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Sample records for shoal area churchill

  1. 2014 Well Completion Report for Corrective Action Unit 447 Project Shoal Area Churchill County, Nevada October 2015

    Findlay, Rick [US Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States).Office of Legacy Management

    2015-11-01

    This report summarizes the drilling program conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management at the Project Shoal Area (Shoal) Subsurface Corrective Action Unit 447 in Churchill County, Nevada. Shoal was the location of an underground nuclear test conducted on October 26, 1963, as part of the Vela Uniform program sponsored jointly by the U.S. Department of Defense and the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (a predecessor to DOE). The test consisted of detonating a 12-kiloton nuclear device in granitic rock at a depth of approximately 1,211 feet (ft) below ground surface (bgs) (AEC 1964). The corrective action strategy for the site is focused on revising the site conceptual model and evaluating the adequacy of the monitoring well network at the site. Field activities associated with the project were conducted in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO 1996, as amended) and applicable Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) policies and regulations.

  2. Well Completion Report for Corrective Action Unit 447, Project Shoal Area, Churchill County, Nevada

    Rick Findlay

    2006-01-01

    This Well Completion Report is being provided as part of the implementation of the Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD)/Corrective Action Plan (CAP) for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 447 (NNSA/NSO, 2006a). The CADD/CAP is part of an ongoing U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) funded project for the investigation of CAU 447 at the Project Shoal Area (PSA). All work performed on this project was conducted in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) (1996), and all applicable Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) policies and regulations. Investigation activities included the drilling, construction, and development of three monitoring/validation (MV) wells at the PSA. This report summarizes the field activities and data collected during the investigation

  3. Analysis of borehole-radar reflection logs from selected HC boreholes at the Project Shoal area, Churchill County, Nevada; TOPICAL

    Lane, J.W. Jr.; Joesten, P.K.; Pohll, Greg; Mihevic, Todd

    2001-01-01

    Single-hole borehole-radar reflection logs were collected and interpreted in support of a study to characterize ground-water flow and transport at the Project Shoal Area (PSA) in Churchill County, Nevada. Radar logging was conducted in six boreholes using 60-MHz omni-directional electric-dipole antennas and a 60-MHz magnetic-dipole directional receiving antenna. Radar data from five boreholes were interpreted to identify the location, orientation, estimated length, and spatial continuity of planar reflectors present in the logs. The overall quality of the radar data is marginal and ranges from very poor to good. Twenty-seven reflectors were interpreted from the directional radar reflection logs. Although the range of orientation interpreted for the reflectors is large, a significant number of reflectors strike northeast-southwest and east-west to slightly northwest-southeast. Reflectors are moderate to steeply dipping and reflector length ranged from less than 7 m to more than 133 m. Qualitative scores were assigned to each reflector to provide a sense of the spatial continuity of the reflector and the characteristics of the field data relative to an ideal planar reflector (orientation score). The overall orientation scores are low, which reflects the general data quality, but also indicates that the properties of most reflectors depart from the ideal planar case. The low scores are consistent with reflections from fracture zones that contain numerous, closely spaced, sub-parallel fractures. Interpretation of borehole-radar direct-wave velocity and amplitude logs identified several characteristics of the logged boreholes: (1) low-velocity zones correlate with decreased direct-wave amplitude, indicating the presence of fracture zones; (2) direct-wave amplitude increases with depth in three of the boreholes, suggesting an increase in electrical resistivity with depth resulting from changes in mineral assemblage or from a decrease in the specific conductance of ground

  4. Analysis of borehole-radar reflection logs from selected HC boreholes at the Project Shoal area, Churchill County, Nevada

    Lane, J.W.; Joesten, P.K.; Pohll, G.M.; Mihevic, Todd

    2001-01-01

    Single-hole borehole-radar reflection logs were collected and interpreted in support of a study to characterize ground-water flow and transport at the Project Shoal Area (PSA) in Churchill County, Nevada. Radar logging was conducted in six boreholes using 60-MHz omni-directional electric-dipole antennas and a 60-MHz magnetic-dipole directional receiving antenna.Radar data from five boreholes were interpreted to identify the location, orientation, estimated length, and spatial continuity of planar reflectors present in the logs. The overall quality of the radar data is marginal and ranges from very poor to good. Twenty-seven reflectors were interpreted from the directional radar reflection logs. Although the range of orientation interpreted for the reflectors is large, a significant number of reflectors strike northeast-southwest and east-west to slightly northwest-southeast. Reflectors are moderate to steeply dipping and reflector length ranged from less than 7 m to more than 133 m.Qualitative scores were assigned to each reflector to provide a sense of the spatial continuity of the reflector and the characteristics of the field data relative to an ideal planar reflector (orientation score). The overall orientation scores are low, which reflects the general data quality, but also indicates that the properties of most reflectors depart from the ideal planar case. The low scores are consistent with reflections from fracture zones that contain numerous, closely spaced, sub-parallel fractures.Interpretation of borehole-radar direct-wave velocity and amplitude logs identified several characteristics of the logged boreholes: (1) low-velocity zones correlate with decreased direct-wave amplitude, indicating the presence of fracture zones; (2) direct-wave amplitude increases with depth in three of the boreholes, suggesting an increase in electrical resistivity with depth resulting from changes in mineral assemblage or from a decrease in the specific conductance of ground

  5. Well Completion Report for Corrective Action Unit 447, Project Shoal Area, Churchill County, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    Rick Findlay

    2006-09-01

    This Well Completion Report is being provided as part of the implementation of the Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD)/Corrective Action Plan (CAP) for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 447 (NNSA/NSO, 2006a). The CADD/CAP is part of an ongoing U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) funded project for the investigation of CAU 447 at the Project Shoal Area (PSA). All work performed on this project was conducted in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) (1996), and all applicable Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) policies and regulations. Investigation activities included the drilling, construction, and development of three monitoring/validation (MV) wells at the PSA. This report summarizes the field activities and data collected during the investigation.

  6. Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program. Project Shoal site, Sand Springs Range, Churchill County, Nevada

    1984-05-01

    The Shoal site is located in Churchill County in the northern part of the Sand Springs Range, approximately 30 miles (48.3 kilometers) southeast of Fallon, Nevada. Project Shoal, with a yield of 12 kilotons, was detonated October 26, 1963. It was conducted as part of the Vela program to obtain event measurements relating to the detection of underground nuclear detonations. The purpose of the Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program at the Shoal site is to obtain data that will assure public safety; inform the public, the news media, and the scientific community relative to radiological contamination; and to document compliance with federal, state, and local antipollution requirements. The Shoal site geographical setting, climate, geology, and hydrology are described. Site history, including Shoal event information and Shoal monitoring is described. The final radiological surveys following the Shoal site cleanup described in this report indicate that there are no radiation levels above natural background on or near the land surface and that no hazard exists or is likely to occur during public use of the surface of the Shoal site. The Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program for the Shoal site is described. 17 references, 4 figures

  7. DNA barcoding facilitates associations and diagnoses for Trichoptera larvae of the Churchill (Manitoba, Canada) area.

    Ruiter, David E; Boyle, Elizabeth E; Zhou, Xin

    2013-02-20

    The North American Trichoptera larvae are poorly known at the species level, despite their importance in the understanding of freshwater fauna and critical use in biomonitoring. This study focused on morphological diagnoses for larvae occurring in the Churchill, Manitoba area, representing the largest larval association effort for the caddisflies at any given locality thus far. The current DNA barcode reference library of Trichoptera (available on the Barcode of Life Data Systems) was utilized to provide larval-adult associations. The present study collected an additional 23 new species records for the Churchill area, increasing the total Trichoptera richness to 91 species. We were able to associate 62 larval taxa, comprising 68.1% of the Churchill area Trichoptera taxa. This endeavor to identify immature life stage for the caddisflies enabled the development of morphological diagnoses, production of photographs and an appropriate taxonomic key to facilitate larval species analyses in the area. The use of DNA for associations of unknown larvae with known adults proved rapid and successful. This method should accelerate the state-of-knowledge for North American Trichoptera larvae as well as other taxonomic lineages. The morphological analysis should be useful for determination of material from the Churchill area.

  8. Closure report for CAU No. 416: Project Shoal Area

    1998-01-01

    This Closure Report provides the documentation for closure of the US Department of Energy/Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) Project Shoal Area (PSA) Surface Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 416. CAU 416 consists of a mud pit, muckpile, and housekeeping site. The PSA is located approximately 48.3 kilometers (30 miles) southeast of Fallon, Nevada. The mud pit was the result of drilling activities at the PSA in 1963. Investigation activities completed in 1996 determined drilling mud in the mud pit was impacted with petroleum hydrocarbons in excess of the State of Nevada 100 milligram per kilogram (mg/kg). The muckpile consists of broken granite from emplacement shaft and drift (tunnel) mining activities at the PSA in 1963. The housekeeping site consisted of approximately 20 used, empty, rusted, steel 0.9 liter (1 quart) oil cans

  9. Fluid management plan for the Project Shoal Area Offsites Subproject

    1996-08-01

    The US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) has initiated the Offsites Subproject to characterize the hazards posed to human health and the environment as a result of underground nuclear testing activities at facilities other than the Nevada Test Site (NTS). A primary Subproject objective is to gather adequate data to characterize the various Subproject sites through the collection of surface and subsurface soil samples and by drilling several wells for the collection of groundwater data. The Project Shoal Area (PSA) is one of the Subproject's Nevada sites and is subject to the requirements set forth in the Federal Facility Compliance Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) (DOE, 1996a). In accordance with the FFACO, a Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) has been developed for work at the PSA (designated as Corrective Action Unit Number 416). This Fluid Management Plan (FMP) provides guidance for the management of fluids generated from wells constructed at the PSA. Long-term monitoring and future activities at the site, if required, will be set forth in additional documents as required by the FFACO. The ultimate method for disposition of fluids generated by site operations depends upon sample analysis and process knowledge in relation to fluid management criteria. Section 2 describes well site operations; Section 3 discusses fluid management criteria; Section 4 includes the fluid monitoring program; Section 5 presents the fluid management strategy; Section 6 provides for fluid management during routine well monitoring; and Section 7 contains reporting criteria

  10. Quantifying Sediment Characteristics and Infilling Rate within a Ship Shoal Dredge Borrow Area, Offshore Louisiana

    Xue, Z.; Wilson, C.; Bentley, S. J.; Xu, K.; Liu, H.; Li, C.; Miner, M. D.

    2017-12-01

    Barrier islands provide protection to interior wetlands and maintain estuarine gradients. Mississippi River delta plain barrier islands are undergoing rapid disintegration due to high rates of subsidence and a deficit in the coastal sand supply. To mitigate for barrier island land loss, Louisiana has implemented a restoration program that intends to supplement coastal sand deficits by introducing sand from outside of the active coastal system. Inner-shelf shoals offshore Louisiana are one of the only sand resource options containing large volumes of restoration quality sand. Ship Shoal is one of these inner-shelf shoals that was produced by marine reworking of former Mississippi River Delta barrier island sediments during late Holocene time. Though indirect effects to protected areas or infrastructure adjacent to excavations have been considered, there is a paucity of observational data on their evolution. Caminada borrow area, dredged in 2013-2016 for the Caminada Headland Restoration Project, provides a valuable opportunity to validate and improve predictive models for how borrow areas evolve. In July 2017, a subbottom and bathymetric geophysical survey was conducted and sediment cores were collected to test the hypothesis that sedimentation within the excavation is affected by lateral bedload transport after initial rapid infill as slopes equilibrate. Preliminary results show the sediment within the excavation is predominantly very fine sand with isolated mud drapes. These sediments overlay older delta complex muddy strata. This contrasts strongly with other dredge pits outside of shoal areas and closer to shore, which have been infilled largely by advection of fine suspended sediments of fluvial origin. Laboratory work on cores will include laser grain size, x-ray analyses of sedimentary structures, and radiochemistry analyses for rates and age of deposition. With the knowledge of stratigraphy and sediment dynamics surrounding the dredge pit, we can quantify

  11. Development of a Groundwater Management Model for the Project Shoal Area

    G. Lamorey; S. Bassett; R. Schumer; D. Boyle; G. Pohll; J. Chapman

    2006-09-01

    This document describes the development of a user-friendly and efficient groundwater management model of the Project Shoal Area (PSA and surrounding area that will allow the U.S. Department of Energy and State of Nevada personnel to evaluate the impact of proposed water-use scenarios. The management model consists of a simple hydrologic model within an interactive groundwater management framework. This framework is based on an object user interface that was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey and has been used by the Desert Research Institute researchers and others to couple disparate environmental resource models, manage temporal and spatial data, and evaluate model results for management decision making. This framework was modified and applied to the PSA and surrounding Fairview Basin. The utility of the management model was demonstrated through the application of hypothetical future scenarios including mineral mining, regional expansion of agriculture, and export of water to large urban areas outside the region. While the results from some of the scenarios indicated potential impacts to groundwater levels near the PSA and others did not, together they demonstrate the utility of the management tool for the evaluation of proposed changes in groundwater use in or near the PSA.

  12. Sediment Transport and Slope Stability of Ship Shoal Borrow Areas for Coastal Restoration of Louisiana

    Liu, H.; Xu, K.; Bentley, S. J.; Li, C.; Miner, M. D.; Wilson, C.; Xue, Z.

    2017-12-01

    Sandy barrier islands along Louisiana coast are degrading rapidly due to both natural and anthropogenic factors. Ship Shoal is one of the largest offshore sand resources, and has been used as a borrow area for Caminada Headland Restoration Project. Our knowledge of sediment transport and infilling processes in this new sandy and dynamic borrow area is rather limited. High resolution sub-bottom seismic data, side scan sonar images, multi-beam bathymetry and laser sediment grain size data were used to study seafloor morphological evolution and pit wall stability in response to both physical and geological processes. The multi-beam bathymetry and seismic profiling inside the pit showed that disequilibrium conditions led to rapid infilling in the pits at the beginning, but this process slowed down after the pit slope became stable and topography became smooth. We hypothesize that the erosion of the adjacent seabed sediment by energetic waves and longshore currents, the supply of suspended sediment from the rivers, and the erodible materials produced by local mass wasting on pit walls are three main types of infilling sediments. Compared with mud-capped dredge pits, this sandy dredge pit seems to have more gentle slopes on pit walls, which might be controlled by the angle of repose. Infilling sediment seems to be dominantly sandy, with some mud patches on bathymetric depressions. This study helps us better understand the impacts of mining sediment for coastal restoration and improves sand resource management efforts.

  13. Water-level changes and directions of ground-water flow in the shallow aquifer, Fallon area, Churchill County, Nevada

    Seiler, R.L.; Allander, K.K.

    1993-01-01

    The Truckee-Carson-Pyramid Lake Water Rights Settlement Act of 1990 directed the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to acquire water rights for wetland areas in the Carson Desert, Nevada. The public is concerned that htis acquisition of water rights and delivery of the water directly to wildlife areas would result in less recharge to the shallow ground water in the Fallon area and cause domestic wells to go dry. In January 1992, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, began a study of the shallow ground-water system in the Fallon area in Churchill County, Nevada. A network of 126 wells in the study area was monitored. Between January and November 1992, water levels in most wells declined, usually less than 2 feet. The maximum measured decline over this period was 2.68 feet in a well near Stillwater Marsh. Between April and July, however, water levels rose in irrigated areas, typically 1 to 2 feet. Newlands Project water deliveries to the study area began soon after the turn of the century. Since then, water levels have risen more than 15 feet across much of the study area. Water lost from unlined irrigtiaon canals caused the stage in Big Soda Lake to rise nearly 60 feet; ground-water levels near the lake have risen 30 to 40 feet. The depth to water in most irrigated areas is now less than 10 feet. The altitude of the water table ranges from 4.025 feet above sea level 11 miles west of Fallon to 3,865 feet in the Stillwater Marsh area. Ground water flows eastward and divides; some flow goes to the northeast toward the Carson Sink and Stillwater areas, and some goes southeastward to Carson Lake.

  14. 2015 Groundwater Monitoring Report Project Shoal Area: Subsurface Correction Unit 447

    Findlay, Rick [Navarro Research and Engineering, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The Project Shoal Area in Nevada was the site of a 12-kiloton-yield underground nuclear test in 1963. Although the surface of the site has been remediated, investigation of groundwater contamination resulting from the test is still in the corrective action process. Annual sampling and hydraulic head monitoring are conducted at the site as part of the subsurface corrective action strategy. The corrective action strategy is currently focused on revising the site conceptual model (SCM) and evaluating the adequacy of the monitoring well network. Some aspects of the SCM are known; however, two major concerns are the uncertainty in the groundwater flow direction and the cause of rising water levels in site wells west of the shear zone. Water levels have been rising in the site wells west of the shear zone since the first hydrologic characterization wells were installed in 1996. Although water levels in wells west of the shear zone continue to rise, the rate of increase is less than in previous years. The SCM will be revised, and an evaluation of the groundwater monitoring network will be conducted when water levels at the site have stabilized to the agreement of both the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management and the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection.

  15. Groundwater Model Validation for the Project Shoal Area, Corrective Action Unit 447

    Hassan, Ahmed [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States). Division of Hydrologic Sciences; Chapman, Jenny [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States). Division of Hydrologic Sciences; Lyles, Brad [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States). Division of Hydrologic Sciences

    2008-05-19

    Stoller has examined newly collected water level data in multiple wells at the Shoal site. On the basis of these data and information presented in the report, we are currently unable to confirm that the model is successfully validated. Most of our concerns regarding the model stem from two findings: (1) measured water level data do not provide clear evidence of a prevailing lateral flow direction; and (2) the groundwater flow system has been and continues to be in a transient state, which contrasts with assumed steady-state conditions in the model. The results of DRI's model validation efforts and observations made regarding water level behavior are discussed in the following sections. A summary of our conclusions and recommendations for a path forward are also provided in this letter report.

  16. The Winston Churchill Memorial Trust of Australia

    Hilton, Nicolette

    2013-01-01

    The Churchill Trust was established in 1965 to honour the memory of Sir Winston Churchill by awarding overseas research Fellowships known as "Churchill Fellowships". Since its inception, The Churchill Trust has awarded Churchill Fellowships to more than 3,700 Australians who, like Churchill, are innovative, filled with a spirit of…

  17. Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 447: Project Shoal Area, Subsurface, Nevada, Rev. No.: 3 with Errata Sheet

    Tim Echelard

    2006-03-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan (CADD/CAP) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 447, Project Shoal Area (PSA)-Subsurface, Nevada, in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) (1996). Corrective Action Unit 447 is located in the Sand Springs Mountains in Churchill County, Nevada, approximately 48 kilometers (30 miles) southeast of Fallon, Nevada. The CADD/CAP combines the decision document (CADD) with the Corrective Action Plan (CAP) and provides or references the specific information necessary to recommend corrective actions for CAU 447, as provided in the FFACO. Corrective Action Unit 447 consists of two corrective action sites (CASs): CAS 57-49-01, Emplacement Shaft, and CAS 57-57-001, Cavity. The emplacement shaft (CAS-57-49-01) was backfilled and plugged in 1996 and will not be evaluated further. The purpose of the CADD portion of the document (Section 1.0 to Section 4.0) is to identify and provide a rationale for the selection of a recommended corrective action alternative for the subsurface at PSA. To achieve this, the following tasks were required: (1) Develop corrective action objectives. (2) Identify corrective action alternative screening criteria. (3) Develop corrective action alternatives. (4) Perform detailed and comparative evaluations of the corrective action alternatives in relation to the corrective action objectives and screening criteria. (5) Recommend a preferred corrective action alternative for the subsurface at PSA. The original Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) for the PSA was approved in September 1996 and described a plan to drill and test four characterization wells, followed by flow and transport modeling (DOE/NV, 1996). The resultant drilling is described in a data report (DOE/NV, 1998e) and the data analysis and modeling in an interim modeling report (Pohll et al., 1998). After considering the results of the modeling effort

  18. Lower Churchill project

    Gilbert, B. [Nalcor Energy, St. John' s, Newfoundland (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    This paper discusses the Lower Churchill Hydroelectric Generation Project in Newfoundland Labrador. The project is of national interest as it creates jobs and benefits across Canada. It provides inter provincial electricity grid integration, provides significant contribution to lower emissions and enables development of other renewable generation.

  19. Churchill, Moran and the struggle for survival.

    Beasley, A W

    2010-12-01

    This paper examines the association between Winston Churchill and Charles McMoran Wilson, later Lord Moran, who was made personal physician to Churchill in 1940 at the instigation of the Cabinet when Churchill became prime minister of wartime Britain.

  20. Validation, Proof-of-Concept, and Postaudit of the Groundwater Flow and Transport Model of the Project Shoal Area

    Ahmed Hassan

    2004-01-01

    The groundwater flow and radionuclide transport model characterizing the Shoal underground nuclear test has been accepted by the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection. According to the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) between DOE and the State of Nevada, the next steps in the closure process for the site are then model validation (or postaudit), the proof-of-concept, and the long-term monitoring stage. This report addresses the development of the validation strategy for the Shoal model, needed for preparing the subsurface Corrective Action Decision Document-Corrective Action Plan and the development of the proof-of-concept tools needed during the five-year monitoring/validation period. The approach builds on a previous model, but is adapted and modified to the site-specific conditions and challenges of the Shoal site

  1. Validation, Proof-of-Concept, and Postaudit of the Groundwater Flow and Transport Model of the Project Shoal Area

    Ahmed Hassan

    2004-09-01

    The groundwater flow and radionuclide transport model characterizing the Shoal underground nuclear test has been accepted by the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection. According to the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) between DOE and the State of Nevada, the next steps in the closure process for the site are then model validation (or postaudit), the proof-of-concept, and the long-term monitoring stage. This report addresses the development of the validation strategy for the Shoal model, needed for preparing the subsurface Corrective Action Decision Document-Corrective Action Plan and the development of the proof-of-concept tools needed during the five-year monitoring/validation period. The approach builds on a previous model, but is adapted and modified to the site-specific conditions and challenges of the Shoal site.

  2. Churchill, Europe and Turkey

    Warren Dockter

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available From the early 1930s until his peace time premiership (1951-1955, Winston Churchill was one of the strongest advocates of the concept of a United Europe. While this is well known among scholars of 20th century British history, Churchill’s actual vision for what a United Europe might look like has received less attention. Still less attention has been paid to Churchill’s opinions of the roles other nations might play within the new Europe. This article will examine Churchill’s view of Turkey in the new European order and will reveal that Churchill saw Turkey as a part of, (or at least an extension of Europe. However, this article will also reveal that Churchill’s conceptualisation of Turkey’s role was largely predicated on 19th century geostrategic thinking.

  3. Churchill on Stalin: A note.

    Ellman, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this note is to draw attention to two limitations of Churchill's war memoirs as a source of accurate information about Stalin, his views ans actions. they concern, first Stalin's alleged remarks in 1942 about collectivisation, and second Stalin's allleged response to Churchill's

  4. Backgrounder : 1998 historic resources overview assessment, Churchill River power project

    1999-01-01

    A survey was conducted to gather information regarding the history of land-use of the Innu Nation of Labrador. The survey was made possible through research into land use and documentary sources plus the analysis of geomorphologic features and air photos. The areas of the survey included portions of the Strait of Belle Isle, Churchill Valley, proposed transmission routes of the Churchill Power Project, and survey lines at Atikonak Lake. Over 65 historical and traditional land-use sites were recorded, including two major Hudson Bay Company fur-trading posts in the Churchill Valley. This survey will be important in helping to ensure that important sites are not destroyed as a result of the proposed Churchill Power Project

  5. El Paciente Winston Churchill

    Alfredo Jácome Roca

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available

    El 24 de enero de 1965 moría Sir Winston Churchill, unos dos meses después de haber cumplido su nonagésimo aniversario y a los 9 días de haber entrado en coma por un tercer y último accidente cerebro vascular.

    Fue un hombre extraordinario, el mejor estadista que ha tenido Inglaterra y uno de los personajes
    más importantes del siglo XX.

    Fue longevo a pesar de su agitada existencia y de la presencia de muchas dolencias que le aquejaron, confirmando aquel dicho de que los más enfermos son los que más viven. Recordando el libro de Accoce “Los enfermos que nos gobiernan”, y habiendo visitado la casa de Chartwell en unas vacaciones en el Reino Unido, el académico Ricardo Rueda González se dedicó a investigar y a conseguir datos sobre la historia médica de Winston Spencer Churchill, logrando en medio de apuntes de aquí y de allá, y con la ayuda de personal de nuestra corporación, la elaboración de un estupendo libro con ese título, en buena hora publicado por la Universidad Javeriana.

    Sobra decir que esta muy bien escrita obra se la lee uno de un tirón, dado el estilo fácil del autor, lo bien documentada que está y el interesante anecdotario, pues la vida de este gigante de la raza humana fue una permanente anécdota. Dice el prologuista Alberto Dangond Uribe, experto en el tema, lo siguiente: “En el curso de esa larga vida, tan intensa y tan activa, la envoltura mortal de Winston Churchill atravesará con éxito, peligros innumerables, accidentes y enfermedades de diversa índole...

  6. Continuous bottom temperature measurements in strategic areas of the Florida Reef Tract at Smith Shoal, 1998 - 2006 (NODC Accession 0014121)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The purpose of this project is to document bottom seawater temperature in strategic areas of the Florida Reef Tract on a continuing basis and make that information...

  7. Winston Churchill : "Tormihoiatus". Kapitulatsioonijuubelite aegu / Henno Rajandi

    Rajandi, Henno

    2002-01-01

    "Tormihoiatus" lk. 96-105, Kapitulatsioonijuubelite aegu lk. 105-110. Järelsõna raamatule: Churchill, W. Tormihoiatus. Tallinn : Varrak, 1995 ja sissejuhatav artikkel W. Churchilli memuaaridele "Bordeaux' relvarahu" ajakirjas "Looming", 1990, nr. 6

  8. Spiders (Araneae) of Churchill, Manitoba: DNA barcodes and morphology reveal high species diversity and new Canadian records.

    Blagoev, Gergin A; Nikolova, Nadya I; Sobel, Crystal N; Hebert, Paul D N; Adamowicz, Sarah J

    2013-11-26

    Arctic ecosystems, especially those near transition zones, are expected to be strongly impacted by climate change. Because it is positioned on the ecotone between tundra and boreal forest, the Churchill area is a strategic locality for the analysis of shifts in faunal composition. This fact has motivated the effort to develop a comprehensive biodiversity inventory for the Churchill region by coupling DNA barcoding with morphological studies. The present study represents one element of this effort; it focuses on analysis of the spider fauna at Churchill. 198 species were detected among 2704 spiders analyzed, tripling the count for the Churchill region. Estimates of overall diversity suggest that another 10-20 species await detection. Most species displayed little intraspecific sequence variation (maximum Churchill, but the other species represents a range extension from the USA. The first description of the female of S. monticola was also presented. As well, one probable new species of Alopecosa (Lycosidae) was recognized. This study provides the first comprehensive DNA barcode reference library for the spider fauna of any region. Few cryptic species of spiders were detected, a result contrasting with the prevalence of undescribed species in several other terrestrial arthropod groups at Churchill. Because most (97.5%) sequence clusters at COI corresponded with a named taxon, DNA barcoding reliably identifies spiders in the Churchill fauna. The capacity of DNA barcoding to enable the identification of otherwise taxonomically ambiguous specimens (juveniles, females) also represents a major advance for future monitoring efforts on this group.

  9. Swimming with the Shoal

    Childs, Ann

    2017-10-01

    This article responds to Yuli Rahmawati and Peter Charles Taylor's piece and explores my role as a science teacher, science teacher educator and researcher in two contexts, Sierra Leone and Bhutan. In the first part of the article I reflect on my 3 years as a science teacher in Sierra Leone and demonstrate resonances with Yuli's accounts of culture shock and with her positioning of herself in a third space. I also reflect on the importance of colleagues in helping me reshape my identity as a science teacher in this new context. The second part of the article reflects on much shorter periods of time in Bhutan and my work as a teacher educator and researcher where, unlike Sierra Leone, it was not possible because of the short periods I worked there, to occupy a third space. I close by discussing how in Bhutan, but also Sierra Leone, collaboration with colleagues allowed me to contribute my own expertise, despite my lack of a deep understanding of the cultural context, in a way that was as valuable as possible. I liken this way of collaborative working in my professional life as `swimming with the shoal'.

  10. Reconnaissance investigation of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in and near Humboldt Wildlife Management Area, Churchill and Pershing Counties, Nevada, 1990-91

    Seiler, R.L.; Ekechukwu, G.A.; Hallock, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    A reconnaissance investigation was begun in 1990 to determine whether the quality of irrigation drainage in and near the Humboldt Wildlife Management Area, Nevada, has caused or has the potential to cause harmful effects on human health, fish, and wildlife or to impair beneficial uses of water. Samples of surface and ground water, bottom sediment, and biota collected from sites upstream and downstream from the Lovelock agricultural area were analyzed for potentially toxic trace elements. Also analyzed were radioactive substances, major dissolved constitu- ents, and nutrients in water, as well as pesticide residues in bottom sediment and biota. In samples from areas affected by irrigation drainage, the following constituents equaled or exceeded baseline concentrations or recommended standards for protection of aquatic life or propagation of wildlife--in water: arsenic, boron, dissolved solids, mercury, molybdenum, selenium, sodium, and un-ionized ammonia; in bottom sediment; arsenic and uranium; and in biota; arsenic, boron, and selenium. Selenium appears to be biomagnified in the Humboldt Sink wetlands. Biological effects observed during the reconnaissance included reduced insect diversity in sites receiving irrigation drainage and acute toxicity of drain water and sediment to test organisms. The current drought and upstream consumption of water for irrigation have reduced water deliveries to the wetlands and caused habitat degradation at Humboldt Wildlife Management Area. During this investigation. Humboldt and Toulon Lakes evaporated to dryness because of the reduced water deliveries.

  11. Groundwater-level change and evaluation of simulated water levels for irrigated areas in Lahontan Valley, Churchill County, west-central Nevada, 1992 to 2012

    Smith, David W.; Buto, Susan G.; Welborn, Toby L.

    2016-09-14

    The acquisition and transfer of water rights to wetland areas of Lahontan Valley, Nevada, has caused concern over the potential effects on shallow aquifer water levels. In 1992, water levels in Lahontan Valley were measured to construct a water-table map of the shallow aquifer prior to the effects of water-right transfers mandated by the Fallon Paiute-Shoshone Tribal Settlement Act of 1990 (Public Law 101-618, 104 Stat. 3289). From 1992 to 2012, approximately 11,810 water-righted acres, or 34,356 acre-feet of water, were acquired and transferred to wetland areas of Lahontan Valley. This report documents changes in water levels measured during the period of water-right transfers and presents an evaluation of five groundwater-flow model scenarios that simulated water-level changes in Lahontan Valley in response to water-right transfers and a reduction in irrigation season length by 50 percent.Water levels measured in 98 wells from 2012 to 2013 were used to construct a water-table map. Water levels in 73 of the 98 wells were compared with water levels measured in 1992 and used to construct a water-level change map. Water-level changes in the 73 wells ranged from -16.2 to 4.1 feet over the 20-year period. Rises in water levels in Lahontan Valley may correspond to annual changes in available irrigation water, increased canal flows after the exceptionally dry and shortened irrigation season of 1992, and the increased conveyance of water rights transferred to Stillwater National Wildlife Refuge. Water-level declines generally occurred near the boundary of irrigated areas and may be associated with groundwater pumping, water-right transfers, and inactive surface-water storage reservoirs. The largest water-level declines were in the area near Carson Lake.Groundwater-level response to water-right transfers was evaluated by comparing simulated and observed water-level changes for periods representing water-right transfers and a shortened irrigation season in areas near Fallon

  12. Reconnaissance investigation of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in and near Stillwater Wildlife Management Area, Churchill County, Nevada, 1986-87

    Hoffman, R.J.; Hallock, R.J.; Rowe, T.G.; Lico, M.S.; Burge, H.L.; Thompson, S.P.

    1990-01-01

    A reconnaissance was initiated in 1986 to determine whether the quality of irrigation-drainage water in and near the Stillwater Wildlife Management Area, Nevada, has caused or has potential to cause harmful effects on human health, fish, wildlife, or other beneficial uses of water. Samples of surface and groundwater, bottom sediment, and biota were collected from sites upstream and downstream from the Fallon agricultural area in the Carson Desert, and analyzed for potentially toxic trace elements. Other analysis included radioactive substances, major dissolved constituents, and nutrients in water, and pesticide residues in bottom sediment and biota. In areas affected by irrigation drainage, the following constituents were found to commonly exceed baseline concentrations or recommended criteria for protection of aquatic life or propagation of wildlife: In water, arsenic, boron, dissolved solids, molybdenum, sodium, and un-ionized ammonia; in bottom sediments, arsenic, lithium, mercury, molybdenum, and selenium; and in biota, arsenic, boron, chromium, copper, mercury, selenium, and zinc. In some wetlands, selenium and mercury appeared to be biomagnified, and arsenic bioaccumulated. Pesticides contamination in bottom sediments and biota was insignificant. Adverse biological effects observed during this reconnaissance included gradual vegetative changes and species loss, fish die-offs, waterfowl disease epidemics, and persistent and unexplained deaths of migratory birds. (USGS)

  13. Reconnaissance investigation of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in and near Stillwater Wildlife Management Area, Churchill County, Nevada, 1986-87

    Hoffman, R.J.; Hallock, R.J.; Rowe, T.G.; Lico, M.S.; Burge, H.L.

    1990-01-01

    An investigation was initiated to determine whether irrigation drainage in and near the Stillwater Wildlife Management Area has caused or has potential to cause harmful effects on human health or fish and wildlife, or may adversely affect the suitability of water for beneficial uses. Samples of surface and groundwater, bottom sediment, and biota were collected from sites upstream and downstream from the Fallon agricultural area in the Carson Desert and were analyzed for potentially toxic trace elements, including selenium. Other analyses included radioactive substances, major dissolved constituents, and nutrients in water, and pesticide residues in bottom sediments and biota. In areas affected by irrigation drainage, concentrations of the following constituents commonly were found to exceed baseline concentrations or federal and state criteria for the protection of aquatic life or the propagation of wildlife: in water, arsenic, boron, dissolved solids, sodium, and un-ionized ammonia; in bottom sediments, arsenic, lithium, mercury, molybdenum, and selenium; and in biota, arsenic, boron, chromium, copper, mercury, selenium, and zinc. In some wetlands, selenium and mercury appear to be biomagnified whereas arsenic is bioaccumulated. Some radioactive substances were substantially higher at the downstream sites compared with upstream background sites, but the significance of this to wildlife is unknown at present. 88 refs., 32 figs., 19 tabs

  14. Limits of Freedom: The Ward Churchill Case

    O'Nell, Robert M.

    2006-01-01

    The University of Colorado's Ward Churchill is but the latest in a long line of professors whose volatile statements have created controversy for themselves and their universities. Specific personnel matters in the case have been meticulously addressed in Boulder, but several larger questions have been curiously neglected. One might well ask, for…

  15. Winston Churchill Memorial Trust Fellowship Report

    Bramsen, Neil

    2014-01-01

    In March and April 2014, the author travelled overseas on a 2013 Churchill Fellowship to study education programs that successfully engage and enthuse primary and middle school students in maths, engineering and science (MES) or science, technology, engineering and maths (STEM) learning in schools, universities and institutions in the United…

  16. Churchill: The Making of a Grand Strategist

    1990-01-01

    training and squeezed to the last drop by relentless war propaganda, the military instruments of that will were as useless as empty suits of armour ...product, Churchill had always had an instinctive sympathy for the underdog . Consequently. he never painted the enemies in his Imperial conflicts in stark

  17. Sir Winston Churchill: treatment for pneumonia in 1943 and 1944.

    Vale, J A; Scadding, J W

    2017-12-01

    This paper reviews Churchill's illnesses in February 1943 and August/September 1944 when he developed pneumonia; on the first occasion this followed a cold and sore throat. Churchill was managed at home by Sir Charles Wilson (later Lord Moran) with the assistance of two nurses and the expert advice of Dr Geoffrey Marshall, Brigadier Lionel Whitby and Colonel Robert Drew. A sulphonamide (sulphathiazole on the first occasion) was prescribed for both illnesses. Churchill recovered, and despite his illnesses continued to direct the affairs of State from his bed. On the second occasion, Churchill's illness was not made public.

  18. 33 CFR 334.40 - Atlantic Ocean in vicinity of Duck Island, Maine, Isles of Shoals; naval aircraft bombing target...

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean in vicinity of Duck Island, Maine, Isles of Shoals; naval aircraft bombing target area. 334.40 Section 334.40... Shoals; naval aircraft bombing target area. (a) The danger zone. A circular area with a radius of 500...

  19. Crustal structure of the Churchill-Superior boundary zone between 80 and 98 deg W longitude from Magsat anomaly maps and stacked passes

    Hall, D. H.; Millar, T. W.; Noble, I. A.

    1985-01-01

    A modeling technique using spherical shell elements and equivalent dipole sources has been applied to Magsat signatures at the Churchill-Superior boundary in Manitoba, Ontario, and Ungava. A large satellite magnetic anomaly (12 nT amplitude) on POGO and Magsat maps near the Churchill-Superior boundary was found to be related to the Richmond Gulf aulacogen. The averaged crustal magnetization in the source region is 5.2 A/m. Stacking of the magnetic traces from Magsat passes reveals a magnetic signature (10 nT amplitude) at the Churchill-Superior boundary in an area studied between 80 deg W and 98 deg W. Modeling suggests a steplike thickening of the crust on the Churchill side of the boundary in a layer with a magnetization of 5 A/m. Signatures on aeromagnetic maps are also found in the source areas for both of these satellite anomalies.

  20. Winston Churchill's "Iron Curtain" Address: Implications for the Present.

    Bush, George

    1988-01-01

    Evaluates the "Iron Curtain" speech made by Winston Churchill in 1946, discussing its relevance and implications for the present. Examines Churchill's predictions for the future and his assessment of the USSR. Reviews world developments since the speech and proposes foreign policy goals for the next 40 years. (GEA)

  1. Geology and mineral deposits of Churchill County, Nevada

    Willden, Ronald; Speed, Robert C.

    1974-01-01

    Churchill County, in west-central Nevada, is an area of varied topography and geology that has had a rather small total mineral production. The western part of the county is dominated by the broad low valley of the Carson Sink, which is underlain by deposits of Lake Lahontan. The bordering mountain ranges to the west and south are of low relief and underlain largely by Tertiary volcanic and sedimentary units. Pre-Tertiary rocks are extensively exposed east of the Carson Sink in the Stillwater Range, Clan Alpine Mountains, Augusta Mountains, and New Pass Mountains. The eastern valleys are underlain by Quaternary alluvial and lacustrine deposits contemporaneous with the western deposits of Lake Lahontan. The eastern mountain ranges are more rugged than the western ranges and have higher relief; the eastern valleys are generally narrower.

  2. Data Decision Analysis: Project Shoal

    Forsgren, Frank; Pohll, Greg; Tracy, John

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the most appropriate field activities in terms of reducing the uncertainty in the groundwater flow and transport model at the Project Shoal area. The data decision analysis relied on well-known tools of statistics and uncertainty analysis. This procedure identified nine parameters that were deemed uncertain. These included effective porosity, hydraulic head, surface recharge, hydraulic conductivity, fracture correlation scale, fracture orientation, dip angle, dissolution rate of radionuclides from the puddle glass, and the retardation coefficient, which describes the sorption characteristics. The parameter uncertainty was described by assigning prior distributions for each of these parameters. Next, the various field activities were identified that would provide additional information on these parameters. Each of the field activities was evaluated by an expert panel to estimate posterior distribution of the parameters assuming a field activity was performed. The posterior distributions describe the ability of the field activity to estimate the true value of the nine parameters. Monte Carlo techniques were used to determine the current uncertainty, the reduction of uncertainty if a single parameter was known with certainty, and the reduction of uncertainty expected from each field activity on the model predictions. The mean breakthrough time to the downgradient land withdrawal boundary and the peak concentration at the control boundary were used to evaluate the uncertainty reduction. The radionuclide 137Cs was used as the reference solute, as its migration is dependent on all of the parameters. The results indicate that the current uncertainty of the model yields a 95 percent confidence interval between 42 and 1,412 years for the mean breakthrough time and an 18 order-of-magnitude range in peak concentration. The uncertainty in effective porosity and recharge dominates the uncertainty in the model predictions, while the

  3. Continuous bottom temperature measurements in strategic areas of the Florida Reef Tract at 9-Ft Shoal, 2007-2010 (NODC Accession 0092549)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The purpose of this project is to document bottom seawater temperature in strategic areas of the Florida Reef Tract on a continuing basis and make that information...

  4. Continuous bottom temperature measurements in strategic areas of the Florida Reef Tract at the New Ground Shoal site, 1992 - 2006 (NODC Accession 0012845)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The purpose of this project is to document bottom seawater temperature in strategic areas of the Florida Reef Tract on a continuing basis and make that information...

  5. Continuous bottom temperature measurements in strategic areas of the Florida Reef Tract at 9-FT Shoal, 2005-2007 (NODC Accession 0039533)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The purpose of this project is to document bottom seawater temperature in strategic areas of the Florida Reef Tract on a continuing basis and make that information...

  6. Popular Theatre for Science Engagement: Audience Engagement with Human Cloning Following a Production of Caryl Churchill's "A Number"

    Donkers, Martina; Orthia, Lindy A.

    2016-01-01

    Research into the role of fiction in engaging people with science is a growing area, but a little studied medium in this respect is "popular theatre," or non-pedagogic theatre that exists primarily as a work of art. This study investigated audience engagement with human cloning issues after seeing a performance of Caryl Churchill's 2002…

  7. Airborne Lidar Bathymetry: The SHOALS System

    2016-05-09

    with the depths. The application of this kind of data includes engineering evaluation of coastal structures, shoreline surveys, beach and dune surveys...similar manner, SHOALS data is a monitoring tool for beach fill projects. SHOALS data can extend from the dune , through the surf zone, and out to depth...requirements, above and below-water jetty conditions, toe scour at the jetties, and nearshore conditions. Table 3.2 Profile Spacing Volume

  8. Anurans in a Subarctic Tundra Landscape Near Cape Churchill, Manitoba

    Reiter, M.E.; Boal, C.W.; Andersen, D.E.

    2008-01-01

    Distribution, abundance, and habitat relationships of anurans inhabiting subarctic regions are poorly understood, and anuran monitoring protocols developed for temperate regions may not be applicable across large roadless areas of northern landscapes. In addition, arctic and subarctic regions of North America are predicted to experience changes in climate and, in some areas, are experiencing habitat alteration due to high rates of herbivory by breeding and migrating waterfowl. To better understand subarctic anuran abundance, distribution, and habitat associations, we conducted anuran calling surveys in the Cape Churchill region of Wapusk National Park, Manitoba, Canada, in 2004 and 2005. We conducted surveys along ~l-km transects distributed across three landscape types (coastal tundra, interior sedge meadow-tundra, and boreal forest-tundra interface) to estimate densities and probabilities of detection of Boreal Chorus Frogs (Pseudacris maculata) and Wood Frogs (Lithobates sylvaticus). We detected a Wood Frog or Boreal Chorus Frog on 22 (87%) of 26 transects surveyed, but probability of detection varied between years and species and among landscape types. Estimated densities of both species increased from the coastal zone inland toward the boreal forest edge. Our results suggest anurans occur across all three landscape types in our study area, but that species-specific spatial patterns exist in their abundances. Considerations for both spatial and temporal variation in abundance and detection probability need to be incorporated into surveys and monitoring programs for subarctic anurans.

  9. DNA barcoding unmasks overlooked diversity improving knowledge on the composition and origins of the Churchill algal flora.

    Saunders, Gary W; McDevit, Daniel C

    2013-03-16

    Sampling expeditions to Churchill in the Canadian subarctic were completed with the aim of compiling a molecular-assisted survey of the macroalgal flora (seaweeds) for comparison to published accounts for this area, which are based on morphological identifications. Further, because the Churchill region was covered by ice until recently (~10,000 before present), the current algal flora has had to migrate from adjacent waters into that region. We used our DNA barcode data to predict the relative contribution of the North Atlantic and North Pacific floras (Likely Source Region) in repopulating the Churchill region following the most recent glacial retreat. We processed 422 collections representing ~50 morpho-species, which is the approximate number reported for this region, and generated DNA barcode data for 346 of these. In contrast to the morpho-species count, we recovered 57 genetic groups indicating overlooked species (this despite failing to generate barcode data for six of the ~50 morpho-species). However, we additionally uncovered numerous inconsistencies between the species that are currently listed in the Churchill flora (again as a result of overlooked species diversity, but combined with taxonomic confusion) and those identified following our molecular analyses including eight new records and another 17 genetic complexes in need of further study. Based on a comparison of DNA barcode data from the Churchill flora to collections from the contiguous Atlantic and Pacific floras we estimate that minimally 21% (possibly as much as 44%) of the Churchill flora was established by migration from the Pacific region with the balance of species arriving from the Atlantic (predominantly North American populations) following the last glacial retreat. Owing to difficulties associated with the morphological identification of macroalgae, our results indicate that current comprehension of the Canadian Arctic flora is weak. We consider that morphology-based field

  10. Winston Churchill And The European Union

    Troitiño David Ramiro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Given Winston Churchill’s influence and achievement as a writer, historian, adventurer, soldier, artist, and politician, his participation in the European integration process is crucial to understanding the entire scope of the project in its origins. Churchill was a fundamental voice promoting the Franco-British Union, a promoter of the European Communities, and an active participant of the Congress of Europe, embryo of the Council of Europe. This article analyzes Churchill’s view of European integration through his political speeches, in particular those delivered in Zurich and in The Hague, his ideas about the League of Nations and the United Nations, his understanding of the British Empire, and the special relations between the UK and the USA. His participation in the process of uniting Europe in its early stages provides us with essential information about the original plans for the creation of a united Europe and understanding the traditional British approach to the EU, including the current position of the conservative government led by Cameron.

  11. 75 FR 51841 - Notice of Realty Action: Proposed sale of Public Lands, Churchill County, NV

    2010-08-23

    ... Lands, Churchill County, NV AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of realty action... value, approximately 800 acres of public lands in Churchill County, Nevada, through direct [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The following described public lands in Churchill County...

  12. Currents, Ice Velocity, Temperature, and Salinity from moorings around Hanna Shoal, Chukchi Sea, 2012-2014 (NCEI Accession 0163833)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data were collected as part of the physical oceanographic component of the Chukchi Sea Offshore Monitoring in Drilling Area (COMIDA) Hanna Shoal Ecosystem...

  13. Diurnal temperature asymmetries and fog at Churchill, Manitoba

    Gough, William A.; He, Dianze

    2015-07-01

    A variety of methods are available to calculate daily mean temperature. We explore how the difference between two commonly used methods provides insight into the local climate of Churchill, Manitoba. In particular, we found that these differences related closely to seasonal fog. A strong statistically significant correlation was found between the fog frequency (hours per day) and the diurnal temperature asymmetries of the surface temperature using the difference between the min/max and 24-h methods of daily temperature calculation. The relationship was particularly strong for winter, spring and summer. Autumn appears to experience the joint effect of fog formation and the radiative effect of snow cover. The results of this study suggests that subtle variations of diurnality of temperature, as measured in the difference of the two mean temperature methods of calculation, may be used as a proxy for fog detection in the Hudson Bay region. These results also provide a cautionary note for the spatial analysis of mean temperatures using data derived from the two different methods particularly in areas that are fog prone.

  14. Brazos Santiago Inlet, Texas, Shoaling Study

    2018-02-01

    Development Center 3909 Halls Ferry Road Vicksburg, MS 39180-6199 Final report Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Prepared...focus of this study was to understand the shoaling process in the BSI and to suggest sand management alternatives to reduce inlet maintenance ...Santiago Inlet Entrance Channel maintenance dredging quantities (normal distribution). ........................................................ 20

  15. On Measurements of the Tide at Churchill, Hudson Bay

    Ray, Richard D.

    2016-01-01

    Since the late 1990s the semi-diurnal tide at Churchill, on the western shore of Hudson Bay, has been decreasing in amplitude, with M(sub 2) amplitudes falling from approximately 154 cm in 1998 to 146 cm in 2012 and 142 cm in 2014. There has been a corresponding small increase in phase lag. Mean low water, decreasing throughout most of the twentieth century, has levelled off. Although the tidal changes could reflect merely a malfunctioning tide gauge, the fact that there are no other measurements in the region and the possibility that the tide is revealing important environmental changes calls for serious investigation. Satellite altimeter measurements of the tide in Hudson Bay are complicated by the seasonal ice cover; at most locations less than 40% of satellite passes return valid ocean heights and even those can be impacted by errors from sea ice. Because the combined TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason-1, and Jason-2 time series is more than 23 years long, it is now possible to obtain sufficient data at crossover locations near Churchill to search for tidal changes. The satellites sense no changes in M(sub 2) that are comparable to the changes seen at the Churchill gauge. The changes appear to be localized to the harbour, or to the Churchill River, or to the gauge itself.

