WorldWideScience

Sample records for shipping containers corporate

  1. Wind Forces on Container Ships

    Andersen, Ingrid Marie Vincent

    2012-01-01

    An investigation of the wind forces acting on a 9,000+ TEU container ship has been carried out through a series of wind tunnel tests. It was investigated how the wind forces depend on the container configuration on the deck using a 1:450 scale model and a series of appropriate container...... are presented as nondimensional coefficients. It is concluded, that the measured forces and moment depend on the container configuration on deck, and the results may provide a general idea of how the magnitude of the wind forces is affected by a given container stacking configuration on a similar container ship....

  2. Containment of spills from ships

    Engerer, M.J.

    1992-01-01

    Oil escaping from a ship is contained within a limited area surrounding the ship by means of a flexible ring structure. The ring structure is stored in a collapsed state in a compartment extending around the ship. In response to an oil spill, the ring structure is dropped from the compartment and immediately surrounds the ship. A circular inflatable flotation section of the ring structure is charged with gas under pressure. The gas is supplied from a bottle cascade aboard the ship, through lines preconnected to the flotation section and paid out from free-wheeling reels. The flotation section supports a thin circumferential wall of predetermined height that submerges and assumes a vertical cylinder-like shape surrounding the escaping oil. The oil floats within the confines of the ring structure, and the ring structure is progressively expanded to a predetermined size selected to accommodate the total volume of oil carried by the ship. When the ring structure achieves its expanded state, pressure in the flotation section is raised to render the structure relatively rigid and resistant to collapse in response to wave action. Oil can be removed from the interior of the ring structure by recovery ships using suction lines or other conventional recovery methods. 12 figs

  3. Container for shipping dangerous material

    Blum, P.T.

    1987-01-01

    This container for shipping dangerous material is made by a cylindrical casing of austenitic stainless steel with rounded ends and walls of uniform thickness with welded joins, a tubular metal shock absorber fixed over each end of the casing, removable lugs fixed to the casing, optionally retainers for the material within the casing [fr

  4. 27 CFR 44.187 - Shipping containers.

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shipping containers. 44... Shipping containers. Each shipping case, crate, or other container in which tobacco products, or cigarette... same containers in which they were received from the factory. (72 Stat. 1418, as amended; 26 U.S.C...

  5. 27 CFR 44.254 - Shipping containers.

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shipping containers. 44.254 Section 44.254 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Requirements § 44.254 Shipping containers. Each shipping case, crate, or other container, in which cigars are...

  6. Shipping container for nuclear fuels

    Housholder, W.R.; Greer, N.L.

    1976-01-01

    A container for nuclear materials is described wherein a specially and uniquely constructed pressure vessel and gamma shield assembly for holding the nuclear materials is provided in a housing, and wherein a positioning means extends between the housing and the assembly for spacing the same, insulation in the housing essentially filling the space between the assembly and housing, the insulation comprising beads, globules or the like of water encapsulated in plastic and which, in one important embodiment, contains neutron absorbing matter

  7. BALTIC CONTAINER SHIPPING MARKET GOES GLOBAL

    Ernest Czermański

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at summarizing the last period of the Baltic container shipping mar-ket’s development, especially after 2000. The author, taking especially into account changes that have occurred in 2010, ultimately demonstrate that through the analyzed changes, this market has become a global one - thus being shaped by global determinants influencing its further development. Author selected and analyzed some chosen, most important factors influencing future market development. Secondly, some chances and threats resulting from the described changes were presented, either for the entire market as a base for international trade of Baltic Sea Region countries, and for its actors, mainly shipping owners and operators acting as a supply side of the Baltic container market. Finally, author has tried to verify and questioned the doubts and strong concerns about the future of the Baltic container shipping, especially about the feeder services, as because there are real indications and arguments against these concern.

  8. Standardized analyses of nuclear shipping containers

    Parks, C.V.; Hermann, O.W.; Petrie, L.M.; Hoffman, T.J.; Tang, J.S.; Landers, N.F.; Turner, W.D.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes improved capabilities for analyses of nuclear fuel shipping containers within SCALE -- a modular code system for Standardized Computer Analyses for Licensing Evaluation. Criticality analysis improvements include the new KENO V, a code which contains an enhanced geometry package and a new control module which uses KENO V and allows a criticality search on optimum pitch (maximum k-effective) to be performed. The SAS2 sequence is a new shielding analysis module which couples fuel burnup, source term generation, and radial cask shielding. The SAS5 shielding sequence allows a multidimensional Monte Carlo analysis of a shipping cask with code generated biasing of the particle histories. The thermal analysis sequence (HTAS1) provides an easy-to-use tool for evaluating a shipping cask response to the accident capability of the SCALE system to provide the cask designer or evaluator with a computational system that provides the automated procedures and easy-to-understand input that leads to standarization

  9. Network Design Models for Container Shipping

    Reinhardt, Line Blander; Kallehauge, Brian; Nielsen, Anders Nørrelund

    This paper presents a study of the network design problem in container shipping. The paper combines the network design and fleet assignment problem into a mixed integer linear programming model minimizing the overall cost. The major contributions of this paper is that the time of a vessel route...... is included in the calculation of the capacity and that a inhomogeneous fleet is modeled. The model also includes the cost of transshipment which is one of the major cost for the shipping companies. The concept of pseudo simple routes is introduced to expand the set of feasible routes. The linearization...

  10. Special closure for radioactive shipping container

    Otts, J.V.

    1976-03-01

    The objective of this program was to develop a special lid closure for radioactive material shipping containers, typically steel drums. Three closure techniques were designed, fabricated, and proven to be structurally adequate to protect 1000 lb when dropped 30 ft. The three designs were (1) a 6-in. lid extension (skirt), (2) a 6-in. inner lid, and (3) c-clamps used at the container/lid interface. Based upon structural integrity, economic impact, and minimal design change, the 6-in. lid extension is recommended

  11. Crash testing of nuclear fuel shipping containers

    Jefferson, R.M.; Yoshimura, H.R.

    1977-08-01

    In an attempt to understand the dynamics of extra severe transportation accidents and to evaluate state-of-the-art computational techniques for predicting the dynamic response of shipping casks involved in vehicular system crashes, the Environmental Control Technology Division of ERDA undertook a program with Sandia to investigate these areas. The program encompasses the following distinct major efforts. The first of these utilizes computational methods for predicting the effects of the accident environment and, subsequently, to calculate the damage incurred by a container as the result of such an accident. The second phase involves the testing of 1 / 8 -scale models of transportation systems. Through the use of instrumentation and high-speed motion photography the accident environments and physical damage mechanisms are studied in detail. After correlating the results of these first two phases, a full scale event involving representative hardware is conducted. To date two of the three selected test scenarios have been completed. Results of the program to this point indicate that both computational techniques and scale modeling are viable engineering approaches to studying accident environments and physical damage to shipping casks

  12. Crash testing of nuclear fuel shipping containers

    Jefferson, R.M.; Yoshimura, H.R.

    1977-12-01

    In an attempt to understand the dynamics of extra severe transportation accidents and to evaluate state-of-the-art computational techniques for predicting the dynamic response of shipping casks involved in vehicular system crashes, the Environmental Control Technology Division of ERDA undertook a program with Sandia to investigate these areas. This program, which began in 1975, encompasses the following distinct major efforts. The first of these utilizes computational methods for predicting the effects of the accident environment and, subsequently, to calculate the damage incurred by a container as the result of such an accident. The second phase involves the testing of 1 / 8 -scale models of transportation systems. Through the use of instrumentation and high-speed motion photography, the accident environments and physical damage mechanisms are studied in detail. After correlating the results of these first two phases, a full scale event involving representative hardware is conducted. To date two of the three selected test scenarios have been completed. Results of the program to this point indicate that both computational techniques and scale modeling are viable engineering approaches to studying accident environments and physical damage to shipping casks

  13. Special closures for steel drum shipping containers

    Bonzon, L.L.; Otts, J.V.

    1976-01-01

    The objective of this program was to develop special lid closures for typical, steel drum, radioactive material shipping containers. Previous experience and testing had shown that the existing container was adequate to withstand the required environmental tests for certification, but that the lid and closure were just marginally effective. Specifically, the lid closure failed to consistently maintain a tight seal between the container and the lid after drop tests, thus causing the package contents to be vulnerable in the subsequent fire test. Recognizing the deficiency, the United States Energy Research and Development Administration requested the development of new closure(s) which would: (1) be as strong and resistant to a drop as the bottom of the container; (2) have minimal economic impact on the overall container cost; (3) maximize the use of existing container designs; (4) consider crush loads; and (5) result in less dependence on personnel and loading procedures. Several techniques were evaluated and found to be more effective than the standard closure mechanism. Of these, three new closure techniques were designed, fabricated, and proven to be structurally adequate to provide containment when a 454-kg drum was drop tested from 9.14-m onto an unyielding surface. The three designs were: (1) a 152-mm long lid extension or skirt welded to the standard drum lid, (2) a separate inner lid, with 152-mm long skirt and (3) C-clamps used at the container-lid interface. Based upon structural integrity, economic impact, and minimal design change, the lid extension is the recommended special closure

  14. 9 CFR 83.7 - Shipping containers; cleaning and disinfection.

    2010-01-01

    ... HEMORRHAGIC SEPTICEMIA § 83.7 Shipping containers; cleaning and disinfection. (a) All live fish that are to be... been cleaned and disinfected. (1) Cleaning and disinfection of shipping containers must be monitored by... who issues the ICI. (2) Cleaning and disinfection must be sufficient to neutralize any VHS virus to...

  15. Risk Analysis on Ship Wreck and Container Cargo to Ship Navigation

    Muhammad Badrus Zaman

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Wreck of a ship is an incident that must be avoided. Ship accidents are generally caused by a several cases, such as human error, natural disaster, technical errors, missed communication, poor condition of the ship, and many more. Ship wreckage have huge impact for ship navigation, environment, economics, and others. Those impact have many disadvantages for the shipowners, and also for environment. For examples the fuel spills that pollute the environment, make disturbance to sailing ship because the track for those navigation is blocked by the ship wreck and their cargo especially on shallow location (<50 m. These research will discuss the effect the container when it is floats on the sea and its interference other ships. The main objective of this study is to present a risk assessment on the environmental impact of the wreck and container cargo. Wrecks on the seabed is likely to pose a risk to passing ships. container and its contents as well as the possibility of refloat, and also their environmental risks emanating from the wreck and container cargo, such as fuels, lubricants, and chemical cargo. Variations scenario is a collision between ships that pass by floating containers. The frequency of refloating container, and the consequences of the passing ship depends on several factors, which will be the subject of research. However, because of the frequency of refloating containers is unlikely, then the risk is low and does not pose a danger to navigation. These risk assessment using risk matrix 5x5 which is the combined value of the frequency and consequences of the incident. The results of this study indicate the level of risk, whether the risk is accepted, not accepted or received by considering the costs and benefits (ALARP. To consequence, there are two parameters which energy is absorbed and the penetration occurs. The absorbed energy is divided into two, namely the energy absorbed by ship and the energy absorbed by containers. In this

  16. Early Detection of Parametric Roll Resonance on Container Ships

    Galeazzi, Roberto; Blanke, Mogens; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2013-01-01

    Parametric roll resonance on ships is a nonlinear phenomenon where waves encountered at twice the natural roll frequency can bring the vessel dynamics into a bifurcation mode and lead to extreme values of roll. Recent years have seen several incidents with dramatic damage to container vessels...... the ship's speed and course, to escape from the bifurcation condition. This paper proposes nonparametric methods to detect the onset of roll resonance and demonstrates their performance. Theoretical conditions for parametric resonance are revisited and are used to develop efficient methods to detect its...... on experimental data from model tests and on data from a container ship crossing the Atlantic during a storm....

  17. Lift-based up-ender and methods using same to manipulate a shipping container containing unirradiated nuclear fuel

    Nilles, Michael J.

    2017-08-01

    A shipping container containing an unirradiated nuclear fuel assembly is lifted off the ground by operating a crane to raise a lifting tool comprising a winch. The lifting tool is connected with the shipping container by a rigging line connecting with the shipping container at a lifting point located on the shipping container between the top and bottom of the shipping container, and by winch cabling connecting with the shipping container at the top of the shipping container. The shipping container is reoriented by operating the winch to adjust the length of the winch cabling so as to rotate the shipping container about the lifting point. Shortening the winch cabling rotates the shipping container about the lifting point from a horizontal orientation to a vertical orientation, while lengthening the winch cabling rotates the shipping container about the lifting point from the vertical orientation to the horizontal orientation.

  18. Methods of Raising Funds for Purchasing of New Cruise Ships by International Corporations

    Kizielewicz Joanna

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The world’s cruise corporations regularly purchase large, luxurious cruise ships. In accordance with the Cruise Line International Association, 33 new ocean cruise ships will be available on the market by 2020. These types of capital expenditures are associated with large financial outlays of up to $ 1 billion. The leading cruise corporations are not able to finance purchases of new units with their own resources and therefore look for different solutions. Available publications focus mainly on issues related to purchasing cargo ships, not cruise ships. The objective of the article is to identify sources of funding of new cruise ships. Our analysis identifies the average capital expenditure associated with purchasing new cruise ships and factors that influence it. The most popular methods for raising such capital are also provided. Our research methodology relies on data exploration method, a desk research method and comparative analysis.

  19. The contraction of container for shipping antibiotics and serum

    Santoso, Romi; Kadarusman; Krismawan

    2003-01-01

    The construction of container for shipping antibiotics and serum. The construction of container is an engineering process to solve problem in shipping of antibiotics and serum to their destinations, in the same time to preserve their quality, in order to be used by the local patients. Inner part of antibiotics containers is made of stainless-steel, guarded by a vacuum and its temperature is conditioned between -10,8 to -20,2 oC so it can preserve the antibiotics and serum up to several days

  20. Contestability of Container Liner Shipping Market in Alliance Era

    Enna Hirata

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A cross section panel model is applied to estimate the effect that the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI has on container freight rates for a sample of six major container liner shipping routes during 2009 to 2011. The estimated coefficient of HHI is non-positive and statistically insignificant, indicating that higher concentration level does not lead to high price and the container liner shipping market is contestable for the period under consideration. The suggestion that efficiency can be achieved without actual competition in a contestable market is highly significant for policy makers.

  1. Thermal analysis of the IDENT 1578 fuel pin shipping container

    Ingham, J.G.

    1980-01-01

    The IDENT 1578 container, which is a 110-in. long 5.5-in. OD tube, is designed for shipping FFTF fuel elements in T-3 casks between HEDL, HFEF, and other laboratories. The thermal analysis was conducted to evaluate whether or not the container satisfies its thermal design criteria

  2. Wind loads on post-panamax container ship

    Andersen, Ingrid Marie Vincent

    2013-01-01

    An investigation of the influence of the container configuration on the deck of a 9000+ TEU container ship on wind forces has been carried out through a series of wind tunnel tests with a 1:450 scale model. An analysis of earlier studies was used to select a series of appropriate loading conditions...

  3. Designing container shipping network under changing demand and freight rates

    C. Chen

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the optimization of container shipping network and its operations under changing cargo demand and freight rates. The problem is formulated as a mixed integer non-linear programming problem (MINP with an objective of maximizing the average unit ship-slot profit at three stages using analytical methodology. The issues such as empty container repositioning, ship-slot allocating, ship sizing, and container configuration are simultaneously considered based on a series of the matrices of demand for a year. To solve the model, a bi-level genetic algorithm based method is proposed. Finally, numerical experiments are provided to illustrate the validity of the proposed model and algorithms. The obtained results show that the suggested model can provide a more realistic solution to the issues on the basis of changing demand and freight rates and arrange a more effective approach to the optimization of container shipping network structures and operations than does the model based on the average demand.

  4. Levels of Internationalization in the Container Shipping Industry

    Gadhia, Hitesh Kumar; Kotzab, Herbert; Prockl, Günter

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the internationalization level of the world’s largest container shipping companies by examining their port networks. The results of our analysis show that only three of the nineteen companies could be considered as being truly ‘International’ and service the ‘lion’s share......’ of the major and minor ports distributed across the globe. The port networks of the other companies in our survey, whilst having individualized features, shared common characteristics. Guided by the ‘Uppsala Model of Incremental Internationalization’ (Johanson and Vahlne, 1977), we were able to identify four...... internationalization levels of a container shipping company that are indicated by their port network. We argue that the port network plays an additional role as it contributes to the internationalization level of the container shipping companies. This is important because the internationalization level affects...

  5. Safety analysis report for packaging Lawrence Livermore Laboratories shipping containers

    Evans, J.H.

    1975-12-01

    The Lawrence Livermore Laboratories shipping containers were designed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory for use in transporting weapons and nuclear components. The design for the containers was evaluated to show compliance with applicable regulations governing packages in which radioactive and fissile materials are transported. Computational procedures were used to determine the structural integrity and thermal behavior of the containers relative to the standards for the normal conditions of transport. A full-scale container test model was destructively tested to verify compliance with the standards for the accident conditions. The results of the analytical evaluations and the tests demonstrate that the design for the Lawrence Livermore Laboratories shipping containers is in compliance with the applicable regulations

  6. Quality assurance measures for spent fuel shipping and storage containers

    Droste, B.; Roedel, R.

    1987-01-01

    Quality assurance measures are to be applied in production and operation to ensure the approved fuel-element-container design specifications. The authors concentrate on the official regulations pertaining to the application of a quality assurance system, on the compliance with design specifications ensured by certified manufacturing tests and in-service inspections. For nodular-cast-iron container bodies, the authors demonstrate the procedure by presenting the contents of the materials data sheet characterizing the material, and the production and test sequence plan for container casting. In addition, they state the quality assurance requirements for interim-storage containers which transgress those stipulated for shipping containers. (orig.) [de

  7. Network Design for Container Shipping Using Cutting Planes

    The network design problem in container shipping is of increasing importance in the strongly competitive markets where potential cost reductions are of the utmost importance. We combine the network design and fleet assignment problem into a mixed integer linear programming model minimizing the ov...... the fact that the route of a ship allows for subtours, we introduce the concept of pseudo-simple routes. To solve the problem we use a branch and cut solution method using clover and capacity cuts we defined for the problem.......The network design problem in container shipping is of increasing importance in the strongly competitive markets where potential cost reductions are of the utmost importance. We combine the network design and fleet assignment problem into a mixed integer linear programming model minimizing...... the overall cost. The real-life container shipping network design problem differs in several ways from the standard network design problem. Examples of these differences are the cyclic routes of vessels and the fact that a route is continuously sailed for a given forecast period. To model these real...

  8. Failure assessment techniques to ensure shipping container integrity

    McConnell, P.

    1986-02-01

    This report discusses several methodologies which may be used to ensure the structural integrity of containment systems to be used for the transport and storage of high-level radioactive substances. For economic reasons, shipping containers constructed of ferritic materials are being considered for manufacture by vendors in the US and Europe. Ferritic show an inherent transition from a ductile, high energy failure mode to a brittle, low energy fracture mode with decreasing temperature. Therefore, formal consideration of means by which to avoid unstable brittle fracture is necessary prior to the licensing of ferritic casks. It is suggested that failure of a shipping container wall be defined as occurring when a flaw extends through the outer wall of the containment system. Crack initiation which may lead to unstable brittle crack growth should therefore be prevented. It is suggested that a fundamental linear elastic fracture mechanics (lefm) approach be adopted on a case-by-case basis, applied perhaps by means of appropriate modifications to ASMA Section III or Section XI. A lefm analysis requires information concerning service temperatures, loading rates, flaw sizes, and applied stresses. Tentative judgments regarding these parameters for typical shipping containers have been made

  9. VeriTainer radiation detector for intermodal shipping containers

    Redus, R.H.; Alioto, M.; Sperry, D.; Pantazis, T.

    2007-01-01

    The VeriSpreader TM radiation detection system will monitor every container passing through a shipping terminal without impeding the flow of commerce by making the radiation measurements during normal container handling. This is accomplished by integrating neutron and spectroscopic γ-ray detectors into a container crane spreader bar, the part of the crane that directly engages the intermodal shipping containers while moving from ship to shore and vice versa. The use of a spectroscopic γ-detector reduces the rate of nuisance alarms due to naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). The combination of γ and neutron detection reduces the effectiveness of shielding and countermeasures. The challenges in this spreader bar-based approach arise from the harsh environment, particularly the mechanical shock and the vibration of the moving spreader bar, since the measurement is taken while the container is moving. The electrical interfaces in the port environment, from the crane to a central monitoring office, present further challenges. It is the packaging, electronic interfaces, and data processing software that distinguish this system, which is based on conventional radiation sensors. The core of the system is Amptek's GAMMA-RAD, which integrates a ruggedized scintillator/PMT, digital pulse shaping electronics, electronics for the neutron detector, power supplies, and an Ethernet interface. The design of the VeriTainer system and results from both the laboratory and a proof-of-concept test at the Port of Oakland, California will be presented

  10. 76 FR 51367 - China Shipping Container Lines Co., Ltd.; COSCO Container Lines Company Limited; Evergreen Line A...

    2011-08-18

    ... FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION [Docket No. 11-12] China Shipping Container Lines Co., Ltd.; COSCO Container Lines Company Limited; Evergreen Line A Joint Service Agreement; Hanjin Shipping Co., Ltd... Maritime Commission (Commission) by China Shipping Container Lines Co., Ltd.; COSCO Container Lines Company...

  11. Gamma motes for detection of radioactive materials in shipping containers

    Harold McHugh; William Quam; Stephan Weeks; Brendan Sever

    2007-01-01

    Shipping containers can be effectively monitored for radiological materials using gamma (and neutron) motes in distributed mesh networks. The mote platform is ideal for collecting data for integration into operational management systems required for efficiently and transparently monitoring international trade. Significant reductions in size and power requirements have been achieved for room-temperature cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) gamma detectors. Miniaturization of radio modules and microcontroller units are paving the way for low-power, deeply-embedded, wireless sensor distributed mesh networks

  12. Agile service oriented shipping companies in the container terminal

    W. Liu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Agility is regarded as one of the core capabilities and the developing trend of supply chains and their enterprises. Along with the development of economical globalization, supply chain management and containerization as well as container ports as a part of supply chain take more roles like logistics or distribution centers. Under this background, the container terminal should have superior response and develop agility. The main goal of this paper is to emphasize and illustrate the importance and imminence of implementing agility in container terminals. To achieve this goal, the analysis of the economies of scale in the container terminal is presented. In this paper, however, more attention will be paid to agile service oriented shipping companies. The concept and characters of agile service in the container terminal is illustrated. The paper also focuses on the agile organizational structure of the container terminal. Finally, the fuzzy quality synthetic evaluation method is given to evaluate the performance level of agile service in container terminal oriented shipping companies.

  13. The Impact of Corporate Governance and the Cost of Capital in Shipping

    Vicky Zampeta

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose - The main aim of this paper is to analyze the impact of corporate governance and the cost of capital in shipping industry. The present study grasps on a doctoral thesis aiming to analyze the above developments in the shipping industry in general and mostly in the Greek owed shipping companies and how these developments have been evaluated by the top executives based on a market research we have conducted. Design/methodology/approach - The main idea for the consolidation of the results of the regression methodology used is to analyze research hypotheses related to effects of Corporate Governance in the shipping industry, emerged in a previous article by Zampeta (2011 and Thalassinos and Zampeta (2012. The research hypotheses will be explored with econometric methodology to be confirmed or rejected depending on the statistical significance of the coefficients of the factors - variables selected and express their respective cases. The specific way of analyzing the answers from the questionnaires used sufficiently cover the concept of triangulation (triangulation because they use primary research data (sample analysis questionnaires, with acceptable bibliography concerning the impact of globalization and the evolution international trade financing cost of shipping enterprises. There is a need to exploit the results of the factorial analysis used by Zampeta (2011, Thalassinos and Zampeta (2012 and Thalassinos and Zampeta (2015 to the methodology of regression to analyze research hypotheses related to the Factor of the Cost of Capital and the Factor of Corporate Governance and their impacts in the Shipping Industry. Findings - The results of the subject research confirm the views of the top executives that specific explanatory variables are forming the factors referring to corporate governance and the cost of capital in the shipping industry. In addition, they have influenced the decision of the shipping companies to adopt the Corporate

  14. Validity of scale modeling for large deformations in shipping containers

    Burian, R.J.; Black, W.E.; Lawrence, A.A.; Balmert, M.E.

    1979-01-01

    The principal overall objective of this phase of the continuing program for DOE/ECT is to evaluate the validity of applying scaling relationships to accurately assess the response of unprotected model shipping containers severe impact conditions -- specifically free fall from heights up to 140 ft onto a hard surface in several orientations considered most likely to produce severe damage to the containers. The objective was achieved by studying the following with three sizes of model casks subjected to the various impact conditions: (1) impact rebound response of the containers; (2) structural damage and deformation modes; (3) effect on the containment; (4) changes in shielding effectiveness; (5) approximate free-fall threshold height for various orientations at which excessive damage occurs; (6) the impact orientation(s) that tend to produce the most severe damage; and (7) vunerable aspects of the casks which should be examined. To meet the objective, the tests were intentionally designed to produce extreme structural damage to the cask models. In addition to the principal objective, this phase of the program had the secondary objectives of establishing a scientific data base for assessing the safety and environmental control provided by DOE nuclear shipping containers under impact conditions, and providing experimental data for verification and correlation with dynamic-structural-analysis computer codes being developed by the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory for DOE/ECT

  15. Shipping container response to three severe railway accident scenarios

    Mok, G.C.; Fischer, L.E.; Murty, S.S.; Witte, M.C.

    1998-01-01

    The probability of damage and the potential resulting hazards are analyzed for a representative rail shipping container for three severe rail accident scenarios. The scenarios are: (1) the rupture of closure bolts and resulting opening of closure lid due to a severe impact, (2) the puncture of container by an impacting rail-car coupler, and (3) the yielding of container due to side impact on a rigid uneven surface. The analysis results indicate that scenario 2 is a physically unreasonable event while the probabilities of a significant loss of containment in scenarios 1 and 3 are extremely small. Before assessing the potential risk for the last two scenarios, the uncertainties in predicting complex phenomena for rare, high- consequence hazards needs to be addressed using a rigorous methodology

  16. Heat transfer in a fuel pin shipping container

    Ingham, J.G.

    1980-01-01

    Maximum cladding temperatures occur when the IDENT 1578 fuel pin shipping container is installed in the T-3 Cask. The maximum allowable cladding temperature of 800 0 F is reached when the rate of energy deposited in the 19-pin basket reaches 400 watts. Since 45% of the energy which is generated in the fuel escapes the 19-pin basket without being deposited, mostly gamma energy, the maximum allowable rate of heat generation is 400/.55 = 727 watts. Similarly, the maximum allowable cladding temperature of 800 0 F is reached when the rate of energy deposited in the 40-pin basket reaches 465 watts. Since 33% of the energy which is generated in the fuel escapes the 40-pin basket without being deposited, mostly gamma energy, the maximum allowable rate of heat generation is 465/.66 = 704 watts. The IDENT 1578 fuel pin shipping container therefore meets its thermal design criteria. IDENT 1578 can handle fuel pins with a decay heat load of 600 watts while maintaining the maximum fuel pin cladding temperature below 800 0 F. The emissivities which were determined from the test results for the basket tubes and container are relatively low and correspond to new, shiny conditions. As the IDENT 1578 container is exposed to high temperatures for extended periods of time during the transportation of fuel pins, the emissivities will probably increase. This will result in reduced temperatures

  17. Recommended welding criteria for use in the fabrication of shipping containers for radioactive materials

    Monroe, R.E.; Woo, H.H.; Sears, R.G.

    1984-03-01

    Welding and related operations are evaluated to assess the controls required to prevent weld-related failure of shipping containers used for transportation of radioactive materials. The report includes (1) recommended criteria for controlling welding as applied to shipping containers and (2) a discussion of modifications of the recommended industry Codes as applied to shipping containers. 13 references, 2 tables

  18. Shipping container for a bottle of radioactive material

    Soldan, D.W.

    1975-01-01

    A shipping container for a bottle of radioactive material comprises a can having a cavity therein for receiving the bottle, a screw cap for the can and the cavity, and an annular bottle retainer extending downwardly in the cavity from its upper end having an outwardly extending flange at its upper end clamped between the cap and the upper end of the cavity and an inwardly extending flange at its lower end receiving the neck of the bottle. The cap carries a sponge to absorb spillage from the bottle. (U.S.)

  19. Confirmation tests of PWR surveillance capsule shipping container

    Tomita, N.; Ue, K.; Ohashi, M.; Asada, K.; Yoneda, Y.

    1980-01-01

    Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. carried out the confirmation tests to confirm the reliability of the PWR surveillance capsule shipping container and to collect cask design data using a 10-ton weight full scale model at Kobe Shipyard and Engine Works. This report presents the outline of these tests. The B Type container was a cylinder 3289 mm long, 1080 mm in diameter and designed in accordance with the new modified Japanese regulations similar to IAEA regulation. These tests consist of four 9 m drop tests, two 1 m puncture tests, a fire test and an immersion test. In conclusion, safetyness of this container has been proved and various technical data for cask design were also collected through these tests. (author)

  20. Technical and management considerations in conducting type B shipping container tests

    Whitney, M.A.; Leader, D.R.; Phipps, D.P.

    1994-01-01

    The Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) mandate that type B shipping containers are capable of surviving specific drop tests. One approach for demonstrating compliance to the CFRs is to drop test a shipping container. This paper will discuss the technical and management considerations in conducting such drop tests on the 9975 family of shipping containers. For both technical and management considerations this paper will comment on loading the shipping container, dropping the shopping container, and examination of the shipping container after the drop tests

  1. Flammability Analysis For Actinide Oxides Packaged In 9975 Shipping Containers

    Laurinat, James E.; Askew, Neal M.; Hensel, Steve J.

    2013-03-21

    Packaging options are evaluated for compliance with safety requirements for shipment of mixed actinide oxides packaged in a 9975 Primary Containment Vessel (PCV). Radiolytic gas generation rates, PCV internal gas pressures, and shipping windows (times to reach unacceptable gas compositions or pressures after closure of the PCV) are calculated for shipment of a 9975 PCV containing a plastic bottle filled with plutonium and uranium oxides with a selected isotopic composition. G-values for radiolytic hydrogen generation from adsorbed moisture are estimated from the results of gas generation tests for plutonium oxide and uranium oxide doped with curium-244. The radiolytic generation of hydrogen from the plastic bottle is calculated using a geometric model for alpha particle deposition in the bottle wall. The temperature of the PCV during shipment is estimated from the results of finite element heat transfer analyses.

  2. Simultaneous Optimization of Container Ship Sailing Speed and Container Routing with Transit Time Restrictions

    Karsten, Christian Vad; Røpke, Stefan; Pisinger, David

    We introduce a decision support tool for liner shipping companies to optimally determine the sailing speed and needed fleet for a global network. As a novelty we incorporate cargo routing decisions with tight transit time restrictions on each container such that we get a realistic picture...

  3. CFD simulations of wind loads on a container ship : Validation and impact of geometrical simplifactions

    Janssen, W.D.; Blocken, B.J.E.; van Wijhe, H.J.

    2017-01-01

    Due to the increasing windage area of container ships, wind loads are playing a more important role in navigating the ship at open sea and especially through harbor areas. This paper presents 3D steady RANS CFD simulations of wind loads on a container ship, validation with wind-tunnel measurements

  4. Container Shipping Network Efficiency Comparison in Indonesia: Nusantara Pendulum and Sea Tollway

    Hafida Fahmiasari

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The disparity of the trading activities in Indonesia has triggered Indonesia Port Corporation to come up with the plan of Nusantara Pendulum, the future network of container shipping in Indonesia. The Sea Tollway plan is the modification of Nusantara Pendulum that is also envisioned by Indonesia President for Indonesia future backbone container plan. Both networks were designed to increase Indonesia container shipping flow from west to east and vice versa like a pendulum, thus results the reduced transport cost. This paper depicts the comparison of network efficiency analysis between these networks: Nusantara Pendulum, Sea Tollway, and the existing network. Two main methods that are used are Nagurney-Qiang and Jenelius-Peterson-Mattson. Mainly, these two methods use the efficiency calculation by considering parameters of demand (goods flow between each region and maritime transportation cost. It is concluded afterward that: 1 Sea Tollway is 8% more efficient than Nusantara Pendulum; 2 Sea Tollway and Nusantara Pendulum are ten times more efficient than current network; 3 Eastern ports in Indonesia (Bitung and Sorong urgently requisite a development.

  5. Analysis of containerized cargo in the ship container terminal

    Obhodas, Jasmina, E-mail: jobhodas@irb.h [Ruder Boskovic Institute, Bijenicka c. 54, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Sudac, Davorin [Ruder Boskovic Institute, Bijenicka c. 54, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Valkovic, Vladivoj [A.C.T.d.o.o., Prilesje 4, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Baricevic, Martina [Ruder Boskovic Institute, Bijenicka c. 54, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Franulovic, Andrej [Croatian Custom, Alexandera von Humboldta 4, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Perot, Bertrand; Carasco, Cedric; Alain, Mariani; Anne-Cecile, Raoux; El Kanawati, Wassila [CEA, DEN, Cadarache, Nuclear Measurement Laboratory, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2010-07-21

    The container scanning system based on the elemental analysis of suspect cargo by use of fast 14 MeV neutrons with detection of associated alpha particle has been recently developed under the EU-FP6 'EURITRACK' project. The system is currently set-up in port of Rijeka, Croatia, to be tested and upgraded under the EU-JLS ERITR-C project. Here we present results of analysis performed on 152 screened containers selected by the Croatian Custom and detail descriptive statistical analysis of their shipping manifests. Statistics such as distribution functions of container types, type of packages, type of cargos and average cargo densities were obtained in order to establish the properties of standard cargo traffic. The analyses by using multivariate statistical approach that included principal component analysis (PCA) and between group analysis (BGA) have shown that cargo matrices can be classified as metallic (Fe, Al, Cu, Zn, Ni...), ceramic-glass (Si, O) and organic (C, O, N). In this paper the organic matrices have been analysed in more detail since they are identified as most difficult because of their potential interference with main elements contained in threat materials such as explosives or drugs. Density as a discriminating factor has been included for better recognition of different types of goods.

  6. Barriers to the Implementation of Strategic Corporate Social Responsibility in Shipping

    Kum Fai Yuen, PhD Candidate

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Strategic corporate social responsibility (CSR involves the voluntary practice of social and environment activities to satisfy firms’ stakeholders, with the intention of generating profits. Companies, especially those within the shipping industry, often face challenges when implementing strategic CSR. The paper therefore, seeks to identify, rank, and discuss the barriers to the implementation of strategic CSR in shipping. A list of barriers was first identified from reviewing the literature. Subsequently, a survey was administered to 600 shipping companies in Singapore and the collected data were analysed using structural equation modelling. The results showed that factors relating to lack of resources, lack of strategic vision, lack of measurement system, high regulatory standards, and low willingness to pay for CSR are significant barriers to implementing strategic CSR in shipping. The findings imply that the practice of strategic CSR is contingent on both the firm's macro-environment and micro-environment, albeit to a lesser extent. Understanding these potential barriers can help companies avoid or overcome these barriers and improve their chances of successfully implementing strategic CSR.

  7. Model for Environmental Assessment of Container Ship Transport

    Kristensen, Hans Otto Holmegaard

    2012-01-01

    of these parameters on the EEDI. It is found possible to reduce EEDI by roughly 20 % without reducing ship speed, but only by changing some of the design parameters, such as reducing the sea margin by using a derated main engine, increasing the length of the ship by 5 %, and reducing steel weight by 3 % via steel...

