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Sample records for shock accelerated thin

  1. Kinetic Simulations of Particle Acceleration at Shocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caprioli, Damiano [Princeton University; Guo, Fan [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2015-07-16

    Collisionless shocks are mediated by collective electromagnetic interactions and are sources of non-thermal particles and emission. The full particle-in-cell approach and a hybrid approach are sketched, simulations of collisionless shocks are shown using a multicolor presentation. Results for SN 1006, a case involving ion acceleration and B field amplification where the shock is parallel, are shown. Electron acceleration takes place in planetary bow shocks and galaxy clusters. It is concluded that acceleration at shocks can be efficient: >15%; CRs amplify B field via streaming instability; ion DSA is efficient at parallel, strong shocks; ions are injected via reflection and shock drift acceleration; and electron DSA is efficient at oblique shocks.

  2. Hybrid Simulations of Particle Acceleration at Shocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caprioli, Damiano

    2014-11-15

    We present the results of large hybrid (kinetic ions – fluid electrons) simulations of particle acceleration at non-relativistic collisionless shocks. Ion acceleration efficiency and magnetic field amplification are investigated in detail as a function of shock inclination and strength, and compared with predictions of diffusive shock acceleration theory, for shocks with Mach number up to 100. Moreover, we discuss the relative importance of resonant and Bell's instability in the shock precursor, and show that diffusion in the self-generated turbulence can be effectively parametrized as Bohm diffusion in the amplified magnetic field.

  3. Electromagnetic Structure and Electron Acceleration in Shock-Shock Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanotani, Masaru; Matsukiyo, Shuichi; Hada, Tohru; Mazelle, Christian X.

    2017-09-01

    A shock-shock interaction is investigated by using a one-dimensional full particle-in-cell simulation. The simulation reproduces the collision of two symmetrical high Mach number quasi-perpendicular shocks. The basic structure of the shocks and ion dynamics is similar to that obtained by previous hybrid simulations. The new aspects obtained here are as follows. Electrons are already strongly accelerated before the two shocks collide through multiple reflection. The reflected electrons self-generate waves upstream between the two shocks before they collide. The waves far upstream are generated through the right-hand resonant instability with the anomalous Doppler effect. The waves generated near the shock are due to firehose instability and have much larger amplitudes than those due to the resonant instability. The high-energy electrons are efficiently scattered by the waves so that some of them gain large pitch angles. Those electrons can be easily reflected at the shock of the other side. The accelerated electrons form a power-law energy spectrum. Due to the accelerated electrons, the pressure of upstream electrons increases with time. This appears to cause the deceleration of the approaching shock speed. The accelerated electrons having sufficiently large Larmor radii are further accelerated through the similar mechanism working for ions when the two shocks are colliding.

  4. Short Acceleration Times from Superdiffusive Shock Acceleration in the Heliosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perri, S.; Zimbardo, G.

    2015-12-01

    The analysis of time profiles of particles accelerated at interplanetary shocks allows particle transport properties to be inferred. The frequently observed power-law decay upstream, indeed, implies a superdiffusive particle transport when the level of magnetic field variance does not change as the time interval from the shock front increases. In this context, a superdiffusive shock acceleration (SSA) theory has been developed, allowing us to make predictions of the acceleration times. In this work we estimate for a number of interplanetary shocks, including the solar wind termination shock, the acceleration times for energetic protons in the framework of SSA and we compare the results with the acceleration times predicted by standard diffusive shock acceleration. The acceleration times due to SSA are found to be much shorter than in the classical model, and also shorter than the interplanetary shock lifetimes. This decrease of the acceleration times is due to the scale-free nature of the particle displacements in the framework of superdiffusion. Indeed, very long displacements are possible, increasing the probability for particles far from the front of the shock to return, and short displacements have a high probability of occurrence, increasing the chances for particles close to the front to cross the shock many times.

  5. heavy ion acceleration at shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchenko, V. I.; Galinsky, V.

    2009-12-01

    The theoretical study of alpha particle acceleration at a quasi-parallel shock due to interaction with Alfven waves self-consistently excited in both upstream and downstream regions was conducted using a scale-separation model [1]. The model uses conservation laws and resonance conditions to find where waves will be generated or dumped and hence particles will be pitch--angle scattered as well as the change of the wave energy due to instability or damping. It includes in consideration the total distribution function (the bulk plasma and high energy tail), so no any assumptions (e.g. seed populations, or some ad-hoc escape rate of accelerated particles) are required. In previous studies heavy ions were treated as perfect test particles, they only experienced the Alfven turbulence excited by protons and didn’t contribute to turbulence generation. In contrast to this approach, we consider the ion scattering on hydromagnetic turbulence generated by both protons and ions themselves. It is important for alpha particles with their relatively large mass-loading parameter that defines efficiency of the wave excitation by alpha particles. The energy spectra of alpha particles is found and compared with those obtained in test particle approximation. [1] Galinsky, V.L., and V.I. Shevchenko, Astrophys. J., 669, L109, 2007.

  6. Particle drift, diffusion, and acceleration at shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokipii, J. R.

    1982-01-01

    The gradient and curvature drifts implicit in change of the ambient magnetic field at a hydromagnetic shock wave are incorporated into the diffusive theory of shock acceleration of charged particles. The conventional jump condition at the shock is modified by a term incorporating the large drift along the shock plane. This term vanished identically for one-dimensional systems, but must be included in general for shocks which are finite in transverse extent or which have transverse structure. It is found that the effect of the drift is such that the transverse drift rate is proportional to the acceleration rate, and for perpendicular shocks is exactly equal to the rate of change of energy in the V x B electric field observed in the shock frame. This establishes a connection with the 'shock drift' models which neglect diffusion.

  7. Radiation from Shock-Accelerated Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, Ken-ichi; Choi, E. J.; Min, K. W.; Niemiec, J.; Zhang, B.; Hardee, P.; Mizuno, Y.; Medvedev, M.; Nordlund, A.; Frederiksen, J.; hide

    2012-01-01

    Plasma instabilities excited in collisionless shocks are responsible for particle acceleration, generation of magnetic fields , and associated radiation. We have investigated the particle acceleration and shock structure associated with an unmagnetized relativistic jet propagating into an unmagnetized plasma. Cold jet electrons are thermalized and slowed while the ambient electrons are swept up to create a partially developed hydrodynamic-like shock structure. The shock structure depends on the composition of the jet and ambient plasma (electron-positron or electron-ions). Strong electromagnetic fields are generated in the reverse , jet shock and provide an emission site. These magnetic fields contribute to the electron's transverse deflection behind the shock. We have calculated, self-consistently, the radiation from electrons accelerated in the turbulent magnetic fields. We found that the synthetic spectra depend on the Lorentz factor of the jet, its thermal temperature and strength of the generated magnetic fields. The detailed properties of the radiation are important for understanding the complex time evolution and/or spectral structure in gamma-ray bursts, relativistic jet shocks, and supernova remnants

  8. Acceleration dynamics of ions in shocks and solitary waves driven by intense laser pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Min-Qing; Dong, Quan-Li; Sheng, Zheng-Ming; Weng, Su-Ming; Chen, Min; Wu, Hui-Chun; Zhang, Jie

    2007-09-01

    The acceleration of ions in collisionless electrostatic shocks and solitary waves, driven by ultrashort intense laser pulses in a thin solid target under different conditions, is investigated theoretically. When a shock is formed, ions with certain initial velocities inside the target can be accelerated by the electrostatic field at the shock front to twice the shock speed. When a solitary wave is formed, only ions located at the rear surface of the target can be accelerated by the solitary wave together with the sheath field formed there.

  9. Cosmic Rays Accelerated at Cosmological Shock Waves

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Based on hydrodynamic numerical simulations and diffusive shock acceleration model, we calculated the ratio of cosmic ray (CR) to thermal energy. We found that the CR fraction can be less than ∼ 0.1 in the intracluster medium, while it would be of order unity in the warm-hot intergalactic medium.

  10. Electrostatic Energy Exchange in Shock Acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barchas, Joseph A.

    Plasma shocks are very common occurrences, and diffusive shock acceleration is a simple and efficient mechanism for generating cosmic rays. A shock's main effect is turbulent dissipation, which rapidly thermalizes the downstream plasma. Diffusive shock acceleration produces a non-thermal component to the particle distributions (quasi-power-law tails) which translates to non-thermal photon spectra, as seen in supernova remnants, jets in active galactic nuclei, and gamma-ray bursts. In supernova remnants, X-ray observations show that inferred proton temperatures are considerably cooler than standard shock heating predicts. A cross-shock electrostatic potential, akin to a double layer, is reasoned to exist in certain conditions due to the different inertial gyration scales of the plasma species. It provides a mechanism for energy exchange between species, and should result in a respective heating/cooling of the electrons/ions. It modifies the electron/ion distributions, which couple through radiative processes to the observed X-ray emission. In this thesis, the effects of cross-shock electrostatics are explored using a Monte Carlo simulation, where test particles gyrate and stochastically diffuse in a background fluid pre-defined by MHD jump conditions.A cross-shock electric field is derived from the steady-state spatial distribution of particles via a modified Poisson's equation that includes Debye screening, and the simulation is rerun with this field superimposed on the background magnetic and drift electric fields. This feedback loop continues until a self-consistent solution is obtained. Results show a significant departure of the particle distributions from the usual thermal+power-law form, and clearly demonstrates substantial energy exchange between the electron and ion populations.

  11. Solitary versus Shock Wave Acceleration in Laser-Plasma Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Macchi, Andrea; Nindrayog, Amritpal Singh; Pegoraro, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    The excitation of nonlinear electrostatic waves, such as shock and solitons, by ultraintense laser interaction with overdense plasmas and related ion acceleration are investigated by numerical simulations. Stability of solitons and formation of shock waves is strongly dependent on the velocity distribution of ions. Monoenergetic components in ion spectra are produced by "pulsed" reflection from solitary waves. Possible relevance to recent experiments on "shock acceleration" is discussed.

  12. Solitary versus shock wave acceleration in laser-plasma interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macchi, Andrea; Nindrayog, Amritpal Singh; Pegoraro, Francesco

    2012-04-01

    The excitation of nonlinear electrostatic waves, such as shock and solitons, by ultraintense laser interaction with overdense plasmas and related ion acceleration are investigated by numerical simulations. Stability of solitons and formation of shock waves is strongly dependent on the velocity distribution of ions. Monoenergetic components in ion spectra are produced by "pulsed" reflection from solitary waves. Possible relevance to recent experiments on "shock acceleration" is discussed.

  13. Heavy ion acceleration at parallel shocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. L. Galinsky

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A study of alpha particle acceleration at parallel shock due to an interaction with Alfvén waves self-consistently excited in both upstream and downstream regions was conducted using a scale-separation model (Galinsky and Shevchenko, 2000, 2007. The model uses conservation laws and resonance conditions to find where waves will be generated or damped and hence where particles will be pitch-angle scattered. It considers the total distribution function (for the bulk plasma and high energy tail, so no standard assumptions (e.g. seed populations, or some ad-hoc escape rate of accelerated particles are required. The heavy ion scattering on hydromagnetic turbulence generated by both protons and ions themselves is considered. The contribution of alpha particles to turbulence generation is important because of their relatively large mass-loading parameter Pα=nαmα/npmp (mp, np and mα, nα are proton and alpha particle mass and density that defines efficiency of wave excitation. The energy spectra of alpha particles are found and compared with those obtained in test particle approximation.

  14. Spectral features of the diffusive shock acceleration of electrons at the termination shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinsloo, Phillip; Toit Strauss, Du; Potgieter, Marius

    2016-07-01

    Following the revelation that the source of the anomalous cosmic rays was, contrary to expectation, not located at the termination shock, the diffusive shock acceleration mechanism came under increased criticism. With regards to galactic cosmic rays, however, its involvement in their re-acceleration is less disputed, but the extent of this involvement had to be reaffirmed given the new parameter constraints provided by the Voyager spacecraft. Hence, the features of diffusive shock acceleration, studied in the context of the transport of galactic electrons, are investigated using a numerical cosmic-ray modulation model that makes provision for the effects of this acceleration mechanism. The imprint of diffusive shock acceleration on the energy distributions of galactic electrons arriving at the termination shock is studied, along with the interplay between this acceleration mechanism and transport processes such as drift and diffusion. An important overarching set of results is that if the energy distribution of electrons incident at the termination shock is softer than the power law associated with the shock compression ratio, the latter is adopted by the accelerated particles, while if the converse is true, the incident distribution's intensity is raised uniformly. This intensity increase is in turn dependent on how similar the incident spectrum is to the power law associated with the compression ratio. The influence of other transport processes on cosmic-ray re-acceleration hence hinges on how they alter energy distributions incident at the termination shock.

  15. On the maximum energy of shock-accelerated cosmic rays at ultra-relativistic shocks

    OpenAIRE

    Reville, B; Bell, A R

    2014-01-01

    The maximum energy to which cosmic rays can be accelerated at weakly-magnetised ultra-relativistic shocks is investigated. We demonstrate that for such shocks, in which the scattering of energetic particles is mediated exclusively by ion skin-depth scale structures, as might be expected for a Weibel-mediated shock, there is an intrinsic limit on the maximum energy to which particles can be accelerated. This maximum energy is determined from the requirement that particles must be isotropised i...

  16. Radiation from Accelerated Particles in Shocks and Reconnections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, K. I.; Choi, E. J.; Min, K. W.; Niemiec, J.; Zhang, B.; Hardee, P.; Mizuno, Y.; Medvedev, M.; Nordlund, A.; Frederiksen, J.; hide

    2012-01-01

    Plasma instabilities are responsible not only for the onset and mediation of collisionless shocks but also for the associated acceleration of particles. We have investigated particle acceleration and shock structure associated with an unmagnetized relativistic electron-positron jet propagating into an unmagnetized electron-positron plasma. Cold jet electrons are thermalized and slowed while the ambient electrons are swept up to create a partially developed hydrodynamic-like shock structure. In the leading shock, electron density increases by a factor of about 3.5 in the simulation frame. Strong electromagnetic fields are generated in the trailing shock and provide an emission site. These magnetic fields contribute to the electrons transverse deflection and, more generally, relativistic acceleration behind the shock. We have calculated, self-consistently, the radiation from electrons accelerated in the turbulent magnetic fields. We found that the synthetic spectra depend on the Lorentz factor of the jet, its thermal temperature and strength of the generated magnetic fields. Our initial results of a jet-ambient interaction with anti-parallelmagnetic fields show pile-up of magnetic fields at the colliding shock, which may lead to reconnection and associated particle acceleration. We will investigate the radiation in a transient stage as a possible generation mechanism of precursors of prompt emission. In our simulations we calculate the radiation from electrons in the shock region. The detailed properties of this radiation are important for understanding the complex time evolution and spectral structure in gamma-ray bursts, relativistic jets, and supernova remnants.

  17. Collisionless shocks in space plasmas structure and accelerated particles

    CERN Document Server

    Burgess, David

    2015-01-01

    Shock waves are an important feature of solar system plasmas, from the solar corona out to the edge of the heliosphere. This engaging introduction to collisionless shocks in space plasmas presents a comprehensive review of the physics governing different types of shocks and processes of particle acceleration, from fundamental principles to current research. Motivated by observations of planetary bow shocks, interplanetary shocks and the solar wind termination shock, it emphasises the physical theory underlying these shock waves. Readers will develop an understanding of the complex interplay between particle dynamics and the electric and magnetic fields that explains the observations of in situ spacecraft. Written by renowned experts in the field, this up-to-date text is the ideal companion for both graduate students new to heliospheric physics and researchers in astrophysics who wish to apply the lessons of solar system shocks to different astrophysical environments.

  18. Shock Acceleration Model with Postshock Turbulence for Giant Radio Relics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyesung

    2017-08-01

    We explore the shock acceleration model for giant radio relics, in which relativistic electrons are accelerated via diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) by merger-driven shocks in the outskirts of galaxy clusters. In addition to DSA, turbulent acceleration by compressive MHD modes downstream of the shock are included as well as energy losses of postshock electrons due to Coulomb scattering, synchrotron emission, and inverse Compton scattering off the cosmic background radiation. Considering that only a small fraction of merging clusters host radio relics, we favor a reacceleration scenario in which radio relics are generated preferentially by shocks encountering the regions containing low-energy (γ_{e} ≲ 300) cosmic ray electrons (CRe). We perform time-dependent DSA simulations of spherically expanding shocks with physical parameters relevant for the Sausage radio relic, and calculate the radio synchrotron emission from the accelerated CRe. We find that significant level of postshock turbulent acceleration is required in order to reproduce broad profiles of the observed radio flux densities of the Sausage relic. Moreover, the spectral curvature in the observed integrated radio spectrum can be explained, if the putative shock should have swept up and exited out of the preshock region of fossil CRe about 10 Myr ago.

  19. Acceleration time scale for the first-order Fermi acceleration in relativistic shock waves

    OpenAIRE

    Bednarz, J.; Ostrowski, M.

    1996-01-01

    The acceleration time scale for the process of first-order Fermi acceleration in relativistic shock waves with oblique magnetic field configurations is investigated by the method of Monte Carlo particle simulations. We demonstrate the presence of correlation between the particle energy gain at interaction with the shock and the respective time elapsed since the previous interaction. Because of that any derivation of the acceleration time scale can not use the distribution of energy gains and ...

  20. Diffusive shock acceleration - Acceleration rate, magnetic-field direction and the diffusion limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokipii, J. R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reviews the concept of diffusive shock acceleration, showing that the acceleration of charged particles at a collisionless shock is a straightforward consequence of the standard cosmic-ray transport equation, provided that one treats the discontinuity at the shock correctly. This is true for arbitrary direction of the upstream magnetic field. Within this framework, it is shown that acceleration at perpendicular or quasi-perpendicular shocks is generally much faster than for parallel shocks. Paradoxically, it follows also that, for a simple scattering law, the acceleration is faster for less scattering or larger mean free path. Obviously, the mean free path can not become too large or the diffusion limit becomes inapplicable. Gradient and curvature drifts caused by the magnetic-field change at the shock play a major role in the acceleration process in most cases. Recent observations of the charge state of the anomalous component are shown to require the faster acceleration at the quasi-perpendicular solar-wind termination shock.

  1. Particle Acceleration at Shocks: Insights from Supernova Remnant ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    transition (roughly the postshock sound speed in a strong shock). ... 2001; Bell 2004). The amplification may, in fact, be fast and strong enough to enhance the effective magnetic field by one or more orders of magnitude over the upstream ... spectrum at the so-called 'knee', and also to account for thin X-ray synchrotron rims.

  2. Shock compression response of highly reactive Ni + Al multilayered thin foils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Sean C.; Thadhani, Naresh N.

    2016-03-01

    The shock-compression response of Ni + Al multilayered thin foils is investigated using laser-accelerated thin-foil plate-impact experiments over the pressure range of 2 to 11 GPa. The foils contain alternating Ni and Al layers (parallel but not flat) of nominally 50 nm bilayer spacing. The goal is to determine the equation of state and shock-induced reactivity of these highly reactive fully dense thin-foil materials. The laser-accelerated thin-foil impact set-up involved combined use of photon-doppler-velocimetry to monitor the acceleration and impact velocity of an aluminum flyer, and VISAR interferometry was used to monitor the back free-surface velocity of the impacted Ni + Al multilayered target. The shock-compression response of the Ni + Al target foils was determined using experimentally measured parameters and impedance matching approach, with error bars identified considering systematic and experimental errors. Meso-scale CTH shock simulations were performed using real imported microstructures of the cross-sections of the multilayered Ni + Al foils to compute the Hugoniot response (assuming no reaction) for correlation with their experimentally determined equation of state. It was observed that at particle velocities below ˜150 m/s, the experimentally determined equation of state trend matches the CTH-predicted inert response and is consistent with the observed unreacted state of the recovered Ni + Al target foils from this velocity regime. At higher particle velocities, the experimentally determined equation of state deviates from the CTH-predicted inert response. A complete and self-sustained reaction is also seen in targets recovered from experiments performed at these higher particle velocities. The deviation in the measured equation of state, to higher shock speeds and expanded volumes, combined with the observation of complete reaction in the recovered multilayered foils, confirmed via microstructure characterization, is indicative of the occurrence

  3. Cosmic Rays Accelerated at Cosmological Shock Waves Renyi Ma1 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Based on hydrodynamic numerical simulations and diffusive shock acceleration model, we calculated the ratio of cosmic ray (CR) to thermal energy. We found that the CR fraction can be less than ∼ 0.1 in the intracluster medium, while it would be of order unity in the warm-hot intergalactic medium. Key words.

  4. On the acceleration of charged particles at relativistic shock fronts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, J. G.; Schneider, P.

    1987-01-01

    The diffusive acceleration of highly relativistic particles at a shock is reconsidered. Using the same physical assumptions as Blandford and Ostriker (1978), but dropping the restriction to nonrelativistic shock velocities, the authors find approximate solutions of the particle kinetic equation by generalizing the diffusion approximation to higher order terms in the anisotropy of the particle distribution. The general solution of the transport equation on either side of the shock is constructed, which involves the solution of an eigenvalue problem. By matching the two solutions at the shock, the spectral index of the resulting power law is found by taking into account a sufficiently large number of eigenfunctions. Low-order truncation corresponds to the standard diffusion approximation and to a somewhat more general method described by Peacock (1981). In addition to the energy spectrum, the method yields the angular distribution of the particles and its spatial dependence.

  5. Experimental and numerical investigation of reactive shock-accelerated flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonazza, Riccardo [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Engineering Physics

    2016-12-20

    The main goal of this program was to establish a qualitative and quantitative connection, based on the appropriate dimensionless parameters and scaling laws, between shock-induced distortion of astrophysical plasma density clumps and their earthbound analog in a shock tube. These objectives were pursued by carrying out laboratory experiments and numerical simulations to study the evolution of two gas bubbles accelerated by planar shock waves and compare the results to available astrophysical observations. The experiments were carried out in an vertical, downward-firing shock tube, 9.2 m long, with square internal cross section (25×25 cm2). Specific goals were to quantify the effect of the shock strength (Mach number, M) and the density contrast between the bubble gas and its surroundings (usually quantified by the Atwood number, i.e. the dimensionless density difference between the two gases) upon some of the most important flow features (e.g. macroscopic properties; turbulence and mixing rates). The computational component of the work performed through this program was aimed at (a) studying the physics of multi-phase compressible flows in the context of astrophysics plasmas and (b) providing a computational connection between laboratory experiments and the astrophysical application of shock-bubble interactions. Throughout the study, we used the FLASH4.2 code to run hydrodynamical and magnetohydrodynamical simulations of shock bubble interactions on an adaptive mesh.

  6. Shock Veins as Recorders of Shock Pressures in Chondrites: Pressure Histories from Thin vs. Thick Veins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Z.; Sharp, T.; Decarli, P.

    2004-12-01

    High-pressure minerals are generally found within or adjacent to shock-induced melt veins and melt pockets in highly shocked chondrites. The minerals that crystallize in the melt veins and pockets and the distribution of these minerals provide a record of crystallization and quench histories that can be used to constrain shock pressure and pulse duration. Most previous investigations have focused on relatively thick veins (>100 μ m in width) because they tend to contain high-pressure minerals that are observable using petrography or scanning electron microscopy. However, the mineralogy of thin shock veins can provide additional constraints on the pressure history of shocked meteorites. Because shock veins cool predominantly by conduction to the surrounding matrix, rather than by adiabatic decompression, the timing of shock-vein crystallization depends strongly on vein thickness and position within the veins. Therefore, the thinnest melt veins, which solidify within tens of nanoseconds after melting, provide a brief crystallization history at the time of formation whereas thicker veins provide a longer history that may reflect crystallization during decompression. If thin veins form during compression or early in the shock pulse, they will likely record the equilibrium shock pressure or the peak pressure. The goal of this study is to characterize the mineralogy of thin melt veins and to compare the results to those of thicker veins in the same samples. We have investigated three L chondrites that contain a wide range of melt vein sizes. These include Tenham (several μ m to 600 μ m in width), Roy (10 μ m to 150 μ m in width) and Umbarger (35 μ m to 300 μ m in width). Thick veins in these samples have been previously investigated using FESEM and TEM, resulting in crystallization pressures of approximately 25, 20 and 18 GPa for Tenham, Roy and Umbarger, respectively. Thin veins from these samples were investigated using TEM. Three thin veins in Tenham show three

  7. Electron acceleration at nearly perpendicular collisionless shocks. 3: Downstream distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss-Varban, D.

    1994-01-01

    Spacecraft observations at the Earth's bow shock and at interplanetary shocks have established that the largest fluxes of accelerated suprathermal electrons occur in so-called shock spike events immediately downstream of the shock ramp. Previous theoretical efforts have mainly focused on explaining upstream energetic electron beams. Here we investigate the general motion and acceleration of energetic electrons in a curved, nearly perpendicular shock by numerically integrating the orbits of solar wind halo electrons in shock fields generated by a hybrid simulation (core electron fluid and kinetic ions). Close to the angle Theta(sub Bn) = 90 degs between the upstream magnetic field and shock normal, the calculations result in a (perpendicular) temperature increase proportional to the magnetic field ratio and give the highest phase space densities in the overshoot. For a steep distribution, the temperature change can correspond to an enhancement of the distribution by several orders of magnitude. These results are in agreement with predictions from adiabatic mapping. With smaller angles Theta(sub Bn), the overshoot and downstream densities fall off quickly, because the adiabatic energy gain is less and fewer electrons transmit. The shock curvature also leads to an accumulation of electrons close to 90 degs. Without pitch angle scattering, energization is only significant within a few (approximately 5 to 10 degs) degrees of the point of tangency. However, shock spike events appear to be observed more easily and farther away from 90 degs. Given that over a region of several degrees around 90 degs the theory gives enhancements of up to approximately 4 orders of magnitude, such electrons could in principle account for the typically observed enhancements of 1 to 2 orders of magnitude, if they were distributed over Theta(sub Bn). To test the idea that scattering could efficiently redistribute the energetic electrons, we have conducted test particle simulations in which

  8. Cosmic rays and diffusive shock acceleration at highly oblique non-relativistic shocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meli, Athina [Max Planck Institute fuer Radioastronomie, Bonn (Germany); Biermann, L. Peter [Max Planck Institute fuer Radioastronomie, Bonn (Germany); Department of Physcis and Astronomy, University of Bonn (Germany)

    2006-01-15

    Our purpose is to evaluate the rate of the maximum energy and the acceleration rate that cosmic rays acquire in the non-relativistic diffusive shock acceleration as it could apply during their lifetime in various astrophysical sites, where highly oblique shocks exist. We examine numerically (using Monte Carlo simulations) the effect of the diffusion coefficients on the energy gain and the acceleration rate, by testing the role between the obliquity of the magnetic field at the shock normal, and the significance of both perpendicular cross-field diffusion and parallel diffusion coefficients to the acceleration rate. We find (and justify previous analytical work - Jokipii 1987) that in highly oblique shocks the smaller the perpendicular diffusion gets compared to the parallel diffusion coefficient values, the greater the energy gain of the cosmic rays to be obtained. An explanation of the cosmic ray spectrum at high energies, between 10{sup 15}eV and about 10{sup 18}eV is claimed, as we estimate the upper limit of energy that cosmic rays could gain in plausible astrophysical regimes; interpreted by the scenario of cosmic rays which are injected by three different kind of sources (a) supernovae which explode into the interstellar medium (b) Red Supergiants, and (c) Wolf-Rayet stars, where the two latter explode into their pre-supernovae winds.

  9. Bipolar supernova remnants and the obliquity dependence of shock acceleration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fulbright, M.S.; Reynolds, S.P. (North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh (USA))

    1990-07-01

    The diffusive shock acceleration mechanism proposed to explain the bipolarity observed in the synchrotron radio emission of young adiabatically expanding shell SNRs is investigated by means of numerical simulations. The theoretical basis of the SNR models and the numerical computation methods are explained, and the results are presented in graphs and synthetic radio maps and discussed in detail. It is found that the efficiency of the acceleration process depends on the obliquity angle theta(Bn) between the shock normal and the uniform magnetic field: models with theta(Bn) of about 90 deg can reproduce the observed azimuthal intensity ratios in most cases, but models with theta(Bn) near 0 deg cannot. 32 refs.

  10. Bipolar supernova remnants and the obliquity dependence of shock acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulbright, Michael S.; Reynolds, Stephen P.

    1990-01-01

    The diffusive shock acceleration mechanism proposed to explain the bipolarity observed in the synchrotron radio emission of young adiabatically expanding shell SNRs is investigated by means of numerical simulations. The theoretical basis of the SNR models and the numerical computation methods are explained, and the results are presented in graphs and synthetic radio maps and discussed in detail. It is found that the efficiency of the acceleration process depends on the obliquity angle theta(Bn) between the shock normal and the uniform magnetic field: models with theta(Bn) of about 90 deg can reproduce the observed azimuthal intensity ratios in most cases, but models with theta(Bn) near 0 deg cannot.

  11. Stochastic particle acceleration at parallel astrophysical shock waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlickeiser, R.; Campeanu, A.; Lerche, L.

    1993-09-01

    We present exact analytical solutions to the full cosmic ray transport equation describing the diffusive acceleration of cosmic ray protons at parallel nonrelativistic shock waves including momentum diffusion in the downstream region of the shock. The downstream region is of finite extent to avoid the unphysical situation of background waves acting as an infinite source of energy. The spatial diffusion coefficient of particles is assumed to be independent of particle energy. The solutions allow for (i) any momentum dependence of the particle injection at the shock, (ii) any spatial dependence of the upstream spatial diffusion coefficient, and (iii) any spatial dependence of the downstream spatial diffusion coefficient. We assume that the incoming waves upstream are right- and left-handed circularly polarised backward moving Alfvén waves, as suggested by the streaming instability of the upstream precursor cosmic ray distribution. Interaction of these waves with the fast super-Alfvénic adiabatic shock makes momentum diffusion in the downstream region unavoidable. The downstream solution is an infinite sum of power laws whose spectral indices follow from a transcendental eigenvalue equation. Each individual power law component is weighted by expansion coefficients that depend on the actual downstream position. Quite generally the shape of the downstream distribution function is concavely curved, but approaches a single power law at large momenta. In the formal limit of vanishing momentum diffusion and infinite extent of the downstream region our general solution approaches the classical result of Axford et al. (1977), Krymsky (1977), Bell (1978), and Blandford & Ostriker (1978). For efficient momentum diffusion of particles in the downstream region of the shock, the particle spectra become flatter than in the original treatment of diffusive shock acceleration, thereby removing some of the noted discrepancies of the original theory with the explanation of fiat

  12. Constraints on shock acceleration physics from the Chandra Large Project observations of SN 1006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Stephen; Katsuda, Satoru; Petre, Robert; Long, Knox S.; Winkler, P. Frank; Ressler, Sean; Williams, Brian

    The remnant of the supernova of 1006 C.E., the brightest historical supernova ever recorded, has provided a laboratory for the study of shock acceleration since the discovery and modeling of nonthermal X-rays over 30 years ago. It has now been observed with the Chandra X-ray Observatory for a total of over 1 Ms, including a full mapping of the remnant in 2012. Chandra's sub-arcsecond angular resolution has allowed detailed study of expansion proper motions, constraints on upstream precursor emission, and ``thin-rim" filamentary morphology at the remnant edges and its energy-dependence, among other properties. I shall summarize the observational data and their consequences for our understanding of the nature of fast shock waves and particle acceleration. The absence of clear upstream ``halo" emission requires that the shock precursor be very narrow, in turn implying amplification of magnetic field in the precursor. Rim thicknesses shrink rapidly with energy, confirming strong post-shock magnetic-field amplification and demanding surprisingly small diffusion coefficients downstream.

  13. Shock-drift particle acceleration in superluminal shocks - A model for hot spots in extragalactic radio sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begelman, Mitchell C.; Kirk, John G.

    1990-01-01

    Shock-drift acceleration at relativistic shock fronts is investigated using a fully relativistic treatment of both the microphysics of the shock-drift acceleration and the macrophysics of the shock front. By explicitly tracing particle trajectories across shocks, it is shown how the adiabatic invariance of a particle's magnetic moment breaks down as the upstream shock speed becomes relativistic, and is recovered at subrelativistic velocities. These calculations enable the mean increase in energy of a particle which encounters the shock with a given pitch angle to be calculated. The results are used to construct the downstream electron distribution function in terms of the incident distribution function and the bulk properties of the shock. The synchrotron emissivity of the transmitted distribution is calculated, and it is demonstrated that amplification factors are easily obtained which are more than adequate to explain the observed constrasts in surface brightness between jets and hot spots.

  14. Shock-drift particle acceleration in superluminal shocks - A model for hot spots in extragalactic radio sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Begelman, M.C.; Kirk, J.G. (Joint Institute for Laboratory Astrophysics, Boulder, CO (USA) Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, Garching (Germany, F.R.))

    1990-04-01

    Shock-drift acceleration at relativistic shock fronts is investigated using a fully relativistic treatment of both the microphysics of the shock-drift acceleration and the macrophysics of the shock front. By explicitly tracing particle trajectories across shocks, it is shown how the adiabatic invariance of a particle's magnetic moment breaks down as the upstream shock speed becomes relativistic, and is recovered at subrelativistic velocities. These calculations enable the mean increase in energy of a particle which encounters the shock with a given pitch angle to be calculated. The results are used to construct the downstream electron distribution function in terms of the incident distribution function and the bulk properties of the shock. The synchrotron emissivity of the transmitted distribution is calculated, and it is demonstrated that amplification factors are easily obtained which are more than adequate to explain the observed constrasts in surface brightness between jets and hot spots. 72 refs.

  15. Influence of shock waves on laser-driven proton acceleration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundh, O; Lindau, F; Persson, A; Wahlström, C-G; McKenna, P; Batani, D

    2007-08-01

    The influence of shock waves, driven by amplified spontaneous emission (ASE), on laser-accelerated proton beams is investigated. A local deformation, produced by a cold shock wave launched by the ablation pressure of the ASE pedestal, can under oblique laser irradiation significantly direct the proton beam toward the laser axis. This can be understood in the frame of target normal sheath acceleration as proton emission from an area of the target where the local target normal is shifted toward the laser axis. Hydrodynamic simulations and experimental data show that there exists a window in laser and target parameter space where the target can be significantly deformed and yet facilitate efficient proton acceleration. The dependence of the magnitude of the deflection on target material, foil thickness, and ASE pedestal intensity and duration is experimentally investigated. The deflection angle is found to increase with increasing ASE intensity and duration and decrease with increasing target thickness. In a comparison between aluminum and copper target foils, aluminum is found to yield a larger proton beam deflection. An analytic model is successfully used to predict the proton emission direction.

  16. The Advanced Composition Explorer Shock Database and Application to Particle Acceleration Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, L. Neergaard; Zank, G. P.

    2015-01-01

    The theory of particle acceleration via diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) has been studied in depth by Gosling et al. (1981), van Nes et al. (1984), Mason (2000), Desai et al. (2003), Zank et al. (2006), among many others. Recently, Parker and Zank (2012, 2014) and Parker et al. (2014) using the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) shock database at 1 AU explored two questions: does the upstream distribution alone have enough particles to account for the accelerated downstream distribution and can the slope of the downstream accelerated spectrum be explained using DSA? As was shown in this research, diffusive shock acceleration can account for a large population of the shocks. However, Parker and Zank (2012, 2014) and Parker et al. (2014) used a subset of the larger ACE database. Recently, work has successfully been completed that allows for the entire ACE database to be considered in a larger statistical analysis. We explain DSA as it applies to single and multiple shocks and the shock criteria used in this statistical analysis. We calculate the expected injection energy via diffusive shock acceleration given upstream parameters defined from the ACE Solar Wind Electron, Proton, and Alpha Monitor (SWEPAM) data to construct the theoretical upstream distribution. We show the comparison of shock strength derived from diffusive shock acceleration theory to observations in the 50 keV to 5 MeV range from an instrument on ACE. Parameters such as shock velocity, shock obliquity, particle number, and time between shocks are considered. This study is further divided into single and multiple shock categories, with an additional emphasis on forward-forward multiple shock pairs. Finally with regard to forward-forward shock pairs, results comparing injection energies of the first shock, second shock, and second shock with previous energetic population will be given.

  17. Experimental particle acceleration by water evaporation induced by shock waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scolamacchia, T.; Alatorre Ibarguengoitia, M.; Scheu, B.; Dingwell, D. B.; Cimarelli, C.

    2010-12-01

    Shock waves are commonly generated during volcanic eruptions. They induce sudden changes in pressure and temperature causing phase changes. Nevertheless, their effects on flowfield properties are not well understood. Here we investigate the role of gas expansion generated by shock wave propagation in the acceleration of ash particles. We used a shock tube facility consisting of a high-pressure (HP) steel autoclave (450 mm long, 28 mm in internal diameter), pressurized with Ar gas, and a low-pressure tank at atmospheric conditions (LP). A copper diaphragm separated the HP autoclave from a 180 mm tube (PVC or acrylic glass) at ambient P, with the same internal diameter of the HP reservoir. Around the tube, a 30 cm-high acrylic glass cylinder, with the same section of the LP tank (40 cm), allowed the observation of the processes occurring downstream from the nozzle throat, and was large enough to act as an unconfined volume in which the initial diffracting shock and gas jet expand. All experiments were performed at Pres/Pamb ratios of 150:1. Two ambient conditions were used: dry air and air saturated with steam. Carbon fibers and glass spheres in a size range between 150 and 210 μm, were placed on a metal wire at the exit of the PVC tube. The sudden decompression of the Ar gas, due to the failure of the diaphragm, generated an initial air shock wave. A high-speed camera recorded the processes between the first 100 μsec and several ms after the diaphragm failure at frame rates ranging between 30,000 and 50,000 fps. In the experiments with ambient air saturated with steam, the high-speed camera allowed to visualize the condensation front associated with the initial air shock; a maximum velocity of 788 m/s was recorded, which decreases to 524 m/s at distance of 0.5 ±0.2 cm, 1.1 ms after the diaphragm rupture. The condensation front preceded the Ar jet front exhausting from the reservoir, by 0.2-0.5 ms. In all experiments particles velocities following the initial

  18. Energetic particle acceleration in spherically symmetric accretion flows and shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, G. M.; Bogdan, T. J.

    1987-01-01

    Steady state, spherically symmetric solutions of the cosmic-ray transport equation describing the acceleration of energetic particles in galactic accretion flows onto neutron stars, black holes, white dwarfs, and protostars are studied. The results indicate that astrophysical accretion flows can be partitioned into distinct classes depending upon whether the accretion rate lies above or below a critical value of a few times 10 to the -7th stellar masses/yr. When the particle transport is convection-dominated, both classes of accretion flows exhibit a spectral index appropriate for first-order Fermi acceleration at a plane shock in the absence of losses. As the particle transport becomes diffusion-dominated, both classes show a break and precipitous falloff in the particle spectrum due to the escape of these particles from the accretion flow. The precise nature of the spectrum depends on the relationship between the particle momentum and the spatial diffusion coefficient.

  19. Laser Ion Acceleration from Shock Wave Generated Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helle, Michael; Gordon, Daniel; Kaganovich, Dmitri; Ting, Antonio

    2012-10-01

    Efficient acceleration of ions by means of high power laser radiation requires electron plasma densities at or in excess of the critical density. Traditionally, this has been achieved using solid targets. More recently, laser facilities at Brookhaven National Laboratory and the University of California in Los Angeles have achieved acceleration using Terawatt CO2 interacting with gas jets. Gas targets are advantageous in that they are relatively simple and can be operated at high repetition rates; however, they typically operate at densities far below those required for optical wavelengths, where most of the world's terawatt lasers operate. To get around this and other issues, a new type of target, a ``gas foil,'' has been developed at the Naval Research Laboratory. The target is created by igniting an optically driven hydrodynamic shock into the flow of a gas jet in vacuum. Experiments have shown that a laser-ignited shock is capable of producing 4 times ambient. These results have been incorporated into 3D PIC simulations. Results for a relatively compact and inexpensive 20 TW laser yielded protons with energies in excess of 5 MeV. Simulations as well as preliminary experimental results will be discus

  20. Monoenergetic proton beams accelerated by a radiation pressure driven shock

    CERN Document Server

    Palmer, C A J; Pogorelsky, I; Babzien, M; Dudnikova, G I; Ispiriyan, M; Polyanskiy, M N; Schreiber, J; Shkolnikov, P; Yakimenko, V; Najmudin, Z

    2010-01-01

    High energy ion beams (> MeV) generated by intense laser pulses promise to be viable alternatives to conventional ion beam sources due to their unique properties such as high charge, low emittance, compactness and ease of beam delivery. Typically the acceleration is due to the rapid expansion of a laser heated solid foil, but this usually leads to ion beams with large energy spread. Until now, control of the energy spread has only been achieved at the expense of reduced charge and increased complexity. Radiation pressure acceleration (RPA) provides an alternative route to producing laser-driven monoenergetic ion beams. In this paper, we show the interaction of an intense infrared laser with a gaseous hydrogen target can produce proton spectra of small energy spread (~ 4%), and low background. The scaling of proton energy with the ratio of intensity over density (I/n) indicates that the acceleration is due to the shock generated by radiation-pressure driven hole-boring of the critical surface. These are the fi...

  1. Collisionless electrostatic shock formation and ion acceleration in intense laser interactions with near critical density plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, M; Li, Y T; Yuan, D W; Chen, M; Mulser, P; Sheng, Z M; Murakami, M; Yu, L L; Zheng, X L; Zhang, J

    2016-01-01

    Laser-driven collisonless electrostatic shock formation and the subsequent ion acceleration have been studied in near critical density plasmas. Particle-in-cell simulations show that both the speed of laser-driven collisionless electrostatic shock and the energies of shock-accelerated ions can be greatly enhanced due to fast laser propagation in near critical density plasmas. However, a response time longer than tens of laser wave cycles is required before the shock formation in a near critical density plasma, in contrast to the quick shock formation in a highly overdense target. More important, we find that some ions can be reflected by the collisionless shock even if the electrostatic potential jump across the shock is smaller than the ion kinetic energy in the shock frame, which seems against the conventional ion-reflection condition. These anomalous ion reflections are attributed to the strongly time-oscillating electric field accompanying laser-driven collisionless shock in a near critical density plasma...

  2. Analytic study of 1D diffusive relativistic shock acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshet, Uri

    2017-10-01

    Diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) by relativistic shocks is thought to generate the dN/dEpropto E-p spectra of charged particles in various astronomical relativistic flows. We show that for test particles in one dimension (1D), p-1=1-ln[γd(1+βd)]/ ln;[γu(1+βu)], where βu (βd) is the upstream (downstream) normalized velocity, and γ is the respective Lorentz factor. This analytically captures the main properties of relativistic DSA in higher dimensions, with no assumptions on the diffusion mechanism. Unlike 2D and 3D, here the spectrum is sensitive to the equation of state even in the ultra-relativistic limit, and (for a Jüttner-Synge equation of state) noticeably hardens with increasing 1<γu<57, before logarithmically converging back to p(γu→∞)=2. The 1D spectrum is sensitive to drifts, but only in the downstream, and not in the ultra-relativistic limit.

  3. XMM-Newton evidence of shocked ISM in SN 1006: indications of hadronic acceleration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miceli, M.; Bocchino, F.; Decourchelle, A.; Maurin, G.; Vink, J.; Orlando, S.; Reale, F.; Broersen, S.

    2012-01-01

    Context. Shock fronts in young supernova remnants are the best candidates for being sites of cosmic ray acceleration up to a few PeV, though conclusive experimental evidence is still lacking. Aims. Hadron acceleration is expected to increase the shock compression ratio, providing higher postshock

  4. Interferometric analysis of laser-driven cylindrically focusing shock waves in a thin liquid layer

    OpenAIRE

    David Veysset; Alexei A. Мaznev; Thomas Pezeril; Steven Kooi; Nelson, Keith A

    2016-01-01

    Shock waves in condensed matter are of great importance for many areas of science and technology ranging from inertially confined fusion to planetary science and medicine. In laboratory studies of shock waves, there is a need in developing diagnostic techniques capable of measuring parameters of materials under shock with high spatial resolution. Here, time-resolved interferometric imaging is used to study laser-driven focusing shock waves in a thin liquid layer in an all-optical experiment. ...

  5. A note on the theory of transverse diffusion in shock particle acceleration

    OpenAIRE

    Treumann, R. A.

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the role of the form of the spatial diffusion coefficient in shock acceleration of fast particles. Referring to non-classical diffusion and using the results of numerical (hybrid) simulations tailored for the downstream shock population in quasi-perpendicualr high-Mach number collisionless shocks to which we apply the theory, we demonstrate that the inferred diffusion coefficients are in excellent agreement with the requirements of the theory and its predictions. Diffusion in t...

  6. Particle acceleration by collisionless shocks containing large-scale magnetic-field variations

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, F.; Jokipii, J. R.; Kota, J.

    2010-01-01

    Diffusive shock acceleration at collisionless shocks is thought to be the source of many of the energetic particles observed in space. Large-scale spatial variations of the magnetic field has been shown to be important in understanding observations. The effects are complex, so here we consider a simple, illustrative model. Here, we solve numerically the Parker transport equation for a shock in the presence of large-scale sinusoidal magnetic-field variations. We demonstrate that the familiar p...

  7. Cosmic Ray Acceleration by a Versatile Family of Galactic Wind Termination Shocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bustard, Chad; Zweibel, Ellen G. [Physics Department, University of Wisconsin–Madison, 1150 University Avenue, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Cotter, Cory, E-mail: bustard@wisc.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin–Madison, 2535 Sterling Hall, 475 N. Charter Street, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2017-01-20

    There are two distinct breaks in the cosmic ray (CR) spectrum: the so-called “knee” around 3 × 10{sup 15} eV and the so-called “ankle” around 10{sup 18} eV. Diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) at supernova remnant (SNR) shock fronts is thought to accelerate galactic CRs to energies below the knee, while an extragalactic origin is presumed for CRs with energies beyond the ankle. CRs with energies between 3 × 10{sup 15} and 10{sup 18} eV, which we dub the “shin,” have an unknown origin. It has been proposed that DSA at galactic wind termination shocks, rather than at SNR shocks, may accelerate CRs to these energies. This paper uses the galactic wind model of Bustard et al. to analyze whether galactic wind termination shocks may accelerate CRs to shin energies within a reasonable acceleration time and whether such CRs can subsequently diffuse back to the Galaxy. We argue for acceleration times on the order of 100 Myr rather than a few billion years, as assumed in some previous works, and we discuss prospects for magnetic field amplification at the shock front. Ultimately, we generously assume that the magnetic field is amplified to equipartition. This formalism allows us to obtain analytic formulae, applicable to any wind model, for CR acceleration. Even with generous assumptions, we find that very high wind velocities are required to set up the necessary conditions for acceleration beyond 10{sup 17} eV. We also estimate the luminosities of CRs accelerated by outflow termination shocks, including estimates for the Milky Way wind.

  8. Electron Pre-acceleration at Nonrelativistic High-Mach-number Perpendicular Shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohdan, Artem; Niemiec, Jacek; Kobzar, Oleh; Pohl, Martin

    2017-09-01

    We perform particle-in-cell simulations of perpendicular nonrelativistic collisionless shocks to study electron heating and pre-acceleration for parameters that permit the extrapolation to the conditions at young supernova remnants. Our high-resolution large-scale numerical experiments sample a representative portion of the shock surface and demonstrate that the efficiency of electron injection is strongly modulated with the phase of the shock reformation. For plasmas with low and moderate temperature (plasma beta {β }{{p}}=5\\cdot {10}-4 and {β }{{p}}=0.5), we explore the nonlinear shock structure and electron pre-acceleration for various orientations of the large-scale magnetic field with respect to the simulation plane, while keeping it at 90° to the shock normal. Ion reflection off of the shock leads to the formation of magnetic filaments in the shock ramp, resulting from Weibel-type instabilities, and electrostatic Buneman modes in the shock foot. In all of the cases under study, the latter provides first-stage electron energization through the shock-surfing acceleration mechanism. The subsequent energization strongly depends on the field orientation and proceeds through adiabatic or second-order Fermi acceleration processes for configurations with the out-of-plane and in-plane field components, respectively. For strictly out-of-plane field, the fraction of suprathermal electrons is much higher than for other configurations, because only in this case are the Buneman modes fully captured by the 2D simulation grid. Shocks in plasma with moderate {β }{{p}} provide more efficient pre-acceleration. The relevance of our results to the physics of fully 3D systems is discussed.

  9. The central engine of quasars and AGN's - Shock-accelerated relativistic protons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, Donald C.; Kazanas, Demos

    1988-01-01

    A simple dynamical model is presented in which protons are Fermi-shock-accelerated to relativistic energies and do not readily fall into the black hole. It is shown that, even though the nonthermal radiation from QSOs and AGNs is generally well below the Eddington limit, it is still highly correlated and proportional to the mass. In the present model, the proportionality constant is determined by the p-p cross-section and the minimum shock radius (in units of the Schwarzschild radius) where a stable shock is assumed to exist. The model predicts a rapid drop off in efficiency as this shock radius increases.

  10. Momentum-dependent diffusive particle acceleration in modified shock fronts. [for galactic cosmic rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, G. M.; Bogdan, T. J.; Lee, M. A.; Lerche, I.

    1985-01-01

    In the presently derived analytic solutions of the steady transport equation for diffusive particle acceleration in a modified, planar shock front having free escape boundaries, the fluid velocity profile through the shock transition decreases monotonically between the upstream and downstream boundaries. The spatial diffusion coefficient's spatial dependence is linked to that of the fluid velocity profile. Attention is given to the solution corresponding to monoenergetic particle injection at the shock front, with free particle escape at finite distances both upstream and downstream of the shock. The accelerated particle spectrum is dominated at high energies by an exponential cutoff, due to the competition between acceleration by the first-order Fermi mechanism and particle loss through the free escape boundaries.

  11. Particle acceleration at a termination shock. I - Application to the solar wind and the anomalous component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokipii, J. R.

    1986-01-01

    The results of a numerical study of the diffusive acceleration of charged particles at the termination shock of the solar wind are reported. In the model a realistic magnetic field structure is employed which is similar to that observed in the solar wind. In addition to causing spatial variation of the diffusion tensor, a major effect of the magnetic field is to cause guiding-center drifts of the accelerated particles, both in the solar wind and at the shock. It is demonstrated that the inclusion of the drifts has a large effect on the acceleration. It is concluded, furthermore, that acceleration at the termination shock, in conjunction with drifts, can explain several observed features of the anomalous component.

  12. Crystalline Indium Sulphide thin film by photo accelerated deposition technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanya, A. C.; Preetha, K. C.; Deepa, K.; Remadevi, T. L.

    2015-02-01

    Indium sulfide thin films deserve special attention because of its potential application as buffer layers in CIGS based solar cells. Highly transparent indium sulfide (InS) thin films were prepared using a novel method called photo accelerated chemical deposition (PCD). Ultraviolet source of 150 W was used to irradiate the solution. Compared to all other chemical methods, PCD scores its advantage for its low cost, flexible substrate and capable of large area of deposition. Reports on deposition of high quality InS thin films at room temperature are very rare in literature. The precursor solution was initially heated to 90°C for ten minutes and then deposition was carried out at room temperature for two hours. The appearance of the film changed from lemon yellow to bright yellow as the deposition time increased. The sample was characterized for its structural and optical properties. XRD profile showed the polycrystalline behavior of the film with mixed phases having crystallite size of 17 nm. The surface morphology of the films exhibited uniformly distributed honey comb like structures. The film appeared to be smooth and the value of extinction coefficient was negligible. Optical measurements showed that the film has more than 80% transmission in the visible region. The direct band gap energy was 2.47eV. This method is highly suitable for the synthesis of crystalline and transparent indium sulfide thin films and can be used for various photo voltaic applications.

  13. Cosmic-ray acceleration during the impact of shocks on dense clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, T. W.; Kang, Hyesung

    1993-01-01

    In order to elucidate the properties of diffusive shock acceleration in nonuniform environments, an extensive set of simulations of the dynamical interactions between plane nonradiative shocks and dense gas clouds was carried out initially in static equilibrium with their environments. These time-dependent calculations are based on the two-fluid model for diffusive cosmic ray transport, and include the dynamically active energetic proton component of the cosmic rays as well as passive electron and magnetic field components. Except when the incident shock is itself already dominated by cosmic ray pressure, it is found that the presence of the cloud adds little to the net acceleration efficiency of the original shock and can, in fact, reduce slightly the net amount of energy transferred to cosmic rays after a given time. It is found that, in 2D cloud simulations, the always-weak bow shock and the shock inside the cloud are less important to acceleration during the interaction than the tail shock.

  14. The Acceleration of Thermal Ions at a Strong, Quasi-Parallel Interplanetary Shock: A Hybrid Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacalone, Joe

    2017-09-01

    Using a self-consistent hybrid simulation, with kinetic protons and fluid electrons, we investigate the acceleration of thermal protons and minor ions (alphas, 3He ++, and C5+) by a quasi-parallel collisionless shock. The results are compared to spacecraft observations of a strong interplanetary shock seen by the Advanced Composition Explorer on DOY 94, 2001, which was associated with significant increases in the flux of > 50 keV/nuc ions. Our simulation uses similar plasma and shock parameters to those observed. The densities of minor ions for two of the species (alphas and C5+) were based on observations at thermal energies for this shock, and we used a nominal value for the density of 3He ++, since no observations at thermal energies was available to us. Acceleration of the ions by the shock leads to a high-energy tail in the distribution in the post-shock plasma for all ion species. We find that by extrapolating the simulated tails to the higher energies measured by ACE/EPAM and ACE/ULEIS, the intensity matches well the observations for protons, alphas, and carbon. This suggests that thermal solar wind, accelerated directly at the shock, is a significant source of the observed high-energy protons and these minor ions.

  15. The Acceleration of Charged Particles at a Spherical Shock Moving through an Irregular Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacalone, J.

    2017-10-01

    We investigate the physics of charged-particle acceleration at spherical shocks moving into a uniform plasma containing a turbulent magnetic field with a uniform mean. This has applications to particle acceleration at astrophysical shocks, most notably, to supernovae blast waves. We numerically integrate the equations of motion of a large number of test protons moving under the influence of electric and magnetic fields determined from a kinematically defined plasma flow associated with a radially propagating blast wave. Distribution functions are determined from the positions and velocities of the protons. The unshocked plasma contains a magnetic field with a uniform mean and an irregular component having a Kolmogorov-like power spectrum. The field inside the blast wave is determined from Maxwell’s equations. The angle between the average magnetic field and unit normal to the shock varies with position along its surface. It is quasi-perpendicular to the unit normal near the sphere’s equator, and quasi-parallel to it near the poles. We find that the highest intensities of particles, accelerated by the shock, are at the poles of the blast wave. The particles “collect” at the poles as they approximately adhere to magnetic field lines that move poleward from their initial encounter with the shock at the equator, as the shock expands. The field lines at the poles have been connected to the shock the longest. We also find that the highest-energy protons are initially accelerated near the equator or near the quasi-perpendicular portion of the shock, where the acceleration is more rapid.

  16. Rubber-induced uniform laser shock wave pressure for thin metal sheets microforming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Zongbao, E-mail: szb@ujs.edu.cn; Wang, Xiao; Liu, Huixia; Wang, Yayuan; Wang, Cuntang

    2015-02-01

    Highlights: • The rubber is introduced to smooth laser shock wave pressure. • The mechanism of rubber-induced smoothing effect is proposed. • Smoothing effect is mainly due to the radial expansion of plasma cloud on rubber. • The good surface quality can be obtained under rubber dynamic loading. - Abstract: Laser shock microforming of thin metal sheets is a new high velocity forming technique, which employs laser shock wave to deform the thin metal sheets. The spatial distribution of forming pressure is mainly dependent on the laser beam. A new type of laser shock loading method is introduced which gives a uniform pressure distribution. A low density rubber is inserted between the laser beam and the thin metal sheets. The mechanism of rubber-induced smoothing effect on confined laser shock wave is proposed. Plasticine is used to perform the smoothing effect experiments due to its excellent material flow ability. The influence of rubber on the uniformity of laser shock wave pressure is studied by measuring the surface micro topography of the deformed plasticine. And the four holes forming experiment is used to verify the rubber-induced uniform pressure on thin metal sheets surface. The research results show the possibility of smoothing laser shock wave pressure using rubber. And the good surface quality can be obtained under rubber dynamic loading.

  17. Control of quasi-monoenergetic electron beams from laser-plasma accelerators by adjusting shock density profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Hai-En; Swanson, Kelly K.; Lehe, Remi; Barber, Sam K.; Isono, Fumika; Otero, Jorge G.; Liu, Xinyao; Mao, Hann-Shin; Steinke, Sven; Tilborg, Jeroen Van; Geddes, Cameron G. R.; Leemans, Wim

    2017-10-01

    High-level control of a laser-plasma accelerator (LPA) using a shock injector was demonstrated by systematically varying the shock injector profile, including the shock angle, up-ramp width and shock position. Particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation explored how variations in the shock profile impacted the injection process and confirmed results obtained through acceleration experiments. These results establish that, by adjusting shock position, up-ramp, and angle, beam energy, energy spread, and pointing can be controlled. As a result, e-beam were highly tunable from 25 to 300 MeV with Security Administration, Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation R&D (NA22).

  18. Propagation speed, linear stability, and ion acceleration in radially imploding Hall-driven electron-magnetohydrodynamic shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, A. S.; Swanekamp, S. B.; Jackson, S. L.; Mosher, D.; Ottinger, P. F.

    2018-01-01

    Plasma density gradients are known to drive magnetic shocks in electron-magnetohydrodynamics. Previous slab modeling has been extended to cylindrical modeling of radially imploding shocks. The main new effect of the cylindrical geometry is found to be a radial dependence in the speed of shock propagation. This is shown here analytically and in numerical simulations. Ion acceleration by the magnetic shock is shown to possibly become substantial, especially in the peaked structures that develop in the shock because of electron inertia.

  19. A Numerical and Experimental Study of a Shock-Accelerated Heavy Gas Cylinder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoldi, Cindy Anne [State Univ. of New York (SUNY), Stony Brook, NY (United States)

    2002-01-01

    In this thesis we study the evolution of an SF6 gas cylinder surrounded by air when accelerated by a planar Mach 1.2 shock wave. Vorticity generated by the interaction of the shock wave's pressure gradient with the density gradient at the air/SF6 interface drives the evolution of the cylinder into a vortex pair

  20. Injection and acceleration of H+ and He2+ at Earth's bow shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Scholer

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available We have performed a number of one-dimensional hybrid simulations (particle ions, massless electron fluid of quasi-parallel collisionless shocks in order to investigate the injection and subsequent acceleration of part of the solar wind ions at the Earth's bow shock. The shocks propagate into a medium containing magnetic fluctuations, which are initially superimposed on the background field, as well as generated or enhanced by the electromagnetic ion/ion beam instability between the solar wind and backstreaming ions. In order to study the mass (M and charge (Q dependence of the acceleration process He2+ is included self-consistently. The upstream differential intensity spectra of H+ and He2+ can be well represented by exponentials in energy. The e-folding energy Ec is a function of time: Ec increases with time. Furthermore the e-folding energy (normalized to the shock ramming energy Ep increases with increasing Alfvén Mach number of the shock and with increasing fluctuation level of the initially superimposed turbulence. When backstreaming ions leave the shock after their first encounter they exhibit already a spectrum which extends to more than ten times the shock ramming energy and which is ordered in energy per charge. From the injection spectrum it is concluded that leakage of heated downstream particles does not contribute to ion injection. Acceleration models that permit thermal particles to scatter like the non-thermal population do not describe the correct physics.Key words. Interplanetary physics (planetary bow shocks · Space plasma physics (charged particle motion and acceleration; numerical simulation studies

  1. Vortex Formation in a Shock-Accelerated Gas Induced by Particle Seeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorobieff, Peter; Anderson, Michael; Conroy, Joseph; White, Ross; Truman, C. Randall; Kumar, Sanjay

    2011-05-01

    An instability forms in gas of constant density (air) with an initial nonuniform seeding of small particles or droplets as a planar shock wave passes through the two-phase medium. The seeding nonuniformity is produced by vertical injection of a slow-moving jet of air premixed with glycol droplets or smoke particles into the test section of a shock tube, with the plane of the shock parallel to the axis of the jet. After the shock passage, two counterrotating vortices form in the plane normal to that axis. The physical mechanism of the instability we observe is peculiar to multiphase flow, where the shock acceleration causes the second (embedded) phase to move with respect to the embedding medium. With sufficient seeding concentration, this leads to entrainment of the embedding phase that acquires a relative velocity dependent on the initial seeding, resulting in vortex formation in the flow.

  2. A theoretical perspective on particle acceleration by interplanetary shocks and the Solar Energetic Particle problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkhoglyadova, Olga P.; Zank, Gary P.; Li, Gang

    2015-02-01

    Understanding the physics of Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) events is of importance to the general question of particle energization throughout the cosmos as well as playing a role in the technologically critical impact of space weather on society. The largest, and often most damaging, events are the so-called gradual SEP events, generally associated with shock waves driven by coronal mass ejections (CMEs). We review the current state of knowledge about particle acceleration at evolving interplanetary shocks with application to SEP events that occur in the inner heliosphere. Starting with a brief outline of recent theoretical progress in the field, we focus on current observational evidence that challenges conventional models of SEP events, including complex particle energy spectra, the blurring of the distinction between gradual and impulsive events, and the difference inherent in particle acceleration at quasi-parallel and quasi-perpendicular shocks. We also review the important problem of the seed particle population and its injection into particle acceleration at a shock. We begin by discussing the properties and characteristics of non-relativistic interplanetary shocks, from their formation close to the Sun to subsequent evolution through the inner heliosphere. The association of gradual SEP events with shocks is discussed. Several approaches to the energization of particles have been proposed, including shock drift acceleration, diffusive shock acceleration (DSA), acceleration by large-scale compression regions, acceleration by random velocity fluctuations (sometimes known as the "pump mechanism"), and others. We review these various mechanisms briefly and focus on the DSA mechanism. Much of our emphasis will be on our current understanding of the parallel and perpendicular diffusion coefficients for energetic particles and models of plasma turbulence in the vicinity of the shock. Because of its importance both to the DSA mechanism itself and to the particle

  3. Energy-Dependent Ionization States of Shock-Accelerated Particles in the Solar Corona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reames, Donald V.; Ng, C. K.; Tylka, A. J.

    2000-01-01

    We examine the range of possible energy dependence of the ionization states of ions that are shock-accelerated from the ambient plasma of the solar corona. If acceleration begins in a region of moderate density, sufficiently low in the corona, ions above about 0.1 MeV/amu approach an equilibrium charge state that depends primarily upon their speed and only weakly on the plasma temperature. We suggest that the large variations of the charge states with energy for ions such as Si and Fe observed in the 1997 November 6 event are consistent with stripping in moderately dense coronal. plasma during shock acceleration. In the large solar-particle events studied previously, acceleration occurs sufficiently high in the corona that even Fe ions up to 600 MeV/amu are not stripped of electrons.