  16. Modeling to Support Groundwater Contaminant Boundaries for the Shoal Underground Nuclear Test

    K. Pohlmann; G. Pohll; J. Chapman; A. Hassan; R. Carroll; C. Shirley

    2004-03-01

    Groundwater flow and radionuclide transport at the Shoal underground nuclear test are characterized using three-dimensional numerical models, based on site-specific hydrologic data. The objective of this modeling is to provide the flow and transport models needed to develop a contaminant boundary defining the extent of radionuclide-contaminated groundwater at the site throughout 1,000 years at a prescribed level of confidence. This boundary will then be used to manage the Project Shoal Area for the protection of the public and the environment.

  17. Daily shoaling patterns in the zebrafish Danio rerio

    Timothy PACIOREK, Scott McROBERT

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Shoaling intensity in zebrafish Danio rerio is believed to vary throughout subjective day and night hours. This experiment examines long term variations in shoaling behavior. Adult zebrafish Danio rerio were maintained under a 12:12 LD cycle (with dim red light serving as reduced visibility during subjective dark hours, and their shoaling behavior was monitored every hours for a three-day period of time. Our results show that zebrafish perform shoaling behavior throughout subjective day and under reduced visibility conditions, although mean shoaling times during the light phase were significantly higher than mean shoaling times during the dark phase. However, on the 3rd day of the experiment, mean shoaling times during the subjective night had increased and mean shoaling times during the subjective day had decreased. This shift in intensity was not seen on the first two days of the study, and may represent the influence of experience on the behavior of the test fish. We believe this study shows that shoaling behavior changes with light/dark cycles and that fish shoal even during reduced visibility conditions [Current Zoology 59 (6:754–760, 2013].

  18. Exploration of a steamship wreck off Amee shoals, Goa, India: A preliminary report

    Tripati, S.; Gaur, A; Sundaresh

    Recent explorations off Amee shoals, Goa, have brought to light the remains of a steel-hulled steam-engine shipwreck, scattered over a large area. Though sparse and heavily salvaged, this site represents the first discovery of a steamship wreck...

  19. Evaluation of groundwater flow and transport at the Shoal underground nuclear test: An interim report

    Pohll, G.; Chapman, J.; Hassan, A.; Papelis, C.; Andricevic, R.; Shirley, C.

    1998-07-01

    Since 1962, all United States nuclear tests have been conducted underground. A consequence of this testing has been the deposition of large amounts of radioactive materials in the subsurface, sometimes in direct contact with groundwater. The majority of this testing occurred on the Nevada Test Site, but a limited number of experiments were conducted in other locations. One of these is the subject of this report, the Project Shoal Area (PSA), located about 50 km southeast of Fallon, Nevada. The Shoal test consisted of a 12-kiloton-yield nuclear detonation which occurred on October 26, 1963. Project Shoal was part of studies to enhance seismic detection of underground nuclear tests, in particular, in active earthquake areas. Characterization of groundwater contamination at the Project Shoal Area is being conducted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) with the State of Nevada Department of Environmental Protection and the US Department of Defense (DOD). This order prescribes a Corrective Action Strategy (Appendix VI), which, as applied to underground nuclear tests, involves preparing a Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP), Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD), Corrective Action Plan, and Closure Report. The scope of the CAIP is flow and transport modeling to establish contaminant boundaries that are protective of human health and the environment. This interim report describes the current status of the flow and transport modeling for the PSA.

  20. Evaluation of groundwater flow and transport at the Shoal underground nuclear test: An interim report

    Pohll, G.; Chapman, J.; Hassan, A.; Papelis, C.; Andricevic, R.; Shirley, C.

    1998-07-01

    Since 1962, all United States nuclear tests have been conducted underground. A consequence of this testing has been the deposition of large amounts of radioactive materials in the subsurface, sometimes in direct contact with groundwater. The majority of this testing occurred on the Nevada Test Site, but a limited number of experiments were conducted in other locations. One of these is the subject of this report, the Project Shoal Area (PSA), located about 50 km southeast of Fallon, Nevada. The Shoal test consisted of a 12-kiloton-yield nuclear detonation which occurred on October 26, 1963. Project Shoal was part of studies to enhance seismic detection of underground nuclear tests, in particular, in active earthquake areas. Characterization of groundwater contamination at the Project Shoal Area is being conducted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) with the State of Nevada Department of Environmental Protection and the US Department of Defense (DOD). This order prescribes a Corrective Action Strategy (Appendix VI), which, as applied to underground nuclear tests, involves preparing a Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP), Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD), Corrective Action Plan, and Closure Report. The scope of the CAIP is flow and transport modeling to establish contaminant boundaries that are protective of human health and the environment. This interim report describes the current status of the flow and transport modeling for the PSA

  1. The impact of the Commonwealth on Churchill's Europe

    Cat Wilson

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Focusing from the time of his electoral defeat in July 1945 until the end of his second term as Prime Minister (October 1951-April 1955, this article examines the impact the Commonwealth had on Churchill’s Europe. Following the end of the Second World War Churchill’s Europe was fragile, yet not broken beyond all repair. Rather than weaken world organisations, such as the United Nations or a united post-war Europe, Churchill argued that the British Commonwealth would strengthen such liaisons. Analysing Churchill’s key relationships with the heads of the Commonwealth, reveal him to have been a true European – where security and democracy took precedence. His realism and pragmatism in the face of ever-changing, everevolving world-wide post-war alliances, where the Commonwealth arguably played a significant role, offers a stark contrast to the more common image of Churchill the “die-hard” imperialist.

  2. The strokes that killed Churchill, Roosevelt, and Stalin.

    Ali, Rohaid; Connolly, Ian D; Li, Amy; Choudhri, Omar A; Pendharkar, Arjun V; Steinberg, Gary K

    2016-07-01

    From February 4 to 11, 1945, President Franklin D. Roosevelt of the United States, Soviet Union Premier Joseph Stalin, and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill met near Yalta in Crimea to discuss how post-World War II (WWII) Europe should be organized. Within 2 decades of this conference, all 3 men had died. President Roosevelt died 2 months after the Yalta Conference due to a hemorrhagic stroke. Premier Stalin died 8 years later, also due to a hemorrhagic stroke. Finally, Prime Minister Churchill died 20 years after the conference because of complications due to stroke. At the time of Yalta, these 3 men were the leaders of the most powerful countries in the world. The subsequent deterioration of their health and eventual death had varying degrees of historical significance. Churchill's illness forced him to resign as British prime minister, and the events that unfolded immediately after his resignation included Britain's mismanagement of the Egyptian Suez Crisis and also a period of mistrust with the United States. Furthermore, Roosevelt was still president and Stalin was still premier at their times of passing, so their deaths carried huge political ramifications not only for their respective countries but also for international relations. The early death of Roosevelt, in particular, may have exacerbated post-WWII miscommunication between America and the Soviet Union-miscommunication that may have helped precipitate the Cold War.

  3. Lower Churchill Development Corporation Limited: 1998 annual report

    1999-06-01

    This is the 20th annual report to the Board of Directors of the Lower Churchill Development Corp. Ltd. for the year ending Dec. 31, 1998. The Corp. remains ready to proceed with hydroelectric power developments at Gull Island and/or Muskrat Falls following definitive shareholder direction. The accounting policy followed by the Corp. is in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in Canada. It follows the practice of capitalizing the cost related to studies in respect of the development of the Lower Churchill Basis, as well administrative and other costs. Pursuant to the provisions of the Principal Agreement, Newfoundland agreed to enter into an Option Agreement, dated Nov. 24, 1978, with the Corp. in respect of the Gull Island Power Corp. Ltd. assets and the hydroelectric development rights to the Lower Churchill River. The Class A shares issued in the Corp. as of Dec. 31, 1998 are listed. Under an agreement between Hydro and the Corp., Hydro provides certain administrative and engineering services to the Corp. as needed. No fees were paid to Hydro for 2 years. In connection with the Y2K problem, management developed and is implementing a plan designed to identify and address the expected effects of the Year 2000 issue on the company

  4. Seismotectonics of Taiwan Shoal region in northeastern SCS: Insights from crustal structure

    Kuiyuan, Wan; Jinlong, Sun; Shaohong, Xia; Xiaoling, Xie; Xiang, Zhang; Huilong, Xu; Jinghe, Cao

    2017-04-01

    A seismicity cluster and a great 16 September 1994 earthquake occur in the Taiwan Shoal region, outer rise of the Manila subduction zone. To understand what mechanisms control and generate the earthquake cluster, it is important to investigate the deep crustal structure of the Taiwan Shoal region. We present a 2-D seismic tomographic image of the crustal structure along the OBS2012 profile based on ocean bottom seismographic (OBS) data. The structure exhibits that a high velocity anomaly in the upper crust beneath the Taiwan Shoal is flanked by lower velocity anomalies. Based on the crustal structure, we study the 765 earthquakes, which occurred in the period 1991-2015. These epicenters, combined with the regional faults, and crustal structure, allow us to better understand the nature of the active tectonics in this region. The high velocity area is interpreted as representing stronger, defining major asperities where stress is concentrated corresponding to the location of the earthquake cluster. The earthquake cluster is influenced by the fault interactions. However, the 16 September 1994 earthquake is independents of the seismic activities but associated with the reactivation of the preexisting fault. In Taiwan region, the slab-pull was resisted by the exposed pre-collision accretionary prism and the resistive force caused the in-plane compressive stress accumulation. This condition may favor the triggering of future damaging earthquakes in this region. Key words: earthquake cluster; crustal structure; fault interactions; outer rise; Taiwan Shoal

  5. Study of neutral composition of lower thermosphere at Fort Churchill.

    Nier, A. O.; Hickman, D. R.

    1973-01-01

    On Feb. 4 and 6, 1969, and May 11, 1970, Aerobee rockets carrying neutral mass spectrometers were flown at Fort Churchill, Canada during conditions of low geomagnetic activity. As in earlier flights at White Sands, New Mexico, each rocket carried both 'open' and 'closed' ion source instruments. Vertical profiles of N2, O2, O, Ar, and He were measured. Results obtained were essentially the same as those observed at White Sands except that for the winter flights helium appeared to be in diffusive equilibrium.

  6. Species diversity and phylogeographical affinities of the Branchiopoda (Crustacea) of Churchill, Manitoba, Canada.

    Jeffery, Nicholas W; Elías-Gutiérrez, Manuel; Adamowicz, Sarah J

    2011-01-01

    The region of Churchill, Manitoba, contains a wide variety of habitats representative of both the boreal forest and arctic tundra and has been used as a model site for biodiversity studies for nearly seven decades within Canada. Much previous work has been done in Churchill to study the Daphnia pulex species complex in particular, but no study has completed a wide-scale survey on the crustacean species that inhabit Churchill's aquatic ecosystems using molecular markers. We have employed DNA barcoding to study the diversity of the Branchiopoda (Crustacea) in a wide variety of freshwater habitats and to determine the likely origins of the Churchill fauna following the last glaciation. The standard animal barcode marker (COI) was sequenced for 327 specimens, and a 3% divergence threshold was used to delineate potential species. We found 42 provisional and valid branchiopod species from this survey alone, including several cryptic lineages, in comparison with the 25 previously recorded from previous ecological works. Using published sequence data, we explored the phylogeographic affinities of Churchill's branchiopods, finding that the Churchill fauna apparently originated from all directions from multiple glacial refugia (including southern, Beringian, and high arctic regions). Overall, these microcrustaceans are very diverse in Churchill and contain multiple species complexes. The present study introduces among the first sequences for some understudied genera, for which further work is required to delineate species boundaries and develop a more complete understanding of branchiopod diversity over a larger spatial scale.

  7. Did Winston Churchill suffer a myocardial infarction in the White House at Christmas 1941?

    Vale, J Allister; Scadding, John W

    2017-12-01

    While staying in the White House over Christmas 1941, Churchill developed chest pain on trying to open a window in his bedroom. Sir Charles Wilson, his personal physician, diagnosed a 'heart attack' (myocardial infarction). Wilson, for political and personal reasons, decided not to inform his patient of the diagnosis or obtain assistance from US medical colleagues. On Churchill's return to London, Wilson sought a second opinion from Dr John Parkinson who did not support the diagnosis of coronary thrombosis (myocardial infarction) and reassured Churchill accordingly.

  8. EOP CRITTERCAM Deployments on French Frigate Shoals monk seals

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRITTERCAMs, were deployed on a 42 monk seals at French Frigate Shoals Hawaii. Sixty nine hours of video comprised of 3192 recording segments collected at...

  9. Design Level Ship Shock Simulation of USS WINSTON S. CHURCHILL (DDG-81)

    Fensterer, William

    2004-01-01

    .... The Navy selected the Arleigh Burke class destroyer, USS WINSTON S. CHURCHILL (DDG-81), as the most recent platform and subjected it to an underwater explosion two-thirds the magnitude of the design level shot...

  10. Churchill and the United States of Europe, 1904-1948

    Allen Packwood

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The call for a “United States of Europe” is a recurring theme in the writings and speeches of Sir Winston Churchill from at least 1930, and reaches its culmination in his opening address to the Congress of Europe held at The Hague in May 1948. This article analyses Churchill’s own writings and oratory to trace the origins of his support for closer European union. Initially he envisaged Britain as a guarantor and facilitator of European unity, but by 1948 he had become an advocate of a role for Britain within Europe. This shift in thinking is followed through analysis of his language and explained in terms of the historical context.

  11. Baseline greenhouse gas emissions for the lower Churchill hydroelectric generation project in Labrador

    LeDrew, L.; Bastien, J.; Tremblay, A.

    2007-01-01

    Newfoundland and Labrador Hydro has proposed to develop the hydroelectric potential of the lower Churchill River by constructing generating facilities at Gull Island and Muskrat Falls. This paper presented the results of a study that was conducted to collect baseline data on greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes/emissions of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), methane (CH 4 ) and nitrous oxide (N 2 O) from the lower Churchill River, Smallwood reservoir, and natural lakes in the upper and lower Churchill regions. The purpose of the study was to compare GHG fluxes between the lower Churchill River, Smallwood reservoir and those of the nearby natural lakes and to compare GHG fluxes between the Smallwood reservoir and those of boreal reservoirs in northern Quebec. The paper provided a description of the site and the methodology for GHG flux measurement. The results and discussion focused on physical-chemical variables and GHG fluxes. The study results were to be used in the environmental assessment of the project. It was concluded that the lower Churchill River has higher CO 2 fluxes and lower CH 4 fluxes than the Smallwood reservoir and higher CO 2 fluxes than natural lakes in the region. There was no significant difference in N 2 O fluxes between the sampled waterbodies. Both CO 2 and CH 4 fluxes from the lower Churchill River were comparable to other Canadian reservoirs. 12 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs

  12. Arbitration Award of ICSID on the Investment Disputes of Churchill Mining PLC v. Republic of Indonesia

    Yordan Gunawan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The research is aimed at analyzing the ICSID (International Centre Settlement Investment Dispute decision in solving a dispute between Churchill Mining PLC and the Government of the Republic of Indonesia. The case brought to the public attention, because mining license owned by PT. Ridlatama which acquired from Churchill Mining PLC had been revocated. Churchill Mining PLC holds 75% share of PT. Ridlatama and it suffered losses caused by the revocation of its mining license. Churchill Mining PLC filed the case to the local court but it failed. Churchill Mining PLC then sought ruling from International arbitration or ICSID. On December 6, 2016, ICSID issued a decision that clearly threw out Churchill Mining PLC claim. ICSID, the World Bank court, ordered the firm to pay a total of US$.9.446.528 in cost to the Government of the Republic of Indonesia. It is based on the evidences that the UK-Australia company did the fraud and had document forgery of coal mining permit in East Kutai, Indonesia. So the firm has violated the Bilateral Investment Treaties between Indonesia-UK and Indonesia-Australia.

  13. Trends in abundance of collared lemmings near Cape Churchill, Manitoba, Canada

    Reiter, M.E.; Andersen, D.E.

    2008-01-01

    Regular, multiannual cycles observed in the population abundance of small mammals in many arctic and subarctic ecosystems have stimulated substantial research, particularly among population ecologists. Hypotheses of mechanisms generating regular cycles include predator-prey interactions, limitation of food resources, and migration or dispersal, as well as abiotic factors such as cyclic climatic variation and environmental stochasticity. In 2004 and 2005, we used indirect methods to estimate trends in population size of Richardson's collared lemmings (Dicrostonyx richardsoni) retrospectively, and evaluated the extent of synchrony between lemming populations at 2 coastal tundra study areas separated by approximately 60 km near Cape Churchill, Manitoba, Canada. We collected scars on willow plants (Salix) resulting from lemming feeding. Ages of scars ranged from 0 to 13 years at both study areas. Scar-age frequency appeared cyclic and we used nonlinear Poisson regression to model the observed scar-age frequency. Lemming populations cycled with 2.8-year periodicity and the phase of the cycle was synchronous between the 2 study areas. We suggest that our approach could be applied in multiple settings and may provide the most efficient way to gather data on small mammals across both space and time in a diversity of landscapes. ?? 2008 American Society of Mammalogists.

  14. Validation Analysis of the Shoal Groundwater Flow and Transport Model

    A. Hassan; J. Chapman

    2008-11-01

    Environmental restoration at the Shoal underground nuclear test is following a process prescribed by a Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) between the U.S. Department of Energy, the U.S. Department of Defense, and the State of Nevada. Characterization of the site included two stages of well drilling and testing in 1996 and 1999, and development and revision of numerical models of groundwater flow and radionuclide transport. Agreement on a contaminant boundary for the site and a corrective action plan was reached in 2006. Later that same year, three wells were installed for the purposes of model validation and site monitoring. The FFACO prescribes a five-year proof-of-concept period for demonstrating that the site groundwater model is capable of producing meaningful results with an acceptable level of uncertainty. The corrective action plan specifies a rigorous seven step validation process. The accepted groundwater model is evaluated using that process in light of the newly acquired data. The conceptual model of ground water flow for the Project Shoal Area considers groundwater flow through the fractured granite aquifer comprising the Sand Springs Range. Water enters the system by the infiltration of precipitation directly on the surface of the mountain range. Groundwater leaves the granite aquifer by flowing into alluvial deposits in the adjacent basins of Fourmile Flat and Fairview Valley. A groundwater divide is interpreted as coinciding with the western portion of the Sand Springs Range, west of the underground nuclear test, preventing flow from the test into Fourmile Flat. A very low conductivity shear zone east of the nuclear test roughly parallels the divide. The presence of these lateral boundaries, coupled with a regional discharge area to the northeast, is interpreted in the model as causing groundwater from the site to flow in a northeastward direction into Fairview Valley. Steady-state flow conditions are assumed given the absence of

  15. Microhabitat characteristics of Lapland Longspur, Calcarius lapponicus, nests at Cape Churchill, Manitoba

    Boal, C.W.; Andersen, D.E.

    2005-01-01

    We examined microsite characteristics at 21 Lapland Longspur (Calcarius lapponicus) nests and land cover types in which they occurred in Wapusk National Park, Cape Churchill, Manitoba. Nests were located in four of six physiographic-vegetation land-cover types. Regardless of land-cover type, all but one nest was built on a pressure ridge or mound. Nests were built midway between the bottom and top of ridges or mounds with steeper slopes than was randomly available. Longspur nests had a distinctive southwest orientation (P < 0.001). Longspurs selected nest sites that consisted of comparatively greater amounts of shrub species and lesser amounts of moss than were randomly available. Nests were generally well concealed by vegetation (mean = 67.0%) and concealment was negatively associated with amount of graminoid species at the nest (P = 0.0005). Our nesting habitat data may facilitate a better understanding of breeding Lapland Longspur habitat requirements, and potential impacts of habitat degradation by increasing Snow Goose (Chen caerulescens) populations in the study area.

  16. Environmental impact of flooding in the main reservoir of the Churchill Falls Power Plant, Labrador

    Bajzak, D.; Bruneau, A.A.

    1987-01-01

    The short and long term effects of flooding on the environment, with special emphasis on trees, in the general area of the Churchill Falls hydroelectric project were investigated. A vegetation mapping and inventory was carried out in 1971, followed by the establishment of ground testlines in black spruce, white birch-balsam fir, and burnt (dead) black spruce stands at the rim of the main reservoir before the reservoir was filled in 1972. Additional field observations were made in 1973, 1974 and 1977. It was found that observed changes in the fluctuating water level zone were most significant. Both erosion of soils, mainly due to wave action, and vertical movement of the ice sheet during winter and the spring thaw, contribute to the uprooting of trees in the zone. Trees removed by the process float and under the action of wind and waves drift until trapped in standing trees or until driven ashore or onto dykes. Patches of accumulated driftwood in strips up to 20 m wide are not uncommon, and trees standing in water in protected coves or extensive shallows are not affected by soil erosion and deteriorate only due to fungal attack. 4 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs

  17. Demography of a breeding population of whimbrel (Numenius phaeopus) near Churchill, Manitoba, Canada

    Perz, Johanna

    I used a GIS raster layer of an area in the Churchill, Manitoba region to investigate the effect of breeding habitat on demography and density of Whimbrel from 2010 through 2013. Program MARK was used to quantify adult and daily nest survival. Apparent annual survival of 0.73 +/- 0.06 SE (95% CI = 0.60-0.83) did not significantly differ between sexes or habitats and was lower than expected based on longevity records and estimates for other large-bodied shorebirds. Nest success, corrected for exposure days, was highly variable, ranging from a low of 3% (95% CI = 0-12%) in 2011 to a high of 71% (95% CI = 54-83%) in 2013. The highest rate of nest survival occurred in the spring with the warmest mean temperature. I developed a generalized linear model (GLM) with a negative-binomial distribution from random plots that were surveyed for abundance to extrapolate a local breeding population size of 410 +/- 230 SE and density of 3.2 birds per square km +/- 1.8 SE. The result of my study suggests that other aspects of habitat not captured by the land cover categories may be more important to population dynamics.

  18. Arctic foxes, lemmings, and canada goose nest survival at cape Churchill, Manitoba

    Reiter, M.E.; Andersen, D.E.

    2011-01-01

    We examined factors influencing Canada Goose (Branta canadensis interior) annual nest success, including the relative abundance of collared lemmings (Dicrostonyx richardsoni), arctic fox (Alopex lagopus) den occupancy, nest density, and spring phenology using data collected during annual Canada Goose breeding area surveys at Cape Churchill, Manitoba. Nest density and arctic fox den occupancy strongly influenced Canada Goose nest success. High nest density resulted in higher nest success and high den occupancy reduced nest success. Nest success was not influenced by lemming abundance in the current or previous year as predicted by the "bird-lemming" hypothesis. Reducing arctic fox abundance through targeted management increased nest survival of Canada Geese; a result that further emphasizes the importance of arctic fox as nest predators in this system. The spatial distribution of nest predators, at least for dispersed-nesting geese, may be most important for nest survival, regardless of the abundance of small mammals in the local ecosystem. Further understanding of the factors influencing the magnitude and variance in arctic fox abundance in this region, and the spatial scale at which these factors are realized, is necessary to fully explain predator-prey-alternative prey dynamics in this system. ?? 2011 by the Wilson Ornithological Society.

  19. Unravelling the nocturnal appearance of bogue Boops boops shoals in the anthropogenically modified shallow littoral.

    Mavraki, N; Georgiadis, M; Koutsikopoulos, C; Tzanatos, E

    2016-05-01

    In the present study the role of the nocturnal migration of bogue Boops boops shoals to anthropogenically modified shallow littoral locations was examined, evaluating four alternative hypotheses: (1) feeding, (2) reproduction, (3) attraction of B. boops to artificial light and (4) concealment in the darkness related to predation avoidance. All hypotheses apart from predation avoidance were rejected, as B. boops tended to concentrate in shaded locations of wider illuminated areas, a finding not only important concerning fish behaviour, but also with significant management implications. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  20. Dynamic web cache publishing for IaaS clouds using Shoal

    Gable, Ian; Chester, Michael; Berghaus, Frank; Leavett-Brown, Colin; Paterson, Michael; Prior, Robert; Sobie, Randall; Taylor, Ryan; Armstrong, Patrick; Charbonneau, Andre

    2014-01-01

    We have developed a highly scalable application, called Shoal, for tracking and utilizing a distributed set of HTTP web caches. Our application uses the Squid HTTP cache. Squid servers advertise their existence to the Shoal server via AMQP messaging by running Shoal Agent. The Shoal server provides a simple REST interface that allows clients to determine their closest Squid cache. Our goal is to dynamically instantiate Squid caches on IaaS clouds in response to client demand. Shoal provides the VMs on IaaS clouds with the location of the nearest dynamically instantiated Squid Cache

  1. Genetic population structure of Shoal Bass within their native range

    Taylor, Andrew T.; Tringali, Michael D.; Sammons, Steven M.; Ingram, Travis R.; O'Rouke, Patrick M.; Peterson, Douglas L.; Long, James M.

    2018-01-01

    Endemic to the Apalachicola River basin of the southeastern USA, the Shoal Bass Micropterus cataractae is a fluvial‐specialist sport fish that is imperiled because of anthropogenic habitat alteration. To counter population declines, restorative stocking efforts are becoming an increasingly relevant management strategy. However, population genetic structure within the species is currently unknown, but it could influence management decisions, such as brood source location. Leveraging a collaborative effort to collect and genotype specimens with 16 microsatellite loci, our objective was to characterize hierarchical population structure and genetic differentiation of the Shoal Bass across its native range, including an examination of structuring mechanisms, such as relatedness and inbreeding levels. Specimens identified as Shoal Bass were collected from 13 distinct sites (N ranged from 17 to 209 per location) and were then taxonomically screened to remove nonnative congeners and hybrids (pure Shoal Bass N ranged from 13 to 183 per location). Our results revealed appreciable population structure, with five distinct Shoal Bass populations identifiable at the uppermost hierarchical level that generally corresponded with natural geographic features and anthropogenic barriers. Substructure was recovered within several of these populations, wherein differences appeared related to spatial isolation and local population dynamics. An analysis of molecular variance revealed that 3.6% of the variation in our data set was accounted for among three larger river drainages, but substructure within each river drainage also explained an additional 8.9% of genetic variation, demonstrating that management at a scale lower than the river drainage level would likely best conserve genetic diversity. Results provide a population genetic framework that can inform future management decisions, such as brood source location, so that genetic diversity within and among populations is

  2. In Carthage ruins: the illness of Sir Winston Churchill at Carthage, December 1943.

    Vale, J A; Scadding, J W

    2017-09-01

    This paper reviews Churchill's illness in Carthage in December 1943. It was characterised by fever that lasted 6 days, left lower lobe pneumonia and two episodes of atrial fibrillation. He was managed in a private villa by Lord Moran, his personal physician, with the assistance of two nurses and the expert advice of colleagues. Sulphadiazine and digitalis leaf were prescribed and Churchill recovered. It is remarkable that, despite the severity of his illness, he continued to direct the affairs of State from his bed.

  3. Methodology to identify the location of shoals of fish downstream from hydroelectric power plant; Metodologia para identificar a locacao de cardumes de peixes a jusante de UHE

    Martinez, C.B.; Viana, E.M.F.; Faria, M.T.C. de [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas Hidraulicas e Recursos Hidricos], Emails: martinez@cce.ufmg.br, ednamariafaria@ufmg.br, mtcdf@uol.com.br

    2009-07-01

    The location identification of fish shoals at the downstream of an hydroelectric power plants is a task of importance especially when one takes into account the need to identify possible locations for the deployment of fish transportation mechanism. This paper presents a methodology based on the use of reduced models, which will be operated during the biological testing, under flow and conditions similar to the field where will be included shoals of fish. These groups will be observed during a period of time under varying conditions of discharge of hydraulic turbines. At the end of this observation it can be identified preferential location areas of fish shoals that will be evaluated later in order to install transposition systems in the place.

  4. Submerged oceanic shoals of north Western Australia are a major reservoir of marine biodiversity

    Moore, Cordelia; Cappo, Mike; Radford, Ben; Heyward, Andrew

    2017-09-01

    This paper provides a first assessment of fish communities associated with the submerged oceanic banks and shoals in north-west Australia. Until recently, little was known about these deeper and more inaccessible reefs. The mesophotic coral-reef habitats (20-80 m) were a major reservoir of marine biodiversity, with unique and exceptionally high fish diversity and abundance. Species richness in the study region was 1.4 times, and abundance almost twice, that recorded for similar mesophotic habitats on the Great Barrier Reef in north-east Australia. A review of the published literature revealed that Australia's NW oceanic shoals support the highest fish species richness reported for mesophotic reefs to date. We made regional comparisons of fish community structure (species composition, richness and abundance) and assessed the influence of depth, substrate and location. The presence of consolidated calcareous reef, depth and aspect (a surrogate for exposure) had the greatest influence on species richness. In contrast, aspect and the presence of benthic biota had the greatest influence on fish abundance. Sites most exposed to the prevailing currents (facing north-east) had lowest fish abundance, while highest abundances were recorded on moderately exposed sites (along the north-west and south-east edges). The most abundant species were small ( Pomacentrus coelestis) and large ( Naso hexacanthus) planktivorous fish. Currently, 29.3% of NE Australia mesophotic reefs are within no-take management zones of the Great Barrier Reef. In contrast, just 1.3% of the NW oceanic shoals are designated as no-take areas. The location and extent of mesophotic reefs remain poorly quantified globally. Because these habitats support significant biodiversity and have the potential to act as important refugia, understanding their extent is critical to maintaining coral-reef biodiversity and resilience and supporting sustainable management.

  5. Quantifying morphological changes of cape-related shoals

    Paniagua-Arroyave, J. F.; Adams, P. N.; Parra, S. M.; Valle-Levinson, A.

    2017-12-01

    The rising demand for marine resources has motivated the study of inner shelf transport processes, especially in locations with highly-developed coastlines, endangered-species habitats, and valuable economic resources. These characteristics are found at Cape Canaveral shoals, on the Florida Atlantic coast, where transport dynamics and morphological evolution are not well understood. To study morphological changes at these shoals, two sets of paired upward- and downward-pointing acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs) were deployed in winter 2015-2016. One set was deployed at the inner swale of Shoal E, 20 km southeast of the cape tip in 13 m depth, while the other set was located at the edge of Southeast shoal in 5 m deep. Upward-pointing velocity profiles and suspended particle concentrations were implemented in the Exner equation to quantify instantaneous rates of change in bed elevation. This computation includes changes in sediment concentration and the advection of suspended particles, but does not account for spatial gradients in bed-load fluxes and water velocities. The results of the computation were then compared to bed change rates measured directly by the downward-pointing ADCPs. At the easternmost ridge, quantified bed elevation change rates ranged from -7×10-7 to 4×10-7 m/s, and those at the inner swale ranged from -4×10-7 to 8×10-7 m/s. These values were two orders of magnitude smaller than rates measured by downward-pointing ADCPs. Moreover, the cumulative changes were two orders of magnitude larger at the ridge (-0.33 m, downward, and -0.13, m upward) than at the inner swale (cf. -6×10-3 m, downward, and 3×10-3 m, upward). These values suggest that bedform migration may be occurring at the ridge, that suspended sediments account for up to 30% of total bed changes, and that gradients in bed-load fluxes exert control on morphological change over the shoals. Despite uncertainties related to the ADCP-derived sediment concentrations, these

  6. The Human Relations Class at Sir Winston Churchill Secondary School. Research Report.

    Gilbert, Katherine J.

    Human Relations was a program offered to Grade 10 students at Churchill Secondary School during the 1971-72 school year in lieu of four courses. The emphasis of the program was on the development of students as people who were more aware of themselves, of other people, and of the environment. The class took part in a variety of activities during…

  7. The "Bain Linguistique": A Core French Experiment at Churchill Alternative School, 1993-94. Final Report.

    Wesche, Marjorie; MacFarlane, Alina; Peters, Martine

    This report describes an experimental intensive core French program for grades 5 and 6 at Churchill Alternative School in Ottawa (Canada). The aim was to improve the oral French skills of core French students by providing a period of intensive exposure to French and by increasing the total number of hours in French during one program year from 120…

  8. As His Day in Court Arrives, Ward Churchill Is Depicted in Sharply Different Lights

    Schmidt, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The trial in Ward Churchill's lawsuit against the University of Colorado got under way here last week with lawyers for the opposing sides painting starkly different pictures of both the controversial ethnic-studies professor and the circumstances surrounding his dismissal by the university in 2007. In delivering their opening remarks in a crowded…

  9. The Churchill School: An Alternative to Drug Treatment for Hyperactive Children.

    Krippner, Stanley

    This paper is a discussion of The Churchill School, founded in 1972 as an alternative approach to serving the educational needs of children diagnosed as hyperactive, hyperkinetic, brain damaged, neurologically impaired, or suffering from minimal brain dysfunction. The school has a student body of 65, ranging between 6 and 13 years of age. The…

  10. Evaluation on the Occupational Information Access System as Used at Churchill High School. A Project Report.

    McKinlay, Bruce; Adams, Daniel

    The Occupational Information Access System (OIAS) improves the accessibility of occupational labor market information for career planning. Its operation at Churchill High School is evaluated from several angels: the likes and dislikes of users; the effect of OIAS on users' knowledge of occupational information and on their career plans; why other…

  11. "Living My Native Life Deadly": Red Lake, Ward Churchill, and the Discourses of Competing Genocides

    Byrd, Jodi A.

    2007-01-01

    In an attempt to understand how rival narratives of genocide compete even at the cost of disavowing other historical experiences, this article considers how the U.S. national media represented and framed Red Lake in the wake of Ward Churchill's emergence on the national radar. The first section of this article examines how nineteenth-century…

  12. Ground-water quality and geochemistry in Dayton, Stagecoach, and Churchill Valleys, western Nevada

    Thomas, James M.; Lawrence, Stephen J.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey investigated the quality of ground water in the Dayton, Stagecoach, and Churchill Valleys as part of the Carson River Basin National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) pilot study. Four aquifer systems have been de- lineated in the study area. Principal aquifers are unconsolidated deposits at altitudes of less than 4,900 feet above sea level and more than 50 feet below land surface. Shallow aquifers are at altitudes of less than 4,900 feet and less than 50 feet below land surface. Upland aquifers are above 4,900 feet and provide recharge to the principal aquifers. Thermal aquifers, defined as those having a water temperature greater than 30 degrees Celsius, are also present. Ground water used in Dayton, Stagecoach, and Churchill Valleys is pumped from principal aquifers in unconsolidated basin-fill deposits. Ground water in these aquifers originates as precipitation in the adjacent mountains and is recharged by the Carson River and by underflow from adjacent upstream valleys. Ground-water flow is generally parallel to the direction of surface-water flow in the Carson River. Ground water is discharged by pumping, evapo- transpiration, and underflow into the Carson River. The results of geochemical modeling indicate that as ground water moves from upland aquifers in mountainous recharge areas to principal aquifers in basin-fill deposits, the following processes probably occur: (1) plagioclase feldspar, sodium chloride, gypsum (or pyrite), potassium feldspar, and biotite dissolve; (2) calcite precipitates; (3) kaolinite forms; (4) small amounts of calcium and magnesium in the water exchange for potassium on aquifer minerals; and (5) carbon dioxide is gained or lost. The geochemical models are consistent with (1) phases identified in basin- fill sediments; (2) chemical activity of major cations and silica; (3) saturation indices of calcite and amorphous silica; (4) phase relations for aluminosilicate minerals indicated by activity diagrams; and

  13. Letter Report: Contaminant Boundary at the Shoal Underground Nuclear Test

    Greg Pohll; Karl Pohlmann

    2004-01-01

    As part of the corrective action strategy reached between the U.S. Department of Energy and the State of Nevada, the extent and potential impact of radionuclide contamination of groundwater at underground nuclear test locations must be addressed. This report provides the contaminant boundary for the Project Shoal Site, based on the groundwater flow and transport model for the site, by Pohlmann (and others)

  14. Seismotectonics of the Taiwan Shoal region in the northeastern South China Sea: Insights from the crustal structure

    Wan, Kuiyuan; Sun, Jinlong; Xu, Huilong; Xie, Xiaoling; Xia, Shaohong; Zhang, Xiang; Cao, Jinghe; Zhao, Fang; Fan, Chaoyan

    2018-02-01

    A cluster of earthquakes occurred in the Taiwan Shoal region on the outer rise of the Manila Trench. Although most were of small to medium magnitudes, one strong earthquake occurred on September 16, 1994. Several previous studies have provided important information to progress our understanding of this single earthquake. However, little is currently known about the earthquake cluster, and it is necessary to investigate the deep crustal structure of the Taiwan Shoal region to understand the mechanisms involved in controlling and generating it. This study presents a two-dimensional seismic tomographic image of the crustal structure along the OBS2012 profile based on ocean-bottom seismograph (OBS) data, which exhibits a high-velocity anomaly flanked by low-velocity anomalies in the upper crust beneath the Taiwan Shoal. In this study, 765 earthquakes (Richter magnitude ML > 1.5) occurring between 1991 and 2015 were studied and analyses of earthquake epicenters, regional faults, and the crustal structure provides an improved understanding of the nature of active tectonics in this region. Results of analyses indicate firstly that the high-velocity area represents major asperities that correspond to the location of the earthquake cluster and where stress is concentrated. It is also depicted that the earthquake cluster was influenced by fault interactions. However, the September 1994 earthquake occurred independently of these seismic activities and was associated with reactivation of a preexisting fault. It is also determined that slab pull is resisted by the exposed precollision accretionary prism, and the resistive force is causing accumulation of inplane compressive-stress. This may trigger a future damaging earthquake in the Taiwan Shoal region.

  15. Shoal bass hybridization in the Chattahoochee River Basin near Atlanta, Georgia

    Taylor, Andrew T.; Tringali, Michael D.; O'Rourke, Patrick M.; Long, James M.

    2018-01-01

    The shoal bass (Micropterus cataractae) is a sportfish endemic to the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint Basin of the southeastern United States. Introgression with several non-native congeners poses a pertinent threat to shoal bass conservation, particularly in the altered habitats of the Chattahoochee River. Our primary objective was to characterize hybridization in shoal bass populations near Atlanta, Georgia, including a population inhabiting Big Creek and another in the main stem Chattahoochee River below Morgan Falls Dam (MFD). A secondary objective was to examine the accuracy of phenotypic identifications below MFD based on a simplified suite of characters examined in the field. Fish were genotyped with 16 microsatellite DNA markers, and results demonstrated that at least four black bass species were involved in introgressive hybridization. Of 62 fish genotyped from Big Creek, 27% were pure shoal bass and 65% represented either F1 hybrids of shoal bass x smallmouth bass (M. dolomieu) or unidirectional backcrosses towards shoal bass. Of 29 fish genotyped below MFD and downstream at Cochran Shoals, 45% were pure shoal bass. Six hybrid shoal bass included both F1 hybrids and backcrosses with non-natives including Alabama bass (M. henshalli), spotted bass (M. punctulatus), and smallmouth bass. Shoal bass alleles comprised only 21% of the overall genomic composition in Big Creek and 31% below MFD (when combined with Cochran Shoals). Phenotypic identification below MFD resulted in an overall correct classification rate of 86% when discerning pure shoal bass from all other non-natives and hybrids. Results suggest that although these two shoal bass populations feature some of the highest introgression rates documented, only a fleeting opportunity may exist to conserve pure shoal bass in both populations. Continued supplemental stocking of pure shoal bass below MFD appears warranted to thwart increased admixture among multiple black bass taxa, and a similar stocking

  16. Turning the Tide: Estuaries Shaped by Channel-Shoal Interactions, Eco-engineers and Inherited Landscapes

    Kleinhans, M. G.; Braat, L.; Leuven, J.; Baar, A. W.; van der Vegt, M.; Van Maarseveen, M. C. G.; Markies, H.; Roosendaal, C.; van Eijk, A.

    2015-12-01

    Estuaries exhibit correlations between inlet dimensions, tidal prism and intertidal area, but to what extent estuary planform shape and shoal patterns resulted from biomorphological processes or from inherited conditions such as coastal plain and drowned valley dimensions remains unclear. We explore the hypothesis that mud flats and vegetation as a self-formed lateral confinement have effects analogous to that of river floodplain on braided versus meandering river patterns. Here we use the Delft3D numerical model and a novel tidal flume setup, the Metronome, to create estuaries from idealized initial conditions, with and without mud supply at the fluvial boundary. Experimental mud was simulated by crushed nutshell. Both the numerical and experimental estuaries were narrower with increasing mud, and had a lower degree of channel braiding. The experimental estuaries developed meanders at the river boundary with floodplain developing on the pointbar whereas cohesionless cases were more dynamic.

  17. Cyclic behavior of sandy shoals on the ebb-tidal deltas of the Wadden Sea

    Ridderinkhof, W.; Hoekstra, P.; van der Vegt, M.; de Swart, H. E.

    2016-01-01

    Ebb-tidal deltas are bulges of sand that are located seaward of tidal inlets. Many of these deltas feature shoals that cyclically form and migrate towards the coast. The average period between successive shoals that attach to the coast varies among different inlets. In this study, a quantitative

  18. Possible return of Acropora cervicornis at Pulaski Shoal, Dry Tortugas National Park, Florida

    Lidz, Barbara H.; Zawada, David G.

    2013-01-01

    Seabed classification is essential to assessing environmental associations and physical status in coral reef ecosystems. At Pulaski Shoal in Dry Tortugas National Park, Florida, nearly continuous underwater-image coverage was acquired in 15.5 hours in 2009 along 70.2 km of transect lines spanning ~0.2 km2. The Along-Track Reef-Imaging System (ATRIS), a boat-based, high-speed, digital imaging system, was used. ATRIS-derived benthic classes were merged with a QuickBird satellite image to create a habitat map that defines areas of senile coral reef, carbonate sand, seagrasses, and coral rubble. This atypical approach of starting with extensive, high-resolution in situ imagery and extrapolating between transect lines using satellite imagery leverages the strengths of each remote-sensing modality. The ATRIS images also captured the spatial distribution of two species once common on now-degraded Florida-Caribbean coral reefs: the stony staghorn coral Acropora cervicornis, a designated threatened species, and the long-spined urchin Diadema antillarum. This article documents the utility of ATRIS imagery for quantifying number and estimating age of A. cervicornis colonies (n = 400, age range, 5–11 y) since the severe hypothermic die-off in the Dry Tortugas in 1976–77. This study is also the first to document the largest number of new colonies of A. cervicornis tabulated in an area of the park where coral-monitoring stations maintained by the Fish and Wildlife Research Institute have not been established. The elevated numbers provide an updated baseline for tracking revival of this species at Pulaski Shoal.

  19. Shoaling internal solitary waves of depression over gentle slopes

    Rivera, Gustavo; Diamessis, Peter

    2017-11-01

    The shoaling of an internal solitary wave (ISW) of depression over gentle slopes is explored through fully nonlinear and non-hydrostatic simulations using a high resolution/accuracy deformed spectral multidomain penalty method. During shoaling, the wave does not disintegrate as in the case of steeper slope but, instead, maintains its symmetric shape. At the core of the wave, an unstable region forms, characterized by the entrapment of heavier-over-light fluid. The formation of this convective instability is attributed to the vertical stretching by the ISW of the near-surface vorticity layer associated with the baroclinic background current. According to recent field observations in the South China Sea, the unstable region drives localized turbulent mixing within the wave, estimated to be up to four times larger than that in the open ocean, in the form of a recirculating trapped core. In this talk, emphasis is placed on the structure of the unstable region and the persistence of a possible recirculating core using simulations which capture 2D wave propagation combined with 3D representation of the transition to turbulence. As such, a preliminary understanding of the underlying fluid mechanics and the potential broader oceanic significance of ISWs with trapped cores is offered. Financial support gratefully acknowledged to NSF OCE Grant 1634257.

  20. Sea Level, Land Motion, and the Anomalous Tide at Churchill, Hudson Bay

    Ray, R. D.

    2015-12-01

    The importance of the tide gauge at Churchill, Manitoba, cannot be overstated. It is the only permanently operating tide gauge in the central Canadian Arctic, and it sits on a prime spot for monitoring the mantle's rebound from the Laurentide ice loss. Yet interpretation of the sea-level time series at Churchill has long been problematic, going back even to early work by Gutenberg in the 1940s. The long-term relative sea-level rates are inconsistent: approximately -4, -19, -5 ± 1 mm/y for the periods 1940-1970, 1970-1990, 1990-2014 respectively. Annual mean high water (MHW) and mean low water (MLW) reflect these trends until around 1990, after which MLW leveled off and is now nearly unchanging. Slightly later, around 2000, the semidiurnal tides became very anomalous, with falling amplitudes and slightly increasing phase lags. The amplitude of M2 was approximately 154 cm before 2000; it dropped to about 146 cm by 2010 and reached an all-time low of 142 cm in 2014. Satellite altimeter estimates of the tide in this region, although challenging because of seasonal ice cover, show no comparable M2 changes, so the tidal changes must be localized to the near vicinity of the gauge (or to the gauge itself if caused by a malfunction). On the other hand, altimetry confirms the post-1992 Churchill measurements of mean sea level, thanks to the long time series of land motion measurements obtained at GPS station CHUR, which gives a vertical uplift of 10.1 mm/y. Combining satellite altimeter data with the Churchill tide-gauge data gives an implied vertical crustal rate of about 9.0 ± 0.8 mm/y, in reasonable agreement with the GPS. In summary, we have still anomalous MSL measurements at the Churchill gauge for the intermediate 1970-1990 era, and very anomalous tidal measurements since 2000, but we have apparently quite reliable MSL rates since 1990.

  1. Water quality in the upper Shoal Creek basin, southwestern Missouri, 1999-2000

    Schumacher, John G.

    2001-01-01

    Results of a water-quality investigation of the upper Shoal Creek Basin in southwestern Missouri indicate that concentrations of total nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen (NO2t+NO3t) in water samples from Shoal Creek were unusually large [mean of 2.90 mg/L (milligrams per liter), n (sample size)=60] compared to other Missouri streams (mean of 1.02 mg/L, n=1,340). A comparison of instantaneous base-flow loads of NO2t+NO3t indicates that at base-flow conditions, most NO2t+NO3t discharged by Shoal Creek is from nonpoint sources. Nearly all the base-flow instantaneous load of total phosphorus as P (Pt) discharged by Shoal Creek can be attributed to effluent from a municipal wastewater treatment plant. Samples collected from a single runoff event indicate that substantial quantities of Pt can be transported during runoff events compared to base-flow transport. Only minor quantities of NO2t+NO3t are transported during runoff events compared to base-flow transport. Fecal coliform bacteria densities at several locations exceed the Missouri Department of Natural Resources (MDNR) standard of 200 col/100 mL (colonies per 100 milliliters) for whole-body contact recreation. During 13 months of monitoring at 13 stream sites, fecal coliform densities (median of 277 and 400 col/100 mL) at two sites (sites 2 and 3) on Shoal Creek exceeded the MDNR standard at base-flow conditions. The maximum fecal coliform density of 120,000 col/100 mL was detected at site 3 (MDNR monitoring site) during a runoff event in April 1999 at a peak discharge of 1,150 ft3/s (cubic feet per second). Fecal coliform densities also exceeded the MDNR standard in three tributaries with the largest densities (median of 580 col/100 mL) detected in Pogue Creek. Results of ribopattern analyses indicate that most Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria in water samples from the study area probably are from nonhuman sources. The study area contains about 25,000 cattle, and has an estimated annual production of 33 million

  2. From schooling to shoaling: patterns of collective motion in zebrafish (Danio rerio.

    Noam Miller

    Full Text Available Animal groups on the move can take different configurations. For example, groups of fish can either be 'shoals' or 'schools': shoals are simply aggregations of individuals; schools are shoals exhibiting polarized, synchronized motion. Here we demonstrate that polarization distributions of groups of zebrafish (Danio rerio are bimodal, showing two distinct modes of collective motion corresponding to the definitions of shoaling and schooling. Other features of the group's motion also vary consistently between the two modes: zebrafish schools are faster and less dense than zebrafish shoals. Habituation to an environment can also alter the proportion of time zebrafish groups spend schooling or shoaling. Models of collective motion suggest that the degree and stability of group polarization increases with the group's density. Examining zebrafish groups of different sizes from 5 to 50, we show that larger groups are less polarized than smaller groups. Decreased fearfulness in larger groups may function similarly to habituation, causing them to spend more time shoaling than schooling, contrary to most models' predictions.

  3. How Did Winston S. Churchill’s Experience as a Prisoner of War during the Boer War Affect His Leadership Style and Career?

