atomic resonance absorption spectrometry (ARAS) as the diagnostic technique, during the past year the authors have concentrated on studies of the thermal decompositions of selected chlorocarbon molecules. These studies are necessary if the degradation of chlorine containing organic molecules by incineration are to be understood at the molecular level. Clearly, destruction of these molecules will not only involve abstraction reactions, when possible, but also thermal decomposition followed by secondary reactions of the initially formed atoms and radicals. Studies on the thermal decomposition of CH{sub 3}Cl are complete, and the curve-of-growth for Cl-atom atomic resonance absorption has been determined. The new thermal decomposition studies are similar to those already reported for CH{sub 3}Cl.

  12. Phase velocity enhancement of linear explosive shock tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loiseau, Jason; Serge, Matthew; Szirti, Daniel; Higgins, Andrew; Tanguay, Vincent

    2011-06-01

    Strong, high density shocks can be generated by sequentially detonating a hollow cylinder of explosives surrounding a thin-walled, pressurized tube. Implosion of the tube results in a pinch that travels at the detonation velocity of the explosive and acts like a piston to drive a shock into the gas ahead of it. In order to increase the maximum shock velocities that can be obtained, a phase velocity generator can be used to drag an oblique detonation wave along the gas tube at a velocity much higher than the base detonation velocity of the explosive. Since yielding and failure of the gas tube is the primary limitation of these devices, it is desirable to retain the dynamic confinement effects of a heavy-walled tamper without interfering with operation of the phase velocity generator. This was accomplished by cutting a slit into the tamper and introducing a phased detonation wave such that it asymmetrically wraps around the gas tube. This type of configuration has been previously experimentally verified to produce very strong shocks but the post-shock pressure and shock velocity limits have not been investigated. This study measured the shock trajectory for various fill pressures and phase velocities to ascertain the limiting effects of tube yield, detonation obliquity and pinch aspect ratio.

  13. Optimal Design of Shock Tube Experiments for Parameter Inference

    KAUST Repository

    Bisetti, Fabrizio; Knio, Omar

    2014-01-01

    We develop a Bayesian framework for the optimal experimental design of the shock tube experiments which are being carried out at the KAUST Clean Combustion Research Center. The unknown parameters are the pre-exponential parameters and the activation

  14. On Poor Separation in Magnetically Driven Shock Tube

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chang, C.T.

    1973-01-01

    Observations made at steady-state running conditions in a magnetically driven shock tube, with parallel-plate electrodes, showed that for a given discharge voltage, sufficient separation between the shock and the current-sheet occurred only at relatively high discharge pressures. As a comparison......, poor separations were also noted in conventional diaphragm-type shock tubes running at low initial pressures. It is demonstrated that the observed poor separation can be explained by a mass leakage, instead of through the wall boundary layer, but through the current-sheet itself....

  15. THE EFFECTS OF AREA CONTRACTION ON SHOCK WAVE STRENGTH AND PEAK PRESSURE IN SHOCK TUBE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Mohsen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental investigation into the effects of area contraction on shock wave strength and peak pressure in a shock tube. The shock tube is an important component of the short duration, high speed fluid flow test facility, available at the Universiti Tenaga Nasional (UNITEN, Malaysia. The area contraction was facilitated by positioning a bush adjacent to the primary diaphragm section, which separates the driver and driven sections. Experimental measurements were performed with and without the presence of the bush, at various diaphragm pressure ratios, which is the ratio of air pressure between the driver (high pressure and driven (low pressure sections. The instantaneous static pressure variations were measured at two locations close to the driven tube end wall, using high sensitivity pressure sensors, which allow the shock wave strength, shock wave speed and peak pressure to be analysed. The results reveal that the area contraction significantly reduces the shock wave strength, shock wave speed and peak pressure. At a diaphragm pressure ratio of 10, the shock wave strength decreases by 18%, the peak pressure decreases by 30% and the shock wave speed decreases by 8%.

  16. Shock tubes: compressions in the low pressure chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schins, H.; Giuliani, S.

    1986-01-01

    The gas shock tube used in these experiments consists of a low pressure chamber and a high pressure chamber, divided by a metal-diaphragm-to-rupture. In contrast to the shock mode of operation, where incident and reflected shocks in the low pressure chamber are studied which occur within 3.5 ms, in this work the compression mode of operation was studied, whose maxima occur (in the low pressure chamber) about 9 ms after rupture. Theoretical analysis was done with the finite element computer code EURDYN-1M, where the computation was carried out to 30 ms

  17. Shock Tube Ignition Delay Data Affected by Localized Ignition Phenomena

    KAUST Repository

    Javed, Tamour

    2016-12-29

    Shock tubes have conventionally been used for measuring high-temperature ignition delay times ~ O(1 ms). In the last decade or so, the operating regime of shock tubes has been extended to lower temperatures by accessing longer observation times. Such measurements may potentially be affected by some non-ideal phenomena. The purpose of this work is to measure long ignition delay times for fuels exhibiting negative temperature coefficient (NTC) and to assess the impact of shock tube non-idealities on ignition delay data. Ignition delay times of n-heptane and n-hexane were measured over the temperature range of 650 – 1250 K and pressures near 1.5 atm. Driver gas tailoring and long length of shock tube driver section were utilized to measure ignition delay times as long as 32 ms. Measured ignition delay times agree with chemical kinetic models at high (> 1100 K) and low (< 700 K) temperatures. In the intermediate temperature range (700 – 1100 K), however, significant discrepancies are observed between the measurements and homogeneous ignition delay simulations. It is postulated, based on experimental observations, that localized ignition kernels could affect the ignition delay times at the intermediate temperatures, which lead to compression (and heating) of the bulk gas and result in expediting the overall ignition event. The postulate is validated through simple representative computational fluid dynamic simulations of post-shock gas mixtures which exhibit ignition advancement via a hot spot. The results of the current work show that ignition delay times measured by shock tubes may be affected by non-ideal phenomena for certain conditions of temperature, pressure and fuel reactivity. Care must, therefore, be exercised in using such data for chemical kinetic model development and validation.

  18. Calibration of PCB-132 Sensors in a Shock Tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berridge, Dennis C.; Schneider, Steven P.

    2012-01-01

    While PCB-132 sensors have proven useful for measuring second-mode instability waves in many hypersonic wind tunnels, they are currently limited by their calibration. Until now, the factory calibration has been all that was available, which is a single-point calibration at an amplitude three orders of magnitude higher than a second-mode wave. In addition, little information has been available about the frequency response or spatial resolution of the sensors, which is important for measuring high-frequency instability waves. These shortcomings make it difficult to compare measurements at different conditions and between different sensors. If accurate quantitative measurements could be performed, comparisons of the growth and breakdown of instability waves could be made in different facilities, possibly leading to a method of predicting the amplitude at which the waves break down into turbulence, improving transition prediction. A method for calibrating the sensors is proposed using a newly-built shock tube at Purdue University. This shock tube, essentially a half-scale version of the 6-Inch shock tube at the Graduate Aerospace Laboratories at Caltech, has been designed to attain a moderate vacuum in the driven section. Low driven pressures should allow the creation of very weak, yet still relatively thin shock waves. It is expected that static pressure rises within the range of second-mode amplitudes should be possible. The shock tube has been designed to create clean, planar shock waves with a laminar boundary layer to allow for accurate calibrations. Stronger shock waves can be used to identify the frequency response of the sensors out to hundreds of kilohertz.

  19. Acoustic waves in shock tunnels and expansion tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paull, A.; Stalker, R. J.

    1992-01-01

    It is shown that disturbances in shock and expansion tubes can be modelled as lateral acoustic waves. The ratio of sound speed across the driver-test gas interface is shown to govern the quantity of noise in the test gas. Frequency 'focusing' which is fundamental to centered unsteady expansions is discussed and displayed in centerline pitot pressure measurements.

  20. Improvement of pump tubes for gas guns and shock tube drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanoff, D. W.

    1990-01-01

    In a pump tube, a gas is mechanically compressed, producing very high pressures and sound speeds. The intensely heated gas produced in such a tube can be used to drive light gas guns and shock tubes. Three concepts are presented that have the potential to allow substantial reductions in the size and mass of the pump tube to be achieved. The first concept involves the use of one or more diaphragms in the pump tube, thus replacing a single compression process by multiple, successive compressions. The second concept involves a radical reduction in the length-to-diameter ratio of the pump tube and the pump tube piston. The third concept involves shock heating of the working gas by high explosives in a cyclindrical geometry reusable device. Preliminary design analyses are performed on all three concepts and they appear to be quite feasible. Reductions in the length and mass of the pump tube by factors up to about 11 and about 7, respectively, are predicted, relative to a benchmark conventional pump tube.

  1. The shock tube as wave reactor for kinetic studies and material systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhaskaran, K.A. [Indian Institute of Technology, Chennai (India). Department of Mechanical Engineering; Roth, P. [Gerhard Mercator Universitat, Duisberg (Germany). Institut fur Verbrennung und Gasdynamik

    2002-07-01

    Several important reviews of shock tube kinetics have appeared earlier, prominent among them being 'Shock Tube Technique in Chemical Kinetics' by Belford and Strehlow (Ann Rev Phys Chem 20 (1969) 247), 'Chemical Reaction of Shock Waves' by Wagner (Proceedings of the Eighth International Shock Tube Symposium (1971) 4/1), 'Shock Tube and Shock Wave Research' by Bauer and Lewis (Proceedings of the 11th International Symposium on Shock Tubes and Waves (1977) 269), 'Shock Waves in Chemistry' edited by Assa Lifshitz (Shock Waves in Chemistry, 1981) and 'Shock Tube Techniques in Chemical Kinetics' by Wing Tsang and Assa Lifshitz (Annu Rev Phys Chem 41 (1990) 559). A critical analysis of the different shock tube techniques, their limitations and suggestions to improve the accuracy of the data produced are contained in these reviews. The purpose of this article is to present the current status of kinetic research with emphasis on the diagnostic techniques. Selected studies on homogeneous and dispersed systems are presented to bring out the versatility of the shock tube technique. The use of the shock tube as high temperature wave reactor for gas phase material synthesis is also highlighted. (author)

  2. Optimal Design of Shock Tube Experiments for Parameter Inference

    KAUST Repository

    Bisetti, Fabrizio

    2014-01-06

    We develop a Bayesian framework for the optimal experimental design of the shock tube experiments which are being carried out at the KAUST Clean Combustion Research Center. The unknown parameters are the pre-exponential parameters and the activation energies in the reaction rate expressions. The control parameters are the initial mixture composition and the temperature. The approach is based on first building a polynomial based surrogate model for the observables relevant to the shock tube experiments. Based on these surrogates, a novel MAP based approach is used to estimate the expected information gain in the proposed experiments, and to select the best experimental set-ups yielding the optimal expected information gains. The validity of the approach is tested using synthetic data generated by sampling the PC surrogate. We finally outline a methodology for validation using actual laboratory experiments, and extending experimental design methodology to the cases where the control parameters are noisy.

  3. Numerical calculation of two phase flow in a shock tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivard, W.C.; Travis, J.R.; Torrey, M.D.

    1976-01-01

    Numerical calculations of the dynamics of initially saturated water-steam mixtures in a shock tube demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of a new solution technique for the transient, two-dimensional, two-fluid equations. The dependence of the calculated results on time step and cell size are investigated. The effects of boiling and condensation on the flow physics suggest the merits of basic fluid dynamic measurements for the determination and evaluation of mass exchange models

  4. Shock waves and shock tubes; Proceedings of the Fifteenth International Symposium, Berkeley, CA, July 28-August 2, 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bershader, D.; Hanson, R.

    1986-01-01

    A detailed survey is presented of shock tube experiments, theoretical developments, and applications being carried out worldwide. The discussions explore shock tube physics and the related chemical, physical and biological science and technology. Extensive attention is devoted to shock wave phenomena in dusty gases and other multiphase and heterogeneous systems, including chemically reactive mixtures. Consideration is given to techniques for measuring, visualizing and theoretically modeling flowfield, shock wave and rarefaction wave characteristics. Numerical modeling is explored in terms of the application of computational fluid dynamics techniques to describing flowfields in shock tubes. Shock interactions and propagation, in both solids, fluids, gases and mixed media are investigated, along with the behavior of shocks in condensed matter. Finally, chemical reactions that are initiated as the result of passage of a shock wave are discussed, together with methods of controlling the evolution of laminar separated flows at concave corners on advanced reentry vehicles

  5. Fuel-coolant interactions in a shock-tube geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segev, A.; Henry, R.E.; Bankoff, S.G.

    1978-01-01

    Thermal interactions were studied in a shock tube configuration using different pairs of liquids. Large pressures were obtained for systems of water-Wood's metal and butanol-Wood's metal. Different types of interactions were observed, depending on the hot liquid temperature. It was found that thehydrodynamic component alone may account for the measured pressure in the lower temperature range. A combination of thermal and hydrodynamic interactions accounts for the pressures at high temperatures. Experiments with water and molten salt (LiCl + KCl) produced small scale explosions. All interactions were suppressed when driving pressure increased. (author)

  6. Investigation of pressure transients in nuclear filtration systems: construction details of a large shock tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, P.R.; Gregory, W.S.

    1980-04-01

    This report documents the construction of a 0.914-m (36-in.)-dia. shock tube on the New Mexico State University caompus. Highly variable low-grade explosions can be simulated with the shock tube. We plan to investigate the response of nuclear facility ventilation system components to low-grade explosions. Components of particular interest are high-capacity, high efficiency paticulate air (HEPA) filters. Shock tube construction details, operating principles, firing sequence, and preliminary results are reported

  7. A strong shock tube problem calculated by different numerical schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wen Ho; Clancy, Sean P.

    1996-05-01

    Calculated results are presented for the solution of a very strong shock tube problem on a coarse mesh using (1) MESA code, (2) UNICORN code, (3) Schulz hydro, and (4) modified TVD scheme. The first two codes are written in Eulerian coordinates, whereas methods (3) and (4) are in Lagrangian coordinates. MESA and UNICORN codes are both of second order and use different monotonic advection method to avoid the Gibbs phenomena. Code (3) uses typical artificial viscosity for inviscid flow, whereas code (4) uses a modified TVD scheme. The test problem is a strong shock tube problem with a pressure ratio of 109 and density ratio of 103 in an ideal gas. For no mass-matching case, Schulz hydro is better than TVD scheme. In the case of mass-matching, there is no difference between them. MESA and UNICORN results are nearly the same. However, the computed positions such as the contact discontinuity (i.e. the material interface) are not as accurate as the Lagrangian methods.

  8. A strong shock tube problem calculated by different numerical schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, W.H.; Clancy, S.P.

    1996-01-01

    Calculated results are presented for the solution of a very strong shock tube problem on a coarse mesh using (1) MESA code, (2) UNICORN code, (3) Schulz hydro, and (4) modified TVD scheme. The first two codes are written in Eulerian coordinates, whereas methods (3) and (4) are in Lagrangian coordinates. MESA and UNICORN codes are both of second order and use different monotonic advection method to avoid the Gibbs phenomena. Code (3) uses typical artificial viscosity for inviscid flow, whereas code (4) uses a modified TVD scheme. The test problem is a strong shock tube problem with a pressure ratio of 10 9 and density ratio of 10 3 in an ideal gas. For no mass-matching case, Schulz hydro is better than TVD scheme. In the case of mass-matching, there is no difference between them. MESA and UNICORN results are nearly the same. However, the computed positions such as the contact discontinuity (i.e. the material interface) are not as accurate as the Lagrangian methods. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  9. Comparisons of Air Radiation Model with Shock Tube Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Deepak; McCorkle, Evan; Bogdanoff, David W.; Allen, Gary A., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an assessment of the predictive capability of shock layer radiation model appropriate for NASA s Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle lunar return entry. A detailed set of spectrally resolved radiation intensity comparisons are made with recently conducted tests in the Electric Arc Shock Tube (EAST) facility at NASA Ames Research Center. The spectral range spanned from vacuum ultraviolet wavelength of 115 nm to infrared wavelength of 1400 nm. The analysis is done for 9.5-10.5 km/s shock passing through room temperature synthetic air at 0.2, 0.3 and 0.7 Torr. The comparisons between model and measurements show discrepancies in the level of background continuum radiation and intensities of atomic lines. Impurities in the EAST facility in the form of carbon bearing species are also modeled to estimate the level of contaminants and their impact on the comparisons. The discrepancies, although large is some cases, exhibit order and consistency. A set of tests and analyses improvements are proposed as forward work plan in order to confirm or reject various proposed reasons for the observed discrepancies.

  10. In-tube shock wave driven by atmospheric millimeter-wave plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oda, Yasuhisa; Kajiwara, Ken; Takahashi, Koji; Kasugai, Atsushi; Sakamoto, Keishi; Komurasaki, Kimiya

    2009-01-01

    A shock wave in a tube supported by atmospheric millimeter-wave plasma is discussed. After atmospheric breakdown, the shock wave supported by the millimeter wave propagates at a constant velocity in the tube. In this study, a driving model of the millimeter-wave shock wave is proposed. The model consists of a normal shock wave supported by a propagating heat-supply area in which an ionization front is located. The flow properties predicted by the model show good agreement with the measured properties of the shock wave generated in the tube using a 170 GHz millimeter wave beam. The shock propagation velocity U shock is identical to the propagation velocity of the ionization front U ioniz when U ioniz is supersonic. Then the pressure increment at the tube end is independent of the power density. (author)

  11. Physics of IED blast shock tube simulations for mTBI research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mediavilla Varas, J.; Philippens, M.M.G.M.; Meijer, S.R.; Berg, A.C. van den; Sibma, P.C.; Bree, J.L.M.J. van; Vries, D.V.W.M. de

    2011-01-01

    Shock tube experiments and simulations are conducted with a spherical gelatin filled skull- brain surrogate, in order to study the mechanisms leading to blast induced mild traumatic brain injury. A shock tube including sensor system is optimized to simulate realistic impro-vised explosive device

  12. Handbook of Supersonic Aerodynamics. Section 18. Shock Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1959-12-01

    u) a 2 p. The ab-ve concept is illustrated in Fig. 2.1-1. Consider a piston held by a peg in the duct as shown. At t = 0 the peg is released and the...8217a.. L..- LaL 142 Performance of Simple Constant-Area Shock Tubes Fig. 2.1-1 peg (B) (A) Piston 7 t /PB> PA T T o - Duct of Uniform Cross-Section...3.679 3 4358 3. 100 3 5876 3.825 1 3350 2622 1 4700 3.663 2 4800 3.034 4 5893 3.794-3.819 3 4105 2576 3 4798 3.65b 3 5000 3.062 2 b140 3.815 1 4280 2574 2

  13. Geometric theory of flexible and expandable tubes conveying fluid: equations, solutions and shock waves

    OpenAIRE

    Gay-Balmaz, François; Putkaradze, Vakhtang

    2018-01-01

    We present a theory for the three-dimensional evolution of tubes with expandable walls conveying fluid. Our theory can accommodate arbitrary deformations of the tube, arbitrary elasticity of the walls, and both compressible and incompressible flows inside the tube. We also present the theory of propagation of shock waves in such tubes and derive the conservation laws and Rankine-Hugoniot conditions in arbitrary spatial configuration of the tubes, and compute several examples of particular sol...

  14. Shock interaction with a two-gas interface in a novel dual-driver shock tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labenski, John R.

    Fluid instabilities exist at the interface between two fluids having different densities if the flow velocity and density gradient are anti-parallel or if a shock wave crosses the boundary. The former case is called the Rayleigh-Taylor (R-T) instability and the latter, the Richtmyer-Meshkov (R-M) instability. Small initial perturbations on the interface destabilize and grow into larger amplitude structures leading to turbulent mixing. Instabilities of this type are seen in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments, laser produced plasmas, supernova explosions, and detonations. A novel dual-driver shock tube was used to investigate the growth rate of the R-M instability. One driver is used to create an argon-refrigerant interface, and the other at the opposite end of the driven section generates a shock to force the interface with compressible flows behind the shock. The refrigerant gas in the first driver is seeded with sub-micron oil droplets for visualization of the interface. The interface travels down the driven section past the test section for a fixed amount of time. A stronger shock of Mach 1.1 to 1.3 drives the interface back past the test section where flow diagnostics are positioned. Two schlieren systems record the density fluctuations while light scattering detectors record the density of the refrigerant as a function of position over the interface. A pair of digital cameras take stereo images of the interface, as mapped out by the tracer particles under illumination by a Q-switched ruby laser. The amount of time that the interface is allowed to travel up the driven section determines the interaction time as a control. Comparisons made between the schlieren signals, light scattering detector outputs, and the images quantify the fingered characteristics of the interface and its growth due to shock forcing. The results show that the interface has a distribution of thickness and that the interaction with a shock further broadens the interface. The

  15. Shock-tube study of fusion plasma-wall interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, R.A.; Tien, J.K.; Jensen, B.; Panayotou, N.F.; Feinberg, B.

    1977-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental studies have been made of phenomena which occur when a hot (T 1 approximately equal to 6 x 10 6 0 K), dense (n approximately equal to 10 16 cm -3 ), deuterium plasma containing a transverse magnetic field is brought into sudden contact with a cold metal wall. These studies are motivated by the need to understand plasma and metallurgical conditions at the first-wall of a fusion reactor. Experiments were carried out in the Columbia high energy electromagnetic shock tube. Computational simulation was used to investigate the detailed physics of the fusion plasma boundary layer which develops at the wall. The rate of energy transfer from the plasma to the wall was calculated and conditions under which surface melting occurs are estimated. Experimental measurements of plasma-wall heat transfer rates up to 3 x 10 5 watts/cm 2 were obtained and agreement with computed values are good. Fusion reactor first-wall materials have been exposed to 6.0 x 10 21 eV cm -2 (1,000 shots) of deuterium plasma bombardment. Scanning electron micrograph photographs show preferential erosion at grain boundaries, formation of deuterium surface blisters, and evidence of local surface melting. Some cracking is observed along grain boundaries, and a decrease in tensile ductiity is measured

  16. Supports for shock, vibration and seismic isolation for tube networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prisecaru, Ilie; Serban, Viorel; Sandrea Madalina

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents a solution for diminishing the shocks, vibrations and seismic movements in pipe networks, with a simultaneous reduction in the general stress conditions in piping and supports. Total removal or reduction of vibrations is a hard problem which was not yet tackled either theoretically, in the sense of an analytical procedure for the analysis of occurrence and development of shocks and vibrations in complex systems, or practically, since the current supports and dampers cannot provide enough damping within all the frequency ranges met in the technical domain. Stiffness of classical supports do not allow always satisfactory source isolation to prevent propagation from environment of shocks and vibrations, Considering the actual condition met in the nuclear power plants, power plants and thermal power plants, etc. this paper represents a major practical aid because it provides new solutions for diminishing shocks, vibrations and seismic movements. Aiming at diminishing the effects of vibrations in pipe networks, this paper presents the results obtained in the design, construction and testing of new types of supports that include sandwich type components made up of elastic blade packages with controlled distortion provided by the central and peripheral stiff parts called SERB. With the new type of supports, the control of the distortion at static and dynamic loads and the thermal displacements is achieved by the relative movement among the sandwich structure subassemblies and by the sandwich structure distortion controlled by the central and peripheral distorting parts that generate a non - linear geometric response which has an easily controllable stiffness and damping, due to their non - linear geometric behavior. The supports of the new type are adjustable to the load and distortion level without overstressing the component material, due to a non - linear geometric behavior while the contact pressure among the blades is limited to pre-set values. Due

  17. MEASUREMENTS OF SHOCK WAVE FORCE IN SHOCK TUBE WITH INDIRECT METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Dobrilović

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Tests have been conducted at the “Laboratory for testing of civil explosives, detonators, electrical detonators and pyrotechnical materials”, Department for mining and geotechnics of the Faculty of mining, geology and petroleum engineering, University of Zagreb with the purpose of designing a detonator that would unite advantages of a non-electric system and the precision in regulation of time delay in electronic initiation system. Sum of energy released by the wave force in shock tube is a pre-condition for operation of the new detonator, and measurement of wave force is the first step in determining the sum of energy. The sum of energy is measured indirectly, based on two principles: movement sensors and strain.

  18. Sensitive Mid-IR Laser Sensor Development and Mass Spectrometric Measurements in Shock Tube and Flames

    KAUST Repository

    Alquaity, Awad

    2016-01-01

    CRDS technique was utilized to develop an ultra-fast, high sensitivity diagnostic to monitor trace concentrations of ethylene in shock tube pyrolysis experiments. This diagnostic represented the first ever successful application of CRDS technique

  19. Shock tube measurements of the branching ratios of propene + OH -> products

    KAUST Repository

    Khaled, Fathi; Badra, Jihad Ahmad; Giri, Binod; Farooq, Aamir

    2014-01-01

    in a shock tube behind reflected shock conditions over the temperature range of 812 K – 1460 K and pressures near 1 atm. The reaction progress was followed by monitoring OH radical near 306.7 nm using UV laser absorption. The first experimental

  20. Ductile mandrel and parting compound facilitate tube drawing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, W. R., Jr.; Mayfield, R. M.; Polakowski, N. H.

    1966-01-01

    Refractory tubing is warm drawn over a solid ductile mandrel with a powder parting compound packed between mandrel and the tubes inner surface. This method applies also to the coextrusion of a billet and a ductile mandrel.

  1. Effects of MHD slow shocks propagating along magnetic flux tubes in a dipole magnetic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Erkaev

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Variations of the plasma pressure in a magnetic flux tube can produce MHD waves evolving into shocks. In the case of a low plasma beta, plasma pressure pulses in the magnetic flux tube generate MHD slow shocks propagating along the tube. For converging magnetic field lines, such as in a dipole magnetic field, the cross section of the magnetic flux tube decreases enormously with increasing magnetic field strength. In such a case, the propagation of MHD waves along magnetic flux tubes is rather different from that in the case of uniform magnetic fields. In this paper, the propagation of MHD slow shocks is studied numerically using the ideal MHD equations in an approximation suitable for a thin magnetic flux tube with a low plasma beta. The results obtained in the numerical study show that the jumps in the plasma parameters at the MHD slow shock increase greatly while the shock is propagating in the narrowing magnetic flux tube. The results are applied to the case of the interaction between Jupiter and its satellite Io, the latter being considered as a source of plasma pressure pulses.

  2. Side-Pinch Effect of a Magnetically Driven Shock Tube with Parallel Plate Electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chang, C. T.; Korsbech, Uffe C C; Mondrup, K.

    1969-01-01

    To study the possible effect of the side pinch on the steady-state current and the steady-state shock speed of a magnetically driven shock tube, a semiempirical model is formulated. The time history of the current, the radial and the translational motion of the current-carrying region are expressed...... by three interacting nonlinear equations with five adjustable parameters describing the variation of the electric circuit elements, the geometry of the shock tube, and the initial running conditions. Within the range of practical interest for values of the parameters investigated, computational results...

  3. General Physical Problems Related to MHD. Shock Tubes. Introduction to Papers in Section 1-b

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1966-10-15

    The papers which will be considered here are Nos. SM-74/26, 134, 172, 182 and 219. Each of the five papers will be discussed in turn, but before beginning this discussion, some general comments concerning shock tube studies of MHD generator plasmas seem in order. There is little doubt that the shock tube is an excellent facility-for the study of the basic processes which occur in the bulk of the plasma. It provides a large flow of uniform plasma with well-controlled properties. Because of the very short operating times, the materials problems, which plague continuously operating facilities, are eliminated. Depending upon the mode of operation of the shock tube, the gas dynamic conditions of an MHD generator may also be simulated more or less well. Three different modes have been used by the authors of the present papers. Abbas and Howatson have carried out their measurements in the driver plasma of an electrical shock tube. Both Zauderer and Mori, Kawada, Yamamoto and Imani have used the more conventional technique of experimenting in the plasma produced by the incident shock. Louis uses the plasma produced by reflection of the shock wave from the tube-end as a plasma source for the MHD channel.

  4. High-speed imaging of inhomogeneous ignition in a shock tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulgestke, A. M.; Johnson, S. E.; Davidson, D. F.; Hanson, R. K.

    2018-05-01

    Homogeneous and inhomogeneous ignition of real and surrogate fuels were imaged in two Stanford shock tubes, revealing the influence of small particle fragmentation. n-Heptane, iso-octane, and Jet A were studied, each mixed in an oxidizer containing 21% oxygen and ignited at low temperatures (900-1000 K), low pressures (1-2 atm), with an equivalence ratio of 0.5. Visible images (350-1050 nm) were captured through the shock tube endwall using a high-speed camera. Particles were found to arrive near the endwalls of the shock tubes approximately 5 ms after reflection of the incident shock wave. Reflected shock wave experiments using diaphragm materials of Lexan and steel were investigated. Particles collected from the shock tubes after each experiment were found to match the material of the diaphragm burst during the experiment. Following each experiment, the shock tubes were cleaned by scrubbing with cotton cloths soaked with acetone. Particles were observed to fragment after arrival near the endwall, often leading to inhomogeneous ignition of the fuel. Distinctly more particles were observed during experiments using steel diaphragms. In experiments exhibiting inhomogeneous ignition, flames were observed to grow radially until all the fuel within the cross section of the shock tube had been consumed. The influence of diluent gas (argon or helium) was also investigated. The use of He diluent gas was found to suppress the number of particles capable of causing inhomogeneous flames. The use of He thus allowed time history studies of ignition to extend past the test times that would have been limited by inhomogeneous ignition.

  5. Kinetic modeling of methyl butanoate in shock tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Lam K; Lin, Kuang C; Violi, Angela

    2008-12-25

    during the pyrolysis of MB as well as to investigate the autoignition of MB in a shock tube reactor at different temperatures and pressures. The computed results agree very well with experimental data present in the literature. Sensitivity and flux (rate-of-production) analyses are carried out for the CO(2) formation with the new MB mechanism, together with available reaction mechanisms, to assess the importance of various kinetic pathways for each regime. With the new mechanism, the flux analyses for the formation of C(2)H species, one of the most important species for ignition delay time, are also presented at different conditions. In addition to giving a better chemical insight of the pyrolysis/oxidation of MB, the results suggest ways to improve the mechanism's capability to predict CO(2) formation and ignition delay times in pyrolysis and oxidation conditions.

  6. Transverse MHD shock waves in a partly ionized plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathers, C.D.

    1980-01-01

    The structure of transverse MHD shock waves in a partly ionized hydrogen plasma is studied using a three-fluid model with collisional transport coefficients. The morphology of the various sublayers in the shock front is analyzed in detail and it is shown that strong shock waves have a characteristic viscous structure. Weak to moderate strength shock waves display a resistive structure in which the enhanced transverse resistivity due to ion-slip plays a significant role, leading to a pronounced peak in the ion temperature profile. Calculated shock structure profiles are also compared with experimental temperature data. Results in the form of tables and figures are presented for shock waves with fast Mach number ranging from 1-10 in hydrogen plasma with initial degree of ionization ranging from 5-100%. (author)

  7. Investigation of Heat Transfer to a Flat Plate in a Shock Tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-01

    2 Objectives and Scope . . . . . .. .. .. .... 5 11. Theory ............... ....... 7 Shock Tube Principles........... 7 Boundary Layer Theory ...in *excess of theory , but the rounded edge flat plate exhibited data which matched or was less than what theory predicted for each Mach number tested...normal shock advancing along an infinite flat plate. For x< Ugt there is a region of interaction between the downstream influence of the leading edge

  8. Shock Tube/Laser Absorption Studies of Jet Fuels at Low Temperatures (600-1200K)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-27

    Davidson, Ronald K. Hanson. A second-generation aerosol shock tube and its use in studying ignition delay times of large biodiesel surrogates, 28th... Biodiesel Surrogate behind Reflected Shock Waves,” 8th US National Combustion Meeting, Paper 070RK-0008 Park City, UT 5/2013.   These  studies provide...www.elsevier .com/locate / fuel 1. Introduction Normal alkanes have been widely used as fuels and are major components of many commercial transportation fuels

  9. Evolution of wave patterns and temperature field in shock-tube flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiverin, A. D.; Yakovenko, I. S.

    2018-05-01

    The paper is devoted to the numerical analysis of wave patterns behind a shock wave propagating in a tube filled with a gaseous mixture. It is shown that the flow inside the boundary layer behind the shock wave is unstable, and the way the instability develops fully corresponds to the solution obtained for the boundary layer over a flat plate. Vortical perturbations inside the boundary layer determine the nonuniformity of the temperature field. In turn, exactly these nonuniformities define the way the ignition kernels arise in the combustible mixture after the reflected shock interaction with the boundary layer. In particular, the temperature nonuniformity determines the spatial limitations of probable ignition kernel position relative to the end wall and side walls of the tube. In the case of low-intensity incident shocks the ignition could start not farther than the point of first interaction between the reflected shock wave and roller vortices formed in the process of boundary layer development. Proposed physical mechanisms are formulated in general terms and can be used for interpretation of the experimental data in any systems with a delayed exothermal reaction start. It is also shown that contact surface thickening occurs due to its interaction with Tollmien-Schlichting waves. This conclusion is of importance for understanding the features of ignition in shock tubes operating in the over-tailored regime.

  10. Scramjet test flow reconstruction for a large-scale expansion tube, Part 2: axisymmetric CFD analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gildfind, D. E.; Jacobs, P. A.; Morgan, R. G.; Chan, W. Y. K.; Gollan, R. J.

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents the second part of a study aiming to accurately characterise a Mach 10 scramjet test flow generated using a large free-piston-driven expansion tube. Part 1 described the experimental set-up, the quasi-one-dimensional simulation of the full facility, and the hybrid analysis technique used to compute the nozzle exit test flow properties. The second stage of the hybrid analysis applies the computed 1-D shock tube flow history as an inflow to a high-fidelity two-dimensional-axisymmetric analysis of the acceleration tube. The acceleration tube exit flow history is then applied as an inflow to a further refined axisymmetric nozzle model, providing the final nozzle exit test flow properties and thereby completing the analysis. This paper presents the results of the axisymmetric analyses. These simulations are shown to closely reproduce experimentally measured shock speeds and acceleration tube static pressure histories, as well as nozzle centreline static and impact pressure histories. The hybrid scheme less successfully predicts the diameter of the core test flow; however, this property is readily measured through experimental pitot surveys. In combination, the full test flow history can be accurately determined.

  11. Numerical simulations of a nonequilibrium argon plasma in a shock-tube experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambier, Jean-Luc

    1991-01-01

    A code developed for the numerical modeling of nonequilibrium radiative plasmas is applied to the simulation of the propagation of strong ionizing shock waves in argon gas. The simulations attempt to reproduce a series of shock-tube experiments which will be used to validate the numerical models and procedures. The ability to perform unsteady simulations makes it possible to observe some fluctuations in the shock propagation, coupled to the kinetic processes. A coupling mechanism by pressure waves, reminiscent of oscillation mechanisms observed in detonation waves, is described. The effect of upper atomic levels is also briefly discussed.

  12. The rates of production of CO and CO2 from the combustion of pulverized coal particles in a shock tube

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Commissaris, F.A.C.M.; Banine, V.Y.; Roekaerts, D.J.E.M.; Veefkind, A.

    1998-01-01

    This work presents some results of experiments on coal combustion in a shock tube, as well as a time-dependent model of the boundary layer of a single, burning char particle under similar conditions. The partial pressure of O2 in a shock tube was varied between 0 and 10 bar, with gas temperatures

  13. On possible structures of normal ionizing shock waves in electromagnetic shock tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liberman, M.A.; Synakh, V.S.; Zakajdakhov, V.V.; Velikovich, A.L.

    1982-01-01

    The problem of possible structures of normal ionizing shock waves is studied. On the basis of the general theory of ionizing shock waves in magnetic fields, a similarity solution of the piston problem for an impenetrable piston and a magnetic piston is described and a numerical solution of the non-stationary piston problem is obtained. It is shown that precursor photo-ionization of the neutral gas by the radiation of the shock-heated gas is the dominant factor in shaping normal ionizing shock structures. In particular, it is shown that the strong overheating of atoms and ions in shock fronts is due to the tensor form of Ohm's law in the precursor region. (author)

  14. Shock-resistant gamma-ray detector tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    A simple durable scintillation detector is described which, it is claimed, offers a solution to the shock resistance problems encountered when gamma detectors are used for deep bore hole well logging or in space vehicles. The shock resistant detector consists of an elongate sodium iodide scintillation crystal and rigid metal container with a round glass optical window at one end of the container and a metal end closure cap at the opposite end. An elastic rubber compression pad is provided between the end cap and the scintillation crystal to bias the crystal axially toward the glass window. An extension transparent silicone rubber light pipe of substantial axial thickness permanently couples the optical window to the crystal while allowing substantial movement under high g forces. (U.K.)

  15. Mixed butanols addition to gasoline surrogates: Shock tube ignition delay time measurements and chemical kinetic modeling

    KAUST Repository

    AlRamadan, Abdullah S.; Badra, Jihad; Javed, Tamour; Alabbad, Mohammed; Bokhumseen, Nehal; Gaillard, Patrick; Babiker, Hassan; Farooq, Aamir; Sarathy, Mani

    2015-01-01

    work, the effect of mixed butanols addition to gasoline surrogates has been investigated in a high-pressure shock tube facility. The ignition delay times of mixed butanols stoichiometric mixtures were measured at 20 and 40bar over a temperature range

  16. Optimal Design and Model Validation for Combustion Experiments in a Shock Tube

    KAUST Repository

    Long, Quan; Kim, Daesang; Tempone, Raul; Bisetti, Fabrizio; Farooq, Aamir; Knio, Omar; Prudhomme, Serge

    2014-01-01

    in the reaction rate functions. The control parameters are the initial hydrogen concentration and the temperature. First, we build a polynomial based surrogate model for the observable related to the reactions in the shock tube. Second, we use a novel MAP based

  17. The computation of pressure waves in shock tubes by a finite difference procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbaro, M.

    1988-09-01

    A finite difference solution of one-dimensional unsteady isentropic compressible flow equations is presented. The computer program has been tested by solving some cases of the Riemann shock tube problem. Predictions are in good agreement with those presented by other authors. Some inaccuracies may be attributed to the wave smearing consequent of the finite-difference treatment. (author)

  18. A composite model for a class of electric-discharge shock tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkins, R. T.; Baganoff, D.

    1973-01-01

    A gasdynamic model is presented and analyzed for a class of shock tubes that utilize both Joule heating and electromagnetic forces to produce high-speed shock waves. The model consists of several stages of acceleration in which acceleration to sonic conditions is achieved principally through heating, and further acceleration of the supersonic flow is obtained principally through use of electromagnetic forces. The utility of the model results from the fact that it predicts a quasi-steady flow process, mathematical analysis is straightforward, and it is even possible to remove one or more component stages and still have the model related to a possible shock-tube flow. Initial experiments have been performed where the electrical discharge configuration and current level were such that Joule heating was the dominant form of energy addition present. These experiments indicate that the predictions of the model dealing with heat addition correspond quite closely to reality. The experimental data together with the theory show that heat addition to the flowing driver gas after diaphragm rupture (approach used in the model) is much more effective in producing high-speed shock waves than heating the gas in the driver before diaphragm rupture, as in the case of the arc-driven shock tube.

  19. Vortex ring formation at the open end of a shock tube: A particle image velocimetry study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakeri, J. H.; Das, D.; Krothapalli, A.; Lourenco, L.

    2004-04-01

    The vortex ring generated subsequent to the diffraction of a shock wave from the open end of a shock tube is studied using particle image velocimetry. We examine the early evolution of the compressible vortex ring for three-exit shock Mach numbers, 1.1, 1.2, and 1.3. For the three cases studied, the ring formation is complete at about tUb/D=2, where t is time, Ub is fluid velocity behind shock as it exits the tube and D is tube diameter. Unlike in the case of piston generated incompressible vortex rings where the piston velocity variation with time is usually trapezoidal, in the shock-generated vortex ring case the exit fluid velocity doubles from its initial value Ub before it slowly decays to zero. At the end of the ring formation, its translation speed is observed to be about 0.7 Ub. During initial formation and propagation, a jet-like flow exists behind the vortex ring. The vortex ring detachment from the tailing jet, commonly referred to as pinch-off, is briefly discussed.

  20. Propagating Structure Of A Microwave Driven Shock wave Inside A Tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, Yutaka; Shibata, Teppei; Yamaguchi, Toshikazu; Komurasaki, Kimiya; Oda, Yasuhisa; Kajiwara, Ken; Takahashi, Koji; Kasugai, Atsushi; Sakamoto, Keishi; Arakawa, Yoshihiro

    2010-01-01

    The thrust generation process of a microwave rocket is similar to a pulse detonation engine, and understanding the interactions between microwave plasma and shock waves is important. Shadowgraph images of the microwave plasma generated in a tube under atmospheric air were taken. The observed plasma and shock wave were propagating one-dimensionally at constant velocity inside the tube. In order to understand the flow field inside the rocket, one-dimensional CFD analysis was conducted. With the change of microwave power density, the structure of the flow field was classified into two regimes: Microwave Supported Combustion (MSC), and Microwave Supported Detonation (MSD). The structure of the MSD was different from the structure of a chemical detonation, which implied the existence of a preheating in front of the shock wave. Furthermore, the flight performance was estimated by calculating the momentum coupling coefficient. It was confirmed that the efficiency was nearly constant in the MSD regime, with the increase of microwave power density.

  1. Chemical kinetics modeling of the influence of molecular structure on shock tube ignition delay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westbrook, C.K.; Pitz, W.J.

    1985-07-01

    The current capabilities of kinetic modeling of hydrocarbon oxidation in shock waves are discussed. The influence of molecular size and structure on ignition delay times are stressed. The n-paraffin fuels from CH 4 to n-C 5 H 12 are examined under shock tube conditions, as well as the branched chain fuel isobutane, and the computed results are compared with available experimental data. The modeling results show that it is important in the reaction mechanism to distinguish between abstraction of primary, secondary and tertiary H atom sites from the fuel molecule. This is due to the fact that both the rates and the product distributions of the subsequent alkyl radical decomposition reactions depend on which H atoms were abstracted. Applications of the reaction mechanisms to shock tube problems and to other practical problems such as engine knock are discussed

  2. High density turbulent plasma processes from a shock tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyedeji, O.; Johnson, J.A. III

    1991-01-01

    We have finished the first stages of our experimental and theoretical investigations on models for energy and momentum transport and for photon-particle collision processes in a turbulent quasi-stationary high density plasma. The system is explored by beginning to determine the turbulence phenomenology associated with an ionizing shock wave. The theoretical underpinnings are explored for phonon particle collisions by determining the collisional redistribution function, using Lioville Space Green's Function, which will characterize the inelastic scattering of the radiation from one frequency to another. We have observed that a weak magnetic field tends to increase the apparent random-like behaviors in a collisional turbulent plasma. On the theoretical side, we have been able to achieve a form for the collisional redistribution function. It remains to apply these concepts to a stationary turbulent plasma in the reflected ionizing shock wave and to exercise the implications of evaluations of the collisional redistribution function for such a system when it is probed by a strong radiation source. These results are discussed in detail in the publications, which have resulted from the this effort, cited at the end of the report

  3. A soap film shock tube to study two-dimensional compressible flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, C.Y.; Chen, Y.M.; Chang-Jian, S.K. [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Da-Yeh University Chang-Hwa (Taiwan)

    2001-07-01

    A new experimental approach to the study of the two-dimensional compressible flow phenomena is presented. In this technique, a variety of compressible flows were generated by bursting plane vertical soap films. An aureole and a ''shock wave'' preceding the rim of the expanding hole were clearly observed using traditional high-speed flash photography and a fast line-scan charge coupled device (CCD) camera. The moving shock wave images obtained from the line-scan CCD camera were similar to the x-t diagrams in gas dynamics. The moving shock waves cause thickness jumps and induce supersonic flows. Photographs of the supersonic flows over a cylinder and a wedge are presented. The results suggest clearly the feasibility of the ''soap film shock tube''. (orig.)

  4. Shock tube/time-of-flight mass spectrometer for high temperature kinetic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tranter, Robert S.; Giri, Binod R.; Kiefer, John H.

    2007-01-01

    A shock tube (ST) with online, time-of-flight mass spectrometric (TOF-MS) detection has been constructed for the study of elementary reactions at high temperature. The ST and TOF-MS are coupled by a differentially pumped molecular beam sampling interface, which ensures that the samples entering the TOF-MS are not contaminated by gases drawn from the cold end wall thermal boundary layer in the ST. Additionally, the interface allows a large range of postshock pressures to be used in the shock tube while maintaining high vacuum in the TOF-MS. The apparatus and the details of the sampling system are described along with an analysis in which cooling of the sampled gases and minimization of thermal boundary layer effects are discussed. The accuracy of kinetic measurements made with the apparatus has been tested by investigating the thermal unimolecular dissociation of cyclohexene to ethylene and 1,3-butadiene, a well characterized reaction for which considerable literature data that are in good agreement exist. The experiments were performed at nominal reflected shock wave pressures of 600 and 1300 Torr, and temperatures ranging from 1260 to 1430 K. The rate coefficients obtained are compared with the earlier shock tube studies and are found to be in very good agreement. As expected no significant difference is observed in the rate constant between pressures of 600 and 1300 Torr

  5. Design of a high-pressure single pulse shock tube for chemical kinetic investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tranter, R. S.; Brezinsky, K.; Fulle, D.

    2001-01-01

    A single pulse shock tube has been designed and constructed in order to achieve extremely high pressures and temperatures to facilitate gas-phase chemical kinetic experiments. Postshock pressures of greater than 1000 atmospheres have been obtained. Temperatures greater than 1400 K have been achieved and, in principle, temperatures greater than 2000 K are easily attainable. These high temperatures and pressures permit the investigation of hydrocarbon species pyrolysis and oxidation reactions. Since these reactions occur on the time scale of 0.5--2 ms the shock tube has been constructed with an adjustable length driven section that permits variation of reaction viewing times. For any given reaction viewing time, samples can be withdrawn through a specially constructed automated sampling apparatus for subsequent species analysis with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The details of the design and construction that have permitted the successful generation of very high-pressure shocks in this unique apparatus are described. Additional information is provided concerning the diaphragms used in the high-pressure shock tube

  6. Experiments in a Combustion-Driven Shock Tube with an Area Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, B. E.; Bobbitt, B.; Parziale, N. J.; Shepherd, J. E.

    Shock tubes are versatile and useful tools for studying high temperature gas dynamics and the production of hypervelocity flows. High shock speeds are desirable for creating higher enthalpy, pressure, and temperature in the test gas which makes the study of thermo-chemical effects on fluid dynamics possible. Independent of construction and operational cost, free-piston drivers, such as the one used in the T5 facility at Caltech, give the best performance [3]. The high operational cost and long turnaround time of such a facility make a more economical option desirable for smaller-scale testing.

  7. Optimal Design and Model Validation for Combustion Experiments in a Shock Tube

    KAUST Repository

    Long, Quan

    2014-01-06

    We develop a Bayesian framework for the optimal experimental design of the shock tube experiments which are being carried out at the KAUST Clean Combustion Center. The unknown parameters are the pre-exponential parameters and the activation energies in the reaction rate functions. The control parameters are the initial hydrogen concentration and the temperature. First, we build a polynomial based surrogate model for the observable related to the reactions in the shock tube. Second, we use a novel MAP based approach to estimate the expected information gain in the proposed experiments and select the best experimental set-ups corresponding to the optimal expected information gains. Third, we use the synthetic data to carry out virtual validation of our methodology.

  8. Methodology for the investigation of ignition near hot surfaces in a high-pressure shock tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niegemann, P.; Fikri, M.; Wlokas, I.; Röder, M.; Schulz, C.

    2018-05-01

    Autoignition of fuel/air mixtures is a determining process in internal combustion engines. Ignition can start either homogeneously in the gas phase after compression or in the vicinity of hot surfaces. While ignition properties of commercial fuels are conventionally described by a single quantity (octane number), it is known that some fuels have a varying propensity to the two processes. We present a new experimental concept that generates well-controlled temperature inhomogeneities in the shock-heated gases of a high-pressure shock tube. A shock-heated reactive mixture is brought into contact with a heated silicon nitride ceramic glow plug. The glow-plug temperature can be set up to 1200 K, higher than the post-reflected-shock gas temperatures (650-1050 K). High-repetition-rate chemiluminescence imaging is used to localize the onset of ignition in the vicinity of the hot surface. In experiments with ethanol, the results show that in most cases under shock-heated conditions, the ignition begins inhomogeneously in the vicinity of the glow plug and is favored because of the high wall temperature. Additionally, the interaction of geometry, external heating, and gas-dynamic effects was investigated by numerical simulations of the shock wave in a non-reactive flow.

  9. Shock Tube and Ballistic Range Facilities at NASA Ames Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinstead, Jay H.; Wilder, Michael C.; Reda, Daniel C.; Cornelison, Charles J.; Cruden, Brett A.; Bogdanoff, David W.

    2010-01-01

    The Electric Arc Shock Tube (EAST) facility and the Hypervelocity Free Flight Aerodynamic Facility (HFFAF) at NASA Ames Research Center are described. These facilities have been in operation since the 1960s and have supported many NASA missions and technology development initiatives. The facilities have world-unique capabilities that enable experimental studies of real-gas aerothermal, gas dynamic, and kinetic phenomena of atmospheric entry.

  10. Numerical simulation of heat fluxes in a two-temperature plasma at shock tube walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, E A; Poniaev, S A

    2015-01-01

    Numerical simulation of a two-temperature three-component Xenon plasma flow is presented. A solver based on the OpenFOAM CFD software package is developed. The heat flux at the shock tube end wall is calculated and compared with experimental data. It is shown that the heat flux due to electrons can be as high as 14% of the total heat flux. (paper)

  11. Numerical simulation of heat fluxes in a two-temperature plasma at shock tube walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, E. A.; Poniaev, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    Numerical simulation of a two-temperature three-component Xenon plasma flow is presented. A solver based on the OpenFOAM CFD software package is developed. The heat flux at the shock tube end wall is calculated and compared with experimental data. It is shown that the heat flux due to electrons can be as high as 14% of the total heat flux.

  12. Molten fuel/coolant interaction studies: some results obtained with the Windscale small shock tube rig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higham, E.J.; Vaughan, G.J.

    1978-02-01

    Experiments are described in which water has been brought into contact with various molten metals in a shock tube, thus simulating the fall of coolant into molten uranium dioxide in a postulated reactor accident. Impact velocities of the water on to the molten material were in the range 5 to 7 m/s. Shock-pulse pressures in the water column after impact and particle size distributions of the dispersed resolidified material that was recovered were measured. The proportion of dispersed material and the size of the shock pulse (by comparison with that expected from water hammer alone) have been used as criteria for the occurrence of a molten fuel/coolant interaction and such interactions of varying degrees of violence have been found for water/aluminium, water/bismuth, water/tin, over a range of temperatures from 350 0 C to 950 0 C, for water/boric oxide, but not for water/magnesium. (author)

  13. Fuel-coolant interaction in a shock tube with initially-established film boiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharon, A.; Bankoff, S.G.

    1979-01-01

    A new mode of thermal interaction has been employed, in which liquid metal is melted in a crucible within a shock tube; the coolant level is raised to overflow the crucible and establish subcooled film boiling with known bulk metal temperature; and a pressure shock is then initiated. With water and lead-tin alloy an initial splash of metal may be obtained after the vapor film has collapsed, due primarily to thermal interaction, followed by a successive cycle of bubble growth and collapse. To obtain large interactions, the interfacial contact temperature must exceed the spontaneous nucleation temperature of the coolant. Other cutoff behavior is observed with respect to the initial system pressure and temperatures and with the shock pressure and rise time. Experiments with butanol and lead-tin alloy show only relatively mild interactions. Qualitative explanations are proposed for the different behaviors of the two liquids

  14. The effects of area contraction on the performance of UNITEN's shock tube: Numerical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohsen, A M; Yusoff, M Z; Al-Falahi, A

    2013-01-01

    Numerical study into the effects of area contraction on shock tube performance has been reported in this paper. The shock tube is an important component of high speed fluid flow test facility was designed and built at the Universiti Tenaga Nasional (UNITEN). In the above mentioned facility, a small area contraction, in form of a bush, was placed adjacent to the diaphragm section to facilitate the diaphragm rupturing process when the pressure ratio across the diaphragm increases to a certain value. To investigate the effects of the small area contraction on facility performance, numerical simulations were conducted at different operating conditions (diaphragm pressure ratios P 4 /P 1 of 10, 15, and 20). A two-dimensional time-accurate Navier-Stokes CFD solver was used to simulate the transient flow in the facility with and without area contraction. The numerical results show that the facility performance is influenced by area contraction in the diaphragm section. For instance, when operating the facility with area contraction using diaphragm pressure ratio (P 4 /P 1 ) of 10, the shock wave strength and shock wave speed decrease by 18% and 8% respectively.

  15. The Shock and Vibration Bulletin. Part 1. Opening Session, Panel Session, Shock Analysis Shock Testing, Isolation and Damping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-09-01

    ORTHOTROPIC PLATES WITH VARIOUS ,I PLANFORMS AND EDGE CONDITIONS C.W. Bert, The University of Oklahoma, Norman , OK - -’ DYNAMIC RESPONSE OF LAMINATED...EVALUATION OF AN ADAPTIVE FILTER AS A DIGITAL TRACKING FILTER D.O. Smallwood and D.L. Gregory, Sandia Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM TOTAL MISSION ENVIRONMENTAL...June 1967. ration Bulletin No. 40, Part 2, 1969. 6. J. P. Barthmaier, "Shock Testing Under 2. D. 0. Smallwood , "Time History Synthesis Minicomputer

  16. Sensitive Mid-IR Laser Sensor Development and Mass Spectrometric Measurements in Shock Tube and Flames

    KAUST Repository

    Alquaity, Awad

    2016-11-01

    With global emission regulations becoming stringent, development of new combustion technologies that meet future emission regulations is essential. In this vein, this dissertation presents the application of sensitive diagnostic tools to validate and improve chemical kinetic mechanisms that play a fundamental role in the design of new combustion technologies. First, a novel high sensitivity laser-based sensor with a wide frequency tuning range (900 – 1000 cm-1) was developed utilizing pulsed cavity ringdown spectroscopy (CRDS) technique. The novel laser-based sensor was illustrated by measuring trace amounts of multiple combustion intermediates, namely ethylene, propene, allene, and 1-butene in a static cell at ambient conditions. Subsequently, pulsed CRDS technique was utilized to develop an ultra-fast, high sensitivity diagnostic to monitor trace concentrations of ethylene in shock tube pyrolysis experiments. This diagnostic represented the first ever successful application of CRDS technique to transient species measurements in a shock tube. The high sensitivity and fast time response (10μs) diagnostic may be utilized for measuring other key neutrals and radicals which are crucial in the oxidation chemistry of practical fuels. Secondly, a quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) was employed to measure relative cation mole fractions in atmospheric and low-pressure (30 Torr) flames of methane/oxygen diluted in argon. Lean, stoichiometric and rich flames were 4 examined to evaluate the dependence of ion chemistry on flame stoichiometry. Spatial distribution of cations was compared with predictions of an existing ion chemistry model. Based on the extensive measurements carried out in this work, modifications were suggested to improve the ion chemistry model to enhance the fidelity of such mechanisms. In-depth understanding of flame ion chemistry is vital to model the interaction of flames with electric fields and thereby pave the way to enable active combustion control

  17. Dynamic loads on human and animal surrogates at different test locations in compressed-gas-driven shock tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alay, E.; Skotak, M.; Misistia, A.; Chandra, N.

