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Sample records for shock factor-1 modulates

  1. Heat shock factor-1 modulates p53 activity in the transcriptional response to DNA damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Ian R.; McNeill, Hesta V.; Cook, Susan; Lu, Xiaohong; Meek, David W.; Fuller-Pace, Frances V.; Lunec, John; Robson, Craig N.

    2009-01-01

    Here we define an important role for heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) in the cellular response to genotoxic agents. We demonstrate for the first time that HSF1 can complex with nuclear p53 and that both proteins are co-operatively recruited to p53-responsive genes such as p21. Analysis of natural and synthetic cis elements demonstrates that HSF1 can enhance p53-mediated transcription, whilst depletion of HSF1 reduces the expression of p53-responsive transcripts. We find that HSF1 is required for optimal p21 expression and p53-mediated cell-cycle arrest in response to genotoxins while loss of HSF1 attenuates apoptosis in response to these agents. To explain these novel properties of HSF1 we show that HSF1 can complex with DNA damage kinases ATR and Chk1 to effect p53 phosphorylation in response to DNA damage. Our data reveal HSF1 as a key transcriptional regulator in response to genotoxic compounds widely used in the clinical setting, and suggest that HSF1 will contribute to the efficacy of these agents. PMID:19295133

  2. ATF1 Modulates the Heat Shock Response by Regulating the Stress-Inducible Heat Shock Factor 1 Transcription Complex

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    Takii, Ryosuke; Fujimoto, Mitsuaki; Tan, Ke; Takaki, Eiichi; Hayashida, Naoki; Nakato, Ryuichiro; Shirahige, Katsuhiko

    2014-01-01

    The heat shock response is an evolutionally conserved adaptive response to high temperatures that controls proteostasis capacity and is regulated mainly by an ancient heat shock factor (HSF). However, the regulation of target genes by the stress-inducible HSF1 transcription complex has not yet been examined in detail in mammalian cells. In the present study, we demonstrated that HSF1 interacted with members of the ATF1/CREB family involved in metabolic homeostasis and recruited them on the HSP70 promoter in response to heat shock. The HSF1 transcription complex, including the chromatin-remodeling factor BRG1 and lysine acetyltransferases p300 and CREB-binding protein (CBP), was formed in a manner that was dependent on the phosphorylation of ATF1. ATF1-BRG1 promoted the establishment of an active chromatin state and HSP70 expression during heat shock, whereas ATF1-p300/CBP accelerated the shutdown of HSF1 DNA-binding activity during recovery from acute stress, possibly through the acetylation of HSF1. Furthermore, ATF1 markedly affected the resistance to heat shock. These results revealed the unanticipated complexity of the primitive heat shock response mechanism, which is connected to metabolic adaptation. PMID:25312646

  3. Essential amino acid enriched high-protein enteral nutrition modulates insulin-like growth factor-1 system function in a rat model of trauma-hemorrhagic shock.

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    Xianfeng Xia

    Full Text Available Nutrition support for critically ill patients supplemented with additional modular protein may promote skeletal muscle protein anabolism in addition to counteracting acute nitrogen loss. The present study was designed to investigate whether the essential amino acid (EAA enriched high-protein enteral nutrition (EN modulates the insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 system and activates the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR anabolic signaling pathway in a trauma-hemorrhagic shock (T-HS rat model.Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 90, 278.18 ± 0.94 g were randomly assigned to 5 groups: (1 normal control, (2 pair-fed, (3 T-HS, (4 T-HS and standard EN, and (5 T-HS and EAA enriched high-protein EN. Six animals from each group were harvested on days 2, 4, and 6 for serum, gastrocnemius, soleus, and extensor digitorum longus sample collection. T-HS significantly reduced muscle mass. Nutrition support maintained muscle mass, especially the EAA enriched high-protein EN. Meanwhile, a pronounced derangement in IGF-1-IGFBPs axis as well as impaired mTOR transduction was observed in the T-HS group. Compared with animals receiving standard EN, those receiving EAA enriched high-protein EN presented 18% higher serum free IGF-1 levels following 3 days of nutrition support and 22% higher after 5 days. These changes were consistent with the concomitant elevation in serum insulin and reduction in corticosterone levels. In addition, phosphorylations of downstream anabolic signaling effectors - including protein kinase B, mTOR, and ribosomal protein S6 kinase1 - increased significantly in rats receiving EAA enriched high-protein EN.Our findings firstly demonstrate the beneficial effect of EAA enriched high-protein EN on the metabolic modulation of skeletal muscle protein anabolism by regulating the IGF-1 system and downstream anabolic signaling transduction.

  4. Forkhead Box M1 Is Regulated by Heat Shock Factor 1 and Promotes Glioma Cells Survival under Heat Shock Stress*

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    Dai, Bingbing; Gong, Aihua; Jing, Zhitao; Aldape, Kenneth D.; Kang, Shin-Hyuk; Sawaya, Raymond; Huang, Suyun

    2013-01-01

    The forkhead box M1 (FoxM1) is a key transcription factor regulating multiple aspects of cell biology. Prior studies have shown that FoxM1 is overexpressed in a variety of human tumors, including brain tumor, and plays a critical role in cancer development and progression. In this study we found that FoxM1 was up-regulated by heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) under heat shock stress condition in multiple cell lines. Knockdown of HSF1 with HSF1 siRNA or inhibition of HSF1 with a HSF1 inhibitor abrogated heat shock-induced expression of FoxM1. Genetic deletion of HSF1 in mouse embryo fibroblast cells also abolished heat shock stress-induced FoxM1 expression. Moreover, we showed that HSF1 directly bound to FoxM1 promoter and increased FoxM1 promoter activity. Furthermore, we demonstrated that FoxM1 was required for the G2-M phase progression through regulating Cdc2, Cdc20, and Cdc25B under a mild heat shock stress but enhanced cell survival under lethal heat shock stress condition. Finally, in human glioblastoma specimens, FoxM1 overexpression correlated with elevated HSF1 expression. Our results indicate that FoxM1 is regulated by HSF1 and is critical for HSF1-mediated heat shock response. We demonstrated a novel mechanism of stress resistance controlled by HSF1 and a new HSF-FoxM1 connection that mediates cellular thermotolerance. PMID:23192351

  5. Resveratrol Reactivates Latent HIV through Increasing Histone Acetylation and Activating Heat Shock Factor 1.

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    Zeng, Xiaoyun; Pan, Xiaoyan; Xu, Xinfeng; Lin, Jian; Que, Fuchang; Tian, Yuanxin; Li, Lin; Liu, Shuwen

    2017-06-07

    The persistence of latent HIV reservoirs presents a significant challenge to viral eradication. Effective latency reversing agents (LRAs) based on "shock and kill" strategy are urgently needed. The natural phytoalexin resveratrol has been demonstrated to enhance HIV gene expression, although its mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we demonstrated that resveratrol was able to reactivate latent HIV without global T cell activation in vitro. Mode of action studies showed resveratrol-mediated reactivation from latency did not involve the activation of silent mating type information regulation 2 homologue 1 (SIRT1), which belonged to class-3 histone deacetylase (HDAC). However, latent HIV was reactivated by resveratrol mediated through increasing histone acetylation and activation of heat shock factor 1 (HSF1). Additionally, synergistic activation of the latent HIV reservoirs was observed under cotreatment with resveratrol and conventional LRAs. Collectively, this research reveals that resveratrol is a natural LRA and shows promise for HIV therapy.

  6. Changes in Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 Level in Patients with Sepsis and Septic Shock

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    Sang Hoon Lee

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Despite many ongoing, prospective studies on the topic, sepsis still remains one of the main causes of death in hospital. The hormone insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1 has a similar molecular structure to that of insulin. IGF-1 exerts anabolic effects and plays important roles in both normal physiology and pathologic processes. Previous studies have observed low serum IGF-1 level in patients with critical illnesses. Here, we evaluated changes in IGF-1 level based on survival of septic patients. Methods We evaluated 140 patients with sepsis and septic shock (21 with sepsis and 119 with septic shock admitted to the intensive care unit of a university-affiliated hospital in Korea. Serum IGF-1 level was measured on days 0, 1, 3, and 7. Patients with liver disease were excluded from this study. All data were analyzed using SPSS version 20 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA. Results Patients with septic shock had significantly lower serum IGF-1 level on days 1 and 3 than patients without septic shock (p = 0.002 and p = 0.007, respectively. Generally, there was a negative relationship between IGF-1 and serum cortisol levels; however, this relationship was only significant on day 3 (p = 0.029. Furthermore, renin showed significantly negative correlation with IGF-1 on day 3 (p = 0.038. IGF-1 level did not show significant difference between survivors and non-survivors. Conclusions Our results showed that IGF-1 was associated with septic shock, and that the IGF-1 axis is severely disrupted in septic patients. Additionally, serum cortisol and renin levels were associated with IGF-1 level.

  7. The interactive association between heat shock factor 1 and heat shock proteins in primary myocardial cells subjected to heat stress.

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    Tang, Shu; Chen, Hongbo; Cheng, Yanfen; Nasir, Mohammad Abdel; Kemper, Nicole; Bao, Endong

    2016-01-01

    Heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) is a heat shock transcription factor that rapidly induces heat shock gene transcription following thermal stress. In this study, we subjected primary neonatal rat myocardial cells to heat stress in vitro to create a model system for investigating the trends in expression and association between various heat shock proteins (HSPs) and HSF1 under adverse environmental conditions. After the cells were subjected to heat stress at 42˚C for different periods of time, HSP and HSF1 mRNA and protein levels were detected by qPCR and western blot analysis in the heat-stressed cells. The HSF1 expression levels significantly increased in the cells following 120 min of exposure to heat stess compared to the levels observed at the beginning of heat stress exposure. HSP90 followed a similar trend in expression to HSF1, whereas HSP70 followed an opposite trend. However, no significant changes were observed in the crystallin, alpha B (CRYAB, also known as HSP beta-5) expression levels during the 480‑min period of exposure to heat stress. The interaction between the HSPs and HSF1 was analyzed by STRING 9.1, and it was found that HSF1 interacted with HSP90 and HSP70, and that it did not play a role in regulating CRYAB expression. Based on our findings, HSP70 may suppress HSF1 in rat myocardial cells under conditions of heat stress. Furthermore, our data demonstrate that HSF1 is not the key factor for all HSPs, and this was particularly the case for CRYAB.

  8. Heat shock transcription factor 1-deficiency attenuates overloading-associated hypertrophy of mouse soleus muscle.

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    Koya, Tomoyuki; Nishizawa, Sono; Ohno, Yoshitaka; Goto, Ayumi; Ikuta, Akihiro; Suzuki, Miho; Ohira, Tomotaka; Egawa, Tatsuro; Nakai, Akira; Sugiura, Takao; Ohira, Yoshinobu; Yoshioka, Toshitada; Beppu, Moroe; Goto, Katsumasa

    2013-01-01

    Hypertrophic stimuli, such as mechanical stress and overloading, induce stress response, which is mediated by heat shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1), and up-regulate heat shock proteins (HSPs) in mammalian skeletal muscles. Therefore, HSF1-associated stress response may play a key role in loading-associated skeletal muscle hypertrophy. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of HSF1-deficiency on skeletal muscle hypertrophy caused by overloading. Functional overloading on the left soleus was performed by cutting the distal tendons of gastrocnemius and plantaris muscles for 4 weeks. The right muscle served as the control. Soleus muscles from both hindlimbs were dissected 2 and 4 weeks after the operation. Hypertrophy of soleus muscle in HSF1-null mice was partially inhibited, compared with that in wild-type (C57BL/6J) mice. Absence of HSF1 partially attenuated the increase of muscle wet weight and fiber cross-sectional area of overloaded soleus muscle. Population of Pax7-positive muscle satellite cells in HSF1-null mice was significantly less than that in wild-type mice following 2 weeks of overloading (pmuscle hypertrophy might be attributed to the greater and prolonged enhancement of IL-6 expression. HSF1 and/or HSF1-mediated stress response may, in part, play a key role in loading-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy.

  9. Glutamine's protection against cellular injury is dependent on heat shock factor-1.

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    Morrison, Angela L; Dinges, Martin; Singleton, Kristen D; Odoms, Kelli; Wong, Hector R; Wischmeyer, Paul E

    2006-06-01

    Glutamine (GLN) has been shown to protect cells, tissues, and whole organisms from stress and injury. Enhanced expression of heat shock protein (HSP) has been hypothesized to be responsible for this protection. To date, there are no clear mechanistic data confirming this relationship. This study tested the hypothesis that GLN-mediated activation of the HSP pathway via heat shock factor-1 (HSF-1) is responsible for cellular protection. Wild-type HSF-1 (HSF-1(+/+)) and knockout (HSF-1(-/-)) mouse fibroblasts were used in all experiments. Cells were treated with GLN concentrations ranging from 0 to 16 mM and exposed to heat stress injury in a concurrent treatment model. Cell viability was assayed with phenazine methosulfate plus tetrazolium salt, HSP-70, HSP-25, and nuclear HSF-1 expression via Western blot analysis, and HSF-1/heat shock element (HSE) binding via EMSA. GLN significantly attenuated heat-stress induced cell death in HSF-1(+/+) cells in a dose-dependent manner; however, the survival benefit of GLN was lost in HSF-1(-/-) cells. GLN led to a dose-dependent increase in HSP-70 and HSP-25 expression after heat stress. No inducible HSP expression was observed in HSF-1(-/-) cells. GLN increased unphosphorylated HSF-1 in the nucleus before heat stress. This was accompanied by a GLN-mediated increase in HSF-1/HSE binding and nuclear content of phosphorylated HSF-1 after heat stress. This is the first demonstration that GLN-mediated cellular protection after heat-stress injury is related to HSF-1 expression and cellular capacity to activate an HSP response. Furthermore, the mechanism of GLN-mediated protection against injury appears to involve an increase in nuclear HSF-1 content before stress and increased HSF-1 promoter binding and phosphorylation.

  10. Role of hippocampal dentate gyrus neurons in the protective effects of heat shock factor 1 on working memory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min Peng; Xiongzhao Zhu; Ming Cheng; Xiangyi Chen; Shuqiao Yao

    2011-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that heat shock factor 1 exerts endogenous protective effects on working memory under conditions of chronic psychological stress. However, the precise underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. This study examined the protective factors affecting working memory in heat shock transcription factor 1 gene knockout mice. The results indicated that the number of correct T maze alternations decreased following mild chronic psychological stress in knockout mice. This change was accompanied by a decrease in neurogenesis and an increase in neuronal apoptosis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus. The number of correct T maze alternations was positively correlated with neurogenesis in hippocampal dentate gyrus, and negatively correlated with neuronal apoptosis. In wild type mice, no significant difference was detected in the number of correct T maze alternations or neuronal apoptosis in hippocampal dentate gyrus. These results indicate that the heat shock factor 1 gene has an endogenous protective role in working memory during mild chronic psychological stress associated with dentate gyrus neuronal apoptosis.Moreover, dentate gyrus neurogenesis appears to participate in the protective mechanism.

  11. A Novel mouse model of enhanced proteostasis: Full-length human heat shock factor 1 transgenic mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierce, Anson; Wei, Rochelle; Halade, Dipti; Yoo, Si-Eun; Ran, Qitao; Richardson, Arlan

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Development of mouse overexpressing native human HSF1 in all tissues including CNS. → HSF1 overexpression enhances heat shock response at whole-animal and cellular level. → HSF1 overexpression protects from polyglutamine toxicity and favors aggresomes. → HSF1 overexpression enhances proteostasis at the whole-animal and cellular level. -- Abstract: The heat shock response (HSR) is controlled by the master transcriptional regulator heat shock factor 1 (HSF1). HSF1 maintains proteostasis and resistance to stress through production of heat shock proteins (HSPs). No transgenic model exists that overexpresses HSF1 in tissues of the central nervous system (CNS). We generated a transgenic mouse overexpressing full-length non-mutant HSF1 and observed a 2-4-fold increase in HSF1 mRNA and protein expression in all tissues studied of HSF1 transgenic (HSF1 +/0 ) mice compared to wild type (WT) littermates, including several regions of the CNS. Basal expression of HSP70 and 90 showed only mild tissue-specific changes; however, in response to forced exercise, the skeletal muscle HSR was more elevated in HSF1 +/0 mice compared to WT littermates and in fibroblasts following heat shock, as indicated by levels of inducible HSP70 mRNA and protein. HSF1 +/0 cells elicited a significantly more robust HSR in response to expression of the 82 repeat polyglutamine-YFP fusion construct (Q82YFP) and maintained proteasome-dependent processing of Q82YFP compared to WT fibroblasts. Overexpression of HSF1 was associated with fewer, but larger Q82YFP aggregates resembling aggresomes in HSF1 +/0 cells, and increased viability. Therefore, our data demonstrate that tissues and cells from mice overexpressing full-length non-mutant HSF1 exhibit enhanced proteostasis.

  12. Increased expression of heat shock protein 70 and heat shock factor 1 in chronic dermal ulcer tissues treated with laser-aided therapy.

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    Zhou, Jian-da; Luo, Cheng-qun; Xie, Hui-qing; Nie, Xin-min; Zhao, Yan-zhong; Wang, Shao-hua; Xu, Yi; Pokharel, Pashupati Babu; Xu, Dan

    2008-07-20

    Chronic dermal ulcers are also referred to as refractory ulcers. This study was conducted to elucidate the therapeutic effect of laser on chronic dermal ulcers and the induced expression of heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) in wound tissues. Sixty patients with 84 chronic dermal ulcers were randomly divided into traditional therapy and laser therapy groups. Laser treatment was performed in addition to traditional therapy in the laser therapy group. The treatment efficacy was evaluated after three weeks. Five tissue sections of healing wounds were randomly collected along with five normal skin sections as controls. HSP70-positive cells from HSP70 immunohistochemical staining were counted and the gray scale of positive cells was measured for statistical analysis. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blotting were performed to determine the mRNA and protein expressions of HSF1 and HSP70. The cure rate of the wounds and the total efficacy in the laser therapy group were significantly higher than those in the traditional therapy group (P ulcers plays a facilitating role in healing due to the mechanism of laser-activated endogenous heat shock protection in cells in wound surfaces.

  13. Monitoring the Induction of Heat Shock Factor 1/Heat Shock Protein 70 Expression following 17-Allylamino-Demethoxygeldanamycin Treatment by Positron Emission Tomography and Optical Reporter Gene Imaging

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    Mikhail Doubrovin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The cell response to proteotoxic cell stresses is mediated primarily through activation of heat shock factor 1 (HSF1. This transcription factor plays a major role in the regulation of the heat shock proteins (HSPs, including HSP70. We demonstrate that an [124I]iodide-pQHNIG70 positron emission tomography (PET reporter system that includes an inducible HSP70 promoter can be used to image and monitor the activation of the HSF1/HSP70 transcription factor in response to drug treatment (17-allylamino-demethoxygeldanamycin [17-AAG]. We developed a dual imaging reporter (pQHNIG70 for noninvasive imaging of the heat shock response in cell culture and living animals previously and now study HSF1/HSP70 reporter activation in both cell culture and tumor-bearing animals following exposure to 17-AAG. 17-AAG (10–1,000 nM induced reporter expression; a 23-fold increase was observed by 60 hours. Good correspondence between reporter expression and HSP70 protein levels were observed. MicroPET imaging based on [124I]iodide accumulation in pQHNIG70-transduced RG2 xenografts showed a significant 6.2-fold reporter response to 17-AAG, with a corresponding increase in tumor HSP70 and in tumor human sodium iodide symporter and green fluorescent protein reporter proteins. The HSF1 reporter system can be used to screen anticancer drugs for induction of cytotoxic stress and HSF1 activation both in vitro and in vivo.

  14. Splicing factor 1 modulates dietary restriction and TORC1 pathway longevity in C. elegans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heintz, Caroline; Doktor, Thomas K; Lanjuin, Anne

    2017-01-01

    via splicing factor 1 (SFA-1; the C. elegans homologue of SF1, also known as branchpoint binding protein, BBP). We show that SFA-1 is specifically required for lifespan extension by dietary restriction and by modulation of the TORC1 pathway components AMPK, RAGA-1 and RSKS-1/S6 kinase. We also...... homeostasis is a biomarker and predictor of life expectancy in Caenorhabditis elegans. Using transcriptomics and in-depth splicing analysis in young and old animals fed ad libitum or subjected to dietary restriction, we find defects in global pre-mRNA splicing with age that are reduced by dietary restriction...

  15. Discovering a Reliable Heat-Shock Factor-1 Inhibitor to Treat Human Cancers: Potential Opportunity for Phytochemists

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    Murugesan Velayutham

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Heat-shock factor-1 (HSF-1 is an important transcription factor that regulates pathogenesis of many human diseases through its extensive transcriptional regulation. Especially, it shows pleiotropic effects in human cancer, and hence it has recently received increased attention of cancer researchers. After myriad investigations on HSF-1, the field has advanced to the phase where there is consensus that finding a potent and selective pharmacological inhibitor for this transcription factor will be a major break-through in the treatment of various human cancers. Presently, all reported inhibitors have their limitations, made evident at different stages of clinical trials. This brief account summarizes the advances with tested natural products as HSF-1 inhibitors and highlights the necessity of phytochemistry in this endeavor of discovering a potent pharmacological HSF-1 inhibitor.

  16. Molecular Stress-inducing Compounds Increase Osteoclast Formation in a Heat Shock Factor 1 Protein-dependent Manner*

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    Chai, Ryan C.; Kouspou, Michelle M.; Lang, Benjamin J.; Nguyen, Chau H.; van der Kraan, A. Gabrielle J.; Vieusseux, Jessica L.; Lim, Reece C.; Gillespie, Matthew T.; Benjamin, Ivor J.; Quinn, Julian M. W.; Price, John T.

    2014-01-01

    Many anticancer therapeutic agents cause bone loss, which increases the risk of fractures that severely reduce quality of life. Thus, in drug development, it is critical to identify and understand such effects. Anticancer therapeutic and HSP90 inhibitor 17-(allylamino)-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG) causes bone loss by increasing osteoclast formation, but the mechanism underlying this is not understood. 17-AAG activates heat shock factor 1 (Hsf1), the master transcriptional regulator of heat shock/cell stress responses, which may be involved in this negative action of 17-AAG upon bone. Using mouse bone marrow and RAW264.7 osteoclast differentiation models we found that HSP90 inhibitors that induced a heat shock response also enhanced osteoclast formation, whereas HSP90 inhibitors that did not (including coumermycin A1 and novobiocin) did not affect osteoclast formation. Pharmacological inhibition or shRNAmir knockdown of Hsf1 in RAW264.7 cells as well as the use of Hsf1 null mouse bone marrow cells demonstrated that 17-AAG-enhanced osteoclast formation was Hsf1-dependent. Moreover, ectopic overexpression of Hsf1 enhanced 17-AAG effects upon osteoclast formation. Consistent with these findings, protein levels of the essential osteoclast transcription factor microphthalmia-associated transcription factor were increased by 17-AAG in an Hsf1-dependent manner. In addition to HSP90 inhibitors, we also identified that other agents that induced cellular stress, such as ethanol, doxorubicin, and methotrexate, also directly increased osteoclast formation, potentially in an Hsf1-dependent manner. These results, therefore, indicate that cellular stress can enhance osteoclast differentiation via Hsf1-dependent mechanisms and may significantly contribute to pathological and therapeutic related bone loss. PMID:24692538

  17. Molecular stress-inducing compounds increase osteoclast formation in a heat shock factor 1 protein-dependent manner.

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    Chai, Ryan C; Kouspou, Michelle M; Lang, Benjamin J; Nguyen, Chau H; van der Kraan, A Gabrielle J; Vieusseux, Jessica L; Lim, Reece C; Gillespie, Matthew T; Benjamin, Ivor J; Quinn, Julian M W; Price, John T

    2014-05-09

    Many anticancer therapeutic agents cause bone loss, which increases the risk of fractures that severely reduce quality of life. Thus, in drug development, it is critical to identify and understand such effects. Anticancer therapeutic and HSP90 inhibitor 17-(allylamino)-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG) causes bone loss by increasing osteoclast formation, but the mechanism underlying this is not understood. 17-AAG activates heat shock factor 1 (Hsf1), the master transcriptional regulator of heat shock/cell stress responses, which may be involved in this negative action of 17-AAG upon bone. Using mouse bone marrow and RAW264.7 osteoclast differentiation models we found that HSP90 inhibitors that induced a heat shock response also enhanced osteoclast formation, whereas HSP90 inhibitors that did not (including coumermycin A1 and novobiocin) did not affect osteoclast formation. Pharmacological inhibition or shRNAmir knockdown of Hsf1 in RAW264.7 cells as well as the use of Hsf1 null mouse bone marrow cells demonstrated that 17-AAG-enhanced osteoclast formation was Hsf1-dependent. Moreover, ectopic overexpression of Hsf1 enhanced 17-AAG effects upon osteoclast formation. Consistent with these findings, protein levels of the essential osteoclast transcription factor microphthalmia-associated transcription factor were increased by 17-AAG in an Hsf1-dependent manner. In addition to HSP90 inhibitors, we also identified that other agents that induced cellular stress, such as ethanol, doxorubicin, and methotrexate, also directly increased osteoclast formation, potentially in an Hsf1-dependent manner. These results, therefore, indicate that cellular stress can enhance osteoclast differentiation via Hsf1-dependent mechanisms and may significantly contribute to pathological and therapeutic related bone loss.

  18. Heat shock factor 1 upregulates transcription of Epstein–Barr Virus nuclear antigen 1 by binding to a heat shock element within the BamHI-Q promoter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Feng-Wei; Wu, Xian-Rui; Liu, Wen-Ju; Liao, Yi-Ji; Lin, Sheng; Zong, Yong-Sheng; Zeng, Mu-Sheng; Zeng, Yi-Xin; Mai, Shi-Juan; Xie, Dan

    2011-01-01

    Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) is essential for maintenance of the episome and establishment of latency. In this study, we observed that heat treatment effectively induced EBNA1 transcription in EBV-transformed B95-8 and human LCL cell lines. Although Cp is considered as the sole promoter used for the expression of EBNA1 transcripts in the lymphoblastoid cell lines, the RT-PCR results showed that the EBNA1 transcripts induced by heat treatment arise from Qp-initiated transcripts. Using bioinformatics, a high affinity and functional heat shock factor 1 (HSF1)-binding element within the − 17/+4 oligonucleotide of the Qp was found, and was determined by electrophoretic mobility shift assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. Moreover, heat shock and exogenous HSF1 expression induced Qp activity in reporter assays. Further, RNA interference-mediated HSF1 gene silencing attenuated heat-induced EBNA1 expression in B95-8 cells. These results provide evidence that EBNA1 is a new target for the transcription factor HSF1.

  19. Heat shock factor 1 upregulates transcription of Epstein-Barr Virus nuclear antigen 1 by binding to a heat shock element within the BamHI-Q promoter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Feng-Wei [The State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China); Wu, Xian-Rui [Department of Surgery, Sixth Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Liu, Wen-Ju; Liao, Yi-Ji [The State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China); Lin, Sheng [Laboratory of Integrated Biosciences, School of Life Science, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Zong, Yong-Sheng; Zeng, Mu-Sheng; Zeng, Yi-Xin [The State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China); Mai, Shi-Juan, E-mail: maishj@sysucc.org.cn [The State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China); Xie, Dan, E-mail: xied@mail.sysu.edu.cn [The State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China)

    2011-12-20

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) is essential for maintenance of the episome and establishment of latency. In this study, we observed that heat treatment effectively induced EBNA1 transcription in EBV-transformed B95-8 and human LCL cell lines. Although Cp is considered as the sole promoter used for the expression of EBNA1 transcripts in the lymphoblastoid cell lines, the RT-PCR results showed that the EBNA1 transcripts induced by heat treatment arise from Qp-initiated transcripts. Using bioinformatics, a high affinity and functional heat shock factor 1 (HSF1)-binding element within the - 17/+4 oligonucleotide of the Qp was found, and was determined by electrophoretic mobility shift assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. Moreover, heat shock and exogenous HSF1 expression induced Qp activity in reporter assays. Further, RNA interference-mediated HSF1 gene silencing attenuated heat-induced EBNA1 expression in B95-8 cells. These results provide evidence that EBNA1 is a new target for the transcription factor HSF1.

  20. Effect of Geranylgeranylacetone on Ultraviolet Radiation Type B-Induced Cataract in Heat-Shock Transcription Factor 1 Heterozygous Mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogasawara, Satoshi; Hashizume, Kouhei; Okuno, Takashi; Imaizumi, Toshiyasu; Inomata, Yui; Tezuka, Yu; Sanbe, Atushi; Kurosaka, Daijiro

    2017-05-01

    We investigated whether heat-shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1) was involved in ultraviolet radiation type B (UVR-B)-induced lens opacity (cataract) using HSF1 heterozygous mice. We also examined the effects of geranylgeranylacetone (GGA), an inducer of heat-shock proteins via activation of HSF, on the UVR-B-induced cataract. Male HSF1 +/- and WT mice were unilaterally exposed to UVR-B (total: 1200mJ) at 16 weeks of age. At 48 h after the last UVR-B irradiation, the lens was isolated and the induction of the cataract was quantified as the cataract area ratio (opacity area/anterior capsule). GGA was orally administered at a dosage of 500 mg/kg once a day for two days before the first UVR-B exposure until the end of the experiment (21days in total). The HSF1 expression was more greatly decreased in the lens from HSF1 +/- mice than in that from WT mice (p B exposure could mainly induce cataracts in the anterior capsule in both HSF1 +/- and WT mice, while the opacity of the lens was markedly enhanced in HSF 1+/- mice compared to that in WT mice(p (0.01). GGA treatment could prevent the induction of lens opacity by UVR-B exposure in both WT and HSF1 +/- mice as compared with the non-administration group (p B radiation was seen in lens protein levels of αA-crystallin, αB-crystallin, or γ-crystallin with or without GGA administration among all groups of mice. In contrast to the crystallins, the lens protein level of HSP25 was decreased by UVR-B exposure in both HSF1 +/- and WT mice, and was significantly recovered in WT mice by the GGA treatment (p B-induced cataracts, possibly via regulation of HSPs such as HSP25.

  1. Deficiency of heat shock transcription factor 1 suppresses heat stress-associated increase in slow soleus muscle mass of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Y; Egawa, T; Yokoyama, S; Nakai, A; Sugiura, T; Ohira, Y; Yoshioka, T; Goto, K

    2015-12-01

    Effects of heat shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1) deficiency on heat stress-associated increase in slow soleus muscle mass of mice were investigated. Both HSF1-null and wild-type mice were randomly assigned to control and heat-stressed groups. Mice in heat-stressed group were exposed to heat stress (41 °C for 60 min) in an incubator without anaesthesia. Significant increase in wet and dry weights, and protein content of soleus muscle in wild-type mice was observed seven days after the application of the heat stress. However, heat stress had no impact on soleus muscle mass in HSF1-null mice. Neither type of mice exhibited much effect of heat stress on HSF mRNA expression (HSF1, HSF2 and HSF4). On the other hand, heat stress upregulated heat shock proteins (HSPs) at the mRNA (HSP72) and protein (HSP72 and HSP110) levels in wild-type mice, but not in HSF1-null mice. The population of Pax7-positive nuclei relative to total myonuclei of soleus muscle in wild-type mice was significantly increased by heat stress, but not in HSF1-null mice. Furthermore, the absence of HSF1 gene suppressed heat stress-associated phosphorylation of Akt and p70 S6 kinase (p-p70S6K) in soleus muscle. Heat stress-associated increase in skeletal muscle mass may be induced by HSF1 and/or HSF1-mediated stress response that activates muscle satellite cells and Akt/p70S6K signalling pathway. © 2015 Scandinavian Physiological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Differentiation-inducing factor-1 and -2 function also as modulators for Dictyostelium chemotaxis.

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    Hidekazu Kuwayama

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the early stages of development of the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum, chemotaxis toward cAMP plays a pivotal role in organizing discrete cells into a multicellular structure. In this process, a series of signaling molecules, such as G-protein-coupled cell surface receptors for cAMP, phosphatidylinositol metabolites, and cyclic nucleotides, function as the signal transducers for controlling dynamics of cytoskeleton. Differentiation-inducing factor-1 and -2 (DIF-1 and DIF-2 were originally identified as the factors (chlorinated alkylphenones that induce Dictyostelium stalk cell differentiation, but it remained unknown whether the DIFs had any other physiologic functions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To further elucidate the functions of DIFs, in the present study we investigated their effects on chemotaxis under various conditions. Quite interestingly, in shallow cAMP gradients, DIF-1 suppressed chemotaxis whereas DIF-2 promoted it greatly. Analyses with various mutants revealed that DIF-1 may inhibit chemotaxis, at least in part, via GbpB (a phosphodiesterase and a decrease in the intracellular cGMP concentration ([cGMP](i. DIF-2, by contrast, may enhance chemotaxis, at least in part, via RegA (another phosphodiesterase and an increase in [cGMP](i. Using null mutants for DimA and DimB, the transcription factors that are required for DIF-dependent prestalk differentiation, we also showed that the mechanisms for the modulation of chemotaxis by DIFs differ from those for the induction of cell differentiation by DIFs, at least in part. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings indicate that DIF-1 and DIF-2 function as negative and positive modulators for Dictyostelium chemotaxis, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first report in any organism of physiologic modulators (small molecules for chemotaxis having differentiation-inducing activity.

  3. Phthalimide neovascular factor 1 (PNF1) modulates MT1-MMP activity in human microvascular endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieghaus, Kristen A; Gianchandani, Erwin P; Neal, Rebekah A; Paige, Mikell A; Brown, Milton L; Papin, Jason A; Botchwey, Edward A

    2009-07-01

    We are creating synthetic pharmaceuticals with angiogenic activity and potential to promote vascular invasion. We previously demonstrated that one of these molecules, phthalimide neovascular factor 1 (PNF1), significantly expands microvascular networks in vivo following sustained release from poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLAGA) films. In addition, to probe PNF1 mode of action, we recently applied a novel pathway-based compendium analysis to a multi-timepoint, controlled microarray data set of PNF1-treated (vs. control) human microvascular endothelial cells (HMVECs), and we identified induction of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and, subsequently, transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) signaling networks by PNF1. Here we validate this microarray data set with quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis. Subsequently, we probe this data set and identify three specific TGF-beta-induced genes with regulation by PNF1 conserved over multiple timepoints-amyloid beta (A4) precursor protein (APP), early growth response 1 (EGR-1), and matrix metalloproteinase 14 (MMP14 or MT1-MMP)-that are also implicated in angiogenesis. We further focus on MMP14 given its unique role in angiogenesis, and we validate MT1-MMP modulation by PNF1 with an in vitro fluorescence assay that demonstrates the direct effects that PNF1 exerts on functional metalloproteinase activity. We also utilize endothelial cord formation in collagen gels to show that PNF1-induced stimulation of endothelial cord network formation in vitro is in some way MT1-MMP-dependent. Ultimately, this new network analysis of our transcriptional footprint characterizing PNF1 activity 1-48 h post-supplementation in HMVECs coupled with corresponding validating experiments suggests a key set of a few specific targets that are involved in PNF1 mode of action and important for successful promotion of the neovascularization that we have observed by the drug in vivo.

  4. Cellular stress induces cancer stem-like cells through expression of DNAJB8 by activation of heat shock factor 1.

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    Kusumoto, Hiroki; Hirohashi, Yoshihiko; Nishizawa, Satoshi; Yamashita, Masamichi; Yasuda, Kazuyo; Murai, Aiko; Takaya, Akari; Mori, Takashi; Kubo, Terufumi; Nakatsugawa, Munehide; Kanaseki, Takayuki; Tsukahara, Tomohide; Kondo, Toru; Sato, Noriyuki; Hara, Isao; Torigoe, Toshihiko

    2018-03-01

    In a previous study, we found that DNAJB8, a heat shock protein (HSP) 40 family member is expressed in kidney cancer stem-like cells (CSC)/cancer-initiating cells (CIC) and that it has a role in the maintenance of kidney CSC/CIC. Heat shock factor (HSF) 1 is a key transcription factor for responses to stress including heat shock, and it induces HSP family expression through activation by phosphorylation. In the present study, we therefore examined whether heat shock (HS) induces CSC/CIC. We treated the human kidney cancer cell line ACHN with HS, and found that HS increased side population (SP) cells. Western blot analysis and qRT-PCR showed that HS increased the expression of DNAJB8 and SOX2. Gene knockdown experiments using siRNAs showed that the increase in SOX2 expression and SP cell ratio depends on DNAJB8 and that the increase in DNAJB8 and SOX2 depend on HSF1. Furthermore, treatment with a mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor, temsirolimus, decreased the expression of DNAJB8 and SOX2 and the ratio of SP cells. Taken together, the results indicate that heat shock induces DNAJB8 by activation of HSF1 and induces cancer stem-like cells. © 2018 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  5. Anti-vascular agent Combretastatin A-4-P modulates Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1 and gene expression

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    Currie Margaret J

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A functional vascular network is essential for the survival, growth and spread of solid tumours, making blood vessels a key target for therapeutic strategies. Combretastatin A-4 phosphate (CA-4-P is a tubulin-depolymerising agent in Phase II clinical trials as a vascular disrupting agent. Not much is known of the molecular effect of CA-4-P under tumour conditions. The tumour microenvironment differs markedly from that in normal tissue, specifically with respect to oxygenation (hypoxia. Gene regulation under tumour conditions is governed by hypoxia inducible factor 1 (HIF-1, controlling angiogenic and metastatic pathways. Methods We investigated the effect of CA-4-P on factors of the upstream and downstream signalling pathway of HIF-1 in vitro. Results CA-4-P treatment under hypoxia tended to reduce HIF-1 accumulation in a concentration-dependent manner, an effect which was more prominent in endothelial cells than in cancer cell lines. Conversely, CA-4-P increased HIF-1 accumulation under aerobic conditions in vitro. At these concentrations of CA-4-P under aerobic conditions, nuclear factor κB was activated via the small GTPase RhoA, and expression of the HIF-1 downstream angiogenic effector gene, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-A, was increased. Conclusion Our findings advance the understanding of signal transduction pathways involved in the actions of the anti-vascular agent CA-4-P.

  6. Possible Contribution of Zerumbone-Induced Proteo-Stress to Its Anti-Inflammatory Functions via the Activation of Heat Shock Factor 1.

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    Yoko Igarashi

    Full Text Available Zerumbone is a sesquiterpene present in Zinger zerumbet. Many studies have demonstrated its marked anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenesis activities. Recently, we showed that zerumbone binds to numerous proteins with scant selectivity and induces the expression of heat shock proteins (HSPs in hepatocytes. To dampen proteo-toxic stress, organisms have a stress-responsive molecular machinery, known as heat shock response. Heat shock factor 1 (HSF1 plays a key role in this protein quality control system by promoting activation of HSPs. In this study, we investigated whether zerumbone-induced HSF1 activation contributes to its anti-inflammatory functions in stimulated macrophages. Our findings showed that zerumbone increased cellular protein aggregates and promoted nuclear translocation of HSF1 for HSP expression. Interestingly, HSF1 down-regulation attenuated the suppressive effects of zerumbone on mRNA and protein expressions of pro-inflammatory genes, including inducible nitric oxide synthase and interlukin-1β. These results suggest that proteo-stress induced by zerumbone activates HSF1 for exhibiting its anti-inflammatory functions.

  7. Modulation of insulin-like growth factor 1 levels in human osteoarthritic subchondral bone osteoblasts.

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    Massicotte, Frédéric; Fernandes, Julio Cesar; Martel-Pelletier, Johanne; Pelletier, Jean-Pierre; Lajeunesse, Daniel

    2006-03-01

    Human osteoarthritis (OA) is characterized by cartilage loss, bone sclerosis, osteophyte formation and inflammation of the synovial membrane. We previously reported that OA osteoblasts (Ob) show abnormal phenotypic characteristics possibly responsible for bone sclerosis and that two subgroups of OA patients can be identified by low or high endogenous production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) by OA Ob. Here, we determined that the elevated PGE2 levels in the high OA subgroup were linked with enhanced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein levels compared to normal and low OA Ob. A linear relationship was observed between endogenous PGE2 levels and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) levels in OA Ob. As parathyroid hormone (PTH) and PGE2 are known stimulators of IGF-1 production in Ob, we next evaluated their effect in OA Ob. Both subgroups increased their IGF-1 production similarly in response to PGE2, while the high OA subgroup showed a blunted response to PTH compared to the low OA group. Conversely, only the high OA group showed a significant inhibition of IGF-1 production when PGE2 synthesis was reduced with Naproxen, a non-steroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID) that inhibits cyclooxygenases (COX). The PGE2-dependent stimulation of IGF-1 synthesis was due in part to the cAMP/protein kinase A pathway since both the direct inhibition of this pathway with H-89 and the inhibition of EP2 or EP4 receptors, linked to cAMP production, reduced IGF-1 synthesis. The production of the most abundant IGF-1 binding proteins (IGFBPs) in bone tissue, IGFBP-3, -4, and -5, was lower in OA compared to normal Ob independently of the OA group. Under basal condition, OA Ob expressed similar IGF-1 mRNA to normal Ob; however, PGE2 stimulated IGF-1 mRNA expression more in OA than normal Ob. These data suggest that increased IGF-1 levels correlate with elevated endogenous PGE2 levels in OA Ob and that higher IGF-1 levels in OA Ob could be important for bone sclerosis in OA.

  8. Heat shock factor-1 intertwines insulin/IGF-1, TGF-β and cGMP signaling to control development and aging

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    Barna János

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Temperature affects virtually all cellular processes. A quick increase in temperature challenges the cells to undergo a heat shock response to maintain cellular homeostasis. Heat shock factor-1 (HSF-1 functions as a major player in this response as it activates the transcription of genes coding for molecular chaperones (also called heat shock proteins that maintain structural integrity of proteins. However, the mechanisms by which HSF-1 adjusts fundamental cellular processes such as growth, proliferation, differentiation and aging to the ambient temperature remain largely unknown. Results We demonstrate here that in Caenorhabditis elegans HSF-1 represses the expression of daf-7 encoding a TGF-β (transforming growth factor-beta ligand, to induce young larvae to enter the dauer stage, a developmentally arrested, non-feeding, highly stress-resistant, long-lived larval form triggered by crowding and starvation. Under favorable conditions, HSF-1 is inhibited by crowding pheromone-sensitive guanylate cyclase/cGMP (cyclic guanosine monophosphate and systemic nutrient-sensing insulin/IGF-1 (insulin-like growth factor-1 signaling; loss of HSF-1 activity allows DAF-7 to promote reproductive growth. Thus, HSF-1 interconnects the insulin/IGF-1, TGF-β and cGMP neuroendocrine systems to control development and longevity in response to diverse environmental stimuli. Furthermore, HSF-1 upregulates another TGF-β pathway-interacting gene, daf-9/cytochrome P450, thereby fine-tuning the decision between normal growth and dauer formation. Conclusion Together, these results provide mechanistic insight into how temperature, nutrient availability and population density coordinately influence development, lifespan, behavior and stress response through HSF-1.

  9. Transcriptome modulation by hydrocortisone in severe burn shock: ancillary analysis of a prospective randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plassais, Jonathan; Venet, Fabienne; Cazalis, Marie-Angélique; Le Quang, Diane; Pachot, Alexandre; Monneret, Guillaume; Tissot, Sylvie; Textoris, Julien

    2017-06-16

    Despite shortening vasopressor use in shock, hydrocortisone administration remains controversial, with potential harm to the immune system. Few studies have assessed the impact of hydrocortisone on the transcriptional response in shock, and we are lacking data on burn shock. Our objective was to assess the hydrocortisone-induced transcriptional modulation in severe burn shock, particularly modulation of the immune response. We collected whole blood samples during a randomized controlled trial assessing the efficacy of hydrocortisone administration in burn shock. Using whole genome microarrays, we first compared burn patients (n = 32) from the placebo group to healthy volunteers to describe the transcriptional modulation induced by burn shock over the first week. Then we compared burn patients randomized for either hydrocortisone administration or placebo, to assess hydrocortisone-induced modulation. Study groups were similar in terms of severity and major outcomes, but shock duration was significantly reduced in the hydrocortisone group. Many genes (n = 1687) were differentially expressed between burn patients and healthy volunteers, with 85% of them exhibiting a profound and persistent modulation over seven days. Interestingly, we showed that hydrocortisone enhanced the shock-associated repression of adaptive, but also innate immunity. We found that the initial host response to burn shock encompasses wide and persistent modulation of gene expression, with profound modulation of pathways associated with metabolism and immunity. Importantly, hydrocortisone administration may worsen the immunosuppression associated with severe injury. These data should be taken into account in the risk ratio of hydrocortisone administration in patients with inflammatory shock. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00149123 . Registered on 6 September 2005.

  10. Heat Shock Factor 1 Depletion Sensitizes A172 Glioblastoma Cells to Temozolomide via Suppression of Cancer Stem Cell-Like Properties

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    Chang-Nim Im

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Heat shock factor 1 (HSF1, a transcription factor activated by various stressors, regulates proliferation and apoptosis by inducing expression of target genes, such as heat shock proteins and Bcl-2 (B-cell lymphoma 2 interacting cell death suppressor (BIS. HSF1 also directly interacts with BIS, although it is still unclear whether this interaction is critical in the regulation of glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs. In this study, we examined whether small interfering RNA-mediated BIS knockdown decreased protein levels of HSF1 and subsequent nuclear localization under GSC-like sphere (SP-forming conditions. Consistent with BIS depletion, HSF1 knockdown also reduced sex determining region Y (SRY-box 2 (SOX2 expression, a marker of stemness, accompanying the decrease in SP-forming ability and matrix metalloprotease 2 (MMP2 activity. When HSF1 or BIS knockdown was combined with temozolomide (TMZ treatment, a standard drug used in glioblastoma therapy, apoptosis increased, as measured by an increase in poly (ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP cleavage, whereas cancer stem-like properties, such as colony-forming activity and SOX2 protein expression, decreased. Taken together, our findings suggest that targeting BIS or HSF1 could be a viable therapeutic strategy for GSCs resistant to conventional TMZ treatment.

  11. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the heat stress response of Daphnia pulex: ROS-mediated activation of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) and heat shock factor 1 (HSF-1) and the clustered expression of stress genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klumpen, Eva; Hoffschröer, Nadine; Zeis, Bettina; Gigengack, Ulrike; Dohmen, Elias; Paul, Rüdiger J

    2017-01-01

    Heat stress in ectotherms involves direct (e.g. protein damage) and/or indirect effects (temperature-induced hypoxia and ROS formation), which cause activation of the transcription factors (TF) heat shock factor 1 (HSF-1) and/or hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1). The present study focused on the links between stress (ROS) signals, nuclear (n) and cytoplasmic (c) HSF-1/HIF-1 levels, and stress gene expression on mRNA and protein levels (e.g. heat-shock protein 90, HSP90) upon acute heat and ROS (H 2 O 2 ) stress. Acute heat stress (30°C) evoked fluctuations in ROS level. Different feeding regimens, which affected the glutathione (GSH) level, allowed altering the frequency of ROS fluctuations. Other data showed fluctuation frequency to depend also on ROS production rate. The heat-induced slow or fast ROS fluctuations (at high or low GSH levels) evoked slow or fast fluctuations in the levels of nHIF-1α, nHSF-1 and gene products (mRNAs and protein), albeit after different time delays. Time delays to ROS fluctuations were, for example,shorter for nHIF-1α than for nHSF-1 fluctuations, and nHIF-1α fluctuations preceded and nHSF-1 fluctuations followed fluctuations in HSP90 mRNA level. Cytoplasmic TF levels either changed little (cHIF-1α) or showed a steady increase (cHSF-1). Applying acute H 2 O 2 stress (at 20°C) revealed effects on nHIF-1α and mRNA levels, but no significant effects on nHSF-1 level. Transcriptome data additionally showed coordinated fluctuations of mRNA levels upon acute heat stress, involving mRNAs for HSPs and other stress proteins, with all corresponding genes carrying DNA binding motifs for HIF-1 and HSF-1. This study provided evidence for promoting effects of ROS and HIF-1 on early haemoglobin, HIF-1α and HSP90 mRNA expressions upon heat or ROS stress. The increasing cHSF-1 level likely affected nHSF-1 level and later HSP90 mRNA expression. Heat stress evoked ROS fluctuations, with this stress signal forwarded via nHIF-1 and nHSF-1

  12. Expression of DDX3 is directly modulated by hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha in breast epithelial cells.

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    Mahendran Botlagunta

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available DEAD box protein, DDX3, is aberrantly expressed in breast cancer cells ranging from weakly invasive to aggressive phenotypes and functions as an important regulator of cancer cell growth and survival. Here, we demonstrate that hypoxia inducible factor-1α is a transcriptional activator of DDX3 in breast cancer cells. Within the promoter region of the human DDX3 gene, we identified three putative hypoxia inducible factor-1 responsive elements. By luciferase reporter assays in combination with mutated hypoxia inducible factor-1 responsive elements, we determined that the hypoxia inducible factor-1 responsive element at position -153 relative to the translation start site is essential for transcriptional activation of DDX3 under hypoxic conditions. We also demonstrated that hypoxia inducible factor-1 binds to the DDX3 promoter and that the binding is specific, as revealed by siRNA against hypoxia inducible factor-1 and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. Thus, the activation of DDX3 expression during hypoxia is due to the direct binding of hypoxia inducible factor-1 to hypoxia responsive elements in the DDX3 promoter. In addition, we observed a significant overlap in the protein expression pattern of hypoxia inducible factor-1α and DDX3 in MDA-MB-231 xenograft tumors. Taken together, our results demonstrate, for the first time, the role of DDX3 as a hypoxia-inducible gene that exhibits enhanced expression through the interaction of hypoxia inducible factor-1 with hypoxia inducible factor-1 responsive elements in its promoter region.

  13. Hormonal modulation of the heat shock response: insights from fish with divergent cortisol stress responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    LeBlanc, Sacha; Höglund, Erik; Gilmour, Kathleen M.

    2012-01-01

    shock response, we capitalized on two lines of rainbow trout specifically bred for their high (HR) and low (LR) cortisol response to stress. We predicted that LR fish, with a low cortisol but high catecholamine response to stress, would induce higher levels of HSPs after acute heat stress than HR trout....... We found that HR fish have significantly higher increases in both catecholamines and cortisol compared with LR fish, and LR fish had no appreciable stress hormone response to heat shock. This unexpected finding prevented further interpretation of the hormonal modulation of the heat shock response...

  14. Radiosensitization of normoxic and hypoxic h1339 lung tumor cells by heat shock protein 90 inhibition is independent of hypoxia inducible factor-1α.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Daniela; Bayer, Christine; Li, Wei; Molls, Michael; Vaupel, Peter; Multhoff, Gabriele

    2012-01-01

    Ionizing irradiation is a commonly accepted treatment modality for lung cancer patients. However, the clinical outcome is hampered by normal tissue toxicity and tumor hypoxia. Since tumors often have higher levels of active heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) than normal tissues, targeting of Hsp90 might provide a promising strategy to sensitize tumors towards irradiation. Hsp90 client proteins include oncogenic signaling proteins, cell cycle activators, growth factor receptors and hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α). Overexpression of HIF-1α is assumed to promote malignant transformation and tumor progression and thus might reduce the accessibility to radiotherapy. Herein, we describe the effects of the novel Hsp90 inhibitor NVP-AUY922 and 17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG), as a control, on HIF-1α levels and radiosensitivity of lung carcinoma cells under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. NVP-AUY922 exhibited a similar biological activity to that of 17-AAG, but at only 1/10 of the dose. As expected, both inhibitors reduced basal and hypoxia-induced HIF-1α levels in EPLC-272H lung carcinoma cells. However, despite a down-regulation of HIF-1α upon Hsp90 inhibition, sensitivity towards irradiation remained unaltered in EPLC-272H cells under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. In contrast, treatment of H1339 lung carcinoma cells with NVP-AUY922 and 17-AAG resulted in a significant up-regulation of their initially high HIF-1α levels and a concomitant increase in radiosensitivity. In summary, our data show a HIF-1α-independent radiosensitization of normoxic and hypoxic H1339 lung cancer cells by Hsp90 inhibition.

  15. Heat shock protein 90-sheltered overexpression of insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor contributes to malignancy of thymic epithelial tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breinig, Marco; Mayer, Philipp; Harjung, Andreas; Goeppert, Benjamin; Malz, Mona; Penzel, Roland; Neumann, Olaf; Hartmann, Arndt; Dienemann, Hendrik; Giaccone, Giuseppe; Schirmacher, Peter; Kern, Michael André; Chiosis, Gabriela; Rieker, Ralf Joachim

    2011-04-15

    The underlying molecular mechanisms of thymic epithelial malignancies (TEMs) are poorly understood. Consequently, there is a lack of efficacious targeted therapies and patient prognosis remains dismal, particularly for advanced TEMs. We sought to investigate protumorigenic mechanism relevant to this understudied cancer. Recently established cell lines derived from thymic epithelial tumors were used as a model system. The antitumor activity of specific heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) inhibitors was investigated by an analysis of cell viability, cell cycle, and apoptosis using MTT-assays and flow cytometry. Western blotting was used to investigate the altered expression of Hsp90 clients. Pharmacological inhibitors against select Hsp90 clients, as well as RNAi, were employed to test the relevance of each client independently. Tissue microarray analysis was performed to match the in vitro findings with observations obtained from patient-derived samples. Hsp90 inhibition significantly reduces cell viability of thymic carcinoma cells, induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, and blocks invasiveness. Hsp90 inhibition triggers the degradation of multiple oncogenic clients, for example insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R), CDK4, and the inactivation of PI3K/Akt and RAF/Erk signaling. Mechanistically, the IGF/IGF-1R-signaling axis contributes to the establishment of the antiapoptotic phenotype of thymic cancer cells. Finally, IGF-1R is overexpressed in advanced TEMs. We have unraveled a novel protumorigenic mechanism in TEMs, namely Hsp90-capacitated overexpression of IGF-1R, which confers apoptosis evasion in malignant thymic epithelial cells. Our data indicate that Hsp90 inhibition, which simultaneously blocks multiple cancer hallmarks, represents a therapeutic strategy in TEMs that may merit evaluation in clinical trials. ©2011 AACR.

  16. Vitamin D modulates the association of circulating insulin-like growth factor-1 with carotid artery intima-media thickness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ameri, P.; Canepa, M.; Fabbi, P.; Leoncini, G.; Milaneschi, Y.; Mussap, M.; AlGhatrif, M.; Balbi, M.; Viazzi, F.; Murialdo, G.; Pontremoli, R.; Brunelli, C.; Ferrucci, L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Experimental evidence indicates that circulating insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) counteracts vascular aging and atherosclerosis, for which increased carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) is a marker. Yet, IGF-1 concentrations have been inconsistently associated with carotid IMT

  17. Fresh Frozen Plasma Modulates Brain Gene Expression in a Swine Model of Traumatic Brain Injury and Shock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sillesen, Martin; Bambakidis, Ted; Dekker, Simone E

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Resuscitation with fresh frozen plasma (FFP) decreases brain lesion size and swelling in a swine model of traumatic brain injury and hemorrhagic shock. We hypothesized that brain gene expression profiles after traumatic brain injury and hemorrhagic shock would be modulated by FFP resu...

  18. Module-based analysis of robustness tradeoffs in the heat shock response system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Kurata

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Biological systems have evolved complex regulatory mechanisms, even in situations where much simpler designs seem to be sufficient for generating nominal functionality. Using module-based analysis coupled with rigorous mathematical comparisons, we propose that in analogy to control engineering architectures, the complexity of cellular systems and the presence of hierarchical modular structures can be attributed to the necessity of achieving robustness. We employ the Escherichia coli heat shock response system, a strongly conserved cellular mechanism, as an example to explore the design principles of such modular architectures. In the heat shock response system, the sigma-factor sigma32 is a central regulator that integrates multiple feedforward and feedback modules. Each of these modules provides a different type of robustness with its inherent tradeoffs in terms of transient response and efficiency. We demonstrate how the overall architecture of the system balances such tradeoffs. An extensive mathematical exploration nevertheless points to the existence of an array of alternative strategies for the existing heat shock response that could exhibit similar behavior. We therefore deduce that the evolutionary constraints facing the system might have steered its architecture toward one of many robustly functional solutions.

  19. Evolutionary conserved mechanisms pervade structure and transcriptional modulation of allograft inflammatory factor-1 from sea anemone Anemonia viridis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuttitta, Angela; Ragusa, Maria Antonietta; Costa, Salvatore; Bennici, Carmelo; Colombo, Paolo; Mazzola, Salvatore; Gianguzza, Fabrizio; Nicosia, Aldo

    2017-08-01

    Gene family encoding allograft inflammatory factor-1 (AIF-1) is well conserved among organisms; however, there is limited knowledge in lower organisms. In this study, the first AIF-1 homologue from cnidarians was identified and characterised in the sea anemone Anemonia viridis. The full-length cDNA of AvAIF-1 was of 913 bp with a 5' -untranslated region (UTR) of 148 bp, a 3'-UTR of 315 and an open reading frame (ORF) of 450 bp encoding a polypeptide with149 amino acid residues and predicted molecular weight of about 17 kDa. The predicted protein possesses evolutionary conserved EF hand Ca 2+ binding motifs, post-transcriptional modification sites and a 3D structure which can be superimposed with human members of AIF-1 family. The AvAIF-1 transcript was constitutively expressed in all tested tissues of unchallenged sea anemone, suggesting that AvAIF-1 could serve as a general protective factor under normal physiological conditions. Moreover, we profiled the transcriptional activation of AvAIF-1 after challenges with different abiotic/biotic stresses showing induction by warming conditions, heavy metals exposure and immune stimulation. Thus, mechanisms associated to inflammation and immune challenges up-regulated AvAIF-1 mRNA levels. Our results suggest its involvement in the inflammatory processes and immune response of A. viridis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A3 Adenosine Receptors Modulate Hypoxia-inducible Factor-1a Expression in Human A375 Melanoma Cells

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    Stefania Merighi

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1 is a key regulator of genes crucial to many aspects of cancer biology. The purine nucleoside, adenosine, accumulates within many tissues under hypoxic conditions, including that of tumors. Because the levels of both HIF-1 and adenosine are elevated within the hypoxic environment of solid tumors, we investigated whether adenosine may regulate HIF-1. Here we show that, under hypoxic conditions (< 2% 02, adenosine upregulates HIF-1α protein expression in a dose-dependent and timedependent manner, exclusively through the A3 receptor subtype. The response to adenosine was generated at the cell surface because the inhibition of A3 receptor expression, by using small interfering RNA, abolished nucleoside effects. A3 receptor stimulation in hypoxia also increases angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2 protein accumulation through the induction of HIF-1α. In particular, we found that A3 receptor stimulation activates p44/p42 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases, which are required for A3-induced increase of HIF-1a and Ang-2. Collectively, these results suggest a cooperation between hypoxic and adenosine signals that ultimately may lead to the increase in HIF-1-mediated effects in cancer cells.

  1. Glucose-Modulated Mitochondria Adaptation in Tumor Cells: A Focus on ATP Synthase and Inhibitor Factor 1

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    Irene Mavelli

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Warburg’s hypothesis has been challenged by a number of studies showing that oxidative phosphorylation is repressed in some tumors, rather than being inactive per se. Thus, treatments able to shift energy metabolism by activating mitochondrial pathways have been suggested as an intriguing basis for the optimization of antitumor strategies. In this study, HepG2 hepatocarcinoma cells were cultivated with different metabolic substrates under conditions mimicking “positive” (activation/biogenesis or “negative” (silencing mitochondrial adaptation. In addition to the expected up-regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis, glucose deprivation caused an increase in phosphorylating respiration and a rise in the expression levels of the ATP synthase β subunit and Inhibitor Factor 1 (IF1. Hyperglycemia, on the other hand, led to a markedly decreased level of the transcriptional coactivator PGC-α suggesting down-regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis, although no change in mitochondrial mass and no impairment of phosphorylating respiration were observed. Moreover, a reduction in mitochondrial networking and in ATP synthase dimer stability was produced. No effect on β-ATP synthase expression was elicited. Notably, hyperglycemia caused an increase in IF1 expression levels, but it did not alter the amount of IF1 associated with ATP synthase. These results point to a new role of IF1 in relation to high glucose utilization by tumor cells, in addition to its well known effect upon mitochondrial ATP synthase regulation.

  2. Full-length huntingtin levels modulate body weight by influencing insulin-like growth factor 1 expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pouladi, Mahmoud A; Xie, Yuanyun; Skotte, Niels Henning

    2010-01-01

    of the IGF-1 pathway in mediating the effect of htt on body weight. IGF-1 expression was examined in transgenic mouse lines expressing different levels of FL wild-type (WT) htt (YAC18 mice), FL mutant htt (YAC128 and BACHD mice) and truncated mutant htt (shortstop mice). We demonstrate that htt influences...... body weight by modulating the IGF-1 pathway. Plasma IGF-1 levels correlate with body weight and htt levels in the transgenic YAC mice expressing human htt. The effect of htt on IGF-1 expression is independent of CAG size. No effect on body weight is observed in transgenic YAC mice expressing...... and decreases the body weight of YAC128 animals to WT levels. Furthermore, given the ubiquitous expression of IGF-1 within the central nervous system, we also examined the impact of FL htt levels on IGF-1 expression in different regions of the brain, including the striatum, cerebellum of YAC18, YAC128...

  3. Acetylcholine Modulates the Hormones of the Growth Hormone/Insulinlike Growth Factor-1 Axis During Development in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecomte, Marie-José; Bertolus, Chloé; Ramanantsoa, Nélina; Saurini, Françoise; Callebert, Jacques; Sénamaud-Beaufort, Catherine; Ringot, Maud; Bourgeois, Thomas; Matrot, Boris; Collet, Corinne; Nardelli, Jeannette; Mallet, Jacques; Vodjdani, Guilan; Gallego, Jorge; Launay, Jean-Marie; Berrard, Sylvie

    2018-04-01

    Pituitary growth hormone (GH) and insulinlike growth factor (IGF)-1 are anabolic hormones whose physiological roles are particularly important during development. The activity of the GH/IGF-1 axis is controlled by complex neuroendocrine systems including two hypothalamic neuropeptides, GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) and somatostatin (SRIF), and a gastrointestinal hormone, ghrelin. The neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) is involved in tuning GH secretion, and its GH-stimulatory action has mainly been shown in adults but is not clearly documented during development. ACh, together with these hormones and their receptors, is expressed before birth, and somatotroph cells are already responsive to GHRH, SRIF, and ghrelin. We thus hypothesized that ACh could contribute to the modulation of the main components of the somatotropic axis during development. In this study, we generated a choline acetyltransferase knockout mouse line and showed that heterozygous mice display a transient deficit in ACh from embryonic day 18.5 to postnatal day 10, and they recover normal ACh levels from the second postnatal week. This developmental ACh deficiency had no major impact on weight gain and cardiorespiratory status of newborn mice. Using this mouse model, we found that endogenous ACh levels determined the concentrations of circulating GH and IGF-1 at embryonic and postnatal stages. In particular, serum GH level was correlated with brain ACh content. ACh also modulated the levels of GHRH and SRIF in the hypothalamus and ghrelin in the stomach, and it affected the levels of these hormones in the circulation. This study identifies ACh as a potential regulator of the somatotropic axis during the developmental period.

