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Sample records for shock incarceration program

  1. Shock Incarceration: Rehabilitation or Retribution?

    MacKenzie, Doris Layton; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Reviews Louisiana's shock incarceration program used as alternative to standard prison incarceration. Program involves short period of imprisonment in a "boot camp" type atmosphere followed by three phases of intensive parole supervision. Examines the program in regard to its rehabilitative potential and compares program elements to…

  2. Strengthening Incarcerated Families: Evaluating a Pilot Program for Children of Incarcerated Parents and Their Caregivers

    Miller, Alison L.; Perryman, Jamie; Markovitz, Lara; Franzen, Susan; Cochran, Shirley; Brown, Shavonnea

    2013-01-01

    Parental incarceration can be devastating for families. Children may experience difficulties, and the stress on caregivers who take on unexpected childrearing is high. We implemented and evaluated a family-level intervention with caregivers and children experiencing parental (typically maternal) incarceration, in a community setting. We partnered with a community-based organization serving families with an incarcerated parent to conduct a pilot trial of the Strengthening Families Program (SFP...

  3. Strengthening Incarcerated Families: Evaluating a Pilot Program for Children of Incarcerated Parents and Their Caregivers.

    Miller, Alison L; Perryman, Jamie; Markovitz, Lara; Franzen, Susan; Cochran, Shirley; Brown, Shavonnea

    2013-10-01

    Parental incarceration can be devastating for families. Children may experience difficulties, and the stress on caregivers who take on unexpected childrearing is high. We implemented and evaluated a family-level intervention with caregivers and children experiencing parental (typically maternal) incarceration, in a community setting. We partnered with a community-based organization serving families with an incarcerated parent to conduct a pilot trial of the Strengthening Families Program (SFP). Process evaluation indicated high implementation fidelity, satisfaction, engagement, and attendance. Outcome evaluation results indicated positive changes in family-level functioning, caregivers' positive parenting, and caregiver depression symptoms from pre- to post-intervention, with some changes retained at follow-up 4 months later. Implications for preventive interventions with children of incarcerated parents, and their caregivers, are discussed.

  4. Documenting Program Outcomes of Relationship Education with Incarcerated Adults

    Kate Taylor Harcourt

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The current study examined program outcomes for an understudied population of Relationship Education (RE participants: incarcerated men and women. In addition to relationship functioning, we examined a number of individual and parenting outcomes which had not previously been explored. In a sample of 453 adult inmates, we found improvements in (a trust, (b confidence in the relationship, (c intimacy, (d individual empowerment, (e conflict management, (f help-seeking attitudes, (g self-esteem, (h depression, (i global life stress, (j faulty relationship beliefs, and (k parenting efficacy. Tests of moderation by gender and race indicated minimal differences in change patterns between groups; however, we found a significant time by gender interaction on intimacy and a time by race interaction on parenting efficacy. Implications for research and practice are presented

  5. Understanding Effective Higher Education Programs in Prisons: Considerations from the Incarcerated Individuals Program in North Carolina

    Anders, Allison Daniel; Noblit, George W.

    2011-01-01

    The North Carolina Workplace and Community Transition Youth Offender Program (YOP), recently renamed the Incarcerated Individuals Program (IPP), has proven to be effective in terms of its growth and expansion, the support of education directors across the correctional facilities, university collaboration, student evaluations, and a low recidivism…

  6. Children of incarcerated parents: how a mentoring program can make a difference.

    Laakso, Janice; Nygaard, Julie

    2012-01-01

    In spite of the rapid increase in the U.S. prison population, with subsequent increase of parent-prisoners, there are few requirements that social systems serving children take note of a parent's incarceration. Thus the special needs of children of incarcerated parents are almost invisible. Given the multiple risks that these children experience, it is critical to recognize community programs that can help bridge the difficulties children face during their parents' incarceration. This article reports the outcome of a mentoring program specifically targeted to these children. The results show that although mentoring cannot address all of the issues facing these children, it can produce positive outcomes that may mitigate some of the risks associated with being a child of an incarcerated parent.

  7. The development of a parenting program for incarcerated mothers in Australia: a review of prison-based parenting programs.

    Newman, Claire; Fowler, Cathrine; Cashin, Andrew

    2011-08-01

    The increasing population of children with an incarcerated parent is a significant public health issue. A literature search highlighted that children of incarcerated parents experience psychological stressors that may potentially impact on health and behavioural outcomes. Parenting programs for prisoners may be of benefit as early parenting experiences during childhood have a significant impact on a child's future experiences as an adolescent and adult. A review of identified evaluation-based studies of parenting programs for prisoners (N = 11), although varied in program delivery approaches and evaluation methods, suggest that such programs have the potential to improve the parenting skills, knowledge and confidence of incarcerated parents. Finally, this paper provides an outline of the development of an Australian based parenting program for incarcerated mothers and their young children.

  8. The Political Construction of Alternative Dispute Resolution and Alternatives to Incarceration.

    Palumbo, Dennis J.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    This discussion of evaluations of mediation programs at seven sites and of shock incarceration and home arrest focuses on the similarities in the interpretations of alternative dispute-resolution programs to interpretations of alternatives to incarceration programs. The political construction of the two approaches, which are both designed to…

  9. Developing an Effective Intervention for Incarcerated Teen Fathers: The Baby Elmo Program

    Brito, Natalie; Barr, Rachel; Rodriguez, Jennifer; Shauffer, Carole

    2012-01-01

    The absence of a father figure has been linked to very poor developmental outcomes. The Baby Elmo Program, a parenting and structured visitation program, aims to form and maintain bonds between children and their incarcerated teen fathers. The program is taught and supervised by probation staff in juvenile detention facilities. This intervention…

  10. Family Connections: The Importance of Prison Reading Programs for Incarcerated Parents and Their Children

    Blumberg, Daniel M.; Griffin, Dawn A.

    2013-01-01

    This article introduces a successful reading program, Family Connections, for incarcerated parents and their children. A comprehensive review of the literature supports the need to implement prison programs from an ecological perspective, in which the needs of inmates and their families are considered. More specifically, the benefits of directing…

  11. Boosting program integrity and effectiveness of the cognitive behavioral program EQUIP for incarcerated youth in The Netherlands

    Helmond, P.; Overbeek, G.; Brugman, D.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether a "program integrity booster" could improve the low to moderate program integrity and effectiveness of the EQUIP program for incarcerated youth as practiced in The Netherlands. Program integrity was assessed in EQUIP groups before and after the booster. Youth residing in

  12. An Evaluation of Past Special Education Programs and Services Provided to Incarcerated Young Offenders

    Ingalls, Lawrence; Hammond, Helen; Trussell, Robert P.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the past special education programs and services provided to children and youth who later became incarcerated. Participants in this study were inmates from a medium security state correctional facility in the southwest region of the United States. All inmates involved in this study were identified as having a disability and…

  13. Parenting While Incarcerated: Tailoring the Strengthening Families Program for Use with Jailed Mothers.

    Miller, Alison L; Weston, Lauren E; Perryman, Jamie; Horwitz, Talia; Franzen, Susan; Cochran, Shirley

    2014-09-01

    Most incarcerated women are mothers. Parenting programs may benefit women, children and families, yet effectively intervening in correctional settings is a challenge. An evidence-based parenting intervention (the Strengthening Families Program) was tailored and implemented with women in a jail setting. Goals were to assess mothers' needs and interests regarding parenting while they were incarcerated, adapt the program to address those needs, and establish intervention delivery and evaluation methods in collaboration with a community-based agency. Women reported wanting to know more about effective communication; how children manage stress; finances; drug and alcohol use; self-care; and stress reduction. They reported high program satisfaction and reported reduced endorsement of corporal punishment after the intervention. Barriers to implementation included unpredictable attendance from session to session due to changing release dates, transfer to other facilities, and jail policies (e.g., lock-down; commissary hours). Implications for sustainable implementation of parenting programs in jail settings are discussed.

  14. Incarceration and Women's Health: The Utility of Effective Health Education Programming--A Commentary

    Robertson-James, Candace; Nunez, Ana

    2012-01-01

    The health and well-being of incarcerated women is a significant public health concern. Compared with non-incarcerated women, incarcerated women in the United States are more often from minority populations, younger (between the ages of 18 and 34 years), of low socioeconomic status, unemployed and mothers to children under 18 years of age. More…

  15. Helping War Veterans with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Incarcerated Individuals' Role in Therapeutic Animal Programs.

    Furst, Gennifer

    2016-05-01

    A grassroots movement of nonprofit, nongovernmental organizations is creating programs in which incarcerated individuals train rescued shelter dogs as therapeutic canines for Veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Driven in part by reports of Veterans not receiving adequate treatment for PTSD, the programs are the latest iteration of prison-based animal programs and are founded on the principles of animal therapy and healing powers of animals. The far-reaching and deleterious collateral consequences of PTSD create social and economic burdens on the country; providing beneficial interventions for Veterans is a pressing social problem. Without oversight, a patchwork of agencies has developed that provides Veterans with dogs with varying levels of training and differing abilities. To best serve the needs of Veterans, the programs need regulation and standardized methods of training. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 54(5), 49-57.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  16. Identifying Desistance Pathways in a Higher Education Program for Formerly Incarcerated Individuals.

    Runell, Lindsey Livingston

    2017-06-01

    The link between education and crime is a topic that requires special attention with respect to the converging influence of individual, social, and environmental factors. This article will investigate the educational pathways followed by students in a higher education program for formerly incarcerated individuals at a large state university in the northeastern United States. Specifically, it will explore the extent to which their postincarceration educational experiences served as a "hook for change" and also related impediments tied to street influences, financial constraints, stigma, academic and social development. Data were collected from a sample of 34 current and former students in the program, each of whom participated in a face-to-face interview. The higher education program played a key role in propelling the desistance process for research participants. This article will discuss how personal agency can be sustained through participation in higher education post release and the implications for future research on crime avoidance.

  17. Mentoring Program Enhancements Supporting Effective Mentoring of Children of Incarcerated Parents.

    Stump, Kathryn N; Kupersmidt, Janis B; Stelter, Rebecca L; Rhodes, Jean E

    2018-04-26

    Children of incarcerated parents (COIP) are at risk for a range of negative outcomes; however, participating in a mentoring relationship can be a promising intervention for these youth. This study examined the impact of mentoring and mentoring program enhancements on COIP. Secondary data analyses were conducted on an archival database consisting of 70,729 matches from 216 Big Brothers Big Sisters (BBBS) local agencies to establish the differential effects of mentoring on COIP. A subset of 45 BBBS agencies, representing 25,252 matches, participated in a telephone interview about program enhancements for better serving COIP. Results revealed that enhanced program practices, including having specific program goals, providing specialized mentor training, and receiving additional funding resulted in better outcomes for COIP matches. Specifically, specialized mentor training and receiving additional funding for serving matches containing COIP were associated with longer and stronger matches. Having specific goals for serving COIP was associated with higher educational expectations in COIP. Results are discussed in terms of benefits of a relationship-based intervention for addressing the needs of COIP and suggestions for program improvements when mentoring programs are serving this unique population of youth. © Society for Community Research and Action 2018.

  18. The Impact of a Mindfulness Based Program on Perceived Stress, Anxiety, Depression and Sleep of Incarcerated Women

    Ginette G. Ferszt

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Incarcerated women enter the prison setting with remarkable histories of trauma, mental health and substance abuse issues. Given the stress of incarceration and separation from their children, families, and significant others, it is not surprising that many women experience increased anxiety, depression, and problems with sleep. Due to these negative outcomes, it is imperative to find efficient non-pharmacological interventions. This pilot study examined the impact of a 12-week mindfulness based program on the stress, anxiety, depression and sleep of women with a total of 33 completing the study. In one group, women’s perceived stress, anxiety and depression were all significantly lower following the intervention compared to prior to the intervention. Challenges with implementing the pilot study are addressed. Despite challenges and limitations, the low-cost non-pharmacological intervention has potential for a reducing the symptoms of anxiety and depression.

  19. Visiting Mom: A pilot evaluation of a prison-based visiting program serving incarcerated mothers and their minor children.

    Schubert, Erin C; Duininck, Megan; Shlafer, Rebecca J

    2016-01-01

    We describe an evaluation of a prison visiting program, Extended Visiting (EV), for incarcerated mothers and their children. Mothers ( N = 24) and caregivers ( N = 19) were interviewed regarding experiences with the program. Mothers identified benefits including maintaining a relationship with children, physical contact, motivation, privacy, peer support, and personal growth. Caregivers echoed mothers' appreciation for the opportunity to maintain mother-child relationships and physical contact. Mothers identified barriers including desire for overnight visits and more age-appropriate activities. Caregivers perceived travel time and costs and children's adverse reactions as barriers. When comparing EV to typical visiting, participants unanimously preferred EV.

  20. Issues Affecting the Efficacy of Programs for Children with Incarcerated Parents

    Merenstein, Beth; Tyson, Ben; Tilles, Brad; Keays, Aileen; Rufffolo, Lyndsay

    2011-01-01

    Research suggests that intervening in the lives of children with an incarcerated parent to preserve and strengthen positive family connections can yield constructive societal benefits in the form of reduced recidivism, less intergenerational criminal justice system involvement and the promotion of healthy child development (Christian, 2009). Since…

  1. Evaluating the Efficacy of an Attachment-Informed Psychotherapeutic Program for Incarcerated Parents

    Kamptner, N. Laura; Teyber, Faith H.; Rockwood, Nicholas J.; Drzewiecki, Dolly

    2017-01-01

    An attachment-based, psychotherapeutic parent education course was created for incarcerated mothers and fathers to help improve their ability to provide positive parenting and a more stable home environment for their children. The current study assessed the effects of this parenting curriculum on parents' reported tendencies to be abusive, their…

  2. Academy Engages Incarcerated Youths

    Zehr, Mary Ann

    2010-01-01

    It's not easy to keep young people on task for learning in a youth prison, but David Domenici, the principal of the Maya Angelou Academy, a charter-like school serving incarcerated juveniles, is trying to do it while at the same time creating a model program for improving educational services for young offenders. Located at the New Beginnings…

  3. Culture Shock: Information Packet for Developing Stress/Culture Shock Programs for Students in Overseas Schools.

    Robinson, John

    This booklet, written for elementary teachers and counselors, provides information for a three-session stress and culture shock program for fifth and sixth grade students in overseas schools. Session 1 presents an introduction to the program, including discussion questions. Session 2 focuses on stress and culture shock through examples and…

  4. Narrative Art and Incarcerated Abused Women

    Williams, Rachel; Taylor, Janette Y.

    2004-01-01

    This article describes an arts and narrative intervention program using visual art, storytelling, music, journaling, and support groups with incarcerated abused women to address the following questions: How can visual art and music empower incarcerated female survivors of domestic violence? Can art, music, storytelling, journaling, and support…

  5. Pressurized thermal shock program sponsored by EPRI

    Stahlkopf, K.E.

    1983-01-01

    The potential for long term neutron embrittlement of reactor vessels has been recognized for a number of years. Reactor vessel thermal shock is not a new concern, but with a growing number of plants approaching their mid-lives, it is a concern that must be understood and dealt with. Recent attention has focused on the performance of vessels during overcooling transients. This concern was designated as Unresolved Safety Issue A-49 by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission in December 1981. The USNRC staff has identified eight overcooling events of concern in U.S. PWRs. The concern is currently limited to Pressurized Water Reactors. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has supported research on reactor vessel integrity for a number of years and has supported an extensive effort on reactor vessel pressurized thermal shock (PTS) over the last three years. In addition, EPRI has developed a linked set of computer codes to simulate the pressurized thermal shock transients and assess the integrity of the nuclear reactor vessels for various overcooling transients. This paper focuses on the integrated analysis approach being used by EPRI in performing such analysis. (orig.)

  6. Relationships between incarcerated women. Moving beyond stereotypes.

    Harner, Holly M

    2004-01-01

    1. Described as one of the "pains of imprisonment," separation may be particularly difficult for women in prison because most functioned in multiple relational roles, including mother, wife, girlfriend, daughter, sister, and friend, before incarceration. 2. In the absence of consistent contact with family, friends, and other loved ones outside prison, incarcerated women may seek to develop connections with other inmates as a way to adapt to life in prison. 3. Positive adaptation may allow incarcerated women to take advantage of educational/vocational, parenting, and drug treatment programs offered in prison, thus facilitating their adaptation after release.

  7. Attachment and caregiving relationships in families affected by parental incarceration

    Shlafer, Rebecca J.; Poehlmann, Julie

    2010-01-01

    This longitudinal, mixed method study focused on 57 families of children who participated in a mentoring program for children of incarcerated parents. Children ranged in age from 4 to 15 years. Monthly interviews were conducted with children, caregivers, and mentors during the first six months of program participation, and questionnaires were administered at intake and six months to assess caregiver–child and incarcerated parent–child relationships, contact with incarcerated parents, and chil...

  8. Incarcerated Pediatric Hernias.

    Abdulhai, Sophia A; Glenn, Ian C; Ponsky, Todd A

    2017-02-01

    Indirect inguinal hernias are the most commonly incarcerated hernias in children, with a higher incidence in low birth weight and premature infants. Contralateral groin exploration to evaluate for a patent processus vaginalis or subclinical hernia is controversial, given that most never progress to clinical hernias. Most indirect inguinal hernias can be reduced nonoperatively. It is recommended to repair them in a timely fashion, even in premature infants. Laparoscopic repair of incarcerated inguinal hernia repair is considered a safe and effective alternative to conventional open herniorrhaphy. Other incarcerated pediatric hernias are extremely rare and may be managed effectively with laparoscopy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Rights and Needs of Children of Incarcerated Parents

    Timmons, Cynthia L.

    2006-01-01

    The impact of witnessing and living with the arrest and incarceration of a parent is overwhelming for children and families. Numerous efforts have recently begun to assist youth who have a parent in prison. This article discusses two of them: the Children of Promise--Mentors of Hope mentoring program, and "The Children of Incarcerated Parents: A…

  10. Do Incarcerated Offenders Experience the Five Stages of Grief as Do Terminally Ill Patients?

    Pledger, Carolyn Brastow

    1985-01-01

    Examines Kubler-Ross' five stages of grief (denial, anger, bargaining, depression, acceptance) as they are experienced not by terminally ill persons, but by 20 criminal offenders and their families during incarceration. Concludes that shock of arrest and incarceration stimulates reactions similar to those of persons coping with terminal diagnosis.…

  11. Child incarceration and long-term adult health outcomes: a longitudinal study.

    Barnert, Elizabeth S; Abrams, Laura S; Tesema, Lello; Dudovitz, Rebecca; Nelson, Bergen B; Coker, Tumaini; Bath, Eraka; Biely, Christopher; Li, Ning; Chung, Paul J

    2018-03-12

    Purpose Although incarceration may have life-long negative health effects, little is known about associations between child incarceration and subsequent adult health outcomes. The paper aims to discuss this issue. Design/methodology/approach The authors analyzed data from 14,689 adult participants in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) to compare adult health outcomes among those first incarcerated between 7 and 13 years of age (child incarceration); first incarcerated at>or=14 years of age; and never incarcerated. Findings Compared to the other two groups, those with a history of child incarceration were disproportionately black or Hispanic, male, and from lower socio-economic strata. Additionally, individuals incarcerated as children had worse adult health outcomes, including general health, functional limitations (climbing stairs), depressive symptoms, and suicidality, than those first incarcerated at older ages or never incarcerated. Research limitations/implications Despite the limitations of the secondary database analysis, these findings suggest that incarcerated children are an especially medically vulnerable population. Practical implications Programs and policies that address these medically vulnerable children's health needs through comprehensive health and social services in place of, during, and/or after incarceration are needed. Social implications Meeting these unmet health and social service needs offers an important opportunity to achieve necessary health care and justice reform for children. Originality/value No prior studies have examined the longitudinal relationship between child incarceration and adult health outcomes.

  12. SHOCK-JR: a computer program to analyze impact response of shipping container

    Ikushima, Takeshi; Nakazato, Chikara; Shimoda, Osamu; Uchino, Mamoru.

    1983-02-01

    The report is provided for using a computer program, SHOCK-JR, which is used to analyze the impact response of shipping containers. Descriptions are the mathematical model, method of analysis, structures of the program and the input and output variables. The program solves the equations of motion for a one-dimensional, lumped mass and nonlinear spring model. The solution procedure uses Runge-Kutta-Gill and Newmark-β methods. SHOCK-JR is a revised version of SHOCK, which was developed by ORNL. In SHOCK-JR, SI dimension is used and graphical output is available. (author)

  13. Grief Interrupted: The Experience of Loss Among Incarcerated Women

    Harner, Holly M.; Hentz, Patricia M.; Evangelista, Maria Carmela

    2011-01-01

    Incarcerated women face a number of stressors apart from the actual incarceration. Nearly half of all women in prison experience the death of a loved one during their incarceration. Our purpose for this study was to explore the experience of grief and loss among incarcerated women using a phenomenological method. Our study approach followed van Manen's method of phenomenology and Munhall's description of existential lifeworlds. Our analysis revealed four existential lifeworlds: temporality: frozen in time; spatiality: no place, no space to grieve; corporeality: buried emotions; and relationality: never alone, yet feeling so lonely. The findings generated from this study can help mental health providers as well as correctional professionals develop policies and programs that facilitate the grief process of incarcerated women within the confines of imprisonment. PMID:20581074

  14. Children of Incarcerated Parents.

    Simmons, Charlene Wear

    2000-01-01

    This report summarizes what is known about the children of incarcerated parents in California. The report estimates the number of children in California who have parents in the state's criminal justice system (jail, prison, parole, and probation) and summarizes key findings from the research literature on the impact of parental arrest and…

  15. Feedback to providers improves evidence-based implantable cardioverter-defibrillator programming and reduces shocks.

    Silver, Marc T; Sterns, Laurence D; Piccini, Jonathan P; Joung, Boyoung; Ching, Chi-Keong; Pickett, Robert A; Rabinovich, Rafael; Liu, Shufeng; Peterson, Brett J; Lexcen, Daniel R

    2015-03-01

    Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) shocks are associated with increased anxiety, health care utilization, and potentially mortality. The purpose of the Shock-Less Study was to determine if providing feedback reports to physicians on their adherence to evidence-based shock reduction programming could improve their programming behavior and reduce shocks. Shock-Less enrolled primary prevention (PP) and secondary prevention (SP) ICD patients between 2009 and 2012 at 118 study centers worldwide and followed patients longitudinally after their ICD implant. Center-specific therapy programming reports (TPRs) were delivered to each center 9 to 12 months after their first enrollment. The reports detailed adherence to evidence-based programming targets: number of intervals to detect ventricular fibrillation (VF NID), longest treatment interval (LTI), supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) discriminators (Wavelet, PR Logic), SVT limit, Lead Integrity Alert (LIA), and antitachycardia pacing (ATP). Clinicians programmed ICDs at their discretion. The primary outcome measure was the change in utilization of evidence-based shock reduction programming before (phase I, n = 2694 patients) and after initiation of the TPR (phase II, n = 1438 patients). Patients implanted after feedback reports (phase II) were up to 20% more likely to have their ICDs programmed in line with evidence-based shock reduction programming (eg, VF NID in PP patients 30/40 in 33.5% vs 18.6%, P programming feedback reports improves adherence to evidence-based shock reduction programming and is associated with lower risk of ICD shocks. Copyright © 2015 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Adversity Across the Life Course of Incarcerated Parents: Gender Differences.

    Borja, Sharon; Nurius, Paula; Eddy, J Mark

    More than half of the 1.6 million adults in U.S. prions are parents. Despite growing knowledge regarding the life course adversities of corrections-involved populations, less is known regarding incarcerated parents per se and the implications of cumulative adversities both on their needs and those of their children. Using a gender-balanced (41% minority) sample of incarcerated parents ( N =357) from a randomized controlled trial of an in-prison parent training program, this study examines differences between incarcerated mothers and fathers in their exposures to adversities across the life course. Mothers and fathers shared similar patterns of adversity exposure in their families of origin, but differed in their experiences of juvenile justice and child welfare systems involvement, as well as in their adult experiences of victimization and related adult social and mental health outcomes. Implications for gender-responsive parent support and prevention programs for their children of incarcerated mothers and fathers are discussed.

  17. Incarcerated umbilical hernia in children.

    Chirdan, L B; Uba, A F; Kidmas, A T

    2006-02-01

    Umbilical hernia is common in children. Complications from umbilical hernias are thought to be rare and the natural history is spontaneous closure within 5 years. A retrospective analysis was performed of the medical records of a series of 23 children who presented with incarcerated umbilical hernias at our institution over an 8-year period. Fifty-two children with umbilical hernias were seen in the hospital over the period. Twenty-three (44.2%) had incarceration. Seventeen (32.7%) had acute incarceration while 6 (11.5%) had recurrent incarceration. There were 16 girls and 7 boys. The ages of the children with acute incarceration ranged from 3 weeks to 12 years (median 4 years), while the ages of those with recurrent incarceration ranged from 3-15 years (median 8.5 years). Incarceration occurred in hernias of more than 1.5 cm in diameter (in those whose defect size was measured). Twenty-one children (15 with acute and all six with recurrent incarceration) underwent repair of the umbilical hernia using standard methods. The parents of two children with acute incarceration declined surgery after spontaneous reduction of the hernia in one and taxis in the other. One boy had gangrenous bowel containing Meckel's diverticulum inside the sac, for which bowel resection with end-to-end anastomosis was done. Operation led to disappearance of pain in all 6 children with recurrent incarceration. Superficial wound infection occurred in one child. There was no mortality. Incarcerated umbilical hernia is not as uncommon as thought. Active observation of children with umbilical hernia is necessary to prevent morbidity from incarceration.

  18. Incarceration and Household Asset Ownership.

    Turney, Kristin; Schneider, Daniel

    2016-12-01

    A considerable literature documents the deleterious economic consequences of incarceration. However, little is known about the consequences of incarceration for household assets-a distinct indicator of economic well-being that may be especially valuable to the survival of low-income families-or about the spillover economic consequences of incarceration for families. In this article, we use longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study to examine how incarceration is associated with asset ownership among formerly incarcerated men and their romantic partners. Results, which pay careful attention to the social forces that select individuals into incarceration, show that incarceration is negatively associated with ownership of a bank account, vehicle, and home among men and that these consequences for asset ownership extend to the romantic partners of these men. These associations are concentrated among men who previously held assets. Results also show that post-incarceration changes in romantic relationships are an important pathway by which even short-term incarceration depletes assets.

  19. Teenage pregnancy in adolescents with an incarcerated household member.

    Whalen, Mathilde Logan; Loper, Ann Booker

    2014-03-01

    This study examines the association between the incarceration of a household member and adolescent pregnancy, and evaluates whether this association extends beyond that of other variables associated with sexual health. We used data from 12 waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth: Child and Young Adult. After eliminating males and individuals who did not respond to key questions, a sample of 1,229 girls (ages 14-19) was analyzed. Girls who experienced the incarceration of a household member faced more demographic and family environment risk factors than those who did not. Regression analyses demonstrated that the addition of a household incarceration variable afforded superior prediction of teenage pregnancy relative to the prediction based on demographic and family features alone. Programs that are directed toward reducing teen pregnancy will benefit from attention to the home situation of the at-risk girl, particularly the experience of household member incarceration and related family dynamics.

  20. Attachment and caregiving relationships in families affected by parental incarceration

    Shlafer, Rebecca J.; Poehlmann, Julie

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal, mixed method study focused on 57 families of children who participated in a mentoring program for children of incarcerated parents. Children ranged in age from 4 to 15 years. Monthly interviews were conducted with children, caregivers, and mentors during the first six months of program participation, and questionnaires were administered at intake and six months to assess caregiver–child and incarcerated parent–child relationships, contact with incarcerated parents, and children’s behavior problems. Although some children viewed their incarcerated parents as positive attachment figures, other children reported negative feelings toward or no relationship with incarcerated parents. In addition, our assessments of children nine years old and older revealed that having no contact with the incarcerated parent was associated with children reporting more feelings of alienation toward that parent compared to children who had contact. Children’s behavior problems were a primary concern, often occurring in a relational context or in reaction to social stigma associated with parental imprisonment. PMID:20582847

  1. Perinatal Needs of Pregnant, Incarcerated Women

    Hotelling, Barbara A.

    2008-01-01

    Pregnant prisoners have health-care needs that are minimally met by prison systems. Many of these mothers have high-risk pregnancies due to the economic and social problems that led them to be incarcerated: poverty, lack of education, inadequate health care, and substance abuse. Lamaze educators and doulas have the opportunity to replicate model programs that provide these women and their children with support, information, and empowering affirmation that improve parenting outcomes and decrease recidivism. PMID:19252687

  2. Mentoring Children with Incarcerated Parents: Implications for Research, Practice, and Policy

    Shlafer, Rebecca J.; Poehlmann, Julie; Coffino, Brianna; Hanneman, Ashley

    2009-01-01

    We investigated children and families who were participating in a mentoring program targeting children with incarcerated parents. Using multiple methods and informants, we explored the development of the mentoring relationship, challenges and benefits of mentoring children with incarcerated parents, and match termination in 57 mentor-child dyads.…

  3. Incorporating Gender Specific Approaches for Incarcerated Female Adolescents: Multilevel Risk Model for Practice

    Welch, Chiquitia L.; Roberts-Lewis, Amelia C.; Parker, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    The rise in female delinquency has resulted in large numbers of girls being incarcerated in Youth Development Centers (YDC). However, there are few gender specific treatment programs for incarcerated female adolescent offenders, particularly for those with a history of substance dependency. In this article, we present a Multi-level Risk Model…

  4. [Psychosocial disadvantages in incarcerated girls and boys].

    Plattner, Belinda; Bessler, Cornelia; Vogt, Gunnar; Linhart, Susanne; Thun-Hohenstein, Leonhard; Aebi, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    Longitudinal studies found that criminal behavior in juveniles often concurs with neighborhood disadvantage and family dysfunction, especially in girls. In this study we assessed the psychosocial background in incarcerated juveniles and analyzed the data for each gender separately. The Multidimensional Clinical Screening Inventory for delinquent juveniles (MCSI) was used to assess school history, psychiatric history, family background, abuse and neglect and motive for crime. The sample consisted of 294 juveniles (46 females and 248 males). Innerfamilial abuse/neglect was reported by 91% (girls) and 79% (boys). 76% (girls) and 88% (boys) reported school-problems. 57% (girls) and 29% (boys) reported to have recieved psychiatric pretreatment. In girls we found significantly higher prevalence rates for parental divorce, incarceration of mother, abuse/neglect and psychiatric pretreatment. Significantly more girls reported a co-occurrence of school-problems and experiences of separation and loss and abuse (65.2% vs. 46.4%, χ²=5.51, df=1, p<.05). Incarcerated juveniles, especially females, are and have been exposed to multiple psychosocial burdens. Therefore it is necessary to implement prevention programs for psychosocially stressed families. Forensic intervention in and after detention has to include a family centered approach.

  5. The Impact of Mass Incarceration on Poverty

    DeFina, Robert; Hannon, Lance

    2013-01-01

    During the past 30 years, U.S. poverty has remained high despite overall economic growth. At the same time, incarceration rates have risen by more than 300%, a phenomenon that many analysts have referred to as mass incarceration. This article explores whether the mass incarceration of the past few decades impeded progress toward poverty reduction.…

  6. Policy advocacy and leadership training for formerly incarcerated women: an empowerment evaluation of ReConnect, a program of the Women in Prison Project, Correctional Association of New York.

    Pinto, R M; Rahman, R; Williams, A

    2014-12-01

    There is limited knowledge on re-entry initiatives for formerly incarcerated women specifically on building women's advocacy and leadership skills. Our research highlights an empowerment evaluation on ReConnect, a 12-session; innovative advocacy and leadership development program rooted in an integrated framework of empowerment, and transformational leadership theories. Using thematic analysis, we coded three focus groups with 24 graduates, for themes that matched our framework's concepts. ReConnect graduates reported being empowered by the information they received on parental rights, housing, and employment. Participants agreed that ReConnect improved their communication skills, preparing them to advocate for themselves and community members. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Space Shuttle Program (SSP) Shock Test and Specification Experience for Reusable Flight Hardware Equipment

    Larsen, Curtis E.

    2012-01-01

    As commercial companies are nearing a preliminary design review level of design maturity, several companies are identifying the process for qualifying their multi-use electrical and mechanical components for various shock environments, including pyrotechnic, mortar firing, and water impact. The experience in quantifying the environments consists primarily of recommendations from Military Standard-1540, Product Verification Requirement for Launch, Upper Stage, and Space Vehicles. Therefore, the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) formed a team of NASA shock experts to share the NASA experience with qualifying hardware for the Space Shuttle Program (SSP) and other applicable programs and projects. Several team teleconferences were held to discuss past experience and to share ideas of possible methods for qualifying components for multiple missions. This document contains the information compiled from the discussions

  8. Incarceration in fragile families.

    Wildeman, Christopher; Western, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    Since the mid-1970s the U.S. imprisonment rate has increased roughly fivefold. As Christopher Wildeman and Bruce Western explain, the effects of this sea change in the imprisonment rate--commonly called mass imprisonment or the prison boom--have been concentrated among those most likely to form fragile families: poor and minority men with little schooling. Imprisonment diminishes the earnings of adult men, compromises their health, reduces familial resources, and contributes to family breakup. It also adds to the deficits of poor children, thus ensuring that the effects of imprisonment on inequality are transferred intergenerationally. Perversely, incarceration has its most corrosive effects on families whose fathers were involved in neither domestic violence nor violent crime before being imprisoned. Because having a parent go to prison is now so common for poor, minority children and so negatively affects them, the authors argue that mass imprisonment may increase future racial and class inequality--and may even lead to more crime in the long-term, thereby undoing any benefits of the prison boom. U.S. crime policy has thus, in the name of public safety, produced more vulnerable families and reduced the life chances of their children. Wildeman and Western advocate several policy reforms, such as limiting prison time for drug offenders and for parolees who violate the technical conditions of their parole, reconsidering sentence enhancements for repeat offenders, and expanding supports for prisoners and ex-prisoners. But Wildeman and Western argue that criminal justice reform alone will not solve the problems of school failure, joblessness, untreated addiction, and mental illness that pave the way to prison. In fact, focusing solely on criminal justice reforms would repeat the mistakes the nation made during the prison boom: trying to solve deep social problems with criminal justice policies. Addressing those broad problems, they say, requires a greater social

  9. Consequences of Partner Incarceration for Women's Employment.

    Bruns, Angela

    2017-10-01

    Research has documented the limited opportunities men have to earn income while in prison and the barriers to securing employment and decent wages upon release. However, little research has considered the relationship between men's incarceration and the employment of the women in their lives. Economic theory suggests that family members of incarcerated individuals may attempt to smooth income fluctuation resulting from incarceration by increasing their labor supply. This study used data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study ( N = 3,780) to investigate how men's incarceration is associated with the number of hours their female partners work as well as variation in this association. Results showed that, on average, women's hours of work were not significantly impacted by the incarceration of their partners. However, there was a positive relationship between partner incarceration and employment among more advantaged groups of women (e.g., married women, white women).

  10. Race and incarceration in an aging cohort of Vietnam veterans in treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

    Coker, Kendell L; Rosenheck, Robert

    2014-03-01

    Cross sectional studies have addressed the incarceration of Vietnam veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but no studies have examined changes in incarceration as they age. This study examines patterns of incarceration among Vietnam veterans treated in specialized veterans affairs (VA) intensive PTSD programs over time. Data was drawn from admission data from the initial episode of treatment of Caucasian and African American Vietnam veterans entering VA specialized intensive PTSD programs between 1993 and 2011 (N = 31,707). Bivariate correlations and logistic regression were used to examine associations among race and incarceration over time and the potentially confounding influence of demographic and clinical covariates on this relationship. Rates of reported incarceration declined from 63 to 43%. Over time, African American veterans were 34% more likely than Caucasian veterans to have a lifetime history of incarceration while interaction analysis showed steeper declines for Caucasians than African Americans. Rates of incarceration among these Vietnam veterans declined as they aged. Furthermore, African American veterans were substantially more likely than Caucasian veterans to have been incarcerated and showed less decline as the cohort aged. While reduced, needs for clinical PTSD services remain among aging combat veterans.

  11. Examining Masculine Norms and Peer Support within a Sample of Incarcerated African American Males.

    Gordon, Derrick M; Hawes, Samuel W; Perez-Cabello, M Arturo; Brabham-Hollis, Tamika; Lanza, A Stephen; Dyson, William J

    2013-01-01

    The adherence to masculine norms has been suggested to be influenced by social settings and context. Prisons have been described as a context where survival is dependent on adhering to strict masculine norms that may undermine reintegration back into the larger society. This study attempted to examine the relationship between masculine norms, peer support, and an individual's length of incarceration on a sample of 139 African American men taking part in a pre-release community re-entry program. Results indicate that peer support was associated with length of incarceration and the interaction between the endorsement of masculine norms and peer support significantly predicted the length of incarceration for African American men in this sample. Implications for incarcerated African American men and future research directions are discussed.

  12. Mothering at a Distance: what incarcerated mothers value about a parenting programme.

    Rossiter, Chris; Power, Tamara; Fowler, Cathrine; Jackson, Debra; Hyslop, Deirdre; Dawson, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Children with incarcerated mothers experience adverse health, social and emotional circumstances, and are a particularly vulnerable group. Mothers in custody face significant challenges in parenting their children. The study aimed to identify participants' views on impact of a parenting support programme for incarcerated mothers in NSW Australia. The mixed-methods study examined 134 responses to open and closed questions on a questionnaire for programme participants. Participants found the programme worthwhile, engaging and relevant. It enhanced their parenting knowledge and confidence. Open-ended responses highlighted program elements which participants valued, specifically support for their parenting role in complicated circumstances, greater understanding of child development and perspectives, and practical strategies for facilitating connections with their children during their incarceration. The study informs nurses working with women who have experienced incarceration and their children, both in custodial and community settings.

  13. Beyond Absenteeism: Father Incarceration and Child Development*

    Geller, Amanda; Cooper, Carey E.; Garfinkel, Irwin; Schwartz-Soicher, Ofira; Mincy, Ronald B.

    2013-01-01

    High rates of incarceration among American men, coupled with high rates of fatherhood among men in prison, have motivated recent research on the effects of parental imprisonment on children’s development. We use data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study to examine the relationship between paternal incarceration and developmental outcomes for approximately 3,000 urban children. We estimate cross-sectional and longitudinal regression models that control not only for fathers’ basic demographic characteristics and a rich set of potential confounders, but also for several measures of pre-incarceration child development and family fixed effects. We find significant increases in aggressive behaviors among children whose fathers are incarcerated, and some evidence of increased attention problems. The estimated effects of paternal incarceration are stronger than those of other forms of father absence, suggesting that children with incarcerated fathers may require specialized support from caretakers, teachers, and social service providers. The estimated effects are stronger for children who lived with their fathers prior to incarceration, but are also significant for children of nonresident fathers, suggesting that incarceration places children at risk through family hardships including and beyond parent-child separation. PMID:22203452

  14. Computer program to solve two-dimensional shock-wave interference problems with an equilibrium chemically reacting air model

    Glass, Christopher E.

    1990-08-01

    The computer program EASI, an acronym for Equilibrium Air Shock Interference, was developed to calculate the inviscid flowfield, the maximum surface pressure, and the maximum heat flux produced by six shock wave interference patterns on a 2-D, cylindrical configuration. Thermodynamic properties of the inviscid flowfield are determined using either an 11-specie, 7-reaction equilibrium chemically reacting air model or a calorically perfect air model. The inviscid flowfield is solved using the integral form of the conservation equations. Surface heating calculations at the impingement point for the equilibrium chemically reacting air model use variable transport properties and specific heat. However, for the calorically perfect air model, heating rate calculations use a constant Prandtl number. Sample calculations of the six shock wave interference patterns, a listing of the computer program, and flowcharts of the programming logic are included.

  15. Innocent inmates: The case of children living with incarcerated ...

    In Zimbabwe, as elsewhere across the world, convicted nursing mothers are often incarcerated jointly with their young children. This joint incarceration is justified on the grounds that it ensures social protection of the children who are inadvertently caught up in the incarceration process. However, whether joint incarceration ...

  16. Overview of substance use disorders and incarceration of African American males

    Venkata K Mukku

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Incarceration affects the lives of many African American men and often leads to poverty, ill health, violence, and a decreased quality of life. There has been an unprecedented increase in incarceration among African American males since 1970. In 2009, the incarceration rate among black males was 6.7 times that of white males and 2.6 times of Hispanic males. Substance abuse in African American males leads to higher mortality rates, high rates of alcohol-related problems, more likely to be victims of crimes and HIV/AIDS. African Americans comprised only 14% of the US population but comprised 38% of the jail population. The cost of incarcerating persons involved in substance related crimes has increased considerably over the past two decades in the United States. A reduction in the incarceration rate for non-violent offences would save an estimated $17 billion per year. Substance use disorder makes the individual more prone to polysubstance use and leads to impulse control problems, selling drugs and other crimes. The high rate of incarceration in U.S. may adversely affect health care, the economy of the country and will become a burden on society. Implementation of good mental health care, treatment of addiction during and after incarceration will help to decrease the chances of reoffending. Therapeutic community programs with prison-based and specialized treatment facilities, cognitive behavioral therapy treatment for 91–180 days, and 12-step orientation with staff specialized in substance abuse can be helpful. It is essential for health care professionals to increase public awareness of substance abuse and find ways to decrease the high rates of incarceration.

  17. Overview of substance use disorders and incarceration of african american males.

    Mukku, Venkata K; Benson, Timothy G; Alam, Farzana; Richie, William D; Bailey, Rahn K

    2012-01-01

    Incarceration affects the lives of many African American men and often leads to poverty, ill health, violence, and a decreased quality of life. There has been an unprecedented increase in incarceration among African American males since 1970. In 2009, the incarceration rate among black males was 6.7 times that of white males and 2.6 times of Hispanic males. Substance abuse in African American males leads to higher mortality rates, high rates of alcohol-related problems, more likely to be victims of crimes, and HIV/AIDS. African Americans comprised only 14% of the U.S. population but comprised 38% of the jail population. The cost of incarcerating persons involved in substance related crimes has increased considerably over the past two decades in the U.S. A reduction in the incarceration rate for non-violent offences would save an estimated $17 billion per year. Substance use disorder makes the individual more prone to polysubstance use and leads to impulse control problems, selling drugs, and other crimes. The high rate of incarceration in U.S. may adversely affect health care, the economy of the country, and will become a burden on society. Implementation of good mental health care, treatment of addiction during and after incarceration will help to decrease the chances of reoffending. Therapeutic community programs with prison-based and specialized treatment facilities, cognitive behavioral therapy treatment for 91-180 days, and 12-step orientation with staff specialized in substance abuse can be helpful. It is essential for health care professionals to increase public awareness of substance abuse and find ways to decrease the high rates of incarceration.

  18. 25 CFR 10.11 - How would someone detained or incarcerated, or their representative, get the BIA policies and...

    2010-04-01

    ... are used for operations or maintenance programs, the BIA's policies, standards, and procedures will be... physical or mental condition of the person at time of incarceration. In these cases, the Inmate Handbook...

  19. Incarceration experiences among a community-recruited sample of injection drug users in Bangkok, Thailand

    Lai Calvin

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 2003 Thailand has waged an aggressive "war on drugs" campaign focused on arresting and incarcerating suspected drug users and dealers. However, little is known about incarceration experiences among IDU in the wake of the recent war on drugs. Therefore, we sought to examine incarceration experiences among IDU in Bangkok, Thailand. Methods We examined the prevalence of incarceration among community-recruited IDU participating in the Mitsampan Community Research Project. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with a self-reported history of incarceration. We also examined the prevalence of injection drug use and syringe sharing within prisons. Results 252 IDU were recruited in August 2008; 66 (26.2% were female and the median age was 36.5 years. In total, 197 (78.2% participants reported a history of incarceration. In multivariate analyses, reporting a history of incarceration was associated with a history of compulsory drug treatment (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 4.93; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.95 - 12.48, non-fatal overdose (AOR = 3.69; 95%CI: 1.45 - 9.39, syringe sharing (AOR = 2.20; 95%CI: 1.12 - 4.32, and female gender (AOR = 0.41; 95%CI: 0.20 - 0.82. Among those who reported a history of incarceration, 59 (29.9% reported injection drug use in prison, and 48 (81.4% of these individuals reported sharing syringes in prison. Incarceration was not associated with the number of injections performed in the previous week (p = 0.202. Conclusion Over three-quarters of the IDU participating in this study reported a history of incarceration, and 30% of these individuals reported injection drug use within prison. Further, an alarmingly high level of syringe sharing within prison was reported, and incarceration was not associated with reductions in drug use. These findings provide further evidence of the need for community diversion strategies, as well as harm reduction programs, in Thai

  20. EXPLAINING THE ASSOCIATION BETWEEN INCARCERATION AND DIVORCE*

    Siennick, Sonja E.; Stewart, Eric A.; Staff, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that incarceration dramatically increases the odds of divorce, but we know little about the mechanisms that explain the association. This study uses prospective longitudinal data from a subset of married young adults in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 1,919) to examine whether incarceration is associated with divorce indirectly via low marital love, economic strain, relationship violence, and extramarital sex. The findings confirmed that incarcerations occurring during, but not before, a marriage were associated with an increased hazard of divorce. Incarcerations occurring during marriage also were associated with less marital love, more relationship violence, more economic strain, and greater odds of extramarital sex. Above-average levels of economic strain were visible among respondents observed preincarceration, but only respondents observed postincarceration showed less marital love, more relationship violence, and higher odds of extramarital sex than did respondents who were not incarcerated during marriage. These relationship problems explained approximately 40 percent of the association between incarceration and marital dissolution. These findings are consistent with theoretical predictions that a spouse’s incarceration alters the rewards and costs of the marriage and the relative attractiveness of alternative partners. PMID:25598544

  1. Paternal Incarceration and Father–Child Contact in Fragile Families

    Geller, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    High rates of incarceration in the United States have motivated a broad examination of the effects of parental incarceration on child well-being. Although a growing literature documents challenges facing the children of incarcerated men, most incarcerated fathers lived apart from their children before their arrest, raising questions of whether they were sufficiently involved with their families for their incarceration to affect their children. The author used the Fragile Families and Child We...

  2. Does subsequent criminal justice involvement predict foster care and termination of parental rights for children born to incarcerated women?

    Kubiak, Sheryl Pimlott; Kasiborski, Natalie; Karim, Nidal; Schmittel, Emily

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study of 83 incarcerated women, who gave birth during incarceration and retained their parental rights through brief sentences, examines the intersection between subsequent criminal justice involvement postrelease and child welfare outcomes. Ten years of multiple state-level administrative data sets are used to determine if arrest or conviction predict foster care and/or termination of parental rights. Findings indicate that only felony arrest is a significant predictor of foster care involvement. Additionally, 69% of mothers retained legal custody, despite subsequent criminal involvement for many, suggesting supportive parenting programs and resources need to be available to these women throughout and after incarceration.

  3. Achieving Drug and Alcohol Abstinence Among Recently Incarcerated Homeless Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing Dialectical Behavioral Therapy-Case Management With a Health Promotion Program.

    Nyamathi, Adeline M; Shin, Sanghyuk S; Smeltzer, Jolene; Salem, Benissa E; Yadav, Kartik; Ekstrand, Maria L; Turner, Susan F; Faucette, Mark

    Homeless female ex-offenders (homeless female offenders) exiting jail and prison are at a critical juncture during reentry and transitioning into the community setting. The purpose of the study was to compare the effect of a dialectical behavioral therapy-case management (DBT-CM) program with a health promotion (HP) program on achieving drug and alcohol abstinence among female parolees/probationers residing in the community. We conducted a multicenter parallel randomized controlled trial with 130 female parolees/probationers (aged 19-64 years) residing in the community randomly assigned to either DBT-CM (n = 65) or HP (n = 65). The trial was conducted in four community-based partner sites in Los Angeles and Pomona, California, from February 2015 to November 2016. Treatment assignment was carried out using a computer-based urn randomization program. The primary outcome was drug and alcohol use abstinence at 6-month follow up. Analysis was based on data from 116 participants with complete outcome data. Multivariable logistic regression revealed that the DBT-CM program remained an independent positive predictor of decrease in drug use among the DBT-CM participants at 6 months (p = .01) as compared with the HP program participants. Being non-White (p < .05) and having higher depressive symptom scores (p < .05) were associated with lower odds of drug use abstinence (i.e., increased the odds of drug use) at 6 months. DBT-CM increased drug and alcohol abstinence at 6-month follow-up, compared to an HP program.

  4. Testimony on Drug Treatment Alternatives to Incarceration

    Iguchi, Martin

    2000-01-01

    ... treatment within the criminal justice system. Players in that policy game focused, as we are doing today, on the need to provide criminal offenders with drug abuse treatment as an alternative to incarceration...

  5. Paternal Incarceration and Father-Child Contact in Fragile Families.

    Geller, Amanda

    2013-10-01

    High rates of incarceration in the United States have motivated a broad examination of the effects of parental incarceration on child well-being. Although a growing literature documents challenges facing the children of incarcerated men, most incarcerated fathers lived apart from their children before their arrest, raising questions of whether they were sufficiently involved with their families for their incarceration to affect their children. The author used the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 4,071) to examine father-child contact among incarcerated fathers and found that most incarcerated fathers maintained a degree of contact with their children, through either coresidence or visitation. Moreover, the results revealed robust reductions in both father-child coresidence and visitation when fathers are incarcerated-between 18% and 20% for coresidence, and 30% to 50% for the probability of visitation. The findings suggest that these reductions are driven by both incapacitation while incarcerated and union dissolution upon release.

  6. Incarceration in the household: academic outcomes of adolescents with an incarcerated household member.

    Nichols, Emily Bever; Loper, Ann Booker

    2012-11-01

    The United States has the highest incarceration rate in the world, yet there is relatively little information on how the removal of these adults from households impacts the youth who are left behind. This study used a child-centered lens to examine the impact of incarceration on the school outcomes of youth who resided with a family member or family associate who was incarcerated prior to the youth's 18th birthday. We used data from 11 waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth: Child and Young Adult (n = 3,338, 53 % female). Initial analyses indicated that youth who experienced a household members' incarceration evidenced more socioeconomic challenges, more frequent home adversities, and lower cognitive skills relative to youth who did not experience a household members' incarceration. Results also revealed that youth who had experienced a household member's incarceration were more likely to report extended absence from school and were less likely to graduate from high school relative to those youth who did not experience a household members' incarceration. Counter to our hypotheses, results revealed the incarceration of an extended family member being in the household was the only relation significantly associated with worse school outcomes. Plausibly, families who allow non-immediate criminally involved individuals to reside in the household are experiencing a more pervasive chaotic home environment than those with a parent or sibling incarcerated. Our study suggests that efforts to address the needs of children with incarcerated parents need to be widened to those who experience the loss of any household member due to incarceration.