    2018-01-01

    Dynamic loads on specimens in live-fire conditions as well as at different locations within and outside compressed-gas-driven shock tubes are determined by both static and total blast overpressure-time pressure pulses. The biomechanical loading on the specimen is determined by surface pressures that combine the effects of static, dynamic, and reflected pressures and specimen geometry. Surface pressure is both space and time dependent; it varies as a function of size, shape, and external contour of the specimens. In this work, we used two sets of specimens: (1) anthropometric dummy head and (2) a surrogate rodent headform instrumented with pressure sensors and subjected them to blast waves in the interior and at the exit of the shock tube. We demonstrate in this work that while inside the shock tube the biomechanical loading as determined by various pressure measures closely aligns with live-fire data and shock wave theory, significant deviations are found when tests are performed outside.

  18. Experimental Study of the Effect of Water Mist Location On Blast Overpressure Attenuation in A Shock Tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mataradze, Edgar; Chikhradze, Nikoloz; Bochorishvili, Nika; Akhvlediani, Irakli; Tatishvili, Dimitri

    2017-12-01

    Explosion protection technologies are based on the formation of a shock wave mitigation barrier between the protection site and the explosion site. Contemporary protective systems use water mist as an extinguishing barrier. To achieve high effectiveness of the protective system, proper selection of water mist characteristics is important. The main factors defining shock wave attenuation in water mist include droplet size distribution, water concentration in the mist, droplet velocity and geometric properties of mist. This paper examines the process of attenuation of shock waves in mist with droplets ranging from 25 to 400 microns under different conditions of water mist location. Experiments were conducted at the Mining Institute with the use of a shock tube to study the processes of explosion suppression by a water mist barrier. The shock tube consists of a blast chamber, a tube, a system for the dosed supply of water, sensors, data recording equipment, and a process control module. Shock wave overpressure reduction coefficient was studied in the shock tube under two different locations of water mist: a) when water mist is created in direct contact with blast chamber and b) the blast chamber and the mist are separated by air space. It is established that in conditions when the air space distance between the blast chamber and the mist is 1 meter, overpressure reduction coefficient is 1.5-1.6 times higher than in conditions when water mist is created in direct contact with blast chamber.

  19. New light sources on the basis of electromagnetic shock T and H tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basov, Yu. G.; Sereda, N.I.; Skvortsov, B.V.; Sysun, V.V.

    Experimental investigation of plasma light emission was carried out on electromagnetic shock tubes filled with xenon to initial pressure of 10-100 mm Hg. T - and H- discharge devices were connected to the low-inductive discharge circuit (C=12 μF, L=0.43 μH, U=10 - 30 kV). The discharge growth was observed with a high-speed photorecorder. In the course of the investigation lighting parameters of the devices were measured as a function of xenon initial pressure and discharge energy

  20. Shock tubes and waves; Proceedings of the Sixteenth International Symposium, Rheinisch-Westfaelische Technische Hochschule, Aachen, Federal Republic of Germany, July 26-31, 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groenig, Hans

    Topics discussed in this volume include shock wave structure, propagation, and interaction; shocks in condensed matter, dusty gases, and multiphase media; chemical processes and related combustion and detonation phenomena; shock wave reflection, diffraction, and focusing; computational fluid dynamic code development and shock wave application; blast and detonation waves; advanced shock tube technology and measuring technique; and shock wave applications. Papers are presented on dust explosions, the dynamics of shock waves in certain dense gases, studies of condensation kinetics behind incident shock waves, the autoignition mechanism of n-butane behind a reflected shock wave, and a numerical simulation of the focusing process of reflected shock waves. Attention is also given to the equilibrium shock tube flow of real gases, blast waves generated by planar detonations, modern diagnostic methods for high-speed flows, and interaction between induced waves and electric discharge in a very high repetition rate excimer laser.

  1. Development of a novel miniature detonation-driven shock tube assembly that uses in situ generated oxyhydrogen mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janardhanraj, S.; Jagadeesh, G., E-mail: jaggie@aero.iisc.ernet.in [Department of Aerospace Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India)

    2016-08-15

    A novel concept to generate miniature shockwaves in a safe, repeatable, and controllable manner in laboratory confinements using an in situ oxyhydrogen generator has been proposed and demonstrated. This method proves to be more advantageous than existing methods because there is flexibility to vary strength of the shockwave, there is no need for storage of high pressure gases, and there is minimal waste disposal. The required amount of oxyhydrogen mixture is generated using alkaline electrolysis that produces hydrogen and oxygen gases in stoichiometric quantity. The rate of oxyhydrogen mixture production for the newly designed oxyhydrogen generator is found to be around 8 ml/s experimentally. The oxyhydrogen generator is connected to the driver section of a specially designed 10 mm square miniature shock tube assembly. A numerical code that uses CANTERA software package is used to predict the properties of the driver gas in the miniature shock tube. This prediction along with the 1-D shock tube theory is used to calculate the properties of the generated shockwave and matches reasonably well with the experimentally obtained values for oxyhydrogen mixture fill pressures less than 2.5 bars. The miniature shock tube employs a modified tri-clover clamp assembly to facilitate quick changing of diaphragm and replaces the more cumbersome nut and bolt system of fastening components. The versatile nature of oxyhydrogen detonation-driven miniature shock tube opens up new horizons for shockwave-assisted interdisciplinary applications.

  2. Development of a novel miniature detonation-driven shock tube assembly that uses in situ generated oxyhydrogen mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janardhanraj, S.; Jagadeesh, G.

    2016-01-01

    A novel concept to generate miniature shockwaves in a safe, repeatable, and controllable manner in laboratory confinements using an in situ oxyhydrogen generator has been proposed and demonstrated. This method proves to be more advantageous than existing methods because there is flexibility to vary strength of the shockwave, there is no need for storage of high pressure gases, and there is minimal waste disposal. The required amount of oxyhydrogen mixture is generated using alkaline electrolysis that produces hydrogen and oxygen gases in stoichiometric quantity. The rate of oxyhydrogen mixture production for the newly designed oxyhydrogen generator is found to be around 8 ml/s experimentally. The oxyhydrogen generator is connected to the driver section of a specially designed 10 mm square miniature shock tube assembly. A numerical code that uses CANTERA software package is used to predict the properties of the driver gas in the miniature shock tube. This prediction along with the 1-D shock tube theory is used to calculate the properties of the generated shockwave and matches reasonably well with the experimentally obtained values for oxyhydrogen mixture fill pressures less than 2.5 bars. The miniature shock tube employs a modified tri-clover clamp assembly to facilitate quick changing of diaphragm and replaces the more cumbersome nut and bolt system of fastening components. The versatile nature of oxyhydrogen detonation-driven miniature shock tube opens up new horizons for shockwave-assisted interdisciplinary applications.

  3. Control of adverse effects of explosive blasting in mines by using shock tube (non-electric) initiation systems and its future challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, P.D. [Maharashtra Explosives Ltd., Nagpur (India)

    2000-04-01

    Every kind of blasting in mines produces some adverse effects on environment, such as ground vibration, noise, fly rock etc. Presently, for restricting these adverse effects, use of shock tube (non-electric) initiation systems are gaining momentum. There are some inherent shortcomings of this initiation system regarding chances of misfires. This paper discusses the various adverse effects of blasting, advantages of shock tube initiation system and the shortcomings of shock tube initiation system regarding chances of misfire and how misfire arises out of failure of shock tube initiation system is different and more dangerous than the misfire occurring due to failure of conventional system (with detonating fuse and cord relays). 1 tab.

  4. High temperature shock tube experiments and kinetic modeling study of diisopropyl ketone ignition and pyrolysis

    KAUST Repository

    Barari, Ghazal

    2017-03-10

    Diisopropyl ketone (DIPK) is a promising biofuel candidate, which is produced using endophytic fungal conversion. In this work, a high temperature detailed combustion kinetic model for DIPK was developed using the reaction class approach. DIPK ignition and pyrolysis experiments were performed using the UCF shock tube. The shock tube oxidation experiments were conducted between 1093K and 1630K for different reactant compositions, equivalence ratios (φ=0.5–2.0), and pressures (1–6atm). In addition, methane concentration time-histories were measured during 2% DIPK pyrolysis in argon using cw laser absorption near 3400nm at temperatures between 1300 and 1400K near 1atm. To the best of our knowledge, current ignition delay times (above 1050K) and methane time histories are the first such experiments performed in DIPK at high temperatures. Present data were used as validation targets for the new kinetic model and simulation results showed fair agreement compared to the experiments. The reaction rates corresponding to the main consumption pathways of DIPK were found to have high sensitivity in controlling the reactivity, so these were adjusted to attain better agreement between the simulation and experimental data. A correlation was developed based on the experimental data to predict the ignition delay times using the temperature, pressure, fuel concentration and oxygen concentration.

  5. Failure analysis of glass-ceramic insulators of shock tested vacuum (neutron) tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spears, R.K.

    1980-01-01

    Eight investigative techniques were used to examine the glass-ceramic insulators in vacuum (neutron) tubes. The insulators were extracted from units that had been subjected to low temperature mechanical shock tests. Two of the three units showed reduced neutron output after these tests and an insulator on one of these two was cracked completely through which probably occurred during shock testing. The objective of this study was to determine if any major differences existed between the insulators of these tubes. After eight analyses, it was concluded that no appreciable differences existed. It appeared that cracking of the one glass-ceramic sample was initiated at inner-sleeve interface voids. For this sample, the interface void density was much higher than is presently acceptable. All insulators were made with glass-ceramic having a Na 2 O content of 4.6 wt%. An increased Na 2 O content will cause an increase in the coefficient of expansion and will reduce the residual stress level since the molybdenum has a higher coefficient of thermal expansion than the insulator. Thus, it is believed that a decrease in interface voids and an increase in Na 2 O should aid in reduced cracking of the insulator during these tests

  6. High temperature shock tube experiments and kinetic modeling study of diisopropyl ketone ignition and pyrolysis

    KAUST Repository

    Barari, Ghazal; Pryor, Owen; Koroglu, Batikan; Sarathy, Mani; Masunov, Artë m E.; Vasu, Subith S.

    2017-01-01

    Diisopropyl ketone (DIPK) is a promising biofuel candidate, which is produced using endophytic fungal conversion. In this work, a high temperature detailed combustion kinetic model for DIPK was developed using the reaction class approach. DIPK ignition and pyrolysis experiments were performed using the UCF shock tube. The shock tube oxidation experiments were conducted between 1093K and 1630K for different reactant compositions, equivalence ratios (φ=0.5–2.0), and pressures (1–6atm). In addition, methane concentration time-histories were measured during 2% DIPK pyrolysis in argon using cw laser absorption near 3400nm at temperatures between 1300 and 1400K near 1atm. To the best of our knowledge, current ignition delay times (above 1050K) and methane time histories are the first such experiments performed in DIPK at high temperatures. Present data were used as validation targets for the new kinetic model and simulation results showed fair agreement compared to the experiments. The reaction rates corresponding to the main consumption pathways of DIPK were found to have high sensitivity in controlling the reactivity, so these were adjusted to attain better agreement between the simulation and experimental data. A correlation was developed based on the experimental data to predict the ignition delay times using the temperature, pressure, fuel concentration and oxygen concentration.

  7. A theoretical and shock tube kinetic study on hydrogen abstraction from phenyl formate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Hongbo; Liu, Dapeng; Wu, Junjun; Ma, Liuhao; Ren, Wei; Farooq, Aamir

    2018-06-12

    The hydrogen abstraction reactions of phenyl formate (PF) by different radicals (H/O(3P)/OH/HO2) were theoretically investigated. We calculated the reaction energetics for PF + H/O/OH using the composite method ROCBS-QB3//M06-2X/cc-pVTZ and that for PF + HO2 at the M06-2X/cc-pVTZ level of theory. The high-pressure limit rate constants were calculated using the transition state theory in conjunction with the 1-D hindered rotor approximation and tunneling correction. Three-parameter Arrhenius expressions of rate constants were provided over the temperature range of 500-2000 K. To validate the theoretical calculations, the overall rate constants of PF + OH → Products were measured in shock tube experiments at 968-1128 K and 1.16-1.25 atm using OH laser absorption. The predicted overall rate constants agree well with the shock tube data (within 15%) over the entire experimental conditions. Rate constant analysis indicates that the H-abstraction at the formic acid site dominates the PF consumption, whereas the contribution of H-abstractions at the aromatic ring increases with temperature. Additionally, comparisons of site-specific H-abstractions from PF with methyl formate, ethyl formate, benzene, and toluene were performed to understand the effects of the aromatic ring and side-chain substituent on H-abstraction rate constants.

  8. Approximating a free-field blast environment in the test section of an explosively driven conical shock tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, J. B.

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents experimental data on incident overpressures and the corresponding impulses obtained in the test section of an explosively driven 10° (full angle) conical shock tube. Due to the shock tube's steel walls approximating the boundary conditions seen by a spherical sector cut out of a detonating sphere of energetic material, a 5.3-g pentolite shock tube driver charge produces peak overpressures corresponding to a free-field detonation from an 816-g sphere of pentolite. The four test section geometries investigated in this paper (open air, cylindrical, 10° inscribed square frustum, and 10° circumscribed square frustum) provide a variety of different time histories for the incident overpressures and impulses, with a circumscribed square frustum yielding the best approximation of the estimated blast environment that would have been produced by a free-field detonation.

  9. Advanced Spectroscopic and Thermal Imaging Instrumentation for Shock Tube and Ballistic Range Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinstead, Jay H.; Wilder, Michael C.; Reda, Daniel C.; Cruden, Brett A.; Bogdanoff, David W.

    2010-01-01

    The Electric Arc Shock Tube (EAST) facility and Hypervelocity Free Flight Aerodynamic Facility (HFFAF, an aeroballistic range) at NASA Ames support basic research in aerothermodynamic phenomena of atmospheric entry, specifically shock layer radiation spectroscopy, convective and radiative heat transfer, and transition to turbulence. Innovative optical instrumentation has been developed and implemented to meet the challenges posed from obtaining such data in these impulse facilities. Spatially and spectrally resolved measurements of absolute radiance of a travelling shock wave in EAST are acquired using multiplexed, time-gated imaging spectrographs. Nearly complete spectral coverage from the vacuum ultraviolet to the near infrared is possible in a single experiment. Time-gated thermal imaging of ballistic range models in flight enables quantitative, global measurements of surface temperature. These images can be interpreted to determine convective heat transfer rates and reveal transition to turbulence due to isolated and distributed surface roughness at hypersonic velocities. The focus of this paper is a detailed description of the optical instrumentation currently in use in the EAST and HFFAF.

  10. Interaction of a CO2 laser beam with a shock-tube plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Box, S.J.C.; John, P.K.; Byszewski, W.W.

    1977-01-01

    The results of experimental investigations of the interaction of a CO 2 laser beam with plasma produced in an electromagnetic shock tube are presented. The interaction was investigated in two different configurations: with the laser beam perpendicular to the direction of propagation of the shock wave and with the laser beam parallel to the direction of the shock wave. The laser energy was 0.3 J in a 180-nsec pulse. The plasma density was in the range 10 17 --10 18 cm -3 and temperature was around 2 eV. Spectroscopic methods were used in the measurement of density and temperature. Direct observation of the path of the laser beam through the plasma was made by an image-convertor camera in conjunction with a narrow-band interference filter. The propagation of the laser through the plasma and energy absorption are discussed. The observed maximum increase in electron temperature due to the laser in the first configuration was 0.4 eV and the estimated temperature increase in the second configuration was about 2 eV

  11. Grid-converged solution and analysis of the unsteady viscous flow in a two-dimensional shock tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Guangzhao; Xu, Kun; Liu, Feng

    2018-01-01

    The flow in a shock tube is extremely complex with dynamic multi-scale structures of sharp fronts, flow separation, and vortices due to the interaction of the shock wave, the contact surface, and the boundary layer over the side wall of the tube. Prediction and understanding of the complex fluid dynamics are of theoretical and practical importance. It is also an extremely challenging problem for numerical simulation, especially at relatively high Reynolds numbers. Daru and Tenaud ["Evaluation of TVD high resolution schemes for unsteady viscous shocked flows," Comput. Fluids 30, 89-113 (2001)] proposed a two-dimensional model problem as a numerical test case for high-resolution schemes to simulate the flow field in a square closed shock tube. Though many researchers attempted this problem using a variety of computational methods, there is not yet an agreed-upon grid-converged solution of the problem at the Reynolds number of 1000. This paper presents a rigorous grid-convergence study and the resulting grid-converged solutions for this problem by using a newly developed, efficient, and high-order gas-kinetic scheme. Critical data extracted from the converged solutions are documented as benchmark data. The complex fluid dynamics of the flow at Re = 1000 are discussed and analyzed in detail. Major phenomena revealed by the numerical computations include the downward concentration of the fluid through the curved shock, the formation of the vortices, the mechanism of the shock wave bifurcation, the structure of the jet along the bottom wall, and the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability near the contact surface. Presentation and analysis of those flow processes provide important physical insight into the complex flow physics occurring in a shock tube.

  12. Measurement and interpretation of growth and evaporation of monodispersed droplets in a shock tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, F.; Paikert, B.

    1994-01-01

    A special gasdynamic shock tube process in combination with a Mie light scattering method is used to study growth and subsequent evaporation of monodispersed droplets carried in argon or air. The droplets are generated by homogeneous nucleation and observed in the micrometer range (0.15-6 micrometer radius). Droplet concentrations range from 10-1000/cu mm. Four different substances, i.e. water, n-propanol, methanol and n-hexane are tested for a wide range of properties. A model covering the entire range between large (Kn much greater than 1) and small Knudsen numbers (K much less than 1) is applied to interpret the experimental data. Excellent agreement is found.

  13. Mixed butanols addition to gasoline surrogates: Shock tube ignition delay time measurements and chemical kinetic modeling

    KAUST Repository

    AlRamadan, Abdullah S.

    2015-10-01

    The demand for fuels with high anti-knock quality has historically been rising, and will continue to increase with the development of downsized and turbocharged spark-ignition engines. Butanol isomers, such as 2-butanol and tert-butanol, have high octane ratings (RON of 105 and 107, respectively), and thus mixed butanols (68.8% by volume of 2-butanol and 31.2% by volume of tert-butanol) can be added to the conventional petroleum-derived gasoline fuels to improve octane performance. In the present work, the effect of mixed butanols addition to gasoline surrogates has been investigated in a high-pressure shock tube facility. The ignition delay times of mixed butanols stoichiometric mixtures were measured at 20 and 40bar over a temperature range of 800-1200K. Next, 10vol% and 20vol% of mixed butanols (MB) were blended with two different toluene/n-heptane/iso-octane (TPRF) fuel blends having octane ratings of RON 90/MON 81.7 and RON 84.6/MON 79.3. These MB/TPRF mixtures were investigated in the shock tube conditions similar to those mentioned above. A chemical kinetic model was developed to simulate the low- and high-temperature oxidation of mixed butanols and MB/TPRF blends. The proposed model is in good agreement with the experimental data with some deviations at low temperatures. The effect of mixed butanols addition to TPRFs is marginal when examining the ignition delay times at high temperatures. However, when extended to lower temperatures (T < 850K), the model shows that the mixed butanols addition to TPRFs causes the ignition delay times to increase and hence behaves like an octane booster at engine-like conditions. © 2015 The Combustion Institute.

  14. Reaction-time-resolved measurements of laser-induced fluorescence in a shock tube with a single laser pulse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabeti, S.; Fikri, M.; Schulz, C.

    2017-11-01

    Shock tubes allow for the study of ultra-fast gas-phase reactions on the microsecond time scale. Because the repetition rate of the experiments is low, it is crucial to gain as much information as possible from each individual measurement. While reaction-time-resolved species concentration and temperature measurements with fast absorption methods are established, conventional laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) measurements with pulsed lasers provide data only at a single reaction time. Therefore, fluorescence methods have rarely been used in shock-tube diagnostics. In this paper, a novel experimental concept is presented that allows reaction-time-resolved LIF measurements with one single laser pulse using a test section that is equipped with several optical ports. After the passage of the shock wave, the reactive mixture is excited along the center of the tube with a 266-nm laser beam directed through a window in the end wall of the shock tube. The emitted LIF signal is collected through elongated sidewall windows and focused onto the entrance slit of an imaging spectrometer coupled to an intensified CCD camera. The one-dimensional spatial resolution of the measurement translates into a reaction-time-resolved measurement while the species information can be gained from the spectral axis of the detected two-dimensional image. Anisole pyrolysis was selected as the benchmark reaction to demonstrate the new apparatus.

  15. Shock-Tube Measurement of Acetone Dissociation Using Cavity-Enhanced Absorption Spectroscopy of CO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shengkai; Sun, Kai; Davidson, David F; Jeffries, Jay B; Hanson, Ronald K

    2015-07-16

    A direct measurement for the rate constant of the acetone dissociation reaction (CH3COCH3 = CH3CO + CH3) was conducted behind reflected shock wave, utilizing a sub-ppm sensitivity CO diagnostic achieved by cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy (CEAS). The current experiment eliminated the influence from secondary reactions and temperature change by investigating the clean pyrolysis of <20 ppm acetone in argon. For the first time, the acetone dissociation rate constant (k1) was directly measured over 5.5 orders of magnitude with a high degree of accuracy: k1 (1004-1494 K, 1.6 atm) = 4.39 × 10(55) T(-11.394) exp(-52 140K/T) ± 24% s(-1). This result was seen to agree with most previous studies and has bridged the gap between their temperature and pressure conditions. The current work also served as an example demonstration of the potential of using the CEAS technique in shock-tube kinetics studies.

  16. Shock tube measurements of the branching ratios of propene + OH -> products

    KAUST Repository

    Khaled, Fathi

    2014-07-25

    Absolute rate coefficients for the reaction of OH radical with propene (C3H6) and five deutrated isotopes, propene-1-d1 (CDHCHCH3), propene-1,1-d2 (CD2CHCH3), propene-2-d1 (CH2CDCH3), propene-3,3,3-d3 (CH2CHCD3), and propene-d6 (C3D6), were measured in a shock tube behind reflected shock conditions over the temperature range of 812 K – 1460 K and pressures near 1 atm. The reaction progress was followed by monitoring OH radical near 306.7 nm using UV laser absorption. The first experimental measurements for the branching ratio of the title reaction are reported and compared with theoretical calculations. The allylic H atom abstraction of propene by OH radicals was found to be the most dominant reaction pathway followed by propen-1-yl and propen-2-yl channels over the entire temperature range of this study which is in line with theoretical predictions. Arrhenius parameters for various site-specific rate coefficients are provided for kinetic modeling.

  17. Shock tube and modeling study of 2,7-dimethyloctane pyrolysis and oxidation

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Sijie; Sarathy, Mani; Davidson, David Frank; Hanson, Ronald Kenneth; Westbrook, Charles K.

    2015-01-01

    High molecular weight iso-paraffinic molecules are found in conventional petroleum, Fischer-Tropsch (FT), and other alternative hydrocarbon fuels, yet fundamental combustion studies on this class of compounds are lacking. In the present work, ignition delay time measurements in 2,7-dimethyloctane/air were carried out behind reflected shock waves using conventional and constrained reaction volume (CRV) methods. The ignition delay time measurements covered the temperature range 666-1216K, pressure range 12-27atm, and equivalence ratio of 0.5 and 1. The ignition delay time temperatures span the low-, intermediate- and high-temperature regimes for 2,7-dimethyloctane (2,7-DMO) oxidation. Clear evidence of negative temperature coefficient behavior was observed near 800K. Fuel time-history measurements were also carried out in pyrolysis experiments in mixtures of 2000ppm 2,7-DMO/argon at pressures near 16 and 35atm, and in the temperature range of 1126-1455K. Based on the fuel removal rates, the overall 2,7-DMO decomposition rate constant can be represented with k =4.47×105 exp(-23.4[kcal/mol]/RT) [1/s]. Ethylene time-history measurements in pyrolysis experiments at 16atm are also provided. The current shock tube dataset was simulated using a novel chemical kinetic model for 2,7-DMO. The reaction mechanism includes comprehensive low- and high-temperature reaction classes with rate constants assigned using established rules. Comparisons between the simulated and experimental data show simulations reproduce the qualitative trends across the entire range of conditions tested. However, the present kinetic modeling simulations cannot quantitatively reproduce a number of experimental data points, and these are analyzed herein.

  18. Shock tube studies of methyl butanoate pyrolysis with relevance to biodiesel

    KAUST Repository

    Farooq, Aamir

    2012-11-01

    Methyl butanoate pyrolysis and decomposition pathways were studied in detail by measuring concentration time-histories of CO, CO 2, CH 3, and C 2H 4 using shock tube/laser absorption methods. Experiments were conducted behind reflected shock waves at temperatures of 1200-1800K and pressures near 1.5atm using mixtures of 0.1%, 0.5%, and 1% methyl butanoate in Argon. A novel laser diagnostic was developed to measure CO in the ν 1 fundamental vibrational band near 4.56μm using a new generation of quantum-cascade lasers. Wavelength modulation spectroscopy with second-harmonic detection (WMS-2f) was used to measure CO 2 near 2752nm. Methyl radical was measured using UV laser absorption near 216nm, and ethylene was monitored using IR gas laser absorption near 10.53μm. An accurate methyl butanoate model is critical in the development of mechanisms for larger methyl esters, and the measured time-histories provide kinetic targets and strong constraints for the refinement of the methyl butanoate reaction mechanism. Measured CO mole fractions reach plateau values that are the same as the initial fuel mole fraction at temperatures higher than 1500K over the maximum measurement time of 2ms or less. Two recent kinetic mechanisms are compared with the measured data and the possible reasons for this 1:1 ratio between MB and CO are discussed. Based on these discussions, it is expected that similar CO/fuel and CO 2/fuel ratios for biodiesel molecules, particularly saturated components of biodiesel, should occur. © 2012 The Combustion Institute.

  19. Shock tube and modeling study of 2,7-dimethyloctane pyrolysis and oxidation

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Sijie

    2015-05-01

    High molecular weight iso-paraffinic molecules are found in conventional petroleum, Fischer-Tropsch (FT), and other alternative hydrocarbon fuels, yet fundamental combustion studies on this class of compounds are lacking. In the present work, ignition delay time measurements in 2,7-dimethyloctane/air were carried out behind reflected shock waves using conventional and constrained reaction volume (CRV) methods. The ignition delay time measurements covered the temperature range 666-1216K, pressure range 12-27atm, and equivalence ratio of 0.5 and 1. The ignition delay time temperatures span the low-, intermediate- and high-temperature regimes for 2,7-dimethyloctane (2,7-DMO) oxidation. Clear evidence of negative temperature coefficient behavior was observed near 800K. Fuel time-history measurements were also carried out in pyrolysis experiments in mixtures of 2000ppm 2,7-DMO/argon at pressures near 16 and 35atm, and in the temperature range of 1126-1455K. Based on the fuel removal rates, the overall 2,7-DMO decomposition rate constant can be represented with k =4.47×105 exp(-23.4[kcal/mol]/RT) [1/s]. Ethylene time-history measurements in pyrolysis experiments at 16atm are also provided. The current shock tube dataset was simulated using a novel chemical kinetic model for 2,7-DMO. The reaction mechanism includes comprehensive low- and high-temperature reaction classes with rate constants assigned using established rules. Comparisons between the simulated and experimental data show simulations reproduce the qualitative trends across the entire range of conditions tested. However, the present kinetic modeling simulations cannot quantitatively reproduce a number of experimental data points, and these are analyzed herein.

  20. Optimal Bayesian experimental design for priors of compact support with application to shock-tube experiments for combustion kinetics

    KAUST Repository

    Bisetti, Fabrizio

    2016-01-12

    The analysis of reactive systems in combustion science and technology relies on detailed models comprising many chemical reactions that describe the conversion of fuel and oxidizer into products and the formation of pollutants. Shock-tube experiments are a convenient setting for measuring the rate parameters of individual reactions. The temperature, pressure, and concentration of reactants are chosen to maximize the sensitivity of the measured quantities to the rate parameter of the target reaction. In this study, we optimize the experimental setup computationally by optimal experimental design (OED) in a Bayesian framework. We approximate the posterior probability density functions (pdf) using truncated Gaussian distributions in order to account for the bounded domain of the uniform prior pdf of the parameters. The underlying Gaussian distribution is obtained in the spirit of the Laplace method, more precisely, the mode is chosen as the maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimate, and the covariance is chosen as the negative inverse of the Hessian of the misfit function at the MAP estimate. The model related entities are obtained from a polynomial surrogate. The optimality, quantified by the information gain measures, can be estimated efficiently by a rejection sampling algorithm against the underlying Gaussian probability distribution, rather than against the true posterior. This approach offers a significant error reduction when the magnitude of the invariants of the posterior covariance are comparable to the size of the bounded domain of the prior. We demonstrate the accuracy and superior computational efficiency of our method for shock-tube experiments aiming to measure the model parameters of a key reaction which is part of the complex kinetic network describing the hydrocarbon oxidation. In the experiments, the initial temperature and fuel concentration are optimized with respect to the expected information gain in the estimation of the parameters of the target

  1. Theoretical and Shock Tube Study of the Rate Constants for Hydrogen Abstraction Reactions of Ethyl Formate

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Junjun; Khaled, Fathi; Ning, Hongbo; Ma, Liuhao; Farooq, Aamir; Ren, Wei

    2017-01-01

    We report a systematic chemical kinetics study of the H-atom abstractions from ethyl formate (EF) by H, O(3P), CH3, OH, and HO2 radicals. The geometry optimization and frequency calculation of all the species were conducted using the M06 method and the cc-pVTZ basis set. The one-dimensional hindered rotor treatment of the reactants and transition states and the intrinsic reaction coordinate analysis were also performed at the M06/cc-pVTZ level of theory. The relative electronic energies were calculated at the CCSD(T)/cc-pVXZ (where X = D, T) level of theory and further extrapolated to the complete basis set limit. Rate constants for the tittle reactions were calculated over the temperature range of 500‒2500 K by the transition state theory (TST) in conjunction with asymmetric Eckart tunneling effect. In addition, the rate constants of H-abstraction by hydroxyl radical were measured in shock tube experiments at 900‒1321 K and 1.4‒2.0 atm. Our theoretical rate constants of OH + EF → Products agree well with the experimental results within 15% over the experimental temperature range of 900‒1321 K. Branching ratios for the five types of H-abstraction reactions were also determined from their individual site-specific rate constants.

  2. Shock tube and chemical kinetic modeling study of the oxidation of 2,5-dimethylfuran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirjean, Baptiste; Fournet, René; Glaude, Pierre-Alexandre; Battin-Leclerc, Frédérique; Wang, Weijing; Oehlschlaeger, Matthew A

    2013-02-21

    A detailed kinetic model describing the oxidation of 2,5-dimethylfuran (DMF), a potential second-generation biofuel, is proposed. The kinetic model is based upon quantum chemical calculations for the initial DMF consumption reactions and important reactions of intermediates. The model is validated by comparison to new DMF shock tube ignition delay time measurements (over the temperature range 1300-1831 K and at nominal pressures of 1 and 4 bar) and the DMF pyrolysis speciation measurements of Lifshitz et al. [ J. Phys. Chem. A 1998 , 102 ( 52 ), 10655 - 10670 ]. Globally, modeling predictions are in good agreement with the considered experimental targets. In particular, ignition delay times are predicted well by the new model, with model-experiment deviations of at most a factor of 2, and DMF pyrolysis conversion is predicted well, to within experimental scatter of the Lifshitz et al. data. Additionally, comparisons of measured and model predicted pyrolysis speciation provides validation of theoretically calculated channels for the oxidation of DMF. Sensitivity and reaction flux analyses highlight important reactions as well as the primary reaction pathways responsible for the decomposition of DMF and formation and destruction of key intermediate and product species.

  3. Theoretical and Shock Tube Study of the Rate Constants for Hydrogen Abstraction Reactions of Ethyl Formate

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Junjun

    2017-08-03

    We report a systematic chemical kinetics study of the H-atom abstractions from ethyl formate (EF) by H, O(3P), CH3, OH, and HO2 radicals. The geometry optimization and frequency calculation of all the species were conducted using the M06 method and the cc-pVTZ basis set. The one-dimensional hindered rotor treatment of the reactants and transition states and the intrinsic reaction coordinate analysis were also performed at the M06/cc-pVTZ level of theory. The relative electronic energies were calculated at the CCSD(T)/cc-pVXZ (where X = D, T) level of theory and further extrapolated to the complete basis set limit. Rate constants for the tittle reactions were calculated over the temperature range of 500‒2500 K by the transition state theory (TST) in conjunction with asymmetric Eckart tunneling effect. In addition, the rate constants of H-abstraction by hydroxyl radical were measured in shock tube experiments at 900‒1321 K and 1.4‒2.0 atm. Our theoretical rate constants of OH + EF → Products agree well with the experimental results within 15% over the experimental temperature range of 900‒1321 K. Branching ratios for the five types of H-abstraction reactions were also determined from their individual site-specific rate constants.

  4. Part I. Mechanisms of injury associated with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy; Part II. Exsolution of volatiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Danny Dwayne

    Part I - Shock waves are focused in extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) machines to strengths sufficient to fracture kidney stones. Substantial side effects-most of them acute-have resulted from this procedure, including injury to soft tissue. The focusing of shock waves through various layers of tissue is a complex process which stimulates many bio-mechano-chemical responses.This thesis presents results of an in vitro study of the initial mechanical stimulus. Planar nitrocellulose membranes of order 10 um thick were used as models of thin tissue structures. Two modes of failure were recorded: Failure due to cavitation collapsing on or near the membranes, and failure induced by altering the structure of shock waves. Tests were done in water at and around F2 to characterize the extent of cavitation damage, and was found to be confined within the focal region, 1.2 cm along the axis of focus.Scattering media were used to simulate the effects of acoustic nonuniformity of tissue and to alter the structure of focusing shock waves. 40 um diameter (average) hollow glass spheres were added to ethylene glycol, glycerine and castor oil to vary the properties of the scattering media. Multiple layer samples of various types of phantom tissue were tested in degassed castor oil to gauge the validity of the scattering media. The scattering media and tissue samples increased the rise time decreased strain rate in a similar fashion. Membranes were damaged by the decreased strain rate and accumulated effects of the altered structure: After about 20 or so shocks immersed in the scattering media and after about 100 shocks behind the tissue samples. The mode of failure was tearing with multiple tears in some cases from about .1 cm to about 3 cm depending of the number of shocks and membrane thickness.Part II - This work examines the exsolution of volatiles-carbon dioxide from water-in a cylindrical test cell under different pressure conditions. Water was supersaturated with

  5. Assessment of Blasting Performance Using Electronic Vis-à-Vis Shock Tube Detonators in Strong Garnet Biotite Sillimanite Gneiss Formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Suresh Kumar; Rai, Piyush

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents a comparative investigation of the shock tube and electronic detonating systems practised in bench blasting. The blast trials were conducted on overburden rocks of Garnet Biotite Sillimanite Gneiss formations in one of the largest metalliferous mine of India. The study revealed that the choice of detonating system was crucial in deciding the fragment size and its distribution within the blasted muck-piles. The fragment size and its distribution affected the digging rate of excavators. Also, the shape of the blasted muck-pile was found to be related to the degree of fragmentation. From the present work, it may be inferred that in electronic detonation system, timely release of explosive energy resulted in better overall blasting performance. Hence, the precision in delay time must be considered in designing blast rounds in such overburden rock formations. State-of-art image analysis, GPS based muck-pile profile plotting techniques were rigorously used in the investigation. The study revealed that a mean fragment size (K50) value for shock tube detonated blasts (0.55-0.59 m) was higher than that of electronically detonated blasts (0.43-0.45 m). The digging rate of designated shovels (34 m3) with electronically detonated blasts was consistently more than 5000 t/h, which was almost 13 % higher in comparison to shock tube detonated blasts. Furthermore, favourable muck-pile shapes were witnessed in electronically detonated blasts from the observations made on the dozer performance.

  6. New Bayesian inference method using two steps of Markov chain Monte Carlo and its application to shock tube experiment data of Furan oxidation

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Daesang; El Gharamti, Iman; Bisetti, Fabrizio; Farooq, Aamir; Knio, Omar

    2016-01-01

    A new Bayesian inference method has been developed and applied to Furan shock tube experimental data for efficient statistical inferences of the Arrhenius parameters of two OH radical consumption reactions. The collected experimental data, which

  7. A shock tube and laser absorption study of ignition delay times and OH reaction rates of ketones: 2-Butanone and 3-buten-2-one

    KAUST Repository

    Badra, Jihad; Elwardani, Ahmed Elsaid; Khaled, Fathi; Vasu, Subith S.; Farooq, Aamir

    2014-01-01

    Ketones are potential biofuel candidates and are also formed as intermediate products during the oxidation of large hydrocarbons or oxygenated fuels, such as alcohols and esters. This paper presents shock tube ignition delay times and OH reaction

  8. A hierarchical method for Bayesian inference of rate parameters from shock tube data: Application to the study of the reaction of hydroxyl with 2-methylfuran

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Daesang; El Gharamti, Iman; Hantouche, Mireille; Elwardani, Ahmed Elsaid; Farooq, Aamir; Bisetti, Fabrizio; Knio, Omar

    2017-01-01

    We developed a novel two-step hierarchical method for the Bayesian inference of the rate parameters of a target reaction from time-resolved concentration measurements in shock tubes. The method was applied to the calibration of the parameters

  9. Fragmentation of Solid Materials Using Shock Tubes. Part 2: First Test Series in a Large Diameter Shock Tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    series used improved experimental techniques to reduce obscuration due to smoke and fire which, again, increased the number of observed fragments (iii...minimally-reinforced concrete masonry unit (CMU) wall, and one 8-ft x 8-ft reinforced concrete panel, each carefully fabricated and mounted to replicate...develops a vertical compressive force that resists horizontal flexure. Figure 4. A view of CMU sample set-up used in Test 20. 6 Figure 5

  10. Fragmentation of Solid Materials Using Shock Tubes. Part 1: First Test Series in a Small Diameter Shock Tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    spreadsheet output. More specifically, two passes were made in Excel. In the first pass, logic functions and VBA code were used to enforce a lower limit...2006. [2] Pacific Supply, [Online]. Available: http://pacificsupply.paccoast.com/index.html. [ Accessed 15 October 2015]. [3] CR Laurence, [Online...Available: http://www.crlaurence.com/apps/contentloader/ default.aspx?content=www.crlaurence.com/adv/glass_and_glazing/index_us.html. [ Accessed

  11. Shock tube/laser absorption studies of the decomposition of methyl formate

    KAUST Repository

    Ren, Wei; Lam, Kingyiu; Pyun, Sunghyun; Farooq, Aamir; Davidson, David Frank; Hanson, Ronald Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Reaction rate coefficients for the major high-temperature methyl formate (MF, CH3OCHO) decomposition pathways, MF → CH3OH + CO (1), MF →CH2O+CH2O (2), and MF→ CH4 + CO2 (3), were directly measured in a shock tube using laser absorption of CO (4.6 μm), CH2O (306 nm) and CH4 (3.4 μm). Experimental conditions ranged from 1202 to 1607 K and 1.36 to 1.72 atm, with mixtures varying in initial fuel concentration from 0.1% to 3% MF diluted in argon. The decomposition rate coefficients were determined by monitoring the formation rate of each target species immediately behind the reflected shock waves and modeling the species time-histories with a detailed kinetic mechanism [12]. The three measured rate coefficients can be well-described using two-parameter Arrhenius expressions over the temperature range in the present study: k1 = 1.1 × 1013 exp(-29556/T, K) s -1, k2 = 2.6 × 1012 exp(-32052/T, K) s-1, and k3 = 4.4 × 1011 exp(-29 078/T, K) s-1, all thought to be near their high-pressure limits. Uncertainties in the k1, k2 and k3 measurements were estimated to be ±25%, ±35%, and ±40%, respectively. We believe that these are the first direct high-temperature rate measurements for MF decomposition and all are in excellent agreement with the Dooley et al. [12] mechanism. In addition, by also monitoring methanol (CH3OH) and MF concentration histories using a tunable CO2 gas laser operating at 9.67 and 9.23 μm, respectively, all the major oxygen-carrying molecules were quantitatively detected in the reaction system. An oxygen balance analysis during MF decomposition shows that the multi-wavelength laser absorption strategy used in this study was able to track more than 97% of the initial oxygen atoms in the fuel. © 2012 The Combustion Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparative Shock-Tube Study of Autoignition and Plasma-Assisted Ignition of C2-Hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosarev, Ilya; Kindysheva, Svetlana; Plastinin, Eugeny; Aleksandrov, Nikolay; Starikovskiy, Andrey

    2015-09-01

    The dynamics of pulsed picosecond and nanosecond discharge development in liquid water, ethanol and hexane Using a shock tube with a discharge cell, ignition delay time was measured in a lean (φ = 0.5) C2H6:O2:Ar mixture and in lean (φ = 0.5) and stoichiometric C2H4:O2:Ar mixtures with a high-voltage nanosecond discharge and without it. The measured results were compared with the measurements made previously with the same setup for C2H6-, C2H5OH- and C2H2-containing mixtures. It was shown that the effect of plasma on ignition is almost the same for C2H6, C2H4 and C2H5OH. The reduction in time is smaller for C2H2, the fuel that is well ignited even without the discharge. Autoignition delay time was independent of the stoichiometric ratio for C2H6 and C2H4, whereas this time in stoichiometric C2H2- and C2H5OH-containing mixtures was noticeably shorter than that in the lean mixtures. Ignition after the discharge was not affected by a change in the stoichiometric ratio for C2H2 and C2H4, whereas the plasma-assisted ignition delay time for C2H6 and C2H5OH decreased as the equivalence ratio changed from 1 to 0.5. Ignition delay time was calculated in C2-hydrocarbon-containing mixtures under study by simulating separately discharge and ignition processes. Good agreement was obtained between new measurements and calculated ignition delay times.

  13. Investigating pyroclast ejection dynamics using shock-tube experiments: temperature, grain size and vent geometry effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cigala, V.; Kueppers, U.; Dingwell, D. B.

    2015-12-01

    Explosive volcanic eruptions eject large quantities of gas and particles into the atmosphere. The portion directly above the vent commonly shows characteristics of underexpanded jets. Understanding the factors that influence the initial pyroclast ejection dynamics is necessary in order to better assess the resulting near- and far-field hazards. Field observations are often insufficient for the characterization of volcanic explosions due to lack of safe access to such environments. Fortunately, their dynamics can be simulated in the laboratory where experiments are performed under controlled conditions. We ejected loose natural particles from a shock-tube while controlling temperature (25˚ and 500˚C), overpressure (15MPa), starting grain size distribution (1-2 mm, 0.5-1 mm and 0.125-0.250 mm), sample-to-vent distance and vent geometry. For each explosion we quantified the velocity of individual particles, the jet spreading angle and the production of fines. Further, we varied the setup to allow for different sample-to-gas ratios and deployed four different vent geometries: 1) cylindrical, 2) funnel with a flaring of 30˚, 3) funnel with a flaring of 15˚ and 4) nozzle. The results showed maximum particle velocities up to 296 m/s, gas spreading angles varying from 21˚ to 37˚ and particle spreading angles from 3˚ to 40˚. Moreover we observed dynamically evolving ejection characteristics and variations in the production of fines during the course of individual experiments. Our experiments mechanistically mimic the process of pyroclast ejection. Thus the capability for constraining the effects of input parameters (fragmentation conditions) and conduit/vent geometry on ballistic pyroclastic plumes has been clearly established. These data obtained in the presence of well-documented conduit and vent conditions, should greatly enhance our ability to numerically model explosive ejecta in nature.

  14. Shock tube experiments on nitromethane and Promotion of chemical reactions by non-thermal plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seljeskog, Morten

    2002-06-01

    This dissertation was undertaken to study two different subjects both related to molecular decomposition by applying a shock tube and non-thermal plasma to decompose selected hydrocarbons. The first approach to molecular decomposition concerned thermal decomposition and oxidation of highly diluted nitromethane (NM) in a shock tube. Reflected shock tube experiments on NM decomposition, using mixtures of 0.2 to 1.5 vol% NM in nitrogen or argon were performed over the temperature range 850-1550 K and pressure range 190-900 kPa, with 46 experiments diluted in nitrogen and 44 diluted in argon. By residual error analysis of the measured decomposition profiles it was found that NM decomposition (CH{sub 3}NO{sub 2} + M {yields} CH{sub 3} + NO{sub 2} + M, where M = N{sub 2} /Ar) corresponds well to a law of first order. Arrhenius expressions corresponding to NM diluted either in N{sub 2} or in Ar were found as k{sub N2} = 10{sup 17.011} * exp(- 182.6 kJ/mole / R*T) and k{sub Ar} = 10{sup 17.574}*exp(-207 kJ/mole / R*T ) , respectively. A new reaction mechanism was then proposed, based on new experimental data for NM decomposition both in Ar and N{sub 2} and on three previously developed mechanisms. The new mechanism predicts well the decomposition of NM diluted in both N{sub 2} and Ar within the pressure and temperature range covered by the experiments. In parallel to, and following the decomposition experiments, oxidative experiments on the ignition delay times of NM/O{sub 2}/Ar mixtures were investigated over high temperature and low to high pressure ranges. These experiments were carried out with eight different mixtures of gaseous NM and oxygen diluted in argon, with pressures ranging between 44.3-600 kPa, and temperatures ranging between 842-1378 K. The oxidation experiments were divided into different categories according to the type of decomposition signals achieved. For signals with and without emission, the apparent quasi

  15. Predictive value of low tube voltage and dual-energy CT for successful shock wave lithotripsy: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Largo, Remo; Stolzmann, Paul; Fankhauser, Christian D; Poyet, Cédric; Wolfsgruber, Pirmin; Sulser, Tullio; Alkadhi, Hatem; Winklhofer, Sebastian

    2016-06-01

    This study investigates the capabilities of low tube voltage computed tomography (CT) and dual-energy CT (DECT) for predicting successful shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) of urinary stones in vitro. A total of 33 urinary calculi (six different chemical compositions; mean size 6 ± 3 mm) were scanned using a dual-source CT machine with single- (120 kVp) and dual-energy settings (80/150, 100/150 Sn kVp) resulting in six different datasets. The attenuation (Hounsfield Units) of calculi was measured on single-energy CT images and the dual-energy indices (DEIs) were calculated from DECT acquisitions. Calculi underwent SWL and the number of shock waves for successful disintegration was recorded. The prediction of required shock waves regarding stone attenuation/DEI was calculated using regression analysis (adjusted for stone size and composition) and the correlation between CT attenuation/DEI and the number of shock waves was assessed for all datasets. The median number of shock waves for successful stone disintegration was 72 (interquartile range 30-361). CT attenuation/DEI of stones was a significant, independent predictor (P waves with the best prediction at 80 kVp (β estimate 0.576) (P waves ranged between ρ = 0.31 and 0.68 showing the best correlation at 80 kVp (P < 0.001). The attenuation of urinary stones at low tube voltage CT is the best predictor for successful stone disintegration, being independent of stone composition and size. DECT shows no added value for predicting the success of SWL.

  16. Cavitation cluster dynamics in shock-wave lithotripsy: Part I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arora, M.; Junge, L.; Junge, L.; Ohl, C.D.

    2005-01-01

    The spatiotemporal dynamics of cavitation bubble growth and collapse in shock-wave lithotripsy in a free field was studied experimentally. The lithotripter was equipped with two independently triggerable layers of piezoceramics. The front and back layers generated positive pressure amplitudes of 30

  17. On the high-temperature combustion of n-butanol: Shock tube data and an improved kinetic model

    KAUST Repository

    Vasu, Subith S.

    2013-11-21

    The combustion of n-butanol has received significant interest in recent years, because of its potential use in transportation applications. Researchers have extensively studied its combustion chemistry, using both experimental and theoretical methods; however, additional work is needed under specific conditions to improve our understanding of n-butanol combustion. In this study, we report new OH time-history data during the high-temperature oxidation of n-butanol behind reflected shock waves over the temperature range of 1300-1550 K and at pressures near 2 atm. These data were obtained at Stanford University, using narrow-line-width ring dye laser absorption of the R1(5) line of OH near 306.7 nm. Measured OH time histories were modeled using comprehensive n-butanol literature mechanisms. It was found that n-butanol unimolecular decomposition rate constants commonly used in chemical kinetic models, as well as those determined from theoretical studies, are unable to predict the data presented herein. Therefore, an improved high-temperature mechanism is presented here, which incorporates recently reported rate constants measured in a single pulse shock tube [C. M. Rosado-Reyes and W. Tsang, J. Phys. Chem. A 2012, 116, 9825-9831]. Discussions are presented on the validity of the proposed mechanism against other literature shock tube experiments. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  18. Ionizing Shocks in Argon. Part 2: Transient and Multi-Dimensional Effects (Preprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-09

    stability in ionizing monatomic gases. Part 1. Argon ,” J. Fluid Mech., 84, 55 (1978). 2M. P. F. Bristow and I. I. Glass, “ Polarizability of singly...Article 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Ionizing Shocks in Argon . Part 2: Transient...Physics. 14. ABSTRACT We extend the computations of ionizing shocks in argon to unsteady and multi-dimensional, using a collisional-radiative

  19. Kinetics of the Thermal Decomposition of Tetramethylsilane behind the Reflected Shock Waves in a Single Pulse Shock Tube (SPST) and Modeling Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parandaman, A.; Sudhakar, G.; Rajakumar, B.

    Thermal reactions of Tetramethylsilane (TMS) diluted in argon were studied behind the reflected shock waves in a single-pulse shock tube (SPST) over the temperature range of 1085-1221 K and pressures varied between 10.6 and 22.8 atm. The stable products resulting from the decomposition of TMS were identified and quantified using gas chromatography and also verified with Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometer. The major reaction products are methane (CH4) and ethylene (C2H4). The minor reaction products are ethane (C2H6) and propylene (C3H6). The initiation of mechanism in the decomposition of TMS takes plays via the Si-C bond scission by ejecting the methyl radicals (CH3) and trimethylsilyl radicals ((CH3)3Si). The measured temperature dependent rate coefficient for the total decomposition of TMS was to be ktotal = 1.66 ×1015 exp (-64.46/RT) s-1 and for the formation of CH4 reaction channel was to be k = 2.20 × 1014 exp (-60.15/RT) s-1, where the activation energies are given in kcal mol-1. A kinetic scheme containing 17 species and 28 elementary reactions was used for the simulation using chemical kinetic simulator over the temperature range of 1085-1221 K. The agreement between the experimental and simulated results was satisfactory.

  20. Switch-shock wave structure in a magnetized partly-ionized gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cramer, N.F.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of the interaction of plasma and neutral gas on the structure of switch-type shock waves propagating in a partly-ionized gas is studied. These shocks, in which the magnetic field is perpendicular to the shock front either upstream or downstream, exhibit a spiralling behaviour of the magnetic field in the shock transition region, if the Hall term is important in the Ohm's law. Observations of this behaviour for shocks propagating into a plasma with a residual neutral content of about 15% has implied an anomalously high resistivity of the plasma. We show that this can be partly explained by considering the collisions of ions with the neutral atoms in a magnetic field. We show that the extra dissipation due to the increase in resistivity goes primarily to the ions and neutrals. Thus even in the absence of viscous dissipation within each species, the heavy particles can be appreciably heated in a shock propagating into a partly-ionized gas in a magnetic field. (author)

  1. Hysterosalpingographic Appearances of Female Genital Tract Tuberculosis: Part I. Fallopian Tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firoozeh Ahmadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Female genital tuberculosis (TB remains as a major cause of tubal obstruction leading to infertility, especially in developing countries. The global prevalence of genital tuberculosis has increased during the past two decades due to increasing acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS. Genital TB is commonly asymptomatic, and it is diagnosed during infertility investigations. Despite of recent advances in imaging tools, such as computerized tomography (CT scan, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and ultrasongraphy, hysterosalpingography is still the standard screening test for evaluation of tubal infertility and a valuable tool for diagnosis of female genital tuberculosis. Tuberculosis gives rise to various appearances on hysterosalpingography (HSG from non-specific changes to specific findings. The present pictorial review illustrates and describes specific and non-specific radiographic features of female genital tuberculosis in two parts. Part I presents specific findings of tuberculosis related to tubes such as "beaded tube", "golf club tube", "pipestem tube", "cobble stone tube" and "leopard skin tube". Part II describes adverse effects of tuberculosis on structure of endometrium and radiological specific findings such as "dwarfed" uterus with lymphatic intravasation and occluded tubes, "T-shaped" tuberculosis uterus, "pseudounicornuate" uterus and "Collar-stud abscess", which have not been encountered in the majority of non-tuberculosis cases.

  2. Influence of Test Section Geometry on the Blast Environment in an Explosively Driven Conical Shock Tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-30

    ARL-TR-8335•MAR 2018 US Army Research Laboratory Influence of Test Section Geometry on theBlast Environment in an Explosively DrivenConical Shock...ARL-TR-8335•MAR 2018 US Army Research Laboratory Influence of Test Section Geometry on theBlast Environment in an Explosively DrivenConical Shock...TITLE AND SUBTITLE    5a. CONTRACT NUMBER  5b. GRANT NUMBER  5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S)    5d.  PROJECT  NUMBER  5e. TASK NUMBER  5f

  3. Numerical Investigation of the Flow Structure in a Kaplan Draft Tube at Part Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddahian, R.; Cervantes, M. J.; Sotoudeh, N.

    2016-11-01

    This research presents numerical simulation of the unsteady flow field inside the draft tube of a Kaplan turbine at part load condition. Due to curvature of streamlines, the ordinary two-equations turbulence models fail to predict the flow features. Therefore, a modification of the Shear Stress Transport (SST-SAS) model is utilized to approximate the turbulent stresses. A guide vane, complete runner and draft tube are considered to insure the real boundary conditions at the draft tube inlet. The outlet boundary is assumed to discharge into the atmosphere. The obtained pressure fluctuations inside the draft tube are in good agreement with available experimental data. In order to further investigate the RVR formation and its movement, the λ2 criterion, relating the position of the vortex core and strength to the second largest Eigen value of the velocity gradient tensor, is employed. The method used for vortex identification shows the flow structure and vortex motion inside the draft tube accurately.