  8. Parametric study of propeller boss cap fins for container ships

    Lim, Sang-Seop; Kim, Tae-Won; Lee, Dong-Myung; Kang, Chung-Gil; Kim, Soo-Young

    2014-06-01

    The global price of oil, which is both finite and limited in quantity, has been rising steadily because of the increasing requirements for energy in both developing and developed countries. Furthermore, regulations have been strengthened across all industries to address global warming. Many studies of hull resistance, propulsion and operation of ships have been performed to reduce fuel consumption and emissions. This study examined the design parameters of the propeller boss cap fin (PBCF) and hub cap for 6,000TEU container ships to improve the propulsion efficiency. The design parameters of PBCF have been selected based on the geometrical shape. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis with a propeller open water (POW) test was performed to check the validity of CFD analysis. The design of experiment (DOE) case was selected as a full factorial design, and the experiment was analyzed by POW and CFD analysis. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to determine the correlation among design parameters. Four design alternatives of PBCF were selected from the DOE. The shape of a propeller hub cap was selected as a divergent shape, and the divergent angle was determined by the DOE. Four design alternatives of PBCF were attached to the divergent hub cap, and the POW was estimated by CFD. As a result, the divergent hub cap with PBCF has a negative effect on the POW, which is induced by an increase in torque coefficient. A POW test and cavitation test were performed with a divergent hub cap with PBCF to verify the CFD result. The POW test result showed that the open water efficiency was increased approximately 2% with a divergent hub cap compared to a normal cap. The POW test result was similar to the CFD result, and the divergent hub cap with the PBCF models showed lower open water efficiency. This was attributed to an increase in the torque coefficient just like the CFD results. A cavitation test was performed using the 2 models selected. The test result showed

  9. Nuclear-powered icebreaking container ship via the Northern Sea Route in its economical aspects

    Kondo, Koichi; Takamasa, Tomoji

    1996-01-01

    In recent years, major maritime nations such as Japan, Russia and Norway have been investigating the use of the Northern Sea Route (NSR) as a sea route between the Far East and Europe, linking the eastern and western parts of the Eurasian continent. In this study, as part of the examination of suitable merchant ships for the NSR, we make an economic comparison between diesel container ships taking the Suez Canal route and NSR nuclear-powered icebreaking container ship carrying the Marine Reactor X (MRX), which is currently being developed at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. Compared to diesel container ships going via the Suez Canal, the first-year transportation cost of NSR nuclear-powered container ship after commissioning is 30-70% higher and the required freight rate (RFR) is 8-40% higher. If the nuclear reactor in nuclear-powered container ship, which is the reason for higher cost, were replaced by the cassette-type MRX, the reusability of the MRX would reduce this cost difference between nuclear-powered and diesel ships. The study also shows that in terms of the total cost including sales opportunity costs, NSR nuclear-powered container ship can compete sufficiently with diesel container ships on the Suez Canal route. (author)

  10. Finite element analysis of container ship's cargo hold using ANSYS and POSEIDON software

    Tanny, Tania Tamiz; Akter, Naznin; Amin, Osman Md.

    2017-12-01

    Nowadays ship structural analysis has become an integral part of the preliminary ship design providing further support for the development and detail design of ship structures. Structural analyses of container ship's cargo holds are carried out for the balancing of their safety and capacity, as those ships are exposed to the high risk of structural damage during voyage. Two different design methodologies have been considered for the structural analysis of a container ship's cargo hold. One is rule-based methodology and the other is a more conventional software based analyses. The rule based analysis is done by DNV-GL's software POSEIDON and the conventional package based analysis is done by ANSYS structural module. Both methods have been applied to analyze some of the mechanical properties of the model such as total deformation, stress-strain distribution, Von Mises stress, Fatigue etc., following different design bases and approaches, to indicate some guidance's for further improvements in ship structural design.

  11. The economic potential of a cassette-type-reactor-installed nuclear ice-breaking container ship

    Kondo, Koichi; Takamasa, Tomoji

    1999-01-01

    An improved cassette-type marine reactor MRX (Marine Reactor X) which is currently researched and developed by the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute is designed to be easily removed and transferred to another ship. If the reactor in a nuclear-powered ship, which is the reason for its higher cost, were replaced by the cassette-type-MRX, the reusability of the MRX would reduce the cost difference between nuclear-powered and diesel ships. As an investigation of one aspect of a cassette-type MRX, we attempted in this study to do an economic review of an MRX-installed nuclear-powered ice-breaking container ship sailing via the Arctic Ocean. The transportation cost between the Far East and Europe to carry one TEU (twenty-foot-equivalent container unit) over the entire life of the ship for an MRX (which is used for a 20-year period)-installed container ship sailing via the Arctic Ocean is about 70% higher than the Suez Canal diesel ship, carrying 8,000 TEU and sailing at 25 knots, and about 10% higher than the Suez Canal diesel ship carrying 4,000 TEU and sailing at 34 knots. The cost for a cassette-type-MRX (which is used for a 40-year period, removed and transferred to a second ship after being used for 20 years in the first ship)-installed nuclear-powered container ship is about 7% lower than that for the one operated for 20 years. Considering any loss or reduction in sales opportunities through the extension of the transportation period, the nuclear-powered container ship via the Arctic Sea is a more suitable means of transportation than a diesel ship sailing at 25 knots via the Suez Canal when the value of the commodities carried exceeds 2,800 dollars per freight ton. (author)

  12. Economic potential of nuclear-powered ice-breaking container ship via the northern sea route

    Takamasa, Tomoji; Kondo, Koichi

    2000-01-01

    An improved cassette-type marine reactor MRX (Marine Reactor X) which is currently researched and developed by the JAERI is designed to be easily removed and transferred to another ship. If the reactor in a nuclear-powered ship, which is the reason for its higher cost, were replaced by the cassette-type-MRX, the reusability of the MRX would reduce the cost difference between nuclear-powered and diesel ships. As an investigation of one aspect of a cassette-type MRX, we attempted in this study to do an economic review of an MRX-installed nuclear-powered ice-breaking container ship sailing via the Arctic Ocean. The transportation cost between the Far East and Europe to carry one TEU (twenty-foot-equivalent container unit) over the entire life of the ship for an MRX (which is used for a 20-year period)-installed container ship sailing via the Arctic Ocean is about 70% higher than the Suez Canal diesel ship, carrying 8,000 TEU and sailing at 25 knots, and about 10% higher than the Suez Canal diesel ship carrying 4,000 TEU and sailing at 34 knots. The cost for a cassette-type-MRX (which is used for a 40-year period, removed and transferred to a second ship after being used for 20 years in the first ship)-installed nuclear-powered container ship is about 7% lower than that for the one operated for 20 years. Considering any loss or reduction in sales opportunities through the extension of the transportation period, the nuclear-powered container ship via the Arctic Sea is a more suitable means of transportation than a diesel ship sailing at 25 knots via the Suez Canal when the value of the commodities carried exceeds 2,800 dollars per freight ton. (author)

  13. Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Foamglas Shipping Container

    Klima, B.B.; Shappert, L.B.; Seagren, R.D.; Box, W.D.

    1978-05-01

    An analytical evaluation of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Foamglas Shipping Container was made to demonstrate its compliance with the regulations governing offsite radioactive material shipping packages. The evaluation encompassed five primary categories: structural integrity, thermal resistance, radiation shielding, nuclear criticality safety, and quality assurance. The results of the evaluation show that the container complies with the applicable regulations

  14. Safety analysis report for packaging (SARP) of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Foamglas Shipping Container

    Klima, B.B.; Shappert, L.B.; Seagren, R.D.; Box, W.D.

    1979-01-01

    An analytical evaluation of the ORNL Foamglas Shipping Container was made to demonstrate its compliance with the regulations governing offsite radioactive material shipping packages. The evaluation encompassed five primary categories: structural integrity, thermal resistance, radiation shielding, nuclear criticality safety, and quality assurance. The results of the evaluation show that the container complies with the applicable regulations

  15. Shipping

    Wijnolst, N.; Wergeland, T.

    1996-01-01

    Shipping is a multi-faceted industry which is rather complex to define from an academic point of view. This book attempts to grasp these complexities and provide the reader with an overview of the main topics and terminology in shipping. The book is based on material from our courses in shipping at

  16. Full Scale Measurements of the Hydro-Elastic Response of Large Container Ships for Decision Support

    Andersen, Ingrid Marie Vincent

    scale measurements from four container ships of 4,400 TEU, 8,600 TEU, 9,400 TEU and 14,000 TEU Primarily, strains measured near the deck amidships are used. Furthermore, measurements of motions and the encountered sea state are available for one of the ships. The smallest ship is in operation...... frequency with the waves. Together with the relatively high design speed and often pronounced bow flare this makes large container ship more sensitive to slamming and, consequently, the effects of wave-induced hull girder vibrations. From full scale strain measurements of individual, measured hull girder......The overall topic of this thesis is decision support for operation of ships and several aspects are covered herein. However, the main focus is on the wave-induced hydro-elastic response of large container ships and its implications on the structural response. The analyses are based mainly on full...

  17. Prediction of the Main Engine Power of a New Container Ship at the Preliminary Design Stage

    Cepowski, Tomasz

    2017-06-01

    The paper presents mathematical relationships that allow us to forecast the estimated main engine power of new container ships, based on data concerning vessels built in 2005-2015. The presented approximations allow us to estimate the engine power based on the length between perpendiculars and the number of containers the ship will carry. The approximations were developed using simple linear regression and multivariate linear regression analysis. The presented relations have practical application for estimation of container ship engine power needed in preliminary parametric design of the ship. It follows from the above that the use of multiple linear regression to predict the main engine power of a container ship brings more accurate solutions than simple linear regression.

  18. Program to develop analytical tools for environmental and safety assessment of nuclear material shipping container systems

    Butler, T.A.

    1978-11-01

    This paper describes a program for developing analytical techniques to evaluate the response of nuclear material shipping containers to severe accidents. Both lumped-mass and finite element techniques are employed to predict shipping container and shipping container-carrier response to impact. The general impact problem is computationally expensive because of its nonlinear, three-dimensional nature. This expense is minimized by using approximate models to parametrically identify critical cases before more exact analyses are performed. The computer codes developed for solving the problem are being experimentally substantiated with test data from full-scale and scale-model container drop tests. 6 figures, 1 table

  19. Development of methodology for certification of Type B shipping containers using analytical and testing techniques

    Sharp, R.R.; Varley, D.T.

    1993-01-01

    The use of multidisciplinary teams to develop Type B shipping containers improves the quality and reliability of these reusable packagings. Including the people involved in all aspects of the design, certification and use of the package leads to more innovative, user-friendly containers. Concurrent use of testing and analysis allows engineers to more fully characterize a shipping container's responses to the environments given in the regulations, and provides a strong basis for certification. The combination of the input and output of these efforts should provide a general methodology that designers of Type B radioactive material shipping containers can utilize to optimize and certify their designs. (J.P.N.)

  20. Symbolic Configuration for Interactive Container Ship Stowage Planning

    Kroer, Christian; Svendsen, Martin Kjær; Jensen, Rune Møller

    2014-01-01

    Low-cost containerized shipping requires high-quality stowage plans. Scalable stowage planning optimization algorithms have been developed recently. All of these algorithms, however, produce monolithic solutions that are hard for stowage coordinators to modify, which is necessary in practice owin...

  1. A NUMERICAL APPLICATION TO PREDICT THE RESISTANCE AND WAVE PATTERN OF KRISO CONTAINER SHIP

    Yavuz Hakan Ozdemir; Taner Cosgun; Ali Dogrul; Boris Barlas

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the computational results for KRISO Container Ship (KCS) are presented. CFD analyses are performed to simulate free surface flow around KCS by using RANS approach with success. Also the complicated turbulent flow zone behind the ship is well simulated. The RANS equations and the non-linear free surface boundary conditions are discretized by means of a finite volume scheme. The numerical methodology is found to be appropriate for simulating the turbulent flow around a ship in or...

  2. A review of a radioactive material shipping container including design, testing, upgrading compliance program and shipping logistics

    Celovsky, A.; Lesco, R.; Gale, B.; Sypes, J.

    2003-01-01

    Ten years ago Atomic Energy of Canada developed a Type B(U)-85 shipping container for the global transport of highly radioactive materials. This paper reviews the development of the container, including a summary of the design requirements, a review of the selected materials and key design elements, and the results of the major qualification tests (drop testing, fire test, leak tightness testing, and shielding integrity tests). As a result of the testing, improvements to the structural, thermal and containment design were made. Such improvements, and reasons thereof, are noted. Also provided is a summary of the additional analysis work required to upgrade the package from a Type B(U) to a Type B(F), i.e. essentially upgrading the container to include fissile radioisotopes to the authorized radioactive contents list. Having a certified shipping container is only one aspect governing the global shipments of radioactive material. By necessity the shipment of radioactive material is a highly regulated environment. This paper also explores the experiences with other key aspects of radioactive shipments, including the service procedures used to maintain the container certification, the associated compliance program for radioactive material shipments, and the shipping logistics involved in the transport. (author)

  3. Nonlinear Container Ship Model for the Study of Parametric Roll Resonance

    Holden, Christian; Galeazzi, Roberto; Rodríguez, Claudio

    2007-01-01

    Parametric roll is a critical phenomenon for ships, whose onset may cause roll oscillations up to 40, leading to very dangerous situations and possibly capsizing. Container ships have been shown to be particularly prone to parametric roll resonance when they are sailing in moderate to heavy head ...

  4. An Economic Analysis of Container Shipping Through Canadian Northwest Passage

    Dongqin Lu

    2014-12-01

    This paper considers Canada's sovereignty in matters of navigation over the waters at the Arctic Archipelago, in the form of a toll fee for passage usage. We concluded that the NWP has an advantage over the Panama Canal if it is open for free international passage, regardless of ship size. However, if it is not free, its advantages depend on its toll fee. The lower the toll fee is, the more advantages the NWP will boast.

  5. Influence of Variable Acceleration on Parametric Roll Motion of a Container Ship

    Emre PEŞMAN

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ship operators increase or decrease thrust force of ships to avoid parametric roll motion. These operations cause varying acceleration values. In this study, influence of variable acceleration and deceleration of ships on roll motion is investigated in longitudinal waves. The method which is referred as simple model is utilized for analysis. Simple Model is one degree of freedom nonlinear parametric roll motion equation which contains changing velocity and restoring moment in waves with respect to time. Ship velocities in waves are predicted by XFlow software for various thrust forces. Results indicate that variable acceleration has significant effect on parametric roll phenomenon.

  6. Forecasting Container Shipping Freight Rates for the Far East-Northern Europe Trade Lane

    Munim, Ziaul Haque; Schramm, Hans-Joachim

    2016-01-01

    econometric and time series modelling have been rather limited. Therefore, in this paper, we discuss contemporary container freight rate dynamics in an attempt to forecast for the Far East to Northern Europe trade lane. Methodology-wise, we employ autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) as well......This study introduces a state-of-the-art volatility forecasting method for container shipping freight rates. Over the last decade, the container shipping industry has become very unpredictable. The demolition of the shipping conferences system in 2008 for all trades calling a port in the European...

  7. 75 FR 34448 - Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; Great Lakes Container Corporation...

    2010-06-17

    ... Settlement; Great Lakes Container Corporation Superfund Site, Coventry Rhode Island AGENCY: Environmental... and future response costs concerning the Great Lakes Container Corporation Superfund Site, located in...), Boston, MA 02109-3912, (617) 918-1216. Comments should reference the Great Lakes Container Corporation...

  8. Shipping

    Wijnolst, N.; Wergeland, T.

    1996-01-01

    Shipping is a multi-faceted industry which is rather complex to define from an academic point of view. This book attempts to grasp these complexities and provide the reader with an overview of the main topics and terminology in shipping. The book is based on material from our courses in shipping at the universities in Delft and Bergen. As with our lectures, we draw upon quite a va ried material, from research studies at a high academic level to lower level student work and purely descriptive ...

  9. The licensing of shipping containers for radioactive materials

    Schulz-Forberg, B.

    1987-01-01

    In the Federal Republic of Germany the competent Federal Minister regulated the licensing procedure in a guideline while assigning the PTB the function of competent authority, and stipulating that BAM is to execute design inspection for approval. On completion of design inspection, BAM summarizes the results in a certificate which also states the measures required to be taken in quality monitoring in the manufacturing and maintenance of packagings. A sheet specifies the implemental provisions covering quality-assurance measures in planning, manufacturing, commissioning and operation of shipping items of types B(U) and B(M), and of nuclear safety classes I, II, and III. (orig./DG) [de

  10. The economic potential of a cassette-type-reactor-installed nuclear ice-breaking container ship

    Kondo, K.; Takamasa, T.

    2000-01-01

    The design concept of the cassette-type-reactor MRX (Marine Reactor X), being under development in Japan for the nuclear ice-breaker container ship is described. The MRX reactor is the monoblock water-cooled and moderated reactor with passive cooling system of natural circulation. It is shown that application of the reactor being under consideration gives an opportunity to decrease greatly the difference in prices for similar nuclear and diesel ships. Economic estimations for applicability of the nuclear ice-breaker container ship with the MRX reactor in Arctics for transportation of standard containers TEU from Europe to Far East as compared with transportation of the same containers by diesel ships via Suets Canal are made [ru

  11. Safety analysis report for packaging: the unirradiated fuel shipping container

    Evans, J.H.; Shipley, W.D.; Mouring, R.W.

    1979-09-01

    The container was evaluated analytically to determine its compliance with the applicable regulations governing containers in which radioactive and fissile materials are transported, and the evaluation is the subject of this report. Computational and test procedures were used to determine the structural integrity and thermal behavior of the container relative to the general standards for normal conditions of transport and the standards for hypothetical accident conditions. Results of the evaluation demonstrate that the container is in compliance with the applicable regulations

  12. Protecting against failure by brittle fracture in ferritic steel shipping containers

    Schwartz, M.W.; Langland, R.T.

    1983-01-01

    The possible use of ferritic steels for the containment structure of shipping casks has motivated the development of criteria for assuring the integrity of these casks under both normal and hypothetical accident conditions specified in Part 71 of the Code of Federal Regulations. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regulation Guide 7.6 provides design criteria for preventing ductile failure steel shipping containers. The research described in this paper deals with criteria for preventing brittle fracture of ferritic steel shipping containers. Initially guidelines were developed for ferritic steel up to four inches thick (I). This was followed by an investigation of various criteria that might be used for monolithic thick walled casks greater than four inches thick (2). Three categories of safety are identified in the design of shipping containers. Category I, the highest level of safety, is appropriate for containment systems for spent nuclear fuel and high level waste transport packaging. In Category I, containers are designed to the highest level of safety and brittle fracture is essentially not possible. Categories II and III represent levels of safety commensurate with the consequences of release of lower levels of radioactivity. In these latter categories, consideration of factors contributing to brittle fracture, good engineering practice, and careful selection of material make brittle fracture unlikely under environmental conditions encountered during shipping. This paper will deal primarily with Category I containers. The guidelines for Category II and III containers are fully described elsewhere. 5 references, 10 figures, 3 tables

  13. Behavior analysis of container ship in maritime accident in order to redefine the operating criteria

    Ancuţa, C.; Stanca, C.; Andrei, C.; Acomi, N.

    2017-08-01

    In order to enhance the efficiency of maritime transport, container ships operators proceeded to increase the sizes of ships. The latest generation of ships in operation has 19,000 TEU capacity and the perspective is 21,000 TEU within the next years. The increasing of the sizes of container ships involves risks of maritime accidents occurrences. Nowadays, the general rules on operational security, tend to be adjusted as a result of the evaluation for each vessel. To create the premises for making an informed decision, the captain have to be aware of ships behavior in such situations. Not less important is to assure permanent review of the procedures for operation of ship, including the specific procedures in special areas, confined waters or separation schemes. This paper aims at analysing the behavior of the vessel and the respond of the structure of a container ship in maritime accident, in order to redefine the operating criteria. The method selected by authors for carrying out the research is computer simulations. Computer program provides the responses of the container ship model in various situations. Therefore, the simulations allow acquisition of a large category of data, in the scope of improving the prevention of accidents or mitigation of effects as much as possible. Simulations and assessments of certain situations that the ship might experience will be carried out to redefine the operating criteria. The envisaged scenarios are: introducing of maneuver speed for specific areas with high risk of collision or grounding, introducing of flooding scenarios of some compartments in loading programs, conducting of complex simulations in various situations for each vessel type. The main results of this work are documented proposals for operating criteria, intended to improve the safety in case of marine accidents, collisions and groundings. Introducing of such measures requires complex cost benefit analysis, that should not neglect the extreme economic impact

  14. Safety analysis report for packaging (SARP) of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. TRU curium shipping container

    Box, W.D.; Klima, B.B.; Seagren, R.D.; Shappert, L.B.; Aramayo, G.A.

    1980-06-01

    An analytical evaluation of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Transuranium (TRU) Curium Shipping Container was made to demonstrate its compliance with the regulations governing offsite shipment of packages containing radioactive material. The evaluation encompassed five primary categories: structural integrity, thermal resistance, radiation shielding, nuclear criticality safety, and quality assurance. The results of the evaluation show that the container complies with the applicable regulations

  15. A NUMERICAL APPLICATION TO PREDICT THE RESISTANCE AND WAVE PATTERN OF KRISO CONTAINER SHIP

    Yavuz Hakan Ozdemir

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the computational results for KRISO Container Ship (KCS are presented. CFD analyses are performed to simulate free surface flow around KCS by using RANS approach with success. Also the complicated turbulent flow zone behind the ship is well simulated. The RANS equations and the non-linear free surface boundary conditions are discretized by means of a finite volume scheme. The numerical methodology is found to be appropriate for simulating the turbulent flow around a ship in order to estimate ship total resistance and free surface. By the numerical results, total resistance is calculated for the ship model and the result is satisfactory with regard to the experimental one. As a result of well captured free surface, the wave elevation on/around the hull is compared with the experimental results.

  16. ETR fuel element shipping container addendum to PR-T-79-011 (TR-466). Internal technical report

    Smith, M.C.

    1979-01-01

    In July, 1979, EG and G Idaho, Inc. was requested to evaluate the ETR Fuel Element Shipping Container for compliance with existing transport regulations, in order to ship GETR fuel elements from Vallecitos, California to the INEL. Technical report PR-T-79-011 (TR-466), ATR Fuel Element Shipping Container Safety Analysis, was used as a basis for this evaluation. The safety analysis contained in technical report PR-T-79-011 (TR-466) was performed utilizing the ATR, ETR, MTR, and SPERT shipping containers. The report determined the ETR Fuel Element Shipping Container does comply with the existing transport regulations for a Type A quantity, Fissile Class I shipping container. The ETR and GETR fuel elements are essentially identical in physical size, construction, and fissile material content, the analysis documented in this report has determined the shipment of GETR fuel elements in the ETR shipping container to be safe and pose no threat to the public health and safety

  17. Regulations and control of in-transit fumigated containers as well as of fumigated cargo ships.

    Low, Anthony; Hüsing, Ulf-Peter; Preisser, Alexandra; Baur, Xaver

    2003-01-01

    According to IMO's international regulations, e.g. "Recommendations on the safe use of pesticides in ships", fumigated containers and ship cargoes must be labeled giving specifications about dates of fumigation and the fumigation gas used. Furthermore, appropriate certificates are necessary and these records have to be forwarded to the Port Health Authorities without their explicitly asking for them. According to IMO (DSC/Circ.8.24.7.2001) a recent inspection of containers unloaded in ports showed that some were under fumigation, but not declared as such and in a few cases these ventilated containers arrive with "Degas Certificates" stating that fumigant has been removed, but still have a high fumigant concentration inside when opened. There are similar reports from The Netherlands, where 21% of the fumigated containers had missing or false declarations and contained measurable amounts of toxic gas. In England 6% were mentioned to be allegedly false. Reports exist of a number of other incidents with containers under fumigation arriving in English ports with no accompanying documents on the ship or at the port of discharge as to the type of cargo. In one case several people were hospitalized after exposure to phosphine gas because the fumigant tablets were not yet totally decomposed before the ship arrived at its destination port. In Bavaria, Germany, a bad accident recently occurred through a non declared fumigated container (see press release). Our sample: a large container ship in the Port of Hamburg where 27 of the cargo's containers were found fumigated with 27 non/incomplete/false declarations. These examples show that missing/false labelling is frequent. Clearance of in-transit fumigated containers in ports is complicated and time-consuming for the captain and shipping company. The above mentioned accident and also the results of our spot check prove, as do the experiences in The Netherlands and England, that false declarations of fumigated containers seem

  18. Modeling Liner Shipping Service Selection and Container Flows using a Multi-layer Network

    Karsten, Christian Vad; Balakrishnan, Anant

    We introduce a new formulation for the tactical planning problem facing container shipping companies of selecting the best subset of sailing routes from a given pool of candidate routes so as to maximize profit. Since most containers are sent directly or transshipped at most twice in current liner...

  19. Estimate of the crud contribution to shipping cask containment requirements

    Sandoval, R.P.; Einziger, R.E.; Jordan, H.; Malinauskas, A.P.; Mings, W.J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that a methodology is developed to relate U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 10, Part 71 (10CFR71) containment requirements to leak rates for the special case in which the only radioactive species having a potential for escape form the cask is that associated with debris (crud) contained on the fuel assemblies being transported. The methodology accounts for the characteristics of the crud and for attenuation of the gas-borne crud particulates once they become suspended within the cask. Calculations are performed for typical spent-fuel transport cask geometries and the normal and accident conditions prescribed in 10CFR71. The most current published data are used for crud composition and structure, specific activity, spallation mechanics and fractions, and crud particle size. The containment criteria leak rates are calculated assuming 5-yr-old spent fuel. In each accident case, the containment leak rate criteria are well in excess of 10 cm 3 /s. Under normal conditions of transport, the regulatory containment requirements are met by leak rates ranging from 1.5 x 10 -3 cm 3 /s to 1.5 x 10 -4 cm 3 /s for the transport of boiling water reactor fuel assemblies and form 1.8 x 10 -2 cm 3 /s to 1.3 x 10 -3 cm 3 /s for pressurized water reactor fuel assemblies. The calculated leak rates are most sensitive to the cask design, type of fuel, and particle size distribution. Conservatism of the limiting leak rates is discussed

  20. Determining Domestic Container Shipping as an Enforcement of Indonesian International Hub Port

    Nur, H. I.; Lazuardi, S. D.; Hadi, F.; Hapis, M.

    2018-03-01

    According to Presidential Regulation Number 26 year of 2012 about the National Logistics System Development Blueprint, the Indonesian government proposed to build two international hub ports, which were in Port of Kuala Tanjung for the western region and Port of Bitung for eastern region. Therefore, the optimum routes and fleet size are required to support the enforcement of Indonesian International Hub Port. The optimization model is used to obtain the optimum route and fleet by minimizing the total shipping costs, while considering the container demand. The result of analysis obtained that the optimum route and fleet size for the western region of Indonesia were: (1) Kuala Tanjung-Belawan required 15 ships of 1,000 TEU; (2) Kuala Tanjung-Tanjung Priok required 73 ships of 2,500 TEU; (3) Kuala Tanjung- Tanjung Perak required 44 ships of 2,500 TEU. Meanwhile, the optimum route and fleet size for the eastern region of Indonesia consisted of: (1) Bitung-Sorong required 1 ship of 500 TEU; (2) Bitung-Banjarmasin required 3 ships of 500 TEU; and (3) Bitung-Makassar required 1 ship of 1,500 TEU.

  1. Container shipping service selection and cargo routing with transshipment limits

    Balakrishnan, Anantaram; Karsten, Christian Vad

    2017-01-01

    containing links (representing sub-paths) between every pair of ports visited by a candidate service. This sub-path structure, together with our approach of indexing the flow variables by transportation stage, enables the model to accurately capture transshipment costs and enforce transshipment limits....... To reduce the computational time to solve this problem, we develop preprocessing steps that exploit network structure to eliminate variables, describe valid inequalities to strengthen the model's linear programming relaxation, and propose an optimization-based heuristic algorithm to generate good initial...

  2. Ship

    Keuning, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    The invention concerns a ship designed for use at high speed and heavy seas having a single long and slender hull with a narrow beam and a more or less vertical bow, whereby the front half of the hull has more or less vertical sides, minimal flare in the bow sections and towards the bow an increase in draught at its center line combined with a more or less similar increase of freeboard and whereby the aft end of the hull has a flat or slightly V-shaped bottom with one or more propellers and/o...

  3. Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory TRU Californium Shipping Container

    Box, W.D.; Shappert, L.B.; Seagren, R.D.; Klima, B.B.; Jurgensen, M.C.; Hammond, C.R.; Watson, C.D.

    1980-01-01

    An analytical evaluation of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory TRU Californium Shipping Container was made in order to demonstrate its compliance with the regulations governing off-site shipment of packages that contain radioactive material. The evaluation encompassed five primary categories: structural integrity, thermal resistance, radiation shielding, nuclear criticality safety, and quality assurance. The results of this evaluation demonstrate that the container complies with the applicable regulations

  4. Deep-water measurements of container ship radiated noise signatures and directionality.

    Gassmann, Martin; Wiggins, Sean M; Hildebrand, John A

    2017-09-01

    Underwater radiated noise from merchant ships was measured opportunistically from multiple spatial aspects to estimate signature source levels and directionality. Transiting ships were tracked via the Automatic Identification System in a shipping lane while acoustic pressure was measured at the ships' keel and beam aspects. Port and starboard beam aspects were 15°, 30°, and 45° in compliance with ship noise measurements standards [ANSI/ASA S12.64 (2009) and ISO 17208-1 (2016)]. Additional recordings were made at a 10° starboard aspect. Source levels were derived with a spherical propagation (surface-affected) or a modified Lloyd's mirror model to account for interference from surface reflections (surface-corrected). Ship source depths were estimated from spectral differences between measurements at different beam aspects. Results were exemplified with a 4870 and a 10 036 twenty-foot equivalent unit container ship at 40%-56% and 87% of service speeds, respectively. For the larger ship, opportunistic ANSI/ISO broadband levels were 195 (surface-affected) and 209 (surface-corrected) dB re 1 μPa 2 1 m. Directionality at a propeller blade rate of 8 Hz exhibited asymmetries in stern-bow (<6 dB) and port-starboard (<9 dB) direction. Previously reported broadband levels at 10° aspect from McKenna, Ross, Wiggins, and Hildebrand [(2012b). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 131, 92-103] may be ∼12 dB lower than respective surface-affected ANSI/ISO standard derived levels.

  5. Estimates of fire environments in ship holds containing radioactive material packages

    Koski, J.A.; Cole, J.K.; Hohnstreiter, G.F.; Wix, S.D.

    1995-01-01

    Fire environments that occur on cargo ships differ significantly from the fire environments found in land transport. Cargo ships typically carry a large amount of flammable fuel for propulsion and shipboard power, and may transport large quantities of flammable cargo. As a result, sea mode transport accident records contain instances of long lasting and intense fires. Since Irradiated Nuclear Fuel (INF) casks are not carried on tankers with large flammable cargoes, most of these dramatic, long burning fires are not relevant threats, and transport studies must concentrate on those fires that are most likely to occur. By regulation, INF casks must be separated from flammable cargoes by a fire-resistant, liquid-tight partition. This makes a fire in an adjacent ship hold the most likely fire threat. The large size of a cargo ship relative to any spent nuclear fuel casks on board, however, may permit a severe, long lasting fire to occur with little or no thermal impact on the casks. Although some flammable materials such as shipping boxes or container floors may exist in the same hold with the cask, the amount of fuel available may not provide a significant threat to the massive transport casks used for radioactive materials. This shipboard fire situation differs significantly from the regulatory conditions specified in 10 CFR 71 for a fully engulfing pool fire. To learn more about the differences, a series of simple thermal analyses has been completed to estimate cask behavior in likely marine and land thermal accident situations. While the calculations are based on several conservative assumptions, and are only preliminary, they illustrate that casks are likely to heat much more slowly in shipboard hold fires than in an open pool fire. The calculations also reinforce the basic regulatory concept that for radioactive materials, the shipping cask, not the ship, is the primary protection barrier to consider

  6. 9 CFR 381.206 - Labeling of shipping containers of poultry products offered for entry.

    2010-01-01

    ... PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labeling of shipping containers of poultry products offered for entry. 381.206 Section 381.206 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND...

  7. Experimental studies of dynamic impact response with scale models of lead shielded radioactive material shipping containers

    Robinson, R.A.; Hadden, J.A.; Basham, S.J.

    1978-01-01

    Preliminary experimental studies of dynamic impact response of scale models of lead-shielded radioactive material shipping containers are presented. The objective of these studies is to provide DOE/ECT with a data base to allow the prediction of a rational margin of confidence in overviewing and assessing the adequacy of the safety and environmental control provided by these shipping containers. Replica scale modeling techniques were employed to predict full scale response with 1/8, 1/4, and 1/2 scale models of shipping containers that are used in the shipment of spent nuclear fuel and high level wastes. Free fall impact experiments are described for scale models of plain cylindrical stainless steel shells, stainless steel shells filled with lead, and replica scale models of radioactive material shipping containers. Dynamic induced strain and acceleration measurements were obtained at several critical locations on the models. The models were dropped from various heights, attitudes to the impact surface, with and without impact limiters and at uniform temperatures between -40 and 175 0 C. In addition, thermal expansion and thermal gradient induced strains were measured at -40 and 175 0 C. The frequency content of the strain signals and the effect of different drop pad compositions and stiffness were examined. Appropriate scale modeling laws were developed and scaling techniques were substantiated for predicting full scale response by comparison of dynamic strain data for 1/8, 1/4, and 1/2 scale models with stainless steel shells and lead shielding

  8. Transfer station and method for loading and/or unloading containers from a ship

    Evers, J.J.M.

    2003-01-01

    Containers are transported with at least one quay crane (10) from and/or to a ship (14) along a quay (19). The quay crane (10) has a hoisting range comprising a first vehicle-positioning strip (26) on a quay surface. Depending on whether other vehicles (16, 17) are present or not on the positioning

  9. Extrapolation of model tests measurements of whipping to identify the dimensioning sea states for container ships

    Storhaug, Gaute; Andersen, Ingrid Marie Vincent

    2015-01-01

    to small storms. Model tests of three container ships have been carried out in different sea states under realistic assumptions. Preliminary extrapolation of the measured data suggested that moderate storms are dimensioning when whipping is included due to higher maximum speed in moderate storms...

  10. Improvements in or relating to storage or shipping containers for fragile objects

    1979-01-01

    A storage or shipping container for fragile objects such as pellets for use in a laser fusion chamber is described. It comprises a base, a stem having a reduced tip in which a pellet can be mounted and a frangible bulb (glass or plastic) adapted to fit over the stem and be sealed on the base. Protective material (fluid or gas) can be introduced into the bulb. The space within the sealed capsule between the stem and the bulb can be filled with an appropriate gas, solid or liquid to reduce chemical reaction or vibration. A modified container allows several small pellets to be stored or shipped. Several of the containers described can be placed inside a second container which has recesses to take their bases and the surrounding space filled with viscous liquid or solid such as paraffin to reduce shock. (U.K.)