    2011-06-10

    Churchill, in typical fashion , did not have the finances to support either polo or hunting activities that early in his career. Thus, Churchill...leadership as the other two Boer republics and consequently the government went bankrupt. The British in typical fashion dispatched an emissary...195Ibid. 196Ibid. 197Donald Featherstone, Victorian Colonial Warfare Africa (London: Cassell Books, 1992

  4. Quorum decision-making in foraging fish shoals.

    Ashley J W Ward

    Full Text Available Quorum responses provide a means for group-living animals to integrate and filter disparate social information to produce accurate and coherent group decisions. A quorum response may be defined as a steep increase in the probability of group members performing a given behaviour once a threshold minimum number of their group mates already performing that behaviour is exceeded. In a previous study we reported the use of a quorum response in group decision-making of threespine sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus under a simulated predation threat. Here we examine the use of quorum responses by shoals of sticklebacks in first locating and then leaving a foraging patch. We show that a quorum rule explains movement decisions by threespine sticklebacks toward and then away from a food patch. Following both to and from a food patch occurred when a threshold number of initiators was exceeded, with the threshold being determined by the group size.

  5. Identification of the vascular plants of Churchill, Manitoba, using a DNA barcode library

    Kuzmina Maria L

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because arctic plant communities are highly vulnerable to climate change, shifts in their composition require rapid, accurate identifications, often for specimens that lack diagnostic floral characters. The present study examines the role that DNA barcoding can play in aiding floristic evaluations in the arctic by testing the effectiveness of the core plant barcode regions (rbcL, matK and a supplemental ribosomal DNA (ITS2 marker for a well-studied flora near Churchill, Manitoba. Results This investigation examined 900 specimens representing 312 of the 354 species of vascular plants known from Churchill. Sequencing success was high for rbcL: 95% for fresh specimens and 85% for herbarium samples (mean age 20 years. ITS2 worked equally well for the fresh and herbarium material (89% and 88%. However, sequencing success was lower for matK, despite two rounds of PCR amplification, which reflected less effective primer binding and sensitivity to the DNA degradation (76% of fresh, 45% of herbaria samples. A species was considered as taxonomically resolved if its members showed at least one diagnostic difference from any other taxon in the study and formed a monophyletic clade. The highest species resolution (69% was obtained by combining information from all three genes. The joint sequence information for rbcL and matK distinguished 54% of 286 species, while rbcL and ITS2 distinguished 63% of 285 species. Discrimination of species within Salix, which constituted 8% of the flora, was particularly problematic. Despite incomplete resolution, the barcode results revealed 22 misidentified herbarium specimens, and enabled the identification of field specimens which were otherwise too immature to identify. Although seven cases of ITS2 paralogy were noted in the families Cyperaceae, Juncaceae and Juncaginaceae, this intergenic spacer played an important role in resolving congeneric plant species at Churchill. Conclusions Our results

  6. Identification of the vascular plants of Churchill, Manitoba, using a DNA barcode library.

    Kuzmina, Maria L; Johnson, Karen L; Barron, Hannah R; Hebert, Paul Dn

    2012-11-28

    Because arctic plant communities are highly vulnerable to climate change, shifts in their composition require rapid, accurate identifications, often for specimens that lack diagnostic floral characters. The present study examines the role that DNA barcoding can play in aiding floristic evaluations in the arctic by testing the effectiveness of the core plant barcode regions (rbcL, matK) and a supplemental ribosomal DNA (ITS2) marker for a well-studied flora near Churchill, Manitoba. This investigation examined 900 specimens representing 312 of the 354 species of vascular plants known from Churchill. Sequencing success was high for rbcL: 95% for fresh specimens and 85% for herbarium samples (mean age 20 years). ITS2 worked equally well for the fresh and herbarium material (89% and 88%). However, sequencing success was lower for matK, despite two rounds of PCR amplification, which reflected less effective primer binding and sensitivity to the DNA degradation (76% of fresh, 45% of herbaria samples). A species was considered as taxonomically resolved if its members showed at least one diagnostic difference from any other taxon in the study and formed a monophyletic clade. The highest species resolution (69%) was obtained by combining information from all three genes. The joint sequence information for rbcL and matK distinguished 54% of 286 species, while rbcL and ITS2 distinguished 63% of 285 species. Discrimination of species within Salix, which constituted 8% of the flora, was particularly problematic. Despite incomplete resolution, the barcode results revealed 22 misidentified herbarium specimens, and enabled the identification of field specimens which were otherwise too immature to identify. Although seven cases of ITS2 paralogy were noted in the families Cyperaceae, Juncaceae and Juncaginaceae, this intergenic spacer played an important role in resolving congeneric plant species at Churchill. Our results provided fast and cost-effective solution to create a

  7. Simultaneous measurements of helium and heavy nuclei fluxes in cosmic rays over Fort Churchill

    Bhatia, V.S.; Paruthi, S.; Kainth, G.S.

    1977-01-01

    We have made simultaneous measurements of fluxes of He an heavy nuclei (Z< or =10) in primary cosmic rays at three levels of solar activity. These nuclei have been studied in three nuclear emulsion stacks exposed over Fort Churchill, Canada, in 1963, 1964, and 1967. We had earlier reported our results on the heavy nuclei at the Hobart conference (Bhatia et al., 1971). Experimental results based on 1514 He nuclei tracks that were measured in these three stacks are presented in this paper. The experimentally obtained He and heavy nuclei differential energy spectra have been compared with the theoretically calculated near-earth spectra

  8. FEMINIST PERSPECTIVE OF CROSS-GENDER POWER RELATION IN CARYL CHURCHILL'S TOP GIRLS

    Yap Bie Yong

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Top Girls, one of Caryl Churchill's most popular plays, describes the lives of six female characters coming from different centuries. Each of them has their own story to tell, as they have all been victimized by the patriarchal system in the century when they live and have resisted the system with different strategies. They either employ roles that are traditionally reserved for men or they adopt the archetypically feminine qualities. Despite their resistance and success, they find themselves unhappy and unsatisfied over their achievements. Thus this raises the question of the effectiveness of the feminist movement.

  9. CRED REA Coral Population Parameters at French Frigate Shoals, Northwestern Hawaiiian Islands, 2003

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 12 sites at French Frigate Shoals...

  10. CRED REA Coral Population Parameters at French Frigate Shoals, Northwestern Hawaiiian Islands, 2002

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 12 sites at French Frigate Shoals...

  11. CRED REA Coral Population Parameters at French Frigate Shoals, Northwestern Hawaiiian Islands, 2004

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 11 sites at French Frigate Shoals...

  12. CRED REA Algal Assessments, French Frigate Shoals, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands 2002 (NODC Accession 0010352)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Twelve quadrats were sampled along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 12 sites at French Frigate Shoals...

  13. Suspended sediment transport and shoaling in the Munambam fishery harbour, Kerala

    Revichandran, C.; Abraham, P.; Josanto, V.; Sankaranarayanan, V.N.

    Results of the monthly synoptic field observations of vertical profiles of suspended sediment concentration, current velocity and salinity carried out in the Azhicode Estuary are presented with a view to understand the shoaling and siltation...

  14. Hybridization threatens shoal bass populations in the Upper Chattahoochee River Basin: Chapter 37

    Dakin, Elizabeth E; Porter, Brady A.; Freeman, Byron J.; Long, James M.; Tringali, Michael D.; Long, James M.; Birdsong, Timothy W.; Allen, Micheal S.

    2015-01-01

    Shoal bass are native only to the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint river system of Georgia, Alabama, and Florida, and are vulnerable to extinction as a result of population fragmentation and introduction of non-native species. We assessed the genetic integrity of isolated populations of shoal bass in the upper Chattahoochee River basin (above Lake Lanier, Big Creek, and below Morgan Falls Dam) and sought to identify rates of hybridization with non-native, illegally stocked smallmouth bass and spotted bass.

  15. Geologic reconnaissance of the Hot Springs Mountains, Churchill County, Nevada

    Voegtly, Nickolas E.

    1981-01-01

    A geologic reconnaissance of the Hot Springs Mountains and adjacent areas, which include parts of the Brady-Hazen and the Stillwater-Soda Lake Known Geothermal Resource Areas, during June-December 1975, resulted in a reinterpretation of the nature and location of some Basin and Range faults. In addition, the late Cenozoic stratigraphy has been modified, chiefly on the basis of radiometric dates of volcanic rocks by U.S. Geological Survey personnel and others. The Hot Springs Mountains are in the western part of the Basin and Range province, which is characterized by east-west crustal extension and associated normal faulting. In the surrounding Trinity, West Humboldt, Stillwater, and Desert Mountains, Cenozoic rocks overlie ' basement ' rocks of the Paleozoic and Mesozoic age. A similar relation is inferred in the Hot Springs Mountains. Folding and faulting have taken place from the late Tertiary to the present. (USGS)

  16. "WE ARE ALL IN THE SAME BOAT NOW" PROVERBIAL RHETORIC IN THE CHURCHILL-ROOSEVELT CORRESPONDENCE

    Wolfgang Mieder

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Both Winston S. Churchill (1874-1965 and Franklin D. Roosevelt (1 882-1945 were masters of the English language and effective orators, rallying their people through word and deed to fight as allies against the dictatorial powers during the Second World War. Their public speeches and interviews are replete with proverbs, proverbial expressions, and other phraseologisms. This is also true for their private and secretive letters, messages, memoranda, and telegrams, as can be seen from the materials that Warren F. Kimball edited in the three volumes of Churchill & Roosevelt: The Complete Correspondence (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1984. The proverbial language, especially metaphorical texts referring to the body, animals, and the military, gives their important communications a lively and humane flavor that illustrates their deep friendship, trust, and support of each other. Frequently used as metaphorical arguments, these proverbial interjections into an otherwise factual epistolary exchange from 1933 to 1945 bear witness to the determination of these two world leaders to win the struggle for a free world.

  17. Shoaling behaviour of Lates japonicus revealed through a digital camera logger

    Sara Gonzalvo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Protecting endangered species is one of the main targets of conservation biology, but the study of these species is often a sensitive issue. The need to risk, and often take, the life of some specimens during the experiments is not easily justified. Technological advances provide scientists with tools that can reduce damage to studied species, while increasing the quality of the data obtained. Here, we analyse the social behaviour of an endangered Japanese fish, Akame (Lates japonicus, using an attached underwater camera. Social behaviour, especially concerning aggregations, is a key factor in conservation plans and fisheries management to avoid by-catch and to establish coherent protected areas. In this experiment, a fish-borne underwater still-camera logger was attached to a captured Akame, recording the individual in its natural environment in July, 2009. The images obtained from the camera revealed several groups of large adults moving together, showing for the first time in this species an aggregative behaviour. This discovery opens the door for initiation of protective measures to preserve these groups, which in turn, can help to ensure continuity of this fish in the Shimanto River by protecting the specific areas where these shoals gather.

  18. Edward D. Churchill as a combat consultant: lessons for the senior visiting surgeons and today's military medical corps.

    Cannon, Jeremy W; Fischer, Josef E

    2010-03-01

    In World War II, Edward D. Churchill volunteered as a combat consultant. In this role, he mentored many junior surgeons and challenged the Army leadership to treat hemorrhagic shock with blood rather than plasma. These lessons have continued relevance for today's Senior Visiting Surgeons and our military medical corps.

  19. Documents Related to Churchill and FDR. The Constitution Community: The Great Depression and World War II (1929-1945).

    Gray, Tom

    During World War II, a close friendship and excellent working relations developed between President Franklin D. Roosevelt (FDR) and Prime Minister Winston Churchill that were crucial in the establishment of a unified effort to deal with the Axis powers. In early 1941, FDR began the long-term correspondence that developed into a close working…

  20. Churchill: an ultra-fast, deterministic, highly scalable and balanced parallelization strategy for the discovery of human genetic variation in clinical and population-scale genomics.

    Kelly, Benjamin J; Fitch, James R; Hu, Yangqiu; Corsmeier, Donald J; Zhong, Huachun; Wetzel, Amy N; Nordquist, Russell D; Newsom, David L; White, Peter

    2015-01-20

    While advances in genome sequencing technology make population-scale genomics a possibility, current approaches for analysis of these data rely upon parallelization strategies that have limited scalability, complex implementation and lack reproducibility. Churchill, a balanced regional parallelization strategy, overcomes these challenges, fully automating the multiple steps required to go from raw sequencing reads to variant discovery. Through implementation of novel deterministic parallelization techniques, Churchill allows computationally efficient analysis of a high-depth whole genome sample in less than two hours. The method is highly scalable, enabling full analysis of the 1000 Genomes raw sequence dataset in a week using cloud resources. http://churchill.nchri.org/.

  1. Data Validation Package May 2015, Groundwater Sampling at the Shoal, Nevada, Site

    Findlay, Rick; Kautsky, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Ci/L. However, concentrations of gross alpha, uranium, and carbon-14 all increased in the sample from well HC-4 during this sampling event. Concentrations of gross alpha and uranium have been above the EPA MCLs in this well since 2012 and the highest concentrations of gross alpha (60.6 pCi/L) and uranium (110 micrograms per liter) were detected during this sampling event. Refer to the time-concentration plots included with this report. Also see the 2015 Groundwater Monitoring Report Project Shoal Area: Subsurface Corrective Action Unit 447 for additional information on the 2015 sampling results.

  2. Data Validation Package May 2015, Groundwater Sampling at the Shoal, Nevada, Site

    Findlay, Rick [Navarro Research and Engineering, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kautsky, Mark [US Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Legacy Management

    2016-03-01

    Ci/L. However, concentrations of gross alpha, uranium, and carbon-14 all increased in the sample from well HC-4 during this sampling event. Concentrations of gross alpha and uranium have been above the EPA MCLs in this well since 2012 and the highest concentrations of gross alpha (60.6 pCi/L) and uranium (110 micrograms per liter) were detected during this sampling event. Refer to the time-concentration plots included with this report. Also see the 2015 Groundwater Monitoring Report Project Shoal Area: Subsurface Corrective Action Unit 447 for additional information on the 2015 sampling results.

  3. Hydrogeology and potential effects of changes in water use, Carson Desert agricultural area, Churchill County, Nevada

    Maurer, Douglas K.; Johnson, Ann K.; Welch, Alan H.

    1996-01-01

    Operating Criteria and Procedures for Newlands Project irrigation and Public Law 101-618 could result in reductions in surface water used for agriculture in the Carson Desert, potentially affecting ground-water supplies from shallow, intermediate, and basalt aquifers. A near-surface zone could exist at the top of the shallow aquifer near the center and eastern parts of the basin where underlying clay beds inhibit vertical flow and could limit the effects of changes in water use. In the basalt aquifer, water levels have declined about 10 feet from pre-pumping levels, and chloride and arsenic concentrations have increased. Conceptual models of the basin suggest that changes in water use in the western part of the basin would probably affect recharge to the shallow, intermediate, and basalt aquifers. Lining canals and removing land from production could cause water-level declines greater than 10 feet in the shallow aquifer up to 2 miles from lined canals. Removing land from production could cause water levels to decline from 4 to 17 feet, depending on the distribution of specific yield in the basin and the amount of water presently applied to irrigated fields. Where wells pump from a near-surface zone of the shallow aquifer, water level declines might not greatly affect pumping wells where the thickness of the zone is greatest, but could cause wells to go dry where the zone is thin.

  4. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, CHURCHILL COUNTY, NEVADA (AND INCORPORATED AREAS)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Database depicts flood risk information and supporting data used to develop the risk data. The primary risk...

  5. The origins of a coming crisis : renewal of the Churchill Falls contract

    Feehan, J.P.

    2005-01-01

    The renewal clause of the 1969 power contract between Hydro-Quebec and the Churchill Falls (Labrador) Corporation (CFLCo) takes effect in 2016. The contract concerns the development and sale of electricity from the Churchill Falls hydro site and has been a matter of discontent in Newfoundland and Labrador because it stipulates that almost all of the power be sold to Hydro-Quebec on a very long-term basis at very low and declining prices. The government of Newfoundland and Labrador has challenged the contract in several ways since the 1970s, all unsuccessfully. During the renewal period, the price is preset at 2 mills (0.2 cents) per kilowatt hour. Even in the late 1960s, this price was extraordinarily low and not achievable from any new energy source. The average wholesale price of electricity in Ontario in 2004 was 52.2 mills per kilowatt hour. With 30 million megawatt hours of electricity involved in this renewal, the potential gap between the value of the power and the amount paid to CFLCo was about $1 billion a year by 2004 and rising. This paper presents the results of the first systematic investigation into how such an extraordinary onerous condition got into the contract. It considers the process that led to the contract and related arrangements. It also presents uncited archival documentation that gives new and revealing facts about the origins of the renewal clause. The findings give rise to questions of business ethics and law. This paper also reviews the early discussions and the interrelated commercial and political challenges that had to be overcome for the two provinces to come to an agreement on a comprehensive Letter of Intent. The contract negotiations and events that led to the renewal clause were outlined along with the implications for Hydro-Quebec, CFLCo and the government of Newfoundland. 13 refs., 2 appendices

  6. Tributyltin affects shoaling and anxiety behavior in female rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus).

    Zhang, Jiliang; Zhang, Chunnuan; Sun, Ping; Shao, Xian

    2016-09-01

    Effects of tributyltin (TBT) on reproduction are well established in many fish species. However, few studies report the effects of TBT on non-reproductive behaviors, which is a novel aspect of endocrine disruption in fish. Thus, the present study used rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus) to investigate the effects of TBT, at environmental concentrations of 1, 10 and 100ng/L, on shoaling and anxiety behaviors. The results showed that fish exposed to TBT had less group cohesion during the course of the 10-min observation period as compared with the control fish. Further, TBT altered the shoaling in the Novel tank test, where shoaling is determined as the tendency to leave a shoal of littermates trapped behind a Plexiglas barrier at one end of the test tank. Fish exposed to TBT had shorter latency before leaving shoal mates and spent more time away from shoal than control fish. In addition, we also used Novel tanks to study the anxiety behavior as the tendency to stay at the bottom when introduced into an unfamiliar environment. The fish exposed to TBT showed increased anxiety, manifested as increased latency to enter the upper half and decreased time in upper half when compared with the control fish. TBT exposure increased the levels of dopamine and its metabolite 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, and decreased the levels of 5-hydroxytryptamine and its metabolite 5-hydroxy indole acetic acid in the brain. Thus, the hypofunction of the dopaminergic system or of the serotoninergic system or the combination of the two may underlie the observed behavioral change, which might affect the fitness of fish in their natural environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Ustica Island (Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy): from shoaling to emergent stage

    Marinoni, L. B.; Pasquaré, G.; Vezzoli, L.

    2003-04-01

    Ustica is a volcanic island located in the southern Tyrrhenian sea, ~60 km NW of Sicily. As usual for volcanic ocean islands, its exposed part (8.6 km2, 248 m max elevation, mostly of Pleistocene age), is a small fraction of the whole edifice which rises from ~2000 m depth. Its 5-pointed-star shape is slightly elongated in a NE direction. A new geological field survey was carried out at scale 1:10000 and locally at 1:2000, establishing informal stratigraphic units that on the whole fit a common scheme of evolution for volcanic ocean islands. In this framework, the whole pre-existing stratigraphy has been revised. Ustica has a variety of volcanic deposits from submarine (basaltic effusive to explosive) to subaereal (effusive, explosive and highly explosive -Plinian?). Moreover, Ustica is one of the few places in the world where a transition of deposits from shoaling to emergent stage crop out. In fact, its oldest deposits consist of: (a) a flank-facies association of submarine lavas (variably-shaped pillows, pillow breccias and hyaloclastites) with biocalcarenite-biocalcirudite lenses, dipping coastward in the E, S and W outer parts of the island; this association is arranged in steep foreset beds (lava deltas) and is capped by flat-lying transitional to subaereal massive lava flows and surf-shaped boulder conglomerates; the geometry of this association may suggest a progressive island uplift or sea lowering during this period; (b) shallow-water to emergent tuff cone deposits in the NW part of the island. In the centre of the island, subsequent activity built a pile, now deeply eroded, of subaereal basaltic lava flows capped by a scoria cone. A previously unknown outcrop where a pumice fall layer is exposed, allows a distinction into two members of a unit that was known as formed by pyroclastic surges only. Higher in the succession, the Ustica Pumice formation (for which 4 members are defined) is underlain by a palaeosoil, and is likely the remnant of a caldera

  8. Response of Mediterranean circulation to Miocene shoaling and closure of the Indian Gateway : A model study

    De La Vara, Alba; Meijer, Paul

    2016-01-01

    In this regional ocean model study, we explore the effect of the Early to Middle Miocene shoaling and closure of the Indian Gateway on Mediterranean circulation and its exchange with the adjacent oceans. For this we use the regional ocean circulation model "sbPOM" and a collection of bathymetries

  9. Long-term Monitoring Plan for the Shoal Underground Nuclear Test

    Ahmed Hassan

    2005-02-01

    The flow and transport model of Shoal is used to design a three-well monitoring network to be part of the long-term monitoring network for the site and achieve two objectives: (1) detect the presence of radionuclides in case they migrate to the monitoring well locations, and (2) provide field data to compare with model predictions as part of the model validation process. Using three different quantitative approaches and the numerical groundwater flow and transport model developed for Shoal, three new monitoring well locations were identified from 176 different networks. In addition to the quantitative analyses using the numerical model, the development of the monitoring network for Shoal will also be subject to qualitative hydrogeologic interpretation during implementation. information will only be available during the fieldwork, it will be incorporated in the monitoring well design at the time of well installation. Finally, it should be noted that the CADD-CAP for Shoal, including the compliance boundary, is not yet approved. Should the compliance boundary change from the 1,000-year MCL contaminant boundary, well locations may also need to change. However, the analysis reported here provides a number of alternatives with reasonable detection efficiency.

  10. Hydrological responses to channelization and the formation of valley plugs and shoals

    Pierce, Aaron R.; King, Sammy L.

    2017-01-01

    Rehabilitation of floodplain systems focuses on restoring interactions between the fluvial system and floodplain, however, there is a paucity of information on the effects of valley plugs and shoals on floodplain hydrological processes. We investigated hydrologic regimes in floodplains at three valley plug sites, two shoal sites, and three unchannelized sites. Valley plug sites had altered surface and sub-surface hydrology relative to unchannelized sites, while only sub-surface hydrology was affected at shoal sites. Some of the changes were unexpected, such as reduced flood duration and flood depth in floodplains associated with valley plugs. Our results emphasize the variability associated with hydrologic processes around valley plugs and our rudimentary understanding of the effects associated with these geomorphic features. Water table levels were lower at valley plug sites compared to unchannelized sites, however, valley plug sites had a greater proportion of days when water table inundation was above mean root collar depth than both shoal and unchannelized sites as a result of lower root collar depths and higher deposition rates. This study has provided evidence that valley plugs can affect both surface and sub-surface hydrology in different ways than previously thought and illustrates the variability in hydrological responses to valley plug formation.

  11. Long-term Monitoring Plan for the Shoal Underground Nuclear Test

    Ahmed Hassan

    2005-01-01

    The flow and transport model of Shoal is used to design a three-well monitoring network to be part of the long-term monitoring network for the site and achieve two objectives: (1) detect the presence of radionuclides in case they migrate to the monitoring well locations, and (2) provide field data to compare with model predictions as part of the model validation process. Using three different quantitative approaches and the numerical groundwater flow and transport model developed for Shoal, three new monitoring well locations were identified from 176 different networks. In addition to the quantitative analyses using the numerical model, the development of the monitoring network for Shoal will also be subject to qualitative hydrogeologic interpretation during implementation. information will only be available during the fieldwork, it will be incorporated in the monitoring well design at the time of well installation. Finally, it should be noted that the CADD-CAP for Shoal, including the compliance boundary, is not yet approved. Should the compliance boundary change from the 1,000-year MCL contaminant boundary, well locations may also need to change. However, the analysis reported here provides a number of alternatives with reasonable detection efficiency

  12. CRED Gridded Bathymetry of French Frigate Shoals (100-019) in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — File 100-019b is a 60-m ASCII grid of depth data collected near French Frigate Shoals in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands as of May 2003. This grid has been...

  13. Precipitation and runoff simulations of select perennial and ephemeral watersheds in the middle Carson River basin, Eagle, Dayton, and Churchill Valleys, west-central Nevada

    Jeton, Anne E.; Maurer, Douglas K.

    2011-01-01

    The effect that land use may have on streamflow in the Carson River, and ultimately its impact on downstream users can be evaluated by simulating precipitation-runoff processes and estimating groundwater inflow in the middle Carson River in west-central Nevada. To address these concerns, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation, began a study in 2008 to evaluate groundwater flow in the Carson River basin extending from Eagle Valley to Churchill Valley, called the middle Carson River basin in this report. This report documents the development and calibration of 12 watershed models and presents model results and the estimated mean annual water budgets for the modeled watersheds. This part of the larger middle Carson River study will provide estimates of runoff tributary to the Carson River and the potential for groundwater inflow (defined here as that component of recharge derived from percolation of excess water from the soil zone to the groundwater reservoir). The model used for the study was the U.S. Geological Survey's Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System, a physically based, distributed-parameter model designed to simulate precipitation and snowmelt runoff as well as snowpack accumulation and snowmelt processes. Models were developed for 2 perennial watersheds in Eagle Valley having gaged daily mean runoff, Ash Canyon Creek and Clear Creek, and for 10 ephemeral watersheds in the Dayton Valley and Churchill Valley hydrologic areas. Model calibration was constrained by daily mean runoff for the 2 perennial watersheds and for the 10 ephemeral watersheds by limited indirect runoff estimates and by mean annual runoff estimates derived from empirical methods. The models were further constrained by limited climate data adjusted for altitude differences using annual precipitation volumes estimated in a previous study. The calibration periods were water years 1980-2007 for Ash Canyon Creek, and water years 1991-2007 for Clear Creek. To

  14. Beluga whale, Delphinapterus leucas, vocalizations and their relation to behaviour in the Churchill River, Manitoba, Canada

    Chmelnitsky, Elly Golda

    The investigation of a species' repertoire and the contexts in which different calls are used is central to understanding vocal communication among animals. Beluga whale, Delphinapterus leucas, calls were classified and described in association with behaviours, from recordings collected in the Churchill River, Manitoba, during the summers of 2006-2008. Calls were subjectively classified based on sound and visual analysis into whistles (64.2% of total calls; 22 call types), pulsed or noisy calls (25.9%; 15 call types), and combined calls (9.9%; seven types). A hierarchical cluster analysis, using six call measurements as variables, separated whistles into 12 groups and results were compared to subjective classification. Beluga calls associated with social interactions, travelling, feeding, and interactions with the boat were described. Call type percentages, relative proportions of different whistle contours (shapes), average frequency, and call duration varied with behaviour. Generally, higher percentages of whistles, more broadband pulsed and noisy calls, and shorter calls (studies on call meaning and function.

  15. Science evaluation of the environmental impact statement for the lower Churchill hydroelectric generation project to identify deficiencies with respect to fish and fish habitat

    Clarke, K.

    2009-01-01

    This report evaluated an environmental impact statement (EIS) submitted by a company proposing to develop a hydroelectric generation project in the lower Churchill River in Labrador. Construction of the facilities will alter the aquatic environment of the river as well as the receiving environment of lakes. The alterations are expected to have an impact on fish and fish habitats. The study evaluated the methods used to describe and predict impacts in the aquatic environment and examined models used for predictions in order to assess uncertainty levels. Results of the evaluation demonstrated that additional efforts are needed to document local knowledge of fish use and fish habitat, and that the magnitude of expected changes to fish habitat must be considered relative to the loss of fish habitat. The study also highlighted areas within the EIS that will require further clarification. A number of the studies used in the EIS had small sample sizes that increased the uncertainty of predictions made using the data. Uncertainties related to potential changes in flushing rates and morphological features was also needed. The impact of direct fish mortality from turbine operations was not addressed in a population context, and further information is needed to evaluate potential project-related effects on a species-by-species basis. 3 refs., 4 tabs.

  16. Shallow-water Marine Invertebrates French Frigate Shoals, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands 2000 and 2002, (NODC Accession 0001083)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset focuses on marine surveys used to obtain a more in depth record of the marine fauna from French Frigate Shoals and includes a note on nonindigenous...

  17. Comments for the Cape Wind Associates, LLC, Horseshoe Shoal, Nantucket Sound (Offshore Renewable Energy Project/OCS Air Permit)

    List of comments for the Cape Wind Associates, LLC, Horseshoe Shoal, Nantucket Sound (Offshore Renewable Energy Project/OCS Air Permit: Massachusetts Plan Approval including nonattainment NSR Appendix A requirements).

  18. Nantucket Shoals Flux Experiment, Data Report I, Hydrography; 04 October 1976 to 19 November 1985 (NODC Accession 8700242)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Nantucket Shoals Flux Experiment (1979 - 1980) was a multi-institutional effort to measure the flux of shelf water along the continental shelf south of Nantucket...

  19. Seafloor integrity down the harbor waterfront: the coralligenous shoals off Vado Ligure (NW Mediterranean

    Giulia Gatti

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last ten years, European Directives stressed the necessity to assess the ecological status of marine habitats by means of ecosystem or landscape indicators, rather than just species or chemical ones. In this paper, the seascape approach to characterise and assess the ecological quality of coralligenous rocky shoals of Vado Ligure (Savona, Italy is introduced. This approach integrates biological, mesological and geomorphological information collected with a Rapid Visual Assessment technique (RVA. The RVA also optimised underwater operations in deep waters where coralligenous reefs usually develop and provided a sufficient amount of data collected by direct inspection. The seascape approach results are appropriate for the characterisation of the coralligenous shoals studied and for the assessment of their ecological quality. The quality of the assemblages was in general low, mainly due to high sedimentary stress; however, some exceptions showing a high ecological quality indicate that, with proper manage- ment tools, they would still have good potentialities of recovery.

  20. A Numerical Implementation of a Nonlinear Mild Slope Model for Shoaling Directional Waves

    Justin R. Davis

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available We describe the numerical implementation of a phase-resolving, nonlinear spectral model for shoaling directional waves over a mild sloping beach with straight parallel isobaths. The model accounts for non-linear, quadratic (triad wave interactions as well as shoaling and refraction. The model integrates the coupled, nonlinear hyperbolic evolution equations that describe the transformation of the complex Fourier amplitudes of the deep-water directional wave field. Because typical directional wave spectra (observed or produced by deep-water forecasting models such as WAVEWATCH III™ do not contain phase information, individual realizations are generated by associating a random phase to each Fourier mode. The approach provides a natural extension to the deep-water spectral wave models, and has the advantage of fully describing the shoaling wave stochastic process, i.e., the evolution of both the variance and higher order statistics (phase correlations, the latter related to the evolution of the wave shape. The numerical implementation (a Fortran 95/2003 code includes unidirectional (shore-perpendicular propagation as a special case. Interoperability, both with post-processing programs (e.g., MATLAB/Tecplot 360 and future model coupling (e.g., offshore wave conditions from WAVEWATCH III™, is promoted by using NetCDF-4/HD5 formatted output files. The capabilities of the model are demonstrated using a JONSWAP spectrum with a cos2s directional distribution, for shore-perpendicular and oblique propagation. The simulated wave transformation under combined shoaling, refraction and nonlinear interactions shows the expected generation of directional harmonics of the spectral peak and of infragravity (frequency <0.05 Hz waves. Current development efforts focus on analytic testing, development of additional physics modules essential for applications and validation with laboratory and field observations.

  1. Churchill Falls (Labrador) Corporation Limited and Twin Falls Power Corporation Limited : 1997 auditors` report and financial statements

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    The consolidated balance sheet of Churchill Falls (Labrador) Corp. Ltd., and Twin Falls Power Corp. Ltd. for the year 1997 were presented by the Corporation`s auditors, certifying that the statements of income and retained earnings and changes in financial position at year-end were accurate and free of material errors. A summary of significant accounting policies was also provided. In the auditors` view the financial statements from 1997 reflect the financial position of the companies accurately. Corresponding data from 1996 were included to allow for comparisons. tabs.

  2. Churchill regulates cell movement and mesoderm specification by repressing Nodal signaling

    Mentzer Laura

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cell movements are essential to the determination of cell fates during development. The zinc-finger transcription factor, Churchill (ChCh has been proposed to regulate cell fate by regulating cell movements during gastrulation in the chick. However, the mechanism of action of ChCh is not understood. Results We demonstrate that ChCh acts to repress the response to Nodal-related signals in zebrafish. When ChCh function is abrogated the expression of mesodermal markers is enhanced while ectodermal markers are expressed at decreased levels. In cell transplant assays, we observed that ChCh-deficient cells are more motile than wild-type cells. When placed in wild-type hosts, ChCh-deficient cells often leave the epiblast, migrate to the germ ring and are later found in mesodermal structures. We demonstrate that both movement of ChCh-compromised cells to the germ ring and acquisition of mesodermal character depend on the ability of the donor cells to respond to Nodal signals. Blocking Nodal signaling in the donor cells at the levels of Oep, Alk receptors or Fast1 inhibited migration to the germ ring and mesodermal fate change in the donor cells. We also detect additional unusual movements of transplanted ChCh-deficient cells which suggests that movement and acquisition of mesodermal character can be uncoupled. Finally, we demonstrate that ChCh is required to limit the transcriptional response to Nodal. Conclusion These data establish a broad role for ChCh in regulating both cell movement and Nodal signaling during early zebrafish development. We show that chch is required to limit mesodermal gene expression, inhibit Nodal-dependant movement of presumptive ectodermal cells and repress the transcriptional response to Nodal signaling. These findings reveal a dynamic role for chch in regulating cell movement and fate during early development.

  3. Reconsidering 'Set the People Free': Neoliberalism and Freedom Rhetoric in Churchill's Conservative Party.

    Freeman, James

    2017-09-18

    It is often assumed that 'Hayekian' or 'neoliberal' influences lay behind Conservative attacks on socialism in 1945 and subsequent calls to 'set the people free' in 1950 and 1951. This assumption has had consequences for our understanding of late-1940s Conservatism and for wider interpretations of post-war politics. Heeding recent calls to reconnect the inter-war and post-war parties and to pay closer attention to how opponents and contexts generate arguments, this article revisits senior Conservatives' rhetoric between 1945 and 1951 to break the link between neoliberal influence and freedom rhetoric. First, it argues that the rhetoric of 1945 was derived from a distinctly Conservative lineage of interwar argument and reflected strategies developed before the publication of F. A. Hayek's 'The Road to Serfdom'. Second, it demonstrates that senior Conservatives' emancipatory rhetoric in opposition after 1945 was neither a simple continuation of these themes nor primarily a response to the public's growing antipathy towards rationing and controls. Rather, such rhetoric was a complex response to Britain's immediate economic difficulties and the political challenges presented by austerity. Finally, the article sheds new light on the strategy that governed the party's campaigns in 1950 and 1951. Churchill and others' calls to 'set the people free' stemmed from a belief that the rhetorical opportunity lay in reconciling liberty with security. In that sense, the leadership had moved beyond begrudging compromises with the 'Attleean settlement' and was instead attempting to define a new identity within the parameters of the welfare state. © The Author [2017]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Anthropogenic noise pollution from pile-driving disrupts the structure and dynamics of fish shoals.

    Herbert-Read, James E; Kremer, Louise; Bruintjes, Rick; Radford, Andrew N; Ioannou, Christos C

    2017-09-27

    Noise produced from a variety of human activities can affect the physiology and behaviour of individual animals, but whether noise disrupts the social behaviour of animals is largely unknown. Animal groups such as flocks of birds or shoals of fish use simple interaction rules to coordinate their movements with near neighbours. In turn, this coordination allows individuals to gain the benefits of group living such as reduced predation risk and social information exchange. Noise could change how individuals interact in groups if noise is perceived as a threat, or if it masked, distracted or stressed individuals, and this could have impacts on the benefits of grouping. Here, we recorded trajectories of individual juvenile seabass ( Dicentrarchus labrax ) in groups under controlled laboratory conditions. Groups were exposed to playbacks of either ambient background sound recorded in their natural habitat, or playbacks of pile-driving, commonly used in marine construction. The pile-driving playback affected the structure and dynamics of the fish shoals significantly more than the ambient-sound playback. Compared to the ambient-sound playback, groups experiencing the pile-driving playback became less cohesive, less directionally ordered, and were less correlated in speed and directional changes. In effect, the additional-noise treatment disrupted the abilities of individuals to coordinate their movements with one another. Our work highlights the potential for noise pollution from pile-driving to disrupt the collective dynamics of fish shoals, which could have implications for the functional benefits of a group's collective behaviour. © 2017 The Authors.

  5. Consequences of shoaling of the Central American Seaway determined from modeling Nd isotopes

    Sepulchre, P.; Arsouze, T.; Donnadieu, Y.; Dutay, J.-C.; Jaramillo, C.; Le Bras, J.; Martin, E.; Montes, C.; Waite, A. J.

    2014-03-01

    The Central American Seaway played a pivotal role in shaping global climate throughout the late Cenozoic. Recent geological surveys have provided new constraints on timing of the seaway shoaling, while neodymium isotopic (ɛNd) data measured on fossil teeth, debris, and ferromanganese crusts have helped define the history of water masses in the region. Here we provide the first 3-D simulations of ɛNd responses to the shoaling seaway. Our model suggests that a narrow and shallow seaway is sufficient to affect interoceanic circulation, that inflow/outflow balance between the Caribbean and the Antilles responds nonlinearly to sill depth, and that a seaway narrower than 400 km is consistent with an active Atlantic meridional overturning circulation during the late Miocene. Simulated ɛNd values in the Caribbean confirm that inputs from radiogenic Pacific waters in the Caribbean decrease as the seaway shoals. Despite model limitations, a comparison between our results and ɛNd values recorded in the Caribbean helps constrain the depth of the Central American Seaway through time, and we infer that a depth between 50 and 200 m could have been reached 10 Ma ago.

  6. A numerical study of the wave shoaling effect on wind-wave momentum flux

    Hao, Xuanting; Shen, Lian

    2017-11-01

    Momentum transfer between wind and waves is crucial to many physical processes in air-sea interactions. For decades, there has been a number of observational evidence that the surface roughness in the nearshore region is notably higher than in the open sea. In order to explain the mechanism behind this important phenomenon, in particular the wave shoaling effect on surface roughness, we conduct a series of numerical experiments using the wind-wave module of WOW (Wave-Ocean-Wind), a high-fidelity computational framework developed in house. We use prescribed monochromatic waves with linear shoaling effect incorporated, while the wind field is simulated using wall-resolved large-eddy simulation. A comparison between a shallow water wave case and deep water wave cases shows remarkably stronger wave effects on the wind for the former. Detailed analyses show that the increased surface roughness is closely associated with the increased form drag that is mainly due to the reduced wave age in wave shoaling.

  7. Feasibility of Acoustic Remote Sensing of Large Herring Shoals and Seafloor by Baleen Whales

    Dong Hoon Yi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent research has found a high spatial and temporal correlation between certain baleen whale vocalizations and peak herring spawning processes in the Gulf of Maine. These vocalizations are apparently related to feeding activities with suggested functions that include communication, prey manipulation, and echolocation. Here, the feasibility of the echolocation function is investigated. Physical limitations on the ability to detect large herring shoals and the seafloor by acoustic remote sensing are determined with ocean acoustic propagation, scattering, and statistical theories given baleen whale auditory parameters. Detection is found to be highly dependent on ambient noise conditions, herring shoal distributions, baleen whale time-frequency vocalization spectra, and geophysical parameters of the ocean waveguide. Detections of large herring shoals are found to be physically feasible in common Gulf of Maine herring spawning scenarios at up to 10 ± 6 km in range for humpback parameters and 1 ± 1 km for minke parameters but not for blue and fin parameters even at zero horizontal range. Detections of the seafloor are found to be feasible up to 2 ± 1 km for blue and humpback parameters and roughly 1 km for fin and minke parameters, suggesting that the whales share a common acoustic sensation of rudimentary features of the geophysical environment.

  8. Using Hidden Markov Models to characterise intermittent social behaviour in fish shoals

    Bode, Nikolai W. F.; Seitz, Michael J.

    2018-02-01

    The movement of animals in groups is widespread in nature. Understanding this phenomenon presents an important problem in ecology with many applications that range from conservation to robotics. Underlying all group movements are interactions between individual animals and it is therefore crucial to understand the mechanisms of this social behaviour. To date, despite promising methodological developments, there are few applications to data of practical statistical techniques that inferentially investigate the extent and nature of social interactions in group movement. We address this gap by demonstrating the usefulness of a Hidden Markov Model approach to characterise individual-level social movement in published trajectory data on three-spined stickleback shoals ( Gasterosteus aculeatus) and novel data on guppy shoals ( Poecilia reticulata). With these models, we formally test for speed-mediated social interactions and verify that they are present. We further characterise this inferred social behaviour and find that despite the substantial shoal-level differences in movement dynamics between species, it is qualitatively similar in guppies and sticklebacks. It is intermittent, occurring in varying numbers of individuals at different time points. The speeds of interacting fish follow a bimodal distribution, indicating that they are either stationary or move at a preferred mean speed, and social fish with more social neighbours move at higher speeds, on average. Our findings and methodology present steps towards characterising social behaviour in animal groups.

  9. Earth-strength magnetic field affects the rheotactic threshold of zebrafish swimming in shoals.

    Cresci, Alessandro; De Rosa, Rosario; Putman, Nathan F; Agnisola, Claudio

    2017-02-01

    Rheotaxis, the unconditioned orienting response to water currents, is a main component of fish behavior. Rheotaxis is achieved using multiple sensory systems, including visual and tactile cues. Rheotactic orientation in open or low-visibility waters might also benefit from the stable frame of reference provided by the geomagnetic field, but this possibility has not been explored before. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) form shoals living in freshwater systems with low visibility, show a robust positive rheotaxis, and respond to geomagnetic fields. Here, we investigated whether a static magnetic field in the Earth-strength range influenced the rheotactic threshold of zebrafish in a swimming tunnel. The direction of the horizontal component of the magnetic field relative to water flow influenced the rheotactic threshold of fish as part of a shoal, but not of fish tested alone. Results obtained after disabling the lateral line of shoaling individuals with Co 2+ suggest that this organ system is involved in the observed magneto-rheotactic response. These findings constitute preliminary evidence that magnetic fields influence rheotaxis and suggest new avenues for further research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. 78 FR 56980 - Muscle Shoals Reservation Redevelopment, Colbert County, Alabama

    2013-09-16

    ... provided in accordance with the Council on Environmental Quality's regulations (40 CFR 1500 to 1508) and... management. Under Alternative C, TVA would declare the MSR study area surplus and sell it with the... alternative could include mall, theaters, government buildings, gas stations, department stores, restaurants...

  11. Trophodynamics of the Hanna Shoal Ecosystem (Chukchi Sea, Alaska): Connecting multiple end-members to a rich food web

    McTigue, N. D.; Dunton, K. H.

    2017-10-01

    Predicting how alterations in sea ice-mediated primary production will impact Arctic food webs remains a challenge in forecasting ecological responses to climate change. One top-down approach to this challenge is to elucidate trophic roles of consumers as either specialists (i.e., consumers of predominantly one food resource) or generalists (i.e., consumers of multiple food resources) to categorize the dependence of consumers on each primary producer. At Hanna Shoal in the Chukchi Sea, Alaska, we used stable carbon and nitrogen isotope data to quantify trophic redundancy with standard ellipse areas at both the species and trophic guild levels. We also investigated species-level trophic plasticity by analyzing the varying extents that three end-members were assimilated by the food web using the mixing model simmr (Stable Isotope Mixing Model in R). Our results showed that ice algae, a combined phytoplankton and sediment organic matter composite (PSOM), and a hypothesized microphytobenthos (MPB) component were incorporated by consumers in the benthic food web, but their importance varied by species. Some primary consumers relied heavily on PSOM (e.g, the amphipods Ampelisca sp. and Byblis sp.; the copepod Calanus sp.), while others exhibited generalist feeding and obtained nutrition from multiple sources (e.g., the holothuroidean Ocnus glacialis, the gastropod Tachyrhynchus sp., the sipunculid Golfingia margaritacea, and the bivalves Ennucula tenuis, Nuculana pernula, Macoma sp., and Yoldia hyperborea). Most higher trophic level benthic predators, including the gastropods Buccinum sp., Cryptonatica affinis, and Neptunea sp, the seastar Leptasterias groenlandica, and the amphipod Anonyx sp. also exhibited trophic plasticity by coupling energy pathways from multiple primary producers including PSOM, ice algae, and MPB. Our stable isotope data indicate that consumers in the Hanna Shoal food web exhibit considerable trophic redundancy, while few species were specialists

  12. Impact of tidal phenomenon “Met Ef” on the exploitation of benthos at inshore shoals in Kei islands, Indonesia

    Renjaan, Eugenius Alfred; Makailipessy, Marvin Mario

    2017-10-01

    A study on benthos exploitation at five shoals located in Rosenberg and Nerong Straits, the kei islands had been conducted during period of the lowest ebb tide phenomenon which locally termed Met Ef on 2016. The purpose of the study is to know the impact of the Met Ef on benthos exploitation at the shoals by local communities during the Met Ef. Data of tidal amplitudes were obtained from the Tide Charts Mobile Applications which confirmed the observations on tide pole during October, November, and December 2013 until 2016. Data of benthos exploited during periods of Met Ef at the shoals was obtained through direct observation on benthos exploited by the local communities, also by interviewing them using questionnaires. The results showed that the lowest ebb tide of the Met Ef occurred in November, i.e., at 2 to 5 days after the full moon and/or new moon, with an average tidal range of 2.66 m and even have ever one reached 2.80 m. The most exploited benthos at the shoals is Giant clam (Tridacna sp.), Spider conch (Lambis sp.), Hammer oyster (Malleus sp.), Octopus (Octopus spp.). The intensity of benthos exploited at the shoals increased during the period of Met Ef especially in October because at that time the sea was very calm and clear due to relatively lower wind speed and the rain fall was relatively lower. This has promoted an easier accessibility of the communities to exploit benthos at shoals and, therefore October is considered by the local communities as the peak of Met Ef, instead of November. During November and, December the availability of benthos in shoals has been reduced due to it has been exploited intensely in October.

  13. The application of HPLC with on-line coupled UV/MS-biochemical detection for isolation of an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor from Narcissus 'Sir Winston Churchill'

    Ingkaninan, K.; Hazekamp, A.; de Best, C.M.; Irth, H.; Tjaden, U.R.; van der Heijden, R.; van der Greef, J.; Verpoorte, R.

    2000-01-01

    An HPLC with on-line coupled UV/MS-biochemical detection method for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors in natural sources has been developed. The potential of this method is shown by the isolation of a new AChE inhibitor from the alcoholic extract of Narcissus 'Sir Winston Churchill'. Combining

  14. Global Climate Model Simulated Hydrologic Droughts and Floods in the Nelson-Churchill Watershed

    Vieira, M. J. F.; Stadnyk, T. A.; Koenig, K. A.

    2014-12-01

    There is uncertainty surrounding the duration, magnitude and frequency of historical hydroclimatic extremes such as hydrologic droughts and floods prior to the observed record. In regions where paleoclimatic studies are less reliable, Global Climate Models (GCMs) can provide useful information about past hydroclimatic conditions. This study evaluates the use of Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 (CMIP5) GCMs to enhance the understanding of historical droughts and floods across the Canadian Prairie region in the Nelson-Churchill Watershed (NCW). The NCW is approximately 1.4 million km2 in size and drains into Hudson Bay in Northern Manitoba, Canada. One hundred years of observed hydrologic records show extended dry and wet periods in this region; however paleoclimatic studies suggest that longer, more severe droughts have occurred in the past. In Manitoba, where hydropower is the primary source of electricity, droughts are of particular interest as they are important for future resource planning. Twenty-three GCMs with daily runoff are evaluated using 16 metrics for skill in reproducing historic annual runoff patterns. A common 56-year historic period of 1950-2005 is used for this evaluation to capture wet and dry periods. GCM runoff is then routed at a grid resolution of 0.25° using the WATFLOOD hydrological model storage-routing algorithm to develop streamflow scenarios. Reservoir operation is naturalized and a consistent temperature scenario is used to determine ice-on and ice-off conditions. These streamflow simulations are compared with the historic record to remove bias using quantile mapping of empirical distribution functions. GCM runoff data from pre-industrial and future projection experiments are also bias corrected to obtain extended streamflow simulations. GCM streamflow simulations of more than 650 years include a stationary (pre-industrial) period and future periods forced by radiative forcing scenarios. Quantile mapping adjusts for magnitude

  15. Survival, transport, and sources of fecal bacteria in streams and survival in land-applied poultry litter in the upper Shoal Creek basin, southwestern Missouri, 2001-2002

    Schumacher, John G.