  4. Shock-wave proton acceleration from a hydrogen gas jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Nathan; Pogorelsky, Igor; Polyanskiy, Mikhail; Babzien, Marcus; Tresca, Olivier; Maharjan, Chakra; Shkolnikov, Peter; Yakimenko, Vitaly

    2013-04-01

    Typical laser acceleration experiments probe the interaction of intense linearly-polarized solid state laser pulses with dense metal targets. This interaction generates strong electric fields via Transverse Normal Sheath Acceleration and can accelerate protons to high peak energies but with a large thermal spectrum. Recently, the advancement of high pressure amplified CO2 laser technology has allowed for the creation of intense (10^16 Wcm^2) pulses at λ˜10 μm. These pulses may interact with reproducible, high rep. rate gas jet targets and still produce plasmas of critical density (nc˜10^19 cm-3), leading to the transference of laser energy via radiation pressure. This acceleration mode has the advantage of producing narrow energy spectra while scaling well with pulse intensity. We observe the interaction of an intense CO2 laser pulse with an overdense hydrogen gas jet. Using two pulse optical probing in conjunction with interferometry, we are able to obtain density profiles of the plasma. Proton energy spectra are obtained using a magnetic spectrometer and scintillating screen.

  5. Magnetosheath Filamentary Structures Formed by Ion Acceleration at the Quasi-Parallel Bow Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidi, N.; Sibeck, D.; Gutynska, O.; Trattner, K. J.

    2014-01-01

    Results from 2.5-D electromagnetic hybrid simulations show the formation of field-aligned, filamentary plasma structures in the magnetosheath. They begin at the quasi-parallel bow shock and extend far into the magnetosheath. These structures exhibit anticorrelated, spatial oscillations in plasma density and ion temperature. Closer to the bow shock, magnetic field variations associated with density and temperature oscillations may also be present. Magnetosheath filamentary structures (MFS) form primarily in the quasi-parallel sheath; however, they may extend to the quasi-perpendicular magnetosheath. They occur over a wide range of solar wind Alfvénic Mach numbers and interplanetary magnetic field directions. At lower Mach numbers with lower levels of magnetosheath turbulence, MFS remain highly coherent over large distances. At higher Mach numbers, magnetosheath turbulence decreases the level of coherence. Magnetosheath filamentary structures result from localized ion acceleration at the quasi-parallel bow shock and the injection of energetic ions into the magnetosheath. The localized nature of ion acceleration is tied to the generation of fast magnetosonic waves at and upstream of the quasi-parallel shock. The increased pressure in flux tubes containing the shock accelerated ions results in the depletion of the thermal plasma in these flux tubes and the enhancement of density in flux tubes void of energetic ions. This results in the observed anticorrelation between ion temperature and plasma density.

  6. Particle acceleration efficiency and MHD characteristics of CIR-related shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Classen, H.-T.; Mann, G.; Keppler, E.

    1998-07-01

    During its southbound journey the Ulysses spacecraft crossed a series of corotating interaction regions (CIRs) building up due to the interaction of fast and slow solar wind streams. We analyse the forward and the reverse shocks marking off the 18 CIR encounters between July 1992 and December 1993. Our investigations look for a correlation between the particle acceleration efficiency expressed by the particle flux measured at the time of shock crossing and the MHD characteristics of the shocks; i.e., Alfven-Mach number (MA1), density and magnetic field compression ratios (r_N, r_B), and the angle between shock normal and upstream magnetic field (theta_ {Bn}). The results of this analysis show that the highest fluxes of 300 keV electrons and 1 MeV protons are observed when the conditions MA1 > 2.5 and 50(deg) <= theta_ {Bn} <= 75(deg) are simultaneously fulfilled by the shocks. These investigations are supplemented by a computation of the first critical Alfven-Mach number for typical parameters of CIR-related shocks. Furthermore, we discuss possible acceleration mechanisms by an analysis of the spectral indices of protons and Helium.

  7. Radiation from accelerated particles in relativistic jets with shocks, shear-flow, and reconnection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishikawa K.-I.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated particle acceleration and shock structure associated with an unmagnetized relativistic jet propagating into an unmagnetized plasma for electron-positron and electron-ion plasmas. Strong magnetic fields generated in the trailing jet shock lead to transverse deflection and acceleration of the electrons. We have self-consistently calculated the radiation from the electrons accelerated in the turbulent magnetic fields for different jet Lorentz factors. We find that the synthetic spectra depend on the bulk Lorentz factor of the jet, the jet temperature, and the strength of the magnetic fields generated in the shock. We have investigated the generation of magnetic fields associated with velocity shear between an unmagnetized relativistic (core jet and an unmagnetized sheath plasma. We discuss particle acceleration in collimation shocks for AGN jets formed by relativistic MHD simulations. Our calculated spectra should lead to a better understanding of the complex time evolution and/or spectral structure from gamma-ray bursts, relativistic jets, and supernova remnants.

  8. Interferometric analysis of laser-driven cylindrically focusing shock waves in a thin liquid layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veysset, David; Мaznev, Alexei A; Pezeril, Thomas; Kooi, Steven; Nelson, Keith A

    2016-12-23

    Shock waves in condensed matter are of great importance for many areas of science and technology ranging from inertially confined fusion to planetary science and medicine. In laboratory studies of shock waves, there is a need in developing diagnostic techniques capable of measuring parameters of materials under shock with high spatial resolution. Here, time-resolved interferometric imaging is used to study laser-driven focusing shock waves in a thin liquid layer in an all-optical experiment. Shock waves are generated in a 10 µm-thick layer of water by focusing intense picosecond laser pulses into a ring of 95 µm radius. Using a Mach-Zehnder interferometer and time-delayed femtosecond laser pulses, we obtain a series of images tracing the shock wave as it converges at the center of the ring before reemerging as a diverging shock, resulting in the formation of a cavitation bubble. Through quantitative analysis of the interferograms, density profiles of shocked samples are extracted. The experimental geometry used in our study opens prospects for spatially resolved spectroscopic studies of materials under shock compression.

  9. Acceleration of Solar Energetic Particles at a Fast Traveling Shock in Non-uniform Coronal Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Roux, J. A.; Arthur, A. D.

    2017-09-01

    Time-dependent solar energetic particle (SEP) acceleration is investigated at a fast, nearly parallel spherical traveling shock in the strongly non-uniform corona by solving the standard focused transport equation for SEPs and transport equations for parallel propagating Alfvén waves that form a set of coupled equations. This enables the modeling of self-excitation of Alfvén waves in the inertial range by SEPs ahead of the shock and its role in enhancing the efficiency of the diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) of SEPs in a self-regulatory fashion. Preliminary results suggest that, because of the highly non-uniform coronal conditions that the shock encounters, both DSA and wave excitation are highly time-dependent processes. Thus, DSA spectra of SEPs strongly deviate from the simple power-law prediction of standard steady-state DSA theory and initially strong wave excitation weakens rapidly. Consequently, the ability of DSA to produce high energy SEPs in the corona of ∼1 GeV, as observed in the strongest gradual SEP events, appears to be strongly curtailed at a fast nearly parallel shock, but further research is needed before final conclusions can be drawn.

  10. Spectral Modification of Shock Accelerated Ions Using a Hydrodynamically Shaped Gas Target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tresca, O.; Dover, N. P.; Cook, N.; Maharjan, C.; Polyanskiy, M. N.; Najmudin, Z.; Shkolnikov, P.; Pogorelsky, I.

    2015-08-01

    We report on reproducible shock acceleration from irradiation of a λ =10 μ m CO2 laser on optically shaped H2 and He gas targets. A low energy laser prepulse (I ≲1014 W cm-2 ) is used to drive a blast wave inside the gas target, creating a steepened, variable density gradient. This is followed, after 25 ns, by a high intensity laser pulse (I >1016 W cm-2 ) that produces an electrostatic collisionless shock. Upstream ions are accelerated for a narrow range of prepulse energies. For long density gradients (≳40 μ m ), broadband beams of He+ and H+ are routinely produced, while for shorter gradients (≲20 μ m ), quasimonoenergetic acceleration of protons is observed. These measurements indicate that the properties of the accelerating shock and the resultant ion energy distribution, in particular the production of narrow energy spread beams, is highly dependent on the plasma density profile. These findings are corroborated by 2D particle-in-cell simulations.

  11. Spectral modification of shock accelerated ions using hydrodynamically shaped gas target

    CERN Document Server

    Tresca, O; Cook, N; Maharjan, C; Polyanskiy, M N; Najmudin, Z; Shkolnikov, P; Pogorelsky, I

    2015-01-01

    We report on reproducible shock acceleration from irradiation of a $\\lambda = 10$ $\\mu$m CO$_2$ laser on optically shaped H$_2$ and He gas targets. A low energy laser prepulse ($I\\lesssim10^{14}\\, {\\rm Wcm^{-2}}$) was used to drive a blast wave inside the gas target, creating a steepened, variable density gradient. This was followed, after 25 ns, by a high intensity laser pulse ($I>10^{16}\\, {\\rm Wcm^{-2}}$) that produces an electrostatic collisionless shock. Upstream ions were accelerated for a narrow range of prepulse energies ($> 110$ mJ & $< 220$mJ). For long density gradients ($\\gtrsim 40 \\mu$m), broadband beams of He$^+$ and H$^+$ were routinely produced, whilst for shorter gradients ($\\lesssim 20 \\mu$m), quasimonoenergetic acceleration of proton was observed. These measurements indicate that the properties of the accelerating shock and the resultant ion energy distribution, in particular the production of narrow energy spread beams, is highly dependent on the plasma density profile. These findin...

  12. On magnetic field amplification and particle acceleration near non-relativistic astrophysical shocks: particles in MHD cells simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Marle, Allard Jan; Casse, Fabien; Marcowith, Alexandre

    2018-01-01

    We present simulations of magnetized astrophysical shocks taking into account the interplay between the thermal plasma of the shock and suprathermal particles. Such interaction is depicted by combining a grid-based magnetohydrodynamics description of the thermal fluid with particle in cell techniques devoted to the dynamics of suprathermal particles. This approach, which incorporates the use of adaptive mesh refinement features, is potentially a key to simulate astrophysical systems on spatial scales that are beyond the reach of pure particle-in-cell simulations. We consider in this study non-relativistic shocks with various Alfvénic Mach numbers and magnetic field obliquity. We recover all the features of both magnetic field amplification and particle acceleration from previous studies when the magnetic field is parallel to the normal to the shock. In contrast with previous particle-in-cell-hybrid simulations, we find that particle acceleration and magnetic field amplification also occur when the magnetic field is oblique to the normal to the shock but on larger time-scales than in the parallel case. We show that in our simulations, the suprathermal particles are experiencing acceleration thanks to a pre-heating process of the particle similar to a shock drift acceleration leading to the corrugation of the shock front. Such oscillations of the shock front and the magnetic field locally help the particles to enter the upstream region and to initiate a non-resonant streaming instability and finally to induce diffuse particle acceleration.

  13. MMS Observation of Inverse Energy Dispersion in Shock Drift Acceleration Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S. H.; Sibeck, D. G.; Hwang, K. J.; Wang, Y.; Silveira, M. D.; Mauk, B.; Cohen, I. J.; Chu, C. S.; Mason, G. M.; Gold, R. E.; Burch, J. L.; Giles, B. L.; Torbert, R. B.; Russell, C. T.; Wei, H.

    2016-12-01

    The Energetic Particle Detector (EPD) on the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) spacecraft observed bursts of energetic ions (50 keV-1000 keV) both in the foreshock and in the magnetosheath near the bow shock on December 6, 2015. Three species (protons, helium, and oxygen) exhibit inverse energy dispersions. Angular distributions for all three species indicate acceleration at the perpendicular bow shock. Acceleration that energizes the seed solar population by a factor of 2 and 4 is required for the protons and helium ions, respectively. The energy of the ions increases with θBn (the angle between the IMF and the local shock normal) since the induced electric field that energizes the charged particles increases as θBn increases towards 90°. We compare events upstream and downstream from the bow shock. We compare the MMS observations with those of the solar wind seed populations by the Ultra Low Energy Isotope Spectrometer (ULEIS) instrument on the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) mission and by the WIND 3-D Plamsa and Energetic Particle Experiment.

  14. Electron injection and acceleration at nonlinear shocks: Results of numerical simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinson, Amir

    1994-01-01

    We present results of numerical simulations of electron injection and acceleration at nonlinear high Mach number shocks. The electrons are assumed to be heated at the thermal subshock to an energy E(sub inj), which is treated as a free parameter, above which they are injected by self-generated whistlers to momentum m(sub p) x V(sub A). This injection mechanism requires Mach numbers greater than (43/(beta(sub -)))(((k T(sub e))/(E(sub inj)))(exp 1/2)), where T(sub e) and beta (sub -) are the upstream electron temperature and plasma beta parameter. Above m(sub p) x V(sub A) electrons are trapped in the shock by Alfven waves. In the proton precursor region the Alfven waves are assumed to be generated by protons accelerated at the shock, and have nonlinear intensities. Below GeV, however, electrons of a given rigidity propagate faster than protons with a similar rigidity and therefore diffuse to regions ahead of the proton precursor. In those regions the Alfven waves are generated by the electrons themselves. The diffusion coefficient appears to increase with decreasing acceleration efficiency. As a result, the number of electrons accelerated to energies GeV and above and, hence, the electron to proton ratio, depend only weakly on the extent of electron heating at the subshock. The negative feedback also renders the electron spectra insensitive to shock compression ratio and smoothing length scale. The estimated e/p ratio at GeV is between approximately 1%-10%.

  15. Stochastic particle acceleration at shocks in the presence of braided magnetic fields

    OpenAIRE

    Kirk, J. G.; Duffy, P.; Gallant, Y. A.

    1996-01-01

    The theory of diffusive acceleration of energetic particles at shock fronts assumes charged particles undergo spatial diffusion in a uniform magnetic field. If, however, the magnetic field is not uniform, but has a stochastic or braided structure, the transport of charged particles across the average direction of the field is more complicated. Assuming quasi-linear behaviour of the field lines, the particles undergo sub-diffusion on short time scales. We derive the propagator for such motion,...

  16. A Data-driven Analytic Model for Proton Acceleration by Large-scale Solar Coronal Shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozarev, Kamen A.; Schwadron, Nathan A.

    2016-11-01

    We have recently studied the development of an eruptive filament-driven, large-scale off-limb coronal bright front (OCBF) in the low solar corona, using remote observations from the Solar Dynamics Observatory’s Advanced Imaging Assembly EUV telescopes. In that study, we obtained high-temporal resolution estimates of the OCBF parameters regulating the efficiency of charged particle acceleration within the theoretical framework of diffusive shock acceleration (DSA). These parameters include the time-dependent front size, speed, and strength, as well as the upstream coronal magnetic field orientations with respect to the front’s surface normal direction. Here we present an analytical particle acceleration model, specifically developed to incorporate the coronal shock/compressive front properties described above, derived from remote observations. We verify the model’s performance through a grid of idealized case runs using input parameters typical for large-scale coronal shocks, and demonstrate that the results approach the expected DSA steady-state behavior. We then apply the model to the event of 2011 May 11 using the OCBF time-dependent parameters derived by Kozarev et al. We find that the compressive front likely produced energetic particles as low as 1.3 solar radii in the corona. Comparing the modeled and observed fluences near Earth, we also find that the bulk of the acceleration during this event must have occurred above 1.5 solar radii. With this study we have taken a first step in using direct observations of shocks and compressions in the innermost corona to predict the onsets and intensities of solar energetic particle events.

  17. The case for electron re-acceleration at galaxy cluster shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Weeren, Reinout J.; Andrade-Santos, Felipe; Dawson, William A.; Golovich, Nathan; Lal, Dharam V.; Kang, Hyesung; Ryu, Dongsu; Brìggen, Marcus; Ogrean, Georgiana A.; Forman, William R.; Jones, Christine; Placco, Vinicius M.; Santucci, Rafael M.; Wittman, David; Jee, M. James; Kraft, Ralph P.; Sobral, David; Stroe, Andra; Fogarty, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    On the largest scales, the Universe consists of voids and filaments making up the cosmic web. Galaxy clusters are located at the knots in this web, at the intersection of filaments. Clusters grow through accretion from these large-scale filaments and by mergers with other clusters and groups. In a growing number of galaxy clusters, elongated Mpc-sized radio sources have been found1,2 . Also known as radio relics, these regions of diffuse radio emission are thought to trace relativistic electrons in the intracluster plasma accelerated by low-Mach-number shocks generated by cluster-cluster merger events 3 . A long-standing problem is how low-Mach-number shocks can accelerate electrons so efficiently to explain the observed radio relics. Here, we report the discovery of a direct connection between a radio relic and a radio galaxy in the merging galaxy cluster Abell 3411-3412 by combining radio, X-ray and optical observations. This discovery indicates that fossil relativistic electrons from active galactic nuclei are re-accelerated at cluster shocks. It also implies that radio galaxies play an important role in governing the non-thermal component of the intracluster medium in merging clusters.

  18. Comparison of accelerated ion populations observed upstream of the bow shocks at Venus and Mars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yamauchi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Foreshock ions are compared between Venus and Mars at energies of 0.6~20 keV using the same ion instrument, the Ion Mass Analyser, on board both Venus Express and Mars Express. Venus Express often observes accelerated protons (2~6 times the solar wind energy that travel away from the Venus bow shock when the spacecraft location is magnetically connected to the bow shock. The observed ions have a large field-aligned velocity compared to the perpendicular velocity in the solar wind frame, and are similar to the field-aligned beams and intermediate gyrating component of the foreshock ions in the terrestrial upstream region. Mars Express does not observe similar foreshock ions as does Venus Express, indicating that the Martian foreshock does not possess the intermediate gyrating component in the upstream region on the dayside of the planet. Instead, two types of gyrating protons in the solar wind frame are observed very close to the Martian quasi-perpendicular bow shock within a proton gyroradius distance. The first type is observed only within the region which is about 400 km from the bow shock and flows tailward nearly along the bow shock with a similar velocity as the solar wind. The second type is observed up to about 700 km from the bow shock and has a bundled structure in the energy domain. A traversal on 12 July 2005, in which the energy-bunching came from bundling in the magnetic field direction, is further examined. The observed velocities of the latter population are consistent with multiple specular reflections of the solar wind at the bow shock, and the ions after the second reflection have a field-aligned velocity larger than that of the de Hoffman-Teller velocity frame, i.e., their guiding center has moved toward interplanetary space out from the bow shock. To account for the observed peculiarity of the Martian upstream region, finite gyroradius effects of the solar wind protons compared to the radius of the bow shock curvature and

  19. Effect of metallic nanoparticles in thin foils for laser ion acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrisi, L.; Cutroneo, M.; Ceccio, G.

    2015-01-01

    Nanostructured materials having a high absorption coefficient for visible and near-IR wavelengths can be employed to enhance the laser light energy release in micrometric thin foils in order to generate hot non-equilibrium plasmas and to transfer higher ion acceleration energy. Thin polymeric films containing nanometric spheres of metals (Ti, Cu, Ag, and Au) can be employed to be laser irradiated in a high vacuum and to study the consequent plasma ion acceleration process. Infrared laser irradiations at 1010 W cm-2 intensity, 3 ns pulse duration, and 1064 nm wavelength were employed to produce plasma accelerating ions in the backward direction. Measurements have demonstrated that the presence of nanostructures significantly increases the laser absorption effect and consequently the plasma electron temperature and density and the electric field driving the ion acceleration. Target preparation will be extended to submit thin targets to high laser intensity irradiation above 1015 W cm-2, where the effect of ion acceleration should be enhanced.

  20. The Strongest Acceleration of >40 keV Electrons by ICME-driven Shocks at 1 au

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liu; Wang, Linghua; Li, Gang; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F.; He, Jiansen; Tu, Chuanyi; Tian, Hui; Bale, Stuart D.

    2018-01-01

    We present two case studies of the in-situ electron acceleration during the 2000 February 11 shock and the 2004 July 22 shock, with the strongest electron flux enhancement at 40 keV across the shock, among all the quasi-perpendicular and quasi-parallel ICME-driven shocks observed by the WIND 3DP instrument from 1995 through 2014 at 1 au. We find that for this quasi-perpendicular (quasi-parallel) shock on 2000 February 11 (2004 July 22), the shocked electron differential fluxes at ∼0.4–50 keV in the downstream generally fit well to a double-power-law spectrum, J ∼ E ‑β , with an index of β ∼ 3.15 (4.0) at energies below a break at ∼3 keV (∼1 keV) and β ∼ 2.65 (2.6) at energies above. For both shock events, the downstream electron spectral indices appear to be similar for all pitch angles, which are significantly larger than the index prediction by diffusive shock acceleration. In addition, the downstream electron pitch-angle distributions show the anisotropic beams in the anti-sunward-traveling direction, while the ratio of the downstream over ambient fluxes appears to peak near 90° pitch angles, at all energies of ∼0.4–50 keV. These results suggest that in both shocks, shock drift acceleration likely plays an important role in accelerating electrons in situ at 1 au. Such ICME-driven shocks could contribute to the formation of solar wind halo electrons at energies ≲2 keV, as well as the production of solar wind superhalo electrons at energies ≳2 keV in interplanetary space.

  1. Periodic heat shock accelerated the chondrogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells in pellet culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Chen

    Full Text Available Osteoarthritis (OA is one of diseases that seriously affect elderly people's quality of life. Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs offer a potential promise for the joint repair in OA patients. However, chondrogenic differentiation from hMSCs in vitro takes a long time (∼ 6 weeks and differentiated cells are still not as functionally mature as primary isolated chondrocytes, though chemical stimulations and mechanical loading have been intensively studied to enhance the hMSC differentiation. On the other hand, thermal stimulations of hMSC chondrogenesis have not been well explored. In this study, the direct effects of mild heat shock (HS on the differentiation of hMSCs into chondrocytes in 3D pellet culture were investigated. Periodic HS at 41 °C for 1 hr significantly increased sulfated glycosaminoglycan in 3D pellet culture at Day 10 of chondrogenesis. Immunohistochemical and Western Blot analyses revealed an increased expression of collagen type II and aggrecan in heat-shocked pellets than non heat-shocked pellets on Day 17 of chondrogenesis. In addition, HS also upregulated the expression of collagen type I and X as well as heat shock protein 70 on Day 17 and 24 of differentiation. These results demonstrate that HS accelerated the chondrogenic differentiation of hMSCs and induced an early maturation of chondrocytes differentiated from hMSCs. The results of this study will guide the design of future protocols using thermal treatments to facilitate cartilage regeneration with human mesenchymal stem cells.

  2. Shock creation and particle acceleration driven by plasma expansion into a rarefied medium

    CERN Document Server

    Sarri, G; Dieckmann, M E; Borghesi, M

    2010-01-01

    The expansion of a dense plasma through a more rarefied ionised medium is a phenomenon of interest in various physics environments ranging from astrophysics to high energy density laser- matter laboratory experiments. Here this situation is modeled via a 1D Particle-In-Cell simulation; a jump in the plasma density of a factor of 100 is introduced in the middle of an otherwise equally dense electron-proton plasma with an uniform proton and electron temperature of 10eV and 1keV respectively. The diffusion of the dense plasma, through the rarified one, triggers the onset of different nonlinear phenomena such as a strong ion-acoustic shock wave and a rarefaction wave. Secondary structures are detected, some of which are driven by a drift instability of the rarefaction wave. Efficient proton acceleration occurs ahead of the shock, bringing the maximum proton velocity up to 60 times the initial ion thermal speed.

  3. Formation of GEMS from shock-accelerated crystalline dust in Superbubbles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westphal, A; Bradley, J P

    2004-12-08

    Interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) contain enigmatic sub-micron components called GEMS (Glass with Embedded Metal and Sulfides). The compositions and structures of GEMS indicate that they have been processed by exposure to ionizing radiation but details of the actual irradiation environment(s) have remained elusive. Here we propose a mechanism and astrophysical site for GEMS formation that explains for the first time the following key properties of GEMS; they are stoichiometrically enriched in oxygen and systematically depleted in S, Mg, Ca and Fe (relative to solar abundances), most have normal (solar) oxygen isotopic compositions, they exhibit a strikingly narrow size distribution (0.1-0.5 {micro}m diameter), and some of them contain ''relict'' crystals within their silicate glass matrices. We show that the compositions, size distribution, and survival of relict crystals are inconsistent with amorphization by particles accelerated by diffusive shock acceleration. Instead, we propose that GEMS are formed from crystalline grains that condense in stellar outflows from massive stars in OB associations, are accelerated in encounters with frequent supernova shocks inside the associated superbubble, and are implanted with atoms from the hot gas in the SB interior. We thus reverse the usual roles of target and projectile. Rather than being bombarded at rest by energetic ions, grains are accelerated and bombarded by a nearly monovelocity beam of atoms as viewed in their rest frame. Meyer, Drury and Ellison have proposed that galactic cosmic rays originate from ions sputtered from such accelerated dust grains. We suggest that GEMS are surviving members of a population of fast grains that constitute the long-sought source material for galactic cosmic rays. Thus, representatives of the GCR source material may have been awaiting discovery in cosmic dust labs for the last thirty years.

  4. Testing techniques involved with the development of high shock acceleration sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sill, R. D.

    This paper describes testing techniques and equipment used in the development of Endevco Model 7270 Shock Accelerometer, having a range beyond 100,000 g and a mounted resonant frequency on the order of a megahertz. Conventional testing techniques proved inadequate for thorough evaluation. A new calibration system based on the Hopkinson bar has been developed to give rigorous and accurate tests to determine sensitivity, amplitude linearity and zero shift due to accelerations beyond the transducer's designed full scale acceleration level. A related but smaller apparatus was developed to determine resonant frequency and also, although to a very rough degree, the frequency response of the accelerometer. It provided the means to create sub-microsecond rise time strain waves to excite an accelerometer's resonant frequency.

  5. On magnetic field amplification and particle acceleration near non-relativistic collisionless shocks: Particles in MHD Cells simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casse, F.; van Marle, A. J.; Marcowith, A.

    2018-01-01

    We present simulations of magnetized astrophysical shocks taking into account the interplay between the thermal plasma of the shock and supra-thermal particles. Such interaction is depicted by combining a grid-based magneto-hydrodynamics description of the thermal fluid with particle-in-cell techniques devoted to the dynamics of supra-thermal particles. This approach, which incorporates the use of adaptive mesh refinement features, is potentially a key to simulate astrophysical systems on spatial scales that are beyond the reach of pure particle-in-cell simulations. We consider non-relativistic super-Alfénic shocks with various magnetic field obliquity. We recover all the features from previous studies when the magnetic field is parallel to the normal to the shock. In contrast with previous particle-in-cell and hybrid simulations, we find that particle acceleration and magnetic field amplification also occur when the magnetic field is oblique to the normal to the shock but on larger timescales than in the parallel case. We show that in our oblique shock simulations the streaming of supra-thermal particles induces a corrugation of the shock front. Such oscillations of both the shock front and the magnetic field then locally helps the particles to enter the upstream region and to initiate a non-resonant streaming instability and finally to induce diffuse particle acceleration.

  6. Polarized Balmer line emission from supernova remnant shock waves efficiently accelerating cosmic rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoda, Jiro; Ohira, Yutaka; Yamazaki, Ryo; Laming, J. Martin; Katsuda, Satoru

    2018-01-01

    Linearly polarized Balmer line emissions from supernova remnant shocks are studied taking into account the energy loss of the shock owing to the production of non-thermal particles. The polarization degree depends on the downstream temperature and the velocity difference between upstream and downstream regions. The former is derived once the line width of the broad component of the H α emission is observed. Then, the observation of the polarization degree tells us the latter. At the same time, the estimated value of the velocity difference independently predicts adiabatic downstream temperature that is derived from Rankine Hugoniot relations for adiabatic shocks. If the actually observed downstream temperature is lower than the adiabatic temperature, there is a missing thermal energy which is consumed for particle acceleration. It is shown that a larger energy-loss rate leads to more highly polarized H α emission. Furthermore, we find that polarized intensity ratio of H β to H α also depends on the energy-loss rate and that it is independent of uncertain quantities such as electron temperature, the effect of Lyman line trapping and our line of sight.

  7. Solar Energetic Particle Acceleration by a Shock Wave Accompanying a Coronal Mass Ejection in the Solar Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petukhova, A. S.; Petukhov, I. S.; Petukhov, S. I.; Ksenofontov, L. T.

    2017-02-01

    Solar energetic particle acceleration by a shock wave accompanying a coronal mass ejection (CME) is studied. The description of the accelerated particle spectrum evolution is based on the numerical calculation of the diffusive transport equation with a set of realistic parameters. The relation between the CME and shock speeds, which depend on the initial CME radius, is determined. Depending on the initial CME radius, its speed, and the magnetic energy of the scattering Alfvén waves, the accelerated particle spectrum is established 10-60 minutes from the beginning of CME motion. The maximum energies of particles reach 0.1-10 GeV. The CME radii of 3-5 {R}⊙ and the shock radii of 5-10 {R}⊙ agree with observations. The calculated particle spectra agree with the observed ones in events registered by ground-based detectors if the turbulence spectrum in the solar corona significantly differs from the Kolmogorov one.

  8. Fast Acceleration of ``Killer'' Electrons and Energetic Ions by Interplanetary Shock Stimulated ULF Waves in the Inner Magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Q.

    2010-12-01

    Energetic electrons and ions in the Van Allen radiation belt are the number one space weather threat. How the energetic particles are accelerated in the Van Allen radiation belts is one of major problems in the space physics. Very Low Frequency (VLF) wave-particle interaction has been considered as one of primary electron acceleration mechanisms because electron cyclotron resonances can easily occur in the VLF frequency range. However, recently, by using four Cluster spacecraft observations, we have found that after interplanetary shocks impact on the Earth’s magnetosphere, the acceleration of the energetic electrons in the radiation belt started nearly immediately and lasted for a few hours. The time scale (a few days) for traditional acceleration mechanism of VLF wave-particle interaction, as proposed by Horne et al. [1], to accelerate electrons to relativistic energies is too long to explain the observations. It is further found that interplanetary shocks or solar wind pressure pulses with even small dynamic pressure change can play a non-negligible role in the radiation belt dynamics. Interplanetary shocks interact with and the Earth’s magnetosphere manifests many fundamental important space physics phenomena including energetic particle acceleration. The mechanism of fast acceleration of energetic electrons in the radiation belt response to interplanetary shock impact contains three contributing parts: (1) the initial adiabatic acceleration due to the strong shock-related magnetic field compression; (2) then followed by the drift-resonant acceleration with poloidal ULF waves excited at different L-shells; and (3) particle acceleration due to fast damping electric fields associated with ULF waves. Particles will have a net acceleration since particles in the second half circle will not lose all of the energy gained in the first half cycle. The results reported in this paper cast new lights on understanding the acceleration of energetic particles in the

  9. Accelerated Stress Testing of Thin-Film Modules with SnO2:F Transparent Conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osterwald, C. R.; McMahon, T. J.; del Cueto, J. A.; Adelstein, J.; Puett, J.

    2003-05-01

    This paper reviews a testing program conducted at NREL for the past two years that applied voltage, water vapor, and light stresses to thin-film photovoltaic (PV) modules with SnO2:F transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) deposited on soda-lime glass superstrates. Electrochemical corrosion at the glass-TCO interface was observed to result in delamination of the thin-film layers. Experimental testing was directed toward accelerating the corrosion and understanding the nature of the resulting damage.

  10. Ion acceleration and plasma jet formation in ultra-thin foils undergoing expansion and relativistic transparency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, M.; Gray, R.J.; Powell, H.W.; MacLellan, D.A.; Gonzalez-Izquierdo, B. [SUPA Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom); Stockhausen, L.C. [Centro de Laseres Pulsados (CLPU), Parque Cientifico, Calle del Adaja, s/n. 37185 Villamayor, Salamanca (Spain); Hicks, G.S.; Dover, N.P. [The John Adams Institute for Accelerator Science, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, London SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom); Rusby, D.R. [SUPA Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom); Central Laser Facility, STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Oxfordshire OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Carroll, D.C. [Central Laser Facility, STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Oxfordshire OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Padda, H. [SUPA Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom); Torres, R. [Centro de Laseres Pulsados (CLPU), Parque Cientifico, Calle del Adaja, s/n. 37185 Villamayor, Salamanca (Spain); Kar, S. [Centre for Plasma Physics, Queens University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Clarke, R.J.; Musgrave, I.O. [Central Laser Facility, STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Oxfordshire OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Najmudin, Z. [The John Adams Institute for Accelerator Science, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, London SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom); Borghesi, M. [Centre for Plasma Physics, Queens University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Neely, D. [Central Laser Facility, STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Oxfordshire OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); McKenna, P., E-mail: paul.mckenna@strath.ac.uk [SUPA Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom)

    2016-09-01

    At sufficiently high laser intensities, the rapid heating to relativistic velocities and resulting decompression of plasma electrons in an ultra-thin target foil can result in the target becoming relativistically transparent to the laser light during the interaction. Ion acceleration in this regime is strongly affected by the transition from an opaque to a relativistically transparent plasma. By spatially resolving the laser-accelerated proton beam at near-normal laser incidence and at an incidence angle of 30°, we identify characteristic features both experimentally and in particle-in-cell simulations which are consistent with the onset of three distinct ion acceleration mechanisms: sheath acceleration; radiation pressure acceleration; and transparency-enhanced acceleration. The latter mechanism occurs late in the interaction and is mediated by the formation of a plasma jet extending into the expanding ion population. The effect of laser incident angle on the plasma jet is explored.

  11. Acceleration of solar wind ions to 1 MeV by electromagnetic structures upstream of the Earth's bow shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasiewicz, K.; Markidis, S.; Eliasson, B.; Strumik, M.; Yamauchi, M.

    2013-05-01

    We present measurements from the ESA/NASA Cluster mission that show in situ acceleration of ions to energies of 1 MeV outside the bow shock. The observed heating can be associated with the presence of electromagnetic structures with strong spatial gradients of the electric field that lead to ion gyro-phase breaking and to the onset of chaos in ion trajectories. It results in rapid, stochastic acceleration of ions in the direction perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field. The electric potential of the structures can be compared to a field of moguls on a ski slope, capable of accelerating and ejecting the fast running skiers out of piste. This mechanism may represent the universal mechanism for perpendicular acceleration and heating of ions in the magnetosphere, the solar corona and in astrophysical plasmas. This is also a basic mechanism that can limit steepening of nonlinear electromagnetic structures at shocks and foreshocks in collisionless plasmas.

  12. Instabilities and resistance fluctuations in thin accelerated superconducting rings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karttunen, Mikko; Elder, K R; Tarlie, Martin B; Grant, Martin

    2002-08-01

    The nonequilibrium properties of a driven quasi-one-dimensional superconducting ring subjected to a constant electromotive force (emf) is studied. The emf accelerates the superconducting electrons until the critical current is reached and a dissipative phase slip occurs that lowers the current. The phase-slip phenomena is examined as a function of the strength of the emf, thermal noise, and normal state resistivity. Numerical and analytic methods are used to make detailed predictions for the magnitude of phase slips and subsequent dissipation.

  13. Whisker growth on Sn thin film accelerated under gamma-ray induced electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killefer, Morgan; Borra, Vamsi; Al-Bayati, Ahmed; Georgiev, Daniel G.; Karpov, Victor G.; Ishmael Parsai, E.; Shvydka, Diana

    2017-10-01

    We report on the growth of tin metal whiskers significantly accelerated under non-destructive gamma-ray irradiation. Sn thin film, evaporated on glass substrate, was subjected to a total of 60 h of irradiation. The irradiated samples demonstrated enhanced whisker development, in both densities and lengths, resulting in an acceleration factor of  ∼50. We attribute the observed enhancement to gamma-ray induced electrostatic fields, affecting whisker kinetics. These fields are due to the substrate charging under gamma-rays. We propose that gamma-ray irradiation can be a much needed tool for accelerated testing of whisker propensity.

  14. Highly accelerated lifetime testing of potassium sodium niobate thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wanlin; Akkopru-Akgun, Betul; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan

    2017-11-01

    Highly accelerated lifetime tests of 2 and 3 μm thick potassium sodium niobate [(K0.5, Na0.5)NbO3, KNN] films with different thicknesses were measured under electric fields ranging from 160 to 350 kV/cm and temperatures ranging from 90 to 210 °C. The medium time to failure (t50) was determined from a lognormal distribution plot of failure times of up to 22 electrodes per measurement condition. The activation energy (Ea) for failure was 0.74 ± 0.04 eV and 0.92 ± 0.05 eV for the 2 μm and 3 μm KNN films, respectively. The voltage acceleration factor was 3.5 ± 0.34 for the 3 μm film. But the electric field dependence of t50 for the 2 μm film showed two regions with similar N, 6.67 and 6.94 ± 0.23, respectively. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy was employed to investigate the Na+ and K+ ion distributions in KNN films.

  15. 3-D Model of Broadband Emission from Supernova Remnants Undergoing Non-linear Diffusive Shock Acceleration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Shiu-Hang; Kamae, Tuneyoshi; Ellison, Donald C.

    2008-07-02

    We present a 3-dimensional model of supernova remnants (SNRs) where the hydrodynamical evolution of the remnant is modeled consistently with nonlinear diffusive shock acceleration occurring at the outer blast wave. The model includes particle escape and diffusion outside of the forward shock, and particle interactions with arbitrary distributions of external ambient material, such as molecular clouds. We include synchrotron emission and cooling, bremsstrahlung radiation, neutral pion production, inverse-Compton (IC), and Coulomb energy-loss. Boardband spectra have been calculated for typical parameters including dense regions of gas external to a 1000 year old SNR. In this paper, we describe the details of our model but do not attempt a detailed fit to any specific remnant. We also do not include magnetic field amplification (MFA), even though this effect may be important in some young remnants. In this first presentation of the model we don't attempt a detailed fit to any specific remnant. Our aim is to develop a flexible platform, which can be generalized to include effects such as MFA, and which can be easily adapted to various SNR environments, including Type Ia SNRs, which explode in a constant density medium, and Type II SNRs, which explode in a pre-supernova wind. When applied to a specific SNR, our model will predict cosmic-ray spectra and multi-wavelength morphology in projected images for instruments with varying spatial and spectral resolutions. We show examples of these spectra and images and emphasize the importance of measurements in the hard X-ray, GeV, and TeV gamma-ray bands for investigating key ingredients in the acceleration mechanism, and for deducing whether or not TeV emission is produced by IC from electrons or pion-decay from protons.

  16. Paradigm Change for Accelerated Stress Testing of Thin-Film Modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hacke, Peter; Spataru, Sergiu; Johnston, Steve

    2017-01-01

    A fundamental change in the analysis for the accelerated stress testing of thin-film modules is proposed, whereby power changes due to metastability and other effects that may occur due to the thermal history are removed from the power measurement that we obtain as a function of the applied stres...

  17. Time-Dependent Electron Acceleration in Pulsar Wind Termination Shocks: Application the 2011 April Crab Nebula Gamma-ray Flare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroon, John; Becker, Peter A.; Finke, Justin

    2018-01-01

    The strongest gamma-ray flare from the Crab nebula observed by Fermi-LAT took place in 2011 April. Emission (up to a few GeV) exceeded the quiescent flux level by more than an order of magnitude. The Crab nebula gamma-ray flares challenge classical particle acceleration models in pulsar wind nebulae, because the radiating electrons have energies exceeding the classical radiation-reaction limit for synchrotron. However, numerical simulations have suggested that the classical synchrotron limit can be exceeded if electrons experience shock-driven electrostatic acceleration due to magnetic reconnection. In this talk, I present and summarize a new time-dependent model based on a transport equation that accounts for electrostatic acceleration, synchrotron losses, and particle escape. We implement a “blob” paradigm in which magnetically confined electrons from the upstream pulsar wind encounter and cross through the termination shock, producing a flare. We show that our model can reproduce the gamma-ray spectra and the integrated light curve for the 2011 April event, and we find that electrostatic acceleration occurs on both sides of the termination shock, driven by magnetic reconnection. We conclude that the dominant mode of particle escape changes from diffusive escape to advective escape as the blob passes through the shock.

  18. Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy Accelerates Regeneration After Acute Skeletal Muscle Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zissler, Angela; Steinbacher, Peter; Zimmermann, Reinhold; Pittner, Stefan; Stoiber, Walter; Bathke, Arne C; Sänger, Alexandra M

    2017-03-01

    Muscle injuries are among the most common sports-related lesions in athletes; however, optimal treatment remains obscure. Extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) may be a promising approach in this context, because it has gained increasing importance in tissue regeneration in various medical fields. ESWT stimulates and accelerates regenerative processes of acute muscle injuries. Controlled laboratory study. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 experimental groups (2 ESWT+ groups and 2 ESWT- groups) as well as an uninjured control group (n ≥ 6 in each group). An acute cardiotoxin-induced injury was set into the quadriceps femoris muscle of rats in the experimental groups. A single ESWT session was administered to injured muscles of the ESWT+ groups 1 day after injury, whereas ESWT- groups received no further treatment. At 4 and 7 days after injury, 1 each of the ESWT+ and ESWT- groups was euthanized. Regenerating lesions were excised and analyzed by histomorphometry and immunohistochemistry to assess fiber size, myonuclear content, and recruitment of satellite cells. The size and myonuclear content of regenerating fibers in ESWT+ muscle was significantly increased compared with ESWT- muscle fibers at both 4 and 7 days after injury. Similarly, at both time points, ESWT+ muscles exhibited significantly higher contents of pax7-positive satellite cells, mitotically active H3P + cells, and, of cells expressing the myogenic regulatory factors, myoD and myogenin, indicating enhanced proliferation and differentiation rates of satellite cells after ESWT. Mitotic activity at 4 days after injury was doubled in ESWT+ compared with ESWT- muscles. ESWT stimulates regeneration of skeletal muscle tissue and accelerates repair processes. We provide evidence for accelerated regeneration of damaged skeletal muscle after ESWT. Although further studies are necessary, our findings support the view that ESWT is an effective method to improve muscle healing, with special

  19. Instability of a Thin Conducting Foil Accelerated by a Finite Wavelength Intense Laser

    CERN Document Server

    Eliasson, Bengt

    2014-01-01

    We derive a theoretical model for the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT)-like instability for a thin foil accelerated by an intense laser, taking into account finite wavelength effects in the laser wave field. The latter leads to the diffraction of the electromagnetic wave off the periodic structures arising from the instability of the foil, which significantly modifies the growth rate of the RT-like instability when the perturbations on the foil have wavenumbers comparable to or larger than the laser wavenumber. In particular, the growth rate has a local maximum at a perturbation wavenumber approximately equal to the laser wavenumber. The standard RT instability, arising from a pressure difference between the two sides of a foil, is approximately recovered for perturbation wavenumbers smaller than the laser wavenumber. Differences in the results for circular and linear polarization of the laser light are pointed out. The model has significance to radiation pressure acceleration of thin foils and to laser-driven inertial c...

  20. Generation of bremsstrahlung during multiple passes of accelerated electrons through a thin target in a betatron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bespalov, V. I.; Kashkovsky, V. V.; Chakhlov, V. L.

    2003-01-01

    In the present work a method of bremsstrahlung generation in a betatron during multiple passes of the accelerated electrons through a thin target-converter is explored with the help of statistical modeling. The results are obtained on a basis of experimentally measured field distributions for the betatrons: MB-6 and B-35. The data of electron orbit dynamics and characteristics of bremsstrahlung field are given depending on parameters of the electron's dumping onto the target and sizes of the target.

  1. Radiative shocks in gas on the Omega laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reighard, A.; Drake, R. P.; Keiter, P.; Korreck, K. E.; Perry, T. S.; Robey, H. A.; Remington, B. A.; Wallace, R. J.; Ryutov, D. D.; Knauer, J.; Calder, A.; Rosner, R.; Fryxell, B.; Arnett, D.; Turner, N.; Stone, J.; Koenig, M.; Bouquet, Serge

    2002-11-01

    A number of astrophysical systems involve radiative shocks that collapse spatially in response to the energy lost through radiation. This is believed to produce thin, dense, unstable shells. We have begun experiments on the Omega laser intended to produce such collapsing shocks and to study their evolution. The experiments use the laser to accelerate a thin slab of Be, which becomes a piston that drives a shock through 1.1 atm of Ar gas at 100 km/s. The shock is predicted to collapse. Experiments are in preparation that will detect the dense layer and also the radiative precursor in front of the shock. We will report their results.

  2. SIMULATION OF ENERGETIC PARTICLE TRANSPORT AND ACCELERATION AT SHOCK WAVES IN A FOCUSED TRANSPORT MODEL: IMPLICATIONS FOR MIXED SOLAR PARTICLE EVENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kartavykh, Y. Y.; Dröge, W. [Institut für Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik, Universität Würzburg, D-97074 Würzburg (Germany); Gedalin, M. [Department of Physics, Ben-Gurion Unversity of the Negev, Beer-Sheva (Israel)

    2016-03-20

    We use numerical solutions of the focused transport equation obtained by an implicit stochastic differential equation scheme to study the evolution of the pitch-angle dependent distribution function of protons in the vicinity of shock waves. For a planar stationary parallel shock, the effects of anisotropic distribution functions, pitch-angle dependent spatial diffusion, and first-order Fermi acceleration at the shock are examined, including the timescales on which the energy spectrum approaches the predictions of diffusive shock acceleration theory. We then consider the case that a flare-accelerated population of ions is released close to the Sun simultaneously with a traveling interplanetary shock for which we assume a simplified geometry. We investigate the consequences of adiabatic focusing in the diverging magnetic field on the particle transport at the shock, and of the competing effects of acceleration at the shock and adiabatic energy losses in the expanding solar wind. We analyze the resulting intensities, anisotropies, and energy spectra as a function of time and find that our simulations can naturally reproduce the morphologies of so-called mixed particle events in which sometimes the prompt and sometimes the shock component is more prominent, by assuming parameter values which are typically observed for scattering mean free paths of ions in the inner heliosphere and energy spectra of the flare particles which are injected simultaneously with the release of the shock.

  3. Ion acceleration with ultra-thin foils using elliptically polarized laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rykovanov, S. G.; Schreiber, J.; Meyer-ter-Vehn, J.; Bellei, C.; Henig, A.; Wu, H. C.; Geissler, M.

    2008-11-01

    We present theoretical considerations on the process of ion acceleration with ultra-thin foils irradiated by elliptically polarized, highly intense laser pulses. Very recently the radiation pressure acceleration regime was predicted where mono-energetic ion bunches can be produced with high efficiencies (Klimo et al 2008 Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 11 031301; Robinson et al 2008 New J. Phys. 10 013021). We have studied the process by means of 1D particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations and analytical models and have considered effects of areal mass density of the target and laser ellipticity on the ion acceleration process. For certain target densities and laser parameters the optimum target thickness has been extracted. Peaked ion spectra are found for ellipticity beyond a threshold value of about 0.7. Here, we highlight the drastic difference between linear and circular polarization by movie animations.

  4. Comparison of the coronal mass ejection shock acceleration of three widespread SEP events during solar cycle 24

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, H.; Mäkelä, P.; St. Cyr, O. C.; Gopalswamy, N.

    2017-07-01

    We studied three solar energetic particle (SEP) events observed on 14 August 2010, 3 November 2011, and 5 March 2013 by Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) A, B, and near-Earth (L1) spacecraft with a longitudinal distribution of particles >90°. Using a forward modeling method combined with extreme ultraviolet and white-light images, we determined the angular extent of the shock, the time and location (cobpoint) of the shock intersection with the magnetic field line connecting to each spacecraft, and compute the shock speed at the cobpoint of each spacecraft. We then examine whether the observations of SEPs at each spacecraft were accelerated and injected by the spatially extended shocks or whether another mechanism such as cross-field transport is required for an alternative explanation. Our analyses results indicate that the SEPs observed at the three spacecraft on 3 November, STEREO B (STB) and L1 on 14 August, and the 5 March SEP event at STEREO A (STA) can be explained by the direct shock acceleration. This is consistent with the observed significant anisotropies, short time delays between particle release times and magnetic connection times, and sharp rises in the SEP time profiles. Cross-field diffusion is the likely cause for the 14 August SEP event observed by STA and the 5 March SEPs observed by STB and L1 spacecraft, as particle observations featured weak electron aniotropies and slow rising intensity profiles. Otherwise, the wide longitudinal spread of these SEP increases would require an existence of a circumsolar shock, which may not be a correct assumption in the corona and heliosphere.

  5. Effects of the diffusive acceleration of particles by shock waves in the primordial matter of the solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustinova, G. K.

    2011-04-01

    The effects of the shock wave diffusive acceleration of particles are considered in the case of formation of isotopic relations of the anomalous Xe- HL component of xenon in relic grains of nanodiamonds in chondrites. It is shown that this component could be formed and captured simultaneously with the nanodiamond synthesis in the conditions of the explosive shock wave propagation from supernova outbursts. The specificity of isotopic composition of Xe- HL is due to the high hardness of the spectrum of nuclear-active particles at the shock wave front and its enrichment with heavy isotopes. The spallogenic nature of both the anomalous and normal components of xenon is ascertained, and the role of the subsequent evolutionary processes in the change of their isotopic systems is shown. Experimental evidence of the formation of the power law spectrum of particles with the spectral index γ ˜ 1 by the supersonic turbulence during the carbon-detonation supernova SnIa explosion is obtained; this perhaps opens new perspectives in studying the problem of the origin of cosmic rays. It is shown that at the stage of free expansion of the explosive shock wave, the degree of compression of the matter at the wave front was σ = 31 (the corresponding Mach number M ˜ 97); this led to a 31-fold increase of the magnetic field as well as of the maximum energy of accelerated particles, so that even the energy of protons reached ˜ 3 × 1015 eV, i.e., the "knee" region.

  6. Neutron-decay Protons from Solar Flares as Seed Particles for CME-shock Acceleration in the Inner Heliosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Ronald J.; Ko, Yuan-Kuen

    2017-09-01

    The protons in large solar energetic particle events are accelerated in the inner heliosphere by fast shocks produced by coronal mass ejections. Unless there are other sources, the protons these shocks act upon would be those of the solar wind (SW). The efficiency of the acceleration depends on the kinetic energy of the protons. For a 2000 km s-1 shock, the most effective proton energies would be 30-100 keV; I.e., within the suprathermal tail component of the SW. We investigate one possible additional source of such protons: those resulting from the decay of solar-flare-produced neutrons that escape from the Sun into the low corona. The neutrons are produced by interactions of flare-accelerated ions with the solar atmosphere. We discuss the production of low-energy neutrons in flares and their decay on a interplanetary magnetic field line near the Sun. We find that even when the flaring conditions are optimal, the 30-100 keV neutron-decay proton density produced by even a very large solar flare would be only about 10% of that of the 30-100 keV SW suprathermal tail. We discuss the implication of a seed-particle source of more frequent, small flares.

  7. SHOCK-CLOUD INTERACTION AND PARTICLE ACCELERATION IN THE SOUTHWESTERN LIMB OF SN 1006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miceli, M.; Orlando, S.; Bocchino, F. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo, Piazza del Parlamento 1, I-90134 Palermo (Italy); Acero, F. [ORAU/NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Astrophysics Science Division, Code 661, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Dubner, G. [Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio (IAFE), UBA-CONICET, CC 67, Suc. 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Decourchelle, A., E-mail: miceli@astropa.unipa.it [Laboratoire AIM-Paris-Saclay, CEA/DSM/Irfu-CNRS-Université Paris Diderot, CE-Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2014-02-20

    The supernova remnant SN 1006 is a powerful source of high-energy particles and evolves in a relatively tenuous and uniform environment despite interacting with an atomic cloud in its northwestern limb. The X-ray image of SN 1006 reveals an indentation in the southwestern part of the shock front and the H I maps show an isolated (southwestern) cloud, having the same velocity as the northwestern cloud, whose morphology fits perfectly in the indentation. We performed spatially resolved spectral analysis of a set of small regions in the southwestern nonthermal limb and studied the deep X-ray spectra obtained within the XMM-Newton SN 1006 Large Program. We also analyzed archive H I data, obtained by combining single-dish and interferometric observations. We found that the best-fit value of N {sub H} derived from the X-ray spectra significantly increases in regions corresponding to the southwestern cloud, while the cutoff energy of the synchrotron emission decreases. The N {sub H} variation corresponds perfectly with the H I column density of the southwestern cloud, as measured from the radio data. The decrease in the cutoff energy at the indentation clearly reveals that the back side of the cloud is actually interacting with the remnant. The southwestern limb therefore presents a unique combination of efficient particle acceleration and high ambient density, thus being the most promising region for γ-ray hadronic emission in SN 1006. We estimate that such emission will be detectable with the Fermi telescope within a few years.

  8. Diffusive Cosmic-Ray Acceleration at Shock Waves of Arbitrary Speed with Magnetostatic Turbulence. I. General Theory and Correct Nonrelativistic Speed Limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlickeiser, R.; Oppotsch, J.

    2017-12-01

    The analytical theory of diffusive acceleration of cosmic rays at parallel stationary shock waves of arbitrary speed with magnetostatic turbulence is developed from first principles. The theory is based on the diffusion approximation to the gyrotropic cosmic-ray particle phase-space distribution functions in the respective rest frames of the up- and downstream medium. We derive the correct cosmic-ray jump conditions for the cosmic-ray current and density, and match the up- and downstream distribution functions at the position of the shock. It is essential to account for the different particle momentum coordinates in the up- and downstream media. Analytical expressions for the momentum spectra of shock-accelerated cosmic rays are calculated. These are valid for arbitrary shock speeds including relativistic shocks. The correctly taken limit for nonrelativistic shock speeds leads to a universal broken power-law momentum spectrum of accelerated particles with velocities well above the injection velocity threshold, where the universal power-law spectral index q≃ 2-{γ }1-4 is independent of the flow compression ratio r. For nonrelativistic shock speeds, we calculate for the first time the injection velocity threshold, settling the long-standing injection problem for nonrelativistic shock acceleration.

  9. Shock wave induced martensitic transformations and morphology changes in Fe-Pd ferromagnetic shape memory alloy thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bischoff, A. J., E-mail: alina.bischoff@iom-leipzig.de; Arabi-Hashemi, A.; Ehrhardt, M.; Lorenz, P.; Zimmer, K. [Leibniz Institute for Surface Modification, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Mayr, S. G., E-mail: stefan.mayr@iom-leipzig.de [Leibniz Institute for Surface Modification, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Department of Physics and Earth Sciences, Leipzig University, Linnéstr. 5, 04103 Leipzig (Germany)

    2016-04-11

    Combining experimental methods and classical molecular dynamics (MD) computer simulations, we explore the martensitic transformation in Fe{sub 70}Pd{sub 30} ferromagnetic shape memory alloy thin films induced by laser shock peening. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope measurements at shock wave pressures of up to 2.5 GPa reveal formation of martensitic variants with preferred orientation of the shorter c-axis of the tetragonal unit cell perpendicular to the surface plane. Moreover, consequential merging of growth islands on the film surface is observed. MD simulations unveil the underlying physics that are characterized by an austenite-martensite transformation with a preferential alignment of the c-axis along the propagation direction of the shock wave, resulting in flattening and in-plane expansion of surface features.

  10. Miniaturized acceleration sensors with in-plane polarized piezoelectric thin films produced by micromachining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugavel, Saravanan; Yao, Kui; Luong, Trung Dung; Oh, Sharon Roslyn; Chen, Yifan; Tan, Chin Yaw; Gaunekar, Ajit; Ng, Peter Hon Yu; Li, Marchy Hing Leung

    2011-11-01

    Miniaturized acceleration sensors employing piezoelectric thin films were fabricated through batch micromachining with silicon and silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafers. The acceleration sensors comprised multiple suspension beams supporting a central seismic mass. Ferroelectric (Pb,La)(Zr,Ti) O(3) (PLZT) thin films were coated and in-plane polarized on the surfaces of the suspension beams for realizing electromechanical conversion through the piezoelectric effect. Interdigital electrodes were formed on the PLZT films and connected in parallel. Finite element analyses were conducted for the stress and strain distributions, providing guidance to the structural design, including optimizing electrode positioning for collecting the electrical output constructively. Uniformity of the beam thickness and sample consistency were significantly improved by using SOI wafers instead of silicon wafers. The measurement results showed that all the sensor samples had fundamental resonances of symmetric out-of-plane vibration mode at frequencies in the range of 8 to 35 kHz, depending on the sample dimensions. These sensors exhibited stable electrical outputs in response to acceleration input, achieving a high signal-to-noise ratio without any external amplifier or signal conditioning.

  11. Experimental studies on the deformation and rupture of thin metal plates subject to underwater shock wave loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Pengwan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the dynamic deformation and rupture of thin metal plates subject to underwater shock wave loading are studied by using high-speed 3D digital image correlation (3D-DIC. An equivalent device consist of a gas gun and a water anvil tube was used to supplying an exponentially decaying pressure in lieu of explosive detonation which acted on the panel specimen. The thin metal plate is clamped on the end of the shock tube by a flange. The deformation and rupture process of the metal plates subject to underwater shock waves are recorded by two high-speed cameras. The shape, displacement fields and strain fields of the metal plates under dynamic loading are obtained by using VIC-3D digital image correlation software. The strain gauges also were used to monitor the structural response on the selected position for comparison. The DIC data and the strain gauges results show a high level of correlation, and 3D-DIC is proven to be an effective method to measure 3D full-field dynamic response of structures under underwater impact loading. The effects of pre-notches on the failure modes of thin circular plate were also discussed.

  12. A Thin Lens Model for Charged-Particle RF Accelerating Gaps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, Christopher K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Presented is a thin-lens model for an RF accelerating gap that considers general axial fields without energy dependence or other a priori assumptions. Both the cosine and sine transit time factors (i.e., Fourier transforms) are required plus two additional functions; the Hilbert transforms the transit-time factors. The combination yields a complex-valued Hamiltonian rotating in the complex plane with synchronous phase. Using Hamiltonians the phase and energy gains are computed independently in the pre-gap and post-gap regions then aligned using the asymptotic values of wave number. Derivations of these results are outlined, examples are shown, and simulations with the model are presented.

  13. Generation of bremsstrahlung during multiple passes of accelerated electrons through a thin target in a betatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bespalov, V.I. E-mail: bvi@chair12.phtd.tpu.edu.ru; Kashkovsky, V.V.; Chakhlov, V.L

    2003-01-01

    In the present work a method of bremsstrahlung generation in a betatron during multiple passes of the accelerated electrons through a thin target-converter is explored with the help of statistical modeling. The results are obtained on a basis of experimentally measured field distributions for the betatrons: MB-6 and B-35. The data of electron orbit dynamics and characteristics of bremsstrahlung field are given depending on parameters of the electron's dumping onto the target and sizes of the target.

  14. Charged-particle acceleration through laser irradiation of thin foils at Prague Asterix Laser System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrisi, Lorenzo; Cutroneo, Maria; Cavallaro, Salvatore; Musumeci, Paolo; Calcagno, Lucia; Wolowski, Jerzy; Rosinski, Marcin; Zaras-Szydlowska, Agnieszka; Ullschmied, Jiri; Krousky, Eduard; Pfeifer, Miroslav; Skala, Jiri; Velyhan, Andreiy

    2014-05-01

    Thin foils, 0.5-50 μm in thickness, have been irradiated in vacuum at Prague Asterix Laser System in Prague using 1015-16 W cm-2 laser intensity, 1315 nm wavelength, 300 ps pulse duration and different focal positions. Produced plasmas from metals and polymers films have been monitored in the forward and backward directions. Ion and electron accelerations have been investigated by using Thomson parabola spectrometer, x-ray streak camera, ion collectors and SiC semiconductor detectors, the latter employed in time-of-flight configuration. Ion acceleration up to about 3 MeV per charge state was measured in the forward direction. Ion and electron emissions were detected at different angles as a function of the irradiation conditions.

  15. Simulations of laser-driven ion acceleration from a thin CH target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jaehong; Bulanov, Stepan; Ji, Qing; Steinke, Sven; Treffert, Franziska; Vay, Jean-Luc; Schenkel, Thomas; Esarey, Eric; Leemans, Wim; Vincenti, Henri

    2017-10-01

    2D and 3D computer simulations of laser driven ion acceleration from a thin CH foil using code WARP were performed. As the foil thickness varies from a few nm to μm, the simulations confirm that the acceleration mechanism transitions from the RPA (radiation pressure acceleration) to the TNSA (target normal sheath acceleration). In the TNSA regime, with the CH target thickness of 1 μ m and a pre-plasma ahead of the target, the simulations show the production of the collimated proton beam with the maximum energy of about 10 MeV. This agrees with the experimental results obtained at the BELLA laser facility (I 5 × 18 W / cm2 , λ = 800 nm). Furthermore, the maximum proton energy dependence on different setups of the initialization, i.e., different angles of the laser incidence from the target normal axis, different gradient scales and distributions of the pre-plasma, was explored. This work was supported by LDRD funding from LBNL, provided by the U.S. DOE under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231, and used resources of the NERSC, a DOE office of Science User Facility supported by the U.S. DOE under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231.

  16. Quantitative numerical and experimental studies of the shock accelerated heterogeneous bubbles motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layes, G.; Le Métayer, O.

    2007-04-01

    This work deals with quantitative comparisons between experimental and numerical results for shock-bubbles interactions. The bubbles are filled with three different gases (nitrogen, krypton and helium) surrounded by air in order to investigate all kind of density jumps across the interface. For each case, three incident shock wave intensities are also studied. The experiments are led by using a shock tube coupled with a visualization diagnostic device: the T80 shock tube [G. Jourdan, L. Houas, L. Schwaederlé, G. Layes, R. Carrey, and F. Diaz, "A new variable inclination shock tube for multiple investigations," Shock Waves 13, 501 (2004)]. Considering the same initial and geometrical conditions, the numerical results are obtained with the help of a recent numerical method: the discrete equations method [R. Abgrall and R. Saurel, "Discrete equations for physical and numerical compressible multiphase mixtures," J. Comput. Phys. 186, 361 (2003); R. Saurel, S. Gavrilyuk, and F. Renaud, "A multiphase model with internal degrees of freedom: Application to shock-bubble interaction," J. Fluid Mech. 495, 283 (2003); A. Chinnayya, E. Daniel, and R. Saurel, "Modelling detonation waves in heterogeneous energetic materials," J. Comput. Phys. 196, 490 (2004); O. Le Métayer, J. Massoni, and R. Saurel, "Modelling evaporation fronts with reactive Riemann solvers," J. Comput. Phys. 205, 567 (2005)], devoted to the computation of interface problems as well as multiphase mixtures. For each configuration, the quantitative comparisons are in good agreement showing the capability of both methods (numerical and experimental) to describe complex physical flows.