  4. Anticipation of electric shocks modulates low beta power and event-related fields during memory encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauch, Eva M; Bunzeck, Nico

    2015-09-01

    In humans, the temporal and oscillatory dynamics of pain anticipation and its effects on long-term memory are largely unknown. Here, we investigated this open question by using a previously established behavioral paradigm in combination with magnetoencephalography (MEG). Healthy human subjects encoded a series of scene images, which was combined with cues predicting an aversive electric shock with different probabilities (0.2, 0.5 or 0.8). After encoding, memory for the studied images was tested using a remember/know recognition task. Behaviorally, pain anticipation did not modulate recollection-based recognition memory per se, but interacted with the perceived unpleasantness of the electric shock [visual analogue scale rating from 1 (not unpleasant) to 10 (highly unpleasant)]. More precisely, the relationship between pain anticipation and recollection followed an inverted u-shaped function the more unpleasant the shocks were rated by a subject. At the physiological level, this quadratic effect was mimicked in the event-related magnetic fields associated with successful memory formation ('DM-effect') ∼450ms after image onset at left frontal sensors. Importantly, across all subjects, shock anticipation modulated oscillatory power in the low beta frequency range (13-20Hz) in a linear fashion at left temporal sensors. Taken together, our findings indicate that beta oscillations provide a generic mechanism underlying pain anticipation; the effect on subsequent long-term memory, on the other hand, is much more variable and depends on the level of individual pain perception. As such, our findings give new and important insights into how aversive motivational states can drive memory formation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Dietary Nutrients and Bioactive Substances Modulate Heat Shock Protein (HSP) Expression: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Carolina Soares; Lollo, Pablo Christiano Barboza; Morato, Priscila Neder; Amaya-Farfan, Jaime

    2018-05-28

    Interest in the heat shock proteins (HSPs), as a natural physiological toolkit of living organisms, has ranged from their chaperone function in nascent proteins to the remedial role following cell stress. As part of the defence system, HSPs guarantee cell tolerance against a variety of stressors, including exercise, oxidative stress, hyper and hypothermia, hyper and hypoxia and improper diets. For the past couple of decades, research on functional foods has revealed a number of substances likely to trigger cell protection through mechanisms that involve the induction of HSP expression. This review will summarize the occurrence of the most easily inducible HSPs and describe the effects of dietary proteins, peptides, amino acids, probiotics, high-fat diets and other food-derived substances reported to induce HSP response in animals and humans studies. Future research may clarify the mechanisms and explore the usefulness of this natural alternative of defense and the modulating mechanism of each substance.

  6. Thrombopoietin modulates cardiac contractility in vitro and contributes to myocardial depressing activity of septic shock serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupia, Enrico; Spatola, Tiziana; Cuccurullo, Alessandra; Bosco, Ornella; Mariano, Filippo; Pucci, Angela; Ramella, Roberta; Alloatti, Giuseppe; Montrucchio, Giuseppe

    2010-09-01

    Thrombopoietin (TPO) is a humoral growth factor that has been shown to increase platelet activation in response to several agonists. Patients with sepsis have increased circulating TPO levels, which may enhance platelet activation, potentially participating to the pathogenesis of multi-organ failure. Aim of this study was to investigate whether TPO affects myocardial contractility and participates to depress cardiac function during sepsis. We showed the expression of the TPO receptor c-Mpl on myocardial cells and tissue by RT-PCR, immunofluorescence and western blotting. We then evaluated the effect of TPO on the contractile function of rat papillary muscle and isolated heart. TPO did not change myocardial contractility in basal conditions, but, when followed by epinephrine (EPI) stimulation, it blunted the enhancement of contractile force induced by EPI both in papillary muscle and isolated heart. An inhibitor of TPO prevented TPO effect on cardiac inotropy. Treatment of papillary muscle with pharmacological inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, NO synthase, and guanilyl cyclase abolished TPO effect, indicating NO as the final mediator. We finally studied the role of TPO in the negative inotropic effect exerted by human septic shock (HSS) serum and TPO cooperation with TNF-alpha and IL-1beta. Pre-treatment with the TPO inhibitor prevented the decrease in contractile force induced by HSS serum. Moreover, TPO significantly amplified the negative inotropic effect induced by TNF-alpha and IL-1beta in papillary muscle. In conclusion, TPO negatively modulates cardiac inotropy in vitro and contributes to the myocardial depressing activity of septic shock serum.

  7. Predicting optimal back-shock times in ultrafiltration hollow fibre modules through path-lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Frank; Pinelo, Manuel; Brøns, Morten

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a two dimensional mathematical model of back-shocking in ultrafiltration. The model investigates the effect of back-shocking on concentration polarization. The model shows a positive effect on both the volumetric flux and the observed rejection when back-shocking is applied as...

  8. The series elastic shock absorber: tendon elasticity modulates energy dissipation by muscle during burst deceleration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konow, Nicolai; Roberts, Thomas J

    2015-04-07

    During downhill running, manoeuvring, negotiation of obstacles and landings from a jump, mechanical energy is dissipated via active lengthening of limb muscles. Tendon compliance provides a 'shock-absorber' mechanism that rapidly absorbs mechanical energy and releases it more slowly as the recoil of the tendon does work to stretch muscle fascicles. By lowering the rate of muscular energy dissipation, tendon compliance likely reduces the risk of muscle injury that can result from rapid and forceful muscle lengthening. Here, we examine how muscle-tendon mechanics are modulated in response to changes in demand for energy dissipation. We measured lateral gastrocnemius (LG) muscle activity, force and fascicle length, as well as leg joint kinematics and ground-reaction force, as turkeys performed drop-landings from three heights (0.5-1.5 m centre-of-mass elevation). Negative work by the LG muscle-tendon unit during landing increased with drop height, mainly owing to greater muscle recruitment and force as drop height increased. Although muscle strain did not increase with landing height, ankle flexion increased owing to increased tendon strain at higher muscle forces. Measurements of the length-tension relationship of the muscle indicated that the muscle reached peak force at shorter and likely safer operating lengths as drop height increased. Our results indicate that tendon compliance is important to the modulation of energy dissipation by active muscle with changes in demand and may provide a mechanism for rapid adjustment of function during deceleration tasks of unpredictable intensity. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  9. One-chip Integrated Module of MEMS Shock Sensor and Sensing Amplifier LSI using Pseudo-SOC Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iida, Atsuko; Onozuka, Yutaka; Nishigaki, Michihiko; Yamada, Hiroshi; Funaki, Hideyuki; Itaya, Kazuhiko

    We have been developing the pseudo-SOC technology for one-chip module integration of heterogeneous devices that realizes high electrical performance and high density of devices embodying the advantages of both SOC technology and SIP technology. Especially, this technology is available for MEMS-LSI integration. We developed a 0.2mm-thickness one-chip module integrating a MEMS shock sensor and a sensing amplifier LSI by applying this technology. The MEMS shock sensor and the sensing amplifier LSI were connected by high-rigidity epoxy resin optimized the material constants to reduce the stress and the warpage resulting from resin shrinkage due to curing. Then the planar insulating layer and the redistributed conducting layer were formed on it for the global layer. The MEMS shock sensor was preformed to be modularized with a glass cap. Electrical contacts were achieved by bonding of Au bumps on the MEMS fixed electrodes and via holes filled with Ag paste of the glass cap. Functional performance was confirmed by obtaining signal corresponding to the reference signal of the pick-up sensor. Furthermore, stress analysis was performed using the FEM model simulation considering the resin shrinkage.

  10. Generation of Two Successive Shock Waves Focusedto a Common Focal Point

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šunka, Pavel; Stelmashuk, Vitaliy; Babický, Václav; Člupek, Martin; Beneš, J.; Poučková, P.; Kašpar, J.; Bodnár, M.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 4 (2006), s. 1382-1385 ISSN 0093-3813. [International Power Modulator Conference. Washington D.C., 14.5.2006-18.5.2006] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA202/05/0685 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Cavitation collpse * double shocks * focused shock waves * liver injury * secondary shocks Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.144, year: 2006

  11. Noradrenergic facilitation of shock-probe defensive burying in lateral septum of rats, and modulation by chronic treatment with desipramine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondi, Corina O; Barrera, Gabriel; Lapiz, M Danet S; Bedard, Tania; Mahan, Amy; Morilak, David A

    2007-03-30

    We have previously shown that acute stress-induced release of norepinephrine (NE) facilitates anxiety-like behavioral responses to stress, such as reduction in open-arm exploration on the elevated-plus maze and in social behavior on the social interaction test. Since these responses represent inhibition of ongoing behavior, it is important to also address whether NE facilitates a response that represents an activation of behavior. Correspondingly, it is unknown how a chronic elevation in tonic steady-state noradrenergic (NA) neurotransmission induced by NE reuptake blockade might alter this acute modulatory function, a regulatory process that may be pertinent to the anxiolytic effects of NE reuptake blockers such as desipramine (DMI). Therefore, in this study, we investigated noradrenergic modulation of the shock-probe defensive burying response in the lateral septum (LS). In experiment 1, shock-probe exposure induced an acute 3-fold increase in NE levels measured in LS of male Sprague-Dawley rats by microdialysis. Shock-probe exposure also induced a modest rise in plasma ACTH, taken as an indicator of perceived stress, that returned to baseline more rapidly in rats that were allowed to bury the probe compared to rats prevented from burying by providing them with minimal bedding, indicating that the active defensive burying behavior is an effective coping strategy that reduces the impact of acute shock probe-induced stress. In experiment 2, blockade of either alpha(1)- or beta-adrenergic receptors in LS by local antagonist microinjection immediately before testing reduced defensive burying and increased immobility. In the next experiment, chronic DMI treatment increased basal extracellular NE levels in LS, and attenuated the acute shock probe-induced increase in NE release in LS relative to baseline. Chronic DMI treatment decreased shock-probe defensive burying behavior in a time-dependent manner, apparent only after 2 weeks or more of drug treatment. Moreover

  12. Hyperglycemia adversely modulates endothelial nitric oxide synthase during anesthetic preconditioning through tetrahydrobiopterin- and heat shock protein 90-mediated mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amour, Julien; Brzezinska, Anna K; Jager, Zachary; Sullivan, Corbin; Weihrauch, Dorothee; Du, Jianhai; Vladic, Nikolina; Shi, Yang; Warltier, David C; Pratt, Phillip F; Kersten, Judy R

    2010-03-01

    Endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity is regulated by (6R-)5,6,7,8-tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) and heat shock protein 90. The authors tested the hypothesis that hyperglycemia abolishes anesthetic preconditioning (APC) through BH4- and heat shock protein 90-dependent pathways. Myocardial infarct size was measured in rabbits in the absence or presence of APC (30 min of isoflurane), with or without hyperglycemia, and in the presence or absence of the BH4 precursor sepiapterin. Isoflurane-dependent nitric oxide production was measured (ozone chemiluminescence) in human coronary artery endothelial cells cultured in normal (5.5 mm) or high (20 mm) glucose conditions, with or without sepiapterin (10 or 100 microm). APC decreased myocardial infarct size compared with control experiments (26 +/- 6% vs. 46 +/- 3%, respectively; P < 0.05), and this action was blocked by hyperglycemia (43 +/- 4%). Sepiapterin alone had no effect on infarct size (46 +/- 3%) but restored APC during hyperglycemia (21 +/- 3%). The beneficial actions of sepiapterin to restore APC were blocked by the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N (G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (47 +/- 2%) and the BH4 synthesis inhibitor N-acetylserotonin (46 +/- 3%). Isoflurane increased nitric oxide production to 177 +/- 13% of baseline, and this action was attenuated by high glucose concentrations (125 +/- 6%). Isoflurane increased, whereas high glucose attenuated intracellular BH4/7,8-dihydrobiopterin (BH2) (high performance liquid chromatography), heat shock protein 90-endothelial nitric oxide synthase colocalization (confocal microscopy) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase activation (immunoblotting). Sepiapterin increased BH4/BH2 and dose-dependently restored nitric oxide production during hyperglycemic conditions (149 +/- 12% and 175 +/- 9%; 10 and 100 microm, respectively). The results indicate that tetrahydrobiopterin and heat shock protein 90-regulated endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity play a central

  13. Heat shock modulates the subcellular localization, stability, and activity of HIPK2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upadhyay, Mamta; Bhadauriya, Pratibha; Ganesh, Subramaniam

    2016-01-01

    The homeodomain-interacting protein kinase-2 (HIPK2) is a highly conserved serine/threonine kinase and is involved in transcriptional regulation. HIPK2 is a highly unstable protein, and is kept at a low level under normal physiological conditions. However, exposure of cells to physiological stress – such as hypoxia, oxidative stress, or UV damage – is known to stabilize HIPK2, leading to the HIPK2-dependent activation of p53 and the cell death pathway. Therefore HIPK2 is also known as a stress kinase and as a stress-activated pro-apoptotic factor. We demonstrate here that exposure of cells to heat shock results in the stabilization of HIPK2 and the stabilization is mediated via K63-linked ubiquitination. Intriguingly, a sub-lethal heat shock (42 °C, 1 h) results in the cytoplasmic localization of HIPK2, while a lethal heat shock (45 °C, 1 h) results in its nuclear localization. Cells exposed to the lethal heat shock showed significantly higher levels of the p53 activity than those exposed to the sub-lethal thermal stress, suggesting that both the level and the nuclear localization are essential for the pro-apoptotic activity of HIPK2 and that the lethal heat shock could retain the HIPK2 in the nucleus to promote the cell death. Taken together our study underscores the importance of HIPK2 in stress mediated cell death, and that the HIPK2 is a generic stress kinase that gets activated by diverse set of physiological stressors.

  14. Heat shock modulates the subcellular localization, stability, and activity of HIPK2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upadhyay, Mamta; Bhadauriya, Pratibha; Ganesh, Subramaniam, E-mail: sganesh@iitk.ac.in

    2016-04-15

    The homeodomain-interacting protein kinase-2 (HIPK2) is a highly conserved serine/threonine kinase and is involved in transcriptional regulation. HIPK2 is a highly unstable protein, and is kept at a low level under normal physiological conditions. However, exposure of cells to physiological stress – such as hypoxia, oxidative stress, or UV damage – is known to stabilize HIPK2, leading to the HIPK2-dependent activation of p53 and the cell death pathway. Therefore HIPK2 is also known as a stress kinase and as a stress-activated pro-apoptotic factor. We demonstrate here that exposure of cells to heat shock results in the stabilization of HIPK2 and the stabilization is mediated via K63-linked ubiquitination. Intriguingly, a sub-lethal heat shock (42 °C, 1 h) results in the cytoplasmic localization of HIPK2, while a lethal heat shock (45 °C, 1 h) results in its nuclear localization. Cells exposed to the lethal heat shock showed significantly higher levels of the p53 activity than those exposed to the sub-lethal thermal stress, suggesting that both the level and the nuclear localization are essential for the pro-apoptotic activity of HIPK2 and that the lethal heat shock could retain the HIPK2 in the nucleus to promote the cell death. Taken together our study underscores the importance of HIPK2 in stress mediated cell death, and that the HIPK2 is a generic stress kinase that gets activated by diverse set of physiological stressors.

  15. Zinc finger protein 521 antagonizes early B-cell factor 1 and modulates the B-lymphoid differentiation of primary hematopoietic progenitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mega, Tiziana; Lupia, Michela; Amodio, Nicola; Horton, Sarah J; Mesuraca, Maria; Pelaggi, Daniela; Agosti, Valter; Grieco, Michele; Chiarella, Emanuela; Spina, Raffaella; Moore, Malcolm A S; Schuringa, Jan Jacob; Bond, Heather M; Morrone, Giovanni

    2011-07-01

    Zinc finger protein 521 (EHZF/ZNF521) is a multi-functional transcription co-factor containing 30 zinc fingers and an amino-terminal motif that binds to the nucleosome remodelling and histone deacetylase (NuRD) complex. ZNF521 is believed to be a relevant player in the regulation of the homeostasis of the hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell compartment, however the underlying molecular mechanisms are still largely unknown. Here, we show that this protein plays an important role in the control of B-cell development by inhibiting the activity of early B-cell factor-1 (EBF1), a master factor in B-lineage specification. In particular, our data demonstrate that: (1) ZNF521 binds to EBF1 via its carboxyl-terminal portion and this interaction is required for EBF1 inhibition; (2) NuRD complex recruitment by ZNF521 is not essential for the inhibition of transactivation of EBF1-dependent promoters; (3) ZNF521 represses EBF1 target genes in a human B-lymphoid molecular context; and (4) RNAi-mediated silencing of ZNF521/Zfp521 in primary human and murine hematopoietic progenitors strongly enhances the generation of B-lymphocytes in vitro. Taken together, our data indicate that ZNF521 can antagonize B-cell development and lend support to the notion that it may contribute to conserve the multipotency of primitive lympho-myeloid progenitors by preventing or delaying their EBF1-driven commitment toward the B-cell lineage.

  16. Endothelial monocyte activating polypeptide-II modulates endothelial cell responses by degrading hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha through interaction with PSMA7, a component of the proteasome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tandle, Anita T. [Tumor Angiogenesis Section, Surgery Branch, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 (United States); Calvani, Maura; Uranchimeg, Badarch [DTP-Tumor Hypoxia Laboratory, SAIC Frederick, Inc., National Cancer Institute, Frederick, Maryland 21702 (United States); Zahavi, David [Tumor Angiogenesis Section, Surgery Branch, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 (United States); Melillo, Giovanni [DTP-Tumor Hypoxia Laboratory, SAIC Frederick, Inc., National Cancer Institute, Frederick, Maryland 21702 (United States); Libutti, Steven K., E-mail: slibutti@montefiore.org [Department of Surgery, Montefiore-Einstein Center for Cancer Care, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Greene Medical Arts Pavilion, 4th Floor 3400, Bainbridge Avenue, Bronx, New York 10467 (United States)

    2009-07-01

    The majority of human tumors are angiogenesis dependent. Understanding the specific mechanisms that contribute to angiogenesis may offer the best approach to develop therapies to inhibit angiogenesis in cancer. Endothelial monocyte activating polypeptide-II (EMAP-II) is an anti-angiogenic cytokine with potent effects on endothelial cells (ECs). It inhibits EC proliferation and cord formation, and it suppresses primary and metastatic tumor growth in-vivo. However, very little is known about the molecular mechanisms behind the anti-angiogenic activity of EMAP-II. In the present study, we explored the molecular mechanism behind the anti-angiogenic activity exerted by this protein on ECs. Our results demonstrate that EMAP-II binds to the cell surface {alpha}5{beta}1 integrin receptor. The cell surface binding of EMAP-II results in its internalization into the cytoplasmic compartment where it interacts with its cytoplasmic partner PSMA7, a component of the proteasome degradation pathway. This interaction increases hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF-1{alpha}) degradation under hypoxic conditions. The degradation results in the inhibition of HIF-1{alpha} mediated transcriptional activity as well as HIF-1{alpha} mediated angiogenic sprouting of ECs. HIF-1{alpha} plays a critical role in angiogenesis by activating a variety of angiogenic growth factors. Our results suggest that one of the major anti-angiogenic functions of EMAP-II is exerted through its inhibition of the HIF-1{alpha} activities.

  17. Endothelial monocyte activating polypeptide-II modulates endothelial cell responses by degrading hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha through interaction with PSMA7, a component of the proteasome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tandle, Anita T.; Calvani, Maura; Uranchimeg, Badarch; Zahavi, David; Melillo, Giovanni; Libutti, Steven K.

    2009-01-01

    The majority of human tumors are angiogenesis dependent. Understanding the specific mechanisms that contribute to angiogenesis may offer the best approach to develop therapies to inhibit angiogenesis in cancer. Endothelial monocyte activating polypeptide-II (EMAP-II) is an anti-angiogenic cytokine with potent effects on endothelial cells (ECs). It inhibits EC proliferation and cord formation, and it suppresses primary and metastatic tumor growth in-vivo. However, very little is known about the molecular mechanisms behind the anti-angiogenic activity of EMAP-II. In the present study, we explored the molecular mechanism behind the anti-angiogenic activity exerted by this protein on ECs. Our results demonstrate that EMAP-II binds to the cell surface α5β1 integrin receptor. The cell surface binding of EMAP-II results in its internalization into the cytoplasmic compartment where it interacts with its cytoplasmic partner PSMA7, a component of the proteasome degradation pathway. This interaction increases hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF-1α) degradation under hypoxic conditions. The degradation results in the inhibition of HIF-1α mediated transcriptional activity as well as HIF-1α mediated angiogenic sprouting of ECs. HIF-1α plays a critical role in angiogenesis by activating a variety of angiogenic growth factors. Our results suggest that one of the major anti-angiogenic functions of EMAP-II is exerted through its inhibition of the HIF-1α activities.

  18. MiR-142 modulates human pancreatic cancer proliferation and invasion by targeting hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1α in the tumor microenvironments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yebin Lu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs regulate most protein-coding genes, including genes important in cancer and other diseases. In this study, we demonstrated that the expression of miR-142 could be significantly suppressed in pancreatic cancer specimens and cell lines compared to their adjacent tissues and normal pancreatic cells. Growth and invasion of PANC-1 and SW1990 cells were attenuated by overexpression of miR-142 in vitro. With the help of bioinformatics analysis, hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1α was identified to be a direct target of miR-142, and a luciferase reporter experiment confirmed this discovery. Overexpression of miR-142 decreases protein expression of HIF-1α. In the hypoxic microenvironment, HIF-1α was up-regulated while miR-142 was down-regulated. The invaded cells significantly increased in the hypoxic microenvironment compared to the normoxic microenvironment. The hypoxia treatment induced cells’ proliferation, and invasion could be inhibited by miR-142 overexpression or HIF-1α inhibition. Moreover, expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT markers, Vimentin, VEGF-C and E-cad, was altered under hypoxia conditions and regulated by miR-142/HIF-1α. Above all, these findings provided insights on the functional mechanism of miR-142, suggesting that the miR-142/HIF-1α axis may interfere with the proliferative and invasive properties of pancreatic cancer cells, and indicated that miR-142 could be a potential therapeutic target for pancreatic cancer.

  19. Collagen and Stretch Modulate Autocrine Secretion of Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 and Insulin-like Growth Factor Binding Proteins from Differentiated Skeletal Muscle Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrone, Carmen E.; Fenwick-Smith, Daniela; Vandenburgh, Herman H.

    1995-01-01

    Stretch-induced skeletal muscle growth may involve increased autocrine secretion of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) since IGF-1 is a potent growth factor for skeletal muscle hypertrophy, and stretch elevates IGF-1 mRNA levels in vivo. In tissue cultures of differentiated avian pectoralis skeletal muscle cells, nanomolar concentrations of exogenous IGF-1 stimulated growth in mechanically stretched but not static cultures. These cultures released up to 100 pg of endogenously produced IGF-1/micro-g of protein/day, as well as three major IGF binding proteins of 31, 36, and 43 kilodaltons (kDa). IGF-1 was secreted from both myofibers and fibroblasts coexisting in the muscle cultures. Repetitive stretch/relaxation of the differentiated skeletal muscle cells stimulated the acute release of IGF-1 during the first 4 h after initiating mechanical activity, but caused no increase in the long-term secretion over 24-72 h of IGF-1, or its binding proteins. Varying the intensity and frequency of stretch had no effect on the long-term efflux of IGF-1. In contrast to stretch, embedding the differentiated muscle cells in a three-dimensional collagen (Type I) matrix resulted in a 2-5-fold increase in long-term IGF-1 efflux over 24-72 h. Collagen also caused a 2-5-fold increase in the release of the IGF binding proteins. Thus, both the extracellular matrix protein type I collagen and stretch stimulate the autocrine secretion of IGF-1, but with different time kinetics. This endogenously produced growth factor may be important for the growth response of skeletal myofibers to both types of external stimuli.

  20. Electroacupuncture modulates stromal cell-derived factor-1α expression and mobilization of bone marrow endothelial progenitor cells in focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion model rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Chenchen; Gao, Xiang; Luo, Yong; Pang, Yueshan; Li, Man

    2016-10-01

    Stromal cell-derived factor-1α(SDF-1α) plays a crucial role in regulating the mobilization, migration and homing of endothelial progenitor cells(EPCs). Electroacupuncture(EA), a modern version of Traditional Chinese Medicine, can improve neurological recovery and angiogenesis in cerebral ischemic area. This study aimed to investigate the effects of electroacupuncture(EA) on the mobilization and migration of bone marrow EPCs and neurological functional recovery in rats model after focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion and the potentially involved mechanisms. Sprague-Dawley rats received filament occlusion of the right middle cerebral artery for 2h followed by reperfusion for 12h, 1d, 2d, 3d, 7d respectively. Rats were randomly divided into sham group, model group and EA group. After 2h of the reperfusion, EA was given at the "Baihui" (GV 20)/Siguan ("Hegu" (LI 4)/"Taichong" (LR 3)) acupoints in the EA group. Modified neurological severity score (mNSS) was used to assess the neurological functional recovery. EPCs number and SDF-1α level in bone marrow(BM) and peripheral blood(PB) were detected by using fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis and quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) respectively. An mNSS test showed that EA treatment significantly improved the neurological functional outcome. EPCs number in PB and BM were obviously increased in the EA group. After cerebral ischemia, the SDF-1α level was decreased in BM while it was increased in PB, which implied a gradient of SDF-1α among BM and PB after ischemia. It suggested that the forming of SDF-1α concentration gradient can induce the mobilization and homing of EPCs. Eletroacupuncture as a treatment can accelerate and increase the forming of SDF-1α concentration gradient to further induce the mobilization of EPCs and angiogenesis in ischemic brain and improve the neurological function recovery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Equation-of-state dependent features in shock-oscillation modulated neutrino and gravitational-wave signals from supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek, A.; Janka, H.-T.; Müller, E.

    2009-03-01

    We present two-dimensional (axisymmetric) neutrino-hydrodynamic simulations of the long-time accretion phase of a 15 M_⊙ progenitor star after core bounce and before the launch of a supernova explosion, when non-radial hydrodynamic instabilities like convection occur in different regions of the collapsing stellar core and the standing accretion shock instability (SASI) leads to large-amplitude oscillations of the stalled shock with a period of tens of milliseconds. Our simulations were performed with the Prometheus-Vertex code, which includes a multi-flavor, energy-dependent neutrino transport scheme and employs an effective relativistic gravitational potential. Testing the influence of a stiff and a soft equation of state for hot neutron star matter, we find that the non-radial mass motions in the supernova core impose a time variability on the neutrino and gravitational-wave signals with larger amplitudes, as well as higher frequencies in the case of a more compact nascent neutron star. After the prompt shock-breakout burst of electron neutrinos, a more compact accreting remnant produces higher neutrino luminosities and higher mean neutrino energies. The observable neutrino emission in the SASI sloshing direction exhibits a modulation of several ten percent in the luminosities and around 1 MeV in the mean energies with most power at typical SASI frequencies between roughly 20 and 100 Hz. The modulation is caused by quasi-periodic variations in the mass accretion rate of the neutron star in each hemisphere. At times later than ~50-100 ms after bounce, the gravitational-wave amplitude is dominated by the growing low-frequency (⪉200 Hz) signal associated with anisotropic neutrino emission. A high-frequency wave signal results from nonradial gas flows in the outer layers of the anisotropically accreting neutron star. Right after bounce such nonradial mass motions occur due to prompt post-shock convection in both considered cases and contribute mostly to the early

  2. Therapeutic Down-Modulators of Staphylococcal Superantigen-Induced Inflammation and Toxic Shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Krakauer

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB and related superantigenic toxins are potent stimulators of the immune system and cause a variety of diseases in humans, ranging from food poisoning to toxic shock. These toxins bind directly to major histocompatibility complex (MHC class II molecules on antigen-presenting cells and specific Vb regions of T-cell receptors (TCR, resulting in hyperactivation of both monocytes/macrophages and T lymphocytes. Activated host cells produce massive amounts of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, activating inflammation and coagulation, causing clinical symptoms that include fever, hypotension, and shock. This review summarizes the in vitro and in vivo effects of staphylococcal superantigens, the role of pivotal mediators induced by these toxins in the pathogenic mechanisms of tissue injury, and the therapeutic agents to mitigate the toxic effects of superantigens.

  3. Trehalose: a biophysics approach to modulate the inflammatory response during endotoxic shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minutoli, Letteria; Altavilla, Domenica; Bitto, Alessandra; Polito, Francesca; Bellocco, Ersilia; Laganà, Giuseppina; Fiumara, Tiziana; Magazù, Salvatore; Migliardo, Federica; Venuti, Francesco Saverio; Squadrito, Francesco

    2008-07-28

    We evaluated the effects of trehalose against endotoxic shock, a condition in which the loss of bio-membrane integrity plays a pivotal role. In addition we performed a biophysics experiment by quasi elastic neutron scattering (QENS) study, to investigate whether the membrane stability effect of trehalose might be correlated with its high capability to switch-off the water diffusive dynamics and, hence, the kinetic mechanisms of interaction. Endotoxic shock was induced in male rats by a single injection of Salmonella enteritidis lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 20 mg/kg/i.p.). Thirty minutes before and 2 h after LPS injection, the animals were randomized to receive vehicle (1 ml/kg/i.p. 0.9%NaCl), sucrose (1 g/kg/i.p.) or trehalose (1 g/kg/i.p.). Mean arterial blood pressure, nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) binding activity, Ikappa-Balpha and toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4) activation were evaluated in both liver and lung. Plasmatic tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were also investigated. We studied liver injury by means of blood alanine aminotransferase activity (ALT); inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and tissue edema evaluation. Lung injury was investigated by means of tissue monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) levels, MPO activity, iNOS expression and edema formation. Trehalose reduced hypotension, NF-kappaB binding activity, IkappaBalpha protein loss and TLR-4 activation. In addition trehalose reduced TNF-alpha, IL-1, IL-6 and MDA levels. Trehalose also blunted liver and lung injury. QENS measurements showed also that trehalose possesses a high "switching off" capability. Sucrose did not modify endotoxic shock-induced sequelae. Trehalose blocked the inflammatory cascade triggered by endotoxin shock, stabilizing the bio-membranes and switching off the water diffusive dynamics.

  4. [Heat shock protein 90--modulator of TNFalpha-induced apoptosis of Jurkat tumor cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaĭgorodova, E V; Riazantseva, N V; Novitskiĭ, V V; Moroshkina, A N; Belkina, M V; Iakushina, V D

    2011-01-01

    rTNFalpha-induced programmed death of Jurkat tumor cells cultured with 17-AAG, a selective inhibitor of heat shock protein (Hsp90), was studied by fluorescent microscopy with the use of FITC-labeled annexin V and propidium iodide. Caspase-3 and -8 activities were determined by spectrophotometry using a caspase- 3 and -8 colorimetric assay kit. It was shown that inhibition of Hsp90 leads to activation of Jurkat cell apoptosis while Hsp90 itself suppresses this process. 17-AAG enhances rTNFa-induced apoptosis of tumor cells.

  5. Host defense peptides of thrombin modulate inflammation and coagulation in endotoxin-mediated shock and Pseudomonas aeruginosa sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalle, Martina; Papareddy, Praveen; Kasetty, Gopinath; Mörgelin, Matthias; van der Plas, Mariena J A; Rydengård, Victoria; Malmsten, Martin; Albiger, Barbara; Schmidtchen, Artur

    2012-01-01

    Gram-negative sepsis is accompanied by a disproportionate innate immune response and excessive coagulation mainly induced by endotoxins released from bacteria. Due to rising antibiotic resistance and current lack of other effective treatments there is an urgent need for new therapies. We here present a new treatment concept for sepsis and endotoxin-mediated shock, based on host defense peptides from the C-terminal part of human thrombin, found to have a broad and inhibitory effect on multiple sepsis pathologies. Thus, the peptides abrogate pro-inflammatory cytokine responses to endotoxin in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, they interfere with coagulation by modulating contact activation and tissue factor-mediated clotting in vitro, leading to normalization of coagulation responses in vivo, a previously unknown function of host defense peptides. In a mouse model of Pseudomonas aeruginosa sepsis, the peptide GKY25, while mediating a modest antimicrobial effect, significantly inhibited the pro-inflammatory response, decreased fibrin deposition and leakage in the lungs, as well as reduced mortality. Taken together, the capacity of such thrombin-derived peptides to simultaneously modulate bacterial levels, pro-inflammatory responses, and coagulation, renders them attractive therapeutic candidates for the treatment of invasive infections and sepsis.

  6. Enterococcus faecium NCIMB 10415 Modulates Epithelial Integrity, Heat Shock Protein, and Proinflammatory Cytokine Response in Intestinal Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanti Klingspor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics have shown positive effects on gastrointestinal diseases; they have barrier-modulating effects and change the inflammatory response towards pathogens in studies in vitro. The aim of this investigation has been to examine the response of intestinal epithelial cells to Enterococcus faecium NCIMB 10415 (E. faecium, a probiotic positively affecting diarrhea incidence in piglets, and two pathogenic Escherichia coli (E. coli strains, with specific focus on the probiotic modulation of the response to the pathogenic challenge. Porcine (IPEC-J2 and human (Caco-2 intestinal cells were incubated without bacteria (control, with E. faecium, with enteropathogenic (EPEC or enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC each alone or in combination with E. faecium. The ETEC strain decreased transepithelial resistance (TER and increased IL-8 mRNA and protein expression in both cell lines compared with control cells, an effect that could be prevented by pre- and coincubation with E. faecium. Similar effects were observed for the increased expression of heat shock protein 70 in Caco-2 cells. When the cells were challenged by the EPEC strain, no such pattern of changes could be observed. The reduced decrease in TER and the reduction of the proinflammatory and stress response of enterocytes following pathogenic challenge indicate the protective effect of the probiotic.

  7. Host defense peptides of thrombin modulate inflammation and coagulation in endotoxin-mediated shock and Pseudomonas aeruginosa sepsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Kalle

    Full Text Available Gram-negative sepsis is accompanied by a disproportionate innate immune response and excessive coagulation mainly induced by endotoxins released from bacteria. Due to rising antibiotic resistance and current lack of other effective treatments there is an urgent need for new therapies. We here present a new treatment concept for sepsis and endotoxin-mediated shock, based on host defense peptides from the C-terminal part of human thrombin, found to have a broad and inhibitory effect on multiple sepsis pathologies. Thus, the peptides abrogate pro-inflammatory cytokine responses to endotoxin in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, they interfere with coagulation by modulating contact activation and tissue factor-mediated clotting in vitro, leading to normalization of coagulation responses in vivo, a previously unknown function of host defense peptides. In a mouse model of Pseudomonas aeruginosa sepsis, the peptide GKY25, while mediating a modest antimicrobial effect, significantly inhibited the pro-inflammatory response, decreased fibrin deposition and leakage in the lungs, as well as reduced mortality. Taken together, the capacity of such thrombin-derived peptides to simultaneously modulate bacterial levels, pro-inflammatory responses, and coagulation, renders them attractive therapeutic candidates for the treatment of invasive infections and sepsis.

  8. Iron oxide nanoparticles modulate heat shock proteins and organ specific markers expression in mice male accessory organs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundarraj, Kiruthika; Raghunath, Azhwar; Panneerselvam, Lakshmikanthan; Perumal, Ekambaram, E-mail: ekas2009@buc.edu.in

    2017-02-15

    With increased industrial utilization of iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-NPs), concerns on adverse reproductive health effects following exposure have been immensely raised. In the present study, the effects of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-NPs exposure in the seminal vesicle and prostate gland were studied in mice. Mice were exposed to two different doses (25 and 50 mg/kg) of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-NPs along with the control and analyzed the expressions of heat shock proteins (HSP60, HSP70 and HSP90) and organ specific markers (Caltrin, PSP94, and SSLP1). Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-NPs decreased food consumption, water intake, and organo-somatic index in mice with elevated iron levels in serum, urine, fecal matter, seminal vesicle and prostate gland. FTIR spectra revealed alterations in the functional groups of biomolecules on Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-NPs treatment. These changes are accompanied by increased lactate dehydrogenase levels with decreased total protein and fructose levels. The investigation of oxidative stress biomarkers demonstrated a significant increase in reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyl content and glutathione peroxidase with a concomitant decrement in the glutathione and ascorbic acid in the male accessory organs which confirmed the induction of oxidative stress. An increase in NADPH-oxidase-4 with a decrease in glutathione-S-transferase was observed in the seminal vesicle and prostate gland of the treated groups. An alteration in HSP60, HSP70, HSP90, Caltrin, PSP94, and SSLP1 expression was also observed. Moreover, accumulation of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-NPs brought pathological changes in the seminal vesicle and prostate gland of treated mice. These findings provide evidence that Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-NPs could be an environmental risk factor for reproductive disease. - Highlights: • Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-NPs caused adverse effects on the seminal vesicle and prostate gland of mice • Heat shock proteins (Hsp60, 70 and 90) were

  9. Propofol alleviates electroconvulsive shock-induced memory impairment by modulating proBDNF/mBDNF ratio in depressive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Luo, Jie; Min, Su; Ren, Li; Qin, Peipei

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated the effects of propofol and electroconvulsive shock (ECS), the analogue of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in animals, on tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and its inhibitor (PAI-1) as well as the precursor of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (proBDNF)/mature BDNF (mBDNF) ratio in depressive rats. ECT is an effective treatment for depression, but can cause cognitive deficit. Some studies have indicated that propofol can ameliorate cognitive decline induced by ECT, but the underlying molecular mechanism is still unclear. Recent evidence has found that mBDNF and its precursor proBDNF are related to depression and cognitive function; they elicit opposite effects on cellular functions. Chronic unpredicted mild stress is widely used to induce depressive behaviors in rodents. This study found that the depression resulted in an increased expression of PAI-1 and upregulation of the proBDNF/mBDNF ratio, together with a decreased level of tPA, long-term potentiation (LTP) impairment, and cognitive decline. The proBDNF/mBDNF ratio was further upregulated after the ECS treatment in depressive rats, resulting in the deterioration of cognitive function and hippocampal LTP. Propofol alone did not reverse the changes in depressive rats, but when co-administered with ECS, it improved the cognitive function, alleviated the impairment of LTP, downregulated the proBDNF/mBDNF ratio, and increased the tPA expression. The results of this study suggest that propofol ameliorates cognitive decline induced by ECT, which was partly by modulating the proBDNF/mBDNF ratio and reversing the excessive changes in hippocampal synaptic plasticity, providing a new evidence for involving the proBDNF/mBDNF system in the progression and treatment of depression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Predicting optimal back-shock times in ultrafiltration hollow fiber modules II: Effect of inlet flow and concentration dependent viscosity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Frank; Pinelo, Manuel; Brøns, Morten

    2015-01-01

    This paper concerns mathematical modeling and computational fluid dynamics of back-shocking during hollow fibre ultrafiltration of dextran T500. In this paper we present a mathematical model based on first Principles, i.e., solving the Navier-Stokes equation along with the continuity equation...

  11. Host defense peptides of thrombin modulate inflammation and coagulation in endotoxin-mediated shock and Pseudomonas aeruginosa sepsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalle, Martina; Papareddy, Praveen; Kasetty, Gopinath

    2012-01-01

    Gram-negative sepsis is accompanied by a disproportionate innate immune response and excessive coagulation mainly induced by endotoxins released from bacteria. Due to rising antibiotic resistance and current lack of other effective treatments there is an urgent need for new therapies. We here...... present a new treatment concept for sepsis and endotoxin-mediated shock, based on host defense peptides from the C-terminal part of human thrombin, found to have a broad and inhibitory effect on multiple sepsis pathologies. Thus, the peptides abrogate pro-inflammatory cytokine responses to endotoxin...

  12. A novel fluid resuscitation strategy modulates pulmonary transcription factor activation in a murine model of hemorrhagic shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd W. Costantini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Combining the hemodynamic and immune benefits of hypertonic saline with the anti-inflammatory effects of the phosphodiesterase inhibitor pentoxifylline (HSPTX as a hemorrhagic shock resuscitation strategy reduces lung injury when compared with the effects of Ringer's lactate (RL. We hypothesized that HSPTX exerts its anti-inflammatory effects by interfering with nuclear factor kappa B/cAMP response element-binding protein (NF-κB-CREB competition for the coactivator CREB-binding protein (CBP in lung tissue, thus affecting pro-inflammatory mediator production. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent 60 minutes of hemorrhagic shock to reach a mean arterial blood pressure of 35 mmHg followed by resuscitation with either RL or HSPTX (7.5% HS + 25 mg/kg PTX. After four hours, lung samples were collected. NF-κB activation was assessed by measuring the levels of phosphorylated cytoplasmic inhibitor of kappa B (I-κB and nuclear NF-κB p65 by western blot. NF-κB and CREB DNA-binding activity were measured by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA. Competition between NF-κB and CREB for the coactivator CBP was determined by immunoprecipitation. Interleukin-8 (IL-8 levels in the lung were measured by ELISA. RESULTS: RL resuscitation produced significantly higher levels of lung IL-8 levels, I-κB phosphorylation, p65 phosphorylation, and NF-κB DNA binding compared with HSPTX. NF-κB-CBP-binding activity was similar in both groups, whereas CREB-CBP-binding activity was significantly increased with HSPTX. CREB-DNA binding-activity increased to a greater level with HSPTX compared with RL. DISCUSSION: HSPTX decreases lung inflammation following hemorrhagic shock compared with conventional resuscitation using RL through attenuation of NF-κB signaling and increased CREB-DNA binding activity. HSPTX may have therapeutic potential in the attenuation of ischemia-reperfusion injury observed after severe hemorrhagic shock.

  13. Inorganic zinc supplementation modulates heat shock and immune response in heat stressed peripheral blood mononuclear cells of periparturient dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Aasif Ahmad; Aggarwal, Anjali; B, Indu; Aarif, Ovais

    2017-06-01

    Thermal stress in India is one of the major constraints affecting dairy cattle productivity. Every attempt should be made to ameliorate the heat and calving related stress in high producing dairy cows for higher economic returns. In the current study, inorganic zinc was tried to alleviate the adverse effects of thermal stress in periparturient cows. Twelve cows, six each of Sahiwal and Karan Fries (KF) in their second parity with confirmed pregnancy were chosen for the experiment. The blood samples were collected periparturiently on three occasions viz. -21, 0 and +21 days relative to calving. The in vitro study was conducted after isolating peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from whole blood. The cultured PBMC were subjected to three different levels of exposures viz. 37°C as control, 42°C to induce thermal stress and 42°C + zinc to ameliorate the adverse effects of high temperature. Heat shock lead to a significant (Pheat shock proteins (HSP). HSP was more on the day of calving as well. KF showed more HSP concentration than Sahiwal breed indicating the heat bearing capacity of later. Zinc treatment to thermally stressed PBMC caused a fall in the HSP concentration in both the breeds during periparturient period. Moreover, heat stress increased significantly (PHeat and calving related stress caused a fall in the IL-12 levels which increased significantly (Pcows. The study could help to alleviate the heat stress and potentiate immunity by providing mineral supplements in periparturient dairy cattle habituating tropics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. AsHSP17, a creeping bentgrass small heat shock protein modulates plant photosynthesis and ABA-dependent and independent signalling to attenuate plant response to abiotic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xinbo; Sun, Chunyu; Li, Zhigang; Hu, Qian; Han, Liebao; Luo, Hong

    2016-06-01

    Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are molecular chaperones that accumulate in response to heat and other abiotic stressors. Small HSPs (sHSPs) belong to the most ubiquitous HSP subgroup with molecular weights ranging from 12 to 42 kDa. We have cloned a new sHSP gene, AsHSP17 from creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera) and studied its role in plant response to environmental stress. AsHSP17 encodes a protein of 17 kDa. Its expression was strongly induced by heat in both leaf and root tissues, and by salt and abscisic acid (ABA) in roots. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants constitutively expressing AsHSP17 exhibited enhanced sensitivity to heat and salt stress accompanied by reduced leaf chlorophyll content and decreased photosynthesis under both normal and stressed conditions compared to wild type. Overexpression of AsHSP17 also led to hypersensitivity to exogenous ABA and salinity during germination and post-germinative growth. Gene expression analysis indicated that AsHSP17 modulates expression of photosynthesis-related genes and regulates ABA biosynthesis, metabolism and ABA signalling as well as ABA-independent stress signalling. Our results suggest that AsHSP17 may function as a protein chaperone to negatively regulate plant responses to adverse environmental stresses through modulating photosynthesis and ABA-dependent and independent signalling pathways. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Prospects of engineering thermotolerance in crops through modulation of heat stress transcription factor and heat shock protein networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragkostefanakis, Sotirios; Röth, Sascha; Schleiff, Enrico; Scharf, Klaus-Dieter

    2015-09-01

    Cell survival under high temperature conditions involves the activation of heat stress response (HSR), which in principle is highly conserved among different organisms, but shows remarkable complexity and unique features in plant systems. The transcriptional reprogramming at higher temperatures is controlled by the activity of the heat stress transcription factors (Hsfs). Hsfs allow the transcriptional activation of HSR genes, among which heat shock proteins (Hsps) are best characterized. Hsps belong to multigene families encoding for molecular chaperones involved in various processes including maintenance of protein homeostasis as a requisite for optimal development and survival under stress conditions. Hsfs form complex networks to activate downstream responses, but are concomitantly subjected to cell-type-dependent feedback regulation through factor-specific physical and functional interactions with chaperones belonging to Hsp90, Hsp70 and small Hsp families. There is increasing evidence that the originally assumed specialized function of Hsf/chaperone networks in the HSR turns out to be a complex central stress response system that is involved in the regulation of a broad variety of other stress responses and may also have substantial impact on various developmental processes. Understanding in detail the function of such regulatory networks is prerequisite for sustained improvement of thermotolerance in important agricultural crops. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Iron oxide nanoparticles modulate heat shock proteins and organ specific markers expression in mice male accessory organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundarraj, Kiruthika; Raghunath, Azhwar; Panneerselvam, Lakshmikanthan; Perumal, Ekambaram

    2017-02-15

    With increased industrial utilization of iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe 2 O 3 -NPs), concerns on adverse reproductive health effects following exposure have been immensely raised. In the present study, the effects of Fe 2 O 3 -NPs exposure in the seminal vesicle and prostate gland were studied in mice. Mice were exposed to two different doses (25 and 50 mg/kg) of Fe 2 O 3 -NPs along with the control and analyzed the expressions of heat shock proteins (HSP60, HSP70 and HSP90) and organ specific markers (Caltrin, PSP94, and SSLP1). Fe 2 O 3 -NPs decreased food consumption, water intake, and organo-somatic index in mice with elevated iron levels in serum, urine, fecal matter, seminal vesicle and prostate gland. FTIR spectra revealed alterations in the functional groups of biomolecules on Fe 2 O 3 -NPs treatment. These changes are accompanied by increased lactate dehydrogenase levels with decreased total protein and fructose levels. The investigation of oxidative stress biomarkers demonstrated a significant increase in reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyl content and glutathione peroxidase with a concomitant decrement in the glutathione and ascorbic acid in the male accessory organs which confirmed the induction of oxidative stress. An increase in NADPH-oxidase-4 with a decrease in glutathione-S-transferase was observed in the seminal vesicle and prostate gland of the treated groups. An alteration in HSP60, HSP70, HSP90, Caltrin, PSP94, and SSLP1 expression was also observed. Moreover, accumulation of Fe 2 O 3 -NPs brought pathological changes in the seminal vesicle and prostate gland of treated mice. These findings provide evidence that Fe 2 O 3 -NPs could be an environmental risk factor for reproductive disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. MicroRNA160 Modulates Plant Development and Heat Shock Protein Gene Expression to Mediate Heat Tolerance in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeng-Shane Lin

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Global warming is causing a negative impact on plant growth and adversely impacts on crop yield. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are critical in regulating the expression of genes involved in plant development as well as defense responses. The effects of miRNAs on heat-stressed Arabidopsis warrants further investigation. Heat stress increased the expression of miR160 and its precursors but considerably reduced that of its targets, ARF10, ARF16, and ARF17. To study the roles of miR160 during heat stress, transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing miR160 precursor a (160OE and artificial miR160 (MIM160, which mimics an inhibitor of miR160, were created. T-DNA insertion mutants of miR160 targets were also used to examine their tolerances to heat stress. Results presented that overexpressing miR160 improved seed germination and seedling survival under heat stress. The lengths of hypocotyl elongation and rachis were also longer in 160OE than the wild-type (WT plants under heat stress. Interestingly, MIM160 plants showed worse adaption to heat. In addition, arf10, arf16, and arf17 mutants presented similar phenotypes to 160OE under heat stress to advance abilities of thermotolerance. Moreover, transcriptome and qRT-PCR analyses revealed that HSP17.6A, HSP17.6II, HSP21, and HSP70B expression levels were regulated by heat in 160OE, MIM160, arf10, arf16, and arf17 plants. Hence, miR160 altered the expression of the heat shock proteins and plant development to allow plants to survive heat stress.

  18. Heavy metals induce oxidative stress and trigger oxidative stress-mediated heat shock protein (hsp) modulation in the intertidal copepod Tigriopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bo-Mi; Rhee, Jae-Sung; Jeong, Chang-Bum; Seo, Jung Soo; Park, Gyung Soo; Lee, Young-Mi; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2014-11-01

    Heat shock proteins (hsps) are induced by a wide range of environmental stressors including heavy metals in aquatic organisms. However, the effect of heavy metals on zooplankton at the molecular level remains still unclear. In this study, we measured the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and the antioxidant enzyme activities for 96 h after exposure to five heavy metals: arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), silver (Ag), and zinc (Zn) in the intertidal copepod Tigriopus japonicus. Activities of the antioxidant enzymes were highly elevated in metal-exposed copepods, indicating that heavy metals can induce oxidative stress by generating ROS, and stimulate the involvement of antioxidant enzymes as cellular defense mechanisms. Subsequently, transcriptional changes in hsp gene families were further investigated in the metal-exposed groups for 96 h. The ROS level and glutathione (GSH) content were significantly increased in Ag-, As-, and Cu-exposed copepods, while they were only slightly elevated in Cd- and Zn-exposed groups. Based on the numbers of significantly modulated hsp genes and their expression levels for 96 h, we measured the effect of heavy metals to stress genes of T. japonicus in the following order: Cu > Zn > Ag > As > Cd, implying that Cu acts as a stronger oxidative stress inducer than other heavy metals. Of them, the expression of hsp20 and hsp70 genes was substantially modulated by exposure to heavy metals, indicating that these genes would provide a sensitive molecular biomarker for aquatic monitoring of heavy metal pollution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Akt/FOXO3a signaling modulates the endothelial stress response through regulation of heat shock protein 70 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyo-Soo; Skurk, Carsten; Maatz, Henrike; Shiojima, Ichiro; Ivashchenko, Yuri; Yoon, Suk-Won; Park, Young-Bae; Walsh, Kenneth

    2005-06-01

    To identify new antiapoptotic targets of the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway in endothelial cells, adenovirus-mediated Akt1 gene transfer and oligonucleotide microarrays were used to examine Akt-regulated transcripts. DNA microarray analysis revealed that HSP70 expression underwent the greatest fold activation of 12,532 transcripts examined in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) transduced with constitutively active Akt1. Akt1 gene transfer increased HSP70 transcript expression by 24.8-fold as determined by quantitative PCR and promoted a dose-dependent up-regulation of HSP70 protein as determined by Western immunoblot analysis. Gene transfer of FOXO3a, a downstream target of Akt in endothelial cells, significantly suppressed both basal and stress-induced HSP70 protein expression. FOXO3a induced caspase-9-dependent apoptosis in HUVEC, and cotransduction with Ad-HSP70 rescued endothelial cells from FOXO3a-induced apoptosis under basal and stress conditions. Our results identify HSP70 as a new antiapoptotic target of Akt-FOXO3a signaling in endothelial cells that controls viability through modulation of the stress-induced intrinsic cell death pathway.

  20. Environmental modulation of autoimmune arthritis involves the spontaneous microbial induction of T cell responses to regulatory determinants within heat shock protein 65.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moudgil, K D; Kim, E; Yun, O J; Chi, H H; Brahn, E; Sercarz, E E

    2001-03-15

    Both genetic and environmental factors are believed to be involved in the induction of autoimmune diseases. Adjuvant arthritis (AA) is inducible in susceptible rat strains by injection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and arthritic rats raise T cell responses to the 65-kDa mycobacterial heat-shock protein (Bhsp65). We observed that Fischer 344 (F344) rats raised in a barrier facility (BF-F344) are susceptible to AA, whereas F344 rats maintained in a conventional facility (CV-F344) show significantly reduced incidence and severity of AA, despite responding well to the arthritogenic determinant within Bhsp65. The acquisition of protection from AA can be circumvented if rats are maintained on neomycin/acidified water. Strikingly, naive unimmunized CV-F344 rats but not BF-F344 rats raised T cell responses to Bhsp65 C-terminal determinants (BCTD) (we have previously shown that BCTD are involved in regulation of acute AA in the Lewis rat); however, T cells of naive CV-F344 and BF-F344 gave a comparable level of proliferative response to a mitogen, but no response at all to an irrelevant Ag. Furthermore, adoptive transfer into naive BF-F344 rats of splenic cells of naive CV-F344 rats (restimulated with BCTD in vitro) before induction of AA resulted in a considerably reduced severity of AA. These results suggest that spontaneous (inadvertent) priming of BCTD-reactive T cells, owing to determinant mimicry between Bhsp65 and its homologues in microbial agents in the conventional environment, is involved in modulating the severity of AA in CV-F344 rats. These results have important implications in broadening understanding of the host-microbe interaction in human autoimmune diseases.

  1. Shock absorber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemeth, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    A shock absorber for the support of piping and components in a nuclear power plant is described. It combines a high degree of stiffness under sudden shocks, e.g. seismic disturbances, with the ability to allow for thermal expansion without resistance when so required. (JIW)

  2. Initiation but no execution - modulation of peripheral blood lymphocyte apoptosis in rheumatoid arthritis - a potential role for heat shock protein 70

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuturgoon Anil A

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is a chronic autoimmune disease, which causes synovial damage. Persistence of lymphocyte infiltrates in the rheumatoid synovium has been attributed to abnormal apoptosis. While not comprehensively investigated, perturbations in peripheral blood lymphocyte (PBL apoptosis may also be involved in perpetuation of autoimmune processes in RA. Methods We investigated total, CD4+ and CD19+ PBL apoptosis in our study cohort by monitoring the translocation of phosphatidylserine using the Annexin-V assay. To examine the role of death receptor mediated apoptosis as well as activation-induced-cell-death (AICD, PBLs were labeled with CD95/Fas and CD69 markers and enumerated by flow cytometry. Proteolytic activity of initiator and executioner caspases was determined by luminometry. DNA fragmentation assays were used to examine whether apoptotic signals were transduced to the nucleus. Quantitative PCR arrays were used to investigate apoptotic pathways associated with RA-PBLs. Since heat-shock-protein-70 (HSP70 is an inducible protein which modulates apoptotic signals, we determined HSP70 levels by intra-cellular flow cytometry and western blots. Results The RA-PBLs showed signs of elevated apoptosis whilst in circulation. These include increases in the loss of plasma membrane asymmetry, indicated by increased externalization of phosphatidylserine (especially in B-lymphocytes. RA-PBLs showed a bias to CD95/Fas mediated apoptotic pathways, but low levels of the CD69 marker suggested that this was not associated with immune activation. Although downstream markers of apoptosis such as caspase-3/7 activity, were increased, no DNA fragmentation was observed in RA-PBLs. Interestingly, elevated levels of apoptosis did not correlate with absolute lymphocyte counts in RA patients. Levels of HSP70 were highly elevated in RA-PBLs compared to controls. Conclusion The results suggest that while apoptosis may be initiated in RA

  3. demystifying the shock of shocking

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (with a pulse), atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter. The energy dose in cardioversion is less (0.5. - 2 J/kg) than in defibrillation (2 - 4 J/kg). In cardioversion the shock is discharged synchronously with the native R wave of the patient. Without synchronisation,. VF can be induced if a shock is delivered during the refractory period ...

  4. Riboflavin protects mice against liposaccharide-induced shock through expression of heat shock protein 25

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riboflavin (vitamin B2) is a water-soluble vitamin essential for normal cellular functions, growth and development. The study was aimed at investigating the effects of vitamin B2 on the survival rate, and expressions of tissue heat shock protein 25 (HSP25) and heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) in mice und...

  5. Hypovolemic shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the person's position unless they are in immediate danger. Do not give fluids by mouth. If person ... the patient with shock. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  6. Shock absorber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Housman, J.J.

    1978-01-01

    A shock absorber is described for use in a hostile environment at the end of a blind passage for absorbing impact loads. The shock absorber includes at least one element which occupies the passage and which is comprised of a porous brittle material which is substantially non-degradable in the hostile environment. A void volume is provided in the element to enable the element to absorb a predetermined level of energy upon being crushed due to impact loading

  7. Toxic shock syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome; Toxic shock-like syndrome; TSLS ... Toxic shock syndrome is caused by a toxin produced by some types of staphylococcus bacteria. A similar problem, called toxic shock- ...

  8. Shock Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Z

    2005-01-01

    The International Symposium on Shock Waves (ISSW) is a well established series of conferences held every two years in a different location. A unique feature of the ISSW is the emphasis on bridging the gap between physicists and engineers working in fields as different as gas dynamics, fluid mechanics and materials sciences. The main results presented at these meetings constitute valuable proceedings that offer anyone working in this field an authoritative and comprehensive source of reference.

  9. Evaluation of hemostasis parameters and the role of the oxidative damage to plasma proteins in the modulation of hemostasis in patients with nephrolithiasis before and after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Woźniak

    Full Text Available Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL is a commonly-used method in urology, which may modulate hemostasis and may induce lipid peroxidation in patients with nephrolithiasis. However, previous studies only examine changes occurring in patients 30-240 min after ESWL. The main aim of the present study was to determine whether oxidative stress may modulate the hemostatic activity of plasma in patients with nephrolithiasis before ESWL and the day after treatment ESWL. This will be performed by measuring selected parameters of hemostasis in these patients, both before ESWL and the following day, and assessing the level of oxidative damage to plasma proteins in these patients by measuring two biomarkers.Twelve patients with nephrolithiasis and 10 healthy participants were included. The following parameters of hemostasis were measured: the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT, prothrombin time (PT, and thrombin time (TT of plasma, the level of fibrinogen, the level of D-dimer and blood platelet count. In addition, two selected biomarkers of oxidative stress were measured: protein carbonylation level and the number of protein thiol groups.No difference was observed between patients with nephrolithiasis before and after ESWL and healthy controls with regard to PT, TT or APTT. Fibrinogen concentration and blood platelet count were lower in the nephrolithiasis patients in the period after ESWL than before ESWL. The nephrolithiasis patients demonstrated elevated D-dimer concentration after ESWL. However, although oxidative damage was observed in the plasma proteins in the nephrolithiasis patients, this was not influenced by ESWL.Oxidative stress may induce changes of hemostasis in patients with nephrolithiasis, both before and after ESWL. In addition, changes of hemostasis parameters such as fibrinogen, blood platelet count and D-dimer level can be observed in these patients, especially after ESWL, and this may suggest that ESWL modulates

  10. Evaluation of hemostasis parameters and the role of the oxidative damage to plasma proteins in the modulation of hemostasis in patients with nephrolithiasis before and after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woźniak, Paweł; Kontek, Bogdan; Różański, Waldemar; Olas, Beata

    2017-01-01

    Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) is a commonly-used method in urology, which may modulate hemostasis and may induce lipid peroxidation in patients with nephrolithiasis. However, previous studies only examine changes occurring in patients 30-240 min after ESWL. The main aim of the present study was to determine whether oxidative stress may modulate the hemostatic activity of plasma in patients with nephrolithiasis before ESWL and the day after treatment ESWL. This will be performed by measuring selected parameters of hemostasis in these patients, both before ESWL and the following day, and assessing the level of oxidative damage to plasma proteins in these patients by measuring two biomarkers. Twelve patients with nephrolithiasis and 10 healthy participants were included. The following parameters of hemostasis were measured: the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), prothrombin time (PT), and thrombin time (TT) of plasma, the level of fibrinogen, the level of D-dimer and blood platelet count. In addition, two selected biomarkers of oxidative stress were measured: protein carbonylation level and the number of protein thiol groups. No difference was observed between patients with nephrolithiasis before and after ESWL and healthy controls with regard to PT, TT or APTT. Fibrinogen concentration and blood platelet count were lower in the nephrolithiasis patients in the period after ESWL than before ESWL. The nephrolithiasis patients demonstrated elevated D-dimer concentration after ESWL. However, although oxidative damage was observed in the plasma proteins in the nephrolithiasis patients, this was not influenced by ESWL. Oxidative stress may induce changes of hemostasis in patients with nephrolithiasis, both before and after ESWL. In addition, changes of hemostasis parameters such as fibrinogen, blood platelet count and D-dimer level can be observed in these patients, especially after ESWL, and this may suggest that ESWL modulates hemostasis. By

  11. Shock Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The electrician pictured is installing a General Electric Ground Fault Interrupter (GFI), a device which provides protection against electrical shock in the home or in industrial facilities. Shocks due to defective wiring in home appliances or other electrical equipment can cause severe burns, even death. As a result, the National Electrical Code now requires GFIs in all new homes constructed. This particular type of GFI employs a sensing element which derives from technology acquired in space projects by SCI Systems, Inc., Huntsville, Alabama, producer of sensors for GE and other manufacturers of GFI equipment. The sensor is based on the company's experience in developing miniaturized circuitry for space telemetry and other spacecraft electrical systems; this experience enabled SCI to package interruptor circuitry in the extremely limited space available and to produce sensory devices at practicable cost. The tiny sensor measures the strength of the electrical current and detects current differentials that indicate a fault in the functioning of an electrical system. The sensing element then triggers a signal to a disconnect mechanism in the GFI, which cuts off the current in the faulty circuit.

  12. Multi-shocks generation and collapsing instabilities induced by competing nonlinearities

    KAUST Repository

    Crosta, Matteo; Trillo, Stefano; Fratalocchi, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    We investigate dispersive shock dynamics in materials with competing cubic-quintic nonlinearities. Whitham theory of modulation, hydrodynamic analysis and numerics demonstrate a rich physical scenario, ranging from multi-shock generation to collapse.

  13. Collisionless electrostatic shocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, H.K.; Andersen, S.A.; Jensen, Vagn Orla

    1970-01-01

    An attempt was made in the laboratory to observe the standing collisionless electrostatic shocks in connection with the bow shock of the earth......An attempt was made in the laboratory to observe the standing collisionless electrostatic shocks in connection with the bow shock of the earth...

  14. Geometrical shock dynamics for magnetohydrodynamic fast shocks

    KAUST Repository

    Mostert, W.; Pullin, D. I.; Samtaney, Ravi; Wheatley, V.