    2003-01-01

    Densities of fecal coliform bacteria along a 5.7-mi (mile) reach of Shoal Creek extending upstream from State Highway 97 (site 3) to State Highway W (site 2) and in two tributaries along this reach exceeded the Missouri Department of Natural Resources (MDNR) standard of 200 col/100 mL (colonies per 100 milliliters) for whole-body contact recreation. A combination of techniques was used in this report to provide information on the source, transport, and survival of fecal bacteria along this reach of Shoal Creek. Results of water-quality samples collected during dye-trace and seepage studies indicated that at summer low base-flow conditions, pastured cattle likely were a substantial source of fecal bacteria in Shoal Creek at the MDNR monitoring site (site 3) at State Highway 97. Using repeat element Polymerase Chain Reaction (rep-PCR), cattle were the presumptive source of about 50 percent of the Escherichia coli (E. coli) isolates in water samples from site 3. Cattle, horses, and humans were the most common presumptive source of E. coli isolates at sites further upstream. Poultry was identified by rep-PCR as a major source of E. coli in Pogue Creek, a tributary in the upper part of the study area. Results of the rep-PCR were in general agreement with the detection and distribution of trace concentrations of organic compounds commonly associated with human wastewater, such as caffeine, the antimicrobial agent triclosan, and the pharmaceutical compounds acetaminophen and thiabendazole (a common cattle anthelmintic). Significant inputs of fecal bacteria to Shoal Creek occurred along a 1.6-mi reach of Shoal Creek immediately upstream from site 3. During a 36-hour period in July 2001, average densities of fecal coliform and E. coli bacteria increased from less than or equal to 500 col/100 mL upstream from this stream reach (sample site 2c) to 2,100 and 1,400 col/100 mL, respectively, at the MDNR sampling site. Fecal bacteria densities exhibited diurnal variability at all

  16. Reprint of Mechanisms of maintaining high suspended sediment concentration over tide-dominated offshore shoals in the southern Yellow Sea

    Xiong, Jilian; Wang, Xiao Hua; Wang, Ya Ping; Chen, Jingdong; Shi, Benwei; Gao, Jianhua; Yang, Yang; Yu, Qian; Li, Mingliang; Yang, Lei; Gong, Xulong

    2018-06-01

    An understanding of the dynamics and behaviors of suspended sediments is vital in analysis of morphological, environmental, and ecological processes occurring in coastal marine environments. To study the mechanisms of maintaining high suspended sediment concentrations (SSCs) on a tide-dominated offshore shoal, we measured water depths, current velocities, SSCs, wave parameters and bottom sediment compositions in the southern Yellow Sea. These data were then used to calculate bottom shear stresses generated by currents (τc), waves (τw), and wave-current interactions (τcw). SSCs time series exhibited strong quarter-diurnal peaks during spring tides, in contrast to the semidiurnal signal during neap tides. A Fourier analysis showed that suspended sediment variations within tidal cycles was mainly controlled by resuspension in most stations. There existed relatively stable background SSCs (maintaining high SSCs among tidal cycles) values at all four stations during both windy (wind speed > 9.0 m/s) and normal weather conditions (wind speed value of 0.21 N/m2. On account of the strong tidal currents, background SSCs of spring tides were greater than that of neap tides. In addition, on the base of wavelet, statistics analyses and turbulence dissipation parameter, background SSCs during slack tide in the study area may be maintained by intermittent turbulence events induced by a combined tidal current and wave action.

  17. Analysis of seafloor change at Breton Island, Gosier Shoals, and surrounding waters, 1869–2014, Breton National Wildlife Refuge, Louisiana

    Flocks, James G.; Terrano, Joseph F.

    2016-08-01

    Characterizing bathymetric change in coastal environments is an important component in understanding shoreline evolution, especially along barrier island platforms. Bathymetric change is a function of the regional sediment budget, long-term wave and current patterns, and episodic impact from high-energy events such as storms. Human modifications may also cause changes in seafloor elevation. This study, conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in collaboration with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, evaluates bathymetric and volumetric change and sediment characteristics around Breton Island and Gosier Shoals located offshore of the Mississippi River Delta in Louisiana. This area has been affected by significant storm events such as Hurricane Katrina in 2005. Sedimentation patterns at Breton Island and offshore have also been modified by the excavation of a shipping channel north of the island. Four time periods are considered that encompass these episodes and include long-term change and short-term storm recovery: 1869–2014, 1869–1920, 1920–2014, and 2007–2014. Finally, sediment characteristics are reported in the context of seafloor elevation.

  18. Duffer’s Shoal: A Strategic Dream of the Pacific Command Area of Responsibility

    2015-08-01

    sophisticated air defenses, consisting of land and ship mounted S- 400 missile sys- tems, could target nonstealth aircraft out to 400 kilo- meters (km).45...the carrier violently, as a massive fireball 40 engulfed the deck of the carrier, and destroyed two F- 35Cs taxiing to the catapults. I sprinted down

  19. Modeling to Support Groundwater Contaminant Boundaries for the Shoal Underground Nuclear Test

    K. Pohlmann; G. Pohll; J. Chapman; A. Hassan; R. Carroll; C. Shirley

    2004-03-01

    The purpose of this work is to characterize groundwater flow and contaminant transport at the Shoal underground nuclear test through numerical modeling using site-specific hydrologic data. The ultimate objective is the development of a contaminant boundary, a model-predicted perimeter defining the extent of radionuclide-contaminated groundwater from the underground test throughout 1,000 years at a prescribed level of confidence. This boundary will be developed using the numerical models described here, after they are approved for that purpose by DOE and NDEP.

  20. Optical tsunamis: shoaling of shallow water rogue waves in nonlinear fibers with normal dispersion

    Wabnitz, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    In analogy with ocean waves running up towards the beach, shoaling of pre-chirped optical pulses may occur in the normal group-velocity dispersion regime of optical fibers. We present exact Riemann wave solutions of the optical shallow water equations and show that they agree remarkably well with the numerical solutions of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation, at least up to the point where a vertical pulse front develops. We also reveal that extreme wave events or optical tsunamis may be generated in dispersion tapered fibers in the presence of higher-order dispersion. (paper)

  1. Modeling to Support Groundwater Contaminant Boundaries for the Shoal Underground Nuclear Test

    K. Pohlmann; G. Pohll; J. Chapman; A. Hassan; R. Carroll; C. Shirley

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to characterize groundwater flow and contaminant transport at the Shoal underground nuclear test through numerical modeling using site-specific hydrologic data. The ultimate objective is the development of a contaminant boundary, a model-predicted perimeter defining the extent of radionuclide-contaminated groundwater from the underground test throughout 1,000 years at a prescribed level of confidence. This boundary will be developed using the numerical models described here, after they are approved for that purpose by DOE and NDEP

  2. Community diversity of bacteria in digestive tract of mud snail (Bullacta exarata Philippi) and its rearing shoal

    王国良; 郑天伦; 陆彤霞; 王一农; 於宏; 金珊

    2002-01-01

    The bacterial flora in the digestive tract of B. exarata Philippi and its rearing shoal were investigated, respectively. A total of 107 strains of heterotrophic bacteria, isolated from crop, stomach and intestine, mainly belong to genera Photobacterium, Bacillus, Pseudomonas and Vibrio. Varieties of bacteria in crop were significantly more than that in stomach and in intestine. A total of 173 strains of bacteria were isolated from the rearing shoal, belonging to 13 genera. The 5 predominant genera are Photobacterium, Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Vibrio and some genera of Enterobacteriaceae. The number of heterotrophic bacteria and Vibrio in rearing shoal changed in line with the alteration of the temperature, and were significantly affected by the use of pesticide.

  3. Bacteriological Analysis of the Digestive Tube of the Mud Snail (Bullacta exarata Philippi) and Its Rearing Shoal

    WANG Guoliang; ZHENG Tianlun; LU Tongxia; WANG Yinong; YU Hong; JIN Shan

    2002-01-01

    The bacterial flora in the digestive tube of Bullacta exarata Philippi and its rearing shoal were investigated. A to-tal of 157 strains of heterotrophic bacteria, isolated from crop, stomach intestine and other parts of the digestive tube,mainly belong to the genera Photobacterium, Bacillus, Pseudomonas Vibrio and some genera of the family Enterobacteri-aceae. There are significantly more varieties of bacteria in crop than in stomach and intestine. A total of 173 strains of bacte-ria were isolated from the rearing shoal, belonging to 13 genera. The 5 predominant genera, such as Bacillus and Photobac-terium, are the same as those in the digestive tube, but greatly differ in percentages. The number of heterotrophic bacteriaand Vibrio in rearing shoal change in line with the alteration of the temperature, and are significantly affected by the use ofpesticides.

  4. Echo 2: observations at Fort Churchill of a 4-keV peak in low-level electron precipitation

    Arnoldy, R.L.; Hendrickson, R.A.; Winckler, J.R.

    1975-01-01

    The Echo 2 rocket flight launched from Fort Churchill, Manitoba, offered the opportunity to observe high-latitude low-level electron precipitation during quiet magnetic conditions. Although no visual aurora was evident at the time of the flight, an auroral spectrum sharply peaked at a few keV was observed to have intensities from 1 to 2 orders of magnitude lower than peaked spectra typically assoicated with bright auroral forms. There is a growing body of evidence that relates peaked electron spectra to discrete aurora. The Echo 2 observations show that whatever the mechanism for peaking the electron spectrum in and above discrete forms, it operates over a range of precipitation intensities covering nearly 3 orders of magnitude down to subvisual or near subvisual events

  5. Modelling the effects of climate change on streamflow in a sub-basin of the lower Churchill River

    Pryse-Phillips, Amy; Snelgrove, Ken

    2010-01-01

    Climate change is likely to affect extreme flows as well as average flows. This is an important consideration for hydroelectric power producers. This paper presented the development of an approach to assess the impact of climate changes on seasonal and average annual river flows. The main goal was to investigate how climate change will affect the hydroelectric potential of the Lower Churchill Project using different combinations of emissions scenarios, climate model output and downscaling techniques. The setup and calibration of the numerical hydrological model, WATFLOOD, were performed as preliminary work for the Pinus River basin selected as study basin. Downscaled climate data from the North America change assessment program for both current and future climate periods were analysed. The calibrated model was used to simulate the current and future period streamflow scenarios. The results showed a 13 percent increase in mean annual flows concentrated in the winter and spring seasons.

  6. Modelling the effects of climate change on streamflow in a sub-basin of the lower Churchill River

    Pryse-Phillips, Amy [Hatch Ltd., St John' s, (Canada); Snelgrove, Ken [Memorial University of Newfoundland, St John' s, (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Climate change is likely to affect extreme flows as well as average flows. This is an important consideration for hydroelectric power producers. This paper presented the development of an approach to assess the impact of climate changes on seasonal and average annual river flows. The main goal was to investigate how climate change will affect the hydroelectric potential of the Lower Churchill Project using different combinations of emissions scenarios, climate model output and downscaling techniques. The setup and calibration of the numerical hydrological model, WATFLOOD, were performed as preliminary work for the Pinus River basin selected as study basin. Downscaled climate data from the North America change assessment program for both current and future climate periods were analysed. The calibrated model was used to simulate the current and future period streamflow scenarios. The results showed a 13 percent increase in mean annual flows concentrated in the winter and spring seasons.

  7. Winston Churchill (1874-1965), Dr Robson Roose, MD Brux, FRCPE (1848-1905) and Dr Joseph Rutter, MD Lond, MRCP (1834-1913): Treatment for pneumonia in March 1886.

    Vale, J Allister; Scadding, John W

    2018-01-01

    This paper will review Winston Churchill's severe respiratory illness in March 1886 when he developed pneumonia of the right lung as an 11-year-old boy. Winston was treated supportively with 'nourishment, stimulants [probably alcohol] and close watching' at his school by the 'celebrated' family physician, Dr Robson Roose, with the assistance of Dr Joseph Rutter. Roose was exemplary in his commitment to his young patient and assiduous in informing Lord Randolph Churchill of his son's clinical progress by letter.

  8. 1500 Years of Annual Climate and Environmental Variability as Recorded in Bona-Churchill (Alaska) Ice Cores

    Thompson, L. G.; Mosley-Thompson, E. S.; Zagorodnov, V.; Davis, M. E.; Mashiotta, T. A.; Lin, P.

    2004-12-01

    In 2003, six ice cores measuring 10.5, 11.5, 11.8, 12.4, 114 and 460 meters were recovered from the col between Mount Bona and Mount Churchill (61° 24'N; 141° 42'W; 4420 m asl). These cores have been analyzed for stable isotopic ratios, insoluble dust content and concentrations of major chemical species. Total Beta radioactivity was measured in the upper sections. The 460-meter core, extending to bedrock, captured the entire depositional record at this site where ice temperatures ranged from -24° C at 10 meters to -19.8° C at the ice/bedrock contact. The shallow cores allow assessment of surface processes under modern meteorological conditions while the deep core offers a ˜1500-year climate and environmental perspective. The average annual net balance is ˜~1000 mm of water equivalent and distinct annual signals in dust and calcium concentrations along with δ 18O allow annual resolution over most of the core. The excess sulfate record reflects many known large volcanic eruptions such as Katmai, Krakatau, Tambora, and Laki which allow validation of the time scale in the upper part of the core. The lower part of the core yields a history of earlier volcanic events. The 460-m Bona-Churchill ice core provides a detailed history of the `Little Ice Age' and medieval warm periods for southeastern Alaska. The source of the White River Ash will be discussed in light of the evidence from this core. The 460-m core also provides a long-term history of the dust fall that originates in north-central China. The annual ice core-derived climate records from southeastern Alaska will facilitate an investigation of the likelihood that the high resolution 1500-year record from the tropical Quelccaya Ice Cap (Peru) preserves a history of the variability of both the PDO and the Aleutian Low.

  9. Monitoreo del arrecife coralino Meager Shoal, Parque Nacional Cahuita, Costa Rica (sitio CARICOMP

    Ana C Fonseca E

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring of the Meager Shoal coral reef, Cahuita National Park, Costa Rica (CARICOMP site. The coral reefs at Cahuita National Park, Caribbean coast of Costa Rica, specifically at the CARICOMP site Meager Shoal, have been monitored since 1999. Complete data sets from 2000 and 2004 have shown that live coral cover has increased less than 3 % (from 15 to 17 %, but non-coralline algae cover has increased much (63 to 74 % and coralline algae cover has decreased (17 to 5 % significantly. The proportion of affected colonies by diseases, injuries and bleaching decreased from 24 % in 2000 to 10 % in 2004, but the difference was not statistically significant. Densities of the urchin Diadema antillarum increased, and are probably help to maintain the macroalgae biomass low, while those of Echinometra viridis decreased significantly. The coral reef at Cahuita National Park continues to be impacted by chronic terrigenous sediments and does not show a significant recovery since the late 1970’s. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54 (3: 755-763. Epub 2006 Sept. 29.

  10. Churchill Falls (Labrador) Corporation Limited and Twin Falls Power Corporation Limited: Auditor's report and financial statements for the year ended December 31, 1992

    1993-01-01

    Churchill Falls (Labrador) Corp. Ltd. operates a hydroelectric generating plant and related transmission facilities in Labrador with a rated capacity of 5,428 MW. A power contract with Hydro-Quebec provides for the sale of substantially all of the energy from the plant until 2041. The corporation owns a 33.3% equity interest and a 66.7% voting interest in Twin Falls Power Corp., which has an inoperative 225 MW hydroelectric plant on the Unknown River in Labrador. Financial statements for the two corporations are presented for 1992. Total revenues from sales of power by Churchill Falls in 1992 were $87.4 million, and net income for the year was $26.3 million

  11. Pressure-gradient-driven nearshore circulation on a beach influenced by a large inlet-tidal shoal system

    Shi, F.; Hanes, D.M.; Kirby, J.T.; Erikson, L.; Barnard, P.; Eshleman, J.

    2011-01-01

    The nearshore circulation induced by a focused pattern of surface gravity waves is studied at a beach adjacent to a major inlet with a large ebb tidal shoal. Using a coupled wave and wave-averaged nearshore circulation model, it is found that the nearshore circulation is significantly affected by the heterogeneous wave patterns caused by wave refraction over the ebb tidal shoal. The model is used to predict waves and currents during field experiments conducted near the mouth of San Francisco Bay and nearby Ocean Beach. The field measurements indicate strong spatial variations in current magnitude and direction and in wave height and direction along Ocean Beach and across the ebb tidal shoal. Numerical simulations suggest that wave refraction over the ebb tidal shoal causes wave focusing toward a narrow region at Ocean Beach. Due to the resulting spatial variation in nearshore wave height, wave-induced setup exhibits a strong alongshore nonuniformity, resulting in a dramatic change in the pressure field compared to a simulation with only tidal forcing. The analysis of momentum balances inside the surf zone shows that, under wave conditions with intensive wave focusing, the alongshore pressure gradient associated with alongshore nonuniform wave setup can be a dominant force driving circulation, inducing heterogeneous alongshore currents. Pressure-gradient- forced alongshore currents can exhibit flow reversals and flow convergence or divergence, in contrast to the uniform alongshore currents typically caused by tides or homogeneous waves.

  12. Dynamics and sequential analysis of a mesotidal shoal and intershoal channel complex in the Eastern Scheldt (southwestern Netherlands)

    Nio, S-D.; Berg, J.H. van den; Goesten, M.; Smulders, F.

    A detailed survey was carried out on a mesotidal shoal and intershoal channel complex near the mouth of the Eastern Scheldt in the southwestern part of The Netherlands during the summers of 1976 and 1977. The objectives were to establish a relationship between the morphological changes through time

  13. CRED Gridded Bathymetry of Bank 66 and east French Frigate Shoals (100-020) in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — File 100-020b is a 60-m ASCII grid of depth data collected near Bank 66, East French Frigate Shoals in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands as of May 2003. This grid...

  14. Winter storm-induced hydrodynamics and morphological response of a shallow transgressive shoal complex: Northern Gulf of Mexico

    Siadatmousavi, S. Mostafa; Jose, Felix

    2015-03-01

    Using extended deployments during seasons of low and high discharge from the Atchafalaya River, meteorological, hydrodynamic and bottom boundary layer parameters were monitored from Tiger and Trinity Shoal complex, off Louisiana coast, USA. During winter storms, the surface current speed measured at both shoals exceeded 0.5 m/s and the entire water column followed the prevailing wind direction. The current speed close to the bottom exceeded 0.3 m/s during high energy northerly winds. The mean water level in the shoal complex increased during southerly winds and decreased during northerly winds, such that the difference between wind set-up and set-down exceeded 0.7 m in Tiger Shoal and 0.6 m in Trinity Shoal during high energy frontal passages. The swell height was inversely correlated with mean water level, and increased during pre-frontal phase and decreased during post-frontal phase of winter storms. The sea (short waves) height responded quickly to wind direction and speed; and within a few hours after the wind shifted and blowing from the north, the sea height increased during both deployments. Bimodal wave frequency spectrum was observed during wind veering from southerly to northerly, when both sea and swell intensities were significant. The Tiger Shoal bed sediment texture transformed drastically, from mud to shell and shell hash assemblage, within a period of two weeks during the December 2008 deployment. Backscatter signal intensity from a Pulse Coherent Acoustic Doppler Profiler (PCADP) and its velocity estimates were used to determine the vertical extend and timing of mud resuspension and their eventual flushing out from the shoal environment, when exposed to high energy winter storm passages. The computed time frame for a total transformation of bottom sediment texture (from muddy bottom to shell and shell hash assemblage) was supported by the combined wave and bottom current induced shear stress at shoal bed. The bed samples collected from Tiger Shoal

  15. Trends in Ostracoda and Cladocera distribution and water chemistry in subarctic Canada: Churchill (Manitoba lakes and ponds revisited

    Finn A. Viehberg

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Ponds and lakes distributed across northern treeline in the Hudson Bay Lowlands near Churchill (Manitoba were revisited to analyse and document the local ecoclimatic and limnological changes that occurred over the period 1997-2012. Our analyses revealed that single events may cause significant changes in salinity, pH and silicate content because of the limited buffer capacity of the inter-connected waters. Planktic freshwater microcrustaceans (Cladocera presented less diverse assemblages and appeared to favour waters that are situated in the boreal forest, while the diversity of benthic species assemblages (Cladocera and Ostracoda was highest in waters located closer to the coastline and in open tundra vegetation. We identified three species that are distinctive for the boreal ecozone (i.e., Candona acuta, Can. acutula and Can. decora and two species (i.e., Tonnacypris glacialis and Can. rawsoni that are elements of (sub-arctic landscapes and potentially endangered as the northern treeline expands due to rapid warming. These species are thought to be useful indicators for future ecosystem quality assessments and/or ecosystem service management programs. Our findings were compared to other studies completed in the boreal Yukon Territory and revealed that species diversity is closely linked to landscape history.

  16. Ecosystem monitoring information collected in Hanna Shoal in the Chukchi Sea for the COMIDA CAB project from August 2012 to August 2013 (NODC Accession 0123220)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession contains physical, chemical, and biological data collected during research cruises for the Hanna Shoal Ecosystem Study. The study occurred at 138...

  17. French Frigate Shoals, NWHI, 2005 Sea Surface Temperature and Meteorological Enhanced (Iridium) Mooring - CRED CREWS Near Real Time and Historical Data

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Site - French Frigate Shoals, NWHI (23.85678, -166.27183 ) ARGOS ID 261-003 Time series data from this mooring provide high resolution sea surface temperature, and...

  18. A benthic survey of Aliwal Shoal and assessment of the effects of a wood pulp effluent on the reef

    Schleyer, Michael H. . E-mail schleyer@ori.org.za; Heikoop, Jeffrey M.; Risk, Michael J.

    2006-01-01

    Aliwal Shoal lies south of Durban in South Africa and has been the subject of recent bathymetric, seafloor and benthic surveys. ANOVA of the biological data revealed that the biota were uniformly distributed on the reef with the exception of encrusting sponges and algae on rock. The variations in distribution of these biota were significant and, in the case of the encrusting sponges, appeared to be related to the discharge of a wood pulp effluent. Further evidence of this was suggested by stable isotope analyses of representative organisms. The encrusting sponges were recommended as good candidates for further monitoring of the effects of the wood pulp effluent on Aliwal Shoal as the effluent pipeline has been extended

  19. The Effects of Shoaling Internal Tides on Benthic Exchange Events and Near-Boundary Mixing Along the Continental Shelf

    2013-06-01

    BLANK xv LIST OF ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS PISCO Partnership for Interdisciplinary Studies of Coastal Oceans ISW Internal Solitary Waves ITB ...shows how shoaling internal waves are also a vital instrument for transporting nutrients to inner shelf kelp ecosystems. As Internal Tidal Bores ( ITBs ...an internal tidal bore. As the ITB continues to propagate shoreward, the subsequent flood tide will assists in the propagation process. Under

  20. High-predation habitats affect the social dynamics of collective exploration in a shoaling fish.

    Ioannou, Christos C; Ramnarine, Indar W; Torney, Colin J

    2017-05-01

    Collective decisions play a major role in the benefits that animals gain from living in groups. Although the mechanisms of how groups collectively make decisions have been extensively researched, the response of within-group dynamics to ecological conditions is virtually unknown, despite adaptation to the environment being a cornerstone in biology. We investigate how within-group interactions during exploration of a novel environment are shaped by predation, a major influence on the behavior of prey species. We tested guppies ( Poecilia reticulata ) from rivers varying in predation risk under controlled laboratory conditions and find the first evidence of differences in group interactions between animals adapted to different levels of predation. Fish from high-predation habitats showed the strongest negative relationship between initiating movements and following others, which resulted in less variability in the total number of movements made between individuals. This relationship between initiating movements and following others was associated with differentiation into initiators and followers, which was only observed in fish from high-predation rivers. The differentiation occurred rapidly, as trials lasted 5 min, and was related to shoal cohesion, where more diverse groups from high-predation habitats were more cohesive. Our results show that even within a single species over a small geographical range, decision-making in a social context can vary with local ecological factors.

  1. Variations of wave energy power in shoaling zone of Benin coastal zone

    Mathias A. Houekpoheha

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Today, we observe at the population level, that the improvement in comfort is accompanied by an increase in the electrical energy required. The predicted exhaustion of fossil energy resources maintains some speculation. Their unequal geographical distribution justifies the energy dependence of Benin overlooked from outside. So it is urgent to explore the various sources of renewable energy available to Benin. In this work, using measurements made ​​by the Millennium Challenge Account (MCA-Benin as part of the extension of the port of Cotonou, with Boussinesq equations (Peregrine and Stokes waves dispersion relation, we characterized the variations of various swell parameters (height, wavelength, velocities in the shoaling zone on the study site and proceeded to estimate variations in wave energy power from deep waters to the bathymetric breaking point. Finally, the zone with high energy power (where the conversion of this energy into electrical energy would be profitable of these waves is highlighted on the site, the local water depth at the point of breaking waves is evaluated and results obtained allowed to justify the very energetic character take by these swells on this coast when they are close to the beach.

  2. Repeatable group differences in the collective behaviour of stickleback shoals across ecological contexts

    2018-01-01

    Establishing how collective behaviour emerges is central to our understanding of animal societies. Previous research has highlighted how universal interaction rules shape collective behaviour, and that individual differences can drive group functioning. Groups themselves may also differ considerably in their collective behaviour, but little is known about the consistency of such group variation, especially across different ecological contexts that may alter individuals' behavioural responses. Here, we test if randomly composed groups of sticklebacks differ consistently from one another in both their structure and movement dynamics across an open environment, an environment with food, and an environment with food and shelter. Based on high-resolution tracking data of the free-swimming shoals, we found large context-associated changes in the average behaviour of the groups. But despite these changes and limited social familiarity among group members, substantial and predictable behavioural differences between the groups persisted both within and across the different contexts (group-level repeatability): some groups moved consistently faster, more cohesively, showed stronger alignment and/or clearer leadership than other groups. These results suggest that among-group heterogeneity could be a widespread feature in animal societies. Future work that considers group-level variation in collective behaviour may help understand the selective pressures that shape how animal collectives form and function. PMID:29436496

  3. Zebrafish response to robotic fish: preference experiments on isolated individuals and small shoals

    Polverino, G; Abaid, N; Kopman, V; Porfiri, M; Macrì, S

    2012-01-01

    Recently developed bioinspired robots imitate their live counterparts in both aspect and functionality. Nevertheless, whether these devices can be integrated within the ecological niche inspiring their design is seldom tested experimentally. An elemental research question concerns the feasibility of modulating spontaneous behaviour of animal systems through bioinspired robotics. The following study explores the possibility of engineering a robotic fish capable of influencing the behaviour of live zebrafish (Danio rerio) in a dichotomous preference test. While we observe that the preference for the robotic fish never exceeds the preference for a conspecific, our data show that the robot is successful in attracting both isolated individuals and small shoals and that such capability is influenced by its bioinspired features. In particular, we find that the robot's undulations enhance its degree of attractiveness, despite the noise inherent in the actuation system. This is the first experimental evidence that live zebrafish behaviour can be influenced by engineered robots. Such robotic platforms may constitute a valuable tool to investigate the bases of social behaviour and uncover the fundamental determinants of animal functions and dysfunctions. (paper)

  4. Sedimentary Records of Hyperpycnal Flows and the Influence of River Damming on Sediment Dynamics of Estuaries: Examples from the Nelson, Churchill, Moisie and Sainte-Marguerite Rivers (Canada)

    St-Onge, G.; Duboc, Q.; Boyer-Villemaire, U.; Lajeunesse, P.; Bernatchez, P.

    2015-12-01

    Sediment cores were sampled in the estuary of the Nelson and Churchill Rivers in western Hudson Bay, as well as in the estuary of the Moisie and Sainte-Marguerite Rivers in Gulf of St. Lawrence in order to evaluate the impact of hydroelectric dams on the sedimentary regime of these estuaries. The gravity cores at the mouth of the Nelson River recorded several cm-thick rapidly deposited layers with a reverse to normal grading sequence, indicating the occurrence of hyperpycnal flows generated by major floods during the last few centuries. These hyperpycnal flows were probably caused by ice-jam formation, which can increase both the flow and the sediment concentration following the breaching of such natural dams. Following the construction of hydroelectric dams since the 1960s, the regulation of river discharge prevented the formation of hyperpycnal flows, and hence the deposition of hyperpycnites in the upper part of the cores. In the core sampled in the estuary of the Churchill River, only one hyperpycnite was recorded. This lower frequency may be due to the enclosed estuary of the Churchill River, its weaker discharge and the more distal location of the coring site.In the Gulf of St. Lawrence, grain size measurements allowed the identification of a major flood around AD 1844±4 years in box cores from both the Sainte-Marguerite and Moisie Rivers, whereas a drastic decrease in variations in the median grain size occurred around AD ~1900 in the estuary of the Sainte-Marguerite River, highlighting the offshore impact of the SM1 dam construction in the early 1900s. Furthermore, sedimentological variations in the box cores from both estuaries have been investigated by wavelet analysis and the sharp disappearance of high frequencies around AD 1900 in the estuary of the dammed river (Sainte-Marguerite River), but not in the estuary of the natural river (Moisie River), also provides evidence of the influence of dams on the sedimentary regime of estuaries.

  5. Thermal modeling of step-out targets at the Soda Lake geothermal field, Churchill County, Nevada

    Dingwall, Ryan Kenneth

    Temperature data at the Soda Lake geothermal field in the southeastern Carson Sink, Nevada, highlight an intense thermal anomaly. The geothermal field produces roughly 11 MWe from two power producing facilities which are rated to 23 MWe. The low output is attributed to the inability to locate and produce sufficient volumes of fluid at adequate temperature. Additionally, the current producing area has experienced declining production temperatures over its 40 year history. Two step-out targets adjacent to the main field have been identified that have the potential to increase production and extend the life of the field. Though shallow temperatures in the two subsidiary areas are significantly less than those found within the main anomaly, measurements in deeper wells (>1,000 m) show that temperatures viable for utilization are present. High-pass filtering of the available complete Bouguer gravity data indicates that geothermal flow is present within the shallow sediments of the two subsidiary areas. Significant faulting is observed in the seismic data in both of the subsidiary areas. These structures are highlighted in the seismic similarity attribute calculated as part of this study. One possible conceptual model for the geothermal system(s) at the step-out targets indicated upflow along these faults from depth. In order to test this hypothesis, three-dimensional computer models were constructed in order to observe the temperatures that would result from geothermal flow along the observed fault planes. Results indicate that the observed faults are viable hosts for the geothermal system(s) in the step-out areas. Subsequently, these faults are proposed as targets for future exploration focus and step-out drilling.

  6. Sheet flow measurements on a surf-zone sandbar under shoaling and breaking waves

    Mieras, R.; Puleo, J. A.; Cox, D. T.; Anderson, D. L.; Kim, Y.; Hsu, T. J.

    2016-02-01

    A large-scale experiment to quantify sheet flow processes over a sandbar under varying levels of wave steepness was conducted in the wave flume at Oregon State University's O.H. Hinsdale Wave Research Laboratory. A fixed profile was constructed with concrete slabs anchored to the flume side walls, with the exception of the sandbar crest, where a steel pit was installed and filled with well-sorted sediment (d50 0.17 mm). This hybrid approach allowed for the isolation of small-scale bed response to large-scale wave forcing over the sandbar, where an array of sensors was positioned to measure hydrodynamic forcing and sediment response. Near-bed ( 0.08 m3/m3) were approximated using Conductivity Concentration Profilers. Test conditions consisted of a regular wave train with incident wave heights for individual runs ranging from 0.4 m to 0.6 m and incident wave periods from 5 s to 9 s, encompassing a variety of skewed and asymmetric wave shapes across the shoaling and breaking regimes. Ensemble-averaged sediment concentration profiles exhibit considerable variation across the different conditions. The largest variation in sheet layer thickness occurs beneath the wave crest, ranging from 30 grain diameters for 5 sec, 0.4 m waves, up to 80 grain diameters for 7 sec, 0.6 m waves. Furthermore, the initiation and duration of sheet flow relative to the wave period differs for each condition set. It is likely that more than one mechanism plays a role in determining the aforementioned sheet layer characteristics. In the present work, we focus on the relative magnitude and phase of the near-bed flow acceleration and shear stress in determining the characteristics of the sheet layer.

  7. A method for the automated long-term monitoring of three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus shoal dynamics.

    Kleinhappel, T K; Al-Zoubi, A; Al-Diri, B; Burman, O; Dickinson, P; John, L; Wilkinson, A; Pike, T W

    2014-04-01

    This paper describes and evaluates a flexible, non-invasive tagging system for the automated identification and long-term monitoring of individual three-spined sticklebacks Gasterosteus aculeatus. The system is based on barcoded tags, which can be reliably and robustly detected and decoded to provide information on an individual's identity and location. Because large numbers of fish can be individually tagged, it can be used to monitor individual- and group-level dynamics within fish shoals. © 2014 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  8. Carolinas Coastal Change Processes Project data report for observations near Diamond Shoals, North Carolina, January-May 2009

    Armstrong, Brandy N.; Warner, John C.; Voulgaris, George; List, Jeffrey H.; Thieler, E. Robert; Martini, Marinna A.; Montgomery, Ellyn T.

    2011-01-01

    This Open-File Report provides information collected for an oceanographic field study that occurred during January - May 2009 to investigate processes that control the sediment transport dynamics at Diamond Shoals, North Carolina. The objective of this report is to make the data available in digital form and to provide information to facilitate further analysis of the data. The report describes the background, experimental setup, equipment, and locations of the sensor deployments. The edited data are presented in time-series plots for rapid visualization of the data set, and in data files that are in the Network Common Data Format (netcdf). Supporting observational data are also included.

  9. More dams planned for Nitassinan Rivers : Innu Nation backgrounder on the proposed Churchill River hydro projects

    1999-01-01

    The Labrador Innu have expressed their concerns regarding the proposed development of a huge hydroelectric project for the Nitassinan Rivers. The Innu people were not consulted regarding the negotiations which will take place between Newfoundland and Quebec. The biggest concern of the Innu people is the cumulative environmental and social effects of the proposed development and how it will contribute to opening up their territory to further development. For example, access roads, transmission corridors and large-scale clear-cut forestry operations would all impact on their traditional way of life. This paper also described the impacts that the Innu have already experienced as a result of hydroelectric development on the Nitassinan Rivers during the 1970s, when the government of Newfoundland gave the rights to develop and exploit water resources, forests and minerals to a private company. At that time, large areas of hunting and trapping territories were flooded, belongings were lost and burial sites were flooded. The flooding also resulted in increased levels of methyl mercury in fish in the reservoirs as well as downstream. The losses suffered by the Innu people have yet to be addressed by the governments

  10. C-Band SAR Imagery for Snow-Cover Monitoring at Treeline, Churchill, Manitoba, Canada

    Frédérique C. Pivot

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available RADARSAT and ERS-2 data collected at multiple incidence angles are used to characterize the seasonal variations in the backscatter of snow-covered landscapes in the northern Hudson Bay Lowlands during the winters of 1997/98 and 1998/99. The study evaluates the usefulness of C-band SAR systems for retrieving the snow water equivalent under dry snow conditions in the forest–tundra ecotone. The backscatter values are compared against ground measurements at six sampling sites, which are taken to be representative of the land-cover types found in the region. The contribution of dry snow to the radar return is evident when frost penetrates the first 20 cm of soil. Only then does the backscatter respond positively to changes in snow water equivalent, at least in the open and forested areas near the coast, where 1-dB increases in backscatter for each approximate 5–10 mm of accumulated water equivalent are observed at 20–31° incidence angles. Further inland, the backscatter shows either no change or a negative change with snow accumulation, which suggests that the radar signal there is dominated by ground surface scattering (e.g., fen when not attenuated by vegetation (e.g., forested and transition. With high-frequency ground-penetrating radar, we demonstrate the presence of a 10–20-cm layer of black ice underneath the snow cover, which causes the reduced radar returns (−15 dB and less observed in the inland fen. A correlation between the backscattering and the snow water equivalent cannot be determined due to insufficient observations at similar incidence angles. To establish a relationship between the snow water equivalent and the backscatter, only images acquired with similar incidence angles should be used, and they must be corrected for both vegetation and ground effects.

  11. 33 CFR 165.540 - Regulated Navigation Area; Cape Fear River, Northeast Cape Fear River, Wilmington, North Carolina.

    2010-07-01

    .... Dredging work within the RNA will be conducted in five distinct areas: Ocean Bar II, Horseshoe Shoal.... (e) Description of work areas in the RNA—(1) Ocean Bar II, mouth of Cape Fear. The work area includes..., ensure that they have sufficient propulsion and directional control to safely navigate the RNA under the...

  12. The characteristics of mine explosion injury of wading in shoal: A study on an animal model

    Sen ZHANG

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective To study the characteristics and mechanism of mine blast injury that wading in shoal of different depths through an animal model. Methods Ninety-six healthy adult New Zealand white rabbits weighing 2.19±0.12kg were randomly divided into land group (n=16, limb wading group (n=16, the water depth reaching up the middle of the thighs of rabbits, and chest wading group (n=16, the water depth reaching up the thoracic xiphoid, stress test group (n=30, fake injury group (n=18. Punctiform burster was used to simulate landmine. Electric ignited the simulated mine away, causing landmine explosion injury to rabbits' one-sided hind limbs in upright state. High-speed photography was used to observe the movement of water accompanying the simulated mine explosion. Arterial blood serum markers of myocardial injury (CK-MB, cTnI and nerve injury (MBP, NSE were detected before injury, and 3, 6 and 12h after injury, and echocardiography, electrocardiography, CT, DSA and other examinations were implemented at the same time. Survival animals were killed 12h after injury for anatomy to record their injuries to the limbs and distant organs. The histopathological examination was done to define the injury characteristics further. Results Feet and distal tibia were broken, and closed femoral fractures and arterial damage were often found away from the stump in limb wading group. This type of injury was different from the mop-like tearing tissue in the land group. Chest, abdominal organs and the brain, spinal cord injury in wading group were more severe than those in land group. There were higher incidences of chest, abdominal organs and spinal cord injury in chest wading Group. Conclusion The energy transfer of underwater explosion is affected by water depth and limbs or trunk mutually, which is an important mechanism of the complex and serious injuries in the wading group. The wading depth is an important factor affecting severity of the injury. Based on

  13. Continuous bottom temperature measurements in strategic areas of the Florida Reef Tract at Smith Shoal, 1998 - 2006 (NODC Accession 0014121)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This ongoing project began in 1988. A total of 38 subsurface recording thermographs have been deployed in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary (FKNMS)and at...

  14. An analytical method to assess the damage and predict the residual strength of a ship in a shoal grounding accident scenario

    Sun Bin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a simplified analytical method used to predict the residual ultimate strength of a ship hull after a shoal grounding accident is proposed. Shoal grounding accidents always lead to severe denting, though not tearing, of the ship bottom structure, which may threaten the global hull girder resistance and result in even worse consequences, such as hull collapse. Here, the degree of damage of the bottom structure is predicted by a series of analytical methods based on the plastic-elastic deformation mechanism. The energy dissipation of a ship bottom structure is obtained from individual components to determine the sliding distance of the seabed obstruction. Then, a new approach to assess the residual strength of the damaged ship subjected to shoal grounding is proposed based on the improved Smith's method. This analytical method is verified by comparing the results of the proposed method and those generated by numerical simulation using the software ABAQUS. The proposed analytical method can be used to assess the safety of a ship with a double bottom during its design phase and predict the residual ultimate strength of a ship after a shoal grounding accident occurs.

  15. Evaluation of U.S. Geological Survey Monitoring-well network and potential effects of changes in water use, Newlands Project, Churchill County, Nevada

    Maurer, Douglas K.; Seiler, Ralph L.; Watkins, Sharon A.

    2004-01-01

    Domestic wells tapping shallow ground water are an important source of potable water for rural residents of Lahontan Valley. For this reason, the public has expressed concern over the acquisition of water rights directed by Public Law 101-618. The acquisition has resulted in removal of land from irrigation, which could cause shallow domestic wells to go dry and adversely affect shallow ground-water quality. Periodic water-level measurements and water-quality sampling at a monitoring-well network developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) provided data to evaluate the potential effects of changes in water use. The USGS, in cooperation with Churchill County, analyzed these data and the monitoring-well network to determine if the network provides an adequate means to measure the response of the shallow aquifer to changes in water use, and to determine if measurable changes have taken place. To evaluate the USGS monitoring-well network, wells were characterized by their distance from active canals or ditches, and from currently (2003) or formerly irrigated land. An analysis of historical data showed that about 9,800 acres of land have been removed from irrigation, generally from the late 1990's to 2003. Twenty-five wells in the network are within about 1 mile of fields removed from irrigation. Of the 25 wells, 13 are within 300 feet of canals or ditches where seepage maintains stable water levels. The 13 wells likely are not useful for detecting changes caused by reductions in irrigation. The remaining 12 wells range from about 400 to 3,800 feet from the nearest canal and are useful for detecting continued changes from current reductions in irrigation. The evaluation showed that of the 75 wells in the network, only 8 wells are likely to be useful for detecting the effects of future (after 2003) reductions in irrigation. Water levels at most of the monitoring wells near irrigated land have declined from 1998 to 2003 because of drought conditions and below normal

  16. Physical, chemical, and other data from bottle and XBT casts from the DIAMOND SHOALS and other platforms as part of the Outer Continental Shelf - South Atlantic project from 1958-01-01 to 1975-10-18 (NODC Accession 7700635)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical, chemical, and other data from CTD and XBT casts from the DIAMOND SHOALS and other platforms. Data were collected by the United States Coast Guard and other...

  17. Records of shallow-water marine invertebrates from French Frigate Shoals, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands with a note on nonindigenous species from NOWRAMP 2000 surveys at 39 sites and a 2002-03 survey at a single site (NODC Accession 0001083)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In September of 2000, the Northwest Hawaiian Islands Rapid Assessment and Monitoring Program (NOW-RAMP) Expedition surveyed French Frigate Shoals (FFS) and a number...

  18. Methods and Data Used to Investigate Polonium-210 as a Source of Excess Gross-Alpha Radioactivity in Ground Water, Churchill County, Nevada

    Seiler, Ralph L.

    2007-01-01

    Ground water is the major source of drinking water in the Carson River Basin, California and Nevada. Previous studies have shown that uranium and gross-alpha radioactivities in ground water can be greater than U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Maximum Contaminant Levels, particularly in the Carson Desert, Churchill County, Nevada. Studies also have shown that the primary source of the gross-alpha radioactivity and alpha-emitting radionuclides in ground water is the dissolution of uranium-rich granitic rocks and basin-fill sediments that have their origins in the Sierra Nevada. However, ground water sampled from some wells in the Carson Desert had gross-alpha radioactivities greater than could be accounted for by the decay of dissolved uranium. The occurrence of polonium-210 (Po-210) was hypothesized to explain the higher than expected gross-alpha radioactivities. This report documents and describes the study design, field and analytical methods, and data used to determine whether Po-210 is the source of excess gross-alpha radioactivity in ground water underlying the Carson Desert in and around Fallon, Nevada. Specifically, this report presents: 1) gross alpha and uranium radioactivities for 100 wells sampled from June to September 2001; and 2) pH, dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, and Po-210 radioactivity for 25 wells sampled in April and June 2007. Results of quality-control samples for the 2007 dataset are also presented.

  19. Mercury concentrations of fish in Southern Indian Lake and Issett Lake, Manitoba 1975-88: The effect of lake impoundment and Churchill River diversion

    Strange, N.E.; Bodaly, R.A.; Fudge, R.J.P.

    1991-01-01

    Southern Indian and Issett Lakes in northern Manitoba were flooded in 1976 as part of Manitoba Hydro's Churchill River diversion project. Fish were collected from 1975 to 1988 from five regional sites on the lakes to examine the effects of impoundment and river diversion on muscle mercury concentrations. Raw data for individual fish caught in 1987 and 1988 are presented, along with means and analyses calculated over the entire 1975-1988 study period. Mercury concentrations in whitefish, pike, and walleye increased significantly after impoundment. Whitefish mercury levels peaked in 1978 and have since declined to near pre-flooding levels. Northern pike and walleye mercury levels were much higher than for whitefish. Pike mercury concentrations showed no indication of declining after 12 years of impoundment, but walleye mercury levels at 2 of the 5 Southern Indian Lake sites declined from maximum recorded levels. Significant variability in fish mercury concentrations was noted both from year to year and among the sites. It is suggested that site-to-site variations are due to varying conditions in the reservoir which stimulate mercury methylation. Since there appears to be an ongoing long-term source of mercury and organic material from the eroding shorelines, pike and walleye mercury concentrations are expected to remain high for many years. 25 refs., 7 figs., 20 tabs

  20. The Contraption and Engineering Implementation of Linked Fracture of Shoal Suture in the Bedrock

    Korošec, Ludvik; Kralj, Lojze

    2015-01-01

    The characteristics of overburden strata structural features of typical shallow seam with thin bedrock in Shandong mining area is: there is only one key stratum which controls the overburden strata movement (main roof), when the thickness of bedrock is smaller (generally less than 50-60 m) and the key stratum located under the fissure zone or inside the caving zone through the analysis combined geological data Shandong mining area with the experience in mining practice for a long time. Strata...

  1. Anatomy of a shoreface sand ridge revisted using foraminifera: False Cape Shoals, Virginia/North Carolina inner shelf

    Robinson, Marci M.; McBride, Randolph A.

    2008-01-01

    Certain details regarding the origin and evolution of shelf sand ridges remain elusive. Knowledge of their internal stratigraphy and microfossil distribution is necessary to define the origin and to determine the processes that modify sand ridges. Fourteen vibracores from False Cape Shoal A, a well-developed shoreface-attached sand ridge on the Virginia/North Carolina inner continental shelf, were examined to document the internal stratigraphy and benthic foraminiferal assemblages, as well as to reconstruct the depositional environments recorded in down-core sediments. Seven sedimentary and foraminiferal facies correspond to the following stratigraphic units: fossiliferous silt, barren sand, clay to sandy clay, laminated and bioturbated sand, poorly sorted massive sand, fine clean sand, and poorly sorted clay to gravel. The units represent a Pleistocene estuary and shoreface, a Holocene estuary, ebb tidal delta, modern shelf, modern shoreface, and swale fill, respectively. The succession of depositional environments reflects a Pleistocene sea-level highstand and subsequent regression followed by the Holocene transgression in which barrier island/spit systems formed along the Virginia/North Carolina inner shelf not, vert, ~5.2 ka and migrated landward and an ebb tidal delta that was deposited, reworked, and covered by shelf sand.

  2. Tape seagrass (Enhalus acoroides) as a bioindicator of trace metal contamination in Merambong shoal, Johor Strait, Malaysia.

    Sidi, Nordiani; Aris, Ahmad Zaharin; Mohamat Yusuff, Ferdaus; Looi, Ley Juen; Mokhtar, Nor Farhanna

    2018-01-01

    Revealing the potential of seagrass as a bioindicator for metal pollution is important for assessing marine ecosystem health. Trace metal ( 111 Cd, 63 Cu, 60 Ni, 208 Pb, 66 Zn) concentrations in the various parts (root, rhizome, and blade) of tape seagrass (Enhalus acoroides) collected from Merambong shoal of Sungai Pulai estuary, Johor Strait, Malaysia were acid-extracted using a microwave digester and analysed via inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The ranges of trace metal concentrations (in μgg -1 dry weight) were as follows: Cd (0.05-0.81), Cu (1.62-27.85), Ni (1.89-9.35), Pb (0.69-4.16), and Zn (3.44-35.98). The translocation factor revealed that E. acoroides is a hyperaccumulator plant, as its blades can accumulate high concentrations of Cd, Cu, Ni, and Zn, but not Pb. The plant limits Pb mobility to minimize Pb's toxic impact. Thus, E. acoroides is a potential bioindicator of metal pollution by Cd, Cu, Ni, and Zn in estuarine environments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. INTEGRATED GEOLOGIC-ENGINEERING MODEL FOR REEF AND CARBONATE SHOAL RESERVOIRS ASSOCIATED WITH PALEOHIGHS: UPPER JURASSIC SMACKOVER FORMATION, NORTHEASTERN GULF OF MEXICO

    Ernest A. Mancini

    2001-09-14

    The University of Alabama in cooperation with Texas A&M University, McGill University, Longleaf Energy Group, Strago Petroleum Corporation, and Paramount Petroleum Company are undertaking an integrated, interdisciplinary geoscientific and engineering research project. The project is designed to characterize and model reservoir architecture, pore systems and rock-fluid interactions at the pore to field scale in Upper Jurassic Smackover reef and carbonate shoal reservoirs associated with varying degrees of relief on pre-Mesozoic basement paleohighs in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. The project effort includes the prediction of fluid flow in carbonate reservoirs through reservoir simulation modeling which utilizes geologic reservoir characterization and modeling and the prediction of carbonate reservoir architecture, heterogeneity and quality through seismic imaging. The primary objective of the project is to increase the profitability, producibility and efficiency of recovery of oil from existing and undiscovered Upper Jurassic fields characterized by reef and carbonate shoals associated with pre-Mesozoic basement paleohighs. The principal research effort for Year 1 of the project has been reservoir description and characterization. This effort has included four tasks: (1) geoscientific reservoir characterization, (2) the study of rock-fluid interactions, (3) petrophysical and engineering characterization and (4) data integration. This work was scheduled for completion in Year 1. Overall, the project work is on schedule. Geoscientific reservoir characterization is essentially completed. The architecture, porosity types and heterogeneity of the reef and shoal reservoirs at Appleton and Vocation Fields have been characterized using geological and geophysical data. The study of rock-fluid interactions has been initiated. Observations regarding the diagenetic processes influencing pore system development and heterogeneity in these reef and shoal reservoirs have been

  4. Data on Streamflow and Quality of Water and Bottom Sediment in and near Humboldt Wildlife Management Area, Churchill and Pershing Counties, Nevada, 1998-2000

    Paul, Angela P.; Thodal, Carl E.