  17. Ion-acoustic Shocks with Self-Regulated Ion Reflection and Acceleration

    CERN Document Server

    Malkov, M A; Dudnikova, G I; Liseykina, T V; Diamond, P H; Papadopoulos, K; Liu, C-S; Su, J-J

    2015-01-01

    An analytic solution describing an ion-acoustic collisionless shock, self-consistently with the evolution of shock-reflected ions, is obtained. The solution extends the classic soliton solution beyond a critical Mach number, where the soliton ceases to exist because of the upstream ion reflection. The reflection transforms the soliton into a shock with a trailing wave and a foot populated by the reflected ions. The solution relates parameters of the entire shock structure, such as the maximum and minimum of the potential in the trailing wave, the height of the foot, as well as the shock Mach number, to the number of reflected ions. This relation is resolvable for any given distribution of the upstream ions. In this paper, we have resolved it for a simple "box" distribution. Two separate models of electron interaction with the shock are considered. The first model corresponds to the standard Boltzmannian electron distribution in which case the critical shock Mach number only insignificantly increases from M=1....

  18. Studies of Ion Acceleration from Thin Solid-Density Targets on High-Intensity Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Christopher R.

    Over the past two decades, a number of experiments have been performed demonstrating the acceleration of ions from the interaction of an intense laser pulse with a thin, solid density target. These ions are accelerated by quasi-static electric fields generated by energetic electrons produced at the front of the target, resulting in ion energies up to tens of MeV. These ions have been widely studied for a variety of potential applications ranging from treatment of cancer to the production of neutrons for advanced radiography techniques. However, realization of these applications will require further optimization of the maximum energy, spectrum, or species of the accelerated ions, which has been a primary focus of research to date. This thesis presents two experiments designed to optimize several characteristics of the accelerated ion beam. The first of these experiments took place on the GHOST laser system at the University of Texas at Austin, and was designed to demonstrate reliable acceleration of deuterium ions, as needed for the most efficient methods of neutron generation from accelerated ions. This experiment leveraged cryogenically cooled targets coated in D2 O ice to suppress the protons which typically dominate the accelerated ions, producing as many as 2 x 1010 deuterium ions per 1 J laser shot, exceeding the proton yield by an average ratio of 5:1. The second major experiment in this work was performed on the Scarlet laser system at The Ohio State University, and studied the accelerated ion energy, yield, and spatial distribution as a function of the target thickness. In principle, the peak energy increases with decreasing target thickness, with the thinnest targets accessing additional acceleration mechanisms which provide favorable scaling with the laser intensity. However, laser prepulse characteristics provide a lower bound for the target thickness, yielding an optimum target thickness for ion acceleration which is dependent on the laser system. This

  19. The Acceleration of High-energy Protons at Coronal Shocks: The Effect of Large-scale Streamer-like Magnetic Field Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiangliang; Guo, Fan; Giacalone, Joe; Li, Hui; Chen, Yao

    2017-12-01

    Recent observations have shown that coronal shocks driven by coronal mass ejections can develop and accelerate particles within several solar radii in large solar energetic particle (SEP) events. Motivated by this, we present an SEP acceleration study that including the process in which a fast shock propagates through a streamer-like magnetic field with both closed and open field lines in the low corona region. The acceleration of protons is modeled by numerically solving the Parker transport equation with spatial diffusion both along and across the magnetic field. We show that particles can be sufficiently accelerated to up to several hundred MeV within 2-3 solar radii. When the shock propagates through a streamer-like magnetic field, particles are more efficiently accelerated compared to the case with a simple radial magnetic field, mainly due to perpendicular shock geometry and the natural trapping effect of closed magnetic fields. Our results suggest that the coronal magnetic field configuration is an important factor for producing large SEP events. We further show that the coronal magnetic field configuration strongly influences the distribution of energetic particles, leading to different locations of source regions along the shock front where most high-energy particles are concentrated. This work may have strong implications for SEP observations. The upcoming Parker Solar Probe will provide in situ observations for the distribution of energetic particles in the coronal shock region, and test the results of the study.

  20. Prompt Acceleration of Magnetospheric Electrons to Ultrarelativistic Energies by the 17 March 2015 Interplanetary Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanekal, S. G.; Baker, D. N.; Fennell, J. F.; Jones, A.; Schiller, Q.; Richardson, I.G.; Li, X.; Turner, D. L.; Califf, S.; Claudepierre, S. G.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Trapped electrons in Earth's outer Van Allen radiation belt are influenced profoundly by solar phenomena such as high-speed solar wind streams, coronal mass ejections (CME), and interplanetary (IP) shocks. In particular, strong IP shocks compress the magnetosphere suddenly and result in rapid energization of electrons within minutes. It is believed that the electric fields induced by the rapid change in the geomagnetic field are responsible for the energization. During the latter part of March 2015, a CME impact led to the most powerful geomagnetic storm (minimum Dst = -223 nT at 17 March, 23 UT) observed not only during the Van Allen Probe era but also the entire preceding decade. Magnetospheric response in the outer radiation belt eventually resulted in elevated levels of energized electrons. The CME itself was preceded by a strong IP shock whose immediate effects vis-a-vis electron energization were observed by sensors on board the Van Allen Probes. The comprehensive and high-quality data from the Van Allen Probes enable the determination of the location of the electron injection, timescales, and spectral aspects of the energized electrons. The observations clearly show that ultrarelativistic electrons with energies E greater than 6 MeV were injected deep into the magnetosphere at L approximately equals 3 within about 2 min of the shock impact. However, electrons in the energy range of approximately equals 250 keV to approximately equals 900 keV showed no immediate response to the IP shock. Electric and magnetic fields resulting from the shock-driven compression complete the comprehensive set of observations that provide a full description of the near-instantaneous electron energization.

  1. Thin liquid sheet target capabilities for ultra-intense laser acceleration of ions at a kHz repetition rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klim, Adam; Morrison, J. T.; Orban, C.; Feister, S.; Ngirmang, G. K.; Smith, J.; Frische, K.; Peterson, A. C.; Chowdhury, E. A.; Freeman, R. R.; Roquemore, W. M.

    2016-10-01

    The success of laser-accelerated ion experiments depends crucially on a number of factors including how thin the targets can be created. We present experimental results demonstrating extremely thin (under 200 nm) water sheet targets that can be used for ultra-intense laser-accelerated ion experiments conducted at the Air Force Research Laboratory at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. Importantly, these experiments operate at a kHz repetition rate and the recovery time of the liquid targets is fast enough to allow the laser to interact with a refreshed, thin target on every shot. We present results from liquid water targets which are useful for proton acceleration experiments via the mechanism of Target Normal Sheath Acceleration (TNSA). In future work, we will create thin sheets from deuterated water in order to perform laser-accelerated deuteron experiments. This research was sponsored by the Quantum and Non-Equilibrium Processes Division of the AFOSR, under the management of Dr. Enrique Parra, and support from the DOD HPCMP Internship Program.

  2. Shock-Resistibility of MEMS-Based Inertial Microswitch under Reverse Directional Ultra-High g Acceleration for IoT Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qiu; Yang, Zhuoqing; Sun, Yunna; Lai, Liyan; Jin, Zhiyu; Ding, Guifu; Zhao, Xiaolin; Yao, Jinyuan; Wang, Jing

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents a novel MEMS-based inertial microswitch design with multi-directional compact constraint structures for improving the shock-resistibility. Its shock-resistibility in the reverse-sensitive direction to ultra-high g acceleration (~hunderds of thousands) is simulated and analyzed. The dynamic response process indicates that in the designed inertial microswitch the proof mass weight G, the whole system’s stiffness k and the gap x2 between the proof mass and reverse constraint blocks have significant effect on the shock-resistibility. The MEMS inertial microswitch micro-fabricated by surface micromachining has been evaluated using the drop hammer test. The maximum allowable reverse acceleration, which does not cause the spurious trigger, is defined as the reverse acceleration threshold (athr). Test results show that athr increases with the decrease of the gap x2, and the proposed microswitch tends to have a better shock-resistibility under smaller gap. The measured responses of the microswitches with and without constraint structure indicates that the device without constraint structure is prone to spurious trigger, while the designed constraint structures can effectively improve the shock-resistibility. In this paper, the method for improving the shock-resistibility and reducing the spurious trigger has been discussed.

  3. Shock-Resistibility of MEMS-Based Inertial Microswitch under Reverse Directional Ultra-High g Acceleration for IoT Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qiu; Yang, Zhuoqing; Sun, Yunna; Lai, Liyan; Jin, Zhiyu; Ding, Guifu; Zhao, Xiaolin; Yao, Jinyuan; Wang, Jing

    2017-03-31

    This paper presents a novel MEMS-based inertial microswitch design with multi-directional compact constraint structures for improving the shock-resistibility. Its shock-resistibility in the reverse-sensitive direction to ultra-high g acceleration (~hunderds of thousands) is simulated and analyzed. The dynamic response process indicates that in the designed inertial microswitch the proof mass weight G, the whole system's stiffness k and the gap x2 between the proof mass and reverse constraint blocks have significant effect on the shock-resistibility. The MEMS inertial microswitch micro-fabricated by surface micromachining has been evaluated using the drop hammer test. The maximum allowable reverse acceleration, which does not cause the spurious trigger, is defined as the reverse acceleration threshold (athr). Test results show that athr increases with the decrease of the gap x2, and the proposed microswitch tends to have a better shock-resistibility under smaller gap. The measured responses of the microswitches with and without constraint structure indicates that the device without constraint structure is prone to spurious trigger, while the designed constraint structures can effectively improve the shock-resistibility. In this paper, the method for improving the shock-resistibility and reducing the spurious trigger has been discussed.

  4. Fluid-structure-interaction analysis for welded pipes with flow-accelerated corrosion wall thinning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, L.; Ding, Y., E-mail: lan.sun@cnl.ca [Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    The flow-accelerated corrosion (FAC) entrance effect results in enhanced wall thinning immediately downstream of a weld if the weld connects an upstream FAC-resistant material with a downstream less resistant material. The weld regions, especially those with local repairs, are susceptible to cracking due to the high residual stresses induced by fabrication. The combined effects of the FAC entrance effect and high stresses at a weld might compromise the structural integrity of the piping and lead to a failure. Weld degradation by FAC entrance effect has been observed at nuclear and fossil power plants. This paper describes an application using fluid-structure-interaction (FSI) modelling to study the combined effects of FAC wall thinning, weld residual stresses, and in-service loads on welded structures. Simplified cases analyzed were based on CANDU outlet feeder conditions. The analysis includes the flow and mass transfer modelling of the FAC entrance effect using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and nonlinear structural analyses of the welded structures with wall thinning and an assumed weld residual stress and strain distribution. The FSI analyses were performed using ANSYS Workbench, an integrated platform that enables the coupling of CFD and structural analysis solutions. The obtained results show that the combination of FAC, weld residual stresses, in-service loads (including the internal pressure) and (or) extreme loads could cause high stresses and affect the integrity of the welded pipes. The present work demonstrated that the FSI modelling can be used as an effective approach to assess the integrity of welded structures. (author)

  5. Proton Acceleration Driven by a Nanosecond Laser from a Cryogenic Thin Solid-Hydrogen Ribbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Margarone

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A high-power pulsed laser is focused onto a solid-hydrogen target to accelerate forward a collimated stream of protons in the range 0.1–1 MeV, carrying a very high energy of about 30 J (∼5% laser-ion conversion efficiency and extremely large charge of about ∼0.1  mC per laser pulse. This result is achieved for the first time through the combination of a sophisticated target system (H_{2} thin ribbon operating at cryogenic temperature (∼10  K and a very hot H plasma (∼300  keV “hot electron” temperature generated by a subnanosecond laser with an intensity of ∼3×10^{16}  W/cm^{2}. Both the H plasma and the accelerated proton beam are fully characterized by in situ and ex situ diagnostics. Results obtained using the ELISE (experiments on laser interaction with solid hydrogen H_{2} target delivery system at PALS (Prague kJ-class laser facility are presented and discussed along with potential multidisciplinary applications.

  6. Heat Shock Followed by Priming Increases the Quality of Agropyron elongatum Seeds under Accelerated Ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malihe AKBARPOUR BAHREH

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to examine the possibilities of obtaining primed seeds that maintain high germination quality and the same longevity as the untreated seeds. For Tall wheatgrass tested, we found that the desired longevity could be obtained by keeping the seeds under heat shock for a period of several hours, after a priming treatment. Decreasing germination and seedling vigour in BAP 25 and 50 ppm, for 24 priming, did not happen again due to such a treatment. In addition, following priming, heat shock affects the initial quality of primed seeds in some treatments. Optimal temperature was strongly duration dependent. The method was applied to obtain primed seeds without the loss of storability, which is similar to those procedures used to induce desiccation tolerance in germinated seeds and acquire thermo tolerance in plant vegetative tissues.

  7. Quasi-monoenergetic ion beam acceleration by laser-driven shock and solitary waves in near-critical plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, W. L.; Qiao, B., E-mail: bqiao@pku.edu.cn; Huang, T. W.; Shen, X. F.; You, W. Y. [Center for Applied Physics and Technology, HEDPS, and State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Extreme Optics, Shanxi University, Taiyuan, Shanxi 030006 (China); Yan, X. Q. [Center for Applied Physics and Technology, HEDPS, and State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Wu, S. Z. [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100094 (China); Zhou, C. T.; He, X. T. [Center for Applied Physics and Technology, HEDPS, and State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100094 (China)

    2016-07-15

    Ion acceleration in near-critical plasmas driven by intense laser pulses is investigated theoretically and numerically. A theoretical model has been given for clarification of the ion acceleration dynamics in relation to different laser and target parameters. Two distinct regimes have been identified, where ions are accelerated by, respectively, the laser-induced shock wave in the weakly driven regime (comparatively low laser intensity) and the nonlinear solitary wave in the strongly driven regime (comparatively high laser intensity). Two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations show that quasi-monoenergetic proton beams with a peak energy of 94.6 MeV and an energy spread 15.8% are obtained by intense laser pulses at intensity I{sub 0} = 3 × 10{sup 20 }W/cm{sup 2} and pulse duration τ = 0.5 ps in the strongly driven regime, which is more advantageous than that got in the weakly driven regime. In addition, 233 MeV proton beams with narrow spread can be produced by extending τ to 1.0 ps in the strongly driven regime.

  8. High-throughput shock investigation of thin film thermites and thermites in fluoropolymer binder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matveev, Sergey; Basset, Will; Dlott, Dana; Lee, Evyn; Maria, Jon-Paul; University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Collaboration; North Carolina State University Collaboration

    2017-06-01

    Investigation of nanofabricated thermite systems with respect to their energy release is presented. The knowledge obtained by utilization of a high-throughput tabletop shock-system provides essential information that can be used to tune properties of reactive materials towards a desired application. Our shock system launches 0.25-0.75 mm flyer plates, which can reach velocities of 0.5-6 km s-1 and shock durations of 4 - 16 ns. In current studies, emission was detected by a home-built pyrometer. Various reactive materials with differing composition (Al/CuO and Zr/CuO nanolaminates; Al/CuO/PVDF); Al, Zr, CuO standards) and varying interfacial area, were impacted at velocities spanning the available range to ascertain reaction thresholds. Our results show that reaction-impact threshold for the thermite systems under consideration is Office under Award W911NF-16-1-0406.

  9. Study of thin-walled structure behavior under shock-wave loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilov, M. N.; Adishchev, V. V.; Fedorova, N. N.

    2017-10-01

    The paper presents the results of an experimental and numerical investigation of the deformation process of duraluminium plates under the action of a shock wave formed as a result of the explosion of a condensed explosive. The character of the deformation and destruction of the plate fixed along the perimeter is determined. It is shown that the plate is deformed according to the "envelope" scheme. The residual plastic deformation of the plate is determined. The shock wave load is described by semi-empirical dependences. The results of the calculations coincide with the experimental data.

  10. Self-consistent Monte Carlo simulations of proton acceleration in coronal shocks: Effect of anisotropic pitch-angle scattering of particles

    CERN Document Server

    Afanasiev, Alexandr; Vainio, Rami

    2016-01-01

    Context. Solar energetic particles observed in association with coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are produced by the CME-driven shock waves. The acceleration of particles is considered to be due to diffusive shock acceleration (DSA). Aims. We aim at a better understanding of DSA in the case of quasi-parallel shocks, in which self-generated turbulence in the shock vicinity plays a key role. Methods. We have developed and applied a new Monte Carlo simulation code for acceleration of protons in parallel coronal shocks. The code performs a self-consistent calculation of resonant interactions of particles with Alfv\\'en waves based on the quasi-linear theory. In contrast to the existing Monte Carlo codes of DSA, the new code features the full quasi-linear resonance condition of particle pitch-angle scattering. This allows us to take anisotropy of particle pitch-angle scattering into account, while the older codes implement an approximate resonance condition leading to isotropic scattering.We performed simulations with...

  11. Ultrafast Laser-Shock-Induced Confined Metaphase Transformation for Direct Writing of Black Phosphorus Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Gang; Nian, Qiong; Motlag, Maithilee; Jin, Shengyu; Deng, Biwei; Deng, Yexin; Charnas, Adam R; Ye, Peide D; Cheng, Gary J

    2018-01-16

    Few-layer black phosphorus (BP) has emerged as one of the most promising candidates for post-silicon electronic materials due to its outstanding electrical and optical properties. However, lack of large-scale BP thin films is still a major roadblock to further applications. The most widely used methods for obtaining BP thin films are mechanical exfoliation and liquid exfoliation. Herein, a method of directly synthesizing continuous BP thin films with the capability of patterning arbitrary shapes by employing ultrafast laser writing with confinement is reported. The physical mechanism of confined laser metaphase transformation is understood by molecular dynamics simulation. Ultrafast laser ablation of BP layer under confinement can induce transient nonequilibrium high-temperature and high-pressure conditions for a few picoseconds. Under optimized laser intensity, this process induces a metaphase transformation to form a crystalline BP thin film on the substrate. Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy techniques are utilized to characterize the morphology of the resulting BP thin films. Field-effect transistors are fabricated on the BP films to study their electrical properties. This unique approach offers a general methodology to mass produce large-scale patterned BP films with a one-step manufacturing process that has the potential to be applied to other 2D materials. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Flow Topology of Three-Dimensional Spherical Flame in Shock Accelerated Flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuejin Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The flow topologies of compressible large-scale distorted flames are studied by means of the analysis of the invariants of the velocity gradient tensor (VGT. The results indicate that compressibility plays a minor role in the distorted flame zone. And the joint probability density function (p.d.f. of the Q-R diagram appears as a teardrop shape, which is a universal feature of turbulence. Therefore, the distorted flame exhibits the characteristic of large-scale turbulence combustion, especially behind the reflected shock wave, while the p.d.f. of the QS⁎-QW diagram implies that the dissipation is enhanced in the compression and expansion regions, where it is higher than that when P=0. Furthermore, we identify that the flame evolution is dominated by rotation by means of a quantitative statistical study, and the SFS topology is the predominant flow pattern. Not surprisingly, negative dilatation could suppress the unstable topologies, whereas positive dilatation could suppress the stable topologies.

  13. Observation of energy-time dispersed ion structures in the magnetosheath by CLUSTER: possible signatures of transient acceleration processes at shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Louarn

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available We analyse energy-time dispersed ion signatures that have been observed by CLUSTER in the dayside magnetosheath. These events are characterized by sudden increases in the ion flux at energies larger than 10 keV. The high energy ions (30 keV are first detected, with the transition to the low energy ions (5 keV lasting about 100 s. These injections are often associated with transient plasma structures of a few minutes in duration, characterized by a hotter, less dense plasma and a diverted flow velocity, thus presenting similarities with "hot flow anomalies". They also involve modifications of the magnetic field direction, suggesting that the shock interacts with a solar wind discontinuity at the time of the event. The injections can originate from the magnetosphere or the shock region. Studying in detail a particular event, we discuss this last hypothesis. We show that the observed energy/time dispersion can be explained by combining a time-of-flight effect with a drift of the source of energetic particles along the shock. We propose that the acceleration results from a Fermi process linked to the interaction of the discontinuity with a quasi-perpendicular shock. This model explains the observed pitch-angle selection of the accelerated particles. The Fermi process acting on the beam of ions reflected from the shock appears to be sufficiently efficient to accelerate over short time scales (less than 30 s particles at energies above 30 keV.Key words. Magnetospheric physics (solar-wind-magnetosphere interaction; magnetosheath – Space plasma physics (shock waves

  14. Observation of energy-time dispersed ion structures in the magnetosheath by CLUSTER: possible signatures of transient acceleration processes at shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Louarn

    Full Text Available We analyse energy-time dispersed ion signatures that have been observed by CLUSTER in the dayside magnetosheath. These events are characterized by sudden increases in the ion flux at energies larger than 10 keV. The high energy ions (30 keV are first detected, with the transition to the low energy ions (5 keV lasting about 100 s. These injections are often associated with transient plasma structures of a few minutes in duration, characterized by a hotter, less dense plasma and a diverted flow velocity, thus presenting similarities with "hot flow anomalies". They also involve modifications of the magnetic field direction, suggesting that the shock interacts with a solar wind discontinuity at the time of the event. The injections can originate from the magnetosphere or the shock region. Studying in detail a particular event, we discuss this last hypothesis. We show that the observed energy/time dispersion can be explained by combining a time-of-flight effect with a drift of the source of energetic particles along the shock. We propose that the acceleration results from a Fermi process linked to the interaction of the discontinuity with a quasi-perpendicular shock. This model explains the observed pitch-angle selection of the accelerated particles. The Fermi process acting on the beam of ions reflected from the shock appears to be sufficiently efficient to accelerate over short time scales (less than 30 s particles at energies above 30 keV.

    Key words. Magnetospheric physics (solar-wind-magnetosphere interaction; magnetosheath – Space plasma physics (shock waves

  15. Thin film studies toward improving the performance of accelerator electron sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamun, Md Abdullah [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States)

    2016-05-31

    Future electron accelerators require DC high voltage photoguns to operate beyond the present state of the art to conduct new experiments that require ultra-bright electron beams with high average current and higher bunch charge. To meet these demands, the accelerators must demonstrate improvements in a number of photogun areas including vacuum, field emission elimination in high voltage electrodes, and photocathodes. This dissertation illustrates how these improvements can be achieved by the application of suitable thin-films to the photogun structure for producing ultra-bright electron beams. This work is composed of three complementary studies. First, the outgassing rates of three nominally identical 304L stainless steel vacuum chambers were studied to determine the effects of chamber coatings (silicon and titanium nitride) and heat treatments. For an uncoated stainless steel chamber, the diffusion limited outgassing was taken over by the recombination limited process as soon as a low outgassing rate of ~1.79(±0.05) x 10-13 Torr L s-1 cm-2 was achieved. An amorphous silicon coating on the stainless steel chambers exhibited recombination limited behavior and any heat treatment became ineffective in reducing the outgassing rate. A TiN coated chamber yielded the smallest apparent outgassing rate of all the chambers: 6.44(±0.05) x 10-13 Torr L s-1 cm-2 following an initial 90 °C bake and 2(±20) x 10-16 Torr L s-1 cm-2 following the final bake in the series. This perceived low outgassing rate was attributed to the small pumping nature of TiN coating itself. Second, the high voltage performance of three TiN-coated aluminum electrodes, before and after gas conditioning with helium, were compared to that of bare aluminum electrodes and electrodes manufactured from titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V). This study suggests that aluminum electrodes, coated with TiN, could simplify

  16. Mono-energetic ion beams accelerated in the interaction of an ultrashort intense laser with ultra-thin solid targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Arefiev, Alexey; McGuffey, Christopher; Beg, Farhat

    2017-10-01

    We performed particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations to study the ion acceleration by the interaction of an ultra-short (35fs) intense laser (1020W/cm2) with ultra-thin (6-100nm) copper targets. We aimed at investigating how ions are accelerated from thin targets, and focus on the regime in which targets remain intact and not broken through by the laser pulse. The target thicknesses were scanned, and we found that the ionization of copper ions to high Z states occurred during the acceleration. The mono-energetic high Z ion beams were observed only for the target thickness of 20nm with energies near 400 MeV. We conducted the particle tracking diagnostic to study the underline physics and mechanism of the acceleration, and the details will be presented in the meeting. This material is based upon work supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research under Award Number FA FA9550-14-1-0282. This work was performed using HPC resources provided by the Texas Advanced Computing Center at the University of Texas; This work also used the Extreme Science and Engineering Discovery Environment (XSEDE), which is supported by National Science Foundation Grant Number ACI-1548562.

  17. Statistical comparison between experiments and numerical simulations of shock-accelerated gas cylinders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rider, William; Kamm, J. R. (James R.); Zoldi, C. A. (Cindy A.); Tomkins, C. D. (Chris D.)

    2002-01-01

    We present detailed spatial analysis comparing experimental data and numerical simulation results for Richtmyer-Meshkov instability experiments of Prestridge et al. and Tomkins et al. These experiments consist, respectively, of one and two diffuse cylinders of sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) impulsively accelerated by a Mach 1.2 shockwave in air. The subsequent fluid evolution and mixing is driven by the deposition of baroclinic vorticity at the interface between the two fluids. Numerical simulations of these experiments are performed with three different versions of high resolution finite volume Godunov methods, including a new weighted adaptive Runge-Kutta (WARK) scheme. We quantify the nature of the mixing using using integral measures as well as fractal analysis and continuous wavelet transforms. Our investigation of the gas cylinder configurations follows the path of our earlier studies of the geometrically and dynamically more complex gas 'curtain' experiment. In those studies, we found significant discrepancies in the details of the experimentally measured mixing and the details of the numerical simulations. Here we evaluate the effects of these hydrodynamic integration techniques on the diffuse gas cylinder simulations, which we quantitatively compare with experimental data.

  18. Time-dependent Electron Acceleration in Pulsar Wind Termination Shocks: Application to the 2011 April Crab Nebula Gamma-Ray Flare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroon, John J.; Becker, Peter A.; Finke, Justin D.

    2018-01-01

    The γ-ray flares from the Crab Nebula observed by AGILE and Fermi-LAT between 2007 and 2013 reached GeV photon energies and lasted several days. The strongest emission, observed during the 2011 April “superflare”, exceeded the quiescent level by more than an order of magnitude. These observations challenge the standard models for particle acceleration in pulsar wind nebulae, because the radiating electrons have energies exceeding the classical radiation-reaction limit for synchrotron emission. Particle-in-cell simulations have suggested that the classical synchrotron limit can be exceeded if the electrons also experience electrostatic acceleration due to shock-driven magnetic reconnection. In this paper, we revisit the problem using an analytic approach based on solving a fully time-dependent electron transport equation describing the electrostatic acceleration, synchrotron losses, and escape experienced by electrons in a magnetically confined plasma “blob” as it encounters and passes through the pulsar wind termination shock. We show that our model can reproduce the γ-ray spectra observed during the rising and decaying phases of each of the two sub-flare components of the 2011 April superflare. We integrate the spectrum for photon energies ≥slant 100 MeV to obtain the light curve for the event, which also agrees with the observations. We find that strong electrostatic acceleration occurs on both sides of the termination shock, driven by magnetic reconnection. We also find that the dominant mode of particle escape changes from diffusive escape to advective escape as the blob passes through the shock.

  19. A Modified FEM for Transverse and Lateral Vibration Analysis of Thin Beams Under a Mass Moving with a Variable Acceleration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Esen

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, a new modified finite element method that can be used in the analysis of transverse and lateral vibrations of the thin beams under a point mass moving with a variable acceleration and constant jerk is presented. Jerk is the change in acceleration over time. In this method, the classical finite element of the beam is modified by the inclusion of the inertial effects of the moving mass. This modification is made using the relations between nodal forces and nodal deflections and shape functions of six DOF beam element. The mass, stiffness, and damping matrices of the modified finite element are determined by forces caused by the corresponding transverse and lateral accelerations and jerks, and transverse Coriolis and centripetal accelerations and jerks, respectively. This method was first applied on a simply supported beam plate to provide a comparison with the previous studies in literature, and it was proved that the results were within acceptable limits. Secondly, it was applied on a CNC type box-framed beam to analyse the dynamic response of the beam in terms of variable acceleration and jerk as well as constant velocity and mass ratios.

  20. Particle size and surface area effects on the thin-pulse shock initiation of Diaminoazoxyfurazan (DAAF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burritt, Rosemary; Francois, Elizabeth; Windler, Gary; Chavez, David

    2017-06-01

    Diaminoazoxyfurazan (DAAF) has many of the safety characteristics of an insensitive high explosive (IHE): it is extremely insensitive to impact and friction and is comparable to triaminotrinitrobezene (TATB) in this way. Conversely, it demonstrates many performance characteristics of a Conventional High Explosive (CHE). DAAF has a small failure diameter of about 1.25 mm and can be sensitive to shock under the right conditions. Large particle sized DAAF will not initiate in a typical exploding foil initiator (EFI) configuration but smaller particle sizes will. Large particle sized DAAF, of 40 μm, was crash precipitated and ball milled into six distinct samples and pressed into pellets with a density of 1.60 g/cc (91% TMD). To investigate the effect of particle size and surface area on the direct initiation on DAAF multiple threshold tests were preformed on each sample of DAAF in different EFI configurations, which varied in flyer thickness and/or bridge size. Comparative tests were performed examining threshold voltage and correlated to Photon Doppler Velocimetry (PDV) results. The samples with larger particle sizes and surface area required more energy to initiate while the smaller particle sizes required less energy and could be initiated with smaller diameter flyers.

  1. [Effects of glutathione on plasma heat shock protein 70 of acute gastric mucosal injury in rats exposed to positive acceleration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Ying-tan; Li, Jing; Chen, Ying; Yang, Chun-min; Tang, He-lan; Wang, Jian-chang

    2013-12-01

    To explore the change of plasma heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) in rats exposed to acute gastric mucosal injury under the condition of positive acceleration (+Gz) and elucidate the effects of glutathione (GSH) and the corresponding protective mechanisms. A total of 40 male SD rats were randomly by computer randomization into 4 groups of ethanol control, +5 Gz value exposure, +10 Gz value exposure and GSH protection (n = 10 each). GSH protection group received adaptive feeding for 7 days and then an intraperitoneal injection of GSH for 3 consecutive days. All 4 groups fasted for 24 hours within 10 days, water deprivation for 12 hours and a gastric lavage of anhydrous ethanol (0.4 ml/100 g) for 1 hour, ethanol control group had no acceleration,+5 Gz value exposure group at + 5 Gz and the latter two groups respectively at +10 Gz for around 3 min.Each group underwent anesthesia of pentobarbital after centrifuge immediately. Abdominal aortic blood samples were collected and gastric tissues harvested for observation of mucosal injury. Mucosal damage index was calculated by the GUTH method. And the plasma content of HSP70 was measured by radioimmunoassay. (1) Gastric mucosa of each groups rats were injured. Damage was significantly reduced by GSH pretreatment, ethanol control group had less injury, the injury of +5 Gz value exposure group was aggravated compared with the control group (gastric mucosal injury index: 25.4 (14.0-30.0) vs 10.0 (9.2-13.9), P = 0.001); +10 Gz value exposure group mucosal injury was heaviest (47.2 (41.5-60.1)) . There were diffuse hyperemia, edema and erosion with a large area of bleeding spots and flat mucosal folds.It had statistically significant differences with the first two groups (all P ethanol groups ((6.5 ± 0.5) ng/ml, P = 0.897); HSP70 plasma level ((5.9 ± 0.5) ng/ml) of +10 Gz value exposure was significantly lower than those of the first two groups (P = 0.018,0.014); GSH protection group ((7.0 ± 0.5) ng/ml) was significantly higher

  2. Free standing diamond-like carbon thin films by PLD for laser based electrons/protons acceleration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thema, F.T.; Beukes, P.; Ngom, B.D. [UNESCO Africa Chair in Nanosciences-Nanotechnology, College of Graduate Studies, University of South Africa, Muckleneuk Ridge, PO Box 392, Pretoria (South Africa); Nanosciences African Network (NANOAFNET), iThemba LABS-National Research Foundation, 1 Old Faure Road, Somerset West, 7129, PO Box722, Western Cape Province (South Africa); Manikandan, E., E-mail: mani@tlabs.ac.za [UNESCO Africa Chair in Nanosciences-Nanotechnology, College of Graduate Studies, University of South Africa, Muckleneuk Ridge, PO Box 392, Pretoria (South Africa); Nanosciences African Network (NANOAFNET), iThemba LABS-National Research Foundation, 1 Old Faure Road, Somerset West, 7129, PO Box722, Western Cape Province (South Africa); Central Research Laboratory, Sree Balaji Medical College & Hospital (SBMCH), Chrompet, Bharath University, Chennai, 600044 (India); Maaza, M., E-mail: maaza@tlabs.ac.za [UNESCO Africa Chair in Nanosciences-Nanotechnology, College of Graduate Studies, University of South Africa, Muckleneuk Ridge, PO Box 392, Pretoria (South Africa); Nanosciences African Network (NANOAFNET), iThemba LABS-National Research Foundation, 1 Old Faure Road, Somerset West, 7129, PO Box722, Western Cape Province (South Africa)

    2015-11-05

    This study we reports for the first time on the synthesis and optical characteristics of free standing diamond-like carbon (DLC) deposited by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) onto graphene buffer layers for ultrahigh intensity laser based electron/proton acceleration applications. The fingerprint techniques of micro-Raman, UV–VIS–NIR and the IR spectroscopic investigations indicate that the suitability of such free standing DLC thin-films within the laser window and long wave infrared (LWIR) spectral range and hence their appropriateness for the targeted applications. - Highlights: • We report for the first time synthesis of free standing diamond-like carbon. • Pulsed laser deposition onto graphene buffer layers. • Fingerprint techniques of micro-Raman, UV–VIS–NIR and the IR spectroscopic investigations. • Ultrahigh intensity laser based electron/proton acceleration applications. • This material's suitable for the laser window and long wave infrared (LWIR) spectral range.

  3. Comparison of optimized ion acceleration from thin foils and low-density targets for linearly and circularly polarized laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantov, A. V.; Ksenofontov, P. A.; Bychenkov, V. Yu.

    2017-11-01

    A multiparameter comparative analysis of ion acceleration with linearly and circularly polarized relativistically intense laser pulses for solid-density thin foils and low-density planar targets was performed using 3D particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. Ion acceleration optimization was studied with 3D PIC MANDOR over the laser energy range of three orders of magnitude from three hundred millijoules to three hundred joules in a femtosecond pulse. The optimum target thickness and density was found for a given energy of the laser pulse corresponding to the maximum energy of the accelerated ions. This allows deriving a dependence of the maximum ion energy on laser energy for the optimized solid or low-density targets. The advantage of a circularly polarized laser pulse for generating the most energetic ions was demonstrated, which happens for the regimes of volumetrically heated semitransparent solid foils (directed Coulomb explosion) and of synchronized ion acceleration by slow light from low-density targets. The dependence of the maximum ion energy on laser energy for the optimized targets and both linearly and circularly polarized femtosecond pulses demonstrates a sharper-than-square-root increase.

  4. Predicting the health risks related to whole-body vibration and shock: a comparison of alternative assessment methods for high-acceleration events in vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantaharju, Taneli; Mansfield, Neil J; Ala-Hiiro, Jussi M; Gunston, Thomas P

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, alternative assessment methods for whole-body vibration and shocks are compared by means of 70 vibration samples measured from 13 work vehicles, deliberately selected to represent periods containing shocks. Five methodologies (ISO 2631-1:1997, BS 6841:1987, ISO 2631-5:2004, DIN SPEC 45697:2012 and one specified by Gunston [2011], 'G-method') were applied to the vibration samples. In order to compare different evaluation metrics, limiting exposures were determined by calculating times to reach the upper limit thresholds given in the methods. Over 10-fold shorter times to exposure thresholds were obtained for the tri-axial VDV (BS 6841) than for the dominant r.m.s. (ISO 2631-1) when exposures were of high magnitude or contained substantial shocks. Under these exposure conditions, the sixth power approaches (ISO 2631-5, DIN SPEC, G-method) are more stringent than a fourth power VDV method. The r.m.s. method may lead to misleading outcomes especially if a lengthy measurement includes a small number of severe impacts. In conclusion, methodologies produce different evaluations of the vibration severity depending on the exposure characteristics, and the correct method must be selected. Health risks related to whole-body vibration and high acceleration events may be predicted by means of several different methods. This study compares five such methods giving emphasis on their applicability in the presence of shocks. The results showed significant discrepancies between the risk assessments, especially for the most extreme exposures.

  5. Specification for Injection, Thin extraction and Thick Extraction Septa Magnets of the Synchrotron Accelerator CNA Project

    CERN Document Server

    Borburgh, J; Hourican, M; Metzmacher, K; CERN. Geneva. AB Department

    2003-01-01

    A synchrotron machine, capable to accelerate either light ions or protons, will be the basic instrument of the CNA (Centro Nazionale di Adroterapia), the medical center dedicated to the cancer therapy, that will be built in Italy in the near future. The machine complex consists of one proton-carbon-ion linac that will accelerate the particles to an energy of 7 MeV/u. An injection line will transfer them to the synchrotron ring where the injected particles will be accelerated and extracted with an energy ranging from 60 to 250 MeV for protons and from 120 to 400 MeV/u for carbon ions. Figure 1 shows a preliminary schematic picture of the CNA medical center.

  6. Stability of cylindrical thin shell wormhole during evolution of universe from inflation to late time acceleration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setare, M.R. [Department of Science, Campus of Bijar, University of Kurdistan,Bijar (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sepehri, A. [Faculty of Physics, Shahid Bahonar University,P.O. Box 76175, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-03-16

    In this paper, we consider the stability of cylindrical wormholes during evolution of universe from inflation to late time acceleration epochs. We show that there are two types of cylindrical wormholes. The first type is produced at the corresponding point where k black F-strings are transited to BIon configuration. This wormhole transfers energy from extra dimensions into our universe, causes inflation, loses it’s energy and vanishes. The second type of cylindrical wormhole is created by a tachyonic potential and causes a new phase of acceleration. We show that wormhole parameters grow faster than the scale factor in this era, overtake it at ripping time and lead to the destruction of universe at big rip singularity.

  7. Proton driven acceleration by intense laser pulses irradiating thin hydrogenated targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torrisi, L., E-mail: lorenzo.torrisi@unime.it [Dip.to di Fisica, Università di Messina, V.le F.S. D’Alcontres 31, 98166 S. Agata, Messina (Italy); INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 44, 95123 Catania (Italy); Cutroneo, M.; Cavallaro, S.; Giuffrida, L.; Andò, L.; Cirrone, P. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 44, 95123 Catania (Italy); Bertuccio, G.; Puglisi, D. [Dip.to di Ing. Elettronica e Sci. dell’Informaz., Pol. di Milano,V. Ponzio34, 20133 Milano (Italy); Calcagno, L. [Dip.to di Fisica, Università di Catania, Via S. Sofia 44, 95123 Catania (Italy); Verona, C. [Dip.to di Ing. Meccanica, Univ. Roma “Tor Vergata”, V. del Politecnico 1, Roma (Italy); Picciotto, A. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler–IRST, Via Sommarive 18, 38050 Povo, Trento (Italy); Krasa, J.; Margarone, D.; Velyhan, A.; Laska, L.; Krousky, E.; Pfeiffer, M.; Skala, J.; Ullschmied, J. [Institute of Physics, ASCR, v.v.i., 182 21 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Wolowski, J. [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, IPPLM,23 Hery Str. 01-497 Warsaw (Poland); and others

    2013-05-01

    The Asterix iodine laser of the PALS laboratory in Prague, operating at 1315 nm fundamental frequency, 300 ps pulse duration, 600 J maximum pulse energy and 10{sup 16} W/cm{sup 2} intensity, is employed to irradiate thin hydrogenated targets placed in high vacuum. Different metallic and polymeric targets allow to generate multi-energetic and multi-specie ion beams showing peculiar properties. The plasma obtained by the laser irradiation is monitored, in terms of properties of the emitted charge particles, by using time-of-flight techniques and Thomson parabola spectrometer (TPS). A particular attention is given to the proton beam production in terms of the maximum energy, emission yield and angular distribution as a function of the laser energy, focal position (FP), target thickness and composition.

  8. Proton driven acceleration by intense laser pulses irradiating thin hydrogenated targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrisi, L.; Cutroneo, M.; Cavallaro, S.; Giuffrida, L.; Andò, L.; Cirrone, P.; Bertuccio, G.; Puglisi, D.; Calcagno, L.; Verona, C.; Picciotto, A.; Krasa, J.; Margarone, D.; Velyhan, A.; Laska, L.; Krousky, E.; Pfeiffer, M.; Skala, J.; Ullschmied, J.; Wolowski, J.; Badziak, J.; Rosinski, M.; Ryc, L.; Szydlowski, A.

    2013-05-01

    The Asterix iodine laser of the PALS laboratory in Prague, operating at 1315 nm fundamental frequency, 300 ps pulse duration, 600 J maximum pulse energy and 1016 W/cm2 intensity, is employed to irradiate thin hydrogenated targets placed in high vacuum. Different metallic and polymeric targets allow to generate multi-energetic and multi-specie ion beams showing peculiar properties. The plasma obtained by the laser irradiation is monitored, in terms of properties of the emitted charge particles, by using time-of-flight techniques and Thomson parabola spectrometer (TPS). A particular attention is given to the proton beam production in terms of the maximum energy, emission yield and angular distribution as a function of the laser energy, focal position (FP), target thickness and composition.

  9. The Halloween shock of 2003 as it reached Voyager 2 at ˜73 AU - Two separate acceleration zones and two different spectra for energetic protons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, W. R.; Intriligator, D. S.; Decker, R. B.

    2012-11-01

    Motivated by the recent observation that two separate periods of enhanced intensities of solar wind ions at ˜2 times the normal solar wind energy were observed at times of the shock arrival and at the magnetic field maximum at Voyager 2 at 73 AU, arising from the 2003 Halloween event at the Earth, we have re-examined the higher energy proton data from 0.06 to 20 MeV from the LECP and CRS instruments on V2 for this event. We find that there are two separate regions of particle acceleration in this outward propagating merged interaction region. The one near the shock has a much harder proton spectrum extending up to ˜20 MeV, but with a relative paucity of particles below ˜1.0 MeV. The other, near the time of maximum magnetic field fluctuations, is dominated by protons at energies ˜1 MeV or less with a sharp cutoff above 2 MeV. The two regions are separated spatially and the half width of the respective radial intensity distributions at each energy can be used to estimate a local diffusion coefficient. The composite spectrum from these two regions is a power law with a spectral index ˜-1.4 below 1 MeV steepening to -3.2 above ˜2 MeV. This observation has important implications astrophysically, beyond what is seen locally, because most astrophysical observations of accelerated spectra cannot resolve the two components and therefore miss the clues that help identify the particle acceleration mechanisms.

  10. Nonlinear Alfvén waves, discontinuities, proton perpendicular acceleration, and magnetic holes/decreases in interplanetary space and the magnetosphere: intermediate shocks?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. T. Tsurutani

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Alfvén waves, discontinuities, proton perpendicular acceleration and magnetic decreases (MDs in interplanetary space are shown to be interrelated. Discontinuities are the phase-steepened edges of Alfvén waves. Magnetic decreases are caused by a diamagnetic effect from perpendicularly accelerated (to the magnetic field protons. The ion acceleration is associated with the dissipation of phase-steepened Alfvén waves, presumably through the Ponderomotive Force. Proton perpendicular heating, through instabilities, lead to the generation of both proton cyclotron waves and mirror mode structures. Electromagnetic and electrostatic electron waves are detected as well. The Alfvén waves are thus found to be both dispersive and dissipative, conditions indicting that they may be intermediate shocks. The resultant 'turbulence' created by the Alfvén wave dissipation is quite complex. There are both propagating (waves and nonpropagating (mirror mode structures and MDs byproducts. Arguments are presented to indicate that similar processes associated with Alfvén waves are occurring in the magnetosphere. In the magnetosphere, the 'turbulence' is even further complicated by the damping of obliquely propagating proton cyclotron waves and the formation of electron holes, a form of solitary waves. Interplanetary Alfvén waves are shown to rapidly phase-steepen at a distance of 1AU from the Sun. A steepening rate of ~35 times per wavelength is indicated by Cluster-ACE measurements. Interplanetary (reverse shock compression of Alfvén waves is noted to cause the rapid formation of MDs on the sunward side of corotating interaction regions (CIRs. Although much has been learned about the Alfvén wave phase-steepening processfrom space plasma observations, many facets are still not understood. Several of these topics are discussed for the interested researcher. Computer simulations and theoretical developments will be particularly useful in making further progress in

  11. Confinement - assisted shock-wave-induced thin-film delamination (SWIFD) of copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) on a flexible substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Pierre; Zagoranskiy, Igor; Ehrhardt, Martin; Han, Bing; Bayer, Lukas; Zimmer, Klaus

    2017-12-01

    The laser structuring of CIGS (copper indium gallium (di)selenide) solar cell material without influence and damaging the functionality of the active layer is a challenge for laser methods The shock-wave-induced thin-film delamination (SWIFD) process allows structuring without thermal modifications due to a spatial separation of the laser absorption from the functional layer removal process. In the present study, SWIFD structuring of CIGS solar cell stacks was investigated. The rear side of the polyimide was irradiated with a KrF-Excimer laser. The laser-induced ablation process generates a traverse shock wave, and the interaction of the shock wave with the layer-substrate interface results in a delamination process. The effect of a water confinement on the SWIFD process was studied where the rear side of the substrate was covered with a ∼2 mm thick water layer. The resultant surface morphology was analysed and discussed. At a sufficient number of laser pulses N and laser fluences Φ, the CIGS layer can be selectively removed from the Mo back contact. The water confinement, as well as the increasing laser beam size A0 and N, results in the reduction of the necessary minimal laser fluence Φth. Further, the delaminated CIGS area increased with increasing Φ, N, and A0.

  12. Higher education affects accelerated cortical thinning in Alzheimer's disease: a 5-year preliminary longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hanna; Jeon, Seun; Kim, Changsoo; Ye, Byoung Seok; Kim, Geon Ha; Noh, Young; Kim, Hee Jin; Yoon, Cindy W; Kim, Yeo Jin; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Park, Sang Eon; Kim, Sung Tae; Lee, Jong-Min; Kang, Sue J; Suh, Mee Kyung; Chin, Juhee; Na, Duk L; Kang, Dae Ryong; Seo, Sang Won

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have reported that higher education (HE) is associated with a reduced risk of incident Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, after the clinical onset of AD, patients with HE levels show more rapid cognitive decline than patients with lower education (LE) levels. Although education level and cognition have been linked, there have been few longitudinal studies investigating the relationship between education level and cortical decline in patients with AD. The aim of this study was to compare the topography of cortical atrophy longitudinally between AD patients with HE (HE-AD) and AD patients with LE (LE-AD). We prospectively recruited 36 patients with early-stage AD and 14 normal controls. The patients were classified into two groups according to educational level, 23 HE-AD (>9 years) and 13 LE-AD (≤9 years). As AD progressed over the 5-year longitudinal follow-ups, the HE-AD showed a significant group-by-time interaction in the right dorsolateral frontal and precuneus, and the left parahippocampal regions compared to the LE-AD. Our study reveals that the preliminary longitudinal effect of HE accelerates cortical atrophy in AD patients over time, which underlines the importance of education level for predicting prognosis.

  13. Ion Acceleration by the Radiation Pressure of Slow Electromagnetic Wave

    CERN Document Server

    Bulanov, S V; Kando, M; Pegoraro, F; Bulanov, S S; Geddes, C G R; Schroeder, C; Esarey, E; Leemans, W

    2012-01-01

    When the ions are accelerated by the radiation pressure of the laser pulse, their velocity can not exceed the laser group velocity, in the case when it is less than the speed of light in vacuum. This is demonstrated in two cases corresponding to the thin foil target irradiated by a high intensity laser light and to the hole boring by the laser pulse in the extended plasma accompanied by the collisionless shock wave formation. It is found that the beams of accelerated at the collisionless shock wave front ions are unstable against the Buneman-lke and the Weibel-like instabilities which result in the ion energy spectrum broadening.

  14. Deformation and Rupture of Thin Steel Plates due to Cumulative Loading from Underwater Shock and Bubble Collapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian J. Lee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The damage sustained by rigidly-clamped square steel plates when subjected to close-proximity underwater explosions has been investigated. The test specimens consisted of plates 0.76 mm and 1.21 mm thick made of either ASTM A1008 mild steel or 350 WT structural-grade steel with a low-temperature notch-toughness requirement. The explosively-loaded area of the plates was square, with dimensions of 254 mm X 254 mm. High-explosive charges from 1.1 g to 50 g were used at different standoff distances to obtain different shock strengths and bubble collapse intensities. Although the main impulsive load on the plate was due to the shock impact, because the standoff distances were less than twice the maximum free-field bubble radius, a strong interaction between the detonation product bubble and the target plate caused a rapid water jet to impinge on the plate, resulting in additional loading and damage. As a result, four main regimes of loading and damage were identified: a holing/petaling due to shock loading, b edge tearing due to shock loading only, c edge tearing due to the cumulative loading from shock and bubble collapse, and d large deformation due to shock and bubble collapse loading. The damage mechanisms and dynamic response of the plates were measured using dynamic displacement sensors, pressure gauges, and high-speed video. A fracture analysis was performed on the damaged plates to analyze the mechanisms of failure. Finally, finite-element analysis using a failure criterion based on normalized shear stress and effective strain has been used to examine the failure limits.

  15. A parametric study of laser spot size and coverage on the laser shock peening induced residual stress in thin aluminium samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sticchi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Laser Shock Peening is a fatigue enhancement treatment using laser energy to induce compressive Residual Stresses (RS in the outer layers of metallic components. This work describes the variations of introduced RS-field with peen size and coverage for thin metal samples treated with under-water-LSP. The specimens under investigation were of aluminium alloy AA2024-T351, AA2139-T3, AA7050-T76 and AA7075-T6, with thickness 1.9 mm. The RS were measured by using Hole Drilling with Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry and X-ray Diffraction. Of particular interest are the effects of the above mentioned parameters on the zero-depth value, which gives indication of the amount of RS through the thickness, and on the value of the surface compressive stresses, which indicates the magnitude of induced stresses. A 2D-axisymmetrical Finite Element model was created for a preliminary estimation of the stress field trend. From experimental results, correlated with numerical and analytical analysis, the following conclusions can be drawn: increasing the spot size the zero-depth value increases with no significant change of the maximum compressive stress; the increase of coverage leads to significant increase of the compressive stress; thin samples of Al-alloy with low Hugoniot Elastic Limit (HEL reveal deeper compression field than alloy with higher HEL value.

  16. Combined troponin I Ser-150 and Ser-23/24 phosphorylation sustains thin filament Ca(2+) sensitivity and accelerates deactivation in an acidic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Benjamin R; Walton, Shane D; Zhang, Bo; Brundage, Elizabeth A; Little, Sean C; Ziolo, Mark T; Davis, Jonathan P; Biesiadecki, Brandon J

    2014-07-01

    The binding of Ca(2+) to troponin C (TnC) in the troponin complex is a critical step regulating the thin filament, the actin-myosin interaction and cardiac contraction. Phosphorylation of the troponin complex is a key regulatory mechanism to match cardiac contraction to demand. Here we demonstrate that phosphorylation of the troponin I (TnI) subunit is simultaneously increased at Ser-150 and Ser-23/24 during in vivo myocardial ischemia. Myocardial ischemia decreases intracellular pH resulting in depressed binding of Ca(2+) to TnC and impaired contraction. To determine the pathological relevance of these simultaneous TnI phosphorylations we measured individual TnI Ser-150 (S150D), Ser-23/24 (S23/24D) and combined (S23/24/150D) pseudo-phosphorylation effects on thin filament regulation at acidic pH similar to that in myocardial ischemia. Results demonstrate that while acidic pH decreased thin filament Ca(2+) binding to TnC regardless of TnI composition, TnI S150D attenuated this decrease rendering it similar to non-phosphorylated TnI at normal pH. The dissociation of Ca(2+) from TnC was unaltered by pH such that TnI S150D remained slow, S23/24D remained accelerated and the combined S23/24/150D remained accelerated. This effect of the combined TnI Ser-150 and Ser-23/24 pseudo-phosphorylations to maintain Ca(2+) binding while accelerating Ca(2+) dissociation represents the first post-translational modification of troponin by phosphorylation to both accelerate thin filament deactivation and maintain Ca(2+) sensitive activation. These data suggest that TnI Ser-150 phosphorylation induced attenuation of the pH-dependent decrease in Ca(2+) sensitivity and its combination with Ser-23/24 phosphorylation to maintain accelerated thin filament deactivation may impart an adaptive role to preserve contraction during acidic ischemia pH without slowing relaxation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Combined Troponin I Ser-150 and Ser-23/24 Phosphorylation Sustains Thin Filament Ca2+ Sensitivity and Accelerates Deactivation in an Acidic Environment*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Benjamin R.; Walton, Shane D.; Zhang, Bo; Brundage, Elizabeth A.; Little, Sean C.; Ziolo, Mark T.; Davis, Jonathan P.; Biesiadecki, Brandon J.

    2014-01-01

    The binding of Ca2+ to troponin C (TnC) in the troponin complex is a critical step regulating the thin filament, the actin-myosin interaction and cardiac contraction. Phosphorylation of the troponin complex is a key regulatory mechanism to match cardiac contraction to demand. Here we demonstrate phosphorylation of the troponin I (TnI) subunit is simultaneously increased at Ser-150 and Ser-23/24 during in vivo myocardial ischemia. Myocardial ischemia decreases intracellular pH resulting in depressed binding of Ca2+ to TnC and impaired contraction. To determine the pathological relevance of simultaneous TnI phosphorylation we measured individual TnI Ser-150 (S150D), Ser-23/24 (S23/24D) and combined (S23/24/150D) pseudo-phosphorylation effects on thin filament regulation at acidic pH similar to that in myocardial ischemia. Results demonstrate that while acidic pH decreased thin filament Ca2+ binding to TnC regardless of TnI composition, TnI S150D attenuated this decrease rendering it similar to non-phosphorylated TnI at normal pH. The dissociation of Ca2+ from TnC was unaltered by pH such that TnI S150D remained slow, S23/24D remained accelerated and the combined S23/24/150D remained accelerated. This effect of the combined TnI Ser-150 and Ser-23/24 pseudo-phosphorylation to maintain Ca2+ binding while accelerating Ca2+ dissociation represents the first post-translational modification of troponin by phosphorylation to both accelerate thin filament deactivation and maintain Ca2+ sensitive activation. These data suggest TnI Ser-150 phosphorylation attenuation of the pH-dependent decrease in Ca2+ sensitivity and its combination with Ser-23/24 phosphorylation to maintain accelerated thin filament deactivation may impart an adaptive role to preserve contraction during acidic ischemia pH without slowing relaxation. PMID:24657721

  18. Shocks in collisionless plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, G. K.; Lee, E.; Fu, S. Y.; Lin, N.; Liu, Y.; Yang, Z. W.

    2017-12-01

    The Earth's bow shock is the best-known collisionless shock in space. Although much is known about the bow shock, the mechanisms of heating and thermalization processes still remain poorly understood. Collisionless shocks are different from ordinary fluid shocks, because a fraction of the incident solar wind is reflected from the bow shock and the transmitted particles are not immediately thermalized. The reflected particles interact with the incident solar wind producing waves and instabilities that can heat and accelerate particles to high energies. Some of the waves can grow to large amplitudes such as Short Large Amplitude Magnetic Structures. Other upstream nonlinear structures include hot flow anomalies and density holes. The upstream nonlinear structures subsequently convect Earthward with the SW and could impact the structure and dynamics of the bow shock. These observations have clearly indicated that the upstream dynamics are an integral part of the bow shock system. Although much has been learned about the behavior of Earth's bow shock dynamics from the existing data, many fundamental questions remain not answered. This article will review observations of ion dynamics of Earth's bow shock system, what we have learned from recent and past observations. We provide new perspectives from multi-spacecraft Cluster observations about the spatial and temporal variations including the fundamental shock heating, acceleration, and entropy generation processes.

  19. Hydrodynamical and radio evolution of young supernova remnant G1.9+0.3 based on the model of diffusive shock acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlović, M. Z.

    2017-06-01

    The radio evolution of, so far the youngest known, Galactic supernova remnant (SNR) G1.9+0.3 is investigated by using three-dimensional (3D) hydrodynamic modelling and non-linear kinetic theory of cosmic ray (CR) acceleration in SNRs. We include consistent numerical treatment of magnetic field amplification (MFA) due to resonant streaming instability. Under the assumption that SNR G1.9+0.3 is the result of a Type Ia supernova explosion located near the Galactic Centre, using widely accepted values for explosion energy 1051 erg and ejecta mass 1.4 M⊙, the non-thermal continuum radio emission is calculated. The main purpose of this paper is to explain radio flux brightening measured over recent decades and also predict its future temporal evolution. We estimate that the SNR is now ˜120 yr old, expanding in an ambient density of 0.02 cm-3, and explain its steep radio spectral index only by means of efficient non-linear diffusive shock acceleration (NLDSA). We also make comparison between simulations and observations of this young SNR, in order to test the models and assumptions suggested. Our model prediction of a radio flux density increase of ˜1.8 per cent yr-1 during the past two decades agrees well with the measured values. We synthesize the synchrotron spectrum from radio to X-ray and it fits well the Very Large Array, Molonglo Observatory Synthesis Telescope, Effelsberg, Chandra and NuSTAR measurements. We also propose a simplified evolutionary model of the SNR in gamma rays and suggest it may be a promising target for gamma-ray observations at TeV energies with the future generation of instruments like Cherenkov Telescope Array. SNR G1.9+0.3 is the only known Galactic SNR with the increasing flux density and we present here the prediction that the flux density will start to decrease approximately 500 yr from now. We conclude that this is a general property of SNRs in the free expansion phase.

  20. Granulocyte-Colony Stimulating Factor (G-CSF) Accelerates Wound Healing in Hemorrhagic Shock Rats by Enhancing Angiogenesis and Attenuating Apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hong; Zhang, Qi; Liu, Jiejie; Hao, Haojie; Jiang, Chaoguang; Han, Weidong

    2017-01-01

    Background Following severe trauma, treatment of cutaneous injuries is often delayed by inadequate blood supply. The aim of the present study was to determine whether granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) protects endothelial cells (ECs) and enhances angiogenesis in a rat model of hemorrhagic shock (HS) combined with cutaneous injury after resuscitation. Material/Methods The HS rats with full-thickness defects were resuscitated and randomly divided into a G-CSF group (200 μg/kg body weight), a normal saline group, and a blank control group. Histological staining was to used estimate the recovery and apoptosis of skin. Apoptosis- and angiogenesis-related factors were analyzed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot (WB). Scratch assay, tube formation, and WB experiments were performed to verify the functional effects of G-CSF on HUVECs in vitro. Results H&E staining and Masson trichrome staining showed earlier inflammation resolution and collagen synthesis in the G-CSF-treated group. Angiogenesis-related factors were elevated at mRNA and protein levels. TUNEL staining suggested fewer apoptotic cells in the G-CSF group. The apoptotic-related factors were down-regulated and anti-apoptotic factors were up-regulated in the G-CSF-treated group. Scratch assay and tube formation experiments revealed that G-CSF facilitated migration ability and angiogenic potential of HUVECs. The angiogenic and anti-apoptotic effects were also enhanced in vitro. Conclusions Our results suggest that G-CSF after resuscitation attenuates local apoptosis and accelerates angiogenesis. These findings hold great promise for improving therapy for cutaneous injury in severe trauma and ischemia diseases. PMID:28559534

  1. Width dependent collisionless electron dynamics in the static fields of the shock ramp, 2, Phase space portrait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gedalin

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available We study numerically in detail the behaviour of electrons in the strongly inhomogeneous static magnetic and electric fields, which are typical for thin quasiperpendicular collisionless shocks. We pay particular attention to the dependence of the final electron velocities on their initial velocities, for different shock widths. Electrons are completely magnetized when the shock is wide, but become demagnetized, and the energies that they acquire rapidly increase with the steepening of the field structure. One of the clear manifestations of the electron demagnetization is the loss of even approximate one-to-one correspondence of the downstream perpendicular velocity to the upstream perpendicular velocity. Electron reflection occurs despite the large cross-shock potential which accelerates electrons along the magnetic field (the regime of complete magnetization or across the shock (strong demagnetization. The reflected ion fraction is sensitive to the potential, magnetic field jump, and ramp width.

  2. Molecular shock response of explosives: electronic absorption spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mcgrne, Shawn D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Moore, David S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Whitley, Von H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bolme, Cindy A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Eakins, Daniel E [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Electronic absorption spectroscopy in the range 400-800 nm was coupled to ultrafast laser generated shocks to begin addressing the question of the extent to which electronic excitations are involved in shock induced reactions. Data are presented on shocked polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) thin films and single crystal pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN). Shocked PMMA exhibited thin film interference effects from the shock front. Shocked PETN exhibited interference from the shock front as well as broadband increased absorption. Relation to shock initiation hypotheses and the need for time dependent absorption data (future experiments) is briefly discussed.

  3. Comparison of efficiency degradation in polycrystalline-Si and CdTe thin-film PV modules via accelerated lifecycle testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, T.; Potter, B. G.; Simmons-Potter, K.

    2017-08-01

    Thin-film solar cells normally have the shortest energy payback time due to their simpler mass-production process compared to polycrystalline-Si photovoltaic (PV) modules, despite the fact that crystalline-Si-based technology typically has a longer total lifetime and a higher initial power conversion efficiency. For both types of modules, significant aging occurs during the first two years of usage with slower long-term aging over the module lifetime. The PV lifetime and the return-on-investment for local PV system installations rely on long-term device performance. Understanding the efficiency degradation behavior under a given set of environmental conditions is, therefore, a primary goal for experimental research and economic analysis. In the present work, in-situ measurements of key electrical characteristics (J, V, Pmax, etc.) in polycrystalline-Si and CdTe thin-film PV modules have been analyzed. The modules were subjected to identical environmental conditions, representative of southern Arizona, in a full-scale, industrial-standard, environmental degradation chamber, equipped with a single-sun irradiance source, temperature, and humidity controls, and operating an accelerated lifecycle test (ALT) sequence. Initial results highlight differences in module performance with environmental conditions, including temperature de-rating effects, for the two technologies. Notably, the thin-film CdTe PV module was shown to be approximately 15% less sensitive to ambient temperature variation. After exposure to a seven-month equivalent compressed night-day weather cycling regimen the efficiency degradation rates of both PV technology types were obtained and will be discussed.

  4. Cardiogenic shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shock - cardiogenic ... electrical system of the heart (heart block) Cardiogenic shock occurs when the heart is unable to pump ... orthostatic hypotension) Weak (thready) pulse To diagnose cardiogenic shock, a catheter (tube) may be placed in the ...

  5. UHECR acceleration in dark matter filaments of cosmological structure formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkov, M. A.; Sagdeev, R. Z.; Diamond, P. H.