    2016-01-01

    We describe a formulation of two-dimensional geometrical shock dynamics (GSD) suitable for ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) fast shocks under magnetic fields of general strength and orientation. The resulting area–Mach-number–shock-angle relation is then incorporated into a numerical method using pseudospectral differentiation. The MHD-GSD model is verified by comparison with results from nonlinear finite-volume solution of the complete ideal MHD equations applied to a shock implosion flow in the presence of an oblique and spatially varying magnetic field ahead of the shock. Results from application of the MHD-GSD equations to the stability of fast MHD shocks in two dimensions are presented. It is shown that the time to formation of triple points for both perturbed MHD and gas-dynamic shocks increases as (Formula presented.), where (Formula presented.) is a measure of the initial Mach-number perturbation. Symmetry breaking in the MHD case is demonstrated. In cylindrical converging geometry, in the presence of an azimuthal field produced by a line current, the MHD shock behaves in the mean as in Pullin et al. (Phys. Fluids, vol. 26, 2014, 097103), but suffers a greater relative pressure fluctuation along the shock than the gas-dynamic shock. © 2016 Cambridge University Press

  15. Geometrical shock dynamics for magnetohydrodynamic fast shocks

    KAUST Repository

    Mostert, W.

    2016-12-12

    We describe a formulation of two-dimensional geometrical shock dynamics (GSD) suitable for ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) fast shocks under magnetic fields of general strength and orientation. The resulting area–Mach-number–shock-angle relation is then incorporated into a numerical method using pseudospectral differentiation. The MHD-GSD model is verified by comparison with results from nonlinear finite-volume solution of the complete ideal MHD equations applied to a shock implosion flow in the presence of an oblique and spatially varying magnetic field ahead of the shock. Results from application of the MHD-GSD equations to the stability of fast MHD shocks in two dimensions are presented. It is shown that the time to formation of triple points for both perturbed MHD and gas-dynamic shocks increases as (Formula presented.), where (Formula presented.) is a measure of the initial Mach-number perturbation. Symmetry breaking in the MHD case is demonstrated. In cylindrical converging geometry, in the presence of an azimuthal field produced by a line current, the MHD shock behaves in the mean as in Pullin et al. (Phys. Fluids, vol. 26, 2014, 097103), but suffers a greater relative pressure fluctuation along the shock than the gas-dynamic shock. © 2016 Cambridge University Press

  16. Maternal antibiotic-induced early changes in microbial colonization selectively modulate colonic permeability and inducible heat shock proteins, and digesta concentrations of alkaline phosphatase and TLR-stimulants in swine offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Edith Arnal

    Full Text Available Elevated intake of high energy diets is a risk factor for the development of metabolic diseases and obesity. High fat diets cause alterations in colonic microbiota composition and increase gut permeability to bacterial lipopolysaccharide, and subsequent low-grade chronic inflammation in mice. Chronic inflammatory bowel diseases are increasing worldwide and may involve alterations in microbiota-host dialog. Metabolic disorders appearing in later life are also suspected to reflect changes in early programming. However, how the latter affects the colon remains poorly studied. Here, we hypothesized that various components of colonic physiology, including permeability, ion exchange and protective inducible heat shock proteins (HSP are influenced in the short- and long-terms by early disturbances in microbial colonization. The hypothesis was tested in a swine model. Offspring were born to control mothers (n = 12 or mothers treated with the antibiotic (ATB amoxicillin around parturition (n = 11. Offspring were slaughtered between 14 and 42 days of age to study short-term effects. For long-term effects, young adult offspring from the same litters consumed a normal or a palm oil-enriched diet for 4 weeks between 140 and 169 days of age. ATB treatment transiently modified maternal fecal microbiota although the minor differences observed for offspring colonic microbiota were nonsignificant. In the short-term, consistently higher HSP27 and HSP70 levels and transiently increased horseradish peroxidase permeability in ATB offspring colon were observed. Importantly, long-term consequences included reduced colonic horseradish peroxidase permeability, and increased colonic digesta alkaline phosphatase (AP and TLR2- and TLR4-stimulant concentrations in rectal digesta in adult ATB offspring. Inducible HSP27 and HSP70 did not change. Interactions between early ATB treatment and later diet were noted for paracellular permeability and concentrations of colonic

  17. Miniature shock tube for laser driven shocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busquet, Michel; Barroso, Patrice; Melse, Thierry; Bauduin, Daniel

    2010-02-01

    We describe in this paper the design of a miniature shock tube (smaller than 1 cm(3)) that can be placed in a vacuum vessel and allows transverse optical probing and longitudinal backside extreme ultraviolet emission spectroscopy in the 100-500 A range. Typical application is the study of laser launched radiative shocks, in the framework of what is called "laboratory astrophysics."

  18. Are Credit Shocks Supply or Demand Shocks?

    OpenAIRE

    Bijapur, Mohan

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides new insights into the relationship between the supply of credit and the macroeconomy. We present evidence that credit shocks constitute shocks to aggregate supply in that they have a permanent effect on output and cause inflation to rise in the short term. Our results also suggest that the effects on aggregate supply have grown stronger in recent decades.

  19. Dexamethasone impairs hypoxia-inducible factor-1 function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, A.E.; Huck, G.; Stiehl, D.P.; Jelkmann, W.; Hellwig-Buergel, T.

    2008-01-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is a heterodimeric transcription-factor composed of α- and β-subunits. HIF-1 is not only necessary for the cellular adaptation to hypoxia, but it is also involved in inflammatory processes and wound healing. Glucocorticoids (GC) are therapeutically used to suppress inflammatory responses. Herein, we investigated whether GC modulate HIF-1 function using GC receptor (GR) possessing (HepG2) and GR deficient (Hep3B) human hepatoma cell cultures as model systems. Dexamethasone (DEX) treatment increased HIF-1α levels in the cytosol of HepG2 cells, while nuclear HIF-1α levels and HIF-1 DNA-binding was reduced. In addition, DEX dose-dependently lowered the hypoxia-induced luciferase activity in a reporter gene system. DEX suppressed the hypoxic stimulation of the expression of the HIF-1 target gene VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) in HepG2 cultures. DEX did not reduce hypoxically induced luciferase activity in HRB5 cells, a Hep3B derivative lacking GR. Transient expression of the GR in HRB5 cells restored the susceptibility to DEX. Our study discloses the inhibitory action of GC on HIF-1 dependent gene expression, which may be important with respect to the impaired wound healing in DEX-treated patients

  20. Shock absorbing structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojima, Naoki; Matsushita, Kazuo.

    1992-01-01

    Small pieces of shock absorbers are filled in a space of a shock absorbing vessel which is divided into a plurality of sections by partitioning members. These sections function to prevent excess deformation or replacement of the fillers upon occurrence of falling accident. Since the shock absorbing small pieces in the shock absorbing vessel are filled irregularly, shock absorbing characteristics such as compression strength is not varied depending on the direction, but they exhibit excellent shock absorbing performance. They surely absorb shocks exerted on a transportation vessel upon falling or the like. If existing artificial fillers such as pole rings made of metal or ceramic and cut pieces such as alumium extrusion molding products are used as the shock absorbing pieces, they have excellent fire-proofness and cold resistance since the small pieces are inflammable and do not contain water. (T.M.)

  1. Melting under shock compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, B.I.

    1980-10-01

    A simple model, using experimentally measured shock and particle velocities, is applied to the Lindemann melting formula to predict the density, temperature, and pressure at which a material will melt when shocked from room temperature and zero pressure initial conditions

  2. Biomass shock pretreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtzapple, Mark T.; Madison, Maxine Jones; Ramirez, Rocio Sierra; Deimund, Mark A.; Falls, Matthew; Dunkelman, John J.

    2014-07-01

    Methods and apparatus for treating biomass that may include introducing a biomass to a chamber; exposing the biomass in the chamber to a shock event to produce a shocked biomass; and transferring the shocked biomass from the chamber. In some aspects, the method may include pretreating the biomass with a chemical before introducing the biomass to the chamber and/or after transferring shocked biomass from the chamber.

  3. Relativistic Shock Acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffy, P.; Downes, T.P.; Gallant, Y.A.; Kirk, J.G.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we briefly review the basic theory of shock waves in relativistic hydrodynamics and magneto-hydrodynamics, emphasising some astrophysically interesting cases. We then present an overview of the theory of particle acceleration at such shocks describing the methods used to calculate the spectral indices of energetic particles. Recent results on acceleration at ultra-relativistic shocks are discussed. (author)

  4. Alfven shock trains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malkov, M.A.; Kennel, C.F.; Wu, C.C.; Pellat, R.; Shapiro, V.D.

    1991-01-01

    The Cohen--Kulsrud--Burgers equation (CKB) is used to consider the nonlinear evolution of resistive, quasiparallel Alfven waves subject to a long-wavelength, plane-polarized, monochromatic instability. The instability saturates by nonlinear steepening, which proceeds until the periodic waveform develops an interior scale length comparable to the dissipation length; a fast or an intermediate shock then forms. The result is a periodic train of Alfven shocks of one or the other type. For propagation strictly parallel to the magnetic field, there will be two shocks per instability wavelength. Numerical integration of the time-dependent CKB equation shows that an initial, small-amplitude growing wave asymptotes to a stable, periodic stationary wave whose analytic solution specifies how the type of shock embedded in the shock train, and the amplitude and speed of the shock train, depend on the strength and phase of the instability. Waveforms observed upstream of the Earth's bowshock and cometary shocks resemble those calculated here

  5. System Shock: The Archetype of Operational Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-25

    the battle space. They can also facilitate a much greater understanding of the variables involved in each party’s decision - making process. However...system shock nests within current US Army Unified Land Operations doctrine. In order to test the utility of system shock theory to Gray Zone...23 Neil E. Harrison, “Thinking about the World We Make ” in Chaos Theory in the Social Sciences: Foundations and Applications

  6. Immune and cell modulation by amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Erich

    2007-10-01

    Sir David Cuthbertson was the first to define metabolic alterations in post-aggression syndrome (PAS). From basic measurements of nitrogen loss and total protein synthesis/degradation, the current research has moved to genomics, proteomics and metabolomics. In this respect, first evidence was accumulated for the influence of acute catabolism, immobilisation by bed rest and sarcopenia of old age on the muscle-cell genome and proteome. Moreover, in post-aggression syndrome specific amino acids such as glutamine, arginine, glycine, taurine, tryptophan and cysteine are used for cell and immune modulation. Our laboratory has focused on the regulative capacity of glutamine. Glutamine deficiency as found in post-aggression syndrome reduces lymphocyte proliferation, alters monocyte/macrophage activity, decreases the formation of heat-shock proteins, stimulates cell apoptosis, shifts the cellular redox potential by altering the glutathione synthesis and increases the activity of the AMPK system. Investigating the molecular effect of glutamine on Hsp 70 induction, we tested the glutamine dependence on the formation of transfer-RNA and of heat-shock factor 1 (HSF 1), and on transcription and translation of Hsp 70. We could demonstrate that glutamine stabilises the mRNA of Hsp 70 thereby prolonging its half-life. The lecture also discusses the principal molecular targets of administered arginine, glycine, cysteine, taurine and tryptophan.

  7. Interplanetary shock phenomena beyond 1 AU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, E.J.

    1985-01-01

    Attention is given to spatial dependences exhibited by spacecraft measurements obtained between 1 and 30 AU, together with temporal variations occurring between solar activity cycle maxima and minima. At 1-3 AU radial distances, shocks develop in association with the corotating solar wind streams characterizing solar minimum and accelerate solar wind evolution with distance while heating the solar wind and generating waves and turbulence. At solar maximum, shocks are observed more frequently at 1 AU but still in association with transient solar events; acceleration leading to energetic storm particles is observed both within and beyond 1 AU. The superimposed effect of large numbers of intense shocks may be responsible for the solar cycle modulation of galactic cosmic rays. 77 references

  8. Thermal shock behaviour of mullite-cordierite refractory materials

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Boccaccini, D. N.; Leonelli, C.; Romagnoli, M.; Pellacani, G. C.; Veronesi, P.; Dlouhý, Ivo; Boccaccini, A. R.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 106, č. 3 (2007), s. 142-148 ISSN 1743-6753 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA200410502 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : refraktory materials * thermal shock * fracutre toughness Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass Impact factor: 1.074, year: 2007

  9. TG2 regulates the heat-shock response by the post-translational modification of HSF1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossin, Federica; Villella, Valeria Rachela; D'Eletto, Manuela; Farrace, Maria Grazia; Esposito, Speranza; Ferrari, Eleonora; Monzani, Romina; Occhigrossi, Luca; Pagliarini, Vittoria; Sette, Claudio; Cozza, Giorgio; Barlev, Nikolai A; Falasca, Laura; Fimia, Gian Maria; Kroemer, Guido; Raia, Valeria; Maiuri, Luigi; Piacentini, Mauro

    2018-05-11

    Heat-shock factor 1 (HSF1) is the master transcription factor that regulates the response to proteotoxic stress by controlling the transcription of many stress-responsive genes including the heat-shock proteins. Here, we show a novel molecular mechanism controlling the activation of HSF1. We demonstrate that transglutaminase type 2 (TG2), dependent on its protein disulphide isomerase activity, triggers the trimerization and activation of HSF1 regulating adaptation to stress and proteostasis impairment. In particular, we find that TG2 loss of function correlates with a defect in the nuclear translocation of HSF1 and in its DNA-binding ability to the HSP70 promoter. We show that the inhibition of TG2 restores the unbalance in HSF1-HSP70 pathway in cystic fibrosis (CF), a human disorder characterized by deregulation of proteostasis. The absence of TG2 leads to an increase of about 40% in CFTR function in a new experimental CF mouse model lacking TG2. Altogether, these results indicate that TG2 plays a key role in the regulation of cellular proteostasis under stressful cellular conditions through the modulation of the heat-shock response. © 2018 The Authors.

  10. Multiple shocks, coping and welfare consequences: natural disasters and health shocks in the Indian Sundarbans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazumdar, Sumit; Mazumdar, Papiya Guha; Kanjilal, Barun; Singh, Prashant Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Based on a household survey in Indian Sundarbans hit by tropical cyclone Aila in May 2009, this study tests for evidence and argues that health and climatic shocks are essentially linked forming a continuum and with exposure to a marginal one, coping mechanisms and welfare outcomes triggered in the response is significantly affected. The data for this study is based on a cross-sectional household survey carried out during June 2010. The survey was aimed to assess the impact of cyclone Aila on households and consequent coping mechanisms in three of the worst-affected blocks (a sub-district administrative unit), viz. Hingalganj, Gosaba and Patharpratima. The survey covered 809 individuals from 179 households, cross cutting age and gender. A separate module on health-seeking behaviour serves as the information source of health shocks defined as illness episodes (ambulatory or hospitalized) experienced by household members. Finding reveals that over half of the households (54%) consider that Aila has dealt a high, damaging impact on their household assets. Result further shows deterioration of health status in the period following the incidence of Aila. Finding suggests having suffered multiple shocks increases the number of adverse welfare outcomes by 55%. Whereas, suffering either from the climatic shock (33%) or the health shock (25%) alone increases such risks by a much lesser extent. The multiple-shock households face a significantly higher degree of difficulty to finance expenses arising out of health shocks, as opposed to their counterparts facing only the health shock. Further, these households are more likely to finance the expenses through informal loans and credit from acquaintances or moneylenders. This paper presented empirical evidence on how natural and health shocks mutually reinforce their resultant impact, making coping increasingly difficult and present significant risks of welfare loss, having short as well as long-run development manifestations.

  11. Hydraulic shock absorbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thatcher, G.; Davidson, D. F.

    1984-01-01

    A hydraulic shock absorber of the dash pot kind for use with electrically conducting liquid such as sodium, has magnet means for electro magnetically braking a stream of liquid discharged from the cylinder. The shock absorber finds use in a liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor for arresting control rods

  12. Our Favorite Film Shocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willerslev, Rane; Suhr, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The modern medium of film has long been hailed for its capacity for producing shocks of an entertaining, thought-provoking, or even politically emancipative nature. But what is a shock, how and when does it occur, how long does it last, and are there particular techniques for producing cinematic...

  13. Climate shocks and conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papaioannou, Kostadis J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper offers a historical micro-level analysis of the impact of climate shocks on the incidence of civil conflict in colonial Nigeria (1912-1945). Primary historical sources on court cases, prisoners and homicides are used to capture conflict. To measure climate shocks we use the deviation

  14. The effect of vascular endothelial growth factor-1 expression on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Riyad Bendardaf

    2017-02-28

    Feb 28, 2017 ... The effect of vascular endothelial growth factor-1 expression on survival of ... Sharjah, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates; cFaculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University, ..... interleukin-6, and C-reactive protein level in colorectal.

  15. Cosmic-ray acceleration at stellar wind terminal shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, G.M.; Forman, M.A.; Axford, W.I.

    1985-01-01

    Steady-state, spherically symmetric, analytic solutions of the cosmic-ray transport equations, applicable to the problem of acceleration of cosmic rays at the terminal shock to a stellar wind, are studied. The spectra, gradients, and flow patterns of particle modulated and accelerated by the stellar wind and shock are investigated by means of monoenergetic-source solutions at finite radius, as well as solutions with monoenergetic and power-law Galactic spectra. The solutions obtained apply in the test particle limit in which the cosmic rays do not modify the background flow. The solutions show a characteristic power-law momentum spectrum for accelerated particles and a more complex spectrum of particles that are decelerated in the stellar wind. The power-law spectral index depends on the compression ratio of the shock and on the modulation parameters characterizing propagation conditions in the upstream and downstream regions of the shock. Solutions of the transport equations for the total density N (integrated over all energies), pressure P/sub c/, and energy flux F/sub c/ of Galactic cosmic rays interacting with a stellar wind and shock are also studied. The density N(r) increases with radius r, and for strong shocks with large enough modulation parameters, there may be a significant enhancement of the pressure of weakly relativistic particles near the shock compared to the cosmic-ray background pressure P/sub infinity/. The emergent energy flux at infinity is of the order of 4π R 2 V 1 P/sub infinity/ (V 1 is wind velocity upstream of the shock, R is shock radius)

  16. Collisionless shock waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagdeev, R.Z.; Kennel, C.F.

    1991-01-01

    Collisionless shocks cannot occur naturally on the earth, because nearly all matter here consists of electrically neutral atoms and molecules. In space, however, high temperatures and ultraviolet radiation from hot stars decompose atoms into their constituent nuclei and electrons, producing a soup of electrically charged particles known as a plasma. Plasma physicists proposed that the collective electrical and magnetic properties of plasmas could produce interactions that take the place of collisions and permit shocks to form. In 1964 the theoretical work found its first experimental confirmation. Norman F. Ness and his colleagues at the Goddard Space Flight Center, using data collected from the iMP-1 spacecraft, detected clear signs that a collisionless shock exists where the solar wind encounters the earth's magnetic field. More recent research has demonstrated that collisionless shocks appear in a dazzling array of astronomical settings. For example, shocks have been found in the solar wind upstream (sunward) of all the planet and comets that have been visited by spacecraft. Violent flares on the sun generate shocks that propagate to the far reaches of the solar system; tremendous galactic outbursts create disruptions in the intergalactic medium that are trillions of times larger. In addition, many astrophysicists think that shocks from supernova explosions in our galaxy accelerate cosmic rays, a class of extraordinarily energetic elementary particles and atomic nuclei that rain down on the earth from all directions

  17. Pediatric Toxic Shock Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Yee

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Audience: This scenario was developed to educate emergency medicine residents on the diagnosis and management of a pediatric patient with toxic shock syndrome. The case is also appropriate for teaching of medical students and advanced practice providers, as well as a review of the principles of crisis resource management, teamwork, and communication. Introduction: Toxic shock syndrome is a low-frequency, high-acuity scenario requiring timely identification and aggressive management. If patients suffering from this condition are managed incorrectly, they may progress into multi-organ dysfunction and potentially death. Toxic shock syndrome has been associated with Streptococcus and Staphylococcus aureus (Staph. Approximately half of Staph cases are associated with menstruation, which was first described in the 1970s-1980s and was associated with the use of absorbent tampons.1 Group A Streptococcus may cause complications such as necrotizing fasciitis and gangrenous myositis.2 Pediatric patients may present critically ill from toxic shock syndrome. Providers need to perform a thorough history and physical exam to discern the source of infection. Management requires aggressive care with antibiotics and IV fluids. Objectives: By the end of this simulation session, the learner will be able to: 1 Recognize toxic shock syndrome. 2 Review the importance of a thorough physical exam. 3 Discuss management of toxic shock syndrome, including supportive care and the difference in antibiotic choices for streptococcal and staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome. 4 Appropriately disposition a patient suffering from toxic shock syndrome. 5 Communicate effectively with team members and nursing staff during a resuscitation of a critically ill patient. Method: This session was conducted using high-fidelity simulation, followed by a debriefing session and lecture on toxic shock syndrome.

  18. Shocks near Jamming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Leopoldo R.; Turner, Ari M.; van Hecke, Martin; Vitelli, Vincenzo

    2012-02-01

    Nonlinear sound is an extreme phenomenon typically observed in solids after violent explosions. But granular media are different. Right when they jam, these fragile and disordered solids exhibit a vanishing rigidity and sound speed, so that even tiny mechanical perturbations form supersonic shocks. Here, we perform simulations in which two-dimensional jammed granular packings are dynamically compressed and demonstrate that the elementary excitations are strongly nonlinear shocks, rather than ordinary phonons. We capture the full dependence of the shock speed on pressure and impact intensity by a surprisingly simple analytical model.

  19. Mechanical shock absorber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vrillon, Bernard.

    1973-01-01

    The mechanical shock absorber described is made of a constant thickness plate pierced with circular holes regularly distributed in such a manner that for all the directions along which the strain is applied during the shock, the same section of the substance forming the plate is achieved. The shock absorber is made in a metal standing up to extensive deformation before breaking, selected from a group comprising mild steels and austenitic stainless steels. This apparatus is used for handling pots of fast neutron reactor fuel elements [fr

  20. Shock formation of HCO+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elitzur, M.

    1983-01-01

    It is shown that shocks propagating in dense molecular regions will lead to a decrease in HCO + relative abundance, in agreement with previous results by Iglesias and Silk. The shock enhancement of HCO + detected in the supernova remnant IC 443 by Dickenson et al. is due to enhanced ionization in the shocked material. This is the result of the material penetrating the remnant cavity where it becomes exposed to the trapped cosmic rays. A similar enhancement appears to have been detected by Wootten in W28 and is explained by the same model

  1. Shock Isolation Elements Testing for High Input Loadings. Volume II. Foam Shock Isolation Elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SHOCK ABSORBERS ), (*GUIDED MISSILE SILOS, SHOCK ABSORBERS ), (*EXPANDED PLASTICS, (*SHOCK(MECHANICS), REDUCTION), TEST METHODS, SHOCK WAVES, STRAIN(MECHANICS), LOADS(FORCES), MATHEMATICAL MODELS, NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS, HARDENING.

  2. Counseling For Future Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Lewis B.

    1974-01-01

    In this article the author looks at some of the searing prophecies made by Alvin Toffler in his book Future Shock and relates them to the world of the professional counselor and the clientele the counselor attempts to serve. (Author)

  3. Life shocks and homelessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Marah A; Corman, Hope; Noonan, Kelly; Reichman, Nancy E

    2013-12-01

    We exploited an exogenous health shock-namely, the birth of a child with a severe health condition-to investigate the effect of a life shock on homelessness in large cities in the United States as well as the interactive effects of the shock with housing market characteristics. We considered a traditional measure of homelessness, two measures of housing instability thought to be precursors to homelessness, and a combined measure that approximates the broadened conceptualization of homelessness under the 2009 Homeless Emergency Assistance and Rapid Transition to Housing Act (2010). We found that the shock substantially increases the likelihood of family homelessness, particularly in cities with high housing costs. The findings are consistent with the economic theory of homelessness, which posits that homelessness results from a conjunction of adverse circumstances in which housing markets and individual characteristics collide.

  4. Unlimited Relativistic Shock Surfing Acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ucer, D.; Shapiro, V. D.

    2001-01-01

    Nonrelativistic shock surfing acceleration at quasiperpendicular shocks is usually considered to be a preacceleration mechanism for slow pickup ions to initiate diffusive shock acceleration. In shock surfing, the particle accelerates along the shock front under the action of the convective electric field of the plasma flow. However, the particle also gains kinetic energy normal to the shock and eventually escapes downstream. We consider the case when ions are accelerated to relativistic velocities. In this case, the ions are likely to be trapped for infinitely long times, because the energy of bounce oscillations tends to decrease during acceleration. This suggests the possibility of unlimited acceleration by shock surfing

  5. Technology shocks matter

    OpenAIRE

    Jonas D. M. Fisher

    2002-01-01

    This paper uses the neoclassical growth model to identify the effects of technological change on the US business cycle. In the model there are two sources of technological change: neutral, which effects the production of all goods homogeneously, and investment-specific. Investment-specific shocks are the unique source of the secular trend in the real price of investment goods, while shocks to both kinds of technology are the only factors which affect labor productivity in the long run. Consis...

  6. Numerical study of the Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equation and dispersive shock waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grava, T.; Klein, C.; Pitton, G.

    2018-02-01

    A detailed numerical study of the long time behaviour of dispersive shock waves in solutions to the Kadomtsev-Petviashvili (KP) I equation is presented. It is shown that modulated lump solutions emerge from the dispersive shock waves. For the description of dispersive shock waves, Whitham modulation equations for KP are obtained. It is shown that the modulation equations near the soliton line are hyperbolic for the KPII equation while they are elliptic for the KPI equation leading to a focusing effect and the formation of lumps. Such a behaviour is similar to the appearance of breathers for the focusing nonlinear Schrödinger equation in the semiclassical limit.

  7. The Heliospheric Termination Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokipii, J. R.

    2013-06-01

    The heliospheric termination shock is a vast, spheroidal shock wave marking the transition from the supersonic solar wind to the slower flow in the heliosheath, in response to the pressure of the interstellar medium. It is one of the most-important boundaries in the outer heliosphere. It affects energetic particles strongly and for this reason is a significant factor in the effects of the Sun on Galactic cosmic rays. This paper summarizes the general properties and overall large-scale structure and motions of the termination shock. Observations over the past several years, both in situ and remote, have dramatically revised our understanding of the shock. The consensus now is that the shock is quite blunt, is with the front, blunt side canted at an angle to the flow direction of the local interstellar plasma relative to the Sun, and is dynamical and turbulent. Much of this new understanding has come from remote observations of energetic charged particles interacting with the shock, radio waves and radiation backscattered from interstellar neutral atoms. The observations and the implications are discussed.

  8. The heat-shock, or HSF1-mediated proteotoxic stress, response in cancer: from proteomic stability to oncogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Chengkai

    2018-01-19

    The heat-shock, or HSF1-mediated proteotoxic stress, response (HSR/HPSR) is characterized by induction of heat-shock proteins (HSPs). As molecular chaperones, HSPs facilitate the folding, assembly, transportation and degradation of other proteins. In mammals, heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) is the master regulator of this ancient transcriptional programme. Upon proteotoxic insults, the HSR/HPSR is essential to proteome homeostasis, or proteostasis, thereby resisting stress and antagonizing protein misfolding diseases and ageing. Contrasting with these benefits, an unexpected pro-oncogenic role of the HSR/HPSR is unfolding. Whereas HSF1 remains latent in primary cells without stress, it becomes constitutively activated within malignant cells, rendering them addicted to HSF1 for their growth and survival. Highlighting the HSR/HPSR as an integral component of the oncogenic network, several key pathways governing HSF1 activation by environmental stressors are causally implicated in malignancy. Importantly, HSF1 impacts the cancer proteome systemically. By suppressing tumour-suppressive amyloidogenesis, HSF1 preserves cancer proteostasis to support the malignant state, both providing insight into how HSF1 enables tumorigenesis and suggesting disruption of cancer proteostasis as a therapeutic strategy. This review provides an overview of the role of HSF1 in oncogenesis, mechanisms underlying its constitutive activation within cancer cells and its pro-oncogenic action, as well as potential HSF1-targeting strategies.This article is part of the theme issue 'Heat shock proteins as modulators and therapeutic targets of chronic disease: an integrated perspective'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  9. Insulin-like growth factor-1 is a negative modulator of glucagon secretion

    OpenAIRE

    Mancuso, Elettra; Mannino, Gaia C.; Fatta, Concetta Di; Fuoco, Anastasia; Spiga, Rosangela; Andreozzi, Francesco; Sesti, Giorgio

    2017-01-01

    Glucagon secretion involves a combination of paracrine, autocrine, hormonal, and autonomic neural mechanisms. Type 2 diabetes often presents impaired glucagon suppression by insulin and glucose. Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-1) has elevated homology with insulin, and regulates pancreatic ?-cells insulin secretion. Insulin and IGF-1 receptors share considerable structure homology and function. We hypothesized the existence of a mechanism linking the inhibition of ?-cells glucagon secretion...

  10. Stromal cell-derived factor 1α (SDF-1α)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Dana; Bjørnager, Louise; Langkilde, Anne

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Stromal cell-derived factor 1a (SDF-1α), is a chemokine and is able to home hematopoietic progenitor cells to injured areas of heart tissue for structural repair. Previous studies have found increased levels of SDF-1α in several cardiac diseases, but only few studies have investigated...

  11. Association between Insulin Like Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1) gene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1) is a key regulator of muscle development and metabolism in birds and other vertebrate. Our objective was to determine the association between IGF1 gene polymorphism and carcass traits in FUNAAB Alpha chicken. Genomic DNA was extracted from the blood of 50 normal feathered ...

  12. 49 CFR 325.73 - Microphone distance correction factors. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Microphone distance correction factors. 1 325.73 Section 325.73 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR... MOTOR CARRIER NOISE EMISSION STANDARDS Correction Factors § 325.73 Microphone distance correction...

  13. RNA-Seq-based analysis of cold shock response in Thermoanaerobacter tengcongensis, a bacterium harboring a single cold shock protein encoding gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although cold shock responses and the roles of cold shock proteins in microorganisms containing multiple cold shock protein genes have been well characterized, related studies on bacteria possessing a single cold shock protein gene have not been reported. Thermoanaerobacter tengcongensis MB4, a thermophile harboring only one known cold shock protein gene (TtescpC, can survive from 50° to 80 °C, but has poor natural competence under cold shock at 50 °C. We therefore examined cold shock responses and their effect on natural competence in this bacterium. RESULTS: The transcriptomes of T. tengcongensis before and after cold shock were analyzed by RNA-seq and over 1200 differentially expressed genes were successfully identified. These genes were involved in a wide range of biological processes, including modulation of DNA replication, recombination, and repair; energy metabolism; production of cold shock protein; synthesis of branched amino acids and branched-chain fatty acids; and sporulation. RNA-seq analysis also suggested that T. tengcongensis initiates cell wall and membrane remodeling processes, flagellar assembly, and sporulation in response to low temperature. Expression profiles of TtecspC and failed attempts to produce a TtecspC knockout strain confirmed the essential role of TteCspC in the cold shock response, and also suggested a role of this protein in survival at optimum growth temperature. Repression of genes encoding ComEA and ComEC and low energy metabolism levels in cold-shocked cells are the likely basis of poor natural competence at low temperature. CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrated changes in global gene expression under cold shock and identified several candidate genes related to cold shock in T. tengcongensis. At the same time, the relationship between cold shock response and poor natural competence at low temperature was preliminarily elucidated. These findings provide a foundation for future studies on genetic

  14. Spatiotemporal dynamics of underwater conical shock wave focusing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hoffer, Petr; Lukeš, Petr; Akiyama, H.; Hosseini, H.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 4 (2017), s. 685-690 ISSN 0938-1287 Grant - others:Rada Programu interní podpory projektů mezinárodní spolupráce AV ČR(CZ) M100431203 Program:M Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Underwater shock wave focusing * multichannel * electrohydraulic discharge * conical shock wave reflection * medical application Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics OBOR OECD: Applied mechanics Impact factor: 1.107, year: 2016 https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00193-016-0703-7

  15. Shocks in fragile matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitelli, Vincenzo

    2012-02-01

    Non-linear sound is an extreme phenomenon typically observed in solids after violent explosions. But granular media are different. Right when they unjam, these fragile and disordered solids exhibit vanishing elastic moduli and sound speed, so that even tiny mechanical perturbations form supersonic shocks. Here, we perform simulations in which two-dimensional jammed granular packings are continuously compressed, and demonstrate that the resulting excitations are strongly nonlinear shocks, rather than linear waves. We capture the full dependence of the shock speed on pressure and compression speed by a surprisingly simple analytical model. We also treat shear shocks within a simplified viscoelastic model of nearly-isostatic random networks comprised of harmonic springs. In this case, anharmonicity does not originate locally from nonlinear interactions between particles, as in granular media; instead, it emerges from the global architecture of the network. As a result, the diverging width of the shear shocks bears a nonlinear signature of the diverging isostatic length associated with the loss of rigidity in these floppy networks.

  16. Heat shock protein 90 in neurodegenerative diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodina Anna

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hsp90 is a molecular chaperone with important roles in regulating pathogenic transformation. In addition to its well-characterized functions in malignancy, recent evidence from several laboratories suggests a role for Hsp90 in maintaining the functional stability of neuronal proteins of aberrant capacity, whether mutated or over-activated, allowing and sustaining the accumulation of toxic aggregates. In addition, Hsp90 regulates the activity of the transcription factor heat shock factor-1 (HSF-1, the master regulator of the heat shock response, mechanism that cells use for protection when exposed to conditions of stress. These biological functions therefore propose Hsp90 inhibition as a dual therapeutic modality in neurodegenerative diseases. First, by suppressing aberrant neuronal activity, Hsp90 inhibitors may ameliorate protein aggregation and its associated toxicity. Second, by activation of HSF-1 and the subsequent induction of heat shock proteins, such as Hsp70, Hsp90 inhibitors may redirect neuronal aggregate formation, and protect against protein toxicity. This mini-review will summarize our current knowledge on Hsp90 in neurodegeneration and will focus on the potential beneficial application of Hsp90 inhibitors in neurodegenerative diseases.

  17. Physics of Collisionless Shocks Space Plasma Shock Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Balogh, André

    2013-01-01

    The present book provides a contemporary systematic treatment of shock waves in high-temperature collisionless plasmas as are encountered in near Earth space and in Astrophysics. It consists of two parts. Part I develops the complete theory of shocks in dilute hot plasmas under the assumption of absence of collisions among the charged particles when the interaction is mediated solely by the self-consistent electromagnetic fields. Such shocks are naturally magnetised implying that the magnetic field plays an important role in their evolution and dynamics. This part treats both subcritical shocks, which dissipate flow energy by generating anomalous resistance or viscosity, and supercritical shocks. The main emphasis is, however, on super-critical shocks where the anomalous dissipation is insufficient to retard the upstream flow. These shocks, depending on the direction of the upstream magnetic field, are distinguished as quasi-perpendicular and quasi-parallel shocks which exhibit different behaviours, reflecti...

  18. Life Shocks and Homelessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corman, Hope; Noonan, Kelly; Reichman, Nancy E.

    2014-01-01

    We exploited an exogenous health shock—namely, the birth of a child with a severe health condition—to investigate the effect of a life shock on homelessness in large cities in the United States as well as the interactive effects of the shock with housing market characteristics. We considered a traditional measure of homelessness, two measures of housing instability thought to be precursors to homelessness, and a combined measure that approximates the broadened conceptualization of homelessness under the 2009 Homeless Emergency Assistance and Rapid Transition to Housing Act (2010). We found that the shock substantially increases the likelihood of family homelessness, particularly in cities with high housing costs. The findings are consistent with the economic theory of homelessness, which posits that homelessness results from a conjunction of adverse circumstances in which housing markets and individual characteristics collide. PMID:23868747

  19. Health Shocks and Retirement:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Larsen, Mona

    We investigate the effect of an acute health shock on retirement among elderly male workers in Denmark, 1991-1999, and in particular whether various welfare state programs and institutions impinge on the retirement effect. The results show that an acute health event increases the retirement chances...... significant. For the most part, the retirement effect following a health shock seems to be immune to the availability of a multitude of government programs for older workers in Denmark....... benefits in Denmark nor by the promotion of corporate social responsibility initiatives since the mid-1990s. In the late 1990s, however, the retirement rate following a health shock is reduced to 3% with the introduction of the subsidized employment program (fleksjob) but this effect is not strongly...

  20. Evidence for Multiple Mediator Complexes in Yeast Independently Recruited by Activated Heat Shock Factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anandhakumar, Jayamani; Moustafa, Yara W; Chowdhary, Surabhi; Kainth, Amoldeep S; Gross, David S

    2016-07-15

    Mediator is an evolutionarily conserved coactivator complex essential for RNA polymerase II transcription. Although it has been generally assumed that in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Mediator is a stable trimodular complex, its structural state in vivo remains unclear. Using the "anchor away" (AA) technique to conditionally deplete select subunits within Mediator and its reversibly associated Cdk8 kinase module (CKM), we provide evidence that Mediator's tail module is highly dynamic and that a subcomplex consisting of Med2, Med3, and Med15 can be independently recruited to the regulatory regions of heat shock factor 1 (Hsf1)-activated genes. Fluorescence microscopy of a scaffold subunit (Med14)-anchored strain confirmed parallel cytoplasmic sequestration of core subunits located outside the tail triad. In addition, and contrary to current models, we provide evidence that Hsf1 can recruit the CKM independently of core Mediator and that core Mediator has a role in regulating postinitiation events. Collectively, our results suggest that yeast Mediator is not monolithic but potentially has a dynamic complexity heretofore unappreciated. Multiple species, including CKM-Mediator, the 21-subunit core complex, the Med2-Med3-Med15 tail triad, and the four-subunit CKM, can be independently recruited by activated Hsf1 to its target genes in AA strains. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  1. Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 and Neuroinflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Labandeira-Garcia, Jose L.; Costa-Besada, Maria A.; Labandeira, Carmen M.; Villar-Cheda, Begoña; Rodríguez-Perez, Ana I.

    2017-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) effects on aging and neurodegeneration is still controversial. However, it is widely admitted that IGF-1 is involved in the neuroinflammatory response. In peripheral tissues, several studies showed that IGF-1 inhibited the expression of inflammatory markers, although other studies concluded that IGF-1 has proinflammatory functions. Furthermore, proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α impaired IGF-1 signaling. In the brain, there are controversial results o...

  2. The Shock Routine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Hooren, Franca; Kaasch, Alexandra; Starke, Peter

    2014-01-01

    in Australia, Belgium, the Netherlands and Sweden over the course of four global economic shocks, we ask whether the notion of critical junctures is useful in understanding the nature of change triggered by crisis. The main empirical finding is that fundamental change in the aftermath of an exogenous shock...... is the exception rather than the rule. Instead, incremental ‘crisis routines’ based on existing policy instruments are overwhelmingly used to deal with economic hardship. We discuss these findings in the light of the psychological ‘threat-rigidity’ effect and reflect on their consequences for theories...

  3. Genistein promotes DNA demethylation of the steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) promoter in endometrial stromal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsukura, Hiroshi; Aisaki, Ken-ichi; Igarashi, Katsuhide; Matsushima, Yuko; Kanno, Jun; Muramatsu, Masaaki; Sudo, Katsuko; Sato, Noriko

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Genistein (GEN) is a phytoestrogen found in soy products. → GEN demethylated/unsilenced the steroidogenic factor 1 gene in endometrial tissue. → GEN thus altered mRNA expression in uteri of ovariectomized (OVX) mice. → A high-resolution melting assay was used to screen for epigenetic change. → We isolated an endometrial cell clone that was epigenetically modulated by GEN. -- Abstract: It has recently been demonstrated that genistein (GEN), a phytoestrogen in soy products, is an epigenetic modulator in various types of cells; but its effect on endometrium has not yet been determined. We investigated the effects of GEN on mouse uterine cells, in vivo and in vitro. Oral administration of GEN for 1 week induced mild proliferation of the endometrium in ovariectomized (OVX) mice, which was accompanied by the induction of steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) gene expression. GEN administration induced demethylation of multiple CpG sites in the SF-1 promoter; these sites are extensively methylated and thus silenced in normal endometrium. The GEN-mediated promoter demethylation occurred predominantly on the luminal side, as opposed to myometrium side, indicating that the epigenetic change was mainly shown in regenerated cells. Primary cultures of endometrial stromal cell colonies were screened for GEN-mediated alterations of DNA methylation by a high-resolution melting (HRM) method. One out of 20 colony-forming cell clones showed GEN-induced demethylation of SF-1. This clone exhibited a high proliferation capacity with continuous colony formation activity through multiple serial clonings. We propose that only a portion of endometrial cells are capable of receiving epigenetic modulation by GEN.

  4. Genistein promotes DNA demethylation of the steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) promoter in endometrial stromal cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsukura, Hiroshi, E-mail: hmatsukura.epi@mri.tmd.ac.jp [Department of Molecular Epidemiology, Medical Research Institute, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 2-3-10 Kanda-surugadai, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-0062 (Japan); Aisaki, Ken-ichi; Igarashi, Katsuhide; Matsushima, Yuko; Kanno, Jun [Division of Cellular and Molecular Toxicology, National Institute of Health Sciences, 1-18-1 Kamiyoga, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 158-8501 (Japan); Muramatsu, Masaaki [Department of Molecular Epidemiology, Medical Research Institute, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 2-3-10 Kanda-surugadai, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-0062 (Japan); Sudo, Katsuko [Department of Molecular Epidemiology, Medical Research Institute, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 2-3-10 Kanda-surugadai, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-0062 (Japan); Animal Research Center, Tokyo Medical University, 6-1-1 Shinjuku, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8402 (Japan); Sato, Noriko, E-mail: nsato.epi@tmd.ac.jp [Department of Molecular Epidemiology, Medical Research Institute, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 2-3-10 Kanda-surugadai, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-0062 (Japan)

    2011-08-26

    Highlights: {yields} Genistein (GEN) is a phytoestrogen found in soy products. {yields} GEN demethylated/unsilenced the steroidogenic factor 1 gene in endometrial tissue. {yields} GEN thus altered mRNA expression in uteri of ovariectomized (OVX) mice. {yields} A high-resolution melting assay was used to screen for epigenetic change. {yields} We isolated an endometrial cell clone that was epigenetically modulated by GEN. -- Abstract: It has recently been demonstrated that genistein (GEN), a phytoestrogen in soy products, is an epigenetic modulator in various types of cells; but its effect on endometrium has not yet been determined. We investigated the effects of GEN on mouse uterine cells, in vivo and in vitro. Oral administration of GEN for 1 week induced mild proliferation of the endometrium in ovariectomized (OVX) mice, which was accompanied by the induction of steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) gene expression. GEN administration induced demethylation of multiple CpG sites in the SF-1 promoter; these sites are extensively methylated and thus silenced in normal endometrium. The GEN-mediated promoter demethylation occurred predominantly on the luminal side, as opposed to myometrium side, indicating that the epigenetic change was mainly shown in regenerated cells. Primary cultures of endometrial stromal cell colonies were screened for GEN-mediated alterations of DNA methylation by a high-resolution melting (HRM) method. One out of 20 colony-forming cell clones showed GEN-induced demethylation of SF-1. This clone exhibited a high proliferation capacity with continuous colony formation activity through multiple serial clonings. We propose that only a portion of endometrial cells are capable of receiving epigenetic modulation by GEN.

  5. Shock absorber in Ignalina NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulavas, A.; Muralis, J.

    1996-09-01

    Theoretical calculation and experimental analysis of models of shock absorber in Ignalina NPP is presented. The results obtained from the investigation with model of shock absorber coincide with the theoretical calculation. (author). 2 figs., 3 refs

  6. Shock Response of Boron Carbide

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dandekar, D. P. (Dattatraya Purushottam)

    2001-01-01

    .... The present work was undertaken to determine tensile/spall strength of boron carbide under plane shock wave loading and to analyze all available shock compression data on boron carbide materials...

  7. Fascinating World of Shock Waves

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srimath

    travelling at supersonic speeds (more than the sound speed at ... actual earth- quake, travel at supersonic speeds. .... The time scale of the shock wave is also important ..... real lithotripsy where a shock wave is used shatter the kidney stones!

  8. Cardiogenic shock. Current concepts in management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakumaran, K; Hugenholtz, P G

    1986-10-01

    This article presents a categorisation of circulatory shock and discusses the causes, haemodynamics, and clinical recognition of cardiogenic shock. The first step in the management strategy in cardiogenic shock is to guide the patient from the state of shock to one of managed haemodynamic stability. The therapeutic manoeuvres of this first step constitute the management tactics, which can be grouped under 3 general headings: (a) making the most of a malfunctioning heart; (b) improving the state of the heart; and (c) reducing the demands on the heart. In order to make the most of the heart, i.e. to get the highest possible output at the lowest possible cost, clinicians need to use their judgement in stimulating an overtaxed heart on the one hand, and in manipulating the loads on it (the preload and afterload) on the other, for although these methods may be advantageous, they are not without their pitfalls. Efforts to improve the state of the heart often necessitate surgical (e.g. mitral valve replacement) or semisurgical (e.g. coronary angiography and recanalisation) techniques, although intravenous antithrombotic agents may achieve comparable results in a few cases at the bedside. Reducing the demands on the heart is an active process involving the takeover of at least a part of the work of the heart by ancillary devices such as the intra-aortic balloon pump, and of the work of breathing by intubation and artificial ventilation. The individuality of each case of cardiogenic shock emphasises the need for empirical modulation of therapy based on feedback information obtained by haemodynamic monitoring.

  9. INTERFERENCE OF UNIDIRECTIONAL SHOCK WAVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. Bulat

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Subject of study.We consider interference of unidirectional shock waves or, as they are called, catching up shock waves. The scope of work is to give a classification of the shock-wave structures that arise in this type of interaction of shock waves, and the area of their existence. Intersection of unidirectional shock waves results in arising of a shock-wave structure at the intersection point, which contains the main shock wave, tangential discontinuity and one more reflected gas-dynamic discontinuity of unknown beforehand type. The problem of determining the type of reflected discontinuity is the main problem that one has to solve in the study of catching shock waves interference. Main results.The paper presents the pictures of shock-wave structures arising at the interaction of catching up shock waves. The areas with a regular and irregular unidirectional interaction of shocks are described. Characteristic shock-wave structures are of greatest interest, where reflected gas-dynamic discontinuity degenerates into discontinuous characteristics. Such structures have a number of extreme properties. We have found the areas of existence for such shock-wave structures. There are also areas in which the steady-state solution is not available. The latter has determined revival of interest for the theoretical study of the problem, because the facts of sudden shock-wave structure destruction inside the air intake of supersonic aircrafts at high Mach numbers have been discovered. Practical significance.The theory of interference for unidirectional shock waves and design procedure are usable in the design of supersonic air intakes. It is also relevant for application possibility investigation of catching up oblique shock waves to create overcompressed detonation in perspective detonation air-jet and rocket engines.

  10. Shock tube Multiphase Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middlebrooks, John; Allen, Roy; Paudel, Manoj; Young, Calvin; Musick, Ben; McFarland, Jacob

    2017-11-01

    Shock driven multiphase instabilities (SDMI) are unique physical phenomena that have far-reaching practical applications in engineering and science. The instability is present in high energy explosions, scramjet combustors, and supernovae events. The SDMI arises when a multiphase interface is impulsively accelerated by the passage of a shockwave. It is similar in development to the Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) instability however, particle-to-gas coupling is the driving mechanism of the SDMI. As particle effects such as lag and phase change become more prominent, the SDMI's development begins to significantly deviate from the RM instability. We have developed an experiment for studying the SDMI in our shock tube facility. In our experiments, a multiphase interface is created using a laminar jet and flowed into the shock tube where it is accelerated by the passage of a planar shockwave. The interface development is captured using CCD cameras synchronized with planar laser illumination. This talk will give an overview of new experiments conducted to examine the development of a shocked cylindrical multiphase interface. The effects of Atwood number, particle size, and a second acceleration (reshock) of the interface will be discussed.

  11. Teleconnected food supply shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bren d'Amour, Christopher; Wenz, Leonie; Kalkuhl, Matthias; Steckel, Jan Christoph; Creutzig, Felix

    2016-03-01

    The 2008-2010 food crisis might have been a harbinger of fundamental climate-induced food crises with geopolitical implications. Heat-wave-induced yield losses in Russia and resulting export restrictions led to increases in market prices for wheat across the Middle East, likely contributing to the Arab Spring. With ongoing climate change, temperatures and temperature variability will rise, leading to higher uncertainty in yields for major nutritional crops. Here we investigate which countries are most vulnerable to teleconnected supply-shocks, i.e. where diets strongly rely on the import of wheat, maize, or rice, and where a large share of the population is living in poverty. We find that the Middle East is most sensitive to teleconnected supply shocks in wheat, Central America to supply shocks in maize, and Western Africa to supply shocks in rice. Weighing with poverty levels, Sub-Saharan Africa is most affected. Altogether, a simultaneous 10% reduction in exports of wheat, rice, and maize would reduce caloric intake of 55 million people living in poverty by about 5%. Export bans in major producing regions would put up to 200 million people below the poverty line at risk, 90% of which live in Sub-Saharan Africa. Our results suggest that a region-specific combination of national increases in agricultural productivity and diversification of trade partners and diets can effectively decrease future food security risks.

  12. STEREO interplanetary shocks and foreshocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco-Cano, X.; Kajdič, P.; Aguilar-Rodríguez, E.; Russell, C. T.; Jian, L. K.; Luhmann, J. G.

    2013-01-01

    We use STEREO data to study shocks driven by stream interactions and the waves associated with them. During the years of the extended solar minimum 2007-2010, stream interaction shocks have Mach numbers between 1.1-3.8 and θ Bn ∼20-86°. We find a variety of waves, including whistlers and low frequency fluctuations. Upstream whistler waves may be generated at the shock and upstream ultra low frequency (ULF) waves can be driven locally by ion instabilities. The downstream wave spectra can be formed by both, locally generated perturbations, and shock transmitted waves. We find that many quasiperpendicular shocks can be accompanied by ULF wave and ion foreshocks, which is in contrast to Earth's bow shock. Fluctuations downstream of quasi-parallel shocks tend to have larger amplitudes than waves downstream of quasi-perpendicular shocks. Proton foreshocks of shocks driven by stream interactions have extensions dr ≤0.05 AU. This is smaller than foreshock extensions for ICME driven shocks. The difference in foreshock extensions is related to the fact that ICME driven shocks are formed closer to the Sun and therefore begin to accelerate particles very early in their existence, while stream interaction shocks form at ∼1 AU and have been producing suprathermal particles for a shorter time.

  13. STEREO interplanetary shocks and foreshocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco-Cano, X. [Instituto de Geofisica, UNAM, CU, Coyoacan 04510 DF (Mexico); Kajdic, P. [IRAP-University of Toulouse, CNRS, Toulouse (France); Aguilar-Rodriguez, E. [Instituto de Geofisica, UNAM, Morelia (Mexico); Russell, C. T. [ESS and IGPP, University of California, Los Angeles, 603 Charles Young Drive, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Jian, L. K. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD and University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Luhmann, J. G. [SSL, University of California Berkeley (United States)

    2013-06-13

    We use STEREO data to study shocks driven by stream interactions and the waves associated with them. During the years of the extended solar minimum 2007-2010, stream interaction shocks have Mach numbers between 1.1-3.8 and {theta}{sub Bn}{approx}20-86 Degree-Sign . We find a variety of waves, including whistlers and low frequency fluctuations. Upstream whistler waves may be generated at the shock and upstream ultra low frequency (ULF) waves can be driven locally by ion instabilities. The downstream wave spectra can be formed by both, locally generated perturbations, and shock transmitted waves. We find that many quasiperpendicular shocks can be accompanied by ULF wave and ion foreshocks, which is in contrast to Earth's bow shock. Fluctuations downstream of quasi-parallel shocks tend to have larger amplitudes than waves downstream of quasi-perpendicular shocks. Proton foreshocks of shocks driven by stream interactions have extensions dr {<=}0.05 AU. This is smaller than foreshock extensions for ICME driven shocks. The difference in foreshock extensions is related to the fact that ICME driven shocks are formed closer to the Sun and therefore begin to accelerate particles very early in their existence, while stream interaction shocks form at {approx}1 AU and have been producing suprathermal particles for a shorter time.

  14. Shock Dynamics in Stellar Outbursts. I. Shock Formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ro, Stephen; Matzner, Christopher D., E-mail: ro@astro.utoronto.ca [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada)

    2017-05-20

    Wave-driven outflows and non-disruptive explosions have been implicated in pre-supernova outbursts, supernova impostors, luminous blue variable eruptions, and some narrow-line and superluminous supernovae. To model these events, we investigate the dynamics of stars set in motion by strong acoustic pulses and wave trains, focusing on nonlinear wave propagation, shock formation, and an early phase of the development of a weak shock. We identify the shock formation radius, showing that a heuristic estimate based on crossing characteristics matches an exact expansion around the wave front and verifying both with numerical experiments. Our general analytical condition for shock formation applies to one-dimensional motions within any static environment, including both eruptions and implosions. We also consider the early phase of shock energy dissipation. We find that waves of super-Eddington acoustic luminosity always create shocks, rather than damping by radiative diffusion. Therefore, shock formation is integral to super-Eddington outbursts.

  15. Grain destruction in interstellar shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seab, C.G.; Shull, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    One of the principal methods for removing grains from the Interstellar Medium is to destroy them in shock waves. Previous theoretical studies of shock destruction have generally assumed only a single size and type of grain; most do not account for the effect of the grain destruction on the structure of the shock. Earlier calculations have been improved in three ways: first, by using a ''complete'' grain model including a distribution of sizes and types of grains; second, by using a self-consistent shock structure that incorporates the changing elemental depletions as the grains are destroyed; and third, by calculating the shock-processed ultraviolet extinction curves for comparison with observations. (author)

  16. Bubble Dynamics and Shock Waves

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    This volume of the Shock Wave Science and Technology Reference Library is concerned with the interplay between bubble dynamics and shock waves. It is divided into four parts containing twelve chapters written by eminent scientists. Topics discussed include shock wave emission by laser generated bubbles (W Lauterborn, A Vogel), pulsating bubbles near boundaries (DM Leppinen, QX Wang, JR Blake), interaction of shock waves with bubble clouds (CD Ohl, SW Ohl), shock propagation in polydispersed bubbly liquids by model equations (K Ando, T Colonius, CE Brennen. T Yano, T Kanagawa,  M Watanabe, S Fujikawa) and by DNS (G Tryggvason, S Dabiri), shocks in cavitating flows (NA Adams, SJ Schmidt, CF Delale, GH Schnerr, S Pasinlioglu) together with applications involving encapsulated bubble dynamics in imaging (AA Doinikov, A Novell, JM Escoffre, A Bouakaz),  shock wave lithotripsy (P Zhong), sterilization of ships’ ballast water (A Abe, H Mimura) and bubbly flow model of volcano eruptions ((VK Kedrinskii, K Takayama...

  17. Heat shock-induced interactions among nuclear HSFs detected by fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pack, Chan-Gi, E-mail: changipack@amc.seoul.kr [Asan Institute for Life Sciences, University of Ulsan, College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Sang-Gun [Dept. of Pathology, College of Dentistry, Chosun University, Seosuk-dong, Dong-gu, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-31

    The cellular response to stress is primarily controlled in cells via transcriptional activation by heat shock factor 1 (HSF1). HSF1 is well-known to form homotrimers for activation upon heat shock and subsequently bind to target DNAs, such as heat-shock elements, by forming stress granules. A previous study demonstrated that nuclear HSF1 and HSF2 molecules in live cells interacted with target DNAs on the stress granules. However, the process underlying the binding interactions of HSF family in cells upon heat shock remains unclear. This study demonstrate for the first time that the interaction kinetics among nuclear HSF1, HSF2, and HSF4 upon heat shock can be detected directly in live cells using dual color fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy (FCCS). FCCS analyses indicated that the binding between HSFs was dramatically changed by heat shock. Interestingly, the recovery kinetics of interaction between HSF1 molecules after heat shock could be represented by changes in the relative interaction amplitude and mobility. - Highlights: • The binding interactions among nuclear HSFs were successfully detected. • The binding kinetics between HSF1s during recovery was quantified. • HSF2 and HSF4 strongly formed hetero-complex, even before heat shock. • Nuclear HSF2 and HSF4 bound to HSF1 only after heat shock.

  18. Adjustable Shock Absorbers

    OpenAIRE

    Adamiec, Radek

    2012-01-01

    Bakalářská práce obsahuje přehled používaných tlumičů osobních automobilů, závodních automobilů a motocyklů. Jsou zde popsány systémy t lumením, konstrukce tlumičů a vidlic používaných u motocyklů. Dále je zde přehled prvků používaných u podvozků automobilů. This bachelor´s thesis contains the survey of the shock absorbers of passenger cars, racing cars and motorcycles. Are described damping systems, the design used shock absorbers and forks for motorcycles. Then there is the list of the e...

  19. Radiative relativistic shock adiabate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsintsadze, L.N.; Nishikawa, K.

    1997-01-01

    The influences of thermal radiation on the state equation of shock waves, derived in the previous paper [L. N. Tsintsadze, Phys. Plasmas 2, 4462 (1995)], are studied and a series of relations of thermodynamic quantities that hold for shock waves are derived. It is shown that the presence of radiation can strongly change the compressibility of the plasma. It is well known that for polytropic gases the compressibility cannot change more than four times the initial value in the case of nonrelativistic temperatures. The numerical calculations show that there are no such restrictions, when the radiation energy exceeds the kinetic energy of the plasma. The ultrarelativistic temperature range is also covered in our numerical calculations. Also studied are the influences of the radiation on the PT and the TV diagrams. A significant modification due to radiation is found in every case studied. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  20. POSTURAL SHOCK IN PREGNANCY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkening, Ralph L.; Knauer, John; Larson, Roger K.

    1955-01-01

    Signs and symptoms of shock may be produced in some patients in late pregnancy by putting them in the dorsal recumbent posture. Change from this position will relieve the condition. The features of the supine hypotensive syndrome can be duplicated by applying pressure to the abdomen with the patient in a lateral position. The postural variations of venous pressure, blood pressure, and pulse appear to be due to obstruction of venous return from the lower portion of the body caused by the large uterus of late pregnancy compressing the vena cava. When shock is observed in a woman in late pregnancy, she should be turned to a lateral position before more active measures of treatment are begun. ImagesFigure 1. PMID:14351983

  1. Bow shock data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipf, Edward C.; Erdman, Peeter W.

    1994-08-01

    The University of Pittsburgh Space Physics Group in collaboration with the Army Research Office (ARO) modeling team has completed a systematic organization of the shock and plume spectral data and the electron temperature and density measurements obtained during the BowShock I and II rocket flights which have been submitted to the AEDC Data Center, has verified the presence of CO Cameron band emission during the Antares engine burn and for an extended period of time in the post-burn plume, and have adapted 3-D radiation entrapment codes developed by the University of Pittsburgh to study aurora and other atmospheric phenomena that involve significant spatial effects to investigate the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) envelope surrounding the re-entry that create an extensive plasma cloud by photoionization.

  2. Shock Isolation Elements Testing for High Input Loadings. Volume III. Mechanical Shock Isolation Elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SHOCK ABSORBERS ), (*GUIDED MISSILE SILOS, SHOCK ABSORBERS ), (*SPRINGS, (*SHOCK(MECHANICS), REDUCTION), TORSION BARS, ELASTOMERS, DAMPING, EQUATIONS OF MOTION, MODEL TESTS, TEST METHODS, NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS, HARDENING.

  3. Shock resistance testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pouard, M.

    1984-03-01

    In the framework of mechanical tests and to answer the different requests for tests, the T.C.R (Transport Conditionnement et Retraitement) laboratory got test facilities. These installations allow to carry out tests of resistance to shocks, mainly at the safety level of components of nuclear power plants, mockups of transport casks for fuel elements and transport containers for radioactive materials. They include a tower and a catapult. This paper give a decription of the facilities and explain their operation way [fr

  4. On Modeling Risk Shocks

    OpenAIRE

    Dorofeenko, Victor; Lee, Gabriel; Salyer, Kevin; Strobel, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Within the context of a financial accelerator model, we model time-varying uncertainty (i.e. risk shocks) through the use of a mixture Normal model with time variation in the weights applied to the underlying distributions characterizing entrepreneur productivity. Specifically, we model capital producers (i.e. the entrepreneurs) as either low-risk (relatively small second moment for productivity) and high-risk (relatively large second moment for productivity) and the fraction of both types is...

  5. The Shock Doctrine

    OpenAIRE

    Dionysios K. Solomos; Dimitrios N. Koumparoulis

    2011-01-01

    Naomi Klein attempts to redefine the economic history discovering the historical continuities and to reveal the neoliberal theory which functions via the utilization of specific “tools”. The state of shock is the key for the opponents of Chicago School and Milton Friedman in order for them to establish neoliberal policies and to promote the deregulated capitalism which includes less welfare state, less public sector, less regulation, weakened labor unions, privatizations and laissez-faire. Th...

  6. Characterization of shocked beryllium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papin P.A.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available While numerous studies have investigated the low-strain-rate constitutive response of beryllium, the combined influence of high strain rate and temperature on the mechanical behavior and microstructure of beryllium has received limited attention over the last 40 years. In the current work, high strain rate tests were conducted using both explosive drive and a gas gun to accelerate the material. Prior studies have focused on tensile loading behavior, or limited conditions of dynamic strain rate and/or temperature. Two constitutive strength (plasticity models, the Preston-Tonks-Wallace (PTW and Mechanical Threshold Stress (MTS models, were calibrated using common quasi-static and Hopkinson bar data. However, simulations with the two models give noticeably different results when compared with the measured experimental wave profiles. The experimental results indicate that, even if fractured by the initial shock loading, the Be remains sufficiently intact to support a shear stress following partial release and subsequent shock re-loading. Additional “arrested” drive shots were designed and tested to minimize the reflected tensile pulse in the sample. These tests were done to both validate the model and to put large shock induced compressive loads into the beryllium sample.

  7. Selfsimilar time dependent shock structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, R.; Drury, L.O.

    1985-01-01

    Diffusive shock acceleration as an astrophysical mechanism for accelerating charged particles has the advantage of being highly efficient. This means however that the theory is of necessity nonlinear; the reaction of the accelerated particles on the shock structure and the acceleration process must be self-consistently included in any attempt to develop a complete theory of diffusive shock acceleration. Considerable effort has been invested in attempting, at least partially, to do this and it has become clear that in general either the maximum particle energy must be restricted by introducing additional loss processes into the problem or the acceleration must be treated as a time dependent problem (Drury, 1984). It is concluded that stationary modified shock structures can only exist for strong shocks if additional loss processes limit the maximum energy a particle can attain. This is certainly possible and if it occurs the energy loss from the shock will lead to much greater shock compressions. It is however equally possible that no such processes exist and we must then ask what sort of nonstationary shock structure develops. The same argument which excludes stationary structures also rules out periodic solutions and indeed any solution where the width of the shock remains bounded. It follows that the width of the shock must increase secularly with time and it is natural to examine the possibility of selfsimilar time dependent solutions

  8. Selfsimilar time dependent shock structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, R.; Drury, L. O.

    1985-01-01

    Diffusive shock acceleration as an astrophysical mechanism for accelerating charged particles has the advantage of being highly efficient. This means however that the theory is of necessity nonlinear; the reaction of the accelerated particles on the shock structure and the acceleration process must be self-consistently included in any attempt to develop a complete theory of diffusive shock acceleration. Considerable effort has been invested in attempting, at least partially, to do this and it has become clear that in general either the maximum particle energy must be restricted by introducing additional loss processes into the problem or the acceleration must be treated as a time dependent problem (Drury, 1984). It is concluded that stationary modified shock structures can only exist for strong shocks if additional loss processes limit the maximum energy a particle can attain. This is certainly possible and if it occurs the energy loss from the shock will lead to much greater shock compressions. It is however equally possible that no such processes exist and we must then ask what sort of nonstationary shock structure develops. The ame argument which excludes stationary structures also rules out periodic solutions and indeed any solution where the width of the shock remains bounded. It follows that the width of the shock must increase secularly with time and it is natural to examine the possibility of selfsimilar time dependent solutions.