    2003-01-01

    This study was initiated to expand upon previous findings that indicated concentrations of dissolved solids, arsenic, boron, mercury, molybdenum, selenium, and uranium were either above geochemical background concentrations or were approaching or exceeding ecological criteria in the lower Humboldt River system. Data were collected from May 1998 to September 2000 to further characterize streamflow and surface-water and bottom-sediment quality in the lower Humboldt River, selected agricultural drains, Upper Humboldt Lake, and Lower Humboldt Drain (ephemeral outflow from Humboldt Sink). During this study, flow in the lower Humboldt River was either at or above average. Flows in Army and Toulon Drains generally were higher than reported in previous investigations. An unnamed agricultural drain contributed a small amount to the flow measured in Army Drain. In general, measured concentrations of sodium, chloride, dissolved solids, arsenic, boron, molybdenum, and uranium were higher in water from agricultural drains than in Humboldt River water during this study. Mercury concentrations in water samples collected during the study period typically were below the laboratory reporting level. However, low-level mercury analyses showed that samples collected in August 1999 from Army Drain had higher mercury concentrations than those collected from the river or Toulon Drain or the Lower Humboldt Drain. Ecological criteria and effect concentrations for sodium, chloride, dissolved solids, arsenic, boron, mercury, and molybdenum were exceeded in some water samples collected as part of this study. Although water samples from the agricultural drains typically contained higher concentrations of sodium, chloride, dissolved solids, arsenic, boron, and uranium, greater instantaneous loads of these constituents were carried in the river near Lovelock than in agricultural drains during periods of high flow or non-irrigation. During this study, the high flows in the lower Humboldt River produced the maximum instantaneous loads of sodium, chloride, dissolved solids, arsenic, boron, molybdenum, and uranium at all river-sampling sites, except molybdenum near Imlay. Nevada Division of Environmental Protection monitoring reports on mine-dewatering discharge for permitted releases of treated effluent to the surface waters of the Humboldt River and its tributaries were reviewed for reported discharges and trace-element concentrations from June 1998 to September 1999. These data were compared with similar information for the river near Imlay. In all bottom sediments collected for this study, arsenic concentrations exceeded the Canadian Freshwater Interim Sediment-Quality Guideline for the protection of aquatic life and probable-effect level (concentration). Sediments collected near Imlay, Rye Patch Reservoir, Lovelock, and from Toulon Drain and Army Drain were found to contain cadmium and chromium concentrations that exceeded Canadian criteria. Chromium concentrations in sediments collected from these sites also exceeded the consensus-based threshold-effect concentration. The Canadian criterion for sediment copper concentration was exceeded in sediments collected from the Humboldt River near Lovelock and from Toulon, Army, and the unnamed agricultural drains. Mercury in sediments collected near Imlay and from Toulon Drain in August 1999 exceeded the U.S. Department of the Interior sediment probable-effect level. Nickel concentrations in sediments collected during this study were above the consensus-based threshold-effect concentration. All other river and drain sediments had constituent concentrations below protective criteria and toxicity thresholds. In Upper Humboldt Lake, chloride, dissolved solids, arsenic, boron, molybdenum, and uranium concentrations in surface-water samples collected near the mouth of the Humboldt River generally were higher than in samples collected near the mouth of Army Drain. Ecological criteria or effect con

  5. 1.8 billion years of fluid-crust interaction: A zircon oxygen isotope record for the lower crust, western Churchill Province, Canadian Shield

    Petts, Duane C.; Moser, Desmond E.; Longstaffe, Frederick J.; Davis, William J.; Stern, Richard A.

    2014-04-01

    The western Churchill Province of the Canadian Shield experienced a prolonged and complex formation history (ca. 4.04 to 1.70 Ga), with evidence for multiple episodes of orogenesis and regional magmatic activity. Here we report on the oxygen isotopic compositions of garnet and zircon recovered from lower crustal xenoliths, which have U-Pb ages between ca. 3.5 and 1.7 Ga. Overall, zircon from four metabasite xenoliths from the Rankin Inlet sample suite have δ18O values ranging from + 5.5 to + 8.6‰. Zircon from three metatonalite/anorthosite xenoliths and five metabasite xenoliths from the Repulse Bay sample suite have δ18O values of + 5.6 to + 8.3‰. High δ18O values (> + 6.0‰) for the oldest igneous zircon cores (ca. 3.5 Ga and 3.0-2.6 Ga) indicate that their metatonalite/anorthosite protolith magmas were generated from, or had assimilated, supracrustal rocks that interacted previously with surface-derived fluids. Igneous zircon cores (ca. 2.9-2.6 Ga) from one metabasite xenolith have δ18O values of + 5.6 to + 6.4‰, which suggests a formation from a mantle-derived basaltic/gabbroic magma. Metamorphic zircon cores (ca. 2.0-1.9 Ga) from one metabasite xenolith commonly have δ18O values between + 6.0 and + 6.3‰, which is indicative of a basalt/gabbro protolith and localized reworking of the lower crust caused by regional-scale plate convergence. The wide range of δ18O values (+ 5.5 to + 8.3‰) for ca. 1.75-1.70 Ga metamorphic zircon rims (identified in all xenoliths) indicates regional transient heating and reworking of mantle- and supracrustal-derived crust, induced by magmatic underplating along the crust-mantle boundary.

  6. The shark assemblage at French Frigate Shoals atoll, Hawai'i: species composition, abundance and habitat use.

    Dale, Jonathan J; Stankus, Austin M; Burns, Michael S; Meyer, Carl G

    2011-02-10

    Empirical data on the abundance and habitat preferences of coral reef top predators are needed to evaluate their ecological impacts and guide management decisions. We used longline surveys to quantify the shark assemblage at French Frigate Shoals (FFS) atoll from May to August 2009. Fishing effort consisted of 189 longline sets totaling 6,862 hook hours of soak time. A total of 221 sharks from 7 species were captured, among which Galapagos (Carcharhinus galapagensis, 36.2%), gray reef (Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos, 25.8%) and tiger (Galeocerdo cuvier, 20.4%) sharks were numerically dominant. A lack of blacktip reef sharks (Carcharhinus melanopterus) distinguished the FFS shark assemblage from those at many other atolls in the Indo-Pacific. Compared to prior underwater visual survey estimates, longline methods more accurately represented species abundance and composition for the majority of shark species. Sharks were significantly less abundant in the shallow lagoon than adjacent habitats. Recaptures of Galapagos sharks provided the first empirical estimate of population size for any Galapagos shark population. The overall recapture rate was 5.4%. Multiple closed population models were evaluated, with Chao M(h) ranking best in model performance and yielding a population estimate of 668 sharks with 95% confidence intervals ranging from 289-1720. Low shark abundance in the shallow lagoon habitats suggests removal of a small number of sharks from the immediate vicinity of lagoonal islets may reduce short-term predation on endangered monk seal (Monachus schauinslandi) pups, but considerable fishing effort would be required to catch even a small number of sharks. Additional data on long-term movements and habitat use of sharks at FFS are required to better assess the likely ecological impacts of shark culling.

  7. INTEGRATED GEOLOGIC-ENGINEERING MODEL FOR REEF AND CARBONATE SHOAL RESERVOIRS ASSOCIATED WITH PALEOHIGHS: UPPER JURASSIC SMACKOVER FORMATION, NORTHEASTERN GULF OF MEXICO

    Ernest A. Mancini

    2002-09-25

    The University of Alabama in cooperation with Texas A&M University, McGill University, Longleaf Energy Group, Strago Petroleum Corporation, and Paramount Petroleum Company are undertaking an integrated, interdisciplinary geoscientific and engineering research project. The project is designed to characterize and model reservoir architecture, pore systems and rock-fluid interactions at the pore to field scale in Upper Jurassic Smackover reef and carbonate shoal reservoirs associated with varying degrees of relief on pre-Mesozoic basement paleohighs in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. The project effort includes the prediction of fluid flow in carbonate reservoirs through reservoir simulation modeling which utilizes geologic reservoir characterization and modeling and the prediction of carbonate reservoir architecture, heterogeneity and quality through seismic imaging. The primary objective of the project is to increase the profitability, producibility and efficiency of recovery of oil from existing and undiscovered Upper Jurassic fields characterized by reef and carbonate shoals associated with pre-Mesozoic basement paleohighs. The principal research effort for Year 2 of the project has been reservoir characterization, 3-D modeling and technology transfer. This effort has included six tasks: (1) the study of rockfluid interactions, (2) petrophysical and engineering characterization, (3) data integration, (4) 3-D geologic modeling, (5) 3-D reservoir simulation and (6) technology transfer. This work was scheduled for completion in Year 2. Overall, the project work is on schedule. Geoscientific reservoir characterization is essentially completed. The architecture, porosity types and heterogeneity of the reef and shoal reservoirs at Appleton and Vocation Fields have been characterized using geological and geophysical data. The study of rock-fluid interactions is near completion. Observations regarding the diagenetic processes influencing pore system development and

  8. River Diversions and Shoaling

    Letter, Jr., Joseph V; Pinkard, Jr., C. F; Raphelt, Nolan K

    2008-01-01

    This Coastal and Hydraulics Engineering Technical Note describes the current knowledge of the potential impacts of river diversions on channel morphology, especially induced sedimentation in the river channel...

  9. INTEGRATED GEOLOGIC-ENGINEERING MODEL FOR REEF AND CARBONATE SHOAL RESERVOIRS ASSOCIATED WITH PALEOHIGHS: UPPER JURASSIC SMACKOVER FORMATION, NORTHEASTERN GULF OF MEXICO

    Ernest A. Mancini

    2004-02-25

    The University of Alabama, in cooperation with Texas A&M University, McGill University, Longleaf Energy Group, Strago Petroleum Corporation, and Paramount Petroleum Company, has undertaken an integrated, interdisciplinary geoscientific and engineering research project. The project is designed to characterize and model reservoir architecture, pore systems and rock-fluid interactions at the pore to field scale in Upper Jurassic Smackover reef and carbonate shoal reservoirs associated with varying degrees of relief on pre-Mesozoic basement paleohighs in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. The project effort includes the prediction of fluid flow in carbonate reservoirs through reservoir simulation modeling which utilizes geologic reservoir characterization and modeling and the prediction of carbonate reservoir architecture, heterogeneity and quality through seismic imaging. The primary goal of the project is to increase the profitability, producibility and efficiency of recovery of oil from existing and undiscovered Upper Jurassic fields characterized by reef and carbonate shoals associated with pre-Mesozoic basement paleohighs. Geoscientific reservoir property, geophysical seismic attribute, petrophysical property, and engineering property characterization has shown that reef (thrombolite) and shoal reservoir lithofacies developed on the flanks of high-relief crystalline basement paleohighs (Vocation Field example) and on the crest and flanks of low-relief crystalline basement paleohighs (Appleton Field example). The reef thrombolite lithofacies have higher reservoir quality than the shoal lithofacies due to overall higher permeabilities and greater interconnectivity. Thrombolite dolostone flow units, which are dominated by dolomite intercrystalline and vuggy pores, are characterized by a pore system comprised of a higher percentage of large-sized pores and larger pore throats. Rock-fluid interactions (diagenesis) studies have shown that although the primary control on

  10. INTEGRATED GEOLOGIC-ENGINEERING MODEL FOR REEF AND CARBONATE SHOAL RESERVOIRS ASSOCIATED WITH PALEOHIGHS: UPPER JURASSIC SMACKOVER FORMATION, NORTHEASTERN GULF OF MEXICO

    Ernest A. Mancini

    2003-09-25

    The University of Alabama in cooperation with Texas A&M University, McGill University, Longleaf Energy Group, Strago Petroleum Corporation, and Paramount Petroleum Company are undertaking an integrated, interdisciplinary geoscientific and engineering research project. The project is designed to characterize and model reservoir architecture, pore systems and rock-fluid interactions at the pore to field scale in Upper Jurassic Smackover reef and carbonate shoal reservoirs associated with varying degrees of relief on pre-Mesozoic basement paleohighs in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. The project effort includes the prediction of fluid flow in carbonate reservoirs through reservoir simulation modeling that utilizes geologic reservoir characterization and modeling and the prediction of carbonate reservoir architecture, heterogeneity and quality through seismic imaging. The primary objective of the project is to increase the profitability, producibility and efficiency of recovery of oil from existing and undiscovered Upper Jurassic fields characterized by reef and carbonate shoals associated with pre-Mesozoic basement paleohighs. The principal research effort for Year 3 of the project has been reservoir characterization, 3-D modeling, testing of the geologic-engineering model, and technology transfer. This effort has included six tasks: (1) the study of seismic attributes, (2) petrophysical characterization, (3) data integration, (4) the building of the geologic-engineering model, (5) the testing of the geologic-engineering model and (6) technology transfer. This work was scheduled for completion in Year 3. Progress on the project is as follows: geoscientific reservoir characterization is completed. The architecture, porosity types and heterogeneity of the reef and shoal reservoirs at Appleton and Vocation Fields have been characterized using geological and geophysical data. The study of rock-fluid interactions has been completed. Observations regarding the diagenetic

  11. Continuous bottom temperature measurements in strategic areas of the Florida Reef Tract at 9-FT Shoal, 1990- 2005 (NODC Accession 0002757)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This ongoing project began in 1988. A total of 38 subsurface recording thermographs have been deployed in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary (FKNMS)and at...

  12. Continuous bottom temperature measurements in strategic areas of the Florida Reef Tract at 9-FT Shoal, 2005 - 2007 (NODC Accession 0039533)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This ongoing project began in 1988. A total of 38 subsurface recording thermographs have been deployed in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary (FKNMS)and at...

  13. Ontogenetic changes in feeding and food preferences of the dog conch Laevistrombus canarium Linnaeus 1758 (Mollusca: Gastropoda) from Merambong shoal, Malaysia

    Husna, Wan Nurul Wan Hassan; Mazlan, Abd Ghaffar; Cob, Zaidi Che

    2017-09-01

    Laevistrombus canarium is one of the marine gastropod mollusks that have high commercial value, particularly in the aquaculture sector in Malaysia. This study was conducted to determine the feeding and food items of L. canarium at different ontogenetic stages (juveniles, sub-adults and adults) from Merambong shoals, Malaysia. Field observations on feeding activity were conducted, followed by detailed laboratory analysis on the stomach content. Five-minutes observations on randomly selected individuals were conducted at the field sampling site and their feeding activities were recorded with reference to age stage. Various shell sizes from each ontogenetic stage were randomly collected and quickly anaesthetized with ice and preserved in 10% formalin before being transported to the laboratory for stomach content analyses. Field observations showed that L. canarium mainly grazed on epiphytes occurring on seagrass (46.67%), followed by sediment surface (40%) and epiphytes occurring on macroalgae (13.33%). Stomach content analyses showed a significant difference ( P 0.05) was detected between the three main food items (diatoms, sand particles and detritus) among the ontogenetic stages. Therefore, feeding activity revealed the role of the dog conch in the marine food network. While, classification of the types of food consumed by L. canarium through stomach content analysis determines the particular position of the gastropod in the food chain. Further studies are needed to provide a better insight between trophic relationships of L. canarium with marine ecosystem.

  14. Shifting shoals and shattered rocks : How man has transformed the floor of west-central San Francisco Bay

    Chin, John L.; Wong, Florence L.; Carlson, Paul R.

    2004-01-01

    San Francisco Bay, one of the world's finest natural harbors and a major center for maritime trade, is referred to as the 'Gateway to the Pacific Rim.' The bay is an urbanized estuary that is considered by many to be the major estuary in the United States most modified by man's activities. The population around the estuary has grown rapidly since the 1850's and now exceeds 7 million people. The San Francisco Bay area's economy ranks as one of the largest in the world, larger even than that of many countries. More than 10 million tourists are estimated to visit the bay region each year. The bay area's population and associated development have increasingly changed the estuary and its environment. San Francisco Bay and the contiguous Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta encompass roughly 1,600 square miles (4,100 km2) and are the outlet of a major watershed that drains more than 40 percent of the land area of the State of California. This watershed provides drinking water for 20 million people (two thirds of the State's population) and irrigates 4.5 million acres of farmland and ranchland. During the past several decades, much has been done to clean up the environment and waters of San Francisco Bay. Conservationist groups have even bought many areas on the margins of the bay with the intention of restoring them to a condition more like the natural marshes they once were. However, many of the major manmade changes to the bay's environment occurred so long ago that the nature of them has been forgotten. In addition, many changes continue to occur today, such as the introduction of exotic species and the loss of commercial and sport fisheries because of declining fish populations. The economy and population of the nine counties that surround the bay continue to grow and put increasing pressure on the bay, both direct and indirect. Therefore, there are mixed signals for the future health and welfare of San Francisco Bay. The San Francisco Bay estuary consists of three

  15. Dissociating the effects of habituation, black walls, buspirone and ethanol on anxiety-like behavioral responses in shoaling zebrafish. A 3D approach to social behavior.

    Maaswinkel, Hans; Le, Xi; He, Lucy; Zhu, Liqun; Weng, Wei

    2013-07-01

    Understanding the different patterns of anxiety-like behavioral responses is of great interest for pharmacological and genetic research. Here we report the effects of 3.5-hr habituation, buspirone and ethanol on those responses in shoaling zebrafish (Danio rerio). Since in these experiments we used a container with white walls, the effects of black-vs.-white walls were tested in a separate experiment. An important objective was to determine whether factors unrelated to anxiety played a role in modulating the responses. The anxiety-like behavioral responses studied here are social cohesion, distance from bottom and bottom-dwell time, radial distribution (to study thigmotaxis), transparent-wall preference (to study escape responses), locomotion and freezing. The experimental conditions yielded distinctly different response patterns. Thigmotaxis was the most obvious response to white walls and it was significantly reduced after 3.5-hr habituation. It was not affected by any of the drugs. The reduction of social cohesion after 3.5-hr habituation and in the 0.5% ethanol group was probably the most interesting effect seen in this study. A role of anxiety herein was suggested but could not be established with certainty. Other hypotheses were also discussed. The large increase of distance-from-bottom resulting in swimming close to the water surface, which occurred in both buspirone groups and in the 0.5%-ethanol group, is most likely not an anxiolytic response, because of the discrepancy with the in the literature well-established time-course and the absence of any effect of 3.5-hr habituation or black walls on vertical measures. Finally, locomotion and duration freezing could not be specifically taken as indicators for the state of anxiety and the results concerning transparent-wall preference were not sufficient clear. We conclude that the neuronal and ethological mechanisms underlying the effects of habituation, white-aversion, buspirone and ethanol on anxiety

  16. Hearings Before the Special Subcommittee on Education of the Committee on Education and Labor, House of Representatives, Ninety-third Congress, First Session on H.R. 1144, H.R. 2994, H.R. 7261, H.R. 9065, H.R. 9960, H.R. 10027, H.R. 11658, and S. 1418. Bills to Provide Grants to Eisenhower College, Deganawidah-Quetzalcoatl University, the Sam Rayburn Library, the Winston Churchill Memorial Library, and the Hoover Institution on War, Revolution, and Peace.

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and Labor.

    This document presents hearings before the special subcommittee on Education of the Committee on Education and Labor, House of Representatives, 93rd Congress concerning the provision of grants to Eisenhower College, Deganawidah-Quetzalcoatl University, the Sam Rayburn Library, the Winston Churchill Library, and the Hoover Institute on War,…

  17. How Bush Was 'Churchilled' in Iraq

    Porch, Douglas

    2004-01-01

    .... Since it took office, the Bush administration has argued that the United States should return to strategies of preemption, unilateralism, and hegemony that characterized American national security...

  18. Control Areas

    Department of Homeland Security — This feature class represents electric power Control Areas. Control Areas, also known as Balancing Authority Areas, are controlled by Balancing Authorities, who are...

  19. Continuous bottom temperature measurements in strategic atreas of the Florida Reef Tract at the New Ground Shoal site, 1992 - 2006 (NODC Accession 0012845)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The purpose of this project is to document bottom seawater temperature in strategic areas of the Florida Reef Tract on a continuing basis and make that information...

  20. Anchorage Areas

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — An anchorage area is a place where boats and ships can safely drop anchor. These areas are created in navigable waterways when ships and vessels require them for...

  1. Revitalization Areas

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Revitalization areas are HUD-designated neighborhoods in need of economic and community development and where there is already a strong commitment by the local...

  2. 700 Area

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The 700 Area of the Hanford Site is located in downtown Richland.Called the Federal Office Building, the Richland Operations Site Manager and the Richland Operations...

  3. SEAKEYS - Pulaski Shoal 2009 Meteorological Observations

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Florida Institute of Oceanography's (FIO) SEAKEYS (Sustained Ecological Research Related to Management of the Florida Keys Seascape) program began in 1989 and...

  4. SEAKEYS - Pulaski Shoal 2008 Meteorological Observations

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Florida Institute of Oceanography's (FIO) SEAKEYS (Sustained Ecological Research Related to Management of the Florida Keys Seascape) program began in 1989 and...

  5. Erie Harbor, Pennsylvania, Channel Shoaling Analysis

    2011-07-01

    to assist in this effort. Note that there are usually several xyz files to cover the channel survey for a given year. ERDC TR-11-4 3 Table 1...at one time numbering about 100 families and numerous Indians. Fields were cleared and cultivated with corn being the principal crop . A grist mill...of stone being placed. To hold sand fill, 20,400 small poplar trees and 1,900 small willow trees were planted, and 21 bushels of rye and 6 bushels

  6. An algorithm to track laboratory zebrafish shoals.

    Feijó, Gregory de Oliveira; Sangalli, Vicenzo Abichequer; da Silva, Isaac Newton Lima; Pinho, Márcio Sarroglia

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, a semi-automatic multi-object tracking method to track a group of unmarked zebrafish is proposed. This method can handle partial occlusion cases, maintaining the correct identity of each individual. For every object, we extracted a set of geometric features to be used in the two main stages of the algorithm. The first stage selected the best candidate, based both on the blobs identified in the image and the estimate generated by a Kalman Filter instance. In the second stage, if the same candidate-blob is selected by two or more instances, a blob-partitioning algorithm takes place in order to split this blob and reestablish the instances' identities. If the algorithm cannot determine the identity of a blob, a manual intervention is required. This procedure was compared against a manual labeled ground truth on four video sequences with different numbers of fish and spatial resolution. The performance of the proposed method is then compared against two well-known zebrafish tracking methods found in the literature: one that treats occlusion scenarios and one that only track fish that are not in occlusion. Based on the data set used, the proposed method outperforms the first method in correctly separating fish in occlusion, increasing its efficiency by at least 8.15% of the cases. As for the second, the proposed method's overall performance outperformed the second in some of the tested videos, especially those with lower image quality, because the second method requires high-spatial resolution images, which is not a requirement for the proposed method. Yet, the proposed method was able to separate fish involved in occlusion and correctly assign its identity in up to 87.85% of the cases, without accounting for user intervention. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Houston-Galveston Navigation Channel Shoaling Study

    2014-12-01

    Roads, which is bordered by Bolivar Peninsula to the northeast and Galveston Island to the southwest (Figure 1). Two jetties approximately 6,900 ft...USACE SWG. In 2008, the USACE SWG, and the Port of Houston tasked a joint venture formed by Turner Collie & Braden, Inc., and Gahagan & Bryant

  8. Quiet areas

    Petersen, Rikke Munck

    2016-01-01

    This paper argues that drone filming can substantiate our understanding of multisensorial experiences of quiet areas and urban landscapes. Contrary to the distanced gaze often associated with the drone, this paper discusses drone filming as an intimate performativity apparatus that can affect...... perception as a result of its interrelationships between motion, gaze, and sound. This paper uses four films, one of which is a drone flyover, to launch a discussion concerning a smooth and alluring gaze, a sliding gaze that penetrates landscapes, and site appearance. Films hold the capacity to project both...... and transcendence can facilitate a deeper understanding of intimate sensations, substantiating their role in the future design and planning of urban landscapes. Hence, it addresses the ethics of an intimacy perspective (of drone filming) in the qualification of quiet areas....

  9. The influence of some hydrographical factors on the fisheries of Cochin area

    Sankaranarayanan, V.N.; Qasim, S.Z.

    -tide phenomenon which acts as a further threat to fish life is of common occurrence during this season From November onwards there is a reappearance of fish shoals in coastal waters and a resumption of large scale fishing activity...

  10. Microfacies, sedimentary environment and diagenesis of the upper part of Dalan and Kangan Formations in the Kuh-e Surmeh area, Folded Zagros

    Mohammadhossein Adabi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The upper part of Dallan and Kangan formations (Permian-Triassic, are located in the Kuh-e Surmeh area in folded Zagros Basin with a thickness of 325 m overlying by Nar evaporite member and underlying by Dashtak Formation. Dominant lithology of these formations are limestone and dolomite. Our purpose in this study is to identify microfacieses, sedimentary environment and diagenetic proceses. To overcome this aim, thin sections petrographic studies, leaded to identify 12 microfacieses related to 4 facieses belt: tidal flat, lagoon, shoal and open marine. The observed microfacies patterns indicate a ramp carbonate platform as depositional environment. Based on petrographic studies, the important diagenetic processes in these formations consist of: micritization, dolomitization, cementation, stilolitization and chemical and physical compactions. Burial diagenesis is dominated diagenetic event. The observed porosities in this section are primary and secondary such as fenestral, vuggy, fracture, moldic, interparticle, intraparticle and channel

  11. Some New Constraints On The Stratigraphic And Structural Setting Of The Soda Lake Geothermal Field, Churchill County, Nevada - McLACHLAN, Holly S. and FAULDS, James E., Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology, University of Nevada, Reno, NV 89557

    McLachlan, H. S.

    2012-12-01

    Our research group is currently conducting a regional survey to identify favorable structural settings of producing and prospective geothermal fields in the Great Basin. The Soda Lake geothermal field - one of the oldest consistently producing fields in this study region - is located in west-central Nevada near the heart of the Carson Sink. Producing and prospective geothermal fields in the surrounding highlands are hosted in 1) fault termination zones (Desert Queen), 2) accommodation zones (Brady's Hot Springs) and 3) fault step-overs (Desert Peak). However, the structural setting is challenging to identify at the Soda Lake field, because it lies in the central part of a large basin with no nearby bedrock exposures. The well field at Soda Lake is centered ~3.5 km NNE of the Holocene Soda Lake maar, from which it takes its name. The geothermal field was identified serendipitously during the drilling of an irrigation survey well in the early 20th century. Modern exploratory drilling at the field began in the mid-1970s and has continued sporadically to the present. There are currently more than 28 500+ m wells at and near the production site. The exceptional drilling density at Soda Lake allows for comparatively reliable correlation of stratigraphy in the subsurface below the feature-poor Carson Sink. Stratigraphy in the Soda Lake geothermal area is relatively "layer cake" at the scale of the well field. Unconsolidated sediments extend more than 1000 m below surface. The upper few hundred meters are composed of fluvial and lacustrine sediments derived from Sierran batholith source rocks. The deeper basin fill derives from more proximal mafic to felsic Miocene volcanic rocks along the basin margins. At ~450-650 m depth, basin sediments are interrupted by a 5.11 Ma trachytic basalt of restricted lateral extent and variable thickness. Most wells intercept ~50-250 m of fine lacustrine sediments below this basalt body before intercepting the basin floor. Basin floor rocks

  12. Underwater Topography Detection in Coastal Areas Using Fully Polarimetric SAR Data

    Xiaolin Bian

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Fully polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR can provide detailed information on scattering mechanisms that could enable the target or structure to be identified. This paper presents a method to detect underwater topography in coastal areas using high resolution fully polarimetric SAR data, while less prior information is required. The method is based on the shoaling and refraction of long surface gravity waves as they propagate shoreward. First, the surface scattering component is obtained by polarization decomposition. Then, wave fields are retrieved from the two-dimensional (2D spectra by the Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT. Finally, shallow water depths are estimated from the dispersion relation. Applicability and effectiveness of the proposed methodology are tested by using C-band fine quad-polarization mode RADARSAT-2 SAR data over the near-shore area of the Hainan province, China. By comparing with the values from an official electronic navigational chart (ENC, the estimated water depths are in good agreement with them. The average relative error of the detected results from the scattering mechanisms based method and single polarization SAR data are 9.73% and 11.53% respectively. The validation results indicate that the scattering mechanisms based methodology is more effective than only using the single polarization SAR data for underwater topography detection, and will inspire further research on underwater topography detection with fully polarimetric SAR data.

  13. Walrus areas of use in the Chukchi Sea during sparse sea ice cover

    Jay, Chadwick V.; Fischbach, Anthony S.; Kochnev, Anatoly A.

    2012-01-01

    The Pacific walrus Odobenus rosmarus divergens feeds on benthic invertebrates on the continental shelf of the Chukchi and Bering Seas and rests on sea ice between foraging trips. With climate warming, ice-free periods in the Chukchi Sea have increased and are projected to increase further in frequency and duration. We radio-tracked walruses to estimate areas of walrus foraging and occupancy in the Chukchi Sea from June to November of 2008 to 2011, years when sea ice was sparse over the continental shelf in comparison to historical records. The earlier and more extensive sea ice retreat in June to September, and delayed freeze-up of sea ice in October to November, created conditions for walruses to arrive earlier and stay later in the Chukchi Sea than in the past. The lack of sea ice over the continental shelf from September to October caused walruses to forage in nearshore areas instead of offshore areas as in the past. Walruses did not frequent the deep waters of the Arctic Basin when sea ice retreated off the shelf. Walruses foraged in most areas they occupied, and areas of concentrated foraging generally corresponded to regions of high benthic biomass, such as in the northeastern (Hanna Shoal) and southwestern Chukchi Sea. A notable exception was the occurrence of concentrated foraging in a nearshore area of northwestern Alaska that is apparently depauperate in walrus prey. With increasing sea ice loss, it is likely that walruses will increase their use of coastal haul-outs and nearshore foraging areas, with consequences to the population that are yet to be understood.

  14. Commander in chief : FDR's battle with Churchill, 1943

    Hamilton, Charles Nigel

    2016-01-01

    Commander in Chief is een deelbiografie van president Franklin Delano Roosevelt waarin Roosevelts rol als opperbevelhebber van de gewapende strijdkrachten van de Verenigde Staten in de Tweede Wereldoorlog het hoofdthema is. Het boek concentreert zich op het jaar 1943: een jaar waaraan biografen van

  15. CHURCHILL COUNTY, NEVADA ARSENIC STUDY: WATER CONSUMPTION AND EXPOSURE BIOMARKERS

    The US Environmental Protection Agency is required to reevaluate the Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) for arsenic in 2006. To provide data for reducing uncertainties in assessing health risks associated with exposure to low levels (<200 g/l) of arsenic, a large scale biomarker st...

  16. Parenting Education at Medford and Churchill High Schools.

    Jensen, Mary Cihak

    1986-01-01

    Nationally, interest in family life and parenting programs has grown amidst concern for "basic education." Parenting education in today's schools may be justified because of increased family stress and deteriorating family support systems. Most parenting and family life courses are offered within home economics departments, have a narrow…

  17. FHFA Underserved Areas

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Federal Housing Finance Agency's (FHFA) Underserved Areas establishes underserved area designations for census tracts in Metropolitan Areas (MSAs), nonmetropolitan...

  18. Class 1 Areas

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — A "Class 1" area is a geographic area recognized by the EPA as being of the highest environmental quality and requiring maximum protection. Class I areas are areas...

  19. Health Service Areas (HSAs) - Small Area Estimates

    Health Service Areas (HSAs) are a compromise between the 3000 counties and the 50 states. An HSA may be thought of as an area that is relatively self-contained with respect to hospital care and may cross over state boundries.

  20. Seismic prediction on the favorable efficient development areas of the Longwangmiao Fm gas reservoir in the Gaoshiti–Moxi area, Sichuan Basin

    Guangrong Zhang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The Lower Cambrian Longwangmiao Fm gas reservoir in the Gaoshiti–Moxi area, the Sichuan Basin, is a super giant monoblock marine carbonate gas reservoir with its single size being the largest in China. The key to the realization of high and stable production gas wells in this gas reservoir is to identify accurately high-permeability zones where there are dissolved pores or dissolved pores are superimposed with fractures. However, high quality dolomite reservoirs are characterized by large burial depth and strong heterogeneity, so reservoir prediction is of difficult. In this paper, related seismic researches were carried out and supporting technologies were developed as follows. First, a geologic model was built after an analysis of the existing data and forward modeling was carried out to establish a reservoir seismic response model. Second, by virtue of well-oriented amplitude processing technology, spherical diffusion compensation factor was obtained based on VSP well logging data and the true amplitude of seismic data was recovered. Third, the resolution of deep seismic data was improved by using the well-oriented high-resolution frequency-expanding technology and prestack time migration data of high quality was acquired. And fourth, multiple shoal facies reservoirs were traced by using the global automatic seismic interpretation technology which is based on stratigraphic model, multiple reservoirs which are laterally continuous and vertically superimposed could be predicted, and the areal distribution of high quality reservoirs could be described accurately and efficiently. By virtue of the supporting technologies, drilling trajectory is positioned accurately, and the deployed development wells all have high yield. These technologies also promote the construction of a modern supergiant gas field of tens of billions of cubic meters.

  1. The sedimentary facies characteristics and lithofacies palaeogeography during Middle-Late Cambrian, Sichuan Basin and adjacent area

    Feifan Lu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Combined with the regional strata filling characteristics of Middle-Upper Cambrian, the present paper conducts a systematic research on sedimentary facies in the basin and its peripheral area by utilizing 164 field outcrops and drilling and coring data. Further, the method of “multi-factor comprehensive synthesis based on single-factor analysis” was employed to investigate the sedimentary facies and palaeogeography of the study area and establish the sedimentary facies model. Stratigraphic reveals that the study area represents the pattern of thin-northwest and thick-southeast by stretching northeast-southwest. Within the present basin, the pattern of “one thin and two thick” predominates, while outside the basin “four thin and three thick” filling feature was found. Sedimentary facies shows that the study area was featured by rimmed carbonate platform. Specifically, carbonate platform, slope and northeastern corner Qinling paleooceanic Basin and southeastern corner Jiangnan Bain was identified from the west to the east. The carbonate platform contains restricted platform, evaporation-restricted platform, semi-restricted platform and the platform margin. Single factor analysis and lithofacies palaeogeographic characteristics manifests that during Middle-Late Cambrian, the western Old land evolved into peneplain stage, and that the eastern and southwestern sub-sags remained connected to the open-sea to some extent. At the time, the shllow seawater circulation was relatively restricted, while the ancient seabed tended to be flat and evaporation characteristics significantly diminished. Secondary sea-level fluctuation intensively influenced the development of scaled grain beach. It is suggested that tide marginal beach, intraplatform shoal subfacies zone, along with Shiqian-SangZhi in southeast and Zhenba-Xinshan in northeast platform-margin beach subfacies zone to be preferable targets for the favorable reservoir facies zone and

  2. Application of Mat Traps to Determine the Present Speed of Accumulation of Alluvium at the Ryazan Area in the Middle Reaches of the Oka River

    Krivtsov V.A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of the processes of channel sedimentation in riverbeds of lowland rivers has important fundamental and practical importance. In the economic development of river valleys a lot of attention is paid to the dynamics of the major reliefforming processes within the floodplain. A typical example showing the pattern of forming landforms and type of floodplain processes is deposition and redeposition of riverine sediment. In the future sedimentation of alluvium in areas of riverine floodplain makes the growth rate of natural levees, islands and shoals. For the average flow of the Oka river the pace of modern dynamics of accumulation of alluvium in the riverine areas is clarified. For the first time in this area the method of mat traps is applied. Rubber and coconut fiber were selected as the main materials for the traps. Specific features of the application methods and the difficulties encountered in its application were defined. The authors obtained the data about thickness of the layer of sediment accumulation of river flood of 2015, the results of particle size analysis of alluvial material with traps. The main patterns of distribution of fractions of alluvium and the pace of accumulation of various forms of riverine floodplain accumulation were identified. Tested methodology has proven its effectiveness and was found promising for use in the future in this region.

  3. Housekeeping Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 463: Areas 2, 3, 9, and 25 Housekeeping Waste Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    1999-01-01

    The Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order was entered into by the State of Nevada, U.S. Department of Energy, and U.S. Department of Defense to identify sites of potential historical contamination and implement corrective actions based on public health and environmental considerations. The facilities subject to this agreement include the Nevada Test Site (NTS), parts of the Tonopah Test Range, parts of the Nellis Air Force Range, the Central Nevada Test Area, and the Project Shoal Area. Corrective Action Sites (CASs) are areas potentially requiring corrective actions and may include solid waste management units, individual disposal, or release sites. Based on geography, technical similarity, agency responsibility, or other appropriate reasons, CASs are grouped together into Corrective Action Units (CAUs) for the purposes of determining corrective actions. This report contains the Closure Verification Forms for cleanup activities that were performed at 13 CASs within CAU 463 on the NTS. The Housekeeping Closure Verification Form for each CAS provides the location, directions to the site, general description, and photographs of the site before and after cleanup activities. Housekeeping activities at these sites included removal of debris (e.g., wooden pallets, metal, glass, and trash) and other material. In addition, these forms confirm prior removal of other contaminated materials such as metal drums or buckets, transformers, lead bricks, batteries, and gas cylinders. Based on these activities, no further action is required at these CASs

  4. Should Broca's area include Brodmann area 47?

    Ardila, Alfredo; Bernal, Byron; Rosselli, Monica

    2017-02-01

    Understanding brain organization of speech production has been a principal goal of neuroscience. Historically, brain speech production has been associated with so-called Broca’s area (Brodmann area –BA- 44 and 45), however, modern neuroimaging developments suggest speech production is associated with networks rather than with areas. The purpose of this paper was to analyze the connectivity of BA47 ( pars orbitalis) in relation to language . A meta-analysis was conducted to assess the language network in which BA47 is involved. The Brainmap database was used. Twenty papers corresponding to 29 experimental conditions with a total of 373 subjects were included. Our results suggest that BA47 participates in a “frontal language production system” (or extended Broca’s system). The BA47  connectivity found is also concordant with a minor role in language semantics. BA47 plays a central role in the language production system.

  5. Infrastructure Area Simplification Plan

    Field, L.

    2011-01-01

    The infrastructure area simplification plan was presented at the 3rd EMI All Hands Meeting in Padova. This plan only affects the information and accounting systems as the other areas are new in EMI and hence do not require simplification.

  6. VT ZIP Code Areas

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) A ZIP Code Tabulation Area (ZCTA) is a statistical geographic entity that approximates the delivery area for a U.S. Postal Service five-digit...

  7. Vermont Designated Natural Areas

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Under Natural Areas Law (10 Vermont Statutes Annotated, Chapter 83 � 2607) the FPR commissioner, with the approval of the governor, may designate and set aside areas...

  8. Hydrologic Areas of Concern

    University of New Hampshire — A Hydrologic Area of Concern (HAC) is a land area surrounding a water source, which is intended to include the portion of the watershed in which land uses are likely...

  9. SUGARLOAF ROADLESS AREA, CALIFORNIA.

    Powell, Robert E.; Campbell, Harry W.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of geologic, geochemical, and geophysical investigations and a survey of mines, quarries, and prospects the Sugarloaf Roadless Area, California, has little promise for the occurrence of metallic mineral or energy resources. Units of carbonate rock and graphitic schist have demonstrated resources of magnesian marble and graphite. Sand, gravel, and construction stone other than carbonate rock are present in the roadless area, but similar or better quality materials are abundant and more accessible outside the area.

  10. Aperture area measurement facility

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — NIST has established an absolute aperture area measurement facility for circular and near-circular apertures use in radiometric instruments. The facility consists of...

  11. Radon affected areas: Scotland

    Miles, J.C.H.; Green, B.M.R.; Lomas, P.R.

    1993-01-01

    Board advice on radon in homes issued in 1990 specifies that areas of the UK where 1% or more of homes exceed the Action Level of 200 becquerels per cubic metre of air should be regarded as Affected Areas. Results of radon measurements in homes in the districts of Kincardine and Deeside and Gordon in Grampian Region and Caithness and Sutherland in Highland Region are mapped and used to delineate Affected Areas in these areas where required. The Scottish Office is advised to consider the desirability of developing guidance on precautions against radon in future homes. (author)

  12. Fishing Access Areas

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Vermont Fish & Wildlife Department maintains developed fishing access areas. These sites provide public access to waters in Vermont for shore fishing...

  13. CVP Service Area

    California Natural Resource Agency — Federal Water Contract Service Area boundaries are incorporated boundaries of districts having contracts with the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation), within...

  14. Quadrilaterals: Diagonals and Area

    McGraw, Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    The task shared in this article provides geometry students with opportunities to recall and use basic geometry vocabulary, extend their knowledge of area relationships, and create area formulas. It is characterized by reasoning and sense making (NCTM 2009) and the "Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others"…

  15. Operational Area Environmental Evaluations

    Bailey-White, Brenda Eileen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Nagy, Michael David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wagner, Katrina Marie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Goodman, Thomas Richard [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Herring, Allen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Catechis, Christopher S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kinghorn, Aubrianna Nicole [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Johnson, Ellie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Barthel, Michael David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Casaus, Benito [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-08-01

    The Operational Area Environmental Evaluation update provides a description of activities that have the potential to adversely affect natural and cultural resources, including soil, air, water, biological, ecological, and historical resources. The environmental sensitivity of an area is evaluated and summarized, which may facilitate informed management decisions as to where development may be prohibited, restricted, or subject to additional requirements.

  16. Morphologic evolution of the wilderness area breach at Fire Island, New York—2012–15

    Hapke, Cheryl J.; Nelson, Timothy R.; Henderson, Rachel E.; Brenner, Owen T.; Miselis, Jennifer L.

    2017-09-18

    IntroductionHurricane Sandy, which made landfall on October 29, 2012, near Atlantic City, New Jersey, had a significant impact on the coastal system along the south shore of Long Island, New York. A record significant wave height of 9.6 meters (m) was measured at wave buoy 44025, approximately 48 kilometers offshore of Fire Island, New York. Surge and runup during the storm resulted in extensive beach and dune erosion and breaching of the Fire Island barrier island system at two locations, including a breach that formed within the Otis Pike Fire Island High Dune Wilderness area on the eastern side of Fire Island.The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has a long history of conducting morphologic change and processes research at Fire Island. One of the primary objectives of the current research effort is to understand the morphologic evolution of the barrier system on a variety of time scales (from storm scale to decade(s) to century). A number of studies that support the project objectives have been published. Prior to Hurricane Sandy, however, little information was available on specific storm-driven change in this region. The USGS received Hurricane Sandy supplemental funding (project GS2–2B: Linking Coastal Processes and Vulnerability, Fire Island, New York, Regional Study) to enhance existing research efforts at Fire Island. The existing research was greatly expanded to include inner continental shelf mapping and investigations of processes of inner shelf sediment transport; beach and dune response and recovery; and observation, analysis, and modeling of the newly formed breach in the Otis Pike High Dune Wilderness area, herein referred to as the wilderness breach. The breach formed at the site of Old Inlet, which was open from 1763 to 1825. The location of the initial island breaching does not directly correspond with topographic lows of the dunes, but instead the breach formed in the location of a cross-island boardwalk that was destroyed during Hurricane Sandy

  17. Electric Holding Company Areas

    Department of Homeland Security — Holding companies are electric power utilities that have a holding company structure. This vector polygon layer represents the area served by electric power holding...

  18. Urban Greening Bay Area

    Information about the San Francisco Bay Water Quality Project (SFBWQP) Urban Greening Bay Area, a large-scale effort to re-envision urban landscapes to include green infrastructure (GI) making communities more livable and reducing stormwater runoff.

  19. Semi-arid Areas

    Livia Bizikova

    precipitation in the form of rainfall or snow (UN, 2011; MEA 2009). • Dryland subtypes can ... in terms of their land uses: rangelands, croplands, and urban areas. ... farmers; climate resilient agricultural practices; irrigation, pasture management.

  20. Ice Engineering Research Area

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Refrigerated Physical Modeling of Waterways in a Controlled EnvironmentThe Research Area in the Ice Engineering Facility at the Cold Regions Research and Engineering...

  1. spatially identifying vulnerable areas

    The model structure is aimed at understanding the critical vulnerable factors that ... This paper incorporates multiple criteria and rank risk factors. ..... In terms of quantifying vulnerable areas within the country, the analysis is done based on 9 ...

  2. kaduna area, north ce

    Admin

    Similarly, the relative variation of depth to the water table inferred from the spectral analysis was used to deduce .... All the image processing and map preparations were done on a .... investigations in shallow basement areas of. Zaria, Kaduna ...

  3. ABACC's nuclear accounting area

    Nicolas, Ruben O.

    2001-01-01

    The functions and activities of the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for the Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC) accounting area is outlined together with a detailed description of the nuclear accounting system used by the bilateral organization

  4. Pilot Boarding Areas

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Pilot boarding areas are locations at sea where pilots familiar with local waters board incoming vessels to navigate their passage to a destination port. Pilotage is...

  5. Quantifying disbond area

    Lowden, D. W.

    1992-10-01

    Disbonds simulated in a composite helicopter rotor blade were profiled using eddy currents. The method is inherently accurate and reproducible. An algorithm is described for calculating disbond margin. Disbond area is estimated assuming in-service disbondments exhibit circular geometry.

  6. Decontamination & decommissioning focus area

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    In January 1994, the US Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE EM) formally introduced its new approach to managing DOE`s environmental research and technology development activities. The goal of the new approach is to conduct research and development in critical areas of interest to DOE, utilizing the best talent in the Department and in the national science community. To facilitate this solutions-oriented approach, the Office of Science and Technology (EM-50, formerly the Office of Technology Development) formed five Focus AReas to stimulate the required basic research, development, and demonstration efforts to seek new, innovative cleanup methods. In February 1995, EM-50 selected the DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) to lead implementation of one of these Focus Areas: the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D & D) Focus Area.

  7. PM 10 Nonattainment Areas

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer identifies areas in the U.S. where air pollution levels have not met the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for PM 10 and have been...

  8. Carbon Monoxide Nonattainment Areas

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer identifies areas in the U.S. where air pollution levels have not met the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for Carbon Monoxide and have...

  9. SO2 Nonattainment Areas

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer identifies areas in the U.S. where air pollution levels have not met the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for Sulfur dioxide and have...

  10. Topography and surface sediment distribution around Amee shoal Mormugao

    Ambre, N.V.

    stream_size 3 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Recent_Adv_Mar_Archaeol_1991_113.pdf.txt stream_source_info Recent_Adv_Mar_Archaeol_1991_113.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  11. SEAKEYS - Pulaski Shoal 2007 Meteorological Observations (NODC Accession 0058101)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Florida Institute of Oceanography's (FIO) SEAKEYS (Sustained Ecological Research Related to Management of the Florida Keys Seascape) program began in 1989 and...

  12. Shoaling Analysis at Brazos Island, Harbor Inlet, Texas

    2015-10-01

    and, consequently, is not a high priority for maintenance dredging funding. However, any impacts to inbound vessels ensure a major negative economic...Brownsville Ship Channel. Corpus Christi, TX. Report prepared for Port of Brownsville, TX. Martin Associates. 2008. Market assessment of the Port of

  13. Drainage of radioactive areas

    1981-04-01

    This Code of Practice covers all the drainage systems which may occur in the radioactive classified area of an establishment, namely surface water, foul, process and radioactive drainage. It also deals with final discharge lines. The Code of Practice concentrates on those aspects of drainage which require particular attention because the systems are in or from radioactive areas and typical illustrations are given in appendices. The Code makes references to sources of information on conventional aspects of drainage design. (author)

  14. 300 Area Disturbance Report

    LL Hale; MK Wright; NA Cadoret

    1999-01-07

    The objective of this study was to define areas of previous disturbance in the 300 Area of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site to eliminate these areas from the cultural resource review process, reduce cultural resource monitoring costs, and allow cultural resource specialists to focus on areas where subsurface disturbance is minimal or nonexistent. Research into available sources suggests that impacts from excavations have been significant wherever the following construction activities have occurred: building basements and pits, waste ponds, burial grounds, trenches, installation of subsurface pipelines, power poles, water hydrants, and well construction. Beyond the areas just mentioned, substrates in the' 300 Area consist of a complex, multidimen- sional mosaic composed of undisturbed stratigraphy, backfill, and disturbed sediments; Four Geographic Information System (GIS) maps were created to display known areas of disturbance in the 300 Area. These maps contain information gleaned from a variety of sources, but the primary sources include the Hanford GIS database system, engineer drawings, and historic maps. In addition to these maps, several assumptions can be made about areas of disturbance in the 300 Area as a result of this study: o o Buried pipelines are not always located where they are mapped. As a result, cultural resource monitors or specialists should not depend on maps depicting subsurface pipelines for accurate locations of previous disturbance. Temporary roads built in the early 1940s were placed on layers of sand and gravel 8 to 12 in. thick. Given this information, it is likely that substrates beneath these early roads are only minimally disturbed. Building foundations ranged from concrete slabs no more than 6 to 8 in. thick to deeply excavated pits and basements. Buildings constructed with slab foundations are more numerous than may be expected, and minimally disturbed substrates may be expected in these locations. Historic

  15. Investigating scintillometer source areas

    Perelet, A. O.; Ward, H. C.; Pardyjak, E.