  11. The Costs of Container Transport Flow Between Far East and Serbia Using Different Liner Shipping Services

    Rajkovic Radoslav

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Liner shipping is the most efficient mode of transport for goods. International liner shipping is a sophisticated network of regularly scheduled services that transports goods from anywhere in the world to anywhere in the world at low cost and with greater energy efficiency than any other form of international transportation. Liner shipping connects countries, markets, businesses and people, allowing them to buy and sell goods on a scale not previously possible. Today, the liner shipping industry transports goods representing approximately one-third of the total value of global trade. Ocean shipping contributes significantly to international stability and security. Considering the large and constant struggle in the market in terms of competitive pricing of products, a very important and indispensable role represents the container transport with a clear task to define the final price of the product. This paper analyzes the costs of container transport flow between Far East and Serbia, using different liner shipping services, observing the six world’s largest container operators (Maersk Line, Mediterranean Shipping Company, CMA CGM, Evergreen Line, China Ocean Shipping Company and Hapag-Lloyd and inland (truck-rail-river transport corridors. These corridors include distance between selected Mediterranean ports (Koper, Rijeka, Bar, Thessaloniki, Constanta and Serbia. As a result, in this paper is considered a mathematical model that provides a comparative analysis of transportation costs on the different routes. It is observed already existing transport routes and it is also given hypothetical review to the development of new transport routes. The main goal of this research is to provide an optimal route with lowest transportation cost during container transport. Selection of the best route in the intermodal network is a very difficult and complex task. The costs in all modes of transport and the quality of their services are not constant

  12. Criticality safety evaluation of Rocky Flats Plant one-gallon shipping containers

    Shaw, M.E.

    1991-12-01

    Criticality safety calculations have been performed to provide an analytical basis for handling, storage and transport of Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) one-gallon shipping containers. A mass limit was establish for metal (solid uranium or plutonium) and slurries (undissolved U or Pu solids in a ''mud,'' ''sludge,'' or ''slurry''). A separate volume limit was developed for plutonium solutions (liquids, either aqueous or organic, containing no visible undissolved solids)

  13. Criticality safety evaluation of Rocky Flats Plant one-gallon shipping containers

    Shaw, M.E.

    1991-12-01

    Criticality safety calculations have been performed to provide an analytical basis for handling, storage and transport of Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) one-gallon shipping containers. A mass limit was establish for metal (solid uranium or plutonium) and slurries (undissolved U or Pu solids in a ``mud,`` ``sludge,`` or ``slurry``). A separate volume limit was developed for plutonium solutions (liquids, either aqueous or organic, containing no visible undissolved solids).

  14. Criticality safety evaluation of Rocky Flats Plant one-gallon shipping containers

    Shaw, M.E.

    1991-12-01

    Criticality safety calculations have been performed to provide an analytical basis for handling, storage and transport of Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) one-gallon shipping containers. A mass limit was establish for metal (solid uranium or plutonium) and slurries (undissolved U or Pu solids in a mud,'' sludge,'' or slurry''). A separate volume limit was developed for plutonium solutions (liquids, either aqueous or organic, containing no visible undissolved solids).

  15. Nonlinear Container Ship Model for the Study of Parametric Roll Resonance

    Christian Holden

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Parametric roll is a critical phenomenon for ships, whose onset may cause roll oscillations up to +-40 degrees, leading to very dangerous situations and possibly capsizing. Container ships have been shown to be particularly prone to parametric roll resonance when they are sailing in moderate to heavy head seas. A Matlab/Simulink parametric roll benchmark model for a large container ship has been implemented and validated against a wide set of experimental data. The model is a part of a Matlab/Simulink Toolbox (MSS, 2007. The benchmark implements a 3rd-order nonlinear model where the dynamics of roll is strongly coupled with the heave and pitch dynamics. The implemented model has shown good accuracy in predicting the container ship motions, both in the vertical plane and in the transversal one. Parametric roll has been reproduced for all the data sets in which it happened, and the model provides realistic results which are in good agreement with the model tank experiments.

  16. The Effects of the Emission Cost on Route Choices of International Container Ships

    Hyangsook Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Maritime freight shipping has increased significantly and air pollution from international ships has grown accordingly, having serious environmental effects all over the world. This paper analyzes the effects of the emission cost on ocean route choices, focusing on international container ships. First, the paper formulates a freight network model that captures decisions and interactions of ocean carriers and port terminal operators in the maritime freight transport system. Then, the emission cost is calculated based on an activity-based approach as a component of the ocean transportation cost function. A case study is examined to find if the emission cost affects ocean route choices. The results indicate that the optimal ocean route and transportation cost are changed distinctively due to the emission cost. The research discusses how the emission cost plays a role in route changes and why ocean carriers have to consider these costs in their routing decisions.

  17. Full scale impact testing for environmental and safety control of energy material shipping container systems

    Seagren, R.D.

    1978-01-01

    Heavily-shielded energy material shipping systems, similar in size and weight to those presently employed to transport irradiated reactor fuel elements, are being destructively tested under dynamic conditions. In these tests, the outer and inner steel shells interact in a complex manner with the massive biological shielding in the system. Results obtained from these tests provide needed information for new design concepts. Containment failure (and the resulting release of radioactive material to the environment which might occur in an extremely severe accident) is most likely through the seals and other ancillary features of the shipping systems. Analyses and experiments provide engineering data on the behavior of these shipping systems under severe accident conditions and information for predicting potential survivability and environmental control with a rational margin of safety

  18. Safety analysis report for packaging: the ORNL HFIR unirradiated fuel element shipping container

    Evans, J.H.; Boulet, J.A.M.; Eversole, R.E.

    1977-11-01

    The ORNL HFIR unirradiated fuel element shipping container was designed and fabricated at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the transport of HFIR unirradiated fuel elements. The container was evaluated analytically and experimentally to determine its compliance with the applicable regulations governing containers in which radioactive and fissile materials are transported, and the evaluation is the subject of this report. Computational and test procedures were used to determine the structural integrity and thermal behavior of the cask relative to the general standards for normal conditions of transport and the standards for the hypothetical accident conditions. The results of the evaluation demonstrate that the container is in compliance with the applicable regulations

  19. Model of Optimal Cargo Transport Structure by Full Container Ship on Predefined Sailing Route

    Serđo Kos

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the mathematical model for solving theproblem of defining optimal cargo transport structure, occurringwhen, on a predefined sailing route, adequate number ofcontainers of various types, masses and sizes, possibly includingRO!RO cargo, is to be selected, i.e., a "container lot" is to beestablished in loading ports with the aim of gaining maximumship profit and, at the same time, of exploiting useful load andtransport capacity of container ship as much as possible. Theimplementation of the proposed model enables considerableincrease in the efficiency of container ship operations. Themodel was tested using a numerical example with real data.The applied post-optimal analysis examines the influence ofchange in some values of the mathematical model on the resultingoptimal program.

  20. Design of an experiment to measure fire exposure of packages aboard container cargo ships

    Koski, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    The test described in this paper is intended to measure the typical accident environment for a radioactive materials package in a fire abroad a container cargo ship. A stack of nice used standard cargo containers will be variously loaded with empty packages, simulated packages and combustible cargo and placed over a large hydrocarbon pool fire of one hour duration. Fire environments, both inside and outside the containers, typical of on-deck stowage will be measured as well as the potential for container-to-container fire spread. With the use of the inverse heat conduction calculations, the local heat transfer to the simulated packages can be estimated from thermocouple data. Data recorded will also provide information on fire durations in each container, fire intensity and container-to-container fire spread characteristics. (authors)

  1. Defining freight rates as a contribution to the successful operation of container shipping companies

    Renato Oblak

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The globalization of the world market and the flexibility of containerization to adjust to the constant changes in supply and demand of the international goods market, has led to a continuous increase in the portion of the container transport within the international maritime cargo transport. By the increase of the container transport level, the impact and importance of container freight rates have been growing, the variability of which directly reflects on the world economy. The aim of this paper is to analyze the efficiency of actual methods in establishing the container freight rates according to the problems which appear in the container shipping operation and refer to large differences in the weights of the actual transported cargo and the declared cargo in containers. The consequence of is lower freight rates and higher costs of the vessels exploitation, concerning the increase of the bunker oil consumption. The conducted research is based on actual data that have been collected and analyzed from particular container vessel liner services within period of 90 days and casting off from 16 container ports. The proposed measures could increase the level of usability of the transporting ships capacities and enable a more accurate and correct account of sea freight rates. The results of the research have shown that by increasing the control of accuracy of the cargo weight in containers and by improving the model of accounting, the freight rates can increase the incomes of shipping companies maintaining the same level of container traffic, which can have a direct influence on the efficiency of their successful operation.

  2. Development of methodology for certification of Type B shipping containers using analytical and testing techniques

    Sharp, R.R.; Varley, D.T.

    1992-01-01

    The Analysis and Testing Group (WX-11) of the Design Engineering Division at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is developing methodology for designing and providing a basis for certification of Type B shipping containers. This methodology will include design, analysis, testing, fabrication, procurement, and obtaining certification of the Type B containers, allowing usage in support of the United States Department of Energy programs. While all aspects of the packaging development are included in this methodology, this paper focuses on the use of analysis and testing techniques for enhancing the design and providing a basis for certification. This methodology is based on concurrent engineering principles. Multidisciplinary teams within LANL are responsible for the design and certification of specific Type B Radioactive Material Shipping Containers. These teams include personnel with the various backgrounds and areas of expertise required to support the design, testing, analysis and certification tasks. To demonstrate that a package can pass all the performance requirements, the design needs to be characterized as completely as possible. Understanding package responses to the various environments and how these responses influence the effectiveness of the packaging requires expertise in several disciplines. In addition to characterizing the shipping container designs, these multidisciplinary teams should be able to provide insight into improving new package designs

  3. Test plan/procedure for the SPM-1 shipping container system. Revision 0

    Flanagan, B.D.

    1995-01-01

    The 49 CFR 173.465 Type A packaging tests will verify that SPM-1 will provide adequate protection and pass as a Type A package. Test will determine that the handle of the Pig will not penetrate through the plywood spacer and rupture the shipping container. Test plan/procedure provides planning, pre-test, setup, testing, and post-testing guidelines and procedures for conducting the open-quotes Free Drop Testclose quotes procedure for the SPM-1 package

  4. Analysis Of Inland Waterway Transport For Container Shipping: Cikarang To Port Of TanjungPriok

    Achmadi, T.; Nur, H. I.; Rahmadhon, L. R.

    2018-03-01

    Industry's development which is in the center of Cikarang's industrial estate causes a considerable increase from 7% to 13% of container's flow from and to Port of Tanjung Priok per year. Therefore, those obstacles rise the number of traffic congestion and transport cost. This research aims to analyze the potential alternative of transportation in order to transport containers at the route of Tanjung Priok to Cikarang utilizing Inland Waterways Transport through Cikarang Bekasi Laut (CBL) river. This research will be conducted by comparing component of total logistic cost that emerging caused by container trucks and vessels. Self Propelled Container Barge (SPCB) is a pointed alternative transportation in which it is used to transport containers through the waterways. The result of analysis obtained that the capacity of Cikarang Bekasi Laut river is 18,558 roundtrip per year. Furthermore, the collaboration of 3 SPCB operations, as well payload 32 TEUS can decrease the amount of road traffic congestion/density of Cikarang-Port of Tanjung Priok as much as 18.6%. The cost of containers shipping per unit transported by truck is IDR 2.2 Million per TEUs, whereas containers shipping transported by Inland Waterways cost only IDR 1.8 Million per TEUs.

  5. New egg shipping container for decentralized medfly sterile male pupae production

    Kozanek, M.; Vidlicka, L.; Paskova, M.; Eyles, D.K.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a new double-walled container with an internal shelf system for the shipment of medfly eggs. It allows the eggs to be packed in plastic bags for shipment without the addition of any transportation medium. The size of this container can be adapted to the volume of eggs required. This container can maintain a constant internal temperature for 72 hours. Simulation of shipping conditions for 72 hours found no negative influence on the quality of eggs. The cost of the new container is comparable or even lower than the cost of commonly available commercial containers. The main advantages of this egg shipment container are: a) good thermo-insulation properties, b) variable size and c) low cost. (author)

  6. New egg shipping container for decentralized medfly sterile male pupae production

    Kozanek, M.; Vidlicka, L.; Paskova, M., E-mail: milan.kozanek@savba.s, E-mail: lubomir.vidlicka@savba.s, E-mail: martina.paskova@savba.s [Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava (Slovakia). Inst. of Zoology; Moravek, I., E-mail: Moravek@kvs.sif.stuba.s [Slovak Technical Univ., Bratislava (Slovakia). Fac. of Mechanical Engineering; Quintal, C., E-mail: celioquintal.sra@gov-madeira.p [Programa Madeira-Med, Madeira (Portugal); Eyles, D.K., E-mail: dke@liverpool.ac.u [The University of Liverpool, Liverpool (United Kingdom). School of Biological Sciences

    2006-07-01

    This paper describes a new double-walled container with an internal shelf system for the shipment of medfly eggs. It allows the eggs to be packed in plastic bags for shipment without the addition of any transportation medium. The size of this container can be adapted to the volume of eggs required. This container can maintain a constant internal temperature for 72 hours. Simulation of shipping conditions for 72 hours found no negative influence on the quality of eggs. The cost of the new container is comparable or even lower than the cost of commonly available commercial containers. The main advantages of this egg shipment container are: a) good thermo-insulation properties, b) variable size and c) low cost. (author)

  7. Hydro-structural issues in the design of ultra large container ships

    Sime Malenica

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The structural design of the ships includes two main issues which should be checked carefully, namely the extreme structural response (yielding & buckling and the fatigue structural response. Even if the corresponding failure modes are fundamentally different, the overall methodologies for their evaluation have many common points. Both issues require application of two main steps: deterministic calculations of hydro-structure interactions for given operating conditions on one side and the statistical post-processing in order to take into account the lifetime operational profile, on the other side. In the case of ultra large ships such as the container ships and in addition to the classical quasi-static type of structural responses the hydroelastic structural response becomes important. This is due to several reasons among which the following are the most important: the increase of the flexibility due to their large dimensions (Lpp close to 400 m which leads to the lower structural natural frequencies, very large operational speed (20 knots and large bow flare (increased slamming loads. The correct modeling of the hydroelastic ship structural response, and its inclusion into the overall design procedure, is significantly more complex than the evaluation of the quasi static structural response. The present paper gives an overview of the different tools and methods which are used in nowadays practice.

  8. Safety analysis report: packages. DOT specification 7A - Type A container Mark 15 sludge shipping package

    Zeh, C.W.

    1985-03-01

    Sludge or filter cake containing 1.1 wt % 235 U enriched uranium from Mark 15 fabrication will be packaged in 55-gallon containers and shipped from SRP to NLO, Fernald, Ohio for recovery of product. About 7 Metric Tons (MT) of filter cake will be produced from fabricating Mark 15 slugs each reactor charge. Packaged shipments of this material, consigned as exclusive use, will be shipped to NLO in Department of Transportation (DOT) Specification 7A - Type A packages under a DOE Certificate of Compliance for Fissile Class III shipments. ''Type A packaging'' is designed to retain containment and shielding integrity under normal conditions of transport. This report documents compliance of the package design, construction methods, material and test performance with DOT Specification 7A. This DOT 7A Type A package contains a carbon steel outer container which is a 0.060-in.-thick 55-gal, galvanized drum equipped with a gasketed closure. The outer container encloses a 0.090-in.-thick, open head, polyethylene liner with lid

  9. Effects of national culture on human failures in container shipping: the moderating role of Confucian dynamism.

    Lu, Chin-Shan; Lai, Kee-hung; Lun, Y H Venus; Cheng, T C E

    2012-11-01

    Recent reports on work safety in container shipping operations highlight high frequencies of human failures. In this study, we empirically examine the effects of seafarers' perceptions of national culture on the occurrence of human failures affecting work safety in shipping operations. We develop a model adopting Hofstede's national culture construct, which comprises five dimensions, namely power distance, collectivism/individualism, uncertainty avoidance, masculinity/femininity, and Confucian dynamism. We then formulate research hypotheses from theory and test the hypotheses using survey data collected from 608 seafarers who work on global container carriers. Using a point scale for evaluating seafarers' perception of the five national culture dimensions, we find that Filipino seafarers score highest on collectivism, whereas Chinese and Taiwanese seafarers score highest on Confucian dynamism, followed by collectivism, masculinity, power distance, and uncertainty avoidance. The results also indicate that Taiwanese seafarers have a propensity for uncertainty avoidance and masculinity, whereas Filipino seafarers lean more towards power distance, masculinity, and collectivism, which are consistent with the findings of Hofstede and Bond (1988). The results suggest that there will be fewer human failures in container shipping operations when power distance is low, and collectivism and uncertainty avoidance are high. Specifically, this study finds that Confucian dynamism plays an important moderating role as it affects the strength of associations between some national culture dimensions and human failures. Finally, we discuss our findings' contribution to the development of national culture theory and their managerial implications for reducing the occurrence of human failures in shipping operations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Criticality safety evaluation of Rocky Flats Plant one-gallon shipping containers

    Briggs, J.B.

    1991-02-01

    Intraplant shipment of small quantities of plutonium and uranium at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) are made in one-gallon shipping containers. Criticality safety calculations have been performed to provide an analytical basis upon which handling, storage, and transportation limits on these containers are based. The calculations and results are documented in this report. This analysis was categorized as Quality Level A (according to the EG ampersand G Idaho Quality Manual) in that it is a service whose failure could cause undue risks to employees or public health and safety. It is intended to comply with NQA-1. 7 refs., 7 figs., 12 tabs

  11. Comprehensive simultaneous shipboard and airborne characterization of exhaust from a modern container ship at sea.

    Murphy, Shane M; Agrawal, Harshit; Sorooshian, Armin; Padró, Luz T; Gates, Harmony; Hersey, Scott; Welch, W A; Lung, H; Miller, J W; Cocker, David R; Nenes, Athanasios; Jonsson, Haflidi H; Flagan, Richard C; Seinfeld, John H

    2009-07-01

    We report the first joint shipboard and airborne study focused on the chemical composition and water-uptake behavior of particulate ship emissions. The study focuses on emissions from the main propulsion engine of a Post-Panamax class container ship cruising off the central coast of California and burning heavy fuel oil. Shipboard sampling included micro-orifice uniform deposit impactors (MOUDI) with subsequent off-line analysis, whereas airborne measurements involved a number of real-time analyzers to characterize the plume aerosol, aged from a few seconds to over an hour. The mass ratio of particulate organic carbon to sulfate at the base of the ship stack was 0.23 +/- 0.03, and increased to 0.30 +/- 0.01 in the airborne exhaust plume, with the additional organic mass in the airborne plume being concentrated largely in particles below 100 nm in diameter. The organic to sulfate mass ratio in the exhaust aerosol remained constant during the first hour of plume dilution into the marine boundary layer. The mass spectrum of the organic fraction of the exhaust aerosol strongly resembles that of emissions from other diesel sources and appears to be predominantly hydrocarbon-like organic (HOA) material. Background aerosol which, based on air mass back trajectories, probably consisted of aged ship emissions and marine aerosol, contained a lower organic mass fraction than the fresh plume and had a much more oxidized organic component. A volume-weighted mixing rule is able to accurately predict hygroscopic growth factors in the background aerosol but measured and calculated growth factors do not agree for aerosols in the ship exhaust plume. Calculated CCN concentrations, at supersaturations ranging from 0.1 to 0.33%, agree well with measurements in the ship-exhaust plume. Using size-resolved chemical composition instead of bulk submicrometer composition has little effect on the predicted CCN concentrations because the cutoff diameter for CCN activation is larger than the

  12. Effects of drop testing on scale model shipping containers shielded with depleted uranium

    Butler, T.A.

    1980-02-01

    Three scale model shipping containers shielded with depleted uranium were dropped onto an essentially unyielding surface from various heights to determine their margins to failure. This report presents the results of a thorough posttest examination of the models to check for basic structural integrity, shielding integrity, and deformations. Because of unexpected behavior exhibited by the depleted uranium shielding, several tests were performed to further characterize its mechanical properties. Based on results of the investigations, recommendations are made for improved container design and for applying the results to full-scale containers. Even though the specimens incorporated specific design features, the results of this study are generally applicable to any container design using depleted uranium

  13. The PEACE PIPE: Recycling nuclear weapons into a TRU storage/shipping container

    Floyd, D.; Edstrom, C.; Biddle, K.; Orlowski, R.; Geinitz, R.; Keenan, K.; Rivera, M.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes results of a contract undertaken by the National Conversion Pilot Project (NCPP) at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) to fabricate stainless steel ''pipe'' containers for use in certification testing at Sandia National Lab, Albuquerque to qualify the container for both storage of transuranic (TRU) waste at RFETS and other DOE sites and shipping of the waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Project (WIPP). The paper includes a description of the nearly ten-fold increase in the amount of contained plutonium enabled by the product design, the preparation and use of former nuclear weapons facilities to fabricate the components, and the rigorous quality assurance and test procedures that were employed. It also describes how stainless steel nuclear weapons components can be converted into these pipe containers, a true ''swords into plowshare'' success story

  14. Investigation of active interrogation techniques to detect special nuclear material in maritime environments: Boarded search of a cargo container ship

    Grogan, Brandon R.; Henkel, James J.; Johnson, Jeffrey O.; Mihalczo, John T.; Miller, Thomas M.; Patton, Bruce W.

    2013-01-01

    The detonation of a terrorist nuclear weapon in the United States would result in the massive loss of life and grave economic damage. Even if a device was not detonated, its known or suspected presence aboard a cargo container ship in a U.S. port would have major economic and political consequences. One possible means to prevent this threat would be to board a ship at sea and search for the device before it reaches port. The scenario considered here involves a small Coast Guard team with strong intelligence boarding a container ship to search for a nuclear device. Using active interrogation, the team would nonintrusively search a block of shipping containers to locate the fissile material. Potential interrogation source and detector technologies for the team are discussed. The methodology of the scan is presented along with a technique for calculating the required interrogation source strength using computer simulations. MCNPX was used to construct a computer model of a container ship, and several search scenarios were simulated. The results of the simulations are presented in terms of the source strength required for each interrogation scenario. Validation measurements were performed in order to scale these simulation results to expected performance. Interrogations through the short (2.4 m) axis of a standardized shipping container appear to be feasible given the entire range of container loadings tested. Interrogations through several containers at once or a single container through its long (12.2 m) axis do not appear to be viable with a portable interrogation system

  15. Investigation of active interrogation techniques to detect special nuclear material in maritime environments: Boarded search of a cargo container ship

    Grogan, Brandon R., E-mail: groganbr@ornl.gov; Henkel, James J.; Johnson, Jeffrey O.; Mihalczo, John T.; Miller, Thomas M.; Patton, Bruce W.

    2013-12-01

    The detonation of a terrorist nuclear weapon in the United States would result in the massive loss of life and grave economic damage. Even if a device was not detonated, its known or suspected presence aboard a cargo container ship in a U.S. port would have major economic and political consequences. One possible means to prevent this threat would be to board a ship at sea and search for the device before it reaches port. The scenario considered here involves a small Coast Guard team with strong intelligence boarding a container ship to search for a nuclear device. Using active interrogation, the team would nonintrusively search a block of shipping containers to locate the fissile material. Potential interrogation source and detector technologies for the team are discussed. The methodology of the scan is presented along with a technique for calculating the required interrogation source strength using computer simulations. MCNPX was used to construct a computer model of a container ship, and several search scenarios were simulated. The results of the simulations are presented in terms of the source strength required for each interrogation scenario. Validation measurements were performed in order to scale these simulation results to expected performance. Interrogations through the short (2.4 m) axis of a standardized shipping container appear to be feasible given the entire range of container loadings tested. Interrogations through several containers at once or a single container through its long (12.2 m) axis do not appear to be viable with a portable interrogation system.

  16. Thermal response modeling of a contact-handled transuranic waste shipping container system to a fire

    Suchsland, K.E.; Kwong, K.C.; Fretter, E.F.; Boyd, R.D.; Auerbach, I.; Yoshimura, H.R.

    1980-01-01

    A one-dimensional thermal model has been developed to predict the response of a transuranic (TRU) waste shipping container accidentally exposed to a fire environment. The basic wall structure of the container consists of polyurethane foam (64 kg/m 3 ) sandwiched between two steel plates. The foam thermal model, based on high temperature experimental data, is developed for the case in which the virgin foam is in a nonoxidizing environment. The experimental results indicate that foam decomposition is highly heat rate dependent. At low quasi-steady heating rates, the foam changes to a bubbling black viscous liquid. At very high heating rates, pyrolysis gases are formed as the foam decomposes and a 20% (by weight) residual char remains. This porous char acts as a radiation shield which can significantly reduce thermal transport. In the case of a TRU shipping container wall, this char will slow the thermal penetration rate and drastically reduce the heat load to the container contents. When the front surface of the wall was subjected to 1333 0 K, numerical computations predict that after approximately 1800 s the foam temperature rise at a depth of 10.2 cm was less than 200 K (uncharred). After approximately 3600 s the foam temperature rise at a depth of 20.4 cm was 23 0 K. Typical waste contents temperature rise was predicted to be less than 56 0 K after 3600 s of heating

  17. Wind-Tunnel Investigation of Wind Loads on a Post-Panamax Container Ship as a Function of the Container Configuration on Deck

    Andersen, Ingrid Marie Vincent

    2012-01-01

    An investigation of the wind forces acting on a 9,000+ TEU container ship has been carried out through a series of wind tunnel tests. It was investigated how the wind forces depend on the container configuration on the deck using a 1:450 scale model and a series of appropriate container...... are presented as nondimensional coefficients. It is concluded, that the measured forces and moment depend on the container configuration on deck, and the results may provide a general idea of how the magnitude of the wind forces is affected by a given container stacking configuration on a similar container ship....

  18. 77 FR 40637 - Smurfit-Stone Container Corporation, Containerboard Mill, Including On-Site Leased Workers From...

    2012-07-10

    ... Corporation, Containerboard Mill, Including On-Site Leased Workers From KMW Enterprises and General Security... Assistance on May 6, 2010, applicable to workers of Smurfit-Stone Container Corporation, Containerboard Mill... Ontonagon, Michigan location of Smurfit-Stone Container Corporation, Containerboard Mill, Ontonagon...

  19. 75 FR 69471 - Smurfit-Stone Container Corporation, Containerboard Mill, Including On-Site Leased Workers From...

    2010-11-12

    ... Corporation, Containerboard Mill, Including On-Site Leased Workers From KMW Enterprises, Ontonagon, MI... to workers of Smurfit-Stone Container Corporation, Containerboard Mill, Ontonagon, Michigan. The... Ontonagon, Michigan location of Smurfit-Stone Container Corporation, Containerboard Mill. The Department has...

  20. Safety Analysis Report for Packaging: The unirradiated fuel shipping container USA/9853/AF

    1991-01-01

    The HFBR Unirradiated Fuel Shipping Container was designed and fabricated at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in 1978 for the transport of fuel for the High Flux Beam Reactor (HFBR) for Brookhaven National Laboratory. The package has been evaluated analytically, as well as the comparison to tests on similar packages, to demonstrate compliance with the applicable regulations governing packages in which radioactive and fissile materials are transported. The contents of this Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) are based on Regulatory Guide 7.9 (proposed Revision 2 - May 1986), 10 CFR Part 71, DOE Order 1540.2, DOE Order 5480.3, and 49 CFR Part 173

  1. SHOCK-JR: a computer program to analyze impact response of shipping container

    Ikushima, Takeshi; Nakazato, Chikara; Shimoda, Osamu; Uchino, Mamoru.

    1983-02-01

    The report is provided for using a computer program, SHOCK-JR, which is used to analyze the impact response of shipping containers. Descriptions are the mathematical model, method of analysis, structures of the program and the input and output variables. The program solves the equations of motion for a one-dimensional, lumped mass and nonlinear spring model. The solution procedure uses Runge-Kutta-Gill and Newmark-β methods. SHOCK-JR is a revised version of SHOCK, which was developed by ORNL. In SHOCK-JR, SI dimension is used and graphical output is available. (author)

  2. Criticality safety evaluation of a type B enriched uranium shipping container

    Hopper, C.M.

    1978-01-01

    The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant Model DT-14 container was developed to replace and extend the enriched uranium shipping capabilities of the USA/5765/BF Vermiculite shipping container. This work was accomplished to comply with the DOE Immediate Action Directive Number 0529-02 for ''Phasing out the use of loose or bagged Vermiculite packaging material as a thermal shield and shock absorber in radioactive material packages''. The Model DT-14 is fabricated from a Specification 17H 30-gallon drum, cane fiberboard insulation, and a steel inner containment vessel (159 mm dia by 390 mm height). The single-package and array analyses are based upon results of the multigroup Monte Carlo criticality program, KENO, utilizing 16-energy-group Hansen-Roach, and Knight modified 238 U cross sections. The program and cross sections are considered well established on the basis of their success in calculating a large variety of critical experiments. Validation results show that a calculated neutron multiplication factor plus two standard deviations equal to 0.970 or greater must be considered critical, and all lower values may be considered safe

  3. Radiation Scanning Methods for Ship-to-Rail Intermodal Cargo Containers

    Reichmuth, Barbara A.; Stansbury, Paul S.; Taira, Randal Y.; Sanquist, Thomas F.; Collins, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The Department of Homeland Security's (DHS) Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO) runs the Rail Test Center (RTC) at the Port of Tacoma (POT). The RTC affords DNDO with the opportunity to test radiological and nuclear threat detection systems associated with the unique on-dock rail environment while in an operational seaport. DNDO selected the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to manage the RTC. The RTC is conducting various evaluation studies to assess scanning opportunities in terms of their affects on the number of container moves required and the affect that the scanning opportunity has on the time it takes to move a container through the on-dock transfer process from ship to rail. The velocity and the number of container moves are directly associated with incremental costs to the terminal operators; increases in either of these parameters help in-form the potential for incremental costs that would result from the implementation of the opportunity.

  4. Corruption and Corporate Social Responsibility in China : The case of the Norwegian shipping industry

    Søndenaa, Eli Friisø

    2010-01-01

    This paper has two main purposes. Firstly to look at how Norwegian shipowners are affected by corruption in China. Secondly to find out how the companies’ CSR policy can protect them against corruption. The background for this thesis is among others statistics from Corruption Perceptions Index (Transparency International). Also I wanted to look deeper into the increasing focus on Corporate Social Responsibility policies the later year. It seemed interesting to look at how Norwegian Shipowners...

  5. Necessity of Proper Lashing of Containers on the Ship's Deck as Part of Optimization of the Sea Voyage

    Zoran Radišić

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available These days we are witnessing an increase of container trafficin general and at sea in particular. In order to economizetheir business the ship owners are building bigger container vesselswhich can carry up to 8000 TEUs (Maersk line and otherbig carriers are following suit. On the drawing board is the vesselof 12000 TEUs from the mentioned ship owner. Obviously,such large quantity of containers requires highly efficient lashingequipment in order to secure them, particularly thosestowed on the deck Under the deck, almost as a rule all contemporarycontainer ships have cell guides as securing devices.Attention in this work is focused on container lashing systemexposed on the ship's deck and the relevant forces acting on thelash system during transportation at sea. Once containers areloaded on the ship's deck they should be safely secured by oneof the lashing systems in order to prevent damage and that is theprincipal task of the lashing equipment engaged within theframe of the lash system. In order to fulfill its objective theforces acting on the container should be properly calculated.The acting forces, their influence and the way of calculatingthem have been explained for all the major ship movementsand suggestions for optimum lashing equipment are given.

  6. The logistics management in the sizing of the fleet of containers per ships in dedicated route - The use of computer simulation: A Brazilian shipping company case

    Delmo Alves de Moura

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is provide the use of the simulation in the discrete event to manage one important point in the logistics systems to shipping companies that is the imbalance of containers, movement of empty containers from surplus ports to deficit ports. From a survey of data from a shipping company operating in Brazil, at various ports, it was possible to model and simulate the needs in six major domestic ports of empty and full containers and seek to meet demand in the shipping market, reducing storage of containers and maintaining the level of excellence in service. Based on the discrete event simulation it was possible to analyze the problem of empty and full containers at the ports in the maritime transportation system. It was possible study the imbalance situation in the ports e provide one tool the companies to manage yours service. The data are confined to one company located in São Paulo and operating in Brazil at maritime transportation. The research shows that the imbalance problem between full and empty containers is a real case to all companies in the maritime transportation and can have effective solutions using discrete event simulation. To have excellent supply chain management it is important to have also one effective transportation system. This paper contributes to research in the inbound and outbound part of the supply chain management.

  7. Problems of heat transfer within the containing vessel of high performance LMFBR spent fuel shipping casks

    Pope, R.B.; Gartling, D.K.; Schimmel, W.P. Jr.; Larson, D.W.

    1976-01-01

    A preliminary assessment of heat transfer problems internal to a LMFBR spent fuel shipping cask is reported. The assessment is based upon previous results obtained in full-scale, electrically heated mockups of an LMFBR assembly located in a containing pipe, and also upon analytical and empirical studies presented in this paper. It is shown that a liquid coolant will be required to adequately distribute the decay heat of short-cooled assemblies from the fuel region to the containing cask structure. Liquid sodium apparently provides the best heat transfer, and sufficient data are available to adequately model the heat transfer processes involved. Dowtherm A is the most efficient organic evaluated to date and presented in the open literature. Since the organic materials have high Prandtl and usually high Rayleigh numbers, natural convection is the predominant mode of heat transfer. It is shown that a more comprehensive understanding of the convective processes will be required before heat transfer with an organic coolant can be adequately modeled. However, in view of systems considerations, Dowtherm A should be further considered as an alternative to sodium for use as a LMFBR spent fuel shipping cask coolant

  8. Determination of Lowest Achievable Emission Rate for Coors Container Corporation

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  9. Nuclear waste shipping container response to severe accident conditions, A brief critique of the modal study

    Audin, L.

    1990-12-01

    The Modal Study (NUREG/CR-4829) attempts to upgrade the analysis of spent nuclear fuel transportation accidents, and to verify the validity of the present regulatory scheme of cask performance standards as a means to minimize risk. While an improvement over many prior efforts in this area (such as NUREG-0170), it unfortunately fails to create a realistic simulation either of a shipping cask, the severe conditions to which it could be subjected, or the potential damage to the spent fuel cargo during an accident. There are too many deficiencies in its analysis to allow acceptance of its results for the presumed cask design, and many pending changes in new containers, cargoes and shipping patterns will limit applicability of the Modal Study to future shipments. In essence, the Modal Study is a good start, but is too simplistic, incomplete, outdated and open to serious question to be used as the basis for any present-day environmental or risk assessment of spent fuel transportation. It needs to be redone, with peer review during its production and experimental verification of its assumptions, before it has any relevance to the shipments planned to Yucca Mountain. Finally, it must be expanded into a full risk assessment by inputing its radiological release fractions and probabilities into a valid dispersal simulation to properly determine the impact of its results. 51 refs

  10. Tension in the tie-down chains of a shipping container for hazardous material

    Lo, T.Y.

    1995-01-01

    Chains are frequently used to tie the shipping containers of hazardous material to a truck bed. The tie-down system is nonlinear when the container is subjected to a triaxial force during transit. It is nonlinear because chains cannot carry compressive force, and the base of the container may partially lift off from the truck bed. A method was developed to calculate the amount of tension in the chains. This methodology includes three assumptions: (1) No friction exists between the container and the truck bed; (2) The container and the truck bed are rigid; and (3) All chains are properly tightened (i.e., no slacks) during preparation for shipment. The methodology employs an iterative process of a linear tie-down system. This linear system is derived from the nonlinear system with two additional assumptions: (a) All chains can carry compression as well as tension; and (b) There is a point contact between the container and the truck bed. This linear system has a closed-form solution. After the first solution of the linear system is obtained, the unreasonable, or physically impossible, rotational degree of freedom of the container and the chains with compressive force are eliminated in the follow-up iterative calculations using the same linear system. Unreasonable rotation is detected when the results indicate a rotation of the container into the truck bed. Zero rotational value is assigned to this degree of freedom in the follow-up iterations. For chains under compression, the chain length is replaced with a fictitiously large value because a long chain carries essentially no load. This process usually needs only two or three iterations and can easily be carried out in a spread sheet using such programs as Microsoft Excel or LOTUS 123

  11. Space charge dosimeters for extremely low power measurements of radiation in shipping containers

    Britton, Jr; Charles, L [Alcoa, TN; Buckner, Mark A [Oak Ridge, TN; Hanson, Gregory R [Clinton, TN; Bryan, William L [Knoxville, TN

    2011-04-26

    Methods and apparatus are described for space charge dosimeters for extremely low power measurements of radiation in shipping containers. A method includes in situ polling a suite of passive integrating ionizing radiation sensors including reading-out dosimetric data from a first passive integrating ionizing radiation sensor and a second passive integrating ionizing radiation sensor, where the first passive integrating ionizing radiation sensor and the second passive integrating ionizing radiation sensor remain situated where the dosimetric data was integrated while reading-out. Another method includes arranging a plurality of ionizing radiation sensors in a spatially dispersed array; determining a relative position of each of the plurality of ionizing radiation sensors to define a volume of interest; collecting ionizing radiation data from at least a subset of the plurality of ionizing radiation sensors; and triggering an alarm condition when a dose level of an ionizing radiation source is calculated to exceed a threshold.