  9. Methyl CpG level at distal part of heat-shock protein promoter HSP70 exhibits epigenetic memory for heat stress by modulating recruitment of POU2F1-associated nucleosome-remodeling deacetylase (NuRD) complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisliouk, Tatiana; Cramer, Tomer; Meiri, Noam

    2017-05-01

    Depending on its stringency, exposure to heat in early life leads to either resilience or vulnerability to heat stress later in life. We hypothesized that epigenetic alterations in genes belonging to the cell proteostasis pathways are attributed to long-term responses to heat stress. Epigenetic regulation of the mRNA expression of the molecular chaperone heat-shock protein (HSP) 70 (HSPA2) was evaluated in the chick hypothalamus during the critical period of thermal-control establishment on day 3 post-hatch and during heat challenge on day 10. Both the level and duration of HSP70 expression during heat challenge a week after heat conditioning were more pronounced in chicks conditioned under harsh versus mild temperature. Analyzing different segments of the promoter in vitro indicated that methylation of a distal part altered its transcriptional activity. In parallel, DNA-methylation level of this segment in vivo was higher in harsh- compared to mild-heat-conditioned chicks. Hypermethylation of the HSP70 promoter in high-temperature-conditioned chicks was accompanied by a reduction in both POU Class 2 Homeobox 1 (POU2F1) binding and recruitment of the nucleosome remodeling deacetylase (NuRD) chromatin-remodeling complex. As a result, histone H3 acetylation levels at the HSP70 promoter were higher in harsh-temperature-conditioned chicks than in their mild-heat-conditioned counterparts. These results suggest that methylation level of a distal part of the HSP70 promoter and POU2F1 recruitment may reflect heat-stress-related epigenetic memory and may be useful in differentiating between individuals that are resilient or vulnerable to stress. © 2017 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  10. The Dynamics of Very High Alfvén Mach Number Shocks in Space Plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundberg, Torbjörn; Burgess, David [School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary University of London, London, E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Scholer, Manfred [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Garching (Germany); Masters, Adam [The Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Sulaiman, Ali H., E-mail: torbjorn.sundberg@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States)

    2017-02-10

    Astrophysical shocks, such as planetary bow shocks or supernova remnant shocks, are often in the high or very-high Mach number regime, and the structure of such shocks is crucial for understanding particle acceleration and plasma heating, as well inherently interesting. Recent magnetic field observations at Saturn’s bow shock, for Alfvén Mach numbers greater than about 25, have provided evidence for periodic non-stationarity, although the details of the ion- and electron-scale processes remain unclear due to limited plasma data. High-resolution, multi-spacecraft data are available for the terrestrial bow shock, but here the very high Mach number regime is only attained on extremely rare occasions. Here we present magnetic field and particle data from three such quasi-perpendicular shock crossings observed by the four-spacecraft Cluster mission. Although both ion reflection and the shock profile are modulated at the upstream ion gyroperiod timescale, the dominant wave growth in the foot takes place at sub-proton length scales and is consistent with being driven by the ion Weibel instability. The observed large-scale behavior depends strongly on cross-scale coupling between ion and electron processes, with ion reflection never fully suppressed, and this suggests a model of the shock dynamics that is in conflict with previous models of non-stationarity. Thus, the observations offer insight into the conditions prevalent in many inaccessible astrophysical environments, and provide important constraints for acceleration processes at such shocks.

  11. Dispersive shock waves in nonlinear and atomic optics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamchatnov Anatoly

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A brief review is given of dispersive shock waves observed in nonlinear optics and dynamics of Bose-Einstein condensates. The theory of dispersive shock waves is developed on the basis of Whitham modulation theory for various situations taking place in these two fields. In particular, the full classification is established for types of wave structures evolving from initial discontinuities for propagation of long light pulses in fibers with account of steepening effect and for dynamics of the polarization mode in two-component Bose-Einstein condensates.

  12. 14-3-3σ induces heat shock protein 70 expression in hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Chia-Chia; Wang, John; Shyue, Song-Kun; Sung, Li-Ying; Liou, Jun-Yang; Jan, Yee-Jee; Ko, Bor-Sheng; Wu, Yao-Ming; Liang, Shu-Man; Chen, Shyh-Chang; Lee, Yen-Ming; Liu, Tzu-An; Chang, Tzu-Ching

    2014-01-01

    14-3-3σ is implicated in promoting tumor development of various malignancies. However, the clinical relevance of 14-3-3σ in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tumor progression and modulation and pathway elucidation remain unclear. We investigated 14-3-3σ expression in 109 HCC tissues by immunohistochemistry. Overexpression and knockdown experiments were performed by transfection with cDNA or siRNA. Protein expression and cell migration were determined by Western blot and Boyden chamber assay. In this study, we found that 14-3-3σ is abundantly expressed in HCC tumors. Stable or transient overexpression of 14-3-3σ induces the expression of heat shock factor-1α (HSF-1α) and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) in HCC cells. Moreover, expression of 14-3-3σ significantly correlates with HSF-1α/HSP70 in HCC tumors and both 14-3-3σ and HSP70 overexpression are associated with micro-vascular thrombi in HCC patients, suggesting that 14-3-3σ/HSP70 expression is potentially involved in cell migration/invasion. Results of an in vitro migration assay indicate that 14-3-3σ promotes cell migration and that 14-3-3σ-induced cell migration is impaired by siRNA knockdown of HSP70. Finally, 14-3-3σ-induced HSF-1α/HSP70 expression is abolished by the knockdown of β-catenin or activation of GSK-3β. Our findings indicate that 14-3-3σ participates in promoting HCC cell migration and tumor development via β-catenin/HSF-1α/HSP70 pathway regulation. Thus, 14-3-3σ alone or combined with HSP70 are potential prognostic biomarkers for HCC

  13. Risk shocks and housing markets

    OpenAIRE

    Dorofeenko, Viktor; Lee, Gabriel S.; Salyer, Kevin D.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: This paper analyzes the role of uncertainty in a multi-sector housing model with financial frictions. We include time varying uncertainty (i.e. risk shocks) in the technology shocks that affect housing production. The analysis demonstratesthat risk shocks to the housing production sector are a quantitatively important impulse mechanism for the business cycle. Also, we demonstrate that bankruptcy costs act as an endogenous markup factor in housing prices; as a consequence, the volati...

  14. Health shocks and risk aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Simon; Schmitz, Hendrik

    2016-12-01

    We empirically assess whether a health shock influences individual risk aversion. We use grip strength data to obtain an objective health shock indicator. In order to account for the non-random nature of our data regression-adjusted matching is employed. Risk preferences are traditionally assumed to be constant. However, we find that a health shock increases individual risk aversion. The finding is robust to a series of sensitivity analyses and persists for at least four years after the shock. Income changes do not seem to be the driving mechanism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Shock in the emergency department

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holler, Jon Gitz; Henriksen, Daniel Pilsgaard; Mikkelsen, Søren

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The knowledge of the frequency and associated mortality of shock in the emergency department (ED) is limited. The aim of this study was to describe the incidence, all-cause mortality and factors associated with death among patients suffering shock in the ED. METHODS: Population...... failures. Outcomes were annual incidence per 100,000 person-years at risk (pyar), all-cause mortality at 0-7, and 8-90 days and risk factors associated with death. RESULTS: We identified 1646 of 438,191 (0.4 %) ED patients with shock at arrival. Incidence of shock increased from 53.8 to 80.6 cases per 100...

  16. Shock compression of diamond crystal

    OpenAIRE

    Kondo, Ken-ichi; Ahrens, Thomas J.

    1983-01-01

    Two shock wave experiments employing inclined mirrors have been carried out to determine the Hugoniot elastic limit (HEL), final shock state at 191 and 217 GPa, and the post-shock state of diamond crystal, which is shock-compressed along the intermediate direction between the and crystallographic axes. The HEL wave has a velocity of 19.9 ± 0.3 mm/µsec and an amplitude of 63 ± 28 GPa. An alternate interpretation of the inclined wedge mirror streak record suggests a ramp precursor wave and th...

  17. A Shocking Solar Nebula?

    OpenAIRE

    Liffman, Kurt

    2009-01-01

    It has been suggested that shock waves in the solar nebula formed the high temperature materials observed in meteorites and comets. It is shown that the temperatures at the inner rim of the solar nebula could have been high enough over a sufficient length of time to produce chondrules, CAIs, refractory dust grains and other high-temperature materials observed in comets and meteorites. The solar bipolar jet flow may have produced an enrichment of 16O in the solar nebula over time and the chond...

  18. Myths of "shock therapy".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, M

    1977-09-01

    The author discusses the myths of the ECT process--that shock and the convulsion are essential, memory loss and brain damage are inescapable, and little is known of the process--and assesses the fallacies in these ideas. Present views of the ECT process suggest that its mode of action in depression may best be described as a prolonged form of diencephalic stimulation, particularly useful to affect the hypothalamic dysfunctions that characterize depressive illness. The author emphasizes the need for further study of this treatment modality and for self-regulation by the profession.

  19. Gravitational shock waves and extreme magnetomaterial shock waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lichnerowicz, Andre.

    1975-01-01

    Within an astrophysical context corresponding to high densities, a self-gravitating model is studied, which is the set of an extreme material medium of infinite conductivity and of a magnetic field. Corresponding shock waves generate necessarily, in general, gravitational shock waves [fr

  20. Shock Producers and Shock Absorbers in the Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Sinn, Hans-Werner

    2009-01-01

    It is not surprising that the U.S. has been by far the world’s largest shock producer in this crisis. The big shock absorbers on the other hand were Japan, Russia and Germany, whose exports shrank more than their imports.

  1. Simulations of Converging Shock Collisions for Shock Ignition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauppe, Joshua; Dodd, Evan; Loomis, Eric

    2016-10-01

    Shock ignition (SI) has been proposed as an alternative to achieving high gain in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) targets. A central hot spot below the ignition threshold is created by an initial compression pulse, and a second laser pulse drives a strong converging shock into the fuel. The collision between the rebounding shock from the compression pulse and the converging shock results in amplification of the converging shock and increases the hot spot pressure above the ignition threshold. We investigate shock collision in SI drive schemes for cylindrical targets with a polystyrene foam interior using radiation-hydrodynamics simulations with the RAGE code. The configuration is similar to previous targets fielded on the Omega laser. The CH interior results in a lower convergence ratio and the cylindrical geometry facilitates visualization of the shock transit using an axial X-ray backlighter, both of which are important for comparison to potential experimental measurements. One-dimensional simulations are used to determine shock timing, and the effects of low mode asymmetries in 2D computations are also quantified. LA-UR-16-24773.

  2. Tandem shock waves in medicine and biology: a review of potential applications and successes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lukeš, Petr; Fernández, F.; Gutiérrez-Aceves, J.; Fernández, E.; Alvarez, U.M.; Šunka, Pavel; Loske, A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 1 (2016), s. 1-23 ISSN 0938-1287 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Tandem shock waves * Acoustic cavitation * Clinical applications * Bactericidal effect * Genetic transformation * Cancer treatment Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.107, year: 2016 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00193-015-0577-0

  3. Money velocity in an endogenous growth business cycle with credit shocks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Benk, S.; Gillman, M.; Kejak, Michal

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 6 (2008), s. 1281-1293 ISSN 0022-2879 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : money velocity * business cycle * credit shocks Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.422, year: 2008

  4. 30th International Symposium on Shock Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Sadot, Oren; Igra, Ozer

    2017-01-01

    These proceedings collect the papers presented at the 30th International Symposium on Shock Waves (ISSW30), which was held in Tel-Aviv Israel from July 19 to July 24, 2015. The Symposium was organized by Ortra Ltd. The ISSW30 focused on the state of knowledge of the following areas: Nozzle Flow, Supersonic and Hypersonic Flows with Shocks, Supersonic Jets, Chemical Kinetics, Chemical Reacting Flows, Detonation, Combustion, Ignition, Shock Wave Reflection and Interaction, Shock Wave Interaction with Obstacles, Shock Wave Interaction with Porous Media, Shock Wave Interaction with Granular Media, Shock Wave Interaction with Dusty Media, Plasma, Magnetohyrdrodynamics, Re-entry to Earth Atmosphere, Shock Waves in Rarefied Gases, Shock Waves in Condensed Matter (Solids and Liquids), Shock Waves in Dense Gases, Shock Wave Focusing, Richtmyer-Meshkov Instability, Shock Boundary Layer Interaction, Multiphase Flow, Blast Waves, Facilities, Flow Visualization, and Numerical Methods. The two volumes serve as a reference ...

  5. Corticosteroids in the treatment of dengue shock syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajapakse S

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Senaka Rajapakse,1 Chaturaka Rodrigo,1 Sachith Maduranga,1 Anoja Chamarie Rajapakse21Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Colombo, Colombo, Sri Lanka; 2Kings Mill Hospital, Sherwood Forest NHS Foundation Trust, Sutton-in-Ashfield, Nottinghamshire, UKAbstract: Dengue infection causes significant morbidity and mortality in over 100 countries worldwide, and its incidence is on the rise. The pathophysiological basis for the development of severe dengue, characterized by plasma leakage and the “shock syndrome” are poorly understood. No specific treatment or vaccine is available, and careful monitoring and judicious administration of fluids forms the mainstay of management at present. It is postulated that vascular endothelial dysfunction, induced by cytokine and chemical mediators, is an important mechanism of plasma leakage. Although corticosteroids are potent modulators of the immune system, their role in pharmacological doses in modulating the purported immunological effects that take place in severe dengue has been a subject of controversy. The key evidence related to the role of corticosteroids for various manifestations of dengue are reviewed here. In summary, there is currently no high-quality evidence supporting the beneficial effects of corticosteroids for treatment of shock, prevention of serious complications, or increasing platelet counts. Non-randomized trials of corticosteroids given as rescue medication for severe shock have shown possible benefit. Nonetheless, the evidence base is small, and good-quality trials are lacking. We reiterate the need for well-designed and adequately powered randomized controlled trials of corticosteroids for the treatment of dengue shock.Keywords: dengue, dengue shock, shock, corticosteroids, vascular leak, thrombocytopenia

  6. Molecular diagnostics of interstellar shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartquist, T.W.; Oppenheimer, M.; Dalgarno, A.

    1980-01-01

    The chemistry of molecules in shocked regions of the interstellar gas is considered and calculations are carried out for a region subjected to a shock at a velocity of 8 km s -1 Substantial enhancements are predicted in the concentrations of the molecules H 2 S, SO, and SiO compared to those anticipated in cold interstellar clouds

  7. Molecular diagnostics of interstellar shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartquist, T. W.; Dalgarno, A.; Oppenheimer, M.

    1980-02-01

    The chemistry of molecules in shocked regions of the interstellar gas is considered and calculations are carried out for a region subjected to a shock at a velocity of 8 km/sec. Substantial enhancements are predicted in the concentrations of the molecules H2S, SO, and SiO compared to those anticipated in cold interstellar clouds.

  8. How Culture Shock Affects Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barna, LaRay M.

    The paper defines the term "culture shock" and discusses the changes that this state can make in a person's behavior. Culture shock refers to the emotional and physiological reaction of high activation that is brought about by sudden immersion in a new culture. Because one's own culture shields one from the unknown and reduces the need to make…

  9. Molecular diagnostics of interstellar shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartquist, T. W.; Dalgarno, A.; Oppenheimer, M.

    1980-01-01

    The chemistry of molecules in shocked regions of the interstellar gas is considered and calculations are carried out for a region subjected to a shock at a velocity of 8 km/sec. Substantial enhancements are predicted in the concentrations of the molecules H2S, SO, and SiO compared to those anticipated in cold interstellar clouds.

  10. Shock wave treatment in medicine

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 30; Issue 2 ... In the present paper we discuss the basic theory and application of shock waves and its history in medicine. The idea behind using shock wave therapy for orthopedic diseases is the stimulation of healing in tendons, surrounding tissue and bones. This is a ...

  11. Shock wave treatment in medicine

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    to open surgery, the cost of the ESWT is very reasonable. But nevertheless it is necessary to improve the basic un ... In second group, shock waves are used to measure distances because of the low energy loss over large distances ... pared to a piezoelectric hydrophone. The rise time of an electrohydraulic generated shock ...

  12. Numerical modeling of slow shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winske, D.

    1987-01-01

    This paper reviews previous attempt and the present status of efforts to understand the structure of slow shocks by means of time dependent numerical calculations. Studies carried out using MHD or hybrid-kinetic codes have demonstrated qualitative agreement with theory. A number of unresolved issues related to hybrid simulations of the internal shock structure are discussed in some detail. 43 refs., 8 figs

  13. Dynamic shock wave: hammer blow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lackme, Claude

    1978-01-01

    The general properties of shocks, their generation and the conditions of reflexion to an interface are dealt with in turn. By then applying these concepts to a liquid column and its environment (wall, free area, closing devices) the hammer blow is presented as being a relatively weak shock [fr

  14. Slow shocks and their transition to fast shocks in the inner solar wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y.C.

    1987-01-01

    The jump conditions of MHD shocks may be directly calculated as functions of three upstream conditions: the shock Alfven number based on the normal component of the relative shock speed, the shock angle, and the plasma β value. The shock Alfven number is less than 1 for a slow shock and greater than 1 for a fast shock. A traveling, forward shock can be a slow shock in coronal space, where the Alfven speed is of the order of 1000 km/s. The surface of a forward slow shock has a bow-shaped geometry with its nose facing toward the sun. The decrease in the Alfven speed at increasing heliocentric distance causes the shock Alfven number of a forward slow shock to become greater than 1, and the shock eventually evolves from a slow shock into a fast shock. During the transition the shock system consists of a slow shock, a fast shock, and a rotational discontinuity. They intersect along a closed transition line. As the system moves outward from the sun, the area enclosed by the transition line expands, the fast shock grows stronger, and the slow shock becomes weaker. Eventually, the slow shock diminishes, and the entire shock system evolves into a forward fast shock. copyrightAmerican Geophysical Union 1987

  15. Shocking matter to extreme conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Y.M.; Sharma, S.M.

    1997-01-01

    A good understanding of the thermodynamic response of matter at high compression and high energy densities is important to several areas of physics. Shock-wave experiments are uniquely suited for obtaining data at extreme conditions, and a shock-compressed matter can be viewed as a condensed system with or without dissociation or as a strongly coupled plasma. This article reviews work by Da Silva et al. in which irradiances ranging from 5x10 superscript 12 to 2x10 superscript 14 W/cm 2 were used to generate 8- to 10-ns square pulses in liquid deuterium. The authors demonstrated negligible pre-heating of the sample, steady propagation of the shock wave, and direct determination of the shock wave velocity along with particle velocity and density in the shocked state. Da Silva et al. results are compared with models and other experimental information, and the usefulness of the data in other areas is assessed. 11 refs., 1 fig

  16. Electron transport and shock ignition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, A R; Tzoufras, M, E-mail: t.bell1@physics.ox.ac.uk [Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom)

    2011-04-15

    Inertial fusion energy (IFE) offers one possible route to commercial energy generation. In the proposed 'shock ignition' route to fusion, the target is compressed at a relatively low temperature and then ignited using high intensity laser irradiation which drives a strong converging shock into the centre of the fuel. With a series of idealized calculations we analyse the electron transport of energy into the target, which produces the pressure responsible for driving the shock. We show that transport in shock ignition lies near the boundary between ablative and heat front regimes. Moreover, simulations indicate that non-local effects are significant in the heat front regime and might lead to increased efficiency by driving the shock more effectively and reducing heat losses to the plasma corona.

  17. Oscillating nonlinear acoustic shock waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaididei, Yuri; Rasmussen, Anders Rønne; Christiansen, Peter Leth

    2016-01-01

    We investigate oscillating shock waves in a tube using a higher order weakly nonlinear acoustic model. The model includes thermoviscous effects and is non isentropic. The oscillating shock waves are generated at one end of the tube by a sinusoidal driver. Numerical simulations show that at resona......We investigate oscillating shock waves in a tube using a higher order weakly nonlinear acoustic model. The model includes thermoviscous effects and is non isentropic. The oscillating shock waves are generated at one end of the tube by a sinusoidal driver. Numerical simulations show...... polynomial in the space and time variables, we find analytical approximations to the observed single shock waves in an infinitely long tube. Using perturbation theory for the driven acoustic system approximative analytical solutions for the off resonant case are determined....

  18. Corticosteroids in the treatment of dengue shock syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajapakse, Senaka; Rodrigo, Chaturaka; Maduranga, Sachith; Rajapakse, Anoja Chamarie

    2014-01-01

    Dengue infection causes significant morbidity and mortality in over 100 countries worldwide, and its incidence is on the rise. The pathophysiological basis for the development of severe dengue, characterized by plasma leakage and the "shock syndrome" are poorly understood. No specific treatment or vaccine is available, and careful monitoring and judicious administration of fluids forms the mainstay of management at present. It is postulated that vascular endothelial dysfunction, induced by cytokine and chemical mediators, is an important mechanism of plasma leakage. Although corticosteroids are potent modulators of the immune system, their role in pharmacological doses in modulating the purported immunological effects that take place in severe dengue has been a subject of controversy. The key evidence related to the role of corticosteroids for various manifestations of dengue are reviewed here. In summary, there is currently no high-quality evidence supporting the beneficial effects of corticosteroids for treatment of shock, prevention of serious complications, or increasing platelet counts. Non-randomized trials of corticosteroids given as rescue medication for severe shock have shown possible benefit. Nonetheless, the evidence base is small, and good-quality trials are lacking. We reiterate the need for well-designed and adequately powered randomized controlled trials of corticosteroids for the treatment of dengue shock.

  19. Doxorubicin impairs the insulin-like growth factor-1 system and causes insulin-like growth factor-1 resistance in cardiomyocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Fabbi

    Full Text Available Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 promotes the survival of cardiomyocytes by activating type 1 IGF receptor (IGF-1R. Within the myocardium, IGF-1 action is modulated by IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3, which sequesters IGF-1 away from IGF-1R. Since cardiomyocyte apoptosis is implicated in anthracycline cardiotoxicity, we investigated the effects of the anthracycline, doxorubicin, on the IGF-1 system in H9c2 cardiomyocytes.Besides inducing apoptosis, concentrations of doxorubicin comparable to those observed in patients after bolus infusion (0.1-1 µM caused a progressive decrease in IGF-1R and increase in IGFBP-3 expression. Exogenous IGF-1 was capable to rescue cardiomyocytes from apoptosis triggered by 0.1 and 0.5 µM, but not 1 µM doxorubicin. The loss of response to IGF-1 was paralleled by a significant reduction in IGF-1 availability and signaling, as assessed by free hormone levels in conditioned media and Akt phosphorylation in cell lysates, respectively. Doxorubicin also dose-dependently induced p53, which is known to repress the transcription of IGF1R and induce that of IGFBP3. Pre-treatment with the p53 inhibitor, pifithrin-α, prevented apoptosis and the changes in IGF-1R and IGFBP-3 elicited by doxorubicin. The decrease in IGF-1R and increase in IGFBP-3, as well as apoptosis, were also antagonized by pre-treatment with the antioxidant agents, N-acetylcysteine, dexrazoxane, and carvedilol.Doxorubicin down-regulates IGF-1R and up-regulates IGFBP-3 via p53 and oxidative stress in H9c2 cells. This leads to resistance to IGF-1 that may contribute to doxorubicin-initiated apoptosis. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings in human cardiomyocytes and explore the possibility of manipulating the IGF-1 axis to protect against anthracycline cardiotoxicity.

  20. Plasma waves in the Earth's foreshock, bow shock, and magnetosheath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onsager, T.G.

    1988-01-01

    The research presented in this dissertation is a detailed analysis of electrostatic waves in the Earth's foreshock, bow shock, and magnetosheath. The wave modes measured in these regions, the possible generation mechanisms, and the process which drive the plasma to its unstable state are investigated. The measurements used in this study were obtained from the plasma wave receiver, the particle instrument, and the magnetometer on board the Active Magnetospheric Particle Tracer Explorer (AMPTE) Ion Release Module (IRM). Electron beam mode waves have been identified in the Earth's foreshock. A technique is developed which allows the rest frame frequency and wave number of the electron beam mode waves to be determined from the measurements. The experimentally determined values are compared with theoretical predictions, and approximate limits are put on the beam temperatures. It is demonstrated that electrostatic waves are present in the bow shock and magnetosheath with frequencies above the maximum frequency for Doppler shifted ion acoustic waves, yet below the Langmuir frequency. Waves in this frequency range are tentatively identified as electron beam mode waves. This identification is based on the measured frequencies and electric field polarization directions. Data from 45 bow shock crossings are then used to investigate possible correlations between the electron beam mode waves and the near shock plasma parameters. The best correlations are found with Alfven Mach number and electron beta. Possible mechanism which might produce electron beams in the shock and magnetosheath are discussed in terms of the correlation study results

  1. Shock waves & explosions

    CERN Document Server

    Sachdev, PL

    2004-01-01

    Understanding the causes and effects of explosions is important to experts in a broad range of disciplines, including the military, industrial and environmental research, aeronautic engineering, and applied mathematics. Offering an introductory review of historic research, Shock Waves and Explosions brings analytic and computational methods to a wide audience in a clear and thorough way. Beginning with an overview of the research on combustion and gas dynamics in the 1970s and 1980s, the author brings you up to date by covering modeling techniques and asymptotic and perturbative methods and ending with a chapter on computational methods.Most of the book deals with the mathematical analysis of explosions, but computational results are also included wherever they are available. Historical perspectives are provided on the advent of nonlinear science, as well as on the mathematical study of the blast wave phenomenon, both when visualized as a point explosion and when simulated as the expansion of a high-pressure ...

  2. Analysis of shock implosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishkin, E.A.; Alejaldre, C. (Polytechnic Inst. of New York, Brooklyn (USA))

    1984-06-01

    An imploding shock wave, coming from infinity, moves through an ideal gas with the adiabatic constant ..gamma... To define a single-valued self-similar coefficient over the whole classical interval 1<..gamma..

  3. The cosmic-ray shock structure problem for relativistic shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, G. M.

    1985-01-01

    The time asymptotic behaviour of a relativistic (parallel) shock wave significantly modified by the diffusive acceleration of cosmic-rays is investigated by means of relativistic hydrodynamical equations for both the cosmic-rays and thermal gas. The form of the shock structure equation and the dispersion relation for both long and short wavelength waves in the system are obtained. The dependence of the shock acceleration efficiency on the upstream fluid spped, long wavelength Mach number and the ratio N = P sub co/cP sub co+P sub go)(Psub co and P sub go are the upstream cosmic-ray and thermal gas pressures respectively) are studied.

  4. Cosmic-ray shock acceleration in oblique MHD shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, G. M.; Drury, L. OC.; Volk, H. J.

    1986-01-01

    A one-dimensional, steady-state hydrodynamical model of cosmic-ray acceleration at oblique MHD shocks is presented. Upstream of the shock the incoming thermal plasma is subject to the adverse pressure gradient of the accelerated particles, the J x B force, as well as the thermal gas pressure gradient. The efficiency of the acceleration of cosmic-rays at the shock as a function of the upstream magnetic field obliquity and upstream plasma beta is investigated. Astrophysical applications of the results are briefly discussed.

  5. Transforming in-situ observations of CME-driven shock accelerated protons into the shock's reference frame.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Robinson

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available We examine the solar energetic particle event following solar activity from 14, 15 April 2001 which includes a "bump-on-the-tail" in the proton energy spectra at 0.99 AU from the Sun. We find this population was generated by a CME-driven shock which arrived at 0.99 AU around midnight 18 April. As such this population represents an excellent opportunity to study in isolation, the effects of proton acceleration by the shock. The peak energy of the bump-on-the-tail evolves to progressively lower energies as the shock approaches the observing spacecraft at the inner Lagrange point. Focusing on the evolution of this peak energy we demonstrate a technique which transforms these in-situ spectral observations into a frame of reference co-moving with the shock whilst making allowance for the effects of pitch angle scattering and focusing. The results of this transform suggest the bump-on-the-tail population was not driven by the 15 April activity but was generated or at least modulated by a CME-driven shock which left the Sun on 14 April. The existence of a bump-on-the-tail population is predicted by models in Rice et al. (2003 and Li et al. (2003 which we compare with observations and the results of our analysis in the context of both the 14 April and 15 April CMEs. We find an origin of the bump-on-the-tail at the 14 April CME-driven shock provides better agreement with these modelled predictions although some discrepancy exists as to the shock's ability to accelerate 100 MeV protons.

    Keywords. Solar physics, astrophysics and astronomy (Energetic particles; Flares and mass ejections – Space plasma physics (Transport processes

  6. Chondrule destruction in nebular shocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacquet, Emmanuel; Thompson, Christopher, E-mail: ejacquet@mnhn.fr [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 60 St George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada)

    2014-12-10

    Chondrules are millimeter-sized silicate spherules ubiquitous in primitive meteorites, but whose origin remains mysterious. One of the main proposed mechanisms for producing them is melting of solids in shock waves in the gaseous protoplanetary disk. However, evidence is mounting that chondrule-forming regions were enriched in solids well above solar abundances. Given the high velocities involved in shock models, destructive collisions would be expected between differently sized grains after passage of the shock front as a result of differential drag. We investigate the probability and outcome of collisions of particles behind a one-dimensional shock using analytic methods as well as a full integration of the coupled mass, momentum, energy, and radiation equations. Destruction of protochondrules seems unavoidable for solid/gas ratios ε ≳ 0.1, and possibly even for solar abundances because of 'sandblasting' by finer dust. A flow with ε ≳ 10 requires much smaller shock velocities (∼2 versus 8 km s{sup –1}) in order to achieve chondrule-melting temperatures, and radiation trapping allows slow cooling of the shocked fragments. Initial destruction would still be extensive; although re-assembly of millimeter-sized particles would naturally occur by grain sticking afterward, the compositional heterogeneity of chondrules may be difficult to reproduce. We finally note that solids passing through small-scale bow shocks around few kilometer-sized planetesimals might experience partial melting and yet escape fragmentation.

  7. The Whitham approach to dispersive shocks in systems with cubic–quintic nonlinearities

    KAUST Repository

    Crosta, M

    2012-09-12

    By employing a rigorous approach based on the Whitham modulation theory, we investigate dispersive shock waves arising in a high-order nonlinear Schrödinger equation with competing cubic and quintic nonlinear responses. This model finds important applications in both nonlinear optics and Bose–Einstein condensates. Our theory predicts the formation of dispersive shocks with totally controllable properties, encompassing both steering and compression effects. Numerical simulations confirm these results perfectly. Quite remarkably, shock tuning can be achieved in the regime of a very small high order, i.e. quintic, nonlinearity.

  8. Numerical analysis of three-dimensional MHD shock interactions in an inhomogeneous medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prndergast, M.; Wu, S.T.

    1987-01-01

    Study of the formation and propagation of solar-originated shock waves in heliospheric space has attracted significant attention in the past decade. This attention is important because the propagation of shocks in heliospheric space has been thought of as one of the major physical processes for solar wind and cosmic ray modulations and their subsequent influence on the earth's environment. A version of the two step Lax-Wendroff difference method is used to seek solutions of the unsteady magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations for the study of a solar flare generated shock wave propagating through an inhomogeneous medium. 8 references

  9. The Whitham approach to dispersive shocks in systems with cubic–quintic nonlinearities

    KAUST Repository

    Crosta, M; Trillo, S; Fratalocchi, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    By employing a rigorous approach based on the Whitham modulation theory, we investigate dispersive shock waves arising in a high-order nonlinear Schrödinger equation with competing cubic and quintic nonlinear responses. This model finds important applications in both nonlinear optics and Bose–Einstein condensates. Our theory predicts the formation of dispersive shocks with totally controllable properties, encompassing both steering and compression effects. Numerical simulations confirm these results perfectly. Quite remarkably, shock tuning can be achieved in the regime of a very small high order, i.e. quintic, nonlinearity.

  10. Simulation of mechanical shock environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lalanne, Christian.

    1975-07-01

    Shocks can produce a severe mechanical environment which must be taken into account when designing and developing new equipments. After some mathematical (Laplace and Fourier transforms) and mechanical recalls (response of a one degree freedom system to a sinusoidal excitation), different analysis methods are compared, these methods being the most used now to compare relative severities of tests and establish specifications. A few chapter deal with the different properties of simple, easy to produce, shock shapes. Then some now-in-use programmators or shock-machines specifications are shown. A final chapter concerns acceleration transducers [fr

  11. Particle acceleration in modified shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drury, L.O'C.; Axford, W.I.; Summers, D.

    1982-01-01

    Efficient particle acceleration in shocks must modify the shock structure with consequent changes in the particle acceleration. This effect is studied and analytic solutions are found describing the diffusive acceleration of particles with momentum independent diffusion coefficients in hyperbolic tangent type velocity transitions. If the input particle spectrum is a delta function, the shock smoothing replaces the truncated power-law downstream particle spectrum by a more complicated form, but one which has a power-law tail at high momenta. For a cold plasma this solution can be made completely self-consistent. Some problems associated with momentum dependent diffusion coefficients are discussed. (author)

  12. INTERFERENCE OF COUNTERPROPAGATING SHOCK WAVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. Bulat

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The subject of study. We examined the interaction of counterpropagating shock waves. The necessity of counterpropagating shock waves studying occurs at designing of high Mach number modern internal compression air intakes, Ramjets with subsonic and supersonic combustion, in asymmetrical supersonic nozzles and in some other cases. In a sense, this problem is a generalization of the case of an oblique shock reflection from the wall or from the plane of symmetry. With the renewed vigor, the interest to this problem emerged at the end of the 90s. This was due to the start of the programs for flight study at hypersonic speeds. The first experiments performed with air intakes, which realized the interaction of counterpropagating shock waves have shown that the change in flow velocity is accompanied by abrupt alteration of shock-wave structure, the occurrence of nonstationary and oscillatory phenomena. With an increase of flow velocity these phenomena undesirable for aircraft structure became more marked. The reason is that there are two fundamentally different modes of interaction of counterpropagating shock waves: a four-wave regular and a five-wave irregular. The transition from one mode to another can be nonstationary abrupt or gradual, it can also be accompanied by hysteresis. Main results. Criteria for the transition from regular reflection of counterpropagating shock waves to irregular are described: the criterion of von Neumann and the stationary Mach configuration criterion. We described areas in which the transition from one reflection type to another is possible only in abrupt way, as well as areas of possible gradual transition. Intensity dependences of the reflected shock waves from the intensity of interacting counterpropagating shocks were given. Qualitative pictures of shock-wave structures arising from the interaction of counterpropagating shock waves were shown. Calculation results of the intensity of outgoing gas

  13. Particle acceleration in modified shocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drury, L.O' C. (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany, F.R.)); Axford, W.I. (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Aeronomie, Katlenburg-Lindau (Germany, F.R.)); Summers, D. (Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. John' s (Canada))

    1982-03-01

    Efficient particle acceleration in shocks must modify the shock structure with consequent changes in the particle acceleration. This effect is studied and analytic solutions are found describing the diffusive acceleration of particles with momentum independent diffusion coefficients in hyperbolic tangent type velocity transitions. If the input particle spectrum is a delta function, the shock smoothing replaces the truncated power-law downstream particle spectrum by a more complicated form, but one which has a power-law tail at high momenta. For a cold plasma this solution can be made completely self-consistent. Some problems associated with momentum dependent diffusion coefficients are discussed.

  14. Shocks in the Early Universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pen, Ue-Li; Turok, Neil

    2016-09-23

    We point out a surprising consequence of the usually assumed initial conditions for cosmological perturbations. Namely, a spectrum of Gaussian, linear, adiabatic, scalar, growing mode perturbations not only creates acoustic oscillations of the kind observed on very large scales today, it also leads to the production of shocks in the radiation fluid of the very early Universe. Shocks cause departures from local thermal equilibrium as well as create vorticity and gravitational waves. For a scale-invariant spectrum and standard model physics, shocks form for temperatures 1  GeVUniverse as early as 10^{-30}  sec after the big bang.

  15. Shock parameter calculations at weak interplanetary shock waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Gloag

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available A large set of interplanetary shock waves observed using the Ulysses spacecraft is analysed in order to determine their local parameters. For the first time a detailed analysis is extended to the thermodynamic properties of a large number of events. The intention is to relate the shock parameters to the requirements set by MHD shock theory. A uniform approach is adopted in the selection of up and downstream regions for this analysis and applied to all the shock waves. Initially, the general case of a 3 component adiabatic plasma is considered. However, the calculation of magnetosonic and Alfvénic Mach numbers and the ratio of downstream to upstream entropy produce some unexpected results. In some cases there is no clear increase in entropy across the shock and also the magnetosonic Mach number can be less than 1. It is found that a more discerning use of data along with an empirical value for the polytropic index can raise the distribution of downstream to upstream entropy ratios to a more acceptable level. However, it is also realised that many of these shocks are at the very weakest end of the spectrum and associated phenomena may also contribute to the explanation of these results.

  16. Quasilinear simulations of interplanetary shocks and Earth's bow shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afanasiev, Alexandr; Battarbee, Markus; Ganse, Urs; Vainio, Rami; Palmroth, Minna; Pfau-Kempf, Yann; Hoilijoki, Sanni; von Alfthan, Sebastian

    2016-04-01

    We have developed a new self-consistent Monte Carlo simulation model for particle acceleration in shocks. The model includes a prescribed large-scale magnetic field and plasma density, temperature and velocity profiles and a self-consistently computed incompressible ULF foreshock under the quasilinear approximation. Unlike previous analytical treatments, our model is time dependent and takes full account of the anisotropic particle distributions and scattering in the wave-particle interaction process. We apply the model to the problem of particle acceleration at traveling interplanetary (IP) shocks and Earth's bow shock and compare the results with hybrid-Vlasov simulations and spacecraft observations. A qualitative agreement in terms of spectral shape of the magnetic fluctuations and the polarization of the unstable mode is found between the models and the observations. We will quantify the differences of the models and explore the region of validity of the quasilinear approach in terms of shock parameters. We will also compare the modeled IP shocks and the bow shock, identifying the similarities and differences in the spectrum of accelerated particles and waves in these scenarios. The work has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 637324 (HESPERIA). The Academy of Finland is thanked for financial support. We acknowledge the computational resources provided by CSC - IT Centre for Science Ltd., Espoo.

  17. Diaphragmless shock wave generators for industrial applications of shock waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariharan, M. S.; Janardhanraj, S.; Saravanan, S.; Jagadeesh, G.

    2011-06-01

    The prime focus of this study is to design a 50 mm internal diameter diaphragmless shock tube that can be used in an industrial facility for repeated loading of shock waves. The instantaneous rise in pressure and temperature of a medium can be used in a variety of industrial applications. We designed, fabricated and tested three different shock wave generators of which one system employs a highly elastic rubber membrane and the other systems use a fast acting pneumatic valve instead of conventional metal diaphragms. The valve opening speed is obtained with the help of a high speed camera. For shock generation systems with a pneumatic cylinder, it ranges from 0.325 to 1.15 m/s while it is around 8.3 m/s for the rubber membrane. Experiments are conducted using the three diaphragmless systems and the results obtained are analyzed carefully to obtain a relation between the opening speed of the valve and the amount of gas that is actually utilized in the generation of the shock wave for each system. The rubber membrane is not suitable for industrial applications because it needs to be replaced regularly and cannot withstand high driver pressures. The maximum shock Mach number obtained using the new diaphragmless system that uses the pneumatic valve is 2.125 ± 0.2%. This system shows much promise for automation in an industrial environment.

  18. Shock wave dynamics derivatives and related topics

    CERN Document Server

    Emanuel, George

    2012-01-01

    "...this monograph develops an esoteric niche within shock wave theory. …treats shock waves from an analytical approach assuming perfect gas. Emanuel has made significant contributions to the theory of shock waves and has selected a number of topics that reflect those contributions."-Shock Waves, 2013.

  19. The histone deacetylase inhibitor, Vorinostat, represses hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha expression through translational inhibition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren M Hutt

    Full Text Available Hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α is a master regulator of tumor angiogenesis being one of the major targets for cancer therapy. Previous studies have shown that Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors (HDACi block tumor angiogenesis through the inhibition of HIF-1α expression. As such, Vorinostat (Suberoylanilide Hydroxamic Acid/SAHA and Romidepsin, two HDACis, were recently approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA for the treatment of cutaneous T cell lymphoma. Although HDACis have been shown to affect HIF-1α expression by modulating its interactions with the Hsp70/Hsp90 chaperone axis or its acetylation status, the molecular mechanisms by which HDACis inhibit HIF-1α expression need to be further characterized. Here, we report that the FDA-approved HDACi Vorinostat/SAHA inhibits HIF-1α expression in liver cancer-derived cell lines, by a new mechanism independent of p53, prolyl-hydroxylases, autophagy and proteasome degradation. We found that SAHA or silencing of HDAC9 mechanism of action is due to inhibition of HIF-1α translation, which in turn, is mediated by the eukaryotic translation initiation factor--eIF3G. We also highlighted that HIF-1α translation is dramatically inhibited when SAHA is combined with eIF3H silencing. Taken together, we show that HDAC activity regulates HIF-1α translation, with HDACis such as SAHA representing a potential novel approach for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma.

  20. Nonlinearity, Conservation Law and Shocks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Almost all natural phenomena, and social and economic changes, .... reference moving with velocity c also by the same symbol x and ... abstract as can be seen from the publication of the book Shock Waves and Reaction Diffusion Equation.

  1. Shock Thermodynamic Applied Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Shock Thermodynamic Applied Research Facility (STAR) facility, within Sandia’s Solid Dynamic Physics Department, is one of a few institutions in the world with a...

  2. Target design for shock ignition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schurtz, G; Ribeyre, X; Lafon, M

    2010-01-01

    The conventional approach of laser driven inertial fusion involves the implosion of cryogenic shells of deuterium-tritium ice. At sufficiently high implosion velocities, the fuel ignites by itself from a central hot spot. In order to reduce the risks of hydrodynamic instabilities inherent to large implosion velocities, it was proposed to compress the fuel at low velocity, and ignite the compressed fuel by means of a convergent shock wave driven by an intense spike at the end of the laser pulse. This scheme, known as shock ignition, reduces the risks of shell break-up during the acceleration phase, but it may be impeded by a low coupling efficiency of the laser pulse with plasma at high intensities. This work provides a relationship between the implosion velocity and the laser intensity required to ignite the target by a shock. The operating domain of shock ignition at different energies is described.

  3. Undercuts by Laser Shock Forming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wielage, Hanna; Vollertsen, Frank

    2011-01-01

    In laser shock forming TEA-CO 2 -laser induced shock waves are used to form metal foils, such as aluminum or copper. The process utilizes an initiated plasma shock wave on the target surface, which leads to a forming of the foil. A challenge in forming technologies is the manufacturing of undercuts. By conventional forming methods these special forms are not feasible. In this article, it is presented that undercuts in the micro range can be produced by laser shock deep drawing. Different drawing die diameters, drawing die depths and the material aluminum in the thicknesses 20 and 50 μm were investigated. It will be presented that smaller die diameters facilitate undercuts compared to bigger die diameters. The phenomena can be explained by Barlow's formula. Furthermore, it is shown which maximum undercut depth at different die diameters can be reached. To this end, cross-sections of the different parameter combinations are displayed.

  4. Electric Shock Injuries in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Electric Shock Injuries in Children Page Content ​When the ... comes into direct contact with a source of electricity, the current passes through it, producing what's called ...

  5. Relativistic shocks and particle acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heavens, A.F.

    1988-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the fluid dynamics of relativistic shock waves, and use the results to calculate the spectral index of particles accelerated by the Fermi process in such shocks. We have calculated the distributions of Fermi-accelerated particles at shocks propagating into cold proton-electron plasma and also cold electron-positron plasma. We have considered two different power spectra for the scattering waves, and find, in contrast to the non-relativistic case, that the spectral index of the accelerated particles depends on the wave power spectrum. On the assumption of thermal equilibrium both upstream and downstream, we present some useful fits for the compression ratio of shocks propagating at arbitrary speeds into gas of any temperature. (author)

  6. Shock wave interaction with turbulence: Pseudospectral simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckingham, A.C.

    1986-01-01

    Shock waves amplify pre-existing turbulence. Shock tube and shock wave boundary layer interaction experiments provide qualitative confirmation. However, shock pressure, temperature, and rapid transit complicate direct measurement. Computational simulations supplement the experimental data base and help isolate the mechanisms responsible. Simulations and experiments, particularly under reflected shock wave conditions, significantly influence material mixing. In these pseudospectral Navier-Stokes simulations the shock wave is treated as either a moving (tracked or fitted) domain boundary. The simulations assist development of code mix models. Shock Mach number and pre-existing turbulence intensity initially emerge as key parameters. 20 refs., 8 figs

  7. The Efficacy of Cognitive Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-21

    way, causing dissonance or cognitive conflict, so that the mental model has to be ‘accommodated’ to the new data. Categories and knowledge have to...The Efficacy of Cognitive Shock A Monograph by MAJ Anthony L. Marston United States Army School of Advanced Military Studies...DATES COVERED (From - To) JUN 2014 – MAY 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Efficacy of Cognitive Shock 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  8. Pressurized Thermal Shock, Pts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, C.

    2008-01-01

    Pressurized Thermal Shock (Pts) refers to a condition that challenges the integrity of the reactor pressure vessel. The root cause of this problem is the radiation embrittlement of the reactor vessel. This embrittlement leads to an increase in the reference temperature for nil ductility transition (RTNDT). RTNDT can increase to the point where the reactor vessel material can loose fracture toughness during overcooling events. The analysis of the risk of having a Pts for a specific plant is a multi-disciplinary problem involving probabilistic risk analysis (PRA), thermal-hydraulic analysis, and ultimately a structural and fracture analysis of the vessel wall. The PRA effort involves the postulation of overcooling events and ultimately leads to an integrated risk analysis. The thermal-hydraulic effort involves the difficult task of predicting the system behavior during a postulated overcooling scenario with a special emphasis on predicting the thermal and mechanic loadings on the reactor pressure vessel wall. The structural and fracture analysis of the reactor vessel wall relies on the thermal-hydraulic conditions as boundary conditions. The US experience has indicated that medium and large diameter primary system breaks dominate the risk of Pts along with scenarios that involve a stuck open valve (and associated system cooldown) that recloses resulting in system re-pressurization while the vessel wall is cool.

  9. Sepsis and septic shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotchkiss, Richard S.; Moldawer, Lyle L.; Opal, Steven M.; Reinhart, Konrad; Turnbull, Isaiah R.; Vincent, Jean-Louis

    2017-01-01

    For more than two decades, sepsis was defined as a microbial infection that produces fever (or hypothermia), tachycardia, tachypnoea and blood leukocyte changes. Sepsis is now increasingly being considered a dysregulated systemic inflammatory and immune response to microbial invasion that produces organ injury for which mortality rates are declining to 15–25%. Septic shock remains defined as sepsis with hyperlactataemia and concurrent hypotension requiring vasopressor therapy, with in-hospital mortality rates approaching 30–50%. With earlier recognition and more compliance to best practices, sepsis has become less of an immediate life-threatening disorder and more of a long-term chronic critical illness, often associated with prolonged inflammation, immune suppression, organ injury and lean tissue wasting. Furthermore, patients who survive sepsis have continuing risk of mortality after discharge, as well as long-term cognitive and functional deficits. Earlier recognition and improved implementation of best practices have reduced in-hospital mortality, but results from the use of immunomodulatory agents to date have been disappointing. Similarly, no biomarker can definitely diagnose sepsis or predict its clinical outcome. Because of its complexity, improvements in sepsis outcomes are likely to continue to be slow and incremental. PMID:28117397

  10. Focusing of Shear Shock Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giammarinaro, Bruno; Espíndola, David; Coulouvrat, François; Pinton, Gianmarco

    2018-01-01

    Focusing is a ubiquitous way to transform waves. Recently, a new type of shock wave has been observed experimentally with high-frame-rate ultrasound: shear shock waves in soft solids. These strongly nonlinear waves are characterized by a high Mach number, because the shear wave velocity is much slower, by 3 orders of magnitude, than the longitudinal wave velocity. Furthermore, these waves have a unique cubic nonlinearity which generates only odd harmonics. Unlike longitudinal waves for which only compressional shocks are possible, shear waves exhibit cubic nonlinearities which can generate positive and negative shocks. Here we present the experimental observation of shear shock wave focusing, generated by the vertical motion of a solid cylinder section embedded in a soft gelatin-graphite phantom to induce linearly vertically polarized motion. Raw ultrasound data from high-frame-rate (7692 images per second) acquisitions in combination with algorithms that are tuned to detect small displacements (approximately 1 μ m ) are used to generate quantitative movies of gel motion. The features of shear shock wave focusing are analyzed by comparing experimental observations with numerical simulations of a retarded-time elastodynamic equation with cubic nonlinearities and empirical attenuation laws for soft solids.

  11. Shock compression of synthetic opal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, A; Okuno, M; Okudera, H; Mashimo, T; Omurzak, E; Katayama, S; Koyano, M

    2010-01-01

    Structural change of synthetic opal by shock-wave compression up to 38.1 GPa has been investigated by using SEM, X-ray diffraction method (XRD), Infrared (IR) and Raman spectroscopies. Obtained information may indicate that the dehydration and polymerization of surface silanole due to high shock and residual temperature are very important factors in the structural evolution of synthetic opal by shock compression. Synthetic opal loses opalescence by 10.9 and 18.4 GPa of shock pressures. At 18.4 GPa, dehydration and polymerization of surface silanole and transformation of network structure may occur simultaneously. The 4-membered ring of TO 4 tetrahedrons in as synthetic opal may be relaxed to larger ring such as 6-membered ring by high residual temperature. Therefore, the residual temperature may be significantly high at even 18.4 GPa of shock compression. At 23.9 GPa, opal sample recovered the opalescence. Origin of this opalescence may be its layer structure by shock compression. Finally, sample fuse by very high residual temperature at 38.1 GPa and the structure closes to that of fused SiO 2 glass. However, internal silanole groups still remain even at 38.1 GPa.

  12. Computations of slowly moving shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karni, S.; Canic, S.

    1997-01-01

    Computations of slowly moving shocks by shock capturing schemes may generate oscillations are generated already by first-order schemes, but become more pronounced in higher-order schemes which seem to exhibit different behaviors: (i) the first-order upwind (UW) scheme which generates strong oscillations and (ii) the Lax-Friedrichs scheme which appears not to generate any disturbances at all. A key observation is that in the UW case, the numerical viscosity in the shock family vanishes inside the slow shock layer. Simple scaling arguments show the third-order effects on the solution may no longer be neglected. We derive the third-order modified equation for the UW scheme and regard the oscillatory solution as a traveling wave solution of the parabolic modified equation for the perturbation. We then look at the governing equation for the perturbation, which points to a plausible mechanism by which postshock oscillations are generated. It contains a third-order source term that becomes significant inside the shock layer, and a nonlinear coupling term which projects the perturbation on all characteristic fields, including those not associated with the shock family. 5 refs., 8 figs

  13. Shock compression of synthetic opal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, A.; Okuno, M.; Okudera, H.; Mashimo, T.; Omurzak, E.; Katayama, S.; Koyano, M.

    2010-03-01

    Structural change of synthetic opal by shock-wave compression up to 38.1 GPa has been investigated by using SEM, X-ray diffraction method (XRD), Infrared (IR) and Raman spectroscopies. Obtained information may indicate that the dehydration and polymerization of surface silanole due to high shock and residual temperature are very important factors in the structural evolution of synthetic opal by shock compression. Synthetic opal loses opalescence by 10.9 and 18.4 GPa of shock pressures. At 18.4 GPa, dehydration and polymerization of surface silanole and transformation of network structure may occur simultaneously. The 4-membered ring of TO4 tetrahedrons in as synthetic opal may be relaxed to larger ring such as 6-membered ring by high residual temperature. Therefore, the residual temperature may be significantly high at even 18.4 GPa of shock compression. At 23.9 GPa, opal sample recovered the opalescence. Origin of this opalescence may be its layer structure by shock compression. Finally, sample fuse by very high residual temperature at 38.1 GPa and the structure closes to that of fused SiO2 glass. However, internal silanole groups still remain even at 38.1 GPa.

  14. Shock compression of synthetic opal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, A; Okuno, M; Okudera, H [Department of Earth Sciences, Kanazawa University Kanazawa, Ishikawa, 920-1192 (Japan); Mashimo, T; Omurzak, E [Shock Wave and Condensed Matter Research Center, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, 860-8555 (Japan); Katayama, S; Koyano, M, E-mail: okuno@kenroku.kanazawa-u.ac.j [JAIST, Nomi, Ishikawa, 923-1297 (Japan)

    2010-03-01

    Structural change of synthetic opal by shock-wave compression up to 38.1 GPa has been investigated by using SEM, X-ray diffraction method (XRD), Infrared (IR) and Raman spectroscopies. Obtained information may indicate that the dehydration and polymerization of surface silanole due to high shock and residual temperature are very important factors in the structural evolution of synthetic opal by shock compression. Synthetic opal loses opalescence by 10.9 and 18.4 GPa of shock pressures. At 18.4 GPa, dehydration and polymerization of surface silanole and transformation of network structure may occur simultaneously. The 4-membered ring of TO{sub 4} tetrahedrons in as synthetic opal may be relaxed to larger ring such as 6-membered ring by high residual temperature. Therefore, the residual temperature may be significantly high at even 18.4 GPa of shock compression. At 23.9 GPa, opal sample recovered the opalescence. Origin of this opalescence may be its layer structure by shock compression. Finally, sample fuse by very high residual temperature at 38.1 GPa and the structure closes to that of fused SiO{sub 2} glass. However, internal silanole groups still remain even at 38.1 GPa.

  15. Electromagnetically driven radiative shocks and their measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, K.; Watanabe, M.; Nakajima, M.; Kawamura, T.; Horioka, K.

    2005-01-01

    Experimental results on a generation of strong shocks in a compact pulse power device are reported. The characteristics of strong shocks are different from hydrodynamical shocks' because they depend on not only collisions but radiation processes. Radiative shocks are relevant to high energy density phenomena such as the explosions of supernovae. When initial pressure is lower than about 50 mtorr, an interesting structure is confirmed at the shock front, which might indicate a phenomenon proceeded by the radiative process. (author)

  16. Age-related changes in Serum Growth Hormone, Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 and Somatostatin in System Lupus Erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malemud Charles J

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systemic lupus erythematosus is an age- and gender-associated autoimmune disorder. Previous studies suggested that defects in the hypothalamic/pituitary axis contributed to systemic lupus erythematosus disease progression which could also involve growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor-1 and somatostatin function. This study was designed to compare basal serum growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor-1 and somatostatin levels in female systemic lupus erythematosus patients to a group of normal female subjects. Methods Basal serum growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor-1 and somatostatin levels were measured by standard radioimmunoassay. Results Serum growth hormone levels failed to correlate with age (r2 = 3.03 in the entire group of normal subjects (i.e. 20 – 80 years. In contrast, serum insulin-like growth factor-1 levels were inversely correlated with age (adjusted r2 = 0.092. Of note, serum growth hormone was positively correlated with age (adjusted r2 = 0.269 in the 20 – 46 year range which overlapped with the age range of patients in the systemic lupus erythematosus group. In that regard, serum growth hormone levels were not significantly higher compared to either the entire group of normal subjects (20 – 80 yrs or to normal subjects age-matched to the systemic lupus erythematosus patients. Serum insulin-like growth factor-1 levels were significantly elevated (p 55 yrs systemic lupus erythematosus patients. Conclusions These results indicated that systemic lupus erythematosus was not characterized by a modulation of the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1 paracrine axis when serum samples from systemic lupus erythematosus patients were compared to age- matched normal female subjects. These results in systemic lupus erythematosus differ from those previously reported in other musculoskeletal disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, fibromyalgia, diffuse idiopathic skeletal

  17. Pressurized thermal shock (PTS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosso, Ricardo D.; Ventura, Mirta A.

    2006-01-01

    In the present work, a description of Thermal Shock in Pressurized conditions (PTS), and its influence in the treatment of the integrity of the pressure vessel (RPV) of a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) and/or of a Heavy water Pressurized water Reactor (PHWR) is made. Generally, the analysis of PTS involves a process of three stages: a-) Modeling with a System Code of relevant thermohydraulics transients in reference with the thermal shock; b-) The local distribution of temperatures in the downcomer and the heat transference coefficients from the RPV wall to the fluid, are determined; c-) The fracture mechanical analysis. These three stages are included in this work: Results with the thermohydraulics code Relap5/mod.3, are obtained, for a LOCA scenario in the hot leg of the cooling System of the Primary System of the CAN-I reactor. The method used in obtaining results is described. A study on the basis of lumped parameters of the local evolutions of the temperature of the flow is made, in the downcomer of the reactor pressure vessel. The purpose of this study is to determine how the intensification of the stress coefficient, varies in function of the emergency injected water during the thermohydraulic transients that take place under the imposed conditions in the postulated scene. Specially, it is considered a 50 cm 2 break, located in the neighborhoods of the pressurized with the corresponding hot leg connection. This size is considered like the most critical. The method used to obtain the results is described. The fracture mechanical analysis is made. From the obtained results we confirmed that we have a simple tool of easy application in order to analyze phenomena of the type PTS in the postulated scenes by break in the cold and hot legs of the primary system. This methodology of calculus is completely independent of the used ones by the Nucleoelectrica Argentina S.A. (NASA) in the analysis of the PTS phenomena in the CAN-I. The results obtained with the adopted

  18. Microstructure in two- and three-dimensional hybrid simulations of perpendicular collisionless shocks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Burgess, D.; Hellinger, Petr; Gingell, I.; Trávníček, Pavel M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 82, č. 4 (2016), 905820401/1-905820401/23 ISSN 0022-3778 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : ion-acceleration * numerical simulations * bow shock * electron acceleration * cluster observations * self-reformation * magnetic-field * whistler waves * injection * nonstationarity Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.160, year: 2016 https://www.cambridge.org/core/ journals /journal-of-plasma-physics/article/microstructure-in-two-and-three-dimensional-hybrid-simulations-of-perpendicular-collisionless-shocks/F964EF89FB14A6504A49CFAD54970E2B

  19. Radiation- and pair-loaded shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyutikov, Maxim

    2018-06-01

    We consider the structure of mildly relativistic shocks in dense media, taking into account the radiation and pair loading, and diffusive radiation energy transfer within the flow. For increasing shock velocity (increasing post-shock temperature), the first important effect is the efficient energy redistribution by radiation within the shock that leads to the appearance of an isothermal jump, whereby the flow reaches the final state through a discontinuous isothermal transition. The isothermal jump, on scales much smaller than the photon diffusion length, consists of a weak shock and a quick relaxation to the isothermal conditions. Highly radiation-dominated shocks do not form isothermal jump. Pair production can mildly increase the overall shock compression ratio to ≈10 (4 for matter-dominated shocks and 7 of the radiation-dominated shocks).

  20. Prediction of massive bleeding. Shock index and modified shock index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terceros-Almanza, L J; García-Fuentes, C; Bermejo-Aznárez, S; Prieto-Del Portillo, I J; Mudarra-Reche, C; Sáez-de la Fuente, I; Chico-Fernández, M

    2017-12-01

    To determine the predictive value of the Shock Index and Modified Shock Index in patients with massive bleeding due to severe trauma. Retrospective cohort. Severe trauma patient's initial attention at the intensive care unit of a tertiary hospital. Patients older than 14 years that were admitted to the hospital with severe trauma (Injury Severity Score >15) form January 2014 to December 2015. We studied the sensitivity (Se), specificity (Sp), positive and negative predictive value (PV+ and PV-), positive and negative likelihood ratio (LR+ and LR-), ROC curves (Receiver Operating Characteristics) and the area under the same (AUROC) for prediction of massive hemorrhage. 287 patients were included, 76.31% (219) were male, mean age was 43,36 (±17.71) years and ISS was 26 (interquartile range [IQR]: 21-34). The overall frequency of massive bleeding was 8.71% (25). For Shock Index: AUROC was 0.89 (95% confidence intervals [CI] 0.84 to 0.94), with an optimal cutoff at 1.11, Se was 91.3% (95% CI: 73.2 to 97.58) and Sp was 79.69% (95% CI: 74.34 to 84.16). For the Modified Shock Index: AUROC was 0.90 (95% CI: 0.86 to 0.95), with an optimal cutoff at 1.46, Se was 95.65% (95% CI: 79.01 to 99.23) and Sp was 75.78% (95% CI: 70.18 to 80.62). Shock Index and Modified Shock Index are good predictors of massive bleeding and could be easily incorporated to the initial workup of patients with severe trauma. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  1. Mediator Recruitment to Heat Shock Genes Requires Dual Hsf1 Activation Domains and Mediator Tail Subunits Med15 and Med16*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sunyoung; Gross, David S.

    2013-01-01

    The evolutionarily conserved Mediator complex is central to the regulation of gene transcription in eukaryotes because it serves as a physical and functional interface between upstream regulators and the Pol II transcriptional machinery. Nonetheless, its role appears to be context-dependent, and the detailed mechanism by which it governs the expression of most genes remains unknown. Here we investigate Mediator involvement in HSP (heat shock protein) gene regulation in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We find that in response to thermal upshift, subunits representative of each of the four Mediator modules (Head, Middle, Tail, and Kinase) are rapidly, robustly, and selectively recruited to the promoter regions of HSP genes. Their residence is transient, returning to near-background levels within 90 min. Hsf1 (heat shock factor 1) plays a central role in recruiting Mediator, as indicated by the fact that truncation of either its N- or C-terminal activation domain significantly reduces Mediator occupancy, whereas removal of both activation domains abolishes it. Likewise, ablation of either of two Mediator Tail subunits, Med15 or Med16, reduces Mediator recruitment to HSP promoters, whereas deletion of both abolishes it. Accompanying the loss of Mediator, recruitment of RNA polymerase II is substantially diminished. Interestingly, Mediator antagonizes Hsf1 occupancy of non-induced promoters yet facilitates enhanced Hsf1 association with activated ones. Collectively, our observations indicate that Hsf1, via its dual activation domains, recruits holo-Mediator to HSP promoters in response to acute heat stress through cooperative physical and/or functional interactions with the Tail module. PMID:23447536

  2. Shock diffraction in alumina powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venz, G.; Killen, P.D.; Page, N.W.