  4. Prediction and validation of burnout curves for Goettelborn char using reaction kinetics determined in shock tube experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moors, J.H.J.; Banin, V.E.; Haas, J.H.P.; Weber, R.; Veefkind, A. [Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven (Netherlands). Dept. of Applied Physics

    1999-01-01

    Using a shock tube facility the combustion characteristics of pulverised char ({lt} 10 {mu}m) were measured. A prediction was made for the burnout behaviour of a commercial sized char particle (75-90 {mu}m) in different ambient conditions using a `pseudo kinetic` approach. In this approach the kinetic rate of a surface containing micro pores is determined and these `pseudo kinetics` are then applied to the larger particle not taking into account the micro pores. Comparison of the predictions with measurements done with an isothermal plug flow reactor showed this approach to be valid within experimental error for low burnout. A linear decrease of the kinetic reaction rate with burnout is shown to predict the burnout behaviour in the complete range of burnout. A possible explanation for this linear decrease could be a growing fraction of non-combustible material in the char particles during burnout. 11 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. A relaxation-projection method for compressible flows. Part II: Artificial heat exchanges for multiphase shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petitpas, Fabien; Franquet, Erwin; Saurel, Richard; Le Metayer, Olivier

    2007-01-01

    The relaxation-projection method developed in Saurel et al. [R. Saurel, E. Franquet, E. Daniel, O. Le Metayer, A relaxation-projection method for compressible flows. Part I: The numerical equation of state for the Euler equations, J. Comput. Phys. (2007) 822-845] is extended to the non-conservative hyperbolic multiphase flow model of Kapila et al. [A.K. Kapila, Menikoff, J.B. Bdzil, S.F. Son, D.S. Stewart, Two-phase modeling of deflagration to detonation transition in granular materials: reduced equations, Physics of Fluids 13(10) (2001) 3002-3024]. This model has the ability to treat multi-temperatures mixtures evolving with a single pressure and velocity and is particularly interesting for the computation of interface problems with compressible materials as well as wave propagation in heterogeneous mixtures. The non-conservative character of this model poses however computational challenges in the presence of shocks. The first issue is related to the Riemann problem resolution that necessitates shock jump conditions. Thanks to the Rankine-Hugoniot relations proposed and validated in Saurel et al. [R. Saurel, O. Le Metayer, J. Massoni, S. Gavrilyuk, Shock jump conditions for multiphase mixtures with stiff mechanical relaxation, Shock Waves 16 (3) (2007) 209-232] exact and approximate 2-shocks Riemann solvers are derived. However, the Riemann solver is only a part of a numerical scheme and non-conservative variables pose extra difficulties for the projection or cell average of the solution. It is shown that conventional Godunov schemes are unable to converge to the exact solution for strong multiphase shocks. This is due to the incorrect partition of the energies or entropies in the cell averaged mixture. To circumvent this difficulty a specific Lagrangian scheme is developed. The correct partition of the energies is achieved by using an artificial heat exchange in the shock layer. With the help of an asymptotic analysis this heat exchange takes a similar form as

  6. A relaxation-projection method for compressible flows. Part II: Artificial heat exchanges for multiphase shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petitpas, Fabien; Franquet, Erwin; Saurel, Richard; Le Metayer, Olivier

    2007-08-01

    The relaxation-projection method developed in Saurel et al. [R. Saurel, E. Franquet, E. Daniel, O. Le Metayer, A relaxation-projection method for compressible flows. Part I: The numerical equation of state for the Euler equations, J. Comput. Phys. (2007) 822-845] is extended to the non-conservative hyperbolic multiphase flow model of Kapila et al. [A.K. Kapila, Menikoff, J.B. Bdzil, S.F. Son, D.S. Stewart, Two-phase modeling of deflagration to detonation transition in granular materials: reduced equations, Physics of Fluids 13(10) (2001) 3002-3024]. This model has the ability to treat multi-temperatures mixtures evolving with a single pressure and velocity and is particularly interesting for the computation of interface problems with compressible materials as well as wave propagation in heterogeneous mixtures. The non-conservative character of this model poses however computational challenges in the presence of shocks. The first issue is related to the Riemann problem resolution that necessitates shock jump conditions. Thanks to the Rankine-Hugoniot relations proposed and validated in Saurel et al. [R. Saurel, O. Le Metayer, J. Massoni, S. Gavrilyuk, Shock jump conditions for multiphase mixtures with stiff mechanical relaxation, Shock Waves 16 (3) (2007) 209-232] exact and approximate 2-shocks Riemann solvers are derived. However, the Riemann solver is only a part of a numerical scheme and non-conservative variables pose extra difficulties for the projection or cell average of the solution. It is shown that conventional Godunov schemes are unable to converge to the exact solution for strong multiphase shocks. This is due to the incorrect partition of the energies or entropies in the cell averaged mixture. To circumvent this difficulty a specific Lagrangian scheme is developed. The correct partition of the energies is achieved by using an artificial heat exchange in the shock layer. With the help of an asymptotic analysis this heat exchange takes a similar form as

  7. Biophysical analysis of bacterial and viral systems. A shock tube study of bio-aerosols and a correlated AFM/nanosims investigation of vaccinia virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gates, Sean Damien [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    2013-05-01

    The work presented herein is concerned with the development of biophysical methodology designed to address pertinent questions regarding the behavior and structure of select pathogenic agents. Two distinct studies are documented: a shock tube analysis of endospore-laden bio-aerosols and a correlated AFM/NanoSIMS study of the structure of vaccinia virus.

  8. Scramjet test flow reconstruction for a large-scale expansion tube, Part 1: quasi-one-dimensional modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gildfind, D. E.; Jacobs, P. A.; Morgan, R. G.; Chan, W. Y. K.; Gollan, R. J.

    2017-11-01

    Large-scale free-piston driven expansion tubes have uniquely high total pressure capabilities which make them an important resource for development of access-to-space scramjet engine technology. However, many aspects of their operation are complex, and their test flows are fundamentally unsteady and difficult to measure. While computational fluid dynamics methods provide an important tool for quantifying these flows, these calculations become very expensive with increasing facility size and therefore have to be carefully constructed to ensure sufficient accuracy is achieved within feasible computational times. This study examines modelling strategies for a Mach 10 scramjet test condition developed for The University of Queensland's X3 facility. The present paper outlines the challenges associated with test flow reconstruction, describes the experimental set-up for the X3 experiments, and then details the development of an experimentally tuned quasi-one-dimensional CFD model of the full facility. The 1-D model, which accurately captures longitudinal wave processes, is used to calculate the transient flow history in the shock tube. This becomes the inflow to a higher-fidelity 2-D axisymmetric simulation of the downstream facility, detailed in the Part 2 companion paper, leading to a validated, fully defined nozzle exit test flow.

  9. Scramjet test flow reconstruction for a large-scale expansion tube, Part 1: quasi-one-dimensional modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gildfind, D. E.; Jacobs, P. A.; Morgan, R. G.; Chan, W. Y. K.; Gollan, R. J.

    2018-07-01

    Large-scale free-piston driven expansion tubes have uniquely high total pressure capabilities which make them an important resource for development of access-to-space scramjet engine technology. However, many aspects of their operation are complex, and their test flows are fundamentally unsteady and difficult to measure. While computational fluid dynamics methods provide an important tool for quantifying these flows, these calculations become very expensive with increasing facility size and therefore have to be carefully constructed to ensure sufficient accuracy is achieved within feasible computational times. This study examines modelling strategies for a Mach 10 scramjet test condition developed for The University of Queensland's X3 facility. The present paper outlines the challenges associated with test flow reconstruction, describes the experimental set-up for the X3 experiments, and then details the development of an experimentally tuned quasi-one-dimensional CFD model of the full facility. The 1-D model, which accurately captures longitudinal wave processes, is used to calculate the transient flow history in the shock tube. This becomes the inflow to a higher-fidelity 2-D axisymmetric simulation of the downstream facility, detailed in the Part 2 companion paper, leading to a validated, fully defined nozzle exit test flow.

  10. Study of a nonlinear system with shocks under broadband excitation. Application to a steam generator tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thenint, Th.

    2011-01-01

    The steam generator is a heat exchanger and participates to the nuclear safety. Energy is transferred from the primary to the secondary fluid through many U-tubes maintained vertically by support plates. A sludge deposit tends to modify the boundary conditions and the secondary fluid flow. A fluid-elastic instability can then occur and lead to quick tube ruin. This thesis seeks a better understanding of the effect of contact nonlinearity on the dynamics of a tube in-air intermittently impacting the support plates and its consequences in regards with instability. The use of discretized contact conditions with circular obstacles distributed over the thickness of the plates and the use of enriched reduction bases allow quick and relevant nonlinear numerical simulations. These simulations are well correlated with experimental measurements and valid even with strong nonlinearity or negative modal damping. The evolution of power spectral densities (PSD) with growing excitation amplitude is analyzed: padding of the anti-resonances, peak shift and spread. It is then shown that an apparent stiffness associated with a permanent bilateral contact is pertinent to describe these transitions. In the case of an unstable linear system, one demonstrates that the nonlinearity keeps the responses bounded or stabilised, thus paving the way for future work with real or simulated fluid flows. (author)

  11. High density turbulent plasma processes from a shock tube. Final performance report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.A. III.

    1997-01-01

    A broad-based set of measurements has begun on high density turbulent plasma processes. This includes determinations of new plasma physics and the initiation of work on new diagnostics for collisional plasmas as follows: (1) A transient increase is observed in both the spectral energy decay rate and the degree of chaotic complexity at the interface of a shock wave and a turbulent ionized gas. Even though the gas is apparently brought to rest by the shock wave, no evidence is found either of prompt relaminarization or of any systematic influence of end-wall material thermal conductivities on the turbulence parameters. (2) Point fluorescence emissions and averaged spectral line evolutions in turbulent plasmas produced in both the primary and the reflected shock wave flows exhibit ergodicity in the standard turbulence parameters. The data show first evidence of a reverse energy cascade in the collisional turbulent plasma. This suggests that the fully turbulent environment can be described using a stationary state formulation. In these same data, the author finds compelling evidence for a turbulent Stark effect on neutral emission lines in these data which is associated with evidence of large coherent structures and dominant modes in the Fourier analyses of the fluctuations in the optical spectra. (3) A neutral beam generator has been assembled by coupling a Colutron Ion Gun to a charge exchange chamber. Beam-target collisions where the target species is neutral and the beam is either singly charged or neutral have been performed using argon as the working gas. Spectral analysis of the emission shows specific radiative transitions characteristic of both Ar I and Ar II, indicating that some ionization of the target gas results. Gas and plasma parameters such as density, pressure, temperature and flow velocity and their fluctuations can now be followed in real time by spectroscopic analysis of carefully chosen radiative emissions

  12. [Resection of the Distal Part of the Gastric Tube for the Gastric Tube Cancer after Esophagectomy - A Case Report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makutani, Yusuke; Shiraishi, Osamu; Iwama, Mitsuru; Hiraki, Yoko; Kato, Hiroaki; Yasuda, Atsushi; Shinkai, Masayuki; Imano, Motohiro; Kimura, Yutaka; Imamoto, Haruhiko; Yasuda, Takushi

    2017-11-01

    A 76-year-old man was admitted to our hospital for treatment of gastric tube cancer(cT2N0M0, cStage II A)detected by a screening upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Seven years previously, he had undergone subtotal esophagectomy for esophageal cancer with gastric pull-up via the retrosternal route. At that time, he experienced cardiopulmonary arrest due to ventric- ular tachycardia. He was in a state of poor nutrition(BMI 15 kg/m2). Therefore, reducing operative stress as much as possible, minimizing complications after surgery, and aiming for a satisfactory postoperative course are all important goals. Based on his past history, we performed distal gastrectomy(resection of the distal part of the gastric tube)without excision of the right gastroepiploic artery. The postoperative course was uneventful. He was discharged 40 days after surgery. By considering the risks of surgery due to cardiac dysfunction and malnutrition, we were able to provide effective and safe therapy for the patient.

  13. A hierarchical method for Bayesian inference of rate parameters from shock tube data: Application to the study of the reaction of hydroxyl with 2-methylfuran

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Daesang

    2017-06-22

    We developed a novel two-step hierarchical method for the Bayesian inference of the rate parameters of a target reaction from time-resolved concentration measurements in shock tubes. The method was applied to the calibration of the parameters of the reaction of hydroxyl with 2-methylfuran, which is studied experimentally via absorption measurements of the OH radical\\'s concentration following shock-heating. In the first step of the approach, each shock tube experiment is treated independently to infer the posterior distribution of the rate constant and error hyper-parameter that best explains the OH signal. In the second step, these posterior distributions are sampled to calibrate the parameters appearing in the Arrhenius reaction model for the rate constant. Furthermore, the second step is modified and repeated in order to explore alternative rate constant models and to assess the effect of uncertainties in the reflected shock\\'s temperature. Comparisons of the estimates obtained via the proposed methodology against the common least squares approach are presented. The relative merits of the novel Bayesian framework are highlighted, especially with respect to the opportunity to utilize the posterior distributions of the parameters in future uncertainty quantification studies.

  14. Violent flows in aqueous foams III: physical multi-phase model comparison with aqueous foam shock tube experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redford, J. A.; Ghidaglia, J.-M.; Faure, S.

    2018-06-01

    Mitigation of blast waves in aqueous foams is a problem that has a strong dependence on multi-phase effects. Here, a simplified model is developed from the previous articles treating violent flows (D'Alesio et al. in Eur J Mech B Fluids 54:105-124, 2015; Faure and Ghidaglia in Eur J Mech B Fluids 30:341-359, 2011) to capture the essential phenomena. The key is to have two fluids with separate velocities to represent the liquid and gas phases. This allows for the interaction between the two phases, which may include terms for drag, heat transfer, mass transfer due to phase change, added mass effects, to be included explicitly in the model. A good test for the proposed model is provided by two experimental data sets that use a specially designed shock tube. The first experiment has a test section filled with spray droplets, and the second has a range of aqueous foams in the test section. A substantial attenuation of the shock wave is seen in both cases, but a large difference is observed in the sound speeds. The droplets cause no observable change from the air sound speed, while the foams have a reduced sound speed of approximately 50-75 m/s . In the model given here, an added mass term is introduced in the governing equations to capture the low sound speed. The match between simulation and experiment is found to be satisfactory for both droplets and the foam. This is especially good when considering the complexity of the physics and the effects that are unaccounted for, such as three-dimensionality and droplet atomisation. The resulting statistics illuminate the processes occurring in such flows.

  15. Detection of gaseous effluents from partly crystalline polymer tubes for chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hessel, J.; Henkhaus, R.; Buss, R.

    1980-01-01

    In case of polymer tubes which lead aggressive, liquid media and additionally have to sustain a mechanical load possibly at clevated temperatures a leakage can occur in the gas phase due to the permeability of the material. The paper describes a detection method for a quantitative analysis of the medium which desorbes on the outside of the tube wall. As examples the systems polypropylene/acetic acid and polyethylene/acetic acid were chosen. An inert carrier gas leads the desorbed medium to a conductivity cell which registers the conductivity as a function of time. The measured conductivity is directly proportional to the quantity of medium desorbed by the examined part of the tube. (orig.) [de

  16. The velocity of the arterial pulse wave: a viscous-fluid shock wave in an elastic tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, Page R

    2008-07-29

    The arterial pulse is a viscous-fluid shock wave that is initiated by blood ejected from the heart. This wave travels away from the heart at a speed termed the pulse wave velocity (PWV). The PWV increases during the course of a number of diseases, and this increase is often attributed to arterial stiffness. As the pulse wave approaches a point in an artery, the pressure rises as does the pressure gradient. This pressure gradient increases the rate of blood flow ahead of the wave. The rate of blood flow ahead of the wave decreases with distance because the pressure gradient also decreases with distance ahead of the wave. Consequently, the amount of blood per unit length in a segment of an artery increases ahead of the wave, and this increase stretches the wall of the artery. As a result, the tension in the wall increases, and this results in an increase in the pressure of blood in the artery. An expression for the PWV is derived from an equation describing the flow-pressure coupling (FPC) for a pulse wave in an incompressible, viscous fluid in an elastic tube. The initial increase in force of the fluid in the tube is described by an increasing exponential function of time. The relationship between force gradient and fluid flow is approximated by an expression known to hold for a rigid tube. For large arteries, the PWV derived by this method agrees with the Korteweg-Moens equation for the PWV in a non-viscous fluid. For small arteries, the PWV is approximately proportional to the Korteweg-Moens velocity divided by the radius of the artery. The PWV in small arteries is also predicted to increase when the specific rate of increase in pressure as a function of time decreases. This rate decreases with increasing myocardial ischemia, suggesting an explanation for the observation that an increase in the PWV is a predictor of future myocardial infarction. The derivation of the equation for the PWV that has been used for more than fifty years is analyzed and shown to yield

  17. A Shock Tube Study of the CO + OH Reaction Near the Low-Pressure Limit

    KAUST Repository

    Nasir, Ehson Fawad; Farooq, Aamir

    2016-01-01

    Rate coefficients for the reaction between carbon monoxide and hydroxyl radical were measured behind reflected shock waves over 700 – 1230 K and 1.2 – 9.8 bar. The temperature/pressure conditions correspond to the predicted low-pressure limit of this reaction, where the channel leading to carbon dioxide formation is dominant. The reaction rate coefficients were inferred by measuring the formation of carbon dioxide using quantum cascade laser absorption near 4.2 µm. Experiments were performed under pseudo-first order conditions with tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP) as the OH precursor. Using ultraviolet laser absorption by OH radicals, the TBHP decomposition rate was measured to quantify potential facility effects under extremely dilute conditions used here. The measured CO + OH rate coefficients are provided in Arrhenius form for three different pressure ranges: kCO+OH (1.2 – 1.6 bar) = 9.14 x 10-13 exp(-1265/T) cm3 molecule-1 s-1 kCO+OH (4.3 – 5.1 bar) = 8.70 x 10-13 exp(-1156/T) cm3 molecule-1 s-1 kCO+OH (9.6 – 9.8 bar) = 7.48 x 10-13 exp(-929/T) cm3 molecule-1 s-1 The measured rate coefficients are found to be lower than the master equation modeling results by Weston et al. [J. Phys. Chem. A, 117 (2013) 821] at 819 K and in closer agreement with the expression provided by Joshi and Wang [Int. J. Chem. Kinet., 38 (2006) 57].

  18. A Shock Tube Study of the CO + OH Reaction Near the Low-Pressure Limit

    KAUST Repository

    Nasir, Ehson Fawad

    2016-05-16

    Rate coefficients for the reaction between carbon monoxide and hydroxyl radical were measured behind reflected shock waves over 700 – 1230 K and 1.2 – 9.8 bar. The temperature/pressure conditions correspond to the predicted low-pressure limit of this reaction, where the channel leading to carbon dioxide formation is dominant. The reaction rate coefficients were inferred by measuring the formation of carbon dioxide using quantum cascade laser absorption near 4.2 µm. Experiments were performed under pseudo-first order conditions with tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP) as the OH precursor. Using ultraviolet laser absorption by OH radicals, the TBHP decomposition rate was measured to quantify potential facility effects under extremely dilute conditions used here. The measured CO + OH rate coefficients are provided in Arrhenius form for three different pressure ranges: kCO+OH (1.2 – 1.6 bar) = 9.14 x 10-13 exp(-1265/T) cm3 molecule-1 s-1 kCO+OH (4.3 – 5.1 bar) = 8.70 x 10-13 exp(-1156/T) cm3 molecule-1 s-1 kCO+OH (9.6 – 9.8 bar) = 7.48 x 10-13 exp(-929/T) cm3 molecule-1 s-1 The measured rate coefficients are found to be lower than the master equation modeling results by Weston et al. [J. Phys. Chem. A, 117 (2013) 821] at 819 K and in closer agreement with the expression provided by Joshi and Wang [Int. J. Chem. Kinet., 38 (2006) 57].

  19. An FSI Simulation of the Metal Panel Deflection in a Shock Tube Using Illinois Rocstar Simulation Suite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Jung Hun; Sa, Jeong Hwan; Kim, Han Gi; Cho, Keum Won [Korea Institute of Science and Technology Information, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-05-15

    As the recent development of computing architecture and application software technology, real world simulation, which is the ultimate destination of computer simulation, is emerging as a practical issue in several research sectors. In this paper, metal plate motion in a square shock tube for small time interval was calculated using a supercomputing-based fluid-structure-combustion multi-physics simulation tool called Illinois Rocstar, developed in a US national R and D program at the University of Illinois. Afterwards, the simulation results were compared with those from experiments. The coupled solvers for unsteady compressible fluid dynamics and for structural analysis were based on the finite volume structured grid system and the large deformation linear elastic model, respectively. In addition, a strong correlation between calculation and experiment was shown, probably because of the predictor corrector time-integration scheme framework. In the future, additional validation studies and code improvements for higher accuracy will be conducted to obtain a reliable open-source software research tool.

  20. Unimolecular decomposition of formic and acetic acids: A shock tube/laser absorption study

    KAUST Repository

    Elwardany, A.

    2014-07-16

    The thermal decomposition of formic acid (HCOOH) and acetic acid (CH3COOH), two carboxylic acids which play an important role in oxygenate combustion chemistry, were investigated behind reflected shock waves using laser absorption. The rate constants of the primary decomposition pathways of these acids:(HCOOH → CO + H2 O (R 1); HCOOH → CO2 + H2 (R 2); CH3 COOH → CH4 + CO2 (R 3); CH3 COOH → CH2 CO + H2 O (R 4)) were measured using simultaneous infrared laser absorption of CO, CO2 and H2O at wavelengths of 4.56, 4.18 and 2.93 microns, respectively. Reaction test conditions covered temperatures from 1230 to 1821 K and pressures from 1.0 to 6.5 atm for dilute mixtures of acids (0.25-0.6%) in argon. The rate constants of dehydration (R1) and decarboxylation (R2) reactions of formic acid were calculated by fitting exponential functions to the measured CO, CO2 and H2O time-history profiles. These two decomposition channels were found to be in the fall-off region and have a branching ratio, k1/k2, of approximately 20 over the range of pressures studied here. The best-fit Arrhenius expressions of the first-order rates of R1 and R2 were found to be:(k1 (1 atm) = 1.03 × 1011 exp (- 25651 / T) s- 1 (± 37 %); k1 (6.5 atm) = 9.12 × 1012 exp (- 30275 / T) s- 1 (± 32 %); k2 (1 atm) = 1.79 × 108 exp (- 21133 / T) s- 1 (± 41 %); k2 (6.5 atm) = 2.73 × 108 exp (- 20074 / T) s- 1 (± 37 %)). The rate constants for acetic acid decomposition were obtained by fitting simulated profiles, using an acetic acid pyrolysis mechanism, to the measured species time-histories. The branching ratio, k4/k3, was found to be approximately 2. The decarboxylation and dehydration reactions of acetic acid appear to be in the falloff region over the tested pressure range:(k3 (1 atm) = 3.18 × 1011 exp (- 28679 / T) s- 1 (± 30 %); k3 (6 atm) = 3.51 × 1012 exp (- 31330 / T) s- 1 (± 26 %); k4 (1 atm) = 7.9 × 1011 exp (- 29056 / T) s- 1 (± 34 %); k4 (6 atm) = 6.34 × 1012 exp (- 31330 / T) s

  1. A shock tube study of C4–C6 straight chain alkenes + OH reactions

    KAUST Repository

    Khaled, Fathi

    2016-06-28

    Alkenes are known to be good octane boosters and they are major components of commercial fuels. Detailed theoretical calculations and direct kinetic measurements of elementary reactions of alkenes with combustion radicals are scarce for C4 alkenes and they are practically absent for C5 and larger alkenes. The overall rate coefficients for the reaction of OH radical with 1-butene (CH CHCH CH, k ), 1-pentene (CH CHCH CH-CH, k ), cis/trans 2-pentene (CH CHCHCH CH, k and k ), 1-hexene (CH CHCH CH CH CH, k ) and cis/trans 2-hexene (CH CHCHCH CH CH, k and k ) were measured behind reflected shock waves over the temperature range of 833-1377K and pressures near 1.5atm. The reaction progress was followed by measuring mole fraction of OH radicals near 306.7nm using UV laser absorption technique. It is found that the rate coefficients of OH+trans-2-alkenes are larger than those of OH+cis-2-alkenes, followed by OH+1-alkenes. The derived Arrhenius expressions for the overall rate coefficients (in cm.mol.s) are:. kI=(4.83±0.03)104.T2.72±0.01.exp(940.8±2.9cal/molRT)(946K-1256K) + kII=(5.66±0.54)10-1.T4.14±0.80.exp(4334±227cal/molRT)(875K-1379K) + kIII=(3.25±0.12)104.T2.76±0.5.exp(1962±83cal/molRT)(877K-1336K) + kIV=(3.42±0.09)104.T2.76±0.5.exp(1995±59cal/molRT)(833K-1265K) + kV=(7.65±0.58)10-4.T5±1.exp(5840±175cal/molRT)(836K-1387K) + kVI=(2.58±0.06)106.T2.17±0.37.exp(1461±55cal/molRT)(891K-1357K) + kVII=(3.08±0.05)106.T2.18±0.37.exp(1317±38cal/molRT)(881K-1377K) +

  2. Unimolecular decomposition of formic and acetic acids: A shock tube/laser absorption study

    KAUST Repository

    Elwardany, A.; Nasir, E.F.; Es-sebbar, Et-touhami; Farooq, Aamir

    2014-01-01

    The thermal decomposition of formic acid (HCOOH) and acetic acid (CH3COOH), two carboxylic acids which play an important role in oxygenate combustion chemistry, were investigated behind reflected shock waves using laser absorption. The rate constants of the primary decomposition pathways of these acids:(HCOOH → CO + H2 O (R 1); HCOOH → CO2 + H2 (R 2); CH3 COOH → CH4 + CO2 (R 3); CH3 COOH → CH2 CO + H2 O (R 4)) were measured using simultaneous infrared laser absorption of CO, CO2 and H2O at wavelengths of 4.56, 4.18 and 2.93 microns, respectively. Reaction test conditions covered temperatures from 1230 to 1821 K and pressures from 1.0 to 6.5 atm for dilute mixtures of acids (0.25-0.6%) in argon. The rate constants of dehydration (R1) and decarboxylation (R2) reactions of formic acid were calculated by fitting exponential functions to the measured CO, CO2 and H2O time-history profiles. These two decomposition channels were found to be in the fall-off region and have a branching ratio, k1/k2, of approximately 20 over the range of pressures studied here. The best-fit Arrhenius expressions of the first-order rates of R1 and R2 were found to be:(k1 (1 atm) = 1.03 × 1011 exp (- 25651 / T) s- 1 (± 37 %); k1 (6.5 atm) = 9.12 × 1012 exp (- 30275 / T) s- 1 (± 32 %); k2 (1 atm) = 1.79 × 108 exp (- 21133 / T) s- 1 (± 41 %); k2 (6.5 atm) = 2.73 × 108 exp (- 20074 / T) s- 1 (± 37 %)). The rate constants for acetic acid decomposition were obtained by fitting simulated profiles, using an acetic acid pyrolysis mechanism, to the measured species time-histories. The branching ratio, k4/k3, was found to be approximately 2. The decarboxylation and dehydration reactions of acetic acid appear to be in the falloff region over the tested pressure range:(k3 (1 atm) = 3.18 × 1011 exp (- 28679 / T) s- 1 (± 30 %); k3 (6 atm) = 3.51 × 1012 exp (- 31330 / T) s- 1 (± 26 %); k4 (1 atm) = 7.9 × 1011 exp (- 29056 / T) s- 1 (± 34 %); k4 (6 atm) = 6.34 × 1012 exp (- 31330 / T) s

  3. Shock tube measurements of the rate constants for seven large alkanes+OH

    KAUST Repository

    Badra, Jihad

    2015-01-01

    Reaction rate constants for seven large alkanes + hydroxyl (OH) radicals were measured behind reflected shock waves using OH laser absorption. The alkanes, n-hexane, 2-methyl-pentane, 3-methyl-pentane, 2,2-dimethyl-butane, 2,3-dimethyl-butane, 2-methyl-heptane, and 4-methyl-heptane, were selected to investigate the rates of site-specific H-abstraction by OH at secondary and tertiary carbons. Hydroxyl radicals were monitored using narrow-line-width ring-dye laser absorption of the R1(5) transition of the OH spectrum near 306.7 nm. The high sensitivity of the diagnostic enabled the use of low reactant concentrations and pseudo-first-order kinetics. Rate constants were measured at temperatures ranging from 880 K to 1440 K and pressures near 1.5 atm. High-temperature measurements of the rate constants for OH + n-hexane and OH + 2,2-dimethyl-butane are in agreement with earlier studies, and the rate constants of the five other alkanes with OH, we believe, are the first direct measurements at combustion temperatures. Using these measurements and the site-specific H-abstraction measurements of Sivaramakrishnan and Michael (2009) [1,2], general expressions for three secondary and two tertiary abstraction rates were determined as follows (the subscripts indicate the number of carbon atoms bonded to the next-nearest-neighbor carbon): S20=1.58×10-11exp(-1550K/T)cm3molecule-1s-1(887-1327K)S30=2.37×10-11exp(-1850K/T)cm3molecule-1s-1(887-1327K)S21=4.5×10-12exp(-793.7K/T)cm3molecule-1s-1(833-1440K)T100=2.85×10-11exp(-1138.3K/T)cm3molecule-1s-1(878-1375K)T101=7.16×10-12exp(-993K/T)cm3molecule-1s-1(883-1362K) © 2014 The Combustion Institute.

  4. A shock tube study of the branching ratios of propene + OH reaction

    KAUST Repository

    Badra, Jihad

    2014-12-01

    Absolute rate coefficients for the reaction of the OH radical with propene (C3H6) and five deuterated isotopes, propene-1-D1 (CDHCHCH3), propene-1,1-D2 (CD2CHCH3), propene-1,1,2-D3 (CD2CDCH3), propene-3,3,3-D3 (CH2CHCD3), and propene-D6 (C3D6), were measured behind reflected shock waves over the temperature range of 818-1460 K and pressures near 1 atm. The reaction progress was followed by monitoring the OH radical near 306.7 nm using UV laser absorption. Kinetic isotope effects in the measured rate coefficients are discussed and rationalized for the site-specific H-abstraction by the OH radical. The first experimental measurements for the branching ratio of the title reaction are reported and compared with transition state theory calculations. The allylic H-atom abstraction of propene by OH radicals was found to be the most dominant reaction pathway followed by propen-1-yl and propen-2-yl channels over the entire temperature range of this study. The derived Arrhenius expressions for various site-specific rate coefficients over 818-1442 K are (the subscript in the rate coefficient identifies the position of H or D atom according to the IUPAC nomenclature of alkenes):k3,H = 2.32 × 10-11 exp(-2341 K/T) cm3 molecule-1 s-1k3,D = 1.96 × 10-11 exp(-2420 K/T) cm3 molecule-1 s-1k1,H = 1.39 × 10-11 exp(-2270 K/T) cm3 molecule-1 s-1k1,D = 1.95 × 10-11 exp(-2868 K/T) cm3 molecule-1 s-1k2,H = 7.2 × 10-12 exp(-2282 K/T) cm3 molecule-1 s-1k2,D = 7.69 × 10-12 exp(-2575 K/T) cm3 molecule-1 s-1 This journal is

  5. A shock tube study of C4–C6 straight chain alkenes + OH reactions

    KAUST Repository

    Khaled, Fathi; Badra, Jihad; Farooq, Aamir

    2016-01-01

    Alkenes are known to be good octane boosters and they are major components of commercial fuels. Detailed theoretical calculations and direct kinetic measurements of elementary reactions of alkenes with combustion radicals are scarce for C4 alkenes and they are practically absent for C5 and larger alkenes. The overall rate coefficients for the reaction of OH radical with 1-butene (CH CHCH CH, k ), 1-pentene (CH CHCH CH-CH, k ), cis/trans 2-pentene (CH CHCHCH CH, k and k ), 1-hexene (CH CHCH CH CH CH, k ) and cis/trans 2-hexene (CH CHCHCH CH CH, k and k ) were measured behind reflected shock waves over the temperature range of 833-1377K and pressures near 1.5atm. The reaction progress was followed by measuring mole fraction of OH radicals near 306.7nm using UV laser absorption technique. It is found that the rate coefficients of OH+trans-2-alkenes are larger than those of OH+cis-2-alkenes, followed by OH+1-alkenes. The derived Arrhenius expressions for the overall rate coefficients (in cm.mol.s) are:. kI=(4.83±0.03)104.T2.72±0.01.exp(940.8±2.9cal/molRT)(946K-1256K) + kII=(5.66±0.54)10-1.T4.14±0.80.exp(4334±227cal/molRT)(875K-1379K) + kIII=(3.25±0.12)104.T2.76±0.5.exp(1962±83cal/molRT)(877K-1336K) + kIV=(3.42±0.09)104.T2.76±0.5.exp(1995±59cal/molRT)(833K-1265K) + kV=(7.65±0.58)10-4.T5±1.exp(5840±175cal/molRT)(836K-1387K) + kVI=(2.58±0.06)106.T2.17±0.37.exp(1461±55cal/molRT)(891K-1357K) + kVII=(3.08±0.05)106.T2.18±0.37.exp(1317±38cal/molRT)(881K-1377K) +

  6. 29th International Symposium on Shock Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Ranjan, Devesh

    2015-01-01

    This proceedings present the results of the 29th International Symposium on Shock Waves (ISSW29) which was held in Madison, Wisconsin, U.S.A., from July 14 to July 19, 2013. It was organized by the Wisconsin Shock Tube Laboratory, which is part of the College of Engineering of the University of Wisconsin-Madison. The ISSW29 focused on the following areas: Blast Waves, Chemically Reactive Flows, Detonation and Combustion,  Facilities, Flow Visualization, Hypersonic Flow, Ignition, Impact and Compaction, Industrial Applications, Magnetohydrodynamics, Medical and Biological Applications, Nozzle Flow, Numerical Methods, Plasmas, Propulsion, Richtmyer-Meshkov Instability, Shock-Boundary Layer Interaction, Shock Propagation and Reflection, Shock Vortex Interaction, Shock Waves in Condensed Matter, Shock Waves in Multiphase Flow, as well as Shock Waves in Rarefield Flow. The two Volumes contain the papers presented at the symposium and serve as a reference for the participants of the ISSW 29 and individuals interes...

  7. Experimental validation of GASDECOM for High Heating Value Processed Gas mixtures (58 MJ/m3) by specialized shock tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botros, K.K.; Geerligs, J.; Carlson, L.; Reed, M.

    2013-01-01

    One of the fundamental requirements of the design of pipelines is the control of propagating ductile fracture, in which the Battelle two-curve method still forms the basis of the analytical framework used throughout the industry. The GASDECOM (GAS DECOMpression) tool is typically used for calculating decompression wave speed, which is one of these two curves. It uses the BWRS (Benedict–Webb–Rubin–Starling) equation of state to idealize the decompression process as isentropic and one-dimensional. While this equation of state was developed and validated against a quite restricted range of gas compositions, GASDECOM continues to perform relatively well for compositions slightly outside the original range of BWRS. The present research was focused on examining the performance of GASDECOM for mixture compositions up to a High (gross) Heating Value (HHV) of 58 MJ/m 3 . Four tests were conducted using a specialized high pressure shock tube (42 m long, I.D. = 38.1 mm) to experimentally determine the decompression wave speeds and compare them to the predictions by GASDECOM. Two tests were conducted on a gas mixture of HHV = 52 MJ/m 3 and the other two on even richer gas mixture of HHV = 58 MJ/m 3 , all were from nominal initial pressures of 15 MPa and initial temperatures of 40 °C. The results from these tests show that decompression wave speeds are consistent with predictions of GASDECOM for gases of HHV typical of the previously validated range of BWRS. Predictions of the saturation pressure represented by the plateau pressure in the decompression wave speed curve were also in good agreement with measurements despite the fact that they occurred close to the critical point of the respective mixture compositions. -- Highlights: • Performance of GASDECOM for mixture up to HHV of 58 MJ/m3 was examined. • Experiments were conducted using a specialized high pressure shock. • Results show that decompression speeds are consistent with predictions of GASDECOM.

  8. The Shock and Vibration Bulletin. Part 4. Dynamic Properties of Materials, Applications of Materials, Shock and Blast, Fragments

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    individual m.crophone readings using the following standard formula: SPI- AVE " ,0 LOG ( S lOSPM/lo/n) i*I ’ where: SPLAVE " Sound pressure...Godes- berg 1975 |4| NEIER-DemBERG. K.-E.i ’Reference Pa- rameters for Shock Inputs and Shock Tolerance Limits. ACARO Conference Proceedings No...occurrence In the Polsson counting process, equals v.{t), the av - erage barrier crossing rate of the response ran- dom process for a barrier with

  9. Photographic inspection apparatus and process to know the shape and the dimensions of the end parts of steam generator tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, A.

    1986-01-01

    Before any inspection or repair operation of the tubes of a steam generator, one needs to know the shape and the dimension of the hole of the tube in the near the primary face of the tube plate. The photographic inspection apparatus is moved parallel with the tube plate, inside the water box, such as its optical axis keeps parallel to a determined direction during its displacement. One takes successively photographs of the primary face of the tube plate with the photographic apparatus in different positions, to obtain at least two photographs of each tube to be inspected, under different angles. Photographs are developed at a determined scale of the primary face of the tube plate and of the tube ends. The photographs are oriented two by two to obtain a stereophotogrammetric view of the end parts of each tube. Measurements and examinations are done from the stereophotogrammetric view obtained for each tube, outside the steam generator zone. The invention concerns the process and also the photographic apparatus described in the present patent [fr

  10. TRENDS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF DETONATION ENGINES FOR HIGH-SPEED AEROSPACE AIRCRAFTS AND THE PROBLEM OF TRIPLE CONFIGURATIONS OF SHOCK WAVES. Part II - Research of counterpropagating shock waves and triple shock wave configurations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. Bulat

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with current issues of the interference theory development of gas-dynamic discontinuities as applied to a problem of propulsion refinement for the air-spacecrafts, designed for hypersonic flight speeds. In the first part of the review we have presented the history of detonation study and different concepts of detonation engines, as well as air intakes designed for hypersonic flight speeds. The second part provides an overview of works on the interference theory development for gas-dynamic discontinuities. We report about classification of the gas-dynamic discontinuities, shock wave propagation, shock-wave structures and triple configurations of shock waves. We have shown that many of these processes are accompanied by a hysteresis phenomenon, there are areas of ambiguity; therefore, in the design of engines and air intakes optimal shock-wave structures should be provided and their sustainability should be ensured. Much attention has recently been given to the use of the air intakes in the shock-wave structures with the rereflection of shock waves and the interference of shock waves in the opposite directions. This review provides increased focus on it, contains references to landmark works, the last calculated and experimental results. Unfortunately, foreign surveys missed many landmark works of the Soviet and Russian researchers, as they were not published in English. At the same time, it was the Soviet school of gas dynamics that has formulated the interference theory of gas-dynamic discontinuities in its present form. To fill this gap is one of this review scopes. The review may be recommended for professionals, engineers and scientists working in the field of aerospace engineering.

  11. Shock tube study of the reactions of the hydroxyl radical with combustion species and pollutants. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, N.; Koffend, J.B.

    1998-02-01

    Shock heating t-butyl hydroperoxide behind a reflected shock wave has proved to be as a convenient source of hydroxyl radicals at temperatures near 1000 K. We applied this technique to the measurement of reaction rate coefficients of OH with several species of interest in combustion chemistry, and developed a thermochemical kinetics/transition state theory (TK-TST) model for predicting the temperature dependence of OH rate coefficients.

  12. New Bayesian inference method using two steps of Markov chain Monte Carlo and its application to shock tube experiment data of Furan oxidation

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Daesang

    2016-01-06

    A new Bayesian inference method has been developed and applied to Furan shock tube experimental data for efficient statistical inferences of the Arrhenius parameters of two OH radical consumption reactions. The collected experimental data, which consist of time series signals of OH radical concentrations of 14 shock tube experiments, may require several days for MCMC computations even with the support of a fast surrogate of the combustion simulation model, while the new method reduces it to several hours by splitting the process into two steps of MCMC: the first inference of rate constants and the second inference of the Arrhenius parameters. Each step has low dimensional parameter spaces and the second step does not need the executions of the combustion simulation. Furthermore, the new approach has more flexibility in choosing the ranges of the inference parameters, and the higher speed and flexibility enable the more accurate inferences and the analyses of the propagation of errors in the measured temperatures and the alignment of the experimental time to the inference results.

  13. Coupled Fluid-Solid Interaction Under Shock Wave Loading: Part II - Dynamic Interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tipton, David Gregory [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Christon, Mark Allen [CTO Offce, Dassault Systµemes SIMULIA, Providence, RI (United States); Ingber, Marc Stuart [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Department of Mechanical Engineering

    2009-07-01

    This article is the second of two that consider the treatment of fluid-solid interaction problems where the solid experiences wave loading and large bulk Lagrangian displacements. In part-I, we presented the formulation for the edge-based unstructured-grid Euler solver in the context of a discontinuous- Galerkin framework with the extensions used to treat internal fluid-solid interfaces. A super-sampled L2 projection was used to construct level-set data from the Lagrangian interface, and a narrow-band approach was used to identify and construct appropriate ghost data and boundary conditions at the fluid-solid interface. A series of benchmark problems were used to verify the treatment of the fluid-solid interface conditions with a static interface position. In this paper, we consider the treatment of dynamic interfaces and the associated large bulk Lagrangian displacements of the solid.We present the coupled dynamic fluid-solid system, and develop an explicit, monolithic treatment of the fully-coupled system. The conditions associated with moving interfaces and their implementation are discussed. A comparison of moving vs. fixed reference frames is used to verify the dynamic interface treatment. Lastly, a series of two and and three-dimensional projectile and shock-body interaction calculations are presented. Ultimately, the use of the Lagrangian interface position and a super-sampled projection for fast level-set construction, the narrow-band extraction of ghost data, and monolithic explicit solution algorithm has proved to be a computationally efficient means for treating shock induced fluid-solid interaction problems.

  14. In-tube flow boiling of R-407C and R-407C/oil mixtures. Part 1: Microfin tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuercher, O; Thome, J R; Favrat, D

    1999-07-01

    In-tube evaporation tests for R-407C and R-407C/oil are reported for a microfin tube. The tests were run at a nominal inlet pressure of 645 kPa (93.5 psia) at mass velocities of 100, 200 and 300 kg/(m{sup 2}{center{underscore}dot}s) (20.5, 41, and 61 lb/s{center{underscore}dot}ft{sup 2}) over nearly the entire vapor quality range. At similar operating conditions, pure R-407C performed similarly to previous pure R-134a tests at the highest mass velocity, but lower than R-134a for the other mass velocities. Any amount of oil tended to decrease local R-407C microfin heat transfer coefficients, especially at high vapor qualities were degradations of as much as 50% or more occurred. Two-phase pressure drops were increased by the presence of oil, especially at high vapor qualities. Buildup of the local oil mass fraction in the microfin test sections was observed at high vapor qualities, together with the formation of slowly flowing viscous liquid films, a phenomenon that became more acute at lower mass velocities.

  15. Vibration impact acoustic emission technique for identification and analysis of defects in carbon steel tubes: Part B Cluster analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halim, Zakiah Abd [Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka (Malaysia); Jamaludin, Nordin; Junaidi, Syarif [Faculty of Engineering and Built, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi (Malaysia); Yahya, Syed Yusainee Syed [Universiti Teknologi MARA, Shah Alam (Malaysia)

    2015-04-15

    Current steel tubes inspection techniques are invasive, and the interpretation and evaluation of inspection results are manually done by skilled personnel. Part A of this work details the methodology involved in the newly developed non-invasive, non-destructive tube inspection technique based on the integration of vibration impact (VI) and acoustic emission (AE) systems known as the vibration impact acoustic emission (VIAE) technique. AE signals have been introduced into a series of ASTM A179 seamless steel tubes using the impact hammer. Specifically, a good steel tube as the reference tube and four steel tubes with through-hole artificial defect at different locations were used in this study. The AEs propagation was captured using a high frequency sensor of AE systems. The present study explores the cluster analysis approach based on autoregressive (AR) coefficients to automatically interpret the AE signals. The results from the cluster analysis were graphically illustrated using a dendrogram that demonstrated the arrangement of the natural clusters of AE signals. The AR algorithm appears to be the more effective method in classifying the AE signals into natural groups. This approach has successfully classified AE signals for quick and confident interpretation of defects in carbon steel tubes.

  16. Vibration impact acoustic emission technique for identification and analysis of defects in carbon steel tubes: Part B Cluster analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halim, Zakiah Abd; Jamaludin, Nordin; Junaidi, Syarif; Yahya, Syed Yusainee Syed

    2015-01-01

    Current steel tubes inspection techniques are invasive, and the interpretation and evaluation of inspection results are manually done by skilled personnel. Part A of this work details the methodology involved in the newly developed non-invasive, non-destructive tube inspection technique based on the integration of vibration impact (VI) and acoustic emission (AE) systems known as the vibration impact acoustic emission (VIAE) technique. AE signals have been introduced into a series of ASTM A179 seamless steel tubes using the impact hammer. Specifically, a good steel tube as the reference tube and four steel tubes with through-hole artificial defect at different locations were used in this study. The AEs propagation was captured using a high frequency sensor of AE systems. The present study explores the cluster analysis approach based on autoregressive (AR) coefficients to automatically interpret the AE signals. The results from the cluster analysis were graphically illustrated using a dendrogram that demonstrated the arrangement of the natural clusters of AE signals. The AR algorithm appears to be the more effective method in classifying the AE signals into natural groups. This approach has successfully classified AE signals for quick and confident interpretation of defects in carbon steel tubes.

  17. Simultaneous measurements of acetylene and soot during the pyrolysis of ethylene and benzene in a shock tube

    KAUST Repository

    KC, Utsav; Beshir, Mohamed; Farooq, Aamir

    2016-01-01

    reflected shock waves at temperatures of 1600-2200. K and pressures of 3-5. bar. Acetylene mole fraction time-histories are measured from the absorption of a quantum-cascade laser operating around 13.6. μm. The soot volume fraction, particle size and number

  18. High-temperature shock tube and modeling studies on the reactions of methanol with D-atoms and CH3-radicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peukert, S L; Michael, J V

    2013-10-10

    The shock tube technique has been used to study the hydrogen abstraction reactions D + CH3OH → CH2O + H + HD (A) and CH3 + CH3OH → CH2O + H + CH4 (B). For reaction A, the experiments span a T-range of 1016 K ≤ T ≤ 1325 K, at pressures 0.25 bar ≤ P ≤ 0.46 bar. The experiments on reaction B, CH3 + CH3OH, cover a T-range of 1138 K ≤ T ≤ 1270 K, at pressures around 0.40 bar. Reflected shock tube experiments, monitoring the depletion of D-atoms by applying D-atom atomic resonance absorption spectrometry (ARAS), were performed on reaction A using gas mixtures of C2D5I and CH3OH in Kr bath gas. C2D5I was used as precursor for D-atoms. For reaction B, reflected shock tube experiments monitoring H-atom formation with H-ARAS, were carried out using gas mixtures of diacetyl ((CH3CO)2) and CH3OH in Kr bath gas. (CH3CO)2 was used as the source of CH3-radicals. Detailed reaction models were assembled to fit the D-atom and H-atom time profiles in order to obtain experimental rate constants for reactions A and B. Total rate constants from the present experiments on D + CH3OH and CH3 + CH3OH can be represented by the Arrhenius equations kA(T) = 1.51 × 10(-10) exp(-3843 K/T) cm(3) molecules(-1) s(-1) (1016 K ≤ T ≤ 1325 K) and kB(T) = 9.62 × 10(-12) exp(-7477 K/T) cm(3) molecules(-1) s(-1) (1138 K ≤ T ≤ 1270 K). The experimentally obtained rate constants were compared with available rate data from the literature. The results from quantum chemical studies on reaction A were found to be in good agreement with the present results. The present work represents the first direct experimental study on these bimolecular reactions at combustion temperatures and is important to the high-temperature oxidation of CH3OH.

  19. Ideal shocks in 2-layer flow Part I: Under a rigid lid

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Qingfang; Smith, Ronald B.

    2011-01-01

    Previous work on the classical problem of shocks in a 2-layer density-stratified fluid used eithera parameterized momentum exchange or an assumed Bernoulli loss. We propose a new theorybased on a set of viscous model equations. We define an idealized shock in two-layer densitystratified flow under a rigid lid as a jump or drop of the interface in which (1) the force balanceremains nearly hydrostatic in the shock, (2) there is no exchange of momentum between thetwo layers except by pressure fo...

  20. The Shock and Vibration Bulletin: Proceedings on the Symposium on ShocK and Vibration (52nd) Held in New Orleans, Louisiana on 26-28 October 1981. Part 3. Environmental Testing and Simulation, Flight Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-05-01

    total length of sient of the shock wave passage is difficult, the shock tube is approximately 48.77 peters (160 but our studies (1) indicate that...TIME( SEC) zec . SLY~~ ~ ~ t 9)~’ -0 VI’FFFHNUO12 o I* 7440 +55 47~5SEP.O74T FUSLf TIESC * /UC I I’LIGH T IME (S C) S~~Sy It-O 1-04M 2IS (SIC) SI NOLL

  1. Shock-tube study of the decomposition of tetramethylsilane using gas chromatography and high-repetition-rate time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sela, P; Peukert, S; Herzler, J; Fikri, M; Schulz, C

    2018-04-25

    The decomposition of tetramethylsilane was studied in shock-tube experiments in a temperature range of 1270-1580 K and pressures ranging from 1.5 to 2.3 bar behind reflected shock waves combining gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and high-repetition-rate time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HRR-TOF-MS). The main observed products were methane (CH4), ethylene (C2H4), ethane (C2H6), and acetylene (C2H2). In addition, the formation of a solid deposit was observed, which was identified to consist of silicon- and carbon-containing nanoparticles. A kinetics sub-mechanism with 13 silicon species and 20 silicon-containing reactions was developed. It was combined with the USC_MechII mechanism for hydrocarbons, which was able to simulate the experimental observations. The main decomposition channel of TMS is the Si-C bond scission forming methyl (CH3) and trimethylsilyl radicals (Si(CH3)3). The rate constant for TMS decomposition is represented by the Arrhenius expression ktotal[TMS → products] = 5.9 × 1012 exp(-267 kJ mol-1/RT) s-1.

  2. Failure analysis of leakage on titanium tubes within heat exchangers in a nuclear power plant. Part II: Mechanical degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Y.; Yang, Z.G. [Department of Materials Science, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Yuan, J.Z. [Third Qinshan Nuclear Power Co. Ltd., Haiyan, Zhejiang Province (China)

    2012-01-15

    Serious failure incidents like clogging, quick thinning, and leakage frequently occurred on lots of titanium tubes of heat exchangers in a nuclear power plant in China. In the Part I of the whole failure analysis study with totally two parts, factors mainly involving three kinds of electrochemical corrosions were investigated, including galvanic corrosion, crevice corrosion, and hydrogen-assisted corrosion. In the current Part II, through microscopically analyzing the ruptures on the leaked tubes by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), another four causes dominantly lying in the aspect of mechanical degradation were determined - clogging, erosion, mechanical damaging, and fretting. Among them, the erosion effect was the primary one, thus the stresses it exerted on the tube wall were also supplementarily evaluated by finite element method (FEM). Based on the analysis results, the different degradation extents and morphologies by erosion on the tubes when they were clogged by different substances such as seashell, rubber debris, and sediments were compared, and relevant mechanisms were discussed. Finally, countermeasures were put forward as well. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. MIGRE: an Expert System as an aid for loose part diagnosis and mechanical shocks interpretation in nuclear plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monnier, B.; Puyal, C.; Fernandes, A.; Martin, C.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents an application of the expert system technique to one of the functions which participate to the surveillance of the primary circuit of water-pressurized reactors: the detection of loose parts and the interpretation of mechanical shocks. First, we describe the domain of expertise and the context in which this expert system will be used. Then we deal with the principles and the different levels involved in the knowledge modeling and with the structure of the expert system

  4. Development of velocity interferometer and its application to piston motion measurement in a compression tube of freepiston shock tube; Sokudo kanshokei no kaihatsu to sono jiyu piston shogekihakan no asshuku kannai no piston undo no keisoku eno oyo ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koremoto, K.; Hashimoto, T. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Takayama, K. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Inst. of Fluid Science; Ito, K [National Aerospace Laboratory, Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-10-25

    A free piston shock tunnel has been intensively used as a hypersonic flow ground test facility and its characteristics depend sensitively upon the piston motion in its compression tube. The continuous measurement of the piston motion in its compression tube was studied in an analogue facility in which a piston motion in a 50mm dia. and 2000mm long compression tube was measured continuously and accurately from its start to the collision with bumper section. To achieve it a velocity interferometer was developed particularly to measure the piston speed in it. Then piston motions were successfully measured and result agreed very well with numerical result. (author)

  5. Transferability of decompression wave speed measured by a small-diameter shock tube to full size pipelines and implications for determining required fracture propagation resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botros, K.K.; Geerligs, J.; Rothwell, Brian; Carlson, Lorne; Fletcher, Leigh; Venton, Philip

    2010-01-01

    The control of propagating ductile (or tearing) fracture is a fundamental requirement in the fracture control design of pipelines. The Battelle two-curve method developed in the early 1970s still forms the basis of the analytical framework used throughout the industry. GASDECOM is typically used for calculating decompression speed, and idealizes the decompression process as isentropic and one-dimensional, taking no account of frictional effects. While this approximation appears not to have been a major issue for large-diameter pipes and for moderate pressures (up to 12 MPa), there have been several recent full-scale burst tests at higher pressures and smaller diameters for which the measured decompression velocity has deviated progressively from the predicted values, in general towards lower velocities. The present research was focused on determining whether pipe diameter was a major factor that could limit the applicability of frictionless models such as GASDECOM. Since potential diameter effects are primarily related to wall friction, which in turn is related to the ratio of surface roughness-to-diameter, an experimental approach was developed based on keeping the diameter constant, at a sufficiently small value to allow for an economical experimental arrangement, and varying the internal roughness. A series of tests covering a range of nominal initial pressures from 10 to 21 MPa, and involving a very lean gas and three progressively richer compositions, were conducted using two specialized high-pressure shock tubes (42 m long, I.D. = 38.1 mm). The first is honed to an extremely smooth surface finish, in order to minimize frictional effects and better simulate the behaviour of larger-diameter pipelines, while the second has a higher internal surface roughness. The results show that decompression wave speeds in the rough tube are consistently slower than those in the smooth tube under the same conditions of mixture composition and initial pressure and temperature

  6. Influence of upstream disturbance on the draft-tube flow of Francis turbine under part-load conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ting; Zheng, Xianghao; Zhang, Yu-ning; Li, Shengcai

    2018-02-01

    Owing to the part-load operations for the enhancement of grid flexibility, the Francis turbine often suffers from severe low-frequency and large-amplitude hydraulic instability, which is mostly pertinent to the highly unsteady swirling vortex rope in the draft tube. The influence of disturbances in the upstream (e.g., large-scale vortex structures in the spiral casing) on the draft-tube vortex flow is not well understood yet. In the present paper, the influence of the upstream disturbances on the vortical flow in the draft tube is studied based on the vortex identification method and the analysis of several important parameters (e.g., the swirl number and the velocity profile). For a small guide vane opening (representing the part-load condition), the vortices triggered in the spiral casing propagate downstream and significantly affect the swirling vortex-rope precession in the draft tube, leading to the changes of the intensity and the processional frequency of the swirling vortex rope. When the guide vane opening approaches the optimum one (representing the full-load condition), the upstream disturbance becomes weaker and thus its influences on the downstream flow are very limited.

  7. Shock and vibration environments for a large shipping container during truck transport (Part II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnuson, C.E.