  7. Characteristics of Incarcerated Fathers and Mothers: Implications for Preventive Interventions Targeting Children and Families.

    Kjellstrand, Jean; Cearley, Jennifer; Eddy, J Mark; Foney, Dana; Martinez, Charles R

    2012-12-01

    The number of children of incarcerated parents in the U.S. has grown dramatically in recent years. These children appear to be at risk for various problems, and a number of family-focused preventive efforts have been attempted. The current study examines differences between incarcerated mothers, incarcerated fathers, and their families on factors that might be important to consider when creating the content and process of preventive intervention programs. Participants were 359 inmates (54% women; 41% minority) who were parents of children between the ages of 3 and 11 years and who parented their children prior to imprisonment. Mothers and fathers were similar on a number of dimensions including age, education-level, number and age of children, and family criminal history, but differences were observed on key variables relevant to outcomes for children and families, including employment history and income, substance use, mental health, trauma experiences and criminal history. Implications for prevention programs are discussed.

  8. Severe Deprivation and System Inclusion Among Children of Incarcerated Parents in the United States After the Great Recession

    Bryan L. Sykes

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of the criminal justice system over the last four decades and the corresponding rise of parental incarceration raises questions about whether the children of current and former inmates are at an increased risk of material hardship that necessitates social service intervention. Recent sociological scholarship finds that the greater surveillance experienced by former inmates and the criminally involved precludes them from seeking medical care and social services. Yet there is no scholarship that assesses health care and social service utilization among children exposed to parental incarceration. In this article, we investigate how race and educational inequality in parental incarceration were associated with markers of deprivation and social program enlistment after the Great Recession. Using data from the 2011–2012 National Survey of Children’s Health (NSCH, we not only find that children with an incarcerated parent experience greater levels of deprivation—material hardship, unmet health needs, and residential instability—but that these children are drawn into social service programs at a higher rate than the rate for children unexposed to parental incarceration. Nearly 2.1 million children (or 81 percent of minors with an incarcerated parent are enrolled in at least one social service program. Our findings are consistent with a “system inclusion” perspective, which aligns with David Garland’s and William Julius Wilson’s theoretical and historical explanations of social service participation among disadvantaged minors.

  9. The Dynamics of Intra-Family Relationships During Incarceration and the Implications for Children of Incarcerated Parents.

    Song, Hyojong; Woo, Youngki; Lee, Heeuk D; Cochran, John K

    2018-02-01

    The current study examines effects of changes in intra-family relationships after parental incarceration on internalizing behaviors of the children of incarcerated parents. Using data from a sample of 249 incarcerated parents with minor children in South Korea, the present study found that perceived degradation of family relationships among inmate parents, their non-incarcerated spouses, and children was a significant risk factor of internalizing behaviors of children of incarcerated parents. The current study also found that inmate parents who had more frequent family contact were more likely to perceive improvements of all forms of intra-family relationships during incarceration. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  10. Paternal Incarceration and Father–Child Contact in Fragile Families

    Geller, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    High rates of incarceration in the United States have motivated a broad examination of the effects of parental incarceration on child well-being. Although a growing literature documents challenges facing the children of incarcerated men, most incarcerated fathers lived apart from their children before their arrest, raising questions of whether they were sufficiently involved with their families for their incarceration to affect their children. The author used the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 4,071) to examine father–child contact among incarcerated fathers and found that most incarcerated fathers maintained a degree of contact with their children, through either coresidence or visitation. Moreover, the results revealed robust reductions in both father–child coresidence and visitation when fathers are incarcerated—between 18% and 20% for coresidence, and 30% to 50% for the probability of visitation. The findings suggest that these reductions are driven by both incapacitation while incarcerated and union dissolution upon release. PMID:24839304

  11. Incarcerated fathers and parenting: importance of the relationship with their children.

    Lee, Chang-Bae; Sansone, Frank A; Swanson, Cheryl; Tatum, Kimberly M

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationships of incarcerated fathers (n = 185) with their children while in a maximum security prison. Despite the attention to parental incarceration and at-risk children, the child welfare and corrections literature has focused mostly on imprisoned mothers and children. Demographic, sentence, child-related, and program participation factors were investigated for their influence on father-child relationships. Multiple regression analyses indicated race and sentence contributed to the father's positive perceptions of contacts with their children. Most important, many, though serving lengthy sentences, valued and perceived a positive father-child relationship. Results are discussed in light of implications for future research and social policy.

  12. Grief Interrupted: The Experience of Loss Among Incarcerated Women

    Harner, Holly M.; Hentz, Patricia M.; Evangelista, Maria Carmela

    2010-01-01

    Incarcerated women face a number of stressors apart from the actual incarceration. Nearly half of all women in prison experience the death of a loved one during their incarceration. Our purpose for this study was to explore the experience of grief and loss among incarcerated women using a phenomenological method. Our study approach followed van Manen's method of phenomenology and Munhall's description of existential lifeworlds. Our analysis revealed four existential lifeworlds: temporality: f...

  13. Mental health of adolescents with currently and formerly incarcerated parents

    Davis, Laurel; Shlafer, Rebecca J.

    2016-01-01

    Reliable information about children of incarcerated people is difficult to obtain, and major gaps exist in our understanding of their well-being. This study aims to determine whether adolescents with incarcerated parents report higher levels of mental health problems than those without an incarcerated parent, and whether the relationship between parental incarceration and adolescent mental health is moderated by parent-child relationships. Using a statewide survey from one US state, we compar...

  14. Teachers' Experiences with and Expectations of Children with Incarcerated Parents

    Dallaire, Danielle H.; Ciccone, Anne; Wilson, Laura C.

    2010-01-01

    Children with incarcerated parents, and mothers in particular, are at increased risk for academic failure and school dropout. In two studies, we examined teachers' experiences with children with incarcerated parents and their expectations for competence of children with incarcerated mothers. In Study 1, a descriptive, qualitative study, teachers…

  15. 76 FR 2765 - Apportionments to Dependents and Payments to Fiduciaries and Incarcerated Beneficiaries

    2011-01-14

    ... compensation and pension program of the Veterans Benefits Administration. These regulations are among the most... compensation. 5.774 Benefits not apportionable. 5.780 Eligibility for apportionment of pension. 5.781... provisions and definitions. 5.811 Limitation on disability compensation during incarceration. 5.812...

  16. 75 FR 26683 - Hospital and Outpatient Care for Veterans Released From Incarceration to Transitional Housing

    2010-05-12

    ... difficulty obtaining similar treatment during a transitional period. In particular, if mental health issues... housing upon release from incarceration in a prison or jail. The proposed rule would permit VA to work with these veterans while they are in these programs with the goal of continuing to work with them...

  17. Children of Color and Parental Incarceration: Implications for Research, Theory, and Practice

    Graham, James A.; Harris, Yvette R.

    2013-01-01

    Practical information about culturally appropriate interventions with children of incarcerated parents (CIPs) of color and their families is notably sparse. This study uses a cultural-ecological perspective to contextualize individual, family, and legal issues inherent in many intervention programs for CIPs of color. The authors highlight…

  18. Prostate Cancer Disparities in an Incarcerated Community

    2013-09-01

    diseases, Liver diseases, Cerebrovascular accident , non-Illnesses, and finally AIDS. 30% of inmates incarcerated in the WDOC die from Cancer while it is...are higher among WDOC inmates than the general U.S. population; while Cerebrovascular Accidents (CVA) are lower among WDOC inmates than the general

  19. Parental Incarceration and Child Mortality in Denmark

    Andersen, Signe Hald; Lee, Hedwig; Karlson, Kristian Bernt

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We used Danish registry data to examine the association between parental incarceration and child mortality risk. Methods. We used a sample of all Danish children born in 1991 linked with parental information. We conducted discrete-time survival analysis separately for boys (n = 30 146) and girls (n = 28 702) to estimate the association of paternal and maternal incarceration with child mortality, controlling for parental sociodemographic characteristics. We followed the children until age 20 years or death, whichever came first. Results. Results indicated a positive association between paternal and maternal imprisonment and male child mortality. Paternal imprisonment was associated with lower child mortality risks for girls. The relationship between maternal imprisonment and female child mortality changed directions depending on the model, suggesting no clear association. Conclusions. These results indicate that the incarceration of a parent may influence child mortality but that it is important to consider the gender of both the child and the incarcerated parent. PMID:24432916

  20. Incarcerated women's HPV awareness, beliefs, and experiences.

    Pankey, Tyson; Ramaswamy, Megha

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore incarcerated women's awareness, beliefs, and experiences with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and vaccination. Researchers conducted focus groups with 45 incarcerated women in an urban Midwestern US jail to assess how women talked about their Papanicolaou (Pap) test screening and abnormal Pap test follow-up experiences. Some focus group questions specifically assessed individual awareness, beliefs, and experiences with HPV infection and vaccination. Based on these data, the authors described participants' awareness of HPV, as well as used open coding to ultimately extract themes related to beliefs and experiences with HPV infection and vaccine. While all 45 participants reported experiencing an abnormal Pap test event within the last five years, only two-thirds of participants (n=30) reported having heard of the HPV infection. Several themes emerged from the analysis of the data: the women's beliefs about cause and severity of HPV; frustration with age requirements of the vaccine; varied experiences with vaccinations for themselves and their children; the impact of media exposure on knowledge; and desire for more HPV infection and vaccine information. Incarcerated women's awareness and limited experiences with HPV infection and vaccination may be a barrier to adequate screening and cervical cancer prevention. This study has implications for the development of cervical health education for this high-risk group of women, who are four to five times as likely to have cervical cancer as non-incarcerated women.

  1. Self-Reported Health Among Recently Incarcerated Mothers.

    Turney, Kristin; Wildeman, Christopher

    2015-10-01

    We examined self-reported health among formerly incarcerated mothers. We used data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (n = 4096), a longitudinal survey of mostly unmarried parents in urban areas, to estimate the association between recent incarceration (measured as any incarceration in the past 4 years) and 5 self-reported health conditions (depression, illicit drug use, heavy drinking, fair or poor health, and health limitations), net of covariates including health before incarceration. In adjusted logistic regression models, recently incarcerated mothers, compared with their counterparts, have an increased likelihood of depression (odds ratio [OR] = 1.60; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.18, 2.17), heavy drinking (OR = 1.79; 95% CI = 1.19, 2.68), fair or poor health (OR = 1.49; 95% CI = 1.08, 2.06), and health limitations (OR = 1.78; 95% CI = 1.27, 2.50). This association is similar across racial/ethnic subgroups and is larger among mothers who share children with fathers who have not been recently incarcerated. Recently incarcerated mothers struggle with even more health conditions than expected given the disadvantages they experience before incarceration. Furthermore, because incarceration is concentrated among those who are most disadvantaged, incarceration may increase inequalities in population health.

  2. Assessment of margins with respect to pressurized thermal shock for the 3 loop plants of the French program

    Buchalet, C.; Haussaire, P.; Houssin, B.; Vagner, J.

    1983-08-01

    Presentation of the FRAMATOME and EDF program on pressurized thermal shock which objectives are to demonstrate that present and older French reactor vessels have adequate safety margins and to provide recommendations of feasible plant specific modifications, both technically and economically. Phase I consists in a thorough analysis of pressure and temperature transients that the R.P.V. beltine could undergo during plant operations; phase II is the fracture mechanics analysis; phase III estimates the safety margins available during normal, upset, emergency and faulted conditions

  3. Doulas' Perspectives about Providing Support to Incarcerated Women: A Feasibility Study.

    Shlafer, Rebecca J; Hellerstedt, Wendy L; Secor-Turner, Molly; Gerrity, Erica; Baker, Rae

    2015-01-01

    To document the logistical feasibility of a doula program for pregnant incarcerated women and to assess doulas' perceptions of their achievements. Six doulas provided written case notes ("birth stories") about their experiences with 18 pregnant women in one Midwestern state prison. The birth stories were analyzed by two coders to identify major themes related to doulas' perceptions about providing support to incarcerated women. Analyses involved coder consensus about major themes and doula affirmation of findings. All doulas reported that they met key objectives for a successful relationship with each of their clients. Key themes were their ability to empower clients, establish a trusting relationship, normalize the delivery, and support women as they were separated from their newborns. The intervention was logistically feasible, suggesting that doulas can adapt their practice for incarcerated women. Doulas may need specific training to prepare themselves for institutional restrictions that may conflict with the traditional roles of doula care. It may be important for doulas to understand the level of personal and professional resources they may have to expend to support incarcerated women if they are separated from their infants soon after delivery. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Childhood antecedents of incarceration and criminal justice involvement among homeless veterans.

    Tsai, Jack; Rosenheck, Robert A

    2013-10-01

    Although criminal justice involvement and incarceration are common problems for homeless veterans, few studies have examined childhood risk factors for criminal justice involvement among veterans. This study examined the association between three types of childhood problems, family instability, conduct disorder behaviors, and childhood abuse, and criminal justice involvement and incarceration in adulthood. Data from 1,161 homeless veterans across 19 sites participating in the Housing and Urban Development-Veterans Affairs Supportive Housing program were examined. After controlling for sociodemographics and mental health diagnoses, veterans who reported more conduct disorder behaviors during childhood tended to report more criminal charges of all types, more convictions, and longer periods of incarceration during adulthood. However, the variance explained in criminal behavior by childhood was not large, suggesting that there are other factors that affect the trajectory by which homeless veterans become involved in the criminal justice system. Further research is needed to intervene in the pathway to the criminal justice system and guide efforts to prevent incarceration among veterans. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  5. Substance Use among Youth with Currently and Formerly Incarcerated Parents

    Davis, Laurel; Shlafer, Rebecca J.

    2017-01-01

    Parental incarceration impacts millions of children in the U.S. and has important consequences for youths’ adjustment. Children of incarcerated parents are at risk for a host of negative psychosocial outcomes, including substance abuse problems. Using data from a statewide survey of youth behavior, the effect of both present and past parental incarceration on youths’ report of their substance use behaviors was examined. Both present and past parental incarceration was significantly associated with use of alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, and prescription drugs, as well as substance abuse and dependence. Implications for practice and research are discussed. PMID:29170570

  6. Heat shock instructs hESCs to exit from the self-renewal program through negative regulation of OCT4 by SAPK/JNK and HSF1 pathway.

    Byun, Kyunghee; Kim, Taek-Kyun; Oh, Jeehyun; Bayarsaikhan, Enkhjargal; Kim, Daesik; Lee, Min Young; Pack, Chan-Gi; Hwang, Daehee; Lee, Bonghee

    2013-11-01

    Environmental factors affect self-renewal of stem cells by modulating the components of self-renewal networks. Heat shock, an environmental factor, induces heat shock factors (HSFs), which up-regulate stress response-related genes. However, the link of heat shock to self-renewal of stem cells has not been elucidated yet. Here, we present the direct link of heat shock to a core stem cell regulator, OCT4, in the self-renewal network through SAPK/JNK and HSF1 pathway. We first showed that heat shock initiated differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). Gene expression analysis revealed that heat shock increased the expression of many genes involved in cellular processes related to differentiation of stem cells. We then examined the effects of HSFs induced by heat shock on core self-renewal factors. Among HSFs, heat shock induced mainly HSF1 in hESCs. The HSF1 repressed the expression of OCT4, leading to the differentiation of hESCs and the above differentiation-related gene expression change. We further examined the effects of the upstream MAP (mitogen-activated protein) kinases of HSF1 on the repression of OCT4 expression by HSF1. Among the MAP kinases, SAPK/JNK controlled predominantly the repression of the OCT4 expression by HSF1. The direct link of heat shock to the core self-renewal regulator through SAPK/JNK and HSF1 provides a fundamental basis for understanding the effect of heat and other stresses involving activation of HSF1 on the self-renewal program and further controlling differentiation of hESCs in a broad spectrum of stem cell applications using these stresses. © 2013.

  7. Promoting Educational Resiliency in Youth with Incarcerated Parents: The Impact of Parental Incarceration, School Characteristics, and Connectedness on School Outcomes.

    Nichols, Emily B; Loper, Ann B; Meyer, J Patrick

    2016-06-01

    The United States has the highest incarceration rate in the world, and as a result, one of the largest populations of incarcerated parents. Growing evidence suggests that the incarceration of a parent may be associated with a number of risk factors in adolescence, including school drop out. Taking a developmental ecological approach, this study used multilevel modeling to examine the association of parental incarceration on truancy, academic achievement, and lifetime educational attainment using the National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health (48.3 % female; 46 % minority status). Individual characteristics, such as school and family connectedness, and school characteristics, such as school size and mental health services, were examined to determine whether they significantly reduced the risk associated with parental incarceration. Our results revealed small but significant risks associated with parental incarceration for all outcomes, above and beyond individual and school level characteristics. Family and school connectedness were identified as potential compensatory factors, regardless of parental incarceration history, for academic achievement and truancy. School connectedness did not reduce the risk associated with parental incarceration when examining highest level of education. This study describes the school related risks associated with parental incarceration, while revealing potential areas for school-based prevention and intervention for adolescents.

  8. Parental Incarceration and Child Health in the United States.

    Wildeman, Christopher; Goldman, Alyssa W; Turney, Kristin

    2018-04-07

    Mass incarceration has profoundly restructured the life courses of not only marginalized adult men for whom this event is now so prevalent but also their families. We examined research published from 2000 to 2017 on the consequences of parental incarceration for child health in the United States. In addition to focusing on specific health outcomes, we also considered broader indicators of child well-being because there has been little research on the association between parental incarceration and objectively measured child health outcomes. Our findings support 4 conclusions. First, paternal incarceration is negatively associated-possibly causally so-with a range of child health and well-being indicators. Second, although some research has suggested a negative association between maternal incarceration and child health, the evidence on this front is mixed. Third, although the evidence for average effects of paternal incarceration on child health and well-being is strong, research has also suggested that some key factors moderate the association between paternal incarceration and child health and well-being. Finally, because of the unequal concentration of parental incarceration and the negative consequences this event has for children, mass incarceration has increased both intracountry inequality in child health in the United States and intercountry inequality in child health between the United States and other developed democracies. In light of these important findings, investment in data infrastructure-with emphasis on data sets that include reliable measures of parental incarceration and child health and data sets that facilitate causal inferences-is needed to understand the child health effects of parental incarceration.

  9. Reintegration Success and Failure: Factors Impacting Reintegration among Incarcerated and Formerly Incarcerated Women

    Cobbina, Jennifer E.

    2010-01-01

    Criminologists have explored the reentry experience of formerly incarcerated adults, documented the pressing challenges of reentry, the correlates of recidivism, and the causes of desistance. Given scholars' focus on reentry to explain what factors impact criminal outcome, this raises the interesting question of whether and how such factors shape…

  10. Effective Resources Supporting Healthy Sexual Behavior in Formerly Incarcerated Persons

    Senteio, Charles; Collins, Summer Wright; Jackson, Rachael; Welk, Stacy; Zhang, Shun

    2010-01-01

    The sexual health behavior of formerly incarcerated persons (FIPs) not only affects the FIP, their sex partners, and their significant others, but also affects their families and the communities in which they live. Certain health conditions, which are overrepresented in incarcerated populations, are directly impacted by sexual health behavior.…

  11. Falling Behind? Children's Early Grade Retention after Paternal Incarceration

    Turney, Kristin; Haskins, Anna R.

    2014-01-01

    A growing literature documents the myriad penalties for children of incarcerated fathers, but relatively little is known about how paternal incarceration contributes to educational outcomes in early and middle childhood. In this article, we use data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study to provide the first estimates of the…

  12. Paternal Incarceration and Support for Children in Fragile Families

    Geller, Amanda; Garfinkel, Irwin; Western, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    High U.S. incarceration rates have motivated recent research on the negative effects of imprisonment on later employment, earnings, and family relationships. Because most men in jail and prison are fathers, a large number of children may be placed at considerable risk by policies of incarceration. This article examines one dimension of the economic risk faced by children of incarcerated fathers: the reduction in the financial support that they receive. We use a population-based sample of urban children to examine the effects of incarceration on this support. Both cross-sectional and longitudinal regressions indicate that formerly incarcerated men are less likely to contribute to their families, and those who do contribute provide significantly less. The negative effects of incarceration on fathers’ financial support are due not only to the low earnings of formerly incarcerated men but also to their increased likelihood to live apart from their children. Men contribute far less through child support (formal or informal) than they do when they share their earnings within their household, suggesting that the destabilizing effects of incarceration on family relationships place children at significant economic disadvantage. PMID:21318455

  13. Children of Incarcerated Parents: Implications for School Counselors

    Petsch, Priscilla; Rochlen, Aaron B.

    2009-01-01

    The recent increase in prison populations has given rise to an unprecedented number of children in the school system with incarcerated parents. To cope with stressors before, during, or after parents' incarceration, children can exhibit a range of problematic and maladaptive behaviors. This article explores the negative behaviors these children…

  14. Children with Incarcerated Mothers: Developmental Outcomes, Special Challenges and Recommendations

    Dallaire, Danielle H.

    2007-01-01

    Incarcerated mothers represent a rapidly growing sector of the prison population. This review of the literature presents research examining the psychological and socio-emotional well-being of children with an incarcerated mother, highlighting risk and protective factors at different stages of children's development. Child outcomes are reviewed…

  15. Children's Contact with Their Incarcerated Parents: Research Findings and Recommendations

    Poehlmann, Julie; Dallaire, Danielle; Loper, Ann Booker; Shear, Leslie D.

    2010-01-01

    Approximately 1.7 million children have parents who are incarcerated in prison in the United States, and possibly millions of additional children have a parent incarcerated in jail. Many affected children experience increased risk for developing behavior problems, academic failure, and substance abuse. For a growing number of children,…

  16. Mental health of adolescents with currently and formerly incarcerated parents.

    Davis, Laurel; Shlafer, Rebecca J

    2017-01-01

    Reliable information about children of incarcerated people is difficult to obtain, and major gaps exist in our understanding of their well-being. This study aims to determine whether adolescents with incarcerated parents report higher levels of mental health problems than those without an incarcerated parent, and whether the relationship between parental incarceration and adolescent mental health is moderated by parent-child relationships. Using a statewide survey from one US state, we compared adolescents with a currently incarcerated parent to those with a formerly incarcerated parent and those with no history of parental incarceration on self-reported indicators of mental health, and examined whether strong parent-child relationships were protective against mental health concerns. Results indicate that adolescents with incarcerated parents are at elevated risk for mental health problems, and strong parent-child relationships partially buffer children from risk. Findings underscore the need for more investment in effective early interventions for adolescents in highly adverse contexts. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Unmet Health Care Needs among Children Exposed to Parental Incarceration.

    Turney, Kristin

    2017-05-01

    Objectives The incarceration rate in the United States has increased rapidly since the mid-1970s and, accordingly, a large number of children are exposed to parental incarceration. Research finds that parental incarceration is associated with deleterious physical and mental health outcomes among children, but little is known about these children's health care access. Methods I used data from the 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health (N = 95,531), a population-based and nationally representative survey of non-institutionalized children ages 0-17 in the United States, to estimate the association between exposure to parental incarceration and children's unmet health care needs. Results In logistic regression models that adjust for an array of demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, children exposed to parental incarceration, compared to their counterparts, have 1.26 (95% CI 1.02-1.54) times the odds of having any unmet health care need. Analyses that disaggregate by type of unmet health care need (mental, dental, vision, mental health, or other) suggest this association is driven by a greater likelihood of unmet mental health care needs (OR 1.60; 95% CI 1.04-2.46). Conclusions Children exposed to parental incarceration, a vulnerable group especially at risk of physical and mental health problems, face challenges to health care access, especially mental health care access. Given that parental incarceration is concentrated among those children most in need of health care, parental incarceration may exacerbate existing inequalities in unmet health care needs.

  18. The Role of a Parent's Incarceration in the Emotional Health and Problem Behaviors of At-Risk Adolescents

    Midgley, Erin Kathleen; Lo, Celia C.

    2013-01-01

    The impact of a parent's incarceration and adolescents' emotional health on their substance abuse and delinquency is described for a group of at-risk 10- to 14-year-old adolescents. Data were drawn from a two-wave longitudinal study from the federally funded Children at Risk program, ongoing in five states from 1993 to 1997. Results point to a…

  19. When Parenting Does Not "Come Naturally": Providers' Perspectives on Parenting Education for Incarcerated Mothers and Fathers

    Fowler, Cathrine; Dawson, Angela; Rossiter, Chris; Jackson, Debra; Power, Tamara; Roche, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Learning to parent sensitively and safely can be challenging for adults with childhood abuse and neglect experiences. Such childhood experiences are prevalent among incarcerated parents whose ability to parent their own children is also limited by separation from them. Several prisons have developed programs to foster pro-social parenting skills…

  20. Analgesia and sedation practices for incarcerated inguinal hernias in children.

    Al-Ansari, Khalid; Sulowski, Christopher; Ratnapalan, Savithiri

    2008-10-01

    In this study, the use of medications for analgesia and/or sedation for incarcerated inguinal hernia reductions in the emergency department was analyzed. A retrospective chart review was conducted for all patients presenting to a pediatric emergency department with incarcerated inguinal hernia from 2002 to 2005. A total of 99 children presented with incarcerated hernias during the study period. The median age was 11 months. Forty-four percent of children received medication for the procedure, of them 75% received parenteral and 25% oral or intranasal medications. Forty-five percent of children who received medication went through at least 1 hernia reduction attempt initially without medications. More than half the children with incarcerated inguinal hernias did not receive any medication for pain and/or sedation prior to hernia reduction. Guidelines for medication use for children with incarcerated inguinal hernias need to be developed.

  1. Children’s Contact With Their Incarcerated Parents

    Poehlmann, Julie; Dallaire, Danielle; Loper, Ann Booker; Shear, Leslie D.

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 1.7 million children have parents who are incarcerated in prison in the United States, and possibly millions of additional children have a parent incarcerated in jail. Many affected children experience increased risk for developing behavior problems, academic failure, and substance abuse. For a growing number of children, incarcerated parents, caregivers, and professionals, parent– child contact during the imprisonment period is a key issue. In this article, we present a conceptual model to provide a framework within which to interpret findings about parent– child contact when parents are incarcerated. We then summarize recent research examining parent–child contact in context. On the basis of the research reviewed, we present initial recommendations for children’s contact with incarcerated parents and also suggest areas for future intervention and research with this vulnerable population. PMID:20822198

  2. An attachment perspective on incarcerated parents and their children.

    Cassidy, Jude; Poehlmann, Julie; Shaver, Phillip R

    2010-07-01

    The United States now incarcerates more people than any other country in the world (Pew Charitable Trust, 2008), and most of these incarcerated individuals have one or more children 18 years of age or younger (Glaze & Maruschak, 2008). Although the actual number is not known because the information is not systematically collected by jails, prisons, schools, child welfare agencies, or other organizations or institutions, a conservative estimate is that more than three million children are affected (Glaze & Maruschak, 2008; Western & Wildeman, 2009). In editing this special issue we had two major goals: (1) to introduce the many issues raised by parental incarceration to readers already grounded in attachment theory and research and (2) to highlight the importance of an attachment perspective to those who study and work with incarcerated parents. The contributors to this special issue present conceptual and empirical articles focusing on attachment issues related to incarcerated parents and their children. This introduction provides an overview of these contributions.

  3. Incarceration as forced migration: effects on selected community health outcomes.

    Thomas, James C; Torrone, Elizabeth

    2008-09-01

    We estimated the effects of high incarceration rates on rates of sexually transmitted infections and teenage pregnancies. We calculated correlations between rates of incarceration in state prisons and county jails and rates of sexually transmitted infections and teenage pregnancies for each of the 100 counties in North Carolina during 1995 to 2002. We also estimated increases in negative health outcomes associated with increases in incarceration rates using negative binomial regression analyses. Rates of sexually transmitted infections and teenage pregnancies, adjusted for age, race, and poverty distributions by county, consistently increased with increasing incarceration rates. In the most extreme case, teenage pregnancies exhibited an increase of 71.61 per 100000 population (95% confidence interval [CI]=41.88, 101.35) in 1996 after an increase in the prison population rate from 223.31 to 468.58 per 100000 population in 1995. High rates of incarceration can have the unintended consequence of destabilizing communities and contributing to adverse health outcomes.

  4. Incarcerated umbilical cord hernia containing the gallbladder

    Ann M. Kulungowski

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A 16 day-old boy infant with an umbilical mass underwent operative exploration of the umbilicus. The mass proved to be a gallbladder incarcerated in a hernia of the umbilical cord. Distinguishing an omphalocele from an umbilical cord hernia is not obvious and can be arbitrary. Morphologically, the two terms both describe congenital abdominal wall defects covered by a membrane, typically containing abdominal organs. Subtle differences and clinical features between omphalocele and umbilical cord hernia are highlighted in this report.

  5. "How Can You Live without Your Kids?": Distancing from and Embracing the Stigma of "Incarcerated Mother."

    Aiello, Brittnie; McQueeny, Krista

    2016-01-01

    This article examines how incarcerated mothers constructed moral identities in the face of stigma. Analyzing data from participant observation and 83 in-depth interviews with incarcerated mothers, we show that mothers claimed moral identities by distancing from the stigma of incarceration and/or embracing the identity of incarcerated mothers.…

  6. Appreciative inquiry with nurses who work with children of incarcerated parents.

    Falk, Kathleen J

    2014-10-01

    An appreciative inquiry study was conducted with 12 nurse-mentors who worked with children of incarcerated parents. The aim was to generate best practice knowledge for working with these children. The nurse-mentoring program, based on theorists Peplau and Erickson and colleagues, was implemented to promote optimum health outcomes among children at high risk for incarceration. Through this study method, nurse mentors discovered what was effective as they created a collective vision for future practice. An action plan was implemented, evaluated, and conclusions were drawn. Data from this study imply that nurse-mentoring can be used with other vulnerable populations. Nurses should use appreciative inquiry to transform healthcare, particularly in situations with seemingly intransigent solutions. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. Attachment in young children with incarcerated fathers.

    Poehlmann-Tynan, Julie; Burnson, Cynthia; Runion, Hilary; Weymouth, Lindsay A

    2017-05-01

    The present study examined young children's attachment behaviors during paternal incarceration and reported on initial validity of a new measure used to rate children's attachment-related behaviors and emotions during visits in a corrections setting. Seventy-seven children, age 2 to 6 years, and their jailed fathers and current caregivers participated in the home visit portion of the study, whereas 28 of these children participated in the jail visit. The results indicated that 27% of children witnessed the father's crime and 22% of children witnessed the father's arrest, with most children who witnessed these events exhibiting extreme distress; children who witnessed these events were more likely to have insecure attachments to their caregivers. Consistent with attachment theory and research, caregivers who exhibited more sensitivity and responsivity during interactions with children and those who provided more stimulating, responsive, learning-oriented home environments had children who were more likely to have secure attachments (measured with the Attachment Q-Sort). We also found preliminary evidence for the validity of our new measure, the Jail Prison Observation Checklist, in that children's attachment-related behaviors and emotions during the jail visit correlated with their attachment security observed in the home. Our observations indicate that, in certain contexts, noncontact visits with incarcerated parents can be stressful for children and that children's caregivers may play a significant role during these visits.

  8. Family planning services for incarcerated women: models for filling an unmet need.

    Sufrin, Carolyn; Baird, Sara; Clarke, Jennifer; Feldman, Elizabeth

    2017-03-13

    Purpose Incarcerated women around the globe are predominantly of reproductive age. Most of these women have been pregnant before, and many want to be sexually active and avoid pregnancy upon release. Yet few of these women are on a regular method of contraception. Providing contraceptive services for women in custody benefits individual and public health goals of reducing unintended pregnancy. This policy briefing reviews evidence for an unmet need for family planning in the correctional setting, and policy implications for expanding services. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach The authors describe four model programs in the USA with established contraceptive services on site, highlighting practical steps other facilities can implement. Findings Correctional facilities health administrators, providers, advocates, and legislators should advance policies which should counsel women on family planning and should make a range of contraceptive methods available before release, while remaining sensitive to the potential pressure these women may feel to use birth control in this unique environment. Practical implications Family planning services for incarcerated women benefits individuals, facilities, and the community. Social implications Policies which enable correctional facilities to provide comprehensive family planning to incarcerated women - including reproductive life goals counseling and contraceptive method provision - promote equity in access to critical reproductive health services and also provide broad scale population level benefits in preventing unintended pregnancy or enabling counseling for healthy pregnancies for a group of women who often have limited access to such services. Originality/value This policy briefing highlights an area of health care in prisons and jails which gets little attention in research and in policy circles: family planning services for incarcerated women. In addition to reviewing the importance of

  9. Parental Incarceration and Child Sleep and Eating Behaviors.

    Jackson, Dylan B; Vaughn, Michael G

    2017-06-01

    To examine whether parental incarceration is significantly associated with a number of sleep and eating behaviors among offspring during early childhood. Data from the Fragile Families and Child Well-Being Study, an at-risk sample of parents and their offspring, were employed to test this possibility. Both maternal and paternal incarceration history were examined as predictors of whether children manifested high levels of the following 7 health behaviors: sleep problems, short sleep duration, salty snack consumption, starch consumption, sweets consumption, soda consumption, and fast food consumption. Logistic regression techniques were used to carry out the analyses. Both maternal and paternal incarceration significantly increased the odds of a number of risky sleep and eating behaviors during childhood. Ancillary analysis also revealed that the predicted probability of exhibiting multiple risky behaviors across the sleep and eating domains was twice as large among children whose parents had both been incarcerated, relative to children whose parents had not been incarcerated. Parental incarceration may have important implications for the sleep and eating behaviors of offspring. Both scholars and practitioners may, therefore, want to consider the possible negative repercussions of parental incarceration for the sleep and eating behaviors of children, and the potential for these high-risk health behaviors to compromise the health and well-being of children as they age. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Alleviating Praxis Shock: Induction Policy and Programming for Urban Music Educators

    Shaw, Julia T.

    2018-01-01

    An integral part of a teacher learning continuum ranging from preservice education to professional development for experienced educators, new teacher induction holds particular potential to effect change in urban education. Accordingly, this article offers recommendations for induction-related policy and programming capable of supporting beginning…

  11. A Cost Analysis Study of the Radiography Program at Middlesex Hospital Using Shock's Analysis Model.

    Spence, Weymouth

    Federal and state governments want to decrease payments for medical education, and other payers are trying to restrict payouts to direct and necessary patient care services. Teaching hospitals are increasing tuition and fees, reducing education budgets and, in many instances, closing education programs. Hospital administrators are examining the…

  12. Phosphorous and proton spectroscopy in relation to near incarceration and incarceration of the human brain

    Garde, K.; Mortensen, A.C.; Toft, P.B.; Soerensen, M.B.; Madsen, F.F.; Henriksen, O.

    1994-01-01

    We report 3 cases of 31 P and 1 H MR spectroscopy (MRS) performed at different stages on patients with clinical signs of near or fulminant incarceration of the brain. The measurements were made on a whole body, 1.5 T scanner. 1 H-MRS was obtained with the STEAM sequence and 31 P-spectra were obtained using the chemical shift imaging technique. Medical treatment including controlled ventilation and sedation of the patients was carried out during the examination. The first patient was evaluated on days 6 and 10 after evacuation of an acute subdural haematoma. An intracranial pressure of 35 mm Hg was registered during the first examination. The 2nd patient had suffered a spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage and showed clinical signs of imminent incarceration during the examination. The 3rd patient showed clinical signs of incarceration just prior to the examination. In the 1st patient 1 H-MRS showed a 3-fold increase in the concentration of choline-containing compounds and a small decrease in N-acetyl aspartate from the 1st to the 2nd examination, which we interpret as a loss of neurones. In case 2 only small changes in metabolism could be detected, indicating that, despite signs of imminent clinical incarceration, the energy supply to the brain was substantial. 1 H-MRS of the 3rd patient showed massive lactate concentration, and 31 P-MRS revealed the total absence of high-energy phosphorous compounds leaving only one single peak of inorganic phosphate, indicating irreversible brain death. (orig.)

  13. Prosthetic Mesh Repair for Incarcerated Inguinal Hernia

    Cihad Tatar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Incarcerated inguinal hernia is a commonly encountered urgent surgical condition, and tension-free repair is a well-established method for the treatment of noncomplicated cases. However, due to the risk of prosthetic material-related infections, the use of mesh in the repair of strangulated or incarcerated hernia has often been subject to debate. Recent studies have demonstrated that biomaterials represent suitable materials for performing urgent hernia repair. Certain studies recommend mesh repair only for cases where no bowel resection is required; other studies, however, recommend mesh repair for patients requiring bowel resection as well. Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the outcomes of different surgical techniques performed for strangulated hernia, and to evaluate the effect of mesh use on postoperative complications. Study Design: Retrospective cross-sectional study. Methods: This retrospective study was performed with 151 patients who had been admitted to our hospital’s emergency department to undergo surgery for a diagnosis of incarcerated inguinal hernia. The patients were divided into two groups based on the applied surgical technique. Group 1 consisted of 112 patients treated with mesh-based repair techniques, while Group 2 consisted of 39 patients treated with tissue repair techniques. Patients in Group 1 were further divided into two sub-groups: one consisting of patients undergoing bowel resection (Group 3, and the other consisting of patients not undergoing bowel resection (Group 4. Results: In Group 1, it was observed that eight (7.14% of the patients had wound infections, while two (1.78% had hematomas, four (3.57% had seromas, and one (0.89% had relapse. In Group 2, one (2.56% of the patients had a wound infection, while three (7.69% had hematomas, one (2.56% had seroma, and none had relapses. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups with respect to wound infection

  14. [Typology of incarcerated intimate partner aggressors].

    Loinaz, Ismael; Echeburúa, Enrique; Torrubia, Rafael

    2010-02-01

    Typology of incarcerated intimate partner aggressors. People who engage in intimate partner violence do not constitute a homogeneous group. Many studies in the Anglo-Saxon countries back the possibility of differentiating several subtypes of aggressors, but there are differences among them. One of the main applications of these typologies is the adaptation of the treatments to the subjects' characteristics. The aim of the present pilot study was to empirically establish a typology of batterers in Spain. The sample of 50 convicted violent intimate partner offenders was obtained from the Brians-2 penitentiary (Barcelona). Self-esteem, anger, cognitive distortions, and personality disorders were evaluated, as well as the frequency and type of violence. The results suggest the existence of two subtypes, distinguishable on the basis of the predictive dimensions, and so, partially confirm the typological proposals.

  15. Incarceration and Black-White inequality in Homeownership: A state-level analysis.

    Schneider, Daniel; Turney, Kristin

    2015-09-01

    Rising incarceration rates in the United States, as well as the concentration of incarceration among already marginalized individuals, has led some scholars to suggest that incarceration increases economic inequality among American men. But little is known about the consequences of incarceration for wealth, about incarceration's contribution to Black-White disparities in wealth, or about the broader effects of incarceration on communities. In this article, we use state-level panel data (from 1985 to 2005) to examine the relationship between incarceration rates and the Black-White gap in homeownership, a distinct and important measure of wealth. Results, which are robust to an array of model specifications and robustness checks, show that incarceration rates diminish homeownership rates among Blacks and, in doing so, widen Black-White inequalities in homeownership. Therefore, the findings suggest that the consequences of incarceration extend beyond the offender and may increase inequality in household wealth. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Computer Program for Calculation of Complex Chemical Equilibrium Compositions, Rocket Performance, Incident and Reflected Shocks, and Chapman-Jouguet Detonations. Interim Revision, March 1976

    Gordon, S.; Mcbride, B. J.

    1976-01-01

    A detailed description of the equations and computer program for computations involving chemical equilibria in complex systems is given. A free-energy minimization technique is used. The program permits calculations such as (1) chemical equilibrium for assigned thermodynamic states (T,P), (H,P), (S,P), (T,V), (U,V), or (S,V), (2) theoretical rocket performance for both equilibrium and frozen compositions during expansion, (3) incident and reflected shock properties, and (4) Chapman-Jouguet detonation properties. The program considers condensed species as well as gaseous species.

  17. Incarceration and injection drug use in Baltimore, Maryland.

    Genberg, Becky L; Astemborski, Jacquie; Vlahov, David; Kirk, Gregory D; Mehta, Shruti H

    2015-07-01

    There is limited longitudinal research examining incarceration and subsequent changes in drug use among people who inject drugs (PWID) in the United States. The objective of the current study was to characterize the frequency of incarceration and estimate the association between incarceration and subsequent injection drug use among current and former PWIDs in one US city. ALIVE (AIDS Linked to the Intravenous Experience) is a prospective cohort study of current and former PWIDs, with semi-annual follow-up occurring since 1988. Baltimore, Maryland, USA. A total of 3245 participants with 48 738 study visits were included. Participants enrolled from 1988 to 2012 with a median of 13 follow-up visits per participant (Interquartile range = 7-25). Incarcerations were defined as any self-reported jail or prison stays in the previous 6 months that were ≥7 days or longer. The primary outcome was defined as any self-reported injection drug use in the previous 6 months. At baseline, 29% were female, 90% African American and 33% HIV-positive. Fifty-seven per cent of participants experienced at least one incarceration episode. After adjusting for confounders, there was a positive association between incarceration and subsequent injection drug use [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.48, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.37-1.59]; however, stratified analysis showed that the effect was restricted to those who were not injecting at the time of incarceration (AOR = 2.11, 95% CI = 1.88-2.37). In the United States, incarceration of people who had previously stopped injecting drugs appears to be associated with an increased risk of subsequent injecting. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  18. Motivation to Reduce Risk Behaviors While in Prison: Qualitative Analysis of Interviews with Current and Formerly Incarcerated Women.

    Abad, Neetu; Carry, Monique; Herbst, Jeffrey H; Fogel, Catherine I

    2013-10-01

    Prison is an environment in which programs can be implemented to change harmful behaviors among high-risk populations. Incarcerated women experience high rates of HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), yet little research has examined women's motivation to reduce risky behaviors during incarceration. In-depth individual interviews were conducted with former and current women prisoners in two North Carolina correctional facilities and analyzed to identify barriers and facilitators of behavior change while in prison. Analyses revealed key motivators of behavior change: Viewing prison as a place to recover from past trauma, removing oneself from negative social networks, gaining access to needed mental and physical health services, and engaging in self-care and self-reflection. Barriers to behavior change include fear of recidivism, stigma of being in prison, and return to undesirable social networks post-release. Moreover, women noted that the provision of mental health services, educational enhancement and housing assistance could help them reduce engagement in high-risk behaviors after their incarceration. These findings can be incorporated into HIV/STD risk reduction interventions to facilitate positive behavior change among incarcerated women prisoners. Prison itself is a tremendous education in the need for patience and perseverance. It is above all a test of one's commitment.-Nelson Mandela, 1995.

  19. Delivering services to incarcerated teen fathers: a pilot intervention to increase the quality of father-infant interactions during visitation.

    Barr, Rachel; Morin, Marisa; Brito, Natalie; Richeda, Benjamin; Rodriguez, Jennifer; Shauffer, Carole

    2014-02-01

    The absence of a father figure has been linked to very poor developmental outcomes for the child. During incarceration, there are limited opportunities for visitation between fathers and their children. The Baby Elmo Program provides incarcerated teen fathers with parenting training and visitation with their children with the stated goal of enhancing father-child interactional quality. Forty-one incarcerated teen fathers and their infants ranging from 1 to 15 months of age participated in the present study. During individual sessions, a trained facilitator prepared fathers for visits with their children by introducing key concepts such as following the child's lead, using developmentally appropriate media to illustrate those concepts. After each training session, the incarcerated teen father interacted with his infant and the visit was video recorded. Analysis of the visit sessions focused on father's time use on different activities, the quality of father-infant interactions, and father's integration of target skills introduced in the intervention. The time-use analysis revealed that time use changed as a function of infant age. Growth linear modeling indicated that there were significant positive increases in the amount of parent support and infant engagement as a function of the number of sessions. Follow-up analyses indicated that changes between specific sessions mapped onto the target skills discussed during specific training sessions. This study's preliminary findings suggest that an intervention integrating visitation and appropriate media may be effective for incarcerated teen fathers. Due to the lack of a randomized control group, the present findings are exploratory and are discussed with a focus on further program development. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. The Unequal Consequences of Mass Incarceration for Children.

    Turney, Kristin

    2017-02-01

    A growing literature has documented the mostly deleterious intergenerational consequences of paternal incarceration, but less research has considered heterogeneity in these relationships. In this article, I use data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 3,065) to estimate the heterogeneous relationship between paternal incarceration and children's problem behaviors (internalizing behaviors, externalizing behaviors, and early juvenile delinquency) and cognitive skills (reading comprehension, math comprehension, and verbal ability) in middle childhood. Taking into account children's risk of experiencing paternal incarceration, measured by the social contexts in which children are embedded (e.g., father's residential status, poverty, neighborhood disadvantage) reveals that the consequences-across all outcomes except early juvenile delinquency-are more deleterious for children with relatively low risks of exposure to paternal incarceration than for children with relatively high risks of exposure to paternal incarceration. These findings suggest that the intergenerational consequences of paternal incarceration are more complicated than documented in previous research and, more generally, suggest that research on family inequality consider both differential selection into treatments and differential responses to treatments.

  1. Condom use in incarcerated adolescent males: knowledge and practice.

    Bortot, Andrea T; Risser, William L; Cromwell, Polly F

    2006-01-01

    Information is limited on how well adolescents use condoms and where they learn how. The objective of this study was to determine how often incarcerated males used condoms incorrectly and where, how, and from whom they learned condom use. This study consisted of an interviewer-administered survey during intake physicals at a juvenile detention center. Results were based on self-report; condom use models were not used. During usual use among 141 males, errors included failure to secure the condom to the penis on withdrawal (37%), loss of erection before condom removal (18%), and failure to leave space at the tip (14%). Learning occurred at home (27%), school (23%), probation/detention facilities (14%), and community programs (3.4%). Subjects learned from educators/counselors (37%), family (27%), and friends (6.9%). Methods of learning included reading the package insert (45%), demonstrations (39%), explanations (33%), and media (19%). These adolescents had relatively few condom errors. Common methods of learning correct condom use included observing a demonstration, reading the package insert, and hearing an explanation. The last 2 methods are easy to implement.

  2. Health Shocks and Retirement:

    Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Larsen, Mona

    We investigate the effect of an acute health shock on retirement among elderly male workers in Denmark, 1991-1999, and in particular whether various welfare state programs and institutions impinge on the retirement effect. The results show that an acute health event increases the retirement chances...... significant. For the most part, the retirement effect following a health shock seems to be immune to the availability of a multitude of government programs for older workers in Denmark....... benefits in Denmark nor by the promotion of corporate social responsibility initiatives since the mid-1990s. In the late 1990s, however, the retirement rate following a health shock is reduced to 3% with the introduction of the subsidized employment program (fleksjob) but this effect is not strongly...

  3. Heat shock protein 70 inhibits shrinkage-induced programmed cell death via mechanisms independent of effects on cell volume-regulatory membrane transport proteins

    Nylandsted, J; Jäättelä, M; Hoffmann, E K

    2004-01-01

    Cell shrinkage is a ubiquitous feature of programmed cell death (PCD), but whether it is an obligatory signalling event in PCD is unclear. Heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) potently counteracts PCD in many cells, by mechanisms that are incompletely understood. In the present investigation, we found...... that severe hypertonic stress greatly diminished the viability of murine fibrosarcoma cells (WEHI-902) and immortalized murine embryonic fibroblasts (iMEFs). This effect was attenuated markedly by Hsp70 over-expression. To determine whether the protective effect of Hsp70 was mediated via an effect on volume...... regulatory ion transport, we compared regulatory volume decrease (RVD) and increase (RVI) in control WEHI-902 cells and after increasing Hsp70 levels by heat shock or over-expression (WEHI-912). Hsp70 levels affected neither RVD, RVI nor the relative contributions of the Na(+)/H(+)-exchanger (NHE1) and Na...

  4. Shock absorber

    Nemeth, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    A shock absorber for the support of piping and components in a nuclear power plant is described. It combines a high degree of stiffness under sudden shocks, e.g. seismic disturbances, with the ability to allow for thermal expansion without resistance when so required. (JIW)

  5. 38 CFR 3.665 - Incarcerated beneficiaries and fugitive felons-compensation.

    2010-07-01

    ... of the DIC not paid to an incarcerated surviving spouse or other children not in the surviving spouse... incarcerated child may be apportioned to the surviving spouse or other children. These apportionments shall be... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Incarcerated...

  6. Saturday Morning at the Jail: Implications of Incarceration for Families and Children.

    Arditti, Joyce A.; Lambert-Shute, Jennifer; Joest, Karen

    2003-01-01

    Using a conceptual framework that acknowledges the losses associated with a parent's incarceration, 56 caregivers visiting an incarcerated family member during children's visiting hours were interviewed. Problems believed to be created by incarceration included parenting strain, emotional stress, and concerns about children's loss of involvement…

  7. The Experience of Young Children and Their Incarcerated Mothers: A Call for Humanly-Responsive Policy.

    Farrell, Ann

    1994-01-01

    Describes the IMCIPE Project (Incarcerated Mothers and Children: Impact of Prison Environments) which investigates the experiences of incarcerated mothers whose children live with them in Mother and Baby Units and incarcerated mothers who are separated from their children; the impact of the prison environment on mother-child relationships; and…

  8. Evaluating the School Performance of Elementary and Middle School Children of Incarcerated Parents

    Neal, Melissa F.

    2009-01-01

    Children of incarcerated parents are at significantly increased risk of negative long-term outcomes. With about 1% of the adult population incarcerated, the United States has millions of children at risk for these negative outcomes. Research on this population is increasing; however, it is still unclear whether children of incarcerated parents are…

  9. Understanding Unique Effects of Parental Incarceration on Children: Challenges, Progress, and Recommendations

    Johnson, Elizabeth I.; Easterling, Beth

    2012-01-01

    Growth in U.S. incarceration rates during the 1980s and 1990s prompted a body of research focused on understanding the diverse effects of incarceration on individuals, families, and communities. An area of particular interest has been how the incarceration of a parent may affect child well-being. Despite what appears to be converging evidence that…

  10. Children's Antisocial Behavior, Mental Health, Drug Use, and Educational Performance After Parental Incarceration

    Murray, Joseph; Farrington, David P.; Sekol, Ivana

    2012-01-01

    Unprecedented numbers of children experience parental incarceration worldwide. Families and children of prisoners can experience multiple difficulties after parental incarceration, including traumatic separation, loneliness, stigma, confused explanations to children, unstable childcare arrangements, strained parenting, reduced income, and home, school, and neighborhood moves. Children of incarcerated parents often have multiple, stressful life events before parental incarceration. Theoretically, children with incarcerated parents may be at risk for a range of adverse behavioral outcomes. A systematic review was conducted to synthesize empirical evidence on associations between parental incarceration and children's later antisocial behavior, mental health problems, drug use, and educational performance. Results from 40 studies (including 7,374 children with incarcerated parents and 37,325 comparison children in 50 samples) were pooled in a meta-analysis. The most rigorous studies showed that parental incarceration is associated with higher risk for children's antisocial behavior, but not for mental health problems, drug use, or poor educational performance. Studies that controlled for parental criminality or children's antisocial behavior before parental incarceration had a pooled effect size of OR = 1.4 (p children with incarcerated parents, compared with peers. Effect sizes did not decrease with number of covariates controlled. However, the methodological quality of many studies was poor. More rigorous tests of the causal effects of parental incarceration are needed, using randomized designs and prospective longitudinal studies. Criminal justice reforms and national support systems might be needed to prevent harmful consequences of parental incarceration for children. PMID:22229730

  11. Laparoscopic approach to incarcerated inguinal hernia in children.

    Kaya, Mete; Hückstedt, Thomas; Schier, Felix

    2006-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the laparoscopic approach to incarcerated inguinal hernia in children. After unsuccessful manual reduction, 29 patients (aged 3 weeks to 7 years; median, 10 weeks; 44 boys, 15 girls) with incarcerated inguinal hernia underwent immediate laparoscopy. The hernial content was reduced in a combined technique of external manual pressure and internal pulling by forceps. The bowel was inspected, and the hernia was repaired. In all patients, the procedure was successful. No conversion to the open approach was required. Immediate laparoscopic herniorrhaphy in the same session was added. No complications occurred. Laparoscopy allowed for simultaneous reduction under direct visual control, inspection of the incarcerated organ, and definitive repair of the hernia. Technically, it appears easier than the conventional approach because of the internal inguinal ring being widened by intraabdominal carbon dioxide insufflation. The hospital stay is shorter.