    1996-01-01

    In order to produce complex shaped components by dynamic compaction of ceramic powders detailed knowledge of their response under shock loading conditions is required. This work attempts to provide data on release effects and shock attenuation in 1 μm and 5 μm α-alumina powders which were compacted to between 85 % and 95 % of the solid phase density by the impact of high velocity steel projectiles. As in previous work, the powder was loaded into large cylindrical dies with horizontal marker layers of a contrasting coloured powder to provide a record of powder displacement in the recovered specimens. After recovery and infiltration with a thermosetting resin the specimens were sectioned and polished to reveal the structure formed by the passage of the projectile and shock wave. Results indicate that the shock pressures generated were of the order of 0.5 to 1.4 GPa and higher, with shock velocities and sound speeds in the ranges 650 to 800 m/s and 350 to 400 m/s respectively

  3. Transient shocks beyond the heliopause

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fermo, R L; Pogorelov, N V; Burlaga, L F

    2015-01-01

    The heliopause is a rich, dynamic surface affected by the time-dependent solar wind. Stream interactions due to coronal mass ejections (CMEs), corotating interaction regions (CIRs), and other transient phenomena are known to merge producing global merged interaction regions (GMIRs). Numerical simulations of the solar wind interaction with the local interstellar medium (LISM) show that GMIRs, as well other time-dependent structures in the solar wind, may produce compression/rarefaction waves and shocks in the LISM behind the heliopause. These shocks may initiate wave activity observed by the Voyager spacecraft. The magnetometer onboard Voyager 1 indeed observed a few structures that may be interpreted as shocks. We present numerical simulations of such shocks in the year of 2000, when both Voyager spacecraft were in the supersonic solar wind region, and in 2012, when Voyager 1 observed traveling shocks. In the former case, Voyager observations themselves provide time- dependent boundary conditions in the solar wind. In the latter case, we use OMNI data at 1 AU to analyze the plasma and magnetic field behavior after Voyager 1 crossed the heliospheric boundary. Numerical results are compared with spacecraft observations. (paper)

  4. Energetic ion acceleration at collisionless shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, R. B.; Vlahos, L.

    1985-01-01

    An example is presented from a test particle simulation designed to study ion acceleration at oblique turbulent shocks. For conditions appropriate at interplanetary shocks near 1 AU, it is found that a shock with theta sub B n = 60 deg is capable of producing an energy spectrum extending from 10 keV to approx. 1 MeV in approx 1 hour. In this case total energy gains result primarily from several separate episodes of shock drift acceleration, each of which occurs when particles are scattered back to the shock by magnetic fluctuations in the shock vicinity.

  5. Energetic ion acceleration at collisionless shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decker, R.B.; Vlahos, L.

    1985-01-01

    An example is presented from a test particle simulation designed to study ion acceleration at oblique turbulent shocks. For conditions appropriate at interplanetary shocks near 1 AU, it is found that a shock with theta sub B n = 60 deg is capable of producing an energy spectrum extending from 10 keV to approx 1 MeV in approx 1 hour. In this case total energy gains result primarily from several separate episodes of shock drift acceleration, each of which occurs when particles are scattered back to the shock by magnetic fluctuations in the shock vicinity

  6. Why the Nature of Oil Shocks Matters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archanskaia, Elizaveta; Hubert, Paul; Creel, Jerome

    2009-03-01

    This article studies the impact of oil shocks on the macro-economy in two ways insofar unexploited in the literature. The analysis is conducted at the global level, and it explicitly accounts for the potentially changing nature of oil shocks. Based on an original world GDP series and a grouping of oil shocks according to their nature, we find that oil supply shocks negatively impact world growth, contrary to oil demand shocks, pro-cyclical in their nature. This result is robust at the national level for the US. Furthermore, endogenous monetary policy is shown to have no counter-cyclical effects in the context of an oil demand shock. (authors)

  7. MHD intermediate shock discontinuities: Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennel, C.F.; Blandford, R.D.; Coppi, P.

    1989-01-01

    Recent numerical investigations have focused attention once more on the role of intermediate shocks in MHD. Four types of intermediate shock are identified using a graphical representation of the MHD Rankine-Hugoniot conditions. This same representation can be used to exhibit the close relationship of intermediate shocks to switch-on shocks and rotational discontinuities. The conditions under which intermediate discontinuities can be found are elucidated. The variations in velocity, pressure, entropy and magnetic-field jumps with upstream parameters in intermediate shocks are exhibited graphically. The evolutionary arguments traditionally advanced against intermediate shocks may fail because the equations of classical MHD are not strictly hyperbolic. (author)

  8. Shock waves in weakly compressed granular media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Wildenberg, Siet; van Loo, Rogier; van Hecke, Martin

    2013-11-22

    We experimentally probe nonlinear wave propagation in weakly compressed granular media and observe a crossover from quasilinear sound waves at low impact to shock waves at high impact. We show that this crossover impact grows with the confining pressure P0, whereas the shock wave speed is independent of P0-two hallmarks of granular shocks predicted recently. The shocks exhibit surprising power law attenuation, which we model with a logarithmic law implying that shock dissipation is weak and qualitatively different from other granular dissipation mechanisms. We show that elastic and potential energy balance in the leading part of the shocks.

  9. Experimental Shock Damage Risk Assessment for New Generation TAS-B Plasmic Propulsion Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnier, J.; De Fruytier, C.

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents the methodology and the results of the shock test campaign conducted by TAS-B to qualify the PPU Mk2 unit in regards of increased shock levels.This unit supplies and controls two Plasma Thrusters used for satellite orbit keeping and attitude control. The PPU Mk2 unit mechanical design is based on a modular architecture. The different modules are mounted on a baseplate insuring thermal spreading and improved equipment flatness. The unit dimensions are 390 x 190 x 190 mm3 for a total mass of 11.5 kg.The PPU Mk2 contains several components sensitive to shock like specific inductors, transformers and relays. Due to an increasing of the shock specification in regards of the previous generation of PPU, it has been proposed to assess the good withstanding of these components and in order to mitigate the risks on the Qualification Model, a preliminary shock test has been performed on a Structural Model. This model is fully representative of the flight equipment in terms of mechanical interfaces and has been designed to have the same mechanical behaviour (same mass and main modes). Critical components have been embedded in this structural model in order to test their shock withstanding. Preliminary to this Structural Model, qualification at sensitive components levels has been performed through vibrations, shocks (half-sine) and thermal cycling. Evolution of the electrical main parameters has been followed to detect any degradation of the performance during this test campaigns.Then, the structural model has been instrumented to acquire the global behaviour of the equipment. Success criteria have been defined concerning mechanical behaviour before and after shocks, admissible electrical variations, visual inspections.After calibration phasis of the test bench, the shock test of the PPU Mk2 SM has been successfully conducted. The good test results allowed applying these shock levels confidently on the PPU Mk2 EQM model.

  10. Shock, diaschisis and von Monakow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliasz Engelhardt

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The concept of shock apparently emerged in the middle of the 18th century (Whyett as an occurrence observed experimentally after spinal cord transection, and identified as "shock" phenomenon one century later (Hall. The concept was extended (Brown-Séquard and it was suggested that brain lesions caused functional rupture in regions distant from the injured one ("action à distance". The term "diaschisis" (von Monakow, proposed as a new modality of shock, had its concept broadened, underpinned by observations of patients, aiming at distinguishing between symptoms of focal brain lesions and transitory effects they produced, attributable to depression of distant parts of the brain connected to the injured area. Presently, diaschisis is related mainly to cerebrovascular lesions and classified according to the connection fibers involved, as proposed by von Monakow. Depression of metabolism and blood flow in regions anatomically separated, but related by connections with the lesion, allows observing diaschisis with neuroimaging.

  11. Shock compression of geological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirk, S; Braithwaite, C; Williamson, D; Jardine, A

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the shock compression of geological materials is important for many applications, and is particularly important to the mining industry. During blast mining the response to shock loading determines the wave propagation speed and resulting fragmentation of the rock. The present work has studied the Hugoniot of two geological materials; Lake Quarry Granite and Gosford Sandstone. For samples of these materials, the composition was characterised in detail. The Hugoniot of Lake Quarry Granite was predicted from this information as the material is fully dense and was found to be in good agreement with the measured Hugoniot. Gosford Sandstone is porous and undergoes compaction during shock loading. Such behaviour is similar to other granular material and we show how it can be described using a P-a compaction model.

  12. Shock compression of simulated adobe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braithwaite, C. H.; Church, P. D.; Gould, P. J.; Stewart, B.; Jardine, A. P.

    2017-01-01

    A series of plate impact experiments were conducted to investigate the shock response of a simulant for adobe, a traditional form of building material widely used around the world. Air dried bricks were sourced from the London brick company, dry machined and impacted at a range of velocities in a single stage gas gun. The shock Hugoniot was determined (Us =2.26up+0.37) as well as release information. The material was found to behave in a manner which was similar to that of loose sand and considerably less stiff than a weak porous sandstone. The effect of any cementing of the grains was examined by shocking powdered samples contained within a cell arrangement.

  13. Effects of spaceflight and Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 on rat bone properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bateman, T.A.; Ayers, R.A.; Spetzler, M.L.; Simske, S.J. [BioServe Space Technologies University of Colorado Boulder, Colorado80309-0429 (United States); Zimmerman, R.J. [Chiron Corporation 4560 Horton Street Emeryville, California94608-2916 (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Spaceflight induces bone degradation which is analogous to an accelerated onset of osteoporosis in humans (Tilton {ital et al.}, 1980). In rats, decreased bone formation is indicative of reduced osteoblast activity (Morey and Baylink, 1978). Chiron Corporation (Emeryville, CA) is interested in using the microgravity environment of low-Earth-orbit to test its therapeutic drug, Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1). This pharmaceutic is known to promote osteoblast activity (Schmid {ital et al.}, 1984) and therefore may encourage bone growth in rats. Chiron sponsored the Immune.3 payload on STS-73 (May 19{endash}29, 1996) through its Center for Space Commercialization (CSC) partner BioServe Space Technologies (University of Colorado and Kansas State University) to investigate the effects of IGF-1 on mitigating the skeletal degradation that affects rats and humans during spaceflight. Twelve rats were flown for 10 days using two Animal Enclosure Modules (AEMs) provided by NASA Ames Research Center. Of the twelve, six received 1.4 mg/day of IGF-1; the other six saline. Sixteen vivarium ground controls received the same treatment on a one day delay. Rat femora and tibiae were examined for bone mineral density via DXA scan. Femora and humeri were measured for physical and compositional properties, as well as mechanically tested in three point flexure. Quantitative histomorphometric examination of tibiae, humeri, fibulae, ribs and cranial bone; and microhardness testing on tibiae and humeri are currently in progress. Flight humeri and vivarium femora were significantly larger than their counterparts; however, significant differences in mechanical properties and mineral density were not concurrent to these mass changes. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  14. Effects of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and amifostine in spinal cord reirradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieder, C.; Andratschke, N.; Price, R.E.; Rivera, B.; Ang, K. Kian

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To test whether insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and amifostine modulate the reirradiation tolerance of rat cervical spinal cord. Initial experiments by the authors' group suggested that administration of each agent alone significantly increased the median latent time to radiation myelopathy (RM) in previously unirradiated animals but did not change the dose-response relationship. Because of different modes of action, a follow-up study was undertaken to test the combined treatment. Material and Methods: The cervical spinal cord of 51 adult Fisher F-344 rats received a single fraction of 16 Gy, which corresponds to approximately 75% of the median paresis dose (ED 50 ), followed 5 months later by a second radiation dose, which ranged from 17 to 21 Gy. The study animals received a single intrathecal injection of 0.3 mg amifostine into the cisterna magna 30-60 min before reirradiation plus three subcutaneous doses of IGF-1 (700 μg) starting from 24 h before to 24 h after reirradiation. Control animals received saline injections via the same routes. Animals were followed until RM developed or until 12 months from reirradiation. Histopathologic examinations were performed post mortem. Results: No animals showed any neurologic abnormalities before reirradiation. RM occurred in controls versus treated rats after a mean latency of 218 versus 314 days (19 Gy; p=0.11) and 104 versus 186 days (21 Gy; p=0.002) from second dose (Figure 1). ED 50 was 18.2 versus 19.4 Gy (p=0.15; Figure 2). Treatment with IGF-1 and amifostine did not significantly influence the rates of tumor induction or intercurrent death. Conclusion: IGF-1 and amifostine significantly reduced RM rates after 21 Gy. The shift of the dose-response curve suggests an increase of the ED 50 for single-dose treatment by approximately 7%. Thus, brief therapeutic intervention might slightly decrease radiation-induced neurotoxicity in a retreatment situation. (orig.)

  15. Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 Preserves Salivary Gland Function After Fractionated Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limesand, Kirsten H.; Avila, Jennifer L.; Victory, Kerton; Chang, Hui-Hua; Shin, Yoon Joo; Grundmann, Oliver; Klein, Rob R.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Radiotherapy for head-and-neck cancer consists of fractionated radiation treatments that cause significant damage to salivary glands leading to chronic salivary gland dysfunction with only limited prevention and treatment options currently available. This study examines the feasibility of IGF-1 in preserving salivary gland function following a fractionated radiation treatment regimen in a pre-clinical model. Methods and Materials: Mice were exposed to fractionated radiation, and salivary gland function and histological analyses of structure, apoptosis, and proliferation were evaluated. Results: In this study, we report that treatment with fractionated doses of radiation results in a significant level of apoptotic cells in FVB mice after each fraction, which is significantly decreased in transgenic mice expressing a constitutively active mutant of Akt1 (myr-Akt1). Salivary gland function is significantly reduced in FVB mice exposed to fractionated radiation; however, myr-Akt1 transgenic mice maintain salivary function under the same treatment conditions. Injection into FVB mice of recombinant insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), which activates endogenous Akt, suppressed acute apoptosis and preserved salivary gland function after fractionated doses of radiation 30 to 90 days after treatment. FVB mice exposed to fractionated radiation had significantly lower levels of proliferating cell nuclear antigen-positive salivary acinar cells 90 days after treatment, which correlated with a chronic loss of function. In contrast, FVB mice injected with IGF-1 before each radiation treatment exhibited acinar cell proliferation rates similar to those of untreated controls. Conclusion: These studies suggest that activation of IGF-1-mediated pathways before head-and-neck radiation could modulate radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction and maintain glandular homeostasis.

  16. Shock Initiation of Damaged Explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chidester, S K; Vandersall, K S; Tarver, C M

    2009-10-22

    Explosive and propellant charges are subjected to various mechanical and thermal insults that can increase their sensitivity over the course of their lifetimes. To quantify this effect, shock initiation experiments were performed on mechanically and thermally damaged LX-04 (85% HMX, 15% Viton by weight) and PBX 9502 (95% TATB, 5% Kel-F by weight) to obtain in-situ manganin pressure gauge data and run distances to detonation at various shock pressures. We report the behavior of the HMX-based explosive LX-04 that was damaged mechanically by applying a compressive load of 600 psi for 20,000 cycles, thus creating many small narrow cracks, or by cutting wedge shaped parts that were then loosely reassembled, thus creating a few large cracks. The thermally damaged LX-04 charges were heated to 190 C for long enough for the beta to delta solid - solid phase transition to occur, and then cooled to ambient temperature. Mechanically damaged LX-04 exhibited only slightly increased shock sensitivity, while thermally damaged LX-04 was much more shock sensitive. Similarly, the insensitive explosive PBX 9502 was mechanically damaged using the same two techniques. Since PBX 9502 does not undergo a solid - solid phase transition but does undergo irreversible or 'rachet' growth when thermally cycled, thermal damage to PBX 9502 was induced by this procedure. As for LX-04, the thermally damaged PBX 9502 demonstrated a greater shock sensitivity than mechanically damaged PBX 9502. The Ignition and Growth reactive flow model calculated the increased sensitivities by igniting more damaged LX-04 and PBX 9502 near the shock front based on the measured densities (porosities) of the damaged charges.

  17. Shock compaction of molybdenum powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, T. J.; Kostka, D.; Vreeland, T., Jr.; Schwarz, R. B.; Kasiraj, P.

    1983-01-01

    Shock recovery experiments which were carried out in the 9 to 12 GPa range on 1.4 distension Mo and appear adequate to compact to full density ( 45 (SIGMA)m) powders were examined. The stress levels, however, are below those calculated to be from 100 to approx. 22 GPa which a frictional heating model predicts are required to consolidate approx. 10 to 50 (SIGMA)m particles. The model predicts that powders that have a distension of m=1.6 shock pressures of 14 to 72 GPa are required to consolidate Mo powders in the 50 to 10 (SIGMA)m range.

  18. Cation disorder in shocked orthopyroxene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dundon, R. W.; Hafner, S. S.

    1971-01-01

    The study of cation distributions over nonequivalent lattice sites in minerals may reveal information on the history of temperature and pressure in rocks. Chemically homogeneous orthopyroxene specimens were shocked under well-controlled conditions in the laboratory in order to provide a basis for the interpretation of more complex natural materials. As a result of the investigation it is concluded that the distribution of magnesium and iron over the M1 and M2 positions in Bamle enstatite shocked at 1 megabar is highly disordered. It corresponds to an equilibrium distribution of at least 1000 C.

  19. Sepsis and Septic Shock Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Bracken A; Betzold, Richard D; May, Addison K

    2017-12-01

    Three therapeutic principles most substantially improve organ dysfunction and survival in sepsis: early, appropriate antimicrobial therapy; restoration of adequate cellular perfusion; timely source control. The new definitions of sepsis and septic shock reflect the inadequate sensitivity, specify, and lack of prognostication of systemic inflammatory response syndrome criteria. Sequential (sepsis-related) organ failure assessment more effectively prognosticates in sepsis and critical illness. Inadequate cellular perfusion accelerates injury and reestablishing perfusion limits injury. Multiple organ systems are affected by sepsis and septic shock and an evidence-based multipronged approach to systems-based therapy in critical illness results in improve outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Heat shock protein 72: release and biological significance during exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitham, Martin; Fortes, Matthew Benjamin

    2008-01-01

    The cumulative stressors of exercise manifest themselves at a cellular level by threatening the protein homeostasis of the cell. In these conditions, Heat Shock Proteins (HSP) are synthesised to chaperone mis-folded and denatured proteins. As such, the intracellular HSP response is thought to aid cell survival in the face of otherwise lethal cellular stress. Recently, the inducible isoform of the 70 Kda heat shock protein family, Hsp72 has been detected in the extracellular environment. Furthermore, the release of this protein into the circulation has been shown to occur in response to a range of exercise bouts. The present review summarises the current research on the exercise Hsp72 response, the possible mediators and mechanisms of extracellular (e)Hsp72 release, and the possible biological significance of this systemic response. In particular, the possible role of eHsp72 in the modulation of immunity during exercise is discussed.

  1. Shock/shock interactions between bodies and wings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaoxiang XIANG

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the Shock/Shock Interactions (SSI between the body and wing of aircraft in supersonic flows. The body is simplified to a flat wedge and the wing is assumed to be a sharp wing. The theoretical spatial dimension reduction method, which transforms the 3D problem into a 2D one, is used to analyze the SSI between the body and wing. The temperature and pressure behind the Mach stem induced by the wing and body are obtained, and the wave configurations in the corner are determined. Numerical validations are conducted by solving the inviscid Euler equations in 3D with a Non-oscillatory and Non-free-parameters Dissipative (NND finite difference scheme. Good agreements between the theoretical and numerical results are obtained. Additionally, the effects of the wedge angle and sweep angle on wave configurations and flow field are considered numerically and theoretically. The influences of wedge angle are significant, whereas the effects of sweep angle on wave configurations are negligible. This paper provides useful information for the design and thermal protection of aircraft in supersonic and hypersonic flows. Keywords: Body and wing, Flow field, Hypersonic flow, Shock/shock interaction, Wave configurations

  2. Analytical solutions of hypersonic type IV shock - shock interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frame, Michael John

    An analytical model has been developed to predict the effects of a type IV shock interaction at high Mach numbers. This interaction occurs when an impinging oblique shock wave intersects the most normal portion of a detached bow shock. The flowfield which develops is complicated and contains an embedded jet of supersonic flow, which may be unsteady. The jet impinges on the blunt body surface causing very high pressure and heating loads. Understanding this type of interaction is vital to the designers of cowl lips and leading edges on air- breathing hypersonic vehicles. This analytical model represents the first known attempt at predicting the geometry of the interaction explicitly, without knowing beforehand the jet dimensions, including the length of the transmitted shock where the jet originates. The model uses a hyperbolic equation for the bow shock and by matching mass continuity, flow directions and pressure throughout the flowfield, a prediction of the interaction geometry can be derived. The model has been shown to agree well with the flowfield patterns and properties of experiments and CFD, but the prediction for where the peak pressure is located, and its value, can be significantly in error due to a lack of sophistication in the model of the jet fluid stagnation region. Therefore it is recommended that this region of the flowfield be modeled in more detail and more accurate experimental and CFD measurements be used for validation. However, the analytical model has been shown to be a fast and economic prediction tool, suitable for preliminary design, or for understanding the interactions effects, including the basic physics of the interaction, such as the jet unsteadiness. The model has been used to examine a wide parametric space of possible interactions, including different Mach number, impinging shock strength and location, and cylinder radius. It has also been used to examine the interaction on power-law shaped blunt bodies, a possible candidate for

  3. "Driverless" Shocks in the Interplanetary Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalswamy, N.; Kaiser, M. L.; Lara, A.

    1999-01-01

    Many interplanetary shocks have been detected without an obvious driver behind them. These shocks have been thought to be either blast waves from solar flares or shocks due to sudden increase in solar wind speed caused by interactions between large scale open and closed field lines of the Sun. We investigated this problem using a set of interplanetary shock detected {\\it in situ} by the Wind space craft and tracing their solar origins using low frequency radio data obtained by the Wind/WAVES experiment. For each of these "driverless shocks" we could find a unique coronal mass ejections (CME) event observed by the SOHO (Solar and Heliospheric Observatory) coronagraphs. We also found that these CMEs were ejected at large angles from the Sun-Earth line. It appears that the "driverless shocks" are actually driver shocks, but the drivers were not intercepted by the spacecraft. We conclude that the interplanetary shocks are much more extended than the driving CMEs.

  4. Shock and Vibration. Volume 1, Issue 1

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pilkey, Walter D

    1994-01-01

    ..., and earthquake engineering. Among the specific areas to be covered are vibration testing and control, vibration condition monitoring and diagnostics, shock hardenings, modal technology, shock testing, data acquisition, fluid...

  5. Initial ISEE magnetometer results: shock observation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, C.T.

    1979-01-01

    ISEE-1 and -2 magnetic field profiles across 6 terrestrial bow shock and one interplanetary shock are examined. The inteplanetary shock illustrates the behavior of a low Mach number shock. Three examples of low or moderate β, high Mach number, quasi-perpendicular shocks are examined. These did not have upstream waves, but rather had waves growing in the field gradient. Two examples of high β shocks showed little coherence in field variation even though the two vehicles were only a few hundred kilometers apart. The authors present the joint behavior of wave, particle and field data across some of these shocks to show some of the myriad of shock features whose behavior they are now beginning to investigate. (Auth.)

  6. 29th International Symposium on Shock Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Ranjan, Devesh

    2015-01-01

    This proceedings present the results of the 29th International Symposium on Shock Waves (ISSW29) which was held in Madison, Wisconsin, U.S.A., from July 14 to July 19, 2013. It was organized by the Wisconsin Shock Tube Laboratory, which is part of the College of Engineering of the University of Wisconsin-Madison. The ISSW29 focused on the following areas: Blast Waves, Chemically Reactive Flows, Detonation and Combustion,  Facilities, Flow Visualization, Hypersonic Flow, Ignition, Impact and Compaction, Industrial Applications, Magnetohydrodynamics, Medical and Biological Applications, Nozzle Flow, Numerical Methods, Plasmas, Propulsion, Richtmyer-Meshkov Instability, Shock-Boundary Layer Interaction, Shock Propagation and Reflection, Shock Vortex Interaction, Shock Waves in Condensed Matter, Shock Waves in Multiphase Flow, as well as Shock Waves in Rarefield Flow. The two Volumes contain the papers presented at the symposium and serve as a reference for the participants of the ISSW 29 and individuals interes...

  7. Inferior vena cava obstruction and shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megri Mohammed

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Shock is one of the most challenging life-threatening conditions with high mortality and morbidity; the outcomes are highly dependent on the early detection and management of the condition. Septic shock is the most common type of shock in the Intensive Care Unit. While not as common as other subsets of shock, obstructive shock is a significant subtype due to well defined mechanical and pathological causes, including tension pneumothorax, massive pulmonary embolism, and cardiac tamponade. We are presenting a patient with obstructive shock due to inferior vena cava obstruction secondary to extensive deep venous thrombosis. Chance of survival from obstructive shock in our patient was small; however, there was complete and immediate recovery after treatment of the obstruction on recognizing the affected vessels. This case alerts the practicing intensivist and the emergency medicine physician to consider occlusion of the great vessels other than the pulmonary artery or aorta as causes of obstructive shock.

  8. Shock dynamics in layered periodic media

    KAUST Repository

    Ketcheson, David I.

    2012-01-01

    Solutions of constant-coeffcient nonlinear hyperbolic PDEs generically develop shocks, even if the initial data is smooth. Solutions of hyperbolic PDEs with variable coeffcients can behave very differently. We investigate formation and stability of shock waves in a one-dimensional periodic layered medium by a computational study of time-reversibility and entropy evolution. We find that periodic layered media tend to inhibit shock formation. For small initial conditions and large impedance variation, no shock formation is detected even after times much greater than the time of shock formation in a homogeneous medium. Furthermore, weak shocks are observed to be dynamically unstable in the sense that they do not lead to significant long-term entropy decay. We propose a characteristic condition for admissibility of shocks in heterogeneous media that generalizes the classical Lax entropy condition and accurately predicts the formation or absence of shocks in these media.

  9. Birefringence and incipient plastic deformation in elastically overdriven [100] CaF2 under shock compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.; Zhou, X. M.; Cai, Y.; Liu, C. L.; Luo, S. N.

    2018-04-01

    [100] CaF2 single crystals are shock-compressed via symmetric planar impact, and the flyer plate-target interface velocity histories are measured with a laser displacement interferometry. The shock loading is slightly above the Hugoniot elastic limit to investigate incipient plasticity and its kinetics, and its effects on optical properties and deformation inhomogeneity. Fringe patterns demonstrate different features in modulation of fringe amplitude, including birefringence and complicated modulations. The birefringence is attributed to local lattice rotation accompanying incipient plasticity. Spatially resolved measurements show inhomogeneity in deformation, birefringence, and fringe pattern evolutions, most likely caused by the inhomogeneity associated with lattice rotation and dislocation slip. Transiently overdriven elastic states are observed, and the incubation time for incipient plasticity decreases inversely with increasing overdrive by the elastic shock.

  10. Converging cylindrical shocks in ideal magnetohydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pullin, D. I.; Mostert, W.; Wheatley, V.; Samtaney, R.

    2014-01-01

    We consider a cylindrically symmetrical shock converging onto an axis within the framework of ideal, compressible-gas non-dissipative magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). In cylindrical polar co-ordinates we restrict attention to either constant axial magnetic field or to the azimuthal but singular magnetic field produced by a line current on the axis. Under the constraint of zero normal magnetic field and zero tangential fluid speed at the shock, a set of restricted shock-jump conditions are obtained as functions of the shock Mach number, defined as the ratio of the local shock speed to the unique magnetohydrodynamic wave speed ahead of the shock, and also of a parameter measuring the local strength of the magnetic field. For the line current case, two approaches are explored and the results compared in detail. The first is geometrical shock-dynamics where the restricted shock-jump conditions are applied directly to the equation on the characteristic entering the shock from behind. This gives an ordinary-differential equation for the shock Mach number as a function of radius which is integrated numerically to provide profiles of the shock implosion. Also, analytic, asymptotic results are obtained for the shock trajectory at small radius. The second approach is direct numerical solution of the radially symmetric MHD equations using a shock-capturing method. For the axial magnetic field case the shock implosion is of the Guderley power-law type with exponent that is not affected by the presence of a finite magnetic field. For the axial current case, however, the presence of a tangential magnetic field ahead of the shock with strength inversely proportional to radius introduces a length scale R=√(μ 0 /p 0 ) I/(2 π) where I is the current, μ 0 is the permeability, and p 0 is the pressure ahead of the shock. For shocks initiated at r ≫ R, shock convergence is first accompanied by shock strengthening as for the strictly gas-dynamic implosion. The diverging magnetic field

  11. Converging cylindrical shocks in ideal magnetohydrodynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Pullin, D. I.

    2014-09-01

    We consider a cylindrically symmetrical shock converging onto an axis within the framework of ideal, compressible-gas non-dissipative magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). In cylindrical polar co-ordinates we restrict attention to either constant axial magnetic field or to the azimuthal but singular magnetic field produced by a line current on the axis. Under the constraint of zero normal magnetic field and zero tangential fluid speed at the shock, a set of restricted shock-jump conditions are obtained as functions of the shock Mach number, defined as the ratio of the local shock speed to the unique magnetohydrodynamic wave speed ahead of the shock, and also of a parameter measuring the local strength of the magnetic field. For the line current case, two approaches are explored and the results compared in detail. The first is geometrical shock-dynamics where the restricted shock-jump conditions are applied directly to the equation on the characteristic entering the shock from behind. This gives an ordinary-differential equation for the shock Mach number as a function of radius which is integrated numerically to provide profiles of the shock implosion. Also, analytic, asymptotic results are obtained for the shock trajectory at small radius. The second approach is direct numerical solution of the radially symmetric MHD equations using a shock-capturing method. For the axial magnetic field case the shock implosion is of the Guderley power-law type with exponent that is not affected by the presence of a finite magnetic field. For the axial current case, however, the presence of a tangential magnetic field ahead of the shock with strength inversely proportional to radius introduces a length scale R = √μ0/p0 I/(2π) where I is the current, μ0 is the permeability, and p0 is the pressure ahead of the shock. For shocks initiated at r ≫ R, shock convergence is first accompanied by shock strengthening as for the strictly gas-dynamic implosion. The diverging magnetic field then

  12. Converging cylindrical shocks in ideal magnetohydrodynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Pullin, D. I.; Mostert, W.; Wheatley, V.; Samtaney, Ravi

    2014-01-01

    We consider a cylindrically symmetrical shock converging onto an axis within the framework of ideal, compressible-gas non-dissipative magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). In cylindrical polar co-ordinates we restrict attention to either constant axial magnetic field or to the azimuthal but singular magnetic field produced by a line current on the axis. Under the constraint of zero normal magnetic field and zero tangential fluid speed at the shock, a set of restricted shock-jump conditions are obtained as functions of the shock Mach number, defined as the ratio of the local shock speed to the unique magnetohydrodynamic wave speed ahead of the shock, and also of a parameter measuring the local strength of the magnetic field. For the line current case, two approaches are explored and the results compared in detail. The first is geometrical shock-dynamics where the restricted shock-jump conditions are applied directly to the equation on the characteristic entering the shock from behind. This gives an ordinary-differential equation for the shock Mach number as a function of radius which is integrated numerically to provide profiles of the shock implosion. Also, analytic, asymptotic results are obtained for the shock trajectory at small radius. The second approach is direct numerical solution of the radially symmetric MHD equations using a shock-capturing method. For the axial magnetic field case the shock implosion is of the Guderley power-law type with exponent that is not affected by the presence of a finite magnetic field. For the axial current case, however, the presence of a tangential magnetic field ahead of the shock with strength inversely proportional to radius introduces a length scale R = √μ0/p0 I/(2π) where I is the current, μ0 is the permeability, and p0 is the pressure ahead of the shock. For shocks initiated at r ≫ R, shock convergence is first accompanied by shock strengthening as for the strictly gas-dynamic implosion. The diverging magnetic field then

  13. Converging cylindrical shocks in ideal magnetohydrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pullin, D. I. [Graduate Aerospace Laboratories, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Mostert, W.; Wheatley, V. [School of Mechanical and Mining Engineering, University of Queensland, Queensland 4072 (Australia); Samtaney, R. [Mechanical Engineering, Physical Sciences and Engineering Division, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Thuwal (Saudi Arabia)

    2014-09-15

    We consider a cylindrically symmetrical shock converging onto an axis within the framework of ideal, compressible-gas non-dissipative magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). In cylindrical polar co-ordinates we restrict attention to either constant axial magnetic field or to the azimuthal but singular magnetic field produced by a line current on the axis. Under the constraint of zero normal magnetic field and zero tangential fluid speed at the shock, a set of restricted shock-jump conditions are obtained as functions of the shock Mach number, defined as the ratio of the local shock speed to the unique magnetohydrodynamic wave speed ahead of the shock, and also of a parameter measuring the local strength of the magnetic field. For the line current case, two approaches are explored and the results compared in detail. The first is geometrical shock-dynamics where the restricted shock-jump conditions are applied directly to the equation on the characteristic entering the shock from behind. This gives an ordinary-differential equation for the shock Mach number as a function of radius which is integrated numerically to provide profiles of the shock implosion. Also, analytic, asymptotic results are obtained for the shock trajectory at small radius. The second approach is direct numerical solution of the radially symmetric MHD equations using a shock-capturing method. For the axial magnetic field case the shock implosion is of the Guderley power-law type with exponent that is not affected by the presence of a finite magnetic field. For the axial current case, however, the presence of a tangential magnetic field ahead of the shock with strength inversely proportional to radius introduces a length scale R=√(μ{sub 0}/p{sub 0}) I/(2 π) where I is the current, μ{sub 0} is the permeability, and p{sub 0} is the pressure ahead of the shock. For shocks initiated at r ≫ R, shock convergence is first accompanied by shock strengthening as for the strictly gas-dynamic implosion. The

  14. Entropy jump across an inviscid shock wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Manuel D.; Iollo, Angelo

    1995-01-01

    The shock jump conditions for the Euler equations in their primitive form are derived by using generalized functions. The shock profiles for specific volume, speed, and pressure are shown to be the same, however density has a different shock profile. Careful study of the equations that govern the entropy shows that the inviscid entropy profile has a local maximum within the shock layer. We demonstrate that because of this phenomenon, the entropy, propagation equation cannot be used as a conservation law.

  15. Collisionless Electrostatic Shock Modeling and Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-21

    equations with piston -like boundary conditions gives a solution for the shock behavior. • Assumes cold upstream ions, therefore neglecting shock...temperature ratio (>10) – Wave Train Wavelength – Shock-Front Mach Number – Reflected Ion Beam Velocity Gathering Experiment Data – Double Plasma Device...experimental shock data. • Inconsistencies in published 1969 double -plasma device data hampered validation. Future Work: Extension to Moderately

  16. Shock waves in gas and plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu, K.

    1996-01-01

    A shock wave is a discontinuous surface that connects supersonic flow with subsonic flow. After a shock wave, flow velocity is reduced, and pressure and temperature increase; entropy especially increases across a shock wave. Therefore, flow is in nonequilibrium, and irreversible processes occur inside the shock layer. The thickness of a shock wave in neutral gas is of the order of the mean free path of the fluid particle. A shock wave also appears in magnetized plasma. Provided that when the plasma flow is parallel to the magnetic field, a shock wave appears if the governing equation for velocity potential is in hyperbolic type in relation with the Mach number and the Alfven number. When the flow is perpendicular to the magnetic field, the Maxwell stress, in addition to the pressure, plays a role in the shock wave in plasma. When the plasma temperature is so high, as the plasma becomes collision-free, another type of shock wave appears. In a collision-free shock wave, gyromotions of electrons around the magnetic field lines cause the shock formation instead of collisions in a collision-dominant plasma or neutral gas. Regardless of a collision-dominant or collision-free shock wave, the fluid that passes through the shock wave is heated in addition to being compressed. In inertial confinement fusion, the fuel must be compressed. Really, implosion motion performs fuel compression. A shock wave, appearing in the process of implosion, compresses the fuel. The shock wave, however, heats the fuel more intensively, and it makes it difficult to compress the fuel further because high temperatures invite high pressure. Adiabatic compression of the fuel is the desired result during the implosion, without the formation of a shock wave. (Author)

  17. Electric shock and electrical fire specialty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-02-01

    This book deals with electric shock and electrical fire, which is made up seven chapters. It describes of special measurement for electric shock and electrical fire. It mentions concretely about electrical fire analysis and precautionary measurement, electrical shock analysis cases, occurrence of static electricity and measurement, gas accident, analysis of equipment accident and precautionary measurement. The book is published to educate the measurement on electric shock and electrical fire by electrical safety technology education center in Korea Electrical Safety Corporation.

  18. The simplified interaction tool for efficient and accurate underwater shock analysis of naval ships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aanhold, J.E. van; Trouwborst, W.; Vaders, J.A.A.

    2014-01-01

    In order to satisfy the need for good quality UNDEX response estimates of naval ships, TNO developed the Simplified Interaction Tool (SIT) for underwater shock analysis. The SIT is a module of user routines linked to LS-DYNA, which generates the UNDEX loading on the wet hull of a 3D finite element

  19. Prenatal temperature shocks reduce cooperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duchoslav, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Climate change has not only led to a sustained rise in mean global temperature over the past decades, but also increased the frequency of extreme weather events. This paper explores the effect of temperature shocks in utero on later-life taste for cooperation. Using historical climate data combined

  20. Shock Incarceration: Rehabilitation or Retribution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, Doris Layton; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Reviews Louisiana's shock incarceration program used as alternative to standard prison incarceration. Program involves short period of imprisonment in a "boot camp" type atmosphere followed by three phases of intensive parole supervision. Examines the program in regard to its rehabilitative potential and compares program elements to…

  1. Shock Mounting for Heavy Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, A. R.

    1984-01-01

    Elastomeric bearings eliminate extraneous forces. Rocket thrust transmitted from motor to load cells via support that absorbs extraneous forces so they do not affect accuracy of thrust measurements. Adapter spoked cone fits over forward end of rocket motor. Shock mounting developed for rocket engines under test used as support for heavy machines, bridges, or towers.

  2. 2-Shock layered tuning campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masse, Laurent; Dittrich, T.; Khan, S.; Kyrala, G.; Ma, T.; MacLaren, S.; Ralph, J.; Salmonson, J.; Tipton, R.; Los Alamos Natl Lab Team; Lawrence Livermore Natl Lab Team

    2016-10-01

    The 2-Shock platform has been developed to maintain shell sphericity throughout the compression phase of an indirect-drive target implosion and produce a stagnating hot spot in a quasi 1D-like manner. A sub-scale, 1700 _m outer diameter, and thick, 200 _m, uniformly Silicon doped, gas-filled plastic capsule is driven inside a nominal size 5750 _m diameter ignition hohlraum. The hohlraum fill is near vacuum to reduce back-scatter and improve laser/drive coupling. A two-shock pulse of about 1 MJ of laser energy drives the capsule. The thick capsule prevents ablation front feed-through to the imploded core. This platform has demonstrated its efficiency to tune a predictable and reproducible 1-D implosion with a nearly round shape. It has been shown that the high foot performance was dominated by the local defect growth due to the ablation front instability and by the hohlraum radiation asymmetries. The idea here is to take advantage of this 2-Shock platform to design a 1D-like layered implosion and eliminates the deleterious effects of radiation asymmetries and ablation front instability growth. We present the design work and our first experimental results of this near one-dimensional 2-Shock layered design. This work was performed under the auspices of the Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC, (LLNS) under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  3. Interstellar turbulence and shock waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bykov, A.M.

    1982-01-01

    Random deflections of shock fronts propagated through the turbulent interstellar medium can produce the strong electro-density fluctuations on scales l> or approx. =10 13 cm inferred from pulsar radio scintillations. The development of turbulence in the hot-phase ISM is discussed

  4. Nonlinearity, Conservation Law and Shocks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    However, genuine nonlinearity is always present in an ideal gas. The conservation form of the equation (25) brings in shocks which cut off the growing part of the amplitUde as shown in. Figure 15. Acknowledgements. The author sincerely thanks the two referees whose valuable comments led to an improvement of the ...

  5. Model for Shock Wave Chaos

    KAUST Repository

    Kasimov, Aslan R.

    2013-03-08

    We propose the following model equation, ut+1/2(u2−uus)x=f(x,us) that predicts chaotic shock waves, similar to those in detonations in chemically reacting mixtures. The equation is given on the half line, x<0, and the shock is located at x=0 for any t≥0. Here, us(t) is the shock state and the source term f is taken to mimic the chemical energy release in detonations. This equation retains the essential physics needed to reproduce many properties of detonations in gaseous reactive mixtures: steady traveling wave solutions, instability of such solutions, and the onset of chaos. Our model is the first (to our knowledge) to describe chaos in shock waves by a scalar first-order partial differential equation. The chaos arises in the equation thanks to an interplay between the nonlinearity of the inviscid Burgers equation and a novel forcing term that is nonlocal in nature and has deep physical roots in reactive Euler equations.

  6. EXTRACORPOREAL SHOCK WAVE LITHOTRIPSY AS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective To evaluate extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) as a monotherapy for urolithiasis in patients with solitary kidney and to determine the factors that may affect its results. Patients and Methods Using the Dornier MFL 5000 lithotriptor, 106 patients with solitary kidney (80 men and 26 women) were treated for ...

  7. Shock formation within sonoluminescence bubbles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuong, V.Q.; Szeri, A.J.; Young, D.A.

    1999-01-01

    A strong case has been made by several authors that sharp, spherically symmetric shocks converging on the center of a spherical bubble driven by a strong acoustic field give rise to rapid compression and heating that produces the brief flash of light known as sonoluminescence. The formation of such shocks is considered. It is found that, although at the main collapse the bubble wall does indeed launch an inwardly-traveling compression wave, and although the subsequent reflection of the wave at the bubble center produces a very rapid temperature peak, the wave is prevented from steepening into a sharp shock by an adverse gradient in the sound speed caused by heat transfer. It is shown that the mathematical characteristics of the flow can be prevented from accumulating into a shock front by this adverse sound speed gradient. A range of results is presented for a variety of bubble ambient radii and sound field amplitudes suggested by experiments. The time scale of the peak temperature in the bubble is set by the dynamics of the compression wave: this is typically in the range 100 - 300 ps (FWHM) in concert with recent measurements of the sonoluminescence pulse width. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  8. Model for Shock Wave Chaos

    KAUST Repository

    Kasimov, Aslan R.; Faria, Luiz; Rosales, Rodolfo R.

    2013-01-01

    : steady traveling wave solutions, instability of such solutions, and the onset of chaos. Our model is the first (to our knowledge) to describe chaos in shock waves by a scalar first-order partial differential equation. The chaos arises in the equation

  9. Studying shocks in model astrophysical flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakrabarti, S.K.

    1989-01-01

    We briefly discuss some properties of the shocks in the existing models for quasi two-dimensional astrophysical flows. All of these models which allow the study of shock analytically have some unphysical characteristics due to inherent assumptions made. We propose a hybrid model for a thin flow which has fewer unpleasant features and is suitable for the study of shocks. (author). 5 refs

  10. Shock waves in relativistic nuclear matter, I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gleeson, A.M.; Raha, S.

    1979-02-01

    The relativistic Rankine-Hugoniot relations are developed for a 3-dimensional plane shock and a 3-dimensional oblique shock. Using these discontinuity relations together with various equations of state for nuclear matter, the temperatures and the compressibilities attainable by shock compression for a wide range of laboratory kinetic energy of the projectile are calculated. 12 references

  11. The microphysics of collisionless shock waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcowith, Alexandre; Bret, Antoine; Bykov, Andrei

    2016-01-01

    Collisionless shocks, that is shocks mediated by electromagnetic processes, are customary in space physics and in astrophysics. They are to be found in a great variety of objects and environments: magnetospheric and heliospheric shocks, supernova remnants, pulsar winds and their nebulæ, active ga...

  12. Permeability enhancement by shock cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Luke; Heap, Michael; Reuschlé, Thierry; Baud, Patrick; Schmittbuhl, Jean

    2015-04-01

    The permeability of an efficient reservoir, e.g. a geothermal reservoir, should be sufficient to permit the circulation of fluids. Generally speaking, permeability decreases over the life cycle of the geothermal system. As a result, is usually necessary to artificially maintain and enhance the natural permeability of these systems. One of the methods of enhancement -- studied here -- is thermal stimulation (injecting cold water at low pressure). This goal of this method is to encourage new thermal cracks within the reservoir host rocks, thereby increasing reservoir permeability. To investigate the development of thermal microcracking in the laboratory we selected two granites: a fine-grained (Garibaldi Grey granite, grain size = 0.5 mm) and a course-grained granite (Lanhelin granite, grain size = 2 mm). Both granites have an initial porosity of about 1%. Our samples were heated to a range of temperatures (100-1000 °C) and were either cooled slowly (1 °C/min) or shock cooled (100 °C/s). A systematic microstructural (2D crack area density, using standard stereological techniques, and 3D BET specific surface area measurements) and rock physical property (porosity, P-wave velocity, uniaxial compressive strength, and permeability) analysis was undertaken to understand the influence of slow and shock cooling on our reservoir granites. Microstructurally, we observe that the 2D crack surface area per unit volume and the specific surface area increase as a result of thermal stressing, and, for the same maximum temperature, crack surface area is higher in the shock cooled samples. This observation is echoed by our rock physical property measurements: we see greater changes for the shock cooled samples. We can conclude that shock cooling is an extremely efficient method of generating thermal microcracks and modifying rock physical properties. Our study highlights that thermal treatments are likely to be an efficient method for the "matrix" permeability enhancement of

  13. Inappropriate shocks in the subcutaneous ICD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olde Nordkamp, Louise R A; Brouwer, Tom F; Barr, Craig

    2015-01-01

    shocks have been reported. METHODS: We analyzed the incidence, predictors and management of inappropriate shocks in the EFFORTLESS S-ICD Registry, which collects S-ICD implantation information and follow-up data from clinical centers in Europe and New Zealand. RESULTS: During a follow-up of 21 ± 13...... xyphoid to V6) reduced the risk. Reprogramming or optimization of SVT treatment after the first clinical event of inappropriate shock was successful in preventing further inappropriate shocks for cardiac oversensing and SVT events. CONCLUSIONS: Inappropriate shocks, mainly due to cardiac oversensing...

  14. Perpendicular relativistic shocks in magnetized pair plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikov, Illya; Grassi, Anna; Grech, Mickael

    2018-04-01

    Perpendicular relativistic (γ0 = 10) shocks in magnetized pair plasmas are investigated using two dimensional Particle-in-Cell simulations. A systematic survey, from unmagnetized to strongly magnetized shocks, is presented accurately capturing the transition from Weibel-mediated to magnetic-reflection-shaped shocks. This transition is found to occur for upstream flow magnetizations 10-3 10-2, it leaves place to a purely electromagnetic precursor following from the strong emission of electromagnetic waves at the shock front. Particle acceleration is found to be efficient in weakly magnetized perpendicular shocks in agreement with previous works, and is fully suppressed for σ > 10-2. Diffusive Shock Acceleration is observed only in weakly magnetized shocks, while a dominant contribution of Shock Drift Acceleration is evidenced at intermediate magnetizations. The spatial diffusion coefficients are extracted from the simulations allowing for a deeper insight into the self-consistent particle kinematics and scale with the square of the particle energy in weakly magnetized shocks. These results have implications for particle acceleration in the internal shocks of AGN jets and in the termination shocks of Pulsar Wind Nebulae.

  15. Initial conditions of radiative shock experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuranz, C. C.; Drake, R. P.; Krauland, C. M.; Marion, D. C.; Grosskopf, M. J.; Rutter, E.; Torralva, B.; Holloway, J. P.; Bingham, D.; Goh, J.; Boehly, T. R.; Sorce, A. T.

    2013-01-01

    We performed experiments at the Omega Laser Facility to characterize the initial, laser-driven state of a radiative shock experiment. These experiments aimed to measure the shock breakout time from a thin, laser-irradiated Be disk. The data are then used to inform a range of valid model parameters, such as electron flux limiter and polytropic γ, used when simulating radiative shock experiments using radiation hydrodynamics codes. The characterization experiment and the radiative shock experiment use a laser irradiance of ∼7 × 10 14 W cm −2 to launch a shock in the Be disk. A velocity interferometer and a streaked optical pyrometer were used to infer the amount of time for the shock to move through the Be disk. The experimental results were compared with simulation results from the Hyades code, which can be used to model the initial conditions of a radiative shock system using the CRASH code

  16. Exploratory laser-driven shock wave studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solem, J.C.; Veeser, L.R.

    1977-11-01

    We show the results of a feasibility study for investigating shock structure and for measuring equation-of-state parameters using high-energy, short-pulse lasers. We discuss the temporal and spatial structure of the luminosity from laser-driven shock unloading in aluminum foils. We demonstrate that shock velocity can be measured by observing the time interval between shock emergence across two thicknesses and show data for shocks of 1.3 and 2.1 Mbar. The fact that we observe shock fronts cleanly breaking through steps as small as 3 μm indicates that the shock front thickness is very small in the few megabar region; this is the first experimental verification that these fronts are not more than a few micrometers thick. We present approximate measurements of free-surface velocity. Finally, we speculate on the use of these techniques to obtain detailed equation-of-state data

  17. Shock-induced chemistry in organic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dattelbaum, Dana M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sheffield, Steve [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Engelke, Ray [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Manner, Virginia [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chellappa, Raja [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yoo, Choong - Shik [WASHINGTON STATE UNIV

    2011-01-20

    The combined 'extreme' environments of high pressure, temperature, and strain rates, encountered under shock loading, offer enormous potential for the discovery of new paradigms in chemical reactivity not possible under more benign conditions. All organic materials are expected to react under these conditions, yet we currently understand very little about the first bond-breaking steps behind the shock front, such as in the shock initiation of explosives, or shock-induced reactivity of other relevant materials. Here, I will present recent experimental results of shock-induced chemistry in a variety of organic materials under sustained shock conditions. A comparison between the reactivity of different structures is given, and a perspective on the kinetics of reaction completion under shock drives.

  18. Experimental methods of shock wave research

    CERN Document Server

    Seiler, Friedrich

    2016-01-01

    This comprehensive and carefully edited volume presents a variety of experimental methods used in Shock Waves research. In 14 self contained chapters this 9th volume of the “Shock Wave Science and Technology Reference Library” presents the experimental methods used in Shock Tubes, Shock Tunnels and Expansion Tubes facilities. Also described is their set-up and operation. The uses of an arc heated wind tunnel and a gun tunnel are also contained in this volume. Whenever possible, in addition to the technical description some typical scientific results obtained using such facilities are described. Additionally, this authoritative book includes techniques for measuring physical properties of blast waves and laser generated shock waves. Information about active shock wave laboratories at different locations around the world that are not described in the chapters herein is given in the Appendix, making this book useful for every researcher involved in shock/blast wave phenomena.

  19. Motion of shocks through interplanetary streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burlaga, L.F.; Scudder, J.D.

    1975-01-01

    A model for the motion of flare-generated shocks through interplanetary streams is presented, illustrating the effects of a stream-shock interaction on the shock strength and geometry. It is a gas dynamic calculation based on Whitham's method and on an empirical approximation for the relevant characteristics of streams. The results show that the Mach number of a shock can decrease appreciably to near unity in the interaction region ahead of streams and that the interaction of a spherically symmetric shock with a spiral-shaped corotating stream can cause significant distortions of the initial shock front geometry. The geometry of the February 15--16, 1967, shock discussed by Lepping and Chao (1972) is qualitatively explained by this model

  20. Do oil shocks predict economic policy uncertainty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Mobeen Ur

    2018-05-01

    Oil price fluctuations have influential role in global economic policies for developed as well as emerging countries. I investigate the role of international oil prices disintegrated into structural (i) oil supply shock, (ii) aggregate demand shock and (iii) oil market specific demand shocks, based on the work of Kilian (2009) using structural VAR framework on economic policies uncertainty of sampled markets. Economic policy uncertainty, due to its non-linear behavior is modeled in a regime switching framework with disintegrated structural oil shocks. Our results highlight that Indian, Spain and Japanese economic policy uncertainty responds to the global oil price shocks, however aggregate demand shocks fail to induce any change. Oil specific demand shocks are significant only for China and India in high volatility state.

  1. Shock Wave Dynamics in Weakly Ionized Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Joseph A., III

    1999-01-01

    An investigation of the dynamics of shock waves in weakly ionized argon plasmas has been performed using a pressure ruptured shock tube. The velocity of the shock is observed to increase when the shock traverses the plasma. The observed increases cannot be accounted for by thermal effects alone. Possible mechanisms that could explain the anomalous behavior include a vibrational/translational relaxation in the nonequilibrium plasma, electron diffusion across the shock front resulting from high electron mobility, and the propagation of ion-acoustic waves generated at the shock front. Using a turbulence model based on reduced kinetic theory, analysis of the observed results suggest a role for turbulence in anomalous shock dynamics in weakly ionized media and plasma-induced hypersonic drag reduction.

  2. The role of hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha in bypassing oncogene-induced senescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehtap Kilic Eren

    Full Text Available Oncogene induced senescence (OIS is a sustained anti-proliferative response acutely induced in primary cells via activation of mitogenic oncogenes such as Ras/BRAF. This mechanism acts as an initial barrier preventing normal cells transformation into malignant cell. Besides oncogenic activation and DNA damage response (DDR, senescence is modulated by a plethora of other factors, and one of the most important one is oxygen tension of the tissue. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of hypoxia on RasV12-induced senescence in human diploid fibroblasts (HDFs. We showed here that hypoxia prevents execution of oncogene induced senescence (OIS, through a strong down-regulation of senescence hallmarks, such as SA- β-galactosidase, H3K9me3, HP1γ, p53, p21CIP1 and p16INK4a in association with induction of hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α. In addition, hypoxia also decreased marks of H-RasV12-induced DDR in both cell lines through down-regulation of ATM/ATR, Chk1 and Chk2 phosphorylation as well as decreased γ-H2AX positivity. Utilizing shRNA system targeting HIF-1α we show that HIF-1α is directly involved in down regulation of p53 and its target p21CIP1 but not p16INK4a. In line with this finding we found that knock down of HIF-1α leads to a strong induction of apoptotic response, but not restoration of senescence in Ras expressing HDFs in hypoxia. This indicates that HIF-1α is an important player in early steps of tumorigenesis, leading to suppression of senescence through its negative regulation of p53 and p21CIP1. In our work we describe a mechanism through which hypoxia and specifically HIF-1α preclude cells from maintaining senescence-driven anti proliferative response. These findings indicate the possible mechanism through which hypoxic environment helps premalignant cells to evade impingement of cellular failsafe pathways.

  3. Effects of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and amifostine in spinal cord reirradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieder, C.; Andratschke, N. [TU Muenchen (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Price, R.E.; Rivera, B. [University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States). Dept. of Veterinary Medicine and Surgery; Ang, K. Kian [University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    2005-11-01

    Purpose: To test whether insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and amifostine modulate the reirradiation tolerance of rat cervical spinal cord. Initial experiments by the authors' group suggested that administration of each agent alone significantly increased the median latent time to radiation myelopathy (RM) in previously unirradiated animals but did not change the dose-response relationship. Because of different modes of action, a follow-up study was undertaken to test the combined treatment. Material and Methods: The cervical spinal cord of 51 adult Fisher F-344 rats received a single fraction of 16 Gy, which corresponds to approximately 75% of the median paresis dose (ED{sub 50}), followed 5 months later by a second radiation dose, which ranged from 17 to 21 Gy. The study animals received a single intrathecal injection of 0.3 mg amifostine into the cisterna magna 30-60 min before reirradiation plus three subcutaneous doses of IGF-1 (700 {mu}g) starting from 24 h before to 24 h after reirradiation. Control animals received saline injections via the same routes. Animals were followed until RM developed or until 12 months from reirradiation. Histopathologic examinations were performed post mortem. Results: No animals showed any neurologic abnormalities before reirradiation. RM occurred in controls versus treated rats after a mean latency of 218 versus 314 days (19 Gy; p=0.11) and 104 versus 186 days (21 Gy; p=0.002) from second dose (Figure 1). ED{sub 50} was 18.2 versus 19.4 Gy (p=0.15; Figure 2). Treatment with IGF-1 and amifostine did not significantly influence the rates of tumor induction or intercurrent death. Conclusion: IGF-1 and amifostine significantly reduced RM rates after 21 Gy. The shift of the dose-response curve suggests an increase of the ED{sub 50} for single-dose treatment by approximately 7%. Thus, brief therapeutic intervention might slightly decrease radiation-induced neurotoxicity in a retreatment situation. (orig.)

  4. Neuroprotection by hypoxic preconditioning involves upregulation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 in a prenatal model of acute hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giusti, Sebastián; Fiszer de Plazas, Sara

    2012-02-01

    The molecular pathways underlying the neuroprotective effects of preconditioning are promising, potentially drugable targets to promote cell survival. However, these pathways are complex and are not yet fully understood. In this study we have established a paradigm of hypoxic preconditioning based on a chick embryo model of normobaric acute hypoxia previously developed by our group. With this model, we analyzed the role of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) stabilization during preconditioning in HIF-1 signaling after the hypoxic injury and in the development of a neuroprotective effect against the insult. To this end, we used a pharmacological approach, based on the in vivo administration of positive (Fe(2+), ascorbate) and negative (CoCl(2)) modulators of the activity of HIF-prolyl hydroxylases (PHDs), the main regulators of HIF-1. We have found that preconditioning has a reinforcing effect on HIF-1 accumulation during the subsequent hypoxic injury. In addition, we have also demonstrated that HIF-1 induction during hypoxic preconditioning is necessary to obtain an enhancement in HIF-1 accumulation and to develop a tolerance against a subsequent hypoxic injury. We provide in vivo evidence that administration of Fe(2+) and ascorbate modulates HIF accumulation, suggesting that PHDs might be targets for neuroprotection in the CNS. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Study on Reflected Shock Wave/Boundary Layer Interaction in a Shock Tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Wook; Kim, Tae Ho; Kim, Heuy Dong [Andong Nat’l Univ., Andong (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-07-15

    The interaction between a shock wave and a boundary layer causes boundary layer separation, shock train, and in some cases, strong unsteadiness in the flow field. Such a situation is also observed in a shock tube, where the reflected shock wave interacts with the unsteady boundary layer. However, only a few studies have been conducted to investigate the shock train phenomenon in a shock tube. In the present study, numerical studies were conducted using the two-dimensional axisymmetric domain of a shock tube, and compressible Navier-Stokes equations were solved to clarify the flow characteristics of shock train phenomenon inside a shock tube. A detailed wave diagram was developed based on the present computational results, which were validated with existing experimental data.

  6. Insight into magnetorheological shock absorbers

    CERN Document Server

    Gołdasz, Janusz

    2015-01-01

    This book deals with magnetorheological fluid theory, modeling and applications of automotive magnetorheological dampers. On the theoretical side a review of MR fluid compositions and key factors affecting the characteristics of these fluids is followed by a description of existing applications in the area of vibration isolation and flow-mode shock absorbers in particular. As a majority of existing magnetorheological devices operates in a so-called flow mode a critical review is carried out in that regard. Specifically, the authors highlight common configurations of flow-mode magnetorheological shock absorbers, or so-called MR dampers that have been considered by the automotive industry for controlled chassis applications. The authors focus on single-tube dampers utilizing a piston assembly with one coil or multiple coils and at least one annular flow channel in the piston.

  7. Magnetohydrodynamic shocks in molecular clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernoff, D.F.

    1985-01-01

    Part one develops the mathematical and physical theory of one-dimensional, time-independent subalfvenic flow in partially ionized gas with magnetic fields, for application to shocks in molecular clouds. Unlike normal gas-dynamic shocks, the neutral flow may be continuous and cool if the gas radiates efficiently and does not self-ionize. Analytic solutions are given in the limit that the neutral gas is either adiabatic or isothermal (cold). Numerical techniques are developed and applied to find the neutral flow under general circumstances. Part two extends the theory and results of part one in three ways: (1) to faster, superalfvenic flow, (2) to complex gases containing heavy charged particles (grains) in addition to ions, containing heavy charged particles (grains) in addition to ions, electrons and neutrals, and (3) to the entire range in (Omega tau), the ratio of charged particle damping time to gyroperiod, expected in gas flows in molecular clouds

  8. MHD shocks in the ISM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernoff, D. F.; Hollenbach, David J.; Mckee, Christopher F.

    1990-01-01

    Researchers survey shock solutions of a partially ionized gas with a magnetic field. The gas is modeled by interacting neutral, ion, electron and charged grain components. They employ a small neutral-ion chemical network to follow the dissociation and ionization of the major species. Cooling by molecular hydrogen (rotational, vibrational and dissociation), grains and dipole molecules is included. There are three basic types of solutions (C, C asterisk, and J) and some more complicated flows involving combinations of the basic types. The initial preshock conditions cover hydrogen nuclei densities of 1 less than n less than 10(exp 10) cm(-3) and shock velocities of 5 less than v(sub s) less than 60 km/s. The magnetic field is varied over 5 decades and the sensitivity of the results to grain parameters, UV and cosmic ray fluxes is ascertained. The parameter space is quite complicated, but there exist some simple divisions. When the initial ionization fraction is small (chi sub i less than 10(-5)), there is a sharp transition between fully C solutions at low velocity and strong J solutions at high velocity. When the initial ionization fraction is larger, C asterisk and/or very weak J shocks are present at low velocities in addition to the C solutions. The flow again changes to strong J shocks at high velocities. When the ionization fraction is large and the flow is only slightly greater than the bulk Alfven velocity, there is a complicated mixture of C, C asterisk and J solutions.

  9. Measuring resilience to energy shocks

    OpenAIRE

    Molyneaux, Lynette; Brown, Colin; Foster, John; Wagner, Liam

    2015-01-01

    Measuring energy security or resilience in energy is, in the main, confined to indicators which are used for comparative purposes or to show trends rather than provide empirical evidence of resilience to unpredicted crises. In this paper, the electricity systems of the individual states within the United States of America are analysed for their response to the 1973-1982 and the 2003-2012 oil price shocks. Empirical evidence is sought for elements which are present in systems that experience r...

  10. Coronal mass ejection shock fronts containing the two types of intermediate shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinolfson, R.S.; Hundhausen, A.J.