    2011-04-01

    A mechanism for proton acceleration to ~ 1021 eV is suggested. It may operate in accretion flows onto thin dark matter filaments of cosmic structure formation. The flow compresses the ambient magnetic field to strongly increase and align it with the filament. Particles begin the acceleration by E × B drift with the accretion flow. The energy gain in the drift regime is limited by the conservation of the adiabatic invariant p⊥2/B(r). Upon approaching the filament, the drift turns into the gyro-motion around the filament so that the particle moves parallel to the azimuthal electric field. In this `betatron' regime the acceleration speeds up to rapidly reach the electrodynamic limit cpmax = eBR for an accelerator with magnetic field B and the orbit radius R (Larmor radius). The periodic orbit becomes unstable and the particle slings out of the filament to the region of a weak (uncompressed) magnetic field, which terminates the acceleration. To escape the filament, accelerated particles must have gyro-radii comparable with the filament radius. Therefore, the mechanism requires pre-acceleration that is likely to occur in large scale shocks upstream or nearby the filament accretion flow. Previous studies identify such shocks as efficient proton accelerators, with a firm upper limit ~ 1019.5 eV placed by the catastrophic photo-pion losses. The present mechanism combines explosive energy gain in its final (betatron) phase with prompt particle release from the region of strong magnetic field. It is this combination that allows protons to overcome both the photo-pion and the synchrotron-Compton losses and therefore attain energy ~ 1021 eV. A customary requirement on accelerator power to reach a given Emax, which is placed by the accelerator energy dissipation proptoEmax2/Z0 due to the finite vacuum impedance Z0, is circumvented by the cyclic operation of the accelerator.

  6. Phonons spreading from laser-heated gold nanoparticle array accelerate diffusion of excitons in an underlying polythiophene thin film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rais, David; Menšík, Miroslav; Paruzel, Bartosz; Kurunthu, Dharmalingam; Pfleger, Jiří

    2017-04-19

    Localized surface plasmon (LSP) photophysical phenomena occurring in metal nanostructures are often presented as a method to effectively couple light into photovoltaic devices of sub-wavelength-scale thickness. However, the excitation of LSP is also associated with rapid energy dissipation leading to local heating, which affects the excitation energy pathway. We studied a system consisting of a planar gold nanoparticle (AuNP) array deposited at the surface of a semiconducting polymer thin film (P3HT). We observed heat transfer from laser pulse excited AuNPs into the P3HT, which was evidenced as a long-living thermochromic effect on transient optical absorption. By modeling of the ultrafast kinetics of exciton population evolution, we determined that their decay was caused by their mutual annihilation. The decay rate was controlled by a phonon-assisted one-dimensional diffusion mechanism with a diffusion constant of 2.2 nm2 ps-1. The transferred heat resulted in an increase of the diffusion constant by a factor of almost 2, compared to the control system of P3HT without AuNPs. These results are of practical use for the design of plasmon-enhanced optoelectronic devices.

  7. 33 CFR 183.584 - Shock test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Shock test. 183.584 Section 183... SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Fuel Systems Tests § 183.584 Shock test. A fuel tank is tested by... surface of the tank. The duration of each vertical acceleration pulse is measured at the base of the shock...

  8. STEREO interplanetary shocks and foreshocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco-Cano, X. [Instituto de Geofisica, UNAM, CU, Coyoacan 04510 DF (Mexico); Kajdic, P. [IRAP-University of Toulouse, CNRS, Toulouse (France); Aguilar-Rodriguez, E. [Instituto de Geofisica, UNAM, Morelia (Mexico); Russell, C. T. [ESS and IGPP, University of California, Los Angeles, 603 Charles Young Drive, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Jian, L. K. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD and University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Luhmann, J. G. [SSL, University of California Berkeley (United States)

    2013-06-13

    We use STEREO data to study shocks driven by stream interactions and the waves associated with them. During the years of the extended solar minimum 2007-2010, stream interaction shocks have Mach numbers between 1.1-3.8 and {theta}{sub Bn}{approx}20-86 Degree-Sign . We find a variety of waves, including whistlers and low frequency fluctuations. Upstream whistler waves may be generated at the shock and upstream ultra low frequency (ULF) waves can be driven locally by ion instabilities. The downstream wave spectra can be formed by both, locally generated perturbations, and shock transmitted waves. We find that many quasiperpendicular shocks can be accompanied by ULF wave and ion foreshocks, which is in contrast to Earth's bow shock. Fluctuations downstream of quasi-parallel shocks tend to have larger amplitudes than waves downstream of quasi-perpendicular shocks. Proton foreshocks of shocks driven by stream interactions have extensions dr {<=}0.05 AU. This is smaller than foreshock extensions for ICME driven shocks. The difference in foreshock extensions is related to the fact that ICME driven shocks are formed closer to the Sun and therefore begin to accelerate particles very early in their existence, while stream interaction shocks form at {approx}1 AU and have been producing suprathermal particles for a shorter time.

  9. Hydrogenated TiO2 Thin Film for Accelerating Electron Transport in Highly Efficient Planar Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Xin; Liang, Junhui; Li, Yuelong; Luo, Jingshan; Shi, Biao; Wei, Changchun; Zhang, Dekun; Li, Baozhang; Ding, Yi; Zhao, Ying; Zhang, Xiaodan

    2017-10-01

    Intensive studies on low-temperature deposited electron transport materials have been performed to improve the efficiency of n-i-p type planar perovskite solar cells to extend their application on plastic and multijunction device architectures. Here, a TiO2 film with enhanced conductivity and tailored band edge is prepared by magnetron sputtering at room temperature by hydrogen doping (HTO), which accelerates the electron extraction from perovskite photoabsorber and reduces charge transfer resistance, resulting in an improved short circuit current density and fill factor. The HTO film with upward shifted Fermi level guarantees a smaller loss on VOC and facilitates the growth of high-quality absorber with much larger grains and more uniform size, leading to devices with negligible hysteresis. In comparison with the pristine TiO2 prepared without hydrogen doping, the HTO-based device exhibits a substantial performance enhancement leading to an efficiency of 19.30% and more stabilized photovoltaic performance maintaining 93% of its initial value after 300 min continuous illumination in the glove box. These properties permit the room-temperature magnetron sputtered HTO film as a promising electron transport material for flexible and tandem perovskite solar cell in the future.

  10. Examination of the forces controlling dust dispersion by shock waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugarte, O. J.; Houim, R. W.; Oran, E. S.

    2017-07-01

    The interaction between a shock wave and a thin layer of inert dust is studied by solving unsteady, multidimensional Navier-Stokes equations representing the interactions between a compressible gas and incompressible particles. The system studied consists of a layer of densely packed limestone dust containing particles of uniform diameter (40 μ m ) that interact with a shock of strength Ms=1.4 . Particle dispersion is investigated by comparing vertical particle accelerations due to Archimedes, gravitational, intergranular, and aerodynamic drag and lift forces. The simulations show that the shock produces two dust regions: a compacted layer and a dispersed region. The layer compaction, which increases the intergranular particle stress, is produced by drag and Archimedes forces. The dispersed dust is produced by forces that change in time as the shock passes. Initially, the dispersion is caused by intergranular forces. Later it is driven by a tradeoff between lift and drag forces. Eventually, drag forces dominate. Comparisons of the computations to experimental shock-tube data reproduced the observed initial growth of the dispersed dust and later leveled off. Particle agglomeration in the experiments made it difficult to determine a true particle size experimentally, although the computations for 40-μ m particles explain the experimental data.

  11. Modelling socio-metabolic transitions: The historical take-off, the acceleration of fossil fuel use, and the 1970s oil price shock - the first trigger of a future decline?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedenhofer, Dominik; Rovenskaya, Elena; Krausmann, Fridolin; Haas, Willi; Fischer-Kowalski, Marina

    2013-04-01

    By talking about socio-metabolic transitions, we talk about changes in the energy base of socio-economic systems, leading to fundamental changes in social and environmental relations. This refers to the historical shift from a biomass-based (agrarian) economy to a fossil fuel based (industrial) economy just as much as to a future shift from fossil fuels to renewable energy carriers. In our presentation, • We will first show that this pattern of transition can be identified for most high income industrial countries: the later the transition started, the faster it proceeded, and the turning point to stabilization of metabolic rates in all of them happened in the early 1970ies. Due to the inherent non-linearity of this process, two approaches will be aplied to estimate parameters for the starting point, transition speed and saturation level: firstly a combination of an expontential and a generalized logistic function and secondly a Gompertz function. For both an iterative test procedure is applied to find the global minimum of the residual error for the whole function and all its parameters. This theory-based approach allows us to apply a robust methodology across all cases, thereby yielding results which can be generalized. • Next, we will show that this was not just a "historical" socio-ecological transition, however. Currently, a substantial number of countries comprising more than half of the world's population are following a similar transitional pathway at an ever accelerating pace. Based on empirical data on physical resource use and the above sketched methodology, we can show that these so-called emerging economies are currently in the take-off or acceleration phase of the very same transition. • Apart from these "endogenous" processes of socio-metabolic transition, we will investigate the effect of external shocks and their impact on the dynamics of energy and materials use. The first such shock we will explore is the oil crisis of 1972 that possibly

  12. The microphysics of collisionless shock waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcowith, Alexandre; Bret, Antoine; Bykov, Andrei

    2016-01-01

    galactic nuclei, gamma-ray bursts and clusters of galaxies shock waves. Collisionless shock microphysics enters at different stages of shock formation, shock dynamics and particle energization and/or acceleration. It turns out that the shock phenomenon is a multi-scale non-linear problem in time and space....... A particular emphasis is made on the different instabilities triggered during the shock formation and in association with particle acceleration processes with regards to the properties of the background upstream medium. It appears that among the most important parameters the background magnetic field through...... in the physics of space plasma and astrophysical shock waves. A special section is dedicated to new laser plasma experiments probing shock physics....

  13. Effect of the electron transport through thin slabs on the simulation of linear electron accelerators of use in therapy: A comparative study of various Monte Carlo codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilches, M. [Servicio de Fisica y Proteccion Radiologica, Hospital Regional Universitario ' Virgen de las Nieves' , Avda. de las Fuerzas Armadas, 2, E-18014 Granada (Spain)], E-mail: mvilches@ugr.es; Garcia-Pareja, S. [Servicio de Radiofisica Hospitalaria, Hospital Regional Universitario ' Carlos Haya' , Avda. Carlos Haya, s/n, E-29010 Malaga (Spain); Guerrero, R. [Servicio de Radiofisica, Hospital Universitario ' San Cecilio' , Avda. Dr. Oloriz, 16, E-18012 Granada (Spain); Anguiano, M.; Lallena, A.M. [Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain)

    2007-09-21

    When a therapeutic electron linear accelerator is simulated using a Monte Carlo (MC) code, the tuning of the initial spectra and the renormalization of dose (e.g., to maximum axial dose) constitute a common practice. As a result, very similar depth dose curves are obtained for different MC codes. However, if renormalization is turned off, the results obtained with the various codes disagree noticeably. The aim of this work is to investigate in detail the reasons of this disagreement. We have found that the observed differences are due to non-negligible differences in the angular scattering of the electron beam in very thin slabs of dense material (primary foil) and thick slabs of very low density material (air). To gain insight, the effects of the angular scattering models considered in various MC codes on the dose distribution in a water phantom are discussed using very simple geometrical configurations for the LINAC. The MC codes PENELOPE 2003, PENELOPE 2005, GEANT4, GEANT3, EGSnrc and MCNPX have been used.

  14. Shock metamorphism of carbonaceous chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Edward R. D.; Keil, Klaus; Stoeffler, Dieter

    1992-01-01

    Shock effects were studied in 69 carbonaceous chondrites, including CM2, CO3, CV3, ungrouped C2-C4, and CK4-6 chondrites, using optical microscopy of thin sections. It is shown that the classification scheme of Stoeffler et al. (1991) for the progressive stages of shock metamorphism in ordinary chondrites is also applicable to carbonaceous chondrites. On the basis of shock effects in olivine, the 69 carbonaceous chondrites could be assigned to four shock stage, S1 to S4. The CM2 and CO3 groups were found to be the least shocked chondrite groups, whereas the CK4-6 and CV3 were the most strongly shocked groups.

  15. Ion acceleration in "dragging field" of a light-pressure-driven piston

    CERN Document Server

    Ji, Liangliang; Shen, Baifei

    2013-01-01

    We propose a new acceleration scheme that combines shock wave acceleration (SWA) and light pressure acceleration (LPA). When a thin foil driven by light pressure of an ultra-intense laser pulse propagates in underdense background plasma, it serves as a shock-like piston, trapping and reflecting background protons to ultra-high energies. Unlike in SWA, the piston velocity is not limited by the Mach number and can be highly relativistic. Background protons can be trapped and reflected forward by the enormous "dragging field" potential behind the piston which is not employed in LPA. Our one- and two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations and analytical model both show that proton energies of several tens to hundreds of GeV can be obtained, while the achievable energy in simple LPA is below 10 GeV.

  16. The microphysics of collisionless shock waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcowith, A; Bret, A; Bykov, A; Dieckman, M E; Drury, L O'C; Lembège, B; Lemoine, M; Morlino, G; Murphy, G; Pelletier, G; Plotnikov, I; Reville, B; Riquelme, M; Sironi, L; Novo, A Stockem

    2016-04-01

    Collisionless shocks, that is shocks mediated by electromagnetic processes, are customary in space physics and in astrophysics. They are to be found in a great variety of objects and environments: magnetospheric and heliospheric shocks, supernova remnants, pulsar winds and their nebulæ, active galactic nuclei, gamma-ray bursts and clusters of galaxies shock waves. Collisionless shock microphysics enters at different stages of shock formation, shock dynamics and particle energization and/or acceleration. It turns out that the shock phenomenon is a multi-scale non-linear problem in time and space. It is complexified by the impact due to high-energy cosmic rays in astrophysical environments. This review adresses the physics of shock formation, shock dynamics and particle acceleration based on a close examination of available multi-wavelength or in situ observations, analytical and numerical developments. A particular emphasis is made on the different instabilities triggered during the shock formation and in association with particle acceleration processes with regards to the properties of the background upstream medium. It appears that among the most important parameters the background magnetic field through the magnetization and its obliquity is the dominant one. The shock velocity that can reach relativistic speeds has also a strong impact over the development of the micro-instabilities and the fate of particle acceleration. Recent developments of laboratory shock experiments has started to bring some new insights in the physics of space plasma and astrophysical shock waves. A special section is dedicated to new laser plasma experiments probing shock physics.

  17. In vivo confocal laser microscopy of morphologic changes after small incision lenticule extraction with accelerated cross-linking (SMILE Xtra) in patients with thin corneas and high myopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yugui; Liu, Manli; Zhang, Ting; Zheng, Hua; Sun, Yuan; Yang, Xiaonan; Weng, Shengbei; Lin, Haiqin; Liu, Quan

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the microstructural modifications and safety of small incision lenticule extraction combined with accelerated cross-linking (SMILE Xtra) in high myopia and thin corneas by means of in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) and 3D-OCT after a 6-month follow-up. Forty-three eyes with high myopia and thin corneas were enrolled. All eyes underwent SMILE procedure. After the lenticule was extracted, 0.25% riboflavin was injected into the interface and allowed to diffuse for 60 s. The eye was irradiated with UVA radiation of 30 mW/cm2 for 90 s through the cap. The total energy delivered was 2.7 J/cm2. Morphologic modifications of corneal architecture were evaluated prior to SMILE Xtra and 7 days, 1, 3, and 6 months after SMILE by in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) and 3D-OCT. The corneal epithelial cells showed slight damage until 3 months postoperatively. The subepithelial nerve plexus decreased but no absence within the treatment zone at the first week after treatment, recolonized at 3 months postoperatively, and had mostly recovered at the 6 months postoperative but remained less than its normal baseline state. Keratocytes were absent in the surgical interface area, and the presence of strong reflective particles and cicatricial reaction in the anterior stroma were observed during the entire 6-month examination period. Increased hyperreflectivity was observed from the cap side at a depth of 60 µm to stroma bed at a depth of 388 µm through 6 months. The depth of the demarcation line in 40 eyes (93.0%) was at a mean depth of 296.12 ± 47.86 μm (range, 211-388 μm). No particular change between preoperative and postoperative corneal endothelium was observed. Confocal microscopy showed increased hyperreflectivity in the SMILE Xtra eyes, and no changes in corneal endothelium. We confirmed the safety of the SMILE Xtra but recognize that larger and longer-term studies of SMILE Xtra are necessary.

  18. Traumatic shock: the fifth shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Maighdlin W; Watson, Gregory A

    2013-01-01

    Although, historically, shock associated with traumatic injury has been evaluated through knowledge of the 4 recognized shock patterns--cardiogenic, obstructive, distributive, and hypovolemic--many trauma practitioners view traumatic shock as a unique fifth shock pattern. Although secondary to a systemic inflammatory response syndrome triggered by endogenous danger signals, traumatic shock represents a unique pathological condition that begins with multiple, usually blunt, trauma and may conclude with multiple organ dysfunction syndrome and death. While varying mechanisms of injury may lead to different presentations of shock and cardiovascular decompensation, a unifying theme of traumatic shock is an overwhelming inflammatory response driven by proinflammatory cytokines, and the downstream results of this cytokine storm including, but not limited to, acute respiratory distress syndrome, coagulopathy, sepsis, and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. Treatment is primarily supportive; however, research into novel therapeutics for traumatic shock is ongoing and promises some direction for future care.

  19. Physics and applications with laser-induced relativistic shock waves

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    S Eliezer; J M Martinez-Val; Z Henis; N Nissim; S V Pinhasi; A Ravid; M Werdiger; E Raicher

    2016-01-01

    The laser-induced relativistic shock waves are described. The shock waves can be created directly by a high irradiance laser or indirectly by a laser acceleration of a foil that collides with a second static foil...

  20. Electron Acceleration in Supernovae and Millimeter Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiichi Maeda

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Supernovae launch a strong shock wave by the interaction of the expanding ejecta and surrounding circumstellar matter (CSM. At the shock, electrons are accelerated to relativistic speed, creating observed synchrotron emissions in radio wavelengths. In this paper, I suggest that SNe (i.e., < 1 year since the explosion provide a unique site to study the electron acceleration mechanism. I argue that the eciency of the acceleration at the young SN shock is much lower than conventionally assumed, and that the electrons emitting in the cm wavelengths are not fully in the Diffusive Shock Acceleration (DSA regime. Thus radio emissions from young SNe record information on the yet-unresolved 'injection' mechanism. I also present perspectives of millimeter (mm observations of SNe - this will provide opportunities to uniquely determine the shock physics and the acceleration efficiency, to test the non-linear DSA mechanism and provide a characteristic electron energy scale with which the DSA start dominating the electron acceleration.

  1. Interplanetary Shocks Lacking Type 2 Radio Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalswamy, N.; Xie, H.; Maekela, P.; Akiyama, S.; Yashiro, S.; Kaiser, M. L.; Howard, R. A.; Bougeret, J.-L.

    2010-01-01

    We report on the radio-emission characteristics of 222 interplanetary (IP) shocks detected by spacecraft at Sun-Earth L1 during solar cycle 23 (1996 to 2006, inclusive). A surprisingly large fraction of the IP shocks (approximately 34%) was radio quiet (RQ; i.e., the shocks lacked type II radio bursts). We examined the properties of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and soft X-ray flares associated with such RQ shocks and compared them with those of the radio-loud (RL) shocks. The CMEs associated with the RQ shocks were generally slow (average speed approximately 535 km/s) and only approximately 40% of the CMEs were halos. The corresponding numbers for CMEs associated with RL shocks were 1237 km/s and 72%, respectively. Thus, the CME kinetic energy seems to be the deciding factor in the radio-emission properties of shocks. The lower kinetic energy of CMEs associated with RQ shocks is also suggested by the lower peak soft X-ray flux of the associated flares (C3.4 versus M4.7 for RL shocks). CMEs associated with RQ CMEs were generally accelerating within the coronagraph field of view (average acceleration approximately +6.8 m/s (exp 2)), while those associated with RL shocks were decelerating (average acceleration approximately 3.5 m/s (exp 2)). This suggests that many of the RQ shocks formed at large distances from the Sun, typically beyond 10 Rs, consistent with the absence of metric and decameter-hectometric (DH) type II radio bursts. A small fraction of RL shocks had type II radio emission solely in the kilometric (km) wavelength domain. Interestingly, the kinematics of the CMEs associated with the km type II bursts is similar to those of RQ shocks, except that the former are slightly more energetic. Comparison of the shock Mach numbers at 1 AU shows that the RQ shocks are mostly subcritical, suggesting that they were not efficient in accelerating electrons. The Mach number values also indicate that most of these are quasi-perpendicular shocks. The radio-quietness is

  2. Shock metamorphism of ordinary chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoeffler, Dieter; Keil, Klaus; Scott, Edward R. D.

    1991-01-01

    This study proposes a revised petrographic classification of progressive stages of shock metamorphism of 26 ordinary chondrites. Six stages of shock (S1 to S6) are defined on the basis of shock effects in olivine and plagioclase as recognized by thin section microscopy, and the characteristic shock effects of each shock stage are described. It is concluded that shock effects and the sequence of progressively increasing degrees of shock metamorphosis are very similar in H, L, and LL groups. Differences in the frequency distribution of shock stages are relatively minor. It is suggested that the collisional histories of the H, L, and LL parent bodies were similar. Petrologic type-3 chondrites are deficient in stages S4 and S6 and, with increasing petrologic type, the frequency of stages S4 to S6 increases. It is suggested that the more porous and volatile-rich Type-3 chondrites are subject to melting at a lower shock pressure than the nonporous chondrites of higher petrologic type. Stage S3 is the most abundant in nearly all petrologic types.

  3. Variation of cosmic ray injection across supernova shocks

    OpenAIRE

    Voelk, H. J.; Berezhko, E. G.; Ksenofontov, L. T.

    2003-01-01

    The injection rate of suprathermal protons into the diffusive shock acceleration process should vary strongly over the surface of supernova remnant shocks. These variations and the absolute value of the injection rate are investigated. In the simplest case, like for SN 1006, the shock can be approximated as being spherical in a uniform large-scale magnetic field. The injection rate depends strongly on the shock obliquity and diminishes as the angle between the ambient field and the shock norm...

  4. Shock Tubes and Shock Tunnels: Design and Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    evolution given by thin film platinum heat gauges mounted flush with the wall is given in Fig.12. Heat flux can be deduced from this type of recording...photography or cinematography [(x, t) or (y, t) diagrams]. Examples of shock tube flows are thus represented in Figs.14 and 15 [30]. (a

  5. Balmer-Dominated Shocks: A Concise Review

    OpenAIRE

    Heng, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    A concise and critical review of Balmer-dominated shocks (BDSs) is presented, summarizing the state of theory and observations, including models with/without shock precursors and their synergy with atomic physics. Observations of BDSs in supernova remnants are reviewed on an object-by-object basis. The relevance of BDSs towards understanding the acceleration of cosmic rays in shocks is emphasized. Probable and possible detections of BDSs in astrophysical objects other than supernova remnants,...

  6. Initial conditions of radiative shock experimentsa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuranz, C. C.; Drake, R. P.; Krauland, C. M.; Marion, D. C.; Grosskopf, M. J.; Rutter, E.; Torralva, B.; Holloway, J. P.; Bingham, D.; Goh, J.; Boehly, T. R.; Sorce, A. T.

    2013-05-01

    We performed experiments at the Omega Laser Facility to characterize the initial, laser-driven state of a radiative shock experiment. These experiments aimed to measure the shock breakout time from a thin, laser-irradiated Be disk. The data are then used to inform a range of valid model parameters, such as electron flux limiter and polytropic γ, used when simulating radiative shock experiments using radiation hydrodynamics codes. The characterization experiment and the radiative shock experiment use a laser irradiance of ˜7 × 1014 W cm-2 to launch a shock in the Be disk. A velocity interferometer and a streaked optical pyrometer were used to infer the amount of time for the shock to move through the Be disk. The experimental results were compared with simulation results from the Hyades code, which can be used to model the initial conditions of a radiative shock system using the CRASH code.

  7. Initial conditions of radiative shock experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuranz, C. C.; Drake, R. P.; Krauland, C. M.; Marion, D. C.; Grosskopf, M. J.; Rutter, E.; Torralva, B.; Holloway, J. P. [Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Science, University of Michigan, Center for Radiative Shock Hydrodynamics, 2455 Hayward Dr., Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Bingham, D.; Goh, J. [Department of Statistics and Actuarial Science, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC, Canada V5A 1S6 (Canada); Boehly, T. R.; Sorce, A. T. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, New York 14623 (United States)

    2013-05-15

    We performed experiments at the Omega Laser Facility to characterize the initial, laser-driven state of a radiative shock experiment. These experiments aimed to measure the shock breakout time from a thin, laser-irradiated Be disk. The data are then used to inform a range of valid model parameters, such as electron flux limiter and polytropic γ, used when simulating radiative shock experiments using radiation hydrodynamics codes. The characterization experiment and the radiative shock experiment use a laser irradiance of ∼7 × 10{sup 14} W cm{sup −2} to launch a shock in the Be disk. A velocity interferometer and a streaked optical pyrometer were used to infer the amount of time for the shock to move through the Be disk. The experimental results were compared with simulation results from the Hyades code, which can be used to model the initial conditions of a radiative shock system using the CRASH code.

  8. What Causes Cardiogenic Shock?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home / Shock Cardiogenic Shock Causes Immediate Causes Cardiogenic shock occurs if the ... is cardiogenic shock. Tests and Procedures To Diagnose Shock and Its Underlying Causes Blood Pressure Test Medical ...

  9. What Is Cardiogenic Shock?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home / Shock Cardiogenic Shock Causes Immediate Causes Cardiogenic shock occurs if the ... is cardiogenic shock. Tests and Procedures To Diagnose Shock and Its Underlying Causes Blood Pressure Test Medical ...

  10. Autocontingencies: Suppressive and accelerative effects of pairs of shocks superimposed on a positively reinforced operant baseline

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Hank; Memmott, John

    1984-01-01

    Previous research has shown that unsignaled shock may accelerate positively reinforced operant responding if each shock signals a subsequent shock-free period. In order to explore the boundary conditions of this effect, two experiments were performed. In Experiment 1, pairs of unsignaled shocks separated by 15, 30, 60, or 120 seconds resulted in suppressed responding during the briefest intershock interval, and in accelerated responding during the longer intervals. When the second shock in ea...

  11. Laser acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajima, T.; Nakajima, K.; Mourou, G.

    2017-02-01

    The fundamental idea of Laser Wakefield Acceleration (LWFA) is reviewed. An ultrafast intense laser pulse drives coherent wakefield with a relativistic amplitude robustly supported by the plasma. While the large amplitude of wakefields involves collective resonant oscillations of the eigenmode of the entire plasma electrons, the wake phase velocity ˜ c and ultrafastness of the laser pulse introduce the wake stability and rigidity. A large number of worldwide experiments show a rapid progress of this concept realization toward both the high-energy accelerator prospect and broad applications. The strong interest in this has been spurring and stimulating novel laser technologies, including the Chirped Pulse Amplification, the Thin Film Compression, the Coherent Amplification Network, and the Relativistic Mirror Compression. These in turn have created a conglomerate of novel science and technology with LWFA to form a new genre of high field science with many parameters of merit in this field increasing exponentially lately. This science has triggered a number of worldwide research centers and initiatives. Associated physics of ion acceleration, X-ray generation, and astrophysical processes of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays are reviewed. Applications such as X-ray free electron laser, cancer therapy, and radioisotope production etc. are considered. A new avenue of LWFA using nanomaterials is also emerging.

  12. Septic Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Christopher W.; Rosengart, Matthew R.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Septic shock is a clinical emergency that occurs in more than 230 000 US patients each year. OBSERVATIONS AND ADVANCES In the setting of suspected or documented infection, septic shock is typically defined in a clinical setting by low systolic (≤90 mm Hg) or mean arterial blood pressure (≤65 mm Hg) accompanied by signs of hypoperfusion (eg, oliguria, hyperlactemia, poor peripheral perfusion, or altered mental status). Focused ultrasonography is recommended for the prompt recognition of complicating physiology (eg, hypovolemia or cardiogenic shock), while invasive hemodynamic monitoring is recommended only for select patients. In septic shock, 3 randomized clinical trials demonstrate that protocolized care offers little advantage compared with management without a protocol. Hydroxyethyl starch is no longer recommended, and debate continues about the role of various crystalloid solutions and albumin. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE The prompt diagnosis of septic shock begins with obtainment of medical history and performance of a physical examination for signs and symptoms of infection and may require focused ultrasonography to recognize more complex physiologic manifestations of shock. Clinicians should understand the importance of prompt administration of intravenous fluids and vasoactive medications aimed at restoring adequate circulation, and the limitations of protocol-based therapy, as guided by recent evidence. PMID:26284722

  13. Converging cylindrical shocks in ideal magnetohydrodynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Pullin, D. I.

    2014-09-01

    slows the shock Mach number growth producing a maximum followed by monotonic reduction towards magnetosonic conditions, even as the shock accelerates toward the axis. A parameter space of initial shock Mach number at a given radius is explored and the implications of the present results for inertial confinement fusion are discussed.

  14. Accelerated testing for studying pavement design and performance (FY 2000) : effectiveness of fiber reinforced and plain, ultra-thin concrete overlays on Portland Cement Concrete Pavement (PCCP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-11-01

    The objective of the research was to compare the performance of fiber reinforced and plain PCC concrete overlay when used as a thin non-dowelled overlay on top of a rubblized, distressed concrete pavement. The experiment was conducted at the Accelera...

  15. Observation and control of shock waves in individual nanoplasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickstein, Daniel D; Dollar, Franklin; Gaffney, Jim A; Foord, Mark E; Petrov, George M; Palm, Brett B; Keister, K Ellen; Ellis, Jennifer L; Ding, Chengyuan; Libby, Stephen B; Jimenez, Jose L; Kapteyn, Henry C; Murnane, Margaret M; Xiong, Wei

    2014-03-21

    Using an apparatus that images the momentum distribution of individual, isolated 100-nm-scale plasmas, we make the first experimental observation of shock waves in nanoplasmas. We demonstrate that the introduction of a heating pulse prior to the main laser pulse increases the intensity of the shock wave, producing a strong burst of quasimonoenergetic ions with an energy spread of less than 15%. Numerical hydrodynamic calculations confirm the appearance of accelerating shock waves and provide a mechanism for the generation and control of these shock waves. This observation of distinct shock waves in dense plasmas enables the control, study, and exploitation of nanoscale shock phenomena with tabletop-scale lasers.

  16. Cohenite in Chondrites: Further Support for a Shock-Heating Origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Likkel, L.; Ruzicka, A. M.; Hutson, M.; Schepker, K.; Yeager, T.

    2013-09-01

    In thin sections of two chondrites, cohenite was found with optical microscopy to be preferentially near shock melt or in heat affected host. This is consistent with cohenite formation due to contact metamorphism from heating by nearby shock melt.

  17. Shock wave focusing in water inside convergent structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Wang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Experiments on shock focusing in water-filled convergent structures have been performed. A shock wave in water is generated by means of a projectile, launched from a gas gun, which impacts a water-filled convergent structure. Two types of structures have been tested; a bulk material and a thin shell structure. The geometric shape of the convergent structures is given by a logarithmic spiral, and this particular shape is chosen because it maximizes the amount of energy reaching the focal region. High-speed schlieren photography is used to visualize the shock dynamics during the focusing event. Results show that the fluid-structure interaction between the thin shell structure and the shock wave in the water is different from that of a bulk structure; multiple reflections of the shock wave inside the thin shell are reflected back into the water, thus creating a wave train, which is not observed for shock focusing in a bulk material.

  18. [Obstructive shock].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pich, H; Heller, A R

    2015-05-01

    An acute obstruction of blood flow in central vessels of the systemic or pulmonary circulation causes the clinical symptoms of shock accompanied by disturbances of consciousness, centralization, oliguria, hypotension and tachycardia. In the case of an acute pulmonary embolism an intravascular occlusion results in an acute increase of the right ventricular afterload. In the case of a tension pneumothorax, an obstruction of the blood vessels supplying the heart is caused by an increase in extravascular pressure. From a hemodynamic viewpoint circulatory shock caused by obstruction is closely followed by cardiac deterioration; however, etiological and therapeutic options necessitate demarcation of cardiac from non-cardiac obstructive causes. The high dynamics of this potentially life-threatening condition is a hallmark of all types of obstructive shock. This requires an expeditious and purposeful diagnosis and a rapid and well-aimed therapy.

  19. Toxic shock syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome; Toxic shock-like syndrome; TSLS ... Toxic shock syndrome is caused by a toxin produced by some types of staphylococcus bacteria. A similar problem, called toxic shock- ...

  20. Sepsis and Septic Shock Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Bracken A; Betzold, Richard D; May, Addison K

    2017-12-01

    Three therapeutic principles most substantially improve organ dysfunction and survival in sepsis: early, appropriate antimicrobial therapy; restoration of adequate cellular perfusion; timely source control. The new definitions of sepsis and septic shock reflect the inadequate sensitivity, specify, and lack of prognostication of systemic inflammatory response syndrome criteria. Sequential (sepsis-related) organ failure assessment more effectively prognosticates in sepsis and critical illness. Inadequate cellular perfusion accelerates injury and reestablishing perfusion limits injury. Multiple organ systems are affected by sepsis and septic shock and an evidence-based multipronged approach to systems-based therapy in critical illness results in improve outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Shock Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Z

    2005-01-01

    The International Symposium on Shock Waves (ISSW) is a well established series of conferences held every two years in a different location. A unique feature of the ISSW is the emphasis on bridging the gap between physicists and engineers working in fields as different as gas dynamics, fluid mechanics and materials sciences. The main results presented at these meetings constitute valuable proceedings that offer anyone working in this field an authoritative and comprehensive source of reference.

  2. Multispacecraft study of shock-flux rope interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Cano, Xochitl; Burgess, David; Sundberg, Torbjorn; Kajdic, Primoz

    2017-04-01

    Interplanetary (IP) shocks can be driven in the solar wind by fast coronal mass ejections. These shocks can accelerate particles near the Sun and through the heliosphere, being associated to solar energetic particle (SEP) and energetic storm particle (ESP) events. IP shocks can interact with structures in the solar wind, and with planetary magnetospheres. In this study we show how the properties of an IP shock change when it interacts with a medium scale flux rope (FR) like structure. We use data measurements from CLUSTER, WIND and ACE. These three spacecraft observed the shock-FR interaction at different stages of its evolution. We find that the shock-FR interaction locally changes the shock geometry, affecting ion injection processes, and the upstream and downstream regions. While WIND and ACE observed a quasi-perpendicular shock, CLUSTER crossed a quasi-parallel shock and a foreshock with a variety of ion distributions. The complexity of the ion foreshock can be explained by the dynamics of the shock transitioning from quasi-perpendicular to quasi-parallel, and the geometry of the magnetic field around the flux rope. Interactions such as the one we discuss can occur often along the extended IP shock fronts, and hence their importance towards a better understanding of shock acceleration.

  3. Artificial seismic acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felzer, Karen R.; Page, Morgan T.; Michael, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    In their 2013 paper, Bouchon, Durand, Marsan, Karabulut, 3 and Schmittbuhl (BDMKS) claim to see significant accelerating seismicity before M 6.5 interplate mainshocks, but not before intraplate mainshocks, reflecting a preparatory process before large events. We concur with the finding of BDMKS that their interplate dataset has significantly more fore- shocks than their intraplate dataset; however, we disagree that the foreshocks are predictive of large events in particular. Acceleration in stacked foreshock sequences has been seen before and has been explained by the cascade model, in which earthquakes occasionally trigger aftershocks larger than themselves4. In this model, the time lags between the smaller mainshocks and larger aftershocks follow the inverse power law common to all aftershock sequences, creating an apparent acceleration when stacked (see Supplementary Information).

  4. Energetics of the terrestrial bow shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamrin, Maria; Gunell, Herbert; Norqvist, Patrik

    2017-04-01

    The solar wind is the primary energy source for the magnetospheric energy budget. Energy can enter through the magnetopause both as kinetic energy (plasma entering via e.g. magnetic reconnection and impulsive penetration) and as electromagnetic energy (e.g. by the conversion of solar wind kinetic energy into electromagnetic energy in magnetopause generators). However, energy is extracted from the solar wind already at the bow shock, before it encounters the terrestrial magnetopause. At the bow shock the supersonic solar wind is slowed down and heated, and the region near the bow shock is known to host many complex processes, including the accelerating of particles and the generation of waves. The processes at and near the bow shock can be discussed in terms of energetics: In a generator (load) process kinetic energy is converted to (from) electromagnetic energy. Bow shock regions where the solar wind is decelerated correspond to generators, while regions where particles are energized (accelerated and heated) correspond to loads. Recently, it has been suggested that currents from the bow shock generator should flow across the magnetosheath and connect to the magnetospause current systems [Siebert and Siscoe, 2002; Lopez et al., 2011]. In this study we use data from the Magnetospheric MultiScale (MMS) mission to investigate the energetics of the bow shock and the current closure, and we compare with the MHD simulations of Lopez et al., 2011.

  5. Shock induced cavity collapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skidmore, Jonathan; Doyle, Hugo; Tully, Brett; Betney, Matthew; Foster, Peta; Ringrose, Tim; Ramasamy, Rohan; Parkin, James; Edwards, Tom; Hawker, Nicholas

    2016-10-01

    Results from the experimental investigation of cavity collapse driven by a strong planar shock (>6km/s) are presented. Data from high speed framing cameras, laser backlit diagnostics and time-resolved pyromety are used to validate the results of hydrodynamic front-tracking simulations. As a code validation exercise, a 2-stage light gas gun was used to accelerate a 1g Polycarbonate projectile to velocities exceeding 6km/s; impact with a PMMA target containing a gas filled void results in the formation of a strong shockwave with pressures exceeding 1Mbar. The subsequent phenomena associated with the collapse of the void and excitation of the inert gas fill are recorded and compared to simulated data. Variation of the mass density and atomic number of the gas fill is used to alter the plasma parameters furthering the extent of the code validation.

  6. Simulation of Relativistic Shocks and Associated Self-Consistent Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, K.-I.; Niemiec, J.; Medvedev, M.; Zhang, B.; Hardee, P.; Mizuno, Y.; Nordlund, A.; Frederiksen, J.; Sol, H.; Pohl, M.; hide

    2010-01-01

    Plasma instabilities excited in collisionless shocks are responsible for particle acceleration. We have investigated the particle acceleration and shock structure associated with an unmagnetized relativistic electron-positron jet propagating into an unmagnetized electron-positron plasma. Cold jet electrons are thermalized and slowed while the ambient electrons are swept up to create a partially developed hydrodynamic-like shock structure. In the leading shock, electron density increases by a factor of about 3.5 in the simulation frame. Strong electromagnetic fields are generated in the trailing shock and provide an emission site. These magnetic fields contribute to the electrons transverse deflection behind the shock. We calculate the radiation from deflected electrons in the turbulent magnetic fields. The properties of this radiation may be important for understanding the complex time evolution and/or spectral structure in gamma-ray bursts, relativistic jets in general, and supernova remnants.

  7. A primary standard for low-g shock calibration by laser interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qiao; Wang, Jian-lin; Hu, Hong-bo

    2014-07-01

    This paper presents a novel implementation of a primary standard for low-g shock acceleration calibration by laser interferometry based on rigid body collision at National Institute of Metrology, China. The mechanical structure of the standard device and working principles involved in the shock acceleration exciter, laser interferometers and virtual instruments are described. The novel combination of an electromagnetic exciter and a pneumatic exciter as the mechanical power supply of the standard device can deliver a wide range of shock acceleration levels. In addition to polyurethane rubber, two other types of material are investigated to ensure a wide selection of cushioning pads for shock pulse generation, with pulse shapes and data displayed. A heterodyne He-Ne laser interferometer is preferred for its precise and reliable measurement of shock acceleration while a homodyne one serves as a check standard. Some calibration results of a standard acceleration measuring chain are shown in company with the uncertainty evaluation budget. The expanded calibration uncertainty of shock sensitivity of the acceleration measuring chain is 0.8%, k = 2, with the peak acceleration range from 20 to 10 000 m s-2 and pulse duration from 0.5 to 10 ms. This primary shock standard can meet the traceability requirements of shock acceleration from various applications of industries from automobile to civil engineering and therefore is used for piloting the ongoing shock comparison of Technical Committee of Acoustics, Ultrasound and Vibration (TCAUV) of Asia Pacific Metrology Program (APMP), coded as APMP.AUV.V-P1.

  8. Geometrical shock dynamics of fast magnetohydrodynamic shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostert, Wouter; Pullin, Dale I.; Samtaney, Ravi; Wheatley, Vincent

    2016-11-01

    We extend the theory of geometrical shock dynamics (GSD, Whitham 1958), to two-dimensional fast magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) shocks moving in the presence of nonuniform magnetic fields of general orientation and strength. The resulting generalized area-Mach number rule is adapted to MHD shocks moving in two spatial dimensions. A partially-spectral numerical scheme developed from that of Schwendeman (1993) is described. This is applied to the stability of plane MHD fast shocks moving into a quiescent medium containing a uniform magnetic field whose field lines are inclined to the plane-shock normal. In particular, we consider the time taken for an initially planar shock subject to an initial perturbed magnetosonic Mach number distribution, to first form shock-shocks. Supported by KAUST OCRF Award No. URF/1/2162-01.

  9. Localized shocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Daniel A. [Center for Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics,Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Stanford, Douglas [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics,Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study,Princeton, NJ (United States); Susskind, Leonard [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics,Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2015-03-10

    We study products of precursors of spatially local operators, W{sub x{sub n}}(t{sub n})…W{sub x{sub 1}}(t{sub 1}), where W{sub x}(t)=e{sup −iHt}W{sub x}e{sup iHt}. Using chaotic spin-chain numerics and gauge/gravity duality, we show that a single precursor fills a spatial region that grows linearly in t. In a lattice system, products of such operators can be represented using tensor networks. In gauge/gravity duality, they are related to Einstein-Rosen bridges supported by localized shock waves. We find a geometrical correspondence between these two descriptions, generalizing earlier work in the spatially homogeneous case.

  10. Precursors to Interstellar Shocks of Solar Origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurnett, D. A.; Kurth, W. S.; Stone, E. C.; Cummings, A. C.; Krimigis, S. M.; Decker, R. B.; Ness, N. F.; Burlaga, L. F.

    2015-12-01

    On or about 2012 August 25, the Voyager 1 spacecraft crossed the heliopause into the nearby interstellar plasma. In the nearly three years that the spacecraft has been in interstellar space, three notable particle and field disturbances have been observed, each apparently associated with a shock wave propagating outward from the Sun. Here, we present a detailed analysis of the third and most impressive of these disturbances, with brief comparisons to the two previous events, both of which have been previously reported. The shock responsible for the third event was first detected on 2014 February 17 by the onset of narrowband radio emissions from the approaching shock, followed on 2014 May 13 by the abrupt appearance of intense electron plasma oscillations generated by electrons streaming outward ahead of the shock. Finally, the shock arrived on 2014 August 25, as indicated by a jump in the magnetic field strength and the plasma density. Various disturbances in the intensity and anisotropy of galactic cosmic rays were also observed ahead of the shock, some of which are believed to be caused by the reflection and acceleration of cosmic rays by the magnetic field jump at the shock, and/or by interactions with upstream plasma waves. Comparisons to the two previous weaker events show somewhat similar precursor effects, although differing in certain details. Many of these effects are very similar to those observed in the region called the "foreshock" that occurs upstream of planetary bow shocks, only on a vastly larger spatial scale.

  11. Characterization of Shocked Beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cady, Carl M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Adams, Chris D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hull, Lawrence M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gray III, George T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Prime, Michael B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Addessio, Francis L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wynn, Thomas A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Brown, Eric N [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-08-24

    accelerate the material. Preliminary analysis of the results appears to indicate that, if fractured by the initial shock loading, the S200F Be remains sufficiently intact to support a shear stress following partial release and subsequent shock re-loading of the material. Additional 'arrested' drive shots were designed and tested to minimize the reflected tensile pulse in the sample. These tests were done to both validate the model and to put large shock induced compressive loads into the beryllium sample.

  12. High-energy cosmic-ray acceleration

    CERN Document Server

    Bustamante, M; de Paula, W; Duarte Chavez, J A; Gago, A M; Hakobyan, H; Jez, P; Monroy Montañez, J A; Ortiz Velasquez, A; Padilla Cabal, F; Pino Rozas, M; Rodriguez Patarroyo, D J; Romeo, G L; Saldaña-Salazar , U J; Velasquez, M; von Steinkirch, M

    2010-01-01

    We briefly review the basics of ultrahigh-energy cosmic-ray acceleration. The Hillas criterion is introduced as a geometrical criterion that must be fulfilled by potential acceleration sites, and energy losses are taken into account in order to obtain a more realistic scenario. The different available acceleration mechanisms are presented, with special emphasis on Fermi shock acceleration and its prediction of a power-law cosmic-ray energy spectrum. We conclude that first-order Fermi acceleration, though not entirely satisfactory, is the most promising mechanism for explaining the ultra-high-energy cosmic-ray flux.

  13. Future accelerators (?)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Womersley

    2003-08-21

    I describe the future accelerator facilities that are currently foreseen for electroweak scale physics, neutrino physics, and nuclear structure. I will explore the physics justification for these machines, and suggest how the case for future accelerators can be made.

  14. Nonequilibrium recombination after a curved shock wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Chihyung; Hornung, Hans

    2010-02-01

    The effect of nonequilibrium recombination after a curved two-dimensional shock wave in a hypervelocity dissociating flow of an inviscid Lighthill-Freeman gas is considered. An analytical solution is obtained with the effective shock values derived by Hornung (1976) [5] and the assumption that the flow is ‘quasi-frozen’ after a thin dissociating layer near the shock. The solution gives the expression of dissociation fraction as a function of temperature on a streamline. A rule of thumb can then be provided to check the validity of binary scaling for experimental conditions and a tool to determine the limiting streamline that delineates the validity zone of binary scaling. The effects on the nonequilibrium chemical reaction of the large difference in free stream temperature between free-piston shock tunnel and equivalent flight conditions are discussed. Numerical examples are presented and the results are compared with solutions obtained with two-dimensional Euler equations using the code of Candler (1988) [10].

  15. Collisionless electrostatic shocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, H.K.; Andersen, S.A.; Jensen, Vagn Orla

    1970-01-01

    An attempt was made in the laboratory to observe the standing collisionless electrostatic shocks in connection with the bow shock of the earth......An attempt was made in the laboratory to observe the standing collisionless electrostatic shocks in connection with the bow shock of the earth...

  16. Passive Shock Isolation Utilising Dry Friction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Ikmal Ismail

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel shock isolation strategy for base excited system is presented by introducing a two-degree-of-freedom model with passive friction, where the friction is applied to an attached mass instead of directly to the primary isolated mass. The model is evaluated against the benchmark case of single-degree-of-freedom system with friction applied directly to the primary isolated mass. The performances of the models are compared in terms of the maximum displacement response and the acceleration during the application of the shock input for the case when the shock input duration is approximately equal to the natural period of the system (amplification region. From the results, the two-degree-of-freedom model can produce both maximum displacement reduction and smoother acceleration at the point of motion transition. An experimental rig was built to validate the theoretical results against the experimental results; it is found that the experimental results closely match the theoretical predictions.

  17. Shear Shock Waves Observed in the Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espíndola, David; Lee, Stephen; Pinton, Gianmarco

    2017-10-01

    The internal deformation of the brain is far more complex than the rigid motion of the skull. An ultrasound imaging technique that we have developed has a combination of penetration, frame-rate, and motion-detection accuracy required to directly observe the formation and evolution of shear shock waves in the brain. Experiments at low impacts on the traumatic-brain-injury scale demonstrate that they are spontaneously generated and propagate within the porcine brain. Compared to the initially smooth impact, the acceleration at the shock front is amplified up to a factor of 8.5. This highly localized increase in acceleration suggests that shear shock waves are a previously unappreciated mechanism that could play a significant role in traumatic brain injury.

  18. Experimental Investigation of Shock Wave Surfing

    CERN Document Server

    Parziale, N J; Hornung, H G; Shepherd, J E

    2010-01-01

    Shock wave surfing is investigated experimentally in GALCIT's Mach 4.0 Ludwieg Tube. Shock wave surfing occurs when a secondary free-body follows the bow shock formed by a primary free-body; an example of shock wave surfing occurs during meteorite breakup. The free-bodies in the current investigation are nylon spheres. During each run in the Ludwieg tube a high speed camera is used to capture a series of schlieren images; edge tracking software is used to measure the position of each sphere. Velocity and acceleration are had from processing the position data. The radius ratio and initial orientation of the two spheres are varied in the test matrix. The variation of sphere radius ratio and initial angle between the centers of gravity are shown to have a significant effect on the dynamics of the system.

  19. Geometrical shock dynamics for magnetohydrodynamic fast shocks

    KAUST Repository

    Mostert, W.

    2016-12-12

    We describe a formulation of two-dimensional geometrical shock dynamics (GSD) suitable for ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) fast shocks under magnetic fields of general strength and orientation. The resulting area–Mach-number–shock-angle relation is then incorporated into a numerical method using pseudospectral differentiation. The MHD-GSD model is verified by comparison with results from nonlinear finite-volume solution of the complete ideal MHD equations applied to a shock implosion flow in the presence of an oblique and spatially varying magnetic field ahead of the shock. Results from application of the MHD-GSD equations to the stability of fast MHD shocks in two dimensions are presented. It is shown that the time to formation of triple points for both perturbed MHD and gas-dynamic shocks increases as (Formula presented.), where (Formula presented.) is a measure of the initial Mach-number perturbation. Symmetry breaking in the MHD case is demonstrated. In cylindrical converging geometry, in the presence of an azimuthal field produced by a line current, the MHD shock behaves in the mean as in Pullin et al. (Phys. Fluids, vol. 26, 2014, 097103), but suffers a greater relative pressure fluctuation along the shock than the gas-dynamic shock. © 2016 Cambridge University Press

  20. Vibration analysis on compact car shock absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, W. H.; Cheah, J. X.; Lam, C. K.; Lim, E. A.; Chuah, H. G.; Khor, C. Y.

    2017-10-01

    Shock absorber is a part of the suspension system which provides comfort experience while driving. Resonance, a phenomenon where forced frequency is coinciding with the natural frequency has significant effect on the shock absorber itself. Thus, in this study, natural frequencies of the shock absorber in a 2 degree-of-freedom system were investigated using Wolfram Mathematica 11, CATIA, and ANSYS. Both theoretical and simulation study how will the resonance affect the car shock absorber. The parametric study on the performance of shock absorber also had been conducted. It is found that the failure tends to occur on coil sprung of the shock absorber before the body of the shock absorber is fail. From mathematical modelling, it can also be seen that higher vibration level occurred on un-sprung mass compare to spring mass. This is due to the weight of sprung mass which could stabilize as compared with the weight of un-sprung mass. Besides that, two natural frequencies had been obtained which are 1.0 Hz and 9.1 Hz for sprung mass and un-sprung mass respectively where the acceleration is recorded as maximum. In conclusion, ANSYS can be used to validate with theoretical results with complete model in order to match with mathematical modelling.

  1. Modeling nonthermal emission from stellar bow shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, V.; López-Santiago, J.; Miceli, M.; Bonito, R.; de Castro, E.

    2016-04-01

    Context. Runaway O- and early B-type stars passing through the interstellar medium at supersonic velocities and characterized by strong stellar winds may produce bow shocks that can serve as particle acceleration sites. Previous theoretical models predict the production of high-energy photons by nonthermal radiative processes, but their efficiency is still debated. Aims: We aim to test and explain the possibility of emission from the bow shocks formed by runaway stars traveling through the interstellar medium by using previous theoretical models. Methods: We applied our model to AE Aurigae, the first reported star with an X-ray detected bow shock, to BD+43 3654, in which the observations failed in detecting high-energy emission, and to the transition phase of a supergiant star in the late stages of its life. Results: From our analysis, we confirm that the X-ray emission from the bow shock produced by AE Aurigae can be explained by inverse Compton processes involving the infrared photons of the heated dust. We also predict low high-energy flux emission from the bow shock produced by BD+43 3654, and the possibility of high-energy emission from the bow shock formed by a supergiant star during the transition phase from blue to red supergiant. Conclusions: Bow shocks formed by different types of runaway stars are revealed as a new possible source of high-energy photons in our neighborhood.

  2. Electrostatic accelerators

    OpenAIRE

    Hinterberger, F.

    2006-01-01

    The principle of electrostatic accelerators is presented. We consider Cockcroft– Walton, Van de Graaff and Tandem Van de Graaff accelerators. We resume high voltage generators such as cascade generators, Van de Graaff band generators, Pelletron generators, Laddertron generators and Dynamitron generators. The speci c features of accelerating tubes, ion optics and methods of voltage stabilization are described. We discuss the characteristic beam properties and the variety of possible beams. We ...

  3. Electrostatic accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Hinterberger, F

    2006-01-01

    The principle of electrostatic accelerators is presented. We consider Cockcroft– Walton, Van de Graaff and Tandem Van de Graaff accelerators. We resume high voltage generators such as cascade generators, Van de Graaff band generators, Pelletron generators, Laddertron generators and Dynamitron generators. The speci c features of accelerating tubes, ion optics and methods of voltage stabilization are described. We discuss the characteristic beam properties and the variety of possible beams. We sketch possible applications and the progress in the development of electrostatic accelerators.

  4. Curved Radio Spectra of Weak Cluster Shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyesung; Ryu, Dongsu

    2015-08-01

    In order to understand certain observed features of arc-like giant radio relics such as the rareness, uniform surface brightness, and curved integrated spectra, we explore a diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) model for radio relics in which a spherical shock impinges on a magnetized cloud containing fossil relativistic electrons. Toward this end, we perform DSA simulations of spherical shocks with the parameters relevant for the Sausage radio relic in cluster CIZA J2242.8+5301, and calculate the ensuing radio synchrotron emission from re-accelerated electrons. Three types of fossil electron populations are considered: a delta-function like population with the shock injection momentum, a power-law distribution, and a power law with an exponential cutoff. The surface brightness profile of the radio-emitting postshock region and the volume-integrated radio spectrum are calculated and compared with observations. We find that the observed width of the Sausage relic can be explained reasonably well by shocks with speed {u}{{s}}˜ 3× {10}3 {km} {{{s}}}-1 and sonic Mach number {M}{{s}}˜ 3. These shocks produce curved radio spectra that steepen gradually over (0.1-10){ν }{br} with a break frequency {ν }{br}˜ 1 GHz if the duration of electron acceleration is ˜60-80 Myr. However, the abrupt increase in the spectral index above ˜1.5 GHz observed in the Sausage relic seems to indicate that additional physical processes, other than radiative losses, operate for electrons with {γ }{{e}}≳ {10}4.

  5. Accelerating Value Creation with Accelerators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsson, Eythor Ivar

    2015-01-01

    accelerator programs. Microsoft runs accelerators in seven different countries. Accelerators have grown out of the infancy stage and are now an accepted approach to develop new ventures based on cutting-edge technology like the internet of things, mobile technology, big data and virtual reality. It is also...... an approach to facilitate implementation and realization of business ideas and is a lucrative approach to transform research into ventures and to revitalize regions and industries in transition. Investors have noticed that the accelerator approach is a way to increase the possibility of success by funnelling...... with the traditional audit and legal universes and industries are examples of emerging potentials both from a research and business point of view to exploit and explore further. The accelerator approach may therefore be an Idea Watch to consider, no matter which industry you are in, because in essence accelerators...

  6. Observation and control of shock waves in individual nanoplasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Hickstein, Daniel D; Gaffney, Jim A; Foord, Mark E; Petrov, George M; Palm, Brett B; Keister, K Ellen; Ellis, Jennifer L; Ding, Chengyuan; Libby, Stephen B; Jimenez, Jose L; Kapteyn, Henry C; Murnane, Margaret M; Xiong, Wei

    2014-01-01

    In a novel experiment that images the momentum distribution of individual, isolated 100-nm-scale plasmas, we make the first experimental observation of shock waves in nanoplasmas. We demonstrate that the introduction of a heating pulse prior to the main laser pulse increases the intensity of the shock wave, producing a strong burst of quasi-monochromatic ions with an energy spread of less than 15%. Numerical hydrodynamic calculations confirm the appearance of accelerating shock waves, and provide a mechanism for the generation and control of these shock waves. This observation of distinct shock waves in dense plasmas enables the control, study, and exploitation of nanoscale shock phenomena with tabletop-scale lasers.

  7. The Shock State of Itokawa Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolensky, Michael; Nakamura, Tomoki; Mikouchi, Takashi; Hagiya, Kenji; Ohsumi, Kazumasa; Tanaka, Masahiko; Kimura, Makoto; Tsuchiyama, Akira; Nakato, Aiko; Ogami, Toshihiro; hide

    2012-01-01

    One of the fundamental aspects of any astromaterial is its shock history, since this factor elucidates critical historical events, and also because shock metamorphism can alter primary mineralogical and petrographic features, and reset chronologies [1]. Failure to take shock history into proper account during characterization can result in seriously incorrect conclusions being drawn. Thus the Hayabusa Preliminary Examination Team (HASPET) made shock stage determination of the Itokawa samples a primary goal [2]. However, we faced several difficulties in this particular research. The shock state of ordinary chondrite materials is generally determined by simple optical petrographic observation of standard thin sections. The Itokawa samples available to the analysis team were mounted into plastic blocks, were polished on only one side, and were of non-standard and greatly varying thickness, all of which significantly complicated petrographic analysis but did not prevent it. We made an additional estimation of the sample shock state by a new technique for this analysis - electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD) in addition to standard petrographic techniques. We are also investigating the crystallinity of Itokawa olivine by Synchrotron X-ray diffraction (SXRD).

  8. LIBO accelerates

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The prototype module of LIBO, a linear accelerator project designed for cancer therapy, has passed its first proton-beam acceleration test. In parallel a new version - LIBO-30 - is being developed, which promises to open up even more interesting avenues.

  9. A review of transport theory. [particle acceleration in astrophysical plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Frank C.

    1992-01-01

    Ways in which energy change terms arise in the transport equation and how the various terms relate to the modes of energy exchange between the particles and plasma are shown. It is argued that the transport equation cannot be used to describe the initial acceleration of thermal particles by plasma shocks or relativistic shocks where the energetic particle speeds are never much greater than the flow speeds. In most other situations, it describes almost any acceleration process that can be caused by a moving plasma. It describes shock acceleration for both parallel shocks and oblique ones, and stochastic acceleration by the turbulent motion of the scatterers as well as by their motion across the magnetic field.

  10. Biomass shock pretreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtzapple, Mark T.; Madison, Maxine Jones; Ramirez, Rocio Sierra; Deimund, Mark A.; Falls, Matthew; Dunkelman, John J.

    2014-07-01

    Methods and apparatus for treating biomass that may include introducing a biomass to a chamber; exposing the biomass in the chamber to a shock event to produce a shocked biomass; and transferring the shocked biomass from the chamber. In some aspects, the method may include pretreating the biomass with a chemical before introducing the biomass to the chamber and/or after transferring shocked biomass from the chamber.

  11. Accelerating Inspire

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2266999

    2017-01-01

    CERN has been involved in the dissemination of scientific results since its early days and has continuously updated the distribution channels. Currently, Inspire hosts catalogues of articles, authors, institutions, conferences, jobs, experiments, journals and more. Successful orientation among this amount of data requires comprehensive linking between the content. Inspire has lacked a system for linking experiments and articles together based on which accelerator they were conducted at. The purpose of this project has been to create such a system. Records for 156 accelerators were created and all 2913 experiments on Inspire were given corresponding MARC tags. Records of 18404 accelerator physics related bibliographic entries were also tagged with corresponding accelerator tags. Finally, as a part of the endeavour to broaden CERN's presence on Wikipedia, existing Wikipedia articles of accelerators were updated with short descriptions and links to Inspire. In total, 86 Wikipedia articles were updated. This repo...

  12. Induction accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Takayama, Ken

    2011-01-01

    A broad class of accelerators rests on the induction principle whereby the accelerating electrical fields are generated by time-varying magnetic fluxes. Particularly suitable for the transport of bright and high-intensity beams of electrons, protons or heavy ions in any geometry (linear or circular) the research and development of induction accelerators is a thriving subfield of accelerator physics. This text is the first comprehensive account of both the fundamentals and the state of the art about the modern conceptual design and implementation of such devices. Accordingly, the first part of the book is devoted to the essential features of and key technologies used for induction accelerators at a level suitable for postgraduate students and newcomers to the field. Subsequent chapters deal with more specialized and advanced topics.

  13. Coronas Mass Ejections, Shocks, and Type II Radio Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalswamy, Natchimuthuk

    2010-01-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are the most energetic phenomena in the interplanetary medium. Type II radio bursts are the earliest indicators of particle acceleration by CME-driven shocks. There is one-to-one correspondence between large solar energetic particle (SEP) events and long wavelength type II bursts because the same CME-driven shock is supposed to accelerate electrons and ions. However, there are some significant deviations: some CMEs lacking type II bursts (radio-quiet or RQ CMEs) are associated with small SEP events while some radioloud (RL) CMEs are not associated with SEP events, suggesting subtle differences in the acceleration of electrons and protons. Not all CME-driven shocks are radio loud: more than one third of the interplanetary shocks during solar cycle 23 were radio quiet. Some RQ shocks were associated with energetic storm particle (ESP) events, which are detected when the shocks arrive at the observing spacecraft. This paper attempts to explain these contradictory results in terms of the properties of CMEs, shocks, and the ambient medium.

  14. GALACTIC AND EXTRAGALACTIC SUPERNOVA REMNANTS AS SITES OF PARTICLE ACCELERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manami Sasaki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Supernova remnants, owing to their strong shock waves, are likely sources of Galactic cosmic rays. Studies of supernova remnants in X-rays and gamma rays provide us with new insights into the acceleration of particles to high energies. This paper reviews the basic physics of supernova remnant shocks and associated particle acceleration and radiation processes. In addition, the study of supernova remnant populations in nearby galaxies and the implications for Galactic cosmic ray distribution are discussed.

  15. Theoretical treatment of fluid flow for accelerating bodies

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gledhill, Irvy MA

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available in acceleration, deceleration and steady state at specific Mach numbers during flight revealed significant differences between the steady and unsteady scenarios. Acceleration dependent behaviour for bow shocks, tail shocks and trailing compression waves were... to the formulation of the Basset-Bousinessq-Oseen equation for the motion of a particle in the limit of low Mach and Reynolds numbers and its subsequent extension to compressible flow [11]. The terms Bousinessq-Basset force, Basset force [12] or history force...