    1978-05-01

    Purpose of this study was to obtain vibration and shock data during truck shipment of heavy cargo. These data were for use in determining any trends of vibration and shock environments with increased cargo weight. The new data were obtained on a ''piggyback'' basis during truck transport of 249 100N (56,000-pound) cargo which consisted of a spent fuel container and its supporting structure. The truck was driven from Mercury, Nevada, to Albuquerque, New Mexico. The routes traveled were US 95 from Mercury, Nevada, to Las Vegas, Nevada; US 93 from Las Vegas to Kingman, Arizona; and I-40/US 66 from Kingman to Albuquerque, New Mexico. Speeds varied from very slow to 88 km/hr (55 mph). A comparison of data from similar experiments with cargo weights varying from no-load to this load shows that the zero-to-peak acceleration amplitude levels of vibration are highest when trucks carry relatively light loads. This is true for the longitudinal and vertical axes of the vehicles in most frequency bands and for the transverse axis above 700 Hz. The shock response acceleration amplitudes for heavier cargo weights were less severe above 3 Hz in the vertical axis and higher between 8 and 20 Hz in the transverse axis. The highest acceleration amplitude of shock response in the longitudinal axis below about 20 Hz was produced in a trailer having a spring suspension system and carrying the 249 100N (56,000 pounds) load

  8. The Shock and Vibration Bulletin. Part 4. Damping and Machinery Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-05-01

    VIBRATION CHALLENGES IN J^.CROELECTRONICS MANUFACTURING Dr. Eric Ungar, Bolt Beranek and Newman, Inc., Cambridge, MA and Colin G. Gordon, Bolt...Modes)," Shock and Vibra- tion Bulletin No. 48, Sept. 1978. B.K. Wada, R. Bamford , and J.A. Garba, "Equivalent Spring-Mass Sys- tems: A Physical

  9. The Shock and Vibration Bulletin. Part 2. Invited Papers, Structural Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-08-01

    ANALYSIS 47 R.F. Davis and D.E. Hines, McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Company, Huntington Beach, California PREDICTION OF SHOCK ENVIRONMENTS BY...data was taken during systea-level tests to cor- roborate predicted loads and/or coaponent environments. During the analytical/empirical phase of...Test Model (TETM) - To prove the thermal control system and anal- yses; 2. The Lander Structural Test Model ( LSTM ) - To apply calculated flight

  10. Simultaneous measurements of acetylene and soot during the pyrolysis of ethylene and benzene in a shock tube

    KAUST Repository

    KC, Utsav

    2016-10-12

    Acetylene is one of the most important precursors of soot and contributes to soot growth by the hydrogen-abstraction acetylene-addition (HACA) mechanism. In this work, we undertake time-resolved simultaneous measurements of acetylene and soot behind reflected shock waves at temperatures of 1600-2200. K and pressures of 3-5. bar. Acetylene mole fraction time-histories are measured from the absorption of a quantum-cascade laser operating around 13.6. μm. The soot volume fraction, particle size and number densities are calculated from the extinction and scattering of a cw Nd:Yag laser at 532. nm. Acetylene and soot are generated from the pyrolysis of 1% benzene in argon, 2.35% ethylene in argon, and binary mixtures of ethylene with propane/methane in argon. We note that acetylene time-histories exhibit a two-stage growth during the pyrolysis of benzene, which can be correlated to the initial rapid increase of soot volume fraction and a later plateauing. In comparison to ethylene pyrolysis, the pyrolysis of benzene results in larger values of the soot volume fraction, particle diameter and number density. We compare the measured data against the values simulated using the method-of-moments routine in Chemkin-Pro and a detailed PAH mechanism based on KM2 [1] and AramcoMech 1.3 [2]. Large discrepancies are observed between the measured and predicted values of the soot parameters. The data obtained from our experiments may assist future validation and development of soot mechanisms.

  11. A high-temperature shock tube kinetic study for the branching ratios of isobutene+OH reaction

    KAUST Repository

    Khaled, Fathi

    2016-10-11

    Isobutene is an important intermediate formed during the oxidation of branched alkanes. It also appears as a byproduct during the combustion of methyl-tert-butyl-ether (MTBE) which is used as octane enhancer in gasolines. To understand better the oxidation kinetics of isobutene, we have measured the rate coefficients for the reaction of OH radicals with isobutene (HCC(CH)) behind reflected shock waves over the temperature range of 830-1289K and pressures near 1.5atm. The reaction progress was followed by measuring mole fraction of OH radicals near 306.7nm using UV laser absorption technique. Three deuterated isotopes, isobutene-1-d2 (DCC(CH)), isobutene-3-d6 (HCC(CD)) and isobutene-d8 (DCC(CD)) were employed to elucidate branching ratios of the allylic and vinylic H-abstraction from isobutene by OH radicals. H-abstraction from the allylic sites was found to be dominant and constituted about 75% of the total rate in the entire temperature range of the current work. The derived three-parameter Arrhenius expressions for site-specific H- and D- abstraction rates over 830-1289K are (units:cm mol s):k3,H=6.98×106(TK)1.77exp(-136.6KT) k3,D=4.42×106(TK)1.8exp(-361.7KT) k1,H=6.25×105(TK)2.16exp(-711.6KT) k1,D=3.13×107(TK)1.67exp(-1814KT) The subscript of . k identifies the position of H or D atom in isobutene according to the IUPAC nomenclature of alkenes.

  12. A high-temperature shock tube kinetic study for the branching ratios of isobutene+OH reaction

    KAUST Repository

    Khaled, Fathi; Giri, Binod; Farooq, Aamir

    2016-01-01

    Isobutene is an important intermediate formed during the oxidation of branched alkanes. It also appears as a byproduct during the combustion of methyl-tert-butyl-ether (MTBE) which is used as octane enhancer in gasolines. To understand better the oxidation kinetics of isobutene, we have measured the rate coefficients for the reaction of OH radicals with isobutene (HCC(CH)) behind reflected shock waves over the temperature range of 830-1289K and pressures near 1.5atm. The reaction progress was followed by measuring mole fraction of OH radicals near 306.7nm using UV laser absorption technique. Three deuterated isotopes, isobutene-1-d2 (DCC(CH)), isobutene-3-d6 (HCC(CD)) and isobutene-d8 (DCC(CD)) were employed to elucidate branching ratios of the allylic and vinylic H-abstraction from isobutene by OH radicals. H-abstraction from the allylic sites was found to be dominant and constituted about 75% of the total rate in the entire temperature range of the current work. The derived three-parameter Arrhenius expressions for site-specific H- and D- abstraction rates over 830-1289K are (units:cm mol s):k3,H=6.98×106(TK)1.77exp(-136.6KT) k3,D=4.42×106(TK)1.8exp(-361.7KT) k1,H=6.25×105(TK)2.16exp(-711.6KT) k1,D=3.13×107(TK)1.67exp(-1814KT) The subscript of . k identifies the position of H or D atom in isobutene according to the IUPAC nomenclature of alkenes.

  13. Measurement of impulse peak insertion loss from two acoustic test fixtures and four hearing protector conditions with an acoustic shock tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, William J.; Fackler, Cameron J.; Berger, Elliott H.; Shaw, Peter B.; Stergar, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Impulse peak insertion loss (IPIL) was studied with two acoustic test fixtures and four hearing protector conditions at the E-A-RCAL Laboratory. IPIL is the difference between the maximum estimated pressure for the open-ear condition and the maximum pressure measured when a hearing protector is placed on an acoustic test fixture (ATF). Two models of an ATF manufactured by the French-German Research Institute of Saint-Louis (ISL) were evaluated with high-level acoustic impulses created by an acoustic shock tube at levels of 134 decibels (dB), 150 dB, and 168 dB. The fixtures were identical except that the E-A-RCAL ISL fixture had ear canals that were 3 mm longer than the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) ISL fixture. Four hearing protection conditions were tested: Combat Arms earplug with the valve open, ETYPlugs® earplug, TacticalPro headset, and a dual-protector ETYPlugs earplug with TacticalPro earmuff. The IPILs measured for the E-A-RCAL fixture were 1.4 dB greater than the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) ISL ATF. For the E-A-RCAL ISL ATF, the left ear IPIL was 2.0 dB greater than the right ear IPIL. For the NIOSH ATF, the right ear IPIL was 0.3 dB greater than the left ear IPIL. PMID:26356380

  14. Influence of shock waves as a result of assumed vessel failure on parts of the plant relevant to safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danisch, R.; Graubner, U.

    1981-01-01

    The shock wave induced rupture is of subordinate importance for the laying out of the parts of the plant relevant to safety. It is covered by the precautions for maximum potential earthquakes, aircraft crashes and chemical explosions. The failure of vessels in the power house (WAZUe, SPWB) as the result of a maximum potential earthquake is extremely improbable. If a combination of the stresses resulting from maximum potential earthquakes with the hypothetical stresses resulting from vessel failure is undertaken, it can be seen that the total stresses are only increased by a minimal amount, due to the quadratic averaging of less than 3%. (orig./DG) [de

  15. Double tube heat exchanger with novel enhancement: Part I - flow development length and adiabatic friction factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiruselvam, R.; Raghavan, Vijay R. [Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Tronoh (Malaysia)

    2012-04-15

    The study is conducted to evaluate the flow characteristics in a double tube heat exchanger using two new and versatile enhancement configurations. The novelty is that they are usable in single phase forced convection, evaporation and condensation. Correlations are proposed for flow development length and friction factor for use in predicting fluid pumping power in thermal equipment as well as in subsequent heat transfer characterization of the surface. (orig.)

  16. Assessment of horizontal in-tube condensation models using MARS code. Part I: Stratified flow condensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Seong-Su [Department of Engineering Project, FNC Technology Co., Ltd., Bldg. 135-308, Seoul National University, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Soon-Joon, E-mail: sjhong90@fnctech.com [Department of Engineering Project, FNC Technology Co., Ltd., Bldg. 135-308, Seoul National University, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Ju-Yeop; Seul, Kwang-Won [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, 19 Kuseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Goon-Cherl [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This study collected 11 horizontal in-tube condensation models for stratified flow. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This study assessed the predictive capability of the models for steam condensation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Purdue-PCCS experiments were simulated using MARS code incorporated with models. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cavallini et al. (2006) model predicts well the data for stratified flow condition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Results of this study can be used to improve condensation model in RELAP5 or MARS. - Abstract: The accurate prediction of the horizontal in-tube condensation heat transfer is a primary concern in the optimum design and safety analysis of horizontal heat exchangers of passive safety systems such as the passive containment cooling system (PCCS), the emergency condenser system (ECS) and the passive auxiliary feed-water system (PAFS). It is essential to analyze and assess the predictive capability of the previous horizontal in-tube condensation models for each flow regime using various experimental data. This study assessed totally 11 condensation models for the stratified flow, one of the main flow regime encountered in the horizontal condenser, with the heat transfer data from the Purdue-PCCS experiment using the multi-dimensional analysis of reactor safety (MARS) code. From the assessments, it was found that the models by Akers and Rosson, Chato, Tandon et al., Sweeney and Chato, and Cavallini et al. (2002) under-predicted the data in the main condensation heat transfer region, on the contrary to this, the models by Rosson and Meyers, Jaster and Kosky, Fujii, Dobson and Chato, and Thome et al. similarly- or over-predicted the data, and especially, Cavallini et al. (2006) model shows good predictive capability for all test conditions. The results of this study can be used importantly to improve the condensation models in thermal hydraulic code, such as RELAP5 or MARS code.

  17. Dynamics of an inline tube array in steam-water flow. Part 2: Unsteady fluid forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mureithi, N.W.; Nakamura, T.; Hirota, K.; Murata, M.; Utsumi, S.

    1996-01-01

    The existence of fluidelastic instability in two-phase flow has been confirmed by a number of investigators to date. In essentially homogeneous two-phase flow, e.g., bubbly flow, it appears that the mechanisms underlying fluidelastic instability and the instability phenomenon are the same as those observed in single phase flow. The more general case of non-homogeneous two-phase flow, e.g., slug flow, is less amenable to straight forward interpretation by direct comparison with single phase flow mechanisms. In this paper, experimental results of unsteady fluid force measurement are reported. Important deviations of the measured fluid force from their single phase flow counterparts were uncovered. Most importantly, the resulting force coefficients are not simple functions of the reduced velocity U/fD, as is the case for single phase flow. Test results at 0.5 MPa challenge the basic assumption of the existence of a time invariant linear transfer function between tube displacement and the resulting fluid forces. Time-frequency analysis using Wignerville transforms shows that the phase difference between tube displacement and the fluid force (an indicator of stabilizing or destabilizing fluid effects) undergoes significant variation under what may be considered steady flow conditions. This variation may explain the previously reported phenomenon of intermittent fluidelastic instability in two-phase flows

  18. Planar shock focusing through perfect gas lens: First experimental demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biamino, Laurent; Mariani, Christian; Jourdan, Georges; Houas, Lazhar; Vandenboomgaerde, Marc; Souffland, Denis

    2014-01-01

    When a shock wave crosses an interface between two materials, this interface becomes unstable and the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability develops. Such instability has been extensively studied in the planar case, and numerous results were presented during the previous workshops. But the Richtmyer-Meshkov (Richtmyer, 1960, 'Taylor Instability in Shock Acceleration of Compressible Fluids,' Commun. Pure Appl. Math., 13(2), pp. 297-319; Meshkov, 1969, 'Interface of Two Gases Accelerated by a Shock Wave,' Fluid Dyn., 4(5), pp. 101-104) instability also occurs in a spherical case where the convergence effects must be taken into account. As far as we know, no conventional (straight section) shock tube facility has been used to experimentally study the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability in spherical geometry. The idea originally proposed by Dimotakis and Samtaney (2006, 'Planar Shock Cylindrical Focusing by a Perfect-Gas Lens,' Phys. Fluid., 18(3), pp. 031705-031708) and later generalized by Vandenboomgaerde and Aymard (2011, 'Analytical Theory for Planar Shock Focusing Through Perfect Gas Lens and Shock Tube Experiment Designs,' Phys. Fluid., 23(1), pp. 016101-016113) was to retain the flexibility of a conventional shock tube to convert a planar shock wave into a cylindrical one through a perfect gas lens. This can be done when a planar shock wave passes through a shaped interface between two gases. By coupling the shape with the impedance mismatch at the interface, it is possible to generate a circular transmitted shock wave. In order to experimentally check the feasibility of this approach, we have implemented the gas lens technique on a conventional shock tube with the help of a convergent test section, an elliptic stereo lithographed grid, and a nitrocellulose membrane. First experimental sequences of Schlieren images have been obtained for an incident shock wave Mach number equal to 1.15 and an air/SF_6-shaped interface. Experimental results indicate that the shock that moves

  19. Oscillating nonlinear acoustic shock waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaididei, Yuri; Rasmussen, Anders Rønne; Christiansen, Peter Leth

    2016-01-01

    We investigate oscillating shock waves in a tube using a higher order weakly nonlinear acoustic model. The model includes thermoviscous effects and is non isentropic. The oscillating shock waves are generated at one end of the tube by a sinusoidal driver. Numerical simulations show that at resona......We investigate oscillating shock waves in a tube using a higher order weakly nonlinear acoustic model. The model includes thermoviscous effects and is non isentropic. The oscillating shock waves are generated at one end of the tube by a sinusoidal driver. Numerical simulations show...... polynomial in the space and time variables, we find analytical approximations to the observed single shock waves in an infinitely long tube. Using perturbation theory for the driven acoustic system approximative analytical solutions for the off resonant case are determined....

  20. Mechanical and Radiological Characterization of Different parts of an Irradiation Coolant Channel Tube from Atucha I Nuclear Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piquin, Ruben

    2001-01-01

    The widespread replacement of reactor internals has generated a substantial volume of active material. It is essential to work with these components at least in a partial way before the next planned stop, which will take place during the second semester of the year 2002. Due to the fact that the reactor internals pool and the storage pool for irradiated nuclear fuel have limited capacities, it has been proposed to compact an experimental shift of 50 irradiated coolant channels, that are currently placed in storage pools. Basically the processed waste will be put in baskets at the bottom pools.The alternative choice proposes to divide an irradiation coolant channel tube into different parts: stainless steel section, zircaloy-4 section and stainless steel section with hardened zones with cobalt alloys named Estelite-6. The person in charge has already planned the constructive and operative solutions but the mechanical characterization of the different parts of the channel tube is necessary in order to dimension the compaction tool needed for the semi-industrial installation.In the present special report, two well-differentiated actions will be described. The necessary compacted strength of the irradiation coolant channel tube will be estimated for the stainless steel section and the zircaloy-4 section starting from experiment with unirradiated material and considering effects of radiation damage and hydrides on the ductility.These results will be used to design the necessary compacted tools for the semi-industrial installation. The necessary equipment for the radiological characterization of the different material sections already specified will be described and the most important emitting particles of radiation that could be detected will be mentioned. Also the decontamination process to use including the radiological characterization of every stage of the process will be described in order to establish the decontamination factor. Finally the most important

  1. The induced expression of heat shock proteins as a part of the early cellular response to gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stankova, K.; Ivanova, K.; Georgieva, R.; Rupova, I.; Boteva, R.

    2008-01-01

    A variety of stressful stimuli including gamma radiation can induce increase in the synthesis of heat shock proteins (Hsp). This family of molecular chaperones includes members with molecular masses ranging from 10 to 150 kDa and has been identified in all organisms from bacteria to humans. Hsp70 chaperones are very important. The present study aimed to characterize the radiation-induced changes in Hsp70 synthesis in human lymphocytes as a part of the early cellular response to gamma irradiation. The expression of Hsp70 was determined with Western blot and the radiation-induced apoptotic changes were registered by staining with fluorescent dyes. Part of the experiments were performed in the presence of the organic solvent DMSO. At low concentrations this reagent shows antioxidant activity and can reduce the level of the radiation-induced oxidant stress which determines the predominant biological effects of the ionizing radiation. Irradiation with 0.5 to 8 Gy caused statistically significant increase in the synthesis of Hsp70 which was strongest after irradiation with 4 Gy. In the range 0.5-2 Gy the enhancement of the radiation-induced synthesis of Hsp70 reached 60%. Our experimental results characterize changes in the Hsp70 synthesis after gamma irradiation as a part of the early cellular stress response in lymphocytes. (authors)

  2. Multistage open-tube trap for enrichment of part-per-trillion trace components of low-pressure (below 27-kPa) air samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohara, D.; Vo, T.; Vedder, J. F.

    1985-01-01

    A multistage open-tube trap for cryogenic collection of trace components in low-pressure air samples is described. The open-tube design allows higher volumetric flow rates than densely packed glass-bead traps commonly reported and is suitable for air samples at pressures below 27 kPa with liquid nitrogen as the cryogen. Gas blends containing 200 to 2500 parts per trillion by volume each of ethane and ethene were sampled and hydrocarbons were enriched with 100 + or - 4 percent trap efficiency. The multistage design is more efficient than equal-length open-tube traps under the conditions of the measurements.

  3. A shock tube and laser absorption study of ignition delay times and OH reaction rates of ketones: 2-Butanone and 3-buten-2-one

    KAUST Repository

    Badra, Jihad

    2014-03-01

    Ketones are potential biofuel candidates and are also formed as intermediate products during the oxidation of large hydrocarbons or oxygenated fuels, such as alcohols and esters. This paper presents shock tube ignition delay times and OH reaction rates of 2-butanone (C2H5COCH3) and 3-buten-2-one (C2H3COCH3). Ignition delay measurements were carried out over temperatures of 1100-1400K, pressures of 3-6.5atm, and at equivalence ratios (F{cyrillic}) of 0.5 and 1. Ignition delay times were monitored using two different techniques: pressure time history and OH absorption near 306nm. The reaction rates of hydroxyl radicals (OH) with these two ketones were measured over the temperature range of 950-1400K near 1.5atm. The OH profiles were monitored by the narrow-line-width ring-dye laser absorption of the well-characterized R1(5) line in the OH A-X (0, 0) band near 306.69nm. We found that the ignition delay times of 2-butanone and 3-buten-2-one mixtures scale with pressure as P-0.42 and P-0.52, respectively. The ignition delay times of 3-buten-2-one were longer than that of 2-butanone for stoichiometric mixtures, however, for lean mixtures (F{cyrillic}=0.5), 2-butanone had longer ignition delay times. The chemical kinetic mechanism of Serinyel et al. [1] over-predicted the ignition delay times of 2-butanone at all tested conditions, however, the discrepancies were smaller at higher pressures. The mechanism was updated with recent rate measurements to decrease discrepancy with the experimental data. A detailed chemistry for the oxidation of 3-buten-2-one was developed using rate estimation method and reasonable agreements were obtained with the measured ignition delay data. The measured reaction rate of 2-butanone with OH agreed well with the literature data, while we present the first high-temperature measurements for the reaction of OH with 3-buten-2-one. The following Arrhenius expressions are suggested over the temperature range of 950-1450K: kC2H5COCH3+OH=6.78×1013exp

  4. Tube holding system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunningham, R.C.

    1978-01-01

    A tube holding rig is described for the lateral support of tubes arranged in tight parcels in a heat exchanger. This tube holding rig includes not less than two tube supporting assemblies, with a space between them, located crosswise with respect to the tubes, each supporting assembly comprising a first set of parallel components in contact with the tubes, whilst a second set of components is also in contact with the tubes. These two sets of parts together define apertures through which the tubes pass [fr

  5. The Shock and Vibration Bulletin. Part 3. Skylab, Vibration Testing and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-06-01

    SPECTRA D, 0. Smallwood , Sandia Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico and A. F. Witte, Kaman Sciences, Colorado Springs, Colorado A TRANSIENT VIBRATION TEST...TECHNIQUE USING LEAST FAVORABLE RESPONSES D. 0. Smallwood , Sandia Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico PAPERS APPEARING IN PART 2 Structural...form of the time history pdf is REFERENCES determined to be independent of changes in flight condition and sensor location, the 1. Norman Johnson and

  6. The Shock and Vibration Bulletin. Part 4. Prediction and Experimental Techniques, Isolation and Damping

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-06-01

    D. 0. Smallwood , Sandia Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico and A. F. Witte, Kaman Sciences, Colorado Springs, Colorado fi TRANSIENT VIBRATION...TEST TECHNIQUE USING LEAST FAVORABLE RESPONSES D. O. Smallwood , Sandia Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico PAPERS APPEARING IN PART 2 Structural...Dynamic Systems, Measure- ments and Control, March 1971. 12. Favour, John D., Maclom C. Mitchell, and Norman L. Olson, "Transient Test Techniques for

  7. Nitric oxide participates in cold-inhibited Camellia sinensis pollen germination and tube growth partly via cGMP in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Hua Wang

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO plays essential roles in many biotic and abiotic stresses in plant development procedures, including pollen tube growth. Here, effects of NO on cold stress inhibited pollen germination and tube growth in Camellia sinensis were investigated in vitro. The NO production, NO synthase (NOS-like activity, cGMP content and proline (Pro accumulation upon treatment with NO scavenger cPTIO, NOS inhibitor L-NNA, NO donor DEA NONOate, guanylate cyclase (GC inhibitor ODQ or phosphodiesterase (PDE inhibitor Viagra at 25°C (control or 4°C were analyzed. Exposure to 4°C for 2 h reduced pollen germination and tube growth along with increase of NOS-like activity, NO production and cGMP content in pollen tubes. DEA NONOate treatment inhibited pollen germination and tube growth in a dose-dependent manner under control and reinforced the inhibition under cold stress, during which NO production and cGMP content promoted in pollen tubes. L-NNA and cPTIO markedly reduced the generation of NO induced by cold or NO donor along with partly reverse of cold- or NO donor-inhibited pollen germination and tube growth. Furthermore, ODQ reduced the cGMP content under cold stress and NO donor treatment in pollen tubes. Meanwhile, ODQ disrupted the reinforcement of NO donor on the inhibition of pollen germination and tube growth under cold condition. Additionally, Pro accumulation of pollen tubes was reduced by ODQ compared with that receiving NO donor under cold or control condition. Effects of cPTIO and L-NNA in improving cold-treated pollen germination and pollen tube growth could be lowered by Viagra. Moreover, the inhibitory effects of cPTIO and L-NNA on Pro accumulation were partly reversed by Viagra. These data suggest that NO production from NOS-like enzyme reaction decreased the cold-responsive pollen germination, inhibited tube growth and reduced Pro accumulation, partly via cGMP signaling pathway in C. sinensis.

  8. Influence of shock wave propagation on dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuator performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erfani, Rasool; Zare-Behtash, Hossein; Kontis, Konstantinos

    2012-01-01

    Interest in plasma actuators as active flow control devices is growing rapidly due to their lack of mechanical parts, light weight and high response frequency. Although the flow induced by these actuators has received much attention, the effect that the external flow has on the performance of the actuator itself must also be considered, especially the influence of unsteady high-speed flows which are fast becoming a norm in the operating flight envelopes. The primary objective of this study is to examine the characteristics of a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma actuator when exposed to an unsteady flow generated by a shock tube. This type of flow, which is often used in different studies, contains a range of flow regimes from sudden pressure and density changes to relatively uniform high-speed flow regions. A small circular shock tube is employed along with the schlieren photography technique to visualize the flow. The voltage and current traces of the plasma actuator are monitored throughout, and using the well-established shock tube theory the change in the actuator characteristics are related to the physical processes which occur inside the shock tube. The results show that not only is the shear layer outside of the shock tube affected by the plasma but the passage of the shock front and high-speed flow behind it also greatly influences the properties of the plasma. (paper)

  9. On the Effects of Viscosity on the Shock Waves for a Hydrodynamical Case—Part I: Basic Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseyin Cavus

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of shock waves with viscosity is one of the central problems in the supersonic regime of compressible fluid flow. In this work, numerical solutions of unmagnetised fluid equations, with the viscous stress tensor, are investigated for a one-dimensional shock wave. In the algorithm developed the viscous stress terms are expressed in terms of the relevant Reynolds number. The algorithm concentrated on the compression rate, the entropy change, pressures, and Mach number ratios across the shock wave. The behaviour of solutions is obtained for the Reynolds and Mach numbers defining the medium and shock wave in the supersonic limits.

  10. Documentation of probabilistic fracture mechanics codes used for reactor pressure vessels subjected to pressurized thermal shock loading: Parts 1 and 2. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balkey, K.; Witt, F.J.; Bishop, B.A.

    1995-06-01

    Significant attention has been focused on the issue of reactor vessel pressurized thermal shock (PTS) for many years. Pressurized thermal shock transient events are characterized by a rapid cooldown at potentially high pressure levels that could lead to a reactor vessel integrity concern for some pressurized water reactors. As a result of regulatory and industry efforts in the early 1980's, a probabilistic risk assessment methodology has been established to address this concern. Probabilistic fracture mechanics analyses are performed as part of this methodology to determine conditional probability of significant flaw extension for given pressurized thermal shock events. While recent industry efforts are underway to benchmark probabilistic fracture mechanics computer codes that are currently used by the nuclear industry, Part I of this report describes the comparison of two independent computer codes used at the time of the development of the original U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) pressurized thermal shock rule. The work that was originally performed in 1982 and 1983 to compare the U.S. NRC - VISA and Westinghouse (W) - PFM computer codes has been documented and is provided in Part I of this report. Part II of this report describes the results of more recent industry efforts to benchmark PFM computer codes used by the nuclear industry. This study was conducted as part of the USNRC-EPRI Coordinated Research Program for reviewing the technical basis for pressurized thermal shock (PTS) analyses of the reactor pressure vessel. The work focused on the probabilistic fracture mechanics (PFM) analysis codes and methods used to perform the PTS calculations. An in-depth review of the methodologies was performed to verify the accuracy and adequacy of the various different codes. The review was structured around a series of benchmark sample problems to provide a specific context for discussion and examination of the fracture mechanics methodology

  11. Dynamics of explosively imploded pressurized tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szirti, Daniel; Loiseau, Jason; Higgins, Andrew; Tanguay, Vincent

    2011-04-01

    The detonation of an explosive layer surrounding a pressurized thin-walled tube causes the formation of a virtual piston that drives a precursor shock wave ahead of the detonation, generating very high temperatures and pressures in the gas contained within the tube. Such a device can be used as the driver for a high energy density shock tube or hypervelocity gas gun. The dynamics of the precursor shock wave were investigated for different tube sizes and initial fill pressures. Shock velocity and standoff distance were found to decrease with increasing fill pressure, mainly due to radial expansion of the tube. Adding a tamper can reduce this effect, but may increase jetting. A simple analytical model based on acoustic wave interactions was developed to calculate pump tube expansion and the resulting effect on the shock velocity and standoff distance. Results from this model agree quite well with experimental data.

  12. Vibration impact acoustic emission technique for identification and analysis of defects in carbon steel tubes: Part A Statistical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halim, Zakiah Abd [Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka (Malaysia); Jamaludin, Nordin; Junaidi, Syarif [Faculty of Engineering and Built, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi (Malaysia); Yahya, Syed Yusainee Syed [Universiti Teknologi MARA, Shah Alam (Malaysia)

    2015-04-15

    Current steel tubes inspection techniques are invasive, and the interpretation and evaluation of inspection results are manually done by skilled personnel. This paper presents a statistical analysis of high frequency stress wave signals captured from a newly developed noninvasive, non-destructive tube inspection technique known as the vibration impact acoustic emission (VIAE) technique. Acoustic emission (AE) signals have been introduced into the ASTM A179 seamless steel tubes using an impact hammer, and the AE wave propagation was captured using an AE sensor. Specifically, a healthy steel tube as the reference tube and four steel tubes with through-hole artificial defect at different locations were used in this study. The AE features extracted from the captured signals are rise time, peak amplitude, duration and count. The VIAE technique also analysed the AE signals using statistical features such as root mean square (r.m.s.), energy, and crest factor. It was evident that duration, count, r.m.s., energy and crest factor could be used to automatically identify the presence of defect in carbon steel tubes using AE signals captured using the non-invasive VIAE technique.

  13. Methods of Investigation of Equations that Describe Waves in Tubes with Elastic Walls and Application of the Theory of Reversible and Weak Dissipative Shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakholdin, Igor

    2018-02-01

    Various models of a tube with elastic walls are investigated: with controlled pressure, filled with incompressible fluid, filled with compressible gas. The non-linear theory of hyperelasticity is applied. The walls of a tube are described with complete membrane model. It is proposed to use linear model of plate in order to take the bending resistance of walls into account. The walls of the tube were treated previously as inviscid and incompressible. Compressibility of material of walls and viscosity of material, either gas or liquid are considered. Equations are solved numerically. Three-layer time and space centered reversible numerical scheme and similar two-layer space reversible numerical scheme with approximation of time derivatives by Runge-Kutta method are used. A method of correction of numerical schemes by inclusion of terms with highorder derivatives is developed. Simplified hyperbolic equations are derived.

  14. Shock wave interaction with turbulence: Pseudospectral simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckingham, A.C.

    1986-01-01

    Shock waves amplify pre-existing turbulence. Shock tube and shock wave boundary layer interaction experiments provide qualitative confirmation. However, shock pressure, temperature, and rapid transit complicate direct measurement. Computational simulations supplement the experimental data base and help isolate the mechanisms responsible. Simulations and experiments, particularly under reflected shock wave conditions, significantly influence material mixing. In these pseudospectral Navier-Stokes simulations the shock wave is treated as either a moving (tracked or fitted) domain boundary. The simulations assist development of code mix models. Shock Mach number and pre-existing turbulence intensity initially emerge as key parameters. 20 refs., 8 figs

  15. Crashworthiness of Aluminium Tubes; Part 1: Hydroforming at Different Corner-Fill Radii and End Feeding Levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Amours, Guillaume; Rahem, Ahmed; Williams, Bruce; Worswick, Michael; Mayer, Robert

    2007-01-01

    The automotive industry, with an increasing demand to reduce vehicle weight through the adoption of lightweight materials, requires a search of efficient methods that suit these materials. One attractive concept is to use hydroforming of aluminium tubes. By using FE simulations, the process can be optimized to reduce the risk for failure while maintaining energy absorption and component integrity under crash conditions. It is important to capture the level of residual ductility after forming to allow proper design for crashworthiness. This paper presents numerical and experimental studies that have been carried out for high pressure hydroforming operations to study the influence of the tube corner radius, end feeding, material thinning, and work hardening in 76.2 mm diameter, 3 mm wall thickness AA5754 aluminium alloy tube. End feeding was used to increase the formability of the tubes. The influence of the end feed displacement versus tube forming pressure schedule was studied to optimize the forming process operation to reduce thinning. Validation of the numerical simulations was performed by comparison of the predicted strain distributions and thinning, with measured quantities. The effect of element formulation (thin shell versus solid elements) was also considered in the models

  16. Crashworthiness of Aluminium Tubes; Part 1: Hydroforming at Different Corner-Fill Radii and End Feeding Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amours, Guillaume; Rahem, Ahmed; Williams, Bruce; Worswick, Michael; Mayer, Robert

    2007-05-01

    The automotive industry, with an increasing demand to reduce vehicle weight through the adoption of lightweight materials, requires a search of efficient methods that suit these materials. One attractive concept is to use hydroforming of aluminium tubes. By using FE simulations, the process can be optimized to reduce the risk for failure while maintaining energy absorption and component integrity under crash conditions. It is important to capture the level of residual ductility after forming to allow proper design for crashworthiness. This paper presents numerical and experimental studies that have been carried out for high pressure hydroforming operations to study the influence of the tube corner radius, end feeding, material thinning, and work hardening in 76.2 mm diameter, 3 mm wall thickness AA5754 aluminium alloy tube. End feeding was used to increase the formability of the tubes. The influence of the end feed displacement versus tube forming pressure schedule was studied to optimize the forming process operation to reduce thinning. Validation of the numerical simulations was performed by comparison of the predicted strain distributions and thinning, with measured quantities. The effect of element formulation (thin shell versus solid elements) was also considered in the models.

  17. Understanding the Effects of Blast Wave on the Intracranial Pressure and Traumatic Brain Injury in Rodents and Humans Using Experimental Shock Tube and Numerical Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    populated ( train stations) region or in public events (Boston marathon ) to inflict maximum civilian casualties [15, 17]. Figure 2.2: Percentage of...and understand the biomechanical loading experienced by the animal at different placement locations along the tube in order to recreate field loading...Boston Marathon and mass-casualty events. New England journal of medicine, 2013. 368(21): p. 1958-1960. 16. Wilson, C. Improvised explosive devices

  18. Tube-in-shell heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, J.

    1976-01-01

    Tube-in-shell heat exchangers normally comprise a bundle of parallel tubes within a shell container, with a fluid arranged to flow through the tubes in heat exchange with a second fluid flowing through the shell. The tubes are usually end supported by the tube plates that separate the two fluids, and in use the tube attachments to the tube plates and the tube plates can be subject to severe stress by thermal shock and frequent inspection and servicing are required. Where the heat exchangers are immersed in a coolant such as liquid Na such inspection is difficult. In the arrangement described a longitudinally extending central tube is provided incorporating axially spaced cylindrical tube plates to which the opposite ends of the tubes are attached. Within this tube there is a tubular baffle that slidably seals against the wall of the tube between the cylindrical tube plates to define two co-axial flow ducts. These ducts are interconnected at the closed end of the tube by the heat exchange tubes and the baffle comprises inner and outer spaced walls with the interspace containing Ar. The baffle is easily removable and can be withdrawn to enable insertion of equipment for inspecting the wall of the tube and tube attachments and to facilitate plugging of defective tubes. Cylindrical tube plates are believed to be superior for carrying pressure loads and resisting the effects of thermal shock. Some protection against thermal shock can be effected by arranging that the secondary heat exchange fluid is on the tube side, and by providing a thermal baffle to prevent direct impingement of hot primary fluid on to the cylindrical tube plates. The inner wall of the tubular baffle may have flexible expansible region. Some nuclear reactor constructions incorporating such an arrangement are described, including liquid metal reactors. (U.K.)

  19. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Shock Tubes and Waves (12th) Held at Jerusalem on 16-19 July 1979.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-02-01

    Jets (Research and Development) Ltd., Rept. No. 2202/x 41 (1955). 7. Peter K. Doerfler, "Comprex Supercharging of Vehicle Diesel 5igic," Soc. of...LL CONTOUR . Zec x6106 -0.4 - SHOCKTUE: Ne *SHOCK UBE: 6 Re - 2 x 10 D .-- RI3 T -0.2 WALL TEST SECTION 0 No 8 - .83 \\ 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1. \\0.84~/c 6...FLAT-PLATE BOUNDARY-LAYER FLOWS IN IONIZING ARGON IRVINE ISRAEL GLASS. WILLIAM SHIUN Liu*, KAZuVOSHI TAKAYAMA** and PETER IRVING BRIMELnWwt Institute

  20. Simulations of the vortex in the Dellenback abrupt expansion, resembling a hydro turbine draft tube operating at part-load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, H

    2012-01-01

    This work presents an OpenFOAM case-study, based on the experimental studies of the swirling flow in the abrupt expansion by Dellenback et al.[1]. The case yields similar flow conditions as those of a helical vortex rope in a hydro turbine draft tube working at part-load. The case-study is set up similar to the ERCOFTAC Conical Diffuser and Centrifugal Pump OpenFOAM case-studies [2,3], making all the files available and the results fully reproducable using OpenSource software. The mesh generation is done using m4 scripting and the OpenFOAM built-in blockMesh mesh generator. The swirling inlet boundary condition is specified as an axi-symmetric profile. The outlet boundary condition uses the zeroGradient condition for all variables except for the pressure, which uses the fixed mean value boundary condition. The wall static pressure is probed at a number of locations during the simulations, and post-processing of the time-averaged solution is done using the OpenFOAM sample utility. Gnuplot scripts are provided for plotting the results. The computational results are compared to one of the operating conditions studied by Dellenback, and measurements for all the experimentally studied operating conditions are available in the case-study. Results from five cases are here presented, based on the kEpsilon model, the kOmegaSST model, and a filtered version of the same kOmegaSST model, named kOmegaSSTF [4,5]. Two different inlet boundary conditions are evaluated. It is shown that kEpsilon and kOmegaSST give steady solutions, while kOmegaSSTF gives a highly unsteady solution. The time-averaged solution of the kOmegaSSTF model is much more accurate than the other models. The kEpsilon and kOmegaSST models are thus unable to accurately model the effect of the large-scale unsteadiness, while kOmegaSSTF resolves those scales and models only the smaller scales. The use of two different boundary conditions shows that the boundary conditions are more important than the choice between

  1. Physics of Collisionless Shocks Space Plasma Shock Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Balogh, André

    2013-01-01

    The present book provides a contemporary systematic treatment of shock waves in high-temperature collisionless plasmas as are encountered in near Earth space and in Astrophysics. It consists of two parts. Part I develops the complete theory of shocks in dilute hot plasmas under the assumption of absence of collisions among the charged particles when the interaction is mediated solely by the self-consistent electromagnetic fields. Such shocks are naturally magnetised implying that the magnetic field plays an important role in their evolution and dynamics. This part treats both subcritical shocks, which dissipate flow energy by generating anomalous resistance or viscosity, and supercritical shocks. The main emphasis is, however, on super-critical shocks where the anomalous dissipation is insufficient to retard the upstream flow. These shocks, depending on the direction of the upstream magnetic field, are distinguished as quasi-perpendicular and quasi-parallel shocks which exhibit different behaviours, reflecti...

  2. High temperature mechanical behavior of tube stackings – Part I: Microstructural and mechanical characterization of Inconel® 600 constitutive material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcadon, V., E-mail: Vincent.Marcadon@onera.fr [Onera – The French Aerospace Lab, F-92322 Châtillon (France); Davoine, C.; Lévêque, D.; Rafray, A.; Popoff, F.; Horezan, N.; Boivin, D. [Onera – The French Aerospace Lab, F-92322 Châtillon (France)

    2016-11-20

    This paper is the first part of a set of two papers dedicated to the mechanical behavior of cellular materials at high temperatures. For that purpose, cellular materials made of brazed tube stacking cores have been considered here. This paper addresses the characterization of the elasto-viscoplastic properties of the constitutive material of the tubes, Inconel®600, by means of tensile tests. Various temperatures and strain rates were investigated, from room temperature to 800 °C, in order to study the influence of both the brazing heat treatment and the test temperature on the mechanical properties of Inconel®600. Whereas the heat treatment drastically decreases the strength of the tubes, a significant viscous effect is revealed at 800 °C. Electron backscattered diffraction analyses carried out post-mortem on samples showed that both dynamic recrystallization and recovery occurred during tensile tests performed at 800 °C, especially at lower strain rates. In contrast, a highly deformed and textured microstructure was observed for the tubes loaded at lower temperatures.

  3. Empirical Model Development for Predicting Shock Response on Composite Materials Subjected to Pyroshock Loading. Volume 2, Part 1; Appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentz, Steven J.; Ordway, David O.; Parsons, David S.; Garrison, Craig M.; Rodgers, C. Steven; Collins, Brian W.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) received a request to develop an analysis model based on both frequency response and wave propagation analyses for predicting shock response spectrum (SRS) on composite materials subjected to pyroshock loading. The model would account for near-field environment (approximately 9 inches from the source) dominated by direct wave propagation, mid-field environment (approximately 2 feet from the source) characterized by wave propagation and structural resonances, and far-field environment dominated by lower frequency bending waves in the structure. This document contains appendices to the Volume I report.

  4. Vial freeze-drying, part 1: new insights into heat transfer characteristics of tubing and molded vials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibler, Susanne; Wagner, Christophe; Gieseler, Henning

    2012-03-01

    In order to optimize a freeze-drying cycle, information regarding the heat transfer characteristics of the container system is imperative. Two most recently developed tubing (TopLyo™) and molded (EasyLyo™) vial designs were compared with a standard serum tubing and molded vial, a polymer vial (TopPac™), and an amber molded EasyLyo™. In addition, the impact of methodology on the determination of reliable vial heat transfer coefficient (K(v) ) data is examined in detail. All K(v) s were gravimetrically determined by sublimation tests with pure water at 50, 100, 200, and 400 mTorr. In contrast to the traditional assumption that molded vials exhibit inefficient heat transfer characteristics, these vials showed a very similar performance compared with their serum tubing counterparts in the relevant pressure range for freeze-drying. At 100 mTorr, the TopLyo™ center vials show only 4% higher K(v) values than the EasyLyo™ center vials. All glass vials outmatch the polymer vial in terms of heat transfer, up to 30% elevated heat transfer for the TopLyo™ center vials at 400 mTorr. Sublimation tests have demonstrated to be a valuable tool to investigate the heat transfer characteristics of vials, but results are dependent on methodology. New developments in molded vial manufacturing lead to improved heat transfer performance. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Gas tonometry for evaluation of gastrointestinal mucosal perfusion: experimental models of trauma, shock and complex surgical maneuvers - Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figueiredo Luiz Francisco Poli de

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Substantial clinical and animal evidences indicate that the mesenteric circulatory bed, particularly the gut mucosa, is highly vulnerable to reductions in oxygen supply and prone to early injury in the course of hemodynamic changes induced by trauma, shock, sepsis and several complex surgical maneuvers. Gut hypoxia or ischemia is one possible contributing factor to gastrointestinal tract barrier dysfunction that may be associated with the development of systemic inflammatory response and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, a common cause of death after trauma, sepsis or major surgeries. Monitoring gut perfusion during experiments may provide valuable insights over new interventions and therapies highly needed to reduce trauma and sepsis-related morbidity and mortality. We present our experience with gas tonometry as a monitor of the adequacy of gastrointestinal mucosal perfusion in clinical and experimental models of trauma, shock and surgical maneuvers associated with abrupt hemodynamic changes, such as aortic occlusion and hepatic vascular exclusion. Next issue we will be presenting our experience with gas tonometry in experimental and clinical sepsis.

  6. Shock tube/laser absorption measurements of methane, acetylene and ethylene during the pyrolysis of n-pentane and iso-pentane

    KAUST Repository

    Sajid, Muhammad Bilal

    2015-11-09

    Pentane isomers are important constituents of distillate gasoline, compressed natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas. Pentane chemistry is integral component of the chemical kinetic mechanisms of larger hydrocarbons. Existing kinetic mechanisms differ in their predictions of the oxidative and pyrolysis behavior of pentane isomers. This work provides new species time-history data to validate and improve pentane chemistry models. Methane, acetylene and ethylene are measured during the high-temperature pyrolysis of n-pentane and iso-pentane. Experiments are performed behind reflected shock waves over 1400–2100 K and pressures near 1 atm. Methane and acetylene are measured using a quantum cascade laser operating near 8 µm, whereas ethylene is measured with a CO2 gas laser operating near 10.6 µm. A two-color technique is used to eliminate broadband interference caused by large hydrocarbons. Measurements are compared with predictions of existing chemical kinetic mechanisms which underpredict the formation of methane and acetylene but overpredict ethylene formation.

  7. Measurement of the rate of hydrogen peroxide thermal decomposition in a shock tube using quantum cascade laser absorption near 7.7 μm

    KAUST Repository

    Sajid, Muhammad Bilal

    2013-10-24

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is formed during hydrocarbon combustion and controls the system reactivity under intermediate temperature conditions. Here, we measured the rate of hydrogen peroxide decomposition behind reflected shock waves using midinfrared absorption of H2O 2 near 7.7 μm. We performed the experiments in diluted H 2O2/Ar mixtures between 930 and 1235 K and at three different pressures (1, 2, and 10 atm). Under these conditions, the decay of hydrogen peroxide is sensitive only to the decomposition reaction rate, H 2O2 + M → 2OH + M (k1). The second-order rate coefficient at low pressures (1 and 2 atm) did not exhibit any pressure dependence, suggesting that the reaction was in the low-pressure limit. The rate data measured at 10 atm exhibited falloff behavior. The measured decomposition rates can be expressed in Arrhenius forms as follows: k1(1 and 2 atm)=10(16.29±0.12)× exp (-21993±301/T)(cm 3 mol -1s-1) k1(10 atm)=10(15.24±0.10)× exp (-19955±247/T)(cm 3 mol -1s-1) © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Experimental methods of shock wave research

    CERN Document Server

    Seiler, Friedrich

    2016-01-01

    This comprehensive and carefully edited volume presents a variety of experimental methods used in Shock Waves research. In 14 self contained chapters this 9th volume of the “Shock Wave Science and Technology Reference Library” presents the experimental methods used in Shock Tubes, Shock Tunnels and Expansion Tubes facilities. Also described is their set-up and operation. The uses of an arc heated wind tunnel and a gun tunnel are also contained in this volume. Whenever possible, in addition to the technical description some typical scientific results obtained using such facilities are described. Additionally, this authoritative book includes techniques for measuring physical properties of blast waves and laser generated shock waves. Information about active shock wave laboratories at different locations around the world that are not described in the chapters herein is given in the Appendix, making this book useful for every researcher involved in shock/blast wave phenomena.

  9. Benchmark simulation of turbulent flow through a staggered tube bundle to support CFD as a reactor design tool. Part 1. SRANS CFD simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridluan, Artit; Tokuhiro, Akira

    2008-01-01

    Time-invariant and time-variant numerical simulations of flow through a staggered tube bundle array, idealizing the lower plenum (LP) subsystem configuration of a very high temperature reactor (VHTR), were performed. In Part 1, the CFD prediction of fully periodic isothermal tube-bundle flow using steady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (SRANS) equations with common turbulence models was investigated at a Reynolds number (Re) of 1.8x10 4 , based on the tube diameter and inlet velocity. Three first-order turbulence models, standard k-ε turbulence, renormalized group (RNG) k-ε, and shear stress transport (SST) k-ω models, and a second-order turbulence model, Reynolds stress model (RSM), were considered. A comparison of CFD simulations and experiment results was made at five locations along (x,y) coordinates. The SRANS simulation showed that no universal model predicted the turbulent Reynolds stresses, and generally, the results were marginal to poor. This is because these models cannot accurately model the periodic, spatiotemporal nature of the complex wake flow structure. (author)

  10. Flow sheet development for the dissolution of unirradiated Mark 42 fuel tubes in F-Canyon, Part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, A.M.

    1999-01-01

    Two dissolution flow sheets were tested for the desorption of unirradiated Mark 42 fuel tubes. Both the aluminum (from the can, cladding, and fuel core) and the plutonium oxide (PuO 2 ) are dissolved simultaneously, i.e., a co-dissolution flow sheet. In the first series of tests, 0.15 and 0.20 molar (M) potassium fluoride (KF) solutions were used and the dissolution extended over several days. In the other series of tests, solutions with higher concentrations of fluoride (0.25 to 0.30 M) were used. Calcium fluoride (CaF 2 ) was used in those tests as the fluoride source

  11. Relationship of material properties to seismic coupling. Part I. Shock wave studies of rock and rock-like materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, D.B.; Rodean, H.C.

    1975-01-01

    Our research seeks an understanding of the relationship of material properties to explosive-energy coupling in various earth media by integrating experimental observations with computer calculational models to obtain a predictive capability. The procedure chosen consists of: first, selecting materials exhibiting interesting values of the properties that are believed to control coupling; second, experimentally determining material behavior under various types of loading and unloading; third, development of constitutive relationships; fourth, adapting these constitutive relationships to computer calculational models; and fifth, verifying the calculational models through comparison with small-scale and field high-strain-rate experiments. The object of this report is to present the shock-wave data and to make a preliminary evaluation of the results in terms of material properties, coupling, and their interactions. (U.S.)

  12. Effect of steam corrosion on HTGR core support post strength loss. Part II. Consequences of steam generator tube rupture event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wichner, R.P.

    1977-01-01

    To perform the assessment, a series of eight tube-rupture events of varying severity and probability were postulated. Case 1 pertains to the situation where the moisture detection, loop isolation, and dump procedures function as planned; the remaining seven cases suppose various defects in the moisture detection system, the core auxiliary coolant system, and the integrity of the prestressed concrete reactor vessel. Core post burnoffs beneath three typical fuel zones were estimated for each postulated event from the determined impurity compositions and core post temperature history. Two separate corrosion rate expressions were assumed, as deemed most appropriate of those published for the high-oxidant level typical in tube rupture events. It was found that the nominal core post beneath the highest power factor fuel zone would lose from 0.02 to 2.5 percent of their strength, depending on an assumed corrosion rate equation and the severity of the event. The effect of hot streaking during cooldown was determined by using preliminary estimates of its magnitude. It was found that localized strength loss beneath the highest power factor zone ranges from 0.23 to 12 percent, assuming reasonably probable hot-streaking circumstances. The combined worst case, hot streaking typical for a load-following transient and most severe accident sequence, yields an estimated strength loss of from 25 to 33 percent for localized regions beneath the highest power factor zones

  13. photomultiplier tubes

    CERN Multimedia

    photomultiplier tubes. A device to convert light into an electric signal (the name is often abbreviated to PM). Photomultipliers are used in all detectors based on scintillating material (i.e. based on large numbers of fibres which produce scintillation light at the passage of a charged particle). A photomultiplier consists of 3 main parts: firstly, a photocathode where photons are converted into electrons by the photoelectric effect; secondly, a multiplier chain consisting of a serie of dynodes which multiply the number of electron; finally, an anode, which collects the resulting current.

  14. photomultiplier tube

    CERN Multimedia

    photomultiplier tubes. A device to convert light into an electric signal (the name is often abbreviated to PM). Photomultipliers are used in all detectors based on scintillating material (i.e. based on large numbers of fibres which produce scintillation light at the passage of a charged particle). A photomultiplier consists of 3 main parts: firstly, a photocathode where photons are converted into electrons by the photoelectric effect; secondly, a multiplier chain consisting of a serie of dynodes which multiply the number of electron; finally, an anode, which collects the resulting current.

  15. Benchmark simulation of turbulent flow through a staggered tube bundle to support CFD as a reactor design tool. Part 2. URANS CFD simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridluan, Artit; Tokuhiro, Akira

    2008-01-01

    In Part II, we described the unsteady flow simulation and proposed a modification of a traditional turbulence flow model. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of an isothermal, fully periodic flow across a tube bundle using unsteady Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) equations, with turbulence models such as the Reynolds stress model (RSM) were investigated at a Reynolds number of 1.8x10 4 , based on the tube diameter and inlet velocity. As noted in Part I, CFD simulation and experimental results were compared at five positions along (x,y) coordinates. The steady RANS simulation showed that four diverse turbulence models were efficient for predicting the Reynolds stresses, and generally, SRANS results were marginal to poor, using a consistent evaluation terminology. In the URANS simulation, we modeled the turbulent flow field in a manner similar to the approach used for large eddy simulation (LES). The time-dependent URANS results showed that the simulation reproduces the dynamic stability as characterized by transverse oscillatory flow structures in the near-wake region. In particular, the inclusion of terms accounting for the time scales associated with the production range and dissipation rate of turbulence generates unsteady statistics of the mean and fluctuation flow. In spite of this, the model implemented produces better agreement with a benchmark data set and is thus recommended. (author)

  16. Tube plug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zafred, P. R.

    1985-01-01

    The tube plug comprises a one piece mechanical plug having one open end and one closed end which is capable of being inserted in a heat exchange tube and internally expanded into contact with the inside surface of the heat exchange tube for preventing flow of a coolant through the heat exchange tube. The tube plug also comprises a groove extending around the outside circumference thereof which has an elastomeric material disposed in the groove for enhancing the seal between the tube plug and the tube

  17. Gastrostomy Tube (G-Tube)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... any of these problems: a dislodged tube a blocked or clogged tube any signs of infection (including redness, swelling, or warmth at the tube site; discharge that's yellow, green, or foul-smelling; fever) excessive bleeding or drainage from the tube site severe abdominal pain lasting ...

  18. Shock-induced borehole waves and fracture effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fan, H.; Smeulders, D.M.J.

    2012-01-01

    We perform wave experiments using a vertical shock tube setup. Shock waves are generated by the rupture of a thin membrane. In the test section the incident pressure waves generate borehole-guided waves along water-saturated samples. The tube is equipped with side wall gages and a mobile pressure

  19. Nonequilibrium effects on shock-layer radiometry during earth entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, J. O.; Whiting, E. E.

    1973-01-01

    Radiative enhancement factors for the CN violet and N2(+) first negative band systems caused by nonequilibrium thermochemistry in the shock layer of a blunt-nosed vehicle during earth entry are reported. The results are based on radiometric measurements obtained with the aid of a combustion-driven shock tube. The technique of converting the shock-tube measurements into predictions of the enhancement factors for the blunt-body case is described, showing it to be useful for similar applications of other shock-tube measurements.

  20. Comparison of theoretical estimates and experimental measurements of fatigue crack growth under severe thermal shock conditions (part one - experimental observations)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, D.; Green, D.; Parker, R.

    1984-01-01

    This paper reports the results of an experiment in which a severe thermal cycle comprising of alternate upshocks and downshocks has been applied to an axisymmetric feature with an internal, partial penetration weld and crevice. The direction of cracking and crack growth rate were observed experimentally and detailed records made of the thermal cycle. A second part to the paper, reported separately, compares a linear elastic fracture mechanics assessment of the cracking to the experimental observations

  1. A comparison of R-22, R-134a, R-410a, and R-407c condensation performance in smooth and enhanced tubes: Part 2, Pressure drop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckels, S J; Tesene, B A

    1999-07-01

    This paper reports pressure drops during condensation for R-22, R-134a, R-410a, and R-407c in three enhanced tubes and one smooth tube. The test tubes were a 3/8 inch outer diameter smooth tube, a 3/8 inch outer diameter microfin tube, a 5/16 inch outer diameter microfin tube, and a 5/8 inch outer diameter microfin tube. Pressure drops are reported at four mass fluxes, at two saturation temperatures, and over a range of average qualities in the test tubes. The pressure drops for R-410a were approximately 40% lower than those of R-22 in both tubes. R-407c had 10% to 20% lower pressure drops than R-22, while 134-a had slightly larger pressure drops than R-22. The microfin tube pressure drops were, on average, 40% to 80% higher than those for the smooth tube for all refrigerants. The pressure drop penalty of the microfin tube was shown to decrease with increased quality.