    1990-01-01

    Numerical solutions of the time-dependent, magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations in two dimensions are used to demonstrate the formation of both types of intermediate shocks in a single shock front for physical conditions that are an idealization of those expected to occur in some observed coronal mass ejections. The key to producing such a shock configuration in the simulations is the use of an initial atmosphere containing a magnetic field representative of that in a coronal streamer with open field lines overlying a region of closed field lines. Previous attempts using just open field lines (perpendicular to the surface) produced shock configurations containing just one of the two intermediate shock types. A schematic of such a shock front containing both intermediate shock types has been constructed previously based solely on the known properties of MHD shocks from the Rankine-Hugoniot equations and specific requirements placed on the shock solution at points along the front where the shock normal and upstream magnetic field are aligned. The shock front also contains, at various locations along the front, a hydrodynamic (nonmagnetic) shock, a switch-on shock, and a fast shock in addition to the intermediate shocks. This particular configuration occurs when the shock front speed exceeds the upstream (preshock) intermediate wave speed but is less than a critical speed defined in the paper (equation 1) along at least some portion of the shock front. A distinctive feature of the front is that it is concave upward (away from the surface) near the region where the field in the preshock plasma is normal to the front of near the central portion of the shock front

  11. Experimental investigation of shock wave - bubble interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alizadeh, Mohsen

    2010-04-09

    In this work, the dynamics of laser-generated single cavitation bubbles exposed to lithotripter shock waves has been investigated experimentally. The energy of the impinging shock wave is varied in several steps. High-speed photography and pressure field measurements simultaneously with image acquisition provide the possibility of capturing the fast bubble dynamics under the effect of the shock wave impact. The pressure measurement is performed using a fiber optic probe hydrophone (FOPH) which operates based on optical diagnostics of the shock wave propagating medium. After a short introduction in chapter 1 an overview of the previous studies in chapter 2 is presented. The reported literatures include theoretical and experimental investigations of several configurations of physical problems in the field of bubble dynamics. In chapter 3 a theoretical description of propagation of a shock wave in a liquid like water has been discussed. Different kinds of reflection of a shock wave at an interface are taken into account. Undisturbed bubble dynamics as well as interaction between a planar shock wave and an initially spherical bubble are explored theoretically. Some physical parameters which are important in this issue such as the velocity of the shock-induced liquid jet, Kelvin impulse and kinetic energy are explained. The shock waves are generated in a water filled container by a focusing piezoelectric generator. The shock wave profile has a positive part with pulse duration of ∼1 μs followed by a longer tension tail (i.e. ∼3 μs). In chapter 4 high-speed images depict the propagation of a shock wave in the water filled tank. The maximum pressure is also derived for different intensity levels of the shock wave generator. The measurement is performed in the free field (i.e. in the absence of laser-generated single bubbles). In chapter 5 the interaction between lithotripter shock waves and laserinduced single cavitation bubbles is investigated experimentally. An

  12. Enteral tranexamic acid attenuates vasopressor resistance and changes in α1-adrenergic receptor expression in hemorrhagic shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamaria, Marco Henry; Aletti, Federico; Li, Joyce B; Tan, Aaron; Chang, Monica; Leon, Jessica; Schmid-Schönbein, Geert W; Kistler, Erik B

    2017-08-01

    Irreversible hemorrhagic shock is characterized by hyporesponsiveness to vasopressor and fluid therapy. Little is known, however, about the mechanisms that contribute to this phenomenon. Previous studies have shown that decreased intestinal perfusion in hemorrhagic shock leads to proteolytically mediated increases in gut permeability, with subsequent egress of vasoactive substances systemically. Maintenance of blood pressure is achieved in part by α1 receptor modulation, which may be affected by vasoactive factors; we thus hypothesized that decreases in hemodynamic stability and vasopressor response in shock can be prevented by enteral protease inhibition. Rats were exposed to experimental hemorrhagic shock (35 mm Hg mean arterial blood pressure for 2 hours, followed by reperfusion for 2 hours) and challenged with phenylephrine (2 μg/kg) at discrete intervals to measure vasopressor responsiveness. A second group of animals received enteral injections with the protease inhibitor tranexamic acid (TXA) (127 mM) along the small intestine and cecum 1 hour after induction of hemorrhagic shock. Blood pressure response (duration and amplitude) to phenylephrine after reperfusion was significantly attenuated in animals subjected to hemorrhagic shock compared with baseline and control nonshocked animals and was restored to near baseline by enteral TXA. Arteries from shocked animals also displayed decreased α1 receptor density with restoration to baseline after enteral TXA treatment. In vitro, rat shock plasma decreased α1 receptor density in smooth muscle cells, which was also abrogated by enteral TXA treatment. Results from this study demonstrate that experimental hemorrhagic shock leads to decreased response to the α1-selective agonist phenylephrine and decreased α1 receptor density via circulating shock factors. These changes are mitigated by enteral TXA with correspondingly improved hemodynamics. Proteolytic inhibition in the lumen of the small intestine improves

  13. Impaired heat shock response in cells expressing full-length polyglutamine-expanded huntingtin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidhartha M Chafekar

    Full Text Available The molecular mechanisms by which polyglutamine (polyQ-expanded huntingtin (Htt causes neurodegeneration in Huntington's disease (HD remain unclear. The malfunction of cellular proteostasis has been suggested as central in HD pathogenesis and also as a target of therapeutic interventions for the treatment of HD. We present results that offer a previously unexplored perspective regarding impaired proteostasis in HD. We find that, under non-stress conditions, the proteostatic capacity of cells expressing full length polyQ-expanded Htt is adequate. Yet, under stress conditions, the presence of polyQ-expanded Htt impairs the heat shock response, a key component of cellular proteostasis. This impaired heat shock response results in a reduced capacity to withstand the damage caused by cellular stress. We demonstrate that in cells expressing polyQ-expanded Htt the levels of heat shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1 are reduced, and, as a consequence, these cells have an impaired a heat shock response. Also, we found reduced HSF1 and HSP70 levels in the striata of HD knock-in mice when compared to wild-type mice. Our results suggests that full length, non-aggregated polyQ-expanded Htt blocks the effective induction of the heat shock response under stress conditions and may thus trigger the accumulation of cellular damage during the course of HD pathogenesis.

  14. Particle Acceleration in Two Converging Shocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xin; Wang, Na; Shan, Hao [Xinjiang Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi 830011 (China); Giacalone, Joe [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson AZ 85721 (United States); Yan, Yihua [CAS Key Laboratory of Solar Activity, National Astronomical Observatories, Beijing 100012 (China); Ding, Mingde, E-mail: wangxin@xao.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Modern Astronomy and Astrophysics (Nanjing University) Ministry of Education, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2017-06-20

    Observations by spacecraft such as ACE , STEREO , and others show that there are proton spectral “breaks” with energy E {sub br} at 1–10 MeV in some large CME-driven shocks. Generally, a single shock with the diffusive acceleration mechanism would not predict the “broken” energy spectrum. The present paper focuses on two converging shocks to identify this energy spectral feature. In this case, the converging shocks comprise one forward CME-driven shock on 2006 December 13 and another backward Earth bow shock. We simulate the detailed particle acceleration processes in the region of the converging shocks using the Monte Carlo method. As a result, we not only obtain an extended energy spectrum with an energy “tail” up to a few 10 MeV higher than that in previous single shock model, but also we find an energy spectral “break” occurring on ∼5.5 MeV. The predicted energy spectral shape is consistent with observations from multiple spacecraft. The spectral “break,” then, in this case is caused by the interaction between the CME shock and Earth’s bow shock, and otherwise would not be present if Earth were not in the path of the CME.

  15. Simulation of turbulent flows containing strong shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fryxell, Bruce; Menon, Suresh

    2008-01-01

    Simulation of turbulent flows with strong shocks is a computationally challenging problem. The requirements for a method to produce accurate results for turbulence are orthogonal to those needed to treat shocks properly. In order to prevent an unphysical rate of decay of turbulent structures, it is necessary to use a method with very low numerical dissipation. Because of this, central difference schemes are widely used. However, computing strong shocks with a central difference scheme can produce unphysical post-shock oscillations that corrupt the entire flow unless additional dissipation is added. This dissipation can be difficult to localize to the area near the shock and can lead to inaccurate treatment of the turbulence. Modern high-resolution shock-capturing methods usually use upwind algorithms to provide the dissipation necessary to stabilize shocks. However, this upwind dissipation can also lead to an unphysical rate of decay of the turbulence. This paper discusses a hybrid method for simulating turbulent flows with strong shocks that couples a high-order central difference scheme with a high-resolution shock-capturing method. The shock-capturing method is used only in the vicinity of discontinuities in the flow, whereas the central difference scheme is used in the remainder of the computational domain. Results of this new method will be shown for a variety of test problems. Preliminary results for a realistic application involving detonation in gas-particle flows will also be presented.

  16. Electron velocity distributions near collisionless shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, W.C.

    1984-01-01

    Recent studies of the amount of electron heating and of the shapes of electron velocity distributions across shocks near the earth are reviewed. It is found that electron heating increases with increasing shock strength but is always less than the ion heating. The scale length of electron heating is also less than that for the ions. Electron velocity distributions show characteristic shapes which depend on the strength of the shocks. At the weaker shocks, electron heating is mostly perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field, bar B, and results in Gaussian-shaped velocity distributions at low-to-moderate energies. At the stronger shocks, parallel heating predominates resulting in flat-topped velocity distributions. A reasonable interpretation of these results indicates that at the weaker shocks electron heating is dominated by a tendency toward conservation of the magnetic moment. At the stronger fast-mode shocks, this heating is thought to be dominated by an acceleration parallel to bar B produced by the macroscopic shock electric field followed by beam driven plasma instabilities. Some contribution to the heating at the stronger shocks from conservation of the magnetic moment and cross-field current-driven instabilities cannot be ruled out. Although the heating at slow-mode shocks is also dominated by instabilities driven by magnetic field-aligned electron beams, their acceleration mechanism is not yet established

  17. Test system for thermoelectric modules and materials

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hejtmánek, Jiří; Knížek, Karel; Švejda, V.; Horna, P.; Sikora, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 10 (2014), s. 3726-3732 ISSN 0361-5235 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-17538S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : thermoelectric power module * automatic thermoelectric testing setup * heat flow measurement * power generation * heat recovery Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.798, year: 2014

  18. Implication of Heat Shock Factors in Tumorigenesis: Therapeutical Potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thonel, Aurelie de; Mezger, Valerie; Garrido, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    Heat Shock Factors (HSF) form a family of transcription factors (four in mammals) which were named according to the discovery of their activation by a heat shock. HSFs trigger the expression of genes encoding Heat Shock Proteins (HSPs) that function as molecular chaperones, contributing to establish a cytoprotective state to various proteotoxic stresses and in pathological conditions. Increasing evidence indicates that this ancient transcriptional protective program acts genome-widely and performs unexpected functions in the absence of experimentally defined stress. Indeed, HSFs are able to re-shape cellular pathways controlling longevity, growth, metabolism and development. The most well studied HSF, HSF1, has been found at elevated levels in tumors with high metastatic potential and is associated with poor prognosis. This is partly explained by the above-mentioned cytoprotective (HSP-dependent) function that may enable cancer cells to adapt to the initial oncogenic stress and to support malignant transformation. Nevertheless, HSF1 operates as major multifaceted enhancers of tumorigenesis through, not only the induction of classical heat shock genes, but also of “non-classical” targets. Indeed, in cancer cells, HSF1 regulates genes involved in core cellular functions including proliferation, survival, migration, protein synthesis, signal transduction, and glucose metabolism, making HSF1 a very attractive target in cancer therapy. In this review, we describe the different physiological roles of HSFs as well as the recent discoveries in term of non-cogenic potential of these HSFs, more specifically associated to the activation of “non-classical” HSF target genes. We also present an update on the compounds with potent HSF1-modulating activity of potential interest as anti-cancer therapeutic agents

  19. Implication of Heat Shock Factors in Tumorigenesis: Therapeutical Potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thonel, Aurelie de [INSERM U866, Dijon (France); Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy, University of Burgundy, 21033 Dijon (France); Mezger, Valerie, E-mail: valerie.mezger@univ-paris-diderot.fr [CNRS, UMR7216 Epigenetics and Cell Fate, Paris (France); University Paris Diderot, 75013 Paris (France); Garrido, Carmen, E-mail: valerie.mezger@univ-paris-diderot.fr [INSERM U866, Dijon (France); Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy, University of Burgundy, 21033 Dijon (France); CHU, Dijon BP1542, Dijon (France)

    2011-03-07

    Heat Shock Factors (HSF) form a family of transcription factors (four in mammals) which were named according to the discovery of their activation by a heat shock. HSFs trigger the expression of genes encoding Heat Shock Proteins (HSPs) that function as molecular chaperones, contributing to establish a cytoprotective state to various proteotoxic stresses and in pathological conditions. Increasing evidence indicates that this ancient transcriptional protective program acts genome-widely and performs unexpected functions in the absence of experimentally defined stress. Indeed, HSFs are able to re-shape cellular pathways controlling longevity, growth, metabolism and development. The most well studied HSF, HSF1, has been found at elevated levels in tumors with high metastatic potential and is associated with poor prognosis. This is partly explained by the above-mentioned cytoprotective (HSP-dependent) function that may enable cancer cells to adapt to the initial oncogenic stress and to support malignant transformation. Nevertheless, HSF1 operates as major multifaceted enhancers of tumorigenesis through, not only the induction of classical heat shock genes, but also of “non-classical” targets. Indeed, in cancer cells, HSF1 regulates genes involved in core cellular functions including proliferation, survival, migration, protein synthesis, signal transduction, and glucose metabolism, making HSF1 a very attractive target in cancer therapy. In this review, we describe the different physiological roles of HSFs as well as the recent discoveries in term of non-cogenic potential of these HSFs, more specifically associated to the activation of “non-classical” HSF target genes. We also present an update on the compounds with potent HSF1-modulating activity of potential interest as anti-cancer therapeutic agents.

  20. Destabilization and recovery of a yeast prion after mild heat shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newnam, Gary P; Birchmore, Jennifer L; Chernoff, Yury O

    2011-05-06

    Yeast prion [PSI(+)] is a self-perpetuating amyloid of the translational termination factor Sup35. Although [PSI(+)] propagation is modulated by heat shock proteins (Hsps), high temperature was previously reported to have little or no effect on [PSI(+)]. Our results show that short-term exposure of exponentially growing yeast culture to mild heat shock, followed by immediate resumption of growth, leads to [PSI(+)] destabilization, sometimes persisting for several cell divisions after heat shock. Prion loss occurring in the first division after heat shock is preferentially detected in a daughter cell, indicating the impairment of prion segregation that results in asymmetric prion distribution between a mother cell and a bud. Longer heat shock or prolonged incubation in the absence of nutrients after heat shock led to [PSI(+)] recovery. Both prion destabilization and recovery during heat shock depend on protein synthesis. Maximal prion destabilization coincides with maximal imbalance between Hsp104 and other Hsps such as Hsp70-Ssa. Deletions of individual SSA genes increase prion destabilization and/or counteract recovery. The dynamics of prion aggregation during destabilization and recovery are consistent with the notion that efficient prion fragmentation and segregation require a proper balance between Hsp104 and other (e.g., Hsp70-Ssa) chaperones. In contrast to heat shock, [PSI(+)] destabilization by osmotic stressors does not always depend on cell proliferation and/or protein synthesis, indicating that different stresses may impact the prion via different mechanisms. Our data demonstrate that heat stress causes asymmetric prion distribution in a cell division and confirm that the effects of Hsps on prions are physiologically relevant. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Computer simulations of collisionless shock waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leroy, M.M.

    1984-01-01

    A review of the contributions of particle computer simulations to the understanding of the physics of magnetic shock waves in collisionless plasmas is presented. The emphasis is on the relation between the computer simulation results, spacecraft observations of shocks in space, and related theories, rather than on technical aspects of the numerics. It is shown that much has been learned from the comparison of ISEE spacecraft observations of the terrestrial bow shock and particle computer simulations concerning the quasi-perpendicular, supercritical shock (ion scale structure, ion reflection mechanism and ultimate dissipation processes). Particle computer simulations have also had an appreciable prospective role in the investigation of the physics of quasi-parallel shocks, about which still little is known observationally. Moreover, these numerical techniques have helped to clarify the process of suprathermal ion rejection by the shock into the foreshock, and the subsequent evolution of the ions in the foreshock. 95 references

  2. Molecular dynamics simulation of laser shock phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukumoto, Ichirou [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Kansai Research Establishment, Advanced Photon Research Center, Neyagawa, Osaka (Japan).

    2001-10-01

    Recently, ultrashort-pulse lasers with high peak power have been developed, and their application to materials processing is expected as a tool of precision microfabrication. When a high power laser irradiates, a shock wave propagates into the material and dislocations are generated. In this paper, laser shock phenomena of the metal were analyzed using the modified molecular dynamics method, which has been developed by Ohmura and Fukumoto. The main results obtained are summarized as follows: (1) The shock wave induced by the Gaussian beam irradiation propagates radially from the surface to the interior. (2) A lot of dislocations are generated at the solid-liquid interface by the propagation of a shock wave. (3) Some dislocations are moved instantaneously with the velocity of the longitudinal wave when the shock wave passes, and their velocity is not larger than the transverse velocity after the shock wave has passed. (author)

  3. Entropy Generation Across Earth's Bow Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, George K.; McCarthy, Michael; Fu, Suiyan; Lee E. s; Cao, Jinbin; Goldstein, Melvyn L.; Canu, Patrick; Dandouras, Iannis S.; Reme, Henri; Fazakerley, Andrew; hide

    2011-01-01

    Earth's bow shock is a transition layer that causes an irreversible change in the state of plasma that is stationary in time. Theories predict entropy increases across the bow shock but entropy has never been directly measured. Cluster and Double Star plasma experiments measure 3D plasma distributions upstream and downstream of the bow shock that allow calculation of Boltzmann's entropy function H and his famous H-theorem, dH/dt O. We present the first direct measurements of entropy density changes across Earth's bow shock. We will show that this entropy generation may be part of the processes that produce the non-thermal plasma distributions is consistent with a kinetic entropy flux model derived from the collisionless Boltzmann equation, giving strong support that solar wind's total entropy across the bow shock remains unchanged. As far as we know, our results are not explained by any existing shock models and should be of interests to theorists.

  4. Remote shock sensing and notification system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muralidharan, Govindarajan; Britton, Charles L.; Pearce, James; Jagadish, Usha; Sikka, Vinod K.

    2008-11-11

    A low-power shock sensing system includes at least one shock sensor physically coupled to a chemical storage tank to be monitored for impacts, and an RF transmitter which is in a low-power idle state in the absence of a triggering signal. The system includes interference circuitry including or activated by the shock sensor, wherein an output of the interface circuitry is coupled to an input of the RF transmitter. The interface circuitry triggers the RF transmitting with the triggering signal to transmit an alarm message to at least one remote location when the sensor senses a shock greater than a predetermined threshold. In one embodiment the shock sensor is a shock switch which provides an open and a closed state, the open state being a low power idle state.

  5. Resveratrol induces antioxidant and heat shock protein mRNA expression in response to heat stress in black-boned chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L L; He, J H; Xie, H B; Yang, Y S; Li, J C; Zou, Y

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of dietary resveratrol at 0, 200, 400, or 600 mg/kg of diet on the performance, immune organ growth index, serum parameters, and expression levels of heat shock protein (Hsp) 27, Hsp70, and Hsp90 mRNA in the bursa of Fabricius, thymus, and spleen of 42-d-old female black-boned chickens exposed to heat stress at 37 ± 2°C for 15 d. The results showed that heat stress reduced daily feed intake and BW gain; decreased serum glutathione (GSH), growth hormone, and insulin-like growth factor-1 levels; and inhibited GSH peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activities compared with birds subjected to thermo-neutral circumstances. Chickens that were fed diets supplemented with resveratrol exhibited a linear increase in feed intake and BW gain (P stress. In contrast, serum malonaldehyde concentrations were decreased (P stress also reduced (P stress and coincided with an increase in supplemental resveratrol levels. The expression of Hsp27, Hsp70, and Hsp90 mRNA in the bursa of Fabricius and spleen were increased (P stress compared with no heat stress. Resveratrol attenuated the heat stress-induced overexpression of Hsp27, Hsp70, and Hsp90 mRNA in the bursa of Fabricius and spleen and increased the low expression of Hsp27 and Hsp90 mRNA in thymus upon heat stress. The results suggest that supplemental resveratrol improves growth performance and reduces oxidative stress in heat-stressed black-boned chickens by increasing serum growth hormone concentrations and modulating the expression of heat shock genes in organs of the immune system.

  6. Role of heat shock transcription factor 1(HSF1)-upregulated macrophage in ameliorating pressure overload-induced heart failure in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Peizhao; Chang, Yaowei; Dai, Fangjie; Wei, Chunyan; Zhang, Qi; Li, Jiming

    2018-08-15

    In order to explore the role of macrophages in HSF1-mediated alleviation of heart failure, mice model of pressure overload-induced heart failure was established using transverse aortic constriction (TAC). Changes in cardiac function and morphology were studied in TAC and SHAM groups using ultrasonic device, tissue staining, electron microscopy, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-QPCR), and Western blotting. We found that mice in the TAC group showed evidence of impaired cardiac function and aggravation of fibrosis on ultrasonic and histopathological examination when compared to those in the SHAM group. The expressions of HSF1, LC3II/LC3I, Becline-1 and HIF-1, as well as autophagosome formation in TAC group were greater than that in SHAM group. On sub-group analyses in the TAC group, improved cardiac function and alleviation of fibrosis was observed in the HSF1 TG subgroup as compared to that in the wild type subgroup. Expressions of LC3II/LC3I, Becline-1 and HIF-1, too showed an obvious increase; and increased autophagosome formation was observed on electron microscopy. Opposite results were observed in the HSF1 KO subgroup. These results collectively suggest that in the pressure overload heart failure model, HSF1 promoted formation of macrophages by inducing upregulation of HIF-1 expression, through which heart failure was ameliorated. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Role of echocardiography in reducing shock reversal time in pediatric septic shock: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed A. EL‐Nawawy

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: Serial echocardiography provided crucial data for early recognition of septic myocardial dysfunction and hypovolemia that was not apparent on clinical assessment, allowing a timely management and resulting in shock reversal time reduction among children with septic shock.

  8. The earth's foreshock, bow shock, and magnetosheath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onsager, T. G.; Thomsen, M. F.

    1991-01-01

    Studies directly pertaining to the earth's foreshock, bow shock, and magnetosheath are reviewed, and some comparisons are made with data on other planets. Topics considered in detail include the electron foreshock, the ion foreshock, the quasi-parallel shock, the quasi-perpendicular shock, and the magnetosheath. Information discussed spans a broad range of disciplines, from large-scale macroscopic plasma phenomena to small-scale microphysical interactions.

  9. The earth's foreshock, bow shock, and magnetosheath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onsager, T.G.; Thomsen, M.F.

    1991-01-01

    Studies directly pertaining to the earth's foreshock, bow shock, and magnetosheath are reviewed, and some comparisons are made with data on other planets. Topics considered in detail include the electron foreshock, the ion foreshock, the quasi-parallel shock, the quasi-perpendicular shock, and the magnetosheath. Information discussed spans a broad range of disciplines, from large-scale macroscopic plasma phenomena to small-scale microphysical interactions. 184 refs

  10. Nonequilibrium chemistry in shocked molecular clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iglesias, E.R.; Silk, J.

    1978-01-01

    The gas phase chemistry is studied behind a 10 km s -1 shock propagating into a dense molecular cloud. Our principal conclusions are that the concentrations of certain molecules (CO, NH 3 , HCN, N 2 ) are unperturbed by the shock; other molecules (H 2 CO, CN, HCO + ) are greatly decreased in abundance; and substantial amounts of H 2 O, HCO, and CH 4 are produced. Approximately 10 6 yr (independent of the density) must elapse after shock passage before chemical equilibrium is attained

  11. Reaction effects in diffusive shock acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drury, L.Oc.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of the reaction of accelerated particles back on the shock wave in the diffusive-shock-acceleration model of cosmic-ray generation are investigated theoretically. Effects examined include changes in the shock structure, modifications of the input and output spectra, scattering effects, and possible instabilities in the small-scale structure. It is pointed out that the latter two effects are applicable to any spatially localized acceleration mechanism. 14 references

  12. PIV tracer behavior on propagating shock fronts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glazyrin, Fyodor N; Mursenkova, Irina V; Znamenskaya, Irina A

    2016-01-01

    The present work was aimed at the quantitative particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurement of a velocity field near the front of a propagating shock wave and the study of the dynamics of liquid tracers crossing the shock front. For this goal, a shock tube with a rectangular cross-section (48  ×  24 mm) was used. The flat shock wave with Mach numbers M  =  1.4–2.0 propagating inside the tube channel was studied as well as an expanding shock wave propagating outside the channel with M  =  1.2–1.8 at its main axis. The PIV imaging of the shock fronts was carried out with an aerosol of dioctyl sebacate (DEHS) as tracer particles. The pressures of the gas in front of the shock waves studied ranged from 0.013 Mpa to 0.1 MPa in the series of experiments. The processed PIV data, compared to the 1D normal shock theory, yielded consistent values of wake velocity immediately behind the plain shock wave. Special attention was paid to the blurring of the velocity jump on the shock front due to the inertial particle lag and peculiarities of the PIV technique. A numerical algorithm was developed for analysis and correction of the PIV data on the shock fronts, based on equations of particle-flow interaction. By application of this algorithm, the effective particle diameter of the DEHS aerosol tracers was estimated as 1.03  ±  0.12 μm. A number of different formulations for particle drag were tested with this algorithm, with varying success. The results show consistency with previously reported experimental data obtained for cases of stationary shock waves. (paper)

  13. Condensed matter at high shock pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nellis, W.J.; Holmes, N.C.; Mitchell, A.C.; Radousky, H.B.; Hamilton, D.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental techniques are described for shock waves in liquids: Hugoniot equation-of-state, shock temperature and emission spectroscopy, electrical conductivity, and Raman spectroscopy. Experimental data are reviewed and presented in terms of phenomena that occur at high densities and temperatures in shocked He, Ar, N 2 , CO, SiO 2 -aerogel, H 2 O, and C 6 H 6 . The superconducting properties of Nb metal shocked to 100 GPa (1 Mbar) and recovered intact are discussed in terms of prospects for synthesizing novel, metastable materials. Ultrahigh pressure data for Cu is reviewed in the range 0.3 to 6TPa (3 to 60 Mbar). 56 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  14. Radio emission from coronal and interplanetary shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cane, H.V.

    1987-01-01

    Observational data on coronal and interplanetary (IP) type II burst events associated with shock-wave propagation are reviewed, with a focus on the past and potential future contributions of space-based observatories. The evidence presented by Cane (1983 and 1984) in support of the hypothesis that the coronal (metric) and IP (kilometric) bursts are due to different shocks is summarized, and the fast-drift kilometric events seen at the same time as metric type II bursts (and designated shock-accelerated or shock-associated events) are characterized. The need for further observations at 0.5-20 MHz is indicated. 20 references

  15. Advanced and Exploratory Shock Sensing Mechanisms.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelsen, Nicholas H. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kolb, James D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kulkarni, Akshay G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sorscher, Zachary [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Habing, Clayton D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mathis, Allen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Beller, Zachary J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Mechanical component response to shock environments must be predictable in order to ensure reliability and safety. Whether the shock input results from accidental drops during transportation to projectile impact scenarios, the system must irreversibly transition into a safe state that is incapable of triggering the component . With this critical need in mind, the 2017 Nuclear Weapons Summer Product Realization Institute (NW SPRINT) program objective sought the design of a passive shock failsafe with emphasis on additively manufactured (AM) components. Team Advanced and Exploratory (A&E) responded to the challenge by designing and delivering multiple passive shock sensing mech anisms that activate within a prescribed mechanical shock threshold. These AM failsafe designs were tuned and validated using analytical and computational techniques including the shock response spectrum (SRS) and finite element analysis (FEA). After rapid prototyping, the devices experienced physical shock tests conducted on Sandia drop tables to experimentally verify performance. Keywords: Additive manufacturing, dynamic system, failsafe, finite element analysis, mechanical shock, NW SPRINT, shock respon se spectrum

  16. Irreversible thermodynamics of overdriven shocks in solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, D.C.

    1981-01-01

    An isotropic solid capable of transporting heat and of undergoing dissipative plastic flow, is treated. The shock is assumed to be a steady wave, and any phase changes or macroscopic inhomogeneities which might be induced by the shock are neglected. Under these conditions it is established that for an overdriven shock, no solution is possible without heat transport, and when the heat transport is governed by the steady conduction equation, no solution is possible without plastic dissipation as well. Upper and lower bounds are established for the thermodynamic variables, namely the shear stress, temperature, entropy, plastic strain, and heat flux, as functions of compression through the shock

  17. Irreducible Specht modules are signed Young modules

    OpenAIRE

    Hemmer, David J.

    2005-01-01

    Recently Donkin defined signed Young modules as a simultaneous generalization of Young and twisted Young modules for the symmetric group. We show that in odd characteristic, if a Specht module $S^\\lambda$ is irreducible, then $S^\\lambda$ is a signed Young module. Thus the set of irreducible Specht modules coincides with the set of irreducible signed Young modules. This provides evidence for our conjecture that the signed Young modules are precisely the class of indecomposable self-dual module...

  18. The source of real and nominal exchange rate fluctuations in Thailand: Real shock or nominal shock

    OpenAIRE

    Le Thanh, Binh

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the source of exchange rate fluctuations in Thailand. We employed a structural vector auto-regression (SVAR) model with the long-run neutrality restriction of Blanchard and Quah (1989) to investigate the changes in real and nominal exchange rates from 1994 to 2015. In this paper, we assume that there are two types of shocks which related to exchange rate movements: real shocks and nominal shocks. The empirical analysis indicates that real shocks are the fundamental compon...

  19. Deletion of hepatocyte nuclear factor-1-beta in an infant with prune belly syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeri, Sina; Devers, Patricia L; Kaiser-Rogers, Kathleen A; Moylan, Vincent J; Torchia, Beth S; Horton, Amanda L; Wolfe, Honor M; Aylsworth, Arthur S

    2010-08-01

    Prune belly syndrome is a rare congenital disorder characterized by deficiency of abdominal wall muscles, cryptorchidism, and urinary tract anomalies. We have had the opportunity to study a baby with prune belly syndrome associated with an apparently de novo 1.3-megabase interstitial 17q12 microdeletion that includes the hepatocyte nuclear factor-1-beta gene at 17q12. One previous patient, an adult, has been reported with prune belly syndrome and a hepatocyte nuclear factor-1-beta microdeletion. Hepatocyte nuclear factor-1-beta is a widely expressed transcription factor that regulates tissue-specific gene expression and is expressed in numerous tissues including mesonephric duct derivatives, the renal tubule of the metanephros, and the developing prostate of the mouse. Mutations in hepatocyte nuclear factor-1-beta cause the "renal cysts and diabetes syndrome," isolated renal cystic dysplasia, and a variety of other malformations. Based on its expression pattern and the observation of two affected cases, we propose that haploinsufficiency of hepatocyte nuclear factor-1-beta may be causally related to the production of the prune belly syndrome phenotype through a mechanism of prostatic and ureteral hypoplasia that results in severe obstructive uropathy with urinary tract and abdominal distension. Copyright Thieme Medical Publishers.

  20. Model for shock wave chaos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasimov, Aslan R; Faria, Luiz M; Rosales, Rodolfo R

    2013-03-08

    We propose the following model equation, u(t) + 1/2(u(2)-uu(s))x = f(x,u(s)) that predicts chaotic shock waves, similar to those in detonations in chemically reacting mixtures. The equation is given on the half line, xorder partial differential equation. The chaos arises in the equation thanks to an interplay between the nonlinearity of the inviscid Burgers equation and a novel forcing term that is nonlocal in nature and has deep physical roots in reactive Euler equations.

  1. Adaptive inertial shock-absorber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faraj, Rami; Holnicki-Szulc, Jan; Knap, Lech; Seńko, Jarosław

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces and discusses a new concept of impact absorption by means of impact energy management and storage in dedicated rotating inertial discs. The effectiveness of the concept is demonstrated in a selected case-study involving spinning management, a recently developed novel impact-absorber. A specific control technique performed on this device is demonstrated to be the main source of significant improvement in the overall efficiency of impact damping process. The influence of various parameters on the performance of the shock-absorber is investigated. Design and manufacturing challenges and directions of further research are formulated. (paper)

  2. Converging shocks in elastic-plastic solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, A López; Lombardini, M; Hill, D J

    2011-11-01

    We present an approximate description of the behavior of an elastic-plastic material processed by a cylindrically or spherically symmetric converging shock, following Whitham's shock dynamics theory. Originally applied with success to various gas dynamics problems, this theory is presently derived for solid media, in both elastic and plastic regimes. The exact solutions of the shock dynamics equations obtained reproduce well the results obtained by high-resolution numerical simulations. The examined constitutive laws share a compressible neo-Hookean structure for the internal energy e=e(s)(I(1))+e(h)(ρ,ς), where e(s) accounts for shear through the first invariant of the Cauchy-Green tensor, and e(h) represents the hydrostatic contribution as a function of the density ρ and entropy ς. In the strong-shock limit, reached as the shock approaches the axis or origin r=0, we show that compression effects are dominant over shear deformations. For an isothermal constitutive law, i.e., e(h)=e(h)(ρ), with a power-law dependence e(h) is proportional to ρ(α), shock dynamics predicts that for a converging shock located at r=R(t) at time t, the Mach number increases as M is proportional to [log(1/R)](α), independently of the space index s, where s=2 in cylindrical geometry and 3 in spherical geometry. An alternative isothermal constitutive law with p(ρ) of the arctanh type, which enforces a finite density in the strong-shock limit, leads to M is proportional to R(-(s-1)) for strong shocks. A nonisothermal constitutive law, whose hydrostatic part e(h) is that of an ideal gas, is also tested, recovering the strong-shock limit M is proportional to R(-(s-1)/n(γ)) originally derived by Whitham for perfect gases, where γ is inherently related to the maximum compression ratio that the material can reach, (γ+1)/(γ-1). From these strong-shock limits, we also estimate analytically the density, radial velocity, pressure, and sound speed immediately behind the shock. While the

  3. Network analysis of oyster transcriptome revealed a cascade of cellular responses during recovery after heat shock.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingling Zhang

    Full Text Available Oysters, as a major group of marine bivalves, can tolerate a wide range of natural and anthropogenic stressors including heat stress. Recent studies have shown that oysters pretreated with heat shock can result in induced heat tolerance. A systematic study of cellular recovery from heat shock may provide insights into the mechanism of acquired thermal tolerance. In this study, we performed the first network analysis of oyster transcriptome by reanalyzing microarray data from a previous study. Network analysis revealed a cascade of cellular responses during oyster recovery after heat shock and identified responsive gene modules and key genes. Our study demonstrates the power of network analysis in a non-model organism with poor gene annotations, which can lead to new discoveries that go beyond the focus on individual genes.

  4. Insect cold tolerance and repair of chill-injury at fluctuating thermal regimes: Role of 70kDa heat shock protein expression

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tollarová-Borovanská, Michaela; Lalouette, L.; Košťál, Vladimír

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 5 (2009), s. 312-319 ISSN 0143-2044 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/07/0269 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : insect * cold tolerance * heat shock proteins Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.074, year: 2009

  5. Shock compression profiles in ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grady, D.E.; Moody, R.L.

    1996-03-01

    An investigation of the shock compression properties of high-strength ceramics has been performed using controlled planar impact techniques. In a typical experimental configuration, a ceramic target disc is held stationary, and it is struck by plates of either a similar ceramic or by plates of a well-characterized metal. All tests were performed using either a single-stage propellant gun or a two-stage light-gas gun. Particle velocity histories were measured with laser velocity interferometry (VISAR) at the interface between the back of the target ceramic and a calibrated VISAR window material. Peak impact stresses achieved in these experiments range from about 3 to 70 GPa. Ceramics tested under shock impact loading include: Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, AlN, B{sub 4}C, SiC, Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}, TiB{sub 2}, WC and ZrO{sub 2}. This report compiles the VISAR wave profiles and experimental impact parameters within a database-useful for response model development, computational model validation studies, and independent assessment of the physics of dynamic deformation on high-strength, brittle solids.

  6. Shock-resistant scintillation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novak, W.P.

    1979-01-01

    A unique scintillation detector unit is disclosed which employs a special light transfer and reflector means that encases and protects the scintillator crystal against high g forces. The light transfer means comprises a flexible silicon rubber optical material bonded between the crystal and the optical window and having an axial thickness sufficient to allow the scintillator to move axially inside the container under high g forces without destroying the bonds. The reflector means comprises a soft elastic silicone rubber sleeve having a multiplicity of closely arranged tapered protrusions radiating toward and engaging the periphery of the scintillator crystal to cushion shocks effectively and having a reflective material, such as aluminum oxide powder, in the spaces between the protrusions. The reflector means provides improved shock absorption because of the uniform support and cushioning action of the protrusions and also provides the detector with high efficiency. The silicon rubber composition is specially compounded to include a large amount of aluminum oxide which enables the rubber to function effectively as a light reflector

  7. The ''injection problem'' for quasiparallel shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zank, G. P.; Rice, W. K. M.; le Roux, J. A.; Cairns, I. H.; Webb, G. M.

    2001-01-01

    For a particle to be accelerated diffusively at a shock by the first-order Fermi acceleration mechanism, the particle must be sufficiently energetic that it can scatter across all the micro- and macrostructure of the shock, experiencing compression between the converging upstream and downstream states. This is the well-known ''injection problem.'' Here the interaction of ions with the ramp of a quasiparallel shock is investigated. Some ions incident on the shock experience specular reflection, caused either by the cross-shock electrostatic potential or by mirroring as the magnetic field is bent and compressed through the ramp. Scattering of reflected ions by self-generated and pre-existing turbulence in the region upstream of the shock then acts to trap backstreaming ions and return them to the ramp, where some experience further reflections. Such repeated reflections and scattering energize a subpopulation of ions up to energies sufficiently large that they can be diffusively shock accelerated. Two ion distributions are considered: pickup ions which are assumed to be described by a shell distribution, are thermal solar wind ions which may be described by a kappa distribution. Injection efficiencies are found analytically to be very high for pickup ions and much lower for thermal solar wind ions, suggesting that this injection mechanism, stochastic reflected ion or SRI acceleration, is a natural precursor for the acceleration of the anomalous cosmic ray component at a quasiparallel shock. While significantly less efficient, SRI acceleration is also viable for thermal solar wind ions described by a kappa distribution

  8. PRECURSORS TO INTERSTELLAR SHOCKS OF SOLAR ORIGIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurnett, D. A.; Kurth, W. S. [University of Iowa, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Stone, E. C.; Cummings, A. C. [California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Krimigis, S. M.; Decker, R. B. [Applied Physics Laboratory/JHU, 11100 Johns Hopkins Road, Laurel, MD 20723 (United States); Ness, N. F. [Catholic University of America, 620 Michigan Avenue NE, Washington, DC 20064 (United States); Burlaga, L. F., E-mail: donald-gurnett@uiowa.edu [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2015-08-20

    On or about 2012 August 25, the Voyager 1 spacecraft crossed the heliopause into the nearby interstellar plasma. In the nearly three years that the spacecraft has been in interstellar space, three notable particle and field disturbances have been observed, each apparently associated with a shock wave propagating outward from the Sun. Here, we present a detailed analysis of the third and most impressive of these disturbances, with brief comparisons to the two previous events, both of which have been previously reported. The shock responsible for the third event was first detected on 2014 February 17 by the onset of narrowband radio emissions from the approaching shock, followed on 2014 May 13 by the abrupt appearance of intense electron plasma oscillations generated by electrons streaming outward ahead of the shock. Finally, the shock arrived on 2014 August 25, as indicated by a jump in the magnetic field strength and the plasma density. Various disturbances in the intensity and anisotropy of galactic cosmic rays were also observed ahead of the shock, some of which are believed to be caused by the reflection and acceleration of cosmic rays by the magnetic field jump at the shock, and/or by interactions with upstream plasma waves. Comparisons to the two previous weaker events show somewhat similar precursor effects, although differing in certain details. Many of these effects are very similar to those observed in the region called the “foreshock” that occurs upstream of planetary bow shocks, only on a vastly larger spatial scale.

  9. Corporate Policies with Permanent and Transitory Shocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J-P. Decamps (Jean-Paul); S. Gryglewicz (Sebastian); E. Morellec (Erwan); S. Villeneuve (Stephane)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractWe model the financing, cash holdings, and hedging policies of a firm facing financing frictions and subject to permanent and transitory cash flow shocks. We show that permanent and transitory shocks generate distinct, sometimes opposite, effects on corporate policies and use the model

  10. Shock dynamics in layered periodic media

    KAUST Repository

    Ketcheson, David I.; Leveque, Randall J.

    2012-01-01

    of shock waves in a one-dimensional periodic layered medium by a computational study of time-reversibility and entropy evolution. We find that periodic layered media tend to inhibit shock formation. For small initial conditions and large impedance variation

  11. Particle acceleration and shock wave structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DRURY, L.O'C.

    1989-01-01

    A significant determinant in the large-scale structure and evolution of strong collisionless shocks under astrophysical conditions is probably the acceleration of charged particles. The reaction of these particles on the dynamical structure of the shock wave is discussed both theoretically and in the light of recent numerical calculations. Astrophysical implications for the evolution of supernova remnants, are considered. (author). 15 refs

  12. Laser shock wave and its applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chaojun; Zhang, Yongkang; Zhou, Jianzhong; Zhang, Fang; Feng, Aixin

    2007-12-01

    The technology of laser shock wave is used to not only surface modification but also metal forming. It can be divided into three parts: laser shock processing, laser shock forming (LSF) and laser peenforming(LPF). Laser shock processing as a surface treatment to metals can make engineering components have a residual compressive stress so that it obviously improves their fatigue strength and stress corrosion performances, while laser shock forming (LSF) is a novel technique that is used in plastic deformation of sheet metal recently and Laser peen forming (LPF) is another new sheet metal forming process presented in recent years. They all can be carried out by a high-power and repetition pulse Nd:Glass laser device made by Jiangsu University. Laser shock technology has characterized of ultrahigh pressure and high strain rate (10 6 - 10 7s -1). Now, for different materials, we are able to form different metals to contours and shapes and simultaneity leave their surfaces in crack-resistant compressive stress state. The results show that the technology of laser shock wave can strengthen surface property and prolong fatigue life and especially can deform metals to shapes that could not be adequately made using conventional methods. With the development of the technology of laser shock wave, the applied fields of laser will become greater and greater.

  13. Experimental Study of the Effect of Water Mist Location On Blast Overpressure Attenuation in A Shock Tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mataradze, Edgar; Chikhradze, Nikoloz; Bochorishvili, Nika; Akhvlediani, Irakli; Tatishvili, Dimitri

    2017-12-01

    Explosion protection technologies are based on the formation of a shock wave mitigation barrier between the protection site and the explosion site. Contemporary protective systems use water mist as an extinguishing barrier. To achieve high effectiveness of the protective system, proper selection of water mist characteristics is important. The main factors defining shock wave attenuation in water mist include droplet size distribution, water concentration in the mist, droplet velocity and geometric properties of mist. This paper examines the process of attenuation of shock waves in mist with droplets ranging from 25 to 400 microns under different conditions of water mist location. Experiments were conducted at the Mining Institute with the use of a shock tube to study the processes of explosion suppression by a water mist barrier. The shock tube consists of a blast chamber, a tube, a system for the dosed supply of water, sensors, data recording equipment, and a process control module. Shock wave overpressure reduction coefficient was studied in the shock tube under two different locations of water mist: a) when water mist is created in direct contact with blast chamber and b) the blast chamber and the mist are separated by air space. It is established that in conditions when the air space distance between the blast chamber and the mist is 1 meter, overpressure reduction coefficient is 1.5-1.6 times higher than in conditions when water mist is created in direct contact with blast chamber.

  14. Introduction to Shock Waves and Shock Wave Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, William Wyatt [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-02-02

    M-9 and a number of other organizations at LANL and elsewhere study materials in dynamic processes. Often, this is described as “shock wave research,” but in reality is broader than is implied by that term. Most of our work is focused on dynamic compression and associated phenomena, but you will find a wide variety of things we do that, while related, are not simple compression of materials, but involve a much richer variety of phenomena. This tutorial will introduce some of the underlying physics involved in this work, some of the more common types of phenomena we study, and common techniques. However, the list will not be exhaustive by any means.

  15. Signed Young Modules and Simple Specht Modules

    OpenAIRE

    Danz, Susanne; Lim, Kay Jin

    2015-01-01

    By a result of Hemmer, every simple Specht module of a finite symmetric group over a field of odd characteristic is a signed Young module. While Specht modules are parametrized by partitions, indecomposable signed Young modules are parametrized by certain pairs of partitions. The main result of this article establishes the signed Young module labels of simple Specht modules. Along the way we prove a number of results concerning indecomposable signed Young modules that are of independent inter...

  16. Shock loading predictions from application of indicial theory to shock-turbulence interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, Laurence R.; Nixon, David

    1991-01-01

    A sequence of steps that permits prediction of some of the characteristics of the pressure field beneath a fluctuating shock wave from knowledge of the oncoming turbulent boundary layer is presented. The theory first predicts the power spectrum and pdf of the position and velocity of the shock wave, which are then used to obtain the shock frequency distribution, and the pdf of the pressure field, as a function of position within the interaction region. To test the validity of the crucial assumption of linearity, the indicial response of a normal shock is calculated from numerical simulation. This indicial response, after being fit by a simple relaxation model, is used to predict the shock position and velocity spectra, along with the shock passage frequency distribution. The low frequency portion of the shock spectra, where most of the energy is concentrated, is satisfactorily predicted by this method.

  17. Shock-induced devolatilization of calcite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boslough, M. B.; Ahrens, T. J.; Vizgirda, J.; Becker, R. H.; Epstein, S.

    1982-01-01

    Experimental measurements of the release adiabats by Vizgirda (1981) indicate that substantial vaporization takes place upon release from shock pressures of 37 GPa for calcite and 14 GPa for aragonite. The present investigation includes the first controlled partial vaporization experiments on calcite. The experiments were conducted to test the predictions of the release adiabat experiments. The quantities of the gaseous species produced from shocked calcite and their carbon and oxygen isotopic compositions were determined, and the shock-induced effect on the Mn(2+) electron spin resonance spectrum in the shock-recovered calcite was observed. On the basis of the obtained results, it is concluded that shock stresses at the 17-18 GPa level give rise to volatilization of 0.03-0.3 (mole) percent of calcite to CO2 and CO. The devolatilization of calcite occurs at low pressure at significantly lower entropy densities than predicted on the basis of thermodynamic continuum models.

  18. Shock waves in helium at low temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liepmann, H.W.; Torczynski, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    Results are reported from studies of the properties of low temperature He-4 using shock waves as a probe. Ideal shock tube theory is used to show that sonic speeds of Mach 40 are attainable in He at 300 K. Viscosity reductions at lower temperatures minimize boundary layer effects at the side walls. A two-fluid model is described to account for the phase transition which He undergoes at temperatures below 2.2 K, after which the quantum fluid (He II) and the normal compressed superfluid (He I) coexist. Analytic models are provided for pressure-induced shocks in He I and temperature-induced shock waves (called second sound) which appear in He II. The vapor-fluid interface of He I is capable of reflecting second and gasdynamic sound shocks, which can therefore be used as probes for studying phase transitions between He I and He II. 17 references

  19. Analytical extension of curved shock theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuel, G.

    2018-03-01

    Curved shock theory (CST) is limited to shock waves in a steady, two-dimensional or axisymmetric (2-Ax) flow of a perfect gas. A unique feature of CST is its use of intrinsic coordinates that result in an elegant and useful formulation for flow properties just downstream of a shock. For instance, the downstream effect of upstream vorticity, shock wave curvature, and the upstream pressure gradient along a streamline is established. There have been several attempts to extend CST, as mentioned in the text. Removal of the steady, 2-Ax, and perfect gas limitations, singly or in combination, requires an appropriate formulation of the shock wave's jump relations and the intrinsic coordinate Euler equations. Issues discussed include flow plane versus osculating plane, unsteady flow, vorticity, an imperfect gas, etc. The extension of CST utilizes concepts from differential geometry, such as the osculating plane, streamline torsion, and the Serret-Frenet equations.

  20. 28th International Symposium on Shock Waves

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The University of Manchester hosted the 28th International Symposium on Shock Waves between 17 and 22 July 2011. The International Symposium on Shock Waves first took place in 1957 in Boston and has since become an internationally acclaimed series of meetings for the wider Shock Wave Community. The ISSW28 focused on the following areas: Blast Waves, Chemically Reacting Flows, Dense Gases and Rarefied Flows, Detonation and Combustion, Diagnostics, Facilities, Flow Visualisation, Hypersonic Flow, Ignition, Impact and Compaction, Multiphase Flow, Nozzle Flow, Numerical Methods, Propulsion, Richtmyer-Meshkov, Shockwave Boundary Layer Interaction, Shock Propagation and Reflection, Shock Vortex Interaction, Shockwave Phenomena and Applications, as well as Medical and Biological Applications. The two Volumes contain the papers presented at the symposium and serve as a reference for the participants of the ISSW 28 and individuals interested in these fields.

  1. Barrier experiment: Shock initiation under complex loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menikoff, Ralph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-01-12

    The barrier experiments are a variant of the gap test; a detonation wave in a donor HE impacts a barrier and drives a shock wave into an acceptor HE. The question we ask is: What is the trade-off between the barrier material and threshold barrier thickness to prevent the acceptor from detonating. This can be viewed from the perspective of shock initiation of the acceptor subject to a complex pressure drive condition. Here we consider key factors which affect whether or not the acceptor undergoes a shock-to-detonation transition. These include the following: shock impedance matches for the donor detonation wave into the barrier and then the barrier shock into the acceptor, the pressure gradient behind the donor detonation wave, and the curvature of detonation front in the donor. Numerical simulations are used to illustrate how these factors affect the reaction in the acceptor.

  2. Memory Modulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roozendaal, Benno; McGaugh, James L.

    2011-01-01

    Our memories are not all created equally strong: Some experiences are well remembered while others are remembered poorly, if at all. Research on memory modulation investigates the neurobiological processes and systems that contribute to such differences in the strength of our memories. Extensive

  3. Module descriptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vincenti, Gordon; Klausen, Bodil; Kjær Jensen, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    The Module Descriptor including a Teacher’s Guide explains and describes how to work innovatively and co-creatively with wicked problems and young people. The descriptor shows how interested educators and lecturers in Europe can copy the lessons of the Erasmus+ project HIP when teaching their own...

  4. Undifferentiated Embryonic Cell Transcription Factor 1 Regulates ESC Chromatin Organization and Gene Expression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooistra, Susanne M.; van den Boom, Vincent; Thummer, Rajkumar P.; Johannes, Frank; Wardenaar, Rene; Tesson, Bruno M.; Veenhoff, Liesbeth M.; Fusetti, Fabrizia; O'Neill, Laura P.; Turner, Bryan M.; de Haan, Gerald; Eggen, Bart J. L.; O’Neill, Laura P.

    2010-01-01

    Previous reports showed that embryonic stem (ES) cells contain hyperdynamic and globally transcribed chromatin-properties that are important for ES cell pluripotency and differentiation. Here, we demonstrate a role for undifferentiated embryonic cell transcription factor 1 (UTF1) in regulating ES

  5. A RNA antagonist of hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha, EZN-2968, inhibits tumor cell growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greenberger, Lee M; Horak, Ivan D; Filpula, David

    2008-01-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is a transcription factor that plays a critical role in angiogenesis, survival, metastasis, drug resistance, and glucose metabolism. Elevated expression of the alpha-subunit of HIF-1 (HIF-1alpha), which occurs in response to hypoxia or activation of growth facto...

  6. Structure and role of neutrophil cytosol factor 1 (NCF1) gene in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2010-12-27

    Dec 27, 2010 ... The neutrophil cytosol factor 1 (NCF1) gene consists of 11 exons and is found in two forms; one is wild ... granulomatous disease, multiple sclerosis, arthritis and parasitic infection. ... TCR, T cell receptor; AhR, aryl hydrocarbon receptor; RA, .... During malaria, ROS production can contribute to both.

  7. Fas-associated factor 1 interacts with protein kinase CK2 in vivo upon apoptosis induction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerra, B; Boldyreff, B; Issinger, O G

    2001-01-01

    We show here that in several different cell lines protein kinase CK2 and Fas-associated factor 1 (FAF1) exist together in a complex which is stable to high monovalent salt concentration. The CK2/FAF1 complex formation is significantly increased after induction of apoptosis with various DNA damaging...

  8. Inhibition of hypoxia inducible factor 1 and topoisomerase with acriflavine sensitizes perihilar cholangiocarcinomas to photodynamic therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijer, Ruud; Broekgaarden, Mans; Krekorian, Massis; Alles, Lindy K.; van Wijk, Albert C.; Mackaaij, Claire; Verheij, Joanne; van der Wal, Allard C.; van Gulik, Thomas M.; Storm, Gert; Heger, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) induces tumor cell death by oxidative stress and hypoxia but also survival signaling through activation of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1). Since perihilar cholangiocarcinomas are relatively recalcitrant to PDT, the aims were to (1) determine the expression levels of

  9. Inhibition of hypoxia inducible factor 1 and topoisomerase with acriflavine sensitizes perihilar cholangiocarcinomas to photodynamic therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijer, R.; Broekgaarden, M.; Krekorian, M.; Alles, L.K.; van Wijk, A.C; Mackaaij, C.; Verheij, J.; van der Wal, A.C.; van Gullik, T.M.; Storm, Gerrit; Heger, M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) induces tumor cell death by oxidative stress and hypoxia but also survival signaling through activation of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1). Since perihilar cholangiocarcinomas are relatively recalcitrant to PDT, the aims were to (1) determine the expression

  10. Role of multiprotein bridging factor 1 in archaea: bridging the domains?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, de B.; Blombach, F.; Wu Hao,; Brouns, S.J.J.; Oost, van der J.

    2009-01-01

    MBF1 (multiprotein bridging factor 1) is a highly conserved protein in archaea and eukaryotes. It was originally identified as a mediator of the eukaryotic transcription regulator BmFTZ-F1 (Bombyx mori regulator of fushi tarazu). MBF1 was demonstrated to enhance transcription by forming a bridge

  11. Effect of hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF-1α) on proliferation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-25

    Jul 25, 2011 ... Full Length Research Paper. Effect of hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha ... 1Department of Neurosurgery, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai JiaoTong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200025,. China. 2Department of Neurosurgery, Chaoyang Hospital, Huainan, Anhui, China. 3Department of Neurosurgery ...

  12. Preadipocyte factor-1 is associated with metabolic profile in severe obesity.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connell, J

    2011-04-01

    Dysfunctional adipose tissue has been proposed as a key pathological process linking obesity and metabolic disease. Preadipocyte factor-1 (Pref-1) has been shown to inhibit differentiation in adipocyte precursor cells and could thereby play a role in determining adipocyte size, adipose tissue functioning, and metabolic profile in obese individuals.

  13. Small-Scale Shock Testing of Propellants and Ingredients

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dawley, S

    2004-01-01

    .... The use of small-scale gap testing to evaluate the shock sensitivity of individual propellant ingredients and propellant formulations is a valuable method for experimentally establishing shock...

  14. Surface instabilities in shock loaded granular media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandan, K.; Khaderi, S. N.; Wadley, H. N. G.; Deshpande, V. S.

    2017-12-01

    The initiation and growth of instabilities in granular materials loaded by air shock waves are investigated via shock-tube experiments and numerical calculations. Three types of granular media, dry sand, water-saturated sand and a granular solid comprising PTFE spheres were experimentally investigated by air shock loading slugs of these materials in a transparent shock tube. Under all shock pressures considered here, the free-standing dry sand slugs remained stable while the shock loaded surface of the water-saturated sand slug became unstable resulting in mixing of the shocked air and the granular material. By contrast, the PTFE slugs were stable at low pressures but displayed instabilities similar to the water-saturated sand slugs at higher shock pressures. The distal surfaces of the slugs remained stable under all conditions considered here. Eulerian fluid/solid interaction calculations, with the granular material modelled as a Drucker-Prager solid, reproduced the onset of the instabilities as seen in the experiments to a high level of accuracy. These calculations showed that the shock pressures to initiate instabilities increased with increasing material friction and decreasing yield strain. Moreover, the high Atwood number for this problem implied that fluid/solid interaction effects were small, and the initiation of the instability is adequately captured by directly applying a pressure on the slug surface. Lagrangian calculations with the directly applied pressures demonstrated that the instability was caused by spatial pressure gradients created by initial surface perturbations. Surface instabilities are also shown to exist in shock loaded rear-supported granular slugs: these experiments and calculations are used to infer the velocity that free-standing slugs need to acquire to initiate instabilities on their front surfaces. The results presented here, while in an idealised one-dimensional setting, provide physical understanding of the conditions required to

  15. Hypoxic stress simultaneously stimulates vascular endothelial growth factor via hypoxia-inducible factor-1α and inhibits stromal cell-derived factor-1 in human endometrial stromal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuzuki, Tomoko; Okada, Hidetaka; Cho, Hisayuu; Tsuji, Shoko; Nishigaki, Akemi; Yasuda, Katsuhiko; Kanzaki, Hideharu

    2012-02-01

    Hypoxia of the human endometrium is a physiologic event occurring during the perimenstrual period and the local stimulus for angiogenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of hypoxic stress on the regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1/CXCL12), and the potential role of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) in the endometrium. Human endometrial stromal cells (ESCs, n= 22 samples) were studied in vitro. ESCs were cultured under hypoxic and normoxic conditions and treated with cobalt chloride (CoCl₂; a hypoxia-mimicking agent) and/or echinomycin, a small-molecule inhibitor of HIF-1α activity. The mRNA levels and production of VEGF and SDF-1 were assessed by real-time PCR and ELISA, respectively. The HIF-1α protein levels were measured using western blot analysis. Hypoxia simultaneously induced the expression of mRNA and production of VEGF and attenuated the expression and production of SDF-1 from ESCs in a time-dependent manner. Similar changes were observed in the ESCs after stimulation with CoCl₂ in a dose-dependent manner. CoCl₂ significantly induced the expression of HIF-1α protein, and its highest expression was observed at 6 h. Echinomycin inhibited hypoxia-induced VEGF production without affecting the HIF-1α protein level and cell toxicity and had no effect on SDF-1 secretion (P hypoxic conditions that could influence angiogenesis in the human endometrium.

  16. On nonstationarity and rippling of the quasiperpendicular zone of the Earth bow shock: Cluster observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Lobzin

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A new method for remote sensing of the quasiperpendicular part of the bow shock surface is presented. The method is based on analysis of high frequency electric field fluctuations corresponding to Langmuir, upshifted, and downshifted oscillations in the electron foreshock. Langmuir waves usually have maximum intensity at the upstream boundary of this region. All these waves are generated by energetic electrons accelerated by quasiperpendicular zone of the shock front. Nonstationary behavior of the shock, in particular due to rippling, should result in modulation of energetic electron fluxes, thereby giving rise to variations of Langmuir waves intensity. For upshifted and downshifted oscillations, the variations of both intensity and central frequency can be observed. For the present study, WHISPER measurements of electric field spectra obtained aboard Cluster spacecraft are used to choose 48 crossings of the electron foreshock boundary with dominating Langmuir waves and to perform for the first time a statistical analysis of nonstationary behavior of quasiperpendicular zone of the Earth's bow shock. Analysis of hidden periodicities in plasma wave energy reveals shock front nonstationarity in the frequency range 0.33 fBiBi, where fBi is the proton gyrofrequency upstream of the shock, and shows that the probability to observe such a nonstationarity increases with Mach number. The profiles observed aboard different spacecraft and the dominating frequencies of the periodicities are usually different. Hence nonstationarity and/or rippling seem to be rather irregular both in space and time rather than resembling a quasiregular wave propagating on the shock surface.

  17. On nonstationarity and rippling of the quasiperpendicular zone of the Earth bow shock: Cluster observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Lobzin

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A new method for remote sensing of the quasiperpendicular part of the bow shock surface is presented. The method is based on analysis of high frequency electric field fluctuations corresponding to Langmuir, upshifted, and downshifted oscillations in the electron foreshock. Langmuir waves usually have maximum intensity at the upstream boundary of this region. All these waves are generated by energetic electrons accelerated by quasiperpendicular zone of the shock front. Nonstationary behavior of the shock, in particular due to rippling, should result in modulation of energetic electron fluxes, thereby giving rise to variations of Langmuir waves intensity. For upshifted and downshifted oscillations, the variations of both intensity and central frequency can be observed. For the present study, WHISPER measurements of electric field spectra obtained aboard Cluster spacecraft are used to choose 48 crossings of the electron foreshock boundary with dominating Langmuir waves and to perform for the first time a statistical analysis of nonstationary behavior of quasiperpendicular zone of the Earth's bow shock. Analysis of hidden periodicities in plasma wave energy reveals shock front nonstationarity in the frequency range 0.33 fBishock, and shows that the probability to observe such a nonstationarity increases with Mach number. The profiles observed aboard different spacecraft and the dominating frequencies of the periodicities are usually different. Hence nonstationarity and/or rippling seem to be rather irregular both in space and time rather than resembling a quasiregular wave propagating on the shock surface.

  18. Silver nanoparticles inhibit the function of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 and target genes: insight into the cytotoxicity and antiangiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tieshan; Yao, Qian; Cao, Fei; Liu, Qianqian; Liu, Binlei; Wang, Xiu-Hong

    Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is a transcription factor that is activated upon exposure to hypoxic stress. It modulates a number of cellular responses including proliferation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, and metabolism by activating a panel of target genes in response to hypoxia. The HIF-1 level is often upregulated in the hypoxic microenvironment of solid tumors, which contributes to cancer treatment failure. Here we report that silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), which are widely used as an antimicrobial agent, are an effective inhibitor of HIF-1. AgNPs inhibited the activation of a HIF-dependent reporter construct after the cells were exposed to hypoxic conditions or treated with cobalt chloride, a hypoxia mimetic agent. The AgNPs also interfered with the accumulation of HIF-1α protein and the induction of the endogenous HIF target genes, VEGF-A and GLUT1. Since both HIF-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor-A play an important role in angiogenesis, AgNPs also inhibited angiogenesis in vitro. Our data reveal a new mechanism of how AgNPs act on cellular function, that is, they disrupt HIF signaling pathway. This finding provides a novel insight into how AgNPs can inhibit cancer cell growth and angiogenesis.

  19. Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1 Is an Inductor of Transcription Factor Activating Protein 2 Epsilon Expression during Chondrogenic Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Niebler

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The transcription factor AP-2ε (activating enhancer-binding protein epsilon is expressed in cartilage of humans and mice. However, knowledge about regulatory mechanisms influencing AP-2ε expression is limited. Using quantitative real time PCR, we detected a significant increase in AP-2ε mRNA expression comparing initial and late stages of chondrogenic differentiation processes in vitro and in vivo. Interestingly, in these samples the expression pattern of the prominent hypoxia marker gene angiopoietin-like 4 (Angptl4 strongly correlated with that of AP-2ε suggesting that hypoxia might represent an external regulator of AP-2ε expression in mammals. In order to show this, experiments directly targeting the activity of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF1, the complex mediating responses to oxygen deprivation, were performed. While the HIF1-activating compounds 2,2′-dipyridyl and desferrioxamine resulted in significantly enhanced mRNA concentration of AP-2ε, siRNA against HIF1α led to a significantly reduced expression rate of AP-2ε. Additionally, we detected a significant upregulation of the AP-2ε mRNA level after oxygen deprivation. In sum, these different experimental approaches revealed a novel role for the HIF1 complex in the regulation of the AP-2ε gene in cartilaginous cells and underlined the important role of hypoxia as an important external regulatory stimulus during chondrogenic differentiation modulating the expression of downstream transcription factors.