  16. Measurements of ion species separation in strong plasma shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinderknecht, Hans

    2017-10-01

    Shocks are important dynamic phenomena in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and astrophysical plasmas. While the relationship between upstream and downstream plasmas far from the shock front is fully determined by conservation equations, the structure of shock fronts is determined by dynamic kinetic processes. Kinetic theory and simulations predict that the width of a strong (M >2) collisional plasma shock front is on the order of tens of ion mean-free-paths. The shock front structure plays an important role for overall dynamics when the shock front width approaches plasma scale lengths, as in the spherically converging shock in the DT-vapor in an ICF implosion. However, there has been no experimental data benchmarking shock front structure in the plasma phase. The structure of a shock front in a plasma with multiple ion species has been directly measured for the first time using a combination of Thomson scattering and proton radiography in experiments on the OMEGA laser. Thomson scattering of a 263.25 nm probe beam is used to diagnose electron density, electron and ion temperature, ion species concentration, and flow velocity in strong shocks (M 5) propagating through low-density (ρ 0.1 mg/cc) plasmas composed of H(98%) +Ne(2%). Within the shock front, velocity separation of the ion species is observed for the first time: the light species (H) accelerates to of order the shocked fluid velocity (450 microns/ns) before the heavy species (Ne) begins to move. This velocity-space separation implies that the separation of ion species occurs at the shock front, a predicted feature of shocks in multi-species plasmas but never observed experimentally until now. Comparison of experimental data with PIC, Vlasov-Fokker-Planck, and multi-component hydrodynamic simulations will be presented.

  17. Thermophysical properties of multi-shock compressed dense argon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Q. F., E-mail: chenqf01@gmail.com; Zheng, J.; Gu, Y. J.; Chen, Y. L.; Cai, L. C. [National Key Laboratory of Shock Wave and Detonation Physics, Institute of Fluid Physics, P. O. Box 919-102, Mianyang, Sichuan (China); Shen, Z. J. [Laboratory of Computational Physics, Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, P. O. Box 8009-26, Beijing 10086 (China)

    2014-02-21

    In contrast to the single shock compression state that can be obtained directly via experimental measurements, the multi-shock compression states, however, have to be calculated with the aid of theoretical models. In order to determine experimentally the multiple shock states, a diagnostic approach with the Doppler pins system (DPS) and the pyrometer was used to probe multiple shocks in dense argon plasmas. Plasma was generated by a shock reverberation technique. The shock was produced using the flyer plate impact accelerated up to ∼6.1 km/s by a two-stage light gas gun and introduced into the plenum argon gas sample, which was pre-compressed from the environmental pressure to about 20 MPa. The time-resolved optical radiation histories were determined using a multi-wavelength channel optical transience radiance pyrometer. Simultaneously, the particle velocity profiles of the LiF window was measured with multi-DPS. The states of multi-shock compression argon plasma were determined from the measured shock velocities combining the particle velocity profiles. We performed the experiments on dense argon plasmas to determine the principal Hugonoit up to 21 GPa, the re-shock pressure up to 73 GPa, and the maximum measure pressure of the fourth shock up to 158 GPa. The results are used to validate the existing self-consistent variational theory model in the partial ionization region and create new theoretical models.

  18. Thermophysical properties of multi-shock compressed dense argon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Q. F.; Zheng, J.; Gu, Y. J.; Chen, Y. L.; Cai, L. C.; Shen, Z. J.

    2014-02-01

    In contrast to the single shock compression state that can be obtained directly via experimental measurements, the multi-shock compression states, however, have to be calculated with the aid of theoretical models. In order to determine experimentally the multiple shock states, a diagnostic approach with the Doppler pins system (DPS) and the pyrometer was used to probe multiple shocks in dense argon plasmas. Plasma was generated by a shock reverberation technique. The shock was produced using the flyer plate impact accelerated up to ˜6.1 km/s by a two-stage light gas gun and introduced into the plenum argon gas sample, which was pre-compressed from the environmental pressure to about 20 MPa. The time-resolved optical radiation histories were determined using a multi-wavelength channel optical transience radiance pyrometer. Simultaneously, the particle velocity profiles of the LiF window was measured with multi-DPS. The states of multi-shock compression argon plasma were determined from the measured shock velocities combining the particle velocity profiles. We performed the experiments on dense argon plasmas to determine the principal Hugonoit up to 21 GPa, the re-shock pressure up to 73 GPa, and the maximum measure pressure of the fourth shock up to 158 GPa. The results are used to validate the existing self-consistent variational theory model in the partial ionization region and create new theoretical models.

  19. Implementation of primary low-g shock standard for laser interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qiao; Wang, Jian-lin; Hu, Hong-bo

    2015-02-01

    This paper presents the novel implementation of a primary standard for low-g shock acceleration calibration based on rigid body collision using laser interferometry at National Institute of Metrology (NIM), China. The combination of an electromagnetic exciter and a pneumatic exciter as mechanical power supply of the shock excitation system are built up to achieve a wider acceleration range. Three types of material for shock pulse generators between airborne anvil and hammer are investigated and compared in the aspects of pulse shapes and acceleration levels. A heterodyne He-Ne laser interferometer is employed for precise measurement of shock acceleration with less electronic and mechanical influences from both the standard device itself and its surroundings. For signal acquisition and processing, virtual instrument technology is used to build up data acquisition PXI hardware from National Instrument and calibration software developed by LabVIEW. Some calibration results of a standard accelerometer measuring chain are shown accompany with the uncertainty evaluation budget. The expanded calibration uncertainty of shock sensitivity of the accelerometer measuring chain is 0.8%, k=2, with the peak range of half-sine squared acceleration shape from 20m/s2 to 10000 m/s2 and pulse duration from 0.5 ms to 10 ms. This primary shock standard can meet the traceability requirements of shock acceleration from various applications of industries from automobile to civil engineering and is used for piloting ongoing international shock comparison APMP.AUV.V-P1.

  20. Time resolved spectroscopy of shock compressed liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogilvie, K.; Duvall, G. E.

    1982-04-01

    An experimental procedure has been developed for using a rotating mirror camera to record time-resolved absorption spectra of liquids undergoing shock compression. Experimental records have been obtained for cells containing liquid carbon disulfide shocked, through reverberation, to peak pressures of 55, 80, 100 and 120 kbar. Experiments have been performed using both reflected and transmitted light. Time and spectral resolution were limited to approximately 30 nsec and 30 Å; spectral range was from 4000 to 2500 Å. This initial work on carbon disulfide shows it to become highly absorptive when shocked to low pressures of 8 to 14 kbar, and to progressively become a better broadband reflector as the pressure in a thin layer rings up to the final value. A decay in the reflectivity after reaching peak pressure in the 120 kbar experiment may indicate chemical decomposition. This is in accord with earlier results of S. A. Sheffield based on measurement of flow parameters.

  1. Cosmic Acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Rachel

    2011-03-01

    In this series of lectures we review observational evidence for, and theoretical investigations into, cosmic acceleration and dark energy. The notes are in four sections. First I review the basic cosmological formalism to describe the expansion history of the universe and how distance measures are defined. The second section covers the evidence for cosmic acceleration from cosmic distance measurements. Section 3 discusses the theoretical avenues being considered to explain the cosmological observations. Section 4 discusses how the growth of inhomogeneities and large scale structure observations might help us pin down the theoretical origin of cosmic acceleration.

  2. Radioactivity and Electron Acceleration in Supernova Remnants

    OpenAIRE

    Zirakashvili, V. N.; Aharonian, F. A.

    2010-01-01

    We argue that the decays of radioactive nuclei related to $^{44}$Ti and $^{56}$Ni ejected during supernova explosions can provide a vast pool of mildly relativistic positrons and electrons which are further accelerated to ultrarelativistic energies by reverse and forward shocks. This interesting link between two independent processes - the radioactivity and the particle acceleration - can be a clue for solution of the well known theoretical problem of electron injection in supernova remnants....

  3. Horizontal Accelerator

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Horizontal Accelerator (HA) Facility is a versatile research tool available for use on projects requiring simulation of the crash environment. The HA Facility is...

  4. Accelerated construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Accelerated Construction Technology Transfer (ACTT) is a strategic process that uses various innovative techniques, strategies, and technologies to minimize actual construction time, while enhancing quality and safety on today's large, complex multip...

  5. LINEAR ACCELERATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christofilos, N.C.; Polk, I.J.

    1959-02-17

    Improvements in linear particle accelerators are described. A drift tube system for a linear ion accelerator reduces gap capacity between adjacent drift tube ends. This is accomplished by reducing the ratio of the diameter of the drift tube to the diameter of the resonant cavity. Concentration of magnetic field intensity at the longitudinal midpoint of the external sunface of each drift tube is reduced by increasing the external drift tube diameter at the longitudinal center region.

  6. Acceleration Modes and Transitions in Pulsed Plasma Accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polzin, Kurt A.; Greve, Christine M.

    2018-01-01

    Pulsed plasma accelerators typically operate by storing energy in a capacitor bank and then discharging this energy through a gas, ionizing and accelerating it through the Lorentz body force. Two plasma accelerator types employing this general scheme have typically been studied: the gas-fed pulsed plasma thruster and the quasi-steady magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) accelerator. The gas-fed pulsed plasma accelerator is generally represented as a completely transient device discharging in approximately 1-10 microseconds. When the capacitor bank is discharged through the gas, a current sheet forms at the breech of the thruster and propagates forward under a j (current density) by B (magnetic field) body force, entraining propellant it encounters. This process is sometimes referred to as detonation-mode acceleration because the current sheet representation approximates that of a strong shock propagating through the gas. Acceleration of the initial current sheet ceases when either the current sheet reaches the end of the device and is ejected or when the current in the circuit reverses, striking a new current sheet at the breech and depriving the initial sheet of additional acceleration. In the quasi-steady MPD accelerator, the pulse is lengthened to approximately 1 millisecond or longer and maintained at an approximately constant level during discharge. The time over which the transient phenomena experienced during startup typically occur is short relative to the overall discharge time, which is now long enough for the plasma to assume a relatively steady-state configuration. The ionized gas flows through a stationary current channel in a manner that is sometimes referred to as the deflagration-mode of operation. The plasma experiences electromagnetic acceleration as it flows through the current channel towards the exit of the device. A device that had a short pulse length but appeared to operate in a plasma acceleration regime different from the gas-fed pulsed plasma

  7. PARTICLE ACCELERATION IN SUPERLUMINAL STRONG WAVES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teraki, Yuto; Ito, Hirotaka; Nagataki, Shigehiro, E-mail: yuto.teraki@riken.jp [Astrophysical Big Bang Laboratory, RIKEN, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)

    2015-06-01

    We calculate the electron acceleration in random superluminal strong waves (SLSWs) and radiation from them using numerical methods in the context of the termination shocks of pulsar wind nebulae. We pursue the orbit of electrons by solving the equation of motion in the analytically expressed electromagnetic turbulences. These consist of a primary SLS and isotropically distributed secondary electromagnetic waves. Under the dominance of the secondary waves, all electrons gain nearly equal energy. On the other hand, when the primary wave is dominant, selective acceleration occurs. The phase of the primary wave for electrons moving nearly along the wavevector changes very slowly compared with the oscillation of the wave, which is “phase-locked,” and such electrons are continuously accelerated. This acceleration by SLSWs may play a crucial role in pre-shock acceleration. In general, the radiation from the phase-locked population is different from the synchro-Compton radiation. However, when the amplitude of the secondary waves is not extremely weaker than that of the primary wave, the typical frequency can be estimated from synchro-Compton theory using the secondary waves. The primary wave does not contribute to the radiation because the SLSW accelerates electrons almost linearly. This radiation can be observed as a radio knot at the upstream of the termination shocks of the pulsar wind nebulae without counterparts in higher frequency ranges.

  8. Particle Acceleration in Superluminal Strong Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teraki, Yuto; Ito, Hirotaka; Nagataki, Shigehiro

    2015-06-01

    We calculate the electron acceleration in random superluminal strong waves (SLSWs) and radiation from them using numerical methods in the context of the termination shocks of pulsar wind nebulae. We pursue the orbit of electrons by solving the equation of motion in the analytically expressed electromagnetic turbulences. These consist of a primary SLS and isotropically distributed secondary electromagnetic waves. Under the dominance of the secondary waves, all electrons gain nearly equal energy. On the other hand, when the primary wave is dominant, selective acceleration occurs. The phase of the primary wave for electrons moving nearly along the wavevector changes very slowly compared with the oscillation of the wave, which is “phase-locked,” and such electrons are continuously accelerated. This acceleration by SLSWs may play a crucial role in pre-shock acceleration. In general, the radiation from the phase-locked population is different from the synchro-Compton radiation. However, when the amplitude of the secondary waves is not extremely weaker than that of the primary wave, the typical frequency can be estimated from synchro-Compton theory using the secondary waves. The primary wave does not contribute to the radiation because the SLSW accelerates electrons almost linearly. This radiation can be observed as a radio knot at the upstream of the termination shocks of the pulsar wind nebulae without counterparts in higher frequency ranges.

  9. Introduction to Plasma Dynamo, Reconnection and Shocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Intrator, Thomas P. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-08-30

    In our plasma universe, most of what we can observe is composed of ionized gas, or plasma. This plasma is a conducting fluid, which advects magnetic fields when it flows. Magnetic structure occurs from the smallest planetary to the largest cosmic scales. We introduce at a basic level some interesting features of non linear magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). For example, in our plasma universe, dynamo creates magnetic fields from gravitationally driven flow energy in an electrically conducting medium, and conversely magnetic reconnection annihilates magnetic field and accelerates particles. Shocks occur when flows move faster than the local velocity (sonic or Alfven speed) for the propagation of information. Both reconnection and shocks can accelerate particles, perhaps to gigantic energies, for example as observed with 10{sup 20} eV cosmic rays.

  10. Weak collisionless shocks in laser-plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairns, R. A.; Bingham, R.; Trines, R. G. M.; Norreys, P.

    2015-04-01

    We obtain a theory describing laminar shock-like structures in a collisionless plasma and examine the parameter limits, in terms of the ion sound Mach number and the electron/ion temperature ratio, within which these structures exist. The essential feature is the inclusion of finite ion temperature with the result that some ions are reflected from a potential ramp. This destroys the symmetry between upstream and downstream regions that would otherwise give the well-known ion solitary wave solution. We have shown earlier (Cairns et al 2014 Phys. Plasmas 21 022112) that such structures may be relevant to problems such as the existence of strong, localized electric fields observed in laser compressed pellets and laser acceleration of ions. Here we present results on the way in which these structures may produce species separation in fusion targets and suggest that it may be possible to use shock ion acceleration for fast ignition.

  11. Particle Acceleration in the Heliosphere: Implications for Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisk, L. A.; Gloeckler, G.

    2012-11-01

    There has been a remarkable discovery concerning particles that are accelerated in the solar wind. At low energies, in the region where the particles are being accelerated, the spectrum of the accelerated particles is always the same: when expressed as a distribution function, the spectrum is a power law in particle speed with a spectral index of -5, and a rollover at higher particle speeds that can often be described as exponential. This common spectral shape cannot be accounted for by any conventional acceleration mechanism, such as diffusive shock acceleration or traditional stochastic acceleration. It has thus been necessary to invent a new acceleration mechanism to account for these observations, a pump mechanism in which particles are pumped up in energy through a series of adiabatic compressions and expansions. The conditions under which the pump acceleration is the dominant acceleration mechanism are quite general and are likely to occur in other astrophysical plasmas. In this paper, the most compelling observations of the -5 spectra are reviewed; the governing equation of the pump acceleration mechanism is derived in detail; the pump acceleration mechanism is applied to acceleration at shocks; and, as an illustration of the potential applicability of the pump acceleration mechanism to other astrophysical plasmas, the pump mechanism is applied to the acceleration of galactic cosmic rays in the interstellar medium.

  12. Towards Understanding the Physics of Collisionless Relativistic Shocks. Relativistic Collisionless Shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Guy; Bykov, Andrei; Ellison, Don; Lemoine, Martin

    2017-07-01

    Relativistic astrophysical collisionless shocks represent outstanding dissipation agents of the huge power of relativistic outflows produced by accreting black holes, core collapsed supernovae and other objects into multi-messenger radiation (cosmic rays, neutrinos, electromagnetic radiation). This article provides a theoretical discussion of the fundamental physical ingredients of these extreme phenomena. In the context of weakly magnetized shocks, in particular, it is shown how the filamentation type instabilities, which develop in the precursor of pair dominated or electron-ion shocks, provide the seeds for the scattering of high energy particles as well as the agent which preheats and slows down the incoming precursor plasma. This analytical discussion is completed with a mesoscopic, non-linear model of particle acceleration in relativistic shocks based on Monte Carlo techniques. This Monte Carlo model uses a semi-phenomenological description of particle scattering which allows it to calculate the back-reaction of accelerated particles on the shock structure on length and momentum scales which are currently beyond the range of microscopic particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations.

  13. Mass loading effect of shock accelerometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lixue; Wong, George S. K.; Hanes, Peter; Ohm, Won-Suk

    2005-04-01

    Mass loading affects the sensitivity of an accelerometer. The mass loading effect can be corrected using mass loading correction curves published by manufacturers. These curves, however, are only applicable to the sinusoidal acceleration below 500 m/s2. The mass loading effect on the sensitivity of an Endevco 2270 accelerometer in shock calibration, from 500 m/s2 and up, was investigated using a laser vibrometer. A new method for conversion of a velocity signal to an acceleration signal was developed. With this method, the sensitivities of the above accelerometer for different mass loads at different shock levels were measured. The mass loading effect in shock calibration for this accelerometer was then obtained. The limitations of the sensitivity measurements were also studied. The variance of the measured sensitivity was mainly due to the resolution limitation (8-bit) of the A/D converter in the digital oscilloscope. A correlation matching algorithm was then developed that utilizes the similarity between the measured acceleration signal and that converted from the velocity signal to further improve the resolution of the digital oscilloscope.

  14. Micro-Raman Mapping of Mineral Phases in the Strongly Shocked Taiban Ordinary Chondrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, T. E.; Scott, E. R. D.; Sharma, S. K.

    2012-03-01

    Micro-Raman mapping of a thin-section of the highly shocked Taiban meteorite revealed new minor phases around the ringwoodite grains. These phases include wadsleyite and olivine surrounded by pyroxene and majorite.

  15. Numerical Investigation of Shock Tube Flow under Rarefied Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watvisave, D. S.; Bhandarkar, U. V.; Puranik, B. P.

    2011-05-01

    Two-dimensional Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) simulations are carried out for investigating the shock wave propagation and boundary layer effects in a shock tube flow, for a wide range of rarefied conditions. Nitrogen is used for all simulations. The Cercignani-Lampis-Lord (CLL) model of gas surface interactions is implemented to study the effects of boundary layer which develops behind the moving shock front. The effect of surfaces is analyzed with different tangential momentum accommodation coefficient (TMAC) values in the CLL model. The Larsen-Borgnakke (LB) model of inelastic collisions is implemented for diatomic gases. The shock front deceleration and the contact surface acceleration phenomena due to viscous effects are studied. The simulation at higher Knudsen number flows shows disappearance of the shock front and the contact surface.

  16. Relativistic Electrons Produced by Foreshock Disturbances Observed Upstream of Earth's Bow Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, L. B., III; Sibeck, D. G.; Turner, D. L.; Osmane, A.; Caprioli, D.; Angelopoulos, V.

    2016-01-01

    Charged particles can be reflected and accelerated by strong (i.e., high Mach number) astrophysical collisionless shock waves, streaming away to form a foreshock region in communication with the shock. Foreshocks are primarily populated by suprathermal ions that can generate foreshock disturbances-largescale (i.e., tens to thousands of thermal ion Larmor radii), transient (approximately 5-10 per day) structures. They have recently been found to accelerate ions to energies of several keV. Although electrons in Saturn's high Mach number (M > 40) bow shock can be accelerated to relativistic energies (nearly 1000 keV), it has hitherto been thought impossible to accelerate electrons beyond a few tens of keV at Earth's low Mach number (1 =M shock. Here we report observations of electrons energized by foreshock disturbances to energies up to at least approximately 300 keV. Although such energetic electrons have been previously observed, their presence has been attributed to escaping magnetospheric particles or solar events. These relativistic electrons are not associated with any solar or magnetospheric activity. Further, due to their relatively small Larmor radii (compared to magnetic gradient scale lengths) and large thermal speeds (compared to shock speeds), no known shock acceleration mechanism can energize thermal electrons up to relativistic energies. The discovery of relativistic electrons associated with foreshock structures commonly generated in astrophysical shocks could provide a new paradigm for electron injections and acceleration in collisionless plasmas.

  17. A simply constructed but efficacious shock tester for high-g level shock simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Zhengyong; Zhao, Yulong; Liang, Jing

    2012-07-01

    A simply constructed shock tester, different from existing drop table machines, is developed for high-g level shock environment simulation. The theoretical model, structure design, and working principle of the drop tester are described. A prototype device is set up, where a carbon fiber reinforced polymer with a high specific modulus is used. Using a Brüel & Kjær high-g accelerometer, experiments to verify the validity of the design are carried out and results are given. The maximum acceleration level is in excess of 60,000 g, limited only by the manual driving force.

  18. Shock activation of catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, R. A.; Morosin, B.; Richards, P. M.; Stohl, F. V.; Granoff, B.

    1981-02-01

    Scientists in the Soviet Union have demonstrated that high pressure shock-wave loading can cause significant improvement in the performance of catalysts. This increased catalytic activity is apparently the result of the shock-induced defects, especially vacancies, which act to facilitate atomic migration. We have carried out shock activation experiments on a coal-derived pyrite which has been previously used as a catalyst in coal liquefaction studies. The pyrite powder was packed to a density of about 2.0 Mg/m3 in a copper capsule and explosively loaded to a pressure of about 15 GPa in the copper. The starting and shock-activated samples were analyzed by x-ray diffraction and magnetization measurements. The diffraction patterns of the shock-activated samples were dominated by broadened pyrite lines indicative of a significant increase in crystal defects. The diffraction patterns also showed the presence of pyrrhotite (Fe1-xS) in quantities of a few percent. An iron carbide found in the shocked material was apparently formed from carbon originating from either the calcite or organic impurities in the starting material. Magnetic properties of the sample were found to be substantially changed by the shock loading. The study has demonstrated that shock loading can significantly alter the crystalline order of pyrite and produce measurable quantities of pyrrhotite. The effects of shock-activated pyrite on the liquefaction of coal are being assessed by means by tubing reactor experiments.

  19. SIMULATIONS AND THEORY OF ION INJECTION AT NON-RELATIVISTIC COLLISIONLESS SHOCKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caprioli, Damiano; Pop, Ana-Roxana; Spitkovsky, Anatoly, E-mail: caprioli@astro.princeton.edu [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, 4 Ivy Ln., Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2015-01-10

    We use kinetic hybrid simulations (kinetic ions-fluid electrons) to characterize the fraction of ions that are accelerated to non-thermal energies at non-relativistic collisionless shocks. We investigate the properties of the shock discontinuity and show that shocks propagating almost along the background magnetic field (quasi-parallel shocks) reform quasi-periodically on ion cyclotron scales. Ions that impinge on the shock when the discontinuity is the steepest are specularly reflected. This is a necessary condition for being injected, but it is not sufficient. Also, by following the trajectories of reflected ions, we calculate the minimum energy needed for injection into diffusive shock acceleration, as a function of the shock inclination. We construct a minimal model that accounts for the ion reflection from quasi-periodic shock barrier, for the fraction of injected ions, and for the ion spectrum throughout the transition from thermal to non-thermal energies. This model captures the physics relevant for ion injection at non-relativistic astrophysical shocks with arbitrary strengths and magnetic inclinations, and represents a crucial ingredient for understanding the diffusive shock acceleration of cosmic rays.

  20. Shock Metamorphism in L Chondrites Above Shock Stage S6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, J.; Sharp, T. G.; De Carli, P. S.

    2013-09-01

    We investigated several L6 chondrites shocked to between stage S6 and whole rock melting. The study presents the effects of high post-shock temperature and the annealing of high-pressure evidence in highly shocked chondrites.

  1. Cosmic ray acceleration and Balmer emission from SNR 0509-67.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morlino, G.; Blasi, P.; Bandiera, R.; Amato, E.

    2013-09-01

    Context. Observation of Balmer lines from the region around the forward shock of supernova remnants may provide precious information on the shock dynamics and on the efficiency of particle acceleration at the shock. Aims: We calculate the Balmer line emission and the shape of the broad Balmer line for parameter values suitable for SNR 0509-67.5, as a function of the cosmic ray acceleration efficiency and of the level of thermal equilibrium between electrons and protons behind the shock. This calculation aims to use the width of the broad Balmer line emission to infer the cosmic ray acceleration efficiency in this remnant. Methods: We use the recently developed nonlinear theory of diffusive shock acceleration in the presence of neutrals. The semi-analytical approach that we developed includes a description of magnetic field amplification as due to resonant streaming instability, the dynamical reaction of both accelerated particles and turbulent magnetic field on the shock, and all channels of interaction between neutral atoms and background plasma that change the shock dynamics. Results: We achieve a quantitative assessment of the CR acceleration efficiency in SNR 0509-67.5 as a function of the shock velocity and different levels of electron-proton thermalization in the shock region. If the shock moves faster than ~4500 km s-1, one can conclude that particle acceleration must be taking place with an efficiency of several tens of percent. For lower shock velocity the evidence of particle acceleration becomes less clear because of the uncertainty in the electron-ion equilibrium downstream. We also discuss the role of future measurements of the narrow Balmer line.

  2. Alternate approaches to vibration and shock analysis using NASTRAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denver, R. E.; Menichello, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    A method that derives an approximate equivalent static load to a base excitation shock analysis is described. The transient analysis in the current level of NASTRAN, level 16, does not directly provide for either input acceleration forcing functions or enforced boundary displacement. In the suggested alternate analysis format, equivalent force input functions are applied to the constrained locations by using the artifice of placing a large mass, with respect to the total system mass, at the desired acceleration input points. This shortcut static analysis approach is presented to approximate the expensive and time consuming dynamics analysis approach to the base excitation shock analysis.

  3. The structure of steady shock waves in porous metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnota, Christophe; Molinari, Alain; Mercier, Sébastien

    2017-10-01

    The paper aims at developing an understanding of steady shock wave propagation in a ductile metallic material containing voids. Porosity is assumed to be less than 0.3 and voids are not connected (foams are not considered). As the shock wave is traveling in the porous medium, the voids are facing a rapid collapse. During this dynamic compaction process, material particles are subjected to very high acceleration in the vicinity of voids, thus generating acceleration forces at the microscale that influence the overall response of the porous material. Analyzing how stationary shocks are influenced by these micro-inertia effects is the main goal of this work. The focus is essentially on the shock structure, ignoring oscillatory motion of pores prevailing at the tail of the shock wave. Following the constitutive framework developed by Molinari and Ravichandran (2004) for the analysis of steady shock waves in dense metals, an analytical approach of steady state propagation of plastic shocks in porous metals is proposed. The initial void size appears as a characteristic internal length that scales the overall dynamic response, thereby contributing to the structuring of the shock front. This key feature is not captured by standard damage models where the porosity stands for the single damage parameter with no contribution of the void size. The results obtained in this work provide a new insight in the fundamental understanding of shock waves in porous media. In particular, a new scaling law relating the shock width to the initial void radius is obtained when micro-inertia effects are significant.

  4. Study of Equation of State Using Laser-Induced Shock-Wave Compression 4.Studies of Material Responses to Dynamic Compression by Laser-Induced Shock Waves 4.3 Simulation of Orbital-Debris Impact Using Laser-Accelerated Flyer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Motohiro; Yamauchi, Yoshiaki

    An intense, short-pulsed laser beam can accelerate a small flyer as fast as LEO (low earth orbit) satellite velocity. Using laser-accelerated flyers, we performed hyper-velocity impact tests as a simulation of orbital debris impact. Using a high-speed framing camera, we succeeded in observing the deformation and fracture behavior of a CFRP (carbon fiber reinforced plastics) target. After the impact experiments, we investigated the damages to the target using an optical microscope, and observed delaminations as well as cracks along the carbon fibers using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). These results indicated the following impact fracture mechanism of CFRP laminates : (1) Spallations are caused by reflected tensile waves and the fracture surfaces similar to the crack-opening mode I are created. (2) Spalling cracks propagate along the direction of the carbon fibers and produce fracture surfaces of shear mode II or mixed-mode I⁄II. (3) Carbon fibers are kinked and broken by tension at the center of the spalling layer.

  5. Acceleration and Propagation of Solar Energetic Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Karl-Ludwig; Dalla, Silvia

    2017-11-01

    Solar Energetic Particles (SEPs) are an important component of Space Weather, including radiation hazard to humans and electronic equipment, and the ionisation of the Earth's atmosphere. We review the key observations of SEPs, our current understanding of their acceleration and transport, and discuss how this knowledge is incorporated within Space Weather forecasting tools. Mechanisms for acceleration during solar flares and at shocks driven by Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) are discussed, as well as the timing relationships between signatures of solar eruptive events and the detection of SEPs in interplanetary space. Evidence on how the parameters of SEP events are related to those of the parent solar activity is reviewed and transport effects influencing SEP propagation to near-Earth locations are examined. Finally, the approaches to forecasting Space Weather SEP effects are discussed. We conclude that both flare and CME shock acceleration contribute to Space Weather relevant SEP populations and need to be considered within forecasting tools.

  6. Part I. Mechanisms of injury associated with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy; Part II. Exsolution of volatiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Danny Dwayne

    Part I - Shock waves are focused in extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) machines to strengths sufficient to fracture kidney stones. Substantial side effects-most of them acute-have resulted from this procedure, including injury to soft tissue. The focusing of shock waves through various layers of tissue is a complex process which stimulates many bio-mechano-chemical responses.This thesis presents results of an in vitro study of the initial mechanical stimulus. Planar nitrocellulose membranes of order 10 um thick were used as models of thin tissue structures. Two modes of failure were recorded: Failure due to cavitation collapsing on or near the membranes, and failure induced by altering the structure of shock waves. Tests were done in water at and around F2 to characterize the extent of cavitation damage, and was found to be confined within the focal region, 1.2 cm along the axis of focus.Scattering media were used to simulate the effects of acoustic nonuniformity of tissue and to alter the structure of focusing shock waves. 40 um diameter (average) hollow glass spheres were added to ethylene glycol, glycerine and castor oil to vary the properties of the scattering media. Multiple layer samples of various types of phantom tissue were tested in degassed castor oil to gauge the validity of the scattering media. The scattering media and tissue samples increased the rise time decreased strain rate in a similar fashion. Membranes were damaged by the decreased strain rate and accumulated effects of the altered structure: After about 20 or so shocks immersed in the scattering media and after about 100 shocks behind the tissue samples. The mode of failure was tearing with multiple tears in some cases from about .1 cm to about 3 cm depending of the number of shocks and membrane thickness.Part II - This work examines the exsolution of volatiles-carbon dioxide from water-in a cylindrical test cell under different pressure conditions. Water was supersaturated with

  7. Our Favorite Film Shocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willerslev, Rane; Suhr, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The modern medium of film has long been hailed for its capacity for producing shocks of an entertaining, thought-provoking, or even politically emancipative nature. But what is a shock, how and when does it occur, how long does it last, and are there particular techniques for producing cinematic...

  8. Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence of Shock Initiated Combustion of a Spherical Density Inhomogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haehn, Nicholas; Weber, Chris; Oakley, Jason; Anderson, Mark; Rothamer, Dave; Bonazza, Riccardo

    2009-11-01

    A spherical density inhomogeneity with a stoichiometric mixture of H2, O2, and a diluent such as Xe is ignited with a planar shock wave. When a heavy bubble, such as Xe, is shock accelerated in a lighter ambient gas, such as Ar, the shock wave at the exterior periphery of the bubble travels faster than the interior transmitted wave, resulting in shock-focusing at the downstream pole of the bubble. The shock wave convergence results in a temperature much higher than the one behind the transmitted shock and auto ignition may occur at this location. For non-point source ignition experiments, the temperature is raised by a second shock acceleration from the planar shock that reflects from the shock tube's end-wall. These experiments shed light on the combustion characteristics under both turbulent and non-turbulent conditions. In addition, results are used for validating hydrodynamic codes with chemical reactions. The experiments are performed at the Wisconsin Shock Tube Laboratory in a 6 m vertical shock tube with a 25.4x25.4 cm^2 square cross-section. Diagnostics are performed using planar laser induced fluorescence of the OH^- molecule present during the combustion process. A Nd:Yag pumped dye laser at a wavelength of 283 nm excites the (1,0) band of the OH^- molecule.

  9. Reflection of curved shock waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mölder, S.

    2017-09-01

    Shock curvatures are related to pressure gradients, streamline curvatures and vorticity in flows with planar and axial symmetry. Explicit expressions, in an influence coefficient format, are used to relate post-shock pressure gradient, streamline curvature and vorticity to pre-shock gradients and shock curvature in steady flow. Using higher order, von Neumann-type, compatibility conditions, curved shock theory is applied to calculate the flow near singly and doubly curved shocks on curved surfaces, in regular shock reflection and in Mach reflection. Theoretical curved shock shapes are in good agreement with computational fluid dynamics calculations and experiment.

  10. Combined first and second order Fermi acceleration at comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gombosi, T. I.; Lorencz, K.; Jokipii, J. R.

    1989-01-01

    Two-dimensional, time-dependent model calculations indicate that an interplay between velocity and spatial diffusion may be responsible for the acceleration of implanted heavy ions in the cometary preshock region. Velocity diffusion (second order Fermi acceleration) accelerates the pickup ions to moderate energies thus creating a seed population for the more efficient diffusive-compressive shock acceleration. Solar wind convection limits the time available for diffusive-compressive acceleration, therefore the resulting energy spectrum above 100 keV is a power law with a spectral index of 5 - 6, a value which is in reasonably good agreement with observations.

  11. Quantifying Mitigation Characteristics of Shock Isolation Seats in a Wave Impact Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    acceleration and ejection seat accelerations) that could push the limits of human tolerance [References A1 - A3]. They focused on the rigid body accelerations...related to aircraft dynamics or ejection seat thrust. Their conclusions were that human tolerance to rapidly applied acceleration depends primarily...Engineering Department Technical Report QUANTIFYING MITIGATION CHARACTERISTICS OF SHOCK ISOLATION SEATS IN A WAVE IMPACT ENVIRONMENT by Michael R

  12. On the profile of energetic particles close upstream of interplanetary shocks: an easy task for THOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimbardo, Gaetano; Perri, Silvia

    2017-04-01

    Collisionless shock waves are considered to be one of the main acceleration mechanisms for energetic particles in space and astrophysical plasmas. The most popular shock acceleration mechanisms, diffusive shock acceleration, is based on diffusive motion of energetic particles, but anomalous transport regimes, including subdiffusion and superdiffusion, are also possible. Here we present the extension of the well known Parker equation for the transport and acceleration of energetic particles and cosmic rays to the case of superdiffusion. The latter is modelled by means of fractional order derivatives of the particle distribution function, instead of the second order derivatives, on the spatial diffusion term. It is shown that the upstream steady state solution of the fractional Parker equation can be written in terms of the Mittag-Leffler functions, which generalize the standard exponential function, and correspond to stretched exponentials close to the shock, and to power laws far from the shock. Comparison of these solutions with available spacecraft data on interplanetary shocks shows that a much higher temporal resolution of energetic particle measurements is required, in order to be able to resolve the steep profile close upstream of the shock. Therefore, THOR high resolution measurements of energetic particle fluxes will allow a breakthrough in the understanding of energetic particle transport and acceleration.

  13. Explosive-induced shock damage in copper and recompression of the damaged region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turley, W. D., E-mail: turleywd@nv.doe.gov; Stevens, G. D.; La Lone, B. M. [National Security Technologies, LLC, Special Technologies Laboratory, Santa Barbara, California 93111 (United States); Hixson, R. S. [National Security Technologies, LLC, New Mexico Operations, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544 (United States); Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Cerreta, E. K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Daykin, E. P.; Perez, C. [National Security Technologies, LLC, North Las Vegas Operations, North Las Vegas, Nevada 89030 (United States); Graeve, O. A.; Novitskaya, E. [University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0411 (United States); Rigg, P. A. [Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99164 (United States); Veeser, L. R. [National Security Technologies, LLC, Special Technologies Laboratory, Santa Barbara, California 93111 (United States); Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    2016-08-28

    We have studied the dynamic spall process for copper samples in contact with detonating low-performance explosives. When a triangular shaped shock wave from detonation moves through a sample and reflects from the free surface, tension develops immediately, one or more damaged layers can form, and a spall scab can separate from the sample and move ahead of the remaining target material. For dynamic experiments, we used time-resolved velocimetry and x-ray radiography. Soft-recovered samples were analyzed using optical imaging and microscopy. Computer simulations were used to guide experiment design. We observe that for some target thicknesses the spall scab continues to run ahead of the rest of the sample, but for thinner samples, the detonation product gases accelerate the sample enough for it to impact the spall scab several microseconds or more after the initial damage formation. Our data also show signatures in the form of a late-time reshock in the time-resolved data, which support this computational prediction. A primary goal of this research was to study the wave interactions and damage processes for explosives-loaded copper and to look for evidence of this postulated recompression event. We found both experimentally and computationally that we could tailor the magnitude of the initial and recompression shocks by varying the explosive drive and the copper sample thickness; thin samples had a large recompression after spall, whereas thick samples did not recompress at all. Samples that did not recompress had spall scabs that completely separated from the sample, whereas samples with recompression remained intact. This suggests that the hypothesized recompression process closes voids in the damage layer or otherwise halts the spall formation process. This is a somewhat surprising and, in some ways controversial, result, and the one that warrants further research in the shock compression community.

  14. Thermal shock testing of lapped optical glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yingrui; Wu, Yuansun; Liu, Han; Lambropoulos, John C.

    2007-09-01

    We have measured and modeled the thermal shock fracture of the commercially available BK-7 borosilicate crown optical glass as a function of surface finish prior to thermal shock testing. For surfaces lapped with alumina abrasives in the range 5 μm to 40 μm, the critical temperature drop for fracture in thin disk samples increases with diminishing abrasive size, and changes from 123.7+/-1.1 °C (for surfaces lapped with 40 μm abrasives) to 140.2+/-2.8 °C (for surfaces lapped with 5 μm abrasives.) We correlate the measured thermal shock (critical) temperature drop with the glass thermal and mechanical properties, including the fracture toughness, and the depth of surface cracks induced by the lapping process. We distinguish between "severe" and "mild" thermal shock conditions in terms of the applicable heat transfer coefficient and Biot number. We estimate that the depth of the strength controlling cracks on the edge of the disk samples was about 55-70 μm.

  15. Heat shock factor 1 prevents the reduction in thrashing due to heat shock in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuhashi, Tsubasa; Sakamoto, Kazuichi

    2015-07-03

    Heat shock factor 1 (HSF-1) is activated by heat stress and induces the expression of heat shock proteins. However, the role of HSF-1 in thermotolerance remains unclear. We previously reported that heat stress reversibly reduces thrashing movement in Caenorhabditis elegans. In this study, we analyzed the function of HSF-1 on thermotolerance by monitoring thrashing movement. hsf-1 RNAi suppressed the restoration of thrashing reduced by heat stress. In contrast, hsf-1 knockdown cancelled prevention of movement reduction in insulin/IGF-1-like growth factor 1 receptor (daf-2) mutant, but didn't suppress thrashing restoration in daf-2 mutant. In addition, hsf-1 RNAi accelerated the reduction of thrashing in heat-shocked wild-type C. elegans. And, daf-16 KO didn't accelerate the reduction of thrashing by heat stress. Taken together, these results suggest that HSF-1 prevents the reduction of thrashing caused by heat shock. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Pediatric Toxic Shock Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Yee

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Audience: This scenario was developed to educate emergency medicine residents on the diagnosis and management of a pediatric patient with toxic shock syndrome. The case is also appropriate for teaching of medical students and advanced practice providers, as well as a review of the principles of crisis resource management, teamwork, and communication. Introduction: Toxic shock syndrome is a low-frequency, high-acuity scenario requiring timely identification and aggressive management. If patients suffering from this condition are managed incorrectly, they may progress into multi-organ dysfunction and potentially death. Toxic shock syndrome has been associated with Streptococcus and Staphylococcus aureus (Staph. Approximately half of Staph cases are associated with menstruation, which was first described in the 1970s-1980s and was associated with the use of absorbent tampons.1 Group A Streptococcus may cause complications such as necrotizing fasciitis and gangrenous myositis.2 Pediatric patients may present critically ill from toxic shock syndrome. Providers need to perform a thorough history and physical exam to discern the source of infection. Management requires aggressive care with antibiotics and IV fluids. Objectives: By the end of this simulation session, the learner will be able to: 1 Recognize toxic shock syndrome. 2 Review the importance of a thorough physical exam. 3 Discuss management of toxic shock syndrome, including supportive care and the difference in antibiotic choices for streptococcal and staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome. 4 Appropriately disposition a patient suffering from toxic shock syndrome. 5 Communicate effectively with team members and nursing staff during a resuscitation of a critically ill patient. Method: This session was conducted using high-fidelity simulation, followed by a debriefing session and lecture on toxic shock syndrome.

  17. ALMA polarization observations of the particle accelerators in the hotspot of the radio galaxy 3C 445

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orienti, M.; Brunetti, G.; Nagai, H.; Paladino, R.; Mack, K.-H.; Prieto, M. A.

    2017-07-01

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter Array polarization observations at 97.5 GHz of the southern hotspot of the radio galaxy 3C 445. The hotspot structure is dominated by two bright components enshrouded by diffuse emission. Both components show fractional polarization between 30 and 40 per cent, suggesting the presence of shocks. The polarized emission of the western component has a displacement of about 0.5 kpc outward with respect to the total intensity emission and may trace the surface of a front shock. Strong polarization is observed in a thin strip marking the ridge of the hotspot structure visible from radio to optical. No significant polarization is detected in the diffuse emission between the main components, suggesting a highly disordered magnetic field likely produced by turbulence and instabilities in the downstream region that may be at the origin of the extended optical emission observed in this hotspot. The polarization properties support a scenario in which a combination of both multiple and intermittent shock fronts due to jet dithering and spatially distributed stochastic second-order Fermi acceleration processes are present in the hotspot complex.

  18. Relativistic Electrons Produced by Foreshock Disturbances Observed Upstream of Earth's Bow Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, L. B., III; Sibeck, D. G.; Turner, D. L.; Osmane, A.; Caprioli, D.; Angelopoulos, V.

    2016-01-01

    Charged particles can be reflected and accelerated by strong (i.e., high Mach number) astrophysical collisionless shock waves, streaming away to form a foreshock region in communication with the shock. Foreshocks are primarily populated by suprathermal ions that can generate foreshock disturbances-largescale (i.e., tens to thousands of thermal ion Larmor radii), transient (approximately 5-10 per day) structures. They have recently been found to accelerate ions to energies of several keV. Although electrons in Saturn's high Mach number (M > 40) bow shock can be accelerated to relativistic energies (nearly 1000 keV), it has hitherto been thought impossible to accelerate electrons beyond a few tens of keV at Earth's low Mach number (1 =M electrons energized by foreshock disturbances to energies up to at least approximately 300 keV. Although such energetic electrons have been previously observed, their presence has been attributed to escaping magnetospheric particles or solar events. These relativistic electrons are not associated with any solar or magnetospheric activity. Further, due to their relatively small Larmor radii (compared to magnetic gradient scale lengths) and large thermal speeds (compared to shock speeds), no known shock acceleration mechanism can energize thermal electrons up to relativistic energies. The discovery of relativistic electrons associated with foreshock structures commonly generated in astrophysical shocks could provide a new paradigm for electron injections and acceleration in collisionless plasmas.

  19. Lower hybrid waves at the shock front: a reassessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Walker

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The primary process occurring at a collisionless shock is the redistribution of the bulk upstream energy into other degrees of freedom. One part of this process results in the acceleration of electrons at the shock front. Accelerated electrons are observed at the terrestrial and other planetary shocks, comets, and their effects are observed in astrophysical phenomena such as supernova remnants and jets in the form of X-ray bremsstrahlung radiation. One of the physical models for electron acceleration at supercritical shocks is based on low-hybrid turbulence due to the presence of reflected ions in the foot region. Since lower hybrid waves propagate almost perpendicular to the magnetic field they can be simultaneously in resonance with both the unmagnetised ions (ω=Vik and magnetised electrons (ω=Vek||. In this paper, Cluster observations of the electric field are used to study the occurrence of lower hybrid waves in the front of the terrestrial bow shock. It is shown that the lower hybrid waves exist as isolated wave packets. However, the very low level of the observed lower hybrid turbulence is too small to impart significant energisation to the electron population.

  20. Shock breakout theory

    OpenAIRE

    Waxman, Eli; Katz, Boaz

    2016-01-01

    The earliest supernova (SN) emission is produced when the optical depth of the plasma lying ahead of the shock, which ejects the envelope, drops below c/v, where v is the shock velocity. This "breakout" may occur when the shock reaches the edge of the star, producing a bright X-ray/UV flash on time scales of seconds to a fraction of an hour, followed by UV/optical "cooling" emission from the expanding cooling envelope on a day time-scale. If the optical depth of circumstellar material (CSM) e...

  1. Accelerators and the Accelerator Community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malamud, Ernest; Sessler, Andrew

    2008-06-01

    In this paper, standing back--looking from afar--and adopting a historical perspective, the field of accelerator science is examined. How it grew, what are the forces that made it what it is, where it is now, and what it is likely to be in the future are the subjects explored. Clearly, a great deal of personal opinion is invoked in this process.

  2. Fluorescent probes for shock compression spectroscopy of microstructured materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, James M.; Banishev, Alexandr A.; Dlott, Dana D.

    2017-01-01

    We are developing fluorescent probes to obtain dynamic two-dimensional pressure maps of shocked microstructured materials. We have fabricated silica nano-or micro-spheres doped with rhodamine 6G dye (R6G) which fluoresce strongly, and which may be dispersed throughout a microstructured sample. Alternatively we can grow thin skin layers of dye-doped silica on the surface of particles. The emissive microspheres were embedded in poly-methyl methacrylate (PMMA) and were excited by a quasi-continuous laser. When the samples were shocked to 3-8.4 GPa using laser-driven flyer plates, the emission redshifted and lost intensity. When encapsulating the dye in silica, the emission became brighter and the intensity-loss response became fast enough to monitor nanosecond shock effects. Preliminary data are reported showing the intensity loss in a shocked microstructured medium, an artificial sand, consisting of dye-coated silica microspheres.

  3. accelerating cavity

    CERN Multimedia

    On the inside of the cavity there is a layer of niobium. Operating at 4.2 degrees above absolute zero, the niobium is superconducting and carries an accelerating field of 6 million volts per metre with negligible losses. Each cavity has a surface of 6 m2. The niobium layer is only 1.2 microns thick, ten times thinner than a hair. Such a large area had never been coated to such a high accuracy. A speck of dust could ruin the performance of the whole cavity so the work had to be done in an extremely clean environment.

  4. Shock-initiation chemistry of nitroarenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Lloyd L.; Brower, Kay R.

    1998-07-01

    We present evidence that the shock-initiation chemistry of nitroarenes is dominated by the intermolecular hydrogen transfer mechanism discussed previously. The acceleration by pressure, kinetic isotope effect, and product distribution are consistent with the bimolecular transition state rather than rate-determining C-N homolysis. GC-MS analysis of samples which were subjected to a shock wave generated by detonation of nitromethane shows that nitrobenzene produces aniline and biphenyl, and o-nitrotoluene forms aniline, toluene, o-toluidine and o-cresol, but not anthranil, benzoxazinone, or cyanocyclopentadiene. In isotopic labeling experiments o-nitrotoluene and TNT show extensive H-D exchange on their methyl groups, and C-N bond rupture is not consistent with the formation of aniline from nitrobenzene or nitrotoluene, nor the formation of o-toluidine from o-nitrotoluene. Recent work incorporating fast TOF mass spectroscopy of samples shocked and quenched by adiabatic expansion indicates that the initial chemical reactions in shocked solid nitroaromatic explosives proceed along this path.

  5. Shock-initiation chemistry of nitroarenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, L.L. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Brower, K.R. [New Mexico Inst. of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1997-11-01

    The authors present evidence that the shock-initiation chemistry of nitroarenes is dominated by the intermolecular hydrogen transfer mechanism discussed previously. The acceleration by pressure, kinetic isotope effect, and product distribution are consistent with the bimolecular transition state kinetic isotope effect, and product distribution are consistent with the bimolecular transition state rather than rate-determining C-N homolysis.GC-MS analysis of samples which were subjected to a shock wave generated by detonation of nitromethane shows that nitrobenzene produces aniline and biphenyl, and o-nitrotoluene forms aniline, toluene, o-toluidine and o-cresol, but not anthranil, benzoxazinone, or cyanocyclopentandiene. In isotopic labeling experiments o-nitrotoluene and TNT show extensive H-D exchange on their methyl groups, and C-N bond rupture is not consistent with the formation of aniline from nitrobenzene or nitrotoluene, nor the formation of o-toluidine from o-nitrotoluene. Recent work incorporating fast TOF mass spectroscopy of samples shocked and quenched by adiabatic expansion shows that the initial chemical reactions in shocked solid nitroaromatic explosives proceed along this path.

  6. Shock-initiation chemistry of nitroarenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, L.L. [DX-1, Mail Stop P-952, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Brower, K.R. [Department of Chemistry, New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, New Mexico 87801 (United States)

    1998-07-01

    We present evidence that the shock-initiation chemistry of nitroarenes is dominated by the intermolecular hydrogen transfer mechanism discussed previously. The acceleration by pressure, kinetic isotope effect, and product distribution are consistent with the bimolecular transition state rather than rate-determining C-N homolysis. GC-MS analysis of samples which were subjected to a shock wave generated by detonation of nitromethane shows that nitrobenzene produces aniline and biphenyl, and {ital o}-nitrotoluene forms aniline, toluene, {ital o}-toluidine and {ital o}-cresol, but not anthranil, benzoxazinone, or cyanocyclopentadiene. In isotopic labeling experiments {ital o}-nitrotoluene and TNT show extensive H-D exchange on their methyl groups, and C-N bond rupture is not consistent with the formation of aniline from nitrobenzene or nitrotoluene, nor the formation of {ital o}-toluidine from {ital o}-nitrotoluene. Recent work incorporating fast TOF mass spectroscopy of samples shocked and quenched by adiabatic expansion indicates that the initial chemical reactions in shocked solid nitroaromatic explosives proceed along this path. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  7. Shock wave treatment in medicine

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Extracorporeal shock wave therapy in orthopedics and traumatology is still a young therapy method. Since the last few years the development of shock wave therapy has progressed rapidly. Shock waves have changed the treatment of urolithiasis substantially. Today shock waves are the first choice to treat kidney and ...

  8. The Dynamics of Very High Alfvén Mach Number Shocks in Space Plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundberg, Torbjörn; Burgess, David [School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary University of London, London, E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Scholer, Manfred [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Garching (Germany); Masters, Adam [The Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Sulaiman, Ali H., E-mail: torbjorn.sundberg@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States)

    2017-02-10

    Astrophysical shocks, such as planetary bow shocks or supernova remnant shocks, are often in the high or very-high Mach number regime, and the structure of such shocks is crucial for understanding particle acceleration and plasma heating, as well inherently interesting. Recent magnetic field observations at Saturn’s bow shock, for Alfvén Mach numbers greater than about 25, have provided evidence for periodic non-stationarity, although the details of the ion- and electron-scale processes remain unclear due to limited plasma data. High-resolution, multi-spacecraft data are available for the terrestrial bow shock, but here the very high Mach number regime is only attained on extremely rare occasions. Here we present magnetic field and particle data from three such quasi-perpendicular shock crossings observed by the four-spacecraft Cluster mission. Although both ion reflection and the shock profile are modulated at the upstream ion gyroperiod timescale, the dominant wave growth in the foot takes place at sub-proton length scales and is consistent with being driven by the ion Weibel instability. The observed large-scale behavior depends strongly on cross-scale coupling between ion and electron processes, with ion reflection never fully suppressed, and this suggests a model of the shock dynamics that is in conflict with previous models of non-stationarity. Thus, the observations offer insight into the conditions prevalent in many inaccessible astrophysical environments, and provide important constraints for acceleration processes at such shocks.

  9. [Pathophysiology of hemorragic shock].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copotoiu, R; Cinca, E; Collange, O; Levy, F; Mertes, P-M

    2016-11-01

    This review addresses the pathophysiology of hemorrhagic shock, a condition produced by rapid and significant loss of intravascular volume, which may lead to hemodynamic instability, decreases in oxygen delivery, decreased tissue perfusion, cellular hypoxia, organ damage, and death. The initial neuroendocrine response is mainly a sympathetic activation. Haemorrhagic shock is associated altered microcirculatory permeability and visceral injury. It is also responsible for a complex inflammatory response associated with hemostasis alteration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Circulatory shock in horses

    OpenAIRE

    José Monteira da Silva Filho; Maristela Silveira Palhares; Cíntia Ferreira; Ubiratan Pereira de Melo

    2010-01-01

    Circulatory shock can be defined as an acute circulatory failure with an inadequate tissue delivery of oxygen and nutritive substrates to the tissues, resulting in generalised cellular hypoxia. Shock can be classified as cardiogenic, obstructive, hypovolaemic, or distributive. The pathophysiologic consequences of inadequate tissue perfusion are directly related to cell ischemia, inadequate O2 delivery, and the production of proinflammatory mediators. If abnormalities of tissue perfusion are a...

  11. The dynamic response of electrostatically driven resonators under mechanical shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mahmoud I.; Younis, Mohammad I.

    2010-02-01

    This paper presents a theoretical and experimental investigation of the response of electrostatically actuated parallel-plate resonators when subjected to mechanical shock. Resonators are commonly employed in resonant sensors, where they are operated at low pressure for enhanced sensitivity making their response to external disturbances such as shock a critical issue. A single-degree-of-freedom system is used to model a resonator, which is electrostatically driven by a dc load superimposed to an ac harmonic load. Simulation results are demonstrated in a series of shock spectra that help indicate the combined influence of shock, dc and ac loads. The effect of the shock duration coinciding with the ac harmonic frequency is investigated. It is concluded that accounting for electrostatic forces, especially the ac load, is crucial when addressing the reliability and performance of resonators against shock. It is found that for specific shock and ac excitation conditions, a resonator may experience early dynamic pull-in instability. Experimental work has been conducted on a capacitive sensor to verify the obtained theoretical results. The sensor is mounted on top of a small shaker and then both are placed inside a vacuum chamber. Acceleration pulses were applied on the sensor while powered by dc and ac loads. The response of the device was monitored using a laser-Doppler vibrometer. The experimental data were compared to the theoretical results and were found to be in good agreement.

  12. THE EFFECT OF TURBULENCE INTERMITTENCE ON THE EMISSION OF SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLES BY CORONAL AND INTERPLANETARY SHOCKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kocharov, Leon [Sodankylä Geophysical Observatory (Oulu Unit), P.O. Box 3000, University of Oulu, FI-90014 Oulu (Finland); Laitinen, Timo [Jeremiah Horrocks Institute, University of Central Lancashire, Preston PR1 2HE (United Kingdom); Vainio, Rami [Department of Physics, P.O. Box 64, University of Helsinki, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland)

    2013-11-20

    Major solar energetic particle events are associated with shock waves in solar corona and solar wind. Fast scattering of charged particles by plasma turbulence near the shock wave increases the efficiency of the particle acceleration in the shock, but prevents particles from escaping ahead of the shock. However, the turbulence energy levels in neighboring magnetic tubes of solar wind may differ from each other by more than one order of magnitude. We present the first theoretical study of accelerated particle emission from an oblique shock wave propagating through an intermittent turbulence background that consists of both highly turbulent magnetic tubes, where particles are accelerated, and quiet tubes, via which the accelerated particles can escape to the non-shocked solar wind. The modeling results imply that the presence of the fast transport channels penetrating the shock and cross-field transport of accelerated particles to those channels may play a key role in high-energy particle emission from distant shocks and can explain the prompt onset of major solar energetic particle events observed near the Earth's orbit.

  13. Electrostatic shock waves in the laboratory and astrophysics: similarities and differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieckmann, M. E.; Doria, D.; Sarri, G.; Romagnani, L.; Ahmed, H.; Folini, D.; Walder, R.; Bret, A.; Borghesi, M.

    2018-01-01

    Contemporary lasers allow us to create shocks in the laboratory that propagate at a speed that matches that of energetic astrophysical shocks like those that ensheath supernova blast shells. The rapid growth time of the shocks and the spatio-temporal resolution, with which they can be sampled, allow us to identify the processes that are involved in their formation and evolution. Some laser-generated unmagnetized shocks are mediated by collective electrostatic forces and effects caused by binary collisions between particles can be neglected. Hydrodynamic models, which are valid for many large-scale astrophysical shocks, assume that collisions enforce a local thermodynamic equilibrium in the medium; laser-generated shocks are thus not always representative for astrophysical shocks. Laboratory studies of shocks can improve the understanding of their astrophysical counterparts if we can identify processes that affect electrostatic shocks and hydrodynamic shocks alike. An example is the nonlinear thin-shell instability (NTSI). We show that the NTSI destabilises collisionless and collisional shocks by the same physical mechanism.

  14. Pulse shaping techniques for a high-g shock tester based on collision principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Zhengyong; Tang, Chuansheng; Li, Yang; Han, Junliang; Wu, Guoxiong

    2016-09-01

    Pulse shaping techniques are discussed in this paper for the practicability of a developed high-g shock tester. The tester is based on collision principle where there is a one-level velocity amplifier. A theoretical and experimental study of pulse shaping techniques is presented. A model was built and theoretical formulae were deduced for the shock peak acceleration and its duration. Then theoretical analysis and some experiments were conducted. The test results verify the validity of theoretical model and show that the shock tester can generate the expected high-g shock pulses by integrated usage of different impact velocities and pulse shapers made from different materials. This is important in practical applications where the items under test can be shown to excite specific resonances at predetermined acceleration levels using the shock tester.

  15. Shock wave fractionated noble gases in the early solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustinova, G. K.

    2001-08-01

    Many processes in the active star-forming regions are accompanied by strong shock waves, in acceleration by which the nuclear-active particles form the power-law energy spectrum of high rigidity: F(> E0) ˜ Eγ , with the spectral index γ ≤ 1.5-2. It must affect the production rates of spallogenic components of the isotopes, whose excitation functions depend on the shape of the energy spectrum of radiation. Thus, the isotopic signatures formed in the conditions of the strong shock wave propagation must be different from those formed in the calm environment. The early solar system incorporated all the presumed processes of the starforming stage, so that its matter had to conserve such isotopic anomalies. In previous works [1] the shock wave effects in generation of extinct radionu-clides and light elements Li, Be and B were considered. In the report some results for their evidence in the noble gas signatures are presented. Modelling the Kr isotope generation in spallation of Rb, Sr, Y and Zr with the nuclear-active particles, the energy spectrum of which was variable in the range of γ= 1.1-6.0, shows the different pace of growth of abundances of the dif-ferent Kr isotopes with decreasing . It leads to the quite diverse behaviour of the various Kr isotope ratios: the 78,80 Kr/83 Kr ratios increase, and the 82,84,86 Kr/83 Kr ratios decrease for the smaller γ. According to such criteria, for instance, the isotopically heavier SEP-Kr in the lunar ilmenites was pro-duced with the accelerated particles of the more rigid energy spectrum (γ ˜ 2) in comparison with the SW-Kr. Another important feature of the shock wave acceleration of particles is the enrichment of their specrtum with heavier ions in proportion to A/Z. Clearly, the shock wave fractionation of the noble gases, favouring the heavier isotopes, had to be inevitable. Such a fractionation depends on timing episodes of shock wave acceleration: after the n-th act of the ion acceleration their fractionation is

  16. Acceleration from short-duration blast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritzel, D. V.; Van Albert, S.; Sajja, V.; Long, J.

    2017-10-01

    The blast-induced motion of spheres has been studied experimentally where the shock wave is rapidly decaying during the period that quasi-steady acceleration would be developed in the case of a step-function shock wave as considered in most shock-tube studies. The motion of sphere models ranging from 39 to 251 mm in diameter and having a range of densities was assessed using the "free-flight" method in a simulator specially designed to replicate the decaying shock wave profile of spherical blast including negative phase and positive entropy gradient. A standardized blast-wave simulation of 125 kPa and 6-ms positive-phase duration was applied for all experiments. In all cases, there are three phases to the motion: a relatively low "kickoff" velocity from the shock diffraction, acceleration or deceleration during the positive duration, then deceleration through the negative phase and subsequent quiescent air. The unexpected deceleration of larger spheres after their kickoff velocity during the decaying yet high-speed flow of the blast wave seems associated with the persistence of a ring vortex on the downstream side of the sphere. The flow is entirely unsteady with initial forces dominated by the shock diffraction; therefore, the early motion of spheres under such conditions is not governed by quasi-steady drag as in classical aerodynamics. The work will help establish scaling rules for model studies of blast-induced motion relevant to improvised explosive devices, and preliminary results are shown for motion imparted to a human skull surrogate.

  17. Slow shock interactions in the heliosphere using an adaptive grid MHD model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.-C. Wu

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available A one-dimensional (1-D, time-dependent, adaptive-grid MHD model with solar wind structure has been used in the past to study the interaction of shocks. In the present study, we wish to study some fundamental processes that may be associated with slow shock genesis and their possible interactions with other discontinuities. This adaptive-grid model, suitable for appropriate spatial and temporal numerical simulations, is used for this purpose because its finer grid sizes in the vicinity of the steep gradients at shocks make it possible to delineate the physical parameters on both sides of the shocks. We found that a perturbation with deceleration of solar wind will generate an ensemble consisting of a forward slow shock, a fast forward wave and a reverse slow shock. On the other hand, a perturbation with an increase in acceleration of solar wind will generate both a slow shock and a fast shock. These two perturbations, although not unique, may be representative of momentum and pressure changes at the solar surface. During the transition of a fast shock overtaking a slow shock from behind, the slow shock might disappear temporarily. Also, during the process of the merging of two slow shocks, a slow shock-like structure is formed first; later, the slow shock-like structure evolves into an intermediate shock-like structure. This intermediate shock-like structure then evolves into an intermediate wave and a slow shock-like structure. Finally, the slow shock-like structure evolves into a slow shock, but the intermediate wave disappears by interacting with the non-uniform solar wind. This complex behavior demonstrates the non-unique nature of the formation of slow shocks, intermediate shocks and their derivative structures. We emphasize the main aim of this work to be both: (a non-unique input physical parameters to explain the paucity of observed slow shocks, as well as (b the impossibility of backward tracing to the history of input boundary

  18. Slow shock interactions in the heliosphere using an adaptive grid MHD model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.-C. Wu

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available A one-dimensional (1-D, time-dependent, adaptive-grid MHD model with solar wind structure has been used in the past to study the interaction of shocks. In the present study, we wish to study some fundamental processes that may be associated with slow shock genesis and their possible interactions with other discontinuities. This adaptive-grid model, suitable for appropriate spatial and temporal numerical simulations, is used for this purpose because its finer grid sizes in the vicinity of the steep gradients at shocks make it possible to delineate the physical parameters on both sides of the shocks. We found that a perturbation with deceleration of solar wind will generate an ensemble consisting of a forward slow shock, a fast forward wave and a reverse slow shock. On the other hand, a perturbation with an increase in acceleration of solar wind will generate both a slow shock and a fast shock. These two perturbations, although not unique, may be representative of momentum and pressure changes at the solar surface.