  12. Homelessness as viewed by incarcerated women: participatory research.

    Martin, Ruth Elwood; Hanson, Debra; Hemingway, Christine; Ramsden, Vivian; Buxton, Jane; Granger-Brown, Alison; Condello, Lara-Lisa; Macaulay, Ann; Janssen, Patti; Hislop, T Gregory

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the development, by incarcerated women who were members of a prison participatory health research team, of a survey tool regarding homelessness and housing, the survey findings and recommendations for policy. A survey was developed by incarcerated women in a minimum/medium security women's prison in Canada. Associations were examined between socio-demographic factors and reports of difficulty finding housing upon release, homelessness contributing to a return to crime, and a desire for relocation to another city upon release. Open-ended questions were examined to look for recurrent themes and to illuminate the survey findings. In total, 83 women completed the survey, a 72 per cent response rate. Of the 71 who were previously incarcerated, 56 per cent stated that homelessness contributed to their return to crime. Finding housing upon release was a problem for 63 per cent and 34 per cent desired relocation to another city upon release. Women indicated that a successful housing plan should incorporate flexible progressive staged housing. The present study focuses only on incarcerated women but could be expanded in future to include men. Incarcerated women used the findings to create a housing proposal for prison leavers and created a resource database of the limited housing resources for women prison leavers. Lack of suitable housing is a major factor leading to recidivism. This study highlights the reality of the cycle of homelessness, poverty, crime for survival, street-life leading to drug use and barriers to health, education and employment that incarcerated women face. Housing is a recognized basic determinant of health. No previous studies have used participatory research to address homelessness in a prison population.

  13. Relationship processes and resilience in children with incarcerated parents.

    Poehlmann, Julie; Eddy, J Mark; Dallaire, Danielle H; Zeman, Janice L; Myers, Barbara J; Mackintosh, Virginia; Kuznetsova, Maria I; Lotze, Geri M; Best, Al M; Ravindran, Neeraja; Loper, Ann Booker; Clarke, Caitlin Novero; McHale, James P; Salman, Selin; Strozier, Anne; Cecil, Dawn K; Martinez, Charles R; Burraston, Bert

    2013-06-01

    Children with incarcerated parents are at risk for a variety of problematic outcomes, yet research has rarely examined protective factors or resilience processes that might mitigate such risk in this population. In this volume, we present findings from five new studies that focus on child- or family-level resilience processes in children with parents currently or recently incarcerated in jail or prison. In the first study, empathic responding is examined as a protective factor against aggressive peer relations for 210 elementary school age children of incarcerated parents. The second study further examines socially aggressive behaviors with peers, with a focus on teasing and bullying, in a sample of 61 children of incarcerated mothers. Emotion regulation is examined as a possible protective factor. The third study contrasts children's placement with maternal grandmothers versus other caregivers in a sample of 138 mothers incarcerated in a medium security state prison. The relation between a history of positive attachments between mothers and grandmothers and the current cocaregiving alliance are of particular interest. The fourth study examines coparenting communication in depth on the basis of observations of 13 families with young children whose mothers were recently released from jail. Finally, in the fifth study, the proximal impacts of a parent management training intervention on individual functioning and family relationships are investigated in a diverse sample of 359 imprisoned mothers and fathers. Taken together, these studies further our understanding of resilience processes in children of incarcerated parents and their families and set the groundwork for further research on child development and family resilience within the context of parental involvement in the criminal justice system.

  14. demystifying the shock of shocking

    (with a pulse), atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter. The energy dose in cardioversion is less (0.5. - 2 J/kg) than in defibrillation (2 - 4 J/kg). In cardioversion the shock is discharged synchronously with the native R wave of the patient. Without synchronisation,. VF can be induced if a shock is delivered during the refractory period ...

  15. Health issues of incarcerated women in the United States

    Sylvia Mignon

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Health care within jails and prisons in the United States is typically insufficient to meet the medical and psychological needs of female inmates. Health services are often of low quality, especially in the areas of reproductive medicine. Mental illness, substance abuse, a trauma history, and sexual victimization while incarcerated can predict a more difficult adjustment to a correctional environment. Incarcerated women who are able to maintain contact with family members, especially children, can have a better prison adjustment. Recommendations are made to improve the types and quality of health care delivered to women in jails and prisons in countries around the world.

  16. Years of life lost to incarceration: inequities between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Canadians.

    Owusu-Bempah, Akwasi; Kanters, Steve; Druyts, Eric; Toor, Kabirraaj; Muldoon, Katherine A; Farquhar, John W; Mills, Edward J

    2014-06-11

    Aboriginal representation in Canadian correctional institutions has increased rapidly over the past decade. We calculated "years of life lost to incarceration" for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Canadians. Incarceration data from provincial databases were used conjointly with demographic data to estimate rates of incarceration and years of life lost to provincial incarceration in (BC) and federal incarceration, by Aboriginal status. We used the Sullivan method to estimate the years of life lost to incarceration. Aboriginal males can expect to spend approximately 3.6 months in federal prison and within BC spend an average of 3.2 months in custody in the provincial penal system. Aboriginal Canadians on average spend more time in custody than their non-Aboriginal counterparts. The ratio of the Aboriginal incarceration rate to the non-Aboriginal incarceration rate ranged from a low of 4.28 in Newfoundland and Labrador to a high of 25.93 in Saskatchewan. Rates of incarceration at the provincial level were highest among Aboriginals in Manitoba with an estimated rate of 1377.6 individuals in prison per 100,000 population (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1311.8-1443.4). The results indicate substantial differences in life years lost to incarceration for Aboriginal versus non-Aboriginal Canadians. In light of on-going prison expansion in Canada, future research and policy attention should be paid to the public health consequences of incarceration, particularly among Aboriginal Canadians.

  17. Hypovolemic shock

    ... the person's position unless they are in immediate danger. Do not give fluids by mouth. If person ... the patient with shock. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  18. Beyond Boys' Bad Behavior: Paternal Incarceration and Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood.

    Haskins, Anna R

    2016-12-07

    A growing number of American school-aged children have incarcerated or formally incarcerated parents necessitating a more comprehensive understanding of the intergenerational effects of mass imprisonment. Using the Fragile Families Study, I assess whether having an incarcerated father impacts children's cognitive skill development into middle childhood. While previous studies have primarily found effects for boys' behavior problems, matching models and sensitivity analyses demonstrate that experiencing paternal incarceration by age 9 is associated with lower cognitive skills for both boys and girls and these negative effects hold net of a pre-paternal incarceration measure of child cognitive ability. Moreover, I estimate that paternal incarceration explains between 2 and 15 percent of the Black-White achievement gap at age 9. These findings represent new outcomes of importance and suggest that paternal incarceration may play an even larger role in the production of intergenerational inequalities for American children than previously documented.

  19. Incarcerated Mothers and Fathers: How their Absences Disrupt Children’s High School Graduation

    Anh- Luu Huynh- Hohnbaum

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The United States is faced with a growing number of children who have incarcerated parents and nearly one quarter of children who fail to complete high school. It has been shown that parental incarceration negatively impacts academic outcomes. This study examined whether parental incarceration affects children’s high school graduation. Data on 12,418 young adults was drawn from the Add Health Wave IV dataset. Logistic regression analyses examined differences between maternal and paternal incarceration and the effects of chronicity of incarceration. Whereas both were found to reduce the likelihood that children will complete high school, maternal incarceration had a greater impact. This study fills gaps in the literature examining differences in parental incarceration. Practice and policy implications are discussed.

  20. Beyond Boys’ Bad Behavior: Paternal Incarceration and Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood

    Haskins, Anna R.

    2017-01-01

    A growing number of American school-aged children have incarcerated or formally incarcerated parents necessitating a more comprehensive understanding of the intergenerational effects of mass imprisonment. Using the Fragile Families Study, I assess whether having an incarcerated father impacts children’s cognitive skill development into middle childhood. While previous studies have primarily found effects for boys’ behavior problems, matching models and sensitivity analyses demonstrate that experiencing paternal incarceration by age 9 is associated with lower cognitive skills for both boys and girls and these negative effects hold net of a pre-paternal incarceration measure of child cognitive ability. Moreover, I estimate that paternal incarceration explains between 2 and 15 percent of the Black-White achievement gap at age 9. These findings represent new outcomes of importance and suggest that paternal incarceration may play an even larger role in the production of intergenerational inequalities for American children than previously documented. PMID:28579646

  1. Parental Incarceration as a Risk Factor for Children in Homeless Families

    Casey, Erin C.; Shlafer, Rebecca J.; Masten, Ann S.

    2015-01-01

    The current study aimed to describe the prevalence of children of incarcerated parents (COIP) in a sample of homeless/highly mobile children, examine the relationship between parental incarceration and other risk factors, and investigate the effect of parental incarceration on child academic and mental health outcomes. The authors compared COIP (n = 45) to children whose parents were never incarcerated (n = 93) within a sample of 138, 4- to 7-year-old ethnically diverse children residing in emergency homeless shelters. Children's caregivers provided information about children's history of parental incarceration and other family experiences. Children's teachers reported academic and mental health outcomes in the subsequent school year. Compared to children with no history of parental incarceration, COIP experienced more negative life events. Regression models revealed that a history of parental incarceration was a significant predictor of teacher-reported internalizing problems. These results have implications for the identification and treatment of the highest risk homeless/highly mobile children. PMID:26478648

  2. Correlates of Incarceration Among Young Methamphetamine Users in Chiang Mai, Thailand

    Thomson, Nicholas; Sutcliffe, Catherine G.; Sirirojn, Bangorn; Keawvichit, Rassamee; Wongworapat, Kanlaya; Sintupat, Kamolrawee; Aramrattana, Apinun

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We examined correlates of incarceration among young methamphetamine users in Chiang Mai, Thailand in 2005 to 2006. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional study among 1189 young methamphetamine users. Participants were surveyed about their recent drug use, sexual behaviors, and incarceration. Biological samples were obtained to test for sexually transmitted and viral infections. Results. Twenty-two percent of participants reported ever having been incarcerated. In multivariate analysis, risk behaviors including frequent public drunkenness, starting to use illicit drugs at an early age, involvement in the drug economy, tattooing, injecting drugs, and unprotected sex were correlated with a history of incarceration. HIV, HCV, and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection were also correlated with incarceration. Conclusions. Incarcerated methamphetamine users are engaging in behaviors and being exposed to environments that put them at increased risk of infection and harmful practices. Alternatives to incarceration need to be explored for youths. PMID:18923109

  3. Shock absorber

    Housman, J.J.

    1978-01-01

    A shock absorber is described for use in a hostile environment at the end of a blind passage for absorbing impact loads. The shock absorber includes at least one element which occupies the passage and which is comprised of a porous brittle material which is substantially non-degradable in the hostile environment. A void volume is provided in the element to enable the element to absorb a predetermined level of energy upon being crushed due to impact loading

  4. Hip Hop Voices in the era of Mass Incarceration: An examination of Kendrick Lamar and The Black Lives Matter Movement

    Salmons, Patrick Jeremiah

    2017-01-01

    The United States has many problems currently, the most persistent of which is the issue of race, and the problem of Mass Incarceration. This thesis addresses what Mass Incarceration is, as well as developing a theoretical understanding of how to overcome Mass Incarceration through the music of Kendrick Lamar and The Black Lives Matter Movement. This thesis presents the questions: What is the era of Mass Incarceration? How does Kendrick Lamar's music inform the problems of Mass Incarceration?...

  5. Stigma or Separation? Understanding the Incarceration-Divorce Relationship

    Massoglia, Michael; Remster, Brianna; King, Ryan D.

    2011-01-01

    Prior research suggests a correlation between incarceration and marital dissolution, although questions remain as to why this association exists. Is it the stigma associated with "doing time" that drives couples apart? Or is it simply the duration of physical separation that leads to divorce? This research utilizes data from the National…

  6. Group climate and empathy in a sample of incarcerated boys

    van der Helm, G.H.P.; Stams, G.J.J.M.; van der Stel, J.C.; van Langen, M.A.M.; van der Laan, P.H.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the influence of group climate on empathy in a Dutch youth correctional facility in a sample of 59 incarcerated delinquent boys. Higher levels of empathy have been shown to be associated with less delinquent and more prosocial behaviour and may therefore be vital for successful

  7. Evaluation of an Anger Therapy Intervention for Incarcerated Adult Males

    Vannoy, Steven D.; Hoyt, William T.

    2004-01-01

    An anger therapy intervention was developed for incarcerated adult males. The therapy was an extension of cognitive-behavioral approaches, incorporating principles and practices drawn from Buddhist psychology. Adult males from a Midwestern low-security prison were randomly assigned to either a treatment group (n= 16) or a waiting list control…

  8. Group climate and empathy in a sample of incarcerated boys

    Peer van der Helm PhD; G.J.J.M. Stams; J.C. van der Stel; M.A.M. van Langen; P.H. van der Laan

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined the influence of group climate on empathy in a Dutch youth correctional facility in a sample of 59 incarcerated delinquent boys. Higher levels of empathy have been shown to be associated with less delinquent and more prosocial behaviour, and may therefore be vital for

  9. Ghosts in the Machine: Incarcerated Students and the Digital University

    Hopkins, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Providing higher education to offenders in custody has become an increasingly complex business in the age of digital learning. Most Australian prisoners still have no direct access to the internet and relatively unreliable access to information technology. As incarceration is now a business, prisons, like universities, are increasingly subject to…

  10. Encrusted and incarcerated urinary bladder catheter: what are the ...

    Urinary bladder catheter encrustations are known complications of long-term urinary catheterisation, which is commonly seen in clinical practice. These encrustations can impede deflation of the balloon and therefore cause problems in the removal of the catheter. The options in managing an encrusted and incarcerated ...

  11. Psychological wellbeing of Dutch incarcerated women: importation or deprivation?

    Slotboom, A.; Kruttschnitt, C.; Bijleveld, C.C.J.H.; Menting, B.

    2011-01-01

    In light of the dramatic increase over the past decade in the number of women incarcerated in the Netherlands, we examined 251 female inmates' psychological reactions to imprisonment with a survey that taps importation and deprivation factors and related life experiences. While depressive

  12. Those They Leave behind: Paternal Incarceration and Maternal Instrumental Support

    Turney, Kristin; Schnittker, Jason; Wildeman, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    As the American imprisonment rate has risen, researchers have become increasingly concerned about the implications of mass imprisonment for family life. The authors extend this research by examining how paternal incarceration is linked to perceived instrumental support among the mothers of inmates' children. Results from the Fragile Families and…

  13. Idle Hands: Community Employment Experiences of Formerly Incarcerated Youth

    Bullis, Michael; Yovanoff, Paul

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined the facility-to-community transition experiences--focusing specifically on employment--of 531 incarcerated youth following their release from Oregon's juvenile correctional system. They gathered data on the sample while these youth were still in custody and then every 6 months through phone interviews to…

  14. Children's Family Environments and Intellectual Outcomes during Maternal Incarceration

    Poehlmann, Julie

    2005-01-01

    Despite the dramatic increase in incarcerated mothers that has occurred in the past decades, there is a paucity of family research focusing on the children affected by maternal imprisonment. The present study investigated family environments and intellectual outcomes in 60 children between the ages of 2 and 7 years during their mothers'…

  15. Representations of Attachment Relationships in Children of Incarcerated Mothers

    Poehlmann, Julie

    2005-01-01

    Representations of attachment relationships were assessed in 54 children ages 2.5 to 7.5 years whose mothers were currently incarcerated. Consistent with their high-risk status, most (63%) children were classified as having insecure relationships with mothers and caregivers. Secure relationships were more likely when children lived in a stable…

  16. Attributions for Pride, Anger, and Guilt among Incarcerated Minority Adolescents.

    Hudley-Paul, Cynthia A.

    Two studies investigate causal attributions among minority adolescents. The first investigates attributions for the emotions of anger, pride, and guilt among 26 incarcerated male adolescents. Relatively few causes are found for anger and guilt, and a larger variety of causes are cited for pride. A follow-up study then compares causal attributions…

  17. Strategic Approach to Group Anger Management with Incarcerated Murderers.

    Napolitano, Susan; Brown, Lillian G.

    1991-01-01

    Incarcerated male murderers manifested consistent changes in attitudes toward treatment efficacy and their culpability as function of participating in 12-week anger management groups. Four qualitatively different stages were evident during treatment as prisoners' resistive responses were actively encouraged: initial apathy, emerging interest in…

  18. Childhood Adversities and Substance Misuse Among the Incarcerated: Implications for Treatment and Practice in Correctional Settings.

    Marotta, Phillip L

    2017-05-12

    Incarcerated populations have high rates of childhood adversities and substance use problems. Moreover, childhood adversities are well-documented predictors of substance misuse. To investigate the impact of childhood sexual and physical abuse, caregiver abuse of drugs or alcohol, and time spent in foster care on several substance misuse outcomes. Data comes from a sample of 16,043 incarcerated men and women in the United States Survey of Inmates in State and Federal Facilities. Bivariate analyses revealed differences by sex in childhood adversities and socioeconomic characteristics. Logistic regression analyses assessed the data for a link between childhood adversities and substance misuse after adjusting for other variables. Analyses were stratified by sex to show differences in predictors of substance misuse between men and women. Childhood adversities increased the risk of many substance misuse outcomes. The prevalence of physical abuse, sexual abuse, foster care, and caretaker abuse of drugs or alcohol were greatest for inmates who reported injecting and sharing drugs. Growing up with a caregiver that used drugs or alcohol was a consistent predictor of increased risk of substance misuse for men and women. However, childhood sexual abuse increased risk for only women. Inmates who experience physical abuse, sexual abuse, foster care involvement and caretakers who use drugs and alcohol are at an increased risk of substance misuse, injecting drug use and syringe sharing. Implications suggest correctional HIV prevention and substance misuse programs must address unresolved trauma and important gender differences.

  19. Toxic shock syndrome

    Staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome; Toxic shock-like syndrome; TSLS ... Toxic shock syndrome is caused by a toxin produced by some types of staphylococcus bacteria. A similar problem, called toxic shock- ...

  20. An Exploratory Study Examining Risk Communication among Adolescent Children, Their Incarcerated Mothers, and Their Caregivers.

    Robillard, Alyssa G; Holliday, Rhonda C; DeHart, Dana D; Lewis, Kaleea; Rutherford, Yamisha; Amutah, Ndidi N

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent children of incarcerated mothers (ACIM) are typically left in the care of adults (primary caregivers) who play a crucial role in children's care and guidance, as well as in the facilitation of contact and communication with incarcerated mothers. The purpose of this study was to explore the nature of relationships and communication among adolescent children of incarcerated mothers, primary caregivers, and incarcerated mothers using pilot data. Semi-structured individual interviews were conducted with youth aged 12-17 (n=7) and caregivers (n=6) recruited through a non-profit organization working with incarcerated mothers and their children. Incarcerated mothers and primary caregivers represent an important family unit for ACIMs and may play a role in preventing risk behavior. A conceptual framework is offered for further consideration of mother and caregiver communication with youth and youth risk.

  1. Impact of forced separation policy on incarcerated postpartum mothers.

    Chambers, Angelina N

    2009-08-01

    The number of incarcerated women in the United States is steadily increasing with 9% giving birth while serving time. Mothers and babies are routinely separated immediately and during most of the postpartum period. This qualitative study examines the impact of this policy by exploring the nature and meaning of the mother-infant bonding experience when the mothers know separation is coming. Twelve incarcerated postpartum mothers were interviewed during the early postpartum period about their antepartum and postpartum relationships with their babies. Qualitative data analysis produced four relational themes: (a) "a love connection," (b) "everything was great until I birthed," (c) "feeling empty and missing a part of me," and (d) "I don't try to think too far in advance." Results of this qualitative study provide information to professionals exploring gender-sensitive prison policies for the growing female population.

  2. Children’s Contact With Their Incarcerated Parents: Research Findings and Recommendations

    Poehlmann, Julie; Dallaire, Danielle; Loper, Ann Booker; Shear, Leslie D.

    2010-01-01

    Approximately 1.7 million children have parents who are incarcerated in prison in the United States, and possibly millions of additional children have a parent incarcerated in jail. Many affected children experience increased risk for developing behavior problems, academic failure, and substance abuse. For a growing number of children, incarcerated parents, caregivers, and professionals, parent– child contact during the imprisonment period is a key issue. In this article, we present a concept...

  3. [Non-incarcerated inguinal hernia in children: operation within 7 days not necessary].

    Timmers, L; Hamming, J F; Oostvogel, H J M

    2005-01-29

    To assess the necessity to operate on non-incarcerated inguinal hernia in children within 7 days of diagnosis. Retrospective. Data on 360 children, 0-10 years old (104 girls and 256 boys) who were operated on for inguinal hernia between 1 January 1993-31 December 2001 at the St. Elisabeth Hospital in Tilburg, the Netherlands, were collected from the medical records. These data included sex, age, interval between diagnosis and repair, recurrence, incarceration, length of hospitalisation and complications. In the group of 113 children 0-1 years old, 137 inguinal hernias were repaired, ofwhich 16 were incarcerated on presentation. The interval between diagnosis and repair was known in 93 of 121 cases: 37 hernias were repaired within 7 days and 56 at a later stage. In the latter group, there was one case of secondary incarceration (1.8%; 95% CI: 0-5.4). The number needed to treat was 56. In the group of 247 children 1-10 years old, 269 inguinal hernias were repaired, of which 8 were primarily incarcerated. The interval between diagnosis and repair was known in 208 of 261 cases: 34 hernias were repaired within 7 days and 174 at a later stage. In the latter group, 3 hernias incarcerated secondarily (1.7%; 95% CI: 0-3.7). The number needed to treat was 58. In the group of non-incarcerated hernias 1 complication occurred, in the group of incarcerated hernias none. The mean length of hospitalisation of children with non-incarcerated hernia was 0.85 days, and of children with incarcerated hernia 2.4 days. In children with a non-incarcerated inguinal hernia who are waiting for an operation, the risk of secondary incarceration and complications is 2% which we do not think is enough reason to carry out an elective hernia-repair procedure within 7 days.

  4. Female children with incarcerated adult family members at risk for life-long neurological decline

    Brewer-Smyth, Kathleen; Pohlig, Ryan T.; Bucurescu, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    A secondary analysis of data from adult female prison inmates in the mid-Atlantic United States defined relationships between having incarcerated adult family members during childhood and neurological outcomes. Of 135 inmates, 99(73%) had one or more incarcerated adult family members during childhood. Regression analyses revealed that having incarcerated adult family members was related to greater frequency and severity of childhood abuse and higher incidence of neurological deficits in adult...

  5. Incarcerated umbilical hernia leading to small bowel ischemia.

    Lutwak, Nancy; Dill, Curt

    2011-09-19

    A 59-year-old male with history of hepatitis C, refractory ascites requiring multiple paracentesis and transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt placement presented to the emergency department with 2 days of abdominal pain. Physical examination revealed blood pressure of 104/66 and pulse of 94. The abdomen was remarkable for distention and a tender incarcerated umbilical hernia. The skin overlying the hernia was pale with areas of necrosis. The patient immediately underwent laparotomy which was successful.

  6. Physicians in US Prisons in the Era of Mass Incarceration

    Allen, Scott A.; Wakeman, Sarah E.; Cohen, Robert L.; Rich, Josiah D.

    2010-01-01

    The United States leads the world in creating prisoners, incarcerating one in 100 adults and housing 25% of the world’s prisoners. Since the 1976, the US Supreme Court ruling that mandated health care for inmates, doctors have been an integral part of the correctional system. Yet conditions within corrections are not infrequently in direct conflict with optimal patient care, particularly for those suffering from mental illness and addiction. In addition to providing and working to improve cli...

  7. Emotional intelligence in incarcerated men with psychopathic traits

    Ermer, Elsa; Kahn, Rachel E.; Salovey, Peter; Kiehl, Kent A.

    2012-01-01

    The expression, recognition, and communication of emotional states are ubiquitous features of the human social world. Emotional intelligence (EI) is defined as the ability to perceive, manage, and reason about emotions, in oneself and others. Individuals with psychopathy have numerous difficulties in social interaction and show impairment on some emotional tasks. Here we investigate the relation between emotional intelligence and psychopathy in a sample of incarcerated men (n=374), using the ...

  8. Redesigning Racial Caste in America via Mass Incarceration.

    Graff, Gilda

    2015-01-01

    This article argues that the era of mass incarceration can be understood as a new tactic in the history of American racism. Slavery was ended by the Civil War, but after Reconstruction, the gains of the former slaves were eroded by Jim Crow (a rigid pattern of racial segregation), lynching, disenfranchisement, sharecropping, tenantry, unequal educational resources, terrorism, and convict leasing. The Civil Rights Movement struck down legal barriers, but we have chosen to deal with the problems of poverty and race not so differently than we have in the past. The modern version of convict leasing, is mass incarceration. This article documents the dramatic change in American drug policy beginning with Reagan's October, 1982 announcement of the War on Drugs, the subsequent 274 percent growth in the prison and jail populations, and the devastating and disproportionate effect on inner city African Americans. Just as the Jim Crow laws were a reaction to the freeing of the slaves after the Civil War, mass incarceration can be understood as a reaction to the Civil Rights Movement.

  9. Atomoxetine for the Treatment of ADHD in Incarcerated Adolescents.

    Jillani, Sarah; Patel, Prina; Trestman, Robert; Kamath, Jayesh

    2016-06-01

    Effective interventions for adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the correctional setting may improve care during incarceration, decrease risk of substance relapse, and reduce recidivism after release from the correctional setting of these individuals. The present report delineates the epidemiology of adolescent ADHD in the correctional setting and its association with substance use disorders and comorbid psychiatric illnesses. Evidence suggests that adolescents with ADHD have a higher risk of arrest and incarceration during adulthood. The present report examines evidence related to efficacy of atomoxetine, a nonstimulant medication for the treatment of adolescent ADHD, and presents data from a case series evaluating the effectiveness of atomoxetine for the treatment of adolescent ADHD in the Connecticut correctional setting. The results from the case series suggest that atomoxetine is effective for the treatment of adolescent ADHD in the context of significant past substance use. In summary, adolescents with ADHD have an elevated risk of incarceration and developing substance use disorders. The present review and pilot case series suggest that atomoxetine is an effective treatment for adolescents with ADHD in the correctional setting. © 2016 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.

  10. Acute testicular ischemia caused by incarcerated inguinal hernia.

    Orth, Robert C; Towbin, Alexander J

    2012-02-01

    Acute testicular ischemia caused by an incarcerated inguinal hernia usually affects infants. There are few reports of diagnosis using US, and the effect of long-standing reducible hernias on testicular growth in infants and children is unknown. The objectives of this study were to determine the incidence of testicular ischemia secondary to an incarcerated inguinal hernia at scrotal sonography and to determine the effect on testicular size at diagnosis. A hospital database was used to locate scrotal sonography examinations documenting an inguinal hernia, and images were reviewed for signs of testicular ischemia. Testicular volumes were compared using the Wilcoxon signed rank test. A total of 147 patients were identified with an inguinal hernia (age 1 day to 23 years, average 6 years). Ten patients (6.8%) had associated testicular ischemia (age 3 weeks to 6 months, average 9 weeks) and showed a statistically significant increase in ipsilateral testicular size compared to the contralateral testicle (P = 0.012). Patients without testicular ischemia did not show a significant difference in testicular size, regardless of patient age. An incarcerated inguinal hernia should be considered as a cause of acute testicular ischemia in infants younger than 6 months of age.

  11. Incarcerated medial epicondyle fracture following pediatric elbow dislocation: 11 cases.

    Dodds, Seth D; Flanagin, Brody A; Bohl, Daniel D; DeLuca, Peter A; Smith, Brian G

    2014-09-01

    To describe outcomes after surgical management of pediatric elbow dislocation with incarceration of the medial epicondyle. We conducted a retrospective case review of 11 consecutive children and adolescents with an incarcerated medial epicondyle fracture after elbow dislocation. All patients underwent open reduction internal fixation using a similar technique. We characterized outcomes at final follow-up. Average follow-up was 14 months (range, 4-56 mo). All patients had clinical and radiographic signs of healing at final follow-up. There was no radiographic evidence of loss of reduction at intervals or at final follow-up. There were no cases of residual deformity or valgus instability. Average final arc of elbow motion was 4° to 140°. All patients had forearm rotation from 90° supination to 90° pronation. Average Mayo elbow score was 99.5. Four of 11 patients had ulnar nerve symptoms postoperatively and 1 required a second operation for ulnar nerve symptoms. In addition, 1 required a second operation for flexion contracture release with excision of heterotopic ossification. Three patients had ulnar nerve symptoms at final follow-up. Two of these had mild paresthesia only and 1 had both mild paresthesia and weakness. Our results suggest that open reduction internal fixation of incarcerated medial epicondyle fractures after elbow dislocation leads to satisfactory motion and function; however, the injury carries a high risk for complications, particularly ulnar neuropathy. Therapeutic IV. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Unintended Consequences: Effects of Paternal Incarceration on Child School Readiness and Later Special Education Placement

    Anna R Haskins

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Though sociologists have examined how mass incarceration affects stratification, remarkably little is known about how it shapes educational disparities. Analyzing the Fragile Families Study and its rich paternal incarceration data, I ask whether black and white children with fathers who have been incarcerated are less prepared for school both cognitively and non-cognitively as a result, and whether racial and gendered disparities in incarceration help explain the persistence of similar gaps in educational outcomes and trajectories. Using a variety of estimation strategies, I show that experiencing paternal incarceration by age five is associated with lower non-cognitive school readiness. While the main effect of incarceration does not vary by race, boys with incarcerated fathers have substantially worse non-cognitive skills at school entry, impacting the likelihood of special education placement at age nine. Mass incarceration facilitates the intergenerational transmission of male behavioral disadvantage, and because of the higher exposure of black children to incarceration, it also plays a role in explaining the persistently low achievement of black boys.

  13. Unintended Consequences: Effects of Paternal Incarceration on Child School Readiness and Later Special Education Placement.

    Haskins, Anna R

    2014-04-01

    Though sociologists have examined how mass incarceration affects stratification, remarkably little is known about how it shapes educational disparities. Analyzing the Fragile Families Study and its rich paternal incarceration data, I ask whether black and white children with fathers who have been incarcerated are less prepared for school both cognitively and non-cognitively as a result, and whether racial and gendered disparities in incarceration help explain the persistence of similar gaps in educational outcomes and trajectories. Using a variety of estimation strategies, I show that experiencing paternal incarceration by age five is associated with lower non-cognitive school readiness. While the main effect of incarceration does not vary by race, boys with incarcerated fathers have substantially worse non-cognitive skills at school entry, impacting the likelihood of special education placement at age nine. Mass incarceration facilitates the intergenerational transmission of male behavioral disadvantage, and because of the higher exposure of black children to incarceration, it also plays a role in explaining the persistently low achievement of black boys.

  14. Female children with incarcerated adult family members at risk for lifelong neurological decline.

    Brewer-Smyth, Kathleen; Pohlig, Ryan T; Bucurescu, Gabriel

    2016-07-01

    A secondary analysis of data from adult female prison inmates in the mid-Atlantic United States defined relationships between having incarcerated adult family members during childhood and neurological outcomes. Of 135 inmates, 99 (60%) had one or more incarcerated adult family members during childhood. Regression analyses revealed that having incarcerated adult family members was related to greater frequency and severity of childhood abuse and higher incidence of neurological deficits in adulthood, especially related to traumatic brain injuries, compared to those without incarcerated adult family members. Along with being role models, adult family members impact the neurological health of children throughout their life-span.

  15. Female children with incarcerated adult family members at risk for life-long neurological decline

    Brewer-Smyth, Kathleen; Pohlig, Ryan T.; Bucurescu, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    A secondary analysis of data from adult female prison inmates in the mid-Atlantic United States defined relationships between having incarcerated adult family members during childhood and neurological outcomes. Of 135 inmates, 99(73%) had one or more incarcerated adult family members during childhood. Regression analyses revealed that having incarcerated adult family members was related to greater frequency and severity of childhood abuse and higher incidence of neurological deficits in adulthood, especially related to traumatic brain injuries, compared to those without incarcerated adult family members. Along with being role models, adult family members impact the neurological health of children throughout their lifespan. PMID:26788781

  16. Positive, negative, or null? The effects of maternal incarceration on children's behavioral problems.

    Wildeman, Christopher; Turney, Kristin

    2014-06-01

    We use data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study to consider the effects of maternal incarceration on 21 caregiver- and teacher-reported behavioral problems among 9-year-old children. The results suggest three primary conclusions. First, children of incarcerated mothers are a disadvantaged group that exhibit high levels of caregiver- and teacher-reported behavioral problems. Second, after we adjust for selection, the effects of maternal incarceration on children's behavioral problems are consistently null (for 19 of 21 outcomes) and rarely positive (1 of 21) or negative (1 of 21), suggesting that the poor outcomes of these children are driven by disadvantages preceding maternal incarceration rather than incarceration. These effects, however, vary across race/ethnicity, with maternal incarceration diminishing caregiver-reported behavioral problems among non-Hispanic whites. Finally, in models considering both maternal and paternal incarceration, paternal incarceration is associated with more behavioral problems, which is consistent with previous research and suggests that the null effects of maternal incarceration are not artifacts of our sample or analytic decisions.

  17. The Committed Intimate Partnerships of Incarcerated African-American Men: Implications for Sexual HIV Transmission Risk and Prevention Opportunities.

    Khan, Maria R; El-Bassel, Nabila; Golin, Carol E; Scheidell, Joy D; Adimora, Adaora A; Coatsworth, Ashley M; Hu, Hui; Judon-Monk, Selena; Medina, Katie P; Wohl, David A

    2017-10-01

    Incarceration is thought to influence HIV transmission by disrupting partnerships that provide support and protect against sex risk-taking. Current correctional facility-based family-strengthening programs focus on marital partnerships, a minority of inmates' partnerships. Research on the sex partnerships of incarcerated African-American men and the types of partnerships most likely to protect against HIV-related sex risk is limited. Improved understanding can inform expansion of correctional facility-based family-strengthening programs to a greater proportion of protective partnerships and HIV risk reduction programs to partnerships vulnerable to sex risk. Project DISRUPT is a cohort study of African-American men being released from prison in North Carolina who were in committed heterosexual partnerships at prison entry. Using baseline survey data (N = 189), we conducted latent class analysis (LCA) to identify subgroups of participants with distinct relationship profiles and measured associations between relationship characteristics and multiple partnerships of inmates and their partners in the six months before incarceration. LCA indicated a two-class solution, with relationships distinguished by satisfaction/stability (satisfied/stable class: 58.0%; dissatisfied/unstable class: 42.0%); each class had comparable relationship length and levels of marriage and cohabitation. Dissatisfied/unstable relationships were associated with multiple partnerships among participants (AOR 2.93, 95% CI 1.50, 5.72) and partners (AOR 4.95, 95% CI 1.68, 14.58). Satisfaction indicators-versus length, marriage, or cohabitation-were the strongest independent correlates of inmates' and partners' multiple partnerships. Pre-incarceration economic deprivation, mental disorder symptoms, substance use, and violence in relationships were associated with dissatisfaction/instability. Prison-based programs designed to maintain healthy partnerships, strengthen relationship skills, and reduce

  18. Correlates of condom self-efficacy in an incarcerated juvenile population.

    Tsay, Sharon; Childs, Gwendolyn; Cook-Heard, Dayna; Sturdevant, Marsha

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to enhance awareness of modes of HIV transmission and increase HIV/sexually transmitted diseases (STD) prevention efforts for incarcerated youth through use of an HIV/STD prevention program guided by the Making Proud Choices! curriculum. A convenience sample of 662 youth aged 13 to 18 was recruited from Alabama juvenile detention facilities. Participants took part in three 2-hour sessions. Baseline and postintervention data were collected. There was no significant difference between males and females in intent to use condoms at baseline and postintervention. Intent to use condoms was the most influential predictor of condom self-efficacy. However, there was little change in condom self-efficacy among males and females at baseline and postintervention.

  19. Shock Waves

    Jiang, Z

    2005-01-01

    The International Symposium on Shock Waves (ISSW) is a well established series of conferences held every two years in a different location. A unique feature of the ISSW is the emphasis on bridging the gap between physicists and engineers working in fields as different as gas dynamics, fluid mechanics and materials sciences. The main results presented at these meetings constitute valuable proceedings that offer anyone working in this field an authoritative and comprehensive source of reference.

  20. Children’s Experiences of Maternal Incarceration-Specific Risks: Predictions to Psychological Maladaptation

    Dallaire, Danielle H.; Zeman, Janice L.; Thrash, Todd M.

    2014-01-01

    Children of incarcerated mothers are at increased risk for social and emotional difficulties, yet few studies have investigated potential mechanisms of risk within this population. This research simultaneously examined the association of children’s experience of incarceration-specific risk factors (e.g., witness mother’s arrest) and environmental risks (e.g., low educational attainment) to children’s psychological maladaptation using a multi-informant design and a latent variable analytic approach. Participants were 117 currently incarcerated mothers (64.1% African American), their 151 children (53.6% boys, M age =9.8 years, range =6–12 years, 61.7% African American), and the 118 caregivers (74.8% female, 61.9% grandparents, 62.2% African American) of the children. Mothers, children, and caregivers each provided accounts of children’s experiences related to maternal incarceration and children’s internalizing and externalizing behavior problems. Mothers and caregivers each supplied information about 10 environmental risk factors. Findings from structural equation modeling indicate that children’s incarceration-specific risk experiences predict internalizing and externalizing behavior problems whereas the influence of environmental risks was negligible. Follow-up analyses examining the contribution of specific risks indicate that significant predictors differ by reporter and separate into effects of family incarceration history and direct experiences of maternal incarceration. Incarceration-specific experiences place children at higher risk for maladjustment than exposure to general environmental risk factors. These findings indicate the need to critically examine children’s exposure to experiences related to maternal incarceration and family incarceration history to help to clarify the multifaceted stressor of maternal incarceration. PMID:24871820

  1. Social Protection and Vulnerability to Climate Shocks: a Panel Data ...

    ' autonomous adaptation by reducing vulnerability to climatic shocks. This paper examines the role of the Productive Safety Net Program in reducing vulnerability to climate related shocks and its impacts on autonomous adaptation strategies ...

  2. Toward a Demographic Understanding of Incarceration Disparities : Race, Ethnicity, and Age Structure

    Vogel, M.S.; Porter, L.C.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics in the United States are more likely to be incarcerated than non-Hispanic whites. The risk of incarceration also varies with age, and there are striking differences in age distributions across racial/ethnic groups. Guided by these trends, the present

  3. Silent Survivors: Rape Myth Acceptance in Incarcerated Women's Narratives of Disclosure and Reporting of Rape

    Heath, Nicole M.; Lynch, Shannon M.; Fritch, April M.; McArthur, Lyn N.; Smith, Shilo L.

    2011-01-01

    Prior research suggests that rape victims who do not disclose or report to the police give reasons including self-blame and fear of judgment; however, this research has not been conducted with incarcerated women. Female offenders are a unique population because they experience high rates of sexual assault prior to incarceration. This study…

  4. Reactive and Proactive Control in Incarcerated and Community Adolescents and Young Adults

    Iselin, Anne-Marie R.; DeCoster, Jamie

    2009-01-01

    This study compared the cognitive control skills of male incarcerated adolescents (n = 44), male control adolescents (n = 33), male incarcerated young adults (n = 41), and male control young adults (n = 35) using the AX-continuous performance test (AX-CPT). This test measures proactive control (the ability to maintain a mental representation of…

  5. Children of Incarcerated Parents: Cumulative Risk and Children's Living Arrangements. JCPR Working Paper.

    Johnson, Elizabeth Inez; Waldfogel, Jane

    This paper examines risk factors that exist in the lives of incarcerated parents and their children, focusing on the living arrangements of the children. It uses data from the 1997 Survey of Inmates in State and Federal Correctional Facilities to address three issues: risk factors present in the lives of incarcerated parents and their children,…

  6. Incarcerated Mothers and Fathers: A Comparison of Risks for Children and Families

    Dallaire, Danielle H.

    2007-01-01

    The current study investigates differences between inmate mothers' and fathers' reported rates of incarceration for family members, adult children, predictors of adult children's incarceration, and living situations of minor children. Participants included 6,146 inmates who participated in the U.S. Department of Justice Survey of Inmates in State…

  7. Children of Incarcerated Mothers and Their Caregivers: Factors Affecting the Quality of Their Relationship

    Mackintosh, Virginia H.; Myers, Barbara J.; Kennon, Suzanne S.

    2006-01-01

    We examined the quality of the relationship between children of incarcerated mothers and their kinship caregivers, to investigate whether perceived levels of warmth and acceptance were related to assessments of the children's behaviors. The sample consisted of 69 children (6 to 12 years) with currently incarcerated mothers who attended a…

  8. The well-being of children of incarcerated mothers: An exploratory study for the Netherlands

    Hissel, S.C.E.M.; Bijleveld, C.C.J.H.; Kruttschnitt, C.

    2011-01-01

    Little empirical research exists on children whose mothers are incarcerated. We examined Dutch children's experiences regarding their mother's incarceration, using a mixed methods approach. We found that, although children stay in various care-giving situations, a large proportion of them were

  9. Parental Incarceration and Multiple Risk Experiences: Effects on Family Dynamics and Children's Delinquency

    Aaron, Lauren; Dallaire, Danielle H.

    2010-01-01

    Children of incarcerated parents are exposed to factors that place them at risk for delinquency. Few studies have examined the effects of having an incarcerated parent after controlling for other experiences such as contextual risk factors and family processes. Past studies have also not examined effects of recent, but not current, parental…

  10. Arrested motherhood : Parenting, cognitive distortions, and depressive symptoms in mothers being released from incarceration

    Menting, A.T.A.; Orobio De Castro, B.; Matthys, W.C.H.J.

    2017-01-01

    Objective. The present study examines cognitive and emotional problems in mothers being released from incarceration. Design. Participants were 98 mothers who were about to be released or had just been released from incarceration, and 63 comparison mothers from disadvantaged areas with low

  11. As fathers and felons: explaining the effects of current and recent incarceration on major depression.

    Turney, Kristin; Wildeman, Christopher; Schnittker, Jason

    2012-01-01

    Dramatic increases in the American imprisonment rate since the mid-1970s have important implications for the life chances of minority men with low educational attainment, including for their health. Although a large literature has considered the collateral consequences of incarceration for a variety of outcomes, studies concerned with health have several limitations: Most focus exclusively on physical health; those concerned with mental health only consider current incarceration or previous incarceration, but never both; some are cross-sectional; many fail to consider mechanisms; and virtually all neglect the role of family processes, thereby overlooking the social roles current and former prisoners inhabit. In this article, we use stress process theory to extend this research by first considering the association between incarceration and major depression and then considering potential mechanisms that explain this association. Results from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 3,107) show current and recent incarceration are substantially associated with the risk of major depression, suggesting both immediate and short-term implications. In addition, consistent with stress proliferation theory, the results show the well-known consequences of incarceration for socioeconomic status and family functioning partly explain these associations, suggesting the link between incarceration and depression depends heavily on the consequences of incarceration for economic and social reintegration, not only the direct psychological consequences of confinement.

  12. Misidentifying the Effects of Parental Incarceration? A Comment on Johnson and Easterling (2012)

    Wildeman, Christopher; Wakefield, Sara; Turney, Kristin

    2013-01-01

    In a recent "Journal of Marriage and Family" article, Johnson and Easterling (2012) reviewed research on the effects of parental incarceration on child well-being, focusing on the various conceptual frameworks linking parental incarceration and child well-being and the "important methodological and conceptual challenges related to selection bias"…

  13. The Prison Is Another Country: Incarcerated Students and (Im)Mobility in Australian Prisons

    Farley, Helen; Hopkins, Susan

    2017-01-01

    Space, time and movement have particular meanings and significance for Australian prisoners attempting higher education while incarcerated. In a sense, the prison is another "world" or "country" with its own spatial and temporal arrangements and constraints for incarcerated university students. The contemporary digital…

  14. Father's Incarceration and Youth Delinquency and Depression: Examining Differences by Race and Ethnicity

    Swisher, Raymond R.; Roettger, Michael E.

    2012-01-01

    This article examines associations between biological father's incarceration and internalizing and externalizing outcomes of depression and serious delinquency, across White, Black, and Hispanic subsamples of youth in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Among respondents whose father was first incarcerated during childhood or…

  15. Parental incarceration and multiple risk experiences: effects on family dynamics and children's delinquency.

    Aaron, Lauren; Dallaire, Danielle H

    2010-12-01

    Children of incarcerated parents are exposed to factors that place them at risk for delinquency. Few studies have examined the effects of having an incarcerated parent after controlling for other experiences such as contextual risk factors and family processes. Past studies have also not examined effects of recent, but not current, parental incarceration on children. The present study examines an archival dataset, in which children aged 10-14 years and their parents/guardians reported children's risk experiences (e.g., exposure to poverty, parental substance use), family processes (e.g., level of family victimization, family conflict), and children's delinquent behaviors at two time points. Parents also reported their recent and past incarceration history. Hierarchical linear regression analyses show that a history of parental incarceration predicted family victimization, delinquent behaviors of children's older siblings, and delinquent behaviors of the child participants, over and above children's demographic characteristics and other risk experiences. Recent parental incarceration predicted family conflict, family victimization, and parent-reports of children's delinquency after also controlling for previous parental incarceration. The role of family processes in research and intervention directions involving children of incarcerated parents is discussed.

  16. A Prisoners' Island: Teaching Australian Incarcerated Students in the Digital Age

    Hopkins, Susan; Farley, Helen

    2014-01-01

    While incarcerated students have always faced many obstacles to full and effective participation in university study, the global shift toward paperless e-learning environments has created new challenges for prisoners without direct internet access. Based on prison focus groups with Australian incarcerated students and direct participant…

  17. Effects of incarceration on HIV-infected individuals.

    Griffin, M M; Ryan, J G; Briscoe, V S; Shadle, K M

    1996-10-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is a critical problem among the incarcerated population, with rates as high as 17% being reported for prison systems in New York. The literature suggests that stressful living conditions and inherent defects in the immune system associated with HIV infection make prison populations more susceptible to a disproportionate decrease in their CD4 counts. To determine the effects of incarceration on HIV-infected individuals, the charts of 800 inmates were reviewed. Baseline (draw 1), 2- to 5-month (draw 2), and 6- to 12-month (draw 3) CD4 cell counts were obtained. Mean cell counts were calculated, and paired t-tests were used to identify differences. The group receiving antiretrovirals throughout showed no difference in mean CD4 cell count between draws 1 and 2 or between draws 1 and 3. The group not receiving HIV medications did not show a significant difference in CD4 cell counts between draws 1 and 2, but did show a significant difference between draws 1 and 3. For this group, the rate of decline in CD4 cells was greater than among an outpatient setting. The subsample of subjects initiating therapy prior to the second blood draw showed a significant increase in mean CD4 cell counts at draw 1 versus draw 2, but did not show a significant change when comparing draw 1 to draw 3. When examining subjects based on their antiviral status, the mean CD4 cell count at each of the draws was statistically associated with subjects' antiviral status. We conclude that incarceration causes a more rapid decrease in CD4 cells compared with an outpatient population, causing clinical significance on the normal course of HIV disease.

  18. Prognostic Factors of Orbital Fractures with Muscle Incarceration

    Seung Chan Lee

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Among the various signs and symptoms of orbital fractures, certain clinical findings warrant immediate surgical exploration, including gaze restriction, computed tomographic (CT evidence of entrapment, and prolonged oculocardiac reflex. Despite proper surgical reconstruction, prolonged complications such as diplopia and gaze restriction can occur. This article evaluated the prognostic factors associated with prolonged complications of orbital fractures with muscle incarceration. Methods The medical records of 37 patients (37 orbits with an orbital fracture with muscle incarceration from January 2001 to January 2015 were reviewed. The presence of Incarcerated muscle was confirmed via CT, as well as by intraoperative findings. Various factors potentially contributing to complications lasting for over 1 year after the injury were categorized and analyzed, including age, cause of injury, injury-to-operation time, operative time, fracture type, nausea, vomiting and other concomitant symptoms and injuries. Results All patients who presented with extraocular muscle limitations, positive CT findings, and/or a positive forced duction test underwent surgery. Of the 37 patients, 9 (24% exhibited lasting complications, such as diplopia and gaze restriction. The mean follow-up period was 18.4 months (range, 1–108 months, while that of patients who experienced prolonged complications was 30.1 months (range, 13–36 months. Two factors were significantly associated with prolonged complications: injury-to-operation time and nausea/vomiting. Loss of vision, worsening of motility, and implant complication did not occur. Conclusions Patients who present with gaze limitations, with or without other signs of a blow-out fracture, require a thorough evaluation and emergent surgery. A better prognosis is expected with a shorter injury-to-operation time and lack of nausea and vomiting at the initial presentation.

  19. Shock Prevention

    1978-01-01

    The electrician pictured is installing a General Electric Ground Fault Interrupter (GFI), a device which provides protection against electrical shock in the home or in industrial facilities. Shocks due to defective wiring in home appliances or other electrical equipment can cause severe burns, even death. As a result, the National Electrical Code now requires GFIs in all new homes constructed. This particular type of GFI employs a sensing element which derives from technology acquired in space projects by SCI Systems, Inc., Huntsville, Alabama, producer of sensors for GE and other manufacturers of GFI equipment. The sensor is based on the company's experience in developing miniaturized circuitry for space telemetry and other spacecraft electrical systems; this experience enabled SCI to package interruptor circuitry in the extremely limited space available and to produce sensory devices at practicable cost. The tiny sensor measures the strength of the electrical current and detects current differentials that indicate a fault in the functioning of an electrical system. The sensing element then triggers a signal to a disconnect mechanism in the GFI, which cuts off the current in the faulty circuit.