  12. Extreme value prediction of the wave-induced vertical bending moment in large container ships

    Andersen, Ingrid Marie Vincent; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    2015-01-01

    increase the extreme hull girder response significantly. Focus in the present paper is on the influence of the hull girder flexibility on the extreme response amidships, namely the wave-induced vertical bending moment (VBM) in hogging, and the prediction of the extreme value of the same. The analysis...... in the present paper is based on time series of full scale measurements from three large container ships of 8600, 9400 and 14000 TEU. When carrying out the extreme value estimation the peak-over-threshold (POT) method combined with an appropriate extreme value distribution is applied. The choice of a proper...... threshold level as well as the statistical correlation between clustered peaks influence the extreme value prediction and are taken into consideration in the present paper....

  13. Destructive Testing of an ES-3100 Shipping Container at the Savannah River National Laboratory

    Loftin, B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Abramczyk, G. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-06-09

    Destructive testing of an ES-3100 Shipping Container was completed by the Packaging Technology and Pressurized Systems organization within the Savannah River National Laboratory in order to qualify the ES-3100 as a candidate storage and transport package for applications at various facilities at the Savannah River Site. The testing consisted of the detonation of three explosive charges at separate locations on a single ES-3100. The locations for the placement were chosen based the design of the ES-3100 as well as the most likely places for the package to incur damage as a result of the detonation. The testing was completed at an offsite location, which raised challenges as well as allowed for development of new partnerships for this testing and for potential future testing. The results of the testing, the methods used to complete the testing, and similar, potential future work will be discussed.

  14. IMPAC-2, Dynamic Impact Analysis for 1-D Nonlinear Spring Shipping Container Model

    Payne, J. B.; Counts, J.

    1980-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: IMPAC2 solves the equations of motion for a one-dimensional, lumped-mass, nonlinear spring mathematical container model. The program was designed to analyze the dynamic response of metallic shipping containers impacting an unyielding surface. The container may consist of several hollow concentric cylinders, each of a different material and length. 2 - Method of solution: An iteration technique (Newmark-Beta) is used to solve the equations of motion for displacement, velocity, and acceleration of the masses at each time-step. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The maximum number of masses is 100. The program is written for a maximum of 10 different materials. The first seven have been given the following designations: 1 steel, 2 clad lead, 3 uranium, 4 pine, 5 lead, 6 balsa, 7 marine plywood. Stress-strain characteristics for materials 1, 3, 4, and 6 are approximated by a bilinear curve fit which requires as input the modulus of elasticity, the stress at the intersection of the two lines and the slope of the second line

  15. Assessment of stress-strain data suitable for finite-element elastic--plastic analysis of shipping containers

    Rack, H.J.; Knorovsky, G.A.

    1978-09-01

    Stress-strain data which describes the influence of strain rate and temperature on the mechanical response of materials presently being used for light water reactor fuel shipping containers have been assembled. Selection of data has been limited to that which is suitable for use in finite-element elastic--plastic analysis of shipping containers (e.g., they must include complete material history profiles). Based on this information, recommendations have been made for further work which is required to complete the necessary data base

  16. Estimating particle release through gas leaks in dry powder shipping containers

    Schwendiman, L.C.

    1977-06-01

    Information is presented from which an estimate can be made of the release of plutonium oxide from shipping containers. The leak diameter is estimated from gas leak tests of the container and an estimate is made of gas leak rate as a function of pressure over the time of interest in the accident. These calculations are limited in accuracy because of assumptions regarding leak geometry and the basic formulations of hydrodynamic flow for the assumed conditions. Sonic flow is assumed to be the limiting gas flow rate. Particles leaking from the air space above the powder will be limited by the low availability of particles due to rapid settling, the very limited driving force (pressure buildup) during the first minute, and the deposition in the leak channel. Equations are given to estimate deposition losses. Leaks of particles occurring below the level of the bulk powder will be limited by mechanical interference when leaks are of dimension smaller than particle sizes present. Some limiting cases can be calculated. When the leak dimension is large compared to the particle sizes present, maximum particle releases can be estimated, but will be very conservative. Further theoretical and experimental studies are needed to better define the hydrodynamics of gas flow in leaks of the size being considered, and to establish particle transport rates through known geometry leak paths

  17. Perturbation of baseline thermal stress in the Mound 9516 Shipping Package primary containment vessel

    Sansalone, K.H.F.

    1995-01-01

    Full-capacity loading of heat sources into the Mound 9516 Shipping Package primary containment vessel (PCV) results in temperature gradients which are symmetric, due to the axisymmetry of the package design. Concern over the change in thermal gradients (and therefore, stress) in the PCV due to sub-capacity loading led to the analytical examination of this phenomenon. The PCVs are cylindrical in shape and are loaded into the package such that they and all containment components are concentrically arranged along a common longitudinal axis. If the design full-capacity loading of the PCVs in this package assumes the axisymmetric (or more precisely, cyclicly symmetric) arrangement of its heat-producing contents, then sub-capacity loading implies that in many cases, the load arrangement could be asymmetric with respect to the longitudinal axis. It is then feasible that the departure from heat load axisymmetry could perturb the nominal thermal gradients so that thermally-induced stress within the PCV might increase to levels deemed unacceptable. This study applies Finite Element analysis (FEA) to the problem and demonstrates that no such unacceptable thermal stress increase occurs in the PCV material due to the asymmetric arrangement of contents. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  18. Opportunities for peak shaving the energy demand of ship-to-shore quay cranes at container terminals

    H. Geerlings; Robert Heij; dr. J.H.R. van Duin

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents the results of both a qualitative and a quantitative study on the possibilities for peak shaving the energy demand of ship-to-shore (STS) cranes at container terminals. The objective is to present an energy consumption model that visualizes the energy demand of STS cranes and to

  19. Opportunities for peak shaving the energy demand of ship-to-shore quay cranes at container terminals

    Geerlings, Harry; van Duin, Ron

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents the results of both a qualitative and a quantitative study on
    the possibilities for peak shaving the energy demand of ship-to-shore (STS) cranes at container terminals. The objective is to present an energy consumption model that visualizes the energy demand of STS cranes and

  20. Internal Corrosion Analysis of Model 9975 Packaging Containing Pu or PuO2 During Shipping and Storage

    Vormelker, P.

    1999-01-01

    The Materials Consultation Group of SRTC has completed an internal corrosion analysis of the Model 9975 packaging assembly containing either Pu or PuO2 for storage in K Reactor under ambient conditions for a period of 12 years. The 12-year storage period includes two years for shipping and up to ten years for storage

  1. 9 CFR 98.32 - Inspection of certain aircraft and other means of conveyance and shipping containers thereon...

    2010-01-01

    ... other means of conveyance and shipping containers thereon; unloading, cleaning, and disinfection... inspector. (c) Cleaning and disinfection: Whenever, upon inspection under this section, an inspector... requirements under this section. The person so notified shall cause the cleaning and disinfection of such means...

  2. Dual Neutral Particle Beam Interrogation of Intermodal Shipping Containers for Special Nuclear Material

    Keith, Rodney Lyman

    Intermodal shipping containers entering the United States provide an avenue to smuggle unsecured or stolen special nuclear material (SNM). The only direct method fielded to indicate the presence of SNM is by passive photon/neutron radiation detection. Active interrogation using neutral particle beams to induce fission in SNM is a method under consideration. One by-product of fission is the creation of fragments that undergo radioactive decay over a time period on the order of tens of seconds after the initial event. The "delayed" gamma-rays emitted from these fragments over this period are considered a hallmark for the presence of SNM. A fundamental model is developed using homogenized cargos with a SNM target embedded at the center and computationally interrogated using simultaneous neutron and photon beams. Findings from analysis of the delayed gamma emissions from these experiments are intended to mitigate the effects of poor quality information about the composition and disposition of suspect cargo before examination in an active interrogation portal.

  3. Shock and vibration environments for large shipping containers on rail cars and trucks

    Magnuson, C.F.; Wilson, L.T.

    1977-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide definitions of shock and vibration environment to which fissile material shipping containers may be exposed during normal shipment by truck and rail cars. The definitions of vibration, shock superimposed on vibration and rail coupling shock result from existing data. The dependence of shock environment, from rail coupling operations, on parameters like cargo weight and shock attenuation couplers was also studied using spring-mass models. These studies show that for rail cars equipped with standard draft gear, the cargo response decreases with increased cargo weight until the springs bottom out. For rail cars equipped with shock attenuation couplers, cargo weight has little effect on cargo response. The study also shows the importance of matching couplers and tiedown stiffnesses to decrease the cargo response. Vibration and shock data samples have been obtained during truck shipment of heavy cargo and the data will be presented in subsequent reports. Similar data need to be obtained for rail shipment of heavy cargo and during rail coupling operations with heavy cargo

  4. An Innovative Oil Pollution Containment Method for Ship Wrecks Proposed for Offshore Well Blow-outs

    ANDRITSOS Fivos; COJINS Hans

    2011-01-01

    In the aftermath of the PRESTIGE disaster, an innovative system for the prompt intervention on oil pollution sources (primarily ship wrecks) at great depths was conceived at the Joint Research Center of the European Commission. This system, with some re-engineering, could also serve for collecting oil and gas leaking after an offshore well blow-out and could constitute a reference method for prompt intervention on deep water oil pollution sources like ship wrecks and blown-out offshore wells....

  5. Design of an experiment to measure the fire exposure of radioactive materials packages aboard container cargo ships

    Koski, J.A.

    1997-11-01

    The test described in this paper is intended to measure the typical accident environment for a radioactive materials package in a fire aboard a container cargo ship. A stack of nine used standard cargo containers will be variously loaded with empty packages, simulated packages and combustible cargo and placed over a large hydrocarbon pool fire of one hour duration. Both internal and external fire container fire environments typical of on-deck stowage will be measured as well as the potential for container to container fire spread. With the use of the inverse heat conduction calculations, the local heat transfer to the simulated packages can be estimated from thermocouple data. Data recorded will also provide information on fire durations in each container, fire intensity and container to container fire spread characteristics

  6. Hydroelastic response of 19,000 TEU class ultra large container ship with novel mobile deckhouse for maximizing cargo capacity

    Hong-Il Im

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is related to structural design evaluation of 19,000 TEU ultra large container ship, dealing with hydroelastic response, i.e. springing and whipping. It illustrates application of direct calculation tools and methodologies to both fatigue and ultimate strength assessment, simultaneously taking into account ship motions and her elastic deformations. Methodology for springing and whipping assessment within so called WhiSp notation is elaborated in details, and in order to evaluate innovative container ship design with increased loading capacity, a series of independent hydroelastic computations for container ship with mobile deckhouse and conventional one are performed with the same calculation setup. Fully coupled 3D FEM – 3D BEM model is applied, while the ultimate bending capacity of hull girder is determined by means of MARS software. Beside comparative analysis of representative quantities for considered ships, relative influence of hydroelasticity on ship response is addressed.

  7. The Benefits of Incorporating Shipping Containers into the Climate Change Adaption Plans at NASA Wallops Flight Facility

    Hamilton, Carl Kenneth Gonzaga

    2017-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration has several centers and facilities located near the coast that are undoubtedly susceptible to climate change. One of those facilities is Wallops Flight Facility on the Eastern Shore of Virginia which is separated into three areas: Main Base, Mainland, and the Island. Wallops Island has numerous buildings and assets that are vulnerable to flood inundation, intense storms, and storm surge. The shoreline of Wallops Island is prone to beach erosion and is slated for another beach replenishment project in 2019. In addition, current climate projections for NASAs centers and facilities, conducted by the Climate Adaptation Science Investigators, warn of inevitable increases in annual temperature, precipitation, sea level rise, and extreme events such as heat waves. The aforementioned vulnerabilities Wallops Island faces in addition to the projections of future climate change reveal an urgency for NASA to adjust how new buildings at its centers and facilities near the coast are built to adapt to the inevitable effects of climate change. Although the agency has made strides to mitigate the effects of climate change by incorporating L.E.E.D. into new buildings that produce less greenhouse gas, the strides for the agency to institute clear climate adaptation policies for the buildings at its centers and facilities near the coast seem to lag behind. As NASA continues to formulate formidable climate change adaptation plans for its centers and facilities, an architectural trend that should be examined for its potential to replace several old buildings at Wallops Island is shipping containers buildings. Shipping containers or Intermodal Steel Building Units offer an array of benefits such as strength, durability, versatility, modular, and since they can be upcycled, they are also eco-friendly. Some disadvantages of shipping containers are they contain harmful chemicals, insulation must be added, fossil fuels must be used to

  8. Safety guidelines of ultimate hull girder strength for grounded container ships

    Kim, Do Kyun; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Paik, Jeom Kee

    2013-01-01

    Various accidents commonly occur on operating ships. The structural damage caused by such accidents is often accompanied by casualties and serious pollution. In this regard, an accidental risk-based approach that is in line with the Goal Based Standard (GBS) of the International Maritime Organiza...

  9. Final report on special impact tests of plutonium shipping containers description of test results

    Bonzon, L.L.

    1977-02-01

    The results from tests conducted to determine the structural response of the LLD-1, Model 1518-6M, and FL-10 plutonium shipping packages when subjected to high-speed impacts (170 to 760 ft/sec) onto unyielding, concrete, and soil targets are presented

  10. Comparisons of Means for Estimating Sea States from an Advancing Large Container Ship

    Nielsen, Ulrik Dam; Andersen, Ingrid Marie Vincent; Koning, Jos

    2013-01-01

    to ship-wave interactions in a seaway. In the paper, sea state estimates are produced by three means: the wave buoy analogy, relying on shipboard response measurements, a wave radar system, and a system providing the instantaneous wave height. The presented results show that for the given data, recorded...

  11. Greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste shipping package/container identification and requirements study

    Tyacke, M.

    1993-08-01

    This report identifies a variety of shipping packages (also referred to as casks) and waste containers currently available or being developed that could be used for greater-than-Class C (GTCC) low-level waste (LLW). Since GTCC LLW varies greatly in size, shape, and activity levels, the casks and waste containers that could be used range in size from small, to accommodate a single sealed radiation source, to very large-capacity casks/canisters used to transport or dry-store highly radioactive spent fuel. In some cases, the waste containers may serve directly as shipping packages, while in other cases, the containers would need to be placed in a transport cask. For the purpose of this report, it is assumed that the generator is responsible for transporting the waste to a Department of Energy (DOE) storage, treatment, or disposal facility. Unless DOE establishes specific acceptance criteria, the receiving facility would need the capability to accept any of the casks and waste containers identified in this report. In identifying potential casks and waste containers, no consideration was given to their adequacy relative to handling, storage, treatment, and disposal. Those considerations must be addressed separately as the capabilities of the receiving facility and the handling requirements and operations are better understood

  12. Effects of overexpression of the SH2-containing inositol phosphatase SHIP on proliferation and apoptosis of erythroid AS-E2 cells

    Boer, AK; Drayer, AL; Vellenga, E

    Previous studies have demonstrated that SH2-containing inositol phosphatase (SHIP) is involved in the control of B cell, myeloid cell and macrophage activation and proliferation. The goal of the present study was to examine the role of SHIP during proliferation and apoptosis in cells of the

  13. Effects of overexpression of the SH2-containing inositol phosphatase SHIP on proliferation and apoptosis of erythroid AS-E2 cells

    Boer, AK; Drayer, AL; Vellenga, E

    2001-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that SH2-containing inositol phosphatase (SHIP) is involved in the control of B cell, myeloid cell and macrophage activation and proliferation. The goal of the present study was to examine the role of SHIP during proliferation and apoptosis in cells of the

  14. Surface contamination of hazardous drug pharmacy storage bins and pharmacy distributor shipping containers.

    Redic, Kimberly A; Fang, Kayleen; Christen, Catherine; Chaffee, Bruce W

    2018-03-01

    Purpose This study was conducted to determine whether there is contamination on exterior drug packaging using shipping totes from the distributor and carousel storage bins as surrogate markers of external packaging contamination. Methods A two-part study was conducted to measure the presence of 5-fluorouracil, ifosfamide, cyclophosphamide, docetaxel and paclitaxel using surrogate markers for external drug packaging. In Part I, 10 drug distributor shipping totes designated for transport of hazardous drugs provided a snapshot view of contamination from regular use and transit in and out of the pharmacy. An additional two totes designated for transport of non-hazardous drugs served as controls. In Part II, old carousel storage bins (i.e. those in use pre-study) were wiped for snapshot view of hazardous drug contamination on storage bins. New carousel storage bins were then put into use for storage of the five tested drugs and used for routine storage and inventory maintenance activities. Carousel bins were wiped at time intervals 0, 8, 16 and 52 weeks to measure surface contamination. Results Two of the 10 hazardous shipping totes were contaminated. Three of the five-old carousel bins were contaminated with cyclophosphamide. One of the old carousel bins was also contaminated with ifosfamide. There were no detectable levels of hazardous drugs on any of the new storage bins at time 0, 8 or 16 weeks. However, at the Week 52, there was a detectable level of 5-FU present in the 5-FU carousel bin. Conclusions Contamination of the surrogate markers suggests that external packaging for hazardous drugs is contaminated, either during the manufacturing process or during routine chain of custody activities. These results demonstrate that occupational exposure may occur due to contamination from shipping totes and storage bins, and that handling practices including use of personal protective equipment is warranted.

  15. Safety analysis report: packages. Argonne National Laboratory SLSF test train shipping container, P-1 shipment. Fissile material. Final report

    Meyer, C.A.

    1975-06-01

    The package is used to ship an instrumented test fuel bundle (test train) containing fissile material. The package assembly is Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) Model R1010-0032. The shipment is fissile class III. The packaging consists of an outer carbon steel container into which an inner container is placed; the inner container is separated from the outer container by urethane foam cushioning material. The test train is supported in the inner container by a series of transverse supports spaced along the length of the test train. Both the inner and outer containers are closed with bolted covers. The covers do not seal the containers in a leaktight manner. The gross weight of the shipment is about 8350 lb. The unirradiated fissile material content is less than 3 kg of UO 2 of up to 93.2 percent enrichment. This is a Type A quantity (transport group III and less than 3 curies) of radioactive material which does not require shielding, cooling or heating, or neutron absorption or moderation functions in its packaging. The maximum exterior dimensions of the container are 37 ft 11 in. long, 24 1 / 2 in. wide, and 19 3 / 4 in. high

  16. A Branch and Cut algorithm for the container shipping network design problem

    Reinhardt, Line Blander; Pisinger, David

    2012-01-01

    The network design problem in liner shipping is of increasing importance in a strongly competitive market where potential cost reductions can influence market share and profits significantly. In this paper the network design and fleet assignment problems are combined into a mixed integer linear...... programming model minimizing the overall cost. To better reflect the real-life situation we take into account the cost of transhipment, a heterogeneous fleet, route dependant capacities, and butterfly routes. To the best of our knowledge it is the first time an exact solution method to the problem considers...

  17. A Branch and Cut algorithm for the container shipping network design problem

    Reinhardt, Line Blander; Kallehauge, Brian; Pisinger, David

    The network design problem in liner shipping is of increasing importance in a strongly competitive market where potential cost reductions can influence market share and profits significantly. In this paper the network design and fleet assignment problems are combined into a mixed integer linear...... programming model minimizing the overall cost. To better reflect the real-life situation we take into account the cost of transhipment, a heterogeneous fleet, route dependant capacities, and butterfly routes. To the best of our knowledge it is the first time an exact solution method to the problem considers...... transhipment cost. The problem is solved with branch-and-cut using clover and transhipment inequalities. Computational results are reported for instances with up to 15 ports....

  18. Loading, moving, and shipping radioactive waste in reusable radioactive material containers

    Schillinger, F.J.; Mohr, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    While the dismantlement of systems and components at the Shoreham Nuclear Power Plant was a monumental task, the loading, movement, temporary storage, and shipping of over 2 1/2 million pounds of contaminated and/or activated material was nearly as difficult. Close coordination and teamwork between such diverse groups as craft labor, health physics, radiation controls, trucking companies and waste volume reducers were crucial elements in performing this work safely, cost effectively, and with particular attention to the station's very aggressive ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) goals. This paper discusses the actual work that was involved from the time the contaminated component was removed from its location in the plant through actual shipment offsite

  19. Techno-economic Analysis of Rotor Flettner in Container Ship 4000DWT

    Agoes Santoso

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Rotor flettner is a kind of technology which developed and used in 21st century. This technology is very simple, cylindrical in shape, applied in the upper deck, and rotated by the electrical motor. This technology uses wind energy and applicating magnus effect to create propulsion force. Rotor flettner depends on the condition of the sea wind. The designer has to check the weather condition in its route before make a design of rotor flettner. This kind of technology is not only useful for the economic side, but also, for the environment. Rotor flettner can reduce the emission of a ship. It helps to gain some power to increase in fuel saving.The emission can be decreased by the increasing of fuel saving. So, this technology is a kind of environmentally friendly technology that can be used for the future innovation

  20. Radiant heat testing of the H1224A shipping/storage container

    Harding, D.C.; Bobbe, J.G.; Stenberg, D.R.; Arviso, M.

    1994-05-01

    H1224A weapons containers have been used for years by the Departments of Energy and Defense to transport and store W78 warhead midsections. Although designed to protect the midsections only from low-energy impacts, a recent transportation risk assessment effort has identified a need to evaluate the container`s ability to protect weapons in more severe accident environments. Four radiant heat tests were performed: two each on an H1224A container (with a Mk12a Mod 6c mass mock-up midsection inside) and two on a low-cost simulated H1224A container (with a hollow Mk12 aeroshell midsections inside). For each unit tested, temperatures were recorded at numerous points throughout the container and midsection during a 4-hour 121{degrees}C (250{degrees}F) and 30-minute 1010{degrees}C (1850{degrees}F) radiant environment. Measured peak temperatures experienced by the inner walls of the midsections as a result of exposure to the high-temperature radiant environment ranged from 650{degrees} C to 980{degrees} C (1200{degrees} F to 1800{degrees}F) for the H1224A container and 770 {degrees} to 990 {degrees}C (1420{degrees} F to 1810{degrees}F) for the simulated container. The majority of both containers were completely destroyed during the high-temperature test. Temperature profiles will be used to benchmark analytical models and predict warhead midsection temperatures over a wide range of the thermal accident conditions.

  1. Thermal-Hydraulic Analysis of the Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation Containment Experiments with GOTHIC

    Wiles, Lawrence E.; George, Thomas L.

    2003-01-01

    GOTHIC version 7.0 was used to model five tests that were conducted in the Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation facility in Japan. The tests involved steam and helium injection into a preheated, spray-moderated, 1/4-scale model of a pressurized water reactor dry containment. Comparison of GOTHIC predictions to measured data for pressure, vapor temperatures, structure surface temperatures, and helium concentrations provided the opportunity to evaluate methods for modeling gas dispersion, drop heat and mass transfer, and surface heat transfer.The test facility includes three floors. The lower two floors are partitioned into a variety of rooms that simulate the lower regions of the modeled containment. On the upper floor, rooms that simulate the steam generator enclosures and the pressurizer enclosure extend into the dome, which represents about two-thirds of the total volume of the containment.The GOTHIC model was defined with 30 control volumes using a mix of lumped parameter volumes and subdivided volumes that employ a three-dimensional mesh. Each volume included several thermal conductors to model the various structures. More than 100 flow paths were used to model the hydraulic connections.Comparison of predictions to data showed that enhanced grid resolution in the vicinity of the steam-helium release point served to limit dispersion of the steam-helium plume. The data comparisons also suggested that spray effectiveness was reduced by drop impact with the containment wall and by the high drop concentration. The data comparisons further suggested that the presence of condensation, sprays, splashing, and other wetting mechanisms should be considered to obtain a reasonable estimate of the effect of liquid films on the structure surfaces

  2. Qualification Testing of the SmartVault Household Goods Shipping Container

    2011-01-06

    base with 4-way forklift entry and molded high-density polyethylene (HDPE) ribbed walls and ( translucent ) lid which are held together with stainless...and four edge drops of the container onto a smooth concrete surface (Appendix 2, Figure 22). The container was visually inspected for damage

  3. Shipping container response to severe highway and railway accident conditions: Appendices

    Fischer, L.E.; Chou, C.K.; Gerhard, M.A.; Kimura, C.Y.; Martin, R.W.; Mensing, R.W.; Mount, M.E.; Witte, M.C.

    1987-02-01

    Volume 2 contains the following appendices: Severe accident data; truck accident data; railroad accident data; highway survey data and bridge column properties; structural analysis; thermal analysis; probability estimation techniques; and benchmarking for computer codes used in impact analysis. (LN)

  4. Design, Fabrication and Testing of the MICOM-ISU Shipping and Storage Container

    Gilreath, Jason

    1997-01-01

    .... This is an unpainted, welded, controlled breathing, aluminum container. It is a low base design with an internal cradle system that is mounted to the base via four stainless steel cable or flex mounts...

  5. SH2 domain-containing inositol 5-phosphatase (SHIP2) regulates de-novo lipogenesis and secretion of apoB100 containing lipoproteins in HepG2 cells.

    Gorgani-Firuzjaee, Sattar; Khatami, Shohreh; Adeli, Khosrow; Meshkani, Reza

    2015-09-04

    Hepatic de-novo lipogenesis and production of triglyceride rich VLDL are regulated via the phosphoinositide 3-kinase cascade, however, the role of a negative regulator of this pathway, the SH2 domain-containing inositol 5-phosphatase (SHIP2) in this process, remains unknown. In the present study, we investigated the molecular link between SHIP2 expression and metabolic dyslipidemia using overexpression or suppression of SHIP2 gene in HepG2 cells. The results showed that overexpression of the wild type SHIP2 gene (SHIP2-WT) led to a higher total lipid content (28%) compared to control, whereas overexpression of the dominant negative SHIP2 gene (SHIP2-DN) reduced total lipid content in oleate treated cells by 40%. Overexpression of SHIP2-WT also led to a significant increase in both secretion of apoB100 containing lipoproteins and de-novo lipogenesis, as demonstrated by an enhancement in secreted apoB100 and MTP expression, increased intra and extracellular triglyceride levels and enhanced expression of lipogenic genes such as SREBP1c, FAS and ACC. On the other hand, overexpression of the SHIP2-DN gene prevented oleate-induced de-novo lipogenesis and secretion of apoB100 containing lipoproteins in HepG2 cells. Collectively, these findings suggest that SHIP2 expression level is a key determinant of hepatic lipogenesis and lipoprotein secretion, and its inhibition could be considered as a potential target for treatment of dyslipidemia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Extended testing of a modified 18B plutonium nitrate shipping container

    Yoshimura, H.R.; Pope, R.B.; Leisher, W.B.; Joseph, B.J.; Schulz-Forberg, B.; Hubner, H.W.

    1980-01-01

    The container damage observed as the result of the high-speed pulldown impact test was more severe than that of either the 185-m free-fall drop of a prototype container onto a semirigid surface or the crush environment produced by a 9-m drop of a 2-tonne block onto a modified container resting on an unyielding surface. In comparison to the extended tests, the 9-m regulatory drop test onto an unyielding surface of the prototype packaging in its most damaging orientation produced the least amount of damage. Very little deformation in the overpack was observed, and there was no influence on the fire resistivity and leaktightness of the containment vessel. The 128 m/s impact test produced a leak in the container. It appears that the 18B packaging, designed to withstand the environments specified in IAEA Safety Series No. 6, can withstand extended environments including longer duration fires and higher velocity impacts on yielding targets. When modified with ring stiffeners, the packaging withstood a dynamic crush test, but did not survive the high speed impact onto an unyielding surface as specified in NUREG 0360

  7. High-impact concrete for fill in US Department of Transportation type shipping containers

    Greenhalgh, W.O.; Cash, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    This report describes the use of light-weight, high-impact concrete in U.S. Department of Transportation-type shipments. The formulations described are substantially lighter in weight (20 to 50 percent) than construction concrete, but product test specimens generally yield superior impact characteristics. The use of this specialty concrete for container fill, encapsulations, or liquid-waste solidification can be advantageous. Use of the material for container or cask construction has the advantage of lighter weight for easier handling, and the container consistently exhibits better performance on drop tests. High-impact concrete does have the disadvantage of less gamma radiation shielding per volume, but some formulation changes discussed in this report can be used to prepare better shielding concrete. Test characteristics of high-impact concrete are included. 3 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs

  8. Contributing to shipping container security: can passive sensors bring a solution?

    Janssens-Maenhout, G.; De Roo, F.; Janssens, W.

    2010-01-01

    Illicit trafficking of fissionable material in container cargoes is recognized as a potential weakness in Nuclear Security. Triggered by the attacks of 11 September 2001, measures were undertaken to enhance maritime security in extension to the Safety Of Life At Sea Convention and in line with the US Container Security Initiatives. Effective detection techniques are needed that allow the inspector to intercept illicit trafficking of nuclear weapons components or components of other nuclear explosive devices. Many security measures focus on active interrogation of the container content by X-ray scan, which might be extended with the newly developed tagged neutron inspection system. Both active interrogation techniques can, with the current huge volume of container traffic, only be applied to a limited number of selected containers. The question arises whether a passive detection technique can offer an alternative solution. This study investigates if containers equipped with a small passive detector will register during transport the neutron irradiation by fissionable material such as plutonium in a measurable way. In practice, 4/5 of the containers are about 1/8 filled with hydrogenous material and undergo a typical 2 months route. For this reference case, it was found that the most compatible passive detector would be an activation foil of iridium. Monte-Carlo simulations showed that for the reference case the activity of a 250 μm thin foil with 6 cm 2 cross-section would register 1.2 Bq when it is irradiated by a significant quantity of Reactor-Grade PuO 2 . However this activity drops with almost two orders of magnitude for other fillings and other isotopic compositions and forms of the Pu-source. The procedure of selecting the target material for Pu detection is detailed with the theoretical methods, in order to be useful for other applications. Moreover the value of such additional passive sensors for securing maritime container transport is situated within

  9. Radiation resistant and decontaminable coatings for shipping, interim storage and repository storage casks containing radioactive wastes

    Kunze, S.

    1995-02-01

    All the Corrobesch-DF-Nukelar coatings - black, yellow, blue, red and white - have been excellently decontaminable without and after radiation exposure with 3x10 5 Gy, despite the slightly higher absorbed dose rate applied at KFA Juelich (DIN 55 991 requires ≤1.0 KGy/h). After a further increase to 3x10 6 Gy in the absorbed dose, with an absorbed dose rate up to 1.0 KGy/h conforming to the standard, the coatings black, yellow, blue were still excellent in their decontamination behavior. After exposure to 10 7 Gy all coatings irradiated at Gammaster in their irradiation room (150 m 3 ) with permanent air changes and at absorbed dose rates of 0.9-1.0 KGy/h have been well decontaminable, and the coatings irradiated at KFA Juelich in the 10 l vessel with discontinuous air changes and variable absorbed dose rate (0.22-2.7 KGy/h) have still been fairly well decontaminable only. To be able to evaluate possible changes occurring upon 10 7 Gy radiation exposure, the test specimens were exposed to the action of chemicals according to DIN 55 991 as well as to decontamination cleansing solutions. Different discolorations, very small reductions in brilliancy, and sometimes minor deteriorations in surface hardness occurred. Detrimental visible changes, e.g. bubble and crack formation, swelling, detachment from the base, etc., have not been found for any of the coatings. These results for the test specimens irradiated at Gammaster are identical with the results for the test specimens irradiated at KFA Juelich, except minor deviations. Contrary to expectations, Corrobesch-DF-Nuklear has proved to be a coating material, which, although it consists of organic base material, nevertheless tolerates radiation exposures without visible damage, i.e. conditions under which only electrodeposited nickel coatings have appeared appropriate until now. This means that application of Corrobesch-Nuklear-DF allows the costs of coating of fuel element shipping and storage casks to be reduced

  10. Structural design of a shipping container of fuel elements, non-irradiated, for research reactors

    Morales Uzqueda, Eduardo Mario

    2013-01-01

    This work is part of a project whose ultimate goal the creation and subsequent discharge of a transport container fuel assemblies for use by the Chilean Commission for Energy Nuclear. In principle it is covered in the design stage, considering the materials and methods used, to further develop a stage of checking voltages in the container to be manufactured. To achieve the first phase of the study is necessary to understand and warn the importance, geometry and content of the fuel elements to be transported, for which there are standards that provide fundamental material for proper classification of both content and container design. Once approved the design of the structure is critical examine both in normal operation and in the case of accidents that are established by international bodies. for appropriate analytical methods that seek to achieve is use a appropriate representation of the behavior of the structure. in addition to strengthen the theory computer simulations of the tests used applied, where the results will be contrasted with the first method of calculation. Results are obtained for the stress field and displacement total delivering the information necessary to approve the container

  11. Calculation of mean outcrossing rates of non-Gaussian processes with stochastic input parameters - Reliability of containers stowed on ships in severe sea

    Nielsen, Ulrik Dam

    2010-01-01

    values is expected to occur, and the final result, the mean outcrossing rate, is obtained by summation. The derived procedure is illustrated by an example considering the forces in containers stowed on ships and, in particular, results are presented for the so-called racking failure in the containers...

  12. Container corporation: The financial, management, and operating implications of a universal beverage container recovery system: Executive summary

    1991-01-01

    This report contains an overview of the system. It discusses containers and container materials, elements of the system, and the container recovery cost structure. It includes a financial evaluation and addresses issues of implementation.

  13. Fracture mechanics aspects in the safe design of ductile iron shipping and storage containers

    Sappok, M.; Bounin, D.

    1996-01-01

    Containers made of ductile cast iron provide a safe method for transport of radioactive material. Contrary to widespread opinion ductile cast iron is a very tough material and can be manufactured in heavy sections. The containers are designed to withstand the very high impact loads of accidents like free drops onto unyielding targets. The design is based on postulated undetected crack-like flaws at the highest stressed location. Design must show that applied stress intensities are smaller than fracture toughness and no crack initiation and therefore also no crack propagation can occur. The design procedure followed in this paper is given in a new guideline still being drafted by the International Atomic Energy Agency

  14. Design criteria for the structural analysis of shipping cask containment vessels

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    10 CFR Part 71, Sections 71.35 and 71.36, require that packages used to transport radioactive materials meet specified normal and hypothetical accident conditions. Acceptable design criteria are presented for use in the structural analysis of the containment vessels of Type B packages used to transport irradiated nuclear fuel. Alternative design criteria meeting the structural requirements of 10 CFR Part 71, Section 71.35 and 71.36, may also be used

  15. Measurements on an inventory of mixed fissile materials in shipping containers

    Rinard, P.M.; Krick, M.S.; Kelley, T.A.

    1997-09-01

    An inventory contained a large number of previously unmeasured items, many with both uranium and plutonium. We have assembled a suite of instruments and measured the items in a variety of ways. This report first considers the measurements and deduced results in detail before summarizing the important differences with the declarations of the inventory's database. The appendices referred to in this report are part of a classified version only and are not attached to this unclassified version. The classified report is by the same authors as this report, has the same title (which is unclassified), and is classified as open-quotes SRD.close quotes

  16. Analysis of railcar-shipping container system response to impact conditions

    Bartholomew, R.J.; Butler, T.A.