    During the transition of a fast shock overtaking a slow shock from behind, the slow shock might disappear temporarily. Also, during the process of the merging of two slow shocks, a slow shock-like structure is formed first; later, the slow shock-like structure evolves into an intermediate shock-like structure. This intermediate shock-like structure then evolves into an intermediate wave and a slow shock-like structure. Finally, the slow shock-like structure evolves into a slow shock, but the intermediate wave disappears by interacting with the non-uniform solar wind. This complex behavior demonstrates the non-unique nature of the formation of slow shocks, intermediate shocks and their derivative structures.

    We emphasize the main aim of this work to be both: (a non-unique input physical parameters to explain the paucity of observed slow shocks, as well as (b the impossibility

  19. Thin book

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    En lille bog om teater og organisationer, med bidrag fra 19 teoretikere og praktikere, der deltog i en "Thin Book Summit" i Danmark i 2005. Bogen bidrager med en state-of-the-art antologi om forskellige former for samarbejde imellem teater og organisationer. Bogen fokuserer både på muligheder og...

  20. Shock Detector for SURF model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menikoff, Ralph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-01-11

    SURF and its extension SURFplus are reactive burn models aimed at shock initiation and propagation of detonation waves in high explosives. A distinctive feature of these models is that the burn rate depends on the lead shock pressure. A key part of the models is an algorithm to detect the lead shock. Typically, shock capturing hydro algorithms have small oscillations behind a shock. Here we investigate how well the shock detection algorithm works for a nearly steady propagating detonation wave in one-dimension using the Eulerian xRage code.

  1. Particle acceleration, transport and turbulence in cosmic and heliospheric physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthaeus, W.

    1992-01-01

    In this progress report, the long term goals, recent scientific progress, and organizational activities are described. The scientific focus of this annual report is in three areas: first, the physics of particle acceleration and transport, including heliospheric modulation and transport, shock acceleration and galactic propagation and reacceleration of cosmic rays; second, the development of theories of the interaction of turbulence and large scale plasma and magnetic field structures, as in winds and shocks; third, the elucidation of the nature of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence processes and the role such turbulence processes might play in heliospheric, galactic, cosmic ray physics, and other space physics applications.

  2. EDITORIAL: Laser and plasma accelerators Laser and plasma accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, Robert

    2009-02-01

    This special issue on laser and plasma accelerators illustrates the rapid advancement and diverse applications of laser and plasma accelerators. Plasma is an attractive medium for particle acceleration because of the high electric field it can sustain, with studies of acceleration processes remaining one of the most important areas of research in both laboratory and astrophysical plasmas. The rapid advance in laser and accelerator technology has led to the development of terawatt and petawatt laser systems with ultra-high intensities and short sub-picosecond pulses, which are used to generate wakefields in plasma. Recent successes include the demonstration by several groups in 2004 of quasi-monoenergetic electron beams by wakefields in the bubble regime with the GeV energy barrier being reached in 2006, and the energy doubling of the SLAC high-energy electron beam from 42 to 85 GeV. The electron beams generated by the laser plasma driven wakefields have good spatial quality with energies ranging from MeV to GeV. A unique feature is that they are ultra-short bunches with simulations showing that they can be as short as a few femtoseconds with low-energy spread, making these beams ideal for a variety of applications ranging from novel high-brightness radiation sources for medicine, material science and ultrafast time-resolved radiobiology or chemistry. Laser driven ion acceleration experiments have also made significant advances over the last few years with applications in laser fusion, nuclear physics and medicine. Attention is focused on the possibility of producing quasi-mono-energetic ions with energies ranging from hundreds of MeV to GeV per nucleon. New acceleration mechanisms are being studied, including ion acceleration from ultra-thin foils and direct laser acceleration. The application of wakefields or beat waves in other areas of science such as astrophysics and particle physics is beginning to take off, such as the study of cosmic accelerators considered

  3. Integrated Vibration and Acceleration Testing to Reduce Payload Mass, Cost and Mission Risk Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop a capability to provide integrated acceleration, vibration, and shock testing using a state-of-the-art centrifuge, allowing for the test of...

  4. Physics of Collisionless Shocks Space Plasma Shock Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Balogh, André

    2013-01-01

    The present book provides a contemporary systematic treatment of shock waves in high-temperature collisionless plasmas as are encountered in near Earth space and in Astrophysics. It consists of two parts. Part I develops the complete theory of shocks in dilute hot plasmas under the assumption of absence of collisions among the charged particles when the interaction is mediated solely by the self-consistent electromagnetic fields. Such shocks are naturally magnetised implying that the magnetic field plays an important role in their evolution and dynamics. This part treats both subcritical shocks, which dissipate flow energy by generating anomalous resistance or viscosity, and supercritical shocks. The main emphasis is, however, on super-critical shocks where the anomalous dissipation is insufficient to retard the upstream flow. These shocks, depending on the direction of the upstream magnetic field, are distinguished as quasi-perpendicular and quasi-parallel shocks which exhibit different behaviours, reflecti...

  5. Shock margin testing of a one-axis MEMS accelerometer.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parson, Ted Blair; Tanner, Danelle Mary; Buchheit, Thomas Edward

    2008-07-01

    Shock testing was performed on a selected commercial-off-the-shelf - MicroElectroMechanical System (COTS-MEMS) accelerometer to determine the margin between the published absolute maximum rating for shock and the 'measured' level where failures are observed. The purpose of this testing is to provide baseline data for isolating failure mechanisms under shock and environmental loading in a representative device used or under consideration for use within systems and assemblies of the DOD/DOE weapons complex. The specific device chosen for this study was the AD22280 model of the ADXL78 MEMS Accelerometer manufactured by Analog Devices Inc. This study focuses only on the shock loading response of the device and provides the necessary data for adding influence of environmental exposure to the reliability of this class of devices. The published absolute maximum rating for acceleration in any axis was 4000 G for this device powered or unpowered. Results from this study showed first failures at 8000 G indicating a margin of error of two. Higher shock level testing indicated that an in-plane, but off-axis acceleration was more damaging than one in the sense direction.

  6. Culture shock and travelers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, L; Leggat, P A

    1998-06-01

    As travel has become easier and more affordable, the number of people traveling has risen sharply. People travel for many and varied reasons, from the business person on an overseas assignment to backpackers seeking new and exotic destinations. Others may take up residence in different regions, states or countries for family, business or political reasons. Other people are fleeing religious or political persecution. Wherever they go and for whatever reason they go, people take their culture with them. Culture, like language, is acquired innately in early childhood and is then reinforced through formal and complex informal social education into adulthood. Culture provides a framework for interpersonal and social interactions. Therefore, the contact with a new culture is often not the exciting or pleasurable experience anticipated. When immersed in a different culture, people no longer know how to act when faced with disparate value systems. Contact with the unfamiliar culture can lead to anxiety, stress, mental illness and, in extreme cases, physical illness and suicide. "Culture shock" is a term coined by the anthropologist Oberg. It is the shock of the new. It implies that the experience of the new culture is an unpleasant surprise or shock, partly because it is unexpected and partly because it can lead to a negative evaluation of one's own culture. It is also known as cross-cultural adjustment, being that period of anxiety and confusion experienced when entering a new culture. It affects people intellectually, emotionally, behaviorally and physically and is characterized by symptoms of psychological distress. Culture shock affects both adults and children. In travelers or workers who have prolonged sojourns in foreign countries, culture shock may occur not only as they enter the new culture, but also may occur on their return to their original culture. Children may also experience readjustment problems after returning from leading sheltered lives in expatriate

  7. Particle acceleration in cosmic plasmas – paradigm change?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lytikov, Maxim [Purdue University; Guo, Fan [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2015-07-21

    The presentation begins by considering the requirements on the acceleration mechanism. It is found that at least some particles in high-energy sources are accelerated by magnetic reconnection (and not by shocks). The two paradigms can be distinguished by the hardness of the spectra. Shocks typically produce spectra with p > 2 (relativistic shocks have p ~ 2.2); non-linear shocks & drift acceleration may give p < 2, e.g. p=1.5; B-field dissipation can give p = 1. Then collapse of stressed magnetic X-point in force-free plasma and collapse of a system of magnetic islands are taken up, including Island merger: forced reconnection. Spectra as functions of sigma are shown, and gamma ~ 109 is addressed. It is concluded that reconnection in magnetically-dominated plasma can proceed explosively, is an efficient means of particle acceleration, and is an important (perhaps dominant for some phenomena) mechanism of particle acceleration in high energy sources.

  8. Gastrointestinal perfusion in septic shock.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haren, E.M. van; Sleight, J.W.; Pickkers, P.; Hoeven, J.G. van der

    2007-01-01

    Septic shock is characterised by vasodilation, myocardial depression and impaired microcirculatory blood flow, resulting in redistribution of regional blood flow. Animal and human studies have shown that gastrointestinal mucosal blood flow is impaired in septic shock. This is consistent with

  9. Flow behind concave shock waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mölder, S.

    2017-09-01

    Curved shock theory is introduced and applied to calculate the flow behind concave shock waves. For sonic conditions, three characterizing types of flow are identified, based on the orientation of the sonic line, and it is shown that, depending on the ratio of shock curvatures, a continuously curving shock can exist with Type III flow, where the sonic line intercepts the reflected characteristics from the shock, thus preventing the formation of a reflected shock. The necessary shock curvature ratio for a Type III sonic point does not exist for a hyperbolic shock so that it will revert to Mach reflection for all Mach numbers. A demonstration is provided, by CFD calculations, at Mach 1.2 and 3.

  10. Shock Wave Energy Dissipation using Polymerized Ionic Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jaejun; Ren, Yi; Evans, Christopher; Moore, Jeffrey; Sottos, Nancy

    2017-06-01

    Polymerized ionic liquids composed of alkyl-imidazolium cations and bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonamide anions exhibit intriguing shock wave energy absorption performance. In prior work, we observed a shock-induced disorder-to-order change in network forming ionic liquids. We hypothesize that this shock-induced ordering is strongly associated with the microstructure of the ionic liquids. Polymerized ionic liquids, which have similar microstructures but slower relaxation times compared to the ionic liquids, are prepared to demonstrate the ordering transition mechanism and to exploit relaxation processes for the energy dissipation. By employing size-tunable alkyl backbone spacers between cations, we explore the effect of the relative microstructural heterogeneity on the activation of shock-induced ordering. Relaxation time, which is adjustable by the alkyl spacer length, also plays an important role in the energy dissipation process. Absorption properties of a series of thin film (ca. 50 μm) polymerized ionic liquids are evaluated using a laser-induced shock wave testing protocol. Superior shock wave mitigating performance of polymerized ionic liquids was achieved compared to polyurea films.

  11. Editorial: Focus on Laser- and Beam-Driven Plasma Accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Chan; Malka, Victor

    2010-04-01

    , S Mangles, L O Silva, R Fonseca and P A Norreys Electro-optic shocks from blowout laser wakefields D F Gordon, A Ting, M H Helle, D Kaganovich and B Hafizi Onset of self-steepening of intense laser pulses in plasmas J Vieira, F Fiúza, L O Silva, M Tzoufras and W B Mori Analysis of laser wakefield dynamics in capillary tubes N E Andreev, K Cassou, F Wojda, G Genoud, M Burza, O Lundh, A Persson, B Cros, V E Fortov and C-G Wahlstrom Characterization of the beam loading effects in a laser plasma accelerator C Rechatin, J Faure, X Davoine, O Lundh, J Lim, A Ben-Ismaïl, F Burgy, A Tafzi, A Lifschitz, E Lefebvre and V Malka Energy gain scaling with plasma length and density in the plasma wakefield accelerator P Muggli, I Blumenfeld, C E Clayton, F J Decker, M J Hogan, C Huang, R Ischebeck, R H Iverson, C Joshi, T Katsouleas, N Kirby, W Lu, K A Marsh, W B Mori, E Oz, R H Siemann, D R Walz and M Zhou Generation of tens of GeV quasi-monoenergetic proton beams from a moving double layer formed by ultraintense lasers at intensity 1021-1023Wcm-2 Lu-Le Yu, Han Xu, Wei-Min Wang, Zheng-Ming Sheng, Bai-Fei Shen, Wei Yu and Jie Zhang Carbon ion acceleration from thin foil targets irradiated by ultrahigh-contrast, ultraintense laser pulses D C Carroll, O Tresca, R Prasad, L Romagnani, P S Foster, P Gallegos, S Ter-Avetisyan, J S Green, M J V Streeter, N Dover, C A J Palmer, C M Brenner, F H Cameron, K E Quinn, J Schreiber, A P L Robinson, T Baeva, M N Quinn, X H Yuan, Z Najmudin, M Zepf, D Neely, M Borghesi and P McKenna Numerical modelling of a 10-cm-long multi-GeV laser wakefield accelerator driven by a self-guided petawatt pulse S Y Kalmykov, S A Yi, A Beck, A F Lifschitz, X Davoine, E Lefebvre, A Pukhov, V Khudik, G Shvets, S A Reed, P Dong, X Wang, D Du, S Bedacht, R Zgadzaj, W Henderson, A Bernstein, G Dyer, M Martinez, E Gaul, T Ditmire and M C Downer Effects of laser prepulses on laser-induced proton generation D Batani, R Jafer, M Veltcheva, R Dezulian, O Lundh, F Lindau, A

  12. INTERFERENCE OF UNIDIRECTIONAL SHOCK WAVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. Bulat

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Subject of study.We consider interference of unidirectional shock waves or, as they are called, catching up shock waves. The scope of work is to give a classification of the shock-wave structures that arise in this type of interaction of shock waves, and the area of their existence. Intersection of unidirectional shock waves results in arising of a shock-wave structure at the intersection point, which contains the main shock wave, tangential discontinuity and one more reflected gas-dynamic discontinuity of unknown beforehand type. The problem of determining the type of reflected discontinuity is the main problem that one has to solve in the study of catching shock waves interference. Main results.The paper presents the pictures of shock-wave structures arising at the interaction of catching up shock waves. The areas with a regular and irregular unidirectional interaction of shocks are described. Characteristic shock-wave structures are of greatest interest, where reflected gas-dynamic discontinuity degenerates into discontinuous characteristics. Such structures have a number of extreme properties. We have found the areas of existence for such shock-wave structures. There are also areas in which the steady-state solution is not available. The latter has determined revival of interest for the theoretical study of the problem, because the facts of sudden shock-wave structure destruction inside the air intake of supersonic aircrafts at high Mach numbers have been discovered. Practical significance.The theory of interference for unidirectional shock waves and design procedure are usable in the design of supersonic air intakes. It is also relevant for application possibility investigation of catching up oblique shock waves to create overcompressed detonation in perspective detonation air-jet and rocket engines.

  13. Magnetohydrodynamic simulation study of plasma jets and plasma-surface contact in coaxial plasma accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Vivek; Raja, Laxminarayan L.

    2017-06-01

    Recent experiments by Loebner et al. [IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 44, 1534 (2016)] studied the effect of a hypervelocity jet emanating from a coaxial plasma accelerator incident on target surfaces in an effort to mimic the transient loading created during edge localized mode disruption events in fusion plasmas. In this paper, we present a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) numerical model to simulate plasma jet formation and plasma-surface contact in this coaxial plasma accelerator experiment. The MHD system of equations is spatially discretized using a cell-centered finite volume formulation. The temporal discretization is performed using a fully implicit backward Euler scheme and the resultant stiff system of nonlinear equations is solved using the Newton method. The numerical model is employed to obtain some key insights into the physical processes responsible for the generation of extreme stagnation conditions on the target surfaces. Simulations of the plume (without the target plate) are performed to isolate and study phenomena such as the magnetic pinch effect that is responsible for launching pressure pulses into the jet free stream. The simulations also yield insights into the incipient conditions responsible for producing the pinch, such as the formation of conductive channels. The jet-target impact studies indicate the existence of two distinct stages involved in the plasma-surface interaction. A fast transient stage characterized by a thin normal shock transitions into a pseudo-steady stage that exhibits an extended oblique shock structure. A quadratic scaling of the pinch and stagnation conditions with the total current discharged between the electrodes is in qualitative agreement with the results obtained in the experiments. This also illustrates the dominant contribution of the magnetic pressure term in determining the magnitude of the quantities of interest.

  14. Teleconnected food supply shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bren d'Amour, Christopher; Wenz, Leonie; Kalkuhl, Matthias; Steckel, Jan Christoph; Creutzig, Felix

    2016-03-01

    The 2008-2010 food crisis might have been a harbinger of fundamental climate-induced food crises with geopolitical implications. Heat-wave-induced yield losses in Russia and resulting export restrictions led to increases in market prices for wheat across the Middle East, likely contributing to the Arab Spring. With ongoing climate change, temperatures and temperature variability will rise, leading to higher uncertainty in yields for major nutritional crops. Here we investigate which countries are most vulnerable to teleconnected supply-shocks, i.e. where diets strongly rely on the import of wheat, maize, or rice, and where a large share of the population is living in poverty. We find that the Middle East is most sensitive to teleconnected supply shocks in wheat, Central America to supply shocks in maize, and Western Africa to supply shocks in rice. Weighing with poverty levels, Sub-Saharan Africa is most affected. Altogether, a simultaneous 10% reduction in exports of wheat, rice, and maize would reduce caloric intake of 55 million people living in poverty by about 5%. Export bans in major producing regions would put up to 200 million people below the poverty line at risk, 90% of which live in Sub-Saharan Africa. Our results suggest that a region-specific combination of national increases in agricultural productivity and diversification of trade partners and diets can effectively decrease future food security risks.

  15. Hot Spot Cosmic Accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-11-01

    length of more than 3 million light-years, or no less than one-and-a-half times the distance from the Milky Way to the Andromeda galaxy, this structure is indeed gigantic. The region where the jets collide with the intergalactic medium are known as " hot spots ". Superposing the intensity contours of the radio emission from the southern "hot spot" on a near-infrared J-band (wavelength 1.25 µm) VLT ISAAC image ("b") shows three distinct emitting areas; they are even better visible on the I-band (0.9 µm) FORS1 image ("c"). This emission is obviously associated with the shock front visible on the radio image. This is one of the first times it has been possible to obtain an optical/near-IR image of synchrotron emission from such an intergalactic shock and, thanks to the sensitivity and image sharpness of the VLT, the most detailed view of its kind so far . The central area (with the strongest emission) is where the plasma jet from the galaxy centre hits the intergalactic medium. The light from the two other "knots", some 10 - 15,000 light-years away from the central "hot spot", is also interpreted as synchrotron emission. However, in view of the large distance, the astronomers are convinced that it must be caused by electrons accelerated in secondary processes at those sites . The new images thus confirm that electrons are being continuously accelerated in these "knots" - hence called "cosmic accelerators" - far from the galaxy and the main jets, and in nearly empty space. The exact physical circumstances of this effect are not well known and will be the subject of further investigations. The present VLT-images of the "hot spots" near 3C 445 may not have the same public appeal as some of those beautiful images that have been produced by the same instruments during the past years. But they are not less valuable - their unusual importance is of a different kind, as they now herald the advent of fundamentally new insights into the mysteries of this class of remote and active

  16. 3D Printed Shock Mitigating Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrand, Amanda; Elston, Edwin; Dennis, Mitzi; Metroke, Tammy; Chen, Chenggang; Patton, Steven; Ganguli, Sabyasachi; Roy, Ajit

    Here we explore the durability, and shock mitigating potential, of solid and cellular 3D printed polymers and conductive inks under high strain rate, compressive shock wave and high g acceleration conditions. Our initial designs include a simple circuit with 4 resistors embedded into circular discs and a complex cylindrical gyroid shape. A novel ink consisting of silver-coated carbon black nanoparticles in a thermoplastic polyurethane was used as the trace material. One version of the disc structural design has the advantage of allowing disassembly after testing for direct failure analysis. After increasing impacts, printed and traditionally potted circuits were examined for functionality. Additionally, in the open disc design, trace cracking and delamination of resistors were able to be observed. In a parallel study, we examined the shock mitigating behavior of 3D printed cellular gyroid structures on a Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB). We explored alterations to the classic SHPB setup for testing the low impedance, cellular samples to most accurately reflect the stress state inside the sample (strain rates from 700 to 1750 s-1). We discovered that the gyroid can effectively absorb the impact of the test resulting in crushing the structure. Future studies aim to tailor the unit cell dimensions for certain frequencies, increase print accuracy and optimize material compositions for conductivity and adhesion to manufacture more durable devices.

  17. Fascinating World of Shock Waves

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srimath

    The dissipation of mechanical, nuclear, chemi- cal, and electrical energy in a limited space will usually result in ... the vehicle and the shock wave usually referred to as the shock layer will be a region of high .... successfully visualized a shock wave during an electric spark discharge process using stroboscopic method.

  18. Shock Waves in Gas Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolrahman Razani

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Shock wave theory was studied in literature by many authors. This article presents a survey with references about various topics related to shock waves: Hyperbolic conservation laws, Well-posedness theory, Compactness theory, Shock and reaction-diffusion wave, The CJ and ZND theory, Existence of detonation in Majda's model, Premixed laminar flame, Multidimensional gas flows, Multidimensional Riemann problem.

  19. Ringwoodite in shocked chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingemann, C. M.; Stoffler, D.

    1994-07-01

    Since the discovery of ringwoodite in the meteorite Tenham, further studies confirmed that this mineral occurs preferentially in melt veins and melt pockets of highly shocked L chondrules. Except for some special Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) studies a comprehensive study of this high-pressure phase of olivine in the general scope of shock metamorphism of chondrites is missing. Eighteen ringwoodite-bearing L6(S6) chondrites were studied, some of them in more detail: L6(S6)-Catherwood, L6(S6)-Coorara, L6(S6)-Johnson City, L6(S6)-Pampa del Infierno, L6(S6)-Tenham, and L5-6(S6)-Acfer 040. They were analyzed by the optical microscope, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), microprobe, and TEM. Ringwoodite is formed in chondrites at locations where localized melting occurs by shock waves exceeding 50 GPa. The localized shock-pressure and temperature concentrations are obviously favorable for the kinetics of the olivine-spinel transition. Ringwoodite crystallizes most probably not during the short peak pressure pulse but rather during the more extended phase of pressure release, where the temperature is still extremely high, presumably near the solidus of chondrites. The observed chemical variation of individual ringwoodite grains and the indication that wadsleyite coexists with ringwoodite, could be explained as follows. On release from a high-pressure-shock state, olivine transforms to an assemblage of the Beta phase (wadsleyite) and the gamma phase (ringwoodite) in the pressure range between about 20 and 13 GPa. In the two-phase region, where the Beta and gamma phases coexist under equilibrium conditions, the two phases would have compositions in the range Fa(13-25) and Fa(25-31) respectively if the primary olivine composition is 24-25 mol% Fa. This range is very near to the observed chemical variation within polycrystalline ringwoodite grains Fa(19-31).

  20. First ALMA Detection of a Galaxy Cluster Merger Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, K.; Sommer, M.; Erler, J.; Eckert, D.; Vazza, F.; Magnelli, B.; Bertoldi, F.; Tozzi, P.

    2016-12-01

    We report on the first ALMA measurement of a galaxy cluster merger shock, observed at the location of a radio relic in the famous El Gordo galaxy cluster at redshift z 0.9. Located at about half the current age of the Universe, this is also the most distant example of a directly measured astrophysical shock. ALMA Band 3 was utilised to measure the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect signature that confirms a small-scale change in pressure as expected from the passage of a shock in the intracluster medium. The results support a previous radio-based estimate of the shock Mach number and display similarities, and also some mild tensions, with the X-ray based results. Most importantly, these results show the potential of ALMA to detect galaxy cluster shocks, observations that will advance our knowledge of cluster formation, non-thermal particle acceleration and amplification of magnetic fields across the entire observable Universe where such relic shocks can be found.

  1. Shock Heating of the Merging Galaxy Cluster A521

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdin, H.; Mazzotta, P.; Markevitch, M.; Giacintucci, S.; Brunetti, G.

    2013-01-01

    A521 is an interacting galaxy cluster located at z = 0.247, hosting a low-frequency radio halo connected to an eastern radio relic. Previous Chandra observations hinted at the presence of an X-ray brightness edge at the position of the relic, which may be a shock front. We analyze a deep observation of A521 recently performed with XMM-Newton in order to probe the cluster structure up to the outermost regions covered by the radio emission. The cluster atmosphere exhibits various brightness and temperature anisotropies. In particular, two cluster cores appear to be separated by two cold fronts. We find two shock fronts, one that was suggested by Chandra and that is propagating to the east, and another to the southwestern cluster outskirt. The two main interacting clusters appear to be separated by a shock-heated region, which exhibits a spatial correlation with the radio halo. The outer edge of the radio relic coincides spatially with a shock front, suggesting that this shock is responsible for the generation of cosmic-ray electrons in the relic. The propagation direction and Mach number of the shock front derived from the gas density jump, M = 2.4 +/- 0.2, are consistent with expectations from the radio spectral index, under the assumption of Fermi I acceleration mechanism.

  2. Shock Dynamics in Stellar Outbursts. I. Shock Formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ro, Stephen; Matzner, Christopher D., E-mail: ro@astro.utoronto.ca [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada)

    2017-05-20

    Wave-driven outflows and non-disruptive explosions have been implicated in pre-supernova outbursts, supernova impostors, luminous blue variable eruptions, and some narrow-line and superluminous supernovae. To model these events, we investigate the dynamics of stars set in motion by strong acoustic pulses and wave trains, focusing on nonlinear wave propagation, shock formation, and an early phase of the development of a weak shock. We identify the shock formation radius, showing that a heuristic estimate based on crossing characteristics matches an exact expansion around the wave front and verifying both with numerical experiments. Our general analytical condition for shock formation applies to one-dimensional motions within any static environment, including both eruptions and implosions. We also consider the early phase of shock energy dissipation. We find that waves of super-Eddington acoustic luminosity always create shocks, rather than damping by radiative diffusion. Therefore, shock formation is integral to super-Eddington outbursts.

  3. Two-stream-like Instability in Dilute Hot Relativistic Beams and Astrophysical Relativistic Shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakar, Ehud; Bret, Antoine; Milosavljević, Miloš

    2011-09-01

    Relativistic collisionless shocks are believed to be efficient particle accelerators. Nonlinear outcome of the interaction of accelerated particles that run ahead of the shock, the so-called precursor, with the unperturbed plasma of the shock upstream, is thought to facilitate additional acceleration of these particles and to possibly modify the hydrodynamic structure of the shock. We explore here the linear growth of kinetic modes appearing in the precursor-upstream interaction in relativistic shocks propagating in non- and weakly magnetized plasmas: electrostatic two-stream parallel mode and electrostatic oblique modes. The physics of the parallel and oblique modes is similar, and thus, we refer to the entire spectrum of electrostatic modes as "two-stream-like." These modes are of particular interest because they are the fastest growing modes known in this type of system. Using a simplified distribution function for a dilute ultrarelativistic beam that is relativistically hot in its own rest frame, yet has momenta that are narrowly collimated in the frame of the cold upstream plasma into which it propagates, we identify the fastest growing mode in the full k-space and calculate its growth rate. We consider all types of plasma (pairs and ions-electrons) and beam (charged and charge-neutral). We find that unstable electrostatic modes are present in any type of plasma and for any shock parameters. We further find that two modes, one parallel (k bottom = 0) and the other one oblique (k_\\bot \\sim k_\\Vert), are competing for dominance and that either one may dominate the growth rate in different regions of the phase space. The dominant mode is determined mostly by the perpendicular spread of the accelerated particle momenta in the upstream frame, which reflects the shock Lorentz factor. The parallel mode becomes more dominant in shocks with lower Lorentz factors (i.e., with larger momentum spreads). We briefly discuss possible implications of our results for

  4. Partial Spreading of a Laser Beam into a Light Sheet by Shock Waves and Its Use as a Shock Detection Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, J.

    1994-01-01

    It is observed that when a laser beam is allowed to fall on a shock surface at a grazing incidence, a small part of the beam spreads out in a thin, diverging sheet of light normal to the surface, and both upstream and downstream of the shock. The phenomenon is visualized by observing a cross section of the light sheet on a screen placed normal to the laser path after it touches a shock. The light sheet disappears when the beam is moved to any other locations where there is no shock or the beam pierces the shock surface, i.e., at a non-grazing incidence. The spread angle of the light sheet is considerably higher than the angle by which the beam may bend as it passes through the shock, which produces a small difference of refractive index. Various details indicate that the spread light is a result of diffraction of a small part of the laser beam by the shock whose thickness is nearly the same as that of the laser wavelength. Shocks formed in underexpanded free jets of fully expanded Mach numbers 1.4 to 1.8 are used for this experiment. The above optical phenomenon is used as the basis of a novel shock detection technique which depends on sensing the spread light using a photomultiplier tube (PMT). The locations of the shock surfaces in the underexpanded supersonic jet, obtained using this technique, match with those inferred from the Schlieren photographs and velocity measurements. Moreover, if the shock oscillates, a periodic PMT signal is obtained which provides information about the frequency and amplitude of shock motion.

  5. Reflection of a converging cylindrical shock wave segment by a straight wedge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, B.; Skews, B.

    2017-07-01

    As a converging cylindrical shock wave propagates over a wedge, the shock wave accelerates and the angle between the shock wave and the wedge decreases. This causes the conditions at the reflection point to move from what would be the irregular reflection domain for a straight shock wave into the regular reflection domain. This paper covers a largely qualitative study of the reflection of converging shock wave segments with Mach numbers between 1.2 and 2.1 by wedges inclined at angles between 15° and 60° from experimental and numerical results. The sonic condition conventionally used for predicting the type of reflection of straight shock waves was found to also be suitable for predicting the initial reflection of a curved shock wave. Initially regular reflections persisted until the shock was completely reflected by the wedge, whereas the triple point of initially irregular reflections was observed to return to the wedge surface, forming transitioned regular reflection. After the incident shock wave was completely reflected by the wedge, a shock wave focusing mechanism was observed to amplify the pressure on the surface of the wedge by a factor of up to 100 for low wedge angles.

  6. Thermal and shock metamorphism of the Tenham chondrite: A TEM examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenhorst, Falko; Joreau, Pascal; Doukhan, Jean Claude

    1995-05-01

    During the early episode Of the solar system, the L6 chondrite Tenham has been affected by intense thermal metamorphism. Microanalytical data reveal homogeneous compositions Of Olivine (F O 75Fa 25), enstatite (En 79Fs 19W O 2), and diopside (En 47Fs 8W O 45). Using these data, empirical pyroxene thermometers yield temperature estimates for this thermal metamorphism, ranging from 810 to 870°C. Due to the presence of thin shock veins, which contain the high-pressure phases majorite and ringwoodite, the L6 chondrite Tenham is an instructive example for strong shock metamorphism. In contrast to previous transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies, which concentrated on these shock veins, we also systematically characterized the shock signature of the silicates occurring in the bulk Of Tenham. Plagioclase is either pervaded by thin (200 nm), amorphous lamellae, so-called planar deformation features ("PDFs"), or it is transformed to maskelynite, a diaplectic glass Of feldspar composition. In olivine, shock deformation has caused the formation of irregular and planar fractures and the activation of numerous (2 × 10 14 m -2) c dislocations in the glide planes (100) and {110}; energetically favorable but less mobile a dislocations are totally absent. Fracturing in olivine is interpreted as the cause of dislocation formation. A low dislocation density (shock origin is most reasonable in this case because of the presence of strong shock damage in the other silicates. Diopside displays the greatest diversity of shock defects: mechanical twins parallel to (100) and (001), numerous dislocations, and PDFs. The predominant glide system of dislocations is (100)[001], but the {110}[001] glide system is also present to a lesser extent. To our knowledge, we report here on the first evidence of thin (≤50 nm), amorphous lamellae in naturally shocked diopside. These PDFs are oriented parallel to {221} and {221}. Fine-grained (ringwoodite, were observed in a thin shock vein

  7. Shock detachment from curved wedges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mölder, S.

    2017-09-01

    Curved shock theory is used to show that the flow behind attached shocks on doubly curved wedges can have either positive or negative post-shock pressure gradients depending on the freestream Mach number, the wedge angle and the two wedge curvatures. Given enough wedge length, the flow near the leading edge can choke to force the shock to detach from the wedge. This local choking can preempt both the maximum deflection and the sonic criteria for shock detachment. Analytical predictions for detachment by local choking are supported by CFD results.

  8. Injection Efficiency of Low-energy Particles at Oblique Shocks with a Focused Transport Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, P.; Zhang, M.; Rassoul, H.

    2013-12-01

    There is strong evidence that a small portion of thermal and suprathermal particles from hot coronal material or remnants of previous solar energetic particle (SEP) events serve as the source of large SEP events (Desai et al. 2006). To build more powerful SEP models, it is necessary to model the detailed particle injection and acceleration process for source particles especially at lower energies. We present a test particle simulation on the injection and acceleration of low-energy suprathermal particles by Laminar nonrelativistic oblique shocks in the framework of the focused transport theory, which is proved to contain all necessary physics of shock acceleration, but avoid the limitation of diffusive shock acceleration (DSA). The injection efficiency as a function of Mach number, obliquity, injection speed, shock strength, cross-shock potential and the degree of turbulence is calculated. This test particle simulation proves that the focused transport theory is an extension of DSA theory with the capability of predicting the efficiency of particle injection. The results can be applied to modeling the SEP acceleration from source particles.

  9. Blast Loading of Epoxy Panels Using a Shock Tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankow, Mark; Waas, Anthony M.; Bednarcyk, Brett

    2010-01-01

    The high strain rate mechanical response of thin polymer plates has been studied using a modified shock tube. Diagnostics include the pressure-time history of the incident and reflected pulses and the use of digital image correlation (DIC) techniques to extract the time-history of the out-of-plane displacement distribution. Additionally, finite element models have been developed to understand the plate response and to validate and modify plate material constitutive models that have been proposed.

  10. Thermal shock induced oxidation of beryllium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spilker, B.; Linke, J.; Pintsuk, G.; Wirtz, M.

    2017-12-01

    Beryllium has been chosen as a plasma facing material for the first wall of the experimental fusion reactor ITER, mainly because of its low atomic number and oxygen getter capabilities, which are favorable for a high plasma performance. While the steady state operational temperature of 250 °C has no deteriorating effect on the beryllium surface, transient plasma events can deposit power densities of up to 1 GW m‑2 on the beryllium armor tiles. Previous research has shown that the oxidation of beryllium can occur under these thermal shock events. In the present study, S-65 grade beryllium specimens were exposed to 100 thermal shocks with an absorbed power density of 0.6 GW m‑2 and a pulse duration of 1 ms, leading to a peak surface temperature of ∼800 °C. The induced surface morphology changes were compared to a steady state heated specimen at the same surface temperature with a holding time of 150 s. As a result, a pitting structure with an average pit diameter of ∼0.45 μm was observed on the thermal shock loaded surface, which was caused by beryllium oxide grain nucleation and subsequent erosion of the weakly bound beryllium oxide particles. In contrast, the steady state heated surface exhibited a more homogeneous beryllium oxide layer featuring small pits with diameters of tens of nm and showed the beryllium oxide grain nucleation in a beginning stage. The experiment demonstrated that thermal shock loading conditions can significantly accelerate the beryllium oxide grain nucleation. The resulting surface morphology change can potentially alter the fusion application relevant erosion, absorption, and retention characteristics of beryllium.

  11. Bubble Dynamics and Shock Waves

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    This volume of the Shock Wave Science and Technology Reference Library is concerned with the interplay between bubble dynamics and shock waves. It is divided into four parts containing twelve chapters written by eminent scientists. Topics discussed include shock wave emission by laser generated bubbles (W Lauterborn, A Vogel), pulsating bubbles near boundaries (DM Leppinen, QX Wang, JR Blake), interaction of shock waves with bubble clouds (CD Ohl, SW Ohl), shock propagation in polydispersed bubbly liquids by model equations (K Ando, T Colonius, CE Brennen. T Yano, T Kanagawa,  M Watanabe, S Fujikawa) and by DNS (G Tryggvason, S Dabiri), shocks in cavitating flows (NA Adams, SJ Schmidt, CF Delale, GH Schnerr, S Pasinlioglu) together with applications involving encapsulated bubble dynamics in imaging (AA Doinikov, A Novell, JM Escoffre, A Bouakaz),  shock wave lithotripsy (P Zhong), sterilization of ships’ ballast water (A Abe, H Mimura) and bubbly flow model of volcano eruptions ((VK Kedrinskii, K Takayama...

  12. Suprathermal Charged Particle Acceleration by Small-scale Flux Ropes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zank, G. P.; le Roux, J. A.; Webb, G. M.

    2015-12-01

    We consider different limits of our recently developed kinetic transport theory to investigate the potential of super-Alvenic solar wind regions containing several small-scale flux ropes to explain the acceleration of suprathermal ions to power-law spectra as observations show. Particle acceleration is modeled in response to flux-rope activity involving contraction, merging (reconnection), and collisions in the limit where the particle gyoradius is smaller than the characteristic flux-rope scale length. The emphasis is mainly on the statistical variance in the electric fields induced by flux-rope dynamics rather than on the mean electric field induced by multiple flux ropes whose acceleration effects are discussed elsewhere. Our steady-state analytical solutions suggest that particle drift acceleration by flux ropes, irrespective of whether displaying incompressible or compressible behavior, can yield power laws asymptotically at higher energies whereas an exponential spectral rollover results asymptotically when field-aligned guiding center motion acceleration occur by reconnection electric fields from merging flux ropes. This implies that at sufficiently high particle energies, drift acceleration might dominate. We also expect compressive flux ropes to yield harder power-law spectra than incompressible flux ropes. Preliminary results will be discussed to illustrate how particle acceleration might be affected when both diffusive shock and small-scale flux acceleration occur simultaneously at interplanetary shocks.

  13. X-ray study of bow shocks in runaway stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Becker, M.; del Valle, M. V.; Romero, G. E.; Peri, C. S.; Benaglia, P.

    2017-11-01

    Massive runaway stars produce bow shocks through the interaction of their winds with the interstellar medium, with the prospect for particle acceleration by the shocks. These objects are consequently candidates for non-thermal emission. Our aim is to investigate the X-ray emission from these sources. We observed with XMM-Newton a sample of five bow shock runaways, which constitutes a significant improvement of the sample of bow shock runaways studied in X-rays so far. A careful analysis of the data did not reveal any X-ray emission related to the bow shocks. However, X-ray emission from the stars is detected, in agreement with the expected thermal emission from stellar winds. On the basis of background measurements we derive conservative upper limits between 0.3 and 10 keV on the bow shocks emission. Using a simple radiation model, these limits together with radio upper limits allow us to constrain some of the main physical quantities involved in the non-thermal emission processes, such as the magnetic field strength and the amount of incident infrared photons. The reasons likely responsible for the non-detection of non-thermal radiation are discussed. Finally, using energy budget arguments, we investigate the detectability of inverse Compton X-rays in a more extended sample of catalogued runaway star bow shocks. From our analysis we conclude that a clear identification of non-thermal X-rays from massive runaway bow shocks requires one order of magnitude (or higher) sensitivity improvement with respect to present observatories.

  14. Observational Signatures of Particle Acceleration in Supernova Remnants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helder, E.A.; Vink, J.; Bykov, A.M.; Ohira, Y.; Raymond, J.C.; Terrier, R.

    2012-01-01

    We evaluate the current status of supernova remnants as the sources of Galactic cosmic rays. We summarize observations of supernova remnants, covering the whole electromagnetic spectrum and describe what these observations tell us about the acceleration processes by high Mach number shock fronts. We

  15. The Shock Routine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Hooren, Franca; Kaasch, Alexandra; Starke, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The idea that moments of crisis form opportunities for fundamental policy change is widespread in political science and public policy. It is usually associated with historical institutionalism and the notion of ‘critical junctures’. On the basis of an in-depth analysis of social policy responses...... in Australia, Belgium, the Netherlands and Sweden over the course of four global economic shocks, we ask whether the notion of critical junctures is useful in understanding the nature of change triggered by crisis. The main empirical finding is that fundamental change in the aftermath of an exogenous shock...... is the exception rather than the rule. Instead, incremental ‘crisis routines’ based on existing policy instruments are overwhelmingly used to deal with economic hardship. We discuss these findings in the light of the psychological ‘threat-rigidity’ effect and reflect on their consequences for theories...

  16. Operational Shock Complexity Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-05-26

    too kind to state that they envisaged complexity theory. The idea of Cognitive Dissonance is accredited to Leon Festinger and is at heart that awful...on psychological elements. 3 This monograph will only touch on a couple of the areas of change and why the concept of operational shock must evolve...attack (and thus was physical in nature), which would lead to a psychological outcome, namely the loss of will to continue fighting.44 This will to

  17. Shocks Beyond the Heliopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, T. K.; Kryukov, I.; Pogorelov, N. V.

    2016-12-01

    Voyager 1 and 2 (V1 and V2) crossed the heliospheric termination shock in December 2004 and in August 2007, respectively. While V2 is still in the inner heliosheath between the termination shock and the heliopause, a tangential discontinuity separatingthe solar wind (SW) from the local interstellar medium (LISM), V1 penetrated into the LISM in 2012 and is now sampling its properties. Since the plasma instrument onboard V1 is not operational, the Plasma Wave instrument (PWS) played a decisive role in the determination of the spacecraft crossing the heliopause and entering the LISM. Using time-dependent, data-driven boundary conditions and theoretical criteria for wave generation, we investigate the effect of shock propagation through the LISM on the generation of 2-3 kHz radio emission and, by comparing simulations with the V1 PWS and magnetometer observations derive information about the LISM plasma properties in the vicinity of the heliopause. This is done with our in-house Multi-Scale Fluid-Kinetic Simulation Suite, which solves the coupled MHD equations for plasma and Euler or Boltzmann equations for neutral atoms. A flexible adaptive mesh refinement approach allows us to increase the space resolution near the heliopause and resolve the global properties of propagating shocks.The boundary conditions are specified at 1 AU using OMNI data and a special time and space interpolation procedures that allow us to generate time-dependent, 3D distributions of plasma and magnetic field quantities. In addition we explore the effect of pickup ions of the heliospheric interface and on the heliocentric distance to the heliopause.

  18. Early Treatment in Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    Qureshi N, Morrison DC. Alanine-glutamine dipeptide inhibits expression of inflammation- related genes in hemorrhagic shock. Clinical Nutrition Week of the...American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition, Dallas. February 12-15, 2006. (Oral presentation). Clinical Nutrition week,. 2006, p145...Pontes-Arruda A, Van Way CW III. Feeding During Sepsis: What Works, What Doesn’t. Clinical Nutrition Week of American Society of Parenteral and

  19. Early Treatment in Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    22. Vats P, Mukherjee AK, Kumria MM, et al. Changes in the activity levels of glutamine synthetase, glutaminase and glyco- gen synthetase in rats...observed seizure activity during the post-shock period, suggesting some degree of brain damage. The hypothesis of the present study is that survival...Revised 01/13/2007 Special Article occurrence of seizures in animals undergoing carotid cannulation suggests brain damage from inadequate cerebral

  20. Viscous solution of the triple shock reflection problem

    CERN Document Server

    Lau-Chapdelaine, S She-Ming

    2016-01-01

    The reflection of a triple-shock configuration was studied numerically in two dimensions using the Navier-Stokes equations. The flow field was initialized using three shock theory, and the reflection of the triple point on a plane of symmetry was studied. The conditions simulated a stoichiometric methane-oxygen detonation cell at low pressure on time scales preceding ignition, when the gas was assumed to be thermodynamically inert. Viscosity was found to play an important role on some shock reflection mechanisms believed to accelerate reaction rates in detonations where time scales are small. A small wall jet was present in the double Mach reflection and increased in size with Reynolds number, eventually forming a small vortex. Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities were absent and there was no Mach stem bifurcation at Reynolds numbers corresponding to and exceeding the induction length. Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities are unlikely to be a source of rapid reactions in detonations at time scales commensurate with the i...

  1. Piezoelectric particle accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Mark A.; Jongewaard, Erik N.; Haase, Andrew A.; Franzi, Matthew

    2017-08-29

    A particle accelerator is provided that includes a piezoelectric accelerator element, where the piezoelectric accelerator element includes a hollow cylindrical shape, and an input transducer, where the input transducer is disposed to provide an input signal to the piezoelectric accelerator element, where the input signal induces a mechanical excitation of the piezoelectric accelerator element, where the mechanical excitation is capable of generating a piezoelectric electric field proximal to an axis of the cylindrical shape, where the piezoelectric accelerator is configured to accelerate a charged particle longitudinally along the axis of the cylindrical shape according to the piezoelectric electric field.

  2. SEP Fe Charge States in He3-Rich Interplanetary Shock Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popecki, M.; Desai, M.; Skoug, R. M.; Smith, C. W.; Moebius, E.; Galvin, A. B.; Kistler, L. M.; Klecker, B.

    2001-08-01

    Recent work by Mason et al. (1999) and Desai et al. (2000) suggests that suprathemal ion populations from impulsive solar energetic particle events may be subsequently accelerated by interplanetary shocks. They have used He3/He4 abundance ratios from the ACE/ULEIS instrument to detect ion populations originating in impulsive events. Desai (2000) identified several interplanetary shock events in which the He3/He4 ratios were enhanced above the solar wind value. Another tracer of impulsive events is the ionic charge state of solar energetic particles (SEPs). It is expected that SEPs accelerated in impulsive events will be highly ionized. The ACE/SEPICA instrument measures ionic charge states of SEP ions, and it has detected highly ionized Fe in some of the He3-rich interplanetary shock events identified by Desai (2000). Observations for these events will be shown and discussed in the context of earlier observations of interplanetary shock events.

  3. Testing cosmic ray acceleration with radio relics: a high-resolution study using MHD and tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittor, D.; Vazza, F.; Brüggen, M.

    2017-02-01

    Weak shocks in the intracluster medium may accelerate cosmic-ray protons and cosmic-ray electrons differently depending on the angle between the upstream magnetic field and the shock normal. In this work, we investigate how shock obliquity affects the production of cosmic rays in high-resolution simulations of galaxy clusters. For this purpose, we performed a magnetohydrodynamical simulation of a galaxy cluster using the mesh refinement code ENZO. We use Lagrangian tracers to follow the properties of the thermal gas, the cosmic rays and the magnetic fields over time. We tested a number of different acceleration scenarios by varying the obliquity-dependent acceleration efficiencies of protons and electrons, and by examining the resulting hadronic γ-ray and radio emission. We find that the radio emission does not change significantly if only quasi-perpendicular shocks are able to accelerate cosmic-ray electrons. Our analysis suggests that radio-emitting electrons found in relics have been typically shocked many times before z = 0. On the other hand, the hadronic γ-ray emission from clusters is found to decrease significantly if only quasi-parallel shocks are allowed to accelerate cosmic ray protons. This might reduce the tension with the low upper limits on γ-ray emission from clusters set by the Fermi satellite.

  4. Onion-shell model of cosmic ray acceleration in supernova remnants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdan, T. J.; Volk, H. J.

    1983-01-01

    A method is devised to approximate the spatially averaged momentum distribution function for the accelerated particles at the end of the active lifetime of a supernova remnant. The analysis is confined to the test particle approximation and adiabatic losses are oversimplified, but unsteady shock motion, evolving shock strength, and non-uniform gas flow effects on the accelerated particle spectrum are included. Monoenergetic protons are injected at the shock front. It is found that the dominant effect on the resultant accelerated particle spectrum is a changing spectral index with shock strength. High energy particles are produced in early phases, and the resultant distribution function is a slowly varying power law over several orders of magnitude, independent of the specific details of the supernova remnant.

  5. Characterization of laser-driven shock waves in solids using a fiber optic pressure probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranch, Geoffrey A; Lunsford, Robert; Grün, Jacob; Weaver, James; Compton, Steve; May, Mark; Kostinski, Natalie

    2013-11-10

    Measurement of laser-driven shock wave pressure in solid blocks of polymethyl methacrylate is demonstrated using fiber optic pressure probes. Three probes based on a fiber Fabry-Perot, fiber Bragg grating, and interferometric fiber tip sensor are tested and compared. Shock waves are generated using a high-power laser focused onto a thin foil target placed in close proximity to the test blocks. The fiber Fabry-Perot sensor appears capable of resolving the shock front with a rise time of 91 ns. The peak pressure is estimated, using a separate shadowgraphy measurement, to be 3.4 GPa.

  6. Prospective Randomized Trial of the Military Anti-Shock Garment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-20

    since 1907. Aviators during World War II used antigravity suits ("G suits") to prevent blackout during negative acceleration (eyes in) situations...effects of medical anti-shock trousers (MAST garment). J Trauma 21:931, 1981. 51. Gardner WJ: The antigravity suit (G-Suit) in surgery. JAMA 162:274...1956. 52. Gardner WJ: Acute blood loss requiring 58 transfusions - use of antigravity suite as aid in postpartum intra-abdominal bleeding. JAMA 167

  7. Molecular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of septic shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Bojórquez, Lucia Nikolaia; Dehesa, Alejandro Zentella; Reyes-Terán, Gustavo

    2004-01-01

    Pathogenesis of the development of sepsis is highly complex and has been the object of study for many years. The inflammatory phenomena underlying septic shock are described in this review, as well as the enzymes and genes involved in the cellular activation that precedes this condition. The most important molecular aspects are discussed, ranging from the cytokines involved and their respective transduction pathways to the cellular mechanisms related to accelerated catabolism and multi-organic failure.

  8. Capacitive MEMS accelerometers for measuring high-g accelerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baginsky, I. L.; Kostsov, E. G.

    2017-05-01

    A possibility of creating a capacitive accelerometer for measuring high- g accelerations (up to 106 g and higher) is discussed. It is demonstrated that insertion of a thin electret film with a high surface potential into the gap between the electrodes ensures significant expansion of the frequency and amplitude ranges of acceleration measurements, whereas the size of the proposed device is smaller than that of available MEMS accelerometers for measuring high- g accelerations. A mathematical model of an electret accelerometer for high- g accelerations is developed, and the main specific features of accelerometer operation are analyzed.

  9. Superdiffusion of relativistic electrons at supernova remnant shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perri, Silvia

    2018-01-01

    Anomalous transport has been observed in various systems as nonlinear systems, numerical simulations of plasma turbulence, in laboratory plasmas, and recently in the propagation of energetic particles in the interplanetary space. Thanks to in situ observations it has been possible to deduce transport properties directly from spacecraft data. This technique has further found applicability to remote observations of relativistic electrons accelerated at supernova remnants (SNRs) shocks, pointing out that far upstream of the blast waves, the x-ray synchrotron emission, as captured by the Chandra spacecraft, is consistent with models of superdiffusive transport (i.e., transport faster than normal diffusive). Here we present and summarize evidences of superdiffusion both in the interplanetary space and upstream of SNRs shock fronts, in particular by analyzing, for the first time in the framework of superdiffusion, the transport properties of electrons accelerated at the young G1.9+0.3 SNR. We also briefly describe how this new model can be used to interpret radio emissions from electrons accelerated at shocks forming during galaxy cluster mergers.

  10. Calibration of PCB-132 Sensors in a Shock Tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berridge, Dennis C.; Schneider, Steven P.

    2012-01-01

    While PCB-132 sensors have proven useful for measuring second-mode instability waves in many hypersonic wind tunnels, they are currently limited by their calibration. Until now, the factory calibration has been all that was available, which is a single-point calibration at an amplitude three orders of magnitude higher than a second-mode wave. In addition, little information has been available about the frequency response or spatial resolution of the sensors, which is important for measuring high-frequency instability waves. These shortcomings make it difficult to compare measurements at different conditions and between different sensors. If accurate quantitative measurements could be performed, comparisons of the growth and breakdown of instability waves could be made in different facilities, possibly leading to a method of predicting the amplitude at which the waves break down into turbulence, improving transition prediction. A method for calibrating the sensors is proposed using a newly-built shock tube at Purdue University. This shock tube, essentially a half-scale version of the 6-Inch shock tube at the Graduate Aerospace Laboratories at Caltech, has been designed to attain a moderate vacuum in the driven section. Low driven pressures should allow the creation of very weak, yet still relatively thin shock waves. It is expected that static pressure rises within the range of second-mode amplitudes should be possible. The shock tube has been designed to create clean, planar shock waves with a laminar boundary layer to allow for accurate calibrations. Stronger shock waves can be used to identify the frequency response of the sensors out to hundreds of kilohertz.

  11. Quasiperpendicular high Mach number Shocks

    CERN Document Server

    Sulaiman, A H; Dougherty, M K; Burgess, D; Fujimoto, M; Hospodarsky, G B

    2015-01-01

    Shock waves exist throughout the universe and are fundamental to understanding the nature of collisionless plasmas. Reformation is a process, driven by microphysics, which typically occurs at high Mach number supercritical shocks. While ongoing studies have investigated this process extensively both theoretically and via simulations, their observations remain few and far between. In this letter we present a study of very high Mach number shocks in a parameter space that has been poorly explored and we identify reformation using in situ magnetic field observations from the Cassini spacecraft at 10 AU. This has given us an insight into quasi-perpendicular shocks across two orders of magnitude in Alfven Mach number (MA) which could potentially bridge the gap between modest terrestrial shocks and more exotic astrophysical shocks. For the first time, we show evidence for cyclic reformation controlled by specular ion reflection occurring at the predicted timescale of ~0.3 {\\tau}c, where {\\tau}c is the ion gyroperio...

  12. In situ wave phenomena in the upstream and downstream regions of interplanetary shocks: Implications for type 2 burst theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thejappa, G.; MacDowall, R. J.; Vinas, A. F.

    1997-01-01

    The results are presented of in situ waves observed by the Ulyssess unified radio and plasma wave experiment (URAP) in the upstream and downstream regions of a large number of interplanetary shocks. The Langmuir waves which are the most essential ingredients for the type 2 radio emission are observed only in the upstream regions of a limited number of shocks. On the other hand, the ion-acoustic-like waves (0.5 to 5 kHz) are observed near most of the interplanetary shocks. Implications of observations made for the electron acceleration mechanisms at the collisionless shocks and for type 2 burst theories are presented.

  13. Interaction of the interplanetary shock and tangential discontinuity in the solar wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncharov, Oleksandr; Koval, Andriy; Safrankova, Jana; Nemecek, Zdenek; Prech, Lubomir; Szabo, Adam; Zastenker, Georgy N.

    2017-04-01

    Collisionless shocks play a significant role in the solar wind interaction with the Earth. Fast forward interplanetary (IP) shocks driven by coronal mass ejections or by interaction of fast and slow solar wind streams can be encountered in the interplanetary space, while the bow shock is a standing fast reverse shock formed by the interaction of the supersonic solar wind with Earth's magnetic field. Both types of shocks are responsible for a transformation of a part of the energy of the directed solar wind motion to plasma heating and to acceleration of reflected particles to high energies. It is well known that the interaction of tangential discontinuities with the bow shock can create hot flow anomalies but interactions between IP shocks and tangential discontinuities in the solar wind are studied to a lesser extent due to lack of observations. A fortunate position of many spacecraft (Wind, ACE, DSCOVR, THEMIS, Spektr-R) on June 22, 2015 allows us detailed observations of an IP shock modification due to this interaction. We present an analysis of the event supported with MHD modeling that reveals basic features of the observed IP shock ramp splitting. However, a good matching of modeling and observations was found for DSCOVR and Spektr-R located above the ecliptic plane, whereas a timing of observations below this plane demonstrates problems of modeling of highly inclined discontinuities.

  14. Advances in targetry with thin diamond-like carbon foils

    CERN Document Server

    Liechtenstein, V K; Olshanski, E D; Repnow, R; Levin, J; Hellborg, R; Persson, P; Schenkel, T

    2002-01-01

    Thin and stable diamond-like carbon (DLC) foils, which were fabricated at the Kurchatov Institute by sputter deposition, have proved recently to be advantageous for stripping and secondary electron timing of high energy heavy ions in a number of accelerator experiments. This resulted in expanding applications of these DLC foils which necessitated further development efforts directed toward the following applications of DLC targetry: (i) thin stripper foils for lower energy tandem accelerators, (ii) enlarged (up to 66 mm in diameter) stop foils for improved time-of-flight elastic recoil detection ion beam analysis, and (iii) ultra-thin (about 0.6 mu g/cm sup 2) DLC foils for some fundamental and applied physics experiments. Along with the fabrication of thin DLC stripper foils for tandem accelerators, much thicker (up to 200 mu g/cm sup 2) foils for post-stripping of heavy-ion beams in higher energy linacs, are within reach.

  15. Generation and Evolution of High-Mach Number, Laser-Driven Magnetized Collisionless Shocks in the Laboratory

    CERN Document Server

    Schaeffer, Derek; Haberberger, Dan; Fiksel, Gennady; Bhattacharjee, Amitava; Barnak, Daniel; Hu, Suxing; Germaschewski, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Shocks act to convert incoming supersonic flows to heat, and in collisionless plasmas the shock layer forms on kinetic plasma scales through collective electromagnetic effects. These collisionless shocks have been observed in many space and astrophysical systems [Smith 1975, Smith 1980, Burlaga 2008, Sulaiman 2015], and are believed to accelerate particles, including cosmic rays, to extremely high energies [Kazanas 1986, Loeb 2000, Bamba 2003, Masters 2013, Ackermann 2013]. Of particular importance are the class of high-Mach number, supercritical shocks [Balogh 2013] ($M_A\\gtrsim4$), which must reflect significant numbers of particles back into the upstream to accommodate entropy production, and in doing so seed proposed particle acceleration mechanisms [Blandford 1978, McClements 2001, Caprioli 2014, Matsumoto 2015]. Here we present the first laboratory generation of high-Mach number magnetized collisionless shocks created through the interaction of an expanding laser-driven plasma with a magnetized ambient ...

  16. Simulation and Design of High-Speed Hydraulic Velocity Generator in Shock Test Machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tae Hyeong; Shul, Chang Won; Kim, Yoon Jae; Yang, Myung Seog [Agency for Defense Development, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Gyu Sub [RMS Technology Corp., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-15

    Mechanical and electrical devices in various forms are used in many different fields. These can be exposed to external environmental factors such as shock. Therefore, a shock test machine is commonly used to test these devices and evaluate their shock resistance. In this test, the break-down or permanent deformation and malfunction of inner parts due to a high stress or acceleration can be evaluated. As part of a shock test machine, a velocity generator is needed to create shocks between objects. In this study, a hydraulic velocity generator was conceptually designed and an AMESim model was developed to simulate the velocity under different conditions. Simulation results using this model were compared with the test results from a reduced-size velocity generator, and we designed a velocity generator that fits the target payload and velocity using the simulation results.

  17. Management of Refractory Vasodilatory Shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jentzer, Jacob C; Vallabhajosyula, Saraschandra; Khanna, Ashish K; Chawla, Lakhmir S; Busse, Laurence W; Kashani, Kianoush B

    2018-01-09

    Refractory shock is a lethal manifestation of cardiovascular failure defined by an inadequate hemodynamic response to high doses of vasopressor medications. Approximately 7% of critically ill patients will develop refractory shock, with short-term mortality exceeding 50%. Refractory vasodilatory shock develops from uncontrolled vasodilation and vascular hyporesponsiveness to endogenous vasoconstrictors, causing failure of physiologic vasoregulatory mechanisms. Standard approaches to the initial management of shock include fluid resuscitation and initiation of norepinephrine. When these measures are inadequate to restore BP, vasopressin or epinephrine can be added. Few randomized studies exist to guide clinical management and hemodynamic stabilization in patients who do not respond to this standard approach. Adjunctive therapies, such as hydrocortisone, thiamine, and ascorbic acid, may increase BP in severe shock and should be considered when combination vasopressor therapy is needed. Novel vasopressor agents, such as synthetic human angiotensin II, can increase BP and reduce the need for high doses of catecholamine vasopressors in severe or refractory vasodilatory shock. Few effective rescue therapies exist for established refractory shock, which emphasizes the importance of aggressive intervention before refractory shock develops, including the earlier initiation of rational combination vasopressor therapy. The present review discusses the diagnosis and management of refractory shock to offer guidance for management of this important clinical problem and to provide a framework for future research. Copyright © 2018 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Shock structure in classical magnetohydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennel, Charles F.

    1988-01-01

    How the structure of coplanar MHD fast and slow shocks depends upon the relative magnitudes of the dissipation coefficients contained in classical magnetohydrodynamics is examined. An asymptotic method is used in which the scale lengths for resistivity, thermal conduction, and viscosity are widely separated, and the qualitative dependence of the shock solutions upon the ordering of the scales is studied. Upper limit Mach numbers for both fast and slow shocks are defined at which resistivity and thermal conduction taken together can provide all the shock dissipation and at which viscosity is not needed.

  19. Shock Wave Energy Dissipation by Metal-Organic Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xuan; Miao, Yurun; Banlusan, Kiettipong; Shaw, William; Strachan, Alejandro; Suslick, Kenneth; Dlott, Dana

    2017-06-01

    Metal-organic framework (MOF) such as ZIF-8 and UiO-66 show promising shock energy dissipation abilities through mechano-chemical reactions including bond breaking and pore collapse. In this work, we performed quantitative measurements on the shock wave energy attenuated by MOF films using a laser-driven flyer-plate apparatus. Aluminum flyer plates of 75-um thick were accelerated to speeds up to 2.0 km/s by a flat-top pulsed laser to impact the MOF film. The MOF layer was coated on a 200-nm thick gold mirror, which was deposited previously on glass substrate. Photonic Doppler velocimetry (PDV) was used to track the motions of the gold mirror, which can be converted to the energy flux and fluence of the shock wave that transmitted through the MOF layer. We deduced the shock energy that was attenuated by the MOF film by comparing the transmitted energy flux/fluence obtained with and without the presence of the MOF layer. A two-wave-shaped flux-time curve was obtained with the MOF layer because of its nanoporous structure. Studies on the shock wave energy attenuation by ZIF-8 and UiO-66 were carried out under various flyer speeds and sample thicknesses. We used in situ emission spectroscopy to verify that pore collapse was accompanied by chemical bond breakage. Corresponding author:dlott@illinois.edu.

  20. Effects of low-dose extracorporeal shock waves on microcirculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaled, Walaa; Goertz, Ole; Lauer, Henrik; Lehnhardt, Marcus; Hauser, Jörg

    2012-11-01

    The extended wounds of burn patients remain a challenge due to wound infection and following septicemia. The aim of this study was to analyze microcirculation, angiogenesis and leukocyte endothelium interaction after burn injury with and without extracorporeal shock wave application (ESWA). A novel shockwave system was developed based on a commercially available device for orthopedics (Dornier Aries®) that was equipped with a newly developed applicator. This system is based on the electromagnetic shock wave emitter (EMSE) technology and was introduced to accomplish a localized treatment for wound healing. The system includes a novel field of focus for new applications, with high precision and ease of use. In the animal study, full-thickness burns were inflicted on to the ears of hairless mice (n=51). Intravital fluorescent microscopy was used to assess microcirculatory parameters, angiogenesis and leukocyte behavior. ESWA was performed on day 1, 3 and 7. Values were obtained immediately after burn, as well as at days 1, 3, 7, and 12 post burn. All shockwave treated groups showed an accelerated angiogenesis with a less non-perfused area and an improved blood flow after burn injury compared to the placebo control group. After three treatments, the shock waves increased the number of rolling leukocytes significantly compared to the non-treated animals. Shock waves seem to have a positive effect on several parameters of wound healing after burn injury. However, further investigations are necessary to detect positive influence of shock waves on microcirculation after burn injuries.