  20. [Incarcerated epitrochlear fracture with a cubital nerve injury].

    Moril-Peñalver, L; Pellicer-Garcia, V; Gutierrez-Carbonell, P

    2013-01-01

    Injuries of the medial epicondyle are relatively common, mostly affecting children between 7 and 15 years. The anatomical characteristics of this apophysis can make diagnosis difficult in minimally displaced fractures. In a small percentage of cases, the fractured fragment may occupy the retroepitrochlear groove. The presence of dysesthesias in the territory of the ulnar nerve requires urgent open reduction of the incarcerated fragment. A case of a seven-year-old male patient is presented, who required surgical revision due to a displaced medial epicondyle fracture associated with ulnar nerve injury. A review of the literature is also made. Copyright © 2013 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  1. Physicians in US Prisons in the Era of Mass Incarceration.

    Allen, Scott A; Wakeman, Sarah E; Cohen, Robert L; Rich, Josiah D

    2010-12-01

    The United States leads the world in creating prisoners, incarcerating one in 100 adults and housing 25% of the world's prisoners. Since the 1976, the US Supreme Court ruling that mandated health care for inmates, doctors have been an integral part of the correctional system. Yet conditions within corrections are not infrequently in direct conflict with optimal patient care, particularly for those suffering from mental illness and addiction. In addition to providing and working to improve clinical care for prisoners, physicians have an opportunity and an obligation to advocate for reform in the system of corrections when it conflicts with patient well-being.

  2. INTERFERENCE OF COUNTERPROPAGATING SHOCK WAVES

    P. V. Bulat

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The subject of study. We examined the interaction of counterpropagating shock waves. The necessity of counterpropagating shock waves studying occurs at designing of high Mach number modern internal compression air intakes, Ramjets with subsonic and supersonic combustion, in asymmetrical supersonic nozzles and in some other cases. In a sense, this problem is a generalization of the case of an oblique shock reflection from the wall or from the plane of symmetry. With the renewed vigor, the interest to this problem emerged at the end of the 90s. This was due to the start of the programs for flight study at hypersonic speeds. The first experiments performed with air intakes, which realized the interaction of counterpropagating shock waves have shown that the change in flow velocity is accompanied by abrupt alteration of shock-wave structure, the occurrence of nonstationary and oscillatory phenomena. With an increase of flow velocity these phenomena undesirable for aircraft structure became more marked. The reason is that there are two fundamentally different modes of interaction of counterpropagating shock waves: a four-wave regular and a five-wave irregular. The transition from one mode to another can be nonstationary abrupt or gradual, it can also be accompanied by hysteresis. Main results. Criteria for the transition from regular reflection of counterpropagating shock waves to irregular are described: the criterion of von Neumann and the stationary Mach configuration criterion. We described areas in which the transition from one reflection type to another is possible only in abrupt way, as well as areas of possible gradual transition. Intensity dependences of the reflected shock waves from the intensity of interacting counterpropagating shocks were given. Qualitative pictures of shock-wave structures arising from the interaction of counterpropagating shock waves were shown. Calculation results of the intensity of outgoing gas

  3. Emotional Intelligence and Callous-Unemotional Traits in Incarcerated Adolescents.

    Kahn, Rachel E; Ermer, Elsa; Salovey, Peter; Kiehl, Kent A

    2016-12-01

    Emotional intelligence (EI) is the ability to perceive, manage, and reason about emotions and to use this information to guide thinking and behavior adaptively. Youth with callous-unemotional (CU) traits demonstrate a variety of affective deficits, including impairment in recognition of emotion and reduced emotional responsiveness to distress or pain in others. We examined the association between ability EI and CU traits in a sample of incarcerated adolescents (n = 141) using an expert-rater device (Psychopathy Checklist Youth Version (PCL-YV; Manual for the Hare psychopathy checklist: Youth version. Multi-Health Systems, Toronto, 2003) and self-report assessments of CU traits. EI was assessed using the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test-Youth Version, Research Version (MSCEIT-YV-R; MSCEIT YV: Mayer-Salovey-Caruso emotional intelligence test: Youth version, research version 1.0. Multi-Health Systems, Toronto, Ontario, 2005). Similar to findings in adult forensic populations, high levels of CU traits in incarcerated adolescents were associated with lower EI, particularly higher order EI skills. Identifying impairment on EI abilities may have important implications for emerging treatment and intervention developments for youth with high levels of CU traits.

  4. Genotype distribution and treatment response among incarcerated drug-dependent patients with chronic hepatitis C infection.

    Chun-Han Cheng

    Full Text Available The prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV infection is disproportionately high among prisoners, especially among those who are drug-dependent. However, current screening and treatment recommendations are inconsistent for this population, and appropriate care is not reliably provided. To address these problems, the present study aimed to identify unique characteristics and clinical manifestations of incarcerated patients with HCV infection. We included incarcerated patients who received treatment with pegylated-interferon combined with ribavirin at Mackay Memorial Hospital in Taitung and were serving sentences at either the Taiyuan Skill Training Institute or the Yanwan Training Institute. HCV genotypes 1 (41.4%, 3 (25.9%, and 6 (24.1% were the most prevalent in the incarcerated patients. During the study period, we analyzed treatment response among 58 incarcerated patients and compared obtained results with treatment response among 52 patients who were living in the community. Higher sustained virological response rate was observed among patients with incarceration and HCV genotype other than 1. The odds ratios (corresponding 95% confidence intervals for incarceration and genotype 1 were 2.75 (1.06-7.11 and 0.37 (0.14-0.99, respectively. Better treatment compliance among incarcerated patients might partially explain these results. The results of this study suggest that treatment of prisoners with HCV infection is feasible and effective. More appropriate and timely methods are needed to prevent HCV transmission among injection drug users inside prisons.

  5. Collisionless electrostatic shocks

    Andersen, H.K.; Andersen, S.A.; Jensen, Vagn Orla

    1970-01-01

    An attempt was made in the laboratory to observe the standing collisionless electrostatic shocks in connection with the bow shock of the earth......An attempt was made in the laboratory to observe the standing collisionless electrostatic shocks in connection with the bow shock of the earth...

  6. An innovative surgical technique for treating penile incarceration injury caused by heavy metallic ring

    S J Baruah

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Penile incarceration injury by heavy metallic ring is a rare genital injury. A man may place metal object for erotic or autoerotic purposes, for masturbation or increasing erection, and due to psychiatric disturbances are some of the reasons for a penile incarceration injury. The incarcerating injury results in reduced blood flow distal to the injury, leading to edema, ischemia, and sometimes gangrene. These injuries are divided into five grades and their treatment options are divided into four groups. Surgical techniques are reserved for the advanced grades (Grades IV and V. We describe an innovative surgical technique, which can be adopted in Grades II and III injuries.

  7. A qualitative study of incarcerated mothers' perceptions of the impact of separation on their children.

    Gilham, Jerry Jo M

    2012-01-01

    Many incarcerated women are mothers, and their children exhibit various responses to the separation that incarceration commands. This exploratory qualitative study examines incarcerated women's perceptions of the consequences of their illegal activity, confinement, and separation from their children on their offspring. The results indicate that although mothers are concerned about their children, they are typically unable to recognize the negative consequences of their actions on their children and their relationship with their children until beginning intensive treatment. Effective treatment must focus on the woman's personal issues along with their parenting abilities and skills to repair these relationships and promote healthy family functioning.

  8. CT and US findings of ovarian torsion within an incarcerated inguinal hernia.

    Hyun, Park Mee; Jung, Ah Young; Lee, Yul; Yang, Ik; Yang, Dae Hyun; Hwang, Ji-Young

    2015-02-01

    Inguinal hernia is relatively common in children. Although inguinal hernia is not frequently encountered in girls in comparison to boys, there are occasional cases of uterine or ovarian herniation in female indirect inguinal hernia. Incarcerated ovary in hernia sac has the risk of torsion and strangulation. We present an 8-year-old girl with painful mass in her left groin. With computed tomography (CT) and ultrasonography (US), we made the diagnosis of ovarian strangulation within an incarcerated inguinal hernia. Since ultrasound is primarily used for evaluation of groin mass, CT findings of an incarcerated inguinal hernia is rarely reported.

  9. Shock Thermodynamic Applied Research Facility (STAR)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The STAR facility, within Sandia's Solid Dynamic Physics Department, is one of a few institutions in the world with a major shock-physics program. This is the only...

  10. Shock and vibration technology with applications to electrical systems

    Eshleman, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    A survey is presented of shock and vibration technology for electrical systems developed by the aerospace programs. The shock environment is surveyed along with new techniques for modeling, computer simulation, damping, and response analysis. Design techniques based on the use of analog computers, shock spectra, optimization, and nonlinear isolation are discussed. Shock mounting of rotors for performance and survival, and vibration isolation techniques are reviewed.

  11. Geometrical shock dynamics for magnetohydrodynamic fast shocks

    Mostert, W.; Pullin, D. I.; Samtaney, Ravi; Wheatley, V.

    2016-01-01

    We describe a formulation of two-dimensional geometrical shock dynamics (GSD) suitable for ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) fast shocks under magnetic fields of general strength and orientation. The resulting area–Mach-number–shock-angle relation is then incorporated into a numerical method using pseudospectral differentiation. The MHD-GSD model is verified by comparison with results from nonlinear finite-volume solution of the complete ideal MHD equations applied to a shock implosion flow in the presence of an oblique and spatially varying magnetic field ahead of the shock. Results from application of the MHD-GSD equations to the stability of fast MHD shocks in two dimensions are presented. It is shown that the time to formation of triple points for both perturbed MHD and gas-dynamic shocks increases as (Formula presented.), where (Formula presented.) is a measure of the initial Mach-number perturbation. Symmetry breaking in the MHD case is demonstrated. In cylindrical converging geometry, in the presence of an azimuthal field produced by a line current, the MHD shock behaves in the mean as in Pullin et al. (Phys. Fluids, vol. 26, 2014, 097103), but suffers a greater relative pressure fluctuation along the shock than the gas-dynamic shock. © 2016 Cambridge University Press

  12. Geometrical shock dynamics for magnetohydrodynamic fast shocks

    Mostert, W.

    2016-12-12

    We describe a formulation of two-dimensional geometrical shock dynamics (GSD) suitable for ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) fast shocks under magnetic fields of general strength and orientation. The resulting area–Mach-number–shock-angle relation is then incorporated into a numerical method using pseudospectral differentiation. The MHD-GSD model is verified by comparison with results from nonlinear finite-volume solution of the complete ideal MHD equations applied to a shock implosion flow in the presence of an oblique and spatially varying magnetic field ahead of the shock. Results from application of the MHD-GSD equations to the stability of fast MHD shocks in two dimensions are presented. It is shown that the time to formation of triple points for both perturbed MHD and gas-dynamic shocks increases as (Formula presented.), where (Formula presented.) is a measure of the initial Mach-number perturbation. Symmetry breaking in the MHD case is demonstrated. In cylindrical converging geometry, in the presence of an azimuthal field produced by a line current, the MHD shock behaves in the mean as in Pullin et al. (Phys. Fluids, vol. 26, 2014, 097103), but suffers a greater relative pressure fluctuation along the shock than the gas-dynamic shock. © 2016 Cambridge University Press

  13. Representations of attachment relationships in children of incarcerated mothers.

    Poehlmann, Julie

    2005-01-01

    Representations of attachment relationships were assessed in 54 children ages 2.5 to 7.5 years whose mothers were currently incarcerated. Consistent with their high-risk status, most (63%) children were classified as having insecure relationships with mothers and caregivers. Secure relationships were more likely when children lived in a stable caregiving situation, when children reacted to separation from the mother with sadness rather than anger, and when children were older. Common reactions to initial separation included sadness, worry, confusion, anger, loneliness, sleep problems, and developmental regressions. Results highlight need for support in families affected by maternal imprisonment, especially efforts to promote stable, continuous placements for children, in addition to underscoring the importance of longitudinal research with this growing but understudied group.

  14. Advanced and Exploratory Shock Sensing Mechanisms.

    Nelsen, Nicholas H. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kolb, James D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kulkarni, Akshay G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sorscher, Zachary [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Habing, Clayton D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mathis, Allen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Beller, Zachary J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Mechanical component response to shock environments must be predictable in order to ensure reliability and safety. Whether the shock input results from accidental drops during transportation to projectile impact scenarios, the system must irreversibly transition into a safe state that is incapable of triggering the component . With this critical need in mind, the 2017 Nuclear Weapons Summer Product Realization Institute (NW SPRINT) program objective sought the design of a passive shock failsafe with emphasis on additively manufactured (AM) components. Team Advanced and Exploratory (A&E) responded to the challenge by designing and delivering multiple passive shock sensing mech anisms that activate within a prescribed mechanical shock threshold. These AM failsafe designs were tuned and validated using analytical and computational techniques including the shock response spectrum (SRS) and finite element analysis (FEA). After rapid prototyping, the devices experienced physical shock tests conducted on Sandia drop tables to experimentally verify performance. Keywords: Additive manufacturing, dynamic system, failsafe, finite element analysis, mechanical shock, NW SPRINT, shock respon se spectrum

  15. Childhood experiences of incarcerated male child sexual abusers.

    Garrett, Linda H

    2010-10-01

    While numerous efforts have been made to understand the impact of child sexual abuse, little has been done to examine the childhood experiences of those who abuse children. Child sexual abusers have been studied from quantitative perspectives using behavioral checklists, parental-bonding surveys, and sexual history questionnaires. The purpose of this study was to explore incarcerated child sexual abusers' recollections of their childhood experiences using the descriptive existential lens of phenomenology. Eight incarcerated male child sexual abusers described their childhood from existential perspectives of lived space, lived other, lived body, and lived time via face-to-face semi-structured interviews. Analysis was accomplished through the qualitative, descriptive method of Max van Manen. Rich descriptions of the participants' insights into their daily childhood life experiences that shaped their self-concepts and contributed to their adult behaviors were gathered. Four major themes were identified: (1) failure to root, (2) what you see is what you learn, (3) stupid is as stupid does, and (4) life's moments. Data from this study suggest that the experiences of childhood significantly contribute to an adult self-concept that can be distorted by the lack of a secure home space, maladaptive relationships, internalization of inappropriate behavior, and a lack of significant family development. This study explores the psychosocial and behavioral consequences of early childhood experiences. The findings support the need for family and psychological mental health nurse practitioners to be more aware of early home environments; improve their assessment of children's developing self-concept and the potential for abusive relationships.

  16. The Role of Masculine Norms and Informal Support on Mental Health in Incarcerated Men.

    Iwamoto, Derek Kenji; Gordon, Derrick; Oliveros, Arazais; Perez-Cabello, Arturo; Brabham, Tamika; Lanza, Steve; Dyson, William

    2012-07-01

    Mental health problems, in general, and major depression in particular, are prevalent among incarcerated men. It is estimated that 23% of state inmates report experiencing symptoms of major depression. Despite the high rates of depressive symptoms, there is little understanding about the psychosocial factors that are associated with depressive and anxiety symptoms of incarcerated men. One factor relevant to the mental health of incarcerated men is their adherence to traditional masculine norms. We investigated the role of masculine norms and informal support on depressive and anxiety symptoms among 123 incarcerated men. The results revealed that adherence to the masculine norm of emotional control were negatively associated with depressive symptoms while heterosexual presentation and informal support were related to both depressive and anxiety symptoms. High levels of reported informal support moderated the effects of heterosexual presentation on depressive and anxiety symptoms. Public health and clinical implications are discussed.

  17. Stress proliferation across generations? Examining the relationship between parental incarceration and childhood health.

    Turney, Kristin

    2014-09-01

    Stress proliferation theory suggests that parental incarceration may have deleterious intergenerational health consequences. In this study, I use data from the 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health (NSCH) to estimate the relationship between parental incarceration and children's fair or poor overall health, a range of physical and mental health conditions, activity limitations, and chronic school absence. Descriptive statistics show that children of incarcerated parents are a vulnerable population who experience disadvantages across an array of health outcomes. After adjusting for demographic, socioeconomic, and familial characteristics, I find that parental incarceration is independently associated with learning disabilities, attention deficit disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, behavioral or conduct problems, developmental delays, and speech or language problems. Taken together, results suggest that children's health disadvantages are an overlooked and unintended consequence of mass incarceration and that incarceration, given its unequal distribution across the population, may have implications for population-level racial-ethnic and social class inequalities in children's health. © American Sociological Association 2014.

  18. Miniature shock tube for laser driven shocks.

    Busquet, Michel; Barroso, Patrice; Melse, Thierry; Bauduin, Daniel

    2010-02-01

    We describe in this paper the design of a miniature shock tube (smaller than 1 cm(3)) that can be placed in a vacuum vessel and allows transverse optical probing and longitudinal backside extreme ultraviolet emission spectroscopy in the 100-500 A range. Typical application is the study of laser launched radiative shocks, in the framework of what is called "laboratory astrophysics."

  19. Are Credit Shocks Supply or Demand Shocks?

    Bijapur, Mohan

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides new insights into the relationship between the supply of credit and the macroeconomy. We present evidence that credit shocks constitute shocks to aggregate supply in that they have a permanent effect on output and cause inflation to rise in the short term. Our results also suggest that the effects on aggregate supply have grown stronger in recent decades.

  20. Shock absorbing structure

    Kojima, Naoki; Matsushita, Kazuo.

    1992-01-01

    Small pieces of shock absorbers are filled in a space of a shock absorbing vessel which is divided into a plurality of sections by partitioning members. These sections function to prevent excess deformation or replacement of the fillers upon occurrence of falling accident. Since the shock absorbing small pieces in the shock absorbing vessel are filled irregularly, shock absorbing characteristics such as compression strength is not varied depending on the direction, but they exhibit excellent shock absorbing performance. They surely absorb shocks exerted on a transportation vessel upon falling or the like. If existing artificial fillers such as pole rings made of metal or ceramic and cut pieces such as alumium extrusion molding products are used as the shock absorbing pieces, they have excellent fire-proofness and cold resistance since the small pieces are inflammable and do not contain water. (T.M.)

  1. Melting under shock compression

    Bennett, B.I.

    1980-10-01

    A simple model, using experimentally measured shock and particle velocities, is applied to the Lindemann melting formula to predict the density, temperature, and pressure at which a material will melt when shocked from room temperature and zero pressure initial conditions

  2. Biomass shock pretreatment

    Holtzapple, Mark T.; Madison, Maxine Jones; Ramirez, Rocio Sierra; Deimund, Mark A.; Falls, Matthew; Dunkelman, John J.

    2014-07-01

    Methods and apparatus for treating biomass that may include introducing a biomass to a chamber; exposing the biomass in the chamber to a shock event to produce a shocked biomass; and transferring the shocked biomass from the chamber. In some aspects, the method may include pretreating the biomass with a chemical before introducing the biomass to the chamber and/or after transferring shocked biomass from the chamber.

  3. Discrimination Fully Mediates the Effects of Incarceration History on Depressive Symptoms and Psychological Distress Among African American Men.

    Assari, Shervin; Miller, Reuben Jonathan; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Mouzon, Dawne; Keith, Verna; Chatters, Linda M

    2018-04-01

    Using a nationally representative sample of African American men, this study investigated the associations between lifetime history of incarceration, discrimination, and mental health (e.g., depressive symptoms and psychological distress). We hypothesized that discrimination would fully mediate the association between incarceration history and mental health outcomes among African American men. Using a cross-sectional design, our analysis included 1271 African American men who participated in the National Survey of American Life (NSAL), 2001-2003. Incarceration history was the main independent variable. Depressive symptoms and psychological distress were the dependent variables. Everyday discrimination was the mediator. Age, education, and income were covariates. Structural equation models (SEMs) were used for data analysis. Among African American men, incarceration history was positively associated with perceived discrimination, depressive symptoms, and psychological distress. Everyday discrimination fully mediated the associations between incarceration history and both depressive symptoms and psychological distress. Discrimination may play an important role in the mental health problems of African American men with a history of incarceration. These findings have public policy implications as well as clinical implications for mental health promotion of African American men. Policies that reduce preventable incarceration or at least reduce subsequent discrimination for those who have been incarcerated may enhance mental health of previously incarcerated African American men.

  4. "How can you live without your kids?": Distancing from and embracing the stigma of “incarcerated mother"

    Brittnie Aiello

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article examines how incarcerated mothers constructed moral identities in the face of stigma. Analyzing data from participant observation and 83 in-depth interviews with incarcerated mothers, we show that mothers claimed moral identities by distancing from the stigma of incarceration and/or embracing the identity of incarcerated mothers. Utilizing these strategies, women challenged the stigma of convicted felon/bad mother and reinforced the assumptions that motherhood is compulsory and should be reserved for women with enough money and standing to give their children advantages. The implications for understanding motherhood as a mechanism of moral identity and social control are discussed.

  5. Relativistic Shock Acceleration

    Duffy, P.; Downes, T.P.; Gallant, Y.A.; Kirk, J.G.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we briefly review the basic theory of shock waves in relativistic hydrodynamics and magneto-hydrodynamics, emphasising some astrophysically interesting cases. We then present an overview of the theory of particle acceleration at such shocks describing the methods used to calculate the spectral indices of energetic particles. Recent results on acceleration at ultra-relativistic shocks are discussed. (author)

  6. Racial/ethnic disparities in history of incarceration, experiences of victimization, and associated health indicators among transgender women in the U.S.

    Reisner, Sari L; Bailey, Zinzi; Sevelius, Jae

    2014-01-01

    Limited national data document the prevalence of incarceration among transgender women, experiences of victimization while incarcerated, and associations of transgender status with health. Data were from the National Transgender Discrimination Survey (NTDS), a large convenience sample of transgender adults in the U.S., collected between September 2008 and March 2009. Respondents who indicated a transfeminine gender identity were included in the current study (n = 3,878). Multivariable logistic regression was used to model ever being incarcerated and experiencing victimization while incarcerated as a function of race/ethnicity and health-related indicators. Overall, 19.3% reported having ever been incarcerated. Black and Native American/Alaskan Native transgender women were more likely to report a history of incarceration than White (non-Hispanic) respondents, and those with a history of incarceration were more likely to report negative health-related indicators, including self-reporting as HIV-positive. Among previously incarcerated respondents, 47.0% reported victimization while incarcerated. Black, Latina, and mixed race transgender women were more likely to report experiences of victimization while incarcerated. Transgender women reported disproportionately high rates of incarceration and victimization while incarcerated, as well as associated negative health-related indicators. Interventions and policy changes are needed to support transgender women while incarcerated and upon release.

  7. Radiography for a Shock-accelerated Liquid Layer

    P. Meekunnasombat J.G. Oakley/inst M.H. Anderson R. Bonazza

    2005-01-01

    This program supported the experimental study of the interaction of planar shock waves with both solid structures (a single cylinder or a bank of cylinders) and single and multiple liquid layers. Objectives of the study included: characterization of the shock refraction patterns; measurements of the impulsive loading of the solid structures; observation of the response of the liquid layers to shock acceleration; assessment of the shock-mitigation effects of single and multiple liquid layers. The uploaded paper is intended as a final report for the entire funding period. The poster described in the paper won the Best Poster Award at the 25 International Symposium on Shock Waves

  8. Policy and Legal Protection for Breastfeeding and Incarcerated Women in Canada.

    Paynter, Martha Jane

    2018-05-01

    Most incarcerated women in Canada are mothers. Because women are the fastest growing population in carceral facilities, protecting the rights of incarcerated women to breastfeed their children is increasingly important. There is considerable evidence that incarcerated women in Canada experience poor physical and mental health, isolation, and barriers to care. Incarcerated women and their children could benefit significantly from breastfeeding. This Insight in Policy explores policy and legal protection for breastfeeding in Canada as it relates to carceral facilities, considers key cases regarding breastfeeding rights among incarcerated women, and presents recommendations for policy development and advocacy. The Canadian Constitution and human rights legislation across Canada prohibits discrimination on the basis of gender and includes pregnancy and the possibility of becoming pregnant as a characteristic of gender. Some provinces note that breastfeeding is a characteristic of gender. Women's Wellness Within, a nonprofit organization providing volunteer perinatal support to criminalized women in Nova Scotia, conducted a scan of all provincial and territorial correctional services acts and the federal Corrections and Conditional Release Act: none mention breastfeeding. Protocols for breastfeeding during arrest and lockup by police were not available in any jurisdiction across Canada. International law, including the Convention on the Rights of the Child, the Nelson Mandela Rules, and the Bangkok Rules, have application to the rights of incarcerated breastfeeding women. The Inglis v. British Columbia (Minister of Public Safety) (2013) and Hidalgo v. New Mexico Department of Corrections (2017) decisions are pivotal examples of successful litigation brought forward by incarcerated mothers to advance breastfeeding rights. Improved application and understanding of existent law could advance breastfeeding rights.

  9. A Tailored Approach for Incarcerated Boys : Q Study into the Needs of Incarcerated Boys in the Interaction with Group Workers in a Juvenile Correctional Institution

    Marie-José Geenen

    2017-01-01

    Behavioral change of incarcerated boys is influenced by the alliance with the group workers who support them. This alliance is partly determined by the extent to which both the needs of group workers and boys are being fulfilled. The objective of this research was to explore the views of

  10. Temperature measurements of shock-compressed deuterium

    Holmes, N.C.; Ross, M.; Nellis, W.J.

    1994-11-01

    The authors measured the temperatures of single and double-shocked D 2 and H 2 up to 85 GPa (0.85 Mbar) and 5,200 K. While single shock temperatures, at pressures to 23 GPa, agree well with previous models, the double shock temperatures are as much as 40% lower than predicted. This is believed to be caused by molecular dissociation, and a new model of the hydrogen EOS at extreme conditions has been developed which correctly predicts their observations. These data and model have important implications for programs which use condensed-phase hydrogen in implosion systems

  11. Alfven shock trains

    Malkov, M.A.; Kennel, C.F.; Wu, C.C.; Pellat, R.; Shapiro, V.D.

    1991-01-01

    The Cohen--Kulsrud--Burgers equation (CKB) is used to consider the nonlinear evolution of resistive, quasiparallel Alfven waves subject to a long-wavelength, plane-polarized, monochromatic instability. The instability saturates by nonlinear steepening, which proceeds until the periodic waveform develops an interior scale length comparable to the dissipation length; a fast or an intermediate shock then forms. The result is a periodic train of Alfven shocks of one or the other type. For propagation strictly parallel to the magnetic field, there will be two shocks per instability wavelength. Numerical integration of the time-dependent CKB equation shows that an initial, small-amplitude growing wave asymptotes to a stable, periodic stationary wave whose analytic solution specifies how the type of shock embedded in the shock train, and the amplitude and speed of the shock train, depend on the strength and phase of the instability. Waveforms observed upstream of the Earth's bowshock and cometary shocks resemble those calculated here

  12. Emotional intelligence in incarcerated men with psychopathic traits

    Ermer, Elsa; Kahn, Rachel E.; Salovey, Peter; Kiehl, Kent A.

    2012-01-01

    The expression, recognition, and communication of emotional states are ubiquitous features of the human social world. Emotional intelligence (EI) is defined as the ability to perceive, manage, and reason about emotions, in oneself and others. Individuals with psychopathy have numerous difficulties in social interaction and show impairment on some emotional tasks. Here we investigate the relation between emotional intelligence and psychopathy in a sample of incarcerated men (n=374), using the Psychopathy Checklist—Revised (PCL-R; Hare, 2003) and the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT; Mayer, Salovey, & Caruso, 2002). The MSCEIT is a well-validated ability-based emotional intelligence measure that does not rely on self-report judgments of emotional skills. The Hare PCL-R is the gold-standard for the assessment of psychopathy in clinical populations. Controlling for general intelligence, psychopathy was associated with lower emotional intelligence. These findings suggest individuals with psychopathy are impaired on a range of emotional intelligence abilities and that emotional intelligence is an important area for understanding deficits in psychopathy. PMID:22329657

  13. WOMEN'S HEALTH INCARCERATED: A PROPOSAL FOR INTERVENTION, LOVE AND LIFE

    Marlene Menezes de Souza Teixeira

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Identify and understand the situation of incarcerated women and access to health in the prison system. The study was conducted by a health professional (nurse and with the participation of twenty students of the nursing course of a private university. The data were collected in interviews and the written responses and grouped into categories through content analysis, we studied 38 women prisoners in the age group of 18 to 40 years. We identified socioeconomic data, as well as the discourses of women prisoners who revealed the point of view on health care, prevention and promotion received in prison, knowledge about the sexual diseases that affect them, as well as treatment and education in health, opinions on the campaigns and advertisements of the Ministry of Health aimed at women and interests on subjects to be discussed in the next meetings. Este estudo revela à importância de políticas públicas que estabeleçam estratégias de prevenção e promoção a saúde na busca por uma qualidade de vida destas mulheres. This study reveals the importance of public policies that establish prevention strategies and promote health in the quest for a quality of life of these women.

  14. Psychological treatment and therapeutic change in incarcerated rapists

    Ana Martínez-Catena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Most Spanish prisons provide specialised treatment for incarcerated sex offenders, both rapists and child molesters. This treatment is a cognitive-behavioural intervention that has shown relative effectiveness in previous research. With regard to offenders’ rehabilitation, recidivism assessments are necessary as a final measure of treatment effectiveness. However, the evaluation of recidivism by itself does not provide sufficient information on the treatment process and the specific effects that treated subjects could undergo. This paper aims to analyse the therapeutic effectiveness of psychological treatment provided to rapists (in general, males sentenced for committing a sexual offence against women. To this aim, a group of treated rapists (N=153 serving a sentence in prison was analysed. Using a specially designed scale (PASSO, the global therapeutic change and ten specific variables (including assertiveness, readiness to change, cognitive distortions, impulsivity, etc. were assessed. The within-subjects comparison showed that treated sex offenders improved, in therapeutic terms, globally as well as in most of the specific variables assessed (improvements not experimented by the control group. Also, different therapeutic subscales showed relevant associations between them. The findings regarding treatment effectiveness are discussed.

  15. Elevated risk of incarceration among street-involved youth who initiate drug dealing

    Carly Hoy

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Street-involved youth are known to be an economically vulnerable population that commonly resorts to risky activities such as drug dealing to generate income. While incarceration is common among people who use illicit drugs and associated with increased economic vulnerability, interventions among this population remain inadequate. Although previous research has documented the role of incarceration in further entrenching youth in both the criminal justice system and street life, less is known whether recent incarceration predicts initiating drug dealing among vulnerable youth. This study examines the relationship between incarceration and drug dealing initiation among street-involved youth. Methods Between September 2005 and November 2014, data were collected through the At-Risk Youth Study, a cohort of street-involved youth who use illicit drugs, in Vancouver, Canada. An extended Cox model with time-dependent variables was used to examine the relationship between recent incarceration and initiation into drug dealing, controlling for relevant confounders. Results Among 1172 youth enrolled, only 194 (16.6% were drug dealing naïve at baseline and completed at least one additional study visit to facilitate the assessment of drug dealing initiation. Among this sample, 56 (29% subsequently initiated drug dealing. In final multivariable Cox regression analysis, recent incarceration was significantly associated with initiating drug dealing (adjusted hazard ratio = 2.31; 95% confidence interval (CI 1.21–4.42, after adjusting for potential confounders. Measures of recent incarceration lagged to the prior study follow-up were not found to predict initiation of drug dealing (hazard ratio = 1.50; 95% CI 0.66–3.42. Conclusions These findings suggest that among this study sample, incarceration does not appear to significantly propel youth to initiate drug dealing. However, the initiation of drug dealing among youth coincides

  16. Encrusted and incarcerated urinary bladder catheter: what are the ...

    2010-11-25

    Nov 25, 2010 ... cases of extraluminal encrusted urethral catheters. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) has been utilised in the treatment of the bladder stones. Borrowing this principle, Kunzman et al. (12) has even used ESWL to fragment the stone-like encrustation over the retained Foley catheter balloon.

  17. Socialization in the Context of Risk and Psychopathology: Maternal Emotion Socialization in Children of Incarcerated Mothers.

    Zeman, Janice; Dallaire, Danielle; Borowski, Sarah

    2016-02-01

    Children of incarcerated mothers are at increased risk for psychological, social, and emotional maladaptation. This research investigates whether perceived maternal socialization of sadness and anger may moderate these outcomes in a sample of 154 children (53.9% boys, 61.7% Black, M age = 9.38, range: 6 - 12), their 118 mothers (64.1% Black), and 118 caregivers (74.8% female, 61.9% grandparents, 63.2% Black). Using mother, caregiver, and child report, seven maternal socialization strategies were assessed in their interaction with incarceration-specific risk experiences predicting children's adjustment. For sadness socialization, the results indicated that among children reporting maternal emotion-focused responses, incarceration-specific risk predicted increases in psychological problems, depressive symptoms, increased emotional lability, and poorer emotion regulation. For children who perceived a problem-focused response, incarceration-specific risk did not predict outcomes. There were no significant interactions with incarceration-specific risk and perceived maternal anger socialization strategies. These results indicate a critical need to examine how socialization processes may operate differently for children raised in atypical socializing contexts.

  18. Childhood adversity and adult depression among the incarcerated: differential exposure and vulnerability by race/ethnicity and gender.

    Roxburgh, Susan; MacArthur, Kelly Rhea

    2014-08-01

    The relationship between childhood adversity and adult depression is well-established but less is known about the association between childhood adversity and adult depression among the incarcerated. In this paper, we examine differential exposure and vulnerability to childhood adversity by race/ethnicity and gender on adult depression among the incarcerated in the United States. We address three research questions: does exposure to childhood adverse experiences vary by race/ethnicity and gender? Is there an association between these childhood adverse events and depression and does the strength of the association vary by the specific adverse experiences? And does vulnerability to childhood adversity vary by gender and race/ethnicity? Using the 2004 Survey of Inmates in State and Federal Correctional Facilities (SI-SFCF), we measure four key childhood adverse events - parental/caretaker substance abuse, physical assault, having been placed in foster care, and sexual assault. We use ordinary least squares regression and a series of interaction effect analyses to examine differential exposure and vulnerability to the four childhood adverse experiences by race/ethnicity and gender. Incarcerated women are more likely to report parental substance abuse, but all inmates/prisoners are similarly vulnerable to this experience. For the other three adverse experiences measured, we find that there are important racial/ethnic and gender differences in both exposure and vulnerability. African American men and women are more vulnerable to the effects of physical and sexual victimization than White and Hispanic men and women. Women are much more likely to be exposed to sexual victimization, but men who report this experience are significantly more depressed. Hispanic women and White men and women are more likely to report foster care, but all inmates/prisoners who report foster care experiences are significantly more depressed than other inmates/prisoners, with the exception of

  19. System Shock: The Archetype of Operational Shock

    2017-05-25

    the battle space. They can also facilitate a much greater understanding of the variables involved in each party’s decision - making process. However...system shock nests within current US Army Unified Land Operations doctrine. In order to test the utility of system shock theory to Gray Zone...23 Neil E. Harrison, “Thinking about the World We Make ” in Chaos Theory in the Social Sciences: Foundations and Applications

  20. An Exploration of Factors Reducing Recidivism Rates of Formerly Incarcerated Youth with Disabilities Participating in a Re-Entry Intervention

    Unruh, Deanne K.; Gau, Jeff M.; Waintrup, Miriam G.

    2009-01-01

    Juvenile offenders are costly to our society in terms of the monetary and social expenditures from the legal system, victims' person costs, and incarceration. The re-entry and community reintegration outcomes for formerly incarcerated youth with a disabling condition are bleak compared to peers without disabilities. In this study, we examined the…

  1. The Affordable Care Act, Insurance Coverage, and Health Care Utilization of Previously Incarcerated Young Men: 2008-2015.

    Winkelman, Tyler N A; Choi, HwaJung; Davis, Matthew M

    2017-05-01

    To estimate health insurance and health care utilization patterns among previously incarcerated men following implementation of the Affordable Care Act's (ACA's) Medicaid expansion and Marketplace plans in 2014. We performed serial cross-sectional analyses using data from the National Survey of Family Growth between 2008 and 2015. Our sample included men aged 18 to 44 years with (n = 3476) and without (n = 8702) a history of incarceration. Uninsurance declined significantly among previously incarcerated men after ACA implementation (-5.9 percentage points; 95% confidence interval [CI] = -11.5, -0.4), primarily because of an increase in private insurance (6.8 percentage points; 95% CI = 0.1, 13.3). Previously incarcerated men accounted for a large proportion of the remaining uninsured (38.6%) in 2014 to 2015. Following ACA implementation, previously incarcerated men continued to be significantly less likely to report a regular source of primary care and more likely to report emergency department use than were never-incarcerated peers. Health insurance coverage improved among previously incarcerated men following ACA implementation. However, these men account for a substantial proportion of the remaining uninsured. Previously incarcerated men continue to lack primary care and frequently utilize acute care services.

  2. A fresh start from arrested motherhood: A randomized trial of parent training for mothers being released from incarceration

    Menting, A.T.A.

    2012-01-01

    Children of incarcerated mothers are considered one of the most at risk populations for delinquency. Parenting may play a key role in this intergenerational transmission of delinquency. The aim of this dissertation was to examine problems faced by families affected by maternal incarceration, and to

  3. The Mediating Role of Self-Regulation between Intrafamilial Violence and Mental Health Adjustment in Incarcerated Male Adolescents

    Perkins, Suzanne C.; Cortina, Kai S.; Smith-Darden, Joanne P.; Graham-Bermann, Sandra A.

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates the relation between history of intrafamilial violence and self-regulatory capacity, cognitive processing, and mental health adjustment in incarcerated adolescents. Adolescents were incarcerated at the time of the study for various violent offenses, ranging from persistent delinquency to sexual assault (n = 115). A model…

  4. Educational Attainment, Teacher-Student Ratios, and the Risk of Adult Incarceration among U.S. Birth Cohorts since 1910

    Arum, Richard; LaFree, Gary

    2008-01-01

    Little is known about the relationship between school characteristics, such as teacher-student ratios, and the risk of incarceration in adulthood. Educational skeptics argue that investment in schools has little effect on outcomes, such as criminality or the risk of incarceration, because criminal propensities are fixed at an early age and…

  5. Key Stakeholders' Perceptions of Motivators for Research Participation Among Individuals Who Are Incarcerated.

    Hanson, Bridget L; Faulkner, Sherilyn A; Brems, Christiane; Corey, Staci L; Eldridge, Gloria D; Johnson, Mark E

    2015-10-01

    Understanding motivations of research participants is crucial for developing ethical research protocols, especially for research with vulnerable populations. Through interviews with 92 institutional review board members, prison administrators, research ethicists, and researchers, we explored key stakeholders' perceptions of what motivates incarcerated individuals to participate in research. Primary motivators identified were a desire to contribute to society, gaining knowledge and health care, acquiring incentives, and obtaining social support. The potential for undue influence or coercion were also identified as motivators. These results highlight the need for careful analysis of what motivates incarcerated individuals to participate in research as part of developing or reviewing ethically permissible and responsible research protocols. Future research should expand this line of inquiry to directly include perspectives of incarcerated individuals. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. HIV coping self-efficacy: a key to understanding stigma and HIV test acceptance among incarcerated men in Jamaica.

    Andrinopoulos, Katherine; Kerrigan, Deanna; Figueroa, J Peter; Reese, Richard; Ellen, Jonathan M

    2010-03-01

    Although prisons have been noted as important venues for HIV testing, few studies have explored the factors within this context that may influence HIV test acceptance. Moreover, there is a dearth of research related to HIV and incarcerated populations in middle and low-income countries, where both the burden of HIV and the number of people incarcerated is higher compared to high-income countries. This study explores the relationship between HIV coping self-efficacy, HIV-related stigma, and HIV test acceptance in the largest prisons in Jamaica. A random sample of inmates (n=298) recruited from an HIV testing demonstration project were asked to complete a cross-sectional quantitative survey. Participants who reported high HIV coping self-efficacy (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.86: 95% confidence interval CI 1.24-2.78, p-value=0.003), some perceived risk of HIV (AOR 2.51: 95% (CI) 1.57-4.01, p-value=0.000), and low HIV testing stigma (AOR 1.71: 95% CI 1.05-2.79, p-value=0.032) were more likely to test for HIV. Correlates of HIV coping self-efficacy included external and internal HIV stigma (AOR 1.28: 95% CI 1.25-1.32, p-value=0.000 and AOR 1.76: 95% CI 1.34-2.30, p-value=0.000, respectively), social support (AOR 2.09: 95% CI 1.19-3.68, p-value=0.010), and HIV knowledge (AOR 2.33: 95% CI 1.04-5.22, p-value=0.040). Policy and programs should focus on the interrelationships of these constructs to increase participation in HIV testing in prison.

  7. Two-trocar needlescopic approach to incarcerated inguinal hernia in children.

    Shalaby, Rafik; Shams, Abdul Moniem; Mohamed, Soliman; el-Leathy, Mohamed; Ibrahem, Medhat; Alsaed, Gamal

    2007-07-01

    Many studies described the safety and effectiveness of laparoscopy in the treatment of inguinal hernia in children. Needlescopic techniques have been recently used in repairing inguinal hernias, which made this type of surgery more cosmetic and less invasive. However, few reports have described its role in the treatment of incarcerated inguinal hernia. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility and outcome of needlescopy in the treatment of incarcerated inguinal hernia in children. A total of 250 children, comprising 190 boys and 60 girls, who presented with incarcerated inguinal hernia were analyzed. Their ages ranged from 6 months to 6 years (mean age, 2 years). In 170 (68%) cases, manual reduction was successful. One hundred of these patients were subjected to definitive surgery in the same day, whereas the remaining 70 patients were subjected to needlescopy 1 to 3 days later. In 80 (32%) cases, external manual reduction was unsuccessful. These children were subjected to urgent needlescopic reduction and herniorrhaphy. The incarcerated herniae were easily reduced and the contents thoroughly inspected under direct vision. Then the hernia was repaired in the same setting. In all patients, there was no need to convert the procedure to an open approach. Immediate needlescopic herniorrhaphy in the same session was added without significant increase in operative time. The mean operative time is 10 minutes. There were no intraoperative complications. The study showed that needlescopic approach to incarcerated inguinal hernia in children is feasible, safe, easy, and preferable to the open surgery. In addition to reduction of incarcerated hernial contents under direct vision, it allows definitive treatment of hernial defect at the same time without significant increase in operative time and hospital stay.

  8. Mindfulness Training Improves Attentional Task Performance in Incarcerated Youth: A Group Randomized Controlled Intervention Trial

    Noelle R Leonard

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the impact of cognitive behavioral therapy and mindfulness training (CBT/MT on attentional task performance in incarcerated adolescents. Attention is a cognitive system necessary for managing cognitive demands and regulating emotions. Yet persistent and intensive demands, such as those experienced during high-stress intervals like incarceration and the events leading to incarceration, may deplete attention resulting in cognitive failures, emotional disturbances, and impulsive behavior. We hypothesized that CBT/MT may mitigate these deleterious effects of high stress and protect against degradation in attention over the high-stress interval of incarceration. Using a group randomized controlled trial design, we randomly assigned dormitories of incarcerated youth, ages 16 to 18, to a CBT/MT intervention (youth n = 147 or an active control intervention (youth n = 117. Both arms received approximately 750 minutes of intervention in a small-group setting over a 3-5 week period. Youth in the CBT/MT arm also logged the amount of out-of-session time spent practicing MT exercises. The Attention Network Test was used to index attentional task performance at baseline and 4 months post-baseline. Overall, task performance degraded over time in all participants. The magnitude of performance degradation was significantly less in the CBT/MT vs. control arm. Further, within the CBT/MT arm, performance degraded over time in those with no outside-of-class practice time, but remained stable over time in those who practiced mindfulness exercises outside of the session meetings. Thus, these findings suggest that sufficient CBT/MT practice may protect against functional attentional impairments associated with high-stress intervals. Keywords: adolescent development, incarcerated adolescents, detained adolescents, stress, attention, mindfulness meditation.

  9. Incarcerated intravenous heroin users: predictors of post-release utilization of methadone maintenance treatment.

    Lin, Huang-Chi; Wang, Peng-Wei; Yang, Yi-Hsin; Tsai, Jih-Jin; Yen, Cheng-Fang

    2016-01-01

    Incarcerated intravenous heroin users have more problematic patterns of heroin use, but are less likely to access methadone maintenance treatment by their own initiative than heroin users in the community. The present study examined predictors for receiving methadone maintenance treatment post-release among incarcerated intravenous heroin users within a 24-month period. This cohort study recruited 315 incarcerated intravenous heroin users detained in 4 prisons in southern Taiwan and followed up within the 24-month period post-release. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was applied to determine the predictive effects of sociodemographic and drug-use characteristics, attitude toward methadone maintenance treatment, human immunodeficiency virus serostatus, perceived family support, and depression for access to methadone maintenance treatment after release. There were 295 (93.7%) incarcerated intravenous heroin users released that entered the follow-up phase of the study. During the 24-month follow-up period, 50.8% of them received methadone maintenance treatment. After controlling for the effects of the detainment period before and after recruitment by Cox proportional hazards regression analysis, incarcerated intravenous heroin users who had positive human immunodeficiency virus serostatus (HR = 2.85, 95% CI = 1.80-4.52, p maintenance treatment before committal (HR = 1.94, 95% CI = 1.23-3.05, p maintenance treatment within the 24-month follow-up period. Positive human immunodeficiency virus serostatus with fully subsidized treatment and previous methadone maintenance treatment experiences predicted access of methadone maintenance treatment post-release. Strategies for getting familiar with methadone maintenance treatment during detainment, including providing methadone maintenance treatment prior to release and lowering the economic burden of receiving treatment, may facilitate entry of methadone maintenance treatment for incarcerated intravenous heroin

  10. The Mortality Penalty of Incarceration: Evidence from a Population-based Case-control Study of Working-age Males.

    Pridemore, William Alex

    2014-06-01

    There is a growing body of research on the effects of incarceration on health, though there are few studies in the sociological literature of the association between incarceration and premature mortality. This study examined the risk of male premature mortality associated with incarceration. Data came from the Izhevsk (Russia) Family Study, a large-scale population-based case-control design. Cases (n = 1,750) were male deaths aged 25 to 54 in Izhevsk between October 2003 and October 2005. Controls (n = 1,750) were selected at random from a city population register. The key independent variable was lifetime prevalence of incarceration. I used logistic regression to estimate mortality odds ratios, controlling for age, hazardous drinking, smoking status, marital status, and education. Seventeen percent of cases and 5 percent of controls had been incarcerated. Men who had been incarcerated were more than twice as likely as those who had not to experience premature mortality (odds ratio = 2.2, 95 percent confidence interval: 1.6-3.0). Relative to cases with no prior incarceration, cases who had been incarcerated were more likely to die from infectious diseases, respiratory diseases, non-alcohol-related accidental poisonings, and homicide. Taken together with other recent research, these results from a rigorous case-control design reveal not only that incarceration has durable effects on illness, but that its consequences extend to a greater risk of early death. I draw on the sociology of health literature on exposure, stress, and social integration to speculate about the reasons for this mortality penalty of incarceration. © American Sociological Association 2014.

  11. A conceptual model of incarcerated adolescent fatherhood: adolescent identity development and the concept of intersectionality.

    Shade, Kate; Kools, Susan; Weiss, Sandra J; Pinderhughes, Howard

    2011-05-01

    Little is known about teen fathers though they are found to be disproportionately represented among incarcerated youth. SOURCE USED: This article is developed from a qualitative pilot study of adolescent fathers in the justice system. The authors theorize about teen fathers and the process by which they accept, reject, or are "barriered" from a father identity and role. Adolescence as a developmental period during which an identity is forming is viewed in concert with the concept of hegemonic masculinity and the concept of intersectionality. Risk factors in childhood and adolescence complete the conceptual model through which incarcerated adolescent fathers can be examined. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Rape myth acceptance impacts the reporting of rape to the police: a study of incarcerated women.

    Heath, Nicole M; Lynch, Shannon M; Fritch, April M; Wong, Maria M

    2013-09-01

    We examined the association between rape myth acceptance (RMA) and reporting rapes to the police. Situational characteristics of the rape (e.g., stranger attack, injury) are known predictors of reporting, but no existing studies have examined the association between beliefs about rape and reporting. In addition, most studies of RMA do not assess victimization history. Incarcerated women experience high rates of sexual assaults prior to incarceration. We recruited 74 rape survivors from a northwestern state prison. Results suggest that women who endorsed higher levels of RMA were less likely to report their rapes to police; however, participants endorsed few rape myths.

  13. An incarcerated Amyand’s hernia: Shall we apply appendectomy routinely?

    Gökhan Demiral

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Amyand’s hernia is a very rare clinical condition characterized by the presence of a normal or inflammed appendix within the inguinal hernia sac. It may be present as an acute apendicitis inside the sac or incarcerated hernia. Sometimes it may be asymptomatic. We report a case of 70-year-old male patient that was presented to our emergency service with a huge right inguinal mass that was diagnosed as an incarcerated inguinal hernia and underwent operation. The intraoperative findings included small intestinal segment, large omental tissue and mobile cecum with healthy appendix inside the sac. There was no sign of strangulation. Lichtenstein herniorhaphy was done without appendectomy.

  14. Insuring against Health Shocks: Health Insurance and Household Choices

    Liu, Kai

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides empirical evidence on the role of public health insurance in mitigating adverse outcomes associated with health shocks. Exploiting the rollout of a universal health insurance program in rural China, I find that total household income and consumption are fully insured against health shocks even without access to health insurance. Household labor supply is an important insurance mechanism against health shocks. Access to health insurance helps households to maintain investme...

  15. Resiliency Programming for Adult Offenders in Georgia.

    Rees, E. Frances

    2000-01-01

    Discusses resiliency programming as an alternative approach to program development for incarcerated adults, and describes a pilot project in a Georgia prison, Leadership Development, that uses the concept of resiliency to frame inmate education. Discusses implications of this model of correctional education. (SLD)

  16. Confronting the HIV, Tuberculosis, Addiction, and Incarceration Syndemic in Southeast Asia: Lessons Learned from Malaysia

    Culbert, Gabriel J.; Pillai, Veena; Bick, Joseph; Al-Darraji, Haider A.; Wickersham, Jeffrey A.; Wegman, Martin P.; Bazazi, Alexander R.; Ferro, Enrico; Copenhaver, Michael; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Altice, Frederick L.