  20. Use of Hemadsorption in a Case of Pediatric Toxic Shock Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Berkes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Toxic shock syndrome is a potentially fatal toxin-mediated disease. The role of toxins in this clinical entity made us hypothesize that extracorporeal blood purification with CytoSorb® could play a beneficial role in the clinical management of toxic shock syndrome. This case report describes the successful treatment of toxic shock syndrome using a combination of renal replacement therapy and hemadsorption in a pediatric patient. Case Presentation. A 5-year-old girl with Down’s syndrome presented with an inflamed area surrounding an insect bite, signs of systemic inflammation, and multiple organ failure. As previous attempts of immune modulation therapy were unsuccessful, renal replacement therapy was supplemented by the cytokine absorber CytoSorb. Treatment using this combination was associated with a rapid and significant stabilization in the hemodynamic situation and a decrease in inflammatory mediators within hours after the initiation of therapy. The application of CytoSorb therapy was simple and safe. Conclusion. The use of extracorporeal blood purification with CytoSorb proved potentially beneficial by removing toxins and inflammatory mediators in this case and could therefore play a role in the clinical management of toxic shock syndrome. Whether CytoSorb has the potential to even positively influence mortality in patients with toxic shock syndrome still needs to be confirmed.

  1. Arctigenin from Fructus Arctii is a novel suppressor of heat shock response in mammalian cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Keiichi; Yamagishi, Nobuyuki; Saito, Youhei; Takasaki, Midori; Konoshima, Takao; Hatayama, Takumi

    2006-01-01

    Because heat shock proteins (Hsps) are involved in protecting cells and in the pathophysiology of diseases such as inflammation, cancer, and neurodegenerative disorders, the use of regulators of the expression of Hsps in mammalian cells seems to be useful as a potential therapeutic modality. To identify compounds that modulate the response to heat shock, we analyzed several natural products using a mammalian cell line containing an hsp promoter-regulated reporter gene. In this study, we found that an extract from Fructus Arctii markedly suppressed the expression of Hsp induced by heat shock. A component of the extract arctigenin, but not the component arctiin, suppressed the response at the level of the activation of heat shock transcription factor, the induction of mRNA, and the synthesis and accumulation of Hsp. Furthermore, arctigenin inhibited the acquisition of thermotolerance in mammalian cells, including cancer cells. Thus, arctigenin seemed to be a new suppressive regulator of heat shock response in mammalian cells, and may be useful for hyperthermia cancer therapy. PMID:16817321

  2. First order and second order fermi acceleration of energetic charged particles by shock waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, G.M.

    1983-01-01

    Steady state solutions of the cosmic ray transport equation describing first order Fermi acceleration of energetic charged particles at a plane shock (without losses) and second order Fermi acceleration in the downstream region of the shock are derived. The solutions for the isotropic part of the phase space distribution function are expressible as eigenfunction expansions, being superpositions of series of power law momentum spectra, with the power law indices being the roots of an eigenvalue equation. The above exact analytic solutions are for the case where the spatial diffusion coefficient kappa is independent of momentum. The solutions in general depend on the shock compression ratio, the modulation parameters V 1 L/kappa 1 , V 2 L/kappa 2 (V is the plasma velocity, kappa is the energetic particle diffusion coefficient, and L a characteristic length over which second order Fermi acceleration is effective) in the upstream and downstream regions of the shock, respectively, and also on a further dimensionless parameter, zeta, characterizing second order Fermi acceleration. In the limit as zeta→0 (no second order Fermi acceleration) the power law momentum spectrum characteristic of first order Fermi acceleration (depending only on the shock compression ratio) obtained previously is recovered. Perturbation solutions for the case where second order Fermi effects are small, and for realistic diffusion coefficients (kappainfinityp/sup a/, a>0, p = particle momentum), applicable at high momenta, are also obtained

  3. Effects of Atwood number on shock focusing in shock-cylinder interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Junfeng; Ding, Juchun; Luo, Xisheng; Zhai, Zhigang

    2018-02-01

    The evolution of shock-accelerated heavy-gas cylinder surrounded by the air with different Atwood numbers (A_t=0.28, 0.50, 0.63) is investigated, concentrating on shock focusing and jet formation. Experimentally, a soap film technique is used to generate an ideal two-dimensional discontinuous gas cylinder with a clear surface, which can guarantee the observation of shock wave movements inside the cylinder. Different Atwood numbers are realized by different mixing ratios of SF_6 and air inside the cylinder. A high-speed schlieren system is adopted to capture the shock motions and jet morphology. Numerical simulations are also performed to provide more information. The results indicate that an inward jet is formed for low Atwood numbers, while an outward jet is generated for high Atwood numbers. Different Atwood numbers will lead to the differences in the relative velocities between the incident shock and the refraction shock, which ultimately results in the differences in shock competition near the downstream pole. The morphology and feature of the jet are closely associated with the position and intensity of shock focusing. The pressure and vorticity contours indicate that the jet formation should be attributed to the pressure pulsation caused by shock focusing, and the jet development is ascribed to the vorticity induction. Finally, a time ratio proposed in the previous work for determining the shock-focusing type is verified by experiments.

  4. Shock Mechanism Analysis and Simulation of High-Power Hydraulic Shock Wave Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqiu Xu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The simulation of regular shock wave (e.g., half-sine can be achieved by the traditional rubber shock simulator, but the practical high-power shock wave characterized by steep prepeak and gentle postpeak is hard to be realized by the same. To tackle this disadvantage, a novel high-power hydraulic shock wave simulator based on the live firing muzzle shock principle was proposed in the current work. The influence of the typical shock characteristic parameters on the shock force wave was investigated via both theoretical deduction and software simulation. According to the obtained data compared with the results, in fact, it can be concluded that the developed hydraulic shock wave simulator can be applied to simulate the real condition of the shocking system. Further, the similarity evaluation of shock wave simulation was achieved based on the curvature distance, and the results stated that the simulation method was reasonable and the structural optimization based on software simulation is also beneficial to the increase of efficiency. Finally, the combination of theoretical analysis and simulation for the development of artillery recoil tester is a comprehensive approach in the design and structure optimization of the recoil system.

  5. A Prognostic Model for Development of Profound Shock among Children Presenting with Dengue Shock Syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phung Khanh Lam

    Full Text Available To identify risk factors and develop a prediction model for the development of profound and recurrent shock amongst children presenting with dengue shock syndrome (DSS.We analyzed data from a prospective cohort of children with DSS recruited at the Paediatric Intensive Care Unit of the Hospital for Tropical Disease in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. The primary endpoint was "profound DSS", defined as ≥2 recurrent shock episodes (for subjects presenting in compensated shock, or ≥1 recurrent shock episodes (for subjects presenting initially with decompensated/hypotensive shock, and/or requirement for inotropic support. Recurrent shock was evaluated as a secondary endpoint. Risk factors were pre-defined clinical and laboratory variables collected at the time of presentation with shock. Prognostic model development was based on logistic regression and compared to several alternative approaches.The analysis population included 1207 children of whom 222 (18% progressed to "profound DSS" and 433 (36% had recurrent shock. Independent risk factors for both endpoints included younger age, earlier presentation, higher pulse rate, higher temperature, higher haematocrit and, for females, worse hemodynamic status at presentation. The final prognostic model for "profound DSS" showed acceptable discrimination (AUC=0.69 for internal validation and calibration and is presented as a simple score-chart.Several risk factors for development of profound or recurrent shock among children presenting with DSS were identified. The score-chart derived from the prognostic models should improve triage and management of children presenting with DSS in dengue-endemic areas.

  6. Heat Shock Protein-Inducing Property of Diarylheptanoid Containing Chalcone Moiety from Alpinia katsumadai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joo-Won Nam

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A new diarylheptanoid containing a chalcone moiety, katsumain H (1, was isolated from the seeds of Alpinia katsumadai. The structure was elucidated using a combination of 1D/2D NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry data analysis. The absolute configurations of C-3, C-5, and C-7 in 1 were assigned based on its optical rotation and after comparing its NMR chemical shifts with those of its diastereoisomers, katsumain E and katsumain F, which were previously isolated from this plant and characterized. In this study, the stimulatory effects of compounds 1 and 2 were evaluated on heat shock factor 1 (HSF1, heat shock protein 27 (HSP27, and HSP70. Compounds 1 and 2 increased the expression of HSF1 (1.056- and 1.200-fold, respectively, HSP27 (1.312- and 1.242-fold, respectively, and HSP70 (1.234- and 1.271-fold, respectively, without increased cytotoxicity.

  7. Heat shock proteins of higher plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Key, J.L.; Lin, C.Y.; Chen, Y.M.

    1981-01-01

    The pattern of protein synthesis changes rapidly and dramatically when the growth temperture of soybean seedling tissue is increased from 28 0 C (normal) to about 40 0 C (heat shock). The synthesis of normal proteins is greatly decreased and a new set of proteins, heat shock proteins, is induced. The heat shock proteins of soybean consist of 10 new bands on one-dimensional NaDodSO 4 gels; a more complex pattern is observed on two-dimensional gels. when the tissue is returned to 28 0 C after 4 hr at 40 0 C, there is progressive decline in the synthesis of heat shock proteins and reappearance of a normal pattern of synthesis by 3 or 4 hr. In vitro translation of poly(A) + RNAs isolated from tissued grown at 28 and 40 0 C shows that the heat shock proteins are translated from a ndw set of mRNAs induced at 40 0 C; furthermore, the abundant class mRNAs for many of the normal proteins persist even though they are translated weakly (or not at all) in vivo at 40 or 42.5 0 C. The heat shock response in soybean appears similar to the much-studied heat shock phenomenon in Drosophila

  8. Overview of shock waves in medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleveland, Robin O.

    2003-10-01

    A brief overview of three applications of shock waves is presented. Shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) has been in clinical use for more than 20 years. In the United States it is used to treat more than 80% of kidney stone cases and has wide acceptance with patients because it is a noninvasive procedure. Despite SWLs enormous success there is no agreement on how shock waves comminute stones. There is also a general acceptance that shock waves lead to trauma to the soft tissue of the kidney. Yet there has been little forward progress in developing lithotripters which provide comminution with less side-effects, indeed the original machine is still considered the gold standard. The last decade has seen the advent of new shock wave devices for treating principally musculoskeletal indications, such as plantar fasciitis, tennis elbow, and bone fractures that do not heal. This is referred to as shock wave therapy (SWT). The mechanisms by which SWT works are even less well understood than SWL and the consequences of bioeffects have also not been studied in detail. Shock waves have also been shown to be effective at enhancing drug delivery into cells and assisting with gene transfection. [Work partially supported by NIH.

  9. Structure of Energetic Particle Mediated Shocks Revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostafavi, P.; Zank, G. P.; Webb, G. M.

    2017-01-01

    The structure of collisionless shock waves is often modified by the presence of energetic particles that are not equilibrated with the thermal plasma (such as pickup ions [PUIs] and solar energetic particles [SEPs]). This is relevant to the inner and outer heliosphere and the Very Local Interstellar Medium (VLISM), where observations of shock waves (e.g., in the inner heliosphere) show that both the magnetic field and thermal gas pressure are less than the energetic particle component pressures. Voyager 2 observations revealed that the heliospheric termination shock (HTS) is very broad and mediated by energetic particles. PUIs and SEPs contribute both a collisionless heat flux and a higher-order viscosity. We show that the incorporation of both effects can completely determine the structure of collisionless shocks mediated by energetic ions. Since the reduced form of the PUI-mediated plasma model is structurally identical to the classical cosmic ray two-fluid model, we note that the presence of viscosity, at least formally, eliminates the need for a gas sub-shock in the classical two-fluid model, including in that regime where three are possible. By considering parameters upstream of the HTS, we show that the thermal gas remains relatively cold and the shock is mediated by PUIs. We determine the structure of the weak interstellar shock observed by Voyager 1 . We consider the inclusion of the thermal heat flux and viscosity to address the most general form of an energetic particle-thermal plasma two-fluid model.

  10. Impaired Fracture Healing after Hemorrhagic Shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Lichte

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Impaired fracture healing can occur in severely injured patients with hemorrhagic shock due to decreased soft tissue perfusion after trauma. We investigated the effects of fracture healing in a standardized pressure controlled hemorrhagic shock model in mice, to test the hypothesis that bleeding is relevant in the bone healing response. Male C57/BL6 mice were subjected to a closed femoral shaft fracture stabilized by intramedullary nailing. One group was additionally subjected to pressure controlled hemorrhagic shock (HS, mean arterial pressure (MAP of 35 mmHg for 90 minutes. Serum cytokines (IL-6, KC, MCP-1, and TNF-α were analyzed 6 hours after shock. Fracture healing was assessed 21 days after fracture. Hemorrhagic shock is associated with a significant increase in serum inflammatory cytokines in the early phase. Histologic analysis demonstrated a significantly decreased number of osteoclasts, a decrease in bone quality, and more cartilage islands after hemorrhagic shock. μCT analysis showed a trend towards decreased bone tissue mineral density in the HS group. Mechanical testing revealed no difference in tensile failure. Our results suggest a delay in fracture healing after hemorrhagic shock. This may be due to significantly diminished osteoclast recruitment. The exact mechanisms should be studied further, particularly during earlier stages of fracture healing.

  11. Structure of Energetic Particle Mediated Shocks Revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mostafavi, P.; Zank, G. P. [Department of Space Science, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States); Webb, G. M. [Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research (CSPAR), University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States)

    2017-05-20

    The structure of collisionless shock waves is often modified by the presence of energetic particles that are not equilibrated with the thermal plasma (such as pickup ions [PUIs] and solar energetic particles [SEPs]). This is relevant to the inner and outer heliosphere and the Very Local Interstellar Medium (VLISM), where observations of shock waves (e.g., in the inner heliosphere) show that both the magnetic field and thermal gas pressure are less than the energetic particle component pressures. Voyager 2 observations revealed that the heliospheric termination shock (HTS) is very broad and mediated by energetic particles. PUIs and SEPs contribute both a collisionless heat flux and a higher-order viscosity. We show that the incorporation of both effects can completely determine the structure of collisionless shocks mediated by energetic ions. Since the reduced form of the PUI-mediated plasma model is structurally identical to the classical cosmic ray two-fluid model, we note that the presence of viscosity, at least formally, eliminates the need for a gas sub-shock in the classical two-fluid model, including in that regime where three are possible. By considering parameters upstream of the HTS, we show that the thermal gas remains relatively cold and the shock is mediated by PUIs. We determine the structure of the weak interstellar shock observed by Voyager 1 . We consider the inclusion of the thermal heat flux and viscosity to address the most general form of an energetic particle-thermal plasma two-fluid model.

  12. Shock propagation in a heterogeneous medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elbaz, D.

    2011-01-01

    In the frame of the inertial confinement fusion in direct drive, the use of foams as ablator allows the reduction of hydrodynamic instabilities created on the target by the direct laser irradiation. The foam is made up of carbon (CH) fibers impregnated of cryogenic deuterium-tritium (DT). In the past, studies have been carried out considering this foam to be a homogeneous medium. Yet, the foam presents heterogeneous features. We study the effects of this heterogeneity on the shock velocity when the laser irradiates the target. Thanks to experimental and numerical studies, we show that the shock propagates faster in the heterogeneous medium than in the homogeneous one with the same averaged density. This velocity gap depends on the presence rate of the CH fibers in the foam, the density ratio, the adiabatic coefficient and the foam geometry. We model the foam by different ways, more and more complex. The shock velocity modification is due to the baroclinicity which, during the interaction between the shock front and the interface, creates a vorticity deposition, responsible for the shock acceleration. Accordingly, an interface, which is plane and perpendicular to the front shock, maximizes the vorticity deposition and increases the velocity gaps between heterogeneous and homogeneous media. We found a correlation between the kinetic energy behind the shock front and the velocities relative difference. We compared our results with two analytical models. However, the system is not closed, so we can't for the moment develop a predictive model. (author) [fr

  13. Energetics of the terrestrial bow shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamrin, Maria; Gunell, Herbert; Norqvist, Patrik

    2017-04-01

    The solar wind is the primary energy source for the magnetospheric energy budget. Energy can enter through the magnetopause both as kinetic energy (plasma entering via e.g. magnetic reconnection and impulsive penetration) and as electromagnetic energy (e.g. by the conversion of solar wind kinetic energy into electromagnetic energy in magnetopause generators). However, energy is extracted from the solar wind already at the bow shock, before it encounters the terrestrial magnetopause. At the bow shock the supersonic solar wind is slowed down and heated, and the region near the bow shock is known to host many complex processes, including the accelerating of particles and the generation of waves. The processes at and near the bow shock can be discussed in terms of energetics: In a generator (load) process kinetic energy is converted to (from) electromagnetic energy. Bow shock regions where the solar wind is decelerated correspond to generators, while regions where particles are energized (accelerated and heated) correspond to loads. Recently, it has been suggested that currents from the bow shock generator should flow across the magnetosheath and connect to the magnetospause current systems [Siebert and Siscoe, 2002; Lopez et al., 2011]. In this study we use data from the Magnetospheric MultiScale (MMS) mission to investigate the energetics of the bow shock and the current closure, and we compare with the MHD simulations of Lopez et al., 2011.

  14. Cold/menthol TRPM8 receptors initiate the cold-shock response and protect germ cells from cold-shock-induced oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowiec, Anne-Sophie; Sion, Benoit; Chalmel, Frédéric; D Rolland, Antoine; Lemonnier, Loïc; De Clerck, Tatiana; Bokhobza, Alexandre; Derouiche, Sandra; Dewailly, Etienne; Slomianny, Christian; Mauduit, Claire; Benahmed, Mohamed; Roudbaraki, Morad; Jégou, Bernard; Prevarskaya, Natalia; Bidaux, Gabriel

    2016-09-01

    Testes of most male mammals present the particularity of being externalized from the body and are consequently slightly cooler than core body temperature (4-8°C below). Although, hypothermia of the testis is known to increase germ cells apoptosis, little is known about the underlying molecular mechanisms, including cold sensors, transduction pathways, and apoptosis triggers. In this study, using a functional knockout mouse model of the cold and menthol receptors, dubbed transient receptor potential melastatine 8 (TRPM8) channels, we found that TRPM8 initiated the cold-shock response by differentially modulating cold- and heat-shock proteins. Besides, apoptosis of germ cells increased in proportion to the cooling level in control mice but was independent of temperature in knockout mice. We also observed that the rate of germ cell death correlated positively with the reactive oxygen species level and negatively with the expression of the detoxifying enzymes. This result suggests that the TRPM8 sensor is a key determinant of germ cell fate under hypothermic stimulation.-Borowiec, A.-S., Sion, B., Chalmel, F., Rolland, A. D., Lemonnier, L., De Clerck, T., Bokhobza, A., Derouiche, S., Dewailly, E., Slomianny, C., Mauduit, C., Benahmed, M., Roudbaraki, M., Jégou, B., Prevarskaya, N., Bidaux, G. Cold/menthol TRPM8 receptors initiate the cold-shock response and protect germ cells from cold-shock-induced oxidation. © The Author(s).

  15. Radiative shocks with electron thermal conduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borkowski, Kazimierz.

    1988-01-01

    The authors studies the influence of electron thermal conduction on radiative shock structure for both one- and two-temperature plasmas. The dimensionless ratio of the conductive length to the cooling length determines whether or not conduction is important, and shock jump conditions with conduction are established for a collisionless shock front. He obtains approximate solutions with the assumptions that the ionization state of the gas is constant and the cooling rate is a function of temperature alone. In the absence of magnetic fields, these solutions indicate that conduction noticeably influences normal-abundance interstellar shocks with velocities 50-100 km s -1 and dramatically affects metal-dominated shocks over a wide range of shock velocities. Magnetic fields inhibit conduction, but the conductive energy flux and the corresponding decrease in the post-shock electron temperature may still be appreciable. He calculates detailed steady-state radiative shock models in gas composed entirely of oxygen, with the purpose of explaining observations of fast-moving knots in Cas A and other oxygen-rich supernova remnants (SNRs). The O III ion, whose forbidden emission usually dominates the observed spectra, is present over a wide range of shock velocities, from 100 to 170 kms -1 . All models with conduction have extensive warm photoionization zones, which provides better agreement with observed optical (O I) line strengths. However, the temperatures in these zones could be lowered by (Si II) 34.8 μm and (Ne II) 12.8 μm cooling if Si and Ne are present in appreciable abundance relative to O. Such low temperatures would be inconsistent with the observed (O I) emission in oxygen-rich SNRs

  16. Response of Escherichia coli growth rate to osmotic shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Enrique; Theriot, Julie A; Huang, Kerwyn Casey

    2014-05-27

    It has long been proposed that turgor pressure plays an essential role during bacterial growth by driving mechanical expansion of the cell wall. This hypothesis is based on analogy to plant cells, for which this mechanism has been established, and on experiments in which the growth rate of bacterial cultures was observed to decrease as the osmolarity of the growth medium was increased. To distinguish the effect of turgor pressure from pressure-independent effects that osmolarity might have on cell growth, we monitored the elongation of single Escherichia coli cells while rapidly changing the osmolarity of their media. By plasmolyzing cells, we found that cell-wall elastic strain did not scale with growth rate, suggesting that pressure does not drive cell-wall expansion. Furthermore, in response to hyper- and hypoosmotic shock, E. coli cells resumed their preshock growth rate and relaxed to their steady-state rate after several minutes, demonstrating that osmolarity modulates growth rate slowly, independently of pressure. Oscillatory hyperosmotic shock revealed that although plasmolysis slowed cell elongation, the cells nevertheless "stored" growth such that once turgor was reestablished the cells elongated to the length that they would have attained had they never been plasmolyzed. Finally, MreB dynamics were unaffected by osmotic shock. These results reveal the simple nature of E. coli cell-wall expansion: that the rate of expansion is determined by the rate of peptidoglycan insertion and insertion is not directly dependent on turgor pressure, but that pressure does play a basic role whereby it enables full extension of recently inserted peptidoglycan.

  17. DSMC Computations for Regions of Shock/Shock and Shock/Boundary Layer Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, James N.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a numerical study of hypersonic interacting flows at flow conditions that include those for which experiments have been conducted in the Calspan-University of Buffalo Research Center (CUBRC) Large Energy National Shock (LENS) tunnel and the ONERA R5Ch low-density wind tunnel. The computations are made with the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method of Bird. The focus is on Mach 9.3 to 11.4 flows about flared axisymmetric configurations, both hollow cylinder flares and double cones. The results presented highlight the sensitivity of the calculations to grid resolution, provide results concerning the conditions for incipient separation, and provide information concerning the flow structure and surface results for the extent of separation, heating, pressure, and skin friction.

  18. Temperature measurements of shock-compressed deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, N.C.; Ross, M.; Nellis, W.J.

    1994-11-01

    The authors measured the temperatures of single and double-shocked D 2 and H 2 up to 85 GPa (0.85 Mbar) and 5,200 K. While single shock temperatures, at pressures to 23 GPa, agree well with previous models, the double shock temperatures are as much as 40% lower than predicted. This is believed to be caused by molecular dissociation, and a new model of the hydrogen EOS at extreme conditions has been developed which correctly predicts their observations. These data and model have important implications for programs which use condensed-phase hydrogen in implosion systems

  19. Recent oil price shock and Tunisian economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jbir, Rafik; Zouari-Ghorbel, Sonia

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to study the oil prices-macroeconomy relationship by the analysis of the role of subsidy policy. The vector autoregression (VAR) method was employed to analyze the data over the period 1993 Q1 - 2007 Q3. The results of the model using both linear and non-linear specifications indicate that there is no direct impact of oil price shock on the economic activity. The shock of oil prices affects economic activity indirectly. The most significant channel by which the effects of the shock are transmitted is the government's spending. (author)

  20. Delayed Failure in a Shock Loaded Alumina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, G. A.; Millett, J. C. F.; Bourne, N. K.; Dandekar, D. P.

    2006-01-01

    Manganin stress gauges have been used to measure the lateral stress in a shock-loaded alumina. In combination with known longitudinal stresses, these have been used to determine the shear strength of this material, behind the shock front. The two-step nature of the lateral stress traces shows a slow moving front behind the main shock, behind which shear strength undergoes a significant decrease. Results also show that this front decreases markedly in velocity as the HEL is crossed, suggesting that limited plasticity occurs during inelastic deformation. Finally, comparison of measured shear strengths with other aluminas shows a high degree of agreement

  1. Turbulent energy generated by accelerations and shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikaelian, K.O.

    1986-01-01

    The turbulent energy generated at the interface between two fluids undergoing a constant acceleration or a shock is calculated. Assuming linear density profiles in the mixed region we find E/sub turbulent//E/sub directed/ = 2.3A 2 % (constant acceleration) and 9.3A 2 % (shock), where A is the Atwood number. Diffusion models predict somewhat less turbulent energy and a density profile with a tail extending into the lower density fluid. Eddy sizes are approximately 27% (constant acceleration) and 17% (shock) of the mixing depth into the heavier fluid. 6 refs., 3 figs

  2. Strong shock wave and areal mass oscillations associated with impulsive loading of planar laser targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velikovich, A.L.; Schmitt, A.J.; Metzler, N.; Gardner, J.H.

    2003-01-01

    When a rippled surface of a planar target is irradiated with a short (subnanosecond) laser pulse, the shock wave launched into the target and the mass distribution of the shocked plasma will oscillate. These oscillations are found to be surprisingly strong compared, for example, to the case when the laser radiation is not turned off but rather keeps pushing the shock wave into the target. Being stronger than the areal mass oscillations due to ablative Richtmyer-Meshkov instability and feedout in planar targets, which have recently been observed at the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) [Aglitskiy et al., Phys. Plasmas 9, 2264 (2002)], these oscillations should therefore be directly observable with the same diagnostic technique. Irradiation of a target with a short laser pulse represents a particular case of an impulsive loading, a fast release of finite energy in a thin layer near the surface of a target. Renewed interest to the impulsive loading in the area of direct-drive laser fusion is due to the recent proposals of using a short pulse prior to the drive pulse to make the target more resistant to laser imprint and Rayleigh-Taylor growth. Impulsive loading produces a shock wave that propagates into the target and is immediately followed by an expansion wave, which gradually reduces the shock strength. If the irradiated surface is rippled, then, while the shock wave propagates through the target, its modulation amplitude grows, exceeding the initial ripple amplitude by a factor of 2 or more. The oscillating areal mass reaches the peak values that exceed the initial mass modulation amplitude (density times ripple height) by a factor of 5-7 or more, and reverses its phase several times after the laser pulse is over. The oscillatory growth is more pronounced in fluids with higher shock compressibility and is probably related to the Vishniac's instability of a blast wave. Frequency of the oscillations is determined by the speed of sound in the shocked material, and

  3. Insulin-like growth factor-1 levels in children with Beta-thalassemia minor

    OpenAIRE

    Mehran Karimi; Hamdollah Karamifar; Nargrs Sobhani

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Growth retardation in children with b-thalassemia major is multifactorial. Some etiologies described for this condition are hemochromatosis, disturbed growth hormone (GH) / insulin growth factor-1 (IGF-1) axis, undernutrition and hypermetabolism. It has also been proven that growth retardation is present in b-thalassemia major children despite regular transfusion and chelation. Our aim was to evaluate the level of IGF-1 in b-thalassemia minor subjects and compare it with that in he...

  4. Wireless device for activation of an underground shock wave absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikhradze, M.; Akhvlediani, I.; Bochorishvili, N.; Mataradze, E.

    2011-10-01

    The paper describes the mechanism and design of the wireless device for activation of energy absorber for localization of blast energy in underground openings. The statistics shows that the greatest share of accidents with fatal results associate with explosions in coal mines due to aero-methane and/or air-coal media explosion. The other significant problem is terrorist or accidental explosions in underground structures. At present there are different protective systems to reduce the blast energy. One of the main parts of protective Systems is blast Identification and Registration Module. The works conducted at G. Tsulukidze Mining Institute of Georgia enabled to construct the wireless system of explosion detection and mitigation of shock waves. The system is based on the constant control on overpressure. The experimental research continues to fulfill the system based on both threats, on the constant control on overpressure and flame parameters, especially in underground structures and coal mines. Reaching the threshold value of any of those parameters, the system immediately starts the activation. The absorber contains a pyrotechnic device ensuring the discharge of dispersed water. The operational parameters of wireless device and activation mechanisms of pyrotechnic element of shock wave absorber are discussed in the paper.

  5. Expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 and insulin-like growth factor-1 receptors in EL4 lymphoma cells overexpressing growth hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigent, Douglas A; Arnold, Robyn E

    2005-03-01

    Almost all of the previous studies with growth hormone (GH) have been done with exogenously supplied GH and, therefore, involve actions of the hormone through its receptor. However, the actions of endogenous or lymphocyte GH are still unclear. In a previous study, we showed that overexpression of GH (GHo) in a lymphoid cell line resulted in protection of the cells to apoptosis mediated by nitric oxide (NO). In the present study, we show that the protection from apoptosis could be transferred to control cells with culture fluids obtained from GHo cells and blocked by antibodies to the insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) or antibodies to the IGF-1-receptor (IGF-1R). Northern and Western blot analysis detected significantly higher levels of IGF-1 in cells overexpressing GH. An increase in the expression of the IGF-1R in GHo cells was also detected by Western blot analysis, (125)I-IGF-1 binding and analysis of IGF-1R promoter luciferase constructs. Transfection of GHo cells with a dominant negative IGF-1R mutant construct blocked the generation of NO and activation of Akt seen in GHo cells compared to vector alone control EL4 cells. The results suggest that one of the consequences of the overexpression of GH, in cells lacking the GH receptor, is an increase in the expression of IGF-1 and the IGF-1R which mediate the protection of EL4 lymphoma cells from apoptosis.

  6. Underwater electrical wire explosion: Shock wave from melting being overtaken by shock wave from vaporization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liuxia; Qian, Dun; Zou, Xiaobing; Wang, Xinxin

    2018-05-01

    The shock waves generated by an underwater electrical wire explosion were investigated. A microsecond time-scale pulsed current source was used to trigger the electrical explosion of copper wires with a length of 5 cm and a diameter of 200 μm. The energy-storage capacitor was charged to a relatively low energy so that the energy deposited onto the wire was not large enough to fully vaporize the whole wire. Two shock waves were recorded with a piezoelectric gauge that was located at a position of 100 mm from the exploding wire. The first and weak shock wave was confirmed to be the contribution from wire melting, while the second and stronger shock wave was the contribution from wire vaporization. The phenomenon whereby the first shock wave generated by melting being overtaken by the shock wave due to vaporization was observed.

  7. Multiple spacecraft observations of interplanetary shocks Four spacecraft determination of shock normals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, C. T.; Mellott, M. M.; Smith, E. J.; King, J. H.

    1983-01-01

    ISEE 1, 2, 3, IMP 8, and Prognoz 7 observations of interplanetary shocks in 1978 and 1979 provide five instances where a single shock is observed by four spacecraft. These observations are used to determine best-fit normals for these five shocks. In addition to providing well-documented shocks for future investigations these data allow the evaluation of the accuracy of several shock normal determination techniques. When the angle between upstream and downstream magnetic field is greater than 20 deg, magnetic coplanarity can be an accurate single spacecraft method. However, no technique based solely on the magnetic measurements at one or multiple sites was universally accurate. Thus, the use of overdetermined shock normal solutions, utilizing plasma measurements, separation vectors, and time delays together with magnetic constraints, is recommended whenever possible.

  8. A cryogenic multichannel electronically scanned pressure module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams, Qamar A.; Fox, Robert L.; Adcock, Edward E.; Kahng, Seun K.

    1992-01-01

    Consideration is given to a cryogenic multichannel electronically scanned pressure (ESP) module developed and tested over an extended temperature span from -184 to +50 C and a pressure range of 0 to 5 psig. The ESP module consists of 32 pressure sensor dice, four analog 8 differential-input multiplexers, and an amplifier circuit, all of which are packaged in a physical volume of 2 x 1 x 5/8 in with 32 pressure and two reference ports. Maximum nonrepeatability is measured at 0.21 percent of full-scale output. The ESP modules have performed consistently well over 15 times over the above temperature range and continue to work without any sign of degradation. These sensors are also immune to repeated thermal shock tests over a temperature change of 220 C/sec.

  9. Reliability assessment of competing risks with generalized mixed shock models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafiee, Koosha; Feng, Qianmei; Coit, David W.

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates reliability modeling for systems subject to dependent competing risks considering the impact from a new generalized mixed shock model. Two dependent competing risks are soft failure due to a degradation process, and hard failure due to random shocks. The shock process contains fatal shocks that can cause hard failure instantaneously, and nonfatal shocks that impact the system in three different ways: 1) damaging the unit by immediately increasing the degradation level, 2) speeding up the deterioration by accelerating the degradation rate, and 3) weakening the unit strength by reducing the hard failure threshold. While the first impact from nonfatal shocks comes from each individual shock, the other two impacts are realized when the condition for a new generalized mixed shock model is satisfied. Unlike most existing mixed shock models that consider a combination of two shock patterns, our new generalized mixed shock model includes three classic shock patterns. According to the proposed generalized mixed shock model, the degradation rate and the hard failure threshold can simultaneously shift multiple times, whenever the condition for one of these three shock patterns is satisfied. An example using micro-electro-mechanical systems devices illustrates the effectiveness of the proposed approach with sensitivity analysis. - Highlights: • A rich reliability model for systems subject to dependent failures is proposed. • The degradation rate and the hard failure threshold can shift simultaneously. • The shift is triggered by a new generalized mixed shock model. • The shift can occur multiple times under the generalized mixed shock model.

  10. Shock wave physics group (M-6)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, C.E.

    1981-01-01

    Experimental facilities and activities of the shock wave physics group at LASL are described. The facilities include a compressed gas gun, two-stage gas gun, high explosive facilities, and a pulsed megagauss field facility

  11. Integrated microelectromechanical gyroscope under shock loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesterenko, T. G.; Koleda, A. N.; Barbin, E. S.

    2018-01-01

    The paper presents a new design of a shock-proof two-axis microelectromechanical gyroscope. Without stoppers, the shock load enables the interaction between the silicon sensor elements. Stoppers were installed in the gyroscope to prevent the contact interaction between electrodes and spring elements with fixed part of the sensor. The contact of stoppers occurs along the plane, thereby preventing the system from serious contact stresses. The shock resistance of the gyroscope is improved by the increase in its eigenfrequency at which the contact interaction does not occur. It is shown that the shock load directed along one axis does not virtually cause the movement of sensing elements along the crosswise axes. Maximum stresses observed in the proposed gyroscope at any loading direction do not exceed the value allowable for silicon.

  12. Tribology Aspect of Rubber Shock Absorbers Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Banić

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Rubber is a very flexible material with many desirable properties Which enable its broad use in engineering practice. Rubber or rubber-metal springs are widely used as anti-vibration or anti-shock components in technical systems. Rubber-metal springs are usually realized as a bonded assembly, however especially in shock absorbers, it is possible to realize free contacts between rubber and metal parts. In previous research it authors was observed that friction between rubber and metal in such case have a significant influence on the damping characteristics of shock absorber. This paper analyzes the development process of rubber or rubber-metal shock absorbers realized free contacts between the constitutive parts, starting from the design, construction, testing and operation, with special emphasis on the development of rubber-metal springs for the buffing and draw gear of railway vehicles.

  13. Role of drifts in diffusive shock acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decker, R.B.

    1988-01-01

    The role played by shock-associated drifts during the diffusive acceleration of charged particles at collisionless MHD shocks is evaluated. In the rest frame of the shock, the total energy gained by a particle is shown to result from two coupled acceleration mechanisms, the usual first-order Fermi mechanism and the drift mechanism. When averaged over a distribution of particles, the ratio of the drift-associated energy gain to the total energy is found to be independent of the total energy at a given theta1 (the angle between the shock normal and the unperturbed upstream magnetic field) in agreement with theoretical predictions. No evidence is found for drift-associated deceleration, suggesting that drifts always augment acceleration. 35 references

  14. Shock Thermodynamic Applied Research Facility (STAR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The STAR facility, within Sandia's Solid Dynamic Physics Department, is one of a few institutions in the world with a major shock-physics program. This is the only...

  15. Nonequilibrium recombination after a curved shock wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Chihyung; Hornung, Hans

    2010-02-01

    The effect of nonequilibrium recombination after a curved two-dimensional shock wave in a hypervelocity dissociating flow of an inviscid Lighthill-Freeman gas is considered. An analytical solution is obtained with the effective shock values derived by Hornung (1976) [5] and the assumption that the flow is ‘quasi-frozen’ after a thin dissociating layer near the shock. The solution gives the expression of dissociation fraction as a function of temperature on a streamline. A rule of thumb can then be provided to check the validity of binary scaling for experimental conditions and a tool to determine the limiting streamline that delineates the validity zone of binary scaling. The effects on the nonequilibrium chemical reaction of the large difference in free stream temperature between free-piston shock tunnel and equivalent flight conditions are discussed. Numerical examples are presented and the results are compared with solutions obtained with two-dimensional Euler equations using the code of Candler (1988) [10].

  16. Critical point anomalies include expansion shock waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nannan, N. R., E-mail: ryan.nannan@uvs.edu [Mechanical Engineering Discipline, Anton de Kom University of Suriname, Leysweg 86, PO Box 9212, Paramaribo, Suriname and Process and Energy Department, Delft University of Technology, Leeghwaterstraat 44, 2628 CA Delft (Netherlands); Guardone, A., E-mail: alberto.guardone@polimi.it [Department of Aerospace Science and Technology, Politecnico di Milano, Via La Masa 34, 20156 Milano (Italy); Colonna, P., E-mail: p.colonna@tudelft.nl [Propulsion and Power, Delft University of Technology, Kluyverweg 1, 2629 HS Delft (Netherlands)

    2014-02-15

    From first-principle fluid dynamics, complemented by a rigorous state equation accounting for critical anomalies, we discovered that expansion shock waves may occur in the vicinity of the liquid-vapor critical point in the two-phase region. Due to universality of near-critical thermodynamics, the result is valid for any common pure fluid in which molecular interactions are only short-range, namely, for so-called 3-dimensional Ising-like systems, and under the assumption of thermodynamic equilibrium. In addition to rarefaction shock waves, diverse non-classical effects are admissible, including composite compressive shock-fan-shock waves, due to the change of sign of the fundamental derivative of gasdynamics.

  17. Shock Wave Science and Technology Reference Library

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    Shock waves in multiphase flows refers to a rich variety of phenomena of interest to physicists, chemists, and fluid dynamicists, as well as mechanical, biomedical and aeronautical engineers. This volume treats shock and expansion waves in (bullet) complex, bubbly liquids (L van Wijngaarden, Y Tomita, V Kedrinskii) and (bullet) cryogenic liquids (M Murakami) and examines the relationship of shock waves with (bullet) phase transitions (A Guha, CF Delale, G Schnerr, MEH van Dongen) (bullet) induced phase transitions (GEA Meier) as well as their interaction with (bullet) solid foams, textiles, porous and granular media (B Skews, DMJ Smeulders, MEH van Dongen, V Golub, O Mirova) All chapters are self-contained, so they can be read independently, although they are of course thematically interrelated. Taken together, they offer a timely reference on shock waves in multiphase flows, including new viewpoints and burgeoning developments. The book will appeal to beginners as well as professional scientists and engineer...

  18. Comments on ''Analysis of spherical imploding shocks''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazarus, R.B.

    1980-01-01

    It is asserted that Fujimoto and Mishkin's article is incorrect in its claim for a pressure extremum at or behind the shock for all values of γ and in its claim for an analytical form for the similarity exponent

  19. Shock-induced modification of inorganic powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, R.A.; Morosin, B.; Venturini, E.L.; Beauchamp, E.K.; Hammetter, W.F.

    1984-01-01

    The results of studies performed to quantify the characteristics of TiO2, ZrO2 and Si3N4 powders exposed to explosive loading and post-shock analysis are reported. The shocks were produced with plane wave generators and explosive pads impinging on steel disks, a copper recovery fixture, and then the samples. Peak pressures of 13 and 17 GPa were attained, along with 40 GPz at the center of the powder cavity. Data are provided on the changes occurring during the explosive densification and X-ray and paramagnetic studies of the products. Only fractured disks were obtained in the trials. The shock-treated materials were more free flowing than the original powders, which were fluffy. Post-shock annealing was a significant feature of the treated powders

  20. SPECIAL PURPOSE SHOCK TUBE for BLAST ASSESSMENT

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This device is a specially designed shock tube for testing fabric samples in a controlled environment. The device determines the appropriate types of sensors to be...

  1. Collisions on relativistic nuclei: shock waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gudima, K.K.; Toneev, V.D.

    1976-01-01

    Experiments are analysed which indicate the possible generation of shock waves in collisions of two nuclei. Another interpretation of these data is proposed and the concerned new experiments are discussed

  2. Analysis of Z Pinch Shock Wave Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asay, James; Budge, Kent G.; Chandler, Gordon; Fleming, Kevin; Hall, Clint; Holland, Kathleen; Konrad, Carl; Lawrence, Jeffery; Trott, Wayne; Trucano, Timothy

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, we report details of our computational study of two shock wave physics experiments performed on the Sandia Z machine in 1998. The novelty of these particular experiments is that they represent the first successful application of VISAR interferometry to diagnose shock waves generated in experimental payloads by the primary X-ray pulse of the machine. We use the Sandia shock-wave physics code ALEGRA to perform the simulations reported in this study. Our simulations are found to be in fair agreement with the time-resolved VISAR experimental data. However, there are also interesting and important discrepancies. We speculate as to future use of time-resolved shock wave data to diagnose details of the Z machine X-ray pulse in the future

  3. Shock Tube Measurements for Liquid Fuels Combustion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hanson, Ronald K

    2006-01-01

    ...) fundamental studies of fuel spray evaporation rates and ignition times of low-vapor pressure fuels such as JP-8, diesel fuel and normal alkane surrogates in a new aerosol shock tube using state...

  4. Condensed matter at high shock pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nellis, W.J.; Holmes, N.C.; Mitchell, A.C.; Radousky, H.B.; Hamilton, D.

    1985-07-12

    Experimental techniques are described for shock waves in liquids: Hugoniot equation-of-state, shock temperature and emission spectroscopy, electrical conductivity, and Raman spectroscopy. Experimental data are reviewed and presented in terms of phenomena that occur at high densities and temperatures in shocked He, Ar, N/sub 2/, CO, SiO/sub 2/-aerogel, H/sub 2/O, and C/sub 6/H/sub 6/. The superconducting properties of Nb metal shocked to 100 GPa (1 Mbar) and recovered intact are discussed in terms of prospects for synthesizing novel, metastable materials. Ultrahigh pressure data for Cu is reviewed in the range 0.3 to 6TPa (3 to 60 Mbar). 56 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Shock wave science and technology reference library

    CERN Document Server

    2009-01-01

    This book, as a volume of the Shock Wave Science and Technology Reference Library, is primarily concerned with detonation waves or compression shock waves in reactive heterogeneous media, including mixtures of solid, liquid and gas phases. The topics involve a variety of energy release and control processes in such media - a contemporary research field that has found wide applications in propulsion and power, hazard prevention as well as military engineering. The six extensive chapters contained in this volume are: - Spray Detonation (SB Murray and PA Thibault) - Detonation of Gas-Particle Flow (F Zhang) - Slurry Detonation (DL Frost and F Zhang) - Detonation of Metalized Composite Explosives (MF Gogulya and MA Brazhnikov) - Shock-Induced Solid-Solid Reactions and Detonations (YA Gordopolov, SS Batsanov, and VS Trofimov) - Shock Ignition of Particles (SM Frolov and AV Fedorov) Each chapter is self-contained and can be read independently of the others, though, they are thematically interrelated. They offer a t...

  6. Comparative review of bow shocks and magnetopauses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepping, R.P.

    1984-04-01

    Bow shock and magnetopauses formation is discussed. Plasma and magnetic field environments of all the planets from Mercury to Saturn were measured. It was found that all the planets have bow shocks and almost all have a magnetopause. Venus is the only planet with no measurable intrinsic magnetic field and the solar wind interacts directly with Venus ionosphere. The bow shock characteristics depend on the changing solar wind conditions. The shape of a magnetopause or any obstacle to flow depends on the three dimensional pressure profile that it presents to the solar wind. Jupiter is unusual because of the considerable amount of plasma which is contained in its magnetosphere. Magentopause boundaries in ecliptic plane projection are modelled by segments of ellipses, matched to straight lines for the magnetotool boundaries or parabolas. Specific properties of known planetary bow shocks and magnetopauses are reviewed

  7. Medical and biomedical applications of shock waves

    CERN Document Server

    Loske, Achim M

    2017-01-01

    This book provides current, comprehensive, and clear explanations of the physics behind medical and biomedical applications of shock waves. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy is one of the greatest medical advances of our time, and its techniques and clinical devices are continuously evolving. Further research continues to improve the understanding of calculi fragmentation and tissue-damaging mechanisms. Shock waves are also used in orthopedics and traumatology. Possible applications in oncology, cardiology, dentistry, gene therapy, cell transfection, transformation of fungi and bacteria, as well as the inactivation of microorganisms are promising approaches for clinical treatment, industrial applications and research. Medical and Biomedical Applications of Shock Waves is useful as a guide for students, technicians and researchers working in universities and laboratories. Chemists, biologists, physicians and veterinarians, involved in research or clinical practice will find useful advice, but also engineer...

  8. Relative locations of the bow shocks of the terrestrial planets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, C.T.

    1977-01-01

    The observed bow shock encounters at Mercury, Venus and Mars are least square fit using the same technique so that their sizes and shapes can be intercompared. The shock front of Mercury most resembles the terrestrial shock in shape, and the shock stand off distance is consistent with the observed moment. The shapes of the Venus and Mars shock fronts more resemble each other than the earth's and the stand off distances are consistent with direct interaction of the solar wind with the ionosphere on the dayside. The Venus shock is closer to the planet than the Mars shock suggesting more absorption of the solar wind at Venus

  9. Orientation Dependence in Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Shocked Single Crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Germann, Timothy C.; Holian, Brad Lee; Lomdahl, Peter S.; Ravelo, Ramon

    2000-01-01

    We use multimillion-atom molecular dynamics simulations to study shock wave propagation in fcc crystals. As shown recently, shock waves along the direction form intersecting stacking faults by slippage along {111} close-packed planes at sufficiently high shock strengths. We find even more interesting behavior of shocks propagating in other low-index directions: for the case, an elastic precursor separates the shock front from the slipped (plastic) region. Shock waves along the direction generate a leading solitary wave train, followed (at sufficiently high shock speeds) by an elastic precursor, and then a region of complex plastic deformation. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  10. THE EFFECTS OF AREA CONTRACTION ON SHOCK WAVE STRENGTH AND PEAK PRESSURE IN SHOCK TUBE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Mohsen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental investigation into the effects of area contraction on shock wave strength and peak pressure in a shock tube. The shock tube is an important component of the short duration, high speed fluid flow test facility, available at the Universiti Tenaga Nasional (UNITEN, Malaysia. The area contraction was facilitated by positioning a bush adjacent to the primary diaphragm section, which separates the driver and driven sections. Experimental measurements were performed with and without the presence of the bush, at various diaphragm pressure ratios, which is the ratio of air pressure between the driver (high pressure and driven (low pressure sections. The instantaneous static pressure variations were measured at two locations close to the driven tube end wall, using high sensitivity pressure sensors, which allow the shock wave strength, shock wave speed and peak pressure to be analysed. The results reveal that the area contraction significantly reduces the shock wave strength, shock wave speed and peak pressure. At a diaphragm pressure ratio of 10, the shock wave strength decreases by 18%, the peak pressure decreases by 30% and the shock wave speed decreases by 8%.

  11. Waves and Instabilities in Collisionless Shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-04-01

    occur in the electron foreshock and are driven by suprathermal electrons escaping into the region upstream of the shock. Both the ion-acoustic and...ULF waves occur in the ion foreshock and are associated with ions streaming into the region upstream of 11 the shock. The region downstream of the...the discussion of these waves it is useful to distinguish two regions, called the electron foreshock and the ion foreshock . Because the particles

  12. The Dynamic Quasiperpendicular Shock: Cluster Discoveries

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krasnoselskikh, V.; Balikhin, M.; Walker, S. N.; Schwartz, S.; Sundkvist, D.; Lobzin, V.; Gedalin, M.; Bale, S. D.; Mozer, F.; Souček, Jan; Hobara, Y.; Comisel, H.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 178, 2-4 (2013), s. 535-598 ISSN 0038-6308 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : collisionless shocks * waves in plasmas * nonstationarity * shock scales * plasma heating and acceleration * wave-particle interactions Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 5.874, year: 2013 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11214-013-9972-y

  13. Flow control for oblique shock wave reflections

    OpenAIRE

    Giepman, R.H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Shock wave-boundary layer interactions are prevalent in many aerospace applications that involve transonic or supersonic flows. Such interactions may lead to boundary layer separation, flow unsteadiness and substantial losses in the total pressure. Flow control techniques can help to mitigate these adverse effects and stabilize the interaction. This thesis focuses on passive flow control techniques for oblique shock wave reflections on flat plates and presents experimental results for both la...

  14. Public Investment, Revenue Shocks, and Borrowing Restrictions

    OpenAIRE

    Büttner, Thiess; Wildasin, David E.

    2010-01-01

    This paper lays out a theory of taxation and public investment in an intertemporal setting under conditions of revenue shocks. Without borrowing restrictions, the optimal policy is characterized by smooth time paths of taxes and public investment. While the introduction of formal borrowing restrictions leads to some precautionary savings, it gives rise to fluctuations in public investment in response to adverse but also favorable revenue shocks. This theoretical result is tested empirically u...

  15. Optical Probes for Laser Induced Shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-03-01

    target by the strong water. As the shock passes the material interface, it is pressure transients. only partially transmitted. The shock pressure is...T. Swimm , J. Appl. Phys. 61, evaporated, t1137(1987). vapor flow substantially. The coupling coefficient thus de- 3 v. A. Batanov and V. B. Fedorov...Waist-Surface Distance [mm] isurface on the drilling mechanismC Positive ( negative ) To roughly estimate the total recoil momentum positions

  16. Fast Electrocardiogram Amplifier Recovery after Defibrillation Shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Dotsinsky

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available A procedure for fast ECG amplifier recovery after defibrillation shocks was developed and simulated in the MATLAB environment. Exponentially decaying post-shock voltages have been recorded. Signals from the AHA database are taken and mixed with the recorded exponential disturbances. The algorithm applies moving averaging (comb filter on the compound input signal, thereby obtaining the samples of the disturbance. They are currently subtracted from the input signal. The results obtained show that its recovery is practically instantaneous.

  17. Pressurized-thermal-shock experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitman, G.D.; McCulloch, R.W.

    1982-01-01

    The primary objective of the ORNL pressurized-thermal-shock (PTS) experiments is to verify analytical methods that are used to predict the behavior of pressurized-water-reactor vessels under these accident conditions involving combined pressure and thermal loading. The criteria on which the experiments are based are: scale large enough to attain effective flaw border triaxial restraint and a temperature range sufficiently broad to produce a progression from frangible to ductile behavior through the wall at a given time; use of materials that can be completely characterized for analysis; stress states comparable to the actual vessel in zones of potential flaw extension; range of behavior to include cleavage initiation and arrest, cleavage initiation and arrest on the upper shelf, arrest in a high K/sub I/ gradient, warm prestressing, and entirely ductile behavior; long and short flaws with and without stainless steel cladding; and control of loads to prevent vessel burst, except as desired. A PTS test facility is under construction which will enable the establishment and control of wall temperature, cooling rate, and pressure on an intermediate test vessel (ITV) in order to simulate stress states representative of an actual reactor pressure vessel

  18. A FOCUSED TRANSPORT APPROACH TO THE TIME-DEPENDENT SHOCK ACCELERATION OF SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLES AT A FAST TRAVELING SHOCK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Roux, J. A.; Webb, G. M.

    2012-01-01

    Some of the most sophisticated models for solar energetic particle (SEP) acceleration at coronal mass ejection driven shocks are based on standard diffusive shock acceleration theory. However, this theory, which only applies when SEP pitch-angle anisotropies are small, might have difficulty in describing first-order Fermi acceleration or the shock pre-heating and injection of SEPs into first-order Fermi acceleration accurately at lower SEP speeds where SEP pitch-angle anisotropies upstream near the shock can be large. To avoid this problem, we use a time-dependent focused transport model to reinvestigate first-order Fermi acceleration at planar parallel and quasi-parallel spherical traveling shocks between the Sun and Earth with high shock speeds associated with rare extreme gradual SEP events. The focused transport model is also used to investigate and compare three different shock pre-heating mechanisms associated with different aspects of the nonuniform cross-shock solar wind flow, namely, the convergence of the flow (adiabatic compression), the shear tensor of the flow, and the acceleration of the flow, and a fourth shock pre-heating mechanism associated with the cross-shock electric field, to determine which pre-heating mechanism contributes the most to injecting shock pre-heated source particles into the first-order Fermi acceleration process. The effects of variations in traveling shock conditions, such as increasing shock obliquity and shock slowdown, and variations in the SEP source with increasing shock distance from the Sun on the coupled processes of shock pre-heating, injection, and first-order Fermi acceleration are analyzed. Besides the finding that the cross-shock acceleration of the solar wind flow yields the dominant shock pre-heating mechanism at high shock speeds, we find that first-order Fermi acceleration at fast traveling shocks differs in a number of respects from the predictions and assumptions of standard steady-state diffusive shock

  19. Rapid detection of hypoxia-inducible factor-1-active tumours: pretargeted imaging with a protein degrading in a mechanism similar to hypoxia-inducible factor-1{alpha}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueda, Masashi [Kyoto University, Radioisotopes Research Laboratory, Kyoto University Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); Kyoto University, Department of Patho-Functional Bioanalysis, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto (Japan); Kudo, Takashi; Konishi, Hiroaki; Miyano, Azusa; Ono, Masahiro; Saji, Hideo [Kyoto University, Department of Patho-Functional Bioanalysis, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto (Japan); Kuge, Yuji [Kyoto University, Department of Patho-Functional Bioanalysis, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto (Japan); Hokkaido University, Central Institute of Isotope Science, Sapporo (Japan); Mukai, Takahiro [Kyushu University, Department of Biomolecular Recognition Chemistry, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Fukuoka (Japan); Tanaka, Shotaro; Kizaka-Kondoh, Shinae; Hiraoka, Masahiro [Kyoto University, Department of Radiation Oncology and Image-applied Therapy, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan)

    2010-08-15

    Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) plays an important role in malignant tumour progression. For the imaging of HIF-1-active tumours, we previously developed a protein, POS, which is effectively delivered to and selectively stabilized in HIF-1-active cells, and a radioiodinated biotin derivative, (3-{sup 123}I-iodobenzoyl)norbiotinamide ({sup 123}I-IBB), which can bind to the streptavidin moiety of POS. In this study, we aimed to investigate the feasibility of the pretargeting method using POS and {sup 123}I-IBB for rapid imaging of HIF-1-active tumours. Tumour-implanted mice were pretargeted with POS. After 24 h, {sup 125}I-IBB was administered and subsequently, the biodistribution of radioactivity was investigated at several time points. In vivo planar imaging, comparison between {sup 125}I-IBB accumulation and HIF-1 transcriptional activity, and autoradiography were performed at 6 h after the administration of {sup 125}I-IBB. The same sections that were used in autoradiographic analysis were subjected to HIF-1{alpha} immunohistochemistry. {sup 125}I-IBB accumulation was observed in tumours of mice pretargeted with POS (1.6%ID/g at 6 h). This result is comparable to the data derived from {sup 125}I-IBB-conjugated POS-treated mice (1.4%ID/g at 24 h). In vivo planar imaging provided clear tumour images. The tumoral accumulation of {sup 125}I-IBB significantly correlated with HIF-1-dependent luciferase bioluminescence (R=0.84, p<0.01). The intratumoral distribution of {sup 125}I-IBB was heterogeneous and was significantly correlated with HIF-1{alpha}-positive regions (R=0.58, p<0.0001). POS pretargeting with {sup 123}I-IBB is a useful technique in the rapid imaging and detection of HIF-1-active regions in tumours. (orig.)

  20. Short-term heat shock affects the course of immune response in Galleria mellonella naturally infected with the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vertyporokh, Lidiia; Taszłow, Paulina; Samorek-Pieróg, Małgorzata; Wojda, Iwona

    2015-09-01

    We aimed to investigate how exposition of infected insects to short-term heat shock affects the biochemical and molecular aspects of their immune response. Galleria mellonella larvae were exposed to 43°C for 15min, at the seventy second hour after natural infection with entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana. As a result, both qualitative and quantitative changes in hemolymph protein profiles, and among them infection-induced changes in the amount of apolipophorin III (apoLp-III), were observed. Heat shock differently affects the expression of the tested immune-related genes. It transiently inhibits expression of antifungal peptides gallerimycin and galiomicin in both the fat body and hemocytes of infected larvae. The same, although to a lesser extent, concerned apoLp-III gene expression and was observed directly after heat shock. Nevertheless, in larvae that had recovered from heat shock, apoLp-III expression was higher in comparison to unshocked larvae in the fat body but not in hemocytes, which was consistent with the higher amount of this protein detected in the hemolymph of the infected, shocked larvae. Furthermore, lysozyme-type activity was higher directly after heat shock, while antifungal activity was significantly higher also in larvae that had recovered from heat shock, in comparison to the respective values in their non-shocked, infected counterparts. These results show how changes in the external temperature modulate the immune response of G. mellonella suffering from infection with its natural pathogen B. bassiana. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Podophyllum hexandrum (Himalayan mayapple) extract provides radioprotection by modulating the expression of proteins associated with apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Raj; Singh, Pankaj Kumar; Sharma, Ashok; Prasad, Jagdish; Sagar, Ravinder; Singh, Surender; Arora, Rajesh; Sharma, Rakesh Kumar

    2005-08-01

    Podophyllum hexandrum Royale (Himalayan mayapple), a high-altitude Himalayan plant, has been shown to provide over 80% whole-body radioprotection in mice. To investigate the radioprotective potential of P. hexandrum at the molecular level, expression patterns of various proteins associated with apoptosis were studied in the spleen of male Swiss albino strain A mice by immunoblotting. Treatment with P. hexandrum [200 mg/kg of body weight; an ethanolic 50% (w/v) extract delivered intraperitoneally] 2 h before irradiation resulted in MAPKAP (mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein) kinase-2 activation along with HSF-1 (heat-shock transcription factor-1), leading to up-regulation of HSP-70 (heat-shock protein-70) as compared with sham-irradiated (10 Gy) mice. Strong inhibition of AIF (apoptosis-inducing factor) expression was observed in the mice treated with P. hexandrum 2 h before irradiation as compared with the sham-irradiated group. Inhibition in the translocation of free NF-kappaB (nuclear factor kappaB) from cytoplasm to nucleus was observed upon P. hexandrum pretreatment 2 h before irradiation when compared with radiation-treated mice. P. hexandrum pre-treatment (2 h before irradiation) resulted in inhibition of NF-kappaB translocation, and the expression of tumour suppressor protein p53 was observed to be down-regulated as compared with sham-irradiated control. An increase in the expression of proteins responsible for cell proliferation [Bcl-2 (B-cell chronic lymphocytic lymphoma 2), Ras-GAP (Ras-GTPase-activating protein) and PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen)] was observed in the P. hexandrum-pretreated irradiated mice as compared with sham-irradiated controls. Caspase 3 activation resulted PARP [poly(ADP-ribose) DNA polymerase] cleavage, and DNA degradation was strongly inhibited in the mice treated with P. hexandrm (+/-irradiation) as compared with the mice treated with radiation (+/-heat shock). The present study thus clearly

  2. Thermal shock investigation of silicon nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziegler, G.; Leucht, R.

    1977-01-01

    In this work, the thermal shock properties of commercial reaction-bonded Si 3 N 4 quality material (RBSN), of commercial hot-pressed Si 3 N 4 (HPSN) and of different laboratory grades of hot-pressed Si 3 N 4 were examined. The thermal shock properties of RBSN quality material differ according to the structure considerably: The critical temperature difference for sample crossections of 5 x 5 or 6 x 6 mm after quenching in oil lies between 730 0 C and over 1400 0 C. The best thermal shock properties are shown by high density RBSN quality material having very fine pores and high initial strength. The results indicate that for RBSN large pores and density inhomogenities are responsible for bad thermal shock properties. Resistance to fast temperature change is higher for hot-pressed Si 3 N 4 than for RBSN quality material. In HPSN, the thermal shock results show dependence on structure. High MgO content and the associated coarse rod-shaped configuration of the β phase and structural inhomogenities affect the thermal shock properties in an adverse way. (orig.) [de

  3. Mechanical Properties of Shock-Damaged Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hongliang; Ahrens, T. J.

    1994-01-01

    Stress-strain tests were performed both on shock-damaged gabbro and limestone. The effective Young's modulus decreases with increasing initial damage parameter value, and an apparent work-softening process occurs prior to failure. To further characterize shock-induced microcracks, the longitudinal elastic wave velocity behavior of shock-damaged gabbro in the direction of compression up to failure was measured using an acoustic transmission technique under uniaxial loading. A dramatic increase in velocity was observed for the static compressive stress range of 0-50 MPa. Above that stress range, the velocity behavior of lightly damaged (D(sub 0) less than 0.1) gabbro is almost equal to unshocked gabbro. The failure strength of heavily-damaged (D(sub 0) greater than 0.1) gabbro is approx. 100-150 MPa, much lower than that of lightly damaged and unshocked gabbros (approx. 230-260 MPa). Following Nur's theory, the crack shape distribution was analyzed. The shock-induced cracks in gabbro appear to be largely thin penny-shaped cracks with c/a values below 5 x 10(exp -4). Moreover, the applicability of Ashby and Sammis's theory relating failure strength and damage parameter of shock-damaged rocks was examined and was found to yield a good estimate of the relation of shock-induced deficit in elastic modulus with the deficit in compressive strength.

  4. Emissive spectra of shock-heated argon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Jingyou; Gu Yan; Peng Qixian; Bai Yulin; Li Ping

    2003-01-01

    To study the radiant properties of argon under weak shock compression, an aluminum target filled with gaseous argon at ambient states was impacted by a tungsten alloy projectile which was launched from a two-stage light gun to 2.00 km/s. The radiant signals of single shock-compressed argon were recorded by a six-channel pyrometer and oscilloscopes, which varied with time linearly for the five channels from 405 nm to 700 nm and exponentially for the channel 800 nm, and the corresponding velocity of shock wave was determined to be 4.10 ± 0.09 km/s. By the present experiment, it has been shown that the absorbability of the shock-heated argon is low for visual light and the optical depths of argon gas turn from thin to thick as wavelengths gradually increase. The time-resolved spectra in the rising-front of the radiant signal in the re-shocked argon were recorded by means of an OMA, and strong emissive spectrum bands near 450 nm light-wave length but no linear spectrum were found. The emissive spectrum properties of shock-compression argon were qualitatively explained by the state parameters and ionization degree

  5. Pick-up ion energization at the termination shock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary, S Peter [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Winske, Dan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wu, Pin [BOSTON UNIV.; Schwadron, N A [BOSTON UNIV.