    2017-12-01

    Scintillometry is an indirect ground-based method for measuring line-averaged surface heat and moisture fluxes on length scales of 0.5 - 10 km. These length scales are relevant to urban and other complex areas where setting up traditional instrumentation like eddy covariance is logistically difficult. In order to take full advantage of scintillometry, a better understanding of the flux source area is needed. The source area for a scintillometer is typically calculated as a convolution of point sources along the path. A weighting function is then applied along the path to compensate for a total signal contribution that is biased towards the center of the beam path, and decreasing near the beam ends. While this method of calculating the source area provides an estimate of the contribution of the total flux along the beam, there are still questions regarding the physical meaning of the weighted source area. These questions are addressed using data from an idealized experiment near the Salt Lake City International Airport in northern Utah, U.S.A. The site is a flat agricultural area consisting of two different land uses. This simple heterogeneity in the land use facilitates hypothesis testing related to source areas. Measurements were made with a two wavelength scintillometer system spanning 740 m along with three standard open-path infrared gas analyzer-based eddy-covariance stations along the beam path. This configuration allows for direct observations of fluxes along the beam and comparisons to the scintillometer average. The scintillometer system employed measures the refractive index structure parameter of air for two wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation, 880 μm and 1.86 cm to simultaneously estimate path-averaged heat and moisture fluxes, respectively. Meteorological structure parameters (CT2, Cq2, and CTq) as well as surface fluxes are compared for various amounts of source area overlap between eddy covariance and scintillometry. Additionally, surface

  16. Plutonium focus area

    1996-08-01

    To ensure research and development programs focus on the most pressing environmental restoration and waste management problems at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Assistant Secretary for the Office of Environmental Management (EM) established a working group in August 1993 to implement a new approach to research and technology development. As part of this new approach, EM developed a management structure and principles that led to the creation of specific Focus Areas. These organizations were designed to focus the scientific and technical talent throughout DOE and the national scientific community on the major environmental restoration and waste management problems facing DOE. The Focus Area approach provides the framework for intersite cooperation and leveraging of resources on common problems. After the original establishment of five major Focus Areas within the Office of Technology Development (EM-50, now called the Office of Science and Technology), the Nuclear Materials Stabilization Task Group (EM-66) followed the structure already in place in EM-50 and chartered the Plutonium Focus Area (PFA). The following information outlines the scope and mission of the EM, EM-60, and EM-66 organizations as related to the PFA organizational structure

  17. Area Handbook for Syria.

    Nyrop, Richard; And Others

    This volume on Syria is one of a series of handbooks prepared by the Foreign Area Studies (FAS) of the American University, designed to be useful to military and other personnel who need a convenient compilation of basic facts about the social, economic, political, and military institutions and practices of various countries. The emphasis is on…

  18. Subsurface contaminants focus area

    1996-08-01

    The US Department of Enregy (DOE) Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is developing technologies to address environmental problems associated with hazardous and radioactive contaminants in soil and groundwater that exist throughout the DOE complex, including radionuclides, heavy metals; and dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). More than 5,700 known DOE groundwater plumes have contaminated over 600 billion gallons of water and 200 million cubic meters of soil. Migration of these plumes threatens local and regional water sources, and in some cases has already adversely impacted off-site rsources. In addition, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is responsible for supplying technologies for the remediation of numerous landfills at DOE facilities. These landfills are estimated to contain over 3 million cubic meters of radioactive and hazardous buried Technology developed within this specialty area will provide efective methods to contain contaminant plumes and new or alternative technologies for development of in situ technologies to minimize waste disposal costs and potential worker exposure by treating plumes in place. While addressing contaminant plumes emanating from DOE landfills, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is also working to develop new or alternative technologies for the in situ stabilization, and nonintrusive characterization of these disposal sites

  19. Local Area Networks.

    Marks, Kenneth E.; Nielsen, Steven

    1991-01-01

    Discusses cabling that is needed in local area networks (LANs). Types of cables that may be selected are described, including twisted pair, coaxial cables (or ethernet), and fiber optics; network topologies, the manner in which the cables are laid out, are considered; and cable installation issues are discussed. (LRW)

  20. Sensitive Small Area Photometer

    Levenson, M. D.

    1970-01-01

    Describes a simple photometer capable of measuring small light intensities over small areas. The inexpensive, easy-to- construct instrument is intended for use in a student laboratory to measure the light intensities in a diffraction experiment from single or multiple slits. Typical experimental results are presented along with the theoretical…

  1. Beyond breeding area management

    Pedersen, Lykke; Thorup, Kasper; Tøttrup, Anders P.

    Every year, billions of songbirds migrate thousands of kilometres between their European breeding grounds and African overwintering area. As migratory birds are dependent on resources at a number of sites varying in both space and time, they are likely to be more vulnerable to environmental chang...... and provide important information for conservation management of migratory birds....

  2. NWS Marine Forecast Areas

    of Commerce Ocean Prediction Center National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Analysis & Unified Surface Analysis Ocean Ocean Products Ice & Icebergs NIC Ice Products NAIS Iceberg Analysis Social Media Facebook Twitter YouTube Search Search For Go NWS All NOAA NWS Marine Forecast Areas

  3. Home area networks

    Koonen, A.M.J.

    2013-01-01

    This article consists of a collection of slides from the author's conference presentation. Some of the specific areas/topics discussed include: Convergence in home networks, home service scenarios; Home wired network architectures, CapEx and OpEx; Residential Gateway; Optical fiber types;

  4. Italian: Area Background Information.

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This booklet has been assembled in order to provide students of Italian with a compact source of cultural information on their target area. Chapters include discussion of: (1) introduction to Italian; (2) origins of the Italian population; (3) geography; (4) history including the Roman Era, the Middle Ages, the Renaissance, the "Risorgimento," and…

  5. Protected areas in mountains

    Hamilton, L. S.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available

    The importance of a global Protected Areas Network in sustaining appropriate mountain development is presented in this paper. Present status of the world’s “official” Protected Areas in the UN List, and the proportion that are in mountain areas, and including international designations (World Heritage and Biosphere Reserves. Current and future challenges in the management of these special areas are also commented.



    El autor destaca la importancia de una Red Mundial de Espacios Protegidos para el desarrollo sostenible de las montañas. Comenta luego el estatus actual de las Áreas Protegidas “oficiales” del Mundo en la Lista de las Naciones Unidas y qué proporción de ellas forma parte de las montañas, sin olvidar las figuras internacionales de protección como Patrimonio de la Humanidad y Reservas de Biosfera. Para terminar, se discuten los problemas de gestión actuales y futuros de estas áreas tan especiales

  6. Subsurface contaminants focus area

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    The US Department of Enregy (DOE) Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is developing technologies to address environmental problems associated with hazardous and radioactive contaminants in soil and groundwater that exist throughout the DOE complex, including radionuclides, heavy metals; and dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). More than 5,700 known DOE groundwater plumes have contaminated over 600 billion gallons of water and 200 million cubic meters of soil. Migration of these plumes threatens local and regional water sources, and in some cases has already adversely impacted off-site rsources. In addition, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is responsible for supplying technologies for the remediation of numerous landfills at DOE facilities. These landfills are estimated to contain over 3 million cubic meters of radioactive and hazardous buried Technology developed within this specialty area will provide efective methods to contain contaminant plumes and new or alternative technologies for development of in situ technologies to minimize waste disposal costs and potential worker exposure by treating plumes in place. While addressing contaminant plumes emanating from DOE landfills, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is also working to develop new or alternative technologies for the in situ stabilization, and nonintrusive characterization of these disposal sites.

  7. Cleanup of contaminated areas

    Beone, G.; Carbone, A.I.; Zagaroli, M.

    1989-01-01

    The paper deals with the problem of contaminated areas cleanup, in order to eliminate every possible damage for man safety and environment and to site recovery for some utilization, The first step of cleanup operation is site characterization, that is followed by a pianificazion activity for a better definition of staff qualification, technology to be used, protection and prevention instruments for the risks due to contaminants handling. The second section describes the different remedial technologies for contaminated sites. Remedial technologies may be divided into on-site/off-site and in-situ treatments, according to whether materials (waste, soil, water) are moved to another location or not, respectively. Finally, it is outlined that contaminated areas cleanup is a typical multidisciplinary activity because very different competences are required. (author)

  8. Bronchoscopy in Rural Areas?

    Reidar Berntsen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Quality of bronchoscopy performed by one single pulmonologist in a scarcely populated subarctic area was compared to the guidelines provided by the British Thoracic Society (BTS. 103 patients underwent bronchoscopy. Diagnostic yield was increased to 76.6% when the first bronchoscopy was supplemented by bronchial washing fluid and brush cytology and to 86.7% (BTS guidelines >80% after a second bronchoscopy. Median time from referral to bronchoscopy was 10 days and 8 days from positive bronchoscopy to operative referral to another hospital. 1% of patients that underwent transbronchial lung biopsy had minor complications. One pulmonologist had rate of correct diagnosis based on visible endobronchial tumors that was comparable to the rates of numerous pulmonologists at larger centers performing the same procedure. Time delay was short. Rate of complications was comparable. Bronchoscopy performed by one pulmonologist alone could, in organized settings, be carried out at local hospitals in areas of scattered settlement.

  9. Hanford Area 2000 Population

    Elliott, Douglas B.; Scott, Michael J.; Antonio, Ernest J.; Rhoads, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    This report was prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Richland Operations Office, Surface Environmental Surveillance Project, to provide demographic data required for ongoing environmental assessments and safety analyses at the DOE Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. This document includes 2000 Census estimates for the resident population within an 80-kilometer (50-mile) radius of the Hanford Site. Population distributions are reported relative to five reference points centered on meteorological stations within major operating areas of the Hanford Site - the 100 F, 100 K, 200, 300, and 400 Areas. These data are presented in both graphical and tabular format, and are provided for total populations residing within 80 km (50 mi) of the reference points, as well as for Native American, Hispanic and Latino, total minority, and low-income populations

  10. Geoconservation and protected areas

    Brilha, J. B.

    2002-01-01

    Conservation will fail if nature conservation policies impose artificial boundaries on the natural world. The protected area manager’s main task is biodiversity preservation. Nevertheless, nature conservation requires a broad perspective. Incorporating geology into conservation policies at the same level as biology is urgent. The slow rate of many geological processes leads to the misconception that geological resources are inexhaustible and immutable. Geologists know that this is not true an...

  11. Local area networking handbook

    O'Hara, Patricia A.

    1990-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. This thesis provides Navy shore based commands with sufficient information on local area networking to (1) decide if they need a LAN, (2) determine what their networking requirements are, and (3) select a LAN that satisfies their requirements. LAN topologies, transmission media, and medium access methods are described. In addition, the OSI reference model for computer networking and the IEEE 802 LAN standards are explained in detail. ...

  12. Defense Technology Area Plan.

    1996-05-01

    Concepts for aircraft interior decon • Concepts for wide area/fixed site decon • Supercritical fluid-based decon for sensitive equipment; •Demo enzymatic ...and special purpose clothing; improved closure systems for ensembles; microencapsulated phase change materials for special purpose applications, and...development of microencapsulated phase change materials for heating and cooling in response to extreme temperature changes. Participants in this work are

  13. Frostbites in circumpolar areas

    Tiina Maria Ikäheimo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Circumpolar areas are associated with prolonged cold exposure where wind, precipitation, and darkness further aggravate the environmental conditions and the associated risks. Despite the climate warming, cold climatic conditions will prevail in circumpolar areas and contribute to adverse health effects. Frostbite is a freezing injury where localized damage affects the skin and other tissues. It occurs during occupational or leisure-time activities and is common in the general population among men and women of various ages. Industries of the circumpolar areas where frostbite occurs frequently include transportation, mining, oil, and gas industry, construction, agriculture, and military operations. Cold injuries may also occur during leisure-time activities involving substantial cold exposure, such as mountaineering, skiing, and snowmobiling. Accidental situations (occupational, leisure time often contribute to adverse cooling and cold injuries. Several environmental (temperature, wind, wetness, cold objects, and altitude and individual (behavior, health, and physiology predisposing factors are connected with frostbite injuries. Vulnerable populations include those having a chronic disease (cardiovascular, diabetes, and depression, children and the elderly, or homeless people. Frostbite results in sequelae causing different types of discomfort and functional limitations that may persist for years. A frostbite injury is preventable, and hence, unacceptable from a public health perspective. Appropriate cold risk management includes awareness of the adverse effects of cold, individual adjustment of cold exposure and clothing, or in occupational context different organizational and technical measures. In addition, vulnerable population groups need customized information and care for proper prevention of frostbites.

  14. All Conservation Opportunity Areas (ECO.RES.ALL_OP_AREAS)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The All_OP_Areas GIS layer are all the Conservation Opportunity Areas identified by MoRAP (produced for EPA Region 7). They designate areas with potential for...

  15. Large area bulk superconductors

    Miller, Dean J.; Field, Michael B.

    2002-01-01

    A bulk superconductor having a thickness of not less than about 100 microns is carried by a polycrystalline textured substrate having misorientation angles at the surface thereof not greater than about 15.degree.; the bulk superconductor may have a thickness of not less than about 100 microns and a surface area of not less than about 50 cm.sup.2. The textured substrate may have a thickness not less than about 10 microns and misorientation angles at the surface thereof not greater than about 15.degree.. Also disclosed is a process of manufacturing the bulk superconductor and the polycrystalline biaxially textured substrate material.

  16. Small Area Fair Market Rent

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Due to the increasing demand for more localized rents for a variety of purposes, HUD is making Small Area FMRs for all metropolitan areas available. Small Area FMRs...

  17. Wide area monitoring study

    Wogman, N.A.; Holdren, G.R. Jr.

    1999-01-01

    Environmental sampling can be used to complement the safeguarding of nuclear material, especially in the detection of undeclared nuclear activities. Routine monitoring of nuclear installations has provided valuable information about the fate of key signature materials within different environmental settings. The approach collates information regarding the generation of individual radiochemical signatures within different nuclear processes, the potential for release of these signatures to the environment and, the chemical form and mobility of the signatures in environmental media along which the material could migrate. Meteorological, geological and hydrological information is used to determine where to sample, what to sample, and how often to sample to provide the greatest likelihood for detection. Multiple strategies can be used to implement wide area monitoring for safeguards purposes. The most complex, and expensive of these, involves establishing extensive networks of fixed location sampling sites. The sites would be operated continuously, and would be instrumented with automated sampling, analysis, and communication equipment to relay information regarding potential anomalies to control centers in near-real time. Alternative strategies can be used to supplement fixed location monitoring equipment, especially in regions that cannot support (financially or logistically) the fixed stations. Through combinations of these various strategies, using a variety of environmental media to monitor a region, we believe that a competent network, one with a quantifiable probability for detecting undeclared nuclear activities, can be designed. While this approach cannot and should not replace other inspection and monitoring activities, it can potentially contribute valuable information to an international safeguards system. (author)

  18. MANAGEMENT IN RURAL AREAS

    Danimir Štros

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Croatia has been seeking to achive pre-war results in tourism since its independence. Rural tourism in Croatia based on family farma faces a number of problems legal foundations, the involement of local communities, inadequate entepreneur support etc. The political will for development exists, but there is lack of willingness and the ability to get things started, which results in the closure of family farma who cannot cope with the parallel job of agriculture and tourism. Arriving guests certainly want a new type of tourism: peace, clean environment, cultural intangible and tangible treasures, all without the noise and stress; and Croatia can definitely offer it, either in coastal or inland areas with traditional food and drinks. The destinations connection is not satisfactora. there is also an evident lack of legislation and regional spatial development plans for sustainable tourism which is a prerequisite for successful tourism. With these plans presumptins accepted, Croatian tourism would become distinctive and inland and coastal branches of tourism could complement each other so that the customer can spend his vacation both in the continental ant the maritime part of the country, getting to know our culture and enjoy the traditional cousine.

  19. Shielding in experimental areas

    Stevens, A.; Tarnopolsky, G.; Thorndike, A.; White, S.

    1979-01-01

    The amount of shielding necessary to protect experimental detectors from various sources of background radiation is discussed. As illustrated an experiment has line of sight to sources extending approx. 90 m upstream from the intersection point. Packing a significant fraction of this space with shielding blocks would in general be unacceptable because primary access to the ring tunnel is from the experimental halls. (1) From basic machine design considerations and the inherent necessity to protect superconducting magnets it is expected that experimental areas in general will be cleaner than at any existing accelerator. (2) Even so, it will likely be necessary to have some shielding blocks available to protect experimental apparatus, and it may well be necessary to have a large amount of shielding available in the WAH. (3) Scraping will likely have some influence on all halls, and retractable apparatus may sometimes be necessary. (4) If access to any tunnel is needed to replace a magnet, one has 96 h (4 days) available to move shielding away to permit access without additional downtime. This (the amount of shielding one can shuffle about in 96 h) is a reasonable upper limit to shielding necessary in a hall

  20. Reclamation of urban areas

    Roed, J.

    1986-02-01

    A literature study was conducted in order to compare the effectiveness and cost of different reclamation procedures that may be employed after an accident on a nuclear facility takes place in which radioactive material is released to the atmosphere. A substantial amount of work has been done on reclaming soil and snow-covered surfaces. Using scrapers or other soil-moving equipment decontamination factors are 10-100. (The decontamination factor is the ratio of the contamination before to that after the decontamination procedure). However, information on decontamination of paved areas by simple methods such as firehosing and vacuum sweeping are poorly documented. Therefore, only a very uncertain figure in the range 2-10 can be given for the decontamination factor here. It is recommended that a major effort be made in the future to investigate the efficiency of these simple methods, because of their relatively low cost. Also, more expensive methods for reducing the dose such as vacuuming, road planing and deep plowing are treated because of their feasibility under certain circumstances. Using these methods dose reduction factors in the 2-100 range can be obtained. Very expensive techniques, such as sandblasting, water cannon, flame spalling, etc. are justifiable usable only in special situations and are therefore considered very briefly here. The methods vary widely in cost. A simple method like vacuum sweeping costs $0.004 per square meter of surface; whereas one like road planing can reach $4 per square meter. A more sophisticated technique like flame spalling costs as much as $100 per square meter. (author)

  1. Water Service Areas - Public Water Supplier's (PWS) Service Areas

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — Boundaries of current public water supplier's (PWS) service areas. This data set contains the present service area boundary of the water system and does not contain...

  2. [Syntactic Processing in Broca's Area: Brodmann Areas 44 and 45].

    Yamada, Atora; Sakai, Kuniyoshi L

    2017-04-01

    Brodmann areas 44 and 45 are known as Broca's area; however, their true functional roles are still unknown. Recent developments in neuroimaging techniques revealed the structures and functions of Broca's area in detail. More specifically regarding language functions, sufficient evidence has been accumulated that this region subserves the center of syntactic processing, not necessarily motor functions. Here, we review a role of Broca's area as the grammar center, including other roles in nonlinguistic functions.

  3. Flow area optimization in point to area or area to point flows

    Ghodoossi, Lotfollah; Egrican, Niluefer

    2003-01-01

    This paper deals with the constructal theory of generation of shape and structure in flow systems connecting one point to a finite size area. The flow direction may be either from the point to the area or the area to the point. The formulation of the problem remains the same if the flow direction is reversed. Two models are used in optimization of the point to area or area to point flow problem: cost minimization and revenue maximization. The cost minimization model enables one to predict the shape of the optimized flow areas, but the geometric sizes of the flow areas are not predictable. That is, as an example, if the area of flow is a rectangle with a fixed area size, optimization of the point to area or area to point flow problem by using the cost minimization model will only predict the height/length ratio of the rectangle not the height and length itself. By using the revenue maximization model in optimization of the flow problems, all optimized geometric aspects of the interested flow areas will be derived as well. The aim of this paper is to optimize the point to area or area to point flow problems in various elemental flow area shapes and various structures of the flow system (various combinations of elemental flow areas) by using the revenue maximization model. The elemental flow area shapes used in this paper are either rectangular or triangular. The forms of the flow area structure, made up of an assembly of optimized elemental flow areas to obtain bigger flow areas, are rectangle-in-rectangle, rectangle-in-triangle, triangle-in-triangle and triangle-in-rectangle. The global maximum revenue, revenue collected per unit flow area and the shape and sizes of each flow area structure have been derived in optimized conditions. The results for each flow area structure have been compared with the results of the other structures to determine the structure that provides better performance. The conclusion is that the rectangle-in-triangle flow area structure

  4. Cholera in Azov area

    O. N. Domashenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of research is analysis of clinical course and treatment results of patients with cholera in the Azov area. Materials and methods. During the period from 29.05.2011 to 19.08.2011 33 cases of cholera (32 adults and 1 child and 25 vibrio carriers (22 adults and 3 children, which were caused by toxigenic strains of Vibrio cholera El Tor serogroup O1 Ogawa. Results. Likely factors of disease transmission in Mariupol are sea and river water, and the fish that were caught in the waters of the city. Typical and watery diarrhoea, vomiting, abdominal pain and lack of normal body temperature, dehydration syndrome, characterized clinical cholera for adults in most cases. The mean duration of diarrhoea was 6,6 days. At 46.9% observed atypical symptoms in 10 (31,3% – abdominal pain (1 patient cramping in 7 cases, localized in the epigastria region, at 2-over stomach. In 5 patients (15,6% had an increase in body temperature to 37,2–37,7 degrees Celsius. In 15 (46,9% patients had severe nausea accompanied by vomiting. Easy for cholera was observed in 1 (3.1%, moderate – in 14 (43,8%, heavy – in 17 (53,1% patients. Dehydration I level is set at 4 (12,5%, II – from 6 (18,7%, III – in 18 (56,3%, IV – 4 (12,5% patients. Cholera outbreak was characterized by a predominance of severe disease and severe dehydration (III and IV, which was observed in 68.8% of patients. The decisive factor in the treatment of cholera patients was initiated in a timely manner rehydration therapy, in particular the introduction of the solution «Trisol». Against the background of rehydration therapy hyperkalaemia was observed in 9,4% of cases, vascular rehydration at 9,4%, the cell rehydration in 3,1% of patients. Fatal accidents cholera outbreaks have not been observed. Conclusion. Clinical diagnosis of cholera and the provision of medical care in the prehospital phase were poor, indicating the need for systematic conducting training seminars among experts

  5. 5 CFR 591.207 - Which areas are COLA areas?

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Which areas are COLA areas? 591.207 Section 591.207 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ALLOWANCES AND DIFFERENTIALS Cost-of-Living Allowance and Post Differential-Nonforeign Areas Cost-Of-Living...

  6. Living in Prone Flooding Area: in Coastal Areas of Semarang

    Tyas, W. P.

    2018-02-01

    When settlements are not able to provide a comfort area to live in, in this case because of a periodic threat of tidal flood coming to certain settlement areas, it is likely that the people still cannot leave the area. This paper explores the leading factors of the attachment of people to the areas, from economic, physical, social and psychological factors, including a place attachment. Therefore, the approach of the problem solution to tackle the tidal flooding in the areas should be also concern and have considerations relate to the factors.

  7. Area monitoring intelligent system - SIMA

    Bhoem, P.; Hisas, F.; Gelardi, G.

    1990-01-01

    The area monitoring intelligent system (SIMA) is an equipment to be used in radioprotection. SIMA has the function of monitoring the radiation levels of determined areas of the installations where radioactive materials are handled. (Author) [es

  8. Catch-In-Areas Main

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Catch-In-Areas database integrates catch data from the Catch Accounting System (which has the spatial resolution of a NMFS Reporting Area) into a database that...

  9. World Area Forecast System (WAFS)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The World Area Forecast System (WAFS) is a worldwide system by which world area forecast centers provide aeronautical meteorological en-route forecasts in uniform...

  10. LIHTC Difficult to Develop Areas

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — A Difficult Development Area (DDA) for the Low Income Housing Tax Credit program is an area designated by the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD)...

  11. NORTH END ROADLESS AREA, ARIZONA.

    Drewes, Harald; Bigsby, P.R.

    1984-01-01

    Studies conducted in the North End Roadless Area, Arizona indicate probable or substantiated metallic mineral-resource potential in about one-fifth of the area. The area has potential for disseminated or stockwork-type molybdenum mineralization, copper-lead-zinc-silver veins, lead-zinc-silver limestone replacement deposits, and tungsten-bearing contact metamorphic skarn deposits. The area also contains cement rock and marble dimension stone, but has only slight promise for the occurrence of petroleum and natural gas.

  12. 50 CFR Appendix B to Part 622 - Gulf Areas

    2010-10-01

    ... north of Dry Tortugas 24°48.0′ 82°48.0′ 2North of Rebecca Shoal 25°07.5′ 82°34.0′ 3Off Sanibel Island...′ 26Northeast of Port Mansfield 27°00.0′ 96°39.0′ 27East of Port Mansfield 26°44.0′ 96°37.5′ 28Northeast of Port... Dry Tortugas 24°45.5′ 82°41.5′ 2North of Marquesas Keys 24°48.0′ 82°06.5′ 3Off Cape Sable 25°15.0′ 82...

  13. PIEDRA WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, COLORADO.

    Condon, Steven M.; Brown, S. Don

    1984-01-01

    The Pedra Wilderness Study Area, located approximately 30 mi northeast of Durango, Colorado, was evaluated for its mineral-resource potential. Geochemical and geophysical studies indicate little promise for the occurrence of mineral or energy resources in this area. This conclusion is supported by the findings of the earlier study and is suggested by the absence of significant mining activity in the area.

  14. Catchment areas for public transport

    Andersen, Jonas Lohmann Elkjær; Landex, Alex

    2008-01-01

    In the planning of public transport catchment areas of stops are often included to estimate potential number of travellers. There are different approaches to GIS-based catchment area analyses depending on the desired level of detail. The Circular Buffer approach is the fundamental, but also....../from stations. The article also shows how the refinement of the Service Area approach with additional time resistance results in smaller catchment areas when the feeder routes cross stairs. It is concluded that GIS-based catchment area analyses are a multiple decision support tool for planning of public...... transport where the level of detail can be suited to the purpose....

  15. MPLS for metropolitan area networks

    Tan, Nam-Kee

    2004-01-01

    METROPOLITAN AREA NETWORKS AND MPLSRequirements of Metropolitan Area Network ServicesMetropolitan Area Network OverviewThe Bandwidth DemandThe Metro Service Provider's Business ApproachesThe Emerging Metro Customer Expectations and NeedsSome Prevailing Metro Service OpportunitiesService Aspects and RequirementsRoles of MPLS in Metropolitan Area NetworksMPLS PrimerMPLS ApplicationsTRAFFIC ENGINEERING ASPECTS OF METROPOLITAN AREA NETWORKSTraffic Engineering ConceptsNetwork CongestionHyper Aggregation ProblemEasing CongestionNetwork ControlTactical versus Strategic Traffic EngineeringIP/ATM Overl

  16. Dual Orlicz geominimal surface area

    Tongyi Ma

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The L p $L_{p}$ -geominimal surface area was introduced by Lutwak in 1996, which extended the important concept of the geominimal surface area. Recently, Wang and Qi defined the p-dual geominimal surface area, which belongs to the dual Brunn-Minkowski theory. In this paper, based on the concept of the dual Orlicz mixed volume, we extend the dual geominimal surface area to the Orlicz version and give its properties. In addition, the isoperimetric inequality, a Blaschke-Santaló type inequality, and the monotonicity inequality for the dual Orlicz geominimal surface areas are established.

  17. Fire Hazards Analysis for the 200 Area Interim Storage Area

    JOHNSON, D.M.

    2000-01-01

    This documents the Fire Hazards Analysis (FHA) for the 200 Area Interim Storage Area. The Interim Storage Cask, Rad-Vault, and NAC-1 Cask are analyzed for fire hazards and the 200 Area Interim Storage Area is assessed according to HNF-PRO-350 and the objectives of DOE Order 5480 7A. This FHA addresses the potential fire hazards associated with the Interim Storage Area (ISA) facility in accordance with the requirements of DOE Order 5480 7A. It is intended to assess the risk from fire to ensure there are no undue fire hazards to site personnel and the public and to ensure property damage potential from fire is within acceptable limits. This FHA will be in the form of a graded approach commensurate with the complexity of the structure or area and the associated fire hazards

  18. Protected area gap analysis of important bird areas in Tanzania

    Sritharan, Shakthi; Burgess, Neil David

    2012-01-01

    Analyses of gaps in protected area (PA) coverage of species distributions have been carried out extensively for the past two decades, aiming to better locate new PAs and conserve species. In this study, progress to close gaps in the protection of the Important Bird Areas (IBAs) of Tanzania...

  19. Planning approaches for rurban areas

    Busck, Anne Gravsholt; Hidding, Marjan; Kristensen, Søren Bech Pilgaard

    2009-01-01

    ), Staffanstorp municipality (Sweden) and Werv-area (the Netherlands). All three areas belong to the rurban zone and are selected to exemplify pro-active planning. The analysis focuses on how the concept of compact city is perceived and implemented, how rurban areas are managed in order to avoid further urban...... encroachment, and how resilient green landscapes are ensured. The results reveal significant differences in approaches, reflecting variations in the public involvement in rurban areas development, the role of different administrative levels and the use of zonation. Variation in the use of zonation encapsulates...

  20. BENTON RANGE ROADLESS AREA, CALIFORNIA.

    McKee, Edwin H.; Rains, Richard L.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of a mineral survey, two parts of the Benton Range Roadless Area, California are considered to have mineral-resource potential. The central and southern part of the roadless area, near several nonoperating mines, has a probable potential for tungsten and gold-silver mineralization in tactite zones. The central part of the area has a substantiated resource potential for gold and silver in quartz veins. Detailed mapping and geochemical sampling for tungsten, gold, and silver in the central and southern part of the roadless area might indicate targets for shallow drilling exploration.

  1. Small Engine & Accessory Test Area

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Small Engine and Accessories Test Area (SEATA) facilitates testaircraft starting and auxiliary power systems, small engines and accessories. The SEATA consists...

  2. Runoff estimation in residencial area

    Meire Regina de Almeida Siqueira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to estimate the watershed runoff caused by extreme events that often result in the flooding of urban areas. The runoff of a residential area in the city of Guaratinguetá, São Paulo, Brazil was estimated using the Curve-Number method proposed by USDA-NRCS. The study also investigated current land use and land cover conditions, impermeable areas with pasture and indications of the reforestation of those areas. Maps and satellite images of Residential Riverside I Neighborhood were used to characterize the area. In addition to characterizing land use and land cover, the definition of the soil type infiltration capacity, the maximum local rainfall, and the type and quality of the drainage system were also investigated. The study showed that this neighborhood, developed in 1974, has an area of 792,700 m², a population of 1361 inhabitants, and a sloping area covered with degraded pasture (Guaratinguetá-Piagui Peak located in front of the residential area. The residential area is located in a flat area near the Paraiba do Sul River, and has a poor drainage system with concrete pipes, mostly 0.60 m in diameter, with several openings that capture water and sediments from the adjacent sloping area. The Low Impact Development (LID system appears to be a viable solution for this neighborhood drainage system. It can be concluded that the drainage system of the Guaratinguetá Riverside I Neighborhood has all of the conditions and characteristics that make it suitable for the implementation of a low impact urban drainage system. Reforestation of Guaratinguetá-Piagui Peak can reduce the basin’s runoff by 50% and minimize flooding problems in the Beira Rio neighborhood.

  3. Tech Area II: A history

    Ullrich, R. [Ktech Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1998-07-01

    This report documents the history of the major buildings in Sandia National Laboratories` Technical Area II. It was prepared in support of the Department of Energy`s compliance with Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act. Technical Area II was designed and constructed in 1948 specifically for the final assembly of the non-nuclear components of nuclear weapons, and was the primary site conducting such assembly until 1952. Both the architecture and location of the oldest buildings in the area reflect their original purpose. Assembly activities continued in Area II from 1952 to 1957, but the major responsibility for this work shifted to other sites in the Atomic Energy Commission`s integrated contractor complex. Gradually, additional buildings were constructed and the original buildings were modified. After 1960, the Area`s primary purpose was the research and testing of high-explosive components for nuclear weapons. In 1994, Sandia constructed new facilities for work on high-explosive components outside of the original Area II diamond-shaped parcel. Most of the buildings in the area are vacant and Sandia has no plans to use them. They are proposed for decontamination and demolition as funding becomes available.

  4. The Histogram-Area Connection

    Gratzer, William; Carpenter, James E.

    2008-01-01

    This article demonstrates an alternative approach to the construction of histograms--one based on the notion of using area to represent relative density in intervals of unequal length. The resulting histograms illustrate the connection between the area of the rectangles associated with particular outcomes and the relative frequency (probability)…

  5. USE OF THE PICNIC AREA

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2001-01-01

    On the Prévessin site CERN has provided a picnic area which is available for use by persons working on its site subject to prior reservation. The person in charge of this picnic area is Mr Yves CHEVRET ST/TFM. Following a fresh outbreak of incidents (damage to CERN equipment and to trees and plants, privately owned sheep killed or maimed by dogs belonging to users of the picnic area, etc.),   The following measures have been taken: a report on the state of the picnic area will be drawn up before and after use, the cost of any damage noted will be borne by the person making the reservation, dogs and other domestic animals are strictly forbidden in the picnic area.

  6. Water Service Areas - MDC_WaterServiceArea

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — The Water and Sewer Service Area layer was derived from the original paper based sketches which contained both water and sewer utility boundary information. This...

  7. Sewerage Service Areas - MDC_SewerServiceArea

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — The Water and Sewer Service Area layer was derived from the original paper based sketches which contained both water and sewer utility boundary information. This...

  8.   Transformation of the industrial harbor areas to housing areas

    Rehder, Meike

    2009-01-01

    Research question: How to read the universal (understood as the common and the social) and the individual (understood as the specific, private and intimate) in the meeting between urban and housing space? Questions in the project: How do the exterior spaces in these new harbour areas come to being......? What influences are at play in the development of them? What influences the approval and the functioning of these housing areas?...

  9. Selection of material balance areas and item control areas

    1975-04-01

    Section 70.58, ''Fundamental Nuclear Material Controls,'' of 10 CFR Part 70, ''Special Nuclear Material,'' requires certain licensees authorized to possess more than one effective kilogram of special nuclear material to establish Material Balance Areas (MBAs) or Item Control Areas (ICAs) for the physical and administrative control of nuclear materials. This section requires that: (1) each MBA be an identifiable physical area such that the quantity of nuclear material being moved into or out of the MBA is represented by a measured value; (2) the number of MBAs be sufficient to localize nuclear material losses or thefts and identify the mechanisms; (3) the custody of all nuclear material within an MBA or ICA be the responsibility of a single designated individual; and (4) ICAs be established according to the same criteria as MBAs except that control into and out of such areas would be by item identity and count for previously determined special nuclear material quantities, the validity of which must be ensured by tamper-safing unless the items are sealed sources. This guide describes bases acceptable to the NRC staff for the selection of material balance areas and item control areas. (U.S.)

  10. 76 FR 17811 - Western Pacific Pelagic Fisheries; Prohibiting Purse Seine Fishing in the U.S. EEZ Around Guam...

    2011-03-31

    ... fishing, such as fuel, food, crew time, and ice, while also increasing safety risks for small vessels that...' 164[deg]40' French Frigate Shoals 23[deg]45' 166[deg]15' Gardner Pinnacles 25[deg]00' 168[deg]00' Maro... semicircles of the 50-nm areas that lie between Nihoa Island and Necker Island, French Frigate Shoals and...

  11. Hanford 200 Areas Development Plan

    Rinne, C.A.; Daly, K.S.

    1993-08-01

    The purpose of the Hanford 200 Areas Development Plan (Development Plan) is to guide the physical development of the 200 Areas (which refers to the 200 East Area, 200 West Area, and 200 Area Corridor, located between the 200 East and 200 West Areas) in accordance with US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 4320.lB (DOE 1991a) by performing the following: Establishing a land-use plan and setting land-use categories that meet the needs of existing and proposed activities. Coordinating existing, 5-year, and long-range development plans and guiding growth in accordance with those plans. Establishing development guidelines to encourage cost-effective development and minimize conflicts between adjacent activities. Identifying site development issues that need further analysis. Integrating program plans with development plans to ensure a logical progression of development. Coordinate DOE plans with other agencies [(i.e., Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) and US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)]. Being a support document to the Hanford Site Development Plan (DOE-RL 1990a) (parent document) and providing technical site information relative to the 200 Areas.

  12. Hanford 200 Areas Development Plan

    Rinne, C.A.; Daly, K.S.

    1993-08-01

    The purpose of the Hanford 200 Areas Development Plan (Development Plan) is to guide the physical development of the 200 Areas (which refers to the 200 East Area, 200 West Area, and 200 Area Corridor, located between the 200 East and 200 West Areas) in accordance with US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 4320.lB (DOE 1991a) by performing the following: Establishing a land-use plan and setting land-use categories that meet the needs of existing and proposed activities. Coordinating existing, 5-year, and long-range development plans and guiding growth in accordance with those plans. Establishing development guidelines to encourage cost-effective development and minimize conflicts between adjacent activities. Identifying site development issues that need further analysis. Integrating program plans with development plans to ensure a logical progression of development. Coordinate DOE plans with other agencies [(i.e., Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) and US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)]. Being a support document to the Hanford Site Development Plan (DOE-RL 1990a) (parent document) and providing technical site information relative to the 200 Areas

  13. Greenhouse gas emissions related to landscape elements in the subarctic environment at Churchill, Manitoba

    Churchill, J.; Tenuta, M.; Bello, R.; Papakyriakou, T.

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, landscape elements and major environmental regulators was studied. The hydrologic regimes of the Hudson Bay Lowlands are expected to change along with the extent of permafrost and composition of vegetation due to increased levels of GHGs associated with global warming. Two transects were created at a Polygonized-Peat Plateau (PPP) and a Spruce Forest (SF) site in 2005. A sub-set on 4 dominant landscape elements of each transect were used to estimate emissions of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), methane (CH 4 ), and nitric oxide (N 2 O) on a weekly basis from June to August. In order to obtain a good sampling representation of environmental conditions and of the gradients in plant communities, the entire transect at PPP was sampled monthly. In order to examine the role of soil conditions on the production and consumption of GHG leading to surface fluxes, soil gas samplers were installed at 2 depths at both sites. N 2 O production and consumption were found to be inconsequential at both sites. However, high methane emissions were observed when the volumetric moisture content (VMC) rose higher than 80 per cent at the edge of the ponds. Methane consumption was found to be related to low VMC values (20-40 per cent) for the tops of peat polygons. Soil atmosphere concentrations for CO 2 and CH 4 at PPP were typically much higher at depths of 23-32 cm compared to depths of 5-9 cm. Some of the wettest landscape elements had very high CH 4 content, but had no corresponding CH 4 flux from the soil surface, suggesting that the gas was consumed under aerobic conditions at the soil surface. It was concluded that GHG emissions from both sites were altered by both landscape elements and environmental regulators such as temperature and moisture. Future work will focus on identifying the association of these relationships to processes responsible for GHG emissions in subarctic environments. The impact of global warming on these emissions will also be examined

  14. Jón Þ. Þór: Winston S. Churchill ævisaga

    Pétur Berg Matthíasson

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Í umsögn gagnrýnenda kemur meðal annars eftirfarandi fram: Það felast mörg tækifæri í svona bókum og maður getur séð fyrir sér heilan bókaflokk í þessum stíl. Það er hins vegar ljóst að þekking höfundar og ástríða á viðfangsefninu skilar bók sem allir ættu að lesa sem einhvern áhuga hafa á sögu og stjórnmálum.

  15. "My Grandfather Slammed the Door in Winston Churchill's Face!" Using Family History to Provoke Rigorous Enquiry

    Barrett, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The idea of using "little stories" to illuminate the "big pictures" of the past was creatively explored in "Teaching History 107," which offered teachers a wealth of detailed vignettes with which to kindle young people's interest and illuminate major historical events. Paul Barrett builds on the ideas explored in that…

  16. Winston Spencer Churchill. Sus Enfermedades y la Medicina de su Época.

    Ricardo Rueda González

    2008-03-01

    El robusto y rosagante niño Winston fue bautizado en solemne ceremonia el 27 de diciembre de 1874 en la Capilla del Palacio de Blenheim, por el capellán de los duques, el Reverendo Henry Williams Lule y de inmediato fue entregado a la niñera Mrs. Elizabeth Anne Everest, quien se constituyó en su segunda mamá. Everest era una mujer inteligente y bondadosa que supo manejar con profundo cariño y habilidad a Winston hasta su edad adulta. Falleció de una peritonitis a los 68 años, en 1895 cuando su niño consentido contaba apenas con 21 años.

  17. Learning To Lead: How Winston Churchill And George Marshall Harvested Their WWI Experience

    2014-04-01

    Borton’s developmental model. Rolfe and Borton references are provided in Bibliography. 4 Kolb , and Kolb . “ Experiential Learning Theory ,” 39. 5...electronically at http://www2.glos.ac.uk/ gdn/gibbs/index.htm Kolb , Alice Y. and David A. Kolb . “ Experiential Learning Theory : A Dynamic, Holistic...1 EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING THEORY ………………………………………………………..2 THE POWER OF SIX—WINSTON

  18. Towards a comprehensive barcode library for arctic life - Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera of Churchill, Manitoba, Canada

    2009-01-01

    Background This study reports progress in assembling a DNA barcode reference library for Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera ("EPTs") from a Canadian subarctic site, which is the focus of a comprehensive biodiversity inventory using DNA barcoding. These three groups of aquatic insects exhibit a moderate level of species diversity, making them ideal for testing the feasibility of DNA barcoding for routine biotic surveys. We explore the correlation between the morphological species delineations, DNA barcode-based haplotype clusters delimited by a sequence threshold (2%), and a threshold-free approach to biodiversity quantification--phylogenetic diversity. Results A DNA barcode reference library is built for 112 EPT species for the focal region, consisting of 2277 COI sequences. Close correspondence was found between EPT morphospecies and haplotype clusters as designated using a standard threshold value. Similarly, the shapes of taxon accumulation curves based upon haplotype clusters were very similar to those generated using phylogenetic diversity accumulation curves, but were much more computationally efficient. Conclusion The results of this study will facilitate other lines of research on northern EPTs and also bode well for rapidly conducting initial biodiversity assessments in unknown EPT faunas. PMID:20003245

  19. ‘She Breast Feeds in the Boardroom’ (Churchill 1982, p. 80 Working Mothers Onstage

    Helen Grime

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Actresses are some of the most visible working women. Throughout their history, many actresses have navigated the demands of both a professional career and motherhood. For some, these two roles have been mutually exclusive whereas others have found ways to become working mothers. As part of an unpredictable profession with antisocial hours, a mother employed in the acting profession knows much about the search for the idyllic notion of work/life balance. However, despite this long history of the working mother/actress in the off-stage arena, the opportunity for the actress to inhabit a similar role in her working life onstage is only too rare. In fact, the absence of the stage archetype of the salaried working mother is startling. This article surveys examples of stage representations of working motherhood, considering historical examples including Nora from A Doll’s House, Mrs Warren and Mother Courage. The main focus is on more recent representations of the working mother and debates around C21st motherhood in such plays as Lucinda Coxon’s Happy Now (2008, Amelia Bullmore’s Mammals (2007 and Gina Gionfriddo’s Rapture, Blister, Burn (2014. The aim is to gain a fuller understanding of shifting attitudes towards, and debates around, the figure of the working mother. A figure who, despite her elusive presence onstage, is increasingly prevalent in the profession who embodies her, the audience who consumes her, and the wider socio-political context.

  20. ‘She Breast Feeds in the Boardroom’ (Churchill 1982, p. 80) Working Mothers Onstage

    Helen Grime

    2016-01-01

    Actresses are some of the most visible working women. Throughout their history, many actresses have navigated the demands of both a professional career and motherhood. For some, these two roles have been mutually exclusive whereas others have found ways to become working mothers. As part of an unpredictable profession with antisocial hours, a mother employed in the acting profession knows much about the search for the idyllic notion of work/life balance. However, despite this long history of ...

  1. Android Based Area Web Monitoring

    Kanigoro, Bayu; Galih Salman, Afan; Moniaga, Jurike V.; Chandra, Eric; Rezky Chandra, Zein

    2014-03-01

    The research objective is to develop an application that can be used in the monitoring of an area by using a webcam. It aims to create a sense of security on the user's application because it can monitor an area using mobile phone anywhere. The results obtained in this study is to create an area with a webcam monitoring application that can be accessed anywhere as long as the monitoring results have internet access and can also be accessed through Android Based Mobile Phone.

  2. Android Based Area Web Monitoring

    Kanigoro Bayu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The research objective is to develop an application that can be used in the monitoring of an area by using a webcam. It aims to create a sense of security on the user's application because it can monitor an area using mobile phone anywhere. The results obtained in this study is to create an area with a webcam monitoring application that can be accessed anywhere as long as the monitoring results have internet access and can also be accessed through Android Based Mobile Phone.

  3. AN EXAMPLE IN SURFACE AREA*

    Goffman, Casper

    1969-01-01

    For length and area, a central fact is that the value of the length of a curve or the area of a surface, as given by the Lebesgue theory, is at least as great as that given by the classical formula, whenever the latter has meaning. This is now found not to be valid in higher dimensions. We give an example of a continuous mapping of the unit cube into itself for which the value given by the formula exceeds the three-dimensional Lebesgue area of the corresponding suface. PMID:16591750

  4. Revitalization Areas By Block Group

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Single Family Revitalization areas are HUD-designated neighborhoods in need of economic and community development and where there is already a strong commitment by...

  5. Flood Hazard Areas - High Risk

    Department of Homeland Security — The S_Fld_Haz_Ar table contains information about the flood hazards within the study area. A spatial file with locational information also corresponds with this data...

  6. Allegheny County Soil Type Areas

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains soil type and soil classification, by area. Additional info at: http://mcdc.cas.psu.edu/datawiz.htm;...

  7. Technical standards in nuclear area

    Grimberg, M.

    1978-01-01

    The technical standardization in nuclear area is discussed. Also, the competence of CNEN in standardization pursuit is analysed. Moreover, the process of working up of technical standards is explained; in addition, some kinds of technical standards are discussed. (author) [pt

  8. FEMA DFIRM Flood Hazard Areas

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — FEMA flood hazard delineations are used by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) to designate the Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA) and for insurance rating...

  9. Local Area Networks (The Printout).

    Aron, Helen; Balajthy, Ernest

    1989-01-01

    Describes the Local Area Network (LAN), a project in which students used LAN-based word processing and electronic mail software as the center of a writing process approach. Discusses the advantages and disadvantages of networking. (MM)

  10. Allegheny County Land Cover Areas

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Land Cover dataset demarcates 14 land cover types by area; such as Residential, Commercial, Industrial, Forest, Agriculture, etc. If viewing this description on...

  11. Biodiversity mapping in sensitive areas

    Jensen, Tor; Ulssnes, Amund; Nissen-Lie, Torild [DNV, Oslo (Norway)

    2008-07-01

    When oil companies are entering new unexplored areas their potential footprint on the environment should be measured in a way that necessary action could be included in the planning of the activity. These actions should reduce the impact to accepted levels. Traditional baseline studies, including sediment and macro fauna sampling, are carried out in homogeneous areas. In heterogeneous and unexplored areas there is a need for more information than these traditional sediment analyses can give. To increase the knowledge from specific areas biodiversity mapping has been carried out. To combine the knowledge from ROV surveys, modelling, current measurements, sediment characteristics, seismic, macro fauna and background levels of chemicals contents in the sediments, both prior to the exploration, and after the drilling have taken place the operator can document their footprint on the marine environment. (author)

  12. Allegheny County Land Use Areas

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Allegheny County land use as ascribed to areas of land. The Land Use Feature Dataset contains photogrammetrically compiled information concerning vegetation and...

  13. Ozone Nonattainment Areas - 1 Hour

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer identifies areas in the U.S. where air pollution levels have not met the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for Ozone - 1hour (Legacy...

  14. Allegheny County Environmental Justice Areas

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Environmental Justice areas in this guide have been defined by the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection. The Department defines an environmental...