    2016-01-01

    Throughout Southeast Asia, repressive drug laws have resulted in high rates of imprisonment in people who inject drugs and people living with HIV (PLH), greatly magnifying the harm associated with HIV, tuberculosis, and addiction. We review findings from Malaysia's largest prison to describe the synergistic effects of HIV, tuberculosis, addiction, and incarceration that contribute to a‘perfect storm’of events challenging public and personal health and offer insights into innovative strategies to control these converging epidemics. The majority of PLH who are imprisoned in Malaysia are opioid dependent. Although promoted by official policy, evidence-based drug treatment is largely unavailable, contributing to rapid relapse and/or overdose after release. Similarly, HIV treatment in prisons and compulsory drug treatment centers is sometimes inadequate or absent. The prevalence of active tuberculosis is high, particularly in PLH, and over 80% of prisoners and prison personnel are latently infected. Mandatory HIV testing and subsequent segregation of HIV-infected prisoners increases the likelihood of tuberculosis acquisition and progression to active disease, enlarging the reservoir of infection for other prisoners. We discuss strategies to control these intersecting epidemics including screening linked to standardized treatment protocols for all three conditions, and effective transitional programs for released prisoners. For example, recently introduced evidence-based interventions in prisons like antiretroviral therapy (ART) to treat HIV, isoniazid preventive therapy to treat latent tuberculosis infection, and methadone maintenance to treat opioid dependence, have markedly improved clinical care and reduced mortality. Since introduction of these interventions in September 2012, all-cause and HIV-related mortality have decreased by 50.0% and 75.7% respectively. We discuss the further deployment of these interventions in Malaysian prisons. PMID:27216260

  17. Confronting the HIV, Tuberculosis, Addiction, and Incarceration Syndemic in Southeast Asia: Lessons Learned from Malaysia.

    Culbert, Gabriel J; Pillai, Veena; Bick, Joseph; Al-Darraji, Haider A; Wickersham, Jeffrey A; Wegman, Martin P; Bazazi, Alexander R; Ferro, Enrico; Copenhaver, Michael; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Altice, Frederick L

    2016-09-01

    Throughout Southeast Asia, repressive drug laws have resulted in high rates of imprisonment in people who inject drugs (PWID) and people living with HIV (PLH), greatly magnifying the harm associated with HIV, tuberculosis, and addiction. We review findings from Malaysia's largest prison to describe the negative synergistic effects of HIV, tuberculosis, addiction, and incarceration that contribute to a 'perfect storm' of events challenging public and personal health and offer insights into innovative strategies to control these converging epidemics. The majority of PLH who are imprisoned in Malaysia are opioid dependent PWID. Although promoted by official policy, evidence-based addiction treatment is largely unavailable, contributing to rapid relapse and/or overdose after release. Similarly, HIV treatment in prisons and compulsory drug treatment centers is sometimes inadequate or absent. The prevalence of active tuberculosis is high, particularly in PLH, and over 80 % of prisoners and prison personnel are latently infected. Mandatory HIV testing and subsequent segregation of HIV-infected prisoners increases the likelihood of tuberculosis acquisition and progression to active disease, amplifying the reservoir of infection for other prisoners. We discuss strategies to control these intersecting epidemics including screening linked to standardized treatment protocols for all three conditions, and effective transitional programs for released prisoners. For example, recently introduced evidence-based interventions in prisons like antiretroviral therapy (ART) to treat HIV, isoniazid preventive therapy to treat latent tuberculosis infection, and methadone maintenance to treat opioid dependence, have markedly improved clinical care and reduced morbidity and mortality. Since introduction of these interventions in September 2012, all-cause and HIV-related mortality have decreased by 50.0 % and 75.7 %, respectively. We discuss the further deployment of these

  18. Hydraulic shock absorbers

    Thatcher, G.; Davidson, D. F.

    1984-01-01

    A hydraulic shock absorber of the dash pot kind for use with electrically conducting liquid such as sodium, has magnet means for electro magnetically braking a stream of liquid discharged from the cylinder. The shock absorber finds use in a liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor for arresting control rods

  19. Our Favorite Film Shocks

    Willerslev, Rane; Suhr, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The modern medium of film has long been hailed for its capacity for producing shocks of an entertaining, thought-provoking, or even politically emancipative nature. But what is a shock, how and when does it occur, how long does it last, and are there particular techniques for producing cinematic...

  20. Climate shocks and conflict

    Papaioannou, Kostadis J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper offers a historical micro-level analysis of the impact of climate shocks on the incidence of civil conflict in colonial Nigeria (1912-1945). Primary historical sources on court cases, prisoners and homicides are used to capture conflict. To measure climate shocks we use the deviation

  1. The contagious nature of imprisonment: an agent-based model to explain racial disparities in incarceration rates.

    Lum, Kristian; Swarup, Samarth; Eubank, Stephen; Hawdon, James

    2014-09-06

    We build an agent-based model of incarceration based on the susceptible-infected-suspectible (SIS) model of infectious disease propagation. Our central hypothesis is that the observed racial disparities in incarceration rates between Black and White Americans can be explained as the result of differential sentencing between the two demographic groups. We demonstrate that if incarceration can be spread through a social influence network, then even relatively small differences in sentencing can result in large disparities in incarceration rates. Controlling for effects of transmissibility, susceptibility and influence network structure, our model reproduces the observed large disparities in incarceration rates given the differences in sentence lengths for White and Black drug offenders in the USA without extensive parameter tuning. We further establish the suitability of the SIS model as applied to incarceration by demonstrating that the observed structural patterns of recidivism are an emergent property of the model. In fact, our model shows a remarkably close correspondence with California incarceration data. This work advances efforts to combine the theories and methods of epidemiology and criminology.

  2. Changes in Inmates’ Substance Use and Dependence From Pre-Incarceration to One Year Post-Release

    Tangney, June P.; Folk, Johanna B.; Graham, David M.; Stuewig, Jeffrey B.; Blalock, Daniel V.; Salatino, Andrew; Blasko, Brandy B.; Moore, Kelly E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To assess changes in inmates’ misuse of substances from pre- to post-incarceration. Methods In Study 1, professionals (n = 162) and laypersons (n = 50) predicted how jail inmates’ substance misuse would change from pre-incarceration to post-release. In Study 2, a longitudinal study of 305 jail inmates, we examined actual changes in substance use and dependence from pre-incarceration to the first year post-incarceration, as well as whether changes varied as a function of demographic, criminal justice, treatment, and personality factors. Results Professionals and laypersons predicted little change in substance misuse whereas, in fact, inmates’ frequency of substance use and dependence decreased substantially from pre-incarceration to post-release. Sharper decreases were observed for inmates who were female, younger, more educated, serving longer sentences, enrolled in substance abuse treatment, high in shame-proneness, and low in criminogenic thinking. Race, first time incarceration, transfer to other correctional facilities, mandated community supervision (probation), and guilt-proneness did not predict changes in substance use or dependence. Conclusions Although substance misuse decreased, this remains a population high in need of substance abuse treatment both upon arrest and at one year post-incarceration; 60% of former inmates met at least one DSM-IV criterion for substance dependence at one year post-release. PMID:27458324

  3. Incarcerated Dutch Juvenile Sex Offenders Compared with Non-Sex Offenders

    van Wijk, Anton Ph.; Vreugdenhil, Coby; van Horn, Joan; Vermeiren, Robert; Doreleijers, Theo A. H.

    2007-01-01

    There is some debate about whether or not sex offenders are similar to non-sex offenders with regard to family background (parental characteristics), personality, and psychopathology. The central aim of this study focused on the comparison of juvenile sex offenders and non-sex offenders. The sample consisted of incarcerated juvenile male sex (n =…

  4. Incarceration of the retroverted gravid uterus: a report of four cases

    Smalbraak, I.; Bleker, O. P.; Schutte, M. F.; Treffers, P. E.

    1991-01-01

    Four cases of incarceration of the retroverted gravid uterus are described. Typical observations were: a rather low fundal height at vaginal examination, no detectable uterine cervix, and the fetal presenting part deeply impacted in the pelvic cavity. One spontaneous correction in the third

  5. Effectiveness of a prolonged incarceration and rehabilitation measure for high-frequency offenders

    Tollenaar, N.; van der Laan, A. M.; van der Heijden, P. G M

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To estimate the incapacitation effect and the impact on post-release recidivism of a measure combining prolonged incarceration and rehabilitation, the ISD measure for high frequency offenders (HFOs) was compared to the standard practice of short-term imprisonment. Methods: We applied a

  6. Incarcerated giant uterine leiomyoma within an incisional hernia: a case report.

    Exarchos, Georgios; Vlahos, Nikolaos; Dellaportas, Dionysios; Metaxa, Linda; Theodosopoulos, Theodosios

    2017-11-01

    Uterine leiomyomas presenting as incarcerated or strangulated hernias in surgical emergencies are extremely rare and should be considered in the differential diagnosis in patients with known uterine fibroids and an irreducible ventral abdominal wall hernia. Detailed history and multidisciplinary approach optimize the diagnosis and decision making toward surgical treatment.

  7. Contraception services for incarcerated women: a national survey of correctional health providers.

    Sufrin, Carolyn B; Creinin, Mitchell D; Chang, Judy C

    2009-12-01

    Incarcerated women have had limited access to health care prior to their arrest. Although their incarceration presents an opportunity to provide them with health care, their reproductive health needs have been overlooked. We performed a cross-sectional study of a nationally representative sample of 950 correctional health providers who are members of the Academy of Correctional Health Providers. A total of 405 surveys (43%) were returned, and 286 (30%) were eligible for analysis. Most ineligible surveys were from clinicians at male-only facilities. Of eligible respondents, 70% reported some degree of contraception counseling for women at their facilities. Only 11% provided routine counseling prior to release. Seventy percent said that their institution had no formal policy on contraception. Thirty-eight percent of clinicians provided birth control methods at their facilities. Although the most frequently counseled and prescribed method was oral contraceptive pills, only 50% of providers rated their oral contraceptive counseling ability as good or very good. Contraception counseling was associated with working at a juvenile facility, and with screening for sexually transmitted infections. Contraception does not appear to be integrated into the routine delivery of clinical services to incarcerated women. Because the correctional health care system can provide important clinical and public health interventions to traditionally marginalized populations, services for incarcerated women should include access to contraception.

  8. Anxiety and Antisocial Behavior: The Moderating Role of Perceptions of Social Prominence among Incarcerated Females

    Monahan, Kathryn C.; Goldweber, Aska; Meyer, Kristen; Cauffman, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    The present study examines how perceptions of social prominence and attitudes toward antisocial behavior among peers moderate the association between anxiety and antisocial behavior among incarcerated females. Latent profile analysis identified two classes of females distinguished by their perceptions and attitudes. Individuals in both classes…

  9. Assessment of Psychopathic Traits in an Incarcerated Adolescent Sample: A Methodological Comparison

    Fink, Brandi C.; Tant, Adam S.; Tremba, Katherine; Kiehl, Kent A.

    2012-01-01

    Analyses of convergent validity and group assignment using self-report, caregiver-report and interview-based measures of adolescent psychopathy were conducted in a sample of 160 incarcerated adolescents. Results reveal significant convergent validity between caregiver-report measures of adolescent psychopathy, significant convergent validity…

  10. 78 FR 41086 - Solicitation for a Cooperative Agreement-Children of Incarcerated Parents: Arrest Through Pre...

    2013-07-09

    ... impacts this population. The project will further identify and highlight innovations and promising practices that have shown to positively impact children of incarcerated parents. This project will be a...) awards were made. At the completion of the project, the National Council on Crime and Delinquency (NCCD...

  11. Life on the "Outs"--Examination of the Facility-to-Community Transition of Incarcerated Youth.

    Bullis, Michael; Yovanoff, Paul; Mueller, Gina; Havel, Emily

    2002-01-01

    A five-year longitudinal study of 531 incarcerated youth, more than half of whom had a disability, showed that those who were working or in school 6 months after release tended to stay involved in positive activities and had not returned to the juvenile facility 12 months after release. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)

  12. If I Could Only Say It Myself: How to Communicate with Children of Incarcerated Parents

    Thombre, Avinash; Montague, David R.; Maher, Jennifer; Zohra, Israt Tusty

    2009-01-01

    This study examined inmate perceptions on what is important in appropriately communicating concepts covering the American criminal justice system to children of incarcerated parents. Inmates interviewed at two facilities in Arkansas claimed that they knew little about meanings or consequences of their actions before and after indictment.…

  13. Children of mothers being released from incarceration : Characteristics and potential targets for intervention

    Menting, Ankie T A; Orobio de Castro, Bram; Matthys, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Incarcerated mothers and their children may face a multitude of problems. To identify possible targets for intervention, more clarity is needed about characteristics of these children and their mothers. This study examined children’s life events, behaviour problems and social cognitions and mothers’

  14. Understanding Head Start Children's Problem Behaviors in the Context of Arrest or Incarceration of Household Members

    Ziv, Yair; Alva, Soumya; Zill, Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    Using data from the nationally representative Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey (FACES), the relationships between living in a household where a household member had been arrested or incarcerated and conduct problems of preschool children enrolled in Head Start were examined. Children who lived in such households showed more…

  15. Development of a Multisystemic Parent Management Training Intervention for Incarcerated Parents, Their Children and Families

    Eddy, J. Mark; Martinez, Charles R.; Schiffmann, Tracy; Newton, Rex; Olin, Laura; Leve, Leslie; Foney, Dana M.; Shortt, Joann Wu

    2008-01-01

    The majority of men and women prison inmates are parents. Many lived with children prior to incarceration, and most have at least some contact with their children and families while serving their sentences. Because prison populations have increased in the United States, there has been a renewed interest in finding ways not only to reduce…

  16. Psychiatric disorders in a representative sample of incarcerated boys in the Netherlands

    Vreugdenhil, Coby; Doreleijers, Theo A. H.; Vermeiren, Robert; Wouters, Luuk F. J. M.; van den Brink, Wim

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of psychiatric disorders among incarcerated male adolescents and to investigate the influence of psychopathology on allocation to either plain detention or detention with compulsory treatment. Method: A cross-sectional study of a representative sample (N = 204)

  17. "A Big Circle of Unity": Incarcerated Fathers Being-in-Text

    Muth, William

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the lived experiences of incarcerated fathers "being-in-text" with their children. It draws on Husserlian and Heideggerian notions of intentionality that are partly deconstructed by Derrida and further "posted" by Vagle's notion of post-intentionality and Barad's posthumanism. Of particular interest is a…

  18. Incarcerated women's relationship-based strategies to avoid drug use after community re-entry.

    Snell-Rood, Claire; Staton-Tindall, Michele; Victor, Grant

    2016-10-01

    While recent research has stressed the supportive role that family and friends play for incarcerated persons as they re-enter the community, drug-using incarcerated women re-entering the community often have to rely on family, community, and intimate relationships that have played a role in their substance abuse and criminalization. In this study the authors conducted qualitative analysis of clinical sessions with rural, drug-using women (N = 20) in a larger prison-based HIV risk reduction intervention in Kentucky during 2012-2014 to examine incarcerated women's perceptions of the role of their family, community, and intimate relationships in their plans to decrease their substance abuse upon community re-entry. Women stressed the obstacles to receiving support in many of their family and drug-using relationships after community re-entry. Nonetheless, they asserted that changes in their relationships could support their desires to end their substance abuse by setting limits on and using their positive relationships, particularly with their children, to motivate them to change. Interventions to promote incarcerated women's health behavior changes-including substance abuse-must acknowledge the complex social environments in which they live.

  19. The (Dis)continuity of Parenthood among Incarcerated Fathers: An Analysis of Caregivers' Accounts

    Tasca, Melinda

    2018-01-01

    The intersection of mass incarceration and fatherhood is of particular interest to a growing number of scholars, policymakers, and practitioners. In this study, the role of fathers in children's lives before and during imprisonment are investigated from the caregiver perspective. Reliance on caregivers' accounts offers valuable insight into the…

  20. Mother-grandmother coparenting relationships in families with incarcerated mothers: a pilot investigation.

    Baker, Jason; McHale, James; Strozier, Anne; Cecil, Dawn

    2010-06-01

    Using new methods designed to assess coparenting between incarcerated mothers of preschool-aged children and the maternal grandmothers caring for the children during their absence, we examined relationships between coparenting quality during the mother's jail stay and both concurrent child behavior problems and later coparenting interactions following mothers' release and community reentry. Forty mother-grandmother dyads participated in joint coparenting discussions during the incarceration, with a smaller subset completing a parallel activity at home 1 month postrelease. Both women also participated in individual coparenting interviews during the incarceration, and reported on child behavior problems. Mother-grandmother coparenting interactions exhibited an overall structure similar to that documented in nuclear families, with population-specific dynamics also evident. The observational system demonstrated good interrater and internal reliability, and showed associations with maternal (but not grandmother) reports and descriptions of the coparenting relationship via interview. Greater coparenting relationship quality during incarceration was associated with fewer concurrent child externalizing behavior problems, and predicted more positive coparenting interactions postrelease. Findings suggest that the coparenting assessments were useful for understanding mother-grandmother coparenting relationships in these families and that importantly, these relationships were tied to children's functioning. Avenues for future research and considerations for intervention efforts are discussed.

  1. 38 CFR 3.666 - Incarcerated beneficiaries and fugitive felons-pension.

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Incarcerated beneficiaries and fugitive felons-pension. 3.666 Section 3.666 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation...

  2. Single and multiple clinical syndromes in incarcerated offenders : Associations with dissociative experiences and emotionality.

    Garofalo, C.; Velotti, P.; Crocamo, Cristina; Carrá, Giuseppe

    2018-01-01

    The present study examined the prevalence and correlates of clinical syndromes in a large group (N = 438) of incarcerated violent offenders, looking at differences between inmates with one and those with more than one clinical syndromes. More than a half of the sample (57%) reported clinically

  3. Anger Mediates the Relation between Violence Exposure and Violence Perpetration in Incarcerated Boys

    Kimonis, Eva R.; Ray, James V.; Branch, Jessica R.; Cauffman, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Youth who are exposed to violence are more likely to perpetrate violence. Incarcerated youth are a special population that is at a significantly greater risk for violent offending because of their relatively greater rates of violence exposure. Two important outcomes of violence exposure that may help explain its link with violence perpetration are…

  4. The demographic divide : Population dynamics, race and the rise of mass incarceration in the United States

    Campbell, Michael C.; Vogel, M.S.

    2017-01-01

    This manuscript examines whether certain fundamental demographic changes in age structures across racial groups might help explain incarceration rates in the United States. We argue that a “demographic divide”—a growing divergence in the age structures of blacks and whites—was an important factor

  5. Associations between Individual and Family Level Characteristics and Parenting Practices in Incarcerated African American Fathers

    Modecki, Kathryn L.; Wilson, Melvin N.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the reported parenting practices of fifty incarcerated African American fathers. Fathers were interviewed using hypothetical vignettes adapted from the Parenting Dimensions Inventory (PDI) and received scores on two parenting practices: responsive and restrictive. Father's individual level (education and length of time spent…

  6. Self-Efficacy in Incarcerated Adolescents: The Role of Family and Social Supports

    Tangeman, Keegan R.; Hall, Susan R.

    2011-01-01

    This research investigated the role of general and specific self-efficacy factors in positive family relationships and perceived social support within an U.S. incarcerated adolescent population. One hundred African American and Hispanic male adolescent participants, randomly selected from a southern California Probation Department, were included…

  7. Strategies for Coping with the Challenges of Incarceration among Nigerian Prison Inmates

    Agbakwuru, Chikwe; Awujo, Grace C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigated the strategies for coping with the challenges of incarceration among inmates of Port Harcourt Prison, Nigeria. The population was 2,997 inmates of the prison while the sample was 250 inmates drawn through stratified random sampling technique from the same Port Harcourt prison. Six research questions were posed and data for…

  8. Factors Associated with Young Children's Opportunities for Maintaining Family Relationships during Maternal Incarceration

    Poehlmann, Julie; Shlafer, Rebecca J.; Maes, Elizabeth; Hanneman, Ashley

    2008-01-01

    Children affected by maternal incarceration experience challenges maintaining continuous family relationships because of changes in caregivers, separation from siblings, and limited contact with mothers. In this mixed-method study, we investigated maternal and contextual factors associated with continuity in family relationships of children living…

  9. Writing from behind the Fence: Incarcerated Youths and a Graphic Novel on HIV/AIDS

    Gavigan, Karen; Albright, Kendra

    2015-01-01

    Graphic novels are an increasingly popular format that educators can use as a tool to teach reading and writing skills across the K-12 curriculum. This article describes a project in which incarcerated youths collaborated with a graphic illustrator to create a graphic novel about teens dealing with issues related to HIV/AIDS. The graphic novel is…

  10. Peer Status Among Incarcerated Female Offenders: Associations With Social Behavior and Adjustment

    Goldweber, A.; Cauffman, E.; Cillessen, A.H.N.

    2014-01-01

    Peers are a powerful socializing force, especially during adolescence. Whether peer status holds the same meaning, correlates, and consequences for female offenders remains unknown. Using a peer nomination technique in a sample of incarcerated females (N=86, age 15-24years), our study is the first

  11. No-woman’s land? On female crime and incarceration, past, present, and future

    Geltner, G.

    2010-01-01

    The perception of penitentiaries as male institutions dates back to the late Middle Ages, when urban governments across Europe began constructing prisons as cogs in their growing machineries of justice. Already then, female incarceration contrasted sharply, intentionally, and symbolically with that

  12. A grounded theory of successful aging among select incarcerated older Filipino women.

    Lucas, Heizel Mae; Lozano, Carl James; Valdez, Les Paul; Manzarate, Rowena; Lumawag, Fortuna Angelli Jolyn

    Across the literature, impairment and disability among the older people have been associated with a decline in meeting their special needs. Failure in meeting such needs may cause deterioration of function and threaten successful aging. Accordingly, successful aging studies were carried out among males, in health care institutions, and in communities. In spite of these, the process by which successful aging is experienced by incarcerated older women remains to be a blank spot in research. This study purports to describe the process by which incarcerated older Filipino women experience successful aging. Strauss and Corbin's grounded theory design was employed. Semistructured interviews were conducted among 15 purposively selected incarcerated older Filipino from a Philippine penal institution exclusive for women. Further, data gathered was reduced to field text and was analyzed through open, axial and selective coding. Finally, truthfulness and trustworthiness of the findings were established through member checking. The study generated "The Road to Success Model". Interestingly, five phases relative to successful aging emerged, namely: Struggling, Remotivating, Reforming, Reintegrating and Sustaining. These phases describe how select incarcerated older Filipino women undergo transformation towards successful aging. Similar to a road, each phase is considered a station where one must pass through in order to get to the destination. Findings of the study serve as an impetus for structural and procedural changes in prison, with a view to providing an environment conducive to successful aging and appropriate recognition to the older prisoner's efforts to achieve successful aging. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A case report of unexpected pathology within an incarcerated ventral hernia

    Erica D. Kane

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: This is the first report of incisional hernia appendicitis with nonhealing colocutaneous fistulas secondary to Crohn’s. It is a lesson in developing a differential diagnosis of an inflammatory process within an incarcerated hernia and management of the complications related to laparoscopic hernial appendectomy in a patient with undiagnosed Crohn’s disease.

  14. 76 FR 11338 - Hospital and Outpatient Care for Veterans Released From Incarceration to Transitional Housing

    2011-03-02

    ... veterans with acute or chronic medical or psychiatric problems who are treated while incarcerated, often...: Washington, DC (2008). In particular, the study noted that access to medications for chronic health and... abuse, Alcoholism, Claims, Day care, Dental health, Drug abuse, Foreign relations, Government contracts...

  15. The relationship between education and health among incarcerated men and women in the United States.

    Nowotny, Kathryn M; Masters, Ryan K; Boardman, Jason D

    2016-09-01

    This paper contributes to research on the education-health association by extending the scope of inquiry to adult inmates. Not only are inmates excluded from most nationally representative studies of health but they also represent a highly select group in terms of both education and health. As such, our study provides new information about the health of incarcerated populations and it extends the generalizability of the education-health association beyond the non-institutionalized population. We use a prison-level fixed-effects regression model with the 2004 Survey of Inmates in State Correctional Facilities (n = 287 facilities) to evaluate the effects of education on a standardized morbidity scale of 11 lifetime and current health conditions among incarcerated men (n = 10,493) and women (n = 2,797). Education prior to incarceration is negatively associated with lifetime health problems for both women and men and the association is stronger among women. Among inmates who enter prison with less than a GED level of education, attaining a GED in prison is associated with better current health outcomes for men, but not women. The generalization of the education-health association among prisoners further highlights the fundamental nature of education as a health promotive resource. Discussed are the implications for the education-health literature in general and health promotion efforts among incarcerated adults specifically.

  16. Insuring against health shocks: Health insurance and household choices.

    Liu, Kai

    2016-03-01

    This paper provides empirical evidence on the role of public health insurance in mitigating adverse outcomes associated with health shocks. Exploiting the rollout of a universal health insurance program in rural China, I find that total household income and consumption are fully insured against health shocks even without access to health insurance. Household labor supply is an important insurance mechanism against health shocks. Access to health insurance helps households to maintain investment in children's human capital during negative health shocks, which suggests that one benefit of health insurance could arise from reducing the use of costly smoothing mechanisms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Association Between Caregiver Stress and Behavioral Problems in the Children of Incarcerated Fathers in Hong Kong.

    Chui, Wing Hong

    2016-10-01

    Objectives Caregivers of children with incarcerated parents have received little attention in the literature, though they face unique incarceration-related challenges. General caregiver research has highlighted associations between caregiver distress and children's behavioral problems, even implying that the depressive tendencies of caregivers can be 'transmitted'. The current study investigated the applicability of this notion to caregivers responsible for children of incarcerated fathers. Methods Fifty-four female caregivers of children with incarcerated parents were recruited via collaboration with a non-governmental organization. Their levels of stress and depression were measured using questionnaires, as were the behavioral problems of children under their care. The relationships between the variables were examined. Results The results firstly suggest that these caregivers are vulnerable to psychological distress, with around 57 % of them suffering from borderline to severe depression. Obtained socio-demographic characteristics were not found to have any bearing on the psychosocial functioning of caregivers or children-rather, all psychosocial variables were interlinked, and further analyses revealed that the depression of caregivers mediated the relationship between their perceived stress and internalizing/externalizing behavioral problems of the child (β = .628 and β = .468 respectively), implicating depression as a mechanism via which adversity can be transferred from a caregiver to a child. Conclusions Increasing the focus on a caregiver's mental health may be an efficacious strategy in research and practice, perhaps by providing more support for caregivers and implementing joint caregiver-child interventions to more holistically alleviate problems in families affected by parental incarceration. Limitations of the current study and further recommendations are also discussed.

  18. Traumatic brain injury, mental health, substance use, and offending among incarcerated young people.

    Moore, Elizabeth; Indig, Devon; Haysom, Leigh

    2014-01-01

    Despite being at high risk, little is known about traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) among incarcerated young people. This study aims to describe the prevalence of TBI among incarcerated young people and assess the association with mental health, substance use, and offending behaviors. The 2009 NSW Young People in Custody Health Survey was conducted in 9 juvenile detention centers. A total of 361 young people agreed to participate, representing 80% of all incarcerated young people. Young people were asked if they ever had a head injury where they became unconscious or "blacked-out." The survey used the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders for Children to assess for psychiatric disorders, the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test, and the Severity of Dependence Scale to measure problematic substance use. The sample comprised 88% man, 48% Aboriginal, with an average age of 17 years. One-third (32%) of young people reported ever experiencing a TBI, and 13% reported multiple TBIs. The majority (92%) of "most serious" TBIs were defined as mild, and the most common cause was an assault (62% woman, 34% man). Young people who reported a history of TBI (compared with those reporting no TBI) were significantly more likely to be diagnosed with a mental health disorder, psychological distress, a history of bullying, problematic substance use, participation in fights, and offending behaviors. Reporting multiple (>2) TBIs conferred a higher risk of psychological disorders and problematic substance use. Incarcerated young people have high rates of TBI. Enhanced detection of TBI among incarcerated young people will assist clinicians in addressing the associated psychosocial sequelae.

  19. Collisionless shock waves

    Sagdeev, R.Z.; Kennel, C.F.

    1991-01-01

    Collisionless shocks cannot occur naturally on the earth, because nearly all matter here consists of electrically neutral atoms and molecules. In space, however, high temperatures and ultraviolet radiation from hot stars decompose atoms into their constituent nuclei and electrons, producing a soup of electrically charged particles known as a plasma. Plasma physicists proposed that the collective electrical and magnetic properties of plasmas could produce interactions that take the place of collisions and permit shocks to form. In 1964 the theoretical work found its first experimental confirmation. Norman F. Ness and his colleagues at the Goddard Space Flight Center, using data collected from the iMP-1 spacecraft, detected clear signs that a collisionless shock exists where the solar wind encounters the earth's magnetic field. More recent research has demonstrated that collisionless shocks appear in a dazzling array of astronomical settings. For example, shocks have been found in the solar wind upstream (sunward) of all the planet and comets that have been visited by spacecraft. Violent flares on the sun generate shocks that propagate to the far reaches of the solar system; tremendous galactic outbursts create disruptions in the intergalactic medium that are trillions of times larger. In addition, many astrophysicists think that shocks from supernova explosions in our galaxy accelerate cosmic rays, a class of extraordinarily energetic elementary particles and atomic nuclei that rain down on the earth from all directions

  20. Pediatric Toxic Shock Syndrome

    Jennifer Yee

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Audience: This scenario was developed to educate emergency medicine residents on the diagnosis and management of a pediatric patient with toxic shock syndrome. The case is also appropriate for teaching of medical students and advanced practice providers, as well as a review of the principles of crisis resource management, teamwork, and communication. Introduction: Toxic shock syndrome is a low-frequency, high-acuity scenario requiring timely identification and aggressive management. If patients suffering from this condition are managed incorrectly, they may progress into multi-organ dysfunction and potentially death. Toxic shock syndrome has been associated with Streptococcus and Staphylococcus aureus (Staph. Approximately half of Staph cases are associated with menstruation, which was first described in the 1970s-1980s and was associated with the use of absorbent tampons.1 Group A Streptococcus may cause complications such as necrotizing fasciitis and gangrenous myositis.2 Pediatric patients may present critically ill from toxic shock syndrome. Providers need to perform a thorough history and physical exam to discern the source of infection. Management requires aggressive care with antibiotics and IV fluids. Objectives: By the end of this simulation session, the learner will be able to: 1 Recognize toxic shock syndrome. 2 Review the importance of a thorough physical exam. 3 Discuss management of toxic shock syndrome, including supportive care and the difference in antibiotic choices for streptococcal and staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome. 4 Appropriately disposition a patient suffering from toxic shock syndrome. 5 Communicate effectively with team members and nursing staff during a resuscitation of a critically ill patient. Method: This session was conducted using high-fidelity simulation, followed by a debriefing session and lecture on toxic shock syndrome.

  1. Shocks near Jamming

    Gómez, Leopoldo R.; Turner, Ari M.; van Hecke, Martin; Vitelli, Vincenzo

    2012-02-01

    Nonlinear sound is an extreme phenomenon typically observed in solids after violent explosions. But granular media are different. Right when they jam, these fragile and disordered solids exhibit a vanishing rigidity and sound speed, so that even tiny mechanical perturbations form supersonic shocks. Here, we perform simulations in which two-dimensional jammed granular packings are dynamically compressed and demonstrate that the elementary excitations are strongly nonlinear shocks, rather than ordinary phonons. We capture the full dependence of the shock speed on pressure and impact intensity by a surprisingly simple analytical model.

  2. Mechanical shock absorber

    Vrillon, Bernard.

    1973-01-01

    The mechanical shock absorber described is made of a constant thickness plate pierced with circular holes regularly distributed in such a manner that for all the directions along which the strain is applied during the shock, the same section of the substance forming the plate is achieved. The shock absorber is made in a metal standing up to extensive deformation before breaking, selected from a group comprising mild steels and austenitic stainless steels. This apparatus is used for handling pots of fast neutron reactor fuel elements [fr

  3. Shock formation of HCO+

    Elitzur, M.

    1983-01-01

    It is shown that shocks propagating in dense molecular regions will lead to a decrease in HCO + relative abundance, in agreement with previous results by Iglesias and Silk. The shock enhancement of HCO + detected in the supernova remnant IC 443 by Dickenson et al. is due to enhanced ionization in the shocked material. This is the result of the material penetrating the remnant cavity where it becomes exposed to the trapped cosmic rays. A similar enhancement appears to have been detected by Wootten in W28 and is explained by the same model

  4. Shock Isolation Elements Testing for High Input Loadings. Volume II. Foam Shock Isolation Elements.

    SHOCK ABSORBERS ), (*GUIDED MISSILE SILOS, SHOCK ABSORBERS ), (*EXPANDED PLASTICS, (*SHOCK(MECHANICS), REDUCTION), TEST METHODS, SHOCK WAVES, STRAIN(MECHANICS), LOADS(FORCES), MATHEMATICAL MODELS, NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS, HARDENING.

  5. Pyrotechnic Shock Analysis Using Statistical Energy Analysis

    2015-10-23

    SEA subsystems. A couple of validation examples are provided to demonstrate the new approach. KEY WORDS : Peak Ratio, phase perturbation...Ballistic Shock Prediction Models and Techniques for Use in the Crusader Combat Vehicle Program,” 11th Annual US Army Ground Vehicle Survivability

  6. Counseling For Future Shock

    Morgan, Lewis B.

    1974-01-01

    In this article the author looks at some of the searing prophecies made by Alvin Toffler in his book Future Shock and relates them to the world of the professional counselor and the clientele the counselor attempts to serve. (Author)

  7. Life shocks and homelessness.

    Curtis, Marah A; Corman, Hope; Noonan, Kelly; Reichman, Nancy E

    2013-12-01

    We exploited an exogenous health shock-namely, the birth of a child with a severe health condition-to investigate the effect of a life shock on homelessness in large cities in the United States as well as the interactive effects of the shock with housing market characteristics. We considered a traditional measure of homelessness, two measures of housing instability thought to be precursors to homelessness, and a combined measure that approximates the broadened conceptualization of homelessness under the 2009 Homeless Emergency Assistance and Rapid Transition to Housing Act (2010). We found that the shock substantially increases the likelihood of family homelessness, particularly in cities with high housing costs. The findings are consistent with the economic theory of homelessness, which posits that homelessness results from a conjunction of adverse circumstances in which housing markets and individual characteristics collide.

  8. Unlimited Relativistic Shock Surfing Acceleration

    Ucer, D.; Shapiro, V. D.

    2001-01-01

    Nonrelativistic shock surfing acceleration at quasiperpendicular shocks is usually considered to be a preacceleration mechanism for slow pickup ions to initiate diffusive shock acceleration. In shock surfing, the particle accelerates along the shock front under the action of the convective electric field of the plasma flow. However, the particle also gains kinetic energy normal to the shock and eventually escapes downstream. We consider the case when ions are accelerated to relativistic velocities. In this case, the ions are likely to be trapped for infinitely long times, because the energy of bounce oscillations tends to decrease during acceleration. This suggests the possibility of unlimited acceleration by shock surfing

  9. Technology shocks matter

    Jonas D. M. Fisher

    2002-01-01

    This paper uses the neoclassical growth model to identify the effects of technological change on the US business cycle. In the model there are two sources of technological change: neutral, which effects the production of all goods homogeneously, and investment-specific. Investment-specific shocks are the unique source of the secular trend in the real price of investment goods, while shocks to both kinds of technology are the only factors which affect labor productivity in the long run. Consis...

  10. Male gender and prematurity are risk factors for incarceration in pediatric inguinal hernia: A study of 922 children

    Amine Ksia

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: IH occurs mainly in male infants. Prematurity and male gender were identified as risk factors of incarceration. Contralateral metachronous hernia was reported, especially in female infants and after a left side surgical repair of the hernia.

  11. The Heliospheric Termination Shock

    Jokipii, J. R.

    2013-06-01

    The heliospheric termination shock is a vast, spheroidal shock wave marking the transition from the supersonic solar wind to the slower flow in the heliosheath, in response to the pressure of the interstellar medium. It is one of the most-important boundaries in the outer heliosphere. It affects energetic particles strongly and for this reason is a significant factor in the effects of the Sun on Galactic cosmic rays. This paper summarizes the general properties and overall large-scale structure and motions of the termination shock. Observations over the past several years, both in situ and remote, have dramatically revised our understanding of the shock. The consensus now is that the shock is quite blunt, is with the front, blunt side canted at an angle to the flow direction of the local interstellar plasma relative to the Sun, and is dynamical and turbulent. Much of this new understanding has come from remote observations of energetic charged particles interacting with the shock, radio waves and radiation backscattered from interstellar neutral atoms. The observations and the implications are discussed.

  12. Social support network characteristics of incarcerated women with co-occurring major depressive and substance use disorders

    Nargiso, Jessica E.; Kuo, Caroline C.; Zlotnick, Caron; Johnson, Jennifer E.

    2014-01-01

    The nature of social support available to incarcerated women is not well understood, particularly among women at high risk of negative outcomes, including women dually-diagnosed with Major Depressive Disorder and a Substance Use Disorder (MDD-SUD). Descriptive statistics and paired-tests were conducted on 60 incarcerated MDD-SUD women receiving in-prison substance use and depression treatments to characterize the women’s social networks, including the strength of support, network characterist...

  13. Left-sided incarcerated Amyand’s hernia with cecum and terminal ileum: a case report

    Bekele K

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Kebebe Bekele,1 Desalegn Markos2 1Department of Surgery, School of Medicine, Madda Walabu University, Bale Robe, Ethiopia; 2Unit of Neonatology Nursing, St Paul Hospital Millennium Medical College, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Background: Amyand’s hernia, which is the presence of a normal or pathological appendix as a part of an inguinal hernia, is a rare clinical entity. We are reporting a very rare case of left-sided incarcerated Amyand’s hernia with cecum and terminal ileum involvement. Case presentation: A 4-year-old male child with left inguinal swelling of 2-year duration presented to Goba Referral Hospital. Two days before the patient visited our hospital, the swelling had become irreducible and caused severe groin pain. He had abdominal cramps, bilious vomiting, and mild abdominal distention, but passed feces. With the diagnosis of left-sided incarcerated inguinal hernia, the patient was investigated and prepared for surgical management. During the operative procedure, we identified the presence of appendix, cecum, and terminal ileum in the scrotum as the herniated component. After the sack was dissected, since there was also appendicitis, an appendectomy was performed. Then, high ligation of sack was done after cecum and ileum were reduced. After 3 uneventful postoperative days in the hospital, the patient was discharged. The patient was followed-up for 6 months, and he did not develop any complications. Conclusion: Left-sided incarcerated Amyand’s hernia with cecum and terminal ileum involvement is a rare clinical entity. Even though it is not common, appendicitis is one of the comorbidities that can be seen in patients with left-sided incarcerated Amyand’s hernia with cecum and terminal ileum. Surgeons should have a high index of clinical suspicion and be aware of the potential involvement of appendix, cecum, and ileum as part of an incarcerated hernia during surgery, even in the left inguinal region. In this case, left

  14. Social support network characteristics of incarcerated women with co-occurring major depressive and substance use disorders.

    Nargiso, Jessica E; Kuo, Caroline C; Zlotnick, Caron; Johnson, Jennifer E

    2014-01-01

    The nature of social support available to incarcerated women is not well-understood, particularly among women at high risk of negative outcomes, including women dually diagnosed with Major Depressive Disorder and a Substance Use Disorder (MDD-SUD). Descriptive statistics and paired-tests were conducted on 60 incarcerated MDD-SUD women receiving in-prison substance use and depression treatments to characterize the women's social networks, including the strength of support, network characteristics, and types of support provided as well as to determine what aspects of social support may be amenable to change during incarceration and post-release. Study results showed that, on average, women perceived they had moderately supportive individuals in their lives, although more than a quarter of the sample could not identify any regular supporters in their network at baseline. During incarceration, women's social networks significantly increased in general supportiveness, and decreased in network size and percentage of substance users in their networks. Participants maintained positive social support gains post-release in most areas while also significantly increasing the size of their support network post-release. Findings suggest that there are aspects of incarcerated MDD-SUD women's social networks that are amenable to change during incarceration and post-release and provide insight into treatment targets for this vulnerable population.

  15. Mass Incarceration, Parental Imprisonment, and the Great Recession: Intergenerational Sources of Severe Deprivation in America

    John Hagan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available What were the socioeconomic consequences for American youth of having a parent incarcerated during the 2008 Great Recession? We analyze a nationally representative panel study of adolescents who, when interviewed during this recession, were transitioning to and through early adulthood. Young adult children who have had a father or mother imprisoned are at increased risk of experiencing socioeconomic deprivation, including inadequate access to food. We build in this article on recent research showing that postsecondary education has become especially important in determining adult outcomes, and we demonstrate that higher educational attainment reduces intergenerational effects of parental imprisonment. The salient policy implication of this article may be the important protective role of education in reducing unprecedented risks and vulnerabilities imposed by mass parental incarceration.

  16. Incarcerated mothers' contact with children, perceived family relationships, and depressive symptoms.

    Poehlmann, Julie

    2005-09-01

    Concurrent relations among contact with children, perceived family relationships, early experiences of relationship disconnection and trauma, and maternal depressive symptoms were examined in 94 incarcerated mothers with children between the ages of 2 and 7 years. Qualitative analysis revealed that most mothers experienced intense distress when initially separated from their children, although many women currently viewed the situation in a more balanced way. Quantitative findings indicated that fewer visits from children and early experiences of relationship disconnection and trauma were associated with elevated maternal depressive symptoms. Mother-child relationships were more positive when mothers had more frequent telephone contact with older children. Moreover, conflicted relationships with caregivers related to less contact between mothers and their children. Results highlight the need for mental health services for incarcerated women and suggest that interventions aimed at increasing contact between imprisoned mothers and their children should consider the quality of the mother-caregiver relationship. (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved

  17. Differences among incarcerated women with assaultive offenses: isolated versus patterned use of violence.

    Kubiak, Sheryl Pimlott; Kim, Woo Jong; Fedock, Gina; Bybee, Deborah

    2013-08-01

    A majority of the existing research on women's use of violence focuses on intimate partner violence, often excluding other types of violence for which women may be incarcerated. The current study expands this area of research by assessing between and within-group differences among a randomly selected group of incarcerated women (n = 543). Comparisons between violent and nonviolent offense types among women found few differences, but significant differences among women with an assaultive offense, based on the presence or absence of a self-reported uncaught violence, were found. Differences in women with isolated (i.e., single incident of violence perpetration through a review of formal and self-report data) and patterned uses of violence were present in relation to issues of mental health, substance abuse, criminogenic risk, and expressions of anger and personality factors. These findings have important implications for intervention as well as future research.

  18. Incarcerated Diaphragmatic Hernia with Bowel Perforation Presenting as a Tension Pneumothorax

    Ryan P. Offman

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We present an interesting case of a patient with a previously known diaphragmatic hernia in which the colon became incarcerated, ischemic and finally perforated. She had no prior history of abdominal pain or vomiting, yet she present with cardiovascular collapse. To our knowledge, this is the only case report of a tension pneumothorax associated with perforated bowel that was not in the setting of trauma or colonoscopy. [West J Emerg Med. 2014;15(2:142-144.

  19. A Two-Week Psychosocial Intervention Reduces Future Aggression and Incarceration in Clinically Aggressive Juvenile Offenders.

    Kendall, Ashley D; Emerson, Erin M; Hartmann, William E; Zinbarg, Richard E; Donenberg, Geri R

    2017-12-01

    There is a largely unmet need for evidence-based interventions that reduce future aggression and incarceration in clinically aggressive juvenile offenders serving probation. We addressed this gap using a group randomized controlled trial. Offenders both with and without clinical aggression were included, enabling comparison of intervention effects. Juveniles 13 to 17 years old (N = 310, mean = 16 years, 90% African-American, 66% male) on probation were assigned to a 2-week intervention targeting psychosocial factors implicated in risky behavior (e.g., learning strategies to manage "hot" emotions that prompt risk taking) or to an equally intensive health promotion control. Participants completed aggression measures at baseline, 6-, and 12-month follow-up and reported on incarceration at 12 months. Spline regression tested symptom change. Among clinically aggressive offenders (n = 71), the intervention arm showed significantly greater reductions in aggression over the first 6 months compared with controls. Juveniles from the intervention no longer met clinical criteria, on average, but clinically significant symptoms persisted in the control group. By 12 months, participants from the intervention appeared to maintain treatment gains, but their symptom levels no longer differed significantly from those in the control. However, the intervention group was nearly 4 times less likely than controls to report incarceration. Intervention effects were significantly stronger for offenders with clinical than with nonclinical (n = 239) baseline aggression. A 2-week intervention expedited improvements in aggression and reduced incarceration in clinically aggressive juvenile offenders. The findings underscore the importance of directing intervention resources to the most aggressive youth. Clinical trial registration information-PHAT Life: Preventing HIV/AIDS Among Teens in Juvenile Justice (PHAT Life); http://clinicaltrials.gov/; NCT02647710. Copyright © 2017 American

  20. Transumbilical endoscopic surgery for incarcerated inguinal hernias in infants and children.

    Zhou, Xuewu; Peng, Lei; Sha, Yongliang; Song, Daiqiang

    2014-01-01

    To describe transumbilical laparoscopic herniorrhaphy after unsuccessful attempted manual reduction of incarcerated inguinal hernias in infants and children. In our two hospitals, two-trocar transumbilical endoscopic surgery (TUES) is the standard technique used to repair incarcerated inguinal hernias in infants and children. Seventeen patients (aged 8months to 2.5years; median, 15months; 15 boys, 2 girls) with incarcerated inguinal hernias underwent urgent laparoscopy after unsuccessful attempted manual reduction. Two 3- or 5-mm trocars were inserted into the abdomen through two intraumbilical incisions, under laparoscopic guidance. The hernia was reduced by combined external manual pressure and internal pulling with bowel forceps. After inspection of the bowel, a round needle with a 2-0 nonabsorbable suture was introduced into the peritoneal cavity through the anterior abdominal wall near the internal inguinal ring. The hernial orifice was closed with an extraperitoneal purse-string suture around the internal inguinal ring, and tied with an intraperitoneal knot. A similar procedure was performed on the contralateral side if the processus vaginalis was patent. The TUES procedure was successful in all patients. No conversions to open surgery were required. The mean operating time was 30min (range, 25-40min). All patients were discharged on the second postoperative day. No complications such as postoperative bleeding, hydrocele, or scrotal edema were observed. The mean follow-up period was 15months. No cases of testicular atrophy, hypotrophy, or hernia recurrence were reported. Our preliminary experience with using TUES for the treatment of incarcerated inguinal hernias in infants and children had satisfactory outcomes. This technique appeared to be safe, effective, and reliable, and had excellent cosmetic results. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. MENTAL HEALTH OF INCARCERATED WOMEN IN THE STATE OF RIO DE JANEIRO

    Santos, Márcia Vieira dos; Alves, Valdecyr Herdy; Pereira, Audrey Vidal; Rodrigues, Diego Pereira; Marchiori, Giovanna Rosário Soanno; Guerra, Juliana Vidal Vieira

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: identifying the factors related to the mental health of women in a prison in the Statey of Rio de Janeiro. Method: a descriptive, exploratory and qualitative study conducted between October 2014 and January 2015 in a female prison in the State of Rio de Janeiro. Forty (40) incarcerated women were interviewed. The information collected was discussed based on content analysis, using a thematic based modality. Results: the following factors that affect the mental health o...

  2. Incarcerating Death: Mortality in U.S. State Correctional Facilities, 1985–1998

    PATTERSON, EVELYN J.

    2010-01-01

    Using data from the U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics and Census Bureau, I estimate death rates of working-age prisoners and nonprisoners by sex and race. Incarceration was more detrimental to females in comparison to their male counterparts in the period covered by this study. White male prisoners had higher death rates than white males who were not in prison. Black male prisoners, however, consistently exhibited lower death rates than black male nonprisoners did. Additionally, the findings ...

  3. Peer Status Among Incarcerated Female Offenders: Associations With Social Behavior and Adjustment

    Goldweber, Asha; Cauffman, Elizabeth; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.

    2013-01-01

    Peers are a powerful socializing force, especially during adolescence. Whether peer status holds the same meaning, correlates, and consequences for female offenders remains unknown. Using a peer nomination technique in a sample of incarcerated females (N = 86, age 15-24 years), our study is the first to examine the association between peer status and psychopathology in a correctional facility. Results indicated that a key indicator of likeability was prosocial behavior; popularity was related...

  4. The association between income and life expectancy revisited: deindustrialization, incarceration and the widening health gap.

    Nosrati, Elias; Ash, Michael; Marmot, Michael; McKee, Martin; King, Lawrence P

    2017-11-22

    The health gap between the top and the bottom of the income distribution is widening rapidly in the USA, but the lifespan of America's poor depends substantially on where they live. We ask whether two major developments in American society, deindustrialization and incarceration, can explain variation among states in life expectancy of those in the lowest income quartile. Life expectancy estimates at age 40 of those in the bottom income quartile were used to fit panel data models examining the relationship with deindustrialization and incarceration between 2001 and 2014 for all US states. A one standard deviation (s.d.) increase in deindustrialization (mean = 11.2, s.d. = 3.5) reduces life expectancy for the poor by 0.255 years [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.090-0.419] and each additional prisoner per 1000 residents (mean = 4.0, s.d. = 1.5) is associated with a loss of 0.468 years (95% CI: 0.213-0.723). Our predictors explain over 20% of the state-level variation in life expectancy among the poor and virtually the entire increase in the life expectancy gap between the top and the bottom income quartiles since the turn of the century. In the USA between 2001 and 2014, deindustrialization and incarceration subtracted roughly 2.5 years from the lifespan of the poor, pointing to their role as major health determinants. Future research must remain conscious of the upstream determinants and the political economy of public health. If public policy responses to growing health inequalities are to be effective, they must consider strengthening industrial policy and ending hyper-incarceration. © The Author 2017; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association

  5. Shocks in fragile matter

    Vitelli, Vincenzo

    2012-02-01

    Non-linear sound is an extreme phenomenon typically observed in solids after violent explosions. But granular media are different. Right when they unjam, these fragile and disordered solids exhibit vanishing elastic moduli and sound speed, so that even tiny mechanical perturbations form supersonic shocks. Here, we perform simulations in which two-dimensional jammed granular packings are continuously compressed, and demonstrate that the resulting excitations are strongly nonlinear shocks, rather than linear waves. We capture the full dependence of the shock speed on pressure and compression speed by a surprisingly simple analytical model. We also treat shear shocks within a simplified viscoelastic model of nearly-isostatic random networks comprised of harmonic springs. In this case, anharmonicity does not originate locally from nonlinear interactions between particles, as in granular media; instead, it emerges from the global architecture of the network. As a result, the diverging width of the shear shocks bears a nonlinear signature of the diverging isostatic length associated with the loss of rigidity in these floppy networks.