    2009-01-01

    One-dimensional hybrid simulations are used to investigate how pickup ions are energized at the perpendicular termination shock. Contrary to previous models based on pickup ion energy gain by repeated crossings of the shock front (shock surfing) or due to a reforming shock front, the present simulations show that pickup ion energy gain involves a gyro-phasedependent interaction with the inhomogeneous motional electric field at the shock. The process operates at all relative concentrations of pickup ion density.

  6. Effective spectral dispersion of refractive index modulation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vojtíšek, Petr; Květoň, M.; Richter, I.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 4 (2017), č. článku 045603. ISSN 2040-8978 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1206 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : volume gratings * holography * dispersion * refractive index modulation Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers OBOR OECD: Optics (including laser optics and quantum optics) Impact factor: 1.741, year: 2016 http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/2040-8986/aa6092/meta

  7. Constraining Relativistic Bow Shock Properties in Rotation-powered Millisecond Pulsar Binaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wadiasingh, Zorawar; Venter, Christo; Böttcher, Markus [Centre for Space Research, North–West University, Potchefstroom (South Africa); Harding, Alice K. [Astrophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Baring, Matthew G., E-mail: zwadiasingh@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rice University, Houston, TX 77251 (United States)

    2017-04-20

    Multiwavelength follow-up of unidentified Fermi sources has vastly expanded the number of known galactic-field “black widow” and “redback” millisecond pulsar binaries. Focusing on their rotation-powered state, we interpret the radio to X-ray phenomenology in a consistent framework. We advocate the existence of two distinct modes differing in their intrabinary shock orientation, distinguished by the phase centering of the double-peaked X-ray orbital modulation originating from mildly relativistic Doppler boosting. By constructing a geometric model for radio eclipses, we constrain the shock geometry as functions of binary inclination and shock standoff R {sub 0}. We develop synthetic X-ray synchrotron orbital light curves and explore the model parameter space allowed by radio eclipse constraints applied on archetypal systems B1957+20 and J1023+0038. For B1957+20, from radio eclipses the standoff is R {sub 0} ∼ 0.15–0.3 fraction of binary separation from the companion center, depending on the orbit inclination. Constructed X-ray light curves for B1957+20 using these values are qualitatively consistent with those observed, and we find occultation of the shock by the companion as a minor influence, demanding significant Doppler factors to yield double peaks. For J1023+0038, radio eclipses imply R {sub 0} ≲ 0.4, while X-ray light curves suggest 0.1 ≲ R {sub 0} ≲ 0.3 (from the pulsar). Degeneracies in the model parameter space encourage further development to include transport considerations. Generically, the spatial variation along the shock of the underlying electron power-law index should yield energy dependence in the shape of light curves, motivating future X-ray phase-resolved spectroscopic studies to probe the unknown physics of pulsar winds and relativistic shock acceleration therein.

  8. Constraining Relativistic Bow Shock Properties in Rotation-Powered Millisecond Pulsar Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadiasingh, Zorawar; Harding, Alice K.; Venter, Christo; Bottcher, Markus; Baring, Matthew G.

    2017-01-01

    Multiwavelength follow-up of unidentified Fermi sources has vastly expanded the number of known galactic-field "black widow" and "redback" millisecond pulsar binaries. Focusing on their rotation-powered state, we interpret the radio to X-ray phenomenology in a consistent framework. We advocate the existence of two distinct modes differing in their intrabinary shock orientation, distinguished by the phase-centering of the double-peaked X-ray orbital modulation originating from mildly-relativistic Doppler boosting. By constructing a geometric model for radio eclipses, we constrain the shock geometry as functions of binary inclination and shock stand-off R(sub 0). We develop synthetic X-ray synchrotron orbital light curves and explore the model parameter space allowed by radio eclipse constraints applied on archetypal systems B1957+20 and J1023+0038. For B1957+20, from radio eclipses the stand-off is R(sub 0) approximately 0:15 - 0:3 fraction of binary separation from the companion center, depending on the orbit inclination. Constructed X-ray light curves for B1957+20 using these values are qualitatively consistent with those observed, and we find occultation of the shock by the companion as a minor influence, demanding significant Doppler factors to yield double peaks. For J1023+0038, radio eclipses imply R(sub 0) is approximately less than 0:4 while X-ray light curves suggest 0:1 is approximately less than R(sub 0) is approximately less than 0:3 (from the pulsar). Degeneracies in the model parameter space encourage further development to include transport considerations. Generically, the spatial variation along the shock of the underlying electron power-law index should yield energy-dependence in the shape of light curves motivating future X-ray phase-resolved spectroscopic studies to probe the unknown physics of pulsar winds and relativistic shock acceleration therein.

  9. CONSTRAINING RELATIVISTIC BOW SHOCK PROPERTIES IN ROTATION-POWERED MILLISECOND PULSAR BINARIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadiasingh, Zorawar; Harding, Alice K.; Venter, Christo; Böttcher, Markus; Baring, Matthew G.

    2018-01-01

    Multiwavelength followup of unidentified Fermi sources has vastly expanded the number of known galactic-field “black widow” and “redback” millisecond pulsar binaries. Focusing on their rotation-powered state, we interpret the radio to X-ray phenomenology in a consistent framework. We advocate the existence of two distinct modes differing in their intrabinary shock orientation, distinguished by the phase-centering of the double-peaked X-ray orbital modulation originating from mildly-relativistic Doppler boosting. By constructing a geometric model for radio eclipses, we constrain the shock geometry as functions of binary inclination and shock stand-off R0. We develop synthetic X-ray synchrotron orbital light curves and explore the model parameter space allowed by radio eclipse constraints applied on archetypal systems B1957+20 and J1023+0038. For B1957+20, from radio eclipses the stand-off is R0 ~ 0.15–0.3 fraction of binary separation from the companion center, depending on the orbit inclination. Constructed X-ray light curves for B1957+20 using these values are qualitatively consistent with those observed, and we find occultation of the shock by the companion as a minor influence, demanding significant Doppler factors to yield double peaks. For J1023+0038, radio eclipses imply R0 ≲ 0.4 while X-ray light curves suggest 0.1 ≲ R0 ≲ 0.3 (from the pulsar). Degeneracies in the model parameter space encourage further development to include transport considerations. Generically, the spatial variation along the shock of the underlying electron power-law index should yield energy-dependence in the shape of light curves motivating future X-ray phase-resolved spectroscopic studies to probe the unknown physics of pulsar winds and relativistic shock acceleration therein. PMID:29651167

  10. Loss of Syndecan-1 Abrogates the Pulmonary Protective Phenotype Induced by Plasma After Hemorrhagic Shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Feng; Peng, Zhanglong; Park, Pyong Woo; Kozar, Rosemary A

    2017-09-01

    Syndecan-1 (Sdc1) is considered a biomarker of injury to the endothelial glycocalyx following hemorrhagic shock, with shedding of Sdc1 deleterious. Resuscitation with fresh frozen plasma (FFP) has been correlated with restitution of pulmonary Sdc1 and reduction of lung injury, but the precise contribution of Sdc1 to FFPs protection in the lung remains unclear. Human lung endothelial cells were used to assess the time and dose-dependent effect of FFP on Sdc1 expression and the effect of Sdc1 silencing on in vitro endothelial cell permeability and actin stress fiber formation. Wild-type and Sdc1 mice were subjected to hemorrhagic shock followed by resuscitation with lactated Ringers (LR) or FFP and compared with shock alone and shams. Lungs were harvested after 3 h for analysis of permeability, histology, and inflammation and for measurement of syndecan- 2 and 4 expression. In vitro, FFP enhanced pulmonary endothelial Sdc1 expression in time- and dose-dependent manners and loss of Sdc1 in pulmonary endothelial cells worsened permeability and stress fiber formation by FFP. Loss of Sdc1 in vivo led to equivalency between LR and FFP in restoring pulmonary injury, inflammation, and permeability after shock. Lastly, Sdc1 mice demonstrated a significant increase in pulmonary syndecan 4 expression after hemorrhagic shock and FFP-based resuscitation. Taken together, our findings support a key role for Sdc1 in modulating pulmonary protection by FFP after hemorrhagic shock. Our results also suggest that other members of the syndecan family may at least be contributing to FFP's effects on the endothelium, an area that warrants further investigation.

  11. Macroeconomic impacts of oil price shocks in Asian economies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunado, Juncal; Jo, Soojin; Perez de Gracia, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes the macroeconomic impact of structural oil shocks in four of the top oil-consuming Asian economies, using a VAR model. We identify three different structural oil shocks via sign restrictions: an oil supply shock, an oil demand shock driven by global economic activity and an oil-specific demand shock. The main results suggest that economic activity and prices respond very differently to oil price shocks depending on their types. In particular, an oil supply shock has a limited impact, while a demand shock driven by global economic activity has a significant positive effect in all four Asian countries examined. Our finding also includes that policy tools such as interest rates and exchange rates help mitigating the effects of supply shocks in Japan and Korea; however, they can be more actively used in response to demands shocks. - Highlights: • We analyze the effects of three structural oil price shocks on Asian economies. • Supply shocks have limited impact on the economic activity of Asian economies examined. • Demand shocks due to economic activity boosts GDP of all economies. • CPIs in India and Indonesia were only marginally affected by oil price shocks. • Monetary and exchange rate tools help mitigating supply shocks in Korea and Japan.

  12. Shock-wave induced mechanoluminescence: A new technique for studying effects of shock pressure on crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandra, B.P.; Parganiha, S.; Sonwane, V.D. [School of Studies in Physics and Astrophysics, Pt. Ravishankar Shukla University, Raipur 492010, Chhattisgarh (India); Chandra, V.K. [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Chhatrapati Shivaji Institute of Technology, Shivaji Nagar, Kolihapuri, Durg 491001, Chhattisgarh (India); Jha, Piyush, E-mail: piyushjha22@rediffmail.com [Department of Applied Physics, Raipur Institute of Technology, Chhatauna, Mandir Hasuad, Raipur 492101, Chhattisgarh (India); Baghel, R.N. [School of Studies in Physics and Astrophysics, Pt. Ravishankar Shukla University, Raipur 492010, Chhattisgarh (India)

    2016-10-15

    The impact of a projectile propelled to velocities in the range of 0.5–2.5 km/s on to a target (X-cut quartz crystal) produces shock waves travelling at velocity of nearly 10 km/s in target, in which intense mechanoluminescence (ML) pulses of microsecond duration are produced, both in compression and post-compression conditions. The piezoelectric field produced due to surface charges of fractured target, causes band bending and subsequently, the free charge carriers are generated in the respective bands and the emission of ML occurs. The ML appears after a delay time t{sub th} whose value decreases with increasing value of the shock pressure. Initially, the ML intensity increases with the shock pressure because of the creation of more surfaces; however, for higher values of the shock pressure, the ML intensity tends to attain a saturation value because of the hardening of the crystals due to the creation of small crystallites in which the creation of new surfaces becomes difficult. The ratio between peak ML intensity in the uncompressed region and the maximum ML intensity in the compressed region decreases with increasing shock pressure because more defects produced at high pressure generate higher barrier for the relaxation of blocked cracks under compression. The expressions derived for characteristics of shock-induced ML are able to explain satisfactorily the experimental results. Shock-wave velocity, shock pressure, transit time, lifetime of electrons in conduction band, etc. can be determined by the shock-induced ML.As such, the shock-induced ML provides a new optical technique for the studies of materials under shock pressure.

  13. Silver nanoparticles inhibit the function of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 and target genes: insight into the cytotoxicity and antiangiogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang T

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Tieshan Yang,1 Qian Yao,1 Fei Cao,1 Qianqian Liu,1 Binlei Liu,2 Xiu-Hong Wang1 1Laboratory for Biomedical Photonics, Institute of Laser Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, 2Cancer Institute and Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1 is a transcription factor that is activated upon exposure to hypoxic stress. It modulates a number of cellular responses including proliferation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, and metabolism by activating a panel of target genes in response to hypoxia. The HIF-1 level is often upregulated in the hypoxic microenvironment of solid tumors, which contributes to cancer treatment failure. Here we report that silver nanoparticles (AgNPs, which are widely used as an antimicrobial agent, are an effective inhibitor of HIF-1. AgNPs inhibited the activation of a HIF-dependent reporter construct after the cells were exposed to hypoxic conditions or treated with cobalt chloride, a hypoxia mimetic agent. The AgNPs also interfered with the accumulation of HIF-1α protein and the induction of the endogenous HIF target genes, VEGF-A and GLUT1. Since both HIF-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor-A play an important role in angiogenesis, AgNPs also inhibited angiogenesis in vitro. Our data reveal a new mechanism of how AgNPs act on cellular function, that is, they disrupt HIF signaling pathway. This finding provides a novel insight into how AgNPs can inhibit cancer cell growth and angiogenesis. Keywords: silver nanoparticles (AgNPs, hypoxia-inducible factor, transcriptional activity, vascular endothelial growth factor-A, angiogenesis

  14. SUMO-modified insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) increases cell cycle progression and cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yingbo; Liu, Hongyu; Waraky, Ahmed; Haglund, Felix; Agarwal, Prasoon; Jernberg-Wiklund, Helena; Warsito, Dudi; Larsson, Olle

    2017-10-01

    Increasing number of studies have shown nuclear localization of the insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (nIGF-1R) in tumor cells and its links to adverse clinical outcome in various cancers. Any obvious cell physiological roles of nIGF-1R have, however, still not been disclosed. Previously, we reported that IGF-1R translocates to cell nucleus and modulates gene expression by binding to enhancers, provided that the receptor is SUMOylated. In this study, we constructed stable transfectants of wild type IGF1R (WT) and triple-SUMO-site-mutated IGF1R (TSM) using igf1r knockout mouse fibroblasts (R-). Cell clones (R-WT and R-TSM) expressing equal amounts of IGF-1R were selected for experiments. Phosphorylation of IGF-1R, Akt, and Erk upon IGF-1 stimulation was equal in R-WT and R-TSM. WT was confirmed to enter nuclei. TSM did also undergo nuclear translocation, although to a lesser extent. This may be explained by that TSM heterodimerizes with insulin receptor, which is known to translocate to cell nuclei. R-WT proliferated substantially faster than R-TSM, which did not differ significantly from the empty vector control. Upon IGF-1 stimulation G1-S-phase progression of R-WT increased from 12 to 38%, compared to 13 to 20% of R-TSM. The G1-S progression of R-WT correlated with increased expression of cyclin D1, A, and CDK2, as well as downregulation of p27. This suggests that SUMO-IGF-1R affects upstream mechanisms that control and coordinate expression of cell cycle regulators. Further studies to identify such SUMO-IGF-1R dependent mechanisms seem important. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Cellular Physiology Published by Wiley Periodicals Inc.

  15. A Reverse Shock in GRB 160509A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskar, Tanmoy; Alexander, Kate D.; Berger, Edo; Fong, Wen-fai; Margutti, Raffaella; Shivvers, Isaac; Williams, Peter K. G.; Kopač, Drejc; Kobayashi, Shiho; Mundell, Carole; Gomboc, Andreja; Zheng, WeiKang; Menten, Karl M.; Graham, Melissa L.; Filippenko, Alexei V.

    2016-12-01

    We present the second multi-frequency radio detection of a reverse shock in a γ-ray burst. By combining our extensive radio observations of the Fermi-Large Area Telescope γ-ray burst 160509A at z = 1.17 up to 20 days after the burst with Swift X-ray observations and ground-based optical and near-infrared data, we show that the afterglow emission comprises distinct reverse shock and forward shock contributions: the reverse shock emission dominates in the radio band at ≲10 days, while the forward shock emission dominates in the X-ray, optical, and near-infrared bands. Through multi-wavelength modeling, we determine a circumburst density of {n}0≈ {10}-3 {{cm}}-3, supporting our previous suggestion that a low-density circumburst environment is conducive to the production of long-lasting reverse shock radiation in the radio band. We infer the presence of a large excess X-ray absorption column, N H ≈ 1.5 × 1022 {{cm}}-2, and a high rest-frame optical extinction, A V ≈ 3.4 mag. We identify a jet break in the X-ray light curve at {t}{jet}≈ 6 {days}, and thus derive a jet opening angle of {θ }{jet}≈ 4^\\circ , yielding a beaming-corrected kinetic energy and radiated γ-ray energy of {E}{{K}}≈ 4× {10}50 erg and {E}γ ≈ 1.3× {10}51 erg (1-104 keV, rest frame), respectively. Consistency arguments connecting the forward shocks and reverse shocks suggest a deceleration time of {t}{dec} ≈ 460 s ≈ T 90, a Lorentz factor of {{Γ }}({t}{dec})≈ 330, and a reverse-shock-to-forward-shock fractional magnetic energy density ratio of {R}{{B}}\\equiv {ɛ }{{B},{RS}}/{ɛ }{{B},{FS}}≈ 8. Our study highlights the power of rapid-response radio observations in the study of the properties and dynamics of γ-ray burst ejecta.

  16. The measurement of insulin-like growth factor 1 in sheep plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, L A; Atkinson, T; Hutchinson, J S; Shakespear, R A; MacRae, J C

    1991-02-01

    A method is described for the radioimmunoassay (RIA) of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) in neutralised formic acid-ethanol extracts of sheep plasma. The ability of the acid-ethanol pretreatment to remove the IGF-1 binding proteins (BPs), which interfere in the assay has been examined. Comparative plasma IGF-1 concentrations determined by the method correlated closely (P less than 0.001) with corresponding values where BPs were removed by acid gel filtration. The method has been applied to studies in which sheep were given exogenous growth hormone and indicated that plasma IGF-1 levels respond rapidly to the onset and termination of treatment.

  17. Regulation of eukaryotic elongation factor 1 alpha (eEF1A) by dynamic lysine methylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsson, Magnus E; Małecki, Jędrzej; Falnes, Pål Ø

    2018-01-01

    Lysine methylation is a frequent post-translational protein modification, which has been intensively studied in the case of histone proteins. Lysine methylations are also found on many non-histone proteins, and one prominent example is eukaryotic elongation factor 1 alpha (eEF1A). Besides its...... essential role in the protein synthesis machinery, a number of non-canonical functions have also been described for eEF1A, such as regulation of the actin cytoskeleton and the promotion of viral replication. The functional significance of the extensive lysine methylations on eEF1A, as well as the identity...

  18. Pressurized-thermal-shock technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickson, T.L.

    1991-01-01

    It was recognized at the time the original Issues on Pressurized Thermal Shock (IPTS) studies were conducted that distinct vertical plumes of cooling water form beneath the cold leg inlet nozzles during those particular transients that exhibit fluid/thermal stratification. The formation of these plumes (referred to as thermal streaming) induces a time-dependent circumferential temperature variation on the inner surface of the Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) wall that creates an axial stress component. This axial stress component is in addition to the axial stress components induced by time-dependent radial temperature variation through the wall thickness and the time-dependent pressure transient. This additional axial stress component will result in a larger axial stress resultant that results in a larger stress-intensity factor acting on circumferential flaws, thus reducing the fracture margin for circumferential flaws. Although this was recognized at the time of the original IPTS study, the contribution appeared to be relatively small; therefore, it was neglected. The original IPTS studies were performed with OCA-P, a computer program developed at ORNL to analyze the cleavage fracture response of a nuclear RPV subjected to PTS loading. OCA-P is a one-dimensional (1-D) finite-element code that analyzes the stresses and stress-intensity factors (axial and tangential) resulting from the pressure and the radial temperature variation through the wall thickness only. The HSST Program is investigating the potential effects of thermal-streaming-induced stresses in circumferential welds on the reactor vessel PTS analyses. The initial phase of this investigation focused on an evaluation of the available thermal-hydraulic data and analyses results. The objective for the initial phase of the investigation is to evaluate thermal-streaming behavior under conditions relevant to the operation of U.S. PWRs and chracterize any predicted thermal-streaming plumes

  19. Orphan nuclear receptor TR4 and fibroblast growth factor 1 in metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Weilin

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic homeostasis is achieved, in part, through the coordinated activities of members of the Nuclear Receptor (NR) family, a superfamily of ligand-modulated transcription factors (TFs) that mediate responses to a wide range of lipophilic signaling molecules including lipids, steroids, retinoids,

  20. MEMORY MODULATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roozendaal, Benno; McGaugh, James L.

    2011-01-01

    Our memories are not all created equally strong: Some experiences are well remembered while others are remembered poorly, if at all. Research on memory modulation investigates the neurobiological processes and systems that contribute to such differences in the strength of our memories. Extensive evidence from both animal and human research indicates that emotionally significant experiences activate hormonal and brain systems that regulate the consolidation of newly acquired memories. These effects are integrated through noradrenergic activation of the basolateral amygdala which regulates memory consolidation via interactions with many other brain regions involved in consolidating memories of recent experiences. Modulatory systems not only influence neurobiological processes underlying the consolidation of new information, but also affect other mnemonic processes, including memory extinction, memory recall and working memory. In contrast to their enhancing effects on consolidation, adrenal stress hormones impair memory retrieval and working memory. Such effects, as with memory consolidation, require noradrenergic activation of the basolateral amygdala and interactions with other brain regions. PMID:22122145

  1. Effects of response-shock interval and shock intensity on free-operant avoidance responding in the pigeon1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Marty; Rilling, Mark

    1972-01-01

    Two experiments investigated free-operant avoidance responding with pigeons using a treadle-pressing response. In Experiment I, pigeons were initially trained on a free-operant avoidance schedule with a response-shock interval of 32 sec and a shock-shock interval of 10 sec, and were subsequently exposed to 10 values of the response-shock parameter ranging from 2.5 to 150 sec. The functions relating response rate to response-shock interval were similar to the ones reported by Sidman in his 1953 studies employing rats, and were independent of the order of presentation of the response-shock values. Shock rates decreased as response-shock duration increased. In Experiment II, a free-operant avoidance schedule with a response-shock interval of 20 sec and a shock-shock interval of 5 sec was used, and shock intensities were varied over five values ranging from 2 to 32 mA. Response rates increased markedly as shock intensity increased from 2 to 8 mA, but rates changed little with further increases in shock intensity. Shock rates decreased as intensity increased from 2 to 8 mA, and showed little change as intensity increased from 8 to 32 mA. PMID:4652617

  2. Role of echocardiography in reducing shock reversal time in pediatric septic shock: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed A. EL-Nawawy

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To evaluate the role of echocardiography in reducing shock reversal time in pediatric septic shock. Methods: A prospective study conducted in the pediatric intensive care unit of a tertiary care teaching hospital from September 2013 to May 2016. Ninety septic shock patients were randomized in a 1:1 ratio for comparing the serial echocardiography-guided therapy in the study group with the standard therapy in the control group regarding clinical course, timely treatment, and outcomes. Results: Shock reversal was significantly higher in the study group (89% vs. 67%, with significantly reduced shock reversal time (3.3 vs. 4.5 days. Pediatric intensive care unit stay in the study group was significantly shorter (8 ± 3 vs. 14 ± 10 days. Mortality due to unresolved shock was significantly lower in the study group. Fluid overload was significantly lower in the study group (11% vs. 44%. In the study group, inotropes were used more frequently (89% vs. 67% and initiated earlier (12[0.5-24] vs. 24[6-72] h with lower maximum vasopressor inotrope score (120[30-325] vs. 170[80-395], revealing predominant use of milrinone (62% vs. 22%. Conclusion: Serial echocardiography provided crucial data for early recognition of septic myocardial dysfunction and hypovolemia that was not apparent on clinical assessment, allowing a timely management and resulting in shock reversal time reduction among children with septic shock.

  3. PARTICLE ACCELERATION AT THE HELIOSPHERIC TERMINATION SHOCK WITH A STOCHASTIC SHOCK OBLIQUITY APPROACH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthur, Aaron D.; Le Roux, Jakobus A.

    2013-01-01

    Observations by the plasma and magnetic field instruments on board the Voyager 2 spacecraft suggest that the termination shock is weak with a compression ratio of ∼2. However, this is contrary to the observations of accelerated particle spectra at the termination shock, where standard diffusive shock acceleration theory predicts a compression ratio closer to ∼2.9. Using our focused transport model, we investigate pickup proton acceleration at a stationary spherical termination shock with a moderately strong compression ratio of 2.8 to include both the subshock and precursor. We show that for the particle energies observed by the Voyager 2 Low Energy Charged Particle (LECP) instrument, pickup protons will have effective length scales of diffusion that are larger than the combined subshock and precursor termination shock structure observed. As a result, the particles will experience a total effective termination shock compression ratio that is larger than values inferred by the plasma and magnetic field instruments for the subshock and similar to the value predicted by diffusive shock acceleration theory. Furthermore, using a stochastically varying magnetic field angle, we are able to qualitatively reproduce the multiple power-law structure observed for the LECP spectra downstream of the termination shock

  4. A shock surface geometry - The February 15-16, 1967, event. [solar flare associated interplanetary shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepping, R. P.; Chao, J. K.

    1976-01-01

    An estimated shape is presented for the surface of the flare-associated interplanetary shock of February 15-16, 1967, as seen in the ecliptic-plane cross section. The estimate is based on observations by Explorer 33 and Pioneers 6 and 7. The estimated shock normal at the Explorer 33 position is obtained by a least-squares shock parameter-fitting procedure for that satellite's data; the shock normal at the Pioneer 7 position is found by using the magnetic coplanarity theorem and magnetic-field data. The average shock speed from the sun to each spacecraft is determined along with the local speed at Explorer 33 and the relations between these speeds and the position of the initiating solar flare. The Explorer 33 shock normal is found to be severely inclined and not typical of interplanetary shocks. It is shown that the curvature of the shock surface in the ecliptic plane near the earth-Pioneer 7 region is consistent with a radius of not more than 0.4 AU.

  5. Culture Shock: Information Packet for Developing Stress/Culture Shock Programs for Students in Overseas Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, John

    This booklet, written for elementary teachers and counselors, provides information for a three-session stress and culture shock program for fifth and sixth grade students in overseas schools. Session 1 presents an introduction to the program, including discussion questions. Session 2 focuses on stress and culture shock through examples and…

  6. Holographic interferometric observation of shock wave focusing to extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, Kazuyoshi; Obara, Tetsuro; Onodera, Osamu

    1991-04-01

    Underwater shock wave focusing is successfully applied to disintegrate and remove kidney stones or gallbladder stones without using surgical operations. This treatment is one of the most peaceful applications ofshock waves and is named as the Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy. Ajoint research project is going on between the Institute ofFluid Science, Tohoku University and the School ofMedicine, Tohoku University. The paper describes a result of the fundamental research on the underwater shock wave focusing applied to the ESWL. Quantitatively to visualize the underwater shock waves, various optical flow visualization techniques were successfully used such as holographic interferometry, and shadowgraphs combined with Ima-Con high speed camera. Double exposure holographic interferometric observation revealed the mechanism of generation, propagation and focusing of underwater shock waves. The result of the present research was already used to manufacture a prototype machine and it has already been applied successfully to ESWL crinical treatments. However, despite of success in the clinical treatments, important fundamental questions still remain unsolved, i.e., effects of underwater shock wave focusing on tissue damage during the treatment. Model experiments were conducted to clarify mechanism of the tissue damage associated with the ESWL. Shock-bubble interactions were found responsible to the tissue damage during the ESWL treatment. In order to interprete experimental findings and to predict shock wave behavior and high pressures, a numerical simulation was carried. The numerical results agreed with the experiments.

  7. Diffusive Shock Acceleration and Turbulent Reconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrel, Christian; Vlahos, Loukas; Isliker, Heinz; Pisokas, Theophilos

    2018-05-01

    Diffusive Shock Acceleration (DSA) cannot efficiently accelerate particles without the presence of self-consistently generated or pre-existing strong turbulence (δB/B ˜ 1) in the vicinity of the shock. The problem we address in this article is: if large amplitude magnetic disturbances are present upstream and downstream of a shock then Turbulent Reconnection (TR) will set in and will participate not only in the elastic scattering of particles but also in their heating and acceleration. We demonstrate that large amplitude magnetic disturbances and Unstable Current Sheets (UCS), spontaneously formed in the strong turbulence in the vicinity of a shock, can accelerate particles as efficiently as DSA in large scale systems and on long time scales. We start our analysis with "elastic" scatterers upstream and downstream and estimate the energy distribution of particles escaping from the shock, recovering the well known results from the DSA theory. Next we analyze the additional interaction of the particles with active scatterers (magnetic disturbances and UCS) upstream and downstream of the shock. We show that the asymptotic energy distribution of the particles accelerated by DSA/TR has very similar characteristics with the one due to DSA alone, but the synergy of DSA with TR is much more efficient: The acceleration time is an order of magnitude shorter and the maximum energy reached two orders of magnitude higher. We claim that DSA is the dominant acceleration mechanism in a short period before TR is established, and then strong turbulence will dominate the heating and acceleration of the particles. In other words, the shock serves as the mechanism to set up a strongly turbulent environment, in which the acceleration mechanism will ultimately be the synergy of DSA and TR.

  8. On ion injection at quasiparallel shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholer, M.; Kucharek, H.; Kato, C.

    2002-01-01

    A large number of numerical experiments has been performed in order to study the interaction of interstellar pickup protons and helium ions with quasiparallel collisionless shocks. The shocks are modeled by a one-dimensional hybrid simulation method which treats the ions as macroparticles and the electrons as a massless fluid. Solar wind alpha particles and pickup protons are included self-consistently. In addition, the particle splitting method is used for the solar wind ions so that the distribution function can be followed over more than 10 orders of magnitude. A large part of the pickup ion distribution is reflected; the reflection efficiency is very high, and can reach in cases where the pickup ion density is low as much as 50%-60%. The reflection efficiency is almost independent of magnetic field-shock normal angle. This indicates that magnetic mirroring is unimportant and does not lead to larger reflection efficiencies. The reflection efficiency of pickup protons rapidly decreases when the pickup ion density exceeds a few percent of the solar wind density. An addition of 25% pickup protons decreases the reflection coefficient for these ions to ∼10%. This represents the fact that a quasiparallel shock cannot be considered as being uncoupled from the upstream region: at high additions of pickup ions the shock structure is changed in such a way as to reflect less pickup ions. The intensity of diffuse ions upstream of a quasiparallel shock does not depend on the temperature of the core distribution. Within the framework of the present model even solar wind distributions with a hard power law tail do not produce higher intensities of diffuse ions. It is argued that this can be understood by the fact that the intrinsic self-consistency between the processes in the upstream region and at the shock transition determines the injection and reflection properties of the core solar wind distribution

  9. Insulin-like growth factor 1 enhances the migratory capacity of mesenchymal stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yangxin; Yu, XiYong; Lin, ShuGuang; Li, XiaoHong; Zhang, Saidan; Song, Yao-Hua

    2007-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are attractive candidates for cell based therapies. However, the mechanisms responsible for stem cell migration and homing after transplantation remain unknown. It has been shown that insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) induces proliferation and migration of some cell types, but its effects on stem cells have not been investigated. We isolated and cultured MSC from rat bone marrow, and found that IGF-1 increased the expression levels of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 (receptor for stromal cell-derived factor-1, SDF-1). Moreover, IGF-1 markedly increased the migratory response of MSC to SDF-1. The IGF-1-induced increase in MSC migration in response to SDF-1 was attenuated by PI3 kinase inhibitor (LY294002 and wortmannin) but not by mitogen-activated protein/ERK kinase inhibitor PD98059. Our data indicate that IGF-1 increases MSC migratory responses via CXCR4 chemokine receptor signaling which is PI3/Akt dependent. These findings provide a new paradigm for biological effects of IGF-1 on MSC and have implications for the development of novel stem cell therapeutic strategies

  10. Is shock index associated with outcome in children with sepsis/septic shock?*.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasaka, Yuki; Khemani, Robinder G; Markovitz, Barry P

    2013-10-01

    To investigate the association between PICU shock index (the ratio of heart rate to systolic blood pressure) and PICU mortality in children with sepsis/septic shock. To explore cutoff values for shock index for ICU mortality, how change in shock index over the first 6 hours of ICU admission is associated with outcome, and how the use of vasoactive therapy may affect shock index and its association with outcome. Retrospective cohort. Single-center tertiary PICU. Five hundred forty-four children with the diagnosis of sepsis/septic shock. None. From January 2003 to December 2009, 544 children met International Pediatric Sepsis Consensus Conference of 2005 criteria for sepsis/septic shock. Overall mortality was 23.7%. Among all patients, hourly shock index was associated with mortality: odds ratio of ICU mortality at 0 hour, 1.08, 95% CI (1.04-1.12); odds ratio at 1 hour, 1.09 (1.04-1.13); odds ratio at 2 hours, 1.09 (1.05-1.13); and odds ratio at 6 hours, 1.11 (1.06-1.15). When stratified by age, early shock index was associated with mortality only in children 1-3 and more than or equal to 12 years old. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve in age 1-3 and more than or equal to 12 years old for shock index at admission was 0.69 (95% CI, 0.58-0.80) and 0.62 (95% CI, 0.52-0.72) respectively, indicating a fair predictive marker. Although higher shock index was associated with increased risk of mortality, there was no particular cutoff value with adequate positive or negative likelihood ratios to identify mortality in any age group of children. The improvement of shock index in the first 6 hours of ICU admission was not associated with outcome when analyzed in all patients. However, among patients whose shock index were above the 50th percentile at ICU admission for each age group, improvement of shock index was associated with lower ICU mortality in children between 1-3 and more than or equal to 12 years old (p = 0.02 and p = 0.03, respectively). When

  11. On possible structures of normal ionizing shock waves in electromagnetic shock tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liberman, M.A.; Synakh, V.S.; Zakajdakhov, V.V.; Velikovich, A.L.

    1982-01-01

    The problem of possible structures of normal ionizing shock waves is studied. On the basis of the general theory of ionizing shock waves in magnetic fields, a similarity solution of the piston problem for an impenetrable piston and a magnetic piston is described and a numerical solution of the non-stationary piston problem is obtained. It is shown that precursor photo-ionization of the neutral gas by the radiation of the shock-heated gas is the dominant factor in shaping normal ionizing shock structures. In particular, it is shown that the strong overheating of atoms and ions in shock fronts is due to the tensor form of Ohm's law in the precursor region. (author)

  12. Multiple spacecraft observations of interplanetary shocks: four spacecraft determination of shock normals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, C.T.; Mellott, M.M.; Smith, E.J.; King, J.H.

    1983-01-01

    ISEE 1,2,3 IMP8, and Prognoz 7 observations of interplanetary shocks in 1978 and 1979 provide five instances where a single shock is observed by four spacecraft. These observations are used to determine best-fit normals for these five shocks. In addition to providing well-documented shocks for furture techniques. When the angle between upstream and downstream magnetic field is greater than 20, magnetic coplanarity can be an accurate single spacecraft method. However, no technique based solely on the magnetic measurements at one or multiple sites was universally accurate. Thus, we recommend using overdetermined shock normal solutions whenever possible, utilizing plasma measurements, separation vectors, and time delays together with magnetic constraints

  13. The MHD intermediate shock interaction with an intermediate wave: Are intermediate shocks physical?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, C.C.

    1988-01-01

    Contrary to the usual belief that MHD intermediate shocks are extraneous, the authors have recently shown by numerical solutions of dissipative MHD equations that intermediate shocks are admissible and can be formed through nonlinear steepening from a continuous wave. In this paper, he clarifies the differences between the conventional view and the results by studying the interaction of an MHD intermediate shock with an intermediate wave. The study reaffirms his results. In addition, the study shows that there exists a larger class of shocklike solutions in the time-dependent dissiaptive MHD equations than are given by the MHD Rankine-Hugoniot relations. it also suggests a mechanism for forming rotational discontinuities through the interaction of an intermediate shock with an intermediate wave. The results are of importance not only to the MHD shock theory but also to studies such as magnetic field reconnection models

  14. Application of Underwater Shock Wave Focusing to the Development of Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, Kazuyoshi

    1993-05-01

    This paper describes a summary of a research project for the development of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL), which has been carried out, under close collaboration between the Shock Wave Research Center of Tohoku University and the School of Medicine, Tohoku University. The ESWL is a noninvasive clinical treatment of disintegrating human calculi and one of the most peaceful applications of shock waves. Underwater spherical shock waves were generated by explosion of microexplosives. Characteristics of the underwater shock waves and of ultrasound focusing were studied by means of holographic interferometric flow visualization and polyvinyliden-difluoride (PVDF) pressure transducers. These focused pressures, when applied to clinical treatments, could effectively and noninvasively disintegrate urinary tract stones or gallbladder stones. However, despite clincal success, tissue damage occurs during ESWL treatments, and the possible mechanism of tissue damage is briefly described.

  15. Effects of Alfvénic Drift on Diffusive Shock Acceleration at Weak Cluster Shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyesung; Ryu, Dongsu

    2018-03-01

    Non-detection of γ-ray emission from galaxy clusters has challenged diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) of cosmic-ray (CR) protons at weak collisionless shocks that are expected to form in the intracluster medium. As an effort to address this problem, we here explore possible roles of Alfvén waves self-excited via resonant streaming instability during the CR acceleration at parallel shocks. The mean drift of Alfvén waves may either increase or decrease the scattering center compression ratio, depending on the postshock cross-helicity, leading to either flatter or steeper CR spectra. We first examine such effects at planar shocks, based on the transport of Alfvén waves in the small amplitude limit. For the shock parameters relevant to cluster shocks, Alfvénic drift flattens the CR spectrum slightly, resulting in a small increase of the CR acceleration efficiency, η. We then consider two additional, physically motivated cases: (1) postshock waves are isotropized via MHD and plasma processes across the shock transition, and (2) postshock waves contain only forward waves propagating along with the flow due to a possible gradient of CR pressure behind the shock. In these cases, Alfvénic drift could reduce η by as much as a factor of five for weak cluster shocks. For the canonical parameters adopted here, we suggest η ∼ 10‑4–10‑2 for shocks with sonic Mach number M s ≈ 2–3. The possible reduction of η may help ease the tension between non-detection of γ-rays from galaxy clusters and DSA predictions.

  16. Shock interactions with heterogeneous energetic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarrington, Cole D.; Wixom, Ryan R.; Damm, David L.

    2018-03-01

    The complex physical phenomenon of shock wave interaction with material heterogeneities has significant importance and nevertheless remains little understood. In many materials, the observed macroscale response to shock loading is governed by characteristics of the microstructure. Yet, the majority of computational studies aimed at predicting phenomena affected by these processes, such as the initiation and propagation of detonation waves in explosives or shock propagation in geological materials, employ continuum material and reactive burn model treatment. In an effort to highlight the grain-scale processes that underlie the observable effects in an energetic system, a grain-scale model for hexanitrostilbene (HNS) has been developed. The measured microstructures were used to produce synthetic computational representations of the pore structure, and a density functional theory molecular dynamics derived equation of state (EOS) was used for the fully dense HNS matrix. The explicit inclusion of the microstructure along with a fully dense EOS resulted in close agreement with historical shock compression experiments. More recent experiments on the dynamic reaction threshold were also reproduced by inclusion of a global kinetics model. The complete model was shown to reproduce accurately the expected response of this heterogeneous material to shock loading. Mesoscale simulations were shown to provide a clear insight into the nature of threshold behavior and are a way to understand complex physical phenomena.

  17. Constitutive modeling of shock response of PTFE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Eric N [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Reanyansky, Anatoly D [DSTO, AUSTRALIA; Bourne, Neil K [AWE, UK; Millett, Jeremy C F [AWE, UK

    2009-01-01

    The PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene) material is complex and attracts attention of the shock physics researchers because it has amorphous and crystalline components. In turn, the crystalline component has four known phases with the high pressure transition to phase III. At the same time, as has been recently studied using spectrometry, the crystalline region is growing with load. Stress and velocity shock-wave profiles acquired recently with embedded gauges demonstrate feature that may be related to impedance mismatches between the regions subjected to some transitions resulting in density and modulus variations. We consider the above mentioned amorphous-to-crystalline transition and the high pressure Phase II-to-III transitions as possible candidates for the analysis. The present work utilizes a multi-phase rate sensitive model to describe shock response of the PTFE material. One-dimensional experimental shock wave profiles are compared with calculated profiles with the kinetics describing the transitions. The objective of this study is to understand the role of the various transitions in the shock response of PTFE.

  18. Advances in NIF Shock Timing Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robey, Harry

    2012-10-01

    Experiments are underway to tune the shock timing of capsule implosions on the National Ignition Facility (NIF). These experiments use a modified cryogenic hohlraum geometry designed to precisely match the performance of ignition hohlraums. The targets employ a re-entrant Au cone to provide optical access to multiple shocks as they propagate in the liquid deuterium-filled capsule interior. The strength and timing of all four shocks is diagnosed with VISAR (Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector). Experiments are now routinely conducted in a mirrored keyhole geometry, which allows for simultaneous diagnosis of the shock timing at both the hohlraum pole and equator. Further modifications are being made to improve the surrogacy to ignition hohlraums by replacing the standard liquid deuterium (D2) capsule fill with a deuterium-tritium (DT) ice layer. These experiments will remove any possible surrogacy difference between D2 and DT as well as incorporate the physics of shock release from the ice layer, which is absent in current experiments. Experimental results and comparisons with numerical simulation are presented.

  19. Energy shocks and detecting influential industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Dongsuk; Lee, Duk Hee

    2017-01-01

    An industry's relationship of supply and demand with the energy sector can be a critical factor in the stability of its economic performance. Furthermore, the patterns of industry dependence on energy industries can be a major characteristic of entire industrial structure. This research evaluates industries' impact scores for their overall influence on other industries and vulnerability to supply and demand shocks from the energy sector. The study utilizes a sample of Korea's industrial input–output tables from 2010 to 2012. Using a chain of complementary methodologies, this study finds that among four clusters, energy, services, and raw materials are key members that can spread energy shocks to other industries. Therefore, governments need to prepare effective energy efficiency policies for these target industries. - Highlights: • We analyze an industry's impact score of its vulnerability to energy shock and inter-industrial effects. • We utilize the sample of input-output tables in Korea from 2010 to 2012. • We implement simulation, PCA, TOPSIS, cluster analysis about energy shock and industrial trades. • Subsectors of energy, services, raw material are subject to energy shock and influential to others. • These bridge industries can be targets that require policies for effective energy efficiency.

  20. Dopamine versus noradrenaline in septic shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Xu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe ‘Surviving Sepsis’ Campaign guidelines recommend theuse of dopamine or noradrenaline as the first vasopressor inseptic shock. However, information that guides clinicians inchoosing between dopamine and noradrenaline as the firstvasopressor in patients with septic shock is limited.ObjectiveThis article presents a review of the literature regarding theuse of dopamine versus noradrenaline in patients with septicshock.ResultsTwo randomised controlled trials (RCT and two largeprospective cohort studies were analysed. RCT data showeddopamine was associated with increased arrhythmic events.One cohort study found dopamine was associated with higher30-day mortality. The other cohort study found noradrenalinewas associated with higher 28-day mortality.DiscussionData on the use of dopamine versus noradrenaline in patientswith septic shock is limited. Following the recent SOAP IIstudy, there is now strong evidence that the use of dopaminein septic shock is associated with significantly morecardiovascular adverse events, compared tonoradrenaline.ConclusionNoradrenaline should be used as the initial vasopressor inseptic shock to avoid the arrhythmic events associatedwith dopamine.

  1. Thermal shock cracking of GSO single crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazaki, Noriyuki; Yamamoto, Kazunari; Tamura, Takaharu; Kurashige, Kazuhisa; Ishibashi, Hiroyuki; Susa, Kenzo

    1998-01-01

    The quantitative estimation of the failure stress of a gadolinium orthosilicate (Gd 2 SiO 5 , hereafter abbreviated as GSO) single crystal due to thermal shock was investigated. A cylindrical test specimen was heated in a silicone oil bath, then subjected to thermal shock by pouring room temperature silicone oil. Cracking occurred during cooling. The heat conduction analysis was performed to obtain temperature distribution in a GSO single crystal at cracking, using the surface temperatures measured in the thermal shock cracking test. Then the thermal stress was calculated using temperature profile of the test specimen obtained from the heat conduction analysis. It is found from the results of the thermal stress analysis and the observation of the cracking in test specimens that the thermal shock cracking occurs in a cleavage plane due to the stress normal to the plane. Three-point bending tests were also performed to examine the relationship between the critical stress for thermal shock cracking and the three-point bending strength obtained from small-sized test specimens. (author)

  2. Analytical model for fast-shock ignition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghasemi, S. A.; Farahbod, A. H.; Sobhanian, S.

    2014-01-01

    A model and its improvements are introduced for a recently proposed approach to inertial confinement fusion, called fast-shock ignition (FSI). The analysis is based upon the gain models of fast ignition, shock ignition and considerations for the fast electrons penetration into the pre-compressed fuel to examine the formation of an effective central hot spot. Calculations of fast electrons penetration into the dense fuel show that if the initial electron kinetic energy is of the order ∼4.5 MeV, the electrons effectively reach the central part of the fuel. To evaluate more realistically the performance of FSI approach, we have used a quasi-two temperature electron energy distribution function of Strozzi (2012) and fast ignitor energy formula of Bellei (2013) that are consistent with 3D PIC simulations for different values of fast ignitor laser wavelength and coupling efficiency. The general advantages of fast-shock ignition in comparison with the shock ignition can be estimated to be better than 1.3 and it is seen that the best results can be obtained for the fuel mass around 1.5 mg, fast ignitor laser wavelength ∼0.3  micron and the shock ignitor energy weight factor about 0.25

  3. Shock analysis: Three useful new relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, E.J.; Burton, M.E.

    1988-01-01

    Over the years a variety of methods for analyzing hydromagnetic shocks have been developed. The Rankine-Hugoniot relations on which the analyses are based are sufficiently complex and involve sufficiently large numbers of variables that in specific instances a decision must be made on how to proceed. The authors analyses have tended to emphasize the magnetic field (B) and velocity (V) as the starting point since they are typically the most accurately determined measurables. They authors have also tended to carry out the analysis in a reference frame aligned, and moving, with the shock. Three new relations have been derived which are generally useful. (1) The shock speed can be calculated from the upstream and downstream values of B and V independent of the shock normal or its direction relative to the upstream field. (2) An explicit relation is derived relating the angles between the jump in velocity, the shock normal, and the upstream field. (3) From the magnetic field and two-dimensional velocity measurements, which are frequently all that are available, it is possible to infer the third component of the upstream-downstream velocity jump

  4. Expression of hypoxia-induced factor-1 alpha in early-stage and in metastatic oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Maisa; Teixeira, Sarah R; Azevedo, Monarko N; Fraga, Ailton C; Gontijo, Antônio Pm; Vêncio, Eneida F

    2017-04-01

    To investigate hypoxia-induced factor-1 alpha expression in distinct oral squamous cell carcinoma subtypes and topographies and correlate with clinicopathological data. Hypoxia-induced factor-1 alpha expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry in 93 cases of OSCC. Clinical and histopathological data were reviewed from medical records. Hypoxia-induced factor-1 alpha status was distinct according to tumor location, subtype and topography affect. In superficial oral squamous cell carcinomas, most tumor cells overexpressed hypoxia-induced factor-1 alpha, whereas hypoxia-induced factor-1 alpha was restricted to the intratumoral region in conventional squamous cell carcinomas. All basaloid squamous cell carcinomas exhibited downregulation of hypoxia-induced factor-1 alpha. Interestingly, metastatic lymph nodes (91.7%, p = 0.001) and the intratumoral regions of corresponding primary tumors (58.3%, p = 0.142) showed hypoxia-induced factor-1 alpha-positive tumor cells. Overall survival was poor in patients with metastatic lymph nodes. Hypoxia-induced factor-1 alpha has distinct expression patterns in different oral squamous cell carcinoma subtypes and topographies, suggesting that low oxygen tension promotes the growth pattern of superficial and conventional squamous cell carcinoma, but not basaloid squamous cell carcinoma. Indeed, a hypoxic environment may facilitate regional metastasis, making it a useful diagnostic and prognostic marker in primary tumors.

  5. The interaction between thermodynamic stability and buried free cysteines in regulating the functional half-life of fibroblast growth factor-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jihun; Blaber, Michael

    2009-10-16

    Protein biopharmaceuticals are an important and growing area of human therapeutics; however, the intrinsic property of proteins to adopt alternative conformations (such as during protein unfolding and aggregation) presents numerous challenges, limiting their effective application as biopharmaceuticals. Using fibroblast growth factor-1 as model system, we describe a cooperative interaction between the intrinsic property of thermostability and the reactivity of buried free-cysteine residues that can substantially modulate protein functional half-life. A mutational strategy that combines elimination of buried free cysteines and secondary mutations that enhance thermostability to achieve a substantial gain in functional half-life is described. Furthermore, the implementation of this design strategy utilizing stabilizing mutations within the core region resulted in a mutant protein that is essentially indistinguishable from wild type as regard protein surface and solvent structure, thus minimizing the immunogenic potential of the mutations. This design strategy should be generally applicable to soluble globular proteins containing buried free-cysteine residues.

  6. An Introduction to the Physics of Collisionless Shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, C.T.

    2005-01-01

    Collisionless shocks are important in astrophysical, heliospheric and magnetospheric settings. They deflect flows around obstacles; they heat the plasma, and they alter the properties of the flow as it intersects those obstacles. The physical processes occurring at collisionless shocks depend on the Mach number (strength) and beta (magnetic to thermal pressure) of the shocks and the direction of the magnetic field relative to the shock normal. Herein we review how the shock has been modeled in numerical simulations, the basic physical processes at work, including dissipation and thermalization, the electric potential drop at the shock, and the formation of the electron and ion foreshocks

  7. Magnetic field overshoots in the Venus blow shock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatrallyay, M.; Luhmann, J.G.; Russell, C.T.

    1984-01-01

    An examination of Pioneer Venus Orbiter fluxgate magnetometer data has shown that magnetic field overshoots occur not only behind quasi-perpendicular bow shocks but also behind quasi-parallel shocks. Overshoots are assocciated only with supercritical shocks. Their amplitudes increase with increasing fast Mach number. Solar wind beta has a lesser effect. The thickness of the overshoot increases with decreasing Theta-BN. The thickness of apparent overshoots detected behind 4 strong fast interplanetary shocks (M greater than M/crit) is about 3 orders of magnitude larger. Multiple crossings of the Venus bow shock were observed mainly at turbulent shocks. Their occurence is not influenced by Theta-BN. 15 references

  8. Subcritical collisionless shock waves. [in earth space plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellott, M. M.

    1985-01-01

    The development history of theoretical accounts of low Mach number collisionless shock waves is related to recent observational advancements, with attention to weaker shocks in which shock steepening is limited by dispersion and/or anomalous resistivity and whose character is primarily determined by the dispersive properties of the ambient plasma. Attention has focused on nearly perpendicular shocks where dispersive scale lengths become small and the associated cross-field currents become strong enough to generate significant plasma wave turbulence. A number of oblique, low Mach number bow shocks have been studied on the basis of data from the ISEE dual spacecraft pair, allowing an accurate determination of shock scale lengths.

  9. Shock wave of vapor-liquid two-phase flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liangju ZHAO; Fei WANG; Hong GAO; Jingwen TANG; Yuexiang YUAN

    2008-01-01

    The shock wave of vapor-liquid two-phase flow in a pressure-gain steam injector is studied by build-ing a mathematic model and making calculations. The results show that after the shock, the vapor is nearly com-pletely condensed. The upstream Mach number and the volume ratio of vapor have a great effect on the shock. The pressure and Mach number of two-phase shock con-form to the shock of ideal gas. The analysis of available energy shows that the shock is an irreversible process with entropy increase.

  10. Structure of intermediate shocks and slow shocks in a magnetized plasma with heat conduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, C.L.; Wu, B.H.; Lee, L.C.

    2005-01-01

    The structure of slow shocks and intermediate shocks in the presence of a heat conduction parallel to the local magnetic field is simulated from the set of magnetohydrodynamic equations. This study is an extension of an earlier work [C. L. Tsai, R. H. Tsai, B. H. Wu, and L. C. Lee, Phys. Plasmas 9, 1185 (2002)], in which the effects of heat conduction are examined for the case that the tangential magnetic fields on the two side of initial current sheet are exactly antiparallel (B y =0). For the B y =0 case, a pair of slow shocks is formed as the result of evolution of the initial current sheet, and each slow shock consists of two parts: the isothermal main shock and the foreshock. In the present paper, cases with B y ≠0 are also considered, in which the evolution process leads to the presence of an additional pair of time-dependent intermediate shocks (TDISs). Across the main shock of the slow shock, jumps in plasma density, velocity, and magnetic field are significant, but the temperature is continuous. The plasma density downstream of the main shock decreases with time, while the downstream temperature increases with time, keeping the downstream pressure constant. The foreshock is featured by a smooth temperature variation and is formed due to the heat flow from downstream to upstream region. In contrast to the earlier study, the foreshock is found to reach a steady state with a constant width in the slow shock frame. In cases with B y ≠0, the plasma density and pressure increase and the magnetic field decreases across TDIS. The TDIS initially can be embedded in the slow shock's foreshock structure, and then moves out of the foreshock region. With an increasing B y , the propagation speed of foreshock leading edge tends to decrease and the foreshock reaches its steady state at an earlier time. Both the pressure and temperature downstreams of the main shock decrease with increasing B y . The results can be applied to the shock heating in the solar corona and

  11. Economic Shocks and Subjective Well-Being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hariri, Jacob Gerner; Bjørnskov, Christian; Justesen, Mogens Kamp

    This paper examines how economic shocks affect individual well-being in developing countries. Using the case of a sudden and unanticipated currency devaluation in Botswana as a quasi-experiment, we examine how this monetary shock affects individuals’ evaluations of well-being. We do so by using...... micro-level survey data, which – incidentally – was collected in the days surrounding the devaluation. The chance occurrence of the devaluation during the time of the survey enables us to use pre-treatment respondents, surveyed before the devaluation, as approximate counterfactuals for post......-treatment respondents, surveyed after the devaluation. Our estimates show that the devaluation had a large and significantly negative effect on individuals’ evaluations of subjective well-being. These results suggest that macroeconomic shocks, such as unanticipated currency devaluations, may have significant short...

  12. Economic Shocks and Subjective Well-being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hariri, Jacob Gerner; Bjørnskov, Christian; Justesen, Mogens Kamp

    This paper examines how economic shocks affect individual well-being in developing countries. Using the case of a sudden and unanticipated currency devaluation in Botswana as a quasi-experiment, we examine how this monetary shock affects individuals’ evaluations of well-being. We do so by using...... micro-level survey data, which – incidentally – was collected in the days surrounding the devaluation. The chance occurrence of the devaluation during the time of the survey enables us to use pre-treatment respondents, surveyed before the devaluation, as approximate counterfactuals for post......-treatment respondents, surveyed after the devaluation. Our estimates show that the devaluation had a large and significantly negative effect on individuals’ evaluations of subjective well-being. These results suggest that macroeconomic shocks, such as unanticipated currency devaluations, may have significant short...

  13. Shock circle model for ejector performance evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Yinhai; Cai, Wenjian; Wen, Changyun; Li, Yanzhong

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, a novel shock circle model for the prediction of ejector performance at the critical mode operation is proposed. By introducing the 'shock circle' at the entrance of the constant area chamber, a 2D exponential expression for velocity distribution is adopted to approximate the viscosity flow near the ejector inner wall. The advantage of the 'shock circle' analysis is that the calculation of ejector performance is independent of the flows in the constant area chamber and diffuser. Consequently, the calculation is even simpler than many 1D modeling methods and can predict the performance of critical mode operation ejectors much more accurately. The effectiveness of the method is validated by two experimental results reported earlier. The proposed modeling method using two coefficients is shown to produce entrainment ratio, efficiency and coefficient of performance (COP) accurately and much closer to experimental results than those of 1D analysis methods

  14. International Shock-Wave Database: Current Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levashov, Pavel

    2013-06-01

    Shock-wave and related dynamic material response data serve for calibrating, validating, and improving material models over very broad regions of the pressure-temperature-density phase space. Since the middle of the 20th century vast amount of shock-wave experimental information has been obtained. To systemize it a number of compendiums of shock-wave data has been issued by LLNL, LANL (USA), CEA (France), IPCP and VNIIEF (Russia). In mid-90th the drawbacks of the paper handbooks became obvious, so the first version of the online shock-wave database appeared in 1997 (http://www.ficp.ac.ru/rusbank). It includes approximately 20000 experimental points on shock compression, adiabatic expansion, measurements of sound velocity behind the shock front and free-surface-velocity for more than 650 substances. This is still a useful tool for the shock-wave community, but it has a number of serious disadvantages which can't be easily eliminated: (i) very simple data format for points and references; (ii) minimalistic user interface for data addition; (iii) absence of history of changes; (iv) bad feedback from users. The new International Shock-Wave database (ISWdb) is intended to solve these and some other problems. The ISWdb project objectives are: (i) to develop a database on thermodynamic and mechanical properties of materials under conditions of shock-wave and other dynamic loadings, selected related quantities of interest, and the meta-data that describes the provenance of the measurements and material models; and (ii) to make this database available internationally through the Internet, in an interactive form. The development and operation of the ISWdb is guided by an advisory committee. The database will be installed on two mirrored web-servers, one in Russia and the other in USA (currently only one server is available). The database provides access to original experimental data on shock compression, non-shock dynamic loadings, isentropic expansion, measurements of sound

  15. Analysis of a cylindrical imploding shock wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishkin, E.A.; Fujimoto, Y.

    1978-01-01

    the self-similar solution of the gasdynamic equations of a strong cylindrical shock wave moving through an ideal gas, with γ = csub(p)/csub(v), is considered. These equations are greatly simplified following the transformation of the reduced velocity U 1 (xi) → U 1 = 1/2(γ + 1 ) (U + xi). The requirement of a single maximum pressure, dsub(xi)P = 0, leads to an analytical determination of the self-similarity exponent α(γ). For gases with γ = 2 + 3sup(1/2), this maximum ensues right at the shock front and the pressure distribution then decreases monotonically. The postulate of analyticity by Gelfand and Butler is shown to concur with the requirement dsub(xi)P 0. The saturated density of the gas left in the wake of the shock is computed and - U is shown to be the reduced velocity of sound at P = P sub(m). (author)

  16. Shock timing measurements in DT ice layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robey, H. F.; Celliers, P. M.; Moody, J. D.; Sater, J.; Parham, T.; Kozioziemski, B.; Dylla-Spears, R. J.; Ross, J. S.; Lepape, S.; Ralph, J. E.; Berzak Hopkins, L. F.; Kroll, J. J.; Yoxall, B. E.; Hamza, A. V.; Boehly, T. R.; Nikroo, A.; Landen, O. L.; Edwards, M. J.

    2013-10-01

    Shock timing experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) are routinely conducted using the keyhole target geometry, in which the strength and timing of multiple shocks are measured in a liquid-deuterium (D2) filled capsule interior. These targets have recently been modified to improve the surrogacy to ignition implosions by replacing the standard, continuous liquid D2 capsule fill with a deuterium-tritium (DT) ice layer with a central DT gas fill. These experiments remove any possible material surrogacy difference between D2 and DT as well as incorporating the physics of multiple shock release and recompression events from an ice layer of finite thickness, an effect that is absent in the liquid-filled targets. Experimental results and comparisons with numerical simulation are presented. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  17. Uniform shock waves in disordered granular matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Leopoldo R; Turner, Ari M; Vitelli, Vincenzo

    2012-10-01

    The confining pressure P is perhaps the most important parameter controlling the properties of granular matter. Strongly compressed granular media are, in many respects, simple solids in which elastic perturbations travel as ordinary phonons. However, the speed of sound in granular aggregates continuously decreases as the confining pressure decreases, completely vanishing at the jamming-unjamming transition. This anomalous behavior suggests that the transport of energy at low pressures should not be dominated by phonons. In this work we use simulations and theory to show how the response of granular systems becomes increasingly nonlinear as pressure decreases. In the low-pressure regime the elastic energy is found to be mainly transported through nonlinear waves and shocks. We numerically characterize the propagation speed, shape, and stability of these shocks and model the dependence of the shock speed on pressure and impact intensity by a simple analytical approach.

  18. Shock Transmission and Fatigue in Human Running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbitsky, Oleg; Mizrahi, Joseph; Voloshin, Arkady; Treiger, July; Isakov, Eli

    1998-08-01

    The goal of this research was to analyze the effects of fatigue on the shock waves generated by foot strike. Twenty-two subjects were instrumented with an externally attached, lightweight accelerometer placed over the tibial tuberosity. The subjects ran on a treadmill for 30 min at a speed near their anaerobic threshold. Fatigue was established when the end-tidal CO 2 pressure decreased. The results indicated that approximately half of the subjects reached the fatigue state toward the end of the test. Whenever fatigue occurred, the peak acceleration was found to increase. It was thus concluded that there is a clear association between fatigue and increased heel strike-induced shock waves. These results have a significant implication for the etiology of running injuries, since shock wave attenuation has been previously reported to play an important role in preventing such injuries.

  19. Control groups in recent septic shock trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pettilä, Ville; Hjortrup, Peter B; Jakob, Stephan M

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: The interpretation of septic shock trial data is profoundly affected by patients, control intervention, co-interventions and selected outcome measures. We evaluated the reporting of control groups in recent septic shock trials. METHODS: We searched for original articles presenting......, and mortality outcomes, and calculated a data completeness score to provide an overall view of quality of reporting. RESULTS: A total of 24 RCTs were included (mean n = 287 patients and 71 % of eligible patients were randomized). Of the 24 studies, 14 (58 %) presented baseline data on vasopressors and 58...... % the proportion of patients with elevated lactate values. Five studies (21 %) provided data to estimate the proportion of septic shock patients fulfilling the Sepsis-3 definition. The mean data completeness score was 19 out of 36 (range 8-32). Of 18 predefined control group characteristics, a mean of 8 (range 2...

  20. Shock Tube as an Impulsive Application Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumya Ranjan Nanda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Current investigations solely focus on application of an impulse facility in diverse area of high-speed aerodynamics and structural mechanics. Shock tube, the fundamental impulse facility, is specially designed and calibrated for present objectives. Force measurement experiments are performed on a hemispherical test model integrated with the stress wave force balance. Similar test model is considered for heat transfer measurements using coaxial thermocouple. Force and heat transfer experiments demonstrated that the strain gauge and thermocouple have lag time of 11.5 and 9 microseconds, respectively. Response time of these sensors in measuring the peak load is also measured successfully using shock tube facility. As an outcome, these sensors are found to be suitable for impulse testing. Lastly, the response of aluminum plates subjected to impulsive loading is analyzed by measuring the in-plane strain produced during deformation. Thus, possibility of forming tests in shock is also confirmed.