    1980-01-01

    An existing mathematical model for simulating railcar-container system response to coupling impacts was revised to simulate configurations that were tested in full-scale experiments. The structural model is represented with the lumped-parameter technique. The resulting equations are linear except for those for the coupler forces experienced during the impact. Results from the mathematical model are compared with load and acceleration data obtained during the full-scale tests. The model predicts actual response accurately enough to make it useful as a design and safety analysis tool

  17. Shock and vibration environments for a large shipping container during truck transport (Part II)

    Magnuson, C.E.

    1978-05-01

    Purpose of this study was to obtain vibration and shock data during truck shipment of heavy cargo. These data were for use in determining any trends of vibration and shock environments with increased cargo weight. The new data were obtained on a ''piggyback'' basis during truck transport of 249 100N (56,000-pound) cargo which consisted of a spent fuel container and its supporting structure. The truck was driven from Mercury, Nevada, to Albuquerque, New Mexico. The routes traveled were US 95 from Mercury, Nevada, to Las Vegas, Nevada; US 93 from Las Vegas to Kingman, Arizona; and I-40/US 66 from Kingman to Albuquerque, New Mexico. Speeds varied from very slow to 88 km/hr (55 mph). A comparison of data from similar experiments with cargo weights varying from no-load to this load shows that the zero-to-peak acceleration amplitude levels of vibration are highest when trucks carry relatively light loads. This is true for the longitudinal and vertical axes of the vehicles in most frequency bands and for the transverse axis above 700 Hz. The shock response acceleration amplitudes for heavier cargo weights were less severe above 3 Hz in the vertical axis and higher between 8 and 20 Hz in the transverse axis. The highest acceleration amplitude of shock response in the longitudinal axis below about 20 Hz was produced in a trailer having a spring suspension system and carrying the 249 100N (56,000 pounds) load

  18. SEM-EDX analysis of an unknown "known" white powder found in a shipping container from Peru

    Albright, Douglas C.

    2009-05-01

    In 2008, an unknown white powder was discovered spilled inside of a shipping container of whole kernel corn during an inspection by federal inspectors in the port of Baltimore, Maryland. The container was detained and quarantined while a sample of the powder was collected and sent to a federal laboratory where it was screened using chromatography for the presence of specific poisons and pesticides with negative results. Samples of the corn kernels and the white powder were forwarded to the Food and Drug Administration, Forensic Chemistry Center for further analysis. Stereoscopic Light Microscopy (SLM), Scanning Electron Microscopy/Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometry (SEM/EDX), and Polarized Light Microscopy/Infrared Spectroscopy (PLM-IR) were used in the analysis of the kernels and the unknown powder. Based on the unique particle analysis by SLM and SEM as well as the detection of the presence of aluminum and phosphorous by EDX, the unknown was determined to be consistent with reacted aluminum phosphide (AlP). While commonly known in the agricultural industry, aluminum phosphide is relatively unknown in the forensic community. A history of the use and acute toxicity of this compound along with some very unique SEM/EDX analysis characteristics of aluminum phosphide will be discussed.

  19. Nitrogen oxide emission calculation for post-Panamax container ships by using engine operation power probability as weighting factor: A slow-steaming case.

    Cheng, Chih-Wen; Hua, Jian; Hwang, Daw-Shang

    2017-12-07

    In this study, the nitrogen oxide (NO x ) emission factors and total NO x emissions of two groups of post-Panamax container ships operating on a long-term slow-steaming basis along Euro-Asian routes were calculated using both the probability density function of engine power levels and the NO x emission function. The main engines of the five sister ships in Group I satisfied the Tier I emission limit stipulated in MARPOL (International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships) Annex VI, and those in Group II satisfied the Tier II limit. The calculated NO x emission factors of the Group I and Group II ships were 14.73 and 17.85 g/kWhr, respectively. The total NO x emissions of the Group II ships were determined to be 4.4% greater than those of the Group I ships. When the Tier II certification value was used to calculate the average total NO x emissions of Group II engines, the result was lower than the actual value by 21.9%. Although fuel consumption and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions were increased by 1.76% because of slow steaming, the NO x emissions were markedly reduced by 17.2%. The proposed method is more effective and accurate than the NO x Technical Code 2008. Furthermore, it can be more appropriately applied to determine the NO x emissions of international shipping inventory. The usage of operating power probability density function of diesel engines as the weighting factor and the NO x emission function obtained from test bed for calculating NO x emissions is more accurate and practical. The proposed method is suitable for all types and purposes of diesel engines, irrespective of their operating power level. The method can be used to effectively determine the NO x emissions of international shipping and inventory applications and should be considered in determining the carbon tax to be imposed in the future.

  20. 78 FR 65313 - Actavis, Inc. a corporation, and Warner Chilott PLC; Analysis of Agreement Containing Consent...

    2013-10-31

    ... FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION [File No. 131 0152] Actavis, Inc. a corporation, and Warner Chilott PLC... https://ftcpublic.commentworks.com/ftc/actaviswarnerconsent following the instructions on the web-based....com/ftc/actaviswarnerconsent by following the instructions on the web-based form. If this Notice...

  1. 75 FR 39017 - Pilot Corporation, Propeller Corp., and Flying J Inc.; Analysis of Proposed Agreement Containing...

    2010-07-07

    ... for assuring that the firewall protocols are met. B. Continued Operation of Restaurants The Order also provides for the continuity of operation at Wendy's restaurants affiliated with the sites acquired by Love... privately held, for-profit corporation, is a fully integrated oil company with operations throughout the...

  2. SU-E-T-273: Radiation Shielding for a Fixed Horizontal-Beam Linac in a Shipping Container and a Conventional Treatment Vault

    Hsieh, M; Balter, P; Beadle, B; Chi, P; Stingo, F; Court, L

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: A fixed horizontal-beam linac, where the patient is treated in a seated position, could lower the overall costs of the treatment unit and room shielding substantially. This design also allows the treatment room and control area to be contained within a reduced space, such as a shipping container. The main application is the introduction of low-cost, high-quality radiation therapy to low- and middle-income regions. Here we consider shielding for upright treatments with a fixed-6MV-beam linac in a shipping container and a conventional treatment vault. Methods: Shielding calculations were done for two treatment room layouts using calculation methods in NCRP Report 151: (1) a shipping container (6m × 2.4m with the remaining space occupied by the console area), and (2) the treatment vault in NCRP 151 (7.8m by 5.4m by 3.4m). The shipping container has a fixed gantry that points in one direction at all times. For the treatment vault, various beam directions were evaluated. Results: The shipping container requires a primary barrier of 168cm concrete (4.5 TVL), surrounded by a secondary barrier of 3.6 TVL. The other walls require between 2.8–3.3 TVL. Multiple shielding calculations were done along the side wall. The results show that patient scatter increases in the forward direction and decreases dramatically in the backward direction. Leakage scatter also varies along the wall, depending largely on the distance between the gantry and the wall. For the treatment room, fixed-beam requires a slightly thicker primary barrier than the conventional linac (0.6 TVL), although this barrier is only needed in the center of one wall. The secondary barrier is different only by 0–0.2 TVL. Conclusion: This work shows that (1) the shipping container option is achievable, using indigenous materials for shielding and (2) upright treatments can be performed in a conventional treatment room with minimal additional shielding. Varian Medical Systems

  3. SU-E-T-273: Radiation Shielding for a Fixed Horizontal-Beam Linac in a Shipping Container and a Conventional Treatment Vault

    Hsieh, M; Balter, P; Beadle, B; Chi, P; Stingo, F; Court, L [The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: A fixed horizontal-beam linac, where the patient is treated in a seated position, could lower the overall costs of the treatment unit and room shielding substantially. This design also allows the treatment room and control area to be contained within a reduced space, such as a shipping container. The main application is the introduction of low-cost, high-quality radiation therapy to low- and middle-income regions. Here we consider shielding for upright treatments with a fixed-6MV-beam linac in a shipping container and a conventional treatment vault. Methods: Shielding calculations were done for two treatment room layouts using calculation methods in NCRP Report 151: (1) a shipping container (6m × 2.4m with the remaining space occupied by the console area), and (2) the treatment vault in NCRP 151 (7.8m by 5.4m by 3.4m). The shipping container has a fixed gantry that points in one direction at all times. For the treatment vault, various beam directions were evaluated. Results: The shipping container requires a primary barrier of 168cm concrete (4.5 TVL), surrounded by a secondary barrier of 3.6 TVL. The other walls require between 2.8–3.3 TVL. Multiple shielding calculations were done along the side wall. The results show that patient scatter increases in the forward direction and decreases dramatically in the backward direction. Leakage scatter also varies along the wall, depending largely on the distance between the gantry and the wall. For the treatment room, fixed-beam requires a slightly thicker primary barrier than the conventional linac (0.6 TVL), although this barrier is only needed in the center of one wall. The secondary barrier is different only by 0–0.2 TVL. Conclusion: This work shows that (1) the shipping container option is achievable, using indigenous materials for shielding and (2) upright treatments can be performed in a conventional treatment room with minimal additional shielding. Varian Medical Systems.

  4. Recycling of merchant ships

    Magdalena Klopott

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article briefly outlines the issues concerning ship recycling. It highlights ships' high value as sources of steel scrap and non-ferrous metals, without omitting the fact that they also contain a range of hazardous substances. Moreover, the article also focuses on basic ship demolition methods and their environmental impact, as well as emphasizes the importance of “design for ship recycling” philosophy.

  5. Added masses of ship structures

    Korotkin, Alexandr I

    2008-01-01

    This essentially self-contained reference book contains data on added masses of ships and various ship and marine engineering structures. Theoretical and experimental methods for determining added masses of these objects are described.

  6. Development of a Relationship Between Residual Ultimate Longitudinal Strength Versus Grounding Damage Index Diagram For Container Ships

    Kim, Do Kyun; Kim, Han Byul; Zhang, Xiaoming

    2012-01-01

    Various accidents such as grounding, collision, fire, and explosion commonly occur on operating ships. The structural damage caused by such accidents is often accompanied by casualties and serious pollution. Therefore, an accidental risk- based approach that is in line with the goal-based standard...

  7. Greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste shipping package/container identification and requirements study. National Low-Level Waste Management Program

    Tyacke, M.

    1993-08-01

    This report identifies a variety of shipping packages (also referred to as casks) and waste containers currently available or being developed that could be used for greater-than-Class C (GTCC) low-level waste (LLW). Since GTCC LLW varies greatly in size, shape, and activity levels, the casks and waste containers that could be used range in size from small, to accommodate a single sealed radiation source, to very large-capacity casks/canisters used to transport or dry-store highly radioactive spent fuel. In some cases, the waste containers may serve directly as shipping packages, while in other cases, the containers would need to be placed in a transport cask. For the purpose of this report, it is assumed that the generator is responsible for transporting the waste to a Department of Energy (DOE) storage, treatment, or disposal facility. Unless DOE establishes specific acceptance criteria, the receiving facility would need the capability to accept any of the casks and waste containers identified in this report. In identifying potential casks and waste containers, no consideration was given to their adequacy relative to handling, storage, treatment, and disposal. Those considerations must be addressed separately as the capabilities of the receiving facility and the handling requirements and operations are better understood.

  8. Inhibition of SH2-domain-containing inositol 5-phosphatase (SHIP2) ameliorates palmitate induced-apoptosis through regulating Akt/FOXO1 pathway and ROS production in HepG2 cells

    Gorgani-Firuzjaee, Sattar [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Adeli, Khosrow [Division of Clinical Biochemistry, The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Meshkani, Reza, E-mail: rmeshkani@tums.ac.ir [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-08-21

    The serine–threonine kinase Akt regulates proliferation and survival by phosphorylating a network of protein substrates; however, the role of a negative regulator of the Akt pathway, the SH2-domain-containing inositol 5-phosphatase (SHIP2) in apoptosis of the hepatocytes, remains unknown. In the present study, we studied the molecular mechanisms linking SHIP2 expression to apoptosis using overexpression or suppression of SHIP2 gene in HepG2 cells exposed to palmitate (0.5 mM). Overexpression of the dominant negative mutant SHIP2 (SHIP2-DN) significantly reduced palmitate-induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells, as these cells had increased cell viability, decreased apoptotic cell death and reduced the activity of caspase-3, cytochrome c and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase. Overexpression of the wild-type SHIP2 gene led to a massive apoptosis in HepG2 cells. The protection from palmitate-induced apoptosis by SHIP2 inhibition was accompanied by a decrease in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In addition, SHIP2 inhibition was accompanied by an increased Akt and FOXO-1 phosphorylation, whereas overexpression of the wild-type SHIP2 gene had the opposite effects. Taken together, these findings suggest that SHIP2 expression level is an important determinant of hepatic lipoapotosis and its inhibition can potentially be a target in treatment of hepatic lipoapoptosis in diabetic patients. - Highlights: • Lipoapoptosis is the major contributor to the development of NAFLD. • The PI3-K/Akt pathway regulates apoptosis in different cells. • The role of negative regulator of this pathway, SHIP2 in lipoapoptosis is unknown. • SHIP2 inhibition significantly reduces palmitate-induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells. • SHIP2 inhibition prevents palmitate induced-apoptosis by regulating Akt/FOXO1 pathway.

  9. Inhibition of SH2-domain-containing inositol 5-phosphatase (SHIP2) ameliorates palmitate induced-apoptosis through regulating Akt/FOXO1 pathway and ROS production in HepG2 cells

    Gorgani-Firuzjaee, Sattar; Adeli, Khosrow; Meshkani, Reza

    2015-01-01

    The serine–threonine kinase Akt regulates proliferation and survival by phosphorylating a network of protein substrates; however, the role of a negative regulator of the Akt pathway, the SH2-domain-containing inositol 5-phosphatase (SHIP2) in apoptosis of the hepatocytes, remains unknown. In the present study, we studied the molecular mechanisms linking SHIP2 expression to apoptosis using overexpression or suppression of SHIP2 gene in HepG2 cells exposed to palmitate (0.5 mM). Overexpression of the dominant negative mutant SHIP2 (SHIP2-DN) significantly reduced palmitate-induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells, as these cells had increased cell viability, decreased apoptotic cell death and reduced the activity of caspase-3, cytochrome c and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase. Overexpression of the wild-type SHIP2 gene led to a massive apoptosis in HepG2 cells. The protection from palmitate-induced apoptosis by SHIP2 inhibition was accompanied by a decrease in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In addition, SHIP2 inhibition was accompanied by an increased Akt and FOXO-1 phosphorylation, whereas overexpression of the wild-type SHIP2 gene had the opposite effects. Taken together, these findings suggest that SHIP2 expression level is an important determinant of hepatic lipoapotosis and its inhibition can potentially be a target in treatment of hepatic lipoapoptosis in diabetic patients. - Highlights: • Lipoapoptosis is the major contributor to the development of NAFLD. • The PI3-K/Akt pathway regulates apoptosis in different cells. • The role of negative regulator of this pathway, SHIP2 in lipoapoptosis is unknown. • SHIP2 inhibition significantly reduces palmitate-induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells. • SHIP2 inhibition prevents palmitate induced-apoptosis by regulating Akt/FOXO1 pathway

  10. 46 CFR 287.27 - Controlled corporation.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Controlled corporation. 287.27 Section 287.27 Shipping... OPERATORS ESTABLISHMENT OF CONSTRUCTION RESERVE FUNDS § 287.27 Controlled corporation. For the purpose of... acquired by a corporation at a time when the taxpayer owns not less than 95 percent of the total number of...

  11. 46 CFR 67.39 - Corporation.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Corporation. 67.39 Section 67.39 Shipping COAST GUARD... Citizenship Requirements for Vessel Documentation § 67.39 Corporation. (a) For the purpose of obtaining a registry or a recreational endorsement, a corporation meets citizenship requirements if: (1) It is...

  12. Study on Economic Regulation of Collaborative Strategies among Container Shipping Companies Following Repeal of European Union Regulation 4056/86

    Rawindaran Nair

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The European Union removed the block exemption granted under Regulation 4056/86, to liner shipping companies to provide scheduled services on a collaborative basis effective October 2008. This has also been followed by the proposed P3 alliance with participation of Maersk, MSC and CMA CGM. This paper explores, the arguments adopted by the US Federal Maritime Commission, the European Commission and the Ministry of Commerce of China, in rejecting the case proposed by the P3 alliance. The findings of this paper will inform on understanding strategies adopted by major Competition Regulatory authorities in their interpretation of horizontal collaboration in the industry.

  13. Selection of cooling fluid for an organic Rankine cycle unit recovering heat on a container ship sailing in the Arctic region

    Suárez de la Fuente, Santiago; Larsen, Ulrik; Pierobon, Leonardo

    2017-01-01

    As Arctic sea ice coverage declines it is expected that marine traffic could increase in this northern region due to shorter routes. Navigating in the Arctic offers opportunities and challenges for waste heat recovery systems (WHRS). Lower temperatures require larger heating power on board, hence...... air as coolant. This paper explores the use of two different coolants, air and seawater, for an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) unit using the available waste heat in the scavenge air system of a container ship navigating in Arctic Circle. Using a two-step single objective optimisation process, detailed...

  14. When a shipping company creates transparency, empowerment and engagement through social media

    Agerdal-Hjermind, Annette

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to show and discuss how corporate social media usage is driven by people, not technology, and how the creation of a culture of participation on the part of a company, in this case the world’s largest container shipping company with 25,000 employees worldwide, Maersk...

  15. Deep-sea faunal communities associated with a lost intermodal shipping container in the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary, CA.

    Taylor, Josi R; DeVogelaere, Andrew P; Burton, Erica J; Frey, Oren; Lundsten, Lonny; Kuhnz, Linda A; Whaling, P J; Lovera, Christopher; Buck, Kurt R; Barry, James P

    2014-06-15

    Carrying assorted cargo and covered with paints of varying toxicity, lost intermodal containers may take centuries to degrade on the deep seafloor. In June 2004, scientists from Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI) discovered a recently lost container during a Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) dive on a sediment-covered seabed at 1281 m depth in Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary (MBNMS). The site was revisited by ROV in March 2011. Analyses of sediment samples and high-definition video indicate that faunal assemblages on the container's exterior and the seabed within 10 m of the container differed significantly from those up to 500 m. The container surface provides hard substratum for colonization by taxa typically found in rocky habitats. However, some key taxa that dominate rocky areas were absent or rare on the container, perhaps related to its potential toxicity or limited time for colonization and growth. Ecological effects appear to be restricted to the container surface and the benthos within ∼10 m. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. A fracture mechanics safety concept to assess the impact behavior of ductile cast iron containers for shipping and storage of radioactive materials

    Voelzke, H.; Roedel, R.; Droste, B.

    1994-01-01

    Within the scope of the German licensing procedures for shipping and storage containers for radioactive materials made of ductile cast iron, BAM performs approval design tests including material tests to ensure the main safety goals of shielding, leaktightness and subcriticality under ''Type B accident conditions''. So far the safety assessment concept of BAM is based essentially on the experimental proof of container strength by prototype testing under most damaging test conditions in connection with complete approval design tests, and has been developed especially for cylindrical casks like CASTOR- and TN-design. In connection with the development of new container constructions such as ''cubic cast containers'', and the fast developments in the area of numerical calculation methods, there is a need for a more flexible safety concept especially considering fracture mechanics aspects.This paper presents the state of work at BAM for such an extended safety concept for ductile cast iron containers, based on a detailed brittle fracture safe design proof. The requirements on stress analysis (experimental or numerical), material properties, material qualification, quality assurance provisions and fracture mechanics safety assessment, including well defined and justified factors of safety, are described. ((orig.))

  17. Effects of a potential drop of a shipping cask, a waste container, and a bare fuel assembly during waste-handling operations

    Wu, C.L.; Lee, J.; Lu, D.L.; Jardine, L.J.

    1991-12-01

    This study investigates the effects of potential drops of a typical shipping cask, waste container, and bare fuel assembly during waste-handling operations at the prospective Yucca Mountain Repository. The waste-handling process (one stage, no consolidation configuration) is examined to estimate the maximum loads imposed on typical casks and containers as they are handled by various pieces of equipment during waste-handling operations. Maximum potential drop heights for casks and containers are also evaluated for different operations. A nonlinear finite-element model is employed to represent a hybrid spent fuel container subject to drop heights of up to 30 ft onto a reinforced concrete floor. The impact stress, strain, and deformation are calculated, and compared to the failure criteria to estimate the limiting (maximum permissible) drop height for the waste container. A typical Westinghouse 17 x 17 PWR fuel assembly is analyzed by a simplified model to estimate the energy absorption by various parts of the fuel assembly during a 30 ft drop, and to determine the amount of kinetic energy in a fuel pin at impact. A nonlinear finite-element analysis of an individual fuel pin is also performed to estimate the amount of fuel pellet fracture due to impact. This work was completed on May 1990

  18. 7 CFR 205.307 - Labeling of nonretail containers used for only shipping or storage of raw or processed...

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT... of destination or the container labeling specifications of a foreign contract buyer: Provided, That...

  19. Buckling of Ship Structures

    Shama, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    Buckling of Ship Structures presents a comprehensive analysis of the buckling problem of ship structural members. A full analysis of the various types of loadings and stresses imposed on ship plating and primary and secondary structural members is given. The main causes and consequences of the buckling mode of failure of ship structure and the methods commonly used to control buckling failure are clarified. This book contains the main equations required to determine the critical buckling stresses for both ship plating and the primary and secondary stiffening structural members. The critical buckling stresses are given for ship plating subjected to the induced various types of loadings and having the most common boundary conditions encountered in ship structures.  The text bridges the gap existing in most books covering the subject of buckling of ship structures in the classical analytical format, by putting the emphasis on the practical methods required to ensure safety against buckling of ship structur...

  20. Thermodynamic analysis of a dual loop heat recovery system with trilateral cycle applied to exhaust gases of internal combustion engine for propulsion of the 6800 TEU container ship

    Choi, Byung Chul; Kim, Young Min

    2013-01-01

    A dual loop waste heat recovery power generation system that comprises an upper trilateral cycle and a lower organic Rankine cycle, in which discharged exhaust gas heat is recovered and re-used for propulsion power, was theoretically applied to an internal combustion engine for propulsion in a 6800 TEU container ship. The thermodynamic properties of this exhaust gas heat recovery system, which vary depending on the boundary temperature between the upper and lower cycles, were also investigated. The results confirmed that this dual loop exhaust gas heat recovery power generation system exhibited a maximum net output of 2069.8 kW, and a maximum system efficiency of 10.93% according to the first law of thermodynamics and a maximum system exergy efficiency of 58.77% according to the second law of thermodynamics. In this case, the energy and exergy efficiencies of the dual loop system were larger than those of the single loop trilateral cycle. Further, in the upper trilateral cycle, the volumetric expansion ratio of the turbine could be considerably reduced to an adequate level to be employed in the practical system. When this dual loop exhaust gas heat recovery power generation system was applied to the main engine of the container ship, which was actually in operation, a 2.824% improvement in propulsion efficiency was confirmed in comparison to the case of a base engine. This improvement in propulsion efficiency resulted in about 6.06% reduction in the specific fuel oil consumption and specific CO 2 emissions of the main engine during actual operation. - Highlights: • WHRS was theoretically applied to exhaust gas of a main engine for ship propulsion. • A dual loop EG-WHRS using water and R1234yf as working fluids has been suggested. • Limitation of single loop trilateral cycle was improved by the dual loop system. • The propulsion efficiency of 2.824% was improved by the dual loop EG-WHRS. • This resulted in about 6.06% reduction in the SFOC and specific CO

  1. Optimization in liner shipping

    Brouer, Berit Dangaard; Karsten, Christian Vad; Pisinger, David

    2017-01-01

    Seaborne trade is the lynchpin in almost every international supply chain, and about 90% of non-bulk cargo worldwide is transported by container. In this survey we give an overview of data-driven optimization problems in liner shipping. Research in liner shipping is motivated by a need for handling...... still more complex decision problems, based on big data sets and going across several organizational entities. Moreover, liner shipping optimization problems are pushing the limits of optimization methods, creating a new breeding ground for advanced modelling and solution methods. Starting from liner...... shipping network design, we consider the problem of container routing and speed optimization. Next, we consider empty container repositioning and stowage planning as well as disruption management. In addition, the problem of bunker purchasing is considered in depth. In each section we give a clear problem...

  2. EBER - development of evaluation methods for shipping and storage containers with an increased content of metallic residual materials

    Droste, B.; Voelzke, H.

    1995-01-01

    Containers which are manufactured using recycled metallic residual materials from decommissioned nuclear facilities must be designed in accordance with the requirements of transport, interim and ultimate storage of radioactive waste. When metallic residual materials are added to the melt in the manufacture of containers made of cast iron with nodular graphite (GGG 40), how the effect on and characteristics of materials are to be observed as well as the permissible limits. The influence on charcteristics of relevance to safety, such as fracture toughness and the types and magnitudes of defects in construction components are the most important factors. In BAM's 'EBER' project presented here, the studies concentrate on design-based safety against the mechanical effects of accidents. (orig./DG) [de

  3. Measurements in a container ship of wave-induced hull girder stresses in excess of design values

    Andersen, Ingrid Marie Vincent; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes full-scale measurements of the wave-induced vertical bending moment amidships a 9400 TEU container carrier and focuses on the effect of the hydro-elastic high-frequency vibration on the extreme hogging wave bending moment. One extreme event, where the vertical wave-induced ho...... is quite significant. Finally, the hydro-elastic behaviour of the hull girder is assessed by simple approximations using the measured statistical properties and closed-form expressions and the agreement with the actual measurements is found to be good. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd....

  4. Safety-analysis report for packaging (SARP) general-purpose heat-source module 750-Watt shipping container

    Whitney, M.A.; Burgan, C.E.; Blauvelt, R.K.; Zocher, R.W.; Bronisz, S.E.

    1981-01-01

    The SARP includes discussions of structural integrity, thermal resistance, radiation shielding and radiological safety, nuclear criticality safety, and quality control. Extensive tests and evaluations were performed to show that the container will function effectively with respect to all required standards and when subjected to normal transportation conditions and the sequence of four hypothetical accident conditions (free drop, puncture, thermal, and water immersion). In addition, a steady state temperature profile and radiation profile were measured using two heat sources that very closely resemble the GPHS. This gave an excellent representation of the GPHS temperature and radiation profile. A nuclear criticality safety analysis determined that all safety requirements are met

  5. Civilian nuclear ships

    Oelgaard, P.L.

    1993-03-01

    This report contains a review of the information available on nuclear powered ships, built for civilian purposes. In the introduction a short discussion is given of the reasons for the limited use of nuclear ships for these purposes. In the second section a brief review is presented of data for the three experimental/merchant ships build by the United States, Germany and Japan, i.e. NS Savannah, NS Otto Hahn and NS Mutsu. In the third section the Soviet/Russian icebreaker NS Lenin is considered. Its design, operational experience and the introduction of a new nuclear propulsion plant is reviewed. In the fourth section the newer Soviet/Russian icebreakers with nuclear propulsion are considered. Finally design of the Soviet/Russian icebreaker transport/container ship NS Sevmorput is reviewed in the fifth section. The future Russian plans for nuclear vessels for the arctic waters are briefly discussed. (au)

  6. Distributed propulsion for ships

    Nylund, Vilde

    2017-01-01

    It is anticipated that using distributed electric propulsion (DEP) on conventional ships will increase the total propulsive efficiency. This is mainly due to two reasons; firstly, because the total propeller disk area can be increased. Secondly, because each propeller can be optimised for the local wake where it is operating. In this work, the benefits of using DEP has been investigated for a 14 000 TEU container ship. Based on a literary study of the present state of propeller modelling ...

  7. Shipping Fairways

    Department of Homeland Security — Various shipping zones delineate activities and regulations for marine vessel traffic. Traffic lanes define specific traffic flow, while traffic separation zones...

  8. Ship Vibrations

    Sørensen, Herman

    1997-01-01

    Methods for calculating natural frequencies for ship hulls and for plates and panels.Evaluation of the risk for inconvenient vibrations on board......Methods for calculating natural frequencies for ship hulls and for plates and panels.Evaluation of the risk for inconvenient vibrations on board...

  9. Corporate against corporate management

    Runcev, Nikolce; Krstev, Boris; Golomeova, Mirjana

    2010-01-01

    In contemporary economic performance, corporate governance is considered an essential prerequisite in building a successful system for creating an attractive investment climate, which is characterized by competing companies oriented and efficient financial markets. Good corporate governance is based on principles of transparency, bias, efficiency, timeliness, completeness and accuracy of information at all levels of management. Companies with good corporate governance and afford easier acc...

  10. Performance Monitoring of Ships

    Hansen, Søren Vinther

    is used as input to the system and by comparing model and ship behaviour, an index describing the ship’s performance is generated. The work in this thesis is based on data logged through the automation system on board a PostPanmax container ship where data have been logged through a year. A routine...... in the models have been identified. The models used in this work are based on empirical relations or based on regression analyses of model tests and full-scale trials. In order to achieve valid results the conditions where performance is estimated have to be inside the boundaries of the model. Filters have been......The purpose of the research project is to establish a reliable index in the performance evaluation of ships. During operation the ship will experience added resistance due to fouling of hull and propeller. The added resistance will lead to increased fuel consumption and thus increased emissions...

  11. Corporate Responsibility

    Waddock, Sandra; Rasche, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    We define and discuss the concept of corporate responsibility. We suggest that corporate responsibility has some unique characteristics, which makes it different from earlier conceptions of corporate social responsibility. Our discussion further shows commonalities and differences between corporate...... responsibility and related concepts, such as corporate citizenship and business ethics. We also outline some ways in which corporations have implemented corporate responsibility in practice....

  12. Test Ship

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The U. S. Navy dedicated the decommissioned Spruance Class destroyer ex-PAUL F. FOSTER (EDD 964), Test Ship, primarily for at sea demonstration of short range weapon...

  13. The Russia Corporate Governance Manual : Part I. Corporate Governance Introduced

    International Finance Corporation; U.S. Department of Commerce

    2004-01-01

    The Russia corporate governance manual has been divided into and is published in six parts: (i) corporate governance introduced; (ii) good board practices; (iii) shareholder rights; (iv) information disclosure and transparency; (v) special focus section; and (vi) annexes model corporate governance documents. The first four parts contain chapters that focus on core corporate governance issu...

  14. Single liner shipping service design

    Plum, Christian Edinger Munk; Pisinger, David; Salazar-González, Juan-José

    2014-01-01

    The design of container shipping networks is an important logistics problem, involving assets and operational costs measured in billions of dollars. To guide the optimal deployment of the ships, a single vessel round trip is considered by minimizing operational costs and flowing the best paying...

  15. Containment

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    The primary mission of the Containment Group is to ensure that underground nuclear tests are satisfactorily contained. The main goal is the development of sound technical bases for containment-related methodology. Major areas of activity include siting, geologic description, emplacement hole stemming, and phenomenological predictions. Performance results of sanded gypsum concrete plugs on the Jefferson, Panamint, Cornucopia, Labquark, and Bodie events are given. Activities are also described in the following areas: computational capabilities site description, predictive modeling, and cavity-pressure measurement. Containment publications are listed. 8 references

  16. Fast ship

    Keuning, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    The invention concerns a ship whereby the hull and the mechanical propulsion device are designed such that the Froude number is larger than 0.5. In the aft ship the hull has a bottom with V-shaped bottom surfaces with a deadrise angle that is less than 40 degrees and the hull has substantially vertical sides. In the hull are a passenger compartment and a trim tank. The trim tank volume is such that the weight of a filled trim tank is more than 30 % of the weight of displacement of the hull wi...

  17. Ship Acquisition of Shipping Companies by Sale & Purchase Activities for Sustainable Growth: Exploratory Fuzzy-AHP Application

    Keun-Sik Park

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Strengthening sale and purchase (S&P capacity has become a fundamental requirement for sustainable growth and corporate competitiveness in the modern shipping market. However, there is a lack of research related to S&P and its priority when shipping companies attempt to implement ship acquisition through S&P activities. To fill this gap, this paper conducts an empirical analysis to analyze priority factors during the acquisition of second-hand ships from the perspective of shipping companies. Business criteria are considered to be the most important factors in the analysis of the priority of ship acquisition and investment in shipping companies. To the best of our knowledge, this research is the first exploration covering Korean shipping companies’ ship acquisition through S&P activities. This study is expected to contribute to the better understanding of the role of S&P in ensuring the sustainability of shipping companies and to provide stakeholders with valuable insights.

  18. Internationalisation Within Liner Shipping

    Prockl, Günter; Kinra, Aseem; Kotzab, Herbert

    2018-01-01

    , the degree of internationalisation, measured on the basis of sea-oriented operations, differs from that measured according to land-oriented front-end marketing and sales activities. The purpose of this study is to further examine the internationalisation patterns of shipping lines. An examination...... of the front-end activities and the structures of leading container-shipping companies is conducted. The sales office networks of the sector’s 20 largest companies worldwide (by twenty-foot equivalent unit capacity) are analysed as key indicators. The numbers of sales offices are measured by analysing...... the websites of the sample (20 companies), as well as annual reports and other publicly available data sources. The findings show that not all shipping companies are international, by virtue of the industry. While it is difficult to observe differences in the overall patterns of the sales networks at a macro...

  19. Evaluation of the effects of light source and plant materials in psyllid trapping levels in the traps for citrus shipping containers

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), the principle vector for Huanglongbing (HLB), has been reported to be transported in truckloads of oranges in Florida. Citrus, especially Key limes and lemons, are shipped to the U.S. from Mexican states that are heavily infested with HLB and live, infected psyllids c...

  20. Ship's barbers

    Unknown

    2003-01-01

    Showing two sailors having their hair cut (? one is possibly being shaved) on board ship. Three other sailors can be seen standing on the right-hand side of the photograph. The photograph is from an album inscribed 'H.M.S. Lancaster; Mediterranean Photographic Album: Diary of Events and Important Places Visited during the Commission 1910-1912' on the cover. This album was the property of Sydney Harold Liddle.

  1. Rand Corporation

    ... Jobs at RAND Media Resources Congressional Resources Doing Business with RAND Supporting RAND Educational Opportunities Alumni Association Follow RAND Corporation on Facebook RAND Corporation on Twitter RAND Corporation on LinkedIn ...

  2. Corporate Branding and Corporate Reputation

    Karmark, Esben

    2013-01-01

    Corporate branding has been seen as developing in “waves”. This chapter explores the links between corporate branding and corporate reputation as they emerge in the context of three waves of corporate branding. It highlights the way in which the two constructs have related to each other through o...... for corporate brands and corporate communication.......Corporate branding has been seen as developing in “waves”. This chapter explores the links between corporate branding and corporate reputation as they emerge in the context of three waves of corporate branding. It highlights the way in which the two constructs have related to each other through...... organizational culture and identity, and how, although characterized by parallel developments, new ideas and models from a “third” wave of corporate branding challenge prevailing assumptions of corporate reputation particularly in terms of the assumptions that reputations emerge from authentic and transparent...

  3. Experimental Investigation of the Resistance Performance and Heave and Pitch Motions of Ice-Going Container Ship Under Pack Ice Conditions

    Guo, Chun-yu; Xie, Chang; Zhang, Jin-zhao; Wang, Shuai; Zhao, Da-gang

    2018-04-01

    In order to analyze the ice-going ship's performance under the pack ice conditions, synthetic ice was introduced into a towing tank. A barrier using floating cylinder in the towing tank was designed to carry out the resistance experiment. The test results indicated that the encountering frequency between the ship model and the pack ice shifts towards a high-velocity point as the concentration of the pack ice increases, and this encountering frequency creates an unstable region of the resistance, and the unstable region shifts to the higher speed with the increasing concentration. The results also showed that for the same speed points, the ratio of the pack ice resistance to the open water resistance increases with the increasing concentration, and for the same concentrations, this ratio decreases as the speed increases. Motion characteristics showed that the mean value of the heave motion increases as the speed increases, and the pitch motion tends to increase with the increasing speed. In addition, the total resistance of the fullscale was predicted.