  6. Evaluating the content and reception of messages from incarcerated parents to their children.

    Folk, Johanna B; Nichols, Emily B; Dallaire, Danielle H; Loper, Ann B

    2012-10-01

    In the current study, children's reactions to video messages from their incarcerated parents were evaluated. Previous research has yielded mixed results when it examined the impact of contact between incarcerated parents and their children; one reason for these mixed results may be a lack of attention to the quality of contact. This is the first study to examine the actual content and quality of a remote form of contact in this population. Participants included 186 incarcerated parents (54% mothers) who participated in a filming with The Messages Project and 61 caregivers of their children. Parental mood prior to filming the message and children's mood after viewing the message were assessed using the Positive and Negative Affect Scale. After coding the content of 172 videos, the data from the 61 videos with caregiver responses were used in subsequent path analyses. Analyses indicated that when parents were in more negative moods prior to filming their message, they displayed more negative emotions in the video messages ( = .210), and their children were in more negative moods after viewing the message ( = .288). Considering that displays of negative emotion can directly affect how children respond to contact, it seems important for parents to learn to regulate these emotional displays to improve the quality of their contact with their children. © 2012 American Orthopsychiatric Association.

  7. Screening of egocentric and unemotional characteristics in incarcerated and community children.

    Scholte, E M; Stoutjesdijk, R; Van Oudheusden, M A G; Lodewijks, H; Van der Ploeg, J D

    2010-01-01

    A two-dimensional instrument to screen egocentric and unemotional traits in children was tested in this study, and the associations with the aggressive and the antisocial symptoms of conduct disorder were determined. To this end the narcissistic-egocentric and callous-unemotional characteristics associated with psychopathy were, along with the symptoms of conduct disorder, rated by teachers in a general community sample of 1179 four-to-eighteen-year-old Dutch children, and by professional care takers in a sample of 145 twelve-to eighteen-year-old incarcerated adolescents. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that the ratings of the psychopathic characteristics indeed clustered into a dimension with egocentric characteristics and a dimension with unemotional characteristics. Both dimensions were reliable and stable across age and gender groups. In both samples aggressive behavior was primarily linked to the interaction of egocentric and unemotional characteristics, while antisocial behavior was primarily linked to egocentric characteristics only. The incarcerated adolescents showed substantially more characteristics on both psychopathic dimensions than a comparable age and gender matched group with adolescents from the general community sample. The discrimination between normal and incarcerated adolescent youngsters and the linkage with aggressive behavior suggests the existence of a subtype of conduct disordered children displaying narcissism, deficient affect and disruptive social problem behavior.

  8. Incarcerated inguinal hernia management in children: 'a comparison of the open and laparoscopic approach'.

    Mishra, Pankaj Kumar; Burnand, Katherine; Minocha, Ashish; Mathur, Azad B; Kulkarni, Milind S; Tsang, Thomas

    2014-06-01

    To compare the outcomes of management of incarcerated inguinal hernia by open versus laparoscopic approach. This is a retrospective analysis of incarcerated inguinal hernina in a paediatric surgery centre involving four consultants. Manual reduction was attempted in all and failure was managed by emergency surgery. The laparoscopy group had 27 patients. Four patients failed manual reduction and underwent emergency laparoscopic surgery. Three of them had small bowel strangulation which was reduced laparoscopically. The strangulated bowel was dusky in colour initially but changed to normal colour subsequently under vision. The fourth patient required appendectomy for strangulated appendix. One patient had concomitant repair of umbilical hernia and one patient had laparoscopic pyloromyotomy at the same time. One patient had testicular atrophy, one had hydrocoele and one had recurrence of hernia on the asymptomatic side. The open surgery group had 45 patients. Eleven patients had failed manual reduction requiring emergency surgery, of these two required resection and anastomosis of small intestine. One patient in this group had concomitant repair of undescended testis. There was no recurrence in this group, one had testicular atrophy and seven had metachronous hernia. Both open herniotomy and laparoscopic repair offer safe surgery with comparable outcomes for incarcerated inguinal hernia in children. Laparoscopic approach and hernioscopy at the time of open approach appear to show the advantage of repairing the contralateral patent processus vaginalis at the same time and avoiding metachronous inguinal hernia.

  9. Management of a Small Paracentral Corneal Perforation Using Iatrogenic Iris Incarceration and Tissue Adhesive

    Akira Kobayashi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Surgical intervention for corneal perforation is indicated when the anterior chamber does not reform within a short period of time. Herein, we report the successful management of a small paracentral corneal perforation using autologous iris incarceration and tissue adhesive. Case: A 41-year-old man developed a small paracentral corneal perforation (0.5 mm in size in the right eye, while the treating physician attempted to remove the residual rust ring after removal of a piece of metallic foreign body. Observations: The eye was initially managed with a bandage soft contact lens to ameliorate the aqueous leakage; however, without success. Iatrogenic iris incarceration of the wound was first induced, followed by application of cyanoacrylate tissue adhesive to the perforated site. As a result, the anterior chamber was immediately reformed and maintained. Complete corneal epithelialization of the perforation was achieved in 2 months without visual compromises. Conclusions: Cyanoacrylate tissue adhesive with iatrogenic incarceration of the autologous iris was effective in treating this type of small corneal perforation. This technique is simple and potentially useful for small paracentral corneal perforations outside the visual axis and without good apposition.

  10. Typologies of adverse childhood experiences and their relationship to incarceration in U.S. military veterans.

    Ross, Jana; Waterhouse-Bradley, Bethany; Contractor, Ateka A; Armour, Cherie

    2018-05-01

    Numerous studies have reported that adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are associated with negative psychosocial outcomes in adulthood, but no study has examined the different typologies of ACEs and the relationship of these with adult incarceration in military veterans. The current study used latent class analysis to examine the existence of different childhood maltreatment and household dysfunction typologies in a sample of U.S. military veterans identified through the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III ((NESARC-III)). A total of 60.73% of veterans reported one or more ACEs. Four latent classes were identified and were named Low adversities, Moderate maltreatment with high household substance use, Severe maltreatment with moderate household dysfunction and Severe multi-type adversities. Relative to the Low adversities class, the three maltreatment/dysfunction classes had significantly elevated odds ratios (1.72-2.29) for adult incarceration, when controlling for sociodemographic characteristics and alcohol and drug use. The results point to the importance of examining childhood risk factors for incarceration and suggest that a certain sub-group of military personnel who are about to transition into the civilian life may need additional support to adjust and live successful lives. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Symptoms of ADHD are related to education and work experience among incarcerated adults

    Arve Egil Asbjørnsen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Several reports document increased prevalence of attention deficit and hyperactivity (ADHD and similar symptoms in incarcerated members of the community, but little is known about how the symptoms are related to education and work experience. An ongoing study among Norwegian inmates reveals that 60 % report signs of ADHD. In the present study a sample of 600 inmates incarcerated in Norway filled out a questionnaire including the WURS-k (Wender Utah Rating Scale, short form and questions to survey completed education level and work experience. A clear relationship was found between the WURS-k score and earlier job-experience, with increased probability of ADHD with work experience from low socio-economic status jobs. The scale was also found to share variance with the inmates’ reported education history, as higher education reduces the probability of ADHD among the incarcerated adults. Thus, the WURS-k could be a useful screening instrument in education assessment among inmates. The link between the present findings and development of anti-social behaviour is discussed.

  12. Physics of Collisionless Shocks Space Plasma Shock Waves

    Balogh, André

    2013-01-01

    The present book provides a contemporary systematic treatment of shock waves in high-temperature collisionless plasmas as are encountered in near Earth space and in Astrophysics. It consists of two parts. Part I develops the complete theory of shocks in dilute hot plasmas under the assumption of absence of collisions among the charged particles when the interaction is mediated solely by the self-consistent electromagnetic fields. Such shocks are naturally magnetised implying that the magnetic field plays an important role in their evolution and dynamics. This part treats both subcritical shocks, which dissipate flow energy by generating anomalous resistance or viscosity, and supercritical shocks. The main emphasis is, however, on super-critical shocks where the anomalous dissipation is insufficient to retard the upstream flow. These shocks, depending on the direction of the upstream magnetic field, are distinguished as quasi-perpendicular and quasi-parallel shocks which exhibit different behaviours, reflecti...

  13. Life Shocks and Homelessness

    Corman, Hope; Noonan, Kelly; Reichman, Nancy E.

    2014-01-01

    We exploited an exogenous health shock—namely, the birth of a child with a severe health condition—to investigate the effect of a life shock on homelessness in large cities in the United States as well as the interactive effects of the shock with housing market characteristics. We considered a traditional measure of homelessness, two measures of housing instability thought to be precursors to homelessness, and a combined measure that approximates the broadened conceptualization of homelessness under the 2009 Homeless Emergency Assistance and Rapid Transition to Housing Act (2010). We found that the shock substantially increases the likelihood of family homelessness, particularly in cities with high housing costs. The findings are consistent with the economic theory of homelessness, which posits that homelessness results from a conjunction of adverse circumstances in which housing markets and individual characteristics collide. PMID:23868747

  14. Sex Offender Rehabilitation Programs in State Prisons: A Nationwide Survey.

    Sapp, Allen D.; Vaughn, Michael S.

    1991-01-01

    Examined programs and strategies for rehabilitation used in adult sex offender treatment programs in state-operated adult correctional institutions. Questionnaires were completed by 73 adult sex offender treatment providers. The results revealed that incarcerated adult sex offenders were receiving comprehensive psychotherapy and behavior…

  15. The Shock Routine

    van Hooren, Franca; Kaasch, Alexandra; Starke, Peter

    2014-01-01

    in Australia, Belgium, the Netherlands and Sweden over the course of four global economic shocks, we ask whether the notion of critical junctures is useful in understanding the nature of change triggered by crisis. The main empirical finding is that fundamental change in the aftermath of an exogenous shock...... is the exception rather than the rule. Instead, incremental ‘crisis routines’ based on existing policy instruments are overwhelmingly used to deal with economic hardship. We discuss these findings in the light of the psychological ‘threat-rigidity’ effect and reflect on their consequences for theories...

  16. Shock drift acceleration in the presence of waves

    Decker, R. B.; Vlahos, L.

    1985-01-01

    Attention is given to the initial results of a model designed to study the modification of the scatter-free, shock drift acceleration of energetic test particles by wave activity in the vicinity of a quasi-perpendicular, fast-mode MHD shock. It is emphasized that the concept of magnetic moment conservation is a valid approximation only in the perpendicular and nearly perpendicular regimes, when the angle theta-Bn between the shock normal and the upstream magnetic field vector is in the range from 70 deg to 90 deg. The present investigation is concerned with one step in a program which is being developed to combine the shock drift and diffusive processes at a shock of arbitrary theta-Bn.

  17. If they like it they can take it with them: A mixed methods look at the use of Internet-based instruction of mindfulness meditation with incarcerated youth

    Michelle Evans-Chase

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The most successful programming offered in juvenile justice facilities do not transfer easily back to communities to give youth the opportunity to practice intervention skills once they return home. Having this opportunity is particularly important to youth leaving state custody given that they disproportionately return to poor communities and disrupted families that both exacerbate behaviors associated with juvenile justice involvement and act as barriers to much needed services and support. With this in mind, a randomized controlled trial was used to quantitatively assess the ability of freely available Internet-based mindfulness meditation instruction to increase mindfulness in treatment youth, with weekly journals and open-ended post-test questions used to qualitatively explore the treatment experience. Findings suggest that an Internet delivery of mindfulness meditation is both engaging to incarcerated youth, helpful to them in coping with life in a juvenile justice facility, and able to increase mindfulness in youth who practice it.

  18. Shock absorber in Ignalina NPP

    Bulavas, A.; Muralis, J.

    1996-09-01

    Theoretical calculation and experimental analysis of models of shock absorber in Ignalina NPP is presented. The results obtained from the investigation with model of shock absorber coincide with the theoretical calculation. (author). 2 figs., 3 refs

  19. Shock Response of Boron Carbide

    Dandekar, D. P. (Dattatraya Purushottam)

    2001-01-01

    .... The present work was undertaken to determine tensile/spall strength of boron carbide under plane shock wave loading and to analyze all available shock compression data on boron carbide materials...

  20. Fascinating World of Shock Waves

    Srimath

    travelling at supersonic speeds (more than the sound speed at ... actual earth- quake, travel at supersonic speeds. .... The time scale of the shock wave is also important ..... real lithotripsy where a shock wave is used shatter the kidney stones!

  1. INTERFERENCE OF UNIDIRECTIONAL SHOCK WAVES

    P. V. Bulat

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Subject of study.We consider interference of unidirectional shock waves or, as they are called, catching up shock waves. The scope of work is to give a classification of the shock-wave structures that arise in this type of interaction of shock waves, and the area of their existence. Intersection of unidirectional shock waves results in arising of a shock-wave structure at the intersection point, which contains the main shock wave, tangential discontinuity and one more reflected gas-dynamic discontinuity of unknown beforehand type. The problem of determining the type of reflected discontinuity is the main problem that one has to solve in the study of catching shock waves interference. Main results.The paper presents the pictures of shock-wave structures arising at the interaction of catching up shock waves. The areas with a regular and irregular unidirectional interaction of shocks are described. Characteristic shock-wave structures are of greatest interest, where reflected gas-dynamic discontinuity degenerates into discontinuous characteristics. Such structures have a number of extreme properties. We have found the areas of existence for such shock-wave structures. There are also areas in which the steady-state solution is not available. The latter has determined revival of interest for the theoretical study of the problem, because the facts of sudden shock-wave structure destruction inside the air intake of supersonic aircrafts at high Mach numbers have been discovered. Practical significance.The theory of interference for unidirectional shock waves and design procedure are usable in the design of supersonic air intakes. It is also relevant for application possibility investigation of catching up oblique shock waves to create overcompressed detonation in perspective detonation air-jet and rocket engines.

  2. Back-pressure Effect on Shock-Train Location in a Scramjet Engine Isolator

    2010-03-01

    breathing single-stage-to-orbit ( SSTO ) reusable spacecraft, X-30. It made a great contribution towards developing a rectangular, airframe-integrated...scramjet. This program was cancelled without conducting a flight test. The goal of this program was to build a full scale operational SSTO vehicle...bomber, SSTO , or hypersonic transportation. Shock system A shock-train is a system of series of oblique or normal shocks, which is a very complex flow

  3. Shock tube Multiphase Experiments

    Middlebrooks, John; Allen, Roy; Paudel, Manoj; Young, Calvin; Musick, Ben; McFarland, Jacob

    2017-11-01

    Shock driven multiphase instabilities (SDMI) are unique physical phenomena that have far-reaching practical applications in engineering and science. The instability is present in high energy explosions, scramjet combustors, and supernovae events. The SDMI arises when a multiphase interface is impulsively accelerated by the passage of a shockwave. It is similar in development to the Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) instability however, particle-to-gas coupling is the driving mechanism of the SDMI. As particle effects such as lag and phase change become more prominent, the SDMI's development begins to significantly deviate from the RM instability. We have developed an experiment for studying the SDMI in our shock tube facility. In our experiments, a multiphase interface is created using a laminar jet and flowed into the shock tube where it is accelerated by the passage of a planar shockwave. The interface development is captured using CCD cameras synchronized with planar laser illumination. This talk will give an overview of new experiments conducted to examine the development of a shocked cylindrical multiphase interface. The effects of Atwood number, particle size, and a second acceleration (reshock) of the interface will be discussed.

  4. Teleconnected food supply shocks

    Bren d'Amour, Christopher; Wenz, Leonie; Kalkuhl, Matthias; Steckel, Jan Christoph; Creutzig, Felix

    2016-03-01

    The 2008-2010 food crisis might have been a harbinger of fundamental climate-induced food crises with geopolitical implications. Heat-wave-induced yield losses in Russia and resulting export restrictions led to increases in market prices for wheat across the Middle East, likely contributing to the Arab Spring. With ongoing climate change, temperatures and temperature variability will rise, leading to higher uncertainty in yields for major nutritional crops. Here we investigate which countries are most vulnerable to teleconnected supply-shocks, i.e. where diets strongly rely on the import of wheat, maize, or rice, and where a large share of the population is living in poverty. We find that the Middle East is most sensitive to teleconnected supply shocks in wheat, Central America to supply shocks in maize, and Western Africa to supply shocks in rice. Weighing with poverty levels, Sub-Saharan Africa is most affected. Altogether, a simultaneous 10% reduction in exports of wheat, rice, and maize would reduce caloric intake of 55 million people living in poverty by about 5%. Export bans in major producing regions would put up to 200 million people below the poverty line at risk, 90% of which live in Sub-Saharan Africa. Our results suggest that a region-specific combination of national increases in agricultural productivity and diversification of trade partners and diets can effectively decrease future food security risks.

  5. Influence of Jail Incarceration and Homelessness Patterns on Engagement in HIV Care and HIV Viral Suppression among New York City Adults Living with HIV/AIDS.

    Sungwoo Lim

    Full Text Available Both homelessness and incarceration are associated with housing instability, which in turn can disrupt continuity of HIV medical care. Yet, their impacts have not been systematically assessed among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA.We studied a retrospective cohort of 1,698 New York City PLWHA with both jail incarceration and homelessness during 2001-05 to evaluate whether frequent transitions between jail incarceration and homelessness were associated with a lower likelihood of continuity of HIV care during a subsequent one-year follow-up period. Using matched jail, single-adult homeless shelter, and HIV registry data, we performed sequence analysis to identify trajectories of these events and assessed their influence on engagement in HIV care and HIV viral suppression via marginal structural modeling.Sequence analysis identified four trajectories; 72% of the cohort had sporadic experiences of both brief incarceration and homelessness, whereas others experienced more consistent incarceration or homelessness during early or late months. Trajectories were not associated with differential engagement in HIV care during follow-up. However, compared with PLWHA experiencing early bouts of homelessness and later minimal incarceration/homelessness events, we observed a lower prevalence of viral suppression among PLWHA with two other trajectories: those with sporadic, brief occurrences of incarceration/homelessness (0.67, 95% CI = 0.50,0.90 and those with extensive incarceration experiences (0.62, 95% CI = 0.43,0.88.Housing instability due to frequent jail incarceration and homelessness or extensive incarceration may exert negative influences on viral suppression. Policies and services that support housing stability should be strengthened among incarcerated and sheltered PLWHA to reduce risk of adverse health conditions.

  6. STEREO interplanetary shocks and foreshocks

    Blanco-Cano, X.; Kajdič, P.; Aguilar-Rodríguez, E.; Russell, C. T.; Jian, L. K.; Luhmann, J. G.

    2013-01-01

    We use STEREO data to study shocks driven by stream interactions and the waves associated with them. During the years of the extended solar minimum 2007-2010, stream interaction shocks have Mach numbers between 1.1-3.8 and θ Bn ∼20-86°. We find a variety of waves, including whistlers and low frequency fluctuations. Upstream whistler waves may be generated at the shock and upstream ultra low frequency (ULF) waves can be driven locally by ion instabilities. The downstream wave spectra can be formed by both, locally generated perturbations, and shock transmitted waves. We find that many quasiperpendicular shocks can be accompanied by ULF wave and ion foreshocks, which is in contrast to Earth's bow shock. Fluctuations downstream of quasi-parallel shocks tend to have larger amplitudes than waves downstream of quasi-perpendicular shocks. Proton foreshocks of shocks driven by stream interactions have extensions dr ≤0.05 AU. This is smaller than foreshock extensions for ICME driven shocks. The difference in foreshock extensions is related to the fact that ICME driven shocks are formed closer to the Sun and therefore begin to accelerate particles very early in their existence, while stream interaction shocks form at ∼1 AU and have been producing suprathermal particles for a shorter time.

  7. STEREO interplanetary shocks and foreshocks

    Blanco-Cano, X. [Instituto de Geofisica, UNAM, CU, Coyoacan 04510 DF (Mexico); Kajdic, P. [IRAP-University of Toulouse, CNRS, Toulouse (France); Aguilar-Rodriguez, E. [Instituto de Geofisica, UNAM, Morelia (Mexico); Russell, C. T. [ESS and IGPP, University of California, Los Angeles, 603 Charles Young Drive, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Jian, L. K. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD and University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Luhmann, J. G. [SSL, University of California Berkeley (United States)

    2013-06-13

    We use STEREO data to study shocks driven by stream interactions and the waves associated with them. During the years of the extended solar minimum 2007-2010, stream interaction shocks have Mach numbers between 1.1-3.8 and {theta}{sub Bn}{approx}20-86 Degree-Sign . We find a variety of waves, including whistlers and low frequency fluctuations. Upstream whistler waves may be generated at the shock and upstream ultra low frequency (ULF) waves can be driven locally by ion instabilities. The downstream wave spectra can be formed by both, locally generated perturbations, and shock transmitted waves. We find that many quasiperpendicular shocks can be accompanied by ULF wave and ion foreshocks, which is in contrast to Earth's bow shock. Fluctuations downstream of quasi-parallel shocks tend to have larger amplitudes than waves downstream of quasi-perpendicular shocks. Proton foreshocks of shocks driven by stream interactions have extensions dr {<=}0.05 AU. This is smaller than foreshock extensions for ICME driven shocks. The difference in foreshock extensions is related to the fact that ICME driven shocks are formed closer to the Sun and therefore begin to accelerate particles very early in their existence, while stream interaction shocks form at {approx}1 AU and have been producing suprathermal particles for a shorter time.

  8. Shock Dynamics in Stellar Outbursts. I. Shock Formation

    Ro, Stephen; Matzner, Christopher D., E-mail: ro@astro.utoronto.ca [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada)

    2017-05-20

    Wave-driven outflows and non-disruptive explosions have been implicated in pre-supernova outbursts, supernova impostors, luminous blue variable eruptions, and some narrow-line and superluminous supernovae. To model these events, we investigate the dynamics of stars set in motion by strong acoustic pulses and wave trains, focusing on nonlinear wave propagation, shock formation, and an early phase of the development of a weak shock. We identify the shock formation radius, showing that a heuristic estimate based on crossing characteristics matches an exact expansion around the wave front and verifying both with numerical experiments. Our general analytical condition for shock formation applies to one-dimensional motions within any static environment, including both eruptions and implosions. We also consider the early phase of shock energy dissipation. We find that waves of super-Eddington acoustic luminosity always create shocks, rather than damping by radiative diffusion. Therefore, shock formation is integral to super-Eddington outbursts.

  9. The family drawings of at-risk children: concurrent relations with contact with incarcerated parents, caregiver behavior, and stress.

    Dallaire, Danielle H; Ciccone, Anne; Wilson, Laura C

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined children's attachment representations as assessed with their family drawings in relation to contact with an incarcerated or estranged parent, caregiver behavior, and family stress in a high-risk sample of children (N = 44, M (age) = 8.14), 55% of whom had incarcerated parents. Greater phone, mail, and physical contact with an incarcerated parent was associated with more role reversal in children's family drawings. Additional results show that child-reports of more hostile caregiver behavior were associated with greater overall insecurity in their family drawings; child and caregiver reports of stress were associated with increased global pathology and bizarreness/dissociation in children's family drawings. Given the lack of research on concurrent familial-based correlates of ratings made of children's family drawings, these results provide additional insights into children's representations of attachment relationships in early middle childhood. Further, the results regarding contact with incarcerated parents have implications for researchers and clinicians working with families impacted by parental incarceration.

  10. Childhood and Adult Trauma Experiences of Incarcerated Persons and Their Relationship to Adult Behavioral Health Problems and Treatment

    Jing Shi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Rates of childhood and adult trauma are high among incarcerated persons. In addition to criminality, childhood trauma is associated with the risk for emotional disorders (e.g., depression and anxiety and co-morbid conditions such as alcohol and drug abuse and antisocial behaviors in adulthood. This paper develops rates of childhood and adult trauma and examines the impact of age-of-onset and type-specific trauma on emotional problems and behavior for a sample of incarcerated males (N~4,000. Prevalence estimates for types of trauma were constructed by age at time of trauma, race and types of behavioral health treatment received while incarcerated. HLM models were used to explore the association between childhood and adult trauma and depression, anxiety, substance use, interpersonal problems, and aggression problems (each model estimated separately and controlling for age, gender, race, time incarcerated, and index offense. Rates of physical, sexual, and emotional trauma were higher in childhood than adulthood and ranged from 44.7% (physical trauma in childhood to 4.5% (sexual trauma in adulthood. Trauma exposure was found to be strongly associated with a wide range of behavioral problems and clinical symptoms. Given the sheer numbers of incarcerated men and the strength of these associations, targeted intervention is critical.

  11. Diagnostic and Demographic Differences Between Incarcerated and Nonincarcerated Youth (Ages 6-15) With ADHD in South Carolina.

    Soltis, Samuel L; Probst, Janice; Xirasagar, Sudha; Martin, Amy B; Smith, Bradley H

    2017-05-01

    Analyze diagnostic and demographic factors to identify predictors of delinquency resulting in incarceration within a group of children/adolescents diagnosed with ADHD. The study followed a cohort of 15,472 Medicaid covered children/adolescents with ADHD, ages 6 to 15 inclusive, between January 1, 2003, and December 31, 2006. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev. [ DSM-IV-TR]), 2000 Codes were used for qualifying diagnosis codes. Available demographic characteristics included race, sex, and residence. The outcome was incarceration at the South Carolina Department of Juvenile Justice during 2005-2006. Among youth with ADHD, incarceration was more likely among black, male, and urban youth. Children/adolescents with comorbid ODD and/or CD were at greater risk compared with those with ADHD alone. Within ADHD-diagnosed youth, comorbid conditions and demographic characteristics increase the risk of incarceration. Intervention and treatment strategies that address behavior among youth with these characteristics are needed to reduce incarceration.

  12. Experimental and numerical investigation of reactive shock-accelerated flows

    Bonazza, Riccardo [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Engineering Physics

    2016-12-20

    The main goal of this program was to establish a qualitative and quantitative connection, based on the appropriate dimensionless parameters and scaling laws, between shock-induced distortion of astrophysical plasma density clumps and their earthbound analog in a shock tube. These objectives were pursued by carrying out laboratory experiments and numerical simulations to study the evolution of two gas bubbles accelerated by planar shock waves and compare the results to available astrophysical observations. The experiments were carried out in an vertical, downward-firing shock tube, 9.2 m long, with square internal cross section (25×25 cm2). Specific goals were to quantify the effect of the shock strength (Mach number, M) and the density contrast between the bubble gas and its surroundings (usually quantified by the Atwood number, i.e. the dimensionless density difference between the two gases) upon some of the most important flow features (e.g. macroscopic properties; turbulence and mixing rates). The computational component of the work performed through this program was aimed at (a) studying the physics of multi-phase compressible flows in the context of astrophysics plasmas and (b) providing a computational connection between laboratory experiments and the astrophysical application of shock-bubble interactions. Throughout the study, we used the FLASH4.2 code to run hydrodynamical and magnetohydrodynamical simulations of shock bubble interactions on an adaptive mesh.

  13. Experimental and numerical investigation of reactive shock-accelerated flows

    Bonazza, Riccardo

    2016-01-01

    The main goal of this program was to establish a qualitative and quantitative connection, based on the appropriate dimensionless parameters and scaling laws, between shock-induced distortion of astrophysical plasma density clumps and their earthbound analog in a shock tube. These objectives were pursued by carrying out laboratory experiments and numerical simulations to study the evolution of two gas bubbles accelerated by planar shock waves and compare the results to available astrophysical observations. The experiments were carried out in an vertical, downward-firing shock tube, 9.2 m long, with square internal cross section (25x25 cm"2). Specific goals were to quantify the effect of the shock strength (Mach number, M) and the density contrast between the bubble gas and its surroundings (usually quantified by the Atwood number, i.e. the dimensionless density difference between the two gases) upon some of the most important flow features (e.g. macroscopic properties; turbulence and mixing rates). The computational component of the work performed through this program was aimed at (a) studying the physics of multi-phase compressible flows in the context of astrophysics plasmas and (b) providing a computational connection between laboratory experiments and the astrophysical application of shock-bubble interactions. Throughout the study, we used the FLASH4.2 code to run hydrodynamical and magnetohydrodynamical simulations of shock bubble interactions on an adaptive mesh.

  14. Grain destruction in interstellar shocks

    Seab, C.G.; Shull, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    One of the principal methods for removing grains from the Interstellar Medium is to destroy them in shock waves. Previous theoretical studies of shock destruction have generally assumed only a single size and type of grain; most do not account for the effect of the grain destruction on the structure of the shock. Earlier calculations have been improved in three ways: first, by using a ''complete'' grain model including a distribution of sizes and types of grains; second, by using a self-consistent shock structure that incorporates the changing elemental depletions as the grains are destroyed; and third, by calculating the shock-processed ultraviolet extinction curves for comparison with observations. (author)

  15. The effects of incarceration on longitudinal trajectories of employment: A follow up in high risk youth from ages 23 to 32

    van der Geest, V.R.; Bijleveld, C.C.J.H.; Blokland, A.A.J.; Nagin, D.

    2016-01-01

    Life-course theories expect imprisonment to negatively influence a person’s employment prospects. Incarceration not only instantaneously interrupts a number of life-course domains but may also reduce future opportunities to reconnect to them. This article analyzes the effects of incarceration on

  16. Screening for personality disorder in a sample of incarcerated male youth: preliminary validation of the Standardised Assessment of Personality-Abbreviated Scale (SAPAS)

    Kongerslev, Mickey; Bo, Sune; Simonsen, Erik

    2011-01-01

    Aims: To test the validity of an age-appropriate adaptation of the Standardised Assessment of Personality - Abbreviated Scale (SAPAS) in a sample of incarcerated male youth Method: A sample of incarcerated boys, age 15 to 18, were administered the SAPAS by social workers from the participating pr...

  17. Bubble Dynamics and Shock Waves

    2013-01-01

    This volume of the Shock Wave Science and Technology Reference Library is concerned with the interplay between bubble dynamics and shock waves. It is divided into four parts containing twelve chapters written by eminent scientists. Topics discussed include shock wave emission by laser generated bubbles (W Lauterborn, A Vogel), pulsating bubbles near boundaries (DM Leppinen, QX Wang, JR Blake), interaction of shock waves with bubble clouds (CD Ohl, SW Ohl), shock propagation in polydispersed bubbly liquids by model equations (K Ando, T Colonius, CE Brennen. T Yano, T Kanagawa,  M Watanabe, S Fujikawa) and by DNS (G Tryggvason, S Dabiri), shocks in cavitating flows (NA Adams, SJ Schmidt, CF Delale, GH Schnerr, S Pasinlioglu) together with applications involving encapsulated bubble dynamics in imaging (AA Doinikov, A Novell, JM Escoffre, A Bouakaz),  shock wave lithotripsy (P Zhong), sterilization of ships’ ballast water (A Abe, H Mimura) and bubbly flow model of volcano eruptions ((VK Kedrinskii, K Takayama...

  18. Theory and Experiment on Radiative Shocks

    Drake, R. Paul

    2005-07-01

    The current generation of high-energy-density research facilities has enabled the beginnings of experimental studies of radiation hydrodynamic systems, common in astrophysics but difficult to produce in the laboratory. Radiative shock experiments specifically have been a topic of increasing effort in recent years. Our group and collaborators [1] have emphasized the radiographic observation of structure in radiative shocks. These shocks have been produced on the Omega laser by driving a Be piston through Xenon at velocities above 100 km/s. The talk will summarize these experiments and their results. Interpreting these and other experiments is hampered by the limited range of assumptions used in published theories, and by the limitations in readily available simulation tools. This has motivated an examination of radiative shock theory [2]. The talk will summarize the key issues and present results for specific cases. [ 1 ] Gail Glendinning, Ted Perry, Bruce Remington, Jim Knauer, Tom Boehly, and other members of the NLUF Experimental Astrophysics Team. Publications: Reighard et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. submitted; Leibrandt, et al., Ap J., in press, Reighard et al., IFSA 03 Proceedings, Amer. Nucl. Soc. (2004). [2] Useful discussions with Dmitri Ryutov and Serge Bouquet. Supported by the NNSA programs via DOE Grants DE-FG52-03NA00064 and DE FG53 2005 NA26014

  19. Consequences of Family Member Incarceration: Impacts on Civic Participation and Perceptions of the Legitimacy and Fairness of Government.

    Lee, Hedwig; Porter, Lauren C; Comfort, Megan

    2014-01-01

    Political participation and citizens' perceptions of the legitimacy and fairness of government are central components of democracy. In this article, we examine one possible threat to these markers of a just political system: family member incarceration. We offer a unique glimpse into the broader social consequences of punishment that are brought on by a partner's or parent's incarceration. We argue that the criminal justice system serves as an important institution for political socialization for the families of those imprisoned, affecting their attitudes and orientations toward the government and their will and capacity to become involved in political life. We draw from ethnographic data collected by one of the authors, quantitative data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, and interviews with recently released male prisoners and their female partners. Our findings suggest that experiences of a family member's incarceration complicate perceptions of government legitimacy and fairness and serve as a barrier to civic participation.

  20. Examining the Role of Familial Support During Prison and After Release on Post-Incarceration Mental Health.

    Wallace, Danielle; Fahmy, Chantal; Cotton, Lindsy; Jimmons, Charis; McKay, Rachel; Stoffer, Sidney; Syed, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    A significant number of prisoners experience mental health problems, and adequate social support is one way that facilitates better mental health. Yet, by being incarcerated, social support, particularly family support, is likely to be strained or even negative. In this study, we examine whether familial support--either positive or negative--in-prison and after release affects mental health outcomes post-release. Using the Serious and Violent Offender Reentry Initiative (SVORI) dataset, we regress post-release mental health on in-prison familial support, post-incarceration familial support, and changes in familial support. We find that while in-prison family support does not affect mental health, post-release familial support does. Also, experiencing an increase in negative familial support is associated with lower post-incarceration mental health. We conclude with a discussion of policies which may facilitate better familial support environments. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. Adjustable Shock Absorbers

    Adamiec, Radek

    2012-01-01

    Bakalářská práce obsahuje přehled používaných tlumičů osobních automobilů, závodních automobilů a motocyklů. Jsou zde popsány systémy t lumením, konstrukce tlumičů a vidlic používaných u motocyklů. Dále je zde přehled prvků používaných u podvozků automobilů. This bachelor´s thesis contains the survey of the shock absorbers of passenger cars, racing cars and motorcycles. Are described damping systems, the design used shock absorbers and forks for motorcycles. Then there is the list of the e...

  2. Radiative relativistic shock adiabate

    Tsintsadze, L.N.; Nishikawa, K.

    1997-01-01

    The influences of thermal radiation on the state equation of shock waves, derived in the previous paper [L. N. Tsintsadze, Phys. Plasmas 2, 4462 (1995)], are studied and a series of relations of thermodynamic quantities that hold for shock waves are derived. It is shown that the presence of radiation can strongly change the compressibility of the plasma. It is well known that for polytropic gases the compressibility cannot change more than four times the initial value in the case of nonrelativistic temperatures. The numerical calculations show that there are no such restrictions, when the radiation energy exceeds the kinetic energy of the plasma. The ultrarelativistic temperature range is also covered in our numerical calculations. Also studied are the influences of the radiation on the PT and the TV diagrams. A significant modification due to radiation is found in every case studied. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  3. POSTURAL SHOCK IN PREGNANCY

    Wilkening, Ralph L.; Knauer, John; Larson, Roger K.

    1955-01-01

    Signs and symptoms of shock may be produced in some patients in late pregnancy by putting them in the dorsal recumbent posture. Change from this position will relieve the condition. The features of the supine hypotensive syndrome can be duplicated by applying pressure to the abdomen with the patient in a lateral position. The postural variations of venous pressure, blood pressure, and pulse appear to be due to obstruction of venous return from the lower portion of the body caused by the large uterus of late pregnancy compressing the vena cava. When shock is observed in a woman in late pregnancy, she should be turned to a lateral position before more active measures of treatment are begun. ImagesFigure 1. PMID:14351983

  4. Bow shock data analysis

    Zipf, Edward C.; Erdman, Peeter W.

    1994-08-01

    The University of Pittsburgh Space Physics Group in collaboration with the Army Research Office (ARO) modeling team has completed a systematic organization of the shock and plume spectral data and the electron temperature and density measurements obtained during the BowShock I and II rocket flights which have been submitted to the AEDC Data Center, has verified the presence of CO Cameron band emission during the Antares engine burn and for an extended period of time in the post-burn plume, and have adapted 3-D radiation entrapment codes developed by the University of Pittsburgh to study aurora and other atmospheric phenomena that involve significant spatial effects to investigate the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) envelope surrounding the re-entry that create an extensive plasma cloud by photoionization.

  5. Factor for felons: how can we provide haemophilia care to the incarcerated?

    Lambing, A; Kachalsky, E; Mueller, L M; Kuriakose, P

    2015-11-01

    In 2011, 6.98-million offenders were documented in the adult correctional system, with state operating costs designated 12% towards medical care ($11.97 day per inmate) for the general population. Common co-existing health problems identified are: arthritis (13%), hypertension (11%), asthma (10%) and heart problems (6%). Less than 5% of inmates have health issues related to cancer, diabetes, liver or renal problems and communicable diseases. The leading cause of death is suicide (33.2%), followed by heart disease (26.1%). Despite these statistics quality is lacking. Given these statistics, one would expect that a small proportion of patients from Hemophilia Treatment Center (HTC) will spend some time within the justice system. Currently there are no data addressing haemophilia care needs while incarcerated. This article will review the current health care issues in the adult correctional system. Additionally, six case reports of incarcerated haemophiliacs will be highlighted exploring the successes and challenges with maintaining haemophilia care addressing the priority of meeting the haemophilia care needs verses the penal system regulations. It can be expected that at some point, the HTC will experience a patient incarcerated for some period of time. The HTC will continue to advocate for their patient within this system, despite the many challenges faced. Despite the challenges outlined, ongoing communication and education with the correctional system, education of the medical personnel and prison personnel remains the priority as we advocate for our patients. Continued strategies in these areas are paramount. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Impact of incarceration in Nazi concentration camps on multimorbidity of former prisoners

    Jablonski, Robert K; Leszek, Jerzy; Rosińczuk, Joanna; Uchmanowicz, Izabella; Panaszek, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Objective To show the extent to which the health of former prisoners was affected by incarceration in extermination camps after 5 and 30 years of leaving the camp, and to determine the etiological factors underlying particular dysfunctions. Methods Medical records of former prisoners developed in 1950 (n=250) and 1975 (n=120) were then, after several decades, retrospectively analyzed and compared with the control group, randomized and matched according to age, sex, occupation, and environment. None of the subjects in the control group was a prisoner either at a concentration camp or at any other prison or detention facility. Results Multimorbidity affected mainly the central nervous system (CNS). Five years after leaving a camp, CNS dysfunctions were observed in 66% of former prisoners. Skeletal (42.4%) and cardiovascular system (34.4%) dysfunctions were the second and third most frequent dysfunctions. Thirty years after leaving a camp, the most prevalent coexisting conditions were also found within the CNS (80%), cardiovascular system (58.33%), and skeletal system (55%). Five and 30 years after leaving a camp, multiorgan lesions were found in 21.6% and 60% of survivors, respectively. Multimorbidity was more frequent in a group of prisoners who underwent the state of apathy and depression or who had been incarcerated longer than 24 months. The rate of CNS diseases was four times higher, and the rate of cardiovascular diseases or skeletal system dysfunctions was two times higher, in the study group after 30 years of leaving a camp compared with the control group. Conclusion The consequences of incarceration in concentration camps manifesting as multimorbidity, premature aging, and dramatic increase in mortality rate are observed in the majority of former prisoners. The multimorbidity mostly affected older prisoners who stayed at a camp for a longer time period. PMID:25792836

  7. Implementation and effectiveness of integrated trauma and addiction treatment for incarcerated men.

    Wolff, Nancy; Huening, Jessica; Shi, Jing; Frueh, B Christopher; Hoover, Donald R; McHugo, Gregory

    2015-03-01

    A controlled trial of Seeking Safety (SS) and Male-Trauma Recovery Empowerment Model (M-TREM) examined implementation and effectiveness of integrated group therapy for comorbid post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorder (SUD) on PTSD and mental health symptoms plus self-esteem and efficacy for incarcerated men. The study sample (n=230) was male inmates 18 years or older who were primarily non-white, high school graduates or equivalents, had childhood trauma histories, committed violent crimes, had serious mental illnesses, and resided in a maximum security prison. Incarcerated men, who screened positive for PTSD and SUD, were assigned randomly (n=142) or by preference (n=88) to receive SS or M-TREM, with a waitlist group of (n=93). Manualized interventions were group-administered for 14 weeks. Primary outcomes were PTSD and other mental health symptoms. Secondary outcomes were self-esteem, coping, and self-efficacy. SUD outcomes cannot be measured in a correctional setting. Implementation feasibility was exhibited by the ability to recruit, screen, assign, and retain participants. Effectiveness findings depended on sample, design, and method for analysis. Using a waitlist control group and no follow-up period, we found no aggregate effect of treatment on PTSD symptoms, although, when disaggregated, M-TREM was found to improve PTSD severity and SS improved general mental health symptoms and psychological functioning. Using intent-to-treat and completer analyses, no significant differences were found in the relative performance between SS and M-TREM on primary or secondary outcomes. When longitudinal data were maximized and modeled in ways that reflect the hierarchical nature of the data, we found that SS and M-TREM performed better than no treatment on PTSD severity and secondary outcomes, and that treatment benefits endured. Findings cautiously support implementing either Seeking Safety or M-TREM to treat incarcerated men with co-morbid PTSD

  8. The mental health needs of incarcerated youth in British Columbia, Canada.

    Gretton, Heather M; Clift, Robert J W

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify the current prevalence of mental disorders and mental health needs among incarcerated male and female youths in Canada, and to present these data in the context of rates found in other jurisdictions. One hundred forty male and 65 female incarcerated young offenders in British Columbia were screened with the Massachusetts Youth Screening Instrument Version 2 (MAYSI-2); provisional psychiatric diagnoses were assessed with the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children Version IV (DISC-IV); abuse history and aggressive symptoms of Conduct Disorder (CD) were coded from file information. Nearly all youths (91.9% of males and 100% of females) met the criteria for at least one mental disorder. Substance abuse and dependence disorders were highly prevalent (85.5% of males and 100% of females). Aggressive forms of CD were common (72.9% of males and 84.3% of females), as were exposure to physical abuse (60.8% of males and 54.3% of females) and sexual abuse (21.2% of males and 42.4% of females). Female youths had significantly higher odds of presenting with: (1) substance abuse/dependence disorders; (2) current suicide ideation; (3) sexual abuse; (4) PTSD; (5) symptoms of depression and anxiety; (6) Oppositional Defiant Disorder; and (7) multiple mental disorder diagnoses. Male youths had significantly higher odds of presenting with aggressive symptoms of CD. Overall, rates of mental disorder among this sample of serious and violent young offenders were higher than rates previously reported for incarcerated youths - both in Canada and in other jurisdictions. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The relationship between family functioning and the crime types in incarcerated children.

    Teker, Kamil; Topçu, Seda; Başkan, Sevgi; Orhon, Filiz Ş; Ulukol, Betül

    2017-06-01

    We investigated the relationship between the family functioning and crime types in incarcerated children. One hundred eighty two incarcerated children aged between 13-18 years who were confined in child-youth prisons and child correctional facilities were enrolled into this descriptive study. Participants completed demographic questions and the McMaster Family Assessment Device (Epstein, Baldwin, & Bishop, 1983) (FAD) with face to face interviews. The crime types were theft, assault (bodily injury), robbery, sexual assault, drug trafficker and murder. The socio-demographic characteristics were compared by using FAD scale, and growing up in a nuclear family had statistically significant better scores for problem solving and communication subscales and the children whose parents had their own house had significantly better problem solving scores When we compared the crime types of children by using problem solving, communication and general functioning subscales of FAD, we found statistical lower scores in assault (bodily injury) group than in theft, sexual assault, murder groups and in drug trafficker group than in murder group, also we found lower scores in drug trafficker group than in theft group for problem solving and general functioning sub-scales, also there were lower scores in bodily injury assault group than in robbery, theft groups and in drug trafficker than in theft group for problem solving subscale. The communication and problem solving sub-scales of FAD are firstly impaired scales for the incarcerated children. We mention these sub-scales are found with unplanned and less serious crimes and commented those as cry for help of the children.

  10. Shock Isolation Elements Testing for High Input Loadings. Volume III. Mechanical Shock Isolation Elements.

    SHOCK ABSORBERS ), (*GUIDED MISSILE SILOS, SHOCK ABSORBERS ), (*SPRINGS, (*SHOCK(MECHANICS), REDUCTION), TORSION BARS, ELASTOMERS, DAMPING, EQUATIONS OF MOTION, MODEL TESTS, TEST METHODS, NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS, HARDENING.

  11. Shock resistance testing

    Pouard, M.

    1984-03-01

    In the framework of mechanical tests and to answer the different requests for tests, the T.C.R (Transport Conditionnement et Retraitement) laboratory got test facilities. These installations allow to carry out tests of resistance to shocks, mainly at the safety level of components of nuclear power plants, mockups of transport casks for fuel elements and transport containers for radioactive materials. They include a tower and a catapult. This paper give a decription of the facilities and explain their operation way [fr

  12. On Modeling Risk Shocks

    Dorofeenko, Victor; Lee, Gabriel; Salyer, Kevin; Strobel, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Within the context of a financial accelerator model, we model time-varying uncertainty (i.e. risk shocks) through the use of a mixture Normal model with time variation in the weights applied to the underlying distributions characterizing entrepreneur productivity. Specifically, we model capital producers (i.e. the entrepreneurs) as either low-risk (relatively small second moment for productivity) and high-risk (relatively large second moment for productivity) and the fraction of both types is...

  13. The Shock Doctrine

    Dionysios K. Solomos; Dimitrios N. Koumparoulis

    2011-01-01

    Naomi Klein attempts to redefine the economic history discovering the historical continuities and to reveal the neoliberal theory which functions via the utilization of specific “tools”. The state of shock is the key for the opponents of Chicago School and Milton Friedman in order for them to establish neoliberal policies and to promote the deregulated capitalism which includes less welfare state, less public sector, less regulation, weakened labor unions, privatizations and laissez-faire. Th...

  14. Characterization of shocked beryllium

    Papin P.A.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available While numerous studies have investigated the low-strain-rate constitutive response of beryllium, the combined influence of high strain rate and temperature on the mechanical behavior and microstructure of beryllium has received limited attention over the last 40 years. In the current work, high strain rate tests were conducted using both explosive drive and a gas gun to accelerate the material. Prior studies have focused on tensile loading behavior, or limited conditions of dynamic strain rate and/or temperature. Two constitutive strength (plasticity models, the Preston-Tonks-Wallace (PTW and Mechanical Threshold Stress (MTS models, were calibrated using common quasi-static and Hopkinson bar data. However, simulations with the two models give noticeably different results when compared with the measured experimental wave profiles. The experimental results indicate that, even if fractured by the initial shock loading, the Be remains sufficiently intact to support a shear stress following partial release and subsequent shock re-loading. Additional “arrested” drive shots were designed and tested to minimize the reflected tensile pulse in the sample. These tests were done to both validate the model and to put large shock induced compressive loads into the beryllium sample.

  15. Persistent Müllerian duct syndrome with transverse testicular ectopia presenting as an incarcerated inguinal hernia.

    Kaul, A; Srivastava, K N; Rehman, S M F; Goel, V; Yadav, V

    2011-12-01

    The presence of both of the testes in one scrotal sac is one of the very rare presentations of testicular ectopia, which is known as transverse testicular ectopia (TTE) and is also known as crossed testicular ectopia. The presence of the uterus and fallopian tubes in a normally virilized male is termed as persistent Müllerian duct syndrome (PMDS). We report a case of an adult male who had a unique combination of both TTE and PMDS presenting as an incarcerated inguinal hernia.

  16. Delinquency and family problems in incarcerated adolescents with and without a history of inhalant use.

    McGarvey, E L; Canterbury, R J; Waite, D

    1996-01-01

    In this retrospective study of incarcerated adolescents, inhalants were used by significantly more nonminority than minority youth. Among both minority and nonminority groups, family problems and delinquent behaviors were higher among those youth with a history of inhalant use than those who reported no use. Family problems included history of running away from home, breaking rules, fighting with parents, and having relatives who had attempted suicide. Delinquent behavior included earlier personal use of drugs, selling illegal drugs, buying drugs from dealers, committing crimes while under the influence, committing crimes to get money to buy drugs, and threatening to hurt people.

  17. Impact of a Dialectic Behavior Therapy-Corrections Modified (DBT-CM) upon behaviorally challenged incarcerated male adolescents.

    Shelton, Deborah; Kesten, Karen; Zhang, Wanli; Trestman, Robert

    2011-05-01

    This article reports the findings of a Dialectical Behavioral Therapy-Corrections Modified (DBT-CM) intervention upon difficult-to-manage, impulsive, and/or aggressive incarcerated male adolescents. A secondary analysis of a subsample of 38 male adolescents who participated in the study was conducted. A one-group pretest-posttest design was used; descriptive statistics and t-tests were conducted. Significant changes were found in physical aggression, distancing coping methods, and number of disciplinary tickets for behavior. The study supports the value of DBT-CM for the management of incarcerated male adolescents with difficult-to-manage aggressive behaviors. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Selfsimilar time dependent shock structures

    Beck, R.; Drury, L.O.

    1985-01-01

    Diffusive shock acceleration as an astrophysical mechanism for accelerating charged particles has the advantage of being highly efficient. This means however that the theory is of necessity nonlinear; the reaction of the accelerated particles on the shock structure and the acceleration process must be self-consistently included in any attempt to develop a complete theory of diffusive shock acceleration. Considerable effort has been invested in attempting, at least partially, to do this and it has become clear that in general either the maximum particle energy must be restricted by introducing additional loss processes into the problem or the acceleration must be treated as a time dependent problem (Drury, 1984). It is concluded that stationary modified shock structures can only exist for strong shocks if additional loss processes limit the maximum energy a particle can attain. This is certainly possible and if it occurs the energy loss from the shock will lead to much greater shock compressions. It is however equally possible that no such processes exist and we must then ask what sort of nonstationary shock structure develops. The same argument which excludes stationary structures also rules out periodic solutions and indeed any solution where the width of the shock remains bounded. It follows that the width of the shock must increase secularly with time and it is natural to examine the possibility of selfsimilar time dependent solutions

  19. Selfsimilar time dependent shock structures

    Beck, R.; Drury, L. O.

    1985-01-01

    Diffusive shock acceleration as an astrophysical mechanism for accelerating charged particles has the advantage of being highly efficient. This means however that the theory is of necessity nonlinear; the reaction of the accelerated particles on the shock structure and the acceleration process must be self-consistently included in any attempt to develop a complete theory of diffusive shock acceleration. Considerable effort has been invested in attempting, at least partially, to do this and it has become clear that in general either the maximum particle energy must be restricted by introducing additional loss processes into the problem or the acceleration must be treated as a time dependent problem (Drury, 1984). It is concluded that stationary modified shock structures can only exist for strong shocks if additional loss processes limit the maximum energy a particle can attain. This is certainly possible and if it occurs the energy loss from the shock will lead to much greater shock compressions. It is however equally possible that no such processes exist and we must then ask what sort of nonstationary shock structure develops. The ame argument which excludes stationary structures also rules out periodic solutions and indeed any solution where the width of the shock remains bounded. It follows that the width of the shock must increase secularly with time and it is natural to examine the possibility of selfsimilar time dependent solutions.