  15. Allegheny County Wooded Area Boundaries

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset demarcates stands of trees (coniferous and deciduous) too numerous to plot as individual trees. The area is delineated following a generalized line...

  16. Upper limit of peak area

    Helene, O.A.M.

    1982-08-01

    The determination of the upper limit of peak area in a multi-channel spectra, with a known significance level is discussed. This problem is specially important when the peak area is masked by the background statistical fluctuations. The problem is exactly solved and, thus, the results are valid in experiments with small number of events. The results are submitted to a Monte Carlo test and applied to the 92 Nb beta decay. (Author) [pt

  17. SPANISH PEAKS PRIMITIVE AREA, MONTANA.

    Calkins, James A.; Pattee, Eldon C.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Spanish Peaks Primitive Area, Montana, disclosed a small low-grade deposit of demonstrated chromite and asbestos resources. The chances for discovery of additional chrome resources are uncertain and the area has little promise for the occurrence of other mineral or energy resources. A reevaluation, sampling at depth, and testing for possible extensions of the Table Mountain asbestos and chromium deposit should be undertaken in the light of recent interpretations regarding its geologic setting.

  18. The planktonic communities of the Jamaican south-east coast; a comparison of harbor, shelf and oceanic areas

    Hugh Small

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have compared water quality and plankton along the eutrophication gradient from Kingston Harbour to oceanic waters around Jamaica. To compare the planktonic community along the expected nutrient gradient, we sampled every two weeks at four stations, from eutrophic Kingston Harbour to oceanic California Bank. Phytoplankton was assessed from whole water Niskin bottle casts and zooplankton by vertical hauls with plankton nets of three different mesh sizes: 64µm, 200µm, and 600µm. Total phytoplankton biomass declined sharply away from the harbour (1.0 μg L-1 at the Harbour Shoal Beacon to 0.2 μg L-1 at California Bank. Characteristic estuarine phytoplankton genera -such as Ceratium, Gonyaulax, Gyrodinium and Rhizosolenia- dominated harbour samples while genera characteristic of offshore locations -such as Asterionelliopsis, Navicula, Nitzschia, Rhizosolenia and Thalassionema- dominated California Bank. Highest phytoplankton densities (mean values of 34 174 cells L-1 were found at the harbor mouth. Mean zooplankton abundances ranged from maximum (5 858.5m-3 at Beacon to minimum (2 124.2 m-3 at California; 171 species of zooplankton were identified and copepods dominated with 76 species. Overall, 75 species of zooplankton were identified from Beacon, 107 from Port Royal Cays- South East Cay, 110 from the exposed shelf edge- Windward Edge, and 95 from the oceanic California Bank. Larval forms dominated; copepod nauplii, fish eggs and echinoderm larvae occurred at all sites. Lucifer faxoni and Penilia avirostris were indicative of harbor waters and Microsetella sp. and Farranula carinata of offshore waters. Some zooplankton taxa, like L. faxoni, Paracalanus parvus and copepod nauplii, despite showing gradual decline with distance from Beacon to the Edge, increased in abundance at the furthest station, California. California Bank clearly experiences enrichment which at times can be as high as near-shore areas, but the planktonic

  19. Sprawl in European urban areas

    Prastacos, Poulicos; Lagarias, Apostolos

    2016-08-01

    In this paper the 2006 edition of the Urban Atlas database is used to tabulate areas of low development density, usually referred to as "sprawl", for many European cities. The Urban Atlas database contains information on the land use distribution in the 305 largest European cities. Twenty different land use types are recognized, with six of them representing urban fabric. Urban fabric classes are residential areas differentiated by the density of development, which is measured by the sealing degree parameter that ranges from 0% to 100% (non-developed, fully developed). Analysis is performed on the distribution of the middle to low density areas defined as those with sealing degree less than 50%. Seven different country groups in which urban areas have similar sprawl characteristics are identified and some key characteristics of sprawl are discussed. Population of an urban area is another parameter considered in the analysis. Two spatial metrics, average patch size and mean distance to the nearest neighboring patch of the same class, are used to describe proximity/separation characteristics of sprawl in the urban areas of the seven groups.

  20. Arcjet nozzle area ratio effects

    Curran, Francis M.; Sarmiento, Charles J.; Birkner, Bjorn W.; Kwasny, James

    1990-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to determine the effect of nozzle area ratio on the operating characteristics and performance of a low power dc arcjet thruster. Conical thoriated tungsten nozzle inserts were tested in a modular laboratory arcjet thruster run on hydrogen/nitrogen mixtures simulating the decomposition products of hydrazine. The converging and diverging sides of the inserts had half angles of 30 and 20 degrees, respectively, similar to a flight type unit currently under development. The length of the diverging side was varied to change the area ratio. The nozzle inserts were run over a wide range of specific power. Current, voltage, mass flow rate, and thrust were monitored to provide accurate comparisons between tests. While small differences in performance were observed between the two nozzle inserts, it was determined that for each nozzle insert, arcjet performance improved with increasing nozzle area ratio to the highest area ratio tested and that the losses become very pronounced for area ratios below 50. These trends are somewhat different than those obtained in previous experimental and analytical studies of low Re number nozzles. It appears that arcjet performance can be enhanced via area ratio optimization.

  1. Arcjet Nozzle Area Ratio Effects

    Curran, Francis M.; Sarmiento, Charles J.; Birkner, Bjorn W.; Kwasny, James

    1990-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to determine the effect of nozzle area ratio on the operating characteristics and performance of a low power dc arcjet thruster. Conical thoriated tungsten nozzle inserts were tested in a modular laboratory arcjet thruster run on hydrogen/nitrogen mixtures simulating the decomposition products of hydrazine. The converging and diverging sides of the inserts had half angles of 30 and 20 degrees, respectively, similar to a flight type unit currently under development. The length of the diverging side was varied to change the area ratio. The nozzle inserts were run over a wide range of specific power. Current, voltage, mass flow rate, and thrust were monitored to provide accurate comparisons between tests. While small differences in performance were observed between the two nozzle inserts, it was determined that for each nozzle insert, arcjet performance improved with increasing nozzle area ratio to the highest area ratio tested and that the losses become very pronounced for area ratios below 50. These trends are somewhat different than those obtained in previous experimental and analytical studies of low Re number nozzles. It appears that arcjet performance can be enhanced via area ratio optimization.

  2. Area-to-Area Poisson Kriging and Spatial Bayesian Analysis

    Asmarian, Naeimehossadat; Jafari-Koshki, Tohid; Soleimani, Ali; Taghi Ayatollahi, Seyyed Mohammad

    2016-10-01

    Background: In many countries gastric cancer has the highest incidence among the gastrointestinal cancers and is the second most common cancer in Iran. The aim of this study was to identify and map high risk gastric cancer regions at the county-level in Iran. Methods: In this study we analyzed gastric cancer data for Iran in the years 2003-2010. Areato- area Poisson kriging and Besag, York and Mollie (BYM) spatial models were applied to smoothing the standardized incidence ratios of gastric cancer for the 373 counties surveyed in this study. The two methods were compared in term of accuracy and precision in identifying high risk regions. Result: The highest smoothed standardized incidence rate (SIR) according to area-to-area Poisson kriging was in Meshkinshahr county in Ardabil province in north-western Iran (2.4,SD=0.05), while the highest smoothed standardized incidence rate (SIR) according to the BYM model was in Ardabil, the capital of that province (2.9,SD=0.09). Conclusion: Both methods of mapping, ATA Poisson kriging and BYM, showed the gastric cancer incidence rate to be highest in north and north-west Iran. However, area-to-area Poisson kriging was more precise than the BYM model and required less smoothing. According to the results obtained, preventive measures and treatment programs should be focused on particular counties of Iran. Creative Commons Attribution License

  3. Sapwood area - leaf area relationships for coast redwood

    Stancioiu, P T; O'Hara, K L

    2005-01-01

    Coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens (D. Don) Endl.) trees in different canopy strata and crown positions were sampled to develop relationships between sapwood cross-sectional area and projected leaf area. Sampling occurred during the summers of 2000 and 2001 and covered tree heights ranging from 7.7 to 45.2 m and diameters at breast height ranging from 9.4 to 92.7 cm. Foliage morphology varied greatly and was stratified into five types based on needle type (sun or shade) and twig color. A str...

  4. Notes on the area theorem

    Park, Mu-In

    2008-01-01

    Hawking's area theorem can be understood from a quasi-stationary process in which a black hole accretes positive energy matter, independent of the details of the gravity action. I use this process to study the dynamics of the inner as well as the outer horizons for various black holes which include the recently discovered exotic black holes and three-dimensional black holes in higher derivative gravities as well as the usual BTZ black hole and the Kerr black hole in four dimensions. I find that the area for the inner horizon 'can decrease', rather than increase, with the quasi-stationary process. However, I find that the area for the outer horizon 'never decreases' such that the usual area theorem still works in our examples, though this is quite non-trivial in general. There exists an instability problem of the inner horizons but it seems that the instability is not important in my analysis. I also find a generalized area theorem by combining those of the outer and inner horizons

  5. Heat Pumps in Subarctic Areas

    Atlason, Reynir Smari; Oddsson, Gudmundur Valur; Unnthorsson, Runar

    2017-01-01

    Geothermal heat pumps use the temperature difference between inside and outside areas to modify a refrigerant, either for heating or cooling. Doing so can lower the need for external heating energy for a household to some extent. The eventual impact depends on various factors, such as the external...... source for heating or cooling and the temperature difference. The use of geothermal heat pumps, and eventual benefits has not been studied in the context of frigid areas, such as in Iceland. In Iceland, only remote areas do not have access to district heating from geothermal energy where households may...... therefor benefit from using geothermal heat pumps. It is the intent of this study to explore the observed benefits of using geothermal heat pumps in Iceland, both financially and energetically. This study further elaborates on incentives provided by the Icelandic government. Real data was gathered from...

  6. Multifunctional centers in rural areas

    Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase

    2009-01-01

    abandoned. One outcome has been closings of schools in remote rural areas. This evidently contributes to exacerbate depopulation in these areas. To stop this tendency, we need new models for high-quality, cost effective public services in rural areas as those as we find in Denmark. This chapter introduces...... ideological roots in history pointing at 19th c. national civic movements and an early 20th c. transnational Garden City movement within urban planning as crucial. Drawing on contemporary case studies of multifunctional centers in Holland and Denmark, I then suggest that public and private donors should...... invest in multifunctional centers in which the local public school is the dynamo. This in order to increase local levels of social as well as human capital. Ideally, such centers should contain both public services such as school, library and health care, private enterprises as hairdressers and banks...

  7. 100 Areas CERCLA ecological investigations

    Landeen, D.S.; Sackschewsky, M.R.; Weiss, S.

    1993-09-01

    This document reports the results of the field terrestrial ecological investigations conducted by Westinghouse Hanford Company during fiscal years 1991 and 1992 at operable units 100-FR-3, 100-HR-3, 100-NR-2, 100-KR-4, and 100-BC-5. The tasks reported here are part of the Remedial Investigations conducted in support of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 studies for the 100 Areas. These ecological investigations provide (1) a description of the flora and fauna associated with the 100 Areas operable units, emphasizing potential pathways for contaminants and species that have been given special status under existing state and/or federal laws, and (2) an evaluation of existing concentrations of heavy metals and radionuclides in biota associated with the 100 Areas operable units.

  8. 100 Areas CERCLA ecological investigations

    Landeen, D.S.; Sackschewsky, M.R.; Weiss, S.

    1993-09-01

    This document reports the results of the field terrestrial ecological investigations conducted by Westinghouse Hanford Company during fiscal years 1991 and 1992 at operable units 100-FR-3, 100-HR-3, 100-NR-2, 100-KR-4, and 100-BC-5. The tasks reported here are part of the Remedial Investigations conducted in support of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 studies for the 100 Areas. These ecological investigations provide (1) a description of the flora and fauna associated with the 100 Areas operable units, emphasizing potential pathways for contaminants and species that have been given special status under existing state and/or federal laws, and (2) an evaluation of existing concentrations of heavy metals and radionuclides in biota associated with the 100 Areas operable units

  9. Plutonium focus area: Technology summary

    1996-03-01

    To ensure research and development programs focus on the most pressing environmental restoration and waste management problems at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Assistant Secretary for the Office of Environmental Management (EM) established a working group in August 1993 to implement a new approach to research and technology development. As part of this approach, EM developed a management structure and principles that led to creation of specific focus areas. These organizations were designed to focus scientific and technical talent throughout DOE and the national scientific community on major environmental restoration and waste management problems facing DOE. The focus area approach provides the framework for inter-site cooperation and leveraging of resources on common problems. After the original establishment of five major focus areas within the Office of Technology Development (EM-50), the Nuclear Materials Stabilization Task Group (NMSTG, EM-66) followed EM-50's structure and chartered the Plutonium Focus Area (PFA). NMSTG's charter to the PFA, described in detail later in this book, plays a major role in meeting the EM-66 commitments to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB). The PFA is a new program for FY96 and as such, the primary focus of revision 0 of this Technology Summary is an introduction to the Focus Area; its history, development, and management structure, including summaries of selected technologies being developed. Revision 1 to the Plutonium Focus Area Technology Summary is slated to include details on all technologies being developed, and is currently planned for release in August 1996. The following report outlines the scope and mission of the Office of Environmental Management, EM-60, and EM-66 organizations as related to the PFA organizational structure

  10. Bicycle traffic in urban areas

    Anđelković Zorica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cycling is a term describing the use of bicycles, but also any mean of transport driven solely by human power. Development of bicycle traffic in urban areas involves construction of cycling infrastructure, adapting streets and other traffic infrastructure to a form suitable for cycling and other means of transport (individual motorized traffic, public transport, walking, ensuring the adequate budget and systematic planning and development of sustainable transport in cities. The paper presents basic settings and conditions as input elements to plan bicycle traffic in urban areas, as well as program- design conditions which lead the activities of planners and designers of urban roads in connection with cyclists.

  11. Sediment problems in urban areas

    Guy, Harold P.

    1970-01-01

    A recognition of and solution to sediment problems in urban areas is necessary if society is to have an acceptable living environment. Soil erosion and sediment deposition in urban areas are as much an environmental blight as badly paved and littered streets, dilapidated buildings, billboard clutter, inept land use, and air, water, and noise pollution. In addition, sediment has many direct and indirect effects on streams that may be either part of or very remote from the urban environment. Sediment, for example, is widely recognized as a pollutant of streams and other water bodies.

  12. Semenic Mountains’ alpine skiing area

    Petru BANIAȘ

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The present paper presents, after a short history of alpine skiing which describes apparition, necessity, utility and universality of skiing during time, a comparative study referring to the alpine skiing domain in the Semenic Mountains area. In the paper are also presented general notions about alpine skiing methodology together with an ample description of the plateau area form Semenic Mountains, describing localization and touristic potential. Based on the SWOT analysis made for each slope, was realized a complex analysis of the entire skiing domain, an analysis which includes technical, financial, climatic and environmental aspects, along with an analysis of the marketing policy applied for the specific zone.

  13. CACTUS SPRING ROADLESS AREA, CALIFORNIA.

    Matti, Jonathan C.; Kuizon, Lucia

    1984-01-01

    Geologic, geochemical, and geophysical studies together with a review of historic mining and prospecting activities indicate that the Cactus Spring Roadless Area in California has little promise for the occurrence of mineral or energy resources. Marble bodies occur in the northern part of the roadless area and are possible resources for building stone, crushed and quarried aggregate, and lime and magnesium for Portland cement and industrial applications. It is recommended that the terrane of marble be mapped and sampled carefully in order to evaluate the quantity and quality of the carbonate resources.

  14. Determination of retinal surface area.

    Nagra, Manbir; Gilmartin, Bernard; Thai, Ngoc Jade; Logan, Nicola S

    2017-09-01

    Previous attempts at determining retinal surface area and surface area of the whole eye have been based upon mathematical calculations derived from retinal photographs, schematic eyes and retinal biopsies of donor eyes. 3-dimensional (3-D) ocular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allows a more direct measurement, it can be used to image the eye in vivo, and there is no risk of tissue shrinkage. The primary purpose of this study is to compare, using T2-weighted 3D MRI, retinal surface areas for superior-temporal (ST), inferior-temporal (IT), superior-nasal (SN) and inferior-nasal (IN) retinal quadrants. An ancillary aim is to examine whether inter-quadrant variations in area are concordant with reported inter-quadrant patterns of susceptibility to retinal breaks associated with posterior vitreous detachment (PVD). Seventy-three adult participants presenting without retinal pathology (mean age 26.25 ± 6.06 years) were scanned using a Siemens 3-Tesla MRI scanner to provide T2-weighted MR images that demarcate fluid-filled internal structures for the whole eye and provide high-contrast delineation of the vitreous-retina interface. Integrated MRI software generated total internal ocular surface area (TSA). The second nodal point was used to demarcate the origin of the peripheral retina in order to calculate total retinal surface area (RSA) and quadrant retinal surface areas (QRSA) for ST, IT, SN, and IN quadrants. Mean spherical error (MSE) was -2.50 ± 4.03D and mean axial length (AL) 24.51 ± 1.57 mm. Mean TSA and RSA for the RE were 2058 ± 189 and 1363 ± 160 mm 2 , respectively. Repeated measures anova for QRSA data indicated a significant difference within-quadrants (P area/mm increase in AL. Although the differences between QRSAs are relatively small, there was evidence of concordance with reported inter-quadrant patterns of susceptibility to retinal breaks associated with PVD. The data allow AL to be converted to QRSAs, which will assist further

  15. Integrated Assessment of Coastal Areas

    Nicholls, R. J.

    2016-12-01

    Coastal areas are experiencing change due to a range of natural and human-induced drivers. Of particular concern is climate change, particularly sea-level rise (SLR). In low gradient coastal areas, small changes in water levels can have profound consequences. Hence SLR is rightly considered a major threat. However, to properly diagnose a problem and find sustainable solutions, a systems approach is essential as the impacts of SLR will be modified by the other drivers. This paper will consider these issues from a multi-disciplinary perspective drawing on examples from around the world.

  16. AGUA TIBIA PRIMITIVE AREA, CALIFORNIA.

    Irwin, William P.; Thurber, Horace K.

    1984-01-01

    The Agua Tibia Primitive Area in southwestern California is underlain by igneous and metamorphic rocks that are siilar to those widely exposed throughout much of the Peninsular Ranges. To detect the presence of any concealed mineral deposits, samples of stream sediments were collected along the various creeks that head in the mountain. As an additional aid in evaluating the mineral potential, an aeromagnetic survey was made and interpreted. A search for records of past or existing mining claims within the primitive area was made but none was found. Evidence of deposits of metallic or nonmetallic minerals was not seen during the study.

  17. Soil variability in mountain areas

    Zanini, E.; Freppaz, M.; Stanchi, S.; Bonifacio, E.; Egli, M.

    2015-01-01

    The high spatial variability of soils is a relevant issue at local and global scales, and determines the complexity of soil ecosystem functions and services. This variability derives from strong dependencies of soil ecosystems on parent materials, climate, relief and biosphere, including human impact. Although present in all environments, the interactions of soils with these forming factors are particularly striking in mountain areas.

  18. Portable sandblaster cleans small areas

    Severin, H. J.

    1966-01-01

    Portable sandblasting unit rapidly and effectively cleans localized areas on a metal surface. The unit incorporates a bellows enclosure, masking plate, sand container, and used sand accummulator connected to a vacuum system. The bellows is equipped with an inspection window and light for observation of the sanding operation.

  19. ARC Research Areas and Projects

    studying realistic engine-in-vehicle operation, thermal management, component matching, advanced powertrain maximize the vehicle's performance. The vision of Thrust Area 1 is to create adaptive vehicles for maximum , victor.j.paul2.civ@mail.mil The safety and performance of human occupants and operators are paramount in the

  20. Environmental information document: Y Area

    Cook, J.R.; Grant, M.W.

    1986-01-01

    Site selection, facility descriptions, and alternative operations are described for disposal/storage of concentrated waste streams resulting from waste treatment facilities at the Savannah River Plant. Performance assessments and cost estimates for these alternatives are presented. The new disposal site for this waste will be designated Y Area

  1. Intelligent Carpooling in rural areas

    Agerholm, Niels; Møller, Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    in sufficient time (2-24 hours before). Another factor that has to be fulfilled is a high level of cohesion in the local area, i.e. a high level of knowledge of any participants in the scheme. Despite of these requirements being met, it is still a challenge to change car owners’ habit in order to make...

  2. Climatic change in Mediterranean area

    Manos, A.

    1991-01-01

    United Nations Environmental Program (UNEP) studies on forecasted greenhouse climatic effects on the Mediterranean coastal and marine ecosystems and regional socio-economic framework have indicated the need for a concerted plan of protective and remedial action. The studies considered rises of 1.5 degrees in ambient temperature and 20 centimeters in sea level occurring before the year 2025. A regional, as opposed to a global area, study approach was adopted since the severity of climatic effects is expected to vary greatly from one part of the world to another. The specific areas investigated were the Po River Delta and Venezia Lagoon in Italy, the Nile Delta, Camargue, the Ebro Delta, the Tunisian National Park area, and the Thermaicos Gulf in Greece. The rise in average temperature is expected to negatively effect Mediterranean agricultural production and the coastal and marine ecosystems due to prolonged periods of drought and exceptional rainfall. It is suggested that a system of dikes be constructed to protect the coastal areas which are heavily dependent on tourism and agriculture

  3. Upgrading of the West Area

    1983-01-01

    The rejigged main hall (EHW1) in the West Area: on background, below the crane, is the brown yoke of the Omega magnet which had been resited. The upgrading was completed by the time in July when 400 GeV protons arrived. See Annual Report 1983 p. 107.

  4. Main challenges of residential areas

    Oana Luca

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The present article is a position paper aiming to initiate a professional debate related to the aspects related to the urban dysfunctions leading to the wear of the residential areas. The paper proposes a definition of the wear process, identify the main causes leading to its occurrence and propose a number of solutions to neutralise the dysfunctions. The three wearing phases of residential areas components are emphasized, exploring their lifecycle. In order to perform the study of urban wear, the status of the residential areas components can be established and monitored, and also the variables of the function that can mathematically model the specific wear process may be considered. The paper is considered a first step for the model adjustment, to be tested and validated in the following steps. Based on the mathematical method and model, there can be created, in a potential future research, the possibility of determining the precarity degree for residential areas/neighbourhoods and cities, by minimising the subjective component of the analyses preceding the decision for renovation or regeneration.

  5. COFFEE GROWING AREAS OF ETHIOPIA"

    accelerated economic growth, part of which is hoped to be achieved via increased ... at the Fifth International Conference on the Ethiopian Economy held at the United ... Samuel and Ludi: Agricultural commercialisation in coffee growing areas. ... Ethiopia produces and exports one of the best fighland coffees in the world.

  6. Wide area Hyperspectral Motion Imaging

    2017-02-03

    detection at a manageable false alarm rate using the adaptive coherence estimator algorithm. A radiance spectrum was calculated with MODTRAN at 5km...1mHz. In order to meet SNR and update rate, the area coverage is reduced to less than the size of a football stadium. An interferometer has

  7. Zones 30 : urban residential areas.

    2006-01-01

    Sustainable Safety uses a road categorization in which through traffic is concentrated on motorways and other main roads. In residential areas, which have a living, shopping, or work function, through traffic is discouraged by setting a speed limit of 30 km/h, and by speed reducing measures such as

  8. Open areas and open access

    Thorndike, A.M.

    1979-01-01

    The main objective of the two open areas in the present ISABELLE design has been to provide flexibility with respect to the size and shape of experimental equipment that would eventually be installed there. No permanent building would be installed initially. One possibility would be to enclose each experiment in a temporary structure that would provide weatherproofing and shielding; another possibility would be to erect a permanent building at a later time, when experience has made the needs clearer than they are at present. The secondary objective of the design of open areas has been to keep initial costs as low as practicable. Another objective might be added, however, which we indicate by the term ''open access.'' This note will explore this idea and some design concepts based on it. In the ISABELLE 1977 summer workshop there was considerable discussion of the importance of techniques for inserting large pieces of experimental equipment quickly and removing them with equal ease and speed. Since enclosed halls have certain restrictions in this respect, open areas may be helpful in providing this feature. If the mechanical and electrical aspects could be handled quickly, one might even attempt to reduce the time spent on bureaucratic procedures in order to expedite the introduction of new experiments and new ideas in these areas

  9. GPS measurements in Satakunta area

    Poutanen, M.; Nyberg, S.; Ahola, J.

    2010-10-01

    The Finnish Geodetic Institute, the Geological Survey of Finland, Posiva Ltd and municipalities in the district of Satakunta launched the GeoSatakunta research program in 2002 to carry out interdisciplinary studies on regional bedrock stress field and to apply the results e.g. in land use planning in the Satakunta area. The area was chosen for many reasons. Its geological diversity, extensive multi-disciplinary data coverage, and various interests of participants made the area suitable for the project. The purpose of the GPS observations is to get detailed information on recent crustal deformations in the area. The Finnish Geodetic Institute maintains e.g. national GPS network, FinnRef, and since 1995 a local research network in the Olkiluoto area. The Satakunta network differs from these, and this is the first time to obtain such detailed information of a regional network in Finland. The Satakunta GPS network consists of 13 concrete pillars for episodic GPS campaigns and the Olkiluoto permanent GPS station in the FinnRef network. The distances between the concrete pillars are 10-15 km, and the sites were chosen in a co-operation with the Geological Survey of Finland taking into account the geological structures in the area. The City of Pori made the final reconnaissance in the field and constructed eight pillars in 2003. The original network was expanded in 2005-2006 in Eurajoki and Rauma, and at the City of Rauma joined the co-operation. The five new pillars join the previous Olkiluoto network into the Satakunta network. There have been three annual GPS campaigns in 2003-2008. Time series of the Satakunta network are shorter than in the Olkiluoto network, and also the distances are longer. Therefore, the same accuracy than in Olkiluoto has not yet achieved. However, mm-sized movements can be excluded. Estimated velocities were small (0.2 mm/a) and mostly statistically insignificant because of relatively short time series. In this publication we describe the

  10. [Emotion and Brodmann's areas: special reference on area 12].

    Kawamura, Mitsuru

    2010-11-01

    Brodmann's brain maps, assembled in 1909, are still in use, but understanding of their animal-human homology is uncertain. Furthermore, in 1909, Brodmann did not identify human Area 12 (BA12); a location now important to understanding of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) and emotional function. We found Brodmann did identify human BA12 in later maps (1910 and 1914), not in the 1909 monograph. Because of its current link with FTLD, BA 12's translation from animal (1909) to human (1910 and 1914) is not only an historical puzzle. It impacts how Brodmann's areas, based on comparative animal-human cyto-architecture, are widely used in current research as functional loci in human brain. If Brodmann's maps are of current value, then an accurate rather than a generic Brodmann number is in order.

  11. Conservative and innovative dialect areas

    Christian Schwarz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper focuses on conservative and innovative (transitional dialect areas and the questions of 1 how such areas can be methodologically visualized and 2 how the outcomes can be interpreted. In the first part of this paper a geostatistical method of representing phonological features in space will be introduced: interpolation. This method is not entirely new to dialectology; it has been quite neglected, though, in comparison to other methods of mapping, such as the isogloss or dot symbol method that was mainly used in traditional dialect atlases. The interpolation method will be applied to a large corpus of spontaneous speech data from rural dialects spoken in southwest Germany. Methodological steps in data processing will be described, resulting in a data set that can be used as input for statistical analysis and the visual depiction of variation in space as interpolated grid plots. In the second part results will be discussed. The major outcome consists of an aggregate interpolation plot that includes variables from fifteen different etymological sound classes. These sound classes can be used for demonstrating the distribution of receding phonological variables in space. The interpolation shows two conservative areas where receding forms are still widespread. They lie within the centers of the two major dialect groups of southwest Germany: Alemannic and Swabian. The conservative areas are separated by a broad transitional zone characterized by intense variation between receding and innovative variants. It will be argued that this transitional zone is not due to the horizontal spread of the dialects into each other’s areas alone. Rather, variation is triggered by vertical standard influence that supports any dialect form to spread out horizontally as long as it is phonologically identical or similar to the standard form.

  12. Multitemporal burnt area mapping using Landsat 8: merging multiple burnt area indices to highlight burnt areas

    Vhengani, L

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available gases. These, makes the study of wildfires important. The study of fires is in three phases. Firstly it is forecasting, which uses Fire Danger Index (FDI), secondly it is the mapping of active fires and thirdly, the mapping of burnt areas to access...

  13. [Endemic zoonosis in Mediterranean area].

    Fenga, Concettina; Pugliese, Michela

    2013-01-01

    The Mediterranean is historically considered an area of high concentration of zoonoses. Mediterranean countries socio-economic features have favoured, over time, the onset of different types of zoonosis. Many of these may affect many occupational categories, first of all farmers, people working in abattoirs and processing products of animal origin. New farming activities and technologies have generated new occupational and zoonotic risks. These changes have influenced zoonosis epidemiology and have led to a gradual decrease in the number of diseases and to a reduction of some biological risks. However, brucellosis, Q fever, bovine tuberculosis cystic echinococcosis remain a strong example of zoonosis and a real risk, in the Mediterranean area especially. Therefore, an interdisciplinary collaboration between Veterinary Service, Public Health and Occupational medicine is necessary in order to plan territorial prevention.

  14. Tank Focus Area pretreatment activities

    McGinnis, C.P.; Welch, T.D.; Manke, K.L.

    1997-01-01

    Plans call for the high-level wastes to be retrieved from the tanks and immobilized in a stable waste form suitable for long-term isolation. Chemistry and chemical engineering operations are required to retrieve the wastes, to condition the wastes for subsequent steps, and to reduce the costs of the waste management enterprise. Pretreatment includes those processes between retrieval and immobilization, and includes preparation of suitable feed material for immobilization and separations to partition the waste into streams that yield lower life-cycle costs. Some of the technologies being developed by the Tank Focus Area (TFA) to process these wastes are described. These technologies fall roughly into three areas: (1) solid/liquid separation (SLS), (2) sludge pretreatment, and (3) supernate pretreatment

  15. Hanford 300 Area Development Plan

    Daly, K.S.; Seiler, S.W.; Hail, J.C.

    1991-09-01

    The purpose of the Hanford 300 Area Development Plan (Development Plan) is to guide the physical development of the 300 Area in accordance with US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 4320.1B (DOE 1991b) by performing the following: (1) Establishing a land use plan, setting land use categories that meet the needs of existing and proposed activities; (2) Coordinating existing, 5-yr, and long-range development plans and guiding growth in accordance with those plans; (3) Establishing development guidelines to encourage cost-effective development and minimize conflicts between adjacent activities; (4) Identifying site development issues that need further analysis; Integrating program plans with development plans to ensure a logical progression of development; and, (6) Integrating DOE plans with local agency plans (i.e., city, country, state, and Tri-Cities Science and Technology Park plans)

  16. Speleogenesis in Dinaric karst area

    Garasic, Mladen; Garasic, Davor

    2015-04-01

    Dinaric Karst is one of the largest karst regions in Europe and in the World. It is the paramount karst of Europe and type site of many karst features. Dinaric Karst Area covers an extensive part of the Dinarides, a mountain chain in Southern Europe named after Dinara Mt., an impressive and outstanding rocky wall on the border between Dalmatian part of Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina. The Dinaric Karst occupies an area from the Friuli Plain (Doberdo Karst Plateau) and Slovenian mountains near Postojna cave on the northwest, to Skadar Lake and Prokletije Mt. on the southeast, from Central Bosnian Mountains on the northeast, and the Adriatic Sea seafloor with its islands. The Dinarides outspread in a so-called "Dinaric strike" (NW-SE) for 650 km in length and are up to 150 km wide across SW-NE. The biggest part of the Dinaric Karst Area is situated within Croatian territory (continental, Adriatic coastal and seafloor karst) comprising all karst features with exceptional examples exposed on the surface as well as in the underground. Classical karst area is the one situated in Slovenia, where typical karst features were described for the first time. Presentation of the outstanding values of Dinaric karst is based on the values that can be met in Italy, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Serbia and Albania, too. Dinaric Karst is the World's natural heritage because of its unique and outstanding geological characteristics and its living world; some of them are of outstanding natural beauty. Dinaric karst is an integral, compact karst area with extremely great thickness of carbonate rocks of predominantly Mesozoic age which in some areas exceeds 8.000 m. It bears several cycles of karstification thus giving world uniqueness to the area, especially regarding the wealth of submerged karst phenomena, among which vruljes are world unique features. Dinaric karst is one of the largest karst regions in the World. From the scientific perspective, the Dinaric Karst is one of

  17. Health care in rural areas.

    Nath, L M

    1994-02-01

    In India, although the health care system infrastructure is extensive, the people often regard government facilities as family planning (FP) centers instead of primary health care centers. This problem has been compounded by the separation of health care and FP at all stages, even down to the storage of the same medication in two different locations depending upon whether it is to be used for "health" or for "FP." In rural areas where the government centers are particularly desolate, the community has chosen to erect its own health care system of private practitioners of all sorts and qualifications. Even in rural areas where a comprehensive health service is provided, with each household visited regularly by health workers, and where this service has resulted in a lowering of the crude death rate from 14.6 to 7 and the maternal mortality rate from 4.7 to 0.5/1000, people depend upon practitioners of various types. Upon analysis, it was discovered that the reason for using this multiplicity of practitioners had nothing to do with the level of satisfaction with the government service or with the accessibility of the services. Rather, when ill, the people make a diagnosis and then go to the proper place for treatment. If, for instance, they believe their malady was caused by the evil eye, they consult a magico-religious practitioner. These various types of practitioners flourish in areas with the best primary health care because they fulfill a need not met by the primary health care staff. If government agencies work with the local practitioners and afford them the proper respect, their skills can be upgraded in selected areas and the whole community will benefit.

  18. Temporary storage area characterization report

    1990-01-01

    The preferred alternative identified in the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) for the Weldon Spring Quarry Bulk Wastes is to remove the wastes from the quarry and transport them by truck to temporary storage facility at the chemical plant site. To support the RI/FS, this report provides data to characterize the temporary storage area (TSA) site and to ensure the suitability of the proposed location. 31 refs., 14 figs., 7 tabs

  19. Nuclear criticality safety: 300 Area

    1991-01-01

    This Standard applies to the receipt, processing, storage, and shipment of fissionable material in the 300 Area and in any other facility under the control of the Reactor Materials Project Management Team (PMT). The objective is to establish practices and process conditions for the storage and handling of fissionable material that prevent the accidental assembly of a critical mass and that comply with DOE Orders as well as accepted industry practice

  20. Benzene exposures in urban areas

    Valerio, F.; Pala, M.; Cipolla, M.; Stella, A.

    2001-01-01

    Benzene exposures in urban areas were reviewed. Available data confirm that both in USA and Europe, benzene concentrations measured by fixed outdoor monitoring stations underestimate personal exposures of urban residents. Indoor sources, passive smoke and the high exposures during commuting time may explain this difference. Measures in European towns confirm that very frequently mean daily personal exposures to benzene exceed 10 μg/m 3 , current European air quality guideline for this carcinogenic compound [it

  1. An Incomplete Optimal Currency Area

    Dreyer, Johannes Kabderian; Graversen, Mads Byskov

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to test if the Eurozone a decade after its launch can be considered an optimal currency area (OCA) as defined by Mundell (1961). In an OCA, asymmetric shocks – as the ones experienced by the Eurozone following the recent financial crisis – may be dampened by tw...... on migration rates. We use panel regressions to test these relationships and find out that migration between member states is very low after the Euro’s first decade. Combined with the lack of significant fiscal transfers we conclude that the currency union is still not an OCA.......The main objective of this study is to test if the Eurozone a decade after its launch can be considered an optimal currency area (OCA) as defined by Mundell (1961). In an OCA, asymmetric shocks – as the ones experienced by the Eurozone following the recent financial crisis – may be dampened by two...... instruments: fiscal transfers from one country to another, or migration. As fiscal transfers in the Eurozone are low, we study the economic significance of migration flows as automatic stabilizers of the currency area. We assume that there is a strong relationship between unemployment and relative wealth...

  2. Innovation investment area: Technology summary

    1994-03-01

    The mission of Environmental Management`s (EM) Office of Technology Development (OTD) Innovation Investment Area is to identify and provide development support for two types of technologies that are developed to characterize, treat and dispose of DOE waste, and to remediate contaminated sites. They are: technologies that show promise to address specific EM needs, but require proof-of-principle experimentation; and (2) already proven technologies in other fields that require critical path experimentation to demonstrate feasibility for adaptation to specific EM needs. The underlying strategy is to ensure that private industry, other Federal Agencies, universities, and DOE National Laboratories are major participants in developing and deploying new and emerging technologies. To this end, about 125 different new and emerging technologies are being developed through Innovation Investment Area`s (IIA) two program elements: RDDT&E New Initiatives (RD01) and Interagency Agreements (RD02). Both of these activities are intended to foster research and development partnerships so as to introduce innovative technologies into other OTD program elements for expedited evaluation.

  3. The problem with areas: Asia and Area studies

    Victor T. King

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Review of:Goh Beng Lan (ed., Decentring & diversifying Southeast Asian Studies: Perspectives from the region. Singapore: ISEAS, 2011, xiii + 304 pp. ISBN 9789814311564, price: USD 34.90 (paperback; 9789814311571, USD 45.90 (hardback.Terence Wesley-Smith and Jon Goss (eds, Remaking Area studies: Teaching and learning across Asia and the Pacific. Honolulu: University of Hawai‘i Press, 2010, xxvii + 243 pp. ISBN 9780824833213. Price: USD 45.00 (hardback.Jacob Edmond, Henry Johnson and Jacqueline Leckie (eds, Recentring Asia: Histories, encounters, identities, xv + 339 pp. Leiden/Boston: Brill, Global Oriental: 2011. ISBN 9781906876258. Price: EUR 80.00 (hardback.

  4. RAINWATER MANAGEMENT IN PROTECTED AREAS

    Wioletta Żarnowiec

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to find out whether the climate of the southern Poland allows for removing rainwater from industrial areas by evaporation from roof surfaces. The study covered the premises of a Logistics Centre with an approximate area of 34 hectares, located in the catchment of the Wedonka stream and in the region of water intake for Kraków at the Rudawa river. In the future, the Centre will comprise nine large warehouses. Road traffic associated with the project will cause potential risks for groundwater and surface water of this protected area. Therefore, the Centre’s investor decided to evaporate rainwater from the premises. To establish advisability of this plan, the study team designed and built a unique experimental station consisting of experimental roof, tank for collecting water for the sprinkler system, system for delivering, distributing and discharging water from the roof, measuring tilt tray, automatic meteorological station, and electronic devices for recording measurement data. The research on the experimental station was carried out from April to October in 2011 and 2012 and included continuous measurements of the volume of water supplied to and discharged from the roof. Moreover, the temperature of the roof and water in the tank and a number of important meteorological parameters were measured. The difference between supplied and discharged water, divided by the wetted surface of the roof, helped to determine thickness of the evaporation layer in millimeters. The study confirmed the possibility of removing potentially contaminated rainwater by evaporating it from roof surfaces of the Logistics Centre located near Kraków at an average rate of 5.9 dm3·m–2.d–1. However, due to high seasonal variability of rainfall and air temperature, it is necessary to temporarily collect water in an expansion tank of suitable capacity.

  5. AEC controlled area safety program

    Hendricks, D.W.

    1969-01-01

    The detonation of underground nuclear explosives and the subsequent data recovery efforts require a comprehensive pre- and post-detonation safety program for workers within the controlled area. The general personnel monitoring and environmental surveillance program at the Nevada Test Site are presented. Some of the more unusual health-physics aspects involved in the operation of this program are also discussed. The application of experience gained at the Nevada Test Site is illustrated by description of the on-site operational and safety programs established for Project Gasbuggy. (author)

  6. Western Areas new U plant

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    On March 30, 1982 Western Areas Gold Mining Company Limited's uranium plant was officialy opened. The plant is designed to treat 100 000t/month of uranium bearing ore. The majority of this ore is from the Middle Elsburg series, while the miner part comes from routing upgrated Upper Elsburg products into the uranium plant treatment route. The forward leach concept of gold and uranium extraction is adopted, i.e. the gold is extracted before the uranium. The flow of work, instrumentation, electrical installation and other facilities at the plant are also discussed

  7. Carlsbad Area Office strategic plan

    1995-10-01

    This edition of the Carlsbad Area Office Strategic Plan captures the U.S. Department of Energy's new focus, and supercedes the edition issued previously in 1995. This revision reflects a revised strategy designed to demonstrate compliance with environmental regulations earlier than the previous course of action; and a focus on the selected combination of scientific investigations, engineered alternatives, and waste acceptance criteria for supporting the compliance applications. An overview of operations and historical aspects of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant near Carlsbad, New Mexico is presented

  8. Rurality study of restricted areas

    Sergio Rivaroli

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Two main perspectives of investigation emerge from the study of a territory’s rurality: a geographical approach and a sociological approach. The research examines the sub-regional study case of ‘Nuovo circondario imolese’. The analysis shows that the combination of traditional institutional criteria with detailed informations about the territory, generates more accurate results which determine a better comprehension of the characteristics of restricted areas’ rurality. Over the period 1991-2001, the study highlights an increase in rural areas. This result could be interpreted as an effect of urban sprawl’s intensification, that increases the competition between non-farm residences and agricultural activities.

  9. History of 100-B Area

    Wahlen, R.K.

    1989-10-01

    The initial three production reactors and their support facilities were designated as the 100-B, 100-D, and 100-F areas. In subsequent years, six additional plutonium-producing reactors were constructed and operated at the Hanford Site. Among them was one dual-purpose reactor (100-N) designed to supply steam for the production of electricity as a by-product. Figure 1 pinpoints the location of each of the nine Hanford Site reactors along the Columbia River. This report documents a brief description of the 105-B reactor, support facilities, and significant events that are considered to be of historical interest. 21 figs

  10. AEC controlled area safety program

    Hendricks, D W [Nevada Operations Office, Atomic Energy Commission, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1969-07-01

    The detonation of underground nuclear explosives and the subsequent data recovery efforts require a comprehensive pre- and post-detonation safety program for workers within the controlled area. The general personnel monitoring and environmental surveillance program at the Nevada Test Site are presented. Some of the more unusual health-physics aspects involved in the operation of this program are also discussed. The application of experience gained at the Nevada Test Site is illustrated by description of the on-site operational and safety programs established for Project Gasbuggy. (author)

  11. Home area networks and IPTV

    Rémy, Jean-Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    The field of Home Area Networks (HAN), a dedicated residential subset of LAN technologies for home-based use, is fast becoming the next frontier for the communications industry.This book describes the various technologies involved in the implementation of a HAN: high-speed Internet connections, indoor implementations, services, software, and management packages. It also reviews multimedia applications (which are increasingly the most important and complex aspects of most HANs) with a detailed description of IPTV technology. It highlights the main technologies used for HANs: information tra

  12. Area-normalized thematic views

    Keahey, T.A.

    1998-10-01

    This paper presents a novel technique for dealing with a classic problem that frequently arises in visualization. Very expressive nonlinear transformations can be automatically generated to correct thematic maps so that the areas of map regions are proportional to the thematic variables assigned to them. This helps to eliminate one of the most commonly occurring visual lies that occurs in information visualization. Thematic variables are commonly used in cartography to encode additional information within the spatial layout of a map. Common examples of thematic variables are population density, pollution level and birth rate. The method is illustrated with two examples, mapping interstate speed limits and presidential election results.

  13. Large area and flexible electronics

    Caironi, Mario

    2015-01-01

    From materials to applications, this ready reference covers the entire value chain from fundamentals via processing right up to devices, presenting different approaches to large-area electronics, thus enabling readers to compare materials, properties and performance.Divided into two parts, the first focuses on the materials used for the electronic functionality, covering organic and inorganic semiconductors, including vacuum and solution-processed metal-oxide semiconductors, nanomembranes and nanocrystals, as well as conductors and insulators. The second part reviews the devices and applicatio

  14. Wide area continuous offender monitoring

    Hoshen, J. [Lucent Technologies (United States); Drake, G. [New Mexico Dept. of Corrections, Santa Fe, NM (United States); Spencer, D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-11-01

    The corrections system in the U.S. is supervising over five million offenders. This number is rising fast and so are the direct and indirect costs to society. To improve supervision and reduce the cost of parole and probation, first generation home arrest systems were introduced in 1987. While these systems proved to be helpful to the corrections system, their scope is rather limited because they only cover an offender at a single location and provide only a partial time coverage. To correct the limitations of first-generation systems, second-generation wide area continuous electronic offender monitoring systems, designed to monitor the offender at all times and locations, are now on the drawing board. These systems use radio frequency location technology to track the position of offenders. The challenge for this technology is the development of reliable personal locator devices that are small, lightweight, with long operational battery life, and indoors/outdoors accuracy of 100 meters or less. At the center of a second-generation system is a database that specifies the offender`s home, workplace, commute, and time the offender should be found in each. The database could also define areas from which the offender is excluded. To test compliance, the system would compare the observed coordinates of the offender with the stored location for a given time interval. Database logfiles will also enable law enforcement to determine if a monitored offender was present at a crime scene and thus include or exclude the offender as a potential suspect.

  15. IMAGE INTERPRETATION OF COASTAL AREAS

    M. A. Lazaridou

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Coasts were formed with the overall shape of earth's surface. Τhey represent a landform, as determined by the science of geomorphology. Being the boundary between land and sea, they present important features – particularities such as water currents, waves, winds, estuaries, drainage network, pollution etc. Coasts are examined at various levels: continents – oceans, states – large seas, as for example Mediterranean Sea. Greece, because of its horizontal and vertical partitioning, presents great extent and variety of coasts as mainland, peninsulas and islands. Depending on geomorphology, geology, soils, hydrology, land use of the inland and the coasts themselves, these are very diverse. Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (defined by Statute II of ISPRS is the art, science, and technology of obtaining reliable information from non-contact imaging and other sensor systems about the Earth and its environment, and other physical objects and of processes through recording, measuring, analyzing and representation. This paper concerns critical considerations on the above. It also includes the case of Thessaloniki coasts in Greece, particularly river estuaries areas (river delta. The study of coastal areas of the wide surroundings of Thessaloniki city includes visual image interpretation – digital image processing techniques on satellite data of high spatial resolution.

  16. Innovation investment area: Technology summary

    1994-03-01

    The mission of Environmental Management's (EM) Office of Technology Development (OTD) Innovation Investment Area is to identify and provide development support for two types of technologies that are developed to characterize, treat and dispose of DOE waste, and to remediate contaminated sites. They are: technologies that show promise to address specific EM needs, but require proof-of-principle experimentation; and (2) already proven technologies in other fields that require critical path experimentation to demonstrate feasibility for adaptation to specific EM needs. The underlying strategy is to ensure that private industry, other Federal Agencies, universities, and DOE National Laboratories are major participants in developing and deploying new and emerging technologies. To this end, about 125 different new and emerging technologies are being developed through Innovation Investment Area's (IIA) two program elements: RDDT ampersand E New Initiatives (RD01) and Interagency Agreements (RD02). Both of these activities are intended to foster research and development partnerships so as to introduce innovative technologies into other OTD program elements for expedited evaluation

  17. 300 Area signal cable study

    Whattam, J.W.

    1994-01-01

    This report was prepared to discuss the alternatives available for removing the 300 Area overhead signal cable system. This system, installed in 1969, has been used for various monitoring and communication signaling needs throughout the 300 Area. Over the years this cabling system has deteriorated, has been continually reconfigured, and has been poorly documented to the point of nonreliability. The first step was to look at the systems utilizing the overhead signal cable that are still required for operation. Of the ten systems that once operated via the signal cable, only five are still required; the civil defense evacuation alarms, the public address (PA) system, the criticality alarms, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory Facilities Management Control System (FMCS), and the 384 annunciator panel. Of these five, the criticality alarms and the FMCS have been dealt with under other proposals. Therefore, this study focused on the alternatives available for the remaining three systems (evacuation alarms, PA system, and 384 panel) plus the accountability aid phones. Once the systems to be discussed were determined, then three alternatives for providing the signaling pathway were examined for each system: (1) re-wire using underground communication ducts, (2) use the Integrated Voice/Data Telecommunications System (IVDTS) already installed and operated by US West, and (3) use radio control. Each alternative was developed with an estimated cost, advantages, and disadvantages. Finally, a recommendation was provided for the best alternative for each system

  18. Open areas and open access

    Thorndike, A.M.