  4. TMI-2 spent fuel shipping

    Quinn, G.J.; Burton, H.M.

    1985-01-01

    TMI-2 failed fuel will be shipped to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for use in the DOE Core Examination Program. The fuel debris will be loaded into three types of canisters during defueling and dry loaded into a spent fuel shipping cask. The cask design accommodates seven canisters per cask and has two separate containment vessels with ''leaktight'' seals. Shipments are expectd to begin in early 1986

  5. Corporate finance

    P. Quiry; Y. Le Fur; A. Salvi; M. Dallocchio; P. Vernimmen

    2011-01-01

    Corporate Finance: Theory and Practice, 3rd Edition, the website www.vernimmen.com and the Vernimmen.com newsletter are all written and created by an author team who are both investment bankers/corporate financiers and academics. This book covers the theory and practice of Corporate Finance from a truly European perspective. It shows how to use financial theory to solve practical problems and is written for students of corporate finance and financial analysis and practising corporate financie...

  6. Corporate Law and Corporate Governance

    Roberta Romano

    1998-01-01

    We have seen a revival in interest in corporate law and corporate governance since the 1980s, as researchers applied the tools of the new institutional economics and modern corporate finance to analyze the new transactions emerging in the 1980s takeover wave. This article focuses on three mechanisms of corporate governance to illustrate the analytical usefulness of transaction cost economics for corporate law. They are the board of directors; relational investing, a form of block ownership in...

  7. Cruise Ships: Continuity and Change in the World System

    Francisca Oyogoa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cruise ships present a useful context to study contemporary developments in globalization.  U.S.-owned cruise companies have managed to create the “ideal” context for contemporary corporations: very little government oversight of labor relations, an available pool of very cheap labor dispersed across the globe, lax environmental regulations, high profit margins, and corporate tax rates around 1%.  A typical cruise ship leaving the U.S. contains workers from 75 to 90 nationalities.  Crewmembers performing menial service work are recruited exclusively from “poor countries” in Asia, Eastern Europe, Latin America, and the Caribbean. Crewmembers typically sign 10-month contracts stipulating 10-14 hour workdays/7 days a week without vacation or sick days. There is a striking correlation between workers’ pay/status and their countries’ position within the world system.  Staff members are usually white Westerners, while crewmembers are exclusively from the global south. On cruises the legacies of imperialism and colonialism are often the basis of workers’ racialization as appropriate servants.

  8. Fuel exchanging machine for a nuclear ship

    Hayashi, Tetsuji.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent atmospheric contaminations upon fuel exchange thereby keep the environmental circumstance clean in the periphery of the nuclear ship. Constitution: A nuclear reactor container is disposed to the inside of a containing vessel in the ship body and a shutter is mounted to the upper opening of the ship body. Further, a landing container having a bottom opening equipped with shutter for alingning the upper opening equipped with shuuter of the ship is elevatably suspended to the trolley of a crane by way of a wire rope and a winch, and a fuel exchange cask is elevatably disposed to the inside of the landing container. Further, airs in the inside of the container is adapted to be discharged externally through a filter by means of a blower and the inside is kept at a negative pressure. Thus, since the containing vessel is covered with the landing container upon fuel exchanging operation, atmospheric contamination can be prevented sufficiently. (Sekiya, K.)

  9. The conceptual solutions concerning decommissioning and dismantling of Russian civil nuclear powered ships

    Kulikov, Konstantin N.; Nizamutdinov, Rinat A.; Abramov, Andrey N.

    2013-01-01

    From 1959 up to 1991 nine civil nuclear powered ships were built in Russia: eight ice-breakers and one lash lighter carrier (cargo ship). At the present time three of them were taking out of service: ice-breaker 'Lenin' is decommissioned as a museum and is set for storage in the port of Murmansk, nuclear ice-breakers 'Arktika' and 'Sibir' are berthing. The ice-breakers carrying rad-wastes appear to be a possible source of radiation contamination of Murmansk region and Kola Bay because the ship long-term storage afloat has the negative effect on hull's structures. As the result of this under the auspices of the Federal Targeted Program 'Nuclear and Radiation Safety of Russia for 2008 and the period until 2015' the conception and projects of decommissioning of nuclear-powered ships are developed by the State corporation Rosatom with the involvement of companies of United Shipbuilding Corporation. In developing the principal provisions of conception of decommissioning and dismantling of icebreakers the technical and economic assessment of dismantling options in ship-repairing enterprises of North-West of Russia was performed. The paper contains description of options, research procedure, analysis of options of decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear ice-breakers, taking into account the principle of optimization of potential radioactive effect to personnel, human population and environment. The report's conclusions contain the recommendations for selection of option for development of nuclear icebreaker decommissioning and dismantling projects. (authors)

  10. The Human Element and Autonomous Ships

    Sauli Ahvenjärvi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The autonomous ship technology has become a “hot” topic in the discussion about more efficient, environmentally friendly and safer sea transportation solutions. The time is becoming mature for the introduction of commercially sensible solutions for unmanned and fully autonomous cargo and passenger ships. Safety will be the most interesting and important aspect in this development. The utilization of the autonomous ship technology will have many effects on the safety, both positive and negative. It has been announced that the goal is to make the safety of an unmanned ship better that the safety of a manned ship. However, it must be understood that the human element will still be present when fully unmanned ships are being used. The shore-based control of a ship contains new safety aspects and an interesting question will be the interaction of manned and unmanned ships in the same traffic area. The autonomous ship technology should therefore be taken into account on the training of seafarers. Also it should not be forgotten that every single control algorithm and rule of the internal decision making logic of the autonomously navigating ship has been designed and coded by a human software engineer. Thus the human element is present also in this point of the lifetime navigation system of the autonomous ship.

  11. Development of evaluation methods for shipping and storage containers with an increased content of metallic residual materials - Further investigations (EBER II). Final report

    Zencker, U.; Qiao, L.; Droste, B.

    2002-01-01

    Further stress analyses were carried out in the second part of the process. Material damping was calculated on the basis of an analysis of shock wave propagation in cast iron. The container structure was modelled better than before. The focus was on the safety assessment concept. For detecting cracks in geometrically complex container sections, static and dynamic fracture-mechanical numeric calculations of a crack in a groove and in the mid of a container wall were carried out. The results were verified for specific applications for which solutions are already available. The results were integrated in simple diagrams for safety assessment. The safety assessment concept was verified in a case study on a fractured prototype container of defined material quality. It was shown that stress can be reduced by constructional improvements (deeper grooves, bottom ridge). (orig.) [de

  12. Green Shipping Practices of Shipping Firms

    Young-Tae Chang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this study is to provide an empirical research using structural equation modeling to identify the factors that motivate shipping firms to adopt green shipping practices (GSP. Furthermore, it also examines if adopting GSP can enhance the shipping firms’ environmental and productivity performance. The findings show that shipping firms are motivated to adopt GSP mostly by industrial norms set by institutionalized associations. They are also motivated by customers’ demand for environmental friendliness and their own strategy to make good image. Unlike our expectation, government regulations and international environmental laws are not significant in influencing shipping firms to adopt GSP. Moreover, adoption of green shipping practices can improve the environmental and productivity performance of the shipping firms.

  13. Green shipping management

    Lun, Y H Venus; Wong, Christina W Y; Cheng, T C E

    2016-01-01

    This book presents theory-driven discussion on the link between implementing green shipping practices (GSP) and shipping firm performance. It examines the shipping industry’s challenge of supporting economic growth while enhancing environmental performance. Consisting of nine chapters, the book covers topics such as the conceptualization of green shipping practices (GSPs), measurement scales for evaluating GSP implementation, greening capability, greening and performance relativity (GPR), green management practice, green shipping network, greening capacity, and greening propensity. In view of the increasing quest for environment protection in the shipping sector, this book provides a good reference for firms to understand and evaluate their capability in carrying out green operations on their shipping activities.

  14. Mathematical Ship Modeling for Control Applications

    Perez, Tristan; Blanke, Mogens

    2002-01-01

    In this report, we review the models for describing the motion of a ship in four degrees of freedom suitable for control applications. We present the hydrodynamic models of two ships: a container and a multi-role naval vessel. The models are based on experimental results in the four degrees...

  15. The shipping man adventures in ship finance

    McCleery, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    When restless New York City hedge fund manager Robert Fairchild watches the Baltic Dry Cargo Index plunge 97%, registering an all-time high and a 25-year low within the span of just six months, he decides to buy a ship. Immediately fantasizing about naming a vessel after his wife, carrying a string of worry beads and being able to introduce himself as a "shipowner" at his upcoming college reunion, Fairchild immediately embarks on an odyssey into the most exclusive, glamorous and high stakes business in the world. From pirates off the coast of Somalia and on Wall Street to Greek and Norwegian shipping magnates, the education of Robert Fairchild is an expensive one. In the end, he loses his hedge fund, but he gains a life - as a Shipping Man. Part fast paced financial thriller, part ship finance text book, The Shipping Man is 310 pages of required reading for anyone with an interest in capital formation for shipping.

  16. Corporate Awakening

    LaFrance, Julie; Lehmann, Martin

    2005-01-01

    Predominantly since the 1992 Rio Summit, corporations have been increasingly pursuing partnerships with public institutions including governments, international organisations and NGOs that aim to contribute to sustainable development activities. Partnerships have become more common as corporation...... public-private partnerships. These theoretical perspectives are used to gain a deeper understanding of the corporate drivers that motivated TOTAL S.A. to approach UNESCO for cooperation on community development programs in Myanmar....

  17. Real-Time Simulation of Ship-Structure and Ship-Ship Interaction

    Lindberg, Ole; Glimberg, Stefan Lemvig; Bingham, Harry B.

    2013-01-01

    , because it is simple, easy to implement and computationally efficient. Multiple many-core graphical processing units (GPUs) are used for parallel execution and the model is implemented using a combination of C/C++, CUDA and MPI. Two ship hydrodynamic cases are presented: Kriso Container Carrier at steady...

  18. Nuclear ship engineering simulator

    Itoh, Yasuyoshi; Kusunoki, Tsuyoshi; Hashidate, Koji

    1991-01-01

    The nuclear ship engineering simulator, which analyzes overall system response of nuclear ship numerically, is now being developed by JAERI as an advanced design tool with the latest computer technology in software and hardware. The development of the nuclear ship engineering simulator aims at grasping characteristics of a reactor plant under the situation generated by the combination of ocean, a ship hull and a reactor. The data from various tests with the nuclear ship 'MUTSU' will be used for this simulator to modulate and verify its functions of reproducing realistic response of nuclear ship, and then the simulator will be utilized for the research and development of advanced marine reactors. (author)

  19. Fuel exchanger for nuclear ships

    Suda, Koji; Kanbara, Takahisa; Watanabe, Masaharu.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent enviromental contamination landing radioactive materials from the inside of a ship. Constitution: A provisional cabin having a shape covering a reactor hatch and a hatch cover is disposed on the upper deck of a ship body. A ceiling shutter is disposed to the cabin. A protection cylinder having a shutter and a filter fan is attached on the cabin. Materials to be discharged out of the ship are transported to a fuel exchange tower on land by using a crane while being contained in the protection cylinder with the shutter being closed. The protection cylinder is connected by means of a wire rope to a loop-wheel machine which disposed on the trolly of a crane. While the bellows through which the suspending wire for the discharged products passes is perforated, since the inside of the cylinder is depressurized by a filter fan, there is no air leakage through the perforation to the outside. (Ikeda, J.)

  20. Fuel exchanger for nuclear ships

    Suda, Koji; Kanbara, Takahisa; Watanabe, Masaharu

    1984-11-29

    To prevent enviromental contamination by radioactive materials from the inside of a ship a provisional cabin having a shape covering a reactor hatch and a hatch cover is disposed on the upper deck of a ship body. A ceiling shutter is disposed to the cabin. A protection cylinder having a shutter and a filter fan is attached on the cabin. Materials to be discharged out of the ship are transported to a fuel exchange tower on land by using a crane while being contained in the protection cylinder with the shutter being closed. The protection cylinder is connected by means of a wire rope to a loop-wheel machine which is disposed on the trolly of a crane. While the bellows through which the suspending wire for the discharged products passes is perforated, since the inside of the cylinder is depressurized by a filter fan, there is no air leakage through the perforation to the outside.

  1. Prototypic fabrication of TRIGA irradiated fuel shipping casks

    Kim, B.K.; Lee, Y.W.; Whang, C.K.; Lee, J.B.

    1980-01-01

    This is the safety analysis report on the prototypic fabrication of ''TRIGA Irradiated Fuel Shipping Cask'' conducted by KAERI in 1980. The results of the evaluation show that the shipping cask is in compliance with the applicable regulation for the normal conditions of transport as well as hypothetical accident conditions. The prototypic fabrication of the shipping cask (type B) was carried out for the first time in Korea after getting technical experience from fabrication of the ''TRIGA Spent Fuel Shipping Cask'' and ''the KO-RI Unit 1 surveillance capsule shipping cask'' in 1979. This report contains structural evaluation, thermal evaluation, shielding, criticality, quality assurance, and handling procedures of the shipping cask

  2. Guide to ship sanitation

    2011-01-01

    "The third edition of the Guide to Ship Sanitation presents the public health significance of ships in terms of disease and highlights the importance of applying appropriate control measures"--Back cover...

  3. Corporate Entrepreneurship

    Lassen, Astrid Heidemann

    Corporate entrepreneurship is often highlighted as being more relevant than ever, as a viable means for existing organizations to pursue creative new solutions to the complex challenges facing firms today. This includes continuously exploring and exploiting previously unexploited opportunities......, and thereby moving the organization to a new state of being. In spite of a general consensus on a strong interlinkage between the concepts of innovation and corporate entrepreneurship, the nature of this linkage is rarely addressed directly. This has made further research in the two areas problematic, mainly...... nature of corporate entrepreneurship and innovation by exploring the role played by innovation in corporate entrepreneurship. - Develop a framework of corporate entrepreneurial innovation which facilitates an understanding of challenges related hereto and practices applied to overcome these challenges...

  4. Corporate Foundations

    Herlin, Heidi; Thusgaard Pedersen, Janni

    2013-01-01

    action between business and NGOs through convening, translation, collaboration, and mediation. Our study provides valuable insights into the tri-part relationship of company foundation NGO by discussing the implications of corporate foundations taking an active role in the realm of corporate social...... responsibility (CSR). The paper hence illuminates the fascinating and overlooked role of corporate foundations as potential bridges between business and civil society. It also informs theory on boundary organizations by clarifying challenges and limits of such institutions.......This paper aims to explore the potential of Danish corporate foundations as boundary organizations facilitating relationships between their founding companies and non-governmental organizations (NGOs). Hitherto, research has been silent about the role of corporate foundations in relation to cross...

  5. Trichloroacetimidates as Alkylating Reagents and Their Application in the Synthesis of Pyrroloindoline Natural Products and Synthesis of Small Molecule Inhibitors of Src Homology 2 Domain-Containing Inositol Phosphatase (SHIP)

    Adhikari, Arijit A.

    was applied towards the synthesis of natural products and their analogs. The pyrroloindoline ring system is found in many alkaloids and cyclic peptides which mainly differ in the substitution at the C3a position. To provide rapid access to these natural products a diversity-oriented strategy was established via displacement of C3a-trichloroacetimidate pyrroloindoline. Carbon, oxygen, sulfur and nitrogen nucleophiles were all shown to undergo substitution reactions with these trichloroacetimidates in the presence of a Lewis acid catalyst. In order to demonstrate the utility of this new method it was applied towards the synthesis of arundinine and a formal synthesis of psychotriasine. Current investigations involve the application of this method towards the synthesis of a complex pyrroloindoline natural product kapakahine C and the progress made therein has been discussed. The reactivity of trichloroacetimidates was also investigated for the selective C3-alkylation of 2,3-disubstituted indoles to provide indolenines. Indolenines serve as useful intermediates in the synthesis of many complex alkaloids. Different benzylic and allylic trichloroacetimidates were shown to provide 3,3'-disubstituted indolenines with high yields in the presence of catalytic amounts of Lewis acids. Various substituted indoles were evaluated under these reaction conditions. This methodology was also applied towards the synthesis of the core tetracyclic ring system found in communesin natural products. In addition to the above work, synthesis of small molecule inhibitors of Src Homology 2 Domain-Containing Inositol Phosphatase (SHIP) has also been described. Aberrations in the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) cellular signaling pathway can lead to diseased cellular states like cancer. Herein we have reported stereoselective synthesis of two quinoline based small molecule SHIP inhibitors. The lead compounds and their analogs were tested for their activities against SHIP by Malachite green assay

  6. Dutch Ships and Sailors

    de Boer, Victor; Hoekstra, F.G.; Leinenga, Jurjen; van Rossum, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Dutch Ships and Sailors provides an infrastructure for maritime historical datasets, linking correlating data through semantic web technology. It brings together datasets related to recruitment and shipping in the East-India trade (mainly 18th century) and in the shipping of the northern provinces

  7. Reactors. Nuclear propulsion ships

    Fribourg, Ch.

    2001-01-01

    This article has for object the development of nuclear-powered ships and the conception of the nuclear-powered ship. The technology of the naval propulsion P.W.R. type reactor is described in the article B.N.3 141 'Nuclear Boilers ships'. (N.C.)

  8. LCA-ship. Design tool for energy efficient ships. A Life Cycle Analysis Program for Ships. Final report

    Jiven, Karl; Sjoebris, Anders [MariTerm AB, Goeteborg (Sweden); Nilsson, Maria [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Stiftelsen TEM; Ellis, Joanne; Traegaardh, Peter; Nordstroem, Malin [SSPA Sweden AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2004-05-01

    In order to make it easier to include aspects during ship design that will improve environmental performance, general methods for life cycle calculations and a prototype tool for LCA calculations of ships and marine transportation have been developed. The base of the life cycle analyses is a comprehensive set of life cycle data that was collected for the materials and consumables used in ship construction and vessel operations. The computer tool developed makes it possible to quickly and simply specify (and calculate) the use of consumables over the vessel's life time cycle. Special effort has been made to allow the tool to be used for different types of vessels and sea transport. The main result from the project is the computer tool LCA ship, which incorporates collected and developed life cycle data for some of the most important materials and consumables used in ships and their operation. The computer application also contains a module for propulsion power calculations and a module for defining and optimising the energy system onboard the vessel. The tool itself is described in more detail in the Computer application manual. The input to the application should, as much as possible, be the kind of information that is normally found in a shipping company concerning vessel data and vessel movements. It all starts with defining the ship to be analysed and continues with defining how the ship is used over the lifetime. The tool contains compiled and processed background information about specific materials and processes (LCA data) connected to shipping operations. The LCA data is included in the tool in a processed form. LCA data for steel will for example include the environmental load from the steel production, the process to build the steel structure of the ship, the scrapping and the recycling phase. To be able to calculate the environmental load from the use of steel the total amount of steel used over the life cycle of the ship is also needed. The

  9. Designing Indonesian Liner Shipping Network

    Armand Omar Moeis

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available As the largest archipelago nation in the world, Indonesia’s logistics system has not shown excellence according to the parameters of logistics performance index and based on logistics costs percentages from overall GDP. This is due to the imbalances of trading on the western and eastern regions in Indonesia, which impacts the transportation systems costs to and from the eastern regions. Therefore, it is imperative to improve the competitiveness of Indonesian maritime logistics through maritime logistics network design. This research will focus on three levels of decision making in logistics network design, which include type of ships in the strategic level, shipping routes in the tactical level, and container allocation in the operational level with implementing butterfly routes in Indonesia’s logistics networking problems. Furthermore, this research will analyze the impact of Pendulum Nusantara and Sea Toll routes against the company profits and percentages of containers shipped. This research will also foresee how demand uncertainties and multi-period planning should affect decision making in designing the Indonesian Liner Shipping Network.

  10. Corporate Taxation and Corporate Governance

    Köthenbürger, Marko; Stimmelmayr, Michael

    2009-01-01

    if the corporate tax system exempts the normal return on investment from taxation. The optimal system may well use the full return on investment as a tax base. Hence, tax systems such as an Allowance for Corporate Equity (ACE) or a Cash-flow tax do not have the familiar efficiency-enhancing effects in the presence...

  11. Nuclear merchant ship propulsion

    Schroeder, E.; Jager, W.; Schafstall, H.G.

    1977-01-01

    The operation of about 300 nuclear naval vessels has proven the feasibility of nuclear ship propulsion. Until now six non military ships have been built or are under construction. In the Soviet Union two nuclear icebreakers are in operation, and a third one is under construction. In the western world three prototype merchant ships have been built. Of these ships only the NS OTTO HAHN is in operation and provides valuable experience for future large scale use of nuclear merchant ship propulsion. In many countries studies and plans are made for future nuclear merchant ships. Types of vessels investigated are large containerships, tankers and specialized ships like icebreakers or ice-breaking ships. The future of nuclear merchant ship propulsion depends on three interrelated items: (1) nuclear ship technology; (2) economy of nuclear ship propulsion; (3) legal questions. Nuclear merchant ship technology is based until now on standard ship technology and light water reactor technology. Except for special questions due to the non-stationary type of the plant entirely new problems do not arise. This has been proven by the recent conceptual licensing procedure for a large nuclear containership in Germany. The economics of nuclear propulsion will be under discussion until they are proven by the operation of privately owned lead ships. Unsolved legal questions e.g. in connection with port entry permissions are at present another problem for nuclear shipping. Efforts are made to solve these questions on an international basis. The future development of nuclear energy electricity production in large land based plants will stimulate the employment of smaller units. Any future development of long distance sea transport will have to take this opportunity of a reliable and economic energy supply into account

  12. Corporal punishment.

    Bauman, L J; Friedman, S B

    1998-04-01

    Pediatricians differ on the optimal ways to discipline children. The major controversy surrounds the use of corporal punishment. In an effort to resolve this controversy, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) cosponsored a conference entitled "The Short and Long-Term Consequences of Corporal Punishment" in February 1996. This article reviews scientific literature on corporal punishment and summarizes the proceedings from the conference. The authors conclude that, although the research data are inadequate to resolve the controversy, there are areas of consensus. Practitioners should assess the spanking practices of the parent they see and counsel parents to avoid those that are, by AAP consensus, dangerous, ineffective, or abusive.

  13. Spent fuel shipping cask sealing concepts

    Sonnier, C.S.

    1989-05-01

    In late 1985, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) requested the US Program for Technical Assistance to IAEA Safeguards (POTAS) to provide a study which examined sealing concepts for application to spent fuel shipping casks. This request was approved, and assigned to Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia). In the course of this study, discussions were held with personnel in the International Safeguards Community who were familiar with the shipping casks used in their States. A number of shipping casks were examined, and discussions were held with two shipping cask manufacturers in the US. As a result of these efforts, it was concluded that the shipping casks provided an extremely good containment, and that many of the existing casks can be effectively sealed by applying the seal to the cask closure bolts/nuts

  14. Corporate Responsibility

    World Bank

    2004-01-01

    Appeals to corporate responsibility often simply take for granted that businesses have ethical responsibilities that go beyond just respecting the law. This paper addresses arguments to the effect that businesses have no such responsibilities. The interesting claim is not that businesses have no ethical responsibility at all but that their primal responsibility is to increase their profits. The extent to which there is reason to take such arguments seriously delineates the limits of corporate...

  15. Energy Information Data Base: corporate author entries

    1980-03-01

    One of the controls for information entered into the data bases created and maintained by the DOE Technical Information Center is the standardized name for the corporate entity or the corporate author. The purpose of Energy Information Data Base: Corporate Author Entries (TID-4585-R1) and this supplemental list of authorized or standardized corporate entries is to provide a means for the consistent citing of the names of organizations in bibliographic records. In general, an entry in Corporate Author Entries consists of the seven-digit code number assigned to the particular corporate entity, the two-letter country code, the largest element of the corporate name, the location of the corporate entity, and the smallest element of the corporate name (if provided). This supplement [DOE/TIC-4585-R1(Suppl.5)] contains additions to the base document (TID-4585-R1) and is intended to be used with that publication

  16. Safety of nuclear ships

    1978-01-01

    Interest in the utilization of nuclear steam supply systems for merchant ships and icebreakers has recently increased considerably due to the sharp rise in oil prices and the continuing trend towards larger and faster merchant ships. Canada, for example, is considering construction of an icebreaker in the near future. On the other hand, an accident which could result in serious damage to or the sinking of a nuclear ship is potentially far more dangerous to the general public than a similar accident with a conventional ship. Therefore, it was very important to evaluate in an international forum the safety of nuclear ships in the light of our contemporary safety philosophy, taking into account the results of cumulative operating experience with nuclear ships in operation. The philosophy and safety requirement for land-based nuclear installations were outlined because of many common features for both land-based nuclear installations and nuclear ships. Nevertheless, essential specific safety requirements for nuclear ships must always be considered, and the work on safety problems for nuclear ships sponsored by the NEA was regarded as an important step towards developing an international code of practice by IMCO on the safety of nuclear merchant ships. One session was devoted to the quantitative assessment of nuclear ship safety. The probability technique of an accident risk assessment for nuclear power plants is well known and widely used. Its modification, to make it applicable to nuclear propelled merchant ships, was discussed in some papers. Mathematical models for describing various postulated accidents with nuclear ships were developed and reported by several speakers. Several papers discussed a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) with nuclear steam supply systems of nuclear ships and engineering design features to prevent a radioactive effluence after LOCA. Other types of postulated accidents with reactors and systems in static and dynamic conditions were also

  17. Some concepts of future nuclear ship

    Fujino, Masataka

    2000-01-01

    Characteristic features of nuclear power generation are as follows: (1) Thermal energy can be continuously extracted for a long time without fuel feed, (2) Nuclear energy is suitable for generating huge power, (3) Oxygen is unnecessary for combustion of fuel, and (4) Unlike fossil fuel, nuclear power generation does not exhaust NOx, SOx, and CO 2 : it can be considered environmentally friendly. In view of these features, the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute commissioned the Shipbuilding Research Association of Japan (JSRA) to survey what kinds of nuclear ship would be put to practical use in the near future. For this purpose, a research committee was organized in 1992 by the JSRA, and concluded its investigation in 1996. The main aim of this research was to clarify the requirements of ship performance as nuclear ships, and then to extract the technical issues of the marine reactor installed in nuclear ships to be solved. As a result of the survey, it was suggested that displacement-type large high-speed container ship would be one of the promising future nuclear merchant ships, and 6500 m deep-sea and 600 m undersea scientific research submersibles would be other promising nuclear special purpose ships. At the same time, various requirements of marine reactors, which are expected to be installed in these ships, were clarified mainly from the technical viewpoints. (author)

  18. Corporate plan 1989

    1988-12-01

    The paper presents the United Kingdom Science and Engineering Research Council's second Corporate Plan 1989. The Corporate Plan comprises statements of the current objectives of the Astronomy and Planetary Science Board, the Engineering Board, the Nuclear Physics Board, the Atmospheric Sciences and Computing Centre, along with a discussion of the mechanisms for their attainment. The Annex contains a description of some scientific highlights between 1985-1989, as well as a review of progress between 1984-5 to 1987-8. (U.K.)

  19. Concept Design and Risk Assessment of Nuclear Propulsion Ship

    Gil, Youngmi; Yoo, Seongjin; Kim, Yeontae; Oh, June; Byun, Yoonchul; Woo, Ilguk; Kim, Jiho; Choi, Suhn

    2014-01-01

    The nuclear propulsion ships (hereinafter referred to as 'nuclear ships') have been considered as an eco-friendly ship. There have historically been warship and submarine with the source of nuclear power. The use of nuclear ships has been recently extending to the icebreaker, the deep-water exploration ship, and the floating nuclear power plant. Prior to developing the new ship, we evaluated the economics of various types of ships and concluded that the container ship could be appropriate for the nuclear propulsion. In order to verify its safety, we performed the ship calculation based on the optimal arrangement of the nuclear reactor. Finally, we verified its safety by the HAZID. In the former research, we confirmed the applicability of the nuclear propulsion system for the large container ship. In this study, we verified the safety of the nuclear ships according to the HAZID analysis. We expect that this research will lead to safe design of the nuclear ships

  20. Concept Design and Risk Assessment of Nuclear Propulsion Ship

    Gil, Youngmi; Yoo, Seongjin; Kim, Yeontae; Oh, June; Byun, Yoonchul; Woo, Ilguk [Daewoo Shipbuilding and Marine Engineering Co. Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jiho; Choi, Suhn [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The nuclear propulsion ships (hereinafter referred to as 'nuclear ships') have been considered as an eco-friendly ship. There have historically been warship and submarine with the source of nuclear power. The use of nuclear ships has been recently extending to the icebreaker, the deep-water exploration ship, and the floating nuclear power plant. Prior to developing the new ship, we evaluated the economics of various types of ships and concluded that the container ship could be appropriate for the nuclear propulsion. In order to verify its safety, we performed the ship calculation based on the optimal arrangement of the nuclear reactor. Finally, we verified its safety by the HAZID. In the former research, we confirmed the applicability of the nuclear propulsion system for the large container ship. In this study, we verified the safety of the nuclear ships according to the HAZID analysis. We expect that this research will lead to safe design of the nuclear ships.

  1. Corporate Governance

    Dragoș-Mihail Daghie

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to analyze and understand the recently introduced form of managementof a company limited by shares. The Law no. 441/2006, which fundamentally amended Company Law,created this form of controlling the company, the corporate governance, but the legislation does not explicitlydefine what it wants to achieve through this instrument. This topic is recent in research as the theme ofgerman-roman commercial law systems (in French corporate governance system was introduced in 1966 andin Romania in 2006 but in terms of Anglo-Saxon law, the topic has been addressed years since 1776 (AdamSmith: The Wealth of Nations The concept of corporate governance would like, as a result, to establish somerules that companies must comply in order to achieve effective governance, transparent and beneficial forboth shareholders and for the minority. Corporate governance is a key element with an aim at improvingefficiency and economic growth in full accordance with the increase of investors’ confidence. Corporategovernance assumes a series of relationship between the company management, leadership, shareholders andthe other people concerned. Also corporate governance provides for that structure by means of which thecompany’s targets are set out and the means to achieve them and also the manner how to monitor such.

  2. Accidents on ships in the Danish International Ship register

    Ádám, Balázs; Rasmussen, Hanna Barbara

    to report accidents causing at least one day off work beyond the day of accident but the first source contains several accidents not fulfilling this criterion, too. Radio Medical is an independent service where all Danish ships may seek medical advice. The data sets were merged by identification number...... of our study is to describe trend of accidents and their contributing factors, with special focus on nationality, occurring in ships under Danish flag in the period 2010-2012. The study used two independent data sources, the Danish Maritime Authority and the Danish Radio Medical. It is mandatory...... to create a single database that has been studied by descriptive statistics and regression analysis. Findings show a stabilised number of accidents in the analysed period. The occurrence of accidents is influenced by nationality. There is a higher frequency of reported injuries found among Danish and other...

  3. Ultimate Strength of Ship Hulls under Torsion

    Paik, Jeom Kee; Thayamballi, Anil K.; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2001-01-01

    For a ship hull with large deck openings such as container vessels and some large bulk carriers, the analysis of warping stresses and hatch opening deformations is an essential part of ship structural analyses. It is thus of importance to better understand the ultimate torsional strength characte......For a ship hull with large deck openings such as container vessels and some large bulk carriers, the analysis of warping stresses and hatch opening deformations is an essential part of ship structural analyses. It is thus of importance to better understand the ultimate torsional strength...... characteristics of ships with large hatch openings. The primary aim of the present study is to investigate the ultimate strength characteristics of ship hulls with large hatch openings under torsion. Axial (warping) as well as shear stresses are normally developed for thin-walled beams with open cross sections...... subjected to torsion. A procedure for calculating these stresses is briefly described. As an illustrative example, the distribution and magnitude of warping and shear stresses for a typical container vessel hull cross section under unit torsion is calculated by the procedure. By theoretical and numerical...

  4. Ministry of International Trade and Industry applying business stimulation taxation system. ; On mechatronics, product shipping facilities and automatic fire extinguishing facilities used by large corporations. Keiki taisaku ni tsusansho mo zeisei sochi. ; Daikigyo mekatoro ni seihin shukka setsubi, jido shoka setsubi mo

    1993-05-05

    With an objective to promote capital investments that have been fallen because of the recession in Japan, the Petroleum Department of the Agency of Natural Resources and Energy has decided to take the following measures limited to one year for application. The measures consist of the taxation system for high-level energy saving investment promotion and the taxation system for small business machine investment promotion. In the former system, facilities that are effective for promoting rationalization and serving for environment preservation are admitted a special depreciation of 30% (36% for small business) on acquired prices or a tax deduction of 7% (8.4% for small business). Tax deduction of 7% (8.4%) is granted on leased assets. However, machineries are subject to a requirement of the price to be higher than 2 million yen (2.7 million yen in leasing). As a result, petroleum product shipping facilities are also covered by the taxation measures. The latter system, which is intended to promote investments by small business corporations, admits a special depreciation of 30% and a tax deduction of 7% for machineries acquired at prices above 2 million yen. Electronic computers and facsimile machines are also subjected to the taxation measures if their prices are higher than one million yen.

  5. Corporal punishment.

    Zolotor, Adam J

    2014-10-01

    Corporal punishment is used for discipline in most homes in the United States. It is also associated with a long list of adverse developmental, behavioral, and health-related consequences. Primary care providers, as trusted sources for parenting information, have an opportunity to engage parents in discussions about discipline as early as infancy. These discussions should focus on building parents' skills in the use of other behavioral techniques, limiting (or eliminating) the use of corporal punishment and identifying additional resources as needed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Crushing Strength of Ship Structures

    Cerup-Simonsen, Bo; Abramowicz, W.; Høstgaard-Brene, C.N.S.

    1999-01-01

    The crushing response of ship structures is of primary importance to the designers and practicing engineers concerned with accidental loading and accident reconstruction of marine vehicles. Ship to-ship collisions, ship-harbor infrastructure interaction or ship-offshore structure interaction are ...

  7. Competitive Liner Shipping Network Design

    Karsten, Christian Vad

    .The contributions of this thesis cover modeling, methodology, and applications.The developed methods address operational (cargo routing), tactical (speed optimization and service selection), and strategic (network design) planning problems faced by liner shipping companies. Ultimately, the proposed methods help...... take the container transportation times that can be realized in the network nor the number of transshipments into consideration. This is mainly because the optimization problem is based on other transportation networks where these constraints are not decisive to the quality of the network. Furthermore......, the problem in itself is challenging to optimize due to its size and complexity. However, the field has seen crucial progress and is mature to include handling of competitiveness in the actual design of the network.As a liner shipping network is an organic entity, which is constantly changed to reflect...

  8. Shipping Information Pipeline

    Jensen, Thomas; Vatrapu, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    and national borders within international shipping which is a rather complex domain. The intellectual objective is to generate and evaluate the efficacy and effectiveness of design principles for inter-organizational information infrastructures in the international shipping domain that can have positive...

  9. Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning

    Tierney, Kevin; Jensen, Rune Møller

    2011-01-01

    Liner shipping fleet repositioning consists of moving vessels between services in a liner ship- ping network in order to better orient the overall network to the world economy, and to ensure the proper maintenance of vessels. Thus, fleet repositioning involves sailing and loading activities subject...