  1. ShockWave science and technology reference library

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    This book is the first of several volumes on solids in the Shock Wave Science and Technology Reference Library. These volumes are primarily concerned with high-pressure shock waves in solid media, including detonation, high-velocity impact, and penetration. Of the eight chapters in this volume three chapters survey recent, exciting experimental advances in - ultra-short shock dynamics at the atomic and molecular scale (D.S. More, S.D. Mcgrane, and D.J. Funk), - Z accelerator for ICE and Shock compression (M.D. Knudson), and - failure waves in glass and ceramics (S.J. Bless and N.S. Brar). The subsequent four chapters are foundational, and cover the subjects of - equation of state (R. Menikoff), - elastic-plastic shock waves (R. Menikoff), - continuum plasticity (R. M. Brannon), and - numerical methods (D. J. Benson). The last chapter, but not the least, describes a tour de force illustration of today’s computing power in - modeling heterogeneous reactive solids at the grain scale (M.R. Baer). All chapters a...

  2. [Safty action of heat shock protein 27 in reperfusion after spinal marrow ischemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian-Ping; Guo, Wen-Rong; Lin, Guo-Bing

    2012-10-01

    Heat shock protein 27 belongs to the heat shock protein family in the small molecular weight family. This review collected a number of literature to analyze the expression meaning and mechanism of HSP27,expounded HSP27 with inhibition of NO production, maintenance of cell protein stability and accelerated cell damage repair function. At the same time, HSP27 also has a resistance to apoptosis, protecting mitochondria, inhibiting activation of nuclear factor and other related functions. The heat shock protein 27 has protection in spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion.

  3. Early Treatment in Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    Shock 8 RBC membranes.(5) After cooling, 1.0 ml water and 1.0 ml hexane containing 50 mg/L 1 butylated hydroxytoulene (BHT, an antioxidant, Sigma...LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON USAMRC U a. REPORT b. ABSTRACT U U c. THIS PAGE UU 50 19b. TELEPHONE...use of DHEA , but studies in our laboratories have failed to show a useful effect (6). Studies with omega-3 fatty acids have shown promise, but are

  4. A Shocking Solar Nebula?

    OpenAIRE

    Liffman, Kurt

    2009-01-01

    It has been suggested that shock waves in the solar nebula formed the high temperature materials observed in meteorites and comets. It is shown that the temperatures at the inner rim of the solar nebula could have been high enough over a sufficient length of time to produce chondrules, CAIs, refractory dust grains and other high-temperature materials observed in comets and meteorites. The solar bipolar jet flow may have produced an enrichment of 16O in the solar nebula over time and the chond...

  5. A shocking experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory S. Berns

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available We study whether probability weighting is observed when individuals are presented with a series of choices between lotteries consisting of real non-monetary adverse outcomes, electric shocks. Our estimation of the parameters of the probability weighting function proposed by Tversky and Kahneman (1992 are similar to those obtained in previous studies of lottery choice for negative monetary payoffs and negative hypothetical payoffs. In addition, common ratio violations in choice behavior are widespread. Our results provide evidence that probability weighting is a general phenomenon, independent of the source of disutility.

  6. 2014 CERN Accelerator Schools: Plasma Wake Acceleration

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    A specialised school on Plasma Wake Acceleration will be held at CERN, Switzerland from 23-29 November, 2014.   This course will be of interest to staff and students in accelerator laboratories, university departments and companies working in or having an interest in the field of new acceleration techniques. Following introductory lectures on plasma and laser physics, the course will cover the different components of a plasma wake accelerator and plasma beam systems. An overview of the experimental studies, diagnostic tools and state of the art wake acceleration facilities, both present and planned, will complement the theoretical part. Topical seminars and a visit of CERN will complete the programme. Further information can be found at: http://cas.web.cern.ch/cas/PlasmaWake2014/CERN-advert.html http://indico.cern.ch/event/285444/

  7. Characterization for the performance of capacitive switches activated by mechanical shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younis, Mohammad I.; Alsaleem, Fadi M; Miles, Ronald; Su, Quang

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents experimental and theoretical investigation of a new concept of switches (triggers) that are actuated at or beyond a specific level of mechanical shock or acceleration. The principle of operation of the switches is based on dynamic pull-in instability induced by the combined interaction between electrostatic and mechanical shock forces. These switches can be tuned to be activated at various shock and acceleration thresholds by adjusting the DC voltage bias. Two commercial off-the-shelf capacitive accelerometers operating in air are tested under mechanical shock and electrostatic loading. A single-degree-of-freedom model accounting for squeeze-film damping, electrostatic forces, and mechanical shock is utilized for the theoretical investigation. Good agreement is found between simulation results and experimental data. Our results indicate that designing these new switches to respond quasi-statically to mechanical shock makes them robust against variations in shock shape and duration. More importantly, quasi-static operation makes the switches insensitive to variations in damping conditions. This can be promising to lower the cost of packaging for these switches since they can operate in atmospheric pressure with no hermetic sealing or costly package required. PMID:21720493

  8. Simulation of Relativistic Shocks and Associated Self-Consistent Radiation for GRB Prompt Emission and Afterglows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, Ken-Ichi; Niemiec, J.; Medvedev, M.; Zhang, B.; Hardee, P.; Mizuno, Y.; Nordlund, A.; Frederiksen, J.; Sol, H.; Pohl, M.; hide

    2010-01-01

    Plasma instabilities excited in collisionless shocks are responsible for particle acceleration. We have investigated the particle acceleration and shock structure associated with an unmagnetized relativistic electron-positron jet propagating into an unmagnetized electron-positron plasma. Cold jet electrons are thermalized and slowed while the ambient electrons are swept up to create a partially developed hydrodynamic-like shock structure. In the leading shock, electron density increases by a factor of about 3.5 in the simulation frame. Strong electromagnetic fields are generated in the trailing shock and provide an emission site. This simulation corresponds to a case for gamma-ray burst afterglows. We will simulate colliding shells as an internal shock model for prompt emission. Turbulent magnetic fields generated by a slower shell will be collided by a faster shell. These magnetic fields contribute to the electron s transverse deflection behind the shock. We calculate the radiation from deflected electrons in the turbulent magnetic fields. The properties of this radiation may be important to understanding the complex time evolution and/or spectral structure in gamma-ray bursts

  9. High Energy Particle Accelerators

    CERN Multimedia

    Audio Productions, Inc, New York

    1960-01-01

    Film about the different particle accelerators in the US. Nuclear research in the US has developed into a broad and well-balanced program.Tour of accelerator installations, accelerator development work now in progress and a number of typical experiments with high energy particles. Brookhaven, Cosmotron. Univ. Calif. Berkeley, Bevatron. Anti-proton experiment. Negative k meson experiment. Bubble chambers. A section on an electron accelerator. Projection of new accelerators. Princeton/Penn. build proton synchrotron. Argonne National Lab. Brookhaven, PS construction. Cambridge Electron Accelerator; Harvard/MIT. SLAC studying a linear accelerator. Other research at Madison, Wisconsin, Fixed Field Alternate Gradient Focusing. (FFAG) Oakridge, Tenn., cyclotron. Two-beam machine. Comments : Interesting overview of high energy particle accelerators installations in the US in these early years. .

  10. Improved plasma accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, D. Y.

    1971-01-01

    Converging, coaxial accelerator electrode configuration operates in vacuum as plasma gun. Plasma forms by periodic injections of high pressure gas that is ionized by electrical discharges. Deflagration mode of discharge provides acceleration, and converging contours of plasma gun provide focusing.

  11. In Situ Ellipsometry for Shock Compression Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakshi, L.; Eliezer, S.; Appelbaum, G.; Nissim, N.; Perelmutter, L.; Mond, M.

    2009-12-01

    Knowledge about the optical properties of materials at high pressure and high temperature is needed for EOS research. Ellipsometry measures the change in the polarization of a probe beam reflected from a surface. From the change in polarization, the real and imaginary parts of the time dependent complex index of refraction can be extracted. From the measured optical properties, fundamental physical properties of the material, such as emissivity, phase transitions, and electrical conductivity can be extracted. A dynamic ellipsometry measurement system with nanosecond resolution was built in order to measure all four stocks parameters. Gas gun was used to accelerate the impact flyer. Our experiments concentrated on the optical properties of 1020 steel targets with impact pressure range of 40-250 kbar. Although there are intrinsic difficulties with dynamic ellipsometric measurements, distinct changes were observed for 1020 steel under shock compression larger than 130 kbar, the α→ɛ phase transition.

  12. 30th International Symposium on Shock Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Sadot, Oren; Igra, Ozer

    2017-01-01

    These proceedings collect the papers presented at the 30th International Symposium on Shock Waves (ISSW30), which was held in Tel-Aviv Israel from July 19 to July 24, 2015. The Symposium was organized by Ortra Ltd. The ISSW30 focused on the state of knowledge of the following areas: Nozzle Flow, Supersonic and Hypersonic Flows with Shocks, Supersonic Jets, Chemical Kinetics, Chemical Reacting Flows, Detonation, Combustion, Ignition, Shock Wave Reflection and Interaction, Shock Wave Interaction with Obstacles, Shock Wave Interaction with Porous Media, Shock Wave Interaction with Granular Media, Shock Wave Interaction with Dusty Media, Plasma, Magnetohyrdrodynamics, Re-entry to Earth Atmosphere, Shock Waves in Rarefied Gases, Shock Waves in Condensed Matter (Solids and Liquids), Shock Waves in Dense Gases, Shock Wave Focusing, Richtmyer-Meshkov Instability, Shock Boundary Layer Interaction, Multiphase Flow, Blast Waves, Facilities, Flow Visualization, and Numerical Methods. The two volumes serve as a reference ...

  13. Shock in the emergency department

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holler, Jon Gitz; Henriksen, Daniel Pilsgaard; Mikkelsen, Søren

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The knowledge of the frequency and associated mortality of shock in the emergency department (ED) is limited. The aim of this study was to describe the incidence, all-cause mortality and factors associated with death among patients suffering shock in the ED. METHODS: Population...

  14. EXTRACORPOREAL SHOCK WAVE LITHOTRIPSY AS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2, 2002. 87-93. EXTRACORPOREAL SHOCK WAVE LITHOTRIPSY AS. MONOTHERAPY FOR STONES IN SOLITARY KIDNEY. K. MADBOULY, E. ELSOBKY, K.Z. SHEIR, l. ERAKY AND M. KENAWY. Urology and Nephrology Center, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt. Objective To evaluate extracorporeal shock.

  15. The Northern Rims of SNR RCW 86 Chandras Recent Observations and their Implications for Particle Acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    The Chandra observations towards the northwest (NW) and northeast (NE) rims of supernova remnant (SNR) RCW 86 reveal great detail about the characteristics of the shocks, particle acceleration and the local environments in these 2 distinct regions. Both the NW and NE of RCW 86 show clear evidence of non-thermal X-ray emission, identified as synchrotron radiation from shock-accelerated electrons with TeV energies, interacting with the compressed, and probably amplified, local magnetic field.Magnetic field amplification (MFA) is broadly believed to result from, and contribute to, cosmic ray acceleration at the shocks of SNRs. However, we still lack a detailed understanding of the particle acceleration mechanism, and with this study we address the connection between the shock properties and ambient medium with MFA. The Chandra observations of RCW 86 allowed us to constrain the magnitude of the post- shock magnetic field in the NE and NW rims by deriving synchrotron filament widths, and also the densities in these regions, using thermal emission co-located with the non-thermal rims. I will discuss our analysis in detail and comment on how MFA appears to be related to certain characteristics of the SNR shock.

  16. The Northern Rims of SNR RCW 86 - Chandra's Recent Observations and their Implications for Particle Acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Daniel

    2017-08-01

    The Chandra observations towards the northwest (NW) and northeast (NE) rims of supernova remnant (SNR) RCW 86 reveal great detail about the characteristics of the shocks, particle acceleration and the local environments in these 2 distinct regions. Both the NW and NE of RCW 86 show clear evidence of non-thermal X-ray emission, identified as synchrotron radiation from shock-accelerated electrons with TeV energies, interacting with the compressed, and probably amplified, local magnetic field. Magnetic field amplification (MFA) is broadly believed to result from, and contribute to, cosmic ray acceleration at the shocks of SNRs. However, we still lack a detailed understanding of the particle acceleration mechanism, and with this study we address the connection between the shock properties and ambient medium with MFA. The Chandra observations of RCW 86 allowed us to constrain the magnitude of the post-shock magnetic field in the NE and NW rims by deriving synchrotron filament widths, and also the densities in these regions, using thermal emission co-located with the non-thermal rims. I will discuss our analysis in detail and comment on how MFA appears to be related to certain characteristics of the SNR shock.

  17. The CERN Accelerator School

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Introduction to accelerator physics The CERN Accelerator School: Introduction to Accelerator Physics, which should have taken place in Istanbul, Turkey, later this year has now been relocated to Budapest, Hungary.  Further details regarding the new hotel and dates will be made available as soon as possible on a new Indico site at the end of May.

  18. Accelerators and Dinosaurs

    CERN Multimedia

    Turner, Michael Stanley

    2003-01-01

    Using naturally occuring particles on which to research might have made accelerators become extinct. But in fact, results from astrophysics have made accelerator physics even more important. Not only are accelerators used in hospitals but they are also being used to understand nature's inner workings by searching for Higgs bosons, CP violation, neutrino mass and dark matter (2 pages)

  19. Nonparametric Regression with Common Shocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo A. Souza-Rodrigues

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers a nonparametric regression model for cross-sectional data in the presence of common shocks. Common shocks are allowed to be very general in nature; they do not need to be finite dimensional with a known (small number of factors. I investigate the properties of the Nadaraya-Watson kernel estimator and determine how general the common shocks can be while still obtaining meaningful kernel estimates. Restrictions on the common shocks are necessary because kernel estimators typically manipulate conditional densities, and conditional densities do not necessarily exist in the present case. By appealing to disintegration theory, I provide sufficient conditions for the existence of such conditional densities and show that the estimator converges in probability to the Kolmogorov conditional expectation given the sigma-field generated by the common shocks. I also establish the rate of convergence and the asymptotic distribution of the kernel estimator.

  20. Oscillating nonlinear acoustic shock waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaididei, Yuri; Rasmussen, Anders Rønne; Christiansen, Peter Leth

    2016-01-01

    We investigate oscillating shock waves in a tube using a higher order weakly nonlinear acoustic model. The model includes thermoviscous effects and is non isentropic. The oscillating shock waves are generated at one end of the tube by a sinusoidal driver. Numerical simulations show...... that at resonance a stationary state arise consisting of multiple oscillating shock waves. Off resonance driving leads to a nearly linear oscillating ground state but superimposed by bursts of a fast oscillating shock wave. Based on a travelling wave ansatz for the fluid velocity potential with an added 2'nd order...... polynomial in the space and time variables, we find analytical approximations to the observed single shock waves in an infinitely long tube. Using perturbation theory for the driven acoustic system approximative analytical solutions for the off resonant case are determined....

  1. Shock waves in polycrystalline iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadau, Kai; Germann, Timothy C; Lomdahl, Peter S; Albers, Robert C; Wark, Justin S; Higginbotham, Andrew; Holian, Brad Lee

    2007-03-30

    The propagation of shock waves through polycrystalline iron is explored by large-scale atomistic simulations. For large enough shock strengths the passage of the wave causes the body-centered-cubic phase to transform into a close-packed phase with most structure being isotropic hexagonal-close-packed (hcp) and, depending on shock strength and grain orientation, some fraction of face-centered-cubic (fcc) structure. The simulated shock Hugoniot is compared to experiments. By calculating the extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) directly from the atomic configurations, a comparison to experimental EXAFS measurements of nanosecond-laser shocks shows that the experimental data is consistent with such a phase transformation. However, the atomistically simulated EXAFS spectra also show that an experimental distinction between the hcp or fcc phase is not possible based on the spectra alone.

  2. Enhancing proton acceleration by using composite targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulanov, S. S.; Esarey, E.; Schroeder, C. B.; Bulanov, S. V.; Esirkepov, T. Zh.; Kando, M.; Pegoraro, F.; Leemans, W. P.

    2015-07-10

    Efficient laser ion acceleration requires high laser intensities, which can only be obtained by tightly focusing laser radiation. In the radiation pressure acceleration regime, where the tightly focused laser driver leads to the appearance of the fundamental limit for the maximum attainable ion energy, this limit corresponds to the laser pulse group velocity as well as to another limit connected with the transverse expansion of the accelerated foil and consequent onset of the foil transparency. These limits can be relaxed by using composite targets, consisting of a thin foil followed by a near critical density slab. Such targets provide guiding of a laser pulse inside a self-generated channel and background electrons, being snowplowed by the pulse, compensate for the transverse expansion. The use of composite targets results in a significant increase in maximum ion energy, compared to a single foil target case.

  3. Nanostructured targets for TNSA laser ion acceleration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torrisi Lorenzo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Nanostructured targets, based on hydrogenated polymers with embedded nanostructures, were prepared as thin micrometric foils for high-intensity laser irradiation in TNSA regime to produce high-ion acceleration. Experiments were performed at the PALS facility, in Prague, by using 1315 nm wavelength, 300 ps pulse duration and an intensity of 1016 W/cm2 and at the IPPLM, in Warsaw, by using 800 nm wavelength, 40 fs pulse duration, and an intensity of 1019 W/cm2. Forward plasma diagnostic mainly uses SiC detectors and ion collectors in time of flight (TOF configuration. At these intensities, ions can be accelerated at energies above 1 MeV per nucleon. In presence of Au nanoparticles, and/or under particular irradiation conditions, effects of resonant absorption can induce ion acceleration enhancement up to values of the order of 4 MeV per nucleon.

  4. Comparison of Shock Response Spectrum for Different Gun Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. Cordes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Soft Catch Gun at Picatinny Arsenal is regularly used for component testing. Most shots contain accelerometers which record accelerations as a function of time. Statistics of accelerometer data indicate that the muzzle exit accelerations are, on average, higher than tactical firings. For that reason, Soft Catch Gun tests with unusually high accelerations may not be scored for Lot Acceptance Tests (LAT by some customers. The 95/50 Normal Tolerance Limit (NTL is proposed as a means of determining which test results should be scored. This paper presents comparisons of Shock Response Spectra (SRS used for the 95/50 scoring criteria. The paper also provides a Discussion Section outlining some concerns with scoring LAT results based on test results outside of the proposed 95/50 criteria.

  5. Stochastic acceleration and magnetic damping in Tycho's SNR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Alina; Telezhinsky, Igor; Dwarkadas, Vikram; Pohl, Martin

    2016-06-01

    Tycho's Supernova remnant (SNR) is also known as historical Supernova SN 1572 of Type Ia. Having exploded in a relatively clean environment and with a known age, it represents an ideal astrophysical testbed for the study of cosmic-ray acceleration and related phenomena. A number of studies suggest that shock acceleration with very efficient magnetic-field amplification is needed to explain the rather soft radio spectrum and the narrow rims observed in X-rays. We show that the wideband spectrum of Tycho's SNR can be alternatively well explained when accounting for stochastic acceleration as a secondary process. The re-acceleration of particles in the turbulent region immediately downstream of the shock provided by the fast-mode waves is efficient enough to impact particle spectra over several decades in energy. Our self-consistent model contains hydrodynamic simulations of the SNR plasma flow. The particle spectra are obtained from the time-dependent transport equation and the background magnetic field is computed either from the induction equation or it follows analytic profiles depending on the considered model. Although not as efficient as standard diffusive shock acceleration, stochastic acceleration leaves its imprint on the particle spectra. This is especially notable in the emission at radio wavelengths and soft γ-rays. Excessively strong magnetic fields and the so-called Alfvénic drift are not required in this scenario. The narrow X-ray and radio rims arise from damping of the turbulent magnetic field. We find a lower limit for the downstream magnetic field strength, Bd = 173 µG and investigate the energy-dependence of the X-ray filament width. We conclude that stochastic re-acceleration is an important mechanism for modifying particle and emission spectra in SNR and that the magnetic-field damping should be taken into account to properly explain the synchrotron intensity profiles of Tycho.

  6. The Accelerator Reliability Forum

    CERN Document Server

    Lüdeke, Andreas; Giachino, R

    2014-01-01

    A high reliability is a very important goal for most particle accelerators. The biennial Accelerator Reliability Workshop covers topics related to the design and operation of particle accelerators with a high reliability. In order to optimize the over-all reliability of an accelerator one needs to gather information on the reliability of many different subsystems. While a biennial workshop can serve as a platform for the exchange of such information, the authors aimed to provide a further channel to allow for a more timely communication: the Particle Accelerator Reliability Forum [1]. This contribution will describe the forum and advertise it’s usage in the community.

  7. Shock waves & explosions

    CERN Document Server

    Sachdev, PL

    2004-01-01

    Understanding the causes and effects of explosions is important to experts in a broad range of disciplines, including the military, industrial and environmental research, aeronautic engineering, and applied mathematics. Offering an introductory review of historic research, Shock Waves and Explosions brings analytic and computational methods to a wide audience in a clear and thorough way. Beginning with an overview of the research on combustion and gas dynamics in the 1970s and 1980s, the author brings you up to date by covering modeling techniques and asymptotic and perturbative methods and ending with a chapter on computational methods.Most of the book deals with the mathematical analysis of explosions, but computational results are also included wherever they are available. Historical perspectives are provided on the advent of nonlinear science, as well as on the mathematical study of the blast wave phenomenon, both when visualized as a point explosion and when simulated as the expansion of a high-pressure ...

  8. The Efficiency of Magnetic Field Amplification at Shocks by Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Suoqing; Oh, S. Peng; Ruszkowsi, M.; Markevitch, M.

    2016-01-01

    Turbulent dynamo field amplification has often been invoked to explain the strong field strengths in thin rims in supernova shocks (approx.100 micrograms) and in radio relics in galaxy clusters (approx. micrograms). We present high-resolution magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the interaction between pre-shock turbulence, clumping and shocks, to quantify the conditions under which turbulent dynamo amplification can be significant. We demonstrate numerically converged field amplification which scales with Alfven Mach number, B/B0 varies as MA, up to MA approx.150.This implies that the post-shock field strength is relatively independent of the seed field. Amplification is dominated by compression at low MA, and stretching (turbulent amplification) at high MA. For high MA, the B-field grows exponentially and saturates at equipartition with turbulence, while the vorticity jumps sharply at the shock and subsequently decays; the resulting field is orientated predominately along the shock normal (an effect only apparent in 3D and not 2D). This agrees with the radial field bias seen in supernova remnants. By contrast, for low MA, field amplification is mostly compressional, relatively modest, and results in a predominantly perpendicular field. The latter is consistent with the polarization seen in radio relics. Our results are relatively robust to the assumed level of gas clumping. Our results imply that the turbulent dynamo may be important for supernovae, but is only consistent with the field strength, and not geometry, for cluster radio relics. For the latter, this implies strong pre-existing B-fields in the ambient cluster outskirts.

  9. Kinetic structures of quasi-perpendicular shocks in global particle-in-cell simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Ivy Bo, E-mail: bopeng@kth.se; Markidis, Stefano; Laure, Erwin [KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Johlander, Andreas; Vaivads, Andris; Khotyaintsev, Yuri [Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala (Sweden); Henri, Pierre [LPC2E-CNRS, Orléans (France); Lapenta, Giovanni [Centre for mathematical Plasma-Astrophysics, KU Leuven, Leuven (Belgium)

    2015-09-15

    We carried out global Particle-in-Cell simulations of the interaction between the solar wind and a magnetosphere to study the kinetic collisionless physics in super-critical quasi-perpendicular shocks. After an initial simulation transient, a collisionless bow shock forms as a result of the interaction of the solar wind and a planet magnetic dipole. The shock ramp has a thickness of approximately one ion skin depth and is followed by a trailing wave train in the shock downstream. At the downstream edge of the bow shock, whistler waves propagate along the magnetic field lines and the presence of electron cyclotron waves has been identified. A small part of the solar wind ion population is specularly reflected by the shock while a larger part is deflected and heated by the shock. Solar wind ions and electrons are heated in the perpendicular directions. Ions are accelerated in the perpendicular direction in the trailing wave train region. This work is an initial effort to study the electron and ion kinetic effects developed near the bow shock in a realistic magnetic field configuration.

  10. Industrial Application of Accelerators

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    At CERN, we are very familiar with large, high energy particle accelerators. However, in the world outside CERN, there are more than 35000 accelerators which are used for applications ranging from treating cancer, through making better electronics to removing harmful micro-organisms from food and water. These are responsible for around $0.5T of commerce each year. Almost all are less than 20 MeV and most use accelerator types that are somewhat different from what is at CERN. These lectures will describe some of the most common applications, some of the newer applications in development and the accelerator technology used for them. It will also show examples of where technology developed for particle physics is now being studied for these applications. Rob Edgecock is a Professor of Accelerator Science, with a particular interest in the medical applications of accelerators. He works jointly for the STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory and the International Institute for Accelerator Applications at the Univer...

  11. Industrial Application of Accelerators

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    At CERN, we are very familiar with large, high energy particle accelerators. However, in the world outside CERN, there are more than 35000 accelerators which are used for applications ranging from treating cancer, through making better electronics to removing harmful micro-organisms from food and water. These are responsible for around $0.5T of commerce each year. Almost all are less than 20 MeV and most use accelerator types that are somewhat different from what is at CERN. These lectures will describe some of the most common applications, some of the newer applications in development and the accelerator technology used for them. It will also show examples of where technology developed for particle physics is now being studied for these applications. Rob Edgecock is a Professor of Accelerator Science, with a particular interest in the medical applications of accelerators. He works jointly for the STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory and the International Institute for Accelerator Applications at the Uni...

  12. Single shot ultrafast dynamic ellipsometry (UDE) of laser-driven shocks in single crystal explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitley, Von H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mcgrane, Shawn D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Moore, David S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Eakins, Dan E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bolme, Cindy A [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    We report on the first experiments to measure states in shocked energetic single crystals with dynamic ellipsometry. We demonstrate that these ellipsometric techniques can produce reasonable Hugoniot values using small amounts of crystalline RDX and PETN. Pressures, particle velocities and shock velocities obtained using shocked ellipsometry are comparable to those found using gas-gun flyer plates and molecular dynamics calculations. The adaptation of the technique from uniform thin films of polymers to thick non-perfect crystalline materials was a significant achievement. Correct sample preparation proved to be a crucial component. Through trial and error, we were able to resolve polishing issues, sample quality problems, birefringence effects and mounting difficulties that were not encountered using thin polymer films.

  13. Hemodynamic Analysis of Pediatric Septic Shock and Cardiogenic Shock Using Transpulmonary Thermodilution

    OpenAIRE

    En-Pei Lee; Shao-Hsuan Hsia; Jainn-Jim Lin; Oi-Wa Chan; Jung Lee; Chia-Ying Lin; Han-Ping Wu

    2017-01-01

    Septic shock and cardiogenic shock are the two most common types of shock in children admitted to pediatric intensive care units (PICUs). The aim of the study was to investigate which hemodynamic variables were associated with mortality in children with shock. We retrospectively analyzed 50 children with shock (37 septic shock cases and 13 cardiogenic shock cases) in the PICU and monitored their hemodynamics using transpulmonary thermodilution from 2003 to 2016. Clinical factors were analyzed...

  14. Estimating shock pressures based on high-pressure minerals in shock-induced melt veins of L chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhidong; Sharp, Thomas G.; de Carli, Paul S.

    Here we report the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations of the mineral assemblages and textures in shock-induced melt veins from seven L chondrites of shock stages ranging from S3 to S6. The mineral assemblages combined with phase equilibrium data are used to constrain the crystallization pressures, which can be used to constrain shock pressure in some cases. Thick melt veins in the Tenham L6 chondrite contain majorite and magnesiowüstite in the center, and ringwoodite, akimotoite, vitrified silicate-perovskite, and majorite in the edge of the vein, indicating crystallization pressure of ˜25 GPa. However, very thin melt veins (5-30 μm wide) in Tenham contain glass, olivine, clinopyroxene, and ringwoodite, suggesting crystallization during transient low-pressure excursions as the shock pressure equilibrated to a continuum level. Melt veins of Umbarger include ringwoodite, akimotoite, and clinopyroxene in the vein matrix, and Fe2SiO4-spinel and stishovite in SiO2-FeO-rich melt, indicating a crystallization pressure of ˜18 GPa. The silicate melt veins in Roy contain majorite plus ringwoodite, indicating pressure of ˜20 GPa. Melt veins of Ramsdorf and Nakhon Pathon contain olivine and clinoenstatite, indicating pressure of less than 15 GPa. Melt veins of Kunashak and La Lande include albite and olivine, indicating crystallization at less than 2.5 GPa. Based upon the assemblages observed, crystallization of shock veins can occur before, during, or after pressure release. When the assemblage consists of high-pressure minerals and that assemblage is constant across a larger melt vein or pocket, the crystallization pressure represents the equilibrium shock pressure.

  15. Pediatric cardiogenic shock: Current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhranshu Sekhar Kar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiogenic shock is a pathophysiologic state where an abnormality of cardiac function is responsible for the failure of the cardiovascular system to meet the metabolic needs of the body tissues.Though it is less common than hypovolemia as the primary etiology in paediatric shock, eventually myocardial function is affected because of reduced perfusion in all forms of shock. Myocardial malfunction, in other forms of shock, is secondary to ischemia, acidosis, drugs, toxins or inflammation. Cardiogenic shock is a low output state characterized by elevated filling pressures, neurohormonal activation with the evidence of end-organ hypoperfusion. The management is challenging and consists of a combination of conventional cardio-respiratory support, vasoactive medications with correction of the anatomic cardiac defects. Treatment options like Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and Ventricular assist devices provide a bridge to recovery, surgery or transplant. As cardiogenic shock in children carries a high risk of morbidity and mortality, emphasis should be placed on expedient management to arrest the pathophysiological cascade and avoid hypotension.This article aims to review the aetio-pathophysiological basis of pediatric cardiogenic shock, diagnostic options, recent advances in management modalities and outcome.

  16. Chondrule destruction in nebular shocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacquet, Emmanuel; Thompson, Christopher, E-mail: ejacquet@mnhn.fr [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 60 St George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada)

    2014-12-10

    Chondrules are millimeter-sized silicate spherules ubiquitous in primitive meteorites, but whose origin remains mysterious. One of the main proposed mechanisms for producing them is melting of solids in shock waves in the gaseous protoplanetary disk. However, evidence is mounting that chondrule-forming regions were enriched in solids well above solar abundances. Given the high velocities involved in shock models, destructive collisions would be expected between differently sized grains after passage of the shock front as a result of differential drag. We investigate the probability and outcome of collisions of particles behind a one-dimensional shock using analytic methods as well as a full integration of the coupled mass, momentum, energy, and radiation equations. Destruction of protochondrules seems unavoidable for solid/gas ratios ε ≳ 0.1, and possibly even for solar abundances because of 'sandblasting' by finer dust. A flow with ε ≳ 10 requires much smaller shock velocities (∼2 versus 8 km s{sup –1}) in order to achieve chondrule-melting temperatures, and radiation trapping allows slow cooling of the shocked fragments. Initial destruction would still be extensive; although re-assembly of millimeter-sized particles would naturally occur by grain sticking afterward, the compositional heterogeneity of chondrules may be difficult to reproduce. We finally note that solids passing through small-scale bow shocks around few kilometer-sized planetesimals might experience partial melting and yet escape fragmentation.

  17. Experimental research on dust lifting by propagating shock wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żydak, P.; Oleszczak, P.; Klemens, R.

    2017-03-01

    The aim of the presented work was to study the dust lifting process from a layer of dust behind a propagating shock wave. The experiments were conducted with the use of a shock tube and a specially constructed, five-channel laser optical device enabling measurements at five positions located in one vertical plane along the height of the tube. The system enabled measurements of the delay in lifting up of the dust from the layer, and the vertical velocity of the dust cloud was calculated from the dust concentration measurements. The research was carried out for various initial conditions and for three fractions of black coal dust. In the presented tests, three shock wave velocities: 450, 490 and 518 m/s and three dust layer thicknesses, equal to 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mm, were taken into consideration. On the grounds of the obtained experimental results, it was assumed that the vertical component of the lifted dust velocity is a function of the dust particle diameter, the velocity of the air flow in the channel, the layer thickness and the dust bulk density. It appeared, however, that lifting up of the dust from the thick layers, thicker than 1 mm, is a more complex process than that from thin layers and still requires further research. A possible explanation is that the shock wave action upon the thick layer results in its aggregation in the first stage of the dispersing process, which suppresses the dust lifting process.

  18. 3D numerical modeling of YSO accretion shocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsakos T.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of YSO accretion shocks is determined by radiative processes as well as the strength and structure of the magnetic field. A quasi-periodic emission signature is theoretically expected to be observed, but observations do not confirm any such pattern. In this work, we assume a uniform background field, in the regime of optically thin energy losses, and we study the multi-dimensional shock evolution in the presence of perturbations, i.e. clumps in the stream and an acoustic energy flux flowing at the base of the chromosphere. We perform 3D MHD simulations using the PLUTO code, modelling locally the impact of the infalling gas onto the chromosphere. We find that the structure and dynamics of the post-shock region is strongly dependent on the plasma-beta (thermal over magnetic pressure, different values of which may give distinguishable emission signatures, relevant for observations. In particular, a strong magnetic field effectively confines the plasma inside its flux tubes and leads to the formation of quasi-independent fibrils. The fibrils may oscillate out of phase and hence the sum of their contributions in the emission results in a smooth overall profile. On the contrary, a weak magnetic field is not found to have any significant effect on the shocked plasma and the turbulent hot slab that forms is found to retain its periodic signature.

  19. Radiative shocks create environments for dust formation in classical novae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derdzinski, Andrea M.; Metzger, Brian D.; Lazzati, Davide

    2017-08-01

    Classical novae commonly show evidence of rapid dust formation within months of the outburst. However, it is unclear how molecules and grains are able to condense within the ejecta, given the potentially harsh environment created by ionizing radiation from the white dwarf. Motivated by the evidence for powerful radiative shocks within nova outflows, we propose that dust formation occurs within the cool, dense shell behind these shocks. We incorporate a simple molecular chemistry network and classical nucleation theory with a model for the thermodynamic evolution of the post-shock gas, in order to demonstrate the formation of both carbon and forsterite (Mg2SiO4) grains. The high densities due to radiative shock compression (n ˜ 1014 cm-3) result in CO saturation and rapid dust nucleation. Grains grow efficiently to large sizes ≳ 0.1 μm, in agreement with IR observations of dust-producing novae, and with total dust masses sufficient to explain massive extinction events such as V705 Cas. As in dense stellar winds, dust formation is CO-regulated, with carbon-rich flows producing carbon-rich grains and oxygen-rich flows primarily forming silicates. CO is destroyed by non-thermal particles accelerated at the shock, allowing additional grain formation at late times, but the efficiency of this process appears to be low. Given observations showing that individual novae produce both carbonaceous and silicate grains, we concur with previous works attributing this bimodality to chemical heterogeneity of the ejecta. Nova outflows are diverse and inhomogeneous, and the observed variety of dust formation events can be reconciled by different abundances, the range of shock properties, and the observer viewing angle. The latter may govern the magnitude of extinction, with the deepest extinction events occurring for observers within the binary equatorial plane.

  20. Accelerated testing for studying pavement design and performance (FY 2004) : research summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    The thirteenth full-scale Accelerated Pavement Test (APT) experiment at the Civil Infrastructure Laboratory (CISL) of Kansas State University aimed to determine the response and the failure mode of thin concrete overlays.

  1. Nonthermal Radiation from Supernova Remnant Shocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyesung Kang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Most of high energy cosmic rays (CRs are thought to be produced by diffusive shock acceleration (DSA at supernova remnants (SNRs within the Galaxy. Fortunately, nonthermal emissions from CR protons and electrons can provide direct observational evidence for such a model and place strong constraints on the complex nonlinear plasma processes in DSA theory. In this study we calculate the energy spectra of CR protons and electrons in Type Ia SNRs, using time-dependent DSA simulations that incorporate phenomenological models for some wave-particle interactions. We demonstrate that the timedependent evolution of the self-amplified magnetic fields, Alfvénic drift, and escape of the highest energy particles affect the energy spectra of accelerated protons and electrons, and so resulting nonthermal radiation spectrum. Especially, the spectral cutoffs in X-ray and γ-ray emission spectra are regulated by the evolution of the highest energy particles, which are injected at the early phase of SNRs. Thus detailed understandings of nonlinear wave-particle interactions and time-dependent DSA simulations of SNRs are crucial in testing the SNR hypothesis for the origin of Galactic cosmic rays.

  2. Balmer-dominated shocks in Tycho's SNR: omnipresence of CRs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knežević, Sladjana; Läsker, Ronald; van de Ven, Glenn; Font, Joan; Raymond, John C.; Bailer-Jones, Coryn A. L.; Beckman, John; Morlino, Giovanni; Ghavamian, Parviz; Hughes, John P.; Heng, Kevin

    2017-02-01

    We present wide-field, spatially and highly resolved spectroscopic observations of Balmer filaments in the northeastern rim of Tycho's supernova remnant in order to investigate the signal of cosmic-ray (CR) acceleration. The spectra of Balmer-dominated shocks (BDSs) have characteristic narrow (FWHM ~ 10 km s-1) and broad (FWHM ~ 1000 km s-1) Hα components. CRs affect the Hα-line parameters: heating the cold neutrals in the interstellar medium results in broadening of the narrow Hα-line width beyond 20 km s-1, but also in reduction of the broad Hα-line width due to energy being removed from the protons in the post-shock region. For the first time we show that the width of the narrow Hα line, much larger than 20 km s-1, is not a resolution or geometric effect nor a spurious result of a neglected intermediate (FWHM ~ 100 km s-1) component resulting from hydrogen atoms undergoing charge exchange with warm protons in the broad-neutral precursor. Moreover, we show that a narrow line width >> 20 km s-1 extends across the entire NE rim, implying CR acceleration is ubiquitous, and making it possible to relate its strength to locally varying shock conditions. Finally, we find several locations along the rim, where spectra are significantly better explained (based on Bayesian evidence) by inclusion of the intermediate component, with a width of 180 km s-1 on average.

  3. Cardiogenic shock caused by disulfiram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerónimo, Ana; Meira, Carla; Amaro, Augusta; Campello, Glória Cabral; Granja, Cristina

    2009-03-01

    Drug intoxication with disulfiram is a rare condition that may lead to severe and potentially fatal cardiovascular manifestations such as cardiogenic shock. We report the case of a female patient with refractory shock after deliberate self-poisoning with disulfiram. Clinical, biochemical and echocardiographic assessment, as well as invasive monitoring confirmed cardiogenic shock associated with this drug. The known mechanisms of action of disulfiram are discussed, and the major collateral effects, especially cardiovascular effects, are described. We underscore the importance of suspecting this diagnosis and of adopting prompt and the most adequate therapeutic approach in this context.

  4. Hemorrhagic shock: The "physiology approach"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Giuseppe Bonanno

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A shift of approach from ′clinics trying to fit physiology′ to the one of ′physiology to clinics′, with interpretation of the clinical phenomena from their physiological bases to the tip of the clinical iceberg, and a management exclusively based on modulation of physiology, is finally surging as the safest and most efficacious philosophy in hemorrhagic shock. ATLS® classification and recommendations on hemorrhagic shock are not helpful because antiphysiological and potentially misleading. Hemorrhagic shock needs to be reclassified in the direction of usefulness and timing of intervention: in particular its assessment and management need to be tailored to physiology.

  5. INTERFERENCE OF COUNTERPROPAGATING SHOCK WAVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. Bulat

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The subject of study. We examined the interaction of counterpropagating shock waves. The necessity of counterpropagating shock waves studying occurs at designing of high Mach number modern internal compression air intakes, Ramjets with subsonic and supersonic combustion, in asymmetrical supersonic nozzles and in some other cases. In a sense, this problem is a generalization of the case of an oblique shock reflection from the wall or from the plane of symmetry. With the renewed vigor, the interest to this problem emerged at the end of the 90s. This was due to the start of the programs for flight study at hypersonic speeds. The first experiments performed with air intakes, which realized the interaction of counterpropagating shock waves have shown that the change in flow velocity is accompanied by abrupt alteration of shock-wave structure, the occurrence of nonstationary and oscillatory phenomena. With an increase of flow velocity these phenomena undesirable for aircraft structure became more marked. The reason is that there are two fundamentally different modes of interaction of counterpropagating shock waves: a four-wave regular and a five-wave irregular. The transition from one mode to another can be nonstationary abrupt or gradual, it can also be accompanied by hysteresis. Main results. Criteria for the transition from regular reflection of counterpropagating shock waves to irregular are described: the criterion of von Neumann and the stationary Mach configuration criterion. We described areas in which the transition from one reflection type to another is possible only in abrupt way, as well as areas of possible gradual transition. Intensity dependences of the reflected shock waves from the intensity of interacting counterpropagating shocks were given. Qualitative pictures of shock-wave structures arising from the interaction of counterpropagating shock waves were shown. Calculation results of the intensity of outgoing gas

  6. Shocks in the Early Universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pen, Ue-Li; Turok, Neil

    2016-09-23

    We point out a surprising consequence of the usually assumed initial conditions for cosmological perturbations. Namely, a spectrum of Gaussian, linear, adiabatic, scalar, growing mode perturbations not only creates acoustic oscillations of the kind observed on very large scales today, it also leads to the production of shocks in the radiation fluid of the very early Universe. Shocks cause departures from local thermal equilibrium as well as create vorticity and gravitational waves. For a scale-invariant spectrum and standard model physics, shocks form for temperatures 1  GeVUniverse as early as 10^{-30}  sec after the big bang.

  7. Is this septic shock? A rare case of distributive shock

    OpenAIRE

    Val-Flores,Luis Silva; Fior,Alberto; Santos, Ana; Reis, Lu?s; Bento, Lu?s

    2014-01-01

    The authors report a rare case of shock in a patient without significant clinical history, admitted to the intensive care unit for suspected septic shock. The patient was initially treated with fluid therapy without improvement. A hypothesis of systemic capillary leak syndrome was postulated following the confirmation of severe hypoalbuminemia, hypotension, and hemoconcentration - a combination of three symptoms typical of the disease. The authors discussed the differential diagnosis and also...

  8. Is this septic shock? A rare case of distributive shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Val-Flores, Luis Silva; Fior, Alberto; Santos, Ana; Reis, Luís; Bento, Luís

    2014-01-01

    The authors report a rare case of shock in a patient without significant clinical history, admitted to the intensive care unit for suspected septic shock. The patient was initially treated with fluid therapy without improvement. A hypothesis of systemic capillary leak syndrome was postulated following the confirmation of severe hypoalbuminemia, hypotension, and hemoconcentration--a combination of three symptoms typical of the disease. The authors discussed the differential diagnosis and also conducted a review of the diagnosis and treatment of the disease.

  9. Solar energetic particles: Acceleration and transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliver, Edward W.

    2000-06-01

    This paper reviews highlights of the 26th ICRC in the area of acceleration and propagation of solar energetic particles (SEPs). New results on SEP charge state and composition, a lively topic during the Conference, are covered in an accompanying paper by Klecker. I begin with a brief historical review of the field to provide context for the key advances/developments on SEP acceleration/propagation presented in Salt Lake City. These include: (1) the use of gamma-ray emissions as diagnostics of the acceleration process(es) and probes of the interaction region; (2) the observation of ~10 GeV (or higher) protons for the 6 November 1997 ground level event by the Milagrito experiment; (3) observations of coronal Moreton waves as ``smoking pistols'' of shock acceleration/injection of SEPs; (4) an investigation of the role of proton event spectra in the current ``two-class'' picture of SEP events; (5) an analysis of the Gnevyshev Gap in SEP activity; (6) a Ulysses-based determination of the dependence of SEP mean free path on radial distance from the Sun and on heliographic latitude, and (7) an examination of the dissipation range in the power spectrum of interplanetary magnetic field fluctuations. I conclude with a discussion of new instrumentation (e.g., Milagro, HESSI) and a look to the expected level of SEP activity for the approaching maximum of solar cycle 23. .

  10. Simulation study of magnetic holes at the Earth's collisionless bow shock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliasson, B; Shukla, P K [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik IV, Fakultaet fuer Physik und Astronomie, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Department of Physics, Umeaa University, SE-90187 Umeaa (Sweden)

    2007-06-15

    Recent observations by the Cluster and Double Star spacecraft at the Earth's bow shock have revealed localized magnetic field and density holes in the solar wind plasma. These structures are characterized by a local depletion of the magnetic field and the plasma density, and by a strong increase of the plasma temperature inside the magnetic and density cavities. Our objective here is to report results of a hybrid-Vlasov simulations of ion-Larmor-radius sized plasma density cavities with parameters that are representative of the high-beta solar wind plasma at the Earth's bow shock. We observe the asymmetric self-steepening and shock-formation of the cavity, and a strong localized temperature increase (by a factor of 5-7) of the plasma due to reflections and shock surfing of the ions against the collisionless shock. Temperature maxima are correlated with density minima, in agreement with Cluster observations. For oblique incidence of the solar wind, we observe efficient acceleration of ions along the magnetic field lines by the shock drift acceleration process.

  11. Shock formation in supersonic cluster jets and its effect on axially modulated laser-produced plasma waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, S J; Goers, A J; Hine, G A; Magill, J D; Elle, J A; Chen, Y-H; Milchberg, H M

    2013-07-01

    We examine the generation of axially modulated plasmas produced from cluster jets whose supersonic flow is intersected by thin wires. Such plasmas have application to modulated plasma waveguides. By appropriately limiting shock waves from the wires, plasma axial modulation periods can be as small as 70 μm, with plasma structures as narrow as 45 µm. The effect of shocks is eliminated with increased cluster size accompanied by a reduced monomer component of the flow.

  12. A Multi-wavelength Study of an Isolated MSP Bow Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romani, Roger W.; Slane, Patrick; Green, Andrew

    2017-08-01

    PSR J2124-3358 is the only single MSP known to sport an Halpha bow shock. This shock, now also seen in the UV, encloses an unusual X-ray pulsar wind nebula (PWN) with a long off-axis trail. Combining the X-ray and UV images with AAT/KOALA integral field spectroscopy of the Halpha emission, we have an unusually complete picture of the pulsar's (101 km/s transverse) motion and the latitudinal distribution of its wind flux. These images reveal the 3-D orientation of a hard-spectrum PWN jet and a softer equatorial outflow. Within the context of a thin shock model, we can constrain the total energy output of the pulsar and the neutron star moment of inertia. The IFU spectra show extreme Balmer dominance, which also constrains the nature of the UV shock emission.

  13. Gravitational memory for uniformly accelerated observers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolekar, Sanved; Louko, Jorma

    2017-07-01

    Recently, Hawking, Perry and Strominger described a physical process that implants supertranslational hair on a Schwarzschild black hole by an infalling matter shock wave without spherical symmetry. Using the Bondi-Metzner-Sachs-type symmetries of the Rindler horizon, we present an analogous process that implants supertranslational hair on a Rindler horizon by a matter shock wave without planar symmetry, and we investigate the corresponding memory effect on the Rindler family of uniformly linearly accelerated observers. We assume each observer to remain linearly uniformly accelerated through the wave, in the sense of the curved spacetime generalization of the Letaw-Frenet equations. Starting with a family of observers who follow the orbits of a single boost Killing vector before the wave, we find that after the wave has passed, each observer still follows the orbit of a boost Killing vector but this boost differs from trajectory to trajectory, and the trajectory dependence carries a memory of the planar inhomogeneity of the wave. We anticipate this classical memory phenomenon to have a counterpart in Rindler space quantum field theory.

  14. Simulation of Relativistic Shocks and Associated Radiation from Turbulent Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, K.-I.; Niemiec, J.; Medvedev, M.; Zhang, B.; Hardee, P.; Nordlund, A.; Frederiksen, J.; Mizuno, Y.; Sol, H.; Pohl, M.; hide

    2011-01-01

    Using our new 3-D relativistic particle-in-cell (PIC) code, we investigated long-term particle acceleration associated with a relativistic electron-positron jet propagating in an unmagnetized ambient electron-positron plasma. The simulations were performed using a much longer simulation system than our previous simulations in order to investigate the full nonlinear stage of the Weibel instability and its particle acceleration mechanism. Cold jet electrons are thermalized and ambient electrons are accelerated in the resulting shocks. Acceleration of ambient electrons leads to a maximum ambient electron density three times larger than the original value as predicted by hydrodynamic compression. Behind the bow shock, in the jet shock, strong electromagnetic fields are generated. These fields may lead to time dependent afterglow emission. In order to go beyond the standard synchrotron model used in astrophysical objects we have used PIC simulations and calculated radiation based on first principles. We calculated radiation from electrons propagating in a uniform parallel magnetic field to verify the technique. We also used the technique to calculate emission from electrons based on simulations with a small system. We obtain spectra which are consistent with those generated from electrons propagating in turbulent magnetic fields. This turbulent magnetic field is similar to the magnetic field generated at an early nonlinear stage of the Weibel instability. A fully developed shock within a larger system may generate a jitter/synchrotron spectrum.

  15. Energetic Particle Pressure at Interplanetary Shocks: STEREO-A Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Lario, D; Roelof, E C; Vinas, A -F

    2015-01-01

    We study periods of elevated energetic particle intensities observed by STEREO-A when the partial pressure exerted by energetic ($\\geq$83 keV) protons ($P_{EP}$) is larger than the pressure exerted by the interplanetary magnetic field ($P_{B}$). In the majority of cases, these periods are associated with the passage of interplanetary shocks. Periods when $P_{EP}$ exceeds $P_{B}$ by more than one order of magnitude are observed in the upstream region of fast interplanetary shocks where depressed magnetic field regions coincide with increases of the energetic particle intensities. When solar wind parameters are available, $P_{EP}$ also exceeds the pressure exerted by the solar wind thermal population ($P_{TH}$). Prolonged periods ($>$12 h) with both $P_{EP}$$>$$P_{B}$ and $P_{EP}$$>$$P_{TH}$ may also occur when energetic particles accelerated by an approaching shock encounter a region well-upstream of the shock characterized by low magnetic field magnitude and tenuous solar wind density. Quasi-exponential incre...

  16. Shock-initiated Combustion of a Spherical Density Inhomogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haehn, Nicholas; Oakley, Jason; Rothamer, David; Anderson, Mark; Ranjan, Devesh; Bonazza, Riccardo

    2010-11-01

    A spherical density inhomogeneity is prepared using fuel and oxidizer at a stoichiometric ratio and Xe as a diluent that increases the overall density of the bubble mixture (55% Xe, 30% H2, 15% O2). The experiments are performed in the Wisconsin Shock Tube Laboratory in a 9.2 m vertical shock tube with a 25.4 cm x 25.4 cm square cross-section. An injector is used to generate a 5 cm diameter soap film bubble filled with the combustible mixture. The injector retracts flush into the side of the tube releasing the bubble into a state of free fall. The combustible bubble is accelerated by a planar shock wave in N2 (2.0 temperatures and pressures significantly larger than nominal conditions behind a planar shock wave, resulting in auto-ignition at the focus. Planar Mie scattering and chemiluminescence are used simultaneously to visualize the bubble morphology and combustion characteristics. During the combustion phase, both the span-wise and stream-wise lengths of the bubble are seen to increase compared to the non-combustible scenario. Additionally, smaller instabilities are observed on the upstream surface, which are absent in the non-combustible bubbles.

  17. Comparison of shock-driven reactions in acrylonitrile and acetonitrile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Peter; Dattelbaum, Dana; Sheffield, Stephen

    2017-06-01

    Shock-driven reactions in simple molecules often occur with densification along the reaction coordinate. Acrylonitrile (CH2-CH-CN) and acetonitrile (CH3-CN) are two simple molecules that undergo shock-driven reaction on the principal Hugoniot. Using in situ embedded electromagnetic gauging techniques and the LANL large bore two-stage gas gun, a three-wave structure was observed in acrylonitrile indicating that at least two higher density species are formed. The reaction ``cusp'' or threshold was determined to be 4.8 GPa on the principal Hugoniot, and a series of experiments were performed above this condition to determine the state sensitivities of the reactions. The acceleration in reaction rate with shock input pressure (temperature) was found to be high, with a 5-fold increase in the rate over less than 2 GPa increase in shock input pressure. The global reaction rates were found to be similar to detonating high explosives. Time-resolved Raman spectroscopy was attempted to elucidate reaction species but it was found that the conditions became optically opaque even during the first wave. Acrylonitrile will be compared with acetonitrile, which despite having a similar chemical structure, has a higher reaction threshold. LA-UR-17-21553.

  18. Coping with shocks in rural Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Debebe, Z.Y.; Mebratie, A.; Sparrow, R.; Abebaw, D.; Dekker, M.; Alemu, G.; Bedi, A.S.

    2013-01-01

    Based on household survey data and event history interviews undertaken in a highly shock prone country, this paper investigates which shocks trigger which coping responses and why? We find clear differences in terms of coping strategies across shock types. The two relatively covariate shocks, that

  19. Accelerator and radiation physics

    CERN Document Server

    Basu, Samita; Nandy, Maitreyee

    2013-01-01

    "Accelerator and radiation physics" encompasses radiation shielding design and strategies for hadron therapy accelerators, neutron facilities and laser based accelerators. A fascinating article describes detailed transport theory and its application to radiation transport. Detailed information on planning and design of a very high energy proton accelerator can be obtained from the article on radiological safety of J-PARC. Besides safety for proton accelerators, the book provides information on radiological safety issues for electron synchrotron and prevention and preparedness for radiological emergencies. Different methods for neutron dosimetry including LET based monitoring, time of flight spectrometry, track detectors are documented alongwith newly measured experimental data on radiation interaction with dyes, polymers, bones and other materials. Design of deuteron accelerator, shielding in beam line hutches in synchrotron and 14 MeV neutron generator, various radiation detection methods, their characteriza...

  20. Nonparaxial accelerating Talbot effect

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yiqi; Belić, Milivoj R; Li, Changbiao; Zhang, Zhaoyang; Wen, Feng; Zhang, Yanpeng; Xiao, Min

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate the Talbot effect of nonpraxial accelerating beams, theoretically and numerically. It is based on the interference of nonparaxial accelerating solutions of the Helmholtz equation in two dimensions. The effect originates from the interference of such solutions that accelerate along concentric semicircular trajectories with different radii. The Talbot images form along certain central angles, which are referred to as the Talbot angles. These angles are inversely proportional to the radial differences between the nearest beams, which are equal and fixed. A single nonparaxial accelerating beam possesses duality - it can be viewed as a Talbot effect of itself with an infinite or zero Talbot angle. By choosing the coefficient for each beam component properly, we also obtain the fractional nonparaxial accelerating Talbot effect. These results improve the understanding of nonparaxial accelerating beams and the Talbot effect among them.

  1. Accelerator reliability workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, L.; Duru, Ph.; Koch, J.M.; Revol, J.L.; Van Vaerenbergh, P.; Volpe, A.M.; Clugnet, K.; Dely, A.; Goodhew, D

    2002-07-01

    About 80 experts attended this workshop, which brought together all accelerator communities: accelerator driven systems, X-ray sources, medical and industrial accelerators, spallation sources projects (American and European), nuclear physics, etc. With newly proposed accelerator applications such as nuclear waste transmutation, replacement of nuclear power plants and others. Reliability has now become a number one priority for accelerator designers. Every part of an accelerator facility from cryogenic systems to data storage via RF systems are concerned by reliability. This aspect is now taken into account in the design/budget phase, especially for projects whose goal is to reach no more than 10 interruptions per year. This document gathers the slides but not the proceedings of the workshop.

  2. Motion of free-surface of shock-compressed water on emergence of rarefaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, V.; Hosseini, H.; Moosavi-Nejad, S.; Irimpan, K. J.; Akiyama, H.

    2015-10-01

    We experimentally evaluated the impulsive motion of free-surface of water on impingement of shock-waves of moderate strength. This physical process creates the initial acceleration in shock-wave based micro-fluidic devices, which have promising medical and drug/DNA delivery applications. The velocities of the water interfaces were measured through real-time high-temporal/spatial resolution visualizations. Based on modified Tait equation-of-state and the concept of Reimann-invariants, an analytical expression was deduced to calculate the particle velocity behind the unloading wave. The experiments and analyses confirm that the mass motion behind the shock-wave accelerates to very high velocities, a requirement for effective momentum delivery in micro-jet devices.

  3. Miniaturization Techniques for Accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, James E.

    2003-05-27

    The possibility of laser driven accelerators [1] suggests the need for new structures based on micromachining and integrated circuit technology because of the comparable scales. Thus, we are exploring fully integrated structures including sources, optics (for both light and particle) and acceleration in a common format--an accelerator-on-chip (AOC). Tests suggest a number of preferred materials and techniques but no technical or fundamental roadblocks at scales of order 1 {micro}m or larger.

  4. Power Converters for Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Visintini, R.

    2015-06-15

    Particle accelerators use a great variety of power converters for energizing their sub-systems; while the total number of power converters usually depends on the size of the accelerator or combination of accelerators (including the experimental setup), the characteristics of power converters depend on their loads and on the particle physics requirements: this paper aims to provide an overview of the magnet power converters in use in several facilities worldwide.

  5. Critical Heart Failure and Shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronicki, Ronald A; Taylor, Mary; Baden, Harris

    2016-08-01

    The objectives of this review are to discuss the clinical assessment, pathophysiology, and management of shock, with an emphasis on circulatory physiology, cardiopulmonary interactions, and pharmacologic strategies to optimize systemic oxygen delivery. These principles will then be applied to the clinical syndromes of heart failure and cardiogenic shock that are seen in children. MEDLINE, PubMed. An understanding of essential circulatory physiology and the pathophysiology of shock are necessary for managing patients at risk for or in a state of shock. A timely and accurate assessment of cardiac function, cardiac output, and tissue oxygenation and the means by which to enhance the relationship between oxygen delivery and consumption are essential in order to optimize outcomes.

  6. Electric Shock Injuries in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Electric Shock Injuries in Children Page Content ​When the ... comes into direct contact with a source of electricity, the current passes through it, producing what's called ...

  7. Shock Thermodynamic Applied Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Shock Thermodynamic Applied Research Facility (STAR) facility, within Sandia’s Solid Dynamic Physics Department, is one of a few institutions in the world with a...

  8. Shock structure in massless gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Majorana

    1991-05-01

    Full Text Available The shock structure problem is investigated in the framework of the Eckart theory of irreversible thermodynamics in the ultra relativistic limit. It is considered a neutrino gas and a gas in the approximation of hard sphere model.

  9. SHOCK-WAVE VELOCITY AND SHOCK PRESSURE FOR LOW-DENSITY POWDERS - A NOVEL-APPROACH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DIJKEN, DK; DEHOSSON, JTM

    1994-01-01

    A novel approach is presented to predict the shock wave velocity as well as the shock wave pressure in powder materials. It is shown that the influence of the specific volume behind the shock wave on shock wave velocity and shock pressure decreases with decreasing initial powder density. The new

  10. Shock wave velocity and shock pressure for low density powders : A novel approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijken, D.K.; Hosson, J.Th.M. De

    1994-01-01

    A novel approach is presented to predict the shock wave velocity as well as the shock wave pressure in powder materials. It is shown that the influence of the specific volume behind the shock wave on shock wave velocity and shock pressure decreases with decreasing initial powder density. The new

  11. Laser wakefield acceleration using wire produced double density ramps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Burza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel approach to implement and control electron injection into the accelerating phase of a laser wakefield accelerator is presented. It utilizes a wire, which is introduced into the flow of a supersonic gas jet creating shock waves and three regions of differing plasma electron density. If tailored appropriately, the laser plasma interaction takes place in three stages: Laser self-compression, electron injection, and acceleration in the second plasma wave period. Compared to self-injection by wave breaking of a nonlinear plasma wave in a constant density plasma, this scheme increases beam charge by up to 1 order of magnitude in the quasimonoenergetic regime. Electron acceleration in the second plasma wave period reduces electron beam divergence by ≈25%, and the localized injection at the density downramps results in spectra with less than a few percent relative spread.

  12. Laser Wakefield Acceleration Using Wire Produced Double Density Ramps

    CERN Document Server

    Burza, M; Svensson, K; Wojda, F; Persson, A; Hansson, M; Genoud, G; Marklund, M; Wahlström, C -G; Lundh, O

    2012-01-01

    A novel approach to implement and control electron injection into the accelerating phase of a laser wakefield accelerator (LWFA) is presented. It utilizes a wire, which is introduced into the flow of a supersonic gas jet creating shock waves and three regions of differing plasma electron density. If tailored appropriately, the laser plasma interaction takes place in three stages: Laser self-compression, electron injection and acceleration in the second plasma wave period. Compared to self-injection by wavebreaking of a nonlinear plasma wave in a constant density plasma, this scheme increases beam charge by up to one order of magnitude in the quasi-monoenergetic regime. Electron acceleration in the second plasma wave period reduces electron beam divergence by approximately 25 %, and the localized injection at the density downramps results in spectra with less than a few percent relative spread.

  13. High Gradient Accelerator Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Temkin, Richard [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Physics. Plasma Science and Fusion Center

    2016-07-12

    The goal of the MIT program of research on high gradient acceleration is the development of advanced acceleration concepts that lead to a practical and affordable next generation linear collider at the TeV energy level. Other applications, which are more near-term, include accelerators for materials processing; medicine; defense; mining; security; and inspection. The specific goals of the MIT program are: • Pioneering theoretical research on advanced structures for high gradient acceleration, including photonic structures and metamaterial structures; evaluation of the wakefields in these advanced structures • Experimental research to demonstrate the properties of advanced structures both in low-power microwave cold test and high-power, high-gradient test at megawatt power levels • Experimental research on microwave breakdown at high gradient including studies of breakdown phenomena induced by RF electric fields and RF magnetic fields; development of new diagnostics of the breakdown process • Theoretical research on the physics and engineering features of RF vacuum breakdown • Maintaining and improving the Haimson / MIT 17 GHz accelerator, the highest frequency operational accelerator in the world, a unique facility for accelerator research • Providing the Haimson / MIT 17 GHz accelerator facility as a facility for outside users • Active participation in the US DOE program of High Gradient Collaboration, including joint work with SLAC and with Los Alamos National Laboratory; participation of MIT students in research at the national laboratories • Training the next generation of Ph. D. students in the field of accelerator physics.