  2. Bubble Dynamics and Shock Waves

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    This volume of the Shock Wave Science and Technology Reference Library is concerned with the interplay between bubble dynamics and shock waves. It is divided into four parts containing twelve chapters written by eminent scientists. Topics discussed include shock wave emission by laser generated bubbles (W Lauterborn, A Vogel), pulsating bubbles near boundaries (DM Leppinen, QX Wang, JR Blake), interaction of shock waves with bubble clouds (CD Ohl, SW Ohl), shock propagation in polydispersed bubbly liquids by model equations (K Ando, T Colonius, CE Brennen. T Yano, T Kanagawa,  M Watanabe, S Fujikawa) and by DNS (G Tryggvason, S Dabiri), shocks in cavitating flows (NA Adams, SJ Schmidt, CF Delale, GH Schnerr, S Pasinlioglu) together with applications involving encapsulated bubble dynamics in imaging (AA Doinikov, A Novell, JM Escoffre, A Bouakaz),  shock wave lithotripsy (P Zhong), sterilization of ships’ ballast water (A Abe, H Mimura) and bubbly flow model of volcano eruptions ((VK Kedrinskii, K Takayama...

  3. Mechanical and Radiological Characterization of Different parts of an Irradiation Coolant Channel Tube from Atucha I Nuclear Plant; Caracterizacion Mecanica y Radiologica de Partes de Canales Refrigerantes Irradiados Extraidos del Reactor de la Central Nuclear Atucha I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piquin, Ruben [Instituto Balseiro, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Centro Atomico Bariloche, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata (Argentina)

    2001-07-01

    The widespread replacement of reactor internals has generated a substantial volume of active material. It is essential to work with these components at least in a partial way before the next planned stop, which will take place during the second semester of the year 2002. Due to the fact that the reactor internals pool and the storage pool for irradiated nuclear fuel have limited capacities, it has been proposed to compact an experimental shift of 50 irradiated coolant channels, that are currently placed in storage pools. Basically the processed waste will be put in baskets at the bottom pools.The alternative choice proposes to divide an irradiation coolant channel tube into different parts: stainless steel section, zircaloy-4 section and stainless steel section with hardened zones with cobalt alloys named Estelite-6. The person in charge has already planned the constructive and operative solutions but the mechanical characterization of the different parts of the channel tube is necessary in order to dimension the compaction tool needed for the semi-industrial installation.In the present special report, two well-differentiated actions will be described. The necessary compacted strength of the irradiation coolant channel tube will be estimated for the stainless steel section and the zircaloy-4 section starting from experiment with unirradiated material and considering effects of radiation damage and hydrides on the ductility.These results will be used to design the necessary compacted tools for the semi-industrial installation. The necessary equipment for the radiological characterization of the different material sections already specified will be described and the most important emitting particles of radiation that could be detected will be mentioned. Also the decontamination process to use including the radiological characterization of every stage of the process will be described in order to establish the decontamination factor. Finally the most important

  4. Interaction between a normal shock wave and a turbulent boundary layer at high transonic speeds. Part 1: Pressure distribution. Part 2: Wall shear stress. Part 3: Simplified formulas for the prediction of surface pressures and skin friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, T. C., Jr.; Liou, M. S.; Messiter, A. F.

    1980-01-01

    An asymptotic description is derived for the interaction between a shock wave and a turbulent boundary layer in transonic flow, for a particular limiting case. The dimensionless difference between the external flow velocity and critical sound speed is taken to be much smaller than one, but large in comparison with the dimensionless friction velocity. The basic results are derived for a flat plate, and corrections for longitudinal wall curvature and for flow in a circular pipe are also shown. Solutions are given for the wall pressure distribution and the shape of the shock wave. Solutions for the wall shear stress are obtained, and a criterion for incipient separation is derived. Simplified solutions for both the wall pressure and skin friction distributions in the interaction region are given. These results are presented in a form suitable for use in computer programs.

  5. Shock Wave Dynamics in Weakly Ionized Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Joseph A., III

    1999-01-01

    An investigation of the dynamics of shock waves in weakly ionized argon plasmas has been performed using a pressure ruptured shock tube. The velocity of the shock is observed to increase when the shock traverses the plasma. The observed increases cannot be accounted for by thermal effects alone. Possible mechanisms that could explain the anomalous behavior include a vibrational/translational relaxation in the nonequilibrium plasma, electron diffusion across the shock front resulting from high electron mobility, and the propagation of ion-acoustic waves generated at the shock front. Using a turbulence model based on reduced kinetic theory, analysis of the observed results suggest a role for turbulence in anomalous shock dynamics in weakly ionized media and plasma-induced hypersonic drag reduction.

  6. Vortical structures and pressure pulsations in draft tube of a Francis-99 turbine at part load: RANS and hybrid RANS/LES analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavrilov, A.A.; Sentyabov, A.V.; Dekterev, A.A.; Hanjalić, K.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Simulations showed the formation of spiralling coherent vortices in the draft tube. • Both hybrid RANS-LES and Re-stress models reproduced well the measured fluctuations. • Re-stress model resolved the precessing vortex core and coherent spiralling vortices. - Abstract: Recognizing the limitations of the conventional linear-eddy-viscosity (LEVM) Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) models to reproduce complex three-dimensional unsteady flows in hydraulic machinery, we performed a comparative assessment of a second-moment (Re-stress model, RSM) RANS closure and a hybrid RANS/LES method in capturing the flow and vortical structures in the draft tube of a Francis hydroturbine at off-design conditions. Considered is a case of part load (PL) at a flow rate of only 35% of the best efficiency point (BEP) characterised by multiple unsteady vortex systems. Despite some remaining uncertainties in generating the inflow conditions, both approaches reproduced reasonably well the measured mean velocity and the rms of its fluctuations, as well as the pressure spectrum with peaks detecting the precessing vortex core. In contrast to the common LEVMs, the Re-stress closure showed sufficient receptivity to intrinsic unsteadiness and reproduced well the overall flow and vortical patterns as well as the associated pressure pulsations in accord with the experiments. The hybrid RANS/LES method gave similar predictions as the RSM, but resolving a wider range of scales, which however, showed no significant effect on the dynamics of the dominant processing vortex core and the pressure pulsations.

  7. Shock absorber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemeth, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    A shock absorber for the support of piping and components in a nuclear power plant is described. It combines a high degree of stiffness under sudden shocks, e.g. seismic disturbances, with the ability to allow for thermal expansion without resistance when so required. (JIW)

  8. Acceleration mechanisms flares, magnetic reconnection and shock waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colgate, S.A.

    1979-01-01

    Several mechanisms are briefly discussed for the acceleration of particles in the astrophysical environment. Included are hydrodynamic acceleration, spherically convergent shocks, shock and a density gradient, coherent electromagnetic acceleration, the flux tube origin, symmetries and instabilities, reconnection, galactic flares, intergalactic acceleration, stochastic acceleration, and astrophysical shocks. It is noted that the supernova shock wave models still depend critically on the presupernova star structure and the assumption of highly compact presupernova models for type I supernovae. 37 references

  9. Multi-layer protective armour for underwater shock wave mitigation

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed Hawass; Hosam Mostafa; Ahmed Elbeih

    2015-01-01

    The effect of underwater shock wave on different target plates has been studied. An underwater shock wave generator (shock tube) was used to study the interactions between water and different constructed targets which act as shock wave mitigation. Target plates, composed of sandwich of two aluminum sheets with rubber and foam in between, were prepared and studied. For comparison, the target plates composed of triple aluminum sheets were tested. The study includes the testing of the selected p...

  10. Constrained reaction volume approach for studying chemical kinetics behind reflected shock waves

    KAUST Repository

    Hanson, Ronald K.; Pang, Genny A.; Chakraborty, Sreyashi; Ren, Wei; Wang, Shengkai; Davidson, David Frank

    2013-01-01

    We report a constrained-reaction-volume strategy for conducting kinetics experiments behind reflected shock waves, achieved in the present work by staged filling in a shock tube. Using hydrogen-oxygen ignition experiments as an example, we

  11. A comparison of R-22, R-134a, R-410a, and R-407c condensation performance in smooth and enhanced tubes: Part 1, Heat transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckels, S J; Tesene, B A

    1999-07-01

    Local and average heat transfer coefficients during condensation are reported for R-22, R-134a, R-410a, and R-407c in one smooth tube and three enhanced surface tubes. The test tubes included a 3/8 inch outer diameter smooth tube, a 3/8 inch outer diameter microfin tube, a 5/16 inch outer diameter microfin tube, and a 5/8 inch outer diameter microfin tube. The local and average heat transfer coefficients were measured over a mass flux range of 92,100 lb/ft{sup 2}{center_dot}h to 442,200 lb/ft{sup 2}{center_dot}h and at saturation temperatures of 104 F and 122 F. A comparison of the performance of the different refrigerants reveals that R-134a has the highest heat transfer performance followed by R-22 and R-410a, which have similar performances. In general, R-407c had the lowest performance of the refrigerants tested. The microfin tube more than doubles the heat transfer coefficient compared to the smooth tube for all refrigerants at the low mass fluxes, but only increases the heat transfer coefficients by 50% at the highest mass flux tested. The measured heat transfer coefficients are also compared with a number of correlations for condensation.

  12. demystifying the shock of shocking

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (with a pulse), atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter. The energy dose in cardioversion is less (0.5. - 2 J/kg) than in defibrillation (2 - 4 J/kg). In cardioversion the shock is discharged synchronously with the native R wave of the patient. Without synchronisation,. VF can be induced if a shock is delivered during the refractory period ...

  13. Expander for Thin-Wall Tubing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessin, R.

    1983-01-01

    Tool locally expands small-diameter tubes. Tube expander locally expands and deforms tube: Compressive lateral stress induced in elastomeric sleeve by squeezing axially between two metal tool parts. Adaptable to situations in which tube must have small bulge for mechanical support or flow control.

  14. Shock waves in weakly compressed granular media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Wildenberg, Siet; van Loo, Rogier; van Hecke, Martin

    2013-11-22

    We experimentally probe nonlinear wave propagation in weakly compressed granular media and observe a crossover from quasilinear sound waves at low impact to shock waves at high impact. We show that this crossover impact grows with the confining pressure P0, whereas the shock wave speed is independent of P0-two hallmarks of granular shocks predicted recently. The shocks exhibit surprising power law attenuation, which we model with a logarithmic law implying that shock dissipation is weak and qualitatively different from other granular dissipation mechanisms. We show that elastic and potential energy balance in the leading part of the shocks.

  15. Hypovolemic shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the person's position unless they are in immediate danger. Do not give fluids by mouth. If person ... the patient with shock. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  16. Shock absorber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Housman, J.J.

    1978-01-01

    A shock absorber is described for use in a hostile environment at the end of a blind passage for absorbing impact loads. The shock absorber includes at least one element which occupies the passage and which is comprised of a porous brittle material which is substantially non-degradable in the hostile environment. A void volume is provided in the element to enable the element to absorb a predetermined level of energy upon being crushed due to impact loading

  17. Pump element for a tube pump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The invention relates to a tube pump comprising a tube and a pump element inserted in the tube, where the pump element comprises a rod element and a first and a second non-return valve member positioned a distance apart on the rod element. The valve members are oriented in the same direction...... relative to the rod element so as to allow for a fluid flow in the tube through the first valve member, along the rod element, and through the second valve member. The tube comprises an at least partly flexible tube portion between the valve members such that a repeated deformation of the flexible tube...... portion acts to alternately close and open the valve members thereby generating a fluid flow through the tube. The invention further relates to a pump element comprising at least two non-return valve members connected by a rod element, and for insertion in an at least partly flexible tube in such tube...

  18. PIV tracer behavior on propagating shock fronts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glazyrin, Fyodor N; Mursenkova, Irina V; Znamenskaya, Irina A

    2016-01-01

    The present work was aimed at the quantitative particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurement of a velocity field near the front of a propagating shock wave and the study of the dynamics of liquid tracers crossing the shock front. For this goal, a shock tube with a rectangular cross-section (48  ×  24 mm) was used. The flat shock wave with Mach numbers M  =  1.4–2.0 propagating inside the tube channel was studied as well as an expanding shock wave propagating outside the channel with M  =  1.2–1.8 at its main axis. The PIV imaging of the shock fronts was carried out with an aerosol of dioctyl sebacate (DEHS) as tracer particles. The pressures of the gas in front of the shock waves studied ranged from 0.013 Mpa to 0.1 MPa in the series of experiments. The processed PIV data, compared to the 1D normal shock theory, yielded consistent values of wake velocity immediately behind the plain shock wave. Special attention was paid to the blurring of the velocity jump on the shock front due to the inertial particle lag and peculiarities of the PIV technique. A numerical algorithm was developed for analysis and correction of the PIV data on the shock fronts, based on equations of particle-flow interaction. By application of this algorithm, the effective particle diameter of the DEHS aerosol tracers was estimated as 1.03  ±  0.12 μm. A number of different formulations for particle drag were tested with this algorithm, with varying success. The results show consistency with previously reported experimental data obtained for cases of stationary shock waves. (paper)

  19. Diaphragmless shock wave generators for industrial applications of shock waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariharan, M. S.; Janardhanraj, S.; Saravanan, S.; Jagadeesh, G.

    2011-06-01

    The prime focus of this study is to design a 50 mm internal diameter diaphragmless shock tube that can be used in an industrial facility for repeated loading of shock waves. The instantaneous rise in pressure and temperature of a medium can be used in a variety of industrial applications. We designed, fabricated and tested three different shock wave generators of which one system employs a highly elastic rubber membrane and the other systems use a fast acting pneumatic valve instead of conventional metal diaphragms. The valve opening speed is obtained with the help of a high speed camera. For shock generation systems with a pneumatic cylinder, it ranges from 0.325 to 1.15 m/s while it is around 8.3 m/s for the rubber membrane. Experiments are conducted using the three diaphragmless systems and the results obtained are analyzed carefully to obtain a relation between the opening speed of the valve and the amount of gas that is actually utilized in the generation of the shock wave for each system. The rubber membrane is not suitable for industrial applications because it needs to be replaced regularly and cannot withstand high driver pressures. The maximum shock Mach number obtained using the new diaphragmless system that uses the pneumatic valve is 2.125 ± 0.2%. This system shows much promise for automation in an industrial environment.

  20. X-ray tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webley, R.S.

    1975-01-01

    The object of the invention described is to provide an X-ray tube providing a scanned X-ray output which does not require a scanned electron beam. This is obtained by an X-ray tube including an anode which is rotatable about an axis, and a source of a beam of energy, for example an electron beam, arranged to impinge on a surface of the anode to generate X-radiation substantially at the region of incidence on the anode surface. The anode is rotatable about the axis to move the region of incidence over the surface. The anode is so shaped that the rotation causes the region of incidence to move in a predetermined manner relative to fixed parts of the tube so that the generated X-radiation is scanned in a predetermined manner relative to the tube. (UK)

  1. Analysis of forming limit in tube hydroforming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chan Il; Yang, Seung Hang; Kim, Young Suk

    2013-01-01

    The automotive industry has shown increasing interest in tube hydroforming. Despite many automobile structural parts being produced from cylindrical tubes, failures frequently occur during tube hydroforming under improper forming conditions. These problems include wrinkling, buckling, folding back, and bursting. We perform analytical studies to determine forming limits in tube hydroforming and demonstrate how these forming limits are influenced by the loading path. Theoretical results for the forming limits of wrinkling and bursting are compared with experimental results for an aluminum tube.

  2. Health Shocks and Retirement:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Larsen, Mona

    We investigate the effect of an acute health shock on retirement among elderly male workers in Denmark, 1991-1999, and in particular whether various welfare state programs and institutions impinge on the retirement effect. The results show that an acute health event increases the retirement chances...... significant. For the most part, the retirement effect following a health shock seems to be immune to the availability of a multitude of government programs for older workers in Denmark....... benefits in Denmark nor by the promotion of corporate social responsibility initiatives since the mid-1990s. In the late 1990s, however, the retirement rate following a health shock is reduced to 3% with the introduction of the subsidized employment program (fleksjob) but this effect is not strongly...

  3. Volatility of ruthenium during vitrification operations on fission products. part 1. nitric solutions distillation concentrates calcination. part 2. fixation on a steel tube. decomposition of the peroxide; Volatilite du ruthenium au cours des operations de vitrification des produits de fission. 1. partie distillation des solutions nitriques calcination des concentrats 2. partie fixation sur un tube d'acier decomposition du peroxyde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortins de Bettencourt, A; Jouan, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    During vitrification of fission product solutions, a high percentage of the ruthenium initially present in these solutions in the form of nitrosyl-ruthenium nitrates is volatilized with the production of the peroxide which itself is decomposed to ruthenium dioxide. The aim of this work has been to study the volatility of the ruthenium during the vitrification processes. During the distillation of the nitric solutions, we have studied in particular the influence on the volatility of the temperature , of the chemical form in which the ruthenium is introduced, of the bubbling of a gas through the solution, of the nitric concentration and of the nitrate concentration. During the calcination, we have observed the influence of the temperature, of the time, of the flow rate and of the nature of the carrier gas, as well as of the action of the ruthenium bi-oxide and the iron oxide on the volatility of the ruthenium. Part 2. This report deals with the study of the thermal decomposition of ruthenium peroxide, RuO{sub 4}, and its deposition on steel tubing. After a brief bibliographic review of the various properties of this substance, a study is made, in the first part, of its deposition on a steel tube. In order to do this, we pass a gas current containing RuO{sub 4} marked with {sup 106}Ru through a stainless steel tube subjected to a temperature gradient which decreases in the direction of the gas flow. The temperature at which RuO{sub 4} is deposited or is fixed on the tube is determined and the influence of the flow rate on this deposit is studied. In the second part, an attempt has been made to study by a static method the kinetics of the decomposition reaction of ruthenium peroxide to give the dioxide: RuO{sub 4} {yields} RuO{sub 2} + O{sub 2}. To do this, we have tried to introduce gaseous RuO{sub 4} into a container placed in an electric oven, and to follow the reaction by {gamma} counting. (author) [French] Au cours de la vitrification des solutions de produits de

  4. Volatility of ruthenium during vitrification operations on fission products. part 1. nitric solutions distillation concentrates calcination. part 2. fixation on a steel tube. decomposition of the peroxide; Volatilite du ruthenium au cours des operations de vitrification des produits de fission. 1. partie distillation des solutions nitriques calcination des concentrats 2. partie fixation sur un tube d'acier decomposition du peroxyde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortins de Bettencourt, A.; Jouan, A. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    During vitrification of fission product solutions, a high percentage of the ruthenium initially present in these solutions in the form of nitrosyl-ruthenium nitrates is volatilized with the production of the peroxide which itself is decomposed to ruthenium dioxide. The aim of this work has been to study the volatility of the ruthenium during the vitrification processes. During the distillation of the nitric solutions, we have studied in particular the influence on the volatility of the temperature , of the chemical form in which the ruthenium is introduced, of the bubbling of a gas through the solution, of the nitric concentration and of the nitrate concentration. During the calcination, we have observed the influence of the temperature, of the time, of the flow rate and of the nature of the carrier gas, as well as of the action of the ruthenium bi-oxide and the iron oxide on the volatility of the ruthenium. Part 2. This report deals with the study of the thermal decomposition of ruthenium peroxide, RuO{sub 4}, and its deposition on steel tubing. After a brief bibliographic review of the various properties of this substance, a study is made, in the first part, of its deposition on a steel tube. In order to do this, we pass a gas current containing RuO{sub 4} marked with {sup 106}Ru through a stainless steel tube subjected to a temperature gradient which decreases in the direction of the gas flow. The temperature at which RuO{sub 4} is deposited or is fixed on the tube is determined and the influence of the flow rate on this deposit is studied. In the second part, an attempt has been made to study by a static method the kinetics of the decomposition reaction of ruthenium peroxide to give the dioxide: RuO{sub 4} {yields} RuO{sub 2} + O{sub 2}. To do this, we have tried to introduce gaseous RuO{sub 4} into a container placed in an electric oven, and to follow the reaction by {gamma} counting. (author) [French] Au cours de la vitrification des solutions de produits de

  5. Feeding Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... feeding therapies have been exhausted. Please review product brand and method of placement carefully with your physician ... Total Parenteral Nutrition. Resources: Oley Foundation Feeding Tube Awareness Foundation Children’s Medical Nutrition Alliance APFED’s Educational Webinar ...

  6. Toxic shock syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome; Toxic shock-like syndrome; TSLS ... Toxic shock syndrome is caused by a toxin produced by some types of staphylococcus bacteria. A similar problem, called toxic shock- ...

  7. Steam generator tube extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delorme, H.

    1985-05-01

    To enable tube examination on steam generators in service, Framatome has now developed a process for removing sections of steam generator tubes. Tube sections can be removed without being damaged for treating the tube section expanded in the tube sheet

  8. Shock waves in helium at low temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liepmann, H.W.; Torczynski, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    Results are reported from studies of the properties of low temperature He-4 using shock waves as a probe. Ideal shock tube theory is used to show that sonic speeds of Mach 40 are attainable in He at 300 K. Viscosity reductions at lower temperatures minimize boundary layer effects at the side walls. A two-fluid model is described to account for the phase transition which He undergoes at temperatures below 2.2 K, after which the quantum fluid (He II) and the normal compressed superfluid (He I) coexist. Analytic models are provided for pressure-induced shocks in He I and temperature-induced shock waves (called second sound) which appear in He II. The vapor-fluid interface of He I is capable of reflecting second and gasdynamic sound shocks, which can therefore be used as probes for studying phase transitions between He I and He II. 17 references

  9. Surface instabilities in shock loaded granular media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandan, K.; Khaderi, S. N.; Wadley, H. N. G.; Deshpande, V. S.

    2017-12-01

    The initiation and growth of instabilities in granular materials loaded by air shock waves are investigated via shock-tube experiments and numerical calculations. Three types of granular media, dry sand, water-saturated sand and a granular solid comprising PTFE spheres were experimentally investigated by air shock loading slugs of these materials in a transparent shock tube. Under all shock pressures considered here, the free-standing dry sand slugs remained stable while the shock loaded surface of the water-saturated sand slug became unstable resulting in mixing of the shocked air and the granular material. By contrast, the PTFE slugs were stable at low pressures but displayed instabilities similar to the water-saturated sand slugs at higher shock pressures. The distal surfaces of the slugs remained stable under all conditions considered here. Eulerian fluid/solid interaction calculations, with the granular material modelled as a Drucker-Prager solid, reproduced the onset of the instabilities as seen in the experiments to a high level of accuracy. These calculations showed that the shock pressures to initiate instabilities increased with increasing material friction and decreasing yield strain. Moreover, the high Atwood number for this problem implied that fluid/solid interaction effects were small, and the initiation of the instability is adequately captured by directly applying a pressure on the slug surface. Lagrangian calculations with the directly applied pressures demonstrated that the instability was caused by spatial pressure gradients created by initial surface perturbations. Surface instabilities are also shown to exist in shock loaded rear-supported granular slugs: these experiments and calculations are used to infer the velocity that free-standing slugs need to acquire to initiate instabilities on their front surfaces. The results presented here, while in an idealised one-dimensional setting, provide physical understanding of the conditions required to

  10. Enstrophy generation in a shock-dominated turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, Hideaki.

    1995-09-01

    A mechanism of enstrophy generation is investigated numerically in a shock-dominated turbulence driven by a random external force which has only the compressible component. Enstrophy is generated, especially on collision of shock, as a pair of vortex tube of opposite sense of rotation behind curved shocks. The roles of various terms in enstrophy equation are clarified in enstrophy generation process. Generation of enstrophy is enhanced by strong alignment of each term of the enstrophy equation with the vorticity vector. (author)

  11. Cuffed endotracheal tubes in paediatrics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cuffed endotracheal tubes (CETTs) in children who are younger than eight years old. Most paediatric ... the smallest functional part of the infant airway, because the ... During the 2003 severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak in ...

  12. Shock Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Z

    2005-01-01

    The International Symposium on Shock Waves (ISSW) is a well established series of conferences held every two years in a different location. A unique feature of the ISSW is the emphasis on bridging the gap between physicists and engineers working in fields as different as gas dynamics, fluid mechanics and materials sciences. The main results presented at these meetings constitute valuable proceedings that offer anyone working in this field an authoritative and comprehensive source of reference.

  13. Ear Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the ear drum or eustachian tube, Down Syndrome, cleft palate, and barotrauma (injury to the middle ear caused by a reduction of air pressure, ... specialist) may be warranted if you or your child has experienced repeated ... fluid in the middle ear, barotrauma, or have an anatomic abnormality that ...

  14. THE DETECTION OF THE NECESSARY CONDITIONS OF EFFECTIVE FUNCTIONING OF THE BALL CLEANING SYSTEM OF THE TUBES OF STEAM TURBINE CONDENSERS. Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Gerasimova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A problem of an increase of the power of turbine by improving heat transfer in condensers of steam turbines is considered in the article as a topical one. The analysis of contamination of the internal surfaces of cooling tubes and of the influence of pollution on the process of heat transfer in turbine condensers has been fulfilled. The existing method of cleaning of condenser tubes with the use of porous elastic balls of sponge rubber that is implemented on a number of large thermal power plants and state region power plants of the Republic of Belarus is examined. In the operation of the ball cleaning system a significant drawback has been revealed, viz. a low efficiency of this method due to the failure to comply with preparation the system of circulating water for operation. Also, a certain imperfection of ball cleaning system technology has been determined. One of the prerequisites for the effective functioning of the ball cleaning system is a certain degree of purity of the pipe system of the condenser, characterized by the coefficient of purity. To determine the effectiveness of ball cleaning system a series of experiments on the launching of porous rubber balls in the pipe system of the main and the embedded bunches of the T-250/300-240 UTMZ turbine has been produced. Immediately before the experiments hydraulic cleaning of the tubes of the condenser by a high-pressure installation were carried out. During the experiments, records of the number of downloaded porous rubber balls, of the number of rubber balls captured in a loading chamber, and of the number of rubber balls that remained in a calibration device were kept. A large proportion of default of the balls caused by the presence of residues of the carbonate sediments, that obstruct the movement of porous rubber balls in the tubes of the condenser, was determined. The presence of carbonate deposits in the tubes of the condenser indicates a lack of effectiveness of antiscale treatment

  15. Mechanical properties of Zr-2.5Nb pressure tube material manufactured employing forging routes for PHWR700 - Part 1: tensile behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bind, A.K.; Singh, R.N.; Sunil, Saurav; Chakravartty, J.K.; Ghosh, Agnish; Dhandharia, Priyesh; More, Nitin S.; Vijayakumar, S.; Chhatre, A.G.

    2012-01-01

    Tensile properties of Zr-2.5Nb alloy tubes produced employing forging to break the cast structure were evaluated by carrying out uni-axial tension test at temperatures between 25 and 325 degC and under strain-rate of 1.075 x 10 -4 /s for both longitudinal and transverse specimens. Both strength and elongation values were comparable for the samples obtained from front and back end of the tube. Transverse samples showed higher strength and lower uniform elongation values as compared to longitudinal samples. The yield strength of double forged material at 25 degC is higher than the PHWR700 specification of a maximum value of 586 MPa. (author)

  16. PROBLEMS IN THE TUBING/PACKER SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Davorin Matanović; Mario Livaja

    1993-01-01

    When gas and oil wells are completed and produced or treated through the tubing connected to packer, there is a great number of problems to be solved. Changes in temperatures and pressures that occure during various operations ussually result in changes in tubing lengths or tubing to packer forces, depending on tubing to packer connections. This paper summarises some earlier papers and explains partly elaborated details. It also gives a complete approach to solve problems in uniform strings r...

  17. Bifurcation parameters of a reflected shock wave in cylindrical channels of different roughnesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penyazkov, O.; Skilandz, A.

    2018-03-01

    To investigate the effect of bifurcation on the induction time in cylindrical shock tubes used for chemical kinetic experiments, one should know the parameters of the bifurcation structure of a reflected shock wave. The dynamics and parameters of the shock wave bifurcation, which are caused by reflected shock wave-boundary layer interactions, are studied experimentally in argon, in air, and in a hydrogen-nitrogen mixture for Mach numbers M = 1.3-3.5 in a 76-mm-diameter shock tube without any ramp. Measurements were taken at a constant gas density behind the reflected shock wave. Over a wide range of experimental conditions, we studied the axial projection of the oblique shock wave and the pressure distribution in the vicinity of the triple Mach configuration at 50, 150, and 250 mm from the endwall, using side-wall schlieren and pressure measurements. Experiments on a polished shock tube and a shock tube with a surface roughness of 20 {μ }m Ra were carried out. The surface roughness was used for initiating small-scale turbulence in the boundary layer behind the incident shock wave. The effect of small-scale turbulence on the homogenization of the transition zone from the laminar to turbulent boundary layer along the shock tube perimeter was assessed, assuming its influence on a subsequent stabilization of the bifurcation structure size versus incident shock wave Mach number, as well as local flow parameters behind the reflected shock wave. The influence of surface roughness on the bifurcation development and pressure fluctuations near the wall, as well as on the Mach number, at which the bifurcation first develops, was analyzed. It was found that even small additional surface roughness can lead to an overshoot in pressure growth by a factor of two, but it can stabilize the bifurcation structure along the shock tube perimeter.

  18. Electron tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suyama, Motohiro [Hamamatsu, JP; Fukasawa, Atsuhito [Hamamatsu, JP; Arisaka, Katsushi [Los Angeles, CA; Wang, Hanguo [North Hills, CA

    2011-12-20

    An electron tube of the present invention includes: a vacuum vessel including a face plate portion made of synthetic silica and having a surface on which a photoelectric surface is provided, a stem portion arranged facing the photoelectric surface and made of synthetic silica, and a side tube portion having one end connected to the face plate portion and the other end connected to the stem portion and made of synthetic silica; a projection portion arranged in the vacuum vessel, extending from the stem portion toward the photoelectric surface, and made of synthetic silica; and an electron detector arranged on the projection portion, for detecting electrons from the photoelectric surface, and made of silicon.

  19. Set-up for steam generator tube bundle washing after explosion expanding the tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osipov, S.I.; Kal'nin, A.Ya.; Mazanenko, M.F.

    1985-01-01

    Set-up for steam generator tube bundle washing after the explosion expanding of tubes is described. Washing is accomplished by distillate. Steam is added to distillate for heating, and compersed air for preventing hydraulic shock. The set-up is equiped by control equipment. Set-up performances are presented. Time for one steam generator washing constitutes 8-12 h. High economic efficiency is realized due to the set-up introduction

  20. Chest tube insertion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chest drainage tube insertion; Insertion of tube into chest; Tube thoracostomy; Pericardial drain ... Be careful there are no kinks in your tube. The drainage system should always sit upright and be placed ...

  1. Shock Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The electrician pictured is installing a General Electric Ground Fault Interrupter (GFI), a device which provides protection against electrical shock in the home or in industrial facilities. Shocks due to defective wiring in home appliances or other electrical equipment can cause severe burns, even death. As a result, the National Electrical Code now requires GFIs in all new homes constructed. This particular type of GFI employs a sensing element which derives from technology acquired in space projects by SCI Systems, Inc., Huntsville, Alabama, producer of sensors for GE and other manufacturers of GFI equipment. The sensor is based on the company's experience in developing miniaturized circuitry for space telemetry and other spacecraft electrical systems; this experience enabled SCI to package interruptor circuitry in the extremely limited space available and to produce sensory devices at practicable cost. The tiny sensor measures the strength of the electrical current and detects current differentials that indicate a fault in the functioning of an electrical system. The sensing element then triggers a signal to a disconnect mechanism in the GFI, which cuts off the current in the faulty circuit.

  2. Insight into magnetorheological shock absorbers

    CERN Document Server

    Gołdasz, Janusz

    2015-01-01

    This book deals with magnetorheological fluid theory, modeling and applications of automotive magnetorheological dampers. On the theoretical side a review of MR fluid compositions and key factors affecting the characteristics of these fluids is followed by a description of existing applications in the area of vibration isolation and flow-mode shock absorbers in particular. As a majority of existing magnetorheological devices operates in a so-called flow mode a critical review is carried out in that regard. Specifically, the authors highlight common configurations of flow-mode magnetorheological shock absorbers, or so-called MR dampers that have been considered by the automotive industry for controlled chassis applications. The authors focus on single-tube dampers utilizing a piston assembly with one coil or multiple coils and at least one annular flow channel in the piston.

  3. Adaptation of a Freon-12 CHF correlation to apply for water in uniformly heated vertical tubes. Part 2: Based on CHF data for water at pressures in the range 6-20 MPa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, W.J.

    1982-03-01

    An examination of more than 5000 sets of experimental data for critical heat flux (CHF) in uniformly heated vertical tubes internally cooled by high pressure water has shown that the CHF correlation proposed in Part 1 of this work is accurate for water at pressures up to approximately 17 MPa, provided that minor modifications are made to the Prandtl number index, and the saturation boiling length function. For pressures greater than 17 MPa, CHF values calculated from the correlation are increasingly lower than the experimental data, particularly at low saturation boiling length ratios ( -1 m -2 or thermal equilibrium exit qualities are less than 0.1

  4. Expansion and compression shock wave calculation in pipes with the C.V.M. numerical method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raymond, P.; Caumette, P.; Le Coq, G.; Libmann, M.

    1983-03-01

    The Control Variables Method for fluid transients computations has been used to compute expansion and compression shock waves propagations. In this paper, first analytical solutions for shock wave and rarefaction wave propagation are detailed. Then after a rapid description of the C.V.M. technique and its stability and monotonicity properties, we will present some results about standard shock tube problem, reflection of shock wave, finally a comparison between experimental results obtained on the ELF facility and calculations is given

  5. An experimental investigation of forced convection burnout in high pressure water. Part IV, Large diameter tubes at about 1600 p.s.i

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.H.

    1966-11-01

    The report presents 727 burnout results for tubes with uniform and non-uniform axial heat flux profiles. Most of the data are at 1600 p.s.i, although there are a limited number at 1250 and 1800 p.s.i. Tube diameters ranged from 0.5 to 1.8 inches. A new correlation for uniform flax data at these pressures is presented, having R.M.S. errors between 4 and 6%. A table of constant terms for this new uniform flux correlation is given, together with Macbeth's values for pressures of 560, 1000 and 2000 p.s.i. Experimental and predicted burnout powers for non-uniform axial heat fluxes are compared and the existing methods of prediction are found to be in error by up to 20%. A new method for predicting burnout with non-uniform axial heat flux is developed which correlates all published data to an R.M.S. error of 6.7%. (author)

  6. Cladding tube manufacturing technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, R.; Jeong, Y. H.; Baek, B. J.; Kim, K. H.; Kim, S. J.; Choi, B. K.; Kim, J. M.

    1999-04-01

    This report gives an overview of the manufacturing routine of PWR cladding tubes. The routine essentially consists of a series of deformation and annealing processes which are necessary to transform the ingot geometry to tube dimensions. By changing shape, microstructure and structure-related properties are altered simultaneously. First, a short overview of the basics of that part of deformation geometry is given which is related to tube reducing operations. Then those processes of the manufacturing routine which change the microstructure are depicted, and the influence of certain process parameters on microstructure and material properties are shown. The influence of the resulting microstructure on material properties is not discussed in detail, since it is described in my previous report A lloy Development for High Burnup Cladding . Because of their paramount importance still up to now, and because manufacturing data and their influence on properties for other alloys are not so well established or published, the descriptions are mostly related to Zry4 tube manufacturing, and are only in short for other alloys. (author). 9 refs., 46 figs

  7. Cladding tube manufacturing technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, R. [Kraftwerk Union AG, Mulheim (Germany); Jeong, Y.H.; Baek, B.J.; Kim, K.H.; Kim, S.J.; Choi, B.K.; Kim, J.M. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-04-01

    This report gives an overview of the manufacturing routine of PWR cladding tubes. The routine essentially consists of a series of deformation and annealing processes which are necessary to transform the ingot geometry to tube dimensions. By changing shape, microstructure and structure-related properties are altered simultaneously. First, a short overview of the basics of that part of deformation geometry is given which is related to tube reducing operations. Then those processes of the manufacturing routine which change the microstructure are depicted, and the influence of certain process parameters on microstructure and material properties are shown. The influence of the resulting microstructure on material properties is not discussed in detail, since it is described in my previous report 'Alloy Development for High Burnup Cladding.' Because of their paramount importance still up to now, and because manufacturing data and their influence on properties for other alloys are not so well established or published, the descriptions are mostly related to Zry4 tube manufacturing, and are only in short for other alloys. (author). 9 refs., 46 figs.

  8. Procedure and device for extracting the end of a tube inserted into a hole in a tube plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    When constructing heat exchangers and steam generators, particularly in the construction of steam generators for nuclear power stations, many small diameter tubes have to be secured into a very thick tube plate for instance 600 mm thick. This crimping or expanding of the tube is generally performed by rolling the internal surface of the tube inside a hole drilled right through the tube plate and slightly greater in diameter than the external diameter of the tube before the tube is rolled. To check the tubes for defects, it is necessary to extract certain tubes from the tube plate in order to move the tube to a testing and inspection point and examine the part of it that was secured in the plate hole. The invention concerns the uncrimping of these tubes [fr

  9. Entropy Generation Across Earth's Bow Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, George K.; McCarthy, Michael; Fu, Suiyan; Lee E. s; Cao, Jinbin; Goldstein, Melvyn L.; Canu, Patrick; Dandouras, Iannis S.; Reme, Henri; Fazakerley, Andrew; hide

    2011-01-01

    Earth's bow shock is a transition layer that causes an irreversible change in the state of plasma that is stationary in time. Theories predict entropy increases across the bow shock but entropy has never been directly measured. Cluster and Double Star plasma experiments measure 3D plasma distributions upstream and downstream of the bow shock that allow calculation of Boltzmann's entropy function H and his famous H-theorem, dH/dt O. We present the first direct measurements of entropy density changes across Earth's bow shock. We will show that this entropy generation may be part of the processes that produce the non-thermal plasma distributions is consistent with a kinetic entropy flux model derived from the collisionless Boltzmann equation, giving strong support that solar wind's total entropy across the bow shock remains unchanged. As far as we know, our results are not explained by any existing shock models and should be of interests to theorists.

  10. A preliminary investigation on the effect of extracorporeal shock wave therapy as a treatment for neurogenic heterotopic ossification following traumatic brain injury. Part II: Effects on function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reznik, J E; Biros, E; Sacher, Y; Kibrik, O; Milanese, S; Gordon, S; Galea, M P

    2017-01-01

    Neurogenic heterotopic ossification (NHO) occurs as a complication of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Management of clinically significant NHO remains variable. Complications of mature NHO include limitation of mobility. The effect of the extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) on range of motion at hip and knee, and function in patients with TBI with chronic NHO was investigated. A series of single-case studies applying ESWT to chronic NHO at the hip or knee of 11 patients with TBI were undertaken at a rehabilitation hospital. Participants received four applications of high-energy EWST delivered to the affected hip or knee over a period of 8 weeks. Two-weekly follow- up assessments were carried out; final assessments were made 3 and 6 months post-intervention. Range of motion (ROM) and Functional Reach (FR) or Modified Functional Reach (MFR) were measured. Application of high-energy ESWT was associated with significant improvement in ROM (flexion) of the NHO-affected knee (Tau = 0.833, 95% CI 0.391-1.276, p = 0.002) and significant improvement of FR (Overall Tau 0.486, 95% CI 0.141-0.832, p = 0.006); no significant improvement in hip ROM or MFR. ESWT may improve mobility and balance of patients with TBI who have chronic NHO.

  11. Collisionless electrostatic shocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, H.K.; Andersen, S.A.; Jensen, Vagn Orla

    1970-01-01

    An attempt was made in the laboratory to observe the standing collisionless electrostatic shocks in connection with the bow shock of the earth......An attempt was made in the laboratory to observe the standing collisionless electrostatic shocks in connection with the bow shock of the earth...

  12. Apparatus for reducing shock and overpressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, C.E.

    1975-01-28

    An apparatus for reducing shock and overpressure is particularly useful in connection with the sequential detonation of a series of nuclear explosives under ground. A coupling and decoupling arrangement between adjacent nuclear explosives in the tubing string utilized to emplace the explosives is able to support lower elements on the string but yields in a manner which absorbs energy when subjected to the shock wave produced upon detonation of one of the explosives. Overpressure is accomodated by an arrangement in the string which provides an additional space into which the pressurized material can expand at a predetermined overpressure. (10 claims)

  13. Experimental investigation of shock wave - bubble interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alizadeh, Mohsen

    2010-04-09

    In this work, the dynamics of laser-generated single cavitation bubbles exposed to lithotripter shock waves has been investigated experimentally. The energy of the impinging shock wave is varied in several steps. High-speed photography and pressure field measurements simultaneously with image acquisition provide the possibility of capturing the fast bubble dynamics under the effect of the shock wave impact. The pressure measurement is performed using a fiber optic probe hydrophone (FOPH) which operates based on optical diagnostics of the shock wave propagating medium. After a short introduction in chapter 1 an overview of the previous studies in chapter 2 is presented. The reported literatures include theoretical and experimental investigations of several configurations of physical problems in the field of bubble dynamics. In chapter 3 a theoretical description of propagation of a shock wave in a liquid like water has been discussed. Different kinds of reflection of a shock wave at an interface are taken into account. Undisturbed bubble dynamics as well as interaction between a planar shock wave and an initially spherical bubble are explored theoretically. Some physical parameters which are important in this issue such as the velocity of the shock-induced liquid jet, Kelvin impulse and kinetic energy are explained. The shock waves are generated in a water filled container by a focusing piezoelectric generator. The shock wave profile has a positive part with pulse duration of ∼1 μs followed by a longer tension tail (i.e. ∼3 μs). In chapter 4 high-speed images depict the propagation of a shock wave in the water filled tank. The maximum pressure is also derived for different intensity levels of the shock wave generator. The measurement is performed in the free field (i.e. in the absence of laser-generated single bubbles). In chapter 5 the interaction between lithotripter shock waves and laserinduced single cavitation bubbles is investigated experimentally. An

  14. Když se řekne YouTube

    OpenAIRE

    Voců, Ondřej

    2011-01-01

    This article describes basic characteristics of YouTube portal, explains its importance and provided services. The first part of this article is applied to basic characteristics of YouTube portal, the second part deals with processes related to videos on YouTube. YouTube users, YouTube partners and projects are mainspring of the third part of this article. Special subchapter outlines possibilites of YouTube in relation to information studies and librarianship. At the end of the fourth chapter...

  15. Nonlinearity, Conservation Law and Shocks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    However, genuine nonlinearity is always present in an ideal gas. The conservation form of the equation (25) brings in shocks which cut off the growing part of the amplitUde as shown in. Figure 15. Acknowledgements. The author sincerely thanks the two referees whose valuable comments led to an improvement of the ...

  16. The Shock and Vibration Bulletin. Part 2. Ship Shock, Shock and Blast and Ground Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-06-01

    collected is Tables 5 san 4. Apparently Ire- quencies for all boas m*olel for modes 1-S are 1 This model. being such mor& detailed than rather close...64 are collected as columns in the matrix 1. The intensity of the modes is chosen Theory of spectral response analysis such that General matrix...character of thie sh ’ odk , but they serve to remind one that a single large stress may, not cause failure or malfunction,. (Have You ever tried to break an

  17. Geometrical shock dynamics for magnetohydrodynamic fast shocks

    KAUST Repository

    Mostert, W.; Pullin, D. I.; Samtaney, Ravi; Wheatley, V.

    2016-01-01

    We describe a formulation of two-dimensional geometrical shock dynamics (GSD) suitable for ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) fast shocks under magnetic fields of general strength and orientation. The resulting area–Mach-number–shock-angle relation is then incorporated into a numerical method using pseudospectral differentiation. The MHD-GSD model is verified by comparison with results from nonlinear finite-volume solution of the complete ideal MHD equations applied to a shock implosion flow in the presence of an oblique and spatially varying magnetic field ahead of the shock. Results from application of the MHD-GSD equations to the stability of fast MHD shocks in two dimensions are presented. It is shown that the time to formation of triple points for both perturbed MHD and gas-dynamic shocks increases as (Formula presented.), where (Formula presented.) is a measure of the initial Mach-number perturbation. Symmetry breaking in the MHD case is demonstrated. In cylindrical converging geometry, in the presence of an azimuthal field produced by a line current, the MHD shock behaves in the mean as in Pullin et al. (Phys. Fluids, vol. 26, 2014, 097103), but suffers a greater relative pressure fluctuation along the shock than the gas-dynamic shock. © 2016 Cambridge University Press

  18. Geometrical shock dynamics for magnetohydrodynamic fast shocks

    KAUST Repository

    Mostert, W.

    2016-12-12

    We describe a formulation of two-dimensional geometrical shock dynamics (GSD) suitable for ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) fast shocks under magnetic fields of general strength and orientation. The resulting area–Mach-number–shock-angle relation is then incorporated into a numerical method using pseudospectral differentiation. The MHD-GSD model is verified by comparison with results from nonlinear finite-volume solution of the complete ideal MHD equations applied to a shock implosion flow in the presence of an oblique and spatially varying magnetic field ahead of the shock. Results from application of the MHD-GSD equations to the stability of fast MHD shocks in two dimensions are presented. It is shown that the time to formation of triple points for both perturbed MHD and gas-dynamic shocks increases as (Formula presented.), where (Formula presented.) is a measure of the initial Mach-number perturbation. Symmetry breaking in the MHD case is demonstrated. In cylindrical converging geometry, in the presence of an azimuthal field produced by a line current, the MHD shock behaves in the mean as in Pullin et al. (Phys. Fluids, vol. 26, 2014, 097103), but suffers a greater relative pressure fluctuation along the shock than the gas-dynamic shock. © 2016 Cambridge University Press

  19. Eustachian tube patency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eustachian tube patency refers to how much the eustachian tube is open. The eustachian tube runs between the middle ear and the throat. It controls the pressure behind the eardrum and middle ear space. This helps keep ...

  20. Feeding tube - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007235.htm Feeding tube - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A feeding tube is a small, soft, plastic tube placed ...

  1. Shock, diaschisis and von Monakow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliasz Engelhardt

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The concept of shock apparently emerged in the middle of the 18th century (Whyett as an occurrence observed experimentally after spinal cord transection, and identified as "shock" phenomenon one century later (Hall. The concept was extended (Brown-Séquard and it was suggested that brain lesions caused functional rupture in regions distant from the injured one ("action à distance". The term "diaschisis" (von Monakow, proposed as a new modality of shock, had its concept broadened, underpinned by observations of patients, aiming at distinguishing between symptoms of focal brain lesions and transitory effects they produced, attributable to depression of distant parts of the brain connected to the injured area. Presently, diaschisis is related mainly to cerebrovascular lesions and classified according to the connection fibers involved, as proposed by von Monakow. Depression of metabolism and blood flow in regions anatomically separated, but related by connections with the lesion, allows observing diaschisis with neuroimaging.

  2. Tube sheet design for PFBR steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chellapandi, P.; Chetal, S.C.; Bhoje, S.B.

    1991-01-01

    Top and bottom tube sheets of PFBR Steam Generators have been analysed with 3D and axisymmetric models using CASTEM Programs. Analysis indicates that the effects of piping reactions at the inlet/outlet nozzles on the primary stresses in the tube sheets are negligible and the asymmetricity of the deformation pattern introduced in the tube sheet by the presence of inlet/outlet and manhole nozzles is insignificant. The minimum tube sheet thicknesses for evaporator and reheater are 135 mm and 75 mm respectively. Further analysis has indicated the minimum fillet radius at the junction of tube sheet and dished end should be 20 mm. Simplified methodology has been developed to arrive at the number of thermal baffles required to protect the tube sheet against fatigue damage due to thermal transient. This method has been applied to PFBR steam generators to determine the required number of thermal baffles. For protecting the bottom tube sheet of evaporator against the thermal shock due to feed water and secondary pump trip, one thermal shield is found to be sufficient. Further analysis is required to decide upon the actual number to take care of the severe thermal transient, following the event of sudden dumping of water/steam, immediately after the sodium-water reaction. (author)

  3. Underwater Shock Wave Research Applied to Therapeutic Device Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, K.; Yamamoto, H.; Shimokawa, H.

    2013-07-01

    The chronological development of underwater shock wave research performed at the Shock Wave Research Center of the Institute of Fluid Science at the Tohoku University is presented. Firstly, the generation of planar underwater shock waves in shock tubes and their visualization by using the conventional shadowgraph and schlieren methods are described. Secondly, the generation of spherical underwater shock waves by exploding lead azide pellets weighing from several tens of micrograms to 100 mg, that were ignited by irradiating with a Q-switched laser beam, and their visualization by using double exposure holographic interferometry are presented. The initiation, propagation, reflection, focusing of underwater shock waves, and their interaction with various interfaces, in particular, with air bubbles, are visualized quantitatively. Based on such a fundamental underwater shock wave research, collaboration with the School of Medicine at the Tohoku University was started for developing a shock wave assisted therapeutic device, which was named an extracorporeal shock wave lithotripter (ESWL). Miniature shock waves created by irradiation with Q-switched HO:YAG laser beams are studied, as applied to damaged dysfunctional nerve cells in the myocardium in a precisely controlled manner, and are effectively used to design a catheter for treating arrhythmia.

  4. Revisiting the thermal effect on shock wave propagation in weakly ionized plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Qianhong; Dong, Zhiwei; Yang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Many researchers have investigated shock propagation in weakly ionized plasmas and observed the following anomalous effects: shock acceleration, shock recovery, shock weakening, shock spreading, and splitting. It was generally accepted that the thermal effect can explain most of the experimental results. However, little attention was paid to the shock recovery. In this paper, the shock wave propagation in weakly ionized plasmas is studied by fluid simulation. It is found that the shock acceleration, weakening, and splitting appear after it enters the plasma (thermal) region. The shock splits into two parts right after it leaves the thermal region. The distance between the splitted shocks keeps decreasing until they recover to one. This paper can explain a whole set of features of the shock wave propagation in weakly ionized plasmas. It is also found that both the shock curvature and the splitting present the same photoacoustic deflection (PAD) signals, so they cannot be distinguished by the PAD experiments.

  5. Improvement of an installation to generate shock waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1974-04-29

    An installation to generate a shock wave in a fluid layer is described. A water projectile is moved at a high velocity. It leaves behind an underpressure in which the adjacent water implodes, therby generating the desired shock wave. The installation is characterized by a tube-shaped hull in which a piston can move freely. One side of the hull is connected to the pressure-generator chamber of the piston. (6 claims)

  6. Converging shocks in elastic-plastic solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, A López; Lombardini, M; Hill, D J

    2011-11-01

    We present an approximate description of the behavior of an elastic-plastic material processed by a cylindrically or spherically symmetric converging shock, following Whitham's shock dynamics theory. Originally applied with success to various gas dynamics problems, this theory is presently derived for solid media, in both elastic and plastic regimes. The exact solutions of the shock dynamics equations obtained reproduce well the results obtained by high-resolution numerical simulations. The examined constitutive laws share a compressible neo-Hookean structure for the internal energy e=e(s)(I(1))+e(h)(ρ,ς), where e(s) accounts for shear through the first invariant of the Cauchy-Green tensor, and e(h) represents the hydrostatic contribution as a function of the density ρ and entropy ς. In the strong-shock limit, reached as the shock approaches the axis or origin r=0, we show that compression effects are dominant over shear deformations. For an isothermal constitutive law, i.e., e(h)=e(h)(ρ), with a power-law dependence e(h) is proportional to ρ(α), shock dynamics predicts that for a converging shock located at r=R(t) at time t, the Mach number increases as M is proportional to [log(1/R)](α), independently of the space index s, where s=2 in cylindrical geometry and 3 in spherical geometry. An alternative isothermal constitutive law with p(ρ) of the arctanh type, which enforces a finite density in the strong-shock limit, leads to M is proportional to R(-(s-1)) for strong shocks. A nonisothermal constitutive law, whose hydrostatic part e(h) is that of an ideal gas, is also tested, recovering the strong-shock limit M is proportional to R(-(s-1)/n(γ)) originally derived by Whitham for perfect gases, where γ is inherently related to the maximum compression ratio that the material can reach, (γ+1)/(γ-1). From these strong-shock limits, we also estimate analytically the density, radial velocity, pressure, and sound speed immediately behind the shock. While the

  7. Maintenance of immersion ultrasonic testing on the water tube boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiyama, Toru; Kawasaki, Ichio; Miura, Hirohito

    2014-01-01

    There are 4-boiler in nuclear fuel cycle engineering laboratories (NCL). These boilers have been operated in the long term over 20 years. One of them, the leakage of boiler water was found at one of the generating tubes, and 2 adjoining generating tubes were corroded in Dec, 2011. These generating tubes were investigated by immersion ultrasonic testing (UT) for measure thickness of the tube. As a result, thinner tube was found in a part of a bend and near the water drum. These parts are covered with sulfide deposit, it seems that the generating tubes were corroded by sulfide. (author)

  8. Magnetohydrodynamic shocks in molecular clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernoff, D.F.

    1985-01-01

    Part one develops the mathematical and physical theory of one-dimensional, time-independent subalfvenic flow in partially ionized gas with magnetic fields, for application to shocks in molecular clouds. Unlike normal gas-dynamic shocks, the neutral flow may be continuous and cool if the gas radiates efficiently and does not self-ionize. Analytic solutions are given in the limit that the neutral gas is either adiabatic or isothermal (cold). Numerical techniques are developed and applied to find the neutral flow under general circumstances. Part two extends the theory and results of part one in three ways: (1) to faster, superalfvenic flow, (2) to complex gases containing heavy charged particles (grains) in addition to ions, containing heavy charged particles (grains) in addition to ions, electrons and neutrals, and (3) to the entire range in (Omega tau), the ratio of charged particle damping time to gyroperiod, expected in gas flows in molecular clouds

  9. Experimental study of tube/support impact forces in multi-span PWR steam generator tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axisa, F.; Desseaux, A.; Gibert, R.J.

    1984-12-01

    The vibro-impact response of a straight part of a steam generator tube is investigated experimentally and using numerical simulation with the aim to relate tube overall dynamics with excitation and tube-support clearance. Configuration studied here corresponds to the tube being excited in only one direction at its first resonance presenting an antinode of vibration at the impacted support. Tests show namely that midspan displacement of tube is almost proportional to excitation level and clearance. Impact forces averaged over a cycle of vibration are almost proportional to excitation and poorly dependent on clearance. Results of numerical simulation are in fairly good agreement with test results

  10. Are Credit Shocks Supply or Demand Shocks?

    OpenAIRE

    Bijapur, Mohan

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides new insights into the relationship between the supply of credit and the macroeconomy. We present evidence that credit shocks constitute shocks to aggregate supply in that they have a permanent effect on output and cause inflation to rise in the short term. Our results also suggest that the effects on aggregate supply have grown stronger in recent decades.