  10. Handbook of nuclear ships

    1981-03-01

    First, the government organs and other organizations related to nuclear ships and their tasks are described. The fundamental plan for the development of nuclear ships had been determined in July, 1963, and was revised three times thereafter. However in December, 1980, new determination to carry out the research works also was made. The course of the construction of the nuclear ship ''Mutsu'' from 1955 to 1980, the main particulars of the nuclear ship ''Mutsu'' and the drawing of the general arrangement are shown. The designated port for berthing the Mutsu was completed in 1972 in Ominato, Aomori Prefecture, but after the happening of radiation leak during the trial operation of the Mutsu in 1974, it was agreed to remove the port. The main works to be carried out at the port and the port facilities are explained. The progress of the examination of safety of the Mutsu and the result, the test of raising the power output carried out in 1974, and the course of selecting the port for making the repair works of the Mutsu are described. The law concerning Japan Nuclear Ship Research and Development Agency had been instituted in 1963, and was revised four times thereafter. The change of the budget for the tests and researches related to nuclear ships in Japan is shown. The state of development of nuclear ships in foreign countries, the international organs related to atomic energy, shipping, shipbuilding and energy, and chronological table are introduced. (Kako, I.)

  11. Effective and Safe Ships

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Amdahl, Jørgen; Rutgersson, Olle

    1996-01-01

    A Joint Nordic Research project "Effecive and Safe Ships" is presented. The project is aiming to develop methods and tools for quantitative evaluation fo ship safety. This report is the report of the preliminary phase where the plan for the main project is developed. The objectives of the project...

  12. Corporate entrepreneurship

    Christensen, Karina

    2005-01-01

    Corporate entreprenørskab kan blive svaret på, hvordan Danmark fremmer en mere videnintensiv produktion. Begrebet er blevet anvendt til at forklare forskellige organisatoriske fænomener alt fra strategi over ledelse i al almindelighed til innovation, hvilket har medført en mangfoldighed af begreb...

  13. Corporate Venturing

    Vintergaard, Christian

    path of an entrepreneurial opportunity of the Danish corporate venture capitalist,Danfoss A/S. This paper distinguishes itself from previous research done on entrepreneurialopportunities by creating a holistic and conceptual framework, which broadens and expands theperception of the market participants...

  14. Corporate Awakening

    LaFrance, Julie; Lehmann, Martin

    2004-01-01

    Predominantly since the 1992 Rio Summit, corporations have been increasingly pursuing partnerships with public institutions including governments, international organisations and NGOs that aim to contribute to sustainable development activities. Both the business community and public organisation...... for cooperation on community development programs in Myanmar....

  15. Shipping Information Pipeline

    Jensen, Thomas

    to creating a more efficient shipping industry, and a number of critical issues are identified. These include that shipments depend on shipping information, that shipments often are delayed due to issues with documentation, that EDI messages account for only a minor part of the needed information......This thesis applies theoretical perspectives from the Information Systems (IS) research field to propose how Information Technology (IT) can improve containerized shipping. This question is addressed by developing a set of design principles for an information infrastructure for sharing shipping...... information named the Shipping Information Pipeline (SIP). Review of the literature revealed that IS research prescribed a set of meta-design principles, including digitalization and digital collaboration by implementation of Inter-Organizational Systems based on Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) messages...

  16. Review of the total system related to operation of nuclear-powered ship

    Takamasa, Tomoji; Miyashita, Kunio

    2000-01-01

    It is essential to establish a marine reactor having excellent safety and reliability, which is capable of competing economically with conventional ships, and which can be accepted by international society, in order to be prepared for practical application of future nuclear-powered ships. For this purpose, it is important not only to demonstrate a marine reactor using a model or test device to simulate actual operation, but also to establish the environmental requirements for operation of a nuclear-powered ship, such as safety standards that are operationally and internationally common for ships, and to establish a repair base for nuclear-powered ships. Systems research for the practical application of nuclear-powered ships was conducted for five years, fiscal years 1992 through 1996, by a group in the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), under the project title 'Review of the total system related to operation of nuclear-powered ships.' The project sought to summarize requirements for the practical application of nuclear-powered ships from the standpoint of the need side, e.g., what nuclear-powered ships will be requested, and what functions will be provided under the expected future social environment; to show a complete system concept for the operation of nuclear-powered ships; and to clarify the situations creating demand for nuclear-powered ships, as well as the system and environmental conditions to be established for operation of practical nuclear-powered ships. Study considerations included the size of the operation system for a nuclear-powered ship, a scenario for introducing a nuclear-powered container ship, and economic evolution from the effects on the whole shipping system, based on container ships, of introducing a nuclear-powered ship. The results of these considerations were made the framework for constructing an entire system and evaluating its economy. The treatment and disposal of radioactive waste from a nuclear-powered ship, and the

  17. Nuclear ships and their safety

    NONE

    1961-04-15

    Several aspects of nuclear ship propulsion, with special reference to nuclear safety, were discussed at an international symposium at Taormina, Italy, from 14-18 November 1960. Discussions on specific topics are conducted, grouped under the following headings: Economics and National Activities in Nuclear Ship Propulsion; International Problems and General Aspects of Safety for Nuclear Ships; Nuclear Ship Projects from the Angle of Safety; Ship Reactor Problems; Sea Motion and Hull Problems; Maintenance and Refuelling Problems; and Safety Aspects of Nuclear Ship Operation.

  18. Hydrodynamics of Ship Propellers

    Breslin, John P.; Andersen, Poul

    This book deals with flows over propellers operating behind ships, and the hydrodynamic forces and moments which the propeller generates on the shaft and on the ship hull.The first part of the text is devoted to fundamentals of the flow about hydrofoil sections (with and without cavitation...... of an intermittently cavitating propeller in a wake and the pressures and forces it exerts on the shaft and on the ship hull is examined. A final chapter discusses the optimization of efficiency of compound propulsors. The authors have taken care to clearly describe physical concepts and mathematical steps. Appendices...

  19. 46 CFR Appendix B to Subpart A of... - Oath of Parent or Subsidiary Corporation Act of September 2, 1958 (46 U.S.C. app. 883-1)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Oath of Parent or Subsidiary Corporation Act of..., App. B Appendix B to Subpart A of Part 68—Oath of Parent or Subsidiary Corporation Act of September 2... Subsidiary Corporation, Act of September 2, 1958 (46 U.S.C. app. 883-1) Corporation: Name Address State of...

  20. A new technology for the reduction of particulate matter from diesel engines in ships

    Van Rens, G.L.M.A.

    2008-01-01

    In this thesis the focus is on the particulate matter reduction of ships, as ships contribute significantly to the particulate matter concentration in ambient air. Because the fuel of sea ships contains a lot of ash, the emitted particulate matter will also contain a lot of ash. In car and truck

  1. 46 CFR 68.7 - Qualification as an 883-1 corporation.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Qualification as an 883-1 corporation. 68.7 Section 68.7... Trade § 68.7 Qualification as an 883-1 corporation. (a) To be formally qualified as an 883-1 corporation for all purposes under the Act, a corporation which meets the requirements of § 68.5 must file with...

  2. Corporate governance cycles during transition

    Mygind, Niels; Demina, Natalia; Gregoric, Aleksandra

    2004-01-01

    -ing or exit stage. During transition the cycle reflects: privatization often with a high proportion of employee ownership like in Russia and in Slovenia; strong pressures for restructuring and owner-ship changes; limited possibility for external finance because of embryonic development of the fi......-nancial system. To provide simple hypothesis tests, we use Russian enterprise data for 1995-2003 and Slovenian data covering 1998-2003. In spite of differences in institutional development, con-cerning privatization and development of corporate governance institutions, we find that govern-ance cycles are broadly...... of ownership on managers, external domestic and foreign owners. JEL-codes: G3, J5, P2, P3 - Keywords: corporate governance, life-cycle, privatization, ownership change, transition economies, Russia and Slovenia....

  3. Designing Adaptable Ships: Modularity and Flexibility in Future Ship Designs

    2016-01-01

    with motors, belts, shafts , seals, valves, hose spindles , and switches. If ship installation is not installed, the system will be status quo. Ship...Impact: the current centrifugal purifiers (Alfa-Laval) have experienced frequent failures with motor, belts, shafts , seals, valves, hose spindles ... Designing Adaptable Ships Modularity and Flexibility in Future Ship Designs John F. Schank, Scott Savitz, Ken Munson, Brian Perkinson, James

  4. Utilization of nuclear technology to ship

    Kim, H. C.

    2004-01-01

    The SMART, a medium sized power plant with an output of 330mwth, can be used on barges to generate electric power and water, and can be used to propel container ships. For high speed, to secure the container cargo, and huge container carriers, to lower the operating expenses, the use of nuclear power reactor is essential. To compete in this challenging area with the advanced countries, a well-orchestrated joint effort will be necessary by the government and the industries

  5. Ship propulsion reactors technology

    Fribourg, Ch.

    2002-01-01

    This paper takes the state of the art on ship propulsion reactors technology. The french research programs with the corresponding technological stakes, the reactors specifications and advantages are detailed. (A.L.B.)

  6. Ship construction and welding

    Mandal, Nisith R

    2017-01-01

    This book addresses various aspects of ship construction, from ship types and construction materials, to welding technologies and accuracy control. The contents of the book are logically organized and divided into twenty-one chapters. The book covers structural arrangement with longitudinal and transverse framing systems based on the service load, and explains basic structural elements like hatch side girders, hatch end beams, stringers, etc. along with structural subassemblies like floors, bulkheads, inner bottom, decks and shells. It presents in detail double bottom construction, wing tanks & duct keels, fore & aft end structures, etc., together with necessary illustrations. The midship sections of various ship types are introduced, together with structural continuity and alignment in ship structures. With regard to construction materials, the book discusses steel, aluminum alloys and fiber reinforced composites. Various methods of steel material preparation are discussed, and plate cutting and form...

  7. Nuclear ship accidents

    Oelgaard, P.L.

    1993-05-01

    In this report available information on 28 nuclear ship accident and incidents is considered. Of these 5 deals with U.S. ships and 23 with USSR ships. The ships are in almost all cases nuclear submarines. Only events that involve the nuclear propulsion plants, radiation exposures, fires/explosions and sea water leaks into the submarines are considered. Comments are made on each of the events, and at the end of the report an attempt is made to point out the weaknesses of the submarine designs which have resulted in the accidents. It is emphasized that much of the available information is of a rather dubious nature. consequently some of the assessments made may not be correct. (au)

  8. Competitive Liner Shipping Network Design

    Karsten, Christian Vad; Brouer, Berit Dangaard; Pisinger, David

    2017-01-01

    We present a solution method for the liner shipping network design problem which is a core strategic planning problem faced by container carriers. We propose the first practical algorithm which explicitly handles transshipment time limits for all demands. Individual sailing speeds at each service...... leg are used to balance sailing speed against operational costs, hence ensuring that the found network is competitive on both transit time and cost. We present a matheuristic for the problem where a MIP is used to select which ports should be inserted or removed on a route. Computational results...

  9. Competitive Liner Shipping Network Design

    Karsten, Christian Vad; Brouer, Berit Dangaard; Pisinger, David

    We present a solution method for the liner shipping network design problem which is a core strategic planning problem faced by container carriers. We propose the first practical algorithm which explicitly handles transshipment time limits for all demands. Individual sailing speeds at each service...... leg are used to balance sailings speed against operational costs, hence ensuring that the found network is competitive on both transit time and cost. We present a matheuristic for the problem where a MIP is used to select which ports should be inserted or removed on a route. Computational results...

  10. Thermo-hydraulic characteristics of ship propulsion reactor in the conditions of ship motions and safety assessment

    Kobayashi, Michiyuki; Murata, Hiroyuki; Sawada, Kenichi; Inasaka, Fujio; Aya, Izuo; Shiozaki, Koki

    1999-01-01

    By inputting the experimental data, information and others on thermo-hydraulic characteristics of integrated ship propulsion reactor accumulated hitherto by the Ship Research Institute and some recent cooperation results into the nuclear ship engineering simulation system, it was conducted not only to contribute an improvement study on next ship reactor by executing general analysis and evaluation on motion characteristics under ship body motion conditions, safety at accidents, and others of the integrated ship reactor but also to investigate and prepare some measures to apply fundamental experiment results based on obtained here information to safety countermeasure of the nuclear ships. In 1997 fiscal year, on safety of the integrated ship propulsion reactor loading nuclear ship, by adding experimental data on unstable flow analysis and information on all around of the analysis to general data base fundamental program, development to intellectual data base program was intended; on effect of pulsation flow on thermo-hydraulic characteristics of ship propulsion reactor; after pulsation flow visualization experiment, experimental equipment was reconstructed into heat transfer type to conduct numerical analysis of pulsation flow by confirming validity of numerical analysis code under comparison with the visualization experiment results; and on thermo-hydraulic behavior in storage container at accident of active safety type ship propulsion reactor; a flashing vibration test using new apparatus finished on its higher pressurization at last fiscal year to examine effects of each parameter such as radius and length of exhausting nozzle and pool water temperature. (G.K.)

  11. SHIPPING REQUESTS ON EDH

    Logistics Group

    2001-01-01

    Users are informed that as from 1 September 2001 all Shipping Requests must be made on EDH using the appropriate electronic form. The submission of user requests directly into EDH will help rationalise the activities of the Shipping Service (Import & Export), with requests being automatically forwarded to hierarchical supervisors thereby improving the processing speed and facilitating the follow-up. Thank you for your collaboration.

  12. Plastic Pollution from Ships

    Čulin, Jelena; Bielić, Toni

    2016-01-01

    The environmental impact of shipping on marine environment includes discharge of garbage. Plastic litter is of particular concern due to abundance, resistance to degradation and detrimental effect on marine biota. According to recently published studies, a further research is required to assess human health risk. Monitoring data indicate that despite banning plastic disposal at sea, shipping is still a source of plastic pollution. Some of the measures to combat the problem are discussed.

  13. On the Global Ship Hull Bending Energy in Ship Collisions

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Li, Y.

    2004-01-01

    During ship collisions part of the kinetic energy of the involved vessels prior to contact is absorbed as energy dissipated by crushing of the hull structures, by friction and by elastic energy. The purpose of this report is to present an estimate of the elastic energy that can be stored in elastic...... hull vibrations during a ship collision. When a ship side is strengthened in order to improve the crashworthiness it has been argued in the scientific literature that a non trivial part of the energy released for structural deformation during the collision can be absorbed as elastic energy in global...... ship hull vibrations, such that with strong ship sides less energy has to be spent in crushing of the striking ship bow and/or the struck ship side. In normal ship-ship collision analyses both the striking and struck ship are usually considered as rigid bodies where structural crushing is confined...

  14. Corporate Language and Corporate Talk

    Zølner, Mette

    2013-01-01

    The article presents the case studies of two Danish based multinational companies (MNCs) which provides the an insight into the role of languages in organizational learning. It mentions that the studies focus on the sharing of the understanding and practices among their employees across the geogr......The article presents the case studies of two Danish based multinational companies (MNCs) which provides the an insight into the role of languages in organizational learning. It mentions that the studies focus on the sharing of the understanding and practices among their employees across...... the geographical borders by the medium of common corporate values for knowledge management, collection of data and analysis in these studies inspired by approach of ground theory and presents a usefulness of distinguishing between corporate language and talks to enable the headquarters learning. Also it concludes...... that both of the MNCs are of Danish origin but executives of both companies are proficient in English language....

  15. Corporate contestability and corporate expropriation

    Abdul Hadi Zulkafli

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents evidence on the role of ownership in dealing with corporate expropriation of listed companies in Malaysia. From the perspective of expropriation, a single controlling shareholder is always associated with such behavior due to their power and control at the expense of minority shareholder. However, subsequent individual or coalition of large shareholders can be an important corporate governance tool by providing effective monitoring that would lessen the possibility of expropriation by the controlling shareholder. Relating to that, this study evaluates the role of controlling and large shareholders in dealing with corporate expropriation. It is found that there is a negative relationship between single controlling shareholders and dividend payout ratio indicating that firms with only controlling shareholder will pay a lower dividend due to possible expropriation through profit diversion by controlling shareholder. Using Herfindahl Index as a proxy for ownership contestability, the presence of large shareholders along with controlling shareholder has a positive relationship with dividend payout implying that increased contestability helps to curb the power of controlling shareholder to expropriate fund for their own benefit. In accordance with agency theory, the outcome suggests that large shareholders play a monitoring role in minimizing the Type II agency problem. It is also verifying the argument made based on the Catering Theory of Dividend that the presence of large shareholder brings benefit to all shareholders as they are able to reduce profit diversion by demanding for higher dividend

  16. Outer Dynamics of Ship Collisions

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1996-01-01

    The purpose is to present analysis procedures for the motion of ships during ship-ship collisions and for ship collisions with offshore structures. The aim is to estimate that part of the lost kinetic energy which will have to be absorbed by rupture and plastic damage of the colliding structures....

  17. Recent situations around nuclear ships

    Mizuno, Hiroshi

    1978-01-01

    The philosophy when the safety standard for nuclear ships is drawn up and the international rules specifically for nuclear ships are summarized. As for the safety standard for nuclear ships, the safety requirements for ordinary ships, for the ships transporting nuclear reactors, for ordinary nuclear reactors, and for the reactors moving around the seas must be included. As for the international rules for nuclear ships, there are chapter 8 ''Nuclear ships'' in the International Convention on the Safety of Life at Sea, 1960 and 1974, and Safety Consideration in the Use of Ports and Approaches by Nuclear Merchant Ships. Also there are national rules and standards in Japan and foreign countries. One of the means to explore the practicality of nuclear ships is the investigation of the economy. At this time, the social merits and demerits of nuclear ships must be compared with conventional ships by taking total expenses into account without omission. When oil is depleted, the age of nuclear ships will not necessarily begin, and the will be still some competitors. The investigations concerning the economy of nuclear ships have been carried out in various countries. The present state of the development of nuclear ships in Japan and foreign countries is explained. Many conferences and symposia have been held concerning nuclear ships, and those held recently are enumerated. The realization of nuclear ship age cannot be anticipated from existing papers and shipbuilding projects. (Kako, I.)

  18. Outer Dynamics of Ship Collisions

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of these notes is to present analysis procedures for the motion of ships during ship-ship collisions and for ship collisons with offshore structures. The aim is to estimate that part of the lost kinetic energy which will have to be absorbed by rupture and plastic damage of the colliding...

  19. Empty Container Logistics

    Jakov Karmelić; Čedomir Dundović; Ines Kolanović

    2012-01-01

    Within the whole world container traffic, the largest share of containers is in the status of repositioning. Container repositioning results from the need for harmonization between the point of empty container accumulation and the point of demand, and waiting time for the availability of the first next transport of cargo. This status of containers on the container market is the consequence of imbalances in the worldwide trade distribution on most important shipping routes. The need for fast a...

  20. Going Corporate

    Kadre, Shailendra

    2011-01-01

    Going Corporate: A Geek's Guide shows technology workers how to gain the understanding and skills necessary for becoming an effective, promotable manager or sought-after consultant or freelancer. Technology professionals typically dive deeply into small pieces of technology - like lines of code or the design of a circuit. As a result, they may have trouble seeing the bigger picture and how their work supports an organization's goals. But ignoring or dismissing the business or operational aspects of projects and products can lead to career stagnation. In fact, understanding the larger business

  1. Corporate Foresight

    Rohrbeck, René; Gemünden, Hans Georg

    2011-01-01

    Although in the last three decades much knowledge has been produced on how best to conduct foresight exercises, but little is known on how foresight should be integrated with the innovation effort of a company. Drawing on empirical evidence from 19 case studies and 107 interviews, we identify three...... roles that corporate foresight should play to maximize the innovation capacity of a firm: (1) the strategist role, which explores new business fields; (2) the initiator role, which increases the number of innovation concepts and ideas; and (3) the opponent role, which challenges innovation projects...

  2. Corporate responsibility

    Jensen, Karsten Klint

    2007-01-01

    Is it legitimate for a business to concentrate on profits under respect for the law and ethical custom? On the one hand, there seems to be good reasons for claiming that a corporation has a duty to act for the benefit of all its stakeholders. On the other hand, this seems to dissolve the notion...... of a private business; but then again, a private business would appear to be exempted from ethical responsibility. This is what Kenneth Goodpaster has called the stakeholder paradox: either we have ethics without business or we have business without ethics. Through a different route, I reach the same solution...

  3. Corporate Entrepreneurship

    Lassen, Astrid Heidemann; Sørensen, Suna

    2006-01-01

    The recognition of the importance of entrepreneurial dynamics in corporate context is increasingly acknowledged in both entrepreneurship and strategic management literature, as firms today face a reality in which frame-breaking innovation is an important element of survival. From this understanding......, the concept of Strategic Entrepreneurship (SE) has arisen, arguing a logic of focusing on the intersections between the two fields. This paper sets out to explore the SE construct empirically. Through seven case studies evolving around radical technological innovations, evidence is found of the importance...

  4. Corporate Fictions

    Staunæs, Dorthe; Søndergaard, D. M.

    2006-01-01

    The article describes a particular strategy of communication called a social science fiction. The strategy was taken up following an empirical research project on gender and management, in order to communicate results to the company's managers and Human Resource Staff. The research results showed...... fiction was the kind of narrative therapy, which aims to reconfigure the problem in focus by a process of externalisation that allows a reconstruction and retelling of the issue. The article describes how three cultural mechanisms in the company were condensed into three imaginary figures: Mr. Corporate...

  5. Analysis of International Commodity Shipping Data and the Shipment of NORM to the United States

    Baciak, James E.; Ely, James H.; Schweppe, John E.; Sandness, Gerald A.; Robinson, Sean M.

    2011-10-01

    As part of the Spreader Bar Radiation Detector project, PNNL analyzed US import data shipped through US ports collected over the 12 months of 2006 (over 4.5 million containers). Using these data, we extracted a variety of distributions that are of interest to modelers and developers of active and passive detection systems used to 'scan' IMCCs for potential contraband. This report expands on some of the analysis presented in an earlier report from LLNL, by investigation the foreign port distribution of commodities shipped to the US. The majority of containers shipped to the United States are 40 ft containers ({approx}70%); about 25% are 20 ft; and about 3.6% are 45 ft containers. A small fraction (<1%) of containers are of other more specialized sizes, and very few ports actually ship these unique size containers (a full distribution for all foreign ports is shown in Appendix A below). The primary foreign ports that ship the largest fraction of each container are shown in the table below. Given that 45 ft containers comprise 1 of out every 27 containers shipped to the US, and given the foreign ports from which they are shipped, they should not be ignored in screening; further testing and analysis of radiation measurements for national security with this size container is warranted. While a large amount of NORM is shipped in IMCCs, only a few specific commodities are shipped with enough frequency to present potential issues in screening IMCCs at ports. The majority of containers with NORM will contain fertilizers (5,700 containers), granite (59,000 containers), or ceramic (225,000 containers) materials. Fertilizers were generally shipping in either 20- or 40 ft containers with equal frequency. While granite is mostly shipped in 20 ft containers, ceramic materials can be shipped in either 20- or 40 ft containers. The size of container depended on the specific use of the ceramic or porcelain material. General construction ceramics (such as floor and roofing

  6. Analysis of International Commodity Shipping Data and the Shipment of NORM to the United States

    Baciak, James E.; Ely, James H.; Schweppe, John E.; Sandness, Gerald A.; Robinson, Sean M.

    2011-01-01

    As part of the Spreader Bar Radiation Detector project, PNNL analyzed US import data shipped through US ports collected over the 12 months of 2006 (over 4.5 million containers). Using these data, we extracted a variety of distributions that are of interest to modelers and developers of active and passive detection systems used to 'scan' IMCCs for potential contraband. This report expands on some of the analysis presented in an earlier report from LLNL, by investigation the foreign port distribution of commodities shipped to the US. The majority of containers shipped to the United States are 40 ft containers (∼70%); about 25% are 20 ft; and about 3.6% are 45 ft containers. A small fraction (<1%) of containers are of other more specialized sizes, and very few ports actually ship these unique size containers (a full distribution for all foreign ports is shown in Appendix A below). The primary foreign ports that ship the largest fraction of each container are shown in the table below. Given that 45 ft containers comprise 1 of out every 27 containers shipped to the US, and given the foreign ports from which they are shipped, they should not be ignored in screening; further testing and analysis of radiation measurements for national security with this size container is warranted. While a large amount of NORM is shipped in IMCCs, only a few specific commodities are shipped with enough frequency to present potential issues in screening IMCCs at ports. The majority of containers with NORM will contain fertilizers (5,700 containers), granite (59,000 containers), or ceramic (225,000 containers) materials. Fertilizers were generally shipping in either 20- or 40 ft containers with equal frequency. While granite is mostly shipped in 20 ft containers, ceramic materials can be shipped in either 20- or 40 ft containers. The size of container depended on the specific use of the ceramic or porcelain material. General construction ceramics (such as floor and roofing tiles) tend to

  7. Accidents in nuclear ships

    Oelgaard, P L [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark)

    1996-12-01

    This report starts with a discussion of the types of nuclear vessels accidents, in particular accidents which involve the nuclear propulsion systems. Next available information on 61 reported nuclear ship events in considered. Of these 6 deals with U.S. ships, 54 with USSR ships and 1 with a French ship. The ships are in almost all cases nuclear submarines. Only events that involve the sinking of vessels, the nuclear propulsion plants, radiation exposures, fires/explosions, sea-water leaks into the submarines and sinking of vessels are considered. For each event a summary of available information is presented, and comments are added. In some cases the available information is not credible, and these events are neglected. This reduces the number of events to 5 U.S. events, 35 USSR/Russian events and 1 French event. A comparison is made between the reported Soviet accidents and information available on dumped and damaged Soviet naval reactors. It seems possible to obtain good correlation between the two types of events. An analysis is made of the accident and estimates are made of the accident probabilities which are found to be of the order of 10{sup -3} per ship reactor years. It if finally pointed out that the consequences of nuclear ship accidents are fairly local and does in no way not approach the magnitude of the Chernobyl accident. It is emphasized that some of the information on which this report is based, may not be correct. Consequently some of the results of the assessments made may not be correct. (au).

  8. Accidents in nuclear ships

    Oelgaard, P.L.

    1996-12-01

    This report starts with a discussion of the types of nuclear vessels accidents, in particular accidents which involve the nuclear propulsion systems. Next available information on 61 reported nuclear ship events in considered. Of these 6 deals with U.S. ships, 54 with USSR ships and 1 with a French ship. The ships are in almost all cases nuclear submarines. Only events that involve the sinking of vessels, the nuclear propulsion plants, radiation exposures, fires/explosions, sea-water leaks into the submarines and sinking of vessels are considered. For each event a summary of available information is presented, and comments are added. In some cases the available information is not credible, and these events are neglected. This reduces the number of events to 5 U.S. events, 35 USSR/Russian events and 1 French event. A comparison is made between the reported Soviet accidents and information available on dumped and damaged Soviet naval reactors. It seems possible to obtain good correlation between the two types of events. An analysis is made of the accident and estimates are made of the accident probabilities which are found to be of the order of 10 -3 per ship reactor years. It if finally pointed out that the consequences of nuclear ship accidents are fairly local and does in no way not approach the magnitude of the Chernobyl accident. It is emphasized that some of the information on which this report is based, may not be correct. Consequently some of the results of the assessments made may not be correct. (au)

  9. The merchant shipping (dangerous goods) (amendment) rules 1980 No. 789

    1980-01-01

    These Rules amend the Merchant Shipping Rules 1978 and revoke the Merchant Shipping (Dangerous Goods) (Amendment) Rules 1979. The purpose of this amendment is to update the references to the 1978 Report of the Department of Trade's Standing Advisory Committee on the Carriage of Dangerous Goods in Ships (the Blue Book) and the 1977 Edition of the International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code of IMCO (the IMDG Code), referred to in the 1978 Rules. The amendments concern, inter alia, marking of packages on board ship which contain dangerous goods, including radioactive materials (NEA) [fr

  10. On the global ship hull bending energy in ship collisions

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Li, Yujie

    2009-01-01

    During ship collisions part of the kinetic energy of the involved vessels immediately prior to contact is absorbed as energy dissipated by crushing of the hull structures, by friction and by elastic energy. The purpose of this report is to present an estimate of the elastic energy that can...... be stored in elastic hull vibrations during a ship collision. When a ship side is strengthened in order to improve the crashworthiness it has been argued in the scientific literature that a non-trivial part of the energy released for structural deformation during the collision can be absorbed as elastic...... energy in global ship hull vibrations, such that with strong ship sides less energy has to be spent in crushing of the striking ship bow and/or the struck ship side. In normal ship–ship collision analyses both the striking and struck ship are usually considered as rigid bodies where structural crushing...

  11. Detection of Parametric Roll on Ships

    Galeazzi, Roberto; Blanke, Mogens; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2012-01-01

    phenomenon could make the navigator change ship’s speed and heading, and these remedial actions could make the vessel escape the bifurcation. This chapter proposes non-parametric methods to detect the onset of parametric roll resonance. Theoretical conditions for parametric resonance are re...... on experimental data from towing tank tests and data from a container ship passing an Atlantic storm....

  12. Estimation of waves and ship responses using onboard measurements

    Montazeri, Najmeh

    This thesis focuses on estimation of waves and ship responses using ship-board measurements. This is useful for development of operational safety and performance efficiency in connection with the broader concept of onboard decision support systems. Estimation of sea state is studied using a set...... of measured ship responses, a parametric description of directional wave spectra (a generalised JONSWAP model) and the transfer functions of the ship responses. The difference between the spectral moments of the measured ship responses and the corresponding theoretically calculated moments formulates a cost...... information. The model is tested on simulated data based on known unimodal and bimodal wave scenarios. The wave parameters in the output are then compared with the true wave parameters. In addition to the numerical experiments, two sets of full-scale measurements from container ships are analysed. Herein...

  13. The complex network of global cargo ship movements.

    Kaluza, Pablo; Kölzsch, Andrea; Gastner, Michael T; Blasius, Bernd

    2010-07-06

    Transportation networks play a crucial role in human mobility, the exchange of goods and the spread of invasive species. With 90 per cent of world trade carried by sea, the global network of merchant ships provides one of the most important modes of transportation. Here, we use information about the itineraries of 16 363 cargo ships during the year 2007 to construct a network of links between ports. We show that the network has several features that set it apart from other transportation networks. In particular, most ships can be classified into three categories: bulk dry carriers, container ships and oil tankers. These three categories do not only differ in the ships' physical characteristics, but also in their mobility patterns and networks. Container ships follow regularly repeating paths whereas bulk dry carriers and oil tankers move less predictably between ports. The network of all ship movements possesses a heavy-tailed distribution for the connectivity of ports and for the loads transported on the links with systematic differences between ship types. The data analysed in this paper improve current assumptions based on gravity models of ship movements, an important step towards understanding patterns of global trade and bioinvasion.

  14. Efficiency analysis of container ports and terminals

    Liu, Q.

    2010-01-01

    In the past two decades the steady growth of seaborne trade has resulted in the increase of container ships, container ports and their terminals. The structure of the shipping market is, moreover, continuously evolving. On the carrier side, shipping companies form consortia and alliances; on the port side, global terminal operators and dedicated container terminals are emerging. The aim of this research is to evaluate the efficiency of container ports and terminals and to study...

  15. 46 CFR 160.036-6 - Container.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Container. 160.036-6 Section 160.036-6 Shipping COAST... § 160.036-6 Container. (a) General. The container for storing the signals on lifeboats and liferafts is not required to be of a special design or be approved by the Coast Guard. The container must meet the...

  16. 46 CFR 160.023-6 - Container.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Container. 160.023-6 Section 160.023-6 Shipping COAST... Container. (a) General. The container for storing the signals on lifeboats and liferafts is not required to be of a special design or be approved by the Coast Guard. The container must meet the requirements in...

  17. 46 CFR 160.026-3 - Container.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Container. 160.026-3 Section 160.026-3 Shipping COAST...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Water, Emergency Drinking (In Hermetically Sealed Containers), for Merchant Vessels § 160.026-3 Container. (a) General. The emergency drinking water container shall...

  18. Ship operations report, 1973

    1973-01-01

    The NOAA Fleet Operations Report 1973 was developed to provide a summary of project accomplishments during calendar year 1973. The report was prepared from season, cruise and special reports submitted by ships of the fleet. Centralized management of the NOAA Fleet was finalized by changing the operational control of the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) Ships DAVID STARR JORDAN (FRS 44), TOWNSEND CROMWELL (FRS 43) and MURRE II (FRV 63) from NMFS to the National Ocean Survey on July 1, 1973. Throughout the year, ships routinely collected and transmitted weather data. Similarly, as NOAA participants in the Integrated Global Ocean Station System (IGOSS) service program, XBT observations were taken and either radioed or submitted in log form via mail. In addition, particulate and radionuclide samples were taken in cooperation with the Atomic Energy Commission, sediment samples were obtained for the Smithsonian Institution and observations were made of marine mammals

  19. Ship operations report, 1975

    1976-01-01

    The NOAA Ship Operations Report 1975 was developed to provide a summary of projects undertaken during calendar year 1975. The report was prepared from season, cruise and special reports submitted by ships of the fleet. This report is promulgated for inhouse dissemination in the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, for collaborating and interested agencies, and for use by members of the scientific community. Throughout the year, ships routinely collected and transmitted weather data. Similarly, as NOAA participants in the Integrated Global Ocean Station System (IGOSS) service program, XBT observations were taken and either radioed or submitted in log form via mail. In addition, particulate and radionuclide samples were taken in cooperation with the Atomic Energy Commission, sediment samples were obtained for the Smithsonian Institution and observations were made of marine mammals

  20. Thermo-hydraulic characteristics of ship propulsion reactor in the conditions of ship motions and safety assessment

    Kobayashi, Michiyuki; Aya, Izuo; Inasaka, Fujio; Murata, Hiroyuki; Odano, Naoteru; Shiozaki, Koki

    1998-01-01

    A research project from 1995-1999 had a plan to make experimental studies on (1) safety of nuclear ship loaded with an integral ship propulsion reactor (2) effects of pulsating flow on the thermo-hydraulic characteristics of ship propulsion reactor and (3) thermo-hydraulic behaviors of the reactor container at the time of accident in a passively safe ship propulsion reactor. Development of a data base for ship propulsion reactor was attempted using previous experimental data on the thermo-hydraulic characteristics of the reactor in the institute in addition to the present results aiming to make general analytical evaluation for the safety of the engineering-simulation system for nuclear ship. A general data base was obtained by integrating the data list and the analytical program for static characteristics. A test equipment which allows to visualize the pulsating flow was produced and visualization experiments have started. (M.N.)

  1. Body lipid deposition in Nile tilapia fed on rations containing tannin Deposição lipídica corporal em tilápia-do-nilo alimentada com rações com tanino

    Felipe Shindy Aiura

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of tannin sources and levels in rations, on the productive performance and body lipid deposition of Nile tilapias (Oreochromis niloticus during the finishing phase. Three hundred and forty-two fishes were distributed in 18 tanks. Rations were prepared using corn, sorghum varieties, with low and high tannin content, and tannic acid at 0.08, 0.34, and 0.60%. Weight gain, apparent feed conversion and protein efficiency rate were not influenced by the treatments. The highest body lipid deposition was observed for the tannic acid treatment (14.39%, while the diet containing sorghum with high tannin content yielded leaner body (12.01% than that of sorghum with low tannin content (13.31%. Diets containing sorghum provided lower levels of visceral fat. Rations with tannin contents did not harm the productive performance of Nile tilapia.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de fontes e níveis de tanino em rações para tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus, durante a engorda, sobre o desempenho produtivo e deposição lipídica corporal. Foram utilizados 342 peixes, distribuídos em 18 tanques. As rações foram preparadas com milho, variedades de sorgo com baixo e alto teor de tanino, e com ácido tânico a 0,08, 0,34, e 0,60%. Ganho de peso, conversão alimentar aparente e taxa de eficiência protéica não foram influenciados pelos tratamentos. A maior deposição lipídica corporal foi observada nas dietas com ácido tânico (14,39%; a dieta de sorgo com alto teor de tanino resultou em carcaças mais magras (12,01% do que as de sorgo com baixo teor de tanino (13,31%. Dietas com sorgo proporcionaram menores teores de gordura visceral. A presença de tanino nas rações não prejudicou o desempenho produtivo da tilápia-do-nilo.