    1978-01-01

    One objective of the two open areas in the present ISABELLE design is to provide flexibility with respect to the size and shape of experimental equipment that would eventually be installed there. No permanent building would be installed initially. A second objective of the design of open areas is to keep initial costs as low as practicable. Another objective is open access. This note explores this idea and some design concepts based on it. It would permit inserting large pieces of experimental equipment quickly and removing them with equal ease and speed. Entire experiments would be moved in a single piece (or a few) by building them on movable platforms with capacities of up to about 1000 tons per platform. Most experiments could be built on a single platform or on a few. The shielding must also be moved. It must also be organized into a small number of large units. A scheme using large tanks filled with water is described. It is important to make the equipment on a given platform as complete and self-contained as possible, with a minimum of interconnections for power, coolant, controls, data transmission, etc. 5 figures

  19. HYDROGELS AND THEIR APLICATION AREAS

    AÇIKEL Safiye Meriç

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogels, being polymeric material,are named “Hydrophilic Polymer” because of their capable of holding large amounts of water in their three-dimensional networks. Hydrogels is not solved in water; however they have been swollen to their balace volume. Because of this swell behavior, they can adsorb big quantity of water in this structure. So they can term of “three sized polymers” due to protect their existing shape. Their cross linked bound structures are able to covalent or ionic and also one polymer which can for use of hydrogel polymer, must have hydrophilic groups such as carboxyl, carbonyl, amine and amide in main chains or side chains, and because of these groups water bound the polymer and polymer start to swell with rising volume and mass. Swell behavior of hydrogel is interested in quantity of hydrophilic groups. Hydrogels can use in different industrial and environmental areas with this high amount water holding capacity. They are used in food industry, biomedical, bioengineering, biotechnology, veterinary, pharmacist, agriculture, telecommunication, etc. Especially in current life, baby nappy has been including inside hydrogel beads. Also they used in contact lens, artificial cornea, synthetic cartilage and gullet, controlled medicine release, surgery yarns. This article general inform about usage area of hydrogels.

  20. Organizational Dysfunctions: Sources and Areas

    Jacek Pasieczny

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective:The purpose of this article is to identify and describe various types and sources of organizational dysfunctions. Research Design & Methods: The findings are based on literature review and an ongoing empirical research project conducted in private sector organisations. The empirical study can be situated within interpretative approach. In this qualitative project open interviews and observations were used to collect data. Findings: The study indicates that various types and sources of organizational dysfunctions can be identified in organizations operating in Poland. The sources of dysfunctions may be found both within the organization and its environment. Regardless of its specific features, most of the dysfunctions may be interpreted as an undesirable goal displacement. Very often areas of these dysfunctions are strongly interconnected and create a system that hinders organizational performance. Yet, it is difficult to study these phenomena as respondents are unwilling, for various reasons, to disclose the problems faced by their organizations. Implications & Recommendations: The results imply that the issue of organisational dysfunctions requires open, long-lasting and comparative studies. Recommendations for further studies are formulated in the last section of the paper. Contribution & Value Added: The paper provides insight into "the dark side of organising" by identifying sources and areas of dysfunctions. It also reveals difficulties connected with conducting research on dysfunctions in the Polish context.

  1. X-ray area monitor

    Nintrakit, N.

    1983-01-01

    The X-ray area monitor is a nuclear electronic device that is essential in radiation protection in high radiation laboratories, e.g. in medical diagnosis using X-rays and in industrial X-radiography. Accidentally the level of X-radiator may arise above the safe permissible level and in such a case the alarm system of the area monitor will work and disconnect the ac power supply form the X-ray unit. Principally the device is a radiation counter using G.M.tube as radiation detector with high voltage supply variable form 200 to 2,000 volts. The maximum count rate of the scaler is 1.5 MHz and the total count is displayed on 4 digit LED's. A time base is used to control the counting time, the frequency multiplier, radiation safety limit, comparator and the radiation hazard warning signal. The reliability of the instrument is further enhanced through the addition of the random correction circuit, and it is applicable both in X- and γ -radiation

  2. Geodiversity assessment in urban areas

    Ilic, Marina; Stojković, Sanja; Rundić, Ljupko; Ćalić, Jelena; Sandić, Dejan

    2017-04-01

    Conflict over natural resources figured prominently in the urban areas. On the one hand there is a constant need for space for the construction of new buildings for housing, agriculture and industrial production, and on the other hand the resources need protection because of the threat of degradation or even complete destruction. Considering the fact that urbanization is one of the most serious threats to geodiversity, it is important that this issue is taken into account in spatial development plans and georesource management strategies in urban areas. The geodiversity, as well as natural resource, must be managed in a sustainable manner in which it is very important its protection. The mapping of specific categories of geodiversity (geological, geomorphological, hydrological and soil) on the basis of quantitative assessment with the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) can allow spatial planners and managers to take further steps that would reduce threats and protect the natural values. This work presents the application of geodiversity evaluation method by using the geodiversity index (Gd), based on the quantity of abiotic elements and relief roughness within a spatial unit in the case of the City of Belgrade, Serbia. The acquired results are analyzed in the context of sustainable use of georesources and the threats to which geodiversity is exposed due to the development of the city.

  3. [Blood donation in urban areas].

    Charpentier, F

    2013-05-01

    Medical and technical developments increase the difficulty to provide sufficient safe blood for all patients in developed countries and their sociodemographic and societal changes. Sufficient national blood supply remains a reached, however still actual, challenge. Tomorrow is prepared today: the management of blood donation programs both in line with these developments and with social marketing strategies is one of the keys to success. If the main components of this organization are well known (mobile blood drives in various appropriate environments, and permanent blood donation centers) their proportions in the whole process must evolve and their contents require adaptations, especially for whole blood donation in urban areas. We have to focus on the people's way of life changes related to increasing urbanization of the society and prominent position taken by very large cities. This requires targeting several goals: to draw the attention of the potential blood-giving candidate, to get into position to collect him when he will decide it, to give meaning and recognition to his "sacrifice" (give time rather than donate blood) and to give him desire and opportunity to come back and donate one more time. In this strategy, permanent blood centers in urban areas have significant potential for whole blood collection, highlighted by the decrease of apheresis technology requirements. This potential requires profound changes in their location, conception and organization. The concept of Maison Du Don (MDD) reflects these changes. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  4. Regionally Significant Ecological Areas - MLCCS derived 2008

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This is an analysis of regionally significant Terrestrial and Wetland Ecological Areas in the seven county metropolitan area. Individual forest, grassland and...

  5. Central Region Regionally Ecological Significant Areas

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This is an analysis of regionally significant Terrestrial and Wetland Ecological Areas in the seven county metropolitan area. Individual forest, grassland and...

  6. Resource area environment/energy

    1994-01-01

    The document comprises a detailed analysis of the business economics of resources related to energy and the environment. Non-domestic and domestic conditions influencing the business economics of this subject area, its infrastructure, problems and future perspectives are dealt with. Tables (amongst other forms of information) indicate the turnover, exports, and numbers of involved employees, workplaces and firms involved in supply, general production, consultancy and production connected with the building sector. The energy sector is the most significant in this respect, giving 30,000 employed (18% in state institutions), a turnover of 63 billion Danish kroner, and with an export of 16 billion Danish kroner. The environmental sector employs 15,000 (29% in the public sector), the total turnover is 20 billion Danish kroner and of this 3 billion Danish kroner is related to export. Many firms are relatively small. A number of firms could compete internationally and this number is growing. (AB) (79 refs.)

  7. Ashland Area Support Substation Project

    1992-06-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) provides wholesale electric service to the City of Ashland (the City) by transferring power over Pacific Power ampersand Light Company's (PP ampersand L) 115-kilovolt (kV) transmission lines and through PP ampersand L's Ashland and Oak Knoll Substations. The City distributes power over a 12.5-kV system which is heavily loaded during winter peak periods and which has reached the limit of its ability to serve peak loads in a reliable manner. Peak loads under normal winter conditions have exceeded the ratings of the transformers at both the Ashland and Oak Knoll Substations. In 1989, the City modified its distribution system at the request of PP ampersand L to allow transfer of three megawatts (MW's) of electric power from the overloaded Ashland Substation to the Oak Knoll Substation. In cooperation with PP ampersand L, BPA installed a temporary 6-8 megavolt-amp (MVA) 115-12.5-kV transformer for this purpose. This additional transformer, however, is only a temporary remedy. BPA needs to provide additional, reliable long-term service to the Ashland area through additional transformation in order to keep similar power failures from occurring during upcoming winters in the Ashland area. The temporary installation of another 20-MVA mobile transformer at the Ashland Substation and additional load curtailment are currently being studied to provide for sustained electrical service by the peak winter period 1992. Two overall electrical plans-of-service are described and evaluated in this report. One of them is proposed for action. Within that proposed plan-of-service are location options for the substation. Note that descriptions of actions that may be taken by the City of Ashland are based on information provided by them

  8. Precipitation interpolation in mountainous areas

    Kolberg, Sjur

    2015-04-01

    Different precipitation interpolation techniques as well as external drift covariates are tested and compared in a 26000 km2 mountainous area in Norway, using daily data from 60 stations. The main method of assessment is cross-validation. Annual precipitation in the area varies from below 500 mm to more than 2000 mm. The data were corrected for wind-driven undercatch according to operational standards. While temporal evaluation produce seemingly acceptable at-station correlation values (on average around 0.6), the average daily spatial correlation is less than 0.1. Penalising also bias, Nash-Sutcliffe R2 values are negative for spatial correspondence, and around 0.15 for temporal. Despite largely violated assumptions, plain Kriging produces better results than simple inverse distance weighting. More surprisingly, the presumably 'worst-case' benchmark of no interpolation at all, simply averaging all 60 stations for each day, actually outperformed the standard interpolation techniques. For logistic reasons, high altitudes are under-represented in the gauge network. The possible effect of this was investigated by a) fitting a precipitation lapse rate as an external drift, and b) applying a linear model of orographic enhancement (Smith and Barstad, 2004). These techniques improved the results only marginally. The gauge density in the region is one for each 433 km2; higher than the overall density of the Norwegian national network. Admittedly the cross-validation technique reduces the gauge density, still the results suggest that we are far from able to provide hydrological models with adequate data for the main driving force.

  9. Malaysia (country/area statements).

    1985-09-01

    According to this statement presented to the Committee on Population of the UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, Malaysia by 1984 achieved a crude death rate of 5.3/1000, an infant mortality rate of 17/1000 live births, and a 1983 life expectancy at birth of 67.6 for males and 72.3 for females due primarily to socioeconomic development, better nutrition, and a health system covering 95% of the rural population. Substantial mortality differentials still exist between Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah, and Sarawak, between urban and rural areas, and among ethnic groups. Differences in the coverage and quality of mortality statistics also exist. 83.2% of Malaysia's total population of 15.5 million is in Peninsular Malaysia, 7.3% in Sabah, and 9.5% in Sarawak. In Peninsular Malaysia, 55.1% are Malays, 33.9% Chinese, and 10.3% Indians. About 40% of the population is urban, and 39% is under age 15. The average annual rate of growth declined from 2.6% in the 1960s to 2.3% in the 1970s. The total fertility rate fell from 5.1 children in 1970 to 4.1 in 1980. A rise in age at 1st marriage and reduction in marital fertility have been partly offset by an increase in the proportion of women of childbearing age. The population is projected to grow to about 22 million by the year 2000. Chinese and Indians are expected to approach replacement level fertility by that year, but Malay fertility is expected to remain high for some time. Internal migration, 45% of which is intrarural, increased markedly in the 1970s, probably due to rapid modernization, industrialization, land development, and regional imbalances in economic development. In absolute terms a total of 410,000 persons moved from rural to urban areas during the 1970s. Important progress has been made in regional development programs, but further regional development requires resolution of problems related to internal migration and greater efforts to relocate industries in the less developed areas. The

  10. Lp-dual affine surface area

    Wei, Wang; Binwu, He

    2008-12-01

    According to the notion of Lp-affine surface area by Lutwak, in this paper, we introduce the concept of Lp-dual affine surface area. Further, we establish the affine isoperimetric inequality and the Blaschke-Santaló inequality for Lp-dual affine surface area. Besides, the dual Brunn-Minkowski inequality for Lp-dual affine surface area is presented.

  11. A model for lightning in littoral areas

    Blaj, M.A.; Leferink, Frank Bernardus Johannes

    2009-01-01

    The littoral or coastal areas are different compared to the maritime or continental areas considering lightning. Only the last years some research about these areas has been carried out. The need for a model, regarding the lightning activity in these areas is much needed. And now, with the changes

  12. 5 CFR 351.402 - Competitive area.

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Competitive area. 351.402 Section 351.402... Competition § 351.402 Competitive area. (a) Each agency shall establish competitive areas in which employees compete for retention under this part. (b) A competitive area must be defined solely in terms of the...

  13. A unique radiation area monitoring system

    Murphy, P.C.; Allen, G.C.

    1978-01-01

    The Remote Area Monitoring Systems (RAMS) monitors four radiation areas with two independent systems in each area. Each system consists of power supplies, four ionization chambers, and four analog and digital circuits. The first system controls the warning beacons, horns, annunciation panel and interlocks. The second system presents a quantitative dose rate indication at the console and in the radiation area

  14. AIR POLLUTION OF URBAN AREAS

    MAKAROVA V. N.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Raising of problem. Any manufacturing processes related to the generation of waste. Year after year, a growing mass of waste is one of the main factors reducing the quality of the environment and destruction of natural landscapes. Industrial development inevitably enhances human impacts on the environment and disrupts the ecological balance [3]. Atmospher air is a vital element of the environment. The development of industry, the growth of cities, increasing the number of transport, active exploration of near-Earth space lead to a change in the gas composition of the atmosphere and disruption of its natural balance. Air quality affects the health of the population [5]. Without water or food a person can do for a while, but without air he can not live a few minutes, therefore saving air breathable is an urgent problem. Purpose. The results of geological studies clearly indicate that the contamination of the surface layer of the atmosphere is the most powerful permanent factor of influence on the human food chain and the environment. This problem was reflected in the scientific literature [2; 3; 6], and the second significant indicator of ecological well-being of the region is the number of generation and accumulation of waste. According to this indicator, Dnipropetrovsk region is in the lead, as relates to the industrialized regions. The idea of the article is to consider the air pollution of the urban environment in terms of the accumulation of waste in the territory of enterprises, in particular slag dumps metallurgical production. Conclusion. Slag dumps located on the premises are a significant source of air pollution urbanized areas due to the permanent nature of the spread of contamination. Slag dump of PAT "Nikopol Ferroalloy Plant" is a source of manganese, zinc, nickel emissions. As a conclusion about the magnitude of pollution of the atmospheric boundary layer can say the following: on the border of the sanitary protection zone (SPZ, in

  15. Saraniyadhamma Community knowledge Incubator area

    Siripong Arundechachai

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this research were to 1 study the situation of the community knowledge incubator area at the past to the present time in Banhad,Tambon banhad, Amphoe banhad Changwat KhonKaen, 2 study guidelines Buddhadhamma “Saraniyadhamma” revised by Community knowledge application Banhad, Tambon banhad, Amphoe banhad Changwat KhonKaen, 3 study workflow of Saraniyadhamma that led to the creation of the network community knowledge incubator area together with another community. The target groups used in this research of the purposive sampling family farmers of 10, in Tambon banhad,Amphoe banhad Changwat KhonKaen. the Qualitative research.was used in this Study The results showed that 1 diversing issues in the Community live action of the relationships or occupations experience can be passed down, as well as the risk of loss the relationships between the people and people, people and supernatural. After people and nature lost in the community, but thay Continue to Perform, because community has strengths given the importance of all, to themselves, to others, generous, generosity, mounting traditions, Led to the creation Community Knowledge Incubator 2 adopting Buddhism’s “Saraniyadhamma 6” that applied to community Knowledge Incubator by giving to make immunity community. Strong The six fetures, were Principle 1: Metta-kayakamma, feature on sacrifiction, unity and synergy. Principle 2: Metta-manokamma, feature on mercifulness, collective sacrification. Principle 3: Metta-kayakamma, feature on good things, speak well, good action. Principle 4: Sadharana-bhogi, feature on humane society, mutual respect. Principle 5 Sila-samannata, feature on, follow the rules of society. Principle 5 Metta-manokamma feature on rationality, listening to the opinion of others. It found that there were process-driven learning and following six rules of saraniyadhamma, and immunity system, risk Decoupled. 3 Networks Saraniyadhamma learnt together with other

  16. Cortical areas involved in Arabic number reading.

    Roux, F-E; Lubrano, V; Lauwers-Cances, V; Giussani, C; Démonet, J-F

    2008-01-15

    Distinct functional pathways for processing words and numbers have been hypothesized from the observation of dissociated impairments of these categories in brain-damaged patients. We aimed to identify the cortical areas involved in Arabic number reading process in patients operated on for various brain lesions. Direct cortical electrostimulation was prospectively used in 60 brain mappings. We used object naming and two reading tasks: alphabetic script (sentences and number words) and Arabic number reading. Cortical areas involved in Arabic number reading were identified according to location, type of interference, and distinctness from areas associated with other language tasks. Arabic number reading was sustained by small cortical areas, often extremely well localized (area (Brodmann area 45), the anterior part of the dominant supramarginal gyrus (Brodmann area 40; p area (Brodmann area 37; p areas.

  17. Plutonium focus area. Technology summary

    1997-09-01

    The Assistant Secretary for the Office of Environmental Management (EM) at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) chartered the Plutonium Focus Area (PFA) in October 1995. The PFA open-quotes...provides for peer and technical reviews of research and development in plutonium stabilization activities...close quotes In addition, the PFA identifies and develops relevant research and technology. The purpose of this document is to focus attention on the requirements used to develop research and technology for stabilization, storage, and preparation for disposition of nuclear materials. The PFA Technology Summary presents the approach the PFA uses to identify, recommend, and review research. It lists research requirements, research being conducted, and gaps where research is needed. It also summarizes research performed by the PFA in the traditional research summary format. This document encourages researchers and commercial enterprises to do business with PFA by submitting research proposals or open-quotes white papers.close quotes In addition, it suggests ways to increase the likelihood that PFA will recommend proposed research to the Nuclear Materials Stabilization Task Group (NMSTG) of DOE

  18. Cerrejon North Area, Environmental Administration

    Preteft Emiliani, Antonio

    1993-01-01

    The carboniferous complex of The Cerrejon North Area, it is located to the north of Colombia in the Atlantic coast, in the Guajira Department. The complex carboniferous has with three units: the mine, the railway and the shipment port. The associate companies, they have developed a series of plans to achieve that the ecosystem of the region like the life of the residents of the near towns to the carboniferous complex, don't be affected by the operation activities. From the beginning of the operations and according to the environmental impact study, was designed and it implanted a program of ecological protection with control actions and of monitory for the soil resources, water and air, of equal form, programs of social action were designed that allow that the realization of a work like this contributes benefits and non sacrifices to the human population, vegetable and animal of the region. The associates commit to make permanent efforts to improve the environmental acting in all the activities of their business, it will stimulate the respect and the concern for the environment, natural and social, and it will emphasize each employee's individual responsibility in the environmental acting

  19. Large-area photonic crystals

    Ruhl, Tilmann; Spahn, Peter; Hellmann, Gotz P.; Winkler, Holger

    2004-09-01

    Materials with a periodically modulated refractive index, with periods on the scale of light wavelengths, are currently attracting much attention because of their unique optical properties which are caused by Bragg scattering of the visible light. In nature, 3d structures of this kind are found in the form of opals in which monodisperse silica spheres with submicron diameters form a face-centered-cubic (fcc) lattice. Artificial opals, with the same colloidal-crystalline fcc structure, have meanwhile been prepared by crystallizing spherical colloidal particles via sedimentation or drying of dispersions. In this report, colloidal crystalline films are introduced that were produced by a novel technique based on shear flow in the melts of specially designed submicroscopic silica-polymer core-shell hybrid spheres: when the melt of these spheres flows between the plates of a press, the spheres crystallize along the plates, layer by layer, and the silica cores assume the hexagonal order corresponding to the (111) plane of the fcc lattice. This process is fast and yields large-area films, thin or thick. To enhance the refractive index contrast in these films, the colloidal crystalline structure was inverted by etching out the silica cores with hydrofluoric acid. This type of an inverse opal, in which the fcc lattice is formed by mesopores, is referred to as a polymer-air photonic crystal.

  20. Sistem Rantai Pasok Pupuk Area

    Harry Rahmadi Putra

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available PT. Pupuk Kaltim is biggest manure manufacturer in Indonesia, where its market area covering entire Sulawesi, Bali, some of Kalimantan East Java, Papua, Japan, Taiwan, India, and Australia. Main produced product of PT Pupuk Kaltim is based fertilizer. To meet the demand, PT Kaltim produce up to 2,3 million tons per year.Identifiaction process of supply chain done by accesing company website of PT Kaltim. Then it is outlined each step of supply chain from aggregate planning, production process, suppliers selection, quality mangement, warehousing, performance measure and used transportation unit. From that criteria would visible supply chain of based-fertilizer in PT Pupuk Kaltim. By having long and wide supply chain, PT Pupuk Kaltim still have bullwhip effect because of inacurate in forecasting cause over-stock or out of stock in many production period. In quality, PT Kaltim had got ISO 9001, ISO 14001 and ISO 17025 certification in production management and sea-port. Keywords: Fertilizer, supply chain, analysis

  1. China (country/area statements).

    1985-09-01

    According to this statement presented to the Committee on Population of the UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, China is similar to other countries in the region in that its rate of population growth has declined due to government family planning efforts while the absolute size of the population continues to increase because of the widening population base. However, China's enormous population of over 1 billion sets it apart and places great strain on economic development efforts. In the past decade the Chinese government has provided population education for the masses, explaining the relationship between population and socioeconomic development, and its overall family planning program has helped reduce population growth from 24.82/1000 in 1974 to 10.81/1000 in 1984. The net population increase has been over 100 million in the past 10 years, and if the present rate of increase with a total fertility rate of 2.1 is maintained for another 15 years, the total population would exceed 1.3 billion by 2000, posing a grave threat to China's socioeconomic development. The nucleus of China's population policy is its birth policy, whose main points are to promote family planning so that population growth will be in keeping with socioeconomic development and the utilization of natural resources and environmental protection. The policy is in line with the principles and objectives of the World Population Plan of Action adopted in 1974. The government has advocated the practice of "1 couple, 1 child" since 1979 to carry out the population policy and limit the total population to about 1.2 billion by the century's end. 28.17 million couples, 18.25% of the 150 million married couples of childbearing age, had received 1-child certificates by the end of 1984. Generally speaking, most couples in urban areas would be satisfied with 1 child, while those in rural areas usually prefer 2 children. The family planning program is carried out through publicity

  2. Vulnerability of intertropical littoral areas

    Manighetti, Isabelle; De Wit, Rutger; Duvail, Stéphanie; Seyler, Patrick

    2017-10-01

    The coastal zone is of very high importance for human development and human wellbeing. Half of the global urban population lives in the coastal zone, where it has access to both continental and marine ecosystem services and to maritime transport. These urban populations coexist with rural and traditional coastal populations, some of which still possess good traditional ecological knowledge of the coastal ecosystems. Marine biodiversity and favourable environmental conditions sustain fisheries and aquaculture, represent a source of inspiration for humankind and provide numerous opportunities for recreation and tourism. In addition, coastal areas provide nursery functions for juvenile fish and invertebrates, which is important for the fish and crayfish stocks exploited offshore. Located at the interface between marine energy and continental processes, the coastal landscapes are dynamic environments. Nevertheless, the destruction of habitats and the increasing exploitation of the coastal zone represent serious threats to the ecosystems. Moreover, human land use and modifications in the watersheds have strong impacts on the coastal zone primarily by contributing to their pollution and nutrient over-enrichment. Damming and creation of reservoirs upstream also heavily modify the hydrology of the watersheds and often dramatically reduce the delivery of sediments to the coastal zone. In addition to these regional and local anthropogenic impacts, the coastal zone is vulnerable to global change among which sea level rise and climate change are particularly important drivers. Many coastal zones extend along giant faults and subduction zones, which makes them particularly exposed to earthquakes and tsunami hazards. Other forms of natural hazards are caused by hurricanes and cyclones that develop at sea and whose trajectories often hit the coastlines.

  3. The metro area of Montreal.

    1986-10-01

    Montreal, one of the most civilized and cosmopolitan of North American cities, is the 2nd city in Canada in size and the largest French-speaking city. Of the 2.8 million people who lived there at census time in 1981, 45% chose both French and English as their official language, 41% chose French, and 1% used some other language. Fully 68% of Montreal residents said their mother tongue was French, and 68% also said they spoke French at home. The importance of bilingualism to the business culture of Montreal cannot be overemphasized. In the last decade, French-Canadians have taken an increasingly stronger role in business. Upper-middle-class suburbs that as little as 10 years ago had only 10% of their residents who were of French-Canadian descent now have as many as 50-60% of their residents who are French-Canadians. Most residents of Montreal willingly learn 2 languages. US firms should assume that all representatives who are sent to Montreal should be fluent in both French and English. Montreal's 2,828,349 people create a population density of 1004.9 persons per square kilometer. Montreal has 665 census tracts, which are described in the Metropolitan Atlas Series. Nearly 62% of Montreal's population fall between the ages of 20 and 64--the prime working ages. Although Montreal is 79% Catholic, it does not have the high fertility levels often associated with Catholic areas. There were 1,026,920 households in Montreal in 1981 with an average of 2.7 persons per household. 71% of these were census family households. Montreal had 1,026,895 occupied dwellings in 1985 with an average of 5 rooms each. About 71% of the population aged 15 and over that were not in school were in the labor force; 41% of the labor force was female. The largest employment category for men was manufacturing (16%) and the largest for women was clerical work (39%).

  4. Transfer Area Mechanical Handling Calculation

    Dianda, B.

    2004-01-01

    This calculation is intended to support the License Application (LA) submittal of December 2004, in accordance with the directive given by DOE correspondence received on the 27th of January 2004 entitled: ''Authorization for Bechtel SAX Company L.L. C. to Include a Bare Fuel Handling Facility and Increased Aging Capacity in the License Application, Contract Number DE-AC--28-01R W12101'' (Arthur, W.J., I11 2004). This correspondence was appended by further Correspondence received on the 19th of February 2004 entitled: ''Technical Direction to Bechtel SAIC Company L.L. C. for Surface Facility Improvements, Contract Number DE-AC--28-OIRW12101; TDL No. 04-024'' (BSC 2004a). These documents give the authorization for a Fuel Handling Facility to be included in the baseline. The purpose of this calculation is to establish preliminary bounding equipment envelopes and weights for the Fuel Handling Facility (FHF) transfer areas equipment. This calculation provides preliminary information only to support development of facility layouts and preliminary load calculations. The limitations of this preliminary calculation lie within the assumptions of section 5 , as this calculation is part of an evolutionary design process. It is intended that this calculation is superseded as the design advances to reflect information necessary to support License Application. The design choices outlined within this calculation represent a demonstration of feasibility and may or may not be included in the completed design. This calculation provides preliminary weight, dimensional envelope, and equipment position in building for the purposes of defining interface variables. This calculation identifies and sizes major equipment and assemblies that dictate overall equipment dimensions and facility interfaces. Sizing of components is based on the selection of commercially available products, where applicable. This is not a specific recommendation for the future use of these components or their

  5. Philippines (country/area statements).

    1985-09-01

    According to this statement presented to the Committee on Population of the UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, the 1980 Philippine census enumerated 48.1 million persons, a more than 6-fold increase over the 7.6 million of 1903. The 1913-39 average intercensal growth rate of 2.22% declined during World War II but soared to 3.06% from 1948-60. The growth rate was 2.71% between 1975-80. The median age was 20.2 in 1903, 16.9 in 1970 and 18.6 in 1980. The crude birth rate declined from 46.0/1000 in 1960 to 34.8 in 1975, while the crude death rate declined from 13.7/1000 in 1960 to 9.3 in 1975. The average age of Filipino women at marriage increased from 23.2 in 1975 to 24 in 1978, causing a decline of the total fertility rate from 5.89 to 4.70. The infant mortality rate was expected to decline from 59.3 in 1983 to 54.2 in 1987. The Philippines was still 63% rural in 1980 despite the concentration of urban growth in Manila. As of 1983, the Philippine Overseas Employment Administration had processed 434,207 employment contracts, of which 65.5% were for production process workers, transport equipment operators, and laborers, 15.3% were for service workers, and 13.9% were for professional and technical workers. The Philippine Family Planning program aims to reduce population growth from an estimated 2.54% in 1983 to 1.92% by 1993 and to achieve replacement level fertility by 2010. As a result of the 1978 review of the Philippine Population Programme, the focus is now on longterm planning to ensure more significant and perceptible demographic impact of development programs and policies. The Population Education Program aims to inculcate values supporting family planning in the areas of family size and welfare, responsible parenthood, and delayed marriage, while the Adolescent Fertility Program seeks to reduce the incidence of early marriage and pregnancy. 3496 clinics, hospitals, and sterilization centers provide family planning and related services

  6. Sustainable Rest Area Design and Operations

    2017-10-01

    One way in which State Departments of Transportation (DOTs) can modernize their rest areas while reducing operations and maintenance costs is by incorporating sustainable practices into rest area design and operations. Sustainability practices that D...

  7. West Coast Rockfish Conservation Areas, 2015

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data delineate Rockfish Conservation Areas (RCA) off the West Coast of the United States for 2015. There are three types of areas closures depicted in this...

  8. Mandatory Class 1 Federal Areas Web Service

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This web service contains the following layers: Mandatory Class 1 Federal Area polygons and Mandatory Class 1 Federal Area labels in the United States. The polygon...

  9. Science and Technology Business Area Strategic Plan

    Paul, Richard

    2000-01-01

    The S&T Business Area Strategic Plan has been updated to include lessons learned over the last two years, identifies areas that need to be reviewed further, addresses business opportunities and threats...

  10. Bureau of Land Management Wilderness Areas

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset is meant to depict wilderness areas within the state of New Mexico managed by the Bureau of Land Management These wilderness areas are officially...

  11. AgSat Areas of Interest

    Farm Service Agency, Department of Agriculture — The AgSat Areas of Interest map contains area polygons where satellite imagery will be collected for the Farm Service Agency (FSA) to provide imagery coverage for...

  12. Reserve Special Flood Hazard Areas (SFHA)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This vector dataset depicts the 1% annual flood boundary (otherwise known as special flood hazard area or 100 year flood boundary) for its specified area. The data...

  13. Hawaii ESI: MGT (Management Area Polygons)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains management area data for artificial reefs, designated critical habitats, national parks, marine sanctuaries, special management areas,...

  14. Coding Theory, Cryptography and Related Areas

    Buchmann, Johannes; Stichtenoth, Henning; Tapia-Recillas, Horacio

    Proceedings of anInternational Conference on Coding Theory, Cryptography and Related Areas, held in Guanajuato, Mexico. in april 1998......Proceedings of anInternational Conference on Coding Theory, Cryptography and Related Areas, held in Guanajuato, Mexico. in april 1998...

  15. Southeast Alaska ESI: MGT (Management Area Polygons)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains management area data for National Parks, Wildlife Refuges, and areas designated as Critical Habitat in Southeast Alaska. Vector polygons in...

  16. Elephant Butte Special Flood Hazard Areas (SFHA)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This vector dataset depicts the 1% annual flood boundary (otherwise known as special flood hazard area or 100 year flood boundary) for its specified area. The data...

  17. DNR Division of Enforcement Officer Patrol Areas

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This theme shows the DNR Division of Enforcement Office Patrol Areas as of January 1, 2003. Patrol areas were defined and verified by Patrol Officers during the fall...

  18. Lp-mixed affine surface area

    Wang, Weidong; Leng, Gangsong

    2007-11-01

    According to the three notions of mixed affine surface area, Lp-affine surface area and Lp-mixed affine surface area proposed by Lutwak, in this article, we give the concept of ith Lp-mixed affine surface area such that the first and second notions of Lutwak are its special cases. Further, some Lutwak's results are extended associated with this concept. Besides, applying this concept, we establish an inequality for the volumes and dual quermassintegrals of a class of star bodies.

  19. 32 CFR Appendix A to Subpart M of... - DPCA Recreational Areas in Training Areas

    2010-07-01

    ... launch adjacent to Officer's Club Beach on American Lake—Beachwood area Cat Lake Picnic and Fishing Area—Training Area 19 Chambers Lake Picnic and Fishing Area—Training Area 12 (See Para 3 below) Fiander lake Picnic and Fishing Area—Training Area 20 Johnson Marsh—Training Area 10 Lewis Lake Picnic and Fishing...

  20. Examination of catchment areas for public transport

    Landex, Alex; Hansen, Stephen; Andersen, Jonas Lohmann Elkjær

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents a method to examine the catchment areas for stops in high quality public transport systems based on the street network in the examined area. This is achieved by implementing the Service Area functions from the ArcGIS extension Network Analyst. The method is compared to a more...

  1. 47 CFR 54.207 - Service areas.

    2010-10-01

    ... company to be other than such company's study area, the Commission will consider that proposed definition... definition of a service area served by a rural telephone company. (2) The Commission shall issue a Public... to consider a definition of a service area served by a rural telephone company that is different from...

  2. 7 CFR 1940.959 - Area plan.

    2010-01-01

    ..., and time lines based on a realistic assessment of the area, including, but not limited to, the... possibilities for industrial recruitment in the area; (5) The potential for development of tourism in the area... expansion of existing businesses; and (7) The potential to produce value-added agricultural products in the...

  3. 32 CFR 1605.51 - Area.

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Area. 1605.51 Section 1605.51 National Defense... ORGANIZATION Local Boards § 1605.51 Area. (a) The Director of Selective Service shall divide each State into local board areas and establish local boards. There shall be at least one local board in each county...

  4. 7 CFR 959.4 - Production area.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production area. 959.4 Section 959.4 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ONIONS GROWN IN SOUTH TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 959.4 Production area. Production area means the counties of Val Verde...

  5. 7 CFR 956.4 - Production area.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production area. 956.4 Section 956.4 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET ONIONS GROWN IN THE WALLA WALLA VALLEY OF SOUTHEAST WASHINGTON AND NORTHEAST OREGON Definitions § 956.4 Production area. Production area...

  6. 7 CFR 955.4 - Production area.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production area. 955.4 Section 955.4 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIDALIA ONIONS GROWN IN GEORGIA Definitions § 955.4 Production area. Production area means that part of the State of Georgia enclosed by the...

  7. 50 CFR 665.98 - Management area.

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Management area. 665.98 Section 665.98 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... Management area. The American Samoa fishery management area is the EEZ seaward of the Territory of American...

  8. Low Impact Development for Industrial Areas

    2015-07-01

    copper gutters can also be significant sources of metal pollutants. Other studies indicate that vehicle disc brake pads and car tires can be a...industrial areas to develop the performance criteria for LID systems that specifically targeted these areas. Areas targeted include scrap metal recycling

  9. Guidelines for Waste Accumulation Areas (WAAs)

    1991-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to set conditions for establishing and maintaining areas for the accumulation of hazardous waste at LBL. Areas designed for accumulation of these wastes in quantities greater than 100 kg (220 lb) per month of solid waste or 55 gallons per month of liquid waste are called Waste Accumulation Areas (WAAs). Areas designed for accumulation of wastes in smaller amounts are called Satellite Accumulation Areas (SAAs). This document provides guidelines for employee and organizational responsibilities for WAAs; constructing a WAA; storing waste in a WAA; operating and maintaining a WAA, and responding to spills in a WAA. 4 figs

  10. Climate change threatens European conservation areas

    Bastos Araujo, Miguel; Alagador, Diogo; Cabeza, Mar

    2011-01-01

    Europe has the world's most extensive network of conservation areas. Conservation areas are selected without taking into account the effects of climate change. How effectively would such areas conserve biodiversity under climate change? We assess the effectiveness of protected areas and the Natura...... 2000 network in conserving a large proportion of European plant and terrestrial vertebrate species under climate change. We found that by 2080, 58 ± 2.6% of the species would lose suitable climate in protected areas, whereas losses affected 63 ± 2.1% of the species of European concern occurring...

  11. 300 Area Revitalization Project Management Plan

    Downey, H. D.

    1999-01-01

    The 300 Area Revitalization Team has been tasked with the responsibility to develop an integrated path forward for the 300 Area, as part of a commitment stemming from the 300 Area Disposition Workshop that was held on March 17, 1998. The integrated path forward that is needed must ensure that budget, schedule, and work scopes are complementary between the Programs that are involved in the 300Area. This Project Management Plan (PMP) defines the roles and responsibilities, and the overall approach, to development of a prioritized schedule for 300 Area activities that will achieve the end-state condition

  12. Ichthyofauna in an estuary of the Mataripe area, Todos os Santos Bay, Bahia, Brazil

    June Ferraz Dias

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The community structure and dynamics as well as some biological parameters of selected species of the ichthyofauna of the Mataripe estuarine region affected by the Landulfo Alves Oil Refinery (RLAM were analyzed. Twenty stations were sampled with a gillnet in five different periods: August and December 2003, March and July/August 2004 and January 2005. Thirty-five actinopterygian species and one elasmobranch species were recorded, Oligoplites saurus, Diapterus rhombeus, Lutjanus synagris and Scomberomorus brasiliensis among them, on all the campaigns. A total of 1368 specimens, weighing 36.10 kg, were caught. The ichthyofauna total biomass was greater, in weight, on the eastern side of the study region, especially at the stations close to the shoals/reefs and the rocky bottom. A similar pattern was also observed for the diversity values. In general, low evenness and diversity were observed in the area studied, possibly as a result of the fishing gear used. D. rhombeus juveniles dominated in all but one of the samplings (July 2004, in which latter Cyclichthys spinosus was dominant. Carangids and species associated with consolidated bottoms were observed, although in small numbers, throughout the study period. In spite of the limitations imposed by the gear used for sampling, the estuarine area influenced by the RLAM was seen to play a role as a growth area for the great majority of species, especially the mojarra (D. rhombeus, but it offers no fishing potential due to the prevalence of young and small individuals. Evidence of imminent spawning was recorded for Pomadasys corvinaeformis in August 2003, and recent spawning in March 2004 for Oligoplites saurus. Further, mature individuals occurred in insufficient numbers to permit population level evaluation.A estrutura e dinâmica da ictiofauna amostrada na região estuarina de Mataripe sob a influência da Refinaria Landulpho Alves-Mataripe (RLAM foi analisada. Vinte estações foram amostradas com

  13. On population growth near protected areas.

    Lucas N Joppa

    Full Text Available Protected areas are the first, and often only, line of defense in efforts to conserve biodiversity. They might be detrimental or beneficial to rural communities depending on how they alter economic opportunities and access to natural resources. As such, protected areas may attract or repel human settlement. Disproportionate increases in population growth near protected area boundaries may threaten their ability to conserve biodiversity.Using decadal population datasets, we analyze population growth across 45 countries and 304 protected areas. We find no evidence for population growth near protected areas to be greater than growth of rural areas in the same country. Furthermore, we argue that what growth does occur near protected areas likely results from a general expansion of nearby population centers.Our results contradict those from a recent study by Wittemyer et al., who claim overwhelming evidence for increased human population growth near protected areas. To understand the disagreement, we re-analyzed the protected areas in Wittemyer et al.'s paper. Their results are simply artifacts of mixing two incompatible datasets. Protected areas may experience unusual population pressures near their edges; indeed, individual case studies provide examples. There is no evidence, however, of a general pattern of disproportionate population growth near protected areas.

  14. Radioactive mineral occurrences in the Bancroft area

    Satterly, J

    1958-12-31

    The report summarizes three years of field work conducted in the Bancroft area investigating occurrences of radioactive minerals, and also includes accounts of properties in the area for which drill logs and survey reports have been filed. It begins with a history of exploration and development of radioactive mineral deposits in the area, a review of the area`s general geology (Grenville metasediments, plutonic rocks), and general descriptions of the types of radioactive mineral deposits found in the area (deposits in granitic and syenitic bodies, metasomatic deposits in limy rocks, hydrothermal deposits). It also describes the mineralogy of radioactive minerals found in the area and the Geiger counter technique used in the investigation. The bulk of the report consists of descriptions of radioactive mineral properties and mine workings, containing (where available) information on exploration history, general and economic geology, and production.

  15. Conceptual geohydrological model of the separations area

    Root, R.W.; Marine, I.W.

    1977-01-01

    Subsurface drilling in and around the Separations Areas (F-Area and H-Area of the Savannah River Plant) is providing detailed information for a conceptual model of the geology and hydrology underlying these areas. This conceptual model will provide the framework needed for a mathematical model of groundwater movement beneath these areas. Existing information substantiates the presence of two areally extensive clay layers and several discontinuous clay and sandy-clay layers. These layers occur in and between beds of clayey and silty sand that make up most of the subsurface material. Within these sand beds are geologic units of differing hydraulic conductivity. For the present scale of the model, the subsurface information is considered adequate in H-Area, but additional drilling is planned in F-Area

  16. Lithofacies Attributes of a Transgressive Carbonate System : The Middle Eocence Seeb Formation, Al Khoud Area, Muscat, Oman

    Osman Salad Hersi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Seeb Formation (Middle Eocene is an about 600 m thick transgressive carbonate succession deposited in the Batina and Muscat coastal region of Oman. The formation consists of five informal, but distinct units, and their stacking architecture suggests a deepening-upward, shallow marine depositional setting. Unit I is characterized by cross-bedded, sandy, bioclastic packstones to grainstones deposited in a high energy beach-to-intertidal environment. Unit II consists of indistinctly bedded, nodular, bioclastic (mainly larger foraminifera packstones and wackestones deposited in a logoonal lagoonal environment. Unit III is defined by medium to thickly bedded, bioclastic packestones to grainstones and subordinate, laterally confined conglomerates. Prominent sedimentary structures in Unit III include hummocky and swaly cross-stratificiation, erosional surfaces, dewatering-induced deformations and laterally amalgamating beds. This unit represents sub-tidal sand shoals deposited in a storm-dominated shelf (between the fair-weather wave-base and storm-base. Unit IV is extensively burrowed, nodular, bioclastic wackestone to rudstone which is similar to Unit II in many aspects. Unit IV was deposited on the basinward side of the Unit III sand shoals below the reach of the storm-generated waves and currents. The uppermost Unit V is characterized by poorly-cemented bioclastic (large foraminiferal rudstones with clay and silt-size quartz matrix. Bioclasts are generally intact with no apparent reworking. Deposition of Unit V is also envisaged as a low-energy, outershelf environment.

  17. Oil geology of carbonate rock (Part 9)

    Oshima, Kazuaki [Canpex Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1989-04-01

    As related with the oil exploration and development, the geological and environmental situation, where coral and other biological reef forms, was explained in Mubarras shoal and Bu Tinah shoal off Abu Dhabi, and the Okinawa islands. Generally, reef-natured sediment is distributed in marine areas, high in wave energy and facing open sea, and composed of coarse sediment. While, for the formation of biological reef, life must have so strong skeleton as to stand such severe wave, current and other oceanographic conditions. In Mubarras shoal, underground upheaval is found mainly in the northern part of shoal, while, in Bu Tinah shoal, it is found at the central part of shoal. Both the shoals are mutually different in condition of coral reef and coarse particulate sediment however common in the point that coral reef is always formed from the central part of upheaval toward offshore, inside which formation coarse calcareous sediment is formed. While the existence of calcareous mud prevents coral from growing and simultaneously lower reservoir rock in form condition. 26 figs.

  18. 78 FR 31974 - Notice of Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement and Notice of Public Meetings...

    2013-05-28

    ...The Bureau of Reclamation has made available for public review and comment, the Draft Resource Management Plan (RMP)/Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) for the Newlands Project. This RMP/DEIS provides a range of alternatives for managing Reclamation- administered lands in the Newlands Project Planning Area, which is in the west-central Nevada counties of Washoe, Storey, Lyon, and Churchill.

  19. Tern Island - French Frigate Shoal - Locations of Marine Debris Removal by NOAA

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset corresponds to Figure 5-1 in DRAFT TECHNICAL SUPPORT DOCUMENT TO THE PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT FOR THE FWS - HAWAIIAN ISLANDS NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE:...

  20. The KwaZulu-Natal sardine run: shoal distribution in relation to ...

    The predator variables were highly significant (r2 = 0.48) with Cape gannets Morus capensis, followed by the sharks/gamefish and common dolphins Delphinus capensis, being most closely associated with sardine presence. Environmental variables were not as influential in the GLM models (r2 = 0.23), but some variables ...

  1. Shoaling of sergestid shrimp Acetes johni (Crustacea Decapoda: Sergestidae) associated with swarming of gammarid amphipods

    Goswami, S.C.

    zooplankton standing stock (5.81 ml.m/3). The sergestid shrimps and gammarid amphipods formed 94.7% of the zooplankton population, the former constituting more than half of the biomass of the sample. Their numerical abundance decreased with depth. The adaptive...

  2. CRED REA Invertebrate Quantitative Assessments at French Frigate Shoals, NW Hawaiian Islands, in 2004

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support a long-term NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, from 13 September - 17...

  3. CRED REA Invertebrate Quantitative Assessments at French Frigate Shoals, NW Hawaiian Islands, in 2008

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support a long-term NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, from 12 September - 12...

  4. CRED REA Invertebrate Quantitative Assessments at French Frigate Shoals, NW Hawaiian Islands, in 2000

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support a long-term NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, from 08 September - 06...

  5. CRED Integrated Benthic Habitat Map for French Frigate Shoals, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands 2007

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is an integrated benthic habitat map system which consists of a number of separate map layers including multibeam bathymetry, acoustic backscatter imagery,...

  6. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at French Frigate Shoals, NW Hawaiian Islands in 2006

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  7. Consistency of leadership in shoals of mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki in novel and in familiar environments.

    Alicia L J Burns

    Full Text Available In social animal groups, an individual's spatial position is a major determinant of both predation risk and foraging rewards. Additionally, the occupation of positions in the front of moving groups is generally assumed to correlate with the initiation of group movements. However, whether some individuals are predisposed to consistently occupy certain positions and, in some instances, to consistently lead groups over time is as yet unresolved in many species. Using the mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki, we examined the consistency of individuals' spatial positions within a moving group over successive trials. We found that certain individuals consistently occupied front positions in moving groups and also that it was typically these individuals that initiated group decisions. The number of individuals involved in leading the group varied according to the amount of information held by group members, with a greater number of changes in leadership in a novel compared to a relatively familiar environment. Finally, our results show that the occupation of lead positions in moving groups was not explained by characteristics such as dominance, size or sex, suggesting that certain individuals are predisposed to leadership roles. This suggests that being a leader or a follower may to some extent be an intrinsic property of the individual.

  8. Geostatistical three-dimensional modeling of oolite shoals, St. Louis Limestone, southwest Kansas

    Qi, L.; Carr, T.R.; Goldstein, R.H.

    2007-01-01

    In the Hugoton embayment of southwestern Kansas, reservoirs composed of relatively thin (Big Bow and Sand Arroyo Creek fields. Lithofacies in uncored wells were predicted from digital logs using a neural network. The tilting effect from the Laramide orogeny was removed to construct restored structural surfaces at the time of deposition. Well data and structural maps were integrated to build 3-D models of oolitic reservoirs using stochastic simulations with geometry data. Three-dimensional models provide insights into the distribution, the external and internal geometry of oolitic deposits, and the sedimentologic processes that generated reservoir intervals. The structural highs and general structural trend had a significant impact on the distribution and orientation of the oolitic complexes. The depositional pattern and connectivity analysis suggest an overall aggradation of shallow-marine deposits during pulses of relative sea level rise followed by deepening near the top of the St. Louis Limestone. Cemented oolitic deposits were modeled as barriers and baffles and tend to concentrate at the edge of oolitic complexes. Spatial distribution of porous oolitic deposits controls the internal geometry of rock properties. Integrated geostatistical modeling methods can be applicable to other complex carbonate or siliciclastic reservoirs in shallow-marine settings. Copyright ?? 2007. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists. All rights reserved.

  9. H09395: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Cape Lookout Shoals, North Carolina, 1974-04-18

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  10. H09398: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Frying Pan Shoals, North Carolina, 1973-09-22

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  11. H09042: NOS Hydrographic Survey , East of Frying Pan Shoals, North Carolina, 1969-03-14

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  12. H09044: NOS Hydrographic Survey , East of Frying Pan Shoals, North Carolina, 1969-04-25

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  13. H09399: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Frying Pan Shoals, North Carolina, 1973-10-19

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  14. H09323: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Frying Pan Shoals, North Carolina, 1974-07-30

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  15. H08512: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Frying Pan Shoals, North Carolina, 1956-10-04

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  16. H09400: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Frying Pan Shoals, North Carolina, 1973-10-19

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  17. H09045: NOS Hydrographic Survey , East of Frying Pan Shoals, North Carolina, 1969-10-22

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  18. H08512A: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Frying Pan Shoals, North Carolina, 1956-10-04

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  19. H08511: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Frying Pan Shoals, North Carolina, 1956-10-04

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  20. CRED Cumulative Map of Percent Scleractinian Coral Cover at Stingray Shoals

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This map displays optical validation observation locations and percent coverage of scleractinian coral overlaid on bathymetry.