  11. Shock absorbing structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojima, Naoki; Matsushita, Kazuo.

    1992-01-01

    Small pieces of shock absorbers are filled in a space of a shock absorbing vessel which is divided into a plurality of sections by partitioning members. These sections function to prevent excess deformation or replacement of the fillers upon occurrence of falling accident. Since the shock absorbing small pieces in the shock absorbing vessel are filled irregularly, shock absorbing characteristics such as compression strength is not varied depending on the direction, but they exhibit excellent shock absorbing performance. They surely absorb shocks exerted on a transportation vessel upon falling or the like. If existing artificial fillers such as pole rings made of metal or ceramic and cut pieces such as alumium extrusion molding products are used as the shock absorbing pieces, they have excellent fire-proofness and cold resistance since the small pieces are inflammable and do not contain water. (T.M.)

  12. Melting under shock compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, B.I.

    1980-10-01

    A simple model, using experimentally measured shock and particle velocities, is applied to the Lindemann melting formula to predict the density, temperature, and pressure at which a material will melt when shocked from room temperature and zero pressure initial conditions

  13. Biomass shock pretreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtzapple, Mark T.; Madison, Maxine Jones; Ramirez, Rocio Sierra; Deimund, Mark A.; Falls, Matthew; Dunkelman, John J.

    2014-07-01

    Methods and apparatus for treating biomass that may include introducing a biomass to a chamber; exposing the biomass in the chamber to a shock event to produce a shocked biomass; and transferring the shocked biomass from the chamber. In some aspects, the method may include pretreating the biomass with a chemical before introducing the biomass to the chamber and/or after transferring shocked biomass from the chamber.

  14. Coated tube for immunochemical and enzymatic assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, J.L.; Lin, W.H.-T.; Woods, J.W.

    1979-01-01

    Containers such as test tubes suitable for use in solid phase immunochemical, enzymatical and particularly radioimmunoassay procedures are described. The lower part of the tube is a polymer, coated with an inert protein to which a biologically active substance eg an antibody to triiodothyronine, thyroxine or digoxin, is attached. (U.K.)

  15. Relativistic Shock Acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffy, P.; Downes, T.P.; Gallant, Y.A.; Kirk, J.G.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we briefly review the basic theory of shock waves in relativistic hydrodynamics and magneto-hydrodynamics, emphasising some astrophysically interesting cases. We then present an overview of the theory of particle acceleration at such shocks describing the methods used to calculate the spectral indices of energetic particles. Recent results on acceleration at ultra-relativistic shocks are discussed. (author)

  16. Bender/Coiler for Tubing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoltzfus, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    Easy-to-use tool makes coils of tubing. Tubing to be bend clamped with stop post. Die positioned snugly against tubing. Operator turns handle to slide die along tubing, pushing tubing into spiral groove on mandrel.

  17. Effects of explosion-generated shock waves in ducts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busby, M.R.; Kahn, J.E.; Belk, J.P.

    1976-01-01

    An explosion in a space causes an increase in temperature and pressure. To quantify the challenge that will be presented to essential components in a ventilation system, it is necessary to analyze the dynamics of a shock wave generated by an explosion, with attention directed to the propagation of such a wave in a duct. Using the equations of unsteady flow and shock tube theory, a theoretical model has been formulated to provide flow properties behind moving shock waves that have interacted with various changes in duct geometry. Empirical equations have been derived to calculate air pressure, temperature, Mach number, and velocity in a duct following an explosion

  18. Shock Initiation of Damaged Explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chidester, S K; Vandersall, K S; Tarver, C M

    2009-10-22

    Explosive and propellant charges are subjected to various mechanical and thermal insults that can increase their sensitivity over the course of their lifetimes. To quantify this effect, shock initiation experiments were performed on mechanically and thermally damaged LX-04 (85% HMX, 15% Viton by weight) and PBX 9502 (95% TATB, 5% Kel-F by weight) to obtain in-situ manganin pressure gauge data and run distances to detonation at various shock pressures. We report the behavior of the HMX-based explosive LX-04 that was damaged mechanically by applying a compressive load of 600 psi for 20,000 cycles, thus creating many small narrow cracks, or by cutting wedge shaped parts that were then loosely reassembled, thus creating a few large cracks. The thermally damaged LX-04 charges were heated to 190 C for long enough for the beta to delta solid - solid phase transition to occur, and then cooled to ambient temperature. Mechanically damaged LX-04 exhibited only slightly increased shock sensitivity, while thermally damaged LX-04 was much more shock sensitive. Similarly, the insensitive explosive PBX 9502 was mechanically damaged using the same two techniques. Since PBX 9502 does not undergo a solid - solid phase transition but does undergo irreversible or 'rachet' growth when thermally cycled, thermal damage to PBX 9502 was induced by this procedure. As for LX-04, the thermally damaged PBX 9502 demonstrated a greater shock sensitivity than mechanically damaged PBX 9502. The Ignition and Growth reactive flow model calculated the increased sensitivities by igniting more damaged LX-04 and PBX 9502 near the shock front based on the measured densities (porosities) of the damaged charges.

  19. Laparoscopic insertion of the Moss feeding tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrink, M H; Hagan, K; Rosemurgy, A S

    1993-12-01

    Placement of enteral feeding tubes is an important part of a surgeon's skill base. Surgical insertion of feeding tubes has been performed safely for many years with very few modifications. With the recent surge in interest and applicability of other laparoscopic procedures, it is well within the skills of the average laparoscopic surgeon to insert feeding tubes. We describe herein a simple technique for the insertion of the Moss feeding tube. The procedure described has a minimum of invasion, along with simplicity, safety, and accuracy.

  20. Laser shock wave and its applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chaojun; Zhang, Yongkang; Zhou, Jianzhong; Zhang, Fang; Feng, Aixin

    2007-12-01

    The technology of laser shock wave is used to not only surface modification but also metal forming. It can be divided into three parts: laser shock processing, laser shock forming (LSF) and laser peenforming(LPF). Laser shock processing as a surface treatment to metals can make engineering components have a residual compressive stress so that it obviously improves their fatigue strength and stress corrosion performances, while laser shock forming (LSF) is a novel technique that is used in plastic deformation of sheet metal recently and Laser peen forming (LPF) is another new sheet metal forming process presented in recent years. They all can be carried out by a high-power and repetition pulse Nd:Glass laser device made by Jiangsu University. Laser shock technology has characterized of ultrahigh pressure and high strain rate (10 6 - 10 7s -1). Now, for different materials, we are able to form different metals to contours and shapes and simultaneity leave their surfaces in crack-resistant compressive stress state. The results show that the technology of laser shock wave can strengthen surface property and prolong fatigue life and especially can deform metals to shapes that could not be adequately made using conventional methods. With the development of the technology of laser shock wave, the applied fields of laser will become greater and greater.

  1. photomultiplier tube

    CERN Multimedia

    A device to convert light into an electric signal (the name is often abbreviated to PM). Photomultipliers are used in all detectors based on scintillating material (i.e. based on large numbers of fibres which produce scintillation light at the passage of a charged particle). A photomultiplier consists of 3 main parts: firstly, a photocathode where photons are converted into electrons by the photoelectric effect; secondly, a multiplier chain consisting of a serie of dynodes which multiply the number of electron; finally, an anode, which collects the resulting current.

  2. photomultiplier tube

    CERN Multimedia

    Philips. 150AVP. A device to convert light into an electric signal (the name is often abbreviated to PM). Photomultipliers are used in all detectors based on scintillating material (i.e. based on large numbers of fibres which produce scintillation light at the passage of a charged particle). A photomultiplier consists of 3 main parts: firstly, a photocathode where photons are converted into electrons by the photoelectric effect; secondly, a multiplier chain consisting of a serie of dynodes which multiply the number of electron; finally, an anode, which collects the resulting current.

  3. A Novel Device for Accurate Chest Tube Insertion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katballe, Niels; Moeller, Lars B; Olesen, Winnie H

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Optimal positioning of a large-bore chest tube is in the part of the pleural cavity that needs drainage. It is recommended that the chest tube be positioned apically in pneumothorax and basally for fluids. However, targeted chest tube positioning to a specific part of the pleural cavity...... can be a challenge. METHODS: A new medical device, the KatGuide, was developed for accurate guiding of a chest tube (28F) to an intended part of the pleural cavity. The primary end point of this randomized, controlled trial was optimal position of the chest tube. The optimal position in pneumothorax...

  4. Experimental and numerical investigation of reactive shock-accelerated flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonazza, Riccardo [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Engineering Physics

    2016-12-20

    The main goal of this program was to establish a qualitative and quantitative connection, based on the appropriate dimensionless parameters and scaling laws, between shock-induced distortion of astrophysical plasma density clumps and their earthbound analog in a shock tube. These objectives were pursued by carrying out laboratory experiments and numerical simulations to study the evolution of two gas bubbles accelerated by planar shock waves and compare the results to available astrophysical observations. The experiments were carried out in an vertical, downward-firing shock tube, 9.2 m long, with square internal cross section (25×25 cm2). Specific goals were to quantify the effect of the shock strength (Mach number, M) and the density contrast between the bubble gas and its surroundings (usually quantified by the Atwood number, i.e. the dimensionless density difference between the two gases) upon some of the most important flow features (e.g. macroscopic properties; turbulence and mixing rates). The computational component of the work performed through this program was aimed at (a) studying the physics of multi-phase compressible flows in the context of astrophysics plasmas and (b) providing a computational connection between laboratory experiments and the astrophysical application of shock-bubble interactions. Throughout the study, we used the FLASH4.2 code to run hydrodynamical and magnetohydrodynamical simulations of shock bubble interactions on an adaptive mesh.

  5. Experimental and numerical investigation of reactive shock-accelerated flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonazza, Riccardo

    2016-01-01

    The main goal of this program was to establish a qualitative and quantitative connection, based on the appropriate dimensionless parameters and scaling laws, between shock-induced distortion of astrophysical plasma density clumps and their earthbound analog in a shock tube. These objectives were pursued by carrying out laboratory experiments and numerical simulations to study the evolution of two gas bubbles accelerated by planar shock waves and compare the results to available astrophysical observations. The experiments were carried out in an vertical, downward-firing shock tube, 9.2 m long, with square internal cross section (25x25 cm"2). Specific goals were to quantify the effect of the shock strength (Mach number, M) and the density contrast between the bubble gas and its surroundings (usually quantified by the Atwood number, i.e. the dimensionless density difference between the two gases) upon some of the most important flow features (e.g. macroscopic properties; turbulence and mixing rates). The computational component of the work performed through this program was aimed at (a) studying the physics of multi-phase compressible flows in the context of astrophysics plasmas and (b) providing a computational connection between laboratory experiments and the astrophysical application of shock-bubble interactions. Throughout the study, we used the FLASH4.2 code to run hydrodynamical and magnetohydrodynamical simulations of shock bubble interactions on an adaptive mesh.

  6. Investigation of shock compressed plasma parameters by interaction with magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudin, S. V.; Fortov, V. E.; Gryaznov, V. K.; Mintsev, V. B.; Shilkin, N. S.; Ushnurtsev, A. E.

    1998-01-01

    The Hall effect parameters in shock compressed air, helium and xenon have been estimated and results of experiments with air and helium plasma are presented. Explosively driven shock tubes were used for the generation of strong shock waves. To obtain magnetic field a solenoid was winded over the shock tube. Calculations of dense shock compressed plasma parameters were carried out to plan the experiments. In the experiments with the magnetic field of ∼5 T it was found, that air plasma slug was significantly heated by the whirlwind electrical field. The reflected shock waves technique was used in the experiments with helium. Results on measurements of electrical conductivity and electron concentration of helium are presented

  7. Shock wave interaction with pulsed glow discharge and afterglow plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podder, N.K.; LoCascio, A.C.

    2009-01-01

    Acoustic shock waves are launched by the spark-discharge of a high voltage capacitor in pulsed glow discharge and afterglow plasmas. The glow discharge section of the shock tube is switched on for a period of less than one second at a time, during which a shock wave is launched starting with a large delay between the plasma switch-on and the shock-launch. In the subsequent runs this delay is decremented in equal time intervals up to the plasma switch-on time. A photo acoustic deflection method sensitive to the density gradient of the shock wave is used to study the propagating shock structure and velocity in the igniting plasma. A similar set of measurements are also performed at the plasma switch-off, in which the delay time is incremented in equal time intervals from the plasma switch-off time until the afterglow plasma fully neutralizes itself into the room-temperature gas. Thus, complete time histories of the shock wave propagation in the igniting plasma, as well as in the afterglow plasma, are produced. In the igniting plasma, the changes in the shock-front velocity and dispersion are found to be a strong non-linear function of delay until a saturation point is reached. On the other hand, in the afterglow plasma the trend has been opposite and reversing towards the room temperature values. The observed shock wave properties in both igniting and afterglow plasmas correlate well with the inferred temperature changes in the two plasmas

  8. Shock wave propagation in neutral and ionized gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podder, N. K.; Wilson IV, R. B.; Bletzinger, P.

    2008-01-01

    Preliminary measurements on a recently built shock tube are presented. Planar shock waves are excited by the spark discharge of a capacitor, and launched into the neutral argon or nitrogen gas as well as its ionized glow discharge in the pressure region 1-17 Torr. For the shock wave propagation in the neutral argon at fixed capacitor charging voltage, the shock wave velocity is found to increase nonlinearly at the lower pressures, reach a maximum at an intermediate pressure, and then decrease almost linearly at the higher pressures, whereas the shock wave strength continues to increase at a nonlinear rate over the entire range of pressure. However, at fixed gas pressure the shock wave velocity increases almost monotonically as the capacitor charging voltage is increased. For the shock wave propagation in the ionized argon glow, the shock wave is found to be most influenced by the glow discharge plasma current. As the plasma current is increased, both the shock wave propagation velocity and the dispersion width are observed to increase nonlinearly

  9. The Sealed Tube Neutron Generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tunnell, L.N.; Beyerle, A.; Durkee, R.; Headley, G.; Hurley, P.

    1992-01-01

    A Sealed Tube Neutron Generator (STNG) has been designed and tested at Special Technologies Laboratories (STL) in Santa Barbara, California. Unlike similar tubes that have been used for years in other applications, e.g., by the oil well logging industry, the present device was designed primarily to be part of the Associated Particle Imaging (API) system. Consequently, the size and quality of the neutron spot produced by the STNG is of primary importance. Results from initial measurements indicate that performance goals are satisfied

  10. Tribology Aspect of Rubber Shock Absorbers Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Banić

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Rubber is a very flexible material with many desirable properties Which enable its broad use in engineering practice. Rubber or rubber-metal springs are widely used as anti-vibration or anti-shock components in technical systems. Rubber-metal springs are usually realized as a bonded assembly, however especially in shock absorbers, it is possible to realize free contacts between rubber and metal parts. In previous research it authors was observed that friction between rubber and metal in such case have a significant influence on the damping characteristics of shock absorber. This paper analyzes the development process of rubber or rubber-metal shock absorbers realized free contacts between the constitutive parts, starting from the design, construction, testing and operation, with special emphasis on the development of rubber-metal springs for the buffing and draw gear of railway vehicles.

  11. Alfven shock trains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malkov, M.A.; Kennel, C.F.; Wu, C.C.; Pellat, R.; Shapiro, V.D.

    1991-01-01

    The Cohen--Kulsrud--Burgers equation (CKB) is used to consider the nonlinear evolution of resistive, quasiparallel Alfven waves subject to a long-wavelength, plane-polarized, monochromatic instability. The instability saturates by nonlinear steepening, which proceeds until the periodic waveform develops an interior scale length comparable to the dissipation length; a fast or an intermediate shock then forms. The result is a periodic train of Alfven shocks of one or the other type. For propagation strictly parallel to the magnetic field, there will be two shocks per instability wavelength. Numerical integration of the time-dependent CKB equation shows that an initial, small-amplitude growing wave asymptotes to a stable, periodic stationary wave whose analytic solution specifies how the type of shock embedded in the shock train, and the amplitude and speed of the shock train, depend on the strength and phase of the instability. Waveforms observed upstream of the Earth's bowshock and cometary shocks resemble those calculated here

  12. Measurement of Radiative Non-Equilibrium for Air Shocks Between 7-9 Km/s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruden, Brett A.; Brandis, Aaron M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a recent characterization of non-equilibrium radiation for shock speeds between 7 and 9 km/s in the NASA Ames Electric Arc Shock Tube (EAST) Facility. Data is spectrally resolved from 190- 1450 nm and spatially resolved behind the shock front. Comparisons are made to DPLR/NEQAIR simulations using different modeling options and recommendations for future study are made based on these comparisons.

  13. Sticker Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schueler, Beth E.; West, Martin R.

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the role of information in shaping public opinion in the context of support for education spending. While there is broad public support for increasing government funding for public schools, Americans tend to underestimate what is currently spent. We embed a series of experiments in a nationally representative survey administered in 2012 (n = 2,993) to examine whether informing citizens about current levels of education spending alters public opinion about whether funding should increase. Providing information on per-pupil spending in a respondent’s local school district reduces the probability that he or she will express support for increasing spending by 22 percentage points on average. Informing respondents about state-average teacher salaries similarly depresses support for salary increases. These effects are larger among respondents who underestimate per-pupil spending and teacher salaries by a greater amount, consistent with the idea that the observed changes in opinion are driven, at least in part, by informational effects, as opposed to priming alone. PMID:27257308

  14. An experimental and modeling study of propene oxidation. Part 2: Ignition delay time and flame speed measurements

    KAUST Repository

    Burke, Sinéad M.

    2015-02-01

    Experimental data obtained in this study (Part II) complement the speciation data presented in Part I, but also offer a basis for extensive facility cross-comparisons for both experimental ignition delay time (IDT) and laminar flame speed (LFS) observables. To improve our understanding of the ignition characteristics of propene, a series of IDT experiments were performed in six different shock tubes and two rapid compression machines (RCMs) under conditions not previously studied. This work is the first of its kind to directly compare ignition in several different shock tubes over a wide range of conditions. For common nominal reaction conditions among these facilities, cross-comparison of shock tube IDTs suggests 20-30% reproducibility (2σ) for the IDT observable. The combination of shock tube and RCM data greatly expands the data available for validation of propene oxidation models to higher pressures (2-40. atm) and lower temperatures (750-1750. K).Propene flames were studied at pressures from 1 to 20. atm and unburned gas temperatures of 295-398. K for a range of equivalence ratios and dilutions in different facilities. The present propene-air LFS results at 1. atm were also compared to LFS measurements from the literature. With respect to initial reaction conditions, the present experimental LFS cross-comparison is not as comprehensive as the IDT comparison; however, it still suggests reproducibility limits for the LFS observable. For the LFS results, there was agreement between certain data sets and for certain equivalence ratios (mostly in the lean region), but the remaining discrepancies highlight the need to reduce uncertainties in laminar flame speed experiments amongst different groups and different methods. Moreover, this is the first study to investigate the burning rate characteristics of propene at elevated pressures (>5. atm).IDT and LFS measurements are compared to predictions of the chemical kinetic mechanism presented in Part I and good

  15. An experimental and modeling study of propene oxidation. Part 2: Ignition delay time and flame speed measurements

    KAUST Repository

    Burke, Siné ad M.; Burke, Ultan; Mc Donagh, Reuben; Mathieu, Olivier; Osorio, Irmis; Keesee, Charles L.; Morones, Aní bal; Petersen, Eric L.; Wang, Weijing; DeVerter, Trent A.; Oehlschlaeger, Matthew A.; Rhodes, Brandie; Hanson, Ronald K.; Davidson, David F.; Weber, Bryan W.; Sung, Chihjen; Santner, Jeffrey S.; Ju, Yiguang; Haas, Francis M.; Dryer, Frederick L.; Volkov, Evgeniy N.; Nilsson, Elna J K; Konnov, Alexander A.; Alrefae, Majed; Khaled, Fathi; Farooq, Aamir; Dirrenberger, Patricia; Glaude, Pierre Alexandre; Battin-Leclerc, F.; Curran, Henry J.

    2015-01-01

    Experimental data obtained in this study (Part II) complement the speciation data presented in Part I, but also offer a basis for extensive facility cross-comparisons for both experimental ignition delay time (IDT) and laminar flame speed (LFS) observables. To improve our understanding of the ignition characteristics of propene, a series of IDT experiments were performed in six different shock tubes and two rapid compression machines (RCMs) under conditions not previously studied. This work is the first of its kind to directly compare ignition in several different shock tubes over a wide range of conditions. For common nominal reaction conditions among these facilities, cross-comparison of shock tube IDTs suggests 20-30% reproducibility (2σ) for the IDT observable. The combination of shock tube and RCM data greatly expands the data available for validation of propene oxidation models to higher pressures (2-40. atm) and lower temperatures (750-1750. K).Propene flames were studied at pressures from 1 to 20. atm and unburned gas temperatures of 295-398. K for a range of equivalence ratios and dilutions in different facilities. The present propene-air LFS results at 1. atm were also compared to LFS measurements from the literature. With respect to initial reaction conditions, the present experimental LFS cross-comparison is not as comprehensive as the IDT comparison; however, it still suggests reproducibility limits for the LFS observable. For the LFS results, there was agreement between certain data sets and for certain equivalence ratios (mostly in the lean region), but the remaining discrepancies highlight the need to reduce uncertainties in laminar flame speed experiments amongst different groups and different methods. Moreover, this is the first study to investigate the burning rate characteristics of propene at elevated pressures (>5. atm).IDT and LFS measurements are compared to predictions of the chemical kinetic mechanism presented in Part I and good

  16. Shock therapy: Gris Gun's shock absorber can take the punch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2000-04-01

    A newly developed shock impedance tool that isolates downhole tools that measure the effects of well stimulation techniques from being damaged by the violent shaking caused by various well stimulation techniques which combine perforating and propellant technology in a single tool, is discussed. The shock exerted by a perforating gun can exceed 25,000 G forces within 100 to 300 milliseconds, may damage or even destroy the sensitive electronics housed in the various recorders that record data about fracture gradients, permeability and temperature. The shock absorber developed by Tesco Gris Gun and Computalog, incorporates the mechanics of a piston style shock absorber in combination with a progressive spring stack and energy-dampening silicone oil chambers. The end results is an EUE 'slim line' assembly that is adaptable between the gun perforating string and the electronic equipment. It is typically attached below, reducing the shock load by as much as 90 per cent. The shock absorber is now available commercially through Gris Gun's exclusive distributorship. An improved version, currently under development, will be used for wireline perforating and tubing-conveyed perforating applications. 2 figs.

  17. Methyl CpG level at distal part of heat-shock protein promoter HSP70 exhibits epigenetic memory for heat stress by modulating recruitment of POU2F1-associated nucleosome-remodeling deacetylase (NuRD) complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisliouk, Tatiana; Cramer, Tomer; Meiri, Noam

    2017-05-01

    Depending on its stringency, exposure to heat in early life leads to either resilience or vulnerability to heat stress later in life. We hypothesized that epigenetic alterations in genes belonging to the cell proteostasis pathways are attributed to long-term responses to heat stress. Epigenetic regulation of the mRNA expression of the molecular chaperone heat-shock protein (HSP) 70 (HSPA2) was evaluated in the chick hypothalamus during the critical period of thermal-control establishment on day 3 post-hatch and during heat challenge on day 10. Both the level and duration of HSP70 expression during heat challenge a week after heat conditioning were more pronounced in chicks conditioned under harsh versus mild temperature. Analyzing different segments of the promoter in vitro indicated that methylation of a distal part altered its transcriptional activity. In parallel, DNA-methylation level of this segment in vivo was higher in harsh- compared to mild-heat-conditioned chicks. Hypermethylation of the HSP70 promoter in high-temperature-conditioned chicks was accompanied by a reduction in both POU Class 2 Homeobox 1 (POU2F1) binding and recruitment of the nucleosome remodeling deacetylase (NuRD) chromatin-remodeling complex. As a result, histone H3 acetylation levels at the HSP70 promoter were higher in harsh-temperature-conditioned chicks than in their mild-heat-conditioned counterparts. These results suggest that methylation level of a distal part of the HSP70 promoter and POU2F1 recruitment may reflect heat-stress-related epigenetic memory and may be useful in differentiating between individuals that are resilient or vulnerable to stress. © 2017 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  18. System Shock: The Archetype of Operational Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-25

    the battle space. They can also facilitate a much greater understanding of the variables involved in each party’s decision - making process. However...system shock nests within current US Army Unified Land Operations doctrine. In order to test the utility of system shock theory to Gray Zone...23 Neil E. Harrison, “Thinking about the World We Make ” in Chaos Theory in the Social Sciences: Foundations and Applications

  19. Process of corrosion protection for a steam generator tube and device to apply it

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malagola, P.; Vassal, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    The steam generator tube is fixed by crimping in a tube plate; a metallic layer compatible with the tube material is electrodeposited on the inner side of the tube after its mounting in the tube plate, on both side of the plate face in contact with the water to be steamed, along a length approximately longer than the transition zone between the crimped part of the tube and the part which is not crimped. The external side of the tube can be also covered by a metallic layer before its mounting through the tube plate. The metallic layer can be nickel. The invention applies, more particularly, to PWR steam generators [fr

  20. Experimental Study of Shock Generated Compressible Vortex Ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Debopam; Arakeri, Jaywant H.; Krothapalli, Anjaneyulu

    2000-11-01

    Formation of a compressible vortex ring and generation of sound associated with it is studied experimentally. Impulse of a shock wave is used to generate a vortex ring from the open end of a shock-tube. Vortex ring formation process has been studied in details using particle image Velocimetry (PIV). As the shock wave exits the tube it diffracts and expands. A circular vortex sheet forms at the edge and rolls up into a vortex ring. Far field microphone measurement shows that the acoustic pressure consists of a spike due to shock wave followed by a low frequency pressure wave of decaying nature, superimposed with high frequency pressure wave. Acoustic waves consist of waves due to expansion, waves formed in the tube during diaphragm breakage and waves associated with the vortex ring and shear-layer vortices. Unsteady evolution of the vortex ring and shear-layer vortices in the jet behind the ring is studied by measuring the velocity field using PIV. Corresponding vorticity field, circulation around the vortex core and growth rate of the vortex core is calculated from the measured velocity field. The velocity field in a compressible vortex ring differs from that of an incompressible ring due to the contribution from both shock and vortex ring.

  1. Numerical research of the swirling supersonic gas flows in the self-vacuuming vortex tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volov, V. T.; Lyaskin, A. S.

    2018-03-01

    This article presents the results of simulation for a special type of vortex tubes – self-vacuuming vortex tube (SVVT), for which extreme values of temperature separation and vacuum are realized. The main results of this study are the flow structure in the SVVT and energy loss estimations on oblique shock waves, gas friction, instant expansion and organization of vortex bundles in SVVT.

  2. LIGS measurements in the nozzle reservoir of a free-piston shock tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altenhöfer, P.; Sander, T.; Koroll, F.; Mundt, Ch.

    2018-02-01

    Free-piston shock tunnels are ground-based test facilities allowing the simulation of reentry flow conditions in a simple and cost-efficient way. For a better understanding of the processes occurring in a shock tunnel as well as for an optimal comparability of experimental data gained in shock tunnels to numerical simulations, it is highly desirable to have the best possible characterization of the generated test gas flows. This paper describes the final step of the development of a laser-induced grating spectroscopy (LIGS) system capable of measuring the temperature in the nozzle reservoir of a free-piston shock tunnel during tests: the successful adaptation of the measurement system to the shock tunnel. Preliminary measurements were taken with a high-speed camera and a LED lamp in order to investigate the optical transmissibility of the measurement volume during tests. The results helped to successfully measure LIGS signals in shock tube mode and shock tunnel mode in dry air seeded with NO. For the shock tube mode, six successful measurements for a shock Mach number of about 2.35 were taken in total, two of them behind the incoming shock (p ≈ 1 MPa, T ≈ 600 K) and four after the passing of the reflected shock (p ≈ 4 MPa, T ≈ 1000 K). For five of the six measurements, the derived temperatures were within a deviation range of 6% to a reference value calculated from measured shock speed. The uncertainty estimated was less than or equal to 3.5% for all six measurements. Two LIGS signals from measurements behind the reflected shock in shock tunnel mode were analyzed in detail. One of the signals allowed an unambiguous derivation of the temperature under the conditions of a shock with Mach 2.7 (p ≈ 5 MPa, T ≈ 1200 K, deviation 0.5% , uncertainty 4.9% ).

  3. X-ray tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    A form of x-ray tube is described which provides satisfactory focussing of the electron beam when the beam extends for several feet from gun to target. Such a tube can be used for computerised tomographic scanning. (UK)

  4. Pressure tube type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komada, Masaoki.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To increase the safety of pressure tube type reactors by providing an additional ECCS system to an ordinary ECCS system and injecting heavy water in the reactor core tank into pressure tubes upon fractures of the tubes. Constitution: Upon fractures of pressure tubes, reduction of the pressure in the fractured tubes to the atmospheric pressure in confirmed and the electromagnetic valve is operated to completely isolate the pressure tubes from the fractured portion. Then, the heavy water in the reactor core tank flows into and spontaneously recycles through the pressure tubes to cool the fuels in the tube to prevent their meltdown. By additionally providing the separate ECCS system to the ordinary ECCS system, fuels can be cooled upon loss of coolant accidents to improve the safety of the reactors. (Moriyama, K.)

  5. Gastrostomy feeding tube - bolus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeding - gastrostomy tube - bolus; G-tube - bolus; Gastrostomy button - bolus; Bard Button - bolus; MIC-KEY - bolus ... KEY, 3 to 8 weeks after surgery. These feedings will help your child grow strong and healthy. ...

  6. Feeding tube insertion - gastrostomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002937.htm Feeding tube insertion - gastrostomy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A gastrostomy feeding tube insertion is the placement of a feeding ...

  7. Neural Tube Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neural tube defects are birth defects of the brain, spine, or spinal cord. They happen in the ... that she is pregnant. The two most common neural tube defects are spina bifida and anencephaly. In ...

  8. Feedwater heater tube-to-tubesheet connections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokell, S.

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses some practical aspects of expanded, welded, and welded-and-expanded feedwater heater tube-to-tubesheet joints. It outlines elastic-plastic tube expanding theory. It examines uniform-pressure-expanded tube joint strength and correlating roller-expanded joint strength with wall reduction and rolling torque. For materials subject to stress-corrosion cracking (SCC), it recommends heat treating tube ends before expanding. For materials subject to fatigue and tube-end cracking, it advocates two-stage expanding: (1) expanding enough to create firm tube-hole contact over the full tubesheet thickness; and (2) re-expanding at full pressure or torque. The paper emphasizes the desirability of segregating heats of tubing, mapping the tube-heat locations and making the heat map a permanent part of the heater maintenance file. It recommends when to provide TEMA/HEI Power Plant Standard annular grooves for roller-expanding and provides an equation for determining optimum groove width for uniform-pressure expanding. The paper also reviews welding requirements for welds of tubes to tubesheets. The review covers front-face welding before and after expanding and the reasons for welding first. It outlines current thinking about definitions of strength- and seal-welds of front-face welded joint in terms of their functions and load-carrying abilities. It presents a proposal for determining the required size of strength welds for use in Section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (the Code). It shows why welded-and-expanded feedwater heater tube-to-tubesheet joints should be full-strength and full-depth expanded. It makes recommendations for pressure- and leak-testing. This work also proposes the industry consider butt welding the tubes to the steam-side face of the tubesheet as a regular method of tube joining. The results of a survey of manufacturers practices are appended. 30 refs., 14 figs

  9. Shock-acceleration of a pair of gas inhomogeneities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro Nunez, Jose Alonso; Reese, Daniel; Oakley, Jason; Rothamer, David; Bonazza, Riccardo

    2014-11-01

    A shock wave moving through the interstellar medium distorts density inhomogeneities through the deposition of baroclinic vorticity. This process is modeled experimentally in a shock tube for a two-bubble interaction. A planar shock wave in nitrogen traverses two soap-film bubbles filled with argon. The two bubbles share an axis that is orthogonal to the shock wave and are separated from one another by a distance of approximately one bubble diameter. Atomization of the soap-film by the shock wave results in dispersal of droplets that are imaged using Mie scattering with a laser sheet through the bubble axis. Initial condition images of the bubbles in free-fall (no holder) are taken using a high-speed camera and then two post-shock images are obtained with two laser pulses and two cameras. The first post-shock image is of the early time compression stage when the sphere has become ellipsoidal, and the second image shows the emergence of vortex rings which have evolved due to vorticity depostion by the shock wave. Bubble morphology is characterized with length scale measurements.

  10. Shock-tunnel combustor testing for hypersonic vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loomis, Mark P.

    1994-01-01

    Proposed configurations for the next generation of transatmospheric vehicles will rely on air breathing propulsion systems during all or part of their mission. At flight Mach numbers greater than about 7 these engines will operate in the supersonic combustion ramjet mode (scramjet). Ground testing of these engine concepts above Mach 8 requires high pressure, high enthalpy facilities such as shock tunnels and expansion tubes. These impulse, or short duration facilities have test times on the order of a millisecond, requiring high speed instrumentation and data systems. One such facility ideally suited for scramjet testing is the NASA-Ames 16-Inch shock tunnel, which over the last two years has completed a series of tests for the NASP (National Aero-Space Plane) program at simulated flight Mach numbers ranging from 12-16. The focus of the experimental programs consisted of a series of classified tests involving a near-full scale hydrogen fueled scramjet combustor model in the semi-free jet method of engine testing whereby the compressed forebody flow ahead of the cowl inlet is reproduced (see appendix A). The AIMHYE-1 (Ames Integrated Modular Hypersonic Engine) test entry for the NASP program was completed in April 1993, while AIMHYE-2 was completed in May 1994. The test entries were regarded as successful, resulting in some of the first data of its kind on the performance of a near full scale scramjet engine at Mach 12-16. The data was distributed to NASP team members for use in design system verification and development. Due to the classified nature of the hardware and data, the data reports resulting from this work are classified and have been published as part of the NASP literature. However, an unclassified AIAA paper resulted from the work and has been included as appendix A. It contains an overview of the test program and a description of some of the important issues.

  11. Poređenje snage za jednu i dve kontrarotirajuće hidro turbine u Venturijevoj cevi - II deo / Comparison of power for one and two contra-rotating hydro turbines in a Venturi tube: Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko S. Kozić

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available U prvom delu rada izloženi su rezultati istraživanja koja daju priraštaj snage dobijen sa dve kontrarotirajuće hidroturbine u poređenju sa snagom jedne turbine, smeštene u Venturijevoj cevi, a koje se obrću sa n = 50 o/min. Izvršena su istraživanja koja je trebalo da daju odgovor na pitanje da li se može dobiti veći priraštaj snage sa povećanjem broja obrtaja. U drugom delu rada prikazani su rezultati za jednu i dve kontrarotirajuće turbine pri najvećem broju obrtaja pri kojem se ne javlja kavitacija na lopaticama. Rezultati su dobijeni numeričkim simulacijama uz korišćenje softvera koji rešava usrednjene Navije-Stoksove jednačine. / In the first part of the paper, the results of the research are presented, giving the increment of the power obtained with two contra-rotating hydro turbines, compared to one turbine, placed in a Venturi tube and rotating at 50 rpm. Since a small increment of power is obtained, research was carried out in order to give an answer to the question whether a larger increment of power could be obtained by increasing a number of revolutions per minute. In the second part of the paper, the results are shown for one and two contra-rotating turbines at the highest revolution at which no cavitation appears on the blades. The results are obtained with numerical simulations using software for solving Navier-Stokes equations.

  12. Measurements of ion velocity separation and ionization in multi-species plasma shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinderknecht, Hans G.; Park, H.-S.; Ross, J. S.; Amendt, P. A.; Wilks, S. C.; Katz, J.; Hoffman, N. M.; Kagan, G.; Vold, E. L.; Keenan, B. D.; Simakov, A. N.; Chacón, L.

    2018-05-01

    The ion velocity structure of a strong collisional shock front in a plasma with multiple ion species is directly probed in laser-driven shock-tube experiments. Thomson scattering of a 263.25 nm probe beam is used to diagnose ion composition, temperature, and flow velocity in strong shocks ( M ˜6 ) propagating through low-density ( ρ˜0.1 mg/cc) plasmas composed of mixtures of hydrogen (98%) and neon (2%). Within the preheat region of the shock front, two velocity populations of ions are observed, a characteristic feature of strong plasma shocks. The ionization state of the Ne is observed to change within the shock front, demonstrating an ionization-timescale effect on the shock front structure. The forward-streaming proton feature is shown to be unexpectedly cool compared to predictions from ion Fokker-Planck simulations; the neon ionization gradient is evaluated as a possible cause.

  13. Integrated microelectromechanical gyroscope under shock loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesterenko, T. G.; Koleda, A. N.; Barbin, E. S.

    2018-01-01

    The paper presents a new design of a shock-proof two-axis microelectromechanical gyroscope. Without stoppers, the shock load enables the interaction between the silicon sensor elements. Stoppers were installed in the gyroscope to prevent the contact interaction between electrodes and spring elements with fixed part of the sensor. The contact of stoppers occurs along the plane, thereby preventing the system from serious contact stresses. The shock resistance of the gyroscope is improved by the increase in its eigenfrequency at which the contact interaction does not occur. It is shown that the shock load directed along one axis does not virtually cause the movement of sensing elements along the crosswise axes. Maximum stresses observed in the proposed gyroscope at any loading direction do not exceed the value allowable for silicon.

  14. 21 CFR 868.5800 - Tracheostomy tube and tube cuff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tracheostomy tube and tube cuff. 868.5800 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5800 Tracheostomy tube and tube cuff. (a) Identification. A tracheostomy tube and tube cuff is a device intended to be placed into a...

  15. Interaction of Interstellar Shocks with Dense Obstacles: Formation of ``Bullets''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvaramadze, V. V.

    The so-called cumulative effect take place in converging conical shock waves arising behind dense obstacles overtaken by incident interstellar shock. A significant part of energy of converging flow of matter swept-up by a radiative conical shock can be transferred to a dense jet-like ejection (``bullet'') directed along the cone axis. Possible applications of this effect for star-forming regions (e.g., OMC-1) and supernova remnants (e.g., Vela SNR) are discussed.

  16. Bayesian optimal experimental design for the Shock-tube experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terejanu, G; Bryant, C M; Miki, K

    2013-01-01

    The sequential optimal experimental design formulated as an information-theoretic sensitivity analysis is applied to the ignition delay problem using real experimental. The optimal design is obtained by maximizing the statistical dependence between the model parameters and observables, which is quantified in this study using mutual information. This is naturally posed in the Bayesian framework. The study shows that by monitoring the information gain after each measurement update, one can design a stopping criteria for the experimental process which gives a minimal set of experiments to efficiently learn the Arrhenius parameters.

  17. Optimal Experimental Design of Furan Shock Tube Kinetic Experiments

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Daesang

    2015-01-07

    A Bayesian optimal experimental design methodology has been developed and applied to refine the rate coefficients of elementary reactions in Furan combustion. Furans are considered as potential renewable fuels. We focus on the Arrhenius rates of Furan + OH ↔ Furyl-2 + H2O and Furan ↔ OH Furyl-3 + H2O, and rely on the OH consumption rate as experimental observable. A polynomial chaos surrogate is first constructed using an adaptive pseudo-spectral projection algorithm. The PC surrogate is then exploited in conjunction with a fast estimation of the expected information gain in order to determine the optimal design in the space of initial temperatures and OH concentrations.

  18. Development of a Distributed Breach for the Conical Shock Tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Ti - «<M’»<Mosm —vocvicocviosm —VO(VI cr»—vo •*— ro cvi ro • * m m is. vo N OO CO OS <c<c<c<c<r<c<coc<c<E<c«<c<c<coc<coi hht-HHI-1-Khhhl- hHhhHh

  19. Heat exchanger tube tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gugel, G.

    1976-01-01

    Certain types of heat-exchangers have tubes opening through a tube sheet to a manifold having an access opening offset from alignment with the tube ends. A tool for inserting a device, such as for inspection or repair, is provided for use in such instances. The tool is formed by a flexible guide tube insertable through the access opening and having an inner end provided with a connector for connection with the opening of the tube in which the device is to be inserted, and an outer end which remains outside of the chamber, the guide tube having adequate length for this arrangement. A flexible transport hose for internally transporting the device slides inside of the guide tube. This hose is long enough to slide through the guide tube, into the heat-exchanger tube, and through the latter to the extent required for the use of the device. The guide tube must be bent to reach the end of the heat-exchanger tube and the latter may be constructed with a bend, the hose carrying anit-friction elements at interspaced locations along its length to make it possible for the hose to negotiate such bends while sliding to the location where the use of the device is required

  20. The effect of tube-support interaction on the dynamic response of heat exchanger tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Y.S.; Jendrzejczyk, J.A.; Wambsganss, M.W.

    1977-01-01

    To avoid detrimental tube vibration in heat exchangers, resonant conditions and instabilitites must be avoided, and/or peak dynamic amplitudes must not exceed allowable limits. In attempting a theoretical analysis, questions arise as to the effects of tube/support interaction on tube vibrational characteristics (i.e. resonant frequencies, modes, damping) and response amplitude. As a part of ANL's Flow-Induced Vibration Program in support of the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) steam generator design activity, tube/support interaction experiments are being performed not only to gain the insight into the dynamic behavior of CRBRP steam generator tubes, but also to provide the basis for developing design guidance. Test results were compared with anaytical results based on multispan tube with 'knife-edge' supports at the support locations. (Auth.)

  1. Intercostal drainage tube or intracardiac drainage tube?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Anitha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although insertion of chest drain tubes is a common medical practice, there are risks associated with this procedure, especially when inexperienced physicians perform it. Wrong insertion of the tube has been known to cause morbidity and occasional mortality. We report a case where the left ventricle was accidentally punctured leading to near-exsanguination. This report is to highlight the need for experienced physicians to supervise the procedure and train the younger physician in the safe performance of the procedure.

  2. Intercostal drainage tube or intracardiac drainage tube?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anitha, N; Kamath, S Ganesh; Khymdeit, Edison; Prabhu, Manjunath

    2016-01-01

    Although insertion of chest drain tubes is a common medical practice, there are risks associated with this procedure, especially when inexperienced physicians perform it. Wrong insertion of the tube has been known to cause morbidity and occasional mortality. We report a case where the left ventricle was accidentally punctured leading to near-exsanguination. This report is to highlight the need for experienced physicians to supervise the procedure and train the younger physician in the safe performance of the procedure.

  3. NEI You Tube Videos: Amblyopia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... YouTube Videos » NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia Listen NEI YouTube Videos YouTube Videos Home Age-Related Macular Degeneration ... Retinopathy of Prematurity Science Spanish Videos Webinars NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia Embedded video for NEI YouTube Videos: ...

  4. Particle acceleration at shocks in the inner heliosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Linda Neergaard

    multiple shock model is developed based in part on the box model of (Protheroe and Stanev, 1998; Moraal and Axford, 1983; Ball and Kirk, 1992; Drury et al. 1999) that accelerates particles at multiple shocks and decompresses the particles between shocks via two methods. The first method of decompression is based on the that used by Melrose and Pope (1993), which adiabatically decompresses particles between shocks. The second method solves the cosmic ray transport equation and adiabatically decompresses between shocks and includes the loss of particles through convection and diffusion. The transport method allows for the inclusion of a temporal variability and thus allows for a more representative frequency distribution of shocks. The transport method of decompression and loss is used to accelerate particles at seventy-three shocks in a thirty day time period. Comparisons with observations taken at 1 AU during the same time period are encouraging as the model is able to reproduce the observed amplitude of the accelerated particles and in part the variability. This work provides the basis for developing more sophisticated models that can be applied to a suite of observations

  5. Hydraulic shock absorbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thatcher, G.; Davidson, D. F.

    1984-01-01

    A hydraulic shock absorber of the dash pot kind for use with electrically conducting liquid such as sodium, has magnet means for electro magnetically braking a stream of liquid discharged from the cylinder. The shock absorber finds use in a liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor for arresting control rods

  6. Our Favorite Film Shocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willerslev, Rane; Suhr, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The modern medium of film has long been hailed for its capacity for producing shocks of an entertaining, thought-provoking, or even politically emancipative nature. But what is a shock, how and when does it occur, how long does it last, and are there particular techniques for producing cinematic...

  7. Climate shocks and conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papaioannou, Kostadis J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper offers a historical micro-level analysis of the impact of climate shocks on the incidence of civil conflict in colonial Nigeria (1912-1945). Primary historical sources on court cases, prisoners and homicides are used to capture conflict. To measure climate shocks we use the deviation

  8. Transient and steady-state flows in shock tunnels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannemann, K. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Goettingen (Germany); Jacobs, P.A. [Queensland Univ., Brisbane (Australia). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Thomas, A.; McIntyre, T.J. [Queensland Univ., Brisbane, QLD. (Australia). Dept. of Physics

    1999-12-01

    Due to the difficulty of measuring all necessary flow quantities in the nozzle reservoir and the test section of high enthalpy shock tunnels, indirect computational methods are necessary to estimate the required flow parameters. In addition to steady state flow computations of the nozzle flow and the flow past wind tunnel models it is necessary to investigate the transient flow in the facility in order to achieve a better understanding of its performance. These transient effects include the nozzle starting flow, the interaction of the shock tube boundary layers and the reflected shock, thermal losses in the shock reflection region and the developing boundary layers in the expanding section of the nozzle. Additionally, the nonequilibrium chemical and thermal relaxation models which are used to compute high enthalpy flows have to be validated with appropriate experimental data. (orig.)

  9. Transient and steady-state flows in shock tunnels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannemann, K. (Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Goettingen (Germany)); Jacobs, P.A. (Queensland Univ., Brisbane (Australia). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering); Thomas, A.; McIntyre, T.J. (Queensland Univ., Brisbane, QLD. (Australia). Dept. of Physics)

    1999-01-01

    Due to the difficulty of measuring all necessary flow quantities in the nozzle reservoir and the test section of high enthalpy shock tunnels, indirect computational methods are necessary to estimate the required flow parameters. In addition to steady state flow computations of the nozzle flow and the flow past wind tunnel models it is necessary to investigate the transient flow in the facility in order to achieve a better understanding of its performance. These transient effects include the nozzle starting flow, the interaction of the shock tube boundary layers and the reflected shock, thermal losses in the shock reflection region and the developing boundary layers in the expanding section of the nozzle. Additionally, the nonequilibrium chemical and thermal relaxation models which are used to compute high enthalpy flows have to be validated with appropriate experimental data. (orig.)

  10. Shock-induced luminescence from Z-cut lithium niobate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brannon, P.J.; Morris, R.W.; Asay, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    Shock-induced luminescence from lithium niobate has been studied in the stress range 1.6--21.0 GPa. Both fast-framing photography and five-channel optical pyrometry were used to observe the luminescence. The framing photography showed that the emission pattern is heterogeneous for stresses just above the dynamic yield point. A further increase of the stress resulted in a pattern which was essentially homogeneous to within the experimental spatial resolution of about 30 μm. Narrowband filters and photomultiplier tubes were used in the optical pyrometry experiments. A broadband spectrum with a peak near 700 nm was observed. A plot of the energy dissipated by the shock versus shock stress correlates very well with a plot of the 700-nm intensity versus shock stress. The mechanism for light emission in lithium niobate appears to be closely related to the dynamic yielding process

  11. Experimental investigation of shock wave diffraction over a single- or double-sphere model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L. T.; Wang, T. H.; Hao, L. N.; Huang, B. Q.; Chen, W. J.; Shi, H. H.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the unsteady drag produced by the interaction of a shock wave with a single- and a double-sphere model is measured using imbedded accelerometers. The shock wave is generated in a horizontal circular shock tube with an inner diameter of 200 mm. The effect of the shock Mach number and the dimensionless distance between spheres is investigated. The time-history of the drag coefficient is obtained based on Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT) band-block filtering and polynomial fitting of the measured acceleration. The measured peak values of the drag coefficient, with the associated uncertainty, are reported.

  12. Pediatric cuffed endotracheal tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neerja Bhardwaj

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Endotracheal intubation in children is usually performed utilizing uncuffed endotracheal tubes for conduct of anesthesia as well as for prolonged ventilation in critical care units. However, uncuffed tubes may require multiple changes to avoid excessive air leak, with subsequent environmental pollution making the technique uneconomical. In addition, monitoring of ventilatory parameters, exhaled volumes, and end-expiratory gases may be unreliable. All these problems can be avoided by use of cuffed endotracheal tubes. Besides, cuffed endotracheal tubes may be of advantage in special situations like laparoscopic surgery and in surgical conditions at risk of aspiration. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scans in children have found the narrowest portion of larynx at rima glottides. Cuffed endotracheal tubes, therefore, will form a complete seal with low cuff pressure of <15 cm H 2 O without any increase in airway complications. Till recently, the use of cuffed endotracheal tubes was limited by variations in the tube design marketed by different manufacturers. The introduction of a new cuffed endotracheal tube in the market with improved tracheal sealing characteristics may encourage increased safe use of these tubes in clinical practice. A literature search using search words "cuffed endotracheal tube" and "children" from 1980 to January 2012 in PUBMED was conducted. Based on the search, the advantages and potential benefits of cuffed ETT are reviewed in this article.

  13. Lunar Lava Tube Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Cheryl Lynn; Walden, Bryce; Billings, Thomas L.; Reeder, P. Douglas

    1992-01-01

    Large (greater than 300 m diameter) lava tube caverns appear to exist on the Moon and could provide substantial safety and cost benefits for lunar bases. Over 40 m of basalt and regolith constitute the lava tube roof and would protect both construction and operations. Constant temperatures of -20 C reduce thermal stress on structures and machines. Base designs need not incorporate heavy shielding, so lightweight materials can be used and construction can be expedited. Identification and characterization of lava tube caverns can be incorporated into current precursor lunar mission plans. Some searches can even be done from Earth. Specific recommendations for lunar lava tube search and exploration are (1) an Earth-based radar interferometer, (2) an Earth-penetrating radar (EPR) orbiter, (3) kinetic penetrators for lunar lava tube confirmation, (4) a 'Moon Bat' hovering rocket vehicle, and (5) the use of other proposed landers and orbiters to help find lunar lava tubes.

  14. Categorising YouTube

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Thomas Mosebo

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a genre analytical approach to creating a typology of the User Generated Content (UGC) of YouTube. The article investigates the construction of navigation processes on the YouTube website. It suggests a pragmatic genre approach that is expanded through a focus on YouTube......’s technological affordances. Through an analysis of the different pragmatic contexts of YouTube, it is argued that a taxonomic understanding of YouTube must be analysed in regards to the vacillation of a user-driven bottom-up folksonomy and a hierarchical browsing system that emphasises a culture of competition...... and which favours the already popular content of YouTube. With this taxonomic approach, the UGC videos are registered and analysed in terms of empirically based observations. The article identifies various UGC categories and their principal characteristics. Furthermore, general tendencies of the UGC within...

  15. Steam generator tube performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatone, O.S.; Pathania, R.S.

    1983-08-01

    A review of the performance of steam generator tubes in 110 water-cooled nuclear power reactors showed that tubes were plugged at 46 (42 percent) of the reactors. The number of tubes removed from service increased from 1900 (0.14 percent) in 1980 to 4692 (0.30 percent) in 1981. The leading causes of tube failures were stress corrosion cracking from the primary side, stress corrosion cracking (or intergranular attack) from the secondary side and pitting corrosion. The lowest incidence of corrosion-induced defects from the secondary side occurred in reactors that used all-volatile treatment since start-up. At one reactor a large number of degraded tubes were repaired by sleeving which is expected to become an important method of tube repair in the future

  16. Shock-hydrodynamics experiments on the Nova laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, P.; Peyser, T.; Stry, P.; Budil, K.; Wojtowicz, D.; Burke, E.

    1995-08-01

    We have conducted shock-induced hydrodynamics experiments using the Nova laser at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The laser provides a high-enthalpy source by depositing its energy (about 22 kJ) in a small gold cavity called a Hohlraum. The Hohlraum serves as a driver section, launching very strong (M ∼ 20) shocks into millimeter-scale cylindrical ''shock tubes.'' The flow is imaged radiographically by an electronic framing camera, using a laser-generated x-ray source. Several topics have been addressed with this configuration, including shock-induced mixing at density interfaces (seeded with a variety of perturbations); the development of high-speed, shaped-charge-like jets; the effects of geometry on the planarity of the generated shocks; and shock-shock interactions which develop in the flows. This paper describes the general configuration of our experiments, presents an overview of the high-speed jet work, discusses some of our findings, and compares our results with computer simulations

  17. Rectangular drift tube characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denisov, D.S.; Musienko, Yu.V.

    1985-01-01

    Results on the study of the characteristics of a 50 x 100 mm aluminium drift tube are presented. The tube was filled with argon-methane and argon-isobutane mixtures. With 16 per cent methane concentration the largest deviation from a linear relation between the drift time and the drift path over 50 mm is less than 2 mm. The tube filled with argon-isobutane mixture is capable of operating in a limited streamer mode

  18. Collisionless shock waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagdeev, R.Z.; Kennel, C.F.

    1991-01-01

    Collisionless shocks cannot occur naturally on the earth, because nearly all matter here consists of electrically neutral atoms and molecules. In space, however, high temperatures and ultraviolet radiation from hot stars decompose atoms into their constituent nuclei and electrons, producing a soup of electrically charged particles known as a plasma. Plasma physicists proposed that the collective electrical and magnetic properties of plasmas could produce interactions that take the place of collisions and permit shocks to form. In 1964 the theoretical work found its first experimental confirmation. Norman F. Ness and his colleagues at the Goddard Space Flight Center, using data collected from the iMP-1 spacecraft, detected clear signs that a collisionless shock exists where the solar wind encounters the earth's magnetic field. More recent research has demonstrated that collisionless shocks appear in a dazzling array of astronomical settings. For example, shocks have been found in the solar wind upstream (sunward) of all the planet and comets that have been visited by spacecraft. Violent flares on the sun generate shocks that propagate to the far reaches of the solar system; tremendous galactic outbursts create disruptions in the intergalactic medium that are trillions of times larger. In addition, many astrophysicists think that shocks from supernova explosions in our galaxy accelerate cosmic rays, a class of extraordinarily energetic elementary particles and atomic nuclei that rain down on the earth from all directions

  19. Pediatric Toxic Shock Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Yee

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Audience: This scenario was developed to educate emergency medicine residents on the diagnosis and management of a pediatric patient with toxic shock syndrome. The case is also appropriate for teaching of medical students and advanced practice providers, as well as a review of the principles of crisis resource management, teamwork, and communication. Introduction: Toxic shock syndrome is a low-frequency, high-acuity scenario requiring timely identification and aggressive management. If patients suffering from this condition are managed incorrectly, they may progress into multi-organ dysfunction and potentially death. Toxic shock syndrome has been associated with Streptococcus and Staphylococcus aureus (Staph. Approximately half of Staph cases are associated with menstruation, which was first described in the 1970s-1980s and was associated with the use of absorbent tampons.1 Group A Streptococcus may cause complications such as necrotizing fasciitis and gangrenous myositis.2 Pediatric patients may present critically ill from toxic shock syndrome. Providers need to perform a thorough history and physical exam to discern the source of infection. Management requires aggressive care with antibiotics and IV fluids. Objectives: By the end of this simulation session, the learner will be able to: 1 Recognize toxic shock syndrome. 2 Review the importance of a thorough physical exam. 3 Discuss management of toxic shock syndrome, including supportive care and the difference in antibiotic choices for streptococcal and staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome. 4 Appropriately disposition a patient suffering from toxic shock syndrome. 5 Communicate effectively with team members and nursing staff during a resuscitation of a critically ill patient. Method: This session was conducted using high-fidelity simulation, followed by a debriefing session and lecture on toxic shock syndrome.