  2. Shipping emissions in ports

    Merk, Olaf

    2014-01-01

    Shipping emissions in ports are substantial, accounting for 18 million tonnes of CO2 emissions, 0.4 million tonnes of NOx, 0.2 million of SOx and 0.03 million tonnes of PM10 in 2011. Around 85% of emissions come from containerships and tankers. Containerships have short port stays, but high emissions during these stays. Most of CO2 emissions in ports from shipping are in Asia and Europe (58%), but this share is low compared to their share of port calls (70%). European ports have much less emi...

  3. Evolution of Corporate Essence

    Fomcenco, Alex

    2016-01-01

    that applies to a traditional limited liability company. Its main distinctive attributes are corporate purpose, accountability of its management, and transparency requirements. Although, a Public Benefit Corporation does not impose any revolutionary amendments to the way the traditional corporations are......, it offers a legal framework where public benefit is more important than profits. As a corporate entity, Public Benefit Corporation already exists in numerous jurisdictions and those jurisdictions that do not yet facilitate creation of this corporate form should most definitely consider it....

  4. Managing Corporate Reputation Through Corporate Branding

    Schultz, Majken; Hatch, Mary Jo; Adams, Nick

    2012-01-01

    This article, which concentrates on symbolic management by explaining the role of corporate branding in managing corporate reputation, using Novo Nordisk as a case study, presents three perspectives on corporate branding: the marketing perspective, the organisational perspective and the co...... is a way to influence corporate reputation. The Novo Nordisk management believes the data indicate that corporate branding influenced reputation more than the other way around. Formal brand management practices may work considerably better when they complement rather than try to control existing forces......-creation perspective. The three perspectives reviewed show the possibility of developing a multidisciplinary conceptualisation of corporate branding. They all offer insights important to managing organisations as corporate brands in a multi-stakeholder context and thus to the likelihood that corporate branding...

  5. A Survey on the Ship Loading Problem

    Iris, Cagatay; Pacino, Dario

    2015-01-01

    Recent statistics show that large container terminals can process more than 30 million containers a year, and are constantly in search for the better ways to optimize processing time, deliver high quality and profitable services. Some of the terminal decisions are, however, dependent...... are integrated to improve the efficiency of the ship handling operations. We present a survey of the state-of-the-art methods and of the available benchmarking data....

  6. Development of software for handling ship's pharmacy.

    Nittari, Giulio; Peretti, Alessandro; Sibilio, Fabio; Ioannidis, Nicholas; Amenta, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Ships are required to carry a given amount of medicinal products and medications depending on the flag and the type of vessel. These medicines are stored in the so called ship's "medicine chest" or more properly - a ship pharmacy. Owing to the progress of medical sciences and to the increase in the mean age of seafarers employed on board ships, the number of pharmaceutical products and medical devices required by regulations to be carried on board ships is increasing. This may make handling of the ship's medicine chest a problem primarily on large ships sailing on intercontinental routes due to the difficulty in identifying the correspondence between medicines obtained abroad with those available at the national market. To minimise these problems a tool named Pharmacy Ship (acronym: PARSI) has been developed. The application PARSI is based on a database containing the information about medicines and medical devices required by different countries regulations. In the first application the system was standardised to comply with the Italian regulations issued on the 1st October, 2015 which entered into force on the 18 January 2016. Thanks to PARSI it was possible to standardize the inventory procedures, facilitate the work of maritime health authorities and make it easier for the crew, not professional in the field, to handle the 'medicine chest' correctly by automating the procedures for medicines management. As far as we know there are no other similar tools available at the moment. The application of the software, as well as the automation of different activities, currently carried out manually, will help manage (qualitatively and quantitatively) the ship's pharmacy. The system developed in this study has proved to be an effective tool which serves to guarantee the compliance of the ship pharmacy with regulations of the flag state in terms of medicinal products and medications. Sharing the system with the Telemedical Maritime Assistance Service may result in

  7. Are nuclear ships environmentally safer than conventionally powered ships

    Bone, C.A.; Molgaard, C.A.; Helmkamp, J.C.; Golbeck, A.L.

    1988-01-01

    An epidemiologic analysis was conducted to determine if risk of hospitalization varied by age, ship type, or occupation between nuclear and conventional powered ship crews in the U.S. Navy. Study cohorts consisted of all male enlisted personnel who served exclusively aboard conventional or nuclear powered aircraft carriers and cruisers during the years 1975-1979; cases were those men hospitalized during this period (N = 48,242). Conventional ship personnel showed significantly elevated rates of injury and disease when compared to nuclear ship personnel. The largest relative risks by age occurred for conventional ship crewmen less than 30 years old. Seaman, logistics (supply), and healthcare personnel serving aboard conventional ships comprised the occupational groups exhibiting the highest hospitalization rate differentials. The results strongly suggest that nuclear ships provide a healthier, safer working and living environment than conventional ships

  8. Update on emissions and environmental impacts from the international fleet of ships: the contribution from major ship types and ports

    S. B. Dalsøren

    2009-03-01

    regard to acidification we find that ships contribute 11% to nitrate wet deposition and 4.5% to sulphur wet deposition globally. In certain coastal regions the contributions may be in the range 15–50%.

    In general we find that ship emissions have a large impact on acidic deposition and surface ozone in Western North America, Scandinavia, Western Europe, western North Africa and Malaysia/Indonesia. For most of these regions container traffic, the largest emitter by ship type, has the largest impact. This is the case especially for the Pacific and the related container trade routes between Asia and North America. However, the contributions from bulk ships and tank vessels are also significant in the above mentioned impact regions. Though the total ship impact at low latitudes is lower, the tank vessels have a quite large contribution at low latitudes and near the Gulf of Mexico and Middle East. The bulk ships are characterized by large impact in Oceania compared to other ship types. In Scandinavia and north-Western Europe, one of the major ship impact regions, the three largest ship types have rather small relative contributions. The impact in this region is probably dominated by smaller ships operating closer to the coast. For emissions in ports impacts on NO2 and SO2 seem to be of significance. For most ports the contribution to the two components is in the range 0.5–5%, for a few ports it exceeds 10%.

    The approach presented provides an improvement in characterizing fleet operational patterns, and thereby ship emissions and impacts. Furthermore, the study shows where emission reductions can be applied to most effectively minimize the impacts by different ship types.

  9. [Ontario Hydro]. Corporate performance report, 1993

    1994-01-01

    Summarizes Ontario Hydro's corporate performance for the year, with actual results being compared against planned values established in the approved corporate financial plan and work program budget. Also includes additional indicators that illustrate noteworthy trends in corporate performance. Corporate results are reported under the new organizational structure implemented in mid-1993, beginning with overall results in such areas as customer satisfaction, electricity sales, human resources, and environmental protection. This is followed by reports from the Electricity Group (supply, generation, transmission), the Energy Services and Environment Group (load saved and shifted, non-utility generation, retail distribution), and Ontario Hydro enterprises (Ontario Hydro Technologies, Ontario Hydro International). The appendix contains summary financial statements

  10. Mechanics of Ship Grounding

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1996-01-01

    In these notes first a simplified mathematical model is presented for analysis of ship hull loading due to grounding on relatively hard and plane sand, clay or rock sea bottoms. In a second section a more rational calculation model is described for the sea bed soil reaction forces on the sea bott...

  11. SHIPPING OF RADIOACTIVE ITEMS

    TIS/RP Group

    2001-01-01

    The TIS-RP group informs users that shipping of small radioactive items is normally guaranteed within 24 hours from the time the material is handed in at the TIS-RP service. This time is imposed by the necessary procedures (identification of the radionuclides, determination of dose rate and massive objects require a longer procedure and will therefore take longer.

  12. Ship Roll Motion Control

    Perez, Tristan; Blanke, Mogens

    2010-01-01

    . This tutorial paper presents an account of the development of various ship roll motion control systems and the challenges associated with their design. The paper discusses how to assess performance, the applicability of dierent models, and control methods that have been applied in the past....

  13. Ship Roll Damping Control

    Perez, Tristan; Blanke, Mogens

    2012-01-01

    limitations and large variations of the spectral characteristics of wave-induced roll motion. This tutorial paper presents an account of the development of various ship roll motion control systems together with the challenges associated with their design. It discusses the assessment of performance...

  14. Options of ship discharge

    NONE

    2010-05-15

    Environmental performance is a key design consideration for manufacturers of bulk handling machines, not least ship unloaders, with features being introduced to minimise dust and noise pollution. The article reports on developments in grab unloaders, slewing grabcranes and mobile grabcranes by manufacturers such as Konecrane, EMS-Tech, Liebherr-Werk Nenzing and Gottwald. 2 photos.

  15. Hydroelastic Vibrations of Ships

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Folsø, Rasmus

    2002-01-01

    A formula for the necessary hull girder bending stiffness required to avoid serious springing vibrations is derived. The expression takes into account the zero crossing period of the waves, the ship speed and main dimensions. For whipping vibrations the probability of exceedance for the combined...

  16. 46 CFR 340.5 - Containers and chassis.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Containers and chassis. 340.5 Section 340.5 Shipping... ALLOCATION OF SHIPPING SERVICES, CONTAINERS AND CHASSIS, AND PORT FACILITIES AND SERVICES FOR NATIONAL SECURITY AND NATIONAL DEFENSE RELATED OPERATIONS § 340.5 Containers and chassis. (a) When a defense agency...

  17. Classification of Ship Routing and Scheduling Problems in Liner Shipping

    Kjeldsen, Karina Hjortshøj

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a classification scheme for ship routing and scheduling problems in liner shipping in line with the current and future operational conditions of the liner shipping industry. Based on the classification, the literature is divided into groups whose main characteristics...

  18. Wallops Ship Surveillance System

    Smith, Donna C.

    2011-01-01

    Approved as a Wallops control center backup system, the Wallops Ship Surveillance Software is a day-of-launch risk analysis tool for spaceport activities. The system calculates impact probabilities and displays ship locations relative to boundary lines. It enables rapid analysis of possible flight paths to preclude the need to cancel launches and allow execution of launches in a timely manner. Its design is based on low-cost, large-customer- base elements including personal computers, the Windows operating system, C/C++ object-oriented software, and network interfaces. In conformance with the NASA software safety standard, the system is designed to ensure that it does not falsely report a safe-for-launch condition. To improve the current ship surveillance method, the system is designed to prevent delay of launch under a safe-for-launch condition. A single workstation is designated the controller of the official ship information and the official risk analysis. Copies of this information are shared with other networked workstations. The program design is divided into five subsystems areas: 1. Communication Link -- threads that control the networking of workstations; 2. Contact List -- a thread that controls a list of protected item (ocean vessel) information; 3. Hazard List -- threads that control a list of hazardous item (debris) information and associated risk calculation information; 4. Display -- threads that control operator inputs and screen display outputs; and 5. Archive -- a thread that controls archive file read and write access. Currently, most of the hazard list thread and parts of other threads are being reused as part of a new ship surveillance system, under the SureTrak project.

  19. Ship Observations - VOS and Navy

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Combination of Voluntary Observing Ship (VOS) and US Navy Ship weather observations. Obs generally taken 2-4 times daily at 00, 06, 12, and 18z.

  20. Trends of shipping markets development

    Tomasz Nowosielski

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Shipping markets are dependent on international trade transactions that generate transport needs. These needs can dynamically change depending on global natural resources and commodity markets situation. The changes affecting shipping markets can also be caused by changes to the existing cargo flows and by establishing new ones in different geographies. It is anticipated that in the future shipping markets will change, visible by a decline in shipping in North America and Europe and an increase in Asia.

  1. The Container Stowage Problem

    Janstrup, Kira; Rose, Trine Høyer; Andersen, Kent Høj

    The main purpose of this project is to use integer programming to create a model that minimizes the costs for container transportation by ship. To make the model as realistic as possible it will be based on information from a large shipping company about the vessel layout and container types....... In addition to our project two other projects are made where an optimal solution to the container stowage problem also is tried to be found, but by using constraint programming and local search instead respectively. We will therefore in the end compare these three methods and the achieved results on fastness...

  2. The Container Stowage Problem

    Janstrup, Kira

    2010-01-01

    The main purpose of this project is to use integer programming to create a model that minimizes the costs for container transportation by ship. To make the model as realistic as possible it will be based on information from a large shipping company about the vessel layout and container types....... In addition to our project two other projects are made where an optimal solution to the container stowage problem also is tried to be found, but by using constraint programming and local search instead respectively. We will therefore in the end compare these three methods and the achieved results on fastness...

  3. High cost for drilling ships

    Hooghiemstra, J.

    2007-01-01

    Prices for the rent of a drilling ship are very high. Per day the rent is 1% of the price for building such a ship, and those prices have risen as well. Still, it is attractive for oil companies to rent a drilling ship [nl

  4. 12 CFR 5.42 - Corporate title.

    2010-01-01

    ... 18 U.S.C. 709, regarding false advertising and the misuse of names to indicate a Federal agency, and... the appropriate district office if it changes its corporate title. The notice must contain the old and...

  5. The language of corporate annual reports

    van Leeuwen, Theo

    2013-01-01

    Corporate reports contain four distinct discourses: accounting ,finance, public relations and legal. Each recontextualizes the company's activities in distinct ways which select what actions will be represented, transform actions through the way they are worded, and add motives to actions...

  6. Flooding and sinking of nuclear merchant ships

    Lettnin, H.K.J.; Wehowsky, P.

    1978-01-01

    In contrast to land-based power plants for ship reactors the marine environment brings up the peril of sinking. But this peril is low for nuclear ships with its high safety standard. An evaluation of casualties from 1964 - 1974 for ships>8000 GRT allows to estimate a very low sink probability for nuclear ships in the range of 10 -7 to 10 -8 p.a. In spite of this low probability a sinking cannot be excluded absolutely. Therefore passive means must be provided for sinking in deep waters: to maintain the integrity of at least one enclosure as activity barrier; to supply seawater into the safety containment for decay heat removal. For sinking in shallow waters and flooding at least one of the redundant decay heat removal systems including power supply stays operable. A mathematical tool is available for the design of flood openings of sufficient cross sections to flood the containment and to reach a pressure balance in case of postulated sinking in deep waters of any depth

  7. Towards Real Time Simulation of Ship-Ship Interaction

    Lindberg, Ole; Bingham, Harry B.; Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter

    2012-01-01

    We present recent and preliminary work directed towards the development of a simplified, physics-based model for improved simulation of ship-ship interaction that can be used for both analysis and real-time computing (i.e. with real-time constraints due to visualization). The goal is to implement...... accurate (realistic) and much faster ship-wave and ship-ship simulations than are currently possible. The coupling of simulation with visualization should improve the visual experience such that it can be perceived as more realistic in training. Today the state-of-art in real-time ship-ship interaction...... is for efficiency reasons and time-constraints in visualization based on model experiments in towing tanks and precomputed force tables. We anticipate that the fast, and highly parallel, algorithm described by Engsig-Karup et al. [2011] for execution on affordable modern high-throughput Graphics Processing Units...

  8. 46 CFR 160.028-6 - Container.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Container. 160.028-6 Section 160.028-6 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS... Container. (a) General. Containers for the stowage of signal pistols and pistol projected parachute red...

  9. 46 CFR 160.037-6 - Container.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Container. 160.037-6 Section 160.037-6 Shipping COAST...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Hand Orange Smoke Distress Signals § 160.037-6 Container. (a) General. The container for storing the signals on lifeboats and liferafts is not required to be of a...

  10. EMP coupling to ships

    Deadrick, F.J.; Cabayan, H.S.; Kunz, K.F.; Bevensee, R.M.; Martin, L.C.; Egbert, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    Scale-model tests were conducted to establish the adequacy and limitations of model measurements as tools for predicting electromagnetic pulse (EMP) coupling voltages and currents to the critical antennas, cables, and metallic structures on ships. The scale-model predictions are compared with the results of the full-scale EMP simulation test of the Canadian ASW ship, HMCS Huron. (The EMP coupling predictions in this report were made without prior knowledge of the results of the data from the HMCS Huron tests.) This report establishes that the scale-model tests in conjunction with the data base from EMP coupling modules provides the necessary information for source model development and permits effective, low-cost study of particular system configurations. 184 figures, 9 tables

  11. SHIPPING OF RADIOACTIVE ITEMS

    TIS/RP Group

    2001-01-01

    The TIS-RP group informs users that shipping of small radioactive items is normally guaranteed within 24 hours from the time the material is handed in at the TIS-RP service. This time is imposed by the necessary procedures (identification of the radionuclides, determination of dose rate, preparation of the package and related paperwork). Large and massive objects require a longer procedure and will therefore take longer.

  12. Ship and Shoot

    Woods, Ron

    2012-01-01

    Ron Woods shared incredibly valuable insights gained during his 28 years at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) packaging Flight Crew Equipment for shuttle and ISS missions. In particular, Woods shared anecdotes and photos from various processing events. The moral of these stories and the main focus of this discussion were the additional processing efforts and effects related to a "ship-and-shoot" philosophy toward flight hardware.

  13. El Niño Rapid Response (ENRR) Field Campaign: Surface Meteorological and Ship Data from NOAA Ship Ronald H. Brown, 2016-02 to 2016-03 (NCEI Accession 0161528)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains surface meteorological and ship data from NOAA Ship Ronald H. Brown, collected 16 February to 16 March 2016. These data have been corrected for...

  14. A Cost Simulation Tool for Estimating the Cost of Operating Government Owned and Operated Ships

    1994-09-01

    Horngren , C.T., Foster, G., Datar, S.M., Cost Accounting : A Management Emphasis, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1994 IBM Corporation, A Graphical...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A COST SIMULATION TOOL FOR 5. FUNDING NUMBERS ESTIMATING THE COST OF OPERATING GOVERNMENT OWNED AND OPERATED SHIPS 6. AUTHOR( S ...normally does not present a problem to the accounting department. The final category, the cost of operating the government owned and operated ships is

  15. Rupture of Model 48Y UF6 cylinder and release of uranium hexafluoride. Cylinder overfill, March 12-13, 1986. Investigation of a failed UF6 shipping container. Volume 2

    1986-06-01

    NUREG-1179, Volume 1, reported on the rupture of a Model 48Y uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) cylinder and the subsequent release of UF 6 . At the time of publication, a detailed metallurgical examination of the damaged cylinder was under way and results were not available. Subsequent to the publication of Volume 1, a second incident occurred at the Sequoyah Fuels Corporation facility. On March 13, 1986, a Model 48X cylinder was overfilled during a special one-time draining procedure; however, no release of UF 6 occurred. An Augmented Investigation Team investigated this second incident. This report, NUREG-1179, Volume 2, presents the findings made by the Augmented Investigation Team of the March 13 incident and the report of the detailed metallurgical examination conducted by Battelle Columbus Division of the cylinder damaged on January 4, 1986

  16. Corporate Bonds in Denmark

    Tell, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Corporate financing is the choice between capital generated by the corporation and capital from external investors. However, since the financial crisis shook the markets in 2007–2008, financing opportunities through the classical means of financing have decreased. As a result, corporations have...... to think in alternative ways such as issuing corporate bonds. A market for corporate bonds exists in countries such as Norway, Germany, France, the United Kingdom and the United States, while Denmark is still behind in this trend. Some large Danish corporations have instead used foreign corporate bonds...... markets. However, NASDAQ OMX has introduced the First North Bond Market in December 2012 and new regulatory framework came into place in 2014, which may contribute to a Danish based corporate bond market. The purpose of this article is to present the regulatory changes in Denmark in relation to corporate...

  17. Analysis of a ship-to-ship collision

    Porter, V.L.; Ammerman, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is involved in a safety assessment for the shipment of radioactive material by sea. One part of this study is investigation of the consequences of ship-to-ship collisions. This paper describes two sets of finite element analyses performed to assess the structural response of a small freighter and the loading imparted to radioactive material (RAM) packages during several postulated collision scenarios with another ship. The first series of analyses was performed to evaluate the amount of penetration of the freighter hull by a striking ship of various masses and initial velocities. Although these analyses included a representation of a single RAM package, the package was not impacted during the collision so forces on the package could not be computed. Therefore, a second series of analyses incorporating a representation of a row of seven packages was performed to ensure direct package impact by the striking ship. Average forces on a package were evaluated for several initial velocities and masses of the striking ship. In addition to. providing insight to ship and package response during a few postulated ship collisions scenarios, these analyses will be used to benchmark simpler ship collision models used in probabilistic risk assessment analyses

  18. Hospital Ship Replacement

    2011-08-01

    serious contender. Although it is a proven hull design for stability, integrating the ability to quickly transfer patients aboard is challenging . The...Waste management afloat is a constant challenge for the Navy. It is even more so when designing a hospital ship. In addition to the typical waste...0.97 Optbrs: Corrmon rail fuellrijacllon,crude oil. Rated power generating sets 61:ili:ln()q;to~ 50Htl760rpm &.gne type -1801.\\ Vlc )l ~W.’/cyl SI;O k

  19. Fortune 500 Corporate Headquarters

    Department of Homeland Security — Large Corporate Headquarters in the United States This database is composed of 'an annual list of the 500 largest industrial corporations in the U.S., published by...

  20. Ship Creek bioassessment investigations

    Cushing, C.E.; Mueller, R.P.; Murphy, M.T.

    1995-06-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) was asked by Elmendorf Air Force Base (EAFB) personnel to conduct a series of collections of macroinvertebrates and sediments from Ship Creek to (1) establish baseline data on these populations for reference in evaluating possible impacts from Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) activities at two operable units, (2) compare current population indices with those found by previous investigations in Ship Creek, and (3) determine baseline levels of concentrations of any contaminants in the sediments associated with the macroinvertebrates. A specific suite of indices established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was requested for the macroinvertebrate analyses; these follow the Rapid Bioassessment Protocol developed by Plafkin et al. (1989) and will be described. Sediment sample analyses included a Microtox bioassay and chemical analysis for contaminants of concern. These analyses included, volatile organic compounds, total gasoline and diesel hydrocarbons (EPA method 8015, CA modified), total organic carbon, and an inductive-coupled plasma/mass spectrometry (ICP/MS) metals scan. Appendix A reports on the sediment analyses. The Work Plan is attached as Appendix B.

  1. Empty Container Logistics

    Jakov Karmelić

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Within the whole world container traffic, the largest share of containers is in the status of repositioning. Container repositioning results from the need for harmonization between the point of empty container accumulation and the point of demand, and waiting time for the availability of the first next transport of cargo. This status of containers on the container market is the consequence of imbalances in the worldwide trade distribution on most important shipping routes. The need for fast and effective reallocation of empty containers causes high costs and often represents an obstacle affecting the efficiency of port container terminals and inland carriers.In accordance with the above issue, this paper is mainly focused on the analysis of the data concerning global container capacities and the roots of container equipment imbalances, with the aim of determining the importance of empty container management and the need for empty container micro-logistic planning at the spread port area.

  2. ERDC Ship/Tow Simulator

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Performing Advanced Hydrodynamic ModelingEngineers and ship pilots can now overcome the challenges of evaluating navigation channel designs, modifications and safety...

  3. Information and Corporate Cultures.

    Drake, Miriam A.

    1984-01-01

    This paper defines "corporate culture" (set of values and beliefs shared by people working in an organization which represents employees' collective judgments about future) and discusses importance of corporate culture, nature of corporate cultures in business and academia, and role of information in shaping present and future corporate…

  4. 46 CFR 160.021-6 - Container.

    2010-10-01

    ... respect. Open the container, remove the contents, insert colored blotting paper as a lining, re-close... additional marking which might cause confusion as to the contents shall be permitted. The vessel's name... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Container. 160.021-6 Section 160.021-6 Shipping COAST...

  5. On Impact Mechanics in Ship Collisions

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Zhang, Shengming

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present analytical, closed-form expressions for the energy released for crushing and the impact impulse during ship collisions. Ship-ship collisions, ship collisions with rigid walls and ship collisions with flexible offshore structures are considered. The derived ...

  6. Luggage and shipped goods

    Vogel, H.; Haller, D.

    2007-01-01

    Summary: Purpose: Control of luggage and shipped goods are frequently carried out. The possibilities of X-ray technology shall be demonstrated. Materials and methods: There are different imaging techniques. The main concepts are transmission imaging, backscatter imaging, computed tomography, and dual energy imaging and the combination of different methods The images come from manufacturers and personal collections. Results: The search concerns mainly, weapons, explosives, and drugs; furthermore animals, and stolen goods, Special problems offer the control of letters and the detection of Improvised Explosive Devices (IED). Conclusion: One has to expect that controls will increase and that imaging with X-rays will have their part. Pattern recognition software will be used for analysis enforced by economy and by demand for higher efficiency - man and computer will produce more security than man alone

  7. Global Shipping Game

    2011-01-28

    information please contact the Chairman, War Gaming Department, Naval War College, 686 Cushing Road, Newport, RI 02841 or via electronic mail at... Game ……………………………………………...9 c. Overarching Research Question……………………………………………..…10 d. Subsidiary Questions…………………………………………………………...10 e ...An e -SLOC is the “cyber network that supports the global maritime trade network.” Industry Global Shipping Game Report 27 experts felt that

  8. Investigation into the feasibility of alternative plutonium shipping forms

    Mishima, J.; Lindsey, C.G.

    1983-06-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), operated for the Department of Energy by the Battelle Memorial Institute, is conducting a study for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission on the feasibility of altering current plutonium shipping forms to reduce or eliminate the airborne dispersibility of PuO 2 which might occur during a shipping accident. Plutonium used for fuel fabrication is currently shipped as a PuO 2 powder with a significant fraction in the respirable size range. If the high-strength container is breached due to stresses imposed during a transportation accident, the PuO 2 powder could be subject to airborne dispersion. The available information indicated that a potential accident involving fire accompanied by crush/impact forces would lead to failure of current surface shipping containers (no assumptions were made on the possibility of such a severe accident). Criteria were defined for an alternate shipping form to mitigate the effects of such an accident. Candidate techniques and materials were evaluated as alternate shipping forms by a task team consisting of personnel from PNL and Rockwell Hanford Operations (RHO). At this time, the most promising candidate for an alternate plutonium shipping form appears to be pressing PuO 2 into unsintered (green) pellets. These green pellets satisfy the criteria for a less dispersible form without requiring significant process changes. Discussions of all candidates considered are contained in a series of appendices. Recommendations for further investigations of the applicability of green pellets as an alternate shipping form are given, including the need for a cost-benefit study

  9. Application of fuel cells in surface ships

    Bourne, C.; Nietsch, T.; Griffiths, D.; Morley, J.

    2001-07-01

    This report presents the findings of a DTI supported project entitled: ''Applications of fuel cells in surface ships''. It gives a brief market analysis describing the general requirements of different vessel types and an overview of the different heat engine technologies currently used for propulsion and power generation in ships. The appendices contain a more detailed description of the different vessel types, their general requirements and a description of current prime mover technologies used. This analysis is followed by a summary of the major fuel cell development programmes and activities ongoing in different countries that have a direct or potential relevance to a marine application of the technology. (author)

  10. Major impact in shipping and port sectors

    Cottrill, K.

    1985-08-01

    The impact of information technology (IT) on operations efficiency in the transport field is comparable to the revolution brought on by the use of containers. The author examines the influence of IT on British shipping in terms of documentation, cargo tracking, and trend analysis on the operational side and communications links on the structural side. Shipboard computers were slow to penetrate the traditional bastion of the ship's bridge, but the effects of automation are already evident in the size of crews and their work roles. Britain is a world leader in specialized networks in the ports sector. A European-based initiative for a European ports database is in the development stage. It is essential for the IT networks to be compatible both nationally and internationally for the technology to be worthwhile.

  11. INTEGRATED CORPORATE STRATEGY MODEL

    CATALINA SORIANA SITNIKOV

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Corporations are at present operating in demanding and highly unsure periods, facing a mixture of increased macroeconomic need, competitive and capital market dangers, and in many cases, the prospect for significant technical and regulative gap. Throughout these demanding and highly unsure times, the corporations must pay particular attention to corporate strategy. In present times, corporate strategy must be perceived and used as a function of various fields, covers, and characters as well as a highly interactive system. For the corporation's strategy to become a competitive advantage is necessary to understand and also to integrate it in a holistic model to ensure sustainable progress of corporation activities under the optimum conditions of profitability. The model proposed in this paper is aimed at integrating the two strategic models, Hoshin Kanri and Integrated Strategy Model, as well as their consolidation with the principles of sound corporate governance set out by the OECD.

  12. Towards a nuclear merchant ship

    Nicholson, R.L.R.; Llewelyn, G.I.W.; Farmer, A.A.

    1976-01-01

    The operation of nuclear merchant ships is likely to be attended by a number of constraints and requirements. Not all of these can be fully resolved until such ships come into use and the necessary experience and confidence have been acquired. But the timing of commercial introduction, if it comes about, will depend on the relative economics of nuclear versus fossil fuel propulsion, and the differences in turn depend in part on the operating costs particular to nuclear ships. A review of operation aspects is essential not only to commercial appraisal; each country whose trade may be carried in nuclear ships - whether it will build such ships or not - will have occasion to give some attention to the problems. It is an international problem and is, as noted later, being considered internationally. This paper; i) reviews some of the operational aspects as seen in the U.K.; ii) summarizes views received by the Nuclear Merchant Ship Unit (NMSU) from U.K. shipping, shipbuilding and nuclear industries on the prospects of a U.K. nuclear merchant ship. (author)

  13. Ship exhaust gas plume cooling

    Schleijpen, H.M.A.; Neele, P.P.

    2004-01-01

    The exhaust gas plume is an important and sometimes dominating contributor to the infrared signature of ships. Suppression of the infrared ship signatures has been studied by TNO for the Royal Netherlands Navy over considerable time. This study deals with the suppression effects, which can be

  14. Navy Hospital ships in history

    Sougat Ray

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hospital ships are operated by the Naval forces in or near war zones to provide medical assistance to the wounded personnel of all nationalities and not be used for any military purpose. Hospital ships possibly existed in ancient times and the Athenian Navy had a ship named Therapia. However, it was only during the 17th century that it became a common practice for the naval squadrons to be accompanied by large ships with the facilities of carrying the wounded after each engagement. In 1860, the steamships HMS Melbourne and HMS Mauritius were equipped with genuine medical facilities. They were manned by the Medical Staff Corps and provided services to the British expedition to China. During the World War I and World War II, passenger ships were converted for use as hospital ships and were started to be used on a massive scale. RMS Aquitania and HMHS Britannic were two famous examples of hospital ships used extensively. Modern US hospital ships USNS Mercy and USNS Comfort are operated by Military Sealift Command of the US Navy. Their primary mission is to provide emergency on-site care for US combatant forces deployed in war or other operations.

  15. ENERGY MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS AND ISO 50001 ACCREDITATION IN SHIPPING

    BRANISLAV DRAGOVIŠ

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The shipping sector is facing new challenges in energy consumption and management. In a recent study conducted by the European Sea Ports Organization (ESPO has shown that energy consumption has risen from 7th place in 2009, to 2nd in 2016, as far as the 10 environmental priorities of European ports. Energy management is seen as the greatest risk for shipping companies, due to the variability existing in the oil and gas markets, in recent decades. Unsuccessful energy management strategies have been shown to have serious consequences for the natural environment, as well as for the companies themselves, which include the enhancement of global warming, and the destruction of a positive corporate image/reputation. Due to this, shipping companies now consider energy as an integral part of their overall strategy and adopt risk management assessments in order to attain the best returns on their investments. The ISO 50001 standard provides a useful tool to companies that are eager to develop and apply an efficient energy strategy consistent with modern Social Corporate Responsibility requirements and aspirations.

  16. High SHIP2 Expression Indicates Poor Survival in Colorectal Cancer

    Ju Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available SH2-containing inositol 5′-phosphatase 2 (SHIP2, which generally regulates insulin signaling, cytoskeleton remodeling, and receptor endocytosis, has been suggested to play a significant role in tumor development and progression. However, the associations between SHIP2 expression and the clinical features to evaluate its clinicopathologic significance in colorectal cancer (CRC have not been determined yet. In the present study, one-step quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR test and immunohistochemistry (IHC analysis with CRC tissue microarrays (TMA were employed to evaluate the mRNA and protein expression of SHIP2 in CRC. The results showed that SHIP2 expression in the mRNA and protein levels was significantly higher in CRC tissues than that in corresponding noncancerous tissues (both P<0.05. The expression of SHIP2 protein in CRC was related to lymph node metastasis (P=0.036, distant metastasis (P=0.001, and overall survival (P=0.009. Kaplan-Meier method and Cox multifactor analysis suggested that high SHIP2 protein level (P=0.040 and positive distant metastasis (P=0.048 were critically associated with the unfavorable survival of CRC patients. The findings suggested that SHIP2 may be identified as a useful prognostic marker in CRC and targeting CRC may provide novel strategy for CRC treatment.

  17. Liner Shipping Fleet Deployment with Sustainable Collaborative Transportation

    Gang Du

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Facing sharp competition in the market for shipping companies, it is necessary to make reasonable and efficient decisions to optimize the container shipping line network so as to improve the shipping efficiency and reduce the transportation cost, as well as to realize the transportation sustainability. Therefore, the liner ship fleet deployment problem with collaborative transportation is proposed in this paper. This problem is formulated as a mixed-integer linear programming model that takes collaborative transportation into consideration. The model includes fixed cost, variable cost, berth cost, transport cost, penalty, compensation cost, and so on. To achieve the sustainable development of collaborative transportation, the shipping companies could make a selection between the internal routes and the external routes to serve each task by comparing the distance between the above routes. A real Asia-Europe-Oceania numerical experiment shows that the proposed sustainable collaborative transportation model can be efficiently solved by C++ calling ILOG CPLEX. Results demonstrate that the optimized shipping line network with sustainable collaborative transportation can improve the service efficiency, as well as the service level of shipping companies.

  18. Identification of Dynamically Positioned Ships

    Thor I. Fossen

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Todays model-based dynamic positioning (DP systems require that the ship and thruster dynamics are known with some accuracy in order to use linear quadratic optical control theory. However, it is difficult to identify the mathematical model of a dynamically posititmed (DP ship since the ship is not persistently excited under DP. In addition the ship parameter estimation problem is nonlinear and multivariable with only position and thruster state measurements available for parameter estimation. The process and measurement noise must also be modeled in order to avoid parameter drift due to environmental disturbances and sensor failure. This article discusses an off-line parallel extended Kalman filter (EKF algorithm utilizing two measurement series in parallel to estimate the parameters in the DP ship model. Full-scale experiments with a supply vessel are used to demonstrate the convergence and robustness of the proposed parameter estimator.

  19. Improvements in or relating to containers

    1978-01-01

    This invention relates to a container for hydrogen isotopes and more particularly to a container which can be utilized to store, to ship and to dispense gases such as hydrogen isotopes which may be dangerous when released without control. (author)

  20. 26 CFR 1.955A-2 - Amount of a controlled foreign corporation's qualified investments in foreign base company...

    2010-04-01

    ... money or other intangible assets of a controlled foreign corporation, to the extent that such assets are... a controlled foreign corporation accumulates money or other intangible assets pursuant to a plan to...) Related shipping assets (within the meaning of paragraph (b) of this section), (iii) Stock or obligations...

  1. 46 CFR 391.8 - Certain corporate