  14. Accelerator Review Report 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Tovey, Dan; Appleby, Rob; Bartolini, Riccardo; Bruning, Oliver; Clarke, Jim; Flint, Jonathan; Kilcoyne, Susan H.; Thomason, John; Jamieson, Charlotte; The Accelerator Science and Technology Centre (ASTeC); The Cockcroft Institute (CI); The John Adams Institute for Accelerator Science (JAI)

    2014-01-01

    The panel was created to review the accelerator programme and provide information on the breadth and scope of the STFC’s current accelerator R&D portfolio. The review’s prime driver is to underpin the development of the STFC accelerator landscape and strategy. The panel’s report will go to SB for comment and development of a high-level accelerator strategy, taking into account information from parallel reviews on neutron and photon activities. The ASB will then establish a more detailed accel...

  15. Theoretical Insight into Shocked Gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leiding, Jeffery Allen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-29

    I present the results of statistical mechanical calculations on shocked molecular gases. This work provides insight into the general behavior of shock Hugoniots of gas phase molecular targets with varying initial pressures. The dissociation behavior of the molecules is emphasized. Impedance matching calculations are performed to determine the maximum degree of dissociation accessible for a given flyer velocity as a function of initial gas pressure.

  16. Acoustic shock injury (ASI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westcott, Myriam

    2006-12-01

    The potential severity and persistence of ASI symptoms has significant clinical and medico-legal implications. With the rapid growth of call centres around the world, professionals providing tinnitus and hyperacusis therapy are increasingly likely to encounter some or all of the cluster of ASI symptoms in their clients. Acoustic shock injury (ASI), occurring as a result of exposure to a sudden unexpected loud sound, has been observed to cause a specific and consistent pattern of neurophysiological and psychological symptoms. These include aural pain, tinnitus, hyperacusis/phonophobia, vertigo and other unusual symptoms such as numbness or burning sensations around the ear. A range of emotional reactions including trauma, anxiety and depression can develop. Call centre staff using a telephone headset or handset are vulnerable to ASI because of the increased likelihood of exposure, close to their ear(s), of sudden unexpected loud sounds randomly transmitted via the telephone line. This paper presents an overview of a study of 103 people exposed to 123 acoustic incidents, and of the proposed neurophysiological mechanism of ASI, in particular tonic tensor tympani syndrome (TTTS). An understanding of TTTS has the potential to provide insight into the neurophysiological and psychological development of tinnitus and hyperacusis and the association with high levels of emotional trauma and anxiety. ASI rehabilitation is discussed.

  17. Present status of Accelerator-Based BNCT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreiner, Andres Juan; Bergueiro, Javier; Cartelli, Daniel; Baldo, Matias; Castell, Walter; Asoia, Javier Gomez; Padulo, Javier; Suárez Sandín, Juan Carlos; Igarzabal, Marcelo; Erhardt, Julian; Mercuri, Daniel; Valda, Alejandro A.; Minsky, Daniel M.; Debray, Mario E.; Somacal, Hector R.; Capoulat, María Eugenia; Herrera, María S.; del Grosso, Mariela F.; Gagetti, Leonardo; Anzorena, Manuel Suarez; Canepa, Nicolas; Real, Nicolas; Gun, Marcelo; Tacca, Hernán

    2016-01-01

    Aim This work aims at giving an updated report of the worldwide status of Accelerator-Based BNCT (AB-BNCT). Background There is a generalized perception that the availability of accelerators installed in hospitals, as neutron sources, may be crucial for the advancement of BNCT. Accordingly, in recent years a significant effort has started to develop such machines. Materials and methods A variety of possible charged-particle induced nuclear reactions and the characteristics of the resulting neutron spectra are discussed along with the worldwide activity in suitable accelerator development. Results Endothermic 7Li(p,n)7Be and 9Be(p,n)9B and exothermic 9Be(d,n)10B are compared. In addition to having much better thermo-mechanical properties than Li, Be as a target leads to stable products. This is a significant advantage for a hospital-based facility. 9Be(p,n)9B needs at least 4–5 MeV bombarding energy to have a sufficient yield, while 9Be(d,n)10B can be utilized at about 1.4 MeV, implying the smallest possible accelerator. This reaction operating with a thin target can produce a sufficiently soft spectrum to be viable for AB-BNCT. The machines considered are electrostatic single ended or tandem accelerators or radiofrequency quadrupoles plus drift tube Linacs. Conclusions 7Li(p,n)7Be provides one of the best solutions for the production of epithermal neutron beams for deep-seated tumors. However, a Li-based target poses significant technological challenges. Hence, Be has been considered as an alternative target, both in combination with (p,n) and (d,n) reactions. 9Be(d,n)10B at 1.4 MeV, with a thin target has been shown to be a realistic option for the treatment of deep-seated lesions. PMID:26933390

  18. Micro-Raman of mineral phases in the strongly shocked Taiban ordinary chondrite: ringwoodite coloration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, T. E.; Scott, E. R. D.; Sharma, S. K. S.; Misra, A. K.

    2012-09-01

    High pressure polymorphs of major minerals are commonly found in shocked meteorites. During the formation evolution of the Solar System asteroids have collided with each other and with larger bodies triggering shock waves. The produced Meteorites show different shock effects depending on the peak pressures and temperatures, and duration of the collision events [5]. Taiban is a very strongly shocked, shock stage S6 ordinary L6 chondrite. It shows multiple veins of opaque shock melt forming a network of complex branches surrounding pockets of highly shock altered, mosaicized, relict or recrystalized silicates, and their high pressure polymorphs [4,5]. Micro-Raman spectroscopy has been used to provide univocal identification of minerals and glassy phases in meteorites as well as a tool to obtain additional information on structural and compositional variations inside mineral grains [7]. We studied the polished thin section UNM297 of Taiban meteorite with micro-Raman spectroscopy and Raman mapping to identify and characterize major and minor phases. Ringwoodite g-(Fe,Mg)2Si04 is the high-pressure polymorph of olivine with the spinel structure.

  19. Management of Shock in Neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, B Vishnu; Plakkal, Nishad

    2015-10-01

    Shock is characterized by inadequate oxygen delivery to the tissues, and is more frequent in very low birth weight infants, especially in the first few days of life. Shock is an independent predictor of mortality, and the survivors are at a higher risk of neurologic impairment. Understanding the pathophysiology helps to recognize and classify shock in the early compensated phase and initiate appropriate treatment. Hypovolemia is rarely the primary cause of shock in neonates. Myocardial dysfunction is especially common in extremely preterm infants, and in term infants with perinatal asphyxia. Blood pressure measurements are easy, but correlate poorly with cerebral and systemic blood flows. Point-of-care cardiac ultrasound can help in individualized assessment of problems, selecting appropriate therapy and monitoring response, but may not always be available, and long-term benefits need to be demonstrated. The use of near-infrared spectroscopy to guide treatment of neonatal shock is currently experimental. In the absence of hypovolemia, excessive administration of fluid boluses is inappropriate therapy. Dobutamine and dopamine are the most common initial inotropes used in neonatal shock. Dobutamine has been shown to improve systemic blood flow, especially in very low birth weight infants, but dopamine is better at improving blood pressure in hypotensive infants. Newer inodilators including milrinone and levosimendan may be useful in selected settings. Data on long-term survival and neurologic outcomes following different management strategies are scarce and future research efforts should focus on this.

  20. Focusing of Shear Shock Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giammarinaro, Bruno; Espíndola, David; Coulouvrat, François; Pinton, Gianmarco

    2018-01-01

    Focusing is a ubiquitous way to transform waves. Recently, a new type of shock wave has been observed experimentally with high-frame-rate ultrasound: shear shock waves in soft solids. These strongly nonlinear waves are characterized by a high Mach number, because the shear wave velocity is much slower, by 3 orders of magnitude, than the longitudinal wave velocity. Furthermore, these waves have a unique cubic nonlinearity which generates only odd harmonics. Unlike longitudinal waves for which only compressional shocks are possible, shear waves exhibit cubic nonlinearities which can generate positive and negative shocks. Here we present the experimental observation of shear shock wave focusing, generated by the vertical motion of a solid cylinder section embedded in a soft gelatin-graphite phantom to induce linearly vertically polarized motion. Raw ultrasound data from high-frame-rate (7692 images per second) acquisitions in combination with algorithms that are tuned to detect small displacements (approximately 1 μ m ) are used to generate quantitative movies of gel motion. The features of shear shock wave focusing are analyzed by comparing experimental observations with numerical simulations of a retarded-time elastodynamic equation with cubic nonlinearities and empirical attenuation laws for soft solids.

  1. Tycho's Remnant Provides Shocking Evidence for Cosmic Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-09-01

    Astronomers have found compelling evidence that a supernova shock wave has produced a large amount of cosmic rays, particles of mysterious origin that constantly bombard the Earth. This discovery, made with NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory, supports theoretical arguments that shock waves from stellar explosions may be a primary source of cosmic rays. This finding is important for understanding the origin of cosmic rays, which are atomic nuclei that strike the Earth's atmosphere with very high energies. Scientists believe that some are produced by flares on the Sun, and others by similar events on other stars, or pulsars or black hole accretion disks. But, one of the prime suspects has been supernova shock waves. Now, a team of astronomers has used Chandra observations of Tycho's supernova remnant to strengthen the case for this explanation. "With only a single object involved we can't state with confidence that supernova shock waves are the primary source of cosmic rays," said John P. Hughes of Rutgers University in Piscataway, New Jersey, and coauthor of a report to be published in an upcoming issue of The Astrophysical Journal. "What we have done is present solid evidence that the shock wave in at least one supernova remnant has accelerated nuclei to cosmic ray energies." In the year 1572, the Danish astronomer Tycho Brahe observed and studied the sudden appearance of a bright "new star" in the constellation Cassiopeia. Now known as Tycho's supernova remnant, the event created a sensation in Tycho's time because it exploded the myth that stars never change. Four centuries later, the Chandra results on Tycho's remnant show that some modern ideas of the aftermath of supernova explosions may have to be revised. The report by Hughes and colleagues demonstrates that the shock wave produced by the explosive disruption of the star behaves in a way that cannot be explained by the standard theory. The supernova debris is observed to expand at a speed of about six million

  2. Performance evaluation of CFRP-rubber shock absorbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamanna, Giuseppe, E-mail: giuseppe.lamanna@unina2.it; Sepe, Raffaele, E-mail: giuseppe.lamanna@unina2.it [Department of Industrial and Information Engineering, Second University of Naples, via Roma, 29 - 81031 Aversa (Italy)

    2014-05-15

    In the present work a numerical investigation on the energy absorbing capability of dedicated structural components made of a carbon fiber reinforced polymer and an emulsion polymerised styrene butadiene rubber is reported. The shock absorbers are devices designed to absorb large amounts of energy by sacrificing their own structural integrity. Their aim is to cushion the effects of an impact phenomenon with the intent to preserve other structures from global failure or local damaging. Another important role of shock absorbers is reducing the peak of the acceleration showed during an impact phenomenon. This effect is of considerable interest in the case of vehicles to preserve passengers’ safety. Static and dynamic numerical results are compared with experimental ones in terms of mean crushing forces, energy and peak crushing. The global performance of the absorbers has been evaluated by referencing to a proposed quality index.

  3. Effects of Initial Conditions on Shock Driven Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Adam A.; Mula, Swathi M.; Charonko, John; Prestridge, Kathy

    2017-11-01

    The spatial and temporal evolution of shock-driven, variable density flows, such as the Richtmyer Meshkov (RM) instability, are strongly influenced by the initial conditions (IC's) of the flow at the time of interaction with shockwave. We study the effects of the IC's on the Vertical Shock Tube (VST) and on flows from Mach =1.2 to Mach =9. Experiments at the VST are of an Air-SF6 (At =0.6) multimode interface. Perturbations are generated using a shear layer with a flapper plate. Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) is used to characterize the IC's. New experiments are occurring using the Powder Gun driver at LANL Proton Radiography (pRad) facility. Mach number up to M =9 accelerate a Xenon-Helium (At =0.94) interface that is perturbed using a membrane supported by different sized grids. This presentation focuses on how to design and characterize different types of initial conditions for experiments.

  4. Performance evaluation of CFRP-rubber shock absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamanna, Giuseppe; Sepe, Raffaele

    2014-05-01

    In the present work a numerical investigation on the energy absorbing capability of dedicated structural components made of a carbon fiber reinforced polymer and an emulsion polymerised styrene butadiene rubber is reported. The shock absorbers are devices designed to absorb large amounts of energy by sacrificing their own structural integrity. Their aim is to cushion the effects of an impact phenomenon with the intent to preserve other structures from global failure or local damaging. Another important role of shock absorbers is reducing the peak of the acceleration showed during an impact phenomenon. This effect is of considerable interest in the case of vehicles to preserve passengers' safety. Static and dynamic numerical results are compared with experimental ones in terms of mean crushing forces, energy and peak crushing. The global performance of the absorbers has been evaluated by referencing to a proposed quality index.

  5. Ion Events Observed by Wind far Upstream From the Bow Shock and by Geotail / Imp-8 Near the Bow Shock and Within the Plasma Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostopoulos, G.; Efthymiadis, D.; Sarris, E. T.; Krimigis, S. M.

    2002-12-01

    Mason et al. (1996) reported characteristics of short duration energetic (>~30 keV/neucleon) heavy ion enhancements observed by the WIND spacecraft at large distances upstream from the bow shock during two periods of high speed streams (Jan. 20, 1995 - Feb. 19, 1995) and Desai et al (2000) extended their study and presented results from a statistical analysis of upstream events rich in CNO species as observed by the WIND spacecraft between 1994 day 325 to 1999 day 92. Desai et al. suggested that some ion characteristics (as for instance, the fact that the majority of the events were observed in the dawn-noon sector, the solar-wind-like ion composition and the heavy ion dominance of the total energy ion spectrum above ~0.5 MeV) appear to pose severe problems for the leakage model, while other characteristics appear to pose serious challenges for the Fermi acceleration model. In this paper we compare the statistical results of Desai et al. with the results from previous statistical and case studies and we show that the Wind observations are in general consistent with the leakage model. Furthermore, we examine simultaneous multispacecraft observations during time periods of some typical events presented by the authors (Mason et al., 1996; Desai et al., 2000) and we compare them with predictions from the leakage and bow shock acceleration models. In particular: (a) we present observations by WIND far upstream from the bow shock and by Geotail and IMP-8 within the magnetosphere and we infer that particle acceleration within the plasma sheet and subsequent leakage to the upstream region are responsible for the generation of these upstream ion events, and (b) we compare the upstream WIND observations with observations obtained by Geotail and IMP-8 near the bow shock, and we infer that the near bow shock observations do not fit with major predictions of Fermi acceleration models.

  6. A simplified model for the acceleration of cosmic ray particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groen, Oeyvind [Oslo University College, Faculty of Engineering, PO Box 4, St. Olavs Plass, N-0130 Oslo (Norway)

    2010-03-15

    Two important questions concerning cosmic rays are: Why are electrons in the cosmic rays less efficiently accelerated than nuclei? How are particles accelerated to great energies in ultra-high energy cosmic rays? In order to answer these questions we construct a simple model of the acceleration of a charged particle in the cosmic ray. It is not meant as a detailed model, which is expected to be rather complicated, but rather as a 'pedagogic model' pointing out some important elements of a more complete model. Furthermore, the present model is sufficiently simple that it may be suitable as an 'astrophysical example' in the teaching of the special theory of relativity. In this model a particle is accelerated by ultrarelativistic shocks in a source of gamma ray bursts. No assumption as to the details of the accelerating mechanism is made except that the force acting on a charged particle depends only upon the charge of the particle and not upon its mass, and the product of the force and the thickness of the shock waves must be sufficiently great. It is important for the success of the model that the energy radiated by the particles is taken mainly from the Schott energy and not from the kinetic energy of the particles. It is shown how this model of the accelerating process can explain why electrons are accelerated to less energy than protons and heavier nuclei. The mechanism also explains how particles may be accelerated to energies greater than 10{sup 20} eV.

  7. A model for high-energy emission of the Intrabinary shock in pulsar binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Hongjun

    2018-01-01

    We present our studies of intrabinary shock emission for astrophysical binary systems with a neutron star. We construct a model for the shock emission and compare the model calculation with the light curve and the spectral energy distribution of the gamma-ray binary 1FGL J1018.6-5856. The model assumes a slow and a fast population of particles accelerated in the shock, and computes the high-energy emission spectra and orbital light curves produced by synchrotron, self-Compton and external Compton processes of the high-energy particles in the shock. The model allows one to study plasma properties and to constrain the binary geometry, most importantly the inclination angle (i). We discuss potential use of this model for other pulsar binaries to determine the inclination angle of the binary hence the mass of the neutron star.

  8. Research on Formation Mechanism of Dynamic Response and Residual Stress of Sheet Metal Induced by Laser Shock Wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Aixin; Cao, Yupeng; Wang, Heng; Zhang, Zhengang

    2018-01-01

    In order to reveal the quantitative control of the residual stress on the surface of metal materials, the relevant theoretical and experimental studies were carried out to investigate the dynamic response of metal thin plates and the formation mechanism of residual stress induced by laser shock wave. In this paper, the latest research trends on the surface residual stress of laser shock processing technology were elaborated. The main progress of laser shock wave propagation mechanism and dynamic response, laser shock, and surface residual stress were discussed. It is pointed out that the multi-scale characterization of laser and material, surface residual stress and microstructure change is a new hotspot in laser shock strengthening technology.

  9. Pickup protons at quasi-perpendicular shocks: full particle electrodynamic simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Matsukiyo

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available We have performed 3 one-dimensional full particle electromagnetic simulations of a quasi-perpendicular shock with the same Alfvén Mach number MA~5, shock normal-magnetic field angle ΘBn=87° and ion and electron beta (particle to magnetic field pressure of 0.1. In the first run we used an ion to electron mass ratio close to the physical one (mi/me=1024. As expected from previous high mass ratio simulations the Modified Two-Stream instability develops in the foot of the shock, and the shock periodically reforms itself. We have then self-consistently included in the simulation 10% pickup protons distributed on a shell in velocity space as a third component. In a run with an unrealistically low mass ratios of 200 the shock still reforms itself; reformation is due to accumulation of specularly reflected particles at the upstream edge of the foot. In a third run including pickup protons we used a mass ratio of 1024. The shock reforms periodically as in the low mass ratio run with a somewhat smaller time constant. The specular reflection of pickup protons results in an increase of the shock potential some distance ahead of the shock foot and ramp. The minimum scale of the cross shock potential during reformation is about 7 electron inertial length λe. We do not find any pickup proton acceleration in the ramp or downstream of the shock beyond the energy which specularly reflected ions gain by the motional electric field of the solar wind during their upstream gyration.

  10. Pickup protons at quasi-perpendicular shocks: full particle electrodynamic simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Matsukiyo

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available We have performed 3 one-dimensional full particle electromagnetic simulations of a quasi-perpendicular shock with the same Alfvén Mach number MA~5, shock normal-magnetic field angle ΘBn=87° and ion and electron beta (particle to magnetic field pressure of 0.1. In the first run we used an ion to electron mass ratio close to the physical one (mi/me=1024. As expected from previous high mass ratio simulations the Modified Two-Stream instability develops in the foot of the shock, and the shock periodically reforms itself. We have then self-consistently included in the simulation 10% pickup protons distributed on a shell in velocity space as a third component. In a run with an unrealistically low mass ratios of 200 the shock still reforms itself; reformation is due to accumulation of specularly reflected particles at the upstream edge of the foot. In a third run including pickup protons we used a mass ratio of 1024. The shock reforms periodically as in the low mass ratio run with a somewhat smaller time constant. The specular reflection of pickup protons results in an increase of the shock potential some distance ahead of the shock foot and ramp. The minimum scale of the cross shock potential during reformation is about 7 electron inertial length λe. We do not find any pickup proton acceleration in the ramp or downstream of the shock beyond the energy which specularly reflected ions gain by the motional electric field of the solar wind during their upstream gyration.

  11. Generation and evolution of interplanetary slow shocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.-C. Wu

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that most MHD shocks observed within 1 AU are MHD fast shocks. Only a very limited number of MHD slow shocks are observed within 1 AU. In order to understand why there are only a few MHD slow shocks observed within 1 AU, we use a one-dimensional, time-dependent MHD code with an adaptive grid to study the generation and evolution of interplanetary slow shocks (ISS in the solar wind. Results show that a negative, nearly square-wave perturbation will generate a pair of slow shocks (a forward and a reverse slow shock. In addition, the forward and the reverse slow shocks can pass through each other without destroying their characteristics, but the propagating speeds for both shocks are decreased. A positive, square-wave perturbation will generate both slow and fast shocks. When a forward slow shock (FSS propagates behind a forward fast shock (FFS, the former experiences a decreasing Mach number. In addition, the FSS always disappears within a distance of 150R⊙ (where R⊙ is one solar radius from the Sun when there is a forward fast shock (with Mach number ≥1.7 propagating in front of the FSS. In all tests that we have performed, we have not discovered that the FSS (or reverse slow shock evolves into a FFS (or reverse fast shock. Thus, we do not confirm the FSS-FFS evolution as suggested by Whang (1987.

  12. When shock is shocked: Riemann problem dynamics at pulse ionization of a shock wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doroshchenko, Igor; Znamenskaya, Irina; Koroteev, Dmitry; Kuli-zade, Tahir

    2017-10-01

    We study the dynamics of the gas flow discontinuities after pulse ionization of a half space in front of a flat shock wave moving in a channel. Pulse volumetric electric discharge initiated in the vicinity of the shock concentrates in front of the shock and heats the gas there. The heating is shown to be very rapid. We use the shadow imaging technique and a high speed camera to study the flow pattern evolution after the discharge. The pattern consists of two shocks separated by a contact surface. This structure corresponds to the classical Riemann problem formulation. Based on the observed pattern, we estimate the amount of discharge energy converted to heat during the discharge time: the rate of temperature increase is in the order of several degrees K per nanosecond.

  13. The 26 December 2001 Solar Eruptive Event Responsible for GLE63: III. CME, Shock Waves, and Energetic Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grechnev, V. V.; Kiselev, V. I.; Uralov, A. M.; Klein, K.-L.; Kochanov, A. A.

    2017-08-01

    The SOL2001-12-26 moderate solar eruptive event (GOES importance M7.1, microwaves up to 4000 sfu at 9.4 GHz, coronal mass ejection (CME) speed 1446 km s-1) produced strong fluxes of solar energetic particles and ground-level enhancement (GLE) of cosmic-ray intensity (GLE63). To find a possible reason for the atypically high proton outcome of this event, we study multi-wavelength images and dynamic radio spectra and quantitatively reconcile the findings with each other. An additional eruption probably occurred in the same active region about half an hour before the main eruption. The latter produced two blast-wave-like shocks during the impulsive phase. The two shock waves eventually merged around the radial direction into a single shock traced up to 25 R_{⊙} as a halo ahead of the expanding CME body, in agreement with an interplanetary Type II event recorded by the Radio and Plasma Wave Investigation (WAVES) experiment on the Wind spacecraft. The shape and kinematics of the halo indicate an intermediate regime of the shock between the blast wave and bow shock at these distances. The results show that i) the shock wave appeared during the flare rise and could accelerate particles earlier than usually assumed; ii) the particle event could be amplified by the preceding eruption, which stretched closed structures above the developing CME, facilitated its lift-off and escape of flare-accelerated particles, enabled a higher CME speed and stronger shock ahead; iii) escape of flare-accelerated particles could be additionally facilitated by reconnection of the flux rope, where they were trapped, with a large coronal hole; and iv) the first eruption supplied a rich seed population accelerated by a trailing shock wave.

  14. Thin Film Approaches to the SRF Cavity Problem Fabrication and Characterization of Superconducting Thin Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beringer, Douglas [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) cavities are responsible for the acceleration of charged particles to relativistic velocities in most modern linear accelerators, such as those employed at high-energy research facilities like Thomas Jefferson National Laboratory’s CEBAF and the LHC at CERN. Recognizing SRF as primarily a surface phenomenon enables the possibility of applying thin films to the interior surface of SRF cavities, opening a formidable tool chest of opportunities by combining and designing materials that offer greater performance benefit. Thus, while improvements in radio frequency cavity design and refinements in cavity processing techniques have improved accelerator performance and efficiency – 1.5 GHz bulk niobium SRF cavities have achieved accelerating gradients in excess of 35 MV/m – there exist fundamental material bounds in bulk superconductors limiting the maximally sustained accelerating field gradient (≈ 45 MV/m for Nb) where inevitable thermodynamic breakdown occurs. With state of the art Nb based cavity design fast approaching these theoretical limits, novel material innovations must be sought in order to realize next generation SRF cavities. One proposed method to improve SRF performance is to utilize thin film superconducting-insulating-superconducting (SIS) multilayer structures to effectively magnetically screen a bulk superconducting layer such that it can operate at higher field gradients before suffering critically detrimental SRF losses. This dissertation focuses on the production and characterization of thin film superconductors for such SIS layers for radio frequency applications. Correlated studies on structure, surface morphology and superconducting properties of epitaxial Nb and MgB2 thin films are presented.

  15. Beam Diagnostics for Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Koziol, Heribert

    2005-01-01

    This introductory course aims at a reasonably complete coverage of beam diagnostic devices used in linear and circular accelerators and in primary beam lines. The weight is on the concepts and the indication of variants, while for technical details the reader is referred to the literature. The present updated version replaces those from previous General Accelerator Physics Courses.

  16. Accelerators Beyond The Tevatron?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lach, Joseph; /Fermilab

    2010-07-01

    Following the successful operation of the Fermilab superconducting accelerator three new higher energy accelerators were planned. They were the UNK in the Soviet Union, the LHC in Europe, and the SSC in the United States. All were expected to start producing physics about 1995. They did not. Why?

  17. Asia honours accelerator physicists

    CERN Multimedia

    2010-01-01

    "Steve Meyers of Cern and Jie Wei of Beijing's Tsinghua University are the first recipients of a new prize for particle physics. The pair were honoured for their contributions to numerous particle-accelerator projects - including Cern's Large Hadron Collider - by the Asian Committee for Future Accelerators (ACFA)..." (1 paragraph)

  18. KEK digital accelerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Iwashita

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The High Energy Accelerator Research Organization KEK digital accelerator (KEK-DA is a renovation of the KEK 500 MeV booster proton synchrotron, which was shut down in 2006. The existing 40 MeV drift tube linac and rf cavities have been replaced by an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR ion source embedded in a 200 kV high-voltage terminal and induction acceleration cells, respectively. A DA is, in principle, capable of accelerating any species of ion in all possible charge states. The KEK-DA is characterized by specific accelerator components such as a permanent magnet X-band ECR ion source, a low-energy transport line, an electrostatic injection kicker, an extraction septum magnet operated in air, combined-function main magnets, and an induction acceleration system. The induction acceleration method, integrating modern pulse power technology and state-of-art digital control, is crucial for the rapid-cycle KEK-DA. The key issues of beam dynamics associated with low-energy injection of heavy ions are beam loss caused by electron capture and stripping as results of the interaction with residual gas molecules and the closed orbit distortion resulting from relatively high remanent fields in the bending magnets. Attractive applications of this accelerator in materials and biological sciences are discussed.

  19. The Atomki accelerator center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vajda, I.; Fülöp, Zs.; Biri, S.

    2017-06-01

    Particle accelerators are the driving forces of nuclear physics laboratories and MTA Atomki, the Institute for Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences is no exception. The Atomki Accelerator Center (AAC) incorporates several low-energy charged-particle accelerators, offering the possibility of choosing ions with various charge states, energies and beam intensities. Currently, the AAC has six main facilities: a cyclotron (K=20), two Van de Graaff accelerators (1 MV, 5 MV), an ECR ion source, an electromagnetic isotope separator and a 2 MV Tandetron installed in 2015. The accelerators, spanning a range of beam energies from 50 eV to 27 MeV, have been designed for a broad range of research projects and applications in various fields - mainly in nuclear and atomic physics, materials science, environmental research and archaeology. The structure of the laboratory with a short description of the most important topics, education and outreach activities are presented.

  20. Unexpected sites of efficient stochastic acceleration in the inner heliosheath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Chalov

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Up until the recent past, it was generally believed that the solar wind termination shock (TS is the favourite site to accelerate ions from the keV- to the MeV- energy levels by means of Fermi-1 processes. When Voyager 1 was crossing the TS at the end of 2004, the registrations of this spacecraft showed, however, that beyond the shock passage fluxes of anomalous cosmic rays kept increasing with time. This obviously called for an acceleration site further downstream of the shock in the heliosheath which had not been identified before. In this paper we thus investigate the process of energy diffusion due to wave-particle interactions (Fermi-2 operating on pick-up ions which are convected downstream of the TS with the subsonic solar wind. We investigate the continuous effect of stochastic acceleration processes suffered by pick-up ions at their interaction with heliosheath turbulences, while they are slowly convected with the subsonic solar wind towards the heliotail. As we can show, the inner heliosheath region, with an extent of about 100 AU around the solar wind stagnation point, is specifically favourable for the energy processing of pick-up ions by Fermi-2 processes up to MeV energies. In addition, we claim that this region is the origin of multiply-charged anomalous cosmic ray particles that have been registered in recent times.

  1. First trial of the muon acceleration for J-PARC muon g-2/EDM experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, R.; Otani, M.; Fukao, Y.; Kawamura, N.; Mibe, T.; Miyake, Y.; Shimomura, K.; Kondo, Y.; Hasegawa, K.; Bae, S.; Kim, B.; Razuvaev, G.; Iinuma, H.; Ishida, K.; Saito, N.

    2017-07-01

    Muon acceleration is an important technique in exploring the new frontier of physics. A new measurement of the muon dipole moments is planned in J-PARC using the muon linear accelerator. The low-energy (LE) muon source using the thin metal foil target and beam diagnostic system were developed for the world’s first muon acceleration. Negative muonium ions from the thin metal foil target as the LE muon source was successfully observed. Also the beam profile of the LE positive muon was measured by the LE-dedicated beam profile monitor. The muon acceleration test using a Radio-Frequency Quadrupole linac (RFQ) is being prepared as the first step of the muon accelerator development. In this paper, the latest status of the first muon acceleration test is described.

  2. Pyrolyzed thin film carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Yu-Chong (Inventor); Liger, Matthieu (Inventor); Harder, Theodore (Inventor); Konishi, Satoshi (Inventor); Miserendino, Scott (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A method of making carbon thin films comprises depositing a catalyst on a substrate, depositing a hydrocarbon in contact with the catalyst and pyrolyzing the hydrocarbon. A method of controlling a carbon thin film density comprises etching a cavity into a substrate, depositing a hydrocarbon into the cavity, and pyrolyzing the hydrocarbon while in the cavity to form a carbon thin film. Controlling a carbon thin film density is achieved by changing the volume of the cavity. Methods of making carbon containing patterned structures are also provided. Carbon thin films and carbon containing patterned structures can be used in NEMS, MEMS, liquid chromatography, and sensor devices.

  3. Thin film processes II

    CERN Document Server

    Kern, Werner

    1991-01-01

    This sequel to the 1978 classic, Thin Film Processes, gives a clear, practical exposition of important thin film deposition and etching processes that have not yet been adequately reviewed. It discusses selected processes in tutorial overviews with implementation guide lines and an introduction to the literature. Though edited to stand alone, when taken together, Thin Film Processes II and its predecessor present a thorough grounding in modern thin film techniques.Key Features* Provides an all-new sequel to the 1978 classic, Thin Film Processes* Introduces new topics, and sever

  4. Cardiogenic shock: management of right ventricular infarction shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Bailén, M; Ruiz García, M I; Ferrezuelo Mata, A; Quirós Barrera, R

    2012-04-01

    Right ventricular infarction is a not uncommon cause of cardiogenic shock, whose frecuency is variable and could be underestimated. Although left ventricular myocardial management is well defined in the right ventricular infarction are few studies with low level of evidence, to establish definitive guidelines. It is assumed that the treatment is similar to that of the left ventricle, although there are some differences. The axis of the therapeutic management, as well as the left ventricle infarction, is based on early myocardial reperfusion, particularly through percutaneous coronary interventionism. Throm-bolysis is an option, especially after an increase in systemic blood pressure using vasoactive drugs such as norepinephrine. The preload optimization by volume administration during resuscitation of shock is useful, but it must be with caution. The use of levosimendan could be potentially beneficial option. On the neurohormonal modulation of systemic inflammatory response produced after the cardiogenic shock (CS), the use of ACE inhibitors and beta-blockers is controversial.

  5. [Shock in obstetrics. Institutional experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfante Ramírez, E; Ahued Ahued, R; García-Benítez, C Q; Bolaños Ancona, R; Callejos, T; Juárez García, L

    1997-04-01

    Shock is one of the most difficult problems an obstetrician can face. Hemorrhage is the main reason of shock. A descriptive and retrospective research was conducted at Instituto Nacional de Perinatología, from January 1992 to May 1996, including all patients admitted to the intensive care unit with diagnosis of shock. There were found 90 cases with diagnosis of shock, 82 were hipovolemic, and 8 cases had the septic kind of shock. The average of age was 32.2 years, with a gestational age between 6.2 to 41.4 weeks . There were 71 healthy patients, hypertension was associated to pregnancy in 9 cases, infertility in two, myomatosis in 2, and diabetes in 2 more patients. Other 5 cases reported different pathologies. The most frequent cause for hipovolemic shock resulted to be placenta acreta (40 cases), followed by uterine tone alterations in 37 patients, ectopic pregnancy in 7, uterine rupture or perforation in 4, and vaginal or cervical lacerations in 2. The estimated blood loss varied from 2200 cc to 6500 cc, and the minimal arterial pressure registered during shock was between 40/20 mmHg to 90/60 mmHg. Medical initial assistance consisted in volume reposition with crystalloids, globular packages, and plasma expansors in 73 patients (81.1%). The rest of the patients received in addition coloids, platelets and cryoprecipitates. A total of 76 patients required surgical intervention consisting in total abdominal hysterectomy. In 5 cases the previous surgical procedure was done and ligation of hypogastric vessels was needed. Salpingectomy was performed in 5 patients, and rupture or perforation repair in 3. The average surgery time was 2 hours and 33 minutes. The observed complications were 7 cases with abscess of the cupula, consumption coagulopathy in 2, 1 vesical quirurgical injury, 1 intestinal occlusion, and 11 vesico-vaginal fistula. The average days of hospitalization resulted to be 5. The most frequent kind of shock seen by obstetricians is the hipovolemic type

  6. The miniature accelerator

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    The image that most people have of CERN is of its enormous accelerators and their capacity to accelerate particles to extremely high energies. But thanks to some cutting-edge studies on beam dynamics and radiofrequency technology, along with innovative construction techniques, teams at CERN have now created the first module of a brand-new accelerator, which will be just 2 metres long. The potential uses of this miniature accelerator will include deployment in hospitals for the production of medical isotopes and the treatment of cancer. It’s a real David-and-Goliath story.   Serge Mathot, in charge of the construction of the "mini-RFQ", pictured with the first of the four modules that will make up the miniature accelerator. The miniature accelerator consists of a radiofrequency quadrupole (RFQ), a component found at the start of all proton accelerator chains around the world, from the smallest to the largest. The LHC is designed to produce very high-intensity beams ...

  7. Multicavity proton cyclotron accelerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Hirshfield

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available A mechanism for acceleration of protons is described, in which energy gain occurs near cyclotron resonance as protons drift through a sequence of rotating-mode TE_{111} cylindrical cavities in a strong nearly uniform axial magnetic field. Cavity resonance frequencies decrease in sequence from one another with a fixed frequency interval Δf between cavities, so that synchronism can be maintained between the rf fields and proton bunches injected at intervals of 1/Δf. An example is presented in which a 122 mA, 1 MeV proton beam is accelerated to 961 MeV using a cascade of eight cavities in an 8.1 T magnetic field, with the first cavity resonant at 120 MHz and with Δf=8 MHz. Average acceleration gradient exceeds 40 MV/m, average effective shunt impedance is 223 MΩ/m, but maximum surface field in the cavities does not exceed 7.2 MV/m. These features occur because protons make many orbital turns in each cavity and thus experience acceleration from each cavity field many times. Longitudinal and transverse stability appear to be intrinsic properties of the acceleration mechanism, and an example to illustrate this is presented. This acceleration concept could be developed into a proton accelerator for a high-power neutron spallation source, such as that required for transmutation of nuclear waste or driving a subcritical fission burner, provided a number of significant practical issues can be addressed.

  8. Manipulation of laser-accelerated proton beam profiles by nanostructured and microstructured targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Giuffrida

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Nanostructured and microstructured thin foils have been fabricated and used experimentally as targets to manipulate the spatial profile of proton bunches accelerated through the interaction with high intensity laser pulses (6×10^{19}  W/cm^{2}. Monolayers of polystyrene nanospheres were placed on the rear surfaces of thin plastic targets to improve the spatial homogeneity of the accelerated proton beams. Moreover, thin targets with grating structures of various configurations on their rear sides were used to modify the proton beam divergence. Experimental results are presented, discussed, and supported by 3D particle-in-cell numerical simulations.

  9. TEM Examination of Shock Veins in Ordinary Chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingemann, C. M.; Langenhorst, F.; Stoffler, D.

    1995-09-01

    Introduction: As part of a research project on shock metamorphism of chondrites [1] we studied shock veins in different L-chondrites to understand their formation conditions. These thin shock veins (>20 micrometers thickness) have been found in the meteorites L5-6-Acfer 040, L6-Coorara, L6-Johnson City and L6-Tenham and were studied in detail by analytical transmission electron microscopy (ATEM). Texture. Shock veins consist of a fine-grained opaque matrix with embedded large fragments of the host chondrite. High-pressure polymorphs of olivine (ringwoodite and wadsleyite) and enstatite (majorite), which are clear indicators of strong shock metamorphism [1], are present in both matrix and fragments. In the matrix, majorite and, to a minor extent, ringwoodite coexist with globules of Fe-Ni alloy and troilite (ringwoodite and majorite occur as polycrystalline aggregates of tiny crystals (Ringwoodite shows generally a high density of stacking faults parallel to 110 planes. These stacking faults are interpreted as growth defects due to rapid cooling [2]. Majorite is defect-free. Chemistry. Ringwoodite in fragments is chemically less homogeneous and tends to a higher FeO-content than olivine in the host chondrite [3, 4]. A tendency to chemical heterogeneity has also been detected for majorite in fragments. The composition of the majorite in the matrix is distinctly heterogeneous and differs systematically from that of the enstatite, because it shows a distinct enrichment in Al, Mg, Ca, Na and a significant depletion in Si, Mn and especially in Fe, which is up to 50% lower than in the primary enstatite. Discussion. Chemical heterogeneity and small grain sizes of high-pressure phases as well as presence of Fe-Ni alloy and troilite in the form of globules indicates that shock veins represent quenched melts. The high-pressure phases are interpreted as crystallization products of these melts. The localized temperature excursions result probably from friction of the meteoritic

  10. Flow-accelerated corrosion 2016 international conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomarov, G. V.; Shipkov, A. A.

    2017-05-01

    The paper discusses materials and results of the most representative world forum on the problems of flow-accelerated metal corrosion in power engineering—Flow-Accelerated Corrosion (FAC) 2016, the international conference, which was held in Lille (France) from May 23 through May 27, 2016, sponsored by EdF-DTG with the support of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the World Association of Nuclear Operators (WANO). The information on major themes of reports and materials of the exhibition arranged within the framework of the congress is presented. The statistics on operation time and intensity of FAC wall thinning of NPP pipelines and equipment in the world is set out. The paper describes typical examples of flow-accelerated corrosion damage of condensate-feed and wet-steam pipeline components of nuclear and thermal power plants that caused forced shutdowns or accidents. The importance of research projects on the problem of flow-accelerated metal corrosion of nuclear power units coordinated by the IAEA with the participation of leading experts in this field from around the world is considered. The reports presented at the conference considered issues of implementation of an FAC mechanism in single- and two-phase flows, the impact of hydrodynamic and water-chemical factors, the chemical composition of the metal, and other parameters on the intensity and location of FAC wall thinning localized areas in pipeline components and power equipment. Features and patterns of local and general FAC leading to local metal thinning and contamination of the working environment with ferriferous compounds are considered. Main trends of modern practices preventing FAC wear of NPP pipelines and equipment are defined. An increasing role of computer codes for the assessment and prediction of FAC rate, as well as software systems of support of the NPP personnel for the inspection planning and prevention of FAC wall thinning of equipment operating in singleand two

  11. Inappropriate shocks in the subcutaneous ICD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olde Nordkamp, Louise R A; Brouwer, Tom F; Barr, Craig

    2015-01-01

    months, 48 out of 581 S-ICD patients (71% male, age 49 ± 18 years) experienced 101 inappropriate shocks (8.3%). The most common cause was cardiac signal oversensing (73%), such as T-wave oversensing. Eighteen shocks (18%) were due to supraventricular tachycardias (SVT), of which 15 occurred in the shock...... xyphoid to V6) reduced the risk. Reprogramming or optimization of SVT treatment after the first clinical event of inappropriate shock was successful in preventing further inappropriate shocks for cardiac oversensing and SVT events. CONCLUSIONS: Inappropriate shocks, mainly due to cardiac oversensing...

  12. Pressure Hull Analysis under Shock Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Jung Lee

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The hull of high performance submarines must resist underwater shock loading due to exploding torpedoes or depth bombs. An underwater shock involving an initial shock wave and successive bubble pulsating waves is so complex that a theoretical technique for deriving shock pressure distribution is required for improving simulation efficiency. Complete shock loading is obtained theoretically in this work, and responses of a submarine pressure hull are calculated using ABAQUS USA (Underwater Shock Analysis codes. In the long run, this deflection and stress data will assist in examining the structural arrangement of the submarine pressure hull.

  13. Laser Beam Propagation Through Inhomogeneous Media with Shock-Like Profiles: Modeling and Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamovsky, Grigory; Ida, Nathan

    1997-01-01

    Wave propagation in inhomogeneous media has been studied for such diverse applications as propagation of radiowaves in atmosphere, light propagation through thin films and in inhomogeneous waveguides, flow visualization, and others. In recent years an increased interest has been developed in wave propagation through shocks in supersonic flows. Results of experiments conducted in the past few years has shown such interesting phenomena as a laser beam splitting and spreading. The paper describes a model constructed to propagate a laser beam through shock-like inhomogeneous media. Numerical techniques are presented to compute the beam through such media. The results of computation are presented, discussed, and compared with experimental data.

  14. Direct Laser Acceleration in Laser Wakefield Accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, J. L.; Froula, D. H.; Marsh, K. A.; Joshi, C.; Lemos, N.

    2017-10-01

    The direct laser acceleration (DLA) of electrons in a laser wakefield accelerator (LWFA) has been investigated. We show that when there is a significant overlap between the drive laser and the trapped electrons in a LWFA cavity, the accelerating electrons can gain energy from the DLA mechanism in addition to LWFA. The properties of the electron beams produced in a LWFA, where the electrons are injected by ionization injection, have been investigated using particle-in-cell (PIC) code simulations. Particle tracking was used to demonstrate the presence of DLA in LWFA. Further PIC simulations comparing LWFA with and without DLA show that the presence of DLA can lead to electron beams that have maximum energies that exceed the estimates given by the theory for the ideal blowout regime. The magnitude of the contribution of DLA to the energy gained by the electron was found to be on the order of the LWFA contribution. The presence of DLA in a LWFA can also lead to enhanced betatron oscillation amplitudes and increased divergence in the direction of the laser polarization. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  15. RF linear accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Wangler, Thomas P

    2008-01-01

    Thomas P. Wangler received his B.S. degree in physics from Michigan State University, and his Ph.D. degree in physics and astronomy from the University of Wisconsin. After postdoctoral appointments at the University of Wisconsin and Brookhaven National Laboratory, he joined the staff of Argonne National Laboratory in 1966, working in the fields of experimental high-energy physics and accelerator physics. He joined the Accelerator Technology Division at Los Alamos National Laboratory in 1979, where he specialized in high-current beam physics and linear accelerator design and technology. In 2007

  16. Confronting Twin Paradox Acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Thomas W.

    2016-05-01

    The resolution to the classic twin paradox in special relativity rests on the asymmetry of acceleration. Yet most students are not exposed to a satisfactory analysis of what exactly happens during the acceleration phase that results in the nonaccelerated observer's more rapid aging. The simple treatment presented here offers both graphical and quantitative solutions to the problem, leading to the correct result that the acceleration-induced age gap is 2Lβ years when the one-way distance L is expressed in light-years and velocity β ≡v/c .

  17. Accelerator Production of Radionuclides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlyer, David J.; Ruth, Thomas J.

    2012-06-01

    While many radioactive isotopes in use today are found in nature, many more are artificially produced by irradiating target materials with nuclear particles. Two different technologies can provide the energetic particles needed: nuclear reactors, which produce a flux of neutrons, and particle accelerators, which produce a flux of charged particles. This chapter will deal with the important aspects of the production of radionuclides with accelerators, along with some details on their applications, commercially-available accelerator systems used for this purpose, and the size of the equipment business.

  18. Shock compression of simulated adobe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braithwaite, C. H.; Church, P. D.; Gould, P. J.; Stewart, B.; Jardine, A. P.

    2017-01-01

    A series of plate impact experiments were conducted to investigate the shock response of a simulant for adobe, a traditional form of building material widely used around the world. Air dried bricks were sourced from the London brick company, dry machined and impacted at a range of velocities in a single stage gas gun. The shock Hugoniot was determined (Us =2.26up+0.37) as well as release information. The material was found to behave in a manner which was similar to that of loose sand and considerably less stiff than a weak porous sandstone. The effect of any cementing of the grains was examined by shocking powdered samples contained within a cell arrangement.

  19. Shock compression of liquid hydrazine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, B.O. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Chavez, D.J. [Rockwell White Sands Test Facility, Las Cruces, NM (United States)

    1995-01-01

    Liquid hydrazine (N{sub 2}H{sub 4}) is a propellant used by the Air Force and NASA for aerospace propulsion and power systems. Because the propellant modules that contain the hydrazine can be subject to debris impacts during their use, the shock states that can occur in the hydrazine need to be characterized to safely predict its response. Several shock compression experiments have been conducted in an attempt to investigate the detonability of liquid hydrazine; however, the experiments results disagree. Therefore, in this study, we reproduced each experiment numerically to evaluate in detail the shock wave profiles generated in the liquid hydrazine. This paper presents the results of each numerical simulation and compares the results to those obtained in experiment. We also present the methodology of our approach, which includes chemical kinetic experiments, chemical equilibrium calculations, and characterization of the equation of state of liquid hydrazine.

  20. Plastic Response of Thin-Walled Tubes to Detonation

    OpenAIRE

    Karnesky, J.; Damazo, J.; Shepherd, J. E.; Rusinek, A.

    2010-01-01

    Elastic and plastic deformation of tubes to internal detonations and the shock waves produced by their reflection were investigated. The study included experimental measurements as well as computational modeling. Tests with stoichiometric ethylene-oxygen mixtures were performed at various initial pressures and strain was measured on thin-walled mild-steel tubes. The range of initial pressures covered the span from entirely elastic to fully plastic deformation modes. A mod...

  1. Shock Initiation of Damaged Explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chidester, S K; Vandersall, K S; Tarver, C M

    2009-10-22

    Explosive and propellant charges are subjected to various mechanical and thermal insults that can increase their sensitivity over the course of their lifetimes. To quantify this effect, shock initiation experiments were performed on mechanically and thermally damaged LX-04 (85% HMX, 15% Viton by weight) and PBX 9502 (95% TATB, 5% Kel-F by weight) to obtain in-situ manganin pressure gauge data and run distances to detonation at various shock pressures. We report the behavior of the HMX-based explosive LX-04 that was damaged mechanically by applying a compressive load of 600 psi for 20,000 cycles, thus creating many small narrow cracks, or by cutting wedge shaped parts that were then loosely reassembled, thus creating a few large cracks. The thermally damaged LX-04 charges were heated to 190 C for long enough for the beta to delta solid - solid phase transition to occur, and then cooled to ambient temperature. Mechanically damaged LX-04 exhibited only slightly increased shock sensitivity, while thermally damaged LX-04 was much more shock sensitive. Similarly, the insensitive explosive PBX 9502 was mechanically damaged using the same two techniques. Since PBX 9502 does not undergo a solid - solid phase transition but does undergo irreversible or 'rachet' growth when thermally cycled, thermal damage to PBX 9502 was induced by this procedure. As for LX-04, the thermally damaged PBX 9502 demonstrated a greater shock sensitivity than mechanically damaged PBX 9502. The Ignition and Growth reactive flow model calculated the increased sensitivities by igniting more damaged LX-04 and PBX 9502 near the shock front based on the measured densities (porosities) of the damaged charges.

  2. A Comparison of SEP Ionic Charge States in Local Shock and Impulsive Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popecki, M. A.; Moebius, E.; Galvin, A. B.; Kistler, L. M.; Kucharek, H.; Klecker, B.

    2002-12-01

    The SEPICA instrument on the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) spacecraft has measured ionic charge states of solar energetic particles (SEPs) from late 1997 through 2000. Charge state measurements provide insights about the acceleration and propagation history of SEPs. In impulsive events, SEP charge states provide information about the flare environment, where source heating and collisions are important. In interplanetary shock events, SEP charge states are diagnostics of the rigidity-dependent acceleration process and particle seed populations. For example, 3He enrichment has been observed in some events with a local shock passage (Desai et al., 2001). An enhancement in high charge state Fe has also been observed in these events (Popecki et al., 2001). This suggests that the seed population for the interplanetary shock contained ions previously accelerated in flares. SEP charge states from impulsive events will be compared to those from events with a local shock passage (ESP events). In addition, the ESP events wil be separated into those with and without 3He enrichment. Results will be presented in the context of mission-integrated ionic charge state distributions for each species.

  3. HIGH-ENERGY NEUTRINO AND GAMMA-RAY TRANSIENTS FROM TRANS-RELATIVISTIC SUPERNOVA SHOCK BREAKOUTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashiyama, Kazumi; Gao, Shan; Meszaros, Peter [Center for Particle and Gravitational Astrophysics, Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Murase, Kohta; Horiuchi, Shunsaku, E-mail: kzk15@psu.edu [CCAPP and Department of Physics, Ohio State University, 191 W. Woodruff Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

    2013-05-20

    Trans-relativistic shocks that accompany some supernovae (SNe) produce X-ray burst emissions as they break out in the dense circumstellar medium around the progenitors. This phenomenon is sometimes associated with peculiar low-luminosity gamma-ray bursts (LL GRBs). Here, we investigate the high-energy neutrino and gamma-ray counterparts of such a class of SNe. Just beyond the shock breakout radius, particle acceleration in the collisionless shock starts to operate in the presence of breakout photons. We show that protons may be accelerated to sufficiently high energies and produce high-energy neutrinos and gamma rays via the photomeson interaction. These neutrinos and gamma rays may be detectable from {approx}< 10 Mpc away by IceCube/KM3Net as multi-TeV transients almost simultaneously with the X-ray breakout, and even from {approx}< 100 Mpc away with follow-up observations by the Cherenkov Telescope Array using a wide-field sky monitor like Swift as a trigger. A statistical technique using a stacking approach could also be possible for the detection, with the aid of the SN optical/infrared counterparts. Such multi-messenger observations offer the possibility to probe the transition of trans-relativistic shocks from radiation-mediated to collisionless ones, and would also constrain the mechanisms of particle acceleration and emission in LL GRBs.

  4. Analysis of Closure Characteristics of a MEMS Omnidirectional Inertial Switch under Shock Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Cao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary theoretical method for calculating contact time of a dual mass-spring system applied to shock acceleration was proposed based on the MEMS omnidirectional inertial switch. The influence of relevant parameters on the contact time was analyzed, and the theoretical results were in agreement with the simulation predictions. The theoretical method could provide the design of MEMS inertial switch for prolonged contact time. The system stiffness of the mass-spring system in all directions was obtained by using the FE method. Dynamic contact simulation results of contact time in typical directions under the applied shock acceleration indicate that the switch has a contact time within the range of 33 μs to 95 μs and has an enhanced contact effect with the dual mass-spring system in the MEMS inertial switch. The fabricated switches were tested by a shock test device. The results show that the switch can be reliably closed in all directions under the applied shock acceleration and has a long contact time, which is basically in accordance with the theoretical results.

  5. Supercriticality of ICME and CIR shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaoyan; Smith, Edward J.

    2015-03-01

    Interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME) and corotating interaction region (CIR) shocks are characterized in terms of supercriticality introduced by Edmiston and Kennel (1984) to classify shocks based on whether dissipation is provided by electron resistivity alone or also requires ion viscosity. The condition for determining supercriticality is a critical Mach number, MC, a function of θBn, the angle between the upstream magnetic field, B, and the normal to the shock surface, n, and β, the ratio of the plasma and magnetic pressures. The criterion was subsequently revised by Kennel (1987) to include dissipation by electron thermal as well as electrical conductivity. Two early separate studies of ICME and CIR shocks motivated our investigation that included several improvements. We use Kennel (1987) and shocks identified by WIND near 1 AU and by Ulysses near 5 AU from the same solar cycle to provide Occurrence Probability Distributions and statistical information for all parameters. We answer three questions (1) Is the supercriticality of ICME and CIR shocks different? (2) If so, why? (3) Does the latter MC criterion change the answers? Our conclusions are (1) about two thirds of CIR shocks are supercritical as compared to one third of ICME shocks, (2) although ICME shock speeds are typically higher than CIR shocks, the fast-mode wave speeds are even higher at 1 AU than that of CIR shocks at ~5 AU causing a reduction in Mach numbers, and (3) CIR shocks are also more supercritical than ICME shocks using both criteria with slight differences.

  6. Non-accelerator experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldhaber, M.

    1986-01-01

    This report discusses several topics which can be investigated without the use of accelerators. Topics covered are: (1) proton decay, (2) atmospheric neutrinos, (3) neutrino detection, (4) muons from Cygnus X-3, and (5) the double-beta decay.

  7. Macromolecular ion accelerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Yun-Fei; Lin, Jung-Lee; Lai, Szu-Hsueh; Chu, Ming-Lee; Wang, Yi-Sheng; Chen, Chung-Hsuan

    2012-07-03

    Presented herein are the development of macromolecular ion accelerator (MIA) and the results obtained by MIA. This new instrument utilizes a consecutive series of planar electrodes for the purpose of facilitating stepwise acceleration. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) is employed to generate singly charged macromolecular ions. A regular Z-gap microchannel plate (MCP) detector is mounted at the end of the accelerator to record the ion signals. In this work, we demonstrated the detection of ions with the mass-to-charge (m/z) ratio reaching 30,000,000. Moreover, we showed that singly charged biomolecular ions can be accelerated with the voltage approaching 1 MV, offering the evidence that macromolecular ions can possess much higher kinetic energy than ever before.

  8. The next big accelerator

    CERN Multimedia

    Cramer, J G

    2002-01-01

    Accelerator physics in the US has been devastated by the cancellation of two high-energy physics colliders facilities. However there are future plans. A suggestion is made to build the new collider in the Australian outback.

  9. Accelerated learning in Afghanistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Capacci Carneal

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Most accelerated learning (AL programmes are ‘catch up’ initiatives to assist out-of-school youth into formal education. But what happens when adults join and complete AL classes?

  10. DIELECTRIC WALL ACCELERATOR TECHNOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sampayan, S; Caporaso, G; Chen, Y; Harris, J; Hawkins, S; Holmes, C; Nelson, S; Poole, B; Rhodes, M; Sanders, D; Sullivan, J; Wang, L; Watson, J

    2007-10-18

    The dielectric wall accelerator (DWA) is a compact pulsed power device where the pulse forming lines, switching, and vacuum wall are integrated into a single compact geometry. For this effort, we initiated a extensive compact pulsed power development program and have pursued the study of switching (gas, oil, laser induced surface flashover and photoconductive), dielectrics (ceramics and nanoparticle composites), pulse forming line topologies (asymmetric and symmetric Blumleins and zero integral pulse forming lines), and multilayered vacuum insulator (HGI) technology. Finally, we fabricated an accelerator cell for test on ETAII (a 5.5 MeV, 2 kA, 70 ns pulsewidth electron beam accelerator). We review our past results and report on the progress of accelerator cell testing.

  11. Rejuvenating CERN's Accelerators

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    In the coming years and especially in 2005, CERN's accelerators are going to receive an extensive renovation programme to ensure they will perform reliably and effectively when the LHC comes into service.

  12. SPS accelerating cavity

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1983-01-01

    View towards the downstream end of one of the SPS accelerating cavities (200 MHz, travelling wave structure). See 7603195 and 8011289 for more details, 7411032 for the travelling wave structure, and also 8104138.

  13. Linear Accelerator (LINAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... View full size with caption Related Articles and Media External Beam Therapy (EBT) Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) Image-guided Radiation Therapy (IGRT) Stereotactic Radiosurgery (SRS) and Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy (SBRT) Images related to Linear Accelerator Sponsored ...

  14. Joint International Accelerator School

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Accelerator School

    2014-01-01

    The CERN and US Particle Accelerator Schools recently organised a Joint International Accelerator School on Beam Loss and Accelerator Protection, held at the Hyatt Regency Hotel, Newport Beach, California, USA from 5-14 November 2014. This Joint School was the 13th in a series of such schools, which started in 1985 and also involves the accelerator communities in Japan and Russia.   Photo courtesy of Alfonse Pham, Michigan State University.   The school attracted 58 participants representing 22 different nationalities, with around half from Europe and the other half from Asia and the Americas. The programme comprised 26 lectures, each of 90 minutes, and 13 hours of case study. The students were given homework each day and had an opportunity to sit a final exam, which counted towards university credit. Feedback from the participants was extremely positive, praising the expertise and enthusiasm of the lecturers, as well as the high standard and quality of their lectures. Initial dis...

  15. Shock Ignition Sensitivity of Multiply-Shocked TNT

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-07-01

    lated by the procedures outlined in the preceding section. The time duration of pressure at each level is simply the reverberation time of a shock wave in...propagate into the TNT sample. In some of our early firings where 3.2 m thick poly was used as the first plate (2psec reverberation time ) the second

  16. Amps particle accelerator definition study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellen, J. M., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The Particle Accelerator System of the AMPS (Atmospheric, Magnetospheric, and Plasmas in Space) payload is a series of charged particle accelerators to be flown with the Space Transportation System Shuttle on Spacelab missions. In the configuration presented, the total particle accelerator system consists of an energetic electron beam, an energetic ion accelerator, and both low voltage and high voltage plasma acceleration devices. The Orbiter is illustrated with such a particle accelerator system.

  17. Shock Modifications of Organic Compounds in Carbonaceous Chondrite Parent Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, George W.

    1998-01-01

    Impacts among asteroidal objects would have altered or destroyed pre-existing organic matter in both targets and projectiles to a greater or lesser degree depending upon impact velocities. To begin filling a knowledge gap on the shock metamorphism of organic compounds, we are studying the effects of shock impacts on selected classes of organic compounds utilizing laboratory shock facilities. Our approach is to subject mixtures of organic compounds, embedded in the matrix of the Murchison meteorite, to simulated hypervelocity impacts by firing them into targets at various pressures. The mixtures are then analyzed to determine the amount of each compound that survives as well as to determine if new compounds are being synthesized. The initial compounds added to the matrix (with the exception of thiosulfate). The sulfonic acids were chosen in part because they are relatively abundant in Murchison, relatively stable, and because they and the phosphonic acids are the first well-characterized homologous series of organic sulfur and phosphorus compounds identified in an extraterrestrial material. Experimental procedures were more fully described in the original proposal. A 20 mm gun, with its barrel extending into a vacuum chamber (10(exp -2) torr), was used to launch the projectile containing the sample at approx. 1.6 km/sec (3,600 mi/hr) into the target material. Maximum pressure of impact depend on target/projectile materials. The target was sufficiently thin to assure minimum pressure decay over the total sample thickness.

  18. Investigation of Surface Phenomena in Shocked Tin in Converging Geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rousculp, Christopher L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Oro, David Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Griego, Jeffrey Randall [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Turchi, Peter John [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Reinovsky, Robert Emil [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bradley, Joseph Thomas [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cheng, Baolian [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Freeman, Matthew Stouten [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Patten, Austin Randall [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2016-03-21

    There is great interest in the behavior of the free surface of tin under shock loading. While it is known that meso-scale surface imperfections can seed the Richtmyer- Meshkov Instability (RMI) for a surface that is melted on release, much less is known about a tin surface that is solid, but plastically deforming. Here material properties such as shear and yield strength come into play especially in converging geometry. Previous experiments have been driven by direct contact HE. Usually a thin, flat target coupon is fielded with various single-mode, sinusoidal, machined, profiles on the free surface. The free surface is adjacent to either vacuum or an inert receiver gas. Most of these previous driver/target configurations have been nominal planer geometry. With modern HE it has been straightforward to shock tin into melt on release. However it has been challenging to achieve a low enough pressure for solid state on release. Here we propose to extend the existing base of knowledge to include the behavior of the free surface of tin in cylindrical converging geometry. By shock loading a cylindrical tin shell with a magnetically driven cylindrical liner impactor, the free surface evolution can be diagnosed with proton radiography. With the PHELIX capacitor bank, the drive can easily be varied to span the pressure range to achieve solid, mixed, and liquid states on release. A conceptual cylindrical liner and target is shown in Figure 1.

  19. Investigation of Surface Phenomena in Shocked Tin in Converging Geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rousculp, Christopher L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Oro, David Michael [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Margolin, Len G. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Griego, Jeffrey Randall [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Reinovsky, Robert Emil [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Turchi, Peter John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-08-06

    There is great interest in the behavior of the free surface of tin under shock loading. While it is known that meso-scale surface imperfections can seed the Richtmyer-Meshkov Instability (RMI) for a surface that is melted on release, much less is known about a tin surface that is solid, but plastically deforming. Here material properties such as shear and yield strength come into play especially in converging geometry. Previous experiments have been driven by direct contact HE. Usually a thin, flat target coupon is fielded with various single-mode, sinusoidal, machined, profiles on the free surface. The free surface is adjacent to either vacuum or an inert receiver gas. Most of these previous driver/target configurations have been nominal planer geometry. With modern HE it has been straightforward to shock tin into melt on release. However it has been challenging to achieve a low enough pressure for solid state on release. Here we propose to extend the existing base of knowledge to include the behavior of the free surface of tin in cylindrical converging geometry. By shock loading a cylindrical tin shell with a magnetically driven cylindrical liner impactor, the free surface evolution can be diagnosed with proton radiography. With the PHELIX capacitor bank, the drive can easily be varied to span the pressure range to achieve solid, mixed, and liquid states on release.

  20. LHCb GPU Acceleration Project

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)744808; Campora Perez, Daniel Hugo; Neufeld, Niko; Vilasis Cardona, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    The LHCb detector is due to be upgraded for processing high-luminosity collisions, which will increase the load on its computation infrastructure from 100 GB/s to 4 TB/s, encouraging us to look for new ways of accelerating the Online reconstruction. The Coprocessor Manager is our new framework for integrating LHCb’s existing computation pipelines with massively parallel algorithms running on GPUs and other accelerators. This paper describes the system and analyzes its performance.