  20. Categorising YouTube

    OpenAIRE

    Simonsen, Thomas Mosebo

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a genre analytical approach to creating a typology of the User Generated Content (UGC) of YouTube. The article investigates the construction of navigation processes on the YouTube website. It suggests a pragmatic genre approach that is expanded through a focus on YouTube’s technological affordances. Through an analysis of the different pragmatic contexts of YouTube, it is argued that a taxonomic understanding of YouTube must be analysed in regards to the vacillation of a...

  1. Pressure tube reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susuki, Akira; Murata, Shigeto; Minato, Akihiko.

    1993-01-01

    In a pressure tube reactor, a reactor core is constituted by arranging more than two units of a minimum unit combination of a moderator sealing pipe containing a calandria tube having moderators there between and a calandria tube and moderators. The upper header and a lower header of the calandria tank containing moderators are communicated by way of the moderator sealing tube. Further, a gravitationally dropping mechanism is disposed for injecting neutron absorbing liquid to a calandria gas injection portion. A ratio between a moderator volume and a fuel volume is defined as a function of the inner diameter of the moderator sealing tube, the outer diameter of the calandria tube and the diameter of fuel pellets, and has no influence to intervals of a pressure tube lattice. The interval of the pressure tube lattice is enlarged without increasing the size of the pressure tube, to improve production efficiency of the reactor and set a coolant void coefficient more negative, thereby enabling to improve self controllability and safety. Further, the reactor scram can be conducted by injecting neutron absorbing liquid. (N.H.)

  2. Heated Tube Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Heated Tube Facility at NASA GRC investigates cooling issues by simulating conditions characteristic of rocket engine thrust chambers and high speed airbreathing...

  3. Steam generator tube performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatone, O.S.; Pathania, R.S.

    1984-10-01

    A review of the performance of steam generator tubes in 116 water-cooled nuclear power reactors showed that tubes were plugged at 54 (46 percent) of the reactors. The number of tubes removed from service decreased from 4 692 (0.30 percent) in 1981 to 3 222 (0.20 percent) in 1982. The leading causes of tube failures were stress corrosion cracking from the primary side, stress corrosion cracking (or intergranular attack) from the secondary side and pitting corrosion. The lowest incidence of corrosion-induced defects from the secondary side occurred in reactors that have used only volatile treatment, with or without condensate demineralization

  4. Steam generator tube performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatone, O.S.; Tapping, R.L.; Stipan, L.

    1992-03-01

    A survey of steam generator operating experience for 1986 has been carried out for 184 pressurized water and pressurized heavy-water reactors, and 1 water-cooled, graphite-moderated reactor. Tubes were plugged at 75 of the reactors (40.5%). In 1986, 3737 tubes were plugged (0.14% of those in service) and 3148 tubes were repaired by sleeving. A small number of reactors accounted for the bulk of the plugged tubes, a phenomenon consistent with previous years. For 1986, the available tubesheet sludge data for 38 reactors has been compiled into tabular form, and sludge/deposit data will be incorporated into all future surveys

  5. Rejection index for pressure tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, A.B.; Meneley, D.

    1989-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to establish a set of criteria (or Rejection Index) which could be used to decide whether a zirconium-2 1/2 w/o niobium pressure tube in a CANDU reactor should be removed from service due to in-service degradation. A critique of key issues associated with establishing a realistic rejection index was prepared. Areas of uncertainty in available information were identified and recommendations for further analysis and laboratory testing made. A Rejection Index based on the following limits has been recommended: 1) Limits related to design intent and normal operation: any garter spring must remain within the tolerance band specified for its design location; the annulus gas system must normally be operated in a circulating mode with a procedure in place for purging to prevent accumulation of deuterium. It must remain sensitive to leaks into any part of the systems; and pressure tube dimensions and distortions must be limited to maintain the fuel channels within the original design intent; 2) Limits related to defect tolerance: adequate time margins between occurrence of a leaking crack and unstable failure must be demonstrated for all fuel channels; long lap-type flaws are unacceptable; crack-like defects of any size are unacceptable; and score marks, frat marks and other defects with contoured profiles must fall below certain depth, length and stress intensity limits; and 3) Limits related to property degradation: at operating temperature each pressure tube must be demonstrated to have a critical length in excess of a stipulated value; the maximum equivalent hydrogen level in any pressure tube should not exceed a limit which should be defined taking into account the known history of that tube; the maximum equivalent hydrogen level in any rolled joint should not exceed a limit which is presently recommended as 200 ppm equivalent hydrogen; and the maximum diametral creep strain should be limited to less than 5%

  6. Shocks near Jamming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Leopoldo R.; Turner, Ari M.; van Hecke, Martin; Vitelli, Vincenzo

    2012-02-01

    Nonlinear sound is an extreme phenomenon typically observed in solids after violent explosions. But granular media are different. Right when they jam, these fragile and disordered solids exhibit a vanishing rigidity and sound speed, so that even tiny mechanical perturbations form supersonic shocks. Here, we perform simulations in which two-dimensional jammed granular packings are dynamically compressed and demonstrate that the elementary excitations are strongly nonlinear shocks, rather than ordinary phonons. We capture the full dependence of the shock speed on pressure and impact intensity by a surprisingly simple analytical model.

  7. Mechanical shock absorber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vrillon, Bernard.

    1973-01-01

    The mechanical shock absorber described is made of a constant thickness plate pierced with circular holes regularly distributed in such a manner that for all the directions along which the strain is applied during the shock, the same section of the substance forming the plate is achieved. The shock absorber is made in a metal standing up to extensive deformation before breaking, selected from a group comprising mild steels and austenitic stainless steels. This apparatus is used for handling pots of fast neutron reactor fuel elements [fr

  8. Shock formation of HCO+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elitzur, M.

    1983-01-01

    It is shown that shocks propagating in dense molecular regions will lead to a decrease in HCO + relative abundance, in agreement with previous results by Iglesias and Silk. The shock enhancement of HCO + detected in the supernova remnant IC 443 by Dickenson et al. is due to enhanced ionization in the shocked material. This is the result of the material penetrating the remnant cavity where it becomes exposed to the trapped cosmic rays. A similar enhancement appears to have been detected by Wootten in W28 and is explained by the same model

  9. Simulations of Shock Wave Interaction with a Particle Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koneru, Rahul; Rollin, Bertrand; Ouellet, Frederick; Annamalai, Subramanian; Balachandar, S.'Bala'

    2016-11-01

    Simulations of a shock wave interacting with a cloud of particles are performed in an attempt to understand similar phenomena observed in dispersal of solid particles under such extreme environment as an explosion. We conduct numerical experiments in which a particle curtain fills only 87% of the shock tube from bottom to top. As such, the particle curtain upon interaction with the shock wave is expected to experience Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) and Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) instabilities. In this study, the initial volume fraction profile matches with that of Sandia Multiphase Shock Tube experiments, and the shock Mach number is limited to M =1.66. In these simulations we use a Eulerian-Lagrangian approach along with state-of-the-art point-particle force and heat transfer models. Measurements of particle dispersion are made at different initial volume fractions of the particle cloud. A detailed analysis of the evolution of the particle curtain with respect to the initial conditions is presented. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Advanced Simulation and Computing Program, as a Cooperative Agreement under the Predictive Science Academic Alliance Program, Contract No. DE-NA0002378.

  10. High speed photography for studying the shock wave propagation at high Mach numbers through a reflection nozzle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaytsev, S.G.; Lazareva, E.V.; Mikhailova, A.V.; Nikolaev-Kozlov, V.L.; Chebotareva, E.I.

    1979-01-01

    Propagation of intensive shock waves with a temperature of about 1 eV has been studied in a two-dimensional reflection nozzle mounted at the exit of a shock tube. The Toepler technique has been involved along with the interference scheme with a laser light source allowing the multiple-frame recording to be done. Density distribution in the nozzle as well as the wave pattern occurring at the shock propagation are presented. (author)

  11. Shock Isolation Elements Testing for High Input Loadings. Volume II. Foam Shock Isolation Elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SHOCK ABSORBERS ), (*GUIDED MISSILE SILOS, SHOCK ABSORBERS ), (*EXPANDED PLASTICS, (*SHOCK(MECHANICS), REDUCTION), TEST METHODS, SHOCK WAVES, STRAIN(MECHANICS), LOADS(FORCES), MATHEMATICAL MODELS, NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS, HARDENING.

  12. Microwave discharges in capillary tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dervisevic, Emil

    1984-01-01

    This research thesis aims at being a contribution to the study of microwave discharge by a surface wave, and more precisely focusses on the discharge in capillary tubes filled with argon. The author first present theoretical models which describe, on the one hand, the propagation of the surface wave along the plasma column, and, on the other hand, longitudinal and radial profiles of the main discharge characteristics. The second part addresses the study of the influence of parameters (gas pressure and tube radius) on discharge operation and characteristics. Laws of similitude as well as empirical relationships between argon I and argon II emission line intensities, electron density, and electric field in the plasma have been established [fr

  13. Steam generator tube failures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonald, P.E.; Shah, V.N.; Ward, L.W.; Ellison, P.G.

    1996-04-01

    A review and summary of the available information on steam generator tubing failures and the impact of these failures on plant safety is presented. The following topics are covered: pressurized water reactor (PWR), Canadian deuterium uranium (CANDU) reactor, and Russian water moderated, water cooled energy reactor (VVER) steam generator degradation, PWR steam generator tube ruptures, the thermal-hydraulic response of a PWR plant with a faulted steam generator, the risk significance of steam generator tube rupture accidents, tubing inspection requirements and fitness-for-service criteria in various countries, and defect detection reliability and sizing accuracy. A significant number of steam generator tubes are defective and are removed from service or repaired each year. This wide spread damage has been caused by many diverse degradation mechanisms, some of which are difficult to detect and predict. In addition, spontaneous tube ruptures have occurred at the rate of about one every 2 years over the last 20 years, and incipient tube ruptures (tube failures usually identified with leak detection monitors just before rupture) have been occurring at the rate of about one per year. These ruptures have caused complex plant transients which have not always been easy for the reactor operators to control. Our analysis shows that if more than 15 tubes rupture during a main steam line break, the system response could lead to core melting. Although spontaneous and induced steam generator tube ruptures are small contributors to the total core damage frequency calculated in probabilistic risk assessments, they are risk significant because the radionuclides are likely to bypass the reactor containment building. The frequency of steam generator tube ruptures can be significantly reduced through appropriate and timely inspections and repairs or removal from service

  14. Parametric study on the performance of automotive MR shock absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gołdasz, J.; Dzierżek, S.

    2016-09-01

    The paper contains the results of a parametric study to explore the influence of various quantities on the performance range of semi-active automotive shock absorbers using the magnetorheological (MR) fluid under steady-state and transient excitations. The analysis was performed with simulated data and using a standard single-tube shock absorber configuration with a single-gap MR valve. Additionally, the impact of material variables and valves geometry was examined as the parameters were varied and its dynamic range studied.

  15. Structure of intermediate shocks and slow shocks in a magnetized plasma with heat conduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, C.L.; Wu, B.H.; Lee, L.C.

    2005-01-01

    The structure of slow shocks and intermediate shocks in the presence of a heat conduction parallel to the local magnetic field is simulated from the set of magnetohydrodynamic equations. This study is an extension of an earlier work [C. L. Tsai, R. H. Tsai, B. H. Wu, and L. C. Lee, Phys. Plasmas 9, 1185 (2002)], in which the effects of heat conduction are examined for the case that the tangential magnetic fields on the two side of initial current sheet are exactly antiparallel (B y =0). For the B y =0 case, a pair of slow shocks is formed as the result of evolution of the initial current sheet, and each slow shock consists of two parts: the isothermal main shock and the foreshock. In the present paper, cases with B y ≠0 are also considered, in which the evolution process leads to the presence of an additional pair of time-dependent intermediate shocks (TDISs). Across the main shock of the slow shock, jumps in plasma density, velocity, and magnetic field are significant, but the temperature is continuous. The plasma density downstream of the main shock decreases with time, while the downstream temperature increases with time, keeping the downstream pressure constant. The foreshock is featured by a smooth temperature variation and is formed due to the heat flow from downstream to upstream region. In contrast to the earlier study, the foreshock is found to reach a steady state with a constant width in the slow shock frame. In cases with B y ≠0, the plasma density and pressure increase and the magnetic field decreases across TDIS. The TDIS initially can be embedded in the slow shock's foreshock structure, and then moves out of the foreshock region. With an increasing B y , the propagation speed of foreshock leading edge tends to decrease and the foreshock reaches its steady state at an earlier time. Both the pressure and temperature downstreams of the main shock decrease with increasing B y . The results can be applied to the shock heating in the solar corona and

  16. Counseling For Future Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Lewis B.

    1974-01-01

    In this article the author looks at some of the searing prophecies made by Alvin Toffler in his book Future Shock and relates them to the world of the professional counselor and the clientele the counselor attempts to serve. (Author)

  17. Life shocks and homelessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Marah A; Corman, Hope; Noonan, Kelly; Reichman, Nancy E

    2013-12-01

    We exploited an exogenous health shock-namely, the birth of a child with a severe health condition-to investigate the effect of a life shock on homelessness in large cities in the United States as well as the interactive effects of the shock with housing market characteristics. We considered a traditional measure of homelessness, two measures of housing instability thought to be precursors to homelessness, and a combined measure that approximates the broadened conceptualization of homelessness under the 2009 Homeless Emergency Assistance and Rapid Transition to Housing Act (2010). We found that the shock substantially increases the likelihood of family homelessness, particularly in cities with high housing costs. The findings are consistent with the economic theory of homelessness, which posits that homelessness results from a conjunction of adverse circumstances in which housing markets and individual characteristics collide.

  18. Shock buffer for nuclear control assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bevilacqua, F.

    1977-01-01

    A shock buffer is provided for the gradual deceleration of a rapidly descending control element assembly in a nuclear reactor. The interactive buffer components are associated respectively with the movable control element assembly and part of the upper guide structure independent of and spaced from the fuel assemblies of the reactor

  19. Unlimited Relativistic Shock Surfing Acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ucer, D.; Shapiro, V. D.

    2001-01-01

    Nonrelativistic shock surfing acceleration at quasiperpendicular shocks is usually considered to be a preacceleration mechanism for slow pickup ions to initiate diffusive shock acceleration. In shock surfing, the particle accelerates along the shock front under the action of the convective electric field of the plasma flow. However, the particle also gains kinetic energy normal to the shock and eventually escapes downstream. We consider the case when ions are accelerated to relativistic velocities. In this case, the ions are likely to be trapped for infinitely long times, because the energy of bounce oscillations tends to decrease during acceleration. This suggests the possibility of unlimited acceleration by shock surfing

  20. Manipulation and functionalization of nano-tubes: application to boron nitride nano-tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maguer, A.

    2007-01-01

    This PhD work is divided into two parts dealing with boron nitride (BNNT) and carbon nano-tubes. The first part is about synthesis, purification and chemical functionalization of BNNT. Single-walled BNNT are synthesized by LASER ablation of a hBN target. Improving the synthesis parameters first allowed us to limit the byproducts (hBN, boric acid). A specific purification process was then developed in order to enrich the samples in nano-tubes. Purified samples were then used to develop two new chemical functionalization methods. They both involve chemical molecules that present a high affinity towards the BN network. The use of long chain-substituted quinuclidines and borazines actually allowed the solubilization of BNNT in organic media. Purification and functionalization were developed for single-walled BNNT and were successfully applied to multi-walled BNNT. Sensibility of boron to thermic neutrons finally gave birth to a study about covalent functionalization possibilities of the network. The second part of the PhD work deals with separation of carbon nano-tubes depending on their properties. Microwave irradiation of carbon nano-tubes first allowed the enrichment of initially polydisperse samples in large diameter nano-tubes. A second strategy involving selective interaction between one type of tubes and fullerene micelles was finally envisaged to selectively solubilize carbon nano-tubes with specific electronic properties. (author) [fr

  1. Technology shocks matter

    OpenAIRE

    Jonas D. M. Fisher

    2002-01-01

    This paper uses the neoclassical growth model to identify the effects of technological change on the US business cycle. In the model there are two sources of technological change: neutral, which effects the production of all goods homogeneously, and investment-specific. Investment-specific shocks are the unique source of the secular trend in the real price of investment goods, while shocks to both kinds of technology are the only factors which affect labor productivity in the long run. Consis...

  2. Method for shaping polyethylene tubing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, R. C.

    1981-01-01

    Method forms polyethylene plastic tubing into configurations previously only possible with metal tubing. By using polyethylene in place of copper or stain less steel tubing inlow pressure systems, fabrication costs are significantly reduced. Polyethylene tubing can be used whenever low pressure tubing is needed in oil operations, aircraft and space applications, powerplants, and testing laboratories.

  3. Pyrotechnic Tubing Connector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Thomas J.; Yang, Robert A.

    1988-01-01

    Tool forms mechanical seal at joint without levers or hydraulic apparatus. Proposed tool intended for use in outer space used on Earth by heavily garbed workers to join tubing in difficult environments. Called Pyrotool, used with Lokring (or equivalent) fittings. Piston slides in cylinder when pushed by gas from detonating pyrotechnic charge. Impulse of piston compresses fittings, sealing around butting ends of tubes.

  4. The Heliospheric Termination Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokipii, J. R.

    2013-06-01

    The heliospheric termination shock is a vast, spheroidal shock wave marking the transition from the supersonic solar wind to the slower flow in the heliosheath, in response to the pressure of the interstellar medium. It is one of the most-important boundaries in the outer heliosphere. It affects energetic particles strongly and for this reason is a significant factor in the effects of the Sun on Galactic cosmic rays. This paper summarizes the general properties and overall large-scale structure and motions of the termination shock. Observations over the past several years, both in situ and remote, have dramatically revised our understanding of the shock. The consensus now is that the shock is quite blunt, is with the front, blunt side canted at an angle to the flow direction of the local interstellar plasma relative to the Sun, and is dynamical and turbulent. Much of this new understanding has come from remote observations of energetic charged particles interacting with the shock, radio waves and radiation backscattered from interstellar neutral atoms. The observations and the implications are discussed.

  5. Molybdenum Tube Characterization report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaux II, Miles Frank [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Usov, Igor Olegovich [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-02-07

    Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) techniques have been utilized to produce free-standing molybdenum tubes with the end goal of nuclear fuel clad applications. In order to produce tubes with properties desirable for this application, deposition rates were lowered requiring long deposition durations on the order of 50 hours. Standard CVD methods as well as fluidized-bed CVD (FBCVD) methods were applied towards these objectives. Characterization of the tubes produced in this manner revealed material suitable for fuel clad applications, but lacking necessary uniformity across the length of the tubes. The production of freestanding Mo tubes that possess the desired properties across their entire length represents an engineering challenge that can be overcome in a next iteration of the deposition system.

  6. Shock wave attenuation in a micro-channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, J.; Perrier, P.; Meister, L.; Brouillette, M.

    2018-05-01

    This work presents optical measurements of shock wave attenuation in a glass micro-channel. This transparent facility, with a cross section ranging from 1 mm× 150 μm to 1 mm× 500 μm, allowed for the use of high-speed schlieren videography to visualize the propagation of a shock wave within the entire micro-channel and to quantify velocity attenuation of the wave due to wall effects. In this paper, we present the experimental technique and the relevant data treatment we have used to increase the sensitivity of shock wave detection. Then, we compared our experimental results for different channel widths, lengths, and shock wave velocities with the analytical model for shock attenuation proposed by Russell (J Fluid Mech 27(2):305-314, 1967), which assumes laminar flow, and by Mirels (Attenuation in a shock tube due to unsteady-boundary-layer action, NACA Report 1333, 1957) for turbulent flow. We found that these models are inadequate to predict the observed data, owing to the presence of fully developed flow which violates the basic assumption of these models. The data are also compared with the empirical shock attenuation models proposed by Zeitoun (Phys Fluids 27(1):011701, 2015) and Deshpande and Puranik (Shock Waves 26(4):465-475, 2016), where better agreement is observed. Finally, we presented experimental data for the flow field behind the shock wave from measurements of the Mach wave angle which shows globally decreasing flow Mach numbers due to viscous wall effects.

  7. Mechanical vibration and shock analysis, sinusoidal vibration

    CERN Document Server

    Lalanne, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Everything engineers need to know about mechanical vibration and shock...in one authoritative reference work! This fully updated and revised 3rd edition addresses the entire field of mechanical vibration and shock as one of the most important types of load and stress applied to structures, machines and components in the real world. Examples include everything from the regular and predictable loads applied to turbines, motors or helicopters by the spinning of their constituent parts to the ability of buildings to withstand damage from wind loads or explosions, and the need for cars to m

  8. Temperature measurement of tin under shock compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hereil, Pierre-Louis; Mabire, Catherine

    2002-01-01

    The results of pyrometric measurements performed at the interface of a tin target with a LiF window material are presented for stresses ranging from 38 to 55 GPa. The purpose of the study is to analyze the part of the interface in the temperature measurement by a multi-channel pyrometric device. The results show that the glue used at target/window interface remains transparent under shock. The values of temperature measured at the tin/LiF interface are consistent with the behavior of tin under shock

  9. Internal ultrasonic testing of steam generator tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furlan, J.; Soleille, G.; Chalaye, H.

    1983-01-01

    The ''in situ'' inspection of steam generator tubes uses generally Foucault currents before starting and along its life. This inspection aims at searching cracks and corrosion defects. The Foucault current method is quite badly adapted to ''closed crack'' detection, for it doesn't introduce neither resistivity or magnetic permeability variation, or lack of matter. More, it is sensible to the magnetic properties of the tube itself and to its environment (tubular or support plates). It is why, this first systematic inspection has to be completed by an ultrasonic one allowing to bring new elements in the uncertain cases. A device with an internal probe has been developed. It ''lights'' the tube wall with the aid of a transducer of which beam reflects on a mirror. Operating conditions are the same as for Foucault current testing, that is to say the probe moves inside the tube without rotation of the device (bent parts are excluded) [fr

  10. Method of processing spent fuel cladding tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatsuka, Masafumi; Ouchi, Atsuhiro; Imahashi, Hiromichi.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To decrease the residual activity of spent fuel cladding tubes in a short period of time and enable safety storage with simple storage equipments. Constitution: Spent fuel cladding tubes made of zirconium alloys discharged from a nuclear fuel reprocessing step are exposed to a grain boundary embrittling atmosphere to cause grain boundary destruction. This causes grain boundary fractures to the zirconium crystal grains as the matrix of nuclear fuels and then precipitation products precipitated to the grain boundary fractures are removed. The zirconium constituting the nuclear fuel cladding tube and other ingredient elements contained in the precipitation products are separated in this removing step and they are separately stored respectively. As a result, zirconium constituting most part of the composition of the spent nuclear fuel cladding tubes can be stored safely at a low activity level. (Takahashi, M.)

  11. Digital Radiography Qualification of Tube Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl, Chad

    2012-01-01

    The Orion Project will be directing Lockheed Martin to perform orbital arc welding on commodities metallic tubing as part of the Multi Purpose Crew Vehicle assembly and integration process in the Operations and Checkout High bay at Kennedy Space Center. The current method of nondestructive evaluation is utilizing traditional film based x-rays. Due to the high number of welds that are necessary to join the commodities tubing (approx 470), a more efficient and expeditious method of nondestructive evaluation is desired. Digital radiography will be qualified as part of a broader NNWG project scope.

  12. On ion injection at quasiparallel shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholer, M.; Kucharek, H.; Kato, C.

    2002-01-01

    A large number of numerical experiments has been performed in order to study the interaction of interstellar pickup protons and helium ions with quasiparallel collisionless shocks. The shocks are modeled by a one-dimensional hybrid simulation method which treats the ions as macroparticles and the electrons as a massless fluid. Solar wind alpha particles and pickup protons are included self-consistently. In addition, the particle splitting method is used for the solar wind ions so that the distribution function can be followed over more than 10 orders of magnitude. A large part of the pickup ion distribution is reflected; the reflection efficiency is very high, and can reach in cases where the pickup ion density is low as much as 50%-60%. The reflection efficiency is almost independent of magnetic field-shock normal angle. This indicates that magnetic mirroring is unimportant and does not lead to larger reflection efficiencies. The reflection efficiency of pickup protons rapidly decreases when the pickup ion density exceeds a few percent of the solar wind density. An addition of 25% pickup protons decreases the reflection coefficient for these ions to ∼10%. This represents the fact that a quasiparallel shock cannot be considered as being uncoupled from the upstream region: at high additions of pickup ions the shock structure is changed in such a way as to reflect less pickup ions. The intensity of diffuse ions upstream of a quasiparallel shock does not depend on the temperature of the core distribution. Within the framework of the present model even solar wind distributions with a hard power law tail do not produce higher intensities of diffuse ions. It is argued that this can be understood by the fact that the intrinsic self-consistency between the processes in the upstream region and at the shock transition determines the injection and reflection properties of the core solar wind distribution

  13. Formability of Micro-Tubes in Hydroforming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartl, Christoph; Anyasodor, Gerald; Lungershausen, Joern

    2011-01-01

    Micro-hydroforming is a down-scaled metal forming process, based on the expansion of micro-tubes by internal pressurization within a die cavity. The objective of micro-hydroforming is to provide a technology for the economic mass production of complex shaped hollow micro-components. Influence of size effects in metal forming processes increases with scaling down of metal parts. Investigations into the change in formability of micro-tubes due to metal part scaling down constituted an important subject within the conducted fundamental research work. Experimental results are presented, concerning the analysis of the formability of micro-tubes made from stainless steel AISI 304 with an outer diameter of 800 μm and a wall thickness of 40 μm. An average ratio of tube wall thickness to grain size of 1.54 of up to 2.56 was analyzed. Miniaturised mechanical standard methods as well as bulge tests with internal hydrostatic pressurization of the tubular specimens were applied to analyze the influence of size-dependent effects. A test device was developed for the bulge experiments which enabled the pressurization of micro-tubes with internal pressures up to 4000 bar. To determine the attainable maximum achievable expansion ratio the tubes were pressurized in the bulge tests with increasing internal pressure until instability due to necking and subsequent bursting occurred. Comparisons with corresponding tests of macro-tubes, made from the here investigated material, showed a change in formability of micro-tubes which was attributed to the scaling down of the hydroforming process. In addition, a restricted applicability of existing theoretical correlations for the determination of the maximum pressure at bursting was observed for down-scaled micro-hydroforming.

  14. An investigation of critical heat fluxes in vertical tubes internally cooled by Freon-12. Part I - Critical heat flux experiments with axially uniform and non-uniform heating and comparisons of data with selected correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, W.J.; Stevens, J.R.

    1981-08-01

    Experiments have been performed using vertical heated tubes, cooled internally by Freon-12, to determine critical heat fluxes (CHFs) for both a uniformly heated section and an exit region with a separately controlled power supply. Heated lengths of the main separately were 2870 mm (8.48 and 16.76 mm tube bores) and 3700 mm (for 21.34 mm tube bore); heated length of the exit section was 230 mm. Coolant pressures, exit qualities and mass fluxes were in the range 0.9 to 1.3 MPa, 0.19 to 0.86, and 380 to 2800 kg m -2 s -1 , respectively. The data have been compared with published empirical correlations specifically formulated to predict CHFs in Freon-cooled, vertical tubes; relevant published CHF data have also been compared with these correlations. These comparisons show that, even over the ranges of conditions for which the correlations were developed, predicted values are only accurate to within +-20 per cent. Moreover, as mass fluxes increase above 3500 kg m -2 s -1 , the modified Groeneveld correlation becomes increasingly inadequate, and the Bertoletti and modified Bertoletti correlations under-predict CHF values by increasing amounts. At mass fluxes below 750 kg m -2 s -1 the Bertoletti correlations exhibit increasing inaccuracy with a decrease in mass flux. For non-uniform heating, the correlations are at variance with the experimental data

  15. Factors influencing flow steadiness in laminar boundary layer shock interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumuklu, Ozgur; Levin, Deborah A.; Gimelshein, Sergey F.; Austin, Joanna M.

    2016-11-01

    The Direct Simulation Monte Carlo method has been used to model laminar shock wave boundary interactions of hypersonic flow over a 30/55-deg double-wedge and "tick-shaped" model configurations studied in the Hypervelocity Expansion Tube facility and T-ADFA free-piston shock tunnel, respectively. The impact of thermochemical effects on these interactions by changing the chemical composition from nitrogen to air as well as argon for a stagnation enthalpy of 8.0 MJ/kg flow are investigated using the 2-D wedge model. The simulations are found to reproduce many of the classic features related to Edney Type V strong shock interactions that include the attached, oblique shock formed over the first wedge, the detached bow shock from the second wedge, the separation zone, and the separation and reattachment shocks that cause complex features such as the triple point for both cases. However, results of a reacting air flow case indicate that the size of the separation length, and the movement of the triple point toward to the leading edge is much less than the nitrogen case.

  16. Shock Interaction with a Finite Thickness Two-Gas Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labenski, John; Kim, Yong

    2006-03-01

    A dual-driver shock tube was used to investigate the growth rate of a finite thickness two-gas interface after shock forcing. One driver was used to create an argon-refrigerant interface as the contact surface behind a weak shock wave. The other driver, at the opposite end of the driven section, generates a stronger shock of Mach 1.1 to 1.3 to force the interface back in front of the detector station. Two schlieren systems record the density fluctuations while light scattering detectors record the density of the refrigerant as a function of position over the interface during both it's initial passage and return. A pair of digital cameras take stereo images of the interface, as mapped out by the tracer particles under illumination by a Q-switched ruby laser. The amount of time that the interface is allowed to travel up the driven section determines the interaction time as a control. Comparisons made between the schlieren signals, light scattering detector outputs, and the images quantify the fingered characteristics of the interface and its growth due to shock forcing. The results show that the interface has a distribution of thicknesses and that the interaction with a shock further broadens the interface.

  17. Constrained reaction volume approach for studying chemical kinetics behind reflected shock waves

    KAUST Repository

    Hanson, Ronald K.

    2013-09-01

    We report a constrained-reaction-volume strategy for conducting kinetics experiments behind reflected shock waves, achieved in the present work by staged filling in a shock tube. Using hydrogen-oxygen ignition experiments as an example, we demonstrate that this strategy eliminates the possibility of non-localized (remote) ignition in shock tubes. Furthermore, we show that this same strategy can also effectively eliminate or minimize pressure changes due to combustion heat release, thereby enabling quantitative modeling of the kinetics throughout the combustion event using a simple assumption of specified pressure and enthalpy. We measure temperature and OH radical time-histories during ethylene-oxygen combustion behind reflected shock waves in a constrained reaction volume and verify that the results can be accurately modeled using a detailed mechanism and a specified pressure and enthalpy constraint. © 2013 The Combustion Institute.

  18. Automation in tube finishing bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatnagar, Prateek; Satyadev, B.; Raghuraman, S.; Syama Sundara Rao, B.

    1997-01-01

    Automation concept in tube finishing bay, introduced after the final pass annealing of PHWR tubes resulted in integration of number of sub-systems in synchronisation with each other to produce final cut fuel tubes of specified length, tube finish etc. The tube finishing bay which was physically segregated into four distinct areas: 1. tube spreader and stacking area, 2. I.D. sand blasting area, 3. end conditioning, wad blowing, end capping and O.D. wet grinding area, 4. tube inspection, tube cutting and stacking area has been studied

  19. Analytical model for fast-shock ignition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghasemi, S. A.; Farahbod, A. H.; Sobhanian, S.

    2014-01-01

    A model and its improvements are introduced for a recently proposed approach to inertial confinement fusion, called fast-shock ignition (FSI). The analysis is based upon the gain models of fast ignition, shock ignition and considerations for the fast electrons penetration into the pre-compressed fuel to examine the formation of an effective central hot spot. Calculations of fast electrons penetration into the dense fuel show that if the initial electron kinetic energy is of the order ∼4.5 MeV, the electrons effectively reach the central part of the fuel. To evaluate more realistically the performance of FSI approach, we have used a quasi-two temperature electron energy distribution function of Strozzi (2012) and fast ignitor energy formula of Bellei (2013) that are consistent with 3D PIC simulations for different values of fast ignitor laser wavelength and coupling efficiency. The general advantages of fast-shock ignition in comparison with the shock ignition can be estimated to be better than 1.3 and it is seen that the best results can be obtained for the fuel mass around 1.5 mg, fast ignitor laser wavelength ∼0.3  micron and the shock ignitor energy weight factor about 0.25

  20. Shocks in fragile matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitelli, Vincenzo

    2012-02-01

    Non-linear sound is an extreme phenomenon typically observed in solids after violent explosions. But granular media are different. Right when they unjam, these fragile and disordered solids exhibit vanishing elastic moduli and sound speed, so that even tiny mechanical perturbations form supersonic shocks. Here, we perform simulations in which two-dimensional jammed granular packings are continuously compressed, and demonstrate that the resulting excitations are strongly nonlinear shocks, rather than linear waves. We capture the full dependence of the shock speed on pressure and compression speed by a surprisingly simple analytical model. We also treat shear shocks within a simplified viscoelastic model of nearly-isostatic random networks comprised of harmonic springs. In this case, anharmonicity does not originate locally from nonlinear interactions between particles, as in granular media; instead, it emerges from the global architecture of the network. As a result, the diverging width of the shear shocks bears a nonlinear signature of the diverging isostatic length associated with the loss of rigidity in these floppy networks.

  1. Study on metallization on RX tubes of fluoroscopic equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos Caballero, L. J.; Angulo Pain, E.; Iborra Oquendo, M. a.; Seguro Fernandez, A.

    2013-01-01

    The PECCRD sets values for the performance of a team of rays x as a function of the total filtration of this (for 80 KV, a total filtration [2.5, 5] mm's to the). However it is recommended to check if the RX tube had metallization by exhaustion (part of anode tungsten evaporates and lining the inside of the envelope of the tube). This effect produces an increase in filtration tube and a decrease in performance. (Author)

  2. Simulasi Thermal Stress Pada Tube Superheater Package Boiler

    OpenAIRE

    Hamdani

    2013-01-01

    This project investigates the thermal stress behavior and the mechanisms of superheater tube failure with experimental method and numerical analysis. First of all the procedures for failure analysis were applied to determine the root cause of them. A visual assessment of boiler critical pressure parts was carried out, and then the failed tube is examined by nondestructive evaluation. For the numerical domain, initially the elastic solution for a superheater tube subjected to an internal press...

  3. Process and device for extracting a cylindrical element such a plug of a small diameter tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferlay, J.C.; Gente, D.; Jouin, D.

    1992-01-01

    The plug engaged in a steam generator tube is extracted by first machining away the expander and a part of its side wall then pulling the remainder of the plug from the tube with a tool engaging its closed end

  4. Helically coiled tube heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, A.M.

    1981-01-01

    In a heat exchanger such as a steam generator for a nuclear reactor, two or more bundles of helically coiled tubes are arranged in series with the tubes in each bundle integrally continuing through the tube bundles arranged in series therewith. Pitch values for the tubing in any pair of tube bundles, taken transverse to the path of the reactor coolant flow about the tubes, are selected as a ratio of two unequal integers to permit efficient operation of each tube bundle while maintaining the various tube bundles of the heat exchanger within a compact envelope. Preferably, the helix angle and tube pitch parallel to the path of coolant flow are constant for all tubes in a single bundle so that the tubes are of approximately the same length within each bundle

  5. Steam generator tube performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatone, O.S.; Pathania, R.S.

    1982-04-01

    The performance of steam generator tubes in water-cooled nuclear power reactors has been reviewed for 1980. Tube defects occurred at 38% of the 97 reactors surveyed. This is a marginal improvement over 1979 when defects occurred at 41% of the reactors. The number of failed tubes was also lower, 0.14% of the tubes in service in 1980 compared with 0.20% of those in service in 1979. Analysis of the causes of these failures indicates that stress corrosion cracking was the leading failure mechanism. Reactors that used all-volatile treatment of secondary water, with or without full-flow condensate demineralization since start-up showed the lowest incidence of corrosion-related defects

  6. Fuel assembly guide tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabsen, F.S.

    1979-01-01

    This invention is directed toward a nuclear fuel assembly guide tube arrangement which restrains spacer grid movement due to coolant flow and which offers secondary means for supporting a fuel assembly during handling and transfer operations

  7. Bull Moose Tube Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA is providing notice of a proposed Administrative Penalty Assessment against the Bull Moose Tube Company, a business located at 1819 Clarkson Road, Chesterfield, MO, 63017, for alleged violations at the facility located at 406 East Industrial Drive,

  8. Tracheostomy tube - eating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trach - eating ... take your first bites. Certain factors may make eating or swallowing harder, such as: Changes in the ... easier to swallow. Suction the tracheostomy tube before eating. This will keep you from coughing while eating, ...

  9. Life Shocks and Homelessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corman, Hope; Noonan, Kelly; Reichman, Nancy E.

    2014-01-01

    We exploited an exogenous health shock—namely, the birth of a child with a severe health condition—to investigate the effect of a life shock on homelessness in large cities in the United States as well as the interactive effects of the shock with housing market characteristics. We considered a traditional measure of homelessness, two measures of housing instability thought to be precursors to homelessness, and a combined measure that approximates the broadened conceptualization of homelessness under the 2009 Homeless Emergency Assistance and Rapid Transition to Housing Act (2010). We found that the shock substantially increases the likelihood of family homelessness, particularly in cities with high housing costs. The findings are consistent with the economic theory of homelessness, which posits that homelessness results from a conjunction of adverse circumstances in which housing markets and individual characteristics collide. PMID:23868747

  10. Streak tube development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinrichs, C.K.; Estrella, R.M.

    1979-01-01

    A research program for the development of a high-speed, high-resolution streak image tube is described. This is one task in the development of a streak camera system with digital electronic readout, whose primary application is for diagnostics in underground nuclear testing. This program is concerned with the development of a high-resolution streak image tube compatible with x-ray input and electronic digital output. The tube must be capable of time resolution down to 100 psec and spatial resolution to provide greater than 1000 resolution elements across the cathode (much greater than presently available). Another objective is to develop the capability to make design changes in tube configurations to meet different experimental requirements. A demountable prototype streak tube was constructed, mounted on an optical bench, and placed in a vacuum system. Initial measurements of the tube resolution with an undeflected image show a resolution of 32 line pairs per millimeter over a cathode diameter of one inch, which is consistent with the predictions of the computer simulations. With the initial set of unoptmized deflection plates, the resolution pattern appeared to remain unchanged for static deflections of +- 1/2-inch, a total streak length of one inch, also consistent with the computer simulations. A passively mode-locked frequency-doubled dye laser is being developed as an ultraviolet pulsed light source to measure dynamic tube resolution during streaking. A sweep circuit to provide the deflection voltage in the prototype tube has been designed and constructed and provides a relatively linear ramp voltage with ramp durations adjustable between 10 and 1000 nsec

  11. Researching YouTube

    OpenAIRE

    Arthurs, Jane; Drakopoulou, Sophia; Gandini, Alessandro

    2018-01-01

    ‘Researching YouTube’ introduces the special issue of Convergence which arose out of an international academic conference on YouTube that was held in London at Middlesex University in September 2016. The conference aimed to generate a robust overview of YouTube’s changing character and significance after its first ten years of development by creating a productive dialogue between speakers from different disciplines and cultures, and between YouTube-specific research and wider debates in media...

  12. Tubing crimping pliers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindholm, G.T.

    1981-02-27

    The disclosure relates to pliers and more particularly to pliers for crimping two or more pieces of copper tubing together prior to their being permanently joined by brazing, soldering or the like. A die containing spring-loaded pins rotates within a cammed ring in the head of the pliers. As the die rotates, the pins force a crimp on tubing held within the pliers.

  13. Performance data of the new free-piston shock tunnel T5 at GALCIT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornung, H.; Sturtevant, B.; Belanger, J.; Sanderson, S.; Brouillette, M.; Jenkins, M.

    1992-01-01

    A new free piston shock tunnel has been constructed at the Graduate Aeronautical Laboratories at Caltec. Compression tube length is 30 m and diameter 300 mm. Shock tube length is 12 m and diameter 90 mm. Piston mass is 150 kg and maximum diaphragm burst pressure is 130 MPa. Special features of this facility are that the pressure in the driver gas is monitored throughout the compression process until well after diaphragm rupture, and that the diaphragm burst pressure can be measured dynamically. An analysis of initial performance data including transient behavior of the flow over models is presented.

  14. THE EFFECT OF TURBULENCE INTERMITTENCE ON THE EMISSION OF SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLES BY CORONAL AND INTERPLANETARY SHOCKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocharov, Leon; Laitinen, Timo; Vainio, Rami

    2013-01-01

    Major solar energetic particle events are associated with shock waves in solar corona and solar wind. Fast scattering of charged particles by plasma turbulence near the shock wave increases the efficiency of the particle acceleration in the shock, but prevents particles from escaping ahead of the shock. However, the turbulence energy levels in neighboring magnetic tubes of solar wind may differ from each other by more than one order of magnitude. We present the first theoretical study of accelerated particle emission from an oblique shock wave propagating through an intermittent turbulence background that consists of both highly turbulent magnetic tubes, where particles are accelerated, and quiet tubes, via which the accelerated particles can escape to the non-shocked solar wind. The modeling results imply that the presence of the fast transport channels penetrating the shock and cross-field transport of accelerated particles to those channels may play a key role in high-energy particle emission from distant shocks and can explain the prompt onset of major solar energetic particle events observed near the Earth's orbit

  15. THE EFFECT OF TURBULENCE INTERMITTENCE ON THE EMISSION OF SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLES BY CORONAL AND INTERPLANETARY SHOCKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kocharov, Leon [Sodankylä Geophysical Observatory (Oulu Unit), P.O. Box 3000, University of Oulu, FI-90014 Oulu (Finland); Laitinen, Timo [Jeremiah Horrocks Institute, University of Central Lancashire, Preston PR1 2HE (United Kingdom); Vainio, Rami [Department of Physics, P.O. Box 64, University of Helsinki, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland)

    2013-11-20

    Major solar energetic particle events are associated with shock waves in solar corona and solar wind. Fast scattering of charged particles by plasma turbulence near the shock wave increases the efficiency of the particle acceleration in the shock, but prevents particles from escaping ahead of the shock. However, the turbulence energy levels in neighboring magnetic tubes of solar wind may differ from each other by more than one order of magnitude. We present the first theoretical study of accelerated particle emission from an oblique shock wave propagating through an intermittent turbulence background that consists of both highly turbulent magnetic tubes, where particles are accelerated, and quiet tubes, via which the accelerated particles can escape to the non-shocked solar wind. The modeling results imply that the presence of the fast transport channels penetrating the shock and cross-field transport of accelerated particles to those channels may play a key role in high-energy particle emission from distant shocks and can explain the prompt onset of major solar energetic particle events observed near the Earth's orbit.

  16. Pressure tube reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seki, Osamu; Kumasaka, Katsuyuki.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To remove the heat of reactor core using a great amount of moderators at the periphery of the reactor core as coolants. Constitution: Heat of a reactor core is removed by disposing a spontaneous recycling cooling device for cooling moderators in a moderator tank, without using additional power driven equipments. That is, a spontaneous recycling cooling device for cooling the moderators in the moderator tank is disposed. Further, the gap between the inner wall of a pressure tube guide pipe disposed through the vertical direction of a moderator tank and the outer wall of a pressure tube inserted through the guide pipe is made smaller than the rupture distortion caused by the thermal expansion upon overheating of the pressure tube and greater than the minimum gap required for heat shiels between the pressure tube and the pressure tube guide pipe during usual operation. In this way, even if such an accident as can not using a coolant cooling device comprising power driven equipment should occur in the pressure tube type reactor, the rise in the temperature of the reactor core can be retarded to obtain a margin with time. (Kamimura, M.)

  17. Tube spacer grid for a heat-exchanger tube bundle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheidl, H.

    1976-01-01

    A tube spacer grid for a heat-exchanger tube bundle is formed by an annular grid frame having a groove formed in its inner surface in which the interspaced grid bars have their ends positioned and held in interspaced relationship by short sections of tubes passed through holes axially formed in the grid frame so that the tubes are positioned between the ends of the grid bars in the grooves. The tube sections may be cut from the same tubes used to form the tube bundle. 5 claims, 3 drawing figures

  18. The Shock Routine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Hooren, Franca; Kaasch, Alexandra; Starke, Peter

    2014-01-01

    in Australia, Belgium, the Netherlands and Sweden over the course of four global economic shocks, we ask whether the notion of critical junctures is useful in understanding the nature of change triggered by crisis. The main empirical finding is that fundamental change in the aftermath of an exogenous shock...... is the exception rather than the rule. Instead, incremental ‘crisis routines’ based on existing policy instruments are overwhelmingly used to deal with economic hardship. We discuss these findings in the light of the psychological ‘threat-rigidity’ effect and reflect on their consequences for theories...

  19. Dynamics of nonlinear waves in the tubes filled with aerosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gubaidullin Damir

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of experimental investigations of nonlinear oscillations of finely dispersed aerosol in the tube with various geometry on the end in the shock-wave, the shock-free wave modes and in the mode of transition to shock waves near the resonance frequency are presented. The time dependences of the numerical concentration of the oscillating aerosol droplets are presented. The effect of the frequency and amplitude of the piston displacement and the influence of the diaphragm internal diameter on the time coagulation and sedimentation of aerosol were studied. An increase in the amplitude of the piston displacement in all modes results in acceleration of the process of coagulation and sedimentation of aerosol. The dependence of time of coagulation and sedimentation of aerosol on the excitation frequency was found to be of a nonmonotonic character with the minimum value upon the resonance frequency.

  20. Gypsum speleothems in lava tubes from Lanzarote, Canary Islands. Did you say gypsum?

    OpenAIRE

    Huerta, Pedro; Martín-García, Rebeca; Rodríguez-Berriguete, Álvaro; Iglesia, A. la; Martín-Pérez, Andrea; Alonso-Zarza, Ana María

    2015-01-01

    Lanzarote is the easternmost island of the volcanic Canary archipielago considered together with Fuerteventura the low relief islands of the archipielago. These island receive less rain than 300 mm/year. Basaltic lava flows preserves lava tubes formed during cooling and solidification of external parts of lava, while internal parts were still hot and flowing. When lava flow stopped the lava abandoned the tubes, and the tubes preserved empty. These tubes actuate as caves and som...

  1. Expressly fabricated molar tube bases: enhanced adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Tarun; Phull, Tarun Singh; Rana, Tarun; Kumar, Varun

    2014-06-01

    Clinicians, Orthodontists and their patients' parents often expect the best results in the shortest time span possible. Orthodontic bonding of molar tubes has been an acceptable risk in a modern era of refined biomaterials and instrumentation. Although many orthodontists still prefer banding to bonding, it is the failure rate of the tubes on molars which accounts to an impedance in molar bonding. One of the reasons for molar attachment failures is attributed to improper adaptation of the buccal tube base with or without increased thickness of composite. Merits of banding the second molars especially when these are the terminal teeth for anchorage have been overemphasized in the literature. The present article presents a simple and relatively less time consuming technique of preparing molar tubes to be bonded on tooth surfaces which may be quite difficult to isolate especially for bonding, for example, mandibular second molars. The increased surface area of the composite scaffold helps not only in enhanced bond strength but also serves to reduce the incidence of plaque accumulation given the dexterity of invitro preparation. The removal of the occlusal part of the molar tube scaffold helps in prevention of open / raised bite tendencies. The present innovation, therefore, is not merely serendipity but a structured technique to overcome a common dilemma for the clinical orthodontist. The present dictum of banding being superior to molar tube bonding may prove to be futile with trendsetting molar attachments. It is also an established fact that bonding proves to be a lesser expensive modality when compared to banding procedures.

  2. Report of 22nd International Symposium on Shock Waves; Dai 22 kai kokusai shogekiha symposium shusseki hokoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takayama, K. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Inst. of Fluid Science

    1999-11-05

    Outlined herein are the topics at the 22nd. International Symposium on Shock Waves, held in July 1999 in London. Prof. Takayama of Tohoku University gave an invited lecture on application of shock waves to medical area, stressing significance of shock waves on a human body. A total of 81 papers were presented from Japan. Number of Japanese papers and number of Japanese attendees both accounted for approximately 25%. The themes of these papers are centered by behavior of shock waves (e.g., propagation, reflection, and diffraction), extreme supersonic flows, interference between shock wave and boundary layer, aerodynamics (e.g., interference between vortex and shock wave), numerical simulation of shock wave phenomena, development of a new shock wave tube and measurement method, researches on elementary steps in chemical reactions, shock wave phenomena in condensed media and multi-phase media, shock wave noise produced while a high-speed train is running in a tunnel, and application of shock waves to industrial and medical areas. Japan contributes much to the application to medical area, and a method dispensing with injection is reported. Japan's aerospace-related researches include interference between shock wave and boundary layer, in which the real gas effect is taken into consideration, designs for protection from heat during the re-entry into the atmosphere, and construction of the world largest free-piston type wind tunnel. (NEDO)

  3. Adaptation of a Freon-12 critical heat flux correlation to correlate water data from uniformly heated vertical tubes. Part I: Based on critical heat flux data for water at pressures of 3 to 14 MPa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, W.J.

    1981-12-01

    Comparisons have been made between experimental critical heat flux (CHF) data for upflow of water in uniformly heated vertical tubes and values calculated from an empirical CHF correlation developed from Freon-12 data. When this correlation is re-evaluated to account for vapour Prandtl number effects, very good agreement is obtained between experimental data and calculated values over a wide range of coolant conditions. Comparison of values calculated from the revised correlation with 2063 sets of CHF data obtained from experiments with water in vertical, uniformly heated tubes shows a mean ratio of the calculated to experimental CHF of 0.82 and an r.m.s. error of 5.8 per cent for the following coolant conditions: (1) local pressure of 3.4 to 12 MPa; (2) mass flux greater than approx. 300 kg s -1 m -2 , and (3) thermal equilibrium value of exit quality greater than 0.1

  4. Tube sheet structural analysis of intermediate heat exchanger for fast breeder reactor 'Monju'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Y.; Ueno, T.; Fukuda, Y.; Ichimiya, M.

    1983-01-01

    The Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor 'Monju' is the first power generating fast breeder reactor in Japan. We have been designing the components of the plant for manufacturing. Among these is the intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) which exchanges heat between primary and secondary sodium loop. The tube sheet of IHX (shell to ligament junction) is a difficult area from the view point of structural strength design under elevated temperature. To validate the structural integrity of tube sheet we performed the series of inelastic analysis and tube sheet thermal shock test using test pieces and half scale model of actual design. The results of inelastic analyses showed there is little progressive deformation around shell to ligament structural discontinuous junction. Furthermore, thermal shock tests showed no increase of an accumulative deformation. By these analyses and experiments, structural reliability of tube sheet could be shown. (author)

  5. Pool fire upon a balsa-filled shock absorber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, C.J.

    1990-07-01

    When performing a safety assessment of a transport flask with balsa-filled shock absorbers it is important to know how the shock absorbers, which may have the outer skin punctured by an impact, will perform in a fire. A 30 minute pool test, which satisfied all the requirements of a thermal test under the IAEA regulations, was carried out upon a small, balsa-filled shock absorber. The outer steel shell was partly cut away exposing the wood to the fire and the air. The balsa wood prevented 90% of the heat from the fire from being transferred through the shock absorber, even though the balsa was only 133 mm thick. The maximum heat flux through to the inside of the shock absorber due to the burning of the balsa wood was relatively low, 2.8 kW/m 2 , and occurred 2 to 3 hours after the end of the pool fire. (author)

  6. Shock absorber in Ignalina NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulavas, A.; Muralis, J.

    1996-09-01

    Theoretical calculation and experimental analysis of models of shock absorber in Ignalina NPP is presented. The results obtained from the investigation with model of shock absorber coincide with the theoretical calculation. (author). 2 figs., 3 refs

  7. Shock Response of Boron Carbide

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dandekar, D. P. (Dattatraya Purushottam)

    2001-01-01

    .... The present work was undertaken to determine tensile/spall strength of boron carbide under plane shock wave loading and to analyze all available shock compression data on boron carbide materials...

  8. Fascinating World of Shock Waves

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srimath

    travelling at supersonic speeds (more than the sound speed at ... actual earth- quake, travel at supersonic speeds. .... The time scale of the shock wave is also important ..... real lithotripsy where a shock wave is used shatter the kidney stones!

  9. NEI You Tube Videos: Amblyopia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... search for current job openings visit HHS USAJobs Home >> NEI YouTube Videos >> NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia Listen NEI YouTube Videos YouTube Videos Home Age-Related Macular Degeneration Amblyopia Animations Blindness Cataract ...

  10. NEI You Tube Videos: Amblyopia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... search for current job openings visit HHS USAJobs Home » NEI YouTube Videos » NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia Listen NEI YouTube Videos YouTube Videos Home Age-Related Macular Degeneration Amblyopia Animations Blindness Cataract ...

  11. Stages of Ovarian Epithelial, Fallopian Tube, and Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... diagnosed, tests are done to find out if cancer cells have spread within the ovaries or to other parts of the body. The ... single ovary or fallopian tube. In stage IB, cancer is found inside both ovaries or fallopian tubes. In stage IC, cancer is ...

  12. A Tool for Monitoring of YouTube Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lashari, Intzar Ali; Wiil, Uffe Kock

    2014-01-01

    in abundance from social media is difficult. This paper describes a new tool that can collect, monitor, and mine data from YouTube. The tool is part of a larger framework aimed at monitoring various social media including Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube. A specific case focusing on “Islamic Jihad Holy War...

  13. INTERFERENCE OF UNIDIRECTIONAL SHOCK WAVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. Bulat

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Subject of study.We consider interference of unidirectional shock waves or, as they are called, catching up shock waves. The scope of work is to give a classification of the shock-wave structures that arise in this type of interaction of shock waves, and the area of their existence. Intersection of unidirectional shock waves results in arising of a shock-wave structure at the intersection point, which contains the main shock wave, tangential discontinuity and one more reflected gas-dynamic discontinuity of unknown beforehand type. The problem of determining the type of reflected discontinuity is the main problem that one has to solve in the study of catching shock waves interference. Main results.The paper presents the pictures of shock-wave structures arising at the interaction of catching up shock waves. The areas with a regular and irregular unidirectional interaction of shocks are described. Characteristic shock-wave structures are of greatest interest, where reflected gas-dynamic discontinuity degenerates into discontinuous characteristics. Such structures have a number of extreme properties. We have found the areas of existence for such shock-wave structures. There are also areas in which the steady-state solution is not available. The latter has determined revival of interest for the theoretical study of the problem, because the facts of sudden shock-wave structure destruction inside the air intake of supersonic aircrafts at high Mach numbers have been discovered. Practical significance.The theory of interference for unidirectional shock waves and design procedure are usable in the design of supersonic air intakes. It is also relevant for application possibility investigation of catching up oblique shock waves to create overcompressed detonation in perspective detonation air-jet and rocket engines.