  20. High-Gain Shock Ignition on the National Ignition Facility

    Perkins, L. J.; Lafortune, K.; Bailey, D.; Lambert, M.; MacKinnon, A.; Blackfield, D.; Comley, A.; Schurtz, G.; Ribeyre, X.; Lebel, E.; Casner, A.; Craxton, R. S.; Betti, R.; McKenty, P.; Anderson, K.; Theobald, W.; Schmitt, A.; Atzeni, S.; Schiavi, A.

    2010-11-01

    Shock ignition offers the possibility for a near-term test of high-gain ICF on the NIF at less than 1MJ drive energy and with day-1 laser hardware. We will summarize the status of target performance simulations, delineate the critical issues and describe the R&D program to be performed in order to test the potential of a shock-ignited target on NIF. In shock ignition, compressed fuel is separately ignited by a late-time laser-driven shock and, because capsule implosion velocities are significantly lower than those required for conventional hotpot ignition, simulations indicate that fusion energy gains of 60 may be achievable at laser energies around 0.5MJ. Like fast ignition, shock ignition offers high gain but requires only a single laser with less demanding timing and focusing requirements. Conventional symmetry and stability constraints apply, thus a key immediate step towards attempting shock ignition on NIF is to demonstrate adequacy of low-mode uniformity and shock symmetry under polar drive

  1. Design and implementation of a factorial randomized controlled trial of methadone maintenance therapy and an evidence-based behavioral intervention for incarcerated people living with HIV and opioid dependence in Malaysia.

    Bazazi, Alexander R; Wickersham, Jeffrey A; Wegman, Martin P; Culbert, Gabriel J; Pillai, Veena; Shrestha, Roman; Al-Darraji, Haider; Copenhaver, Michael M; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Altice, Frederick L

    2017-08-01

    Incarcerated people living with HIV and opioid dependence face enormous challenges to accessing evidence-based treatment during incarceration and after release into the community, placing them at risk of poor HIV treatment outcomes, relapse to opioid use and accompanying HIV transmission risk behaviors. Here we describe in detail the design and implementation of Project Harapan, a prospective clinical trial conducted among people living with HIV and opioid dependence who transitioned from prison to the community in Malaysia from 2010 to 2014. This trial involved 2 interventions: within-prison initiation of methadone maintenance therapy and an evidence-based behavioral intervention adapted to the Malaysian context (the Holistic Health Recovery Program for Malaysia, HHRP-M). Individuals were recruited and received the interventions while incarcerated and were followed for 12months after release to assess post-release HIV transmission risk behaviors and a range of other health-related outcomes. Project Harapan was designed as a fully randomized 2×2 factorial trial where individuals would be allocated in equal proportions to methadone maintenance therapy and HHRP-M, methadone maintenance therapy alone, HHRP-M alone, or control. Partway through study implementation, allocation to methadone maintenance therapy was changed from randomization to participant choice; randomization to HHRP-M continued throughout. We describe the justification for this study; the development and implementation of these interventions; changes to the protocol; and screening, enrollment, treatment receipt, and retention of study participants. Logistical, ethical, and analytic issues associated with the implementation of this study are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Risk shocks and housing markets

    Dorofeenko, Viktor; Lee, Gabriel S.; Salyer, Kevin D.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: This paper analyzes the role of uncertainty in a multi-sector housing model with financial frictions. We include time varying uncertainty (i.e. risk shocks) in the technology shocks that affect housing production. The analysis demonstratesthat risk shocks to the housing production sector are a quantitatively important impulse mechanism for the business cycle. Also, we demonstrate that bankruptcy costs act as an endogenous markup factor in housing prices; as a consequence, the volati...

  3. Psychopathic traits modulate brain responses to drug cues in incarcerated offenders

    Lora M Cope

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent neuroscientific evidence indicates that psychopathy is associated with abnormal function and structure in limbic and paralimbic areas. Psychopathy and substance use disorders are highly comorbid, but clinical experience suggests that psychopaths abuse drugs for different reasons than non-psychopaths, and that psychopaths do not typically experience withdrawal and craving upon becoming incarcerated. These neurobiological abnormalities may be related to psychopaths’ different motivations for – and symptoms of – drug use. This study examined the modulatory effect of psychopathic traits on the neurobiological craving response to pictorial drug stimuli. Drug-related pictures and neutral pictures were presented and rated by participants while hemodynamic activity was monitored using functional magnetic resonance imaging. These data were collected at two correctional facilities in New Mexico using the Mind Research Network mobile magnetic resonance imaging system. The sample comprised 137 incarcerated adult males and females (93 females with histories of substance dependence. The outcome of interest was the relation between psychopathy scores (using the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised and hemodynamic activity associated with viewing drug-related pictures versus neutral pictures. There was a negative association between psychopathy scores and hemodynamic activity for viewing drug-related cues in the anterior cingulate, posterior cingulate, hippocampus, amygdala, caudate, globus pallidus, and parts of the prefrontal cortex. Psychopathic traits modulate the neurobiological craving response and suggest that individual differences are important for understanding and treating substance abuse.

  4. Laparoscopic repair of incarcerated inguinal hernia. A safe and effective procedure to adopt in children.

    Esposito, C; Turial, S; Alicchio, F; Enders, J; Castagnetti, M; Krause, K; Settimi, A; Schier, F

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of our retrospective study was to describe the efficacy and the advantages of laparoscopic approach to treat incarcerated inguinal hernia (IIH) in pediatric patients. In a 2-year period, 601 children underwent a laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair, 46 (7.6 %) of them presented an IIH. Our study will be focused on these 46 patients: 30 boys and 16 girls (age range 1 month-8 years). Twenty-one/46 hernias (45.6 %) were reduced preoperatively and then operated laparoscopically (RH), 25/46 (54.4 %) were irreducible and they were operated directly in laparoscopy (IRH). We have no conversions in our series. The length of surgery in RH group was in median 23 min and in IRH group was in median 30 min. Hospital stay was variable between 6 h and 3 days (median 36 h).With a minimum follow-up of 14 months, we had 2/46 recurrences (4.3 %). The laparoscopic approach to IIH appears easy to perform from the technical point of view. The 3 main advantages of laparoscopic approach are that all edematous tissue are surgically bypassed and the cord structures are not touched; the reduction is performed under direct visual control, and above all, an inspection of the incarcerated organ is performed at the end of procedure.

  5. Laparoscopic surgery in the treatment of incarcerated indirect inguinal hernia in children.

    Yin, Yiyu; Zhang, Hongwei; Zhang, Xiang; Sun, Fang; Zou, Huaxin; Cao, Hui; Wen, Cheng

    2016-12-01

    We aimed to explore the feasibility and the safety of the laparoscopic surgery for incarcerated indirect inguinal hernia (IIH) in children. From January 2012 to December 2014, 64 children were enrolled into this study. All 64 patients received laparoscopic surgery and we reviewed their perioperative and postoperative follow-up studies. In addition, we enrolled 60 cases of children who received traditional surgery of IIH administered through minimally invasive surgery as the control group. Results from the present study showed that the mean operation time for the laparoscopic group was 41.5 min (range, 15-80 min) which was significantly shorter than the control group. Nine cases developed incarcerated intestine necrosis, expanded umbilical incision and parallel resection anastomosis. They received laparoscopic hernia sac high ligation. Only 5 cases developed scrotum edema after the surgery. The postoperative length of the stay ranged from 2 to 7 days (average, 3.2). The postoperative follow-up was from 6 months to 1 year and no relapse or secondary testicular atrophy was observed in the laparoscopic group. The operation time, incidence of postoperative complications and length of stay in the laparoscopic group were decreased compared to the control group, and differences were statistically significant (Pincarcerated inguinal hernia is safe and feasible and produced better results compared with the alternative.

  6. Child abuse, drug addiction and mental health problems of incarcerated women in Israel.

    Chen, Gila; Gueta, Keren

    2015-01-01

    The mental health problems and pathways to drug addiction and crime among female inmates have long been of interest to researchers and practitioners. The purpose of the current study was to examine the possible association between multiple types of childhood abuse, mental health problems, and drug addiction and the incarceration of 50 Israeli women in prison. The findings indicated that female inmates come from risky families with a high prevalence of family mental health problems, parental drug addiction and crime, and sibling drug addiction and crime. Furthermore, they revealed that incarcerated women from risky families were victims of multiple types of childhood abuse and neglect by their parents, as well as their siblings. Overall, the results suggest that the adverse consequences of a family's mental health problems are much more dramatic than we assumed to date, and that women are more likely than men to be the victims of multiple types of childhood abuse and neglect, as well as suffering more severe psychiatric problems, depression, and drug addiction. The implications of these findings are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A human immunodeficiency virus risk reduction intervention for incarcerated youth: a randomized controlled trial.

    Goldberg, Eudice; Millson, Peggy; Rivers, Stephen; Manning, Stephanie Jeanneret; Leslie, Karen; Read, Stanley; Shipley, Caitlin; Victor, J Charles

    2009-02-01

    To evaluate, by gender, the impact of a structured, comprehensive risk reduction intervention with and without boosters on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) knowledge, attitudes and behaviors in incarcerated youth; and to determine predictors of increasing HIV knowledge and reducing high-risk attitudes and behaviors. This randomized controlled trial involved participants completing structured interviews at 1, 3, and 6 months. Repeated measures analysis of variance was used to analyze changes over time. The study was conducted in secure custody facilities and in the community. The study sample comprising 391 incarcerated youth, 102 female and 289 male aged 12-18, formed the voluntary sample. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: education intervention; education intervention with booster; or no systematic intervention. The outcome and predictor measures included the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Youth Self Report, Drug Use Inventory, and HIV Knowledge, Attitudes and Behavior Scale. The 6-month retention rate was 59.6%. At 6 months, males in the education and booster groups sustained increases in knowledge scores (p variations by gender underline the importance of gender issues in prevention interventions. Predictors of success were identified to inform future HIV education interventions.

  8. The Effects of the Children Having Incarcerated Parents Succeeding Group on Delinquent Behavior, Academic Achievement, Self-Esteem, Attendance and Aggressive Behavior with Seventh and Eighth Grade Students Who Have Incarcerated Parents or Guardians

    King-White, Dakota L.

    2012-01-01

    A sample of middle school students was investigated to determine whether an intervention group called Children Having Incarcerated Parents (C.H.I.P.S.; King-White & Lipford-Sanders, 2007) was an effective intervention for delinquent behavior, academic achievement, self-esteem, attendance, and aggressive behavior in children of incarcerated…

  9. Health shocks and risk aversion.

    Decker, Simon; Schmitz, Hendrik

    2016-12-01

    We empirically assess whether a health shock influences individual risk aversion. We use grip strength data to obtain an objective health shock indicator. In order to account for the non-random nature of our data regression-adjusted matching is employed. Risk preferences are traditionally assumed to be constant. However, we find that a health shock increases individual risk aversion. The finding is robust to a series of sensitivity analyses and persists for at least four years after the shock. Income changes do not seem to be the driving mechanism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Shock in the emergency department

    Holler, Jon Gitz; Henriksen, Daniel Pilsgaard; Mikkelsen, Søren

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The knowledge of the frequency and associated mortality of shock in the emergency department (ED) is limited. The aim of this study was to describe the incidence, all-cause mortality and factors associated with death among patients suffering shock in the ED. METHODS: Population...... failures. Outcomes were annual incidence per 100,000 person-years at risk (pyar), all-cause mortality at 0-7, and 8-90 days and risk factors associated with death. RESULTS: We identified 1646 of 438,191 (0.4 %) ED patients with shock at arrival. Incidence of shock increased from 53.8 to 80.6 cases per 100...

  11. Shock compression of diamond crystal

    Kondo, Ken-ichi; Ahrens, Thomas J.

    1983-01-01

    Two shock wave experiments employing inclined mirrors have been carried out to determine the Hugoniot elastic limit (HEL), final shock state at 191 and 217 GPa, and the post-shock state of diamond crystal, which is shock-compressed along the intermediate direction between the and crystallographic axes. The HEL wave has a velocity of 19.9 ± 0.3 mm/µsec and an amplitude of 63 ± 28 GPa. An alternate interpretation of the inclined wedge mirror streak record suggests a ramp precursor wave and th...

  12. A Shocking Solar Nebula?

    Liffman, Kurt

    2009-01-01

    It has been suggested that shock waves in the solar nebula formed the high temperature materials observed in meteorites and comets. It is shown that the temperatures at the inner rim of the solar nebula could have been high enough over a sufficient length of time to produce chondrules, CAIs, refractory dust grains and other high-temperature materials observed in comets and meteorites. The solar bipolar jet flow may have produced an enrichment of 16O in the solar nebula over time and the chond...

  13. Myths of "shock therapy".

    Fink, M

    1977-09-01

    The author discusses the myths of the ECT process--that shock and the convulsion are essential, memory loss and brain damage are inescapable, and little is known of the process--and assesses the fallacies in these ideas. Present views of the ECT process suggest that its mode of action in depression may best be described as a prolonged form of diencephalic stimulation, particularly useful to affect the hypothalamic dysfunctions that characterize depressive illness. The author emphasizes the need for further study of this treatment modality and for self-regulation by the profession.

  14. Shock policies in the agony of the Peronist state: the Rodrigazo and the Mondelliazo

    Marongiu, Federico

    2006-01-01

    Within the economic policies implemented by the six Economy Ministers of the Peronist government of 1973-1976 there exist two cases in which shock policies or shock adjustments were done with the aim to correct the problems that the Argentinean economy was suffering. those were the shock programs implemented by Minsiters Celestino Rodrigo (June 1975-July 1975) and Emilio Mondelli (February 1976- March 1976). Among the problems that they had to face there was a huge crisis in the commercial ba...

  15. Gravitational shock waves and extreme magnetomaterial shock waves

    Lichnerowicz, Andre.

    1975-01-01

    Within an astrophysical context corresponding to high densities, a self-gravitating model is studied, which is the set of an extreme material medium of infinite conductivity and of a magnetic field. Corresponding shock waves generate necessarily, in general, gravitational shock waves [fr

  16. Shock Producers and Shock Absorbers in the Crisis

    Sinn, Hans-Werner

    2009-01-01

    It is not surprising that the U.S. has been by far the world’s largest shock producer in this crisis. The big shock absorbers on the other hand were Japan, Russia and Germany, whose exports shrank more than their imports.

  17. Simulations of Converging Shock Collisions for Shock Ignition

    Sauppe, Joshua; Dodd, Evan; Loomis, Eric

    2016-10-01

    Shock ignition (SI) has been proposed as an alternative to achieving high gain in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) targets. A central hot spot below the ignition threshold is created by an initial compression pulse, and a second laser pulse drives a strong converging shock into the fuel. The collision between the rebounding shock from the compression pulse and the converging shock results in amplification of the converging shock and increases the hot spot pressure above the ignition threshold. We investigate shock collision in SI drive schemes for cylindrical targets with a polystyrene foam interior using radiation-hydrodynamics simulations with the RAGE code. The configuration is similar to previous targets fielded on the Omega laser. The CH interior results in a lower convergence ratio and the cylindrical geometry facilitates visualization of the shock transit using an axial X-ray backlighter, both of which are important for comparison to potential experimental measurements. One-dimensional simulations are used to determine shock timing, and the effects of low mode asymmetries in 2D computations are also quantified. LA-UR-16-24773.

  18. A Systematic Review of the Effects of Postsecondary Education in the Penal System on Recidivism and Incarceration Rates

    Munroe, Monekka L.

    2016-01-01

    The problem is Florida is ranked as having the 10th largest incarceration rate in the United States, with a recidivism rate of almost 30%. Therefore, this researcher conducted a systematic review of the literature to determine any benefits to providing college courses to inmates, including the reduction of recidivism. To determine the…

  19. Recurrent incarceration of the retroverted gravid uterus at term - two times transvaginal caesarean section : a case report

    van der Tuuk, K.; Krenning, R.A.; Krenning, G.; Monincx, W.M.

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Persistent retroversion of a gravid uterus (incarceration) in the third trimester is an extremely rare diagnosis and is only scarcely been described. Its prevalence may lead to increased foetal mortality and maternal morbidity. CASE PRESENTATION: We present a case where a 35-year-old

  20. Tobacco Smoking among Incarcerated Individuals: A Review of the Nature of the Problem and What Is Being Done in Response

    Donahue, John J.

    2009-01-01

    Smoking is a major health problem, however the issue is even more pronounced among those incarcerated in prisons, where smoking rates are often three times that of the general population. While effective treatments have been demonstrated in the tobacco literature, research examining treatment within prisons is limited in scope. This article…

  1. Qualitative Research Methods to Advance Research on Health Inequities among Previously Incarcerated Women Living with HIV in Alabama

    Sprague, Courtenay; Scanlon, Michael L.; Pantalone, David W.

    2017-01-01

    Justice-involved HIV-positive women have poor health outcomes that constitute health inequities. Researchers have yet to embrace the range of qualitative methods to elucidate how psychosocial histories are connected to pathways of vulnerability to HIV and incarceration for this key population. We used life course narratives and…

  2. The Importance of Getting Started Right: Further Examination of the Facility-to-Community Transition of Formerly Incarcerated Youth

    Bullis, Michael; Yovanoff, Paul; Havel, Emily

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the facility-to-community transition of 531 incarcerated youth following their release from Oregon's juvenile correctional system, for a period of 12 months. Data on the sample were gathered through phone interviews, while they were still in custody and then every 6 months after their parole. The interviewees were asked to…

  3. Different Pathways to Juvenile Delinquency: Characteristics of Early and Late Starters in a Sample of Previously Incarcerated Youth

    Alltucker, Kevin W.; Bullis, Michael; Close, Daniel; Yovanoff, Paul

    2006-01-01

    We examined the differences between early and late start juvenile delinquents in a sample of 531 previously incarcerated youth in Oregon's juvenile justice system. Data were analyzed with logistic regression to predict early start delinquency based on four explanatory variables: foster care experience, family criminality, special education…

  4. Adolescent Fathers Who Are Incarcerated Juvenile Offenders: Explanatory Study of the Co-Occurrence of Two Problem Behaviors

    Unruh, Deanne; Bullis, Michael; Yovanoff, Paul

    2004-01-01

    We identify explanatory risk variables associated with the co-occurrence of two problem behaviors: juvenile offending and adolescent fatherhood. Data were gathered from a 5-year prospective, longitudinal study of 531 incarcerated juvenile offenders as they transitioned from youth correction facilities back into the community. Of the total sample,…

  5. Moral Emotions, Emotion Self-Regulation, Callous-Unemotional Traits, and Problem Behavior in Children of Incarcerated Mothers

    Lotze, Geri M.; Ravindran, Neeraja; Myers, Barbara J.

    2010-01-01

    Children with incarcerated mothers are at high risk for developing problem behaviors. Fifty children (6-12 years; 62% girls) participated in summer camps, along with adult mentors. Regression analyses of child and adult measures of child's emotion self-regulation and callous-unemotional traits, and a child measure of moral emotions, showed that…

  6. Substance use, substance use disorders, and comorbidity patterns in a representative sample of incarcerated male Dutch adolescents

    Vreugdenhil, Coby; van den Brink, Wim; Wouters, Luuk F. J. M.; Doreleijers, Theo A. H.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of substance use and substance use disorders (SUDs) among incarcerated boys, and comorbidity patterns and the relationship between SUDs and violent offending and criminal recidivism. The presence of SUDs and other psychiatric disorders was

  7. PTSD in Children and Adolescents: The Aftermath of Parental Incarceration among Children and Adolescents within the African-American Community

    Smith, Angie J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) resulting from parental incarceration upon children and adolescents in an African-American community. Methodology: Much of the literature on posttraumatic stress disorder focuses on children and adolescents that have been exposed to a one-time event (e.g. school…

  8. The ability of YSR scales to predict DSM/DISC-C psychiatric disorders among incarcerated male adolescents

    Vreugdenhil, C.; van den Brink, W.; Ferdinand, R.; Wouters, L.; Doreleijers, T.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the empirical or DSM-oriented scales of the Youth Self-Report (YSR) can be used to screen for DSM psychiatric disorders among incarcerated boys. DSM-oriented scales have recently been developed by Achenbach to enhance comparability of YSR results with DSM diagnostic

  9. As Pliant as the Bamboo: A Grounded Theory Study of Incarcerated Filipino Elderly People's Sense of Resiliency

    de Guzman, Allan B.; Imperial, Marnie Yvette G.; Javier, Rianne Rae L.; Kawasaki, Arisa M.

    2017-01-01

    The impact of prison upon incarcerated individuals is considerably destructive and may lead to low mental health resiliency. Despite a large body of literature on resiliency, little is known about the process that the elderly go through in developing resiliency in the penal setting--hence, this grounded theory investigation. The overall intent of…

  10. A Validation of the Group-Based Medical Mistrust Scale in Formerly Incarcerated Black and Latino Men.

    Valera, Pamela; Boyas, Javier F; Bernal, Camila; Chiongbian, Victoria Briones; Chang, Yvonne; Shelton, Rachel C

    2016-05-04

    While there is a growing body of literature on medical mistrust and its relevance to public health, research on formerly incarcerated Black and Latino men and their perception of mistrust toward medical providers and medical institutions remains scant. Very little is known about whether formerly incarcerated Black and Latino men mistrust medical and clinical providers given their previous experiences with the criminal justice system. It is important to determine whether medical mistrust play a key role in the health and health behaviors of released Black and Latino men. The purpose of this study is to validate and assess the psychometric properties of the Group-Based Medical Mistrust Scale for use among formerly incarcerated Black and Latino men in New York City. The findings of the exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses state that a two-factor structure fit the data best. Two dimensions emerged as important subscales: discrimination and suspicion. The current findings suggest the two-factor Group-Based Medical Mistrust Scale is a valid and reliable assessment tool to discern medical mistrust levels among formerly incarcerated Black and Latino men. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. Tried as an adult, housed as a juvenile: a tale of youth from two courts incarcerated together.

    Bechtold, Jordan; Cauffman, Elizabeth

    2014-04-01

    Research has questioned the wisdom of housing juveniles who are convicted in criminal court in facilities with adult offenders. It is argued that minors transferred to criminal court should not be incarcerated with adults, due to a greater likelihood of developing criminal skills, being victimized, and attempting suicide. Alternatively, it has been suggested that the other option, housing these youth with minors who have committed less serious crimes and who are therefore adjudicated in juvenile courts, might have unintended consequences for juvenile court youth. The present study utilizes a sample of youth incarcerated in one secure juvenile facility, with some offenders processed in juvenile court (n = 261) and others processed in adult court (n = 103). We investigate whether youth transferred to adult court engage in more institutional offending (in particular, violence) and experience less victimization than their juvenile court counterparts. Results indicate that although adult court youth had a greater likelihood of being convicted of violent commitment offenses than juvenile court youth, the former engaged in less offending during incarceration than the latter. In addition, no significant differences in victimization were observed. These findings suggest that the concern about the need for separate housing for adult court youth is unfounded; when incarcerated together, those tried in adult court do not engage in more institutional violence than juvenile court youth. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. Perceptions of a Prison-Based Substance Abuse Treatment Program among Some Staff and Participants

    Goodrum, Sarah; Staton, Michele; Leukefeld, Carl; Webster, J. Matthew; Purvis, Richard T.

    2003-01-01

    Almost 90% of all State and Federal prisons in the U.S. offer some form of substance abuse counseling, and one in eight prisoners have participated in a substance abuse treatment program while incarcerated. Evidence indicates that these programs can be successful in stopping prisoners' substance abuse. While some data are available about the…

  13. 30th International Symposium on Shock Waves

    Sadot, Oren; Igra, Ozer

    2017-01-01

    These proceedings collect the papers presented at the 30th International Symposium on Shock Waves (ISSW30), which was held in Tel-Aviv Israel from July 19 to July 24, 2015. The Symposium was organized by Ortra Ltd. The ISSW30 focused on the state of knowledge of the following areas: Nozzle Flow, Supersonic and Hypersonic Flows with Shocks, Supersonic Jets, Chemical Kinetics, Chemical Reacting Flows, Detonation, Combustion, Ignition, Shock Wave Reflection and Interaction, Shock Wave Interaction with Obstacles, Shock Wave Interaction with Porous Media, Shock Wave Interaction with Granular Media, Shock Wave Interaction with Dusty Media, Plasma, Magnetohyrdrodynamics, Re-entry to Earth Atmosphere, Shock Waves in Rarefied Gases, Shock Waves in Condensed Matter (Solids and Liquids), Shock Waves in Dense Gases, Shock Wave Focusing, Richtmyer-Meshkov Instability, Shock Boundary Layer Interaction, Multiphase Flow, Blast Waves, Facilities, Flow Visualization, and Numerical Methods. The two volumes serve as a reference ...

  14. Molecular diagnostics of interstellar shocks

    Hartquist, T.W.; Oppenheimer, M.; Dalgarno, A.

    1980-01-01

    The chemistry of molecules in shocked regions of the interstellar gas is considered and calculations are carried out for a region subjected to a shock at a velocity of 8 km s -1 Substantial enhancements are predicted in the concentrations of the molecules H 2 S, SO, and SiO compared to those anticipated in cold interstellar clouds

  15. Molecular diagnostics of interstellar shocks

    Hartquist, T. W.; Dalgarno, A.; Oppenheimer, M.

    1980-02-01

    The chemistry of molecules in shocked regions of the interstellar gas is considered and calculations are carried out for a region subjected to a shock at a velocity of 8 km/sec. Substantial enhancements are predicted in the concentrations of the molecules H2S, SO, and SiO compared to those anticipated in cold interstellar clouds.

  16. How Culture Shock Affects Communication.

    Barna, LaRay M.

    The paper defines the term "culture shock" and discusses the changes that this state can make in a person's behavior. Culture shock refers to the emotional and physiological reaction of high activation that is brought about by sudden immersion in a new culture. Because one's own culture shields one from the unknown and reduces the need to make…

  17. Molecular diagnostics of interstellar shocks

    Hartquist, T. W.; Dalgarno, A.; Oppenheimer, M.

    1980-01-01

    The chemistry of molecules in shocked regions of the interstellar gas is considered and calculations are carried out for a region subjected to a shock at a velocity of 8 km/sec. Substantial enhancements are predicted in the concentrations of the molecules H2S, SO, and SiO compared to those anticipated in cold interstellar clouds.

  18. Shock wave treatment in medicine

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 30; Issue 2 ... In the present paper we discuss the basic theory and application of shock waves and its history in medicine. The idea behind using shock wave therapy for orthopedic diseases is the stimulation of healing in tendons, surrounding tissue and bones. This is a ...

  19. Shock wave treatment in medicine

    Unknown

    to open surgery, the cost of the ESWT is very reasonable. But nevertheless it is necessary to improve the basic un ... In second group, shock waves are used to measure distances because of the low energy loss over large distances ... pared to a piezoelectric hydrophone. The rise time of an electrohydraulic generated shock ...

  20. Numerical modeling of slow shocks

    Winske, D.

    1987-01-01

    This paper reviews previous attempt and the present status of efforts to understand the structure of slow shocks by means of time dependent numerical calculations. Studies carried out using MHD or hybrid-kinetic codes have demonstrated qualitative agreement with theory. A number of unresolved issues related to hybrid simulations of the internal shock structure are discussed in some detail. 43 refs., 8 figs

  1. Dynamic shock wave: hammer blow

    Lackme, Claude

    1978-01-01

    The general properties of shocks, their generation and the conditions of reflexion to an interface are dealt with in turn. By then applying these concepts to a liquid column and its environment (wall, free area, closing devices) the hammer blow is presented as being a relatively weak shock [fr

  2. Slow shocks and their transition to fast shocks in the inner solar wind

    Wang, Y.C.

    1987-01-01

    The jump conditions of MHD shocks may be directly calculated as functions of three upstream conditions: the shock Alfven number based on the normal component of the relative shock speed, the shock angle, and the plasma β value. The shock Alfven number is less than 1 for a slow shock and greater than 1 for a fast shock. A traveling, forward shock can be a slow shock in coronal space, where the Alfven speed is of the order of 1000 km/s. The surface of a forward slow shock has a bow-shaped geometry with its nose facing toward the sun. The decrease in the Alfven speed at increasing heliocentric distance causes the shock Alfven number of a forward slow shock to become greater than 1, and the shock eventually evolves from a slow shock into a fast shock. During the transition the shock system consists of a slow shock, a fast shock, and a rotational discontinuity. They intersect along a closed transition line. As the system moves outward from the sun, the area enclosed by the transition line expands, the fast shock grows stronger, and the slow shock becomes weaker. Eventually, the slow shock diminishes, and the entire shock system evolves into a forward fast shock. copyrightAmerican Geophysical Union 1987

  3. Shocking matter to extreme conditions

    Gupta, Y.M.; Sharma, S.M.

    1997-01-01

    A good understanding of the thermodynamic response of matter at high compression and high energy densities is important to several areas of physics. Shock-wave experiments are uniquely suited for obtaining data at extreme conditions, and a shock-compressed matter can be viewed as a condensed system with or without dissociation or as a strongly coupled plasma. This article reviews work by Da Silva et al. in which irradiances ranging from 5x10 superscript 12 to 2x10 superscript 14 W/cm 2 were used to generate 8- to 10-ns square pulses in liquid deuterium. The authors demonstrated negligible pre-heating of the sample, steady propagation of the shock wave, and direct determination of the shock wave velocity along with particle velocity and density in the shocked state. Da Silva et al. results are compared with models and other experimental information, and the usefulness of the data in other areas is assessed. 11 refs., 1 fig

  4. Electron transport and shock ignition

    Bell, A R; Tzoufras, M, E-mail: t.bell1@physics.ox.ac.uk [Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom)

    2011-04-15

    Inertial fusion energy (IFE) offers one possible route to commercial energy generation. In the proposed 'shock ignition' route to fusion, the target is compressed at a relatively low temperature and then ignited using high intensity laser irradiation which drives a strong converging shock into the centre of the fuel. With a series of idealized calculations we analyse the electron transport of energy into the target, which produces the pressure responsible for driving the shock. We show that transport in shock ignition lies near the boundary between ablative and heat front regimes. Moreover, simulations indicate that non-local effects are significant in the heat front regime and might lead to increased efficiency by driving the shock more effectively and reducing heat losses to the plasma corona.

  5. Oscillating nonlinear acoustic shock waves

    Gaididei, Yuri; Rasmussen, Anders Rønne; Christiansen, Peter Leth

    2016-01-01

    We investigate oscillating shock waves in a tube using a higher order weakly nonlinear acoustic model. The model includes thermoviscous effects and is non isentropic. The oscillating shock waves are generated at one end of the tube by a sinusoidal driver. Numerical simulations show that at resona......We investigate oscillating shock waves in a tube using a higher order weakly nonlinear acoustic model. The model includes thermoviscous effects and is non isentropic. The oscillating shock waves are generated at one end of the tube by a sinusoidal driver. Numerical simulations show...... polynomial in the space and time variables, we find analytical approximations to the observed single shock waves in an infinitely long tube. Using perturbation theory for the driven acoustic system approximative analytical solutions for the off resonant case are determined....

  6. Shock waves & explosions

    Sachdev, PL

    2004-01-01

    Understanding the causes and effects of explosions is important to experts in a broad range of disciplines, including the military, industrial and environmental research, aeronautic engineering, and applied mathematics. Offering an introductory review of historic research, Shock Waves and Explosions brings analytic and computational methods to a wide audience in a clear and thorough way. Beginning with an overview of the research on combustion and gas dynamics in the 1970s and 1980s, the author brings you up to date by covering modeling techniques and asymptotic and perturbative methods and ending with a chapter on computational methods.Most of the book deals with the mathematical analysis of explosions, but computational results are also included wherever they are available. Historical perspectives are provided on the advent of nonlinear science, as well as on the mathematical study of the blast wave phenomenon, both when visualized as a point explosion and when simulated as the expansion of a high-pressure ...

  7. Analysis of shock implosion

    Mishkin, E.A.; Alejaldre, C. (Polytechnic Inst. of New York, Brooklyn (USA))

    1984-06-01

    An imploding shock wave, coming from infinity, moves through an ideal gas with the adiabatic constant ..gamma... To define a single-valued self-similar coefficient over the whole classical interval 1<..gamma..

  8. Thermal shock studies associated with injection of emergency core coolant in pressurized water reactors

    Cheverton, R.D.; Bolt, S.E.; Iskander, S.K.

    1977-01-01

    Studies to determine the accuracy of calculational techniques for predicting crack initiation and arrest in PWR vessels due to thermal shock from ECC injection are described. The reference calculational model is reviewed, the experimental program and facilities are described, and some thermal shock experiments and results are discussed

  9. The cosmic-ray shock structure problem for relativistic shocks

    Webb, G. M.

    1985-01-01

    The time asymptotic behaviour of a relativistic (parallel) shock wave significantly modified by the diffusive acceleration of cosmic-rays is investigated by means of relativistic hydrodynamical equations for both the cosmic-rays and thermal gas. The form of the shock structure equation and the dispersion relation for both long and short wavelength waves in the system are obtained. The dependence of the shock acceleration efficiency on the upstream fluid spped, long wavelength Mach number and the ratio N = P sub co/cP sub co+P sub go)(Psub co and P sub go are the upstream cosmic-ray and thermal gas pressures respectively) are studied.

  10. Cosmic-ray shock acceleration in oblique MHD shocks

    Webb, G. M.; Drury, L. OC.; Volk, H. J.

    1986-01-01

    A one-dimensional, steady-state hydrodynamical model of cosmic-ray acceleration at oblique MHD shocks is presented. Upstream of the shock the incoming thermal plasma is subject to the adverse pressure gradient of the accelerated particles, the J x B force, as well as the thermal gas pressure gradient. The efficiency of the acceleration of cosmic-rays at the shock as a function of the upstream magnetic field obliquity and upstream plasma beta is investigated. Astrophysical applications of the results are briefly discussed.

  11. Strain, Negative Emotions, and Level of Criminality Among Chinese Incarcerated Women.

    Sun, Ivan Y; Luo, Haishan; Wu, Yuning; Lin, Wen-Hsu

    2016-05-01

    General strain theory (GST) has been one of the most frequently tested criminological theories. According to GST, strain tends to generate negative emotions, which create pressures for corrective action, such as crime and delinquency. Although GST has received strong empirical support, one under-addressed issue is the lack of diversity in sampling population in assessing the generalizability of the theory. Using survey data collected from 335 incarcerated women in four Chinese prisons, this study examined the impact of strain and negative emotions on the level of female criminality. The strain variable, physical abuse, and discrimination, exerted a positive effect on female inmates' levels of criminality, whereas negative emotions were not significantly related to female criminality. Two control variables, age of current offense and educational attainment, were predictive of female criminality, with younger and less-educated women having more serious criminality. Implications for future research and policy are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. HIV testing among non-incarcerated substance-abusing juvenile offenders.

    Tolou-Shams, Marina; Conrad, Selby; Louis, Alaina; Shuford, Sarah Hart; Brown, Larry K

    2015-11-01

    Juvenile offenders are a subgroup of adolescents at particular risk for HIV/STI infection. Although HIV prevalence among these youth is low (justice system, which is known to have an extremely high rate of HIV infection. US constitutional mandates provide HIV/STI testing for incarcerated juveniles, but close to 80% of juvenile arrestees are never detained. Moreover, although they engage in similar HIV risk behaviors as those detained, they have limited access to available HIV/STI testing services. Thus, our study examined rates of lifetime HIV testing among a pilot sample of 60 court-involved, substance-using juveniles monitored in the community to explore rates of testing and the reasons related to lifetime testing among a high-risk, yet understudied US juvenile population.

  13. What Does Health Justice Look Like for People Returning from Incarceration?

    Puglisi, Lisa; Calderon, Joseph P; Wang, Emily A

    2017-09-01

    Access to health care is a constitutional right in the United States correctional system, and many incarcerated adults are newly diagnosed with chronic diseases in prison. Despite this right, the quality of correctional health care is variable, largely unmeasured and unregulated, and characterized by patients' widespread distrust of a health system that is intimately tied to a punitive criminal justice system. Upon release, discontinuity of care is the norm, and when continuity is established, it is often hindered by distrust, discrimination, poor communication, and racism in the health system. In this paper, we will propose best practices in transitioning from correctional- to community-based health care and argue that achieving health equity for people with criminal justice involvement in the United States is not possible without ethical provision of health care. © 2017 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.

  14. The relation between dimensions of normal and pathological personality and childhood maltreatment in incarcerated boys.

    Nederlof, E; Van der Ham, J M; Dingemans, P M J A; Oei, T I

    2010-12-01

    The relation between subtypes of maltreatment and dimensions of personality and personality pathology was investigated in a representative sample of 142 incarcerated Dutch male juveniles. Normal personality dimensions were assessed with the Big Five Inventory, the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology-Basic Questionnaire for Adolescents was used to measure pathological personality dimensions, and the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire was used to assess childhood maltreatment. The five maltreatment subtypes were found to be differentially and uniquely related to the normal and pathological personality dimensions in juvenile delinquents. The association between the abusive subtypes and Emotional Dysregulation depended on the co-occurrence of neglect. It was concluded that subtypes of maltreatment are distinctively related to dimensions of personality and personality pathology, possibly due to specific gene-environment interactions. Further research on this interplay is needed to be able to recognize genetic vulnerability. Early identification of children at risk could aid to limit the long-term consequences of maltreatment.

  15. Comparing the constructs of antisocial personality disorder and psychopathy in a sample of incarcerated women.

    Warren, Janet I; South, Susan C

    2006-01-01

    Our study examines the relationship between Antisocial Personality Disorder (APD) and psychopathy among a sample of 137 female offenders. Drawing from a historical review of the evolution of these two concepts, we explore their differential relationship to patterns of criminal behavior, psychological adjustment, co-morbidity with other personality disorders, victimization, and institutional adjustment. Findings suggest that the two disorders share a common foundation of social norm violations and deception; however, APD is associated with impulsive, aggressive, and irresponsible behavior, higher rates of childhood abuse, and greater co-morbidity with Cluster A PDs, while psychopathy is better characterized by higher rates of property crimes, previous incarceration, and the manifestation of remorselessness. Results contribute to a further understanding of the etiology and phenomenology of these two disorders and suggest different types of treatment and intervention. Copyright (c) 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Treatment for incarcerated indirect hernia with "Cross-Internal Ring" inguinal oblique incision in children.

    Yan, Xue-Qiang; Yang, Jun; Zheng, Nan-Nan; Kuang, Hou-Fang; Duan, Xu-Fei; Bian, Hong-Qiang

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the utility of the "Cross-Internal Ring" inguinal oblique incision for the surgical treatment of incarcerated indirect hernia (IIH) complicated with severe abdominal distension. Patients of IIH complicated with severe abdominal distension were reviewed retrospectively. All patients received operation through the "Cross-Internal Ring" inguinal oblique incision. There were totally 13 patients were included, male to female ratio was 9-4. The time for patients to resume oral feeding varying from 2 to 5 days after operation, no complications include delayed intestinal perforation, intra-abdominal abscess, and incision infection happened. Average postoperative hospital stay was 5.2 days. All cases were followed up for 6-18 months. No recurrence or iatrogenic cryptorchidism happened. "Cross-Internal Ring" inguinal oblique incision is a simple, safe, and reliable surgical method to treat pediatric IIH complicated with severe abdominal distension.

  17. Treatment for incarcerated indirect hernia with “Cross-Internal Ring” inguinal oblique incision in children

    Xue-Qiang Yan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aims to evaluate the utility of the “Cross-Internal Ring” inguinal oblique incision for the surgical treatment of incarcerated indirect hernia (IIH complicated with severe abdominal distension. Materials and Methods: Patients of IIH complicated with severe abdominal distension were reviewed retrospectively. All patients received operation through the “Cross-Internal Ring” inguinal oblique incision. Results: There were totally 13 patients were included, male to female ratio was 9-4. The time for patients to resume oral feeding varying from 2 to 5 days after operation, no complications include delayed intestinal perforation, intra-abdominal abscess, and incision infection happened. Average postoperative hospital stay was 5.2 days. All cases were followed up for 6–18 months. No recurrence or iatrogenic cryptorchidism happened. Conclusion: “Cross-Internal Ring” inguinal oblique incision is a simple, safe, and reliable surgical method to treat pediatric IIH complicated with severe abdominal distension.

  18. Peer Status Among Incarcerated Female Offenders: Associations With Social Behavior and Adjustment.

    Goldweber, Asha; Cauffman, Elizabeth; Cillessen, Antonius H N

    2014-12-01

    Peers are a powerful socializing force, especially during adolescence. Whether peer status holds the same meaning, correlates, and consequences for female offenders remains unknown. Using a peer nomination technique in a sample of incarcerated females ( N = 86, age 15-24 years), our study is the first to examine the association between peer status and psychopathology in a correctional facility. Results indicated that a key indicator of likeability was prosocial behavior; popularity was related to leadership; and social impact was associated with aggression. Popularity might serve as a buffer against, and social impact as a risk factor for, psychosocial problems. Findings shed light on peer status as a mechanism underpinning female offenders' problem behaviors and an entry point for targeted interventions.

  19. Pressurized-thermal-shock technology

    Dickson, T.L.

    1991-01-01

    It was recognized at the time the original Issues on Pressurized Thermal Shock (IPTS) studies were conducted that distinct vertical plumes of cooling water form beneath the cold leg inlet nozzles during those particular transients that exhibit fluid/thermal stratification. The formation of these plumes (referred to as thermal streaming) induces a time-dependent circumferential temperature variation on the inner surface of the Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) wall that creates an axial stress component. This axial stress component is in addition to the axial stress components induced by time-dependent radial temperature variation through the wall thickness and the time-dependent pressure transient. This additional axial stress component will result in a larger axial stress resultant that results in a larger stress-intensity factor acting on circumferential flaws, thus reducing the fracture margin for circumferential flaws. Although this was recognized at the time of the original IPTS study, the contribution appeared to be relatively small; therefore, it was neglected. The original IPTS studies were performed with OCA-P, a computer program developed at ORNL to analyze the cleavage fracture response of a nuclear RPV subjected to PTS loading. OCA-P is a one-dimensional (1-D) finite-element code that analyzes the stresses and stress-intensity factors (axial and tangential) resulting from the pressure and the radial temperature variation through the wall thickness only. The HSST Program is investigating the potential effects of thermal-streaming-induced stresses in circumferential welds on the reactor vessel PTS analyses. The initial phase of this investigation focused on an evaluation of the available thermal-hydraulic data and analyses results. The objective for the initial phase of the investigation is to evaluate thermal-streaming behavior under conditions relevant to the operation of U.S. PWRs and chracterize any predicted thermal-streaming plumes

  20. Surgical repair of incarcerated inguinal hernia in children: laparoscopic or open?

    Nah, S A; Giacomello, L; Eaton, S; de Coppi, P; Curry, J I; Drake, D P; Kiely, E M; Pierro, A

    2011-01-01

    The management of Incarcerated Inguinal Hernia (IIH) in children is challenging and may be associated with complications. We aimed to compare the outcomes of laparoscopic vs. open repair of IIH. With institutional ethical approval (09SG13), we reviewed the notes of 63 consecutive children who were admitted to a single hospital with the diagnosis of IIH between 2000 and 2008. Data are reported as median (range). Groups were compared by chi-squared or t-tests as appropriate. · Open repair (n=35): There were 21 children with right and 14 with left IIH. 2 patients also had contralateral reducible inguinal hernia. Small bowel resection was required in 2 children. · Laparoscopic repair (n=28): All children had unilateral IIH (19 right sided, 9 left sided). 15 children (54%) with no clinical evidence of contralateral hernia, had contralateral patent processus vaginalis at laparoscopy, which was also repaired. The groups were similar with regard to gender, age at surgery, history of prematurity, interval between admission and surgery, and proportion of patients with successful preoperative manual reduction. However, the duration of operation was longer in the laparoscopy group (p=0.01). Time to full feeds and length of hospital stay were similar in both groups. Postoperative follow-up was 3.5 months (1-36), which was similar in both groups. 5 patients in the group undergoing open repair had serious complications: 1 vas transaction, 1 acquired undescended testis, 2 testicular atrophy and 1 recurrence. The laparoscopic group had a single recurrence. Open repair of incarcerated inguinal hernia is associated with serious complications. The laparoscopic technique appears safe, avoids the difficult dissection of an oedematous sac in the groin, allows inspection of the reduced hernia content and permits the repair of a contralateral patent processus vaginalis if present. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Chondrule destruction in nebular shocks

    Jacquet, Emmanuel; Thompson, Christopher, E-mail: ejacquet@mnhn.fr [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 60 St George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada)

    2014-12-10

    Chondrules are millimeter-sized silicate spherules ubiquitous in primitive meteorites, but whose origin remains mysterious. One of the main proposed mechanisms for producing them is melting of solids in shock waves in the gaseous protoplanetary disk. However, evidence is mounting that chondrule-forming regions were enriched in solids well above solar abundances. Given the high velocities involved in shock models, destructive collisions would be expected between differently sized grains after passage of the shock front as a result of differential drag. We investigate the probability and outcome of collisions of particles behind a one-dimensional shock using analytic methods as well as a full integration of the coupled mass, momentum, energy, and radiation equations. Destruction of protochondrules seems unavoidable for solid/gas ratios ε ≳ 0.1, and possibly even for solar abundances because of 'sandblasting' by finer dust. A flow with ε ≳ 10 requires much smaller shock velocities (∼2 versus 8 km s{sup –1}) in order to achieve chondrule-melting temperatures, and radiation trapping allows slow cooling of the shocked fragments. Initial destruction would still be extensive; although re-assembly of millimeter-sized particles would naturally occur by grain sticking afterward, the compositional heterogeneity of chondrules may be difficult to reproduce. We finally note that solids passing through small-scale bow shocks around few kilometer-sized planetesimals might experience partial melting and yet escape fragmentation.

  2. Eikonal Approximation in AdS/CFT From Shock Waves to Four-Point Functions

    Cornalba, L; Costa, Miguel S; Penedones, Joao; Cornalba, Lorenzo; Costa, M S; Penedones, J; Schiappa, Ricardo

    2007-01-01

    We initiate a program to generalize the standard eikonal approximation to compute amplitudes in Anti-de Sitter spacetimes. Inspired by the shock wave derivation of the eikonal amplitude in flat space, we study the two-point function E ~ _{shock} in the presence of a shock wave in Anti-de Sitter, where O_1 is a scalar primary operator in the dual conformal field theory. At tree level in the gravitational coupling, we relate the shock two-point function E to the discontinuity across a kinematical branch cut of the conformal field theory four-point function A ~ , where O_2 creates the shock geometry in Anti-de Sitter. Finally, we extend the above results by computing E in the presence of shock waves along the horizon of Schwarzschild BTZ black holes. This work gives new tools for the study of Planckian physics in Anti-de Sitter spacetimes.

  3. Simulation of mechanical shock environments

    Lalanne, Christian.

    1975-07-01

    Shocks can produce a severe mechanical environment which must be taken into account when designing and developing new equipments. After some mathematical (Laplace and Fourier transforms) and mechanical recalls (response of a one degree freedom system to a sinusoidal excitation), different analysis methods are compared, these methods being the most used now to compare relative severities of tests and establish specifications. A few chapter deal with the different properties of simple, easy to produce, shock shapes. Then some now-in-use programmators or shock-machines specifications are shown. A final chapter concerns acceleration transducers [fr

  4. Particle acceleration in modified shocks

    Drury, L.O'C.; Axford, W.I.; Summers, D.

    1982-01-01

    Efficient particle acceleration in shocks must modify the shock structure with consequent changes in the particle acceleration. This effect is studied and analytic solutions are found describing the diffusive acceleration of particles with momentum independent diffusion coefficients in hyperbolic tangent type velocity transitions. If the input particle spectrum is a delta function, the shock smoothing replaces the truncated power-law downstream particle spectrum by a more complicated form, but one which has a power-law tail at high momenta. For a cold plasma this solution can be made completely self-consistent. Some problems associated with momentum dependent diffusion coefficients are discussed. (author)

  5. Particle acceleration in modified shocks

    Drury, L.O' C. (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany, F.R.)); Axford, W.I. (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Aeronomie, Katlenburg-Lindau (Germany, F.R.)); Summers, D. (Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. John' s (Canada))

    1982-03-01

    Efficient particle acceleration in shocks must modify the shock structure with consequent changes in the particle acceleration. This effect is studied and analytic solutions are found describing the diffusive acceleration of particles with momentum independent diffusion coefficients in hyperbolic tangent type velocity transitions. If the input particle spectrum is a delta function, the shock smoothing replaces the truncated power-law downstream particle spectrum by a more complicated form, but one which has a power-law tail at high momenta. For a cold plasma this solution can be made completely self-consistent. Some problems associated with momentum dependent diffusion coefficients are discussed.

  6. Shocks in the Early Universe.

    Pen, Ue-Li; Turok, Neil

    2016-09-23

    We point out a surprising consequence of the usually assumed initial conditions for cosmological perturbations. Namely, a spectrum of Gaussian, linear, adiabatic, scalar, growing mode perturbations not only creates acoustic oscillations of the kind observed on very large scales today, it also leads to the production of shocks in the radiation fluid of the very early Universe. Shocks cause departures from local thermal equilibrium as well as create vorticity and gravitational waves. For a scale-invariant spectrum and standard model physics, shocks form for temperatures 1  GeVUniverse as early as 10^{-30}  sec after the big bang.

  7. Simulations of Shock Wave Interaction with a Particle Cloud

    Koneru, Rahul; Rollin, Bertrand; Ouellet, Frederick; Annamalai, Subramanian; Balachandar, S.'Bala'

    2016-11-01

    Simulations of a shock wave interacting with a cloud of particles are performed in an attempt to understand similar phenomena observed in dispersal of solid particles under such extreme environment as an explosion. We conduct numerical experiments in which a particle curtain fills only 87% of the shock tube from bottom to top. As such, the particle curtain upon interaction with the shock wave is expected to experience Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) and Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) instabilities. In this study, the initial volume fraction profile matches with that of Sandia Multiphase Shock Tube experiments, and the shock Mach number is limited to M =1.66. In these simulations we use a Eulerian-Lagrangian approach along with state-of-the-art point-particle force and heat transfer models. Measurements of particle dispersion are made at different initial volume fractions of the particle cloud. A detailed analysis of the evolution of the particle curtain with respect to the initial conditions is presented. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Advanced Simulation and Computing Program, as a Cooperative Agreement under the Predictive Science Academic Alliance Program, Contract No. DE-NA0002378.

  8. Shock parameter calculations at weak interplanetary shock waves

    J. M. Gloag

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available A large set of interplanetary shock waves observed using the Ulysses spacecraft is analysed in order to determine their local parameters. For the first time a detailed analysis is extended to the thermodynamic properties of a large number of events. The intention is to relate the shock parameters to the requirements set by MHD shock theory. A uniform approach is adopted in the selection of up and downstream regions for this analysis and applied to all the shock waves. Initially, the general case of a 3 component adiabatic plasma is considered. However, the calculation of magnetosonic and Alfvénic Mach numbers and the ratio of downstream to upstream entropy produce some unexpected results. In some cases there is no clear increase in entropy across the shock and also the magnetosonic Mach number can be less than 1. It is found that a more discerning use of data along with an empirical value for the polytropic index can raise the distribution of downstream to upstream entropy ratios to a more acceptable level. However, it is also realised that many of these shocks are at the very weakest end of the spectrum and associated phenomena may also contribute to the explanation of these results.

  9. Quasilinear simulations of interplanetary shocks and Earth's bow shock

    Afanasiev, Alexandr; Battarbee, Markus; Ganse, Urs; Vainio, Rami; Palmroth, Minna; Pfau-Kempf, Yann; Hoilijoki, Sanni; von Alfthan, Sebastian

    2016-04-01

    We have developed a new self-consistent Monte Carlo simulation model for particle acceleration in shocks. The model includes a prescribed large-scale magnetic field and plasma density, temperature and velocity profiles and a self-consistently computed incompressible ULF foreshock under the quasilinear approximation. Unlike previous analytical treatments, our model is time dependent and takes full account of the anisotropic particle distributions and scattering in the wave-particle interaction process. We apply the model to the problem of particle acceleration at traveling interplanetary (IP) shocks and Earth's bow shock and compare the results with hybrid-Vlasov simulations and spacecraft observations. A qualitative agreement in terms of spectral shape of the magnetic fluctuations and the polarization of the unstable mode is found between the models and the observations. We will quantify the differences of the models and explore the region of validity of the quasilinear approach in terms of shock parameters. We will also compare the modeled IP shocks and the bow shock, identifying the similarities and differences in the spectrum of accelerated particles and waves in these scenarios. The work has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 637324 (HESPERIA). The Academy of Finland is thanked for financial support. We acknowledge the computational resources provided by CSC - IT Centre for Science Ltd., Espoo.

  10. Diaphragmless shock wave generators for industrial applications of shock waves

    Hariharan, M. S.; Janardhanraj, S.; Saravanan, S.; Jagadeesh, G.

    2011-06-01

    The prime focus of this study is to design a 50 mm internal diameter diaphragmless shock tube that can be used in an industrial facility for repeated loading of shock waves. The instantaneous rise in pressure and temperature of a medium can be used in a variety of industrial applications. We designed, fabricated and tested three different shock wave generators of which one system employs a highly elastic rubber membrane and the other systems use a fast acting pneumatic valve instead of conventional metal diaphragms. The valve opening speed is obtained with the help of a high speed camera. For shock generation systems with a pneumatic cylinder, it ranges from 0.325 to 1.15 m/s while it is around 8.3 m/s for the rubber membrane. Experiments are conducted using the three diaphragmless systems and the results obtained are analyzed carefully to obtain a relation between the opening speed of the valve and the amount of gas that is actually utilized in the generation of the shock wave for each system. The rubber membrane is not suitable for industrial applications because it needs to be replaced regularly and cannot withstand high driver pressures. The maximum shock Mach number obtained using the new diaphragmless system that uses the pneumatic valve is 2.125 ± 0.2%. This system shows much promise for automation in an industrial environment.

  11. Narrative Non-Fiction Stories of the School-to-Prison Pipeline: Are Discipline Alternative Educational Programs the Pump Station?

    Knox, Ronny D.

    2013-01-01

    This research project used the Narrative Non-fiction method to examine the school-to-prison pipeline phenomenon through the experiences of four previously incarcerated adult males who had been placed in Discipline Alternative Educational Programs (DAEPs) during their public school education. In 1981, DAEPs were instituted as a pilot program to…

  12. Shock wave dynamics derivatives and related topics

    Emanuel, George

    2012-01-01

    "...this monograph develops an esoteric niche within shock wave theory. …treats shock waves from an analytical approach assuming perfect gas. Emanuel has made significant contributions to the theory of shock waves and has selected a number of topics that reflect those contributions."-Shock Waves, 2013.

  13. Nonlinearity, Conservation Law and Shocks

    Almost all natural phenomena, and social and economic changes, .... reference moving with velocity c also by the same symbol x and ... abstract as can be seen from the publication of the book Shock Waves and Reaction Diffusion Equation.

  14. Shock Thermodynamic Applied Research Facility

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Shock Thermodynamic Applied Research Facility (STAR) facility, within Sandia’s Solid Dynamic Physics Department, is one of a few institutions in the world with a...

  15. Target design for shock ignition

    Schurtz, G; Ribeyre, X; Lafon, M

    2010-01-01

    The conventional approach of laser driven inertial fusion involves the implosion of cryogenic shells of deuterium-tritium ice. At sufficiently high implosion velocities, the fuel ignites by itself from a central hot spot. In order to reduce the risks of hydrodynamic instabilities inherent to large implosion velocities, it was proposed to compress the fuel at low velocity, and ignite the compressed fuel by means of a convergent shock wave driven by an intense spike at the end of the laser pulse. This scheme, known as shock ignition, reduces the risks of shell break-up during the acceleration phase, but it may be impeded by a low coupling efficiency of the laser pulse with plasma at high intensities. This work provides a relationship between the implosion velocity and the laser intensity required to ignite the target by a shock. The operating domain of shock ignition at different energies is described.

  16. Undercuts by Laser Shock Forming

    Wielage, Hanna; Vollertsen, Frank

    2011-01-01

    In laser shock forming TEA-CO 2 -laser induced shock waves are used to form metal foils, such as aluminum or copper. The process utilizes an initiated plasma shock wave on the target surface, which leads to a forming of the foil. A challenge in forming technologies is the manufacturing of undercuts. By conventional forming methods these special forms are not feasible. In this article, it is presented that undercuts in the micro range can be produced by laser shock deep drawing. Different drawing die diameters, drawing die depths and the material aluminum in the thicknesses 20 and 50 μm were investigated. It will be presented that smaller die diameters facilitate undercuts compared to bigger die diameters. The phenomena can be explained by Barlow's formula. Furthermore, it is shown which maximum undercut depth at different die diameters can be reached. To this end, cross-sections of the different parameter combinations are displayed.

  17. Electric Shock Injuries in Children

    ... Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Electric Shock Injuries in Children Page Content ​When the ... comes into direct contact with a source of electricity, the current passes through it, producing what's called ...

  18. Relativistic shocks and particle acceleration

    Heavens, A.F.

    1988-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the fluid dynamics of relativistic shock waves, and use the results to calculate the spectral index of particles accelerated by the Fermi process in such shocks. We have calculated the distributions of Fermi-accelerated particles at shocks propagating into cold proton-electron plasma and also cold electron-positron plasma. We have considered two different power spectra for the scattering waves, and find, in contrast to the non-relativistic case, that the spectral index of the accelerated particles depends on the wave power spectrum. On the assumption of thermal equilibrium both upstream and downstream, we present some useful fits for the compression ratio of shocks propagating at arbitrary speeds into gas of any temperature. (author)

  19. Shock wave interaction with turbulence: Pseudospectral simulations

    Buckingham, A.C.

    1986-01-01

    Shock waves amplify pre-existing turbulence. Shock tube and shock wave boundary layer interaction experiments provide qualitative confirmation. However, shock pressure, temperature, and rapid transit complicate direct measurement. Computational simulations supplement the experimental data base and help isolate the mechanisms responsible. Simulations and experiments, particularly under reflected shock wave conditions, significantly influence material mixing. In these pseudospectral Navier-Stokes simulations the shock wave is treated as either a moving (tracked or fitted) domain boundary. The simulations assist development of code mix models. Shock Mach number and pre-existing turbulence intensity initially emerge as key parameters. 20 refs., 8 figs

  20. Reduction of shock induced noise in imperfectly expanded supersonic jets using convex optimization

    Adhikari, Sam

    2007-11-01

    Imperfectly expanded jets generate screech noise. The imbalance between the backpressure and the exit pressure of the imperfectly expanded jets produce shock cells and expansion or compression waves from the nozzle. The instability waves and the shock cells interact to generate the screech sound. The mathematical model consists of cylindrical coordinate based full Navier-Stokes equations and large-eddy-simulation turbulence modeling. Analytical and computational analysis of the three-dimensional helical effects provide a model that relates several parameters with shock cell patterns, screech frequency and distribution of shock generation locations. Convex optimization techniques minimize the shock cell patterns and the instability waves. The objective functions are (convex) quadratic and the constraint functions are affine. In the quadratic optimization programs, minimization of the quadratic functions over a set of polyhedrons provides the optimal result. Various industry standard methods like regression analysis, distance between polyhedra, bounding variance, Markowitz optimization, and second order cone programming is used for Quadratic Optimization.

  1. The Efficacy of Cognitive Shock

    2015-05-21

    way, causing dissonance or cognitive conflict, so that the mental model has to be ‘accommodated’ to the new data. Categories and knowledge have to...The Efficacy of Cognitive Shock A Monograph by MAJ Anthony L. Marston United States Army School of Advanced Military Studies...DATES COVERED (From - To) JUN 2014 – MAY 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Efficacy of Cognitive Shock 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  2. Pressurized Thermal Shock, Pts

    Boyd, C.

    2008-01-01

    Pressurized Thermal Shock (Pts) refers to a condition that challenges the integrity of the reactor pressure vessel. The root cause of this problem is the radiation embrittlement of the reactor vessel. This embrittlement leads to an increase in the reference temperature for nil ductility transition (RTNDT). RTNDT can increase to the point where the reactor vessel material can loose fracture toughness during overcooling events. The analysis of the risk of having a Pts for a specific plant is a multi-disciplinary problem involving probabilistic risk analysis (PRA), thermal-hydraulic analysis, and ultimately a structural and fracture analysis of the vessel wall. The PRA effort involves the postulation of overcooling events and ultimately leads to an integrated risk analysis. The thermal-hydraulic effort involves the difficult task of predicting the system behavior during a postulated overcooling scenario with a special emphasis on predicting the thermal and mechanic loadings on the reactor pressure vessel wall. The structural and fracture analysis of the reactor vessel wall relies on the thermal-hydraulic conditions as boundary conditions. The US experience has indicated that medium and large diameter primary system breaks dominate the risk of Pts along with scenarios that involve a stuck open valve (and associated system cooldown) that recloses resulting in system re-pressurization while the vessel wall is cool.

  3. Sepsis and septic shock

    Hotchkiss, Richard S.; Moldawer, Lyle L.; Opal, Steven M.; Reinhart, Konrad; Turnbull, Isaiah R.; Vincent, Jean-Louis

    2017-01-01

    For more than two decades, sepsis was defined as a microbial infection that produces fever (or hypothermia), tachycardia, tachypnoea and blood leukocyte changes. Sepsis is now increasingly being considered a dysregulated systemic inflammatory and immune response to microbial invasion that produces organ injury for which mortality rates are declining to 15–25%. Septic shock remains defined as sepsis with hyperlactataemia and concurrent hypotension requiring vasopressor therapy, with in-hospital mortality rates approaching 30–50%. With earlier recognition and more compliance to best practices, sepsis has become less of an immediate life-threatening disorder and more of a long-term chronic critical illness, often associated with prolonged inflammation, immune suppression, organ injury and lean tissue wasting. Furthermore, patients who survive sepsis have continuing risk of mortality after discharge, as well as long-term cognitive and functional deficits. Earlier recognition and improved implementation of best practices have reduced in-hospital mortality, but results from the use of immunomodulatory agents to date have been disappointing. Similarly, no biomarker can definitely diagnose sepsis or predict its clinical outcome. Because of its complexity, improvements in sepsis outcomes are likely to continue to be slow and incremental. PMID:28117397

  4. Focusing of Shear Shock Waves

    Giammarinaro, Bruno; Espíndola, David; Coulouvrat, François; Pinton, Gianmarco

    2018-01-01

    Focusing is a ubiquitous way to transform waves. Recently, a new type of shock wave has been observed experimentally with high-frame-rate ultrasound: shear shock waves in soft solids. These strongly nonlinear waves are characterized by a high Mach number, because the shear wave velocity is much slower, by 3 orders of magnitude, than the longitudinal wave velocity. Furthermore, these waves have a unique cubic nonlinearity which generates only odd harmonics. Unlike longitudinal waves for which only compressional shocks are possible, shear waves exhibit cubic nonlinearities which can generate positive and negative shocks. Here we present the experimental observation of shear shock wave focusing, generated by the vertical motion of a solid cylinder section embedded in a soft gelatin-graphite phantom to induce linearly vertically polarized motion. Raw ultrasound data from high-frame-rate (7692 images per second) acquisitions in combination with algorithms that are tuned to detect small displacements (approximately 1 μ m ) are used to generate quantitative movies of gel motion. The features of shear shock wave focusing are analyzed by comparing experimental observations with numerical simulations of a retarded-time elastodynamic equation with cubic nonlinearities and empirical attenuation laws for soft solids.

  5. Shock compression of synthetic opal

    Inoue, A; Okuno, M; Okudera, H; Mashimo, T; Omurzak, E; Katayama, S; Koyano, M

    2010-01-01

    Structural change of synthetic opal by shock-wave compression up to 38.1 GPa has been investigated by using SEM, X-ray diffraction method (XRD), Infrared (IR) and Raman spectroscopies. Obtained information may indicate that the dehydration and polymerization of surface silanole due to high shock and residual temperature are very important factors in the structural evolution of synthetic opal by shock compression. Synthetic opal loses opalescence by 10.9 and 18.4 GPa of shock pressures. At 18.4 GPa, dehydration and polymerization of surface silanole and transformation of network structure may occur simultaneously. The 4-membered ring of TO 4 tetrahedrons in as synthetic opal may be relaxed to larger ring such as 6-membered ring by high residual temperature. Therefore, the residual temperature may be significantly high at even 18.4 GPa of shock compression. At 23.9 GPa, opal sample recovered the opalescence. Origin of this opalescence may be its layer structure by shock compression. Finally, sample fuse by very high residual temperature at 38.1 GPa and the structure closes to that of fused SiO 2 glass. However, internal silanole groups still remain even at 38.1 GPa.

  6. Computations of slowly moving shocks

    Karni, S.; Canic, S.

    1997-01-01

    Computations of slowly moving shocks by shock capturing schemes may generate oscillations are generated already by first-order schemes, but become more pronounced in higher-order schemes which seem to exhibit different behaviors: (i) the first-order upwind (UW) scheme which generates strong oscillations and (ii) the Lax-Friedrichs scheme which appears not to generate any disturbances at all. A key observation is that in the UW case, the numerical viscosity in the shock family vanishes inside the slow shock layer. Simple scaling arguments show the third-order effects on the solution may no longer be neglected. We derive the third-order modified equation for the UW scheme and regard the oscillatory solution as a traveling wave solution of the parabolic modified equation for the perturbation. We then look at the governing equation for the perturbation, which points to a plausible mechanism by which postshock oscillations are generated. It contains a third-order source term that becomes significant inside the shock layer, and a nonlinear coupling term which projects the perturbation on all characteristic fields, including those not associated with the shock family. 5 refs., 8 figs

  7. Shock compression of synthetic opal

    Inoue, A.; Okuno, M.; Okudera, H.; Mashimo, T.; Omurzak, E.; Katayama, S.; Koyano, M.

    2010-03-01

    Structural change of synthetic opal by shock-wave compression up to 38.1 GPa has been investigated by using SEM, X-ray diffraction method (XRD), Infrared (IR) and Raman spectroscopies. Obtained information may indicate that the dehydration and polymerization of surface silanole due to high shock and residual temperature are very important factors in the structural evolution of synthetic opal by shock compression. Synthetic opal loses opalescence by 10.9 and 18.4 GPa of shock pressures. At 18.4 GPa, dehydration and polymerization of surface silanole and transformation of network structure may occur simultaneously. The 4-membered ring of TO4 tetrahedrons in as synthetic opal may be relaxed to larger ring such as 6-membered ring by high residual temperature. Therefore, the residual temperature may be significantly high at even 18.4 GPa of shock compression. At 23.9 GPa, opal sample recovered the opalescence. Origin of this opalescence may be its layer structure by shock compression. Finally, sample fuse by very high residual temperature at 38.1 GPa and the structure closes to that of fused SiO2 glass. However, internal silanole groups still remain even at 38.1 GPa.

  8. Shock compression of synthetic opal

    Inoue, A; Okuno, M; Okudera, H [Department of Earth Sciences, Kanazawa University Kanazawa, Ishikawa, 920-1192 (Japan); Mashimo, T; Omurzak, E [Shock Wave and Condensed Matter Research Center, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, 860-8555 (Japan); Katayama, S; Koyano, M, E-mail: okuno@kenroku.kanazawa-u.ac.j [JAIST, Nomi, Ishikawa, 923-1297 (Japan)

    2010-03-01

    Structural change of synthetic opal by shock-wave compression up to 38.1 GPa has been investigated by using SEM, X-ray diffraction method (XRD), Infrared (IR) and Raman spectroscopies. Obtained information may indicate that the dehydration and polymerization of surface silanole due to high shock and residual temperature are very important factors in the structural evolution of synthetic opal by shock compression. Synthetic opal loses opalescence by 10.9 and 18.4 GPa of shock pressures. At 18.4 GPa, dehydration and polymerization of surface silanole and transformation of network structure may occur simultaneously. The 4-membered ring of TO{sub 4} tetrahedrons in as synthetic opal may be relaxed to larger ring such as 6-membered ring by high residual temperature. Therefore, the residual temperature may be significantly high at even 18.4 GPa of shock compression. At 23.9 GPa, opal sample recovered the opalescence. Origin of this opalescence may be its layer structure by shock compression. Finally, sample fuse by very high residual temperature at 38.1 GPa and the structure closes to that of fused SiO{sub 2} glass. However, internal silanole groups still remain even at 38.1 GPa.

  9. Electromagnetically driven radiative shocks and their measurements

    Kondo, K.; Watanabe, M.; Nakajima, M.; Kawamura, T.; Horioka, K.

    2005-01-01

    Experimental results on a generation of strong shocks in a compact pulse power device are reported. The characteristics of strong shocks are different from hydrodynamical shocks' because they depend on not only collisions but radiation processes. Radiative shocks are relevant to high energy density phenomena such as the explosions of supernovae. When initial pressure is lower than about 50 mtorr, an interesting structure is confirmed at the shock front, which might indicate a phenomenon proceeded by the radiative process. (author)

  10. Urinary bladder incarceration and infarction by an intra-abdominal fat pad in a Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana).

    De Voe, Ryan S; Spaulding, Kathy A; Rotstein, Jack; Rotstein, David S

    2004-01-01

    A 2.5-year-old, female opossum had acute stranguria. Based on radiography and ultrasonographic examination a cystic structure was identified in the caudal abdomen associated with bilateral hydroureter and hydronephrosis. This structure contained a neutrophilic fluid, determined to be urine. There was a neutrophilic leukocytosis. Serum chemistry values were within normal limits. The opossum was euthanized. An intra-abdominal fat pad incarceration of the urinary bladder above the trigone was present, resulting in complete obstruction of the urinary bladder and partial obstruction of the ureters. Vessels to the bladder were involved in the incarceration which resulted in vascular compromise and infarction of the bladder. Mild to moderate hydroureter and hydronephrosis were present.

  11. A Rare Case of Strangulated Meckel%u2019s Diverticulum in an Incarcerated Ventral Incisional Hernia

    Murat Kilic

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Incisional or postoperative hernia, one of the most common surgical procedure in general surgery practice, mostly occurs in the first years following abdominal operations. Incarceration or strangulation is a serious complication of these hernias, and mostly requires emergent surgery. Meckel%u2019s diverticulum, the most frequent congenital anomaly of the gastrointestinal tract, is rarely found within a hernial sac and this unusual condition is called as Littre%u2019s hernia. In addition, preoperative diagnosis of this unusual condition is rather difficult and it is almost always first discovered during operation. A small number of cases of strangulated Meckel%u2019s Diverticulum in an incarcerated ventral incisional hernia have been reported in the literature. Herein, we report a strangulated Meckel%u2019s Diverticulum through a ventral incisional hernia in a 65 year-old woman who presented with clinical signs of intestinal obstruction.

  12. IGRA-Based Screening for Latent Tuberculosis Infection in Persons Newly Incarcerated in New York City Jails.

    Katyal, Monica; Leibowitz, Ruth; Venters, Homer

    2018-04-01

    In the United States, latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) detection in correctional settings is a public health priority. Interferon gamma release assay (IGRA)-based LTBI screening was introduced in New York City jails in 2011 to 2012, replacing historically used tuberculin skin testing (TST), which was associated with substantial incomplete screening rates. This retrospective, cross-sectional study evaluated LTBI screening outcomes and correlates of positivity in 40,986 persons newly incarcerated in 2011 to 2013. Of 35,090 eligible patients tested (96.4%), final results were 6.3% positive, 93.4% negative, and 0.2% indeterminate. In multivariable regression modeling, sex, age, race/ethnicity, nativity, marital status, prior jail incarceration, and HIV status were correlated with positivity. IGRA-based screening yielded high screening and low indeterminate test rates and may be recommended in correctional and other settings where TST is currently used.

  13. Shock Transmission Analyses of a Simplified Frigate Compartment Using LS-DYNA

    Trouwborst, W

    1999-01-01

    This report gives results as obtained with finite element analyses using the explicit finite element program LS-DYNA for a longitudinal slice of a frigate's compartment loaded with a shock pulse based...

  14. Using mHealth to Increase Treatment Utilization Among Recently Incarcerated Homeless Adults (Link2Care): Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Reingle Gonzalez, Jennifer M; Businelle, Michael S; Kendzor, Darla; Staton, Michele; North, Carol S; Swartz, Michael

    2018-06-05

    There is a significant revolving door of incarceration among homeless adults. Homeless adults who receive professional coordination of individualized care (ie, case management) during the period following their release from jail experience fewer mental health and substance use problems, are more likely to obtain stable housing, and are less likely to be reincarcerated. This is because case managers work to meet the various needs of their clients by helping them to overcome barriers to needed services (eg, food, clothing, housing, job training, substance abuse and mental health treatment, medical care, medication, social support, proof of identification, and legal aid). Many barriers (eg, limited transportation, inability to schedule appointments, and limited knowledge of available services) prevent homeless adults who were recently released from incarceration from obtaining available case management, crisis management, substance abuse, and mental health services. The aim of the Link2Care study is to assess the effectiveness of a smartphone app for increasing case management and treatment service utilization, and in turn reduce homelessness and rearrest. The goals of this research are to (1) assess the impact of an innovative smartphone app that will prompt and directly link recently incarcerated homeless adults to community-based case management services and resources and (2) utilize in-person and smartphone-based assessments to identify key variables (eg, alcohol or drug use, social support, psychological distress, and quality of life) that predict continued homelessness and rearrest. Homeless adults (N=432) who enroll in a shelter-based Homeless Recovery Program after release from the Dallas County Jail will be randomly assigned to one of the three treatment groups: (1) usual case management, (2) usual case management plus smartphone, and (3) usual case management with a study-provided smartphone that is preloaded with an innovative case management app

  15. Suicidal ideation while incarcerated : prevalence and correlates in a large sample of male prisoners in Flanders, Belgium

    Favril, Louis; Vander Laenen, Freya; Vandeviver, Christophe; Audenaert, Kurt

    2017-01-01

    Prisoners constitute a high-risk group for suicide. As an early stage in the pathway leading to suicide, suicidal ideation represents an important target for prevention, yet research on this topic is scarce in general prison populations. Using a cross-sectional survey design, correlates of suicidal ideation while incarcerated were examined in a sample of 1203 male prisoners, randomly selected from 15 Flemish prisons. Overall, a lifetime history of suicidal ideation and attempts was endorsed b...

  16. The Impact of Incarceration on Obesity: Are Prisoners with Chronic Diseases Becoming Overweight and Obese during Their Confinement?

    Gates, Madison L.; Bradford, Robert K.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. The association between incarceration and weight gain, along with the public health impact of former prisoners who are overweight or obese, warrants more investigation to understand the impact of prison life. Studies regarding incarceration’s impact on obesity are too few to support assertions that prisons contribute to obesity and comorbid conditions. This study examined a statewide prison population over several years to determine weight gain. Methods. Objective data for weigh...

  17. Laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair by the hook method in emergency setting in children presenting with incarcerated inguinal hernia.

    Chan, Kin Wai Edwin; Lee, Kim Hung; Tam, Yuk Him; Sihoe, Jennifer Dart Yin; Cheung, Sing Tak; Mou, Jennifer Wai Cheung

    2011-10-01

    The development of laparoscopic hernia repair has provided an alternative approach to the management of incarcerated inguinal hernia in children. Different laparoscopic techniques for hernia repair have been described. However, we hereby review the role of laparoscopic hernia repair using the hook method in the emergency setting for incarcerated inguinal hernias in children. A retrospective review was conducted of all children who presented with incarcerated inguinal hernia and underwent laparoscopic hernia repair using the hook method in emergency setting between 2004 and 2010. There were a total of 15 boys and 1 girl with a mean age of 30 ± 36 months (range, 4 months to 12 years). The hernia was successfully reduced after sedation in 7 children and after general anesthesia in 4 children. In 5 children, the hernia was reduced by a combined manual and laparoscopic-assisted approach. Emergency laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair using the hook method was performed after reduction of the hernia. The presence of preperitoneal fluid secondary to recent incarceration facilitated the dissection of the preperitoneal space by the hernia hook. All children underwent successful reduction and hernia repair. The median operative time was 37 minutes. There was no postoperative complication. The median hospital stay was 3 days. At a median follow-up of 40 months, there was no recurrence of the hernia or testicular atrophy. Emergency laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair by the hook method is safe and feasible. Easier preperitoneal dissection was experienced, and repair of the contralateral patent processus vaginalis can be performed in the same setting. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The DSM-5 Limited Prosocial Emotions subtype of Conduct Disorder in incarcerated male and female juvenile delinquents

    Pechorro, Pedro; Jiménez García, Lucía; Hidalgo García, María Victoria; Nunes, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze the relevance of the DSM-5's Conduct Disorder new Limited Prosocial Emotions (CD LPE) specifier in incarcerated juvenile delinquents. A sample of 201 males and 98 females from the Juvenile Detention Centers managed by the Portuguese Ministry of Justice diagnosed with Conduct Disorder (CD) was used. Results showed that male juvenile delinquents with the CD LPE specifier scored higher on callous-unemotional traits (CU), general psychopathic traits, ps...

  19. Coping Self-Efficacy Moderates the Association Between Severity of Partner Violence and PTSD Symptoms Among Incarcerated Women.

    DeCou, Christopher R; Lynch, Shannon M; Cole, Trevor T; Kaplan, Stephanie P

    2015-10-01

    Previous research indicates self-efficacy may function as a protective factor for survivors of partner violence (PV), including coping self-efficacy specific to domestic violence. We hypothesized that domestic violence coping self-efficacy would moderate the association between recent PV and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in a sample of incarcerated women, such that the association between PV and PTSD would be strongest at low levels of domestic violence coping self-efficacy. Participants (N = 102) were incarcerated women who reported PV in the year prior to incarceration. They were aged 19-55 years (M = 33.57, SD = 9.32), identified predominantly as European American (84.3%), American Indian (15.7%), and Hispanic (14.7%), with 80.4% completing high school or more in terms of education. Participants responded to self-report measures of PV, trauma history, domestic violence coping self-efficacy, and current PTSD symptoms. In a series of sequential regression analyses, PV (β = .65, sr(2) = .06, p = .017) was significantly associated with current PTSD symptoms above and beyond past trauma history (β = .37, sr(2) = .14, p violence coping self-efficacy (Domestic Violence Coping Self-Efficacy × Partner Violence; β = -.54, sr(2) = .03, p = .044). The relationship between PV and PTSD symptoms was greatest at low and average levels of domestic violence coping self-efficacy and nonsignificant at high levels of domestic violence coping self-efficacy. These findings highlight the importance of assessing domestic violence coping self-efficacy in incarcerated women with recent PV, given that domestic violence coping self-efficacy appeared to be protective against symptoms of PTSD. Copyright © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  20. Spatiotemporal dynamics of underwater conical shock wave focusing

    Hoffer, Petr; Lukeš, Petr; Akiyama, H.; Hosseini, H.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 4 (2017), s. 685-690 ISSN 0938-1287 Grant - others:Rada Programu interní podpory projektů mezinárodní spolupráce AV ČR(CZ) M100431203 Program:M Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Underwater shock wave focusing * multichannel * electrohydraulic discharge * conical shock wave reflection * medical application Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics OBOR OECD: Applied mechanics Impact factor: 1.107, year: 2016 https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00193-016-0703-7

  1. Shock Interaction with Random Spherical Particle Beds

    Neal, Chris; Mehta, Yash; Salari, Kambiz; Jackson, Thomas L.; Balachandar, S. "Bala"; Thakur, Siddharth

    2016-11-01

    In this talk we present results on fully resolved simulations of shock interaction with randomly distributed bed of particles. Multiple simulations were carried out by varying the number of particles to isolate the effect of volume fraction. Major focus of these simulations was to understand 1) the effect of the shockwave and volume fraction on the forces experienced by the particles, 2) the effect of particles on the shock wave, and 3) fluid mediated particle-particle interactions. Peak drag force for particles at different volume fractions show a downward trend as the depth of the bed increased. This can be attributed to dissipation of energy as the shockwave travels through the bed of particles. One of the fascinating observations from these simulations was the fluctuations in different quantities due to presence of multiple particles and their random distribution. These are large simulations with hundreds of particles resulting in large amount of data. We present statistical analysis of the data and make relevant observations. Average pressure in the computational domain is computed to characterize the strengths of the reflected and transmitted waves. We also present flow field contour plots to support our observations. U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Advanced Simulation and Computing Program, as a Cooperative Agreement under the Predictive Science Academic Alliance Program, under Contract No. DE-NA0002378.

  2. Rethinking Community Within the Context of Social Inclusion as Social Justice: Implications for Women After Federal Incarceration

    Darla Fortune

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Very little is known about how women’s experiences with inclusion or exclusion shape their entry into community after they have been incarcerated. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine inclusion from the perspective of women entering community after release from a federal prison in Ontario, Canada. This research project combined feminist participatory action research with anti-oppressive theories. Women who had been incarcerated were asked to come together to discuss ideas around inclusion and explore ways to foster a more inclusive environment. As women described the kind of community they experienced before and after incarceration, themes of being pushed out of community, being pulled into community, and negotiating issues of responsibility were evident. At the core of these themes was a powerful sense of difference. Findings suggest that deep societal change is needed for women to truly experience social inclusion upon their release from federal prison. They also suggest a role for community in supporting personal change and growth. We argue that if principles of social justice guided inclusion efforts, there would be dialogue and negotiation aimed at re-imagining social inclusion and creating a space that is hopeful and inclusive for all citizens.

  3. The impact of incarceration on obesity: are prisoners with chronic diseases becoming overweight and obese during their confinement?

    Gates, Madison L; Bradford, Robert K

    2015-01-01

    The association between incarceration and weight gain, along with the public health impact of former prisoners who are overweight or obese, warrants more investigation to understand the impact of prison life. Studies regarding incarceration's impact on obesity are too few to support assertions that prisons contribute to obesity and comorbid conditions. This study examined a statewide prison population over several years to determine weight gain. Objective data for weight, height, and chronic diseases, along with demographics, were extracted from an electronic health record. These data were analyzed statistically to determine changes over time and between groups. As a total population, prisoners not only gained weight, but also reflected the distribution of BMIs for the state. There were differences within the population. Male prisoners gained significantly less weight than females. The population with chronic diseases gained less weight than the population without comorbid conditions. Prisoners with diabetes lost weight while hypertension's impact was negligible. This study found that weight gain was a problem specifically to females. However, this prison system appears to be providing effective chronic disease management, particularly for prisoners with diabetes and hypertension. Additional research is needed to understand the impact incarceration has on the female population.

  4. Risky business: focus-group analysis of sexual behaviors, drug use and victimization among incarcerated women in St. Louis.

    Millay, Tamara A; Satyanarayana, Veena A; O'Leary, Catina C; Crecelius, Robert; Cottler, Linda B

    2009-09-01

    Incarcerated women report multiple vulnerabilities and, yet, are under-represented in research. This study used focus-group methodology to explore high-risk sexual behaviors, drug use, and victimization among female offenders in St. Louis. Inmates of the St. Louis Medium Security Institution (MSI) were invited to participate in one of five focus groups between May and September 2005 in preparation for an NIH/NINR HIV-prevention intervention study among female offenders in Drug Court. The focus group sample of 30 women was 70% African-American, with a mean age of 36 years. Results indicated that oral sex was the most common sex trade activity. Consistent with the literature, condom usage was described as irregular. In terms of drug use, participants reported that crack was most commonly used, with binges often lasting for several days. Regarding victimization, women frequently reported sexual abuse in childhood, and some described abusive relationships as adults. Participants also reported being beaten and raped by customers, which led to their concealing knives in purses and razors under the tongue. Consequently, perpetrated violence, including murder, was reported as protection against further violence. These findings confirm the vulnerability of this population of women who are at high risk for HIV. Effective HIV-prevention interventions are needed to assist these incarcerated women in making lifestyle changes during incarceration and sustaining them after release.

  5. Subcutaneous penile insertion of domino fragments by incarcerated males in southwest United States prisons: a report of three cases.

    Hudak, Steven J; McGeady, James; Shindel, Alan W; Breyer, Benjamin N

    2012-02-01

    Self-insertion of penile foreign bodies is performed worldwide, largely due to a perception that it will enhance sexual performance and virility. There are relatively few cases reported in the United States. We report three cases of Hispanic men incarcerated in separate southwest United States prisons who utilized a similar technique to insert foreign bodies fabricated out of dominos into the subcutaneous tissues of the penis. Details of the three cases were retrospectively reviewed. Resolution of the case. In each case, an incarcerated Hispanic male or fellow inmate filed a domino into a unique shape for placement under the penile skin. Utilizing the tip of a ballpoint pen or a sharpened shard of plastic to create a puncture wound, each man inserted the domino fragment into the subcutaneous tissue of the penis. All three men presented with infection requiring operative removal. Incarcerated males put themselves at risk for injury and infection when attempting penile enhancement with improvised equipment. © 2011 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  6. Quantifying maternal incarceration: a whole-population linked data study of Western Australian children born 1985-2011.

    Dowell, Caitlin M; Preen, David B; Segal, Leonie

    2016-11-20

    To measure the prevalence of children affected by maternal incarceration in Western Australia (WA). Using linked administrative data we identified all children born in WA between 1985 and 2011, whose biological mother was imprisoned during their childhood. Data was obtained through the WA Data Linkage Branch from the Department of Corrective Services, Midwives Notifications System and Birth Registrations data collections. Descriptive characteristics of the children (n=9,352) and their mothers (n=3,827) are reported. Prevalence was measured in two-ways, the proportion of children ever affected in childhood and affected annually. Childhood prevalence of maternal incarceration was 26-times higher (95%CI 23.9-28.2) for Indigenous children born 1992-1996 with 18.8% Indigenous children and 0.7% non-Indigenous children affected while aged 0-17 years. On average 1,544 children were affected each year across 2003-2011, at rates of 2,929 per 100,000 Indigenous children and 108 per 100,000 non-Indigenous children. The findings present the first census of children affected by maternal incarceration within an Australian State and identify a large disparity between Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations. Implications for Public Health: This study highlights the importance of formal consideration of children of women prisoners in the development of criminal justice policies and practices. © 2016 Public Health Association of Australia.

  7. Reporting Sexual Victimization During Incarceration: Using Ecological Theory as a Framework to Inform and Guide Future Research.

    Kubiak, Sheryl Pimlott; Brenner, Hannah; Bybee, Deborah; Campbell, Rebecca; Fedock, Gina

    2016-03-08

    The U.S. Department of Justice estimates that between 149,200 and 209,400 incidents of sexual victimization occur annually in prisons and jails. However, very few individuals experiencing sexual victimization during incarceration report these incidents to correctional authorities. Federal-level policy recommendations derived from the Prison Rape Elimination Act suggest mechanisms for improving reporting as well as standards for the prevention, investigation, and prosecution of prison-based sexual victimization. Despite these policy recommendations, sexual assault persists in prisons and jails, with only 8% of prisoners who experience sexual assault reporting their victimization. This review focuses on gaps in the existing research about what factors influence whether adult victims in incarcerated systems will report that they have been sexually assaulted. Using ecological theory to guide this review, various levels of social ecology are incorporated, illuminating a variety of factors influencing the reporting of sexual victimization during incarceration. These factors include the role of individual-level behavior, assault characteristics, the unique aspects and processes of the prison system, and the social stigma that surrounds individuals involved in the criminal/legal system. This review concludes with recommendations for future research, policy, and practice, informed by an ecological conceptualization of reporting. © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. Pressurized thermal shock (PTS)

    Rosso, Ricardo D.; Ventura, Mirta A.

    2006-01-01

    In the present work, a description of Thermal Shock in Pressurized conditions (PTS), and its influence in the treatment of the integrity of the pressure vessel (RPV) of a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) and/or of a Heavy water Pressurized water Reactor (PHWR) is made. Generally, the analysis of PTS involves a process of three stages: a-) Modeling with a System Code of relevant thermohydraulics transients in reference with the thermal shock; b-) The local distribution of temperatures in the downcomer and the heat transference coefficients from the RPV wall to the fluid, are determined; c-) The fracture mechanical analysis. These three stages are included in this work: Results with the thermohydraulics code Relap5/mod.3, are obtained, for a LOCA scenario in the hot leg of the cooling System of the Primary System of the CAN-I reactor. The method used in obtaining results is described. A study on the basis of lumped parameters of the local evolutions of the temperature of the flow is made, in the downcomer of the reactor pressure vessel. The purpose of this study is to determine how the intensification of the stress coefficient, varies in function of the emergency injected water during the thermohydraulic transients that take place under the imposed conditions in the postulated scene. Specially, it is considered a 50 cm 2 break, located in the neighborhoods of the pressurized with the corresponding hot leg connection. This size is considered like the most critical. The method used to obtain the results is described. The fracture mechanical analysis is made. From the obtained results we confirmed that we have a simple tool of easy application in order to analyze phenomena of the type PTS in the postulated scenes by break in the cold and hot legs of the primary system. This methodology of calculus is completely independent of the used ones by the Nucleoelectrica Argentina S.A. (NASA) in the analysis of the PTS phenomena in the CAN-I. The results obtained with the adopted

  9. The role of heat shock protein 90 in the regulation of tumor cell apoptosis.

    Kaigorodova, E V; Ryazantseva, N V; Novitskii, V V; Belkina, M V; Maroshkina, A N

    2011-02-01

    Programmed death of Jurkat tumor cells was studied under conditions of culturing with 17-AAG selective inhibitor of heat shock protein with a molecular weight of 90 kDa and etoposide. Apoptosis realization was evaluated by fluorescent microscopy with FITC-labeled annexin V and propidium iodide. Activity of caspase-3 was evaluated spectrophotometrically. Inhibition of heat shock protein with a molecular weight of 90 kDa activated the apoptotic program in Jurkat tumor cells and etoposide-induced apoptosis. The heat shock protein with a molecular weight of 90 kDa acted as apoptosis inhibitor in tumor cells.

  10. A primary standard for low-g shock calibration by laser interferometry

    Sun, Qiao; Wang, Jian-lin; Hu, Hong-bo

    2014-07-01

    This paper presents a novel implementation of a primary standard for low-g shock acceleration calibration by laser interferometry based on rigid body collision at National Institute of Metrology, China. The mechanical structure of the standard device and working principles involved in the shock acceleration exciter, laser interferometers and virtual instruments are described. The novel combination of an electromagnetic exciter and a pneumatic exciter as the mechanical power supply of the standard device can deliver a wide range of shock acceleration levels. In addition to polyurethane rubber, two other types of material are investigated to ensure a wide selection of cushioning pads for shock pulse generation, with pulse shapes and data displayed. A heterodyne He-Ne laser interferometer is preferred for its precise and reliable measurement of shock acceleration while a homodyne one serves as a check standard. Some calibration results of a standard acceleration measuring chain are shown in company with the uncertainty evaluation budget. The expanded calibration uncertainty of shock sensitivity of the acceleration measuring chain is 0.8%, k = 2, with the peak acceleration range from 20 to 10 000 m s-2 and pulse duration from 0.5 to 10 ms. This primary shock standard can meet the traceability requirements of shock acceleration from various applications of industries from automobile to civil engineering and therefore is used for piloting the ongoing shock comparison of Technical Committee of Acoustics, Ultrasound and Vibration (TCAUV) of Asia Pacific Metrology Program (APMP), coded as APMP.AUV.V-P1.

  11. Nonlinear Weibel Instability and Turbulence in Strong Collisionless Shocks

    Medvedev, Mikhail M.

    2008-01-01

    This research project was devoted to studies of collisionless shocks, their properties, microphysics and plasma physics of underlying phenomena, such as Weibel instability and generation of small-scale fields at shocks, particle acceleration and transport in the generated random fields, radiation mechanisms from these fields in application to astrophysical phenomena and laboratory experiments (e.g., laser-plasma and beam-plasma interactions, the fast ignition and inertial confinement, etc.). Thus, this study is highly relevant to astrophysical sciences, the inertial confinement program and, in particular, the Fast Ignition concept, etc. It makes valuable contributions to the shock physics, nonlinear plasma theory, as well as to the basic plasma science, in general

  12. Converging Streams of Opportunity for Prison Nursery Programs in the United States

    Goshin, Lorie Smith; Byrne, Mary Woods

    2009-01-01

    Prison nursery programs allow departments of correction to positively intervene in the lives of both incarcerated mothers and their infant children. The number of prison nurseries in the United States has risen dramatically in the past decade, yet there remains a significant gap between predominant correctional policy in this area and what is…

  13. Applying the creating lasting family connections marriage enhancement program to marriages affected by prison reentry.

    Shamblen, Stephen R; Arnold, Brooke B; McKiernan, Patrick; Collins, David A; Strader, Ted N

    2013-09-01

    Divorce proportions are currently high in the US and they are even higher among those who are incarcerated with substance abuse problems. Although much research has examined marital interventions, only two studies have examined marital interventions with prison populations. There is some empirical evidence that incarcerated couples benefit from traditional marital therapy (O'Farrell and Fals-Stewart, 1999, Addictions: A comprehensive guidebook, New York, Oxford University Press). An adaptation of the evidence-based Creating Lasting Family Connections program was implemented with 144 married couples, where one spouse was incarcerated, in a southern state with particularly high divorce and incarceration proportions. Results suggested that married men exposed to the program had larger improvements in some relationship skills relative to a convenience sample of men not so exposed. Both husbands and wives exposed to the program exhibited similar and significant increases in relationship skills. The results were comparable to a Prevention and Relationship Enhancement Program adaptation for inmates. The implications of the findings for prevention practitioners are discussed. © FPI, Inc.

  14. Radiation- and pair-loaded shocks

    Lyutikov, Maxim

    2018-06-01

    We consider the structure of mildly relativistic shocks in dense media, taking into account the radiation and pair loading, and diffusive radiation energy transfer within the flow. For increasing shock velocity (increasing post-shock temperature), the first important effect is the efficient energy redistribution by radiation within the shock that leads to the appearance of an isothermal jump, whereby the flow reaches the final state through a discontinuous isothermal transition. The isothermal jump, on scales much smaller than the photon diffusion length, consists of a weak shock and a quick relaxation to the isothermal conditions. Highly radiation-dominated shocks do not form isothermal jump. Pair production can mildly increase the overall shock compression ratio to ≈10 (4 for matter-dominated shocks and 7 of the radiation-dominated shocks).

  15. Programming

    Jackson, M.A.

    1982-01-01

    The programmer's task is often taken to be the construction of algorithms, expressed in hierarchical structures of procedures: this view underlies the majority of traditional programming languages, such as Fortran. A different view is appropriate to a wide class of problem, perhaps including some problems in High Energy Physics. The programmer's task is regarded as having three main stages: first, an explicit model is constructed of the reality with which the program is concerned; second, this model is elaborated to produce the required program outputs; third, the resulting program is transformed to run efficiently in the execution environment. The first two stages deal in network structures of sequential processes; only the third is concerned with procedure hierarchies. (orig.)

  16. Composite Liner, Multi-Megabar Shock Driver Development

    Cochrane, J.C. Jr.; Bartsch, R.R.; Clark, D.A.; Morgan, D.V.; Anderson, W.E.; Lee, H.; Bowers, R.L.; Atchison, W.L.; Oona, H.; Stokes, J.L.; Veeser, L.R.; Broste, W.B.

    1998-01-01

    The multi-megabar shock driver development is a series of experiments in support of the Los Alamos High Energy Density Physics Experimental Program. Its purpose is to develop techniques to impact a uniform, stable, composite liner upon a high Z target to produce a multi-megabar shock for EOS studies. To date, experiments have been done on the Pegasus II capacitor bank with a current of approximately12MA driving the impactor liner. The driving field is approximately200 T at the target radius of 1cm. Data will be presented on the impactor liner. The driving field is approximately200 T at the target radius of 1 cm. Data will be presented on the stability and uniformity of the impactor liner when it impacts the target cylinder. Three experiments have been done with emphasis on liner development. Shock pressures greater than a megabar have been done with emphasis on liner development. Shock pressures greater than a megabar have been produced with an Al target cylinder. A Pt target cylinder should produce shock pressures in th e 5-megabar range

  17. Prevalence of syphilis and HIV infection during pregnancy in incarcerated women and the incidence of congenital syphilis in births in prison in Brazil.

    Domingues, Rosa Maria Soares Madeira; Leal, Maria do Carmo; Pereira, Ana Paula Esteves; Ayres, Barbara; Sánchez, Alexandra Roma; Larouzé, Bernard

    2017-11-21

    This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of syphilis and HIV infection during pregnancy, the mother to child transmission of syphilis and the incidence of congenital syphilis in incarcerated women in Brazil; to compare these rates to those observed in pregnant women outside of jail; and to verify the maternal factors associated with syphilis infection during pregnancy in free and incarcerated women. We used data from two nationwide studies conducted during the period 2011-2014. The Birth in Brazil study included 23,894 free women cared for in 266 hospitals. The Maternal and Infant Health in Prisons study included 495 incarcerated pregnant women or mothers living with their children, according to a census conducted in 33 female prisons. The same case definitions and data collection methods were used in both studies. The chi-square test was used to compare the characteristics of incarcerated and free women with a significance of 0.05. For incarcerated women, the estimated prevalence of syphilis during pregnancy was 8.7% (95%CI: 5.7-13.1) and for HIV infection 3.3% (95%CI: 1.7-6.6); the estimated mother to child transmission of syphilis was 66.7% (95%CI: 44.7-83.2) and the incidence of congenital syphilis was 58.1 per 1,000 living newborns (95%CI: 40.4-82.8). Incarcerated women had a greater prevalence of syphilis and HIV infection during pregnancy, lower quality of antenatal care and higher levels of social vulnerability. Syphilis infection showed to be an indicator of social vulnerability in free women, but not in incarcerated women. Health initiatives in prison are necessary to reduce healthcare inequalities and should include adequate antenatal and birth care.

  18. Prevalence of syphilis and HIV infection during pregnancy in incarcerated women and the incidence of congenital syphilis in births in prison in Brazil

    Rosa Maria Soares Madeira Domingues

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of syphilis and HIV infection during pregnancy, the mother to child transmission of syphilis and the incidence of congenital syphilis in incarcerated women in Brazil; to compare these rates to those observed in pregnant women outside of jail; and to verify the maternal factors associated with syphilis infection during pregnancy in free and incarcerated women. We used data from two nationwide studies conducted during the period 2011-2014. The Birth in Brazil study included 23,894 free women cared for in 266 hospitals. The Maternal and Infant Health in Prisons study included 495 incarcerated pregnant women or mothers living with their children, according to a census conducted in 33 female prisons. The same case definitions and data collection methods were used in both studies. The chi-square test was used to compare the characteristics of incarcerated and free women with a significance of 0.05. For incarcerated women, the estimated prevalence of syphilis during pregnancy was 8.7% (95%CI: 5.7-13.1 and for HIV infection 3.3% (95%CI: 1.7-6.6; the estimated mother to child transmission of syphilis was 66.7% (95%CI: 44.7-83.2 and the incidence of congenital syphilis was 58.1 per 1,000 living newborns (95%CI: 40.4-82.8. Incarcerated women had a greater prevalence of syphilis and HIV infection during pregnancy, lower quality of antenatal care and higher levels of social vulnerability. Syphilis infection showed to be an indicator of social vulnerability in free women, but not in incarcerated women. Health initiatives in prison are necessary to reduce healthcare inequalities and should include adequate antenatal and birth care.

  19. Programming

    Jackson, M A

    1982-01-01

    The programmer's task is often taken to be the construction of algorithms, expressed in hierarchical structures of procedures: this view underlies the majority of traditional programming languages, such as Fortran. A different view is appropriate to a wide class of problem, perhaps including some problems in High Energy Physics. The programmer's task is regarded as having three main stages: first, an explicit model is constructed of the reality with which the program is concerned; second, thi...

  20. Inner cell mass incarceration in 8-shaped blastocysts does not increase monozygotic twinning in preimplantation genetic diagnosis and screening patients

    Zhou, Qin-Wei; Zhang, Shuo-Ping; Lu, Chang-Fu; Gong, Fei; Tan, Yue-Qiu; Lu, Guang-Xiu; Lin, Ge

    2018-01-01

    Background The use of assisted reproductive technology (ART) has been reported to increase the incidence of monozygotic twinning (MZT) compared with the incidence following natural conception. It has been hypothesized that splitting of the inner cell mass (ICM) through a small zona hole may result in MZT. In this study, using a cohort of patients undergoing preimplantation genetic diagnosis/screening (PGD/PGS), we compared the clinical and neonatal outcomes of human 8-shaped blastocysts hatching with ICM incarceration with partially or fully hatched blastocysts, and attempted to verify whether this phenomenon increases the incidence of MZT pregnancy or negatively impact newborns. Methods This retrospective study included 2059 patients undergoing PGD/PGS between March 1, 2013, and December 31, 2015. Clinical and neonatal outcomes were only collected from patients who received a single blastocyst transfer after PGD/PGS (n = 992). A 25- to 30-μm hole was made in the zona of day 3 embryos by laser. The blastocysts were biopsied and vitrified on day 6. The biopsied trophectoderm (TE) cells were analyzed using different genetic methods. One tested blastocyst was thawed and transferred to each patient in the subsequent frozen embryo transfer cycle. All the biopsied blastocysts were divided into three types: 8-shaped with ICM incarceration (type I), partially hatched without ICM incarceration (type II), and fully hatched (type III). ICM/TE grading, clinical and neonatal outcomes were compared between the groups. Results The percentage of grade A ICMs in type I blastocysts (22.2%) was comparable to that in type III blastocysts (20.1%) but higher than that in type II blastocysts (4.5%). The percentage of grade A TEs in type I blastocysts (4.2%) was comparable to that in type II (3.6%) but lower than that in type III (13.5%). There were no significant differences in clinical pregnancy, MZT pregnancy, miscarriage, live birth, MZT births, and neonatal outcomes between the