  14. Calandria cooling structure in pressure tube reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyugaji, Takenori; Sasada, Yasuhiro.

    1976-01-01

    Purpose: To contrive the structure of a heavy water distributing device in a pressure tube reactor thereby to reduce the variation in the cooling function thereof due to the welding deformation and installation error. Constitution: A heating water distributing plate is provided at the lower part of the upper tubular plate of a calandria tank to form a heavy water distributing chamber between both plates and a plurality of calandria tubes. Heavy water which has flowed in the upper part of the heavy water distributing plate from the heavy water inlet nozzle flows down through gaps formed around the calandria tubes, whereby the cooling of the calandria tank and the calandria tubes is carried out. In the above described calandria cooling structure, a heavy water distributing plate support is provided to secure the heavy water distributing plate and torus-shaped heavy water distributing rings are fixed to holes formed in the heavy water distributing plate penetrating through the calandria tubes thereby to form torus-shaped heavy water outlet ports each having a space. (Seki, T.)

  15. Advanced Ultrasupercritical (AUSC) Tube Membrane Panel Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pschirer, James [Alstom Power Inc., Windsor, CT (United States); Burgess, Joshua [Alstom Power Inc., Windsor, CT (United States); Schrecengost, Robert [Alstom Power Inc., Windsor, CT (United States)

    2017-08-16

    Alstom Power Inc., a wholly owned subsidiary of the General Electric Company (GE), has completed the project “Advanced Ultrasupercritical (AUSC) Tube Membrane Panel Development” under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Award Number DE-FE0024076. This project was part of DOE’s Novel Crosscutting Research and Development to Support Advanced Energy Systems program. AUSC Tube Membrane Panel Development was a two and one half year project to develop and verify the manufacturability and serviceability of welded tube membrane panels made from high performance materials suitable for the AUSC steam cycles, defined as high pressure steam turbine inlet conditions of 700-760°C (1292-1400°F) and 24.5-35MPa (3500-5000psi). The difficulty of this challenge lies in the fact that the membrane-welded construction imposes demands on the materials that are unlike any that exist in other parts of the boiler. Tube membrane panels have been designed, fabricated, and installed in boilers for over 50 years with relatively favorable experience when fabricated from carbon and Cr-Mo low alloy steels. The AUSC steam cycle requires membrane tube panels fabricated from materials that have not been used in a weldment with metal temperatures in the range of 582-610°C (1080-1130°F). Fabrication materials chosen for the tubing were Grade 92 and HR6W. Grade 92 is a creep strength enhanced ferritic Cr-Mo alloy and HR6W is a high nickel alloy. Once the materials were chosen, GE performed the engineering design of the panels, prepared shop manufacturing drawings, and developed manufacturing and inspection plans. After the materials were purchased, GE manufactured and inspected the tube membrane panels, determined if post fabrication heat treatment of the tube membrane panels was needed, performed pre- and post-weld heat treatment on the Grade 92 panels, conducted final nondestructive inspection of any heat treated tube membrane panels, conducted destructive inspection of the completed tube

  16. Teleconnected food supply shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bren d'Amour, Christopher; Wenz, Leonie; Kalkuhl, Matthias; Steckel, Jan Christoph; Creutzig, Felix

    2016-03-01

    The 2008-2010 food crisis might have been a harbinger of fundamental climate-induced food crises with geopolitical implications. Heat-wave-induced yield losses in Russia and resulting export restrictions led to increases in market prices for wheat across the Middle East, likely contributing to the Arab Spring. With ongoing climate change, temperatures and temperature variability will rise, leading to higher uncertainty in yields for major nutritional crops. Here we investigate which countries are most vulnerable to teleconnected supply-shocks, i.e. where diets strongly rely on the import of wheat, maize, or rice, and where a large share of the population is living in poverty. We find that the Middle East is most sensitive to teleconnected supply shocks in wheat, Central America to supply shocks in maize, and Western Africa to supply shocks in rice. Weighing with poverty levels, Sub-Saharan Africa is most affected. Altogether, a simultaneous 10% reduction in exports of wheat, rice, and maize would reduce caloric intake of 55 million people living in poverty by about 5%. Export bans in major producing regions would put up to 200 million people below the poverty line at risk, 90% of which live in Sub-Saharan Africa. Our results suggest that a region-specific combination of national increases in agricultural productivity and diversification of trade partners and diets can effectively decrease future food security risks.

  17. Demonstration for the Applicability of the EPRI ETSS on the SG Tube Wear Defects Formed at the Tube Support Structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Ki Seok; Cheon, Keun Young; Nam, Min Woo; Min, Kyong Mahn

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the authorized EPRI ETSS 27906.2 applied to the detection of tapered wear volumetric indications and depth sizing within the free span area, loose part not present was reviewed and applied to the site SG tubes for getting the actual value of the wear depth and providing structural integrity interpretation based on engineering evaluation. The experiment to demonstrate the applicability of EPRI ETSS was performed by the employment of the newly prepared STD tube and resulted in ensuring the effectiveness and equivalency of the EPRI ETSS as well. The authorized EPRI ETSS 27906.2 for getting the actual value of the wear depth and providing structural integrity interpretation based on engineering evaluation was reviewed and applied to the site SG tubes. The testing results were reviewed with the influences of SG tube material and the support structure. The impact of the tube materials was insignificant and that of the tube support structure showed somewhat conservative results. The testing resulted in successful demonstration of applicability of the EPRI ETSS on the SG tube wear defects at the tube support. One of the major flaw mechanisms detected in the currently operating domestic OPR-1000 pressurized water reactors(PWR's) steam generator(SG) tubes is wear defect. In general, wear defect has been constantly detected in the upper tube bundle imposed to the flow induced vibration interaction between tube and its support structure, and the quantity of the affected tubes has also shown the tendency to increase as plant operation life is added. In order to take appropriate measures and maintain the structural integrity for the SG tubes, wear defect is currently categorized as active damage mechanism and the tubes containing 40% or greater wear depth of the nominal tube wall thickness shall be plugged per SGMP(SG Management Program) Recently, a fairly large amplitude of wear defects on the Batwing(BW), one of the upper tube support structures in the SG tubes

  18. Demonstration for the Applicability of the EPRI ETSS on the SG Tube Wear Defects Formed at the Tube Support Structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Ki Seok; Cheon, Keun Young; Nam, Min Woo [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co. Ltd, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Min, Kyong Mahn [Universal Monitoring and Inspection Inc., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    In this paper, the authorized EPRI ETSS 27906.2 applied to the detection of tapered wear volumetric indications and depth sizing within the free span area, loose part not present was reviewed and applied to the site SG tubes for getting the actual value of the wear depth and providing structural integrity interpretation based on engineering evaluation. The experiment to demonstrate the applicability of EPRI ETSS was performed by the employment of the newly prepared STD tube and resulted in ensuring the effectiveness and equivalency of the EPRI ETSS as well. The authorized EPRI ETSS 27906.2 for getting the actual value of the wear depth and providing structural integrity interpretation based on engineering evaluation was reviewed and applied to the site SG tubes. The testing results were reviewed with the influences of SG tube material and the support structure. The impact of the tube materials was insignificant and that of the tube support structure showed somewhat conservative results. The testing resulted in successful demonstration of applicability of the EPRI ETSS on the SG tube wear defects at the tube support. One of the major flaw mechanisms detected in the currently operating domestic OPR-1000 pressurized water reactors(PWR's) steam generator(SG) tubes is wear defect. In general, wear defect has been constantly detected in the upper tube bundle imposed to the flow induced vibration interaction between tube and its support structure, and the quantity of the affected tubes has also shown the tendency to increase as plant operation life is added. In order to take appropriate measures and maintain the structural integrity for the SG tubes, wear defect is currently categorized as active damage mechanism and the tubes containing 40% or greater wear depth of the nominal tube wall thickness shall be plugged per SGMP(SG Management Program) Recently, a fairly large amplitude of wear defects on the Batwing(BW), one of the upper tube support structures in the SG

  19. STEREO interplanetary shocks and foreshocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco-Cano, X.; Kajdič, P.; Aguilar-Rodríguez, E.; Russell, C. T.; Jian, L. K.; Luhmann, J. G.

    2013-01-01

    We use STEREO data to study shocks driven by stream interactions and the waves associated with them. During the years of the extended solar minimum 2007-2010, stream interaction shocks have Mach numbers between 1.1-3.8 and θ Bn ∼20-86°. We find a variety of waves, including whistlers and low frequency fluctuations. Upstream whistler waves may be generated at the shock and upstream ultra low frequency (ULF) waves can be driven locally by ion instabilities. The downstream wave spectra can be formed by both, locally generated perturbations, and shock transmitted waves. We find that many quasiperpendicular shocks can be accompanied by ULF wave and ion foreshocks, which is in contrast to Earth's bow shock. Fluctuations downstream of quasi-parallel shocks tend to have larger amplitudes than waves downstream of quasi-perpendicular shocks. Proton foreshocks of shocks driven by stream interactions have extensions dr ≤0.05 AU. This is smaller than foreshock extensions for ICME driven shocks. The difference in foreshock extensions is related to the fact that ICME driven shocks are formed closer to the Sun and therefore begin to accelerate particles very early in their existence, while stream interaction shocks form at ∼1 AU and have been producing suprathermal particles for a shorter time.

  20. STEREO interplanetary shocks and foreshocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco-Cano, X. [Instituto de Geofisica, UNAM, CU, Coyoacan 04510 DF (Mexico); Kajdic, P. [IRAP-University of Toulouse, CNRS, Toulouse (France); Aguilar-Rodriguez, E. [Instituto de Geofisica, UNAM, Morelia (Mexico); Russell, C. T. [ESS and IGPP, University of California, Los Angeles, 603 Charles Young Drive, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Jian, L. K. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD and University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Luhmann, J. G. [SSL, University of California Berkeley (United States)

    2013-06-13

    We use STEREO data to study shocks driven by stream interactions and the waves associated with them. During the years of the extended solar minimum 2007-2010, stream interaction shocks have Mach numbers between 1.1-3.8 and {theta}{sub Bn}{approx}20-86 Degree-Sign . We find a variety of waves, including whistlers and low frequency fluctuations. Upstream whistler waves may be generated at the shock and upstream ultra low frequency (ULF) waves can be driven locally by ion instabilities. The downstream wave spectra can be formed by both, locally generated perturbations, and shock transmitted waves. We find that many quasiperpendicular shocks can be accompanied by ULF wave and ion foreshocks, which is in contrast to Earth's bow shock. Fluctuations downstream of quasi-parallel shocks tend to have larger amplitudes than waves downstream of quasi-perpendicular shocks. Proton foreshocks of shocks driven by stream interactions have extensions dr {<=}0.05 AU. This is smaller than foreshock extensions for ICME driven shocks. The difference in foreshock extensions is related to the fact that ICME driven shocks are formed closer to the Sun and therefore begin to accelerate particles very early in their existence, while stream interaction shocks form at {approx}1 AU and have been producing suprathermal particles for a shorter time.

  1. CHARGED PARTICLE MOTION IN AN EXPLOSIVELY GENERATED IONIZING SHOCK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boswell, Christopher J.; O'Connor, Patrick D.

    2009-01-01

    Different aspects of the plasma generated in a gas contained in a tube due to detonation of a small explosive charge located at one end of the tube are presented. The motion of the charged particles within the plasma is monitored using Rogowski coils. Using time-resolved emission spectroscopy the temperature and species in the detonation products and compressed gas behind the shock wave are recorded. From the spectral lines of the emission profiles the temperatures and electron density were evaluated to be in the vicinity of 7,000 K and 5x10 22 m -3 . An ultra fast wave traveling down the guide tube ahead of the hydrodynamic shock and causing any charged particles there to move fast enough to be detected by the Rogowski coils was recorded. From the measurements the phase velocity of the wave was calculated at 525 km/s when krypton filled the tube, and 1300 km/s in the case of argon. The temperature and density measurements are consistent with the data reported in the literature for similar tests. The electrostatic pulse measurements are a new phenomena not previously observed.

  2. Density Effects on Post-shock Turbulence Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yifeng; Jaberi, Farhad; Livescu, Daniel; Li, Zhaorui; Michigan State University Collaboration; Los Alamos National Laboratory Collaboration; Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi Collaboration

    2017-11-01

    The effects of density variations due to mixture composition on post-shock turbulence structure are studied using turbulence-resolving shock-capturing simulations. This work extends the canonical Shock-Turbulence Interaction (STI) problem to involve significant variable density effects. The numerical method has been verified using a series of grid and LIA convergence tests, and is used to generate accurate post-shock turbulence data for a detailed flow study. Density effects on post-shock turbulent statistics are shown to be significant, leading to an increased amplification of turbulent kinetic energy (TKE). Eulerian and Lagrangian analyses show that the increase in the post-shock correlation between rotation and strain is weakened in the case with significant density variations (referred to as the ``multi-fluid'' case). Similar to previous single-fluid results and LIA predictions, the shock wave significantly changes the topology of the turbulent structures, exhibiting a symmetrization of the joint PDF of second and third invariant of the deviatoric part of velocity gradient tensor. In the multi-fluid case, this trend is more significant and mainly manifested in the heavy fluid regions. Lagrangian data are also used to study the evolution of turbulence structure away from the shock wave and assess the accuracy of Lagrangian dynamical models.

  3. Shock Dynamics in Stellar Outbursts. I. Shock Formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ro, Stephen; Matzner, Christopher D., E-mail: ro@astro.utoronto.ca [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada)

    2017-05-20

    Wave-driven outflows and non-disruptive explosions have been implicated in pre-supernova outbursts, supernova impostors, luminous blue variable eruptions, and some narrow-line and superluminous supernovae. To model these events, we investigate the dynamics of stars set in motion by strong acoustic pulses and wave trains, focusing on nonlinear wave propagation, shock formation, and an early phase of the development of a weak shock. We identify the shock formation radius, showing that a heuristic estimate based on crossing characteristics matches an exact expansion around the wave front and verifying both with numerical experiments. Our general analytical condition for shock formation applies to one-dimensional motions within any static environment, including both eruptions and implosions. We also consider the early phase of shock energy dissipation. We find that waves of super-Eddington acoustic luminosity always create shocks, rather than damping by radiative diffusion. Therefore, shock formation is integral to super-Eddington outbursts.

  4. Process to repair a steam generator tube by inserting a tubular sleeve and the associated sleeve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaudin, J.P.

    1986-01-01

    The tubular sleeve is introduced in the tube and is mechanically expanded inside the tube plate, and is diametrally expanded at its upper part within the tube and outside the tube plate. Tightness is ensured by brazing the end part of the sleeve within the tube. The end part of the sleeve is brazed by melting of brazing metal previously applied to the outer surface of the sleeve of its end region. The invention applies more particularly to steam generators of pressurized water nuclear reactors [fr

  5. Tube plug removal machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkins, P.J.

    1987-01-01

    In a nuclear steam generator wherein some faulty tubes have been isolated by mechanical plugging, to remove a selected plug without damaging the associated tube, a plug removal machine is used. The machine drills into a plug portion with a tap drill bit having a drill portion a tap portion and a threaded portion, engaging that plug portion with the threaded portion after the drilled hole has been threaded by the tap portion thereof, and removing a portion of the plug in the tube with a counterbore drill bit mounted concentrically about the tap drill bit. A trip pin and trip spline disengage the tap drill bit from the motor. The counterbore drill bit is thereafter self-centered with respect to the tube and plug about the now stationary tap drill bit. After a portion of the plug has been removed by the counterbore drill bit, pulling on the top drill bit by grippers on slots will remove the remaining plug portion from the tube. (author)

  6. Categorising YouTube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Mosebo Simonsen

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a genre analytical approach to creating a typology of the User Generated Content (UGC of YouTube. The article investigates the construction of navigationprocesses on the YouTube website. It suggests a pragmatic genre approach that is expanded through a focus on YouTube’s technological affordances. Through an analysis of the different pragmatic contexts of YouTube, it is argued that a taxonomic understanding of YouTube must be analysed in regards to the vacillation of a user-driven bottom-up folksonomy and a hierarchical browsing system that emphasises a culture of competition and which favours the already popular content of YouTube. With this taxonomic approach, the UGC videos are registered and analysed in terms of empirically based observations. The article identifies various UGC categories and their principal characteristics. Furthermore, general tendencies of the UGC within the interacting relationship of new and old genres are discussed. It is argued that the utility of a conventional categorical system is primarily of analytical and theoretical interest rather than as a practical instrument.

  7. Measuring of tube expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogeleer, J. P.

    1985-01-01

    The expansion of the primary tubes or sleeves of the steam generator of a nuclear reactor plant are measured while the tubes or sleeves are being expanded. A primary tube or sleeve is expanded by high pressure of water which flows through a channel in an expander body. The water is supplied through an elongated conductor and is introduced through a connector on the shank connected to the conductor at its outer end. A wire extends through the mandrel and through the conductor to the end of the connector. At its inner end the wire is connected to a tapered pin which is subject to counteracting forces produced by the pressure of the water. The force on the side where the wire is connected to the conductor is smaller than on the opposite side. The tapered pin is moved in the direction of the higher force and extrudes the wire outwardly of the conductor. The tapered surface of the tapered pin engages transverse captive plungers which are maintained in engagement with the expanding tube or sleeve as they are moved outwardly by the tapered pin. The wire and the connector extend out of the generator and, at its outer end, the wire is connected to an indicator which measures the extent to which the wire is moved by the tapered pin, thus measuring the expansion of the tube or sleeve as it progresses

  8. Plastic Deformation of Metal Tubes Subjected to Lateral Blast Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kejian Song

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available When subjected to the dynamic load, the behavior of the structures is complex and makes it difficult to describe the process of the deformation. In the paper, an analytical model is presented to analyze the plastic deformation of the steel circular tubes. The aim of the research is to calculate the deflection and the deformation angle of the tubes. A series of assumptions are made to achieve the objective. During the research, we build a mathematical model for simply supported thin-walled metal tubes with finite length. At a specified distance above the tube, a TNT charge explodes and generates a plastic shock wave. The wave can be seen as uniformly distributed over the upper semicircle of the cross-section. The simplified Tresca yield domain can be used to describe the plastic flow of the circular tube. The yield domain together with the plastic flow law and other assumptions can finally lead to the solving of the deflection. In the end, tubes with different dimensions subjected to blast wave induced by the TNT charge are observed in experiments. Comparison shows that the numerical results agree well with experiment observations.

  9. Nickel electroplating of steam generator tubes (kiss sleeving process)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaut, B.

    1988-01-01

    This process, the nickel electroplating of steam generator tubes, has been jointly developed under a Belgatom (Laborelec) and Framatome agreement with shared experience gained by both companies, industrial applications being under the responsibility of Framatome. Application of the coating in zones where residual stresses or cracks are present prevents contact between the primary water and the tube, which stops the stress corrosion process. In the Doel 2 plant, 91 tubes have been plated since 1985, and different sets of parameters have been used for comparison purposes. Among these tubes, 9 have been preventively plugged because of defective plating, 9 have been pulled out for laboratory examinations, 2 just after plating and 7 after 1 or 2 yr of service. There are 73 plated tubes still in service. From the tests that were performed, it was possible to select an optimized set of parameters guaranteeing the following properties: bridging of existing cracks and good behavior of the coating in relevant zones, good adhesion to the Inconel tube, high ductility, low residual stresses, thermal shock resistance, corrosion resistance, erosion resistance, and low cobalt content. The licensability of this process is being completed. It is based first on the leak-before-break concept to determine the characteristics of the nickel plating, thickness in particular, and second on the inspectability of ultrasonic testing methods

  10. Thermal optimization of primary side in double-tube OTSG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Xinyu; Dai Chunhui; Hou Suxia; Tai Yun; Zhao Fuyu

    2011-01-01

    Once-through steam generator (OTSG) is usually used in the integrated nuclear power plants which require smaller volume and better effect of heat transfer. The double-tube OTSG component which is composed of straight tube outside and helical tube inside is presented in this paper. The primary fluid is divided into two parts, one is in the inner tube and the other is in the gap among outer tubes. The flow distribution ratio of the primary fluid obviously affects the heat transfer. Thus, the problem of optimization emerges, i.e. how to find an optimal flow distribution ratio with a maximum heat exchange. Analyzed the effects of the distribution ratio on heat transfer, the optimal distribution ratio is obtained by the constrained nonlinear optimization method. Subsequently, the optimal distribution ratio is achieved by a throttling set in the entrance of the inner tube. The result is in substantial agreement with the literature. (author)

  11. The Functionality of Paratexts on YouTube

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Thomas Mosebo

    2014-01-01

    This chapter investigates paratexts and their functionality on YouTube. It is argued that YouTube content is in fact characterized by its dependence and usage of paratexts as part of YouTube's infrastructure. Paratexts are presented as being either auto-generated by YouTube or created by its users....... They are furthermore identified through a distinction between spatial and temporal relationships. Based on these distinctions, a small survey of some of the most popular videos on YouTube is conducted in order to examine the appearance and functionality of paratexts. A principal argument of the chapter...... is that the functionality of the paratexts can be explained by what Genette characterizes as the paratext's illocutionary force, which is examined in relationship to YouTube's paratexts and, more specifically, the site's implementation of links. The chapter also argues that paratexts may be characterized as a necessary...

  12. Visual beam tube inspection at the TRIGA reactor Vienna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeck, H.; Musilek, A.; Villa, M.

    2006-01-01

    Of the four TRIGA beam tubes two have been visually inspected in 1985. Prior to the inspection the reactor was shut down for 3 weeks. The fuel elements around the beam tubes were removed. Stainless steel dummy elements were inserted in the fuel positions to shield the core radiation. The active part of the Fast Rabbit Tube was removed into the beam tube loading device and transferred to an interim storage: Front dose rate was ∼ 50 mSv/h. Generally the beam tube was very clean, after the last inspection about 30 years ago. A1 cm cut was observed at the beam tube front end. A rigid endoscope was used to check the beam tube's inner surface using a 90 degree deflection objective and photo- and video equipment. The direct dose rate in front of the beam tube was about 30 mSv/h. The beam tube was vacuum cleaned. A corroded shielding tank containing boric acid has leaked. A wooden collimator partially disintegrating due to extreme temperature was removed from beam tube D. Documentation of the inspection for visible defects is produced for later comparison

  13. Vibration and wear prediction for steam generator tubes: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, M.S.M.; Gupta, G.D.; Eisinger, F.L.

    1988-06-01

    As part of the overall EPRI program to develop a mechanistic model for tube fretting and wear prediction, Foster Wheeler Development Corporation undertook the responsibility of developing analytical models to predict structural response and wear in a multispan tube. The project objective was to develop the analytical capability to simulate the time-dependent motion of a multispan steam generator tube in the presence of the clearance gaps at each tube baffle or support. The models developed were to simulate nonlinear tube-to-tube support interaction by determining the impact force, the sliding distance, and the resultant tube wear. Other objectives of the project included: validate the models by comparing the analytical results with the EPRI tests done at Combustion Engineering (C-E) on single multispan tubes; test the models for simulating the U-bend region of the steam generator tube, including the antivibration bars; and develop simplified methods to treat the nonlinear dynamic problem of a multispan tube so that computing costs could be minimized. 15 refs., 53 figs., 27 tabs

  14. Grain destruction in interstellar shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seab, C.G.; Shull, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    One of the principal methods for removing grains from the Interstellar Medium is to destroy them in shock waves. Previous theoretical studies of shock destruction have generally assumed only a single size and type of grain; most do not account for the effect of the grain destruction on the structure of the shock. Earlier calculations have been improved in three ways: first, by using a ''complete'' grain model including a distribution of sizes and types of grains; second, by using a self-consistent shock structure that incorporates the changing elemental depletions as the grains are destroyed; and third, by calculating the shock-processed ultraviolet extinction curves for comparison with observations. (author)

  15. Advanced evacuated tube collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schertz, W. W.; Hull, J. R.; Winston, R.; Ogallagher, J.

    1985-04-01

    The essence of the design concept for these new collectors is the integration of moderate levels of nonimaging concentration inside the evacuated tube itself. This permanently protects the reflection surfaces and allows the use of highly reflecting front surface mirrors with reflectances greater than 95%. Previous fabrication and long term testing of a proof-of-concept prototype has established the technical success of the concept. Present work is directed toward the development of a manufacturable unit that will be suitable for the widest possible range of applications. Design alternatives include scaling up the original prototype's tube diameter from 5 cm to 10 cm, using an internal shaped metal concentrating reflector, using a variety of profile shapes to minimize so-called gap losses and accommodate both single ended and double-ended flow geometries, and allowing the use of heat pipes for the absorber tube.

  16. Square through tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akita, Junji; Honma, Toei.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To provide a square through tube involving thermal movement in pipelines such as water supply pump driving turbine exhaust pipe (square-shaped), which is wide in freedom with respect to shape and dimension thereof for efficient installation at site. Structure: In a through tube to be airtightly retained for purpose of decontamination in an atomic power plant, comprising a seal rubber plate, a band and a bolt and a nut for securing said plate, the seal rubber plate being worked into the desired shape so that it may be placed in intimate contact with the concrete floor surface by utilization of elasticity of rubber, thereby providing airtightness at a corner portion of the square tube. (Kamimura, M.)

  17. SG tube identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoogstraten, P. van

    1994-01-01

    A ''Tracker'' system is described which is designed to identify any tube in a reactor steam generator quickly and safely. Occupational radiation doses to maintenance workers are reduced by using a Tracker and emergency down times are shortened. The system employs a television camera and light source in a stainless steel box with a large window. Both the camera and spotlight can be panned and tilted to reach any point on the tubesheet and are remotely controlled. An operator at a safe working distance can identify any tube visible on a real time video by comparison with the tubesheet pattern stored earlier in the computer memory. The identified tube can then be spotlighted and dealt with quickly by a maintenance worker inside the channel head. (UK)

  18. PRODUCTION OF URANIUM TUBING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creutz, E.C.

    1958-04-15

    The manufacture of thin-walled uranium tubing by the hot-piercing techique is described. Uranium billets are preheated to a temperature above 780 d C. The heated billet is fed to a station where it is engaged on its external surface by three convex-surfaced rotating rollers which are set at an angle to the axis of the billet to produce a surface friction force in one direction to force the billet over a piercing mandrel. While being formed around the mandrel and before losing the desired shape, the tube thus formed is cooled by a water spray.

  19. Guide tube sleeve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attix, D.J.

    1983-01-01

    The invention increases the operating capacity of a nuclear reactor by causing a modification in the flow pattern of the coolant which enhances the coolant's effectiveness. The apparatus provides a thin-walled tubular sleeve closely surrounding but not attached to the exterior surface of a guide tube in a fuel assembly. The wall of the sleeve has tabs projecting outwardly into adjacent flow channels. The sleeve is attached to the wall of a cellular void through which passes the guide tube associated with said sleeve. The tabs increase the flow of water in the channel and thus increase the heat transfer

  20. Pressure tube type research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Hiroshi.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To prevent excessive heat generation due to radiation of a pressure tube vessel. Structure: A pressure tube encasing therein a core comprises a dual construction comprising inner and outer tubes coaxially disposed. High speed cooling water is passed through the inner tube for cooling. In addition, in the outer periphery of said outer tube there is provided a forced cooling tube disposed coaxially thereto, into which cooling fluid, for example, such as moderator or reflector is forcibly passed. This forced cooling tube has its outer periphery surrounded by the vessel into which moderator or reflector is fed. By the provision of the dual construction of the pressure tube and the forced cooling tube, the vessel may be prevented from heat generation. (Ikeda, J.)

  1. Circulatory Shock. Volume 27, Number 4, 1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-02-01

    hypocalcemia in adults (12%) and children (17%). Conclusion: Hypomagnesemia is relatively common in critically ill children and should be considered...Pediatrics, Chicago, IL 60657. Acute endotoxin shock models in the adult animals have been studied far more extensively than newborn animals related in part...treated animals. CO fell and SVR then increased. Metabolic acidosis developed at 4 hrs post LPS in both groups. In contrast to adult pigs

  2. Forming Behaviour in Laser Shock Drawing

    OpenAIRE

    Schulze Niehoff, H.; Vollertsen, F.; Wielage, H.

    2008-01-01

    Through the continuing trend of miniaturization new cost efficient and fast methods for processing small parts are required. In this paper a new non-mechanical process for the forming process of micro deep drawing is presented. This new deep drawing process utilizes a laser initiated plasma shock wave at the target, which forms the sheet. Several pulses can be applied at one point and therefore high forming degrees can be reached without increasing the energy density. In this paper the pressu...

  3. Evaluation of reliability of EC inspection of VVER SG tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanic, D.

    2001-01-01

    Evaluation of eddy current data collected during inspection of VVER steam generators is very complex task because of numerous parameters which have affect on eddy current signals. That was the reason that recently ago INETEC has started related scientific project in order to evaluate the reliability of eddy current (EC) inspection of VVER steam generator (SG) tubing. In the scope of project the following objectives will be investigated: 1. Determination of POD (Probability of detection) of various types degradation cracks, where their basic parameters are variables (basic parameters are depth, length, width, orientation, number) on three different sets of tubes (clean ideal tubes, tubes with pilgering, tubes electroplated with copper) 2. Sizing quality (accuracy, repeatability) (same data sets as defined in 1.) 3. Effect of fill factor on POD and sizing quality. 4. Effect of tube bends on POD and sizing quality. 5. Effect of other tube geometry variations on POD and sizing quality (tube ovality, transition zone region, expanded (rolled) part of tube, dents, dings). Investigation will start with bobbin probe technique which is the most used technique for general purpose VVER tube examination. Since INETEC is the only world company which successfully developed and applied rotating probe technique for VVER SG tubes, scope of the project will be extended on rotating probe technique utilizing 'pancake' and 'point' coil. Method reliability will be investigated first on the huge set of EDM notches representing various defect morphologies and simulating different factors, and the second part will be investigated on sets of degradation defects obtained by artificial corrosion. In the scope of the project the measures for enhancing the method reliability have to be determined. This considers the proper definition of parameters of examination system, as well as establishment of the suitable analysis procedures. This article presents the temporary results of the first part of

  4. Tungsten wire and tubing joined by nickel brazing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-01-01

    Thin tungsten wire and tungsten tubing are brazed together using a contacting coil of nickel wire heated to its melting point in an inert-gas atmosphere. This method is also effective for brazing tungsten to tungsten-rhenium parts.

  5. Ion Dynamics at Shocks: Ion Reflection and Beam Formation at Quasi-perpendicular Shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucharek, Harald; Moebius, Eberhard

    2005-01-01

    The physics of collisionless shocks is controlled by the ion dynamics. The generation of gyrating ions by reflection as well as the formation of field-aligned ion beams are essential parts of this dynamic. On the one hand reflection is most likely the first interaction of ions with the shock before they undergo the downstream thermalization process. On the other hand field-aligned ion beams, predominately found at the quasi-perpendicular bow shock, propagate into the distant foreshock region and may create wave activity. We revisit ion reflection, the source and basic production mechanism of field-aligned ion beams, by using multi-spacecraft measurements and contrast these observations with existing theories. Finally, we propose an alternative production mechanism

  6. Equipment for inspection and carrying out repairs, if required, for tube bundles of steam raising units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gugel, G.

    1976-01-01

    The equipment solves the problem of being able to inspect and possibly to repair U-tubes of a vertical steam raising unit standing on a tube floor, without draining the primary medium and bringing the test equipment and tools into the inside of the boiler first. This is achieved by leaving a considerable part of the equipment permanently in the hemispherical space under the tube floor and operating it from the outside, on the other side of the concrete shielding. An inspection tube is threaded in turn horizontally through a concrete shield, a tube duct in the heat insulation of the steam raising unit, and through a hole in the hemispherical space under the tube floor into this space. The end of an angle tube can be moved axially from outside the concrete shield and can be rotated in a semicircle above the tube axis. By interposing a, for example, 12 part distributor with 12 short, differently bent tubes 12 adjacent tubes opening into the tube floor can be controlled and tested, by axial movement of the angle tube together with the distributor, e.g. 4 x 12 other U tubes. A turbulent flow sensor, for example, can be introduced through the angle tube and distributor. In the non-operational condition the equipment is moved into a recess via a supporting angle and stopped there. (ORU) [de

  7. Fluid structure interaction in tube bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brochard, D.; Jedrzejewski, F.; Gibert, R.J.

    1995-01-01

    A lot of industrial components contain tube bundles immersed in a fluid. The mechanical analysis of such systems requires the study of the fluid structure interaction in the tube bundle. Simplified methods, based on homogenization methods, have been developed to analyse such phenomenon and have been validated through experimental results. Generally, these methods consider only the fluid motion in a plan normal to the bundle axis. This paper will analyse, in a first part, the fluid structure interaction in a tube bundle through a 2D finite element model representing the bundle cross section. The influence of various parameters like the bundle size, and the bundle confinement will be studied. These results will be then compared with results from homogenization methods. Finally, the influence of the 3D fluid motion will be investigated, in using simplified methods. (authors). 11 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs

  8. Flaw analysis in steam generator tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutin, J.P.; Billon, F.

    1985-08-01

    Operating more than 30 PWR units, Electricite de France has to face several steam generator tube problems. One of the most serious difficulties is the stress corrosion cracking due to primary fluid, just above the tube sheet, in the roll transition region. With regard to availability it is, of course, a major concern; with regard to safety, the point is that tube rupture should be preceded by a significant primary-to-secondary leak during normal operation so that the reactor should be shut down before failure occurs. The demonstration of this assessment asks for experimental and analytical evidences. In 1981, Elecricite de France started a comprehensive program on that subject. A general description of this program and the main results are to be presented during the SMIRT-8 Conference. The purpose of the present paper is to develop in greater detail the analytical part of the work

  9. The Foulness multi-ton air blast simulator. Part 2. Recent developments - the linear charge driven facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clare, P.M.

    1978-02-01

    The gun-driven facility for simulating nuclear air blast has been described in Part 1 (AWRE Report 031/74). It was, however, subject to certain limitations in providing the requisite blast parameters for nuclear hardening. The efficiency of the simulator has been improved beyond that of the gun-driven facility to produce blast waves of higher peak overpressure, longer positive duration and greater equivalent yield. This has been done by firing in the 1.8 m (6 ft) diameter section of the tunnel instead of in the guns. Various line charge arrangements were investigated and the pressures and strains developed in the 1.8 m (6 ft) diameter section were measured. The shock loading on the tube walls was less than that produced by firing in the guns and consisted of a short duration shock decaying to a lower amplitude pressure pulse of longer duration (1 ms), followed by a few reflected shocks which the tube walls were well able to withstand. The equipment is described and results discussed. (author)

  10. Adjustable Shock Absorbers

    OpenAIRE

    Adamiec, Radek

    2012-01-01

    Bakalářská práce obsahuje přehled používaných tlumičů osobních automobilů, závodních automobilů a motocyklů. Jsou zde popsány systémy t lumením, konstrukce tlumičů a vidlic používaných u motocyklů. Dále je zde přehled prvků používaných u podvozků automobilů. This bachelor´s thesis contains the survey of the shock absorbers of passenger cars, racing cars and motorcycles. Are described damping systems, the design used shock absorbers and forks for motorcycles. Then there is the list of the e...

  11. Radiative relativistic shock adiabate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsintsadze, L.N.; Nishikawa, K.

    1997-01-01

    The influences of thermal radiation on the state equation of shock waves, derived in the previous paper [L. N. Tsintsadze, Phys. Plasmas 2, 4462 (1995)], are studied and a series of relations of thermodynamic quantities that hold for shock waves are derived. It is shown that the presence of radiation can strongly change the compressibility of the plasma. It is well known that for polytropic gases the compressibility cannot change more than four times the initial value in the case of nonrelativistic temperatures. The numerical calculations show that there are no such restrictions, when the radiation energy exceeds the kinetic energy of the plasma. The ultrarelativistic temperature range is also covered in our numerical calculations. Also studied are the influences of the radiation on the PT and the TV diagrams. A significant modification due to radiation is found in every case studied. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  12. POSTURAL SHOCK IN PREGNANCY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkening, Ralph L.; Knauer, John; Larson, Roger K.

    1955-01-01

    Signs and symptoms of shock may be produced in some patients in late pregnancy by putting them in the dorsal recumbent posture. Change from this position will relieve the condition. The features of the supine hypotensive syndrome can be duplicated by applying pressure to the abdomen with the patient in a lateral position. The postural variations of venous pressure, blood pressure, and pulse appear to be due to obstruction of venous return from the lower portion of the body caused by the large uterus of late pregnancy compressing the vena cava. When shock is observed in a woman in late pregnancy, she should be turned to a lateral position before more active measures of treatment are begun. ImagesFigure 1. PMID:14351983

  13. Bow shock data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipf, Edward C.; Erdman, Peeter W.

    1994-08-01

    The University of Pittsburgh Space Physics Group in collaboration with the Army Research Office (ARO) modeling team has completed a systematic organization of the shock and plume spectral data and the electron temperature and density measurements obtained during the BowShock I and II rocket flights which have been submitted to the AEDC Data Center, has verified the presence of CO Cameron band emission during the Antares engine burn and for an extended period of time in the post-burn plume, and have adapted 3-D radiation entrapment codes developed by the University of Pittsburgh to study aurora and other atmospheric phenomena that involve significant spatial effects to investigate the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) envelope surrounding the re-entry that create an extensive plasma cloud by photoionization.

  14. Double wall steam generator tubing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padden, T.R.; Uber, C.F.

    1983-01-01

    Double-walled steam generator tubing for the steam generators of a liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactor prevents sliding between the surfaces due to a mechanical interlock. Forces resulting from differential thermal expansion between the outer tube and the inner tube are insufficient in magnitude to cause shearing of base metal. The interlock is formed by jointly drawing the tubing, with the inside wall of the outer tube being already formed with grooves. The drawing causes the outer wall of the inner tube to form corrugations locking with the grooves. (author)

  15. Shock Isolation Elements Testing for High Input Loadings. Volume III. Mechanical Shock Isolation Elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SHOCK ABSORBERS ), (*GUIDED MISSILE SILOS, SHOCK ABSORBERS ), (*SPRINGS, (*SHOCK(MECHANICS), REDUCTION), TORSION BARS, ELASTOMERS, DAMPING, EQUATIONS OF MOTION, MODEL TESTS, TEST METHODS, NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS, HARDENING.

  16. Shock resistance testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pouard, M.

    1984-03-01

    In the framework of mechanical tests and to answer the different requests for tests, the T.C.R (Transport Conditionnement et Retraitement) laboratory got test facilities. These installations allow to carry out tests of resistance to shocks, mainly at the safety level of components of nuclear power plants, mockups of transport casks for fuel elements and transport containers for radioactive materials. They include a tower and a catapult. This paper give a decription of the facilities and explain their operation way [fr

  17. On Modeling Risk Shocks

    OpenAIRE

    Dorofeenko, Victor; Lee, Gabriel; Salyer, Kevin; Strobel, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Within the context of a financial accelerator model, we model time-varying uncertainty (i.e. risk shocks) through the use of a mixture Normal model with time variation in the weights applied to the underlying distributions characterizing entrepreneur productivity. Specifically, we model capital producers (i.e. the entrepreneurs) as either low-risk (relatively small second moment for productivity) and high-risk (relatively large second moment for productivity) and the fraction of both types is...

  18. The Shock Doctrine

    OpenAIRE

    Dionysios K. Solomos; Dimitrios N. Koumparoulis

    2011-01-01

    Naomi Klein attempts to redefine the economic history discovering the historical continuities and to reveal the neoliberal theory which functions via the utilization of specific “tools”. The state of shock is the key for the opponents of Chicago School and Milton Friedman in order for them to establish neoliberal policies and to promote the deregulated capitalism which includes less welfare state, less public sector, less regulation, weakened labor unions, privatizations and laissez-faire. Th...

  19. Characterization of shocked beryllium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papin P.A.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available While numerous studies have investigated the low-strain-rate constitutive response of beryllium, the combined influence of high strain rate and temperature on the mechanical behavior and microstructure of beryllium has received limited attention over the last 40 years. In the current work, high strain rate tests were conducted using both explosive drive and a gas gun to accelerate the material. Prior studies have focused on tensile loading behavior, or limited conditions of dynamic strain rate and/or temperature. Two constitutive strength (plasticity models, the Preston-Tonks-Wallace (PTW and Mechanical Threshold Stress (MTS models, were calibrated using common quasi-static and Hopkinson bar data. However, simulations with the two models give noticeably different results when compared with the measured experimental wave profiles. The experimental results indicate that, even if fractured by the initial shock loading, the Be remains sufficiently intact to support a shear stress following partial release and subsequent shock re-loading. Additional “arrested” drive shots were designed and tested to minimize the reflected tensile pulse in the sample. These tests were done to both validate the model and to put large shock induced compressive loads into the beryllium sample.

  20. Tube-dwelling invertebrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hölker, Franz; Vanni, Michael J.; Kuiper, Jan J.; Meile, Christof; Grossart, Hans Peter; Stief, Peter; Adrian, Rita; Lorke, Andreas; Dellwig, Olaf; Brand, Andreas; Hupfer, Michael; Mooij, Wolf M.; Nützmann, Gunnar; Lewandowski, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    There is ample evidence that tube-dwelling invertebrates such as chironomids significantly alter multiple important ecosystem functions, particularly in shallow lakes. Chironomids pump large water volumes, and associated suspended and dissolved substances, through the sediment and thereby compete

  1. Thoughts on accelerator tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, J.D.

    1978-01-01

    A brief, subjective review is given of mechanisms that may be limiting electrostatic accelerator tubes to present levels of performance. Suggestions are made for attacking these limitations with the purpose of stimulating the thinking of designers and users of electrostatic accelerators

  2. Tracheostomy tube - speaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with others. However, you can learn how to speak with a tracheostomy tube. It just takes practice. There ... If it is hard to speak with a trach in place, special devices can help you learn to create sounds. One-way valves, called speaking valves, are placed ...

  3. Thoughts of accelerator tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, J.D.

    1977-01-01

    A brief, subjective review is given of mechanisms that may be limiting electrostatic accelerator tubes to present levels of performance. Suggestions are made for attacking these limitations with the purpose of stimulating the thinking of designers and users of electrostatic accelerators

  4. Air liquide's space pulse tube cryocooler systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trollier, T.; Tanchon, J.; Buquet, J.; Ravex, A.

    2017-11-01

    Thanks to important development efforts completed with ESA funding, Air Liquide Advanced Technology Division (AL/DTA), is now in position to propose two Pulse Tube cooler systems in the 40-80K temperature range for coming Earth Observation missions such as Meteosat Third Generation (MTG), SIFTI, etc… The Miniature Pulse Tube Cooler (MPTC) is lifting up to 2.47W@80K with 50W compressor input power and 10°C rejection temperature. The weight is 2.8 kg. The Large Pulse Tube Cooler (LPTC) is providing 2.3W@50K for 160W input power and 10°C rejection temperature. This product is weighing 5.1 kg. The two pulse tube coolers thermo-mechanical units are qualified against environmental constraints as per ECSS-E-30. They are both using dual opposed pistons flexure bearing compressor with moving magnet linear motors in order to ensure very high lifetime. The associated Cooler Drive Electronics is also an important aspect specifically regarding the active control of the cooler thermo-mechanical unit during the launch phase and the active reduction of the vibrations induced by the compressor (partly supported by the French Agency CNES). This paper details the presentation of the two Pulse Tube Coolers together with the Cooler Drive Electronics aspects.

  5. Development of zirconium alloy tube manufacturing technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, In Kyu; Park, Chan Hyun; Lee, Seung Hwan; Chung, Sun Kyo

    2009-01-01

    In late 2004, Korea Nuclear Fuel Company (KNF) launched a government funded joint development program with Westinghouse Electric Co. (WEC) to establish zirconium alloy tube manufacturing technology in Korea. Through this program, KNF and WEC have developed a state of the art facility to manufacture high quality nuclear tubes. KNF performed equipment qualification tests for each manufacturing machine with the support of WEC, and independently carried out product qualification tests for each tube product to be commercially produced. Apart from those tests, characterization test program consisting of specification test and characterization test was developed by KNF and WEC to demonstrate to customers of KNF the quality equivalency of products manufactured by KNF and WEC plants respectively. As part of establishment of performance evaluation technology for zirconium alloy tube in Korea, KNF carried out analyses of materials produced for the characterization test program using the most advanced techniques. Thanks to the accomplishment of the development of zirconium alloy tube manufacturing technology, KNF is expected to acquire positive spin off benefits in terms of technology and economy in the near future

  6. Simulations of fill tube effects on the implosion of high-foot NIF ignition capsules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dittrich, T R; Hurricane, O A; Berzak-Hopkins, L F; Callahan, D A; Casey, D T; Clark, D; Dewald, E L; Doeppner, T; Haan, S W; Hammel, B A; Harte, J A; Hinkel, D E; Kozioziemski, B J; Kritcher, A L; Ma, T; Nikroo, A; Pak, A E; Parham, T G; Park, H-S; Patel, P K

    2016-01-01

    Encouraging results have been obtained using a strong first shock during the implosion of carbon-based ablator ignition capsules. These “high-foot” implosion results show that capsule performance deviates from 1D expectations as laser power and energy are increased. A possible cause of this deviation is the disruption of the hot spot by jets originating in the capsule fill tube. Nominally, a 10 μm outside diameter glass (SiO 2 ) fill tube is used in these implosions. Simulations indicate that a thin coating of Au on this glass tube may lessen the hotspot disruption. These results and other mitigation strategies will be presented. (paper)

  7. Simulations of fill tube effects on the implosion of high-foot NIF ignition capsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittrich, T. R.; Hurricane, O. A.; Berzak-Hopkins, L. F.; Callahan, D. A.; Casey, D. T.; Clark, D.; Dewald, E. L.; Doeppner, T.; Haan, S. W.; Hammel, B. A.; Harte, J. A.; Hinkel, D. E.; Kozioziemski, B. J.; Kritcher, A. L.; Ma, T.; Nikroo, A.; Pak, A. E.; Parham, T. G.; Park, H.-S.; Patel, P. K.; Remington, B. A.; Salmonson, J. D.; Springer, P. T.; Weber, C. R.; Zimmerman, G. B.; Kline, J. L.

    2016-05-01

    Encouraging results have been obtained using a strong first shock during the implosion of carbon-based ablator ignition capsules. These “high-foot” implosion results show that capsule performance deviates from 1D expectations as laser power and energy are increased. A possible cause of this deviation is the disruption of the hot spot by jets originating in the capsule fill tube. Nominally, a 10 μm outside diameter glass (SiO2) fill tube is used in these implosions. Simulations indicate that a thin coating of Au on this glass tube may lessen the hotspot disruption. These results and other mitigation strategies will be presented.

  8. Use of an electron penetration cathode ray tube in a colour display console

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickles, Pierre

    1972-01-01

    The objective of this research thesis is to study the possibility to obtain a colour image which can be used in cathode ray tube display console. The author describes a cathode ray tube, presents different methods to obtain a colour image (mask tube, electron penetration tube, and intensity change tube), discusses the choice of a cathode ray tube type, and describes its use in a display console. In the next part, the author addresses some theoretical aspects of corrections to be made for spot deflection, spot focussing, and spot brightness. A first version of a mock-up is presented, and experimental results are presented and discussed. A second version is then presented

  9. Pressure Measurements on a Deforming Surface in Response to an Underwater Explosion in a Water-Filled Aluminum Tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Chambers

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Experiments have been conducted to benchmark DYSMAS computer code calculations for the dynamic interaction of water with cylindrical structures. Small explosive charges were suspended using hypodermic needle tubing inside Al tubes filled with distilled water. Pressures were measured during shock loading by tourmaline crystal, carbon resistor and ytterbium foil gages bonded to the tube using a variety of adhesives. Comparable calculated and measured pressures were obtained for the explosive charges used, with some gages surviving long enough to record results after cavitation with the tube wall.

  10. Selfsimilar time dependent shock structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, R.; Drury, L.O.

    1985-01-01

    Diffusive shock acceleration as an astrophysical mechanism for accelerating charged particles has the advantage of being highly efficient. This means however that the theory is of necessity nonlinear; the reaction of the accelerated particles on the shock structure and the acceleration process must be self-consistently included in any attempt to develop a complete theory of diffusive shock acceleration. Considerable effort has been invested in attempting, at least partially, to do this and it has become clear that in general either the maximum particle energy must be restricted by introducing additional loss processes into the problem or the acceleration must be treated as a time dependent problem (Drury, 1984). It is concluded that stationary modified shock structures can only exist for strong shocks if additional loss processes limit the maximum energy a particle can attain. This is certainly possible and if it occurs the energy loss from the shock will lead to much greater shock compressions. It is however equally possible that no such processes exist and we must then ask what sort of nonstationary shock structure develops. The same argument which excludes stationary structures also rules out periodic solutions and indeed any solution where the width of the shock remains bounded. It follows that the width of the shock must increase secularly with time and it is natural to examine the possibility of selfsimilar time dependent solutions

  11. Selfsimilar time dependent shock structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, R.; Drury, L. O.

    1985-01-01

    Diffusive shock acceleration as an astrophysical mechanism for accelerating charged particles has the advantage of being highly efficient. This means however that the theory is of necessity nonlinear; the reaction of the accelerated particles on the shock structure and the acceleration process must be self-consistently included in any attempt to develop a complete theory of diffusive shock acceleration. Considerable effort has been invested in attempting, at least partially, to do this and it has become clear that in general either the maximum particle energy must be restricted by introducing additional loss processes into the problem or the acceleration must be treated as a time dependent problem (Drury, 1984). It is concluded that stationary modified shock structures can only exist for strong shocks if additional loss processes limit the maximum energy a particle can attain. This is certainly possible and if it occurs the energy loss from the shock will lead to much greater shock compressions. It is however equally possible that no such processes exist and we must then ask what sort of nonstationary shock structure develops. The ame argument which excludes stationary structures also rules out periodic solutions and indeed any solution where the width of the shock remains bounded. It follows that the width of the shock must increase secularly with time and it is natural to examine the possibility of selfsimilar time dependent solutions.

  12. Shock absorption of below-knee prostheses : A comparison between the SACH and the Multiflex foot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, J. L.; Speth, L. A W M; Daanen, H. A M

    1990-01-01

    Shock waves were measured during walking on a treadmill on the metal tube of a below-knee KBM prosthesis, provided either with a SACH foot or with a Multiflex foot. Accelerations were measured in the axial direction and the dorso-ventral direction, about 160 mm proximal to the sole of the shoe. The

  13. Attenuation of surface waves in porous media: Shock wave experiments and modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chao, G.E; Smeulders, D.M.J.; Dongen, van M.E.H.

    2005-01-01

    In this project we conduct experimental and numerical investigations on the attenuation mechanisms of surface waves in poroelastic materials. Viscous dissipation effects are modelled in the framework of Biot's theory. The experiments are performed using a shock tube technique. Quantitative agreement

  14. Measurements of local liquid velocity and interfacial parameters of air-water bubbly flows in a horizontal tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Jian; Zhang Mingyuan; Zhang Chaojie; Su Yuliang

    2002-01-01

    Distribution of local kinematic parameters of air-water bubbly flows in a horizontal tube with an ID of 35 mm was investigated. The local liquid velocity was measured with a cylindrical hot film probe, and local void fraction, bubble frequency and bubble velocity were measured with a double-sensor probe. It was found that the axial liquid velocity has a same profile as that of single liquid phase flow in the lower part of the tube, and it suffers a sudden reduction in the upper part of the tube. With increasing airflow rate, the liquid velocity would increase in the lower part of the tube, and further decrease at the upper part of the tube, respectively. Most bubbles are congested at the upper part of the tube, and the void fraction and bubble frequencies have similar profile and both are asymmetrical with the tube axis with their maximum values located near the upper tube wall

  15. Drift tubes of Linac 2

    CERN Multimedia

    Photographic Service

    1977-01-01

    Being redied for installation, those at the right are for tank 1, those on the left for tank 2. Contrary to Linac 1, which had drift-tubes supported on stems, here the tubes are suspended, for better mechanical stability.

  16. NEI You Tube Videos: Amblyopia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... YouTube Videos: Amblyopia Embedded video for NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia ... *PDF files require the free Adobe® Reader® software for viewing. This website is maintained by the ...

  17. Tubing For Sampling Hydrazine Vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, Josh; Taffe, Patricia S.; Rose-Pehrsson, Susan L.; Wyatt, Jeffrey R.

    1993-01-01

    Report evaluates flexible tubing used for transporting such hypergolic vapors as those of hydrazines for quantitative analysis. Describes experiments in which variety of tubing materials, chosen for their known compatibility with hydrazine, flexibility, and resistance to heat.

  18. Prospects for stronger calandria tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ells, C.E.; Coleman, C.E.; Hosbons, R.R.; Ibrahim, E.F.; Doubt, G.L.

    1990-12-01

    The CANDU calandria tubes, made of seam welded and annealed Zircaloy-2, have given exemplary service in-reactor. Although not designed as a system pressure containment, calandria tubes may remain intact even in the face of pressure tube rupture. One such incident at Pickering Unit 2 demonstrated the economic advantage of such an outcome, and a case can be made for increasing the probability that other calandria tubes would perform in a similar fashion. Various methods of obtaining stronger calandria tubes are available, and reviewed here. When the tubes are internally pressurized, the weld is the weak section of the tube. Increasing the oxygen concentration in the starting sheet, and thickening the weld, are promising routes to a stronger tube

  19. Safety significance of steam generator tube degradation mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roussel, G; Mignot, P [AIB-Vincotte Nuclear - AVN, Brussels (Belgium)

    1991-07-01

    Steam generator (SG) tube bundle is a part of the Reactor Coolant Pressure Boundary (RCPB): this means that its integrity must be maintained. However, operating experience shows various types of tube degradation to occur in the SG tubing, which may lead to SG tube leaks or SG tube ruptures and create a loss of primary system coolant through the SG, therefore providing a direct path to the environment outside the primary containment structure. In this paper, the major types of known SG tube degradations are described and analyzed in order to assess their safety significance with regard to SG tube integrity. In conclusion: The operational reliability and the safety of the PWR steam generator s requires a sufficient knowledge of the degradation mechanisms to determine the amount of degradation that a tube can withstand and the time that it may remain in operation. They also require the availability of inspection techniques to accurately detect and characterize the various degradations. The status of understanding of the major types of degradation summarized in this paper shows and justifies why efforts are being performed to improve the management of the steam generator tube defects.

  20. Corrosion and Rupture of Steam Generator Tubings in PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Seong Sik; Kim, Hong Pyo

    2007-08-01

    This report is intended to provide corrosion engineers in the filed of nuclear energy with information on the corrosion and rupture behavior of steam generator tubing in PWRs. Various types of corrosion in PWR steam generator tubing have been reported all around the world, and countermeasures such as the addition of corrosion inhibitors, a water chemistry control, a tube plugging and sleeving have been applied. Steam generators equipped with alloy 600 tubing, which are not so resistant to a stress corrosion cracking (SCC), have generally been replaced with new steam generators made of alloy 690 TT (Thermally treated). Pull tube examination results which were performed of KAERI are summarized. The tubes were affected by a pitting, SCC, and a denting. Nondestructive examination method for the tubes and repair techniques are also reviewed. In addition, the regulatory guidance of some countries are reviewed. As a part of a tube integrity project in Korea, some results on a tube rupture and leak behaviors for axial cracks are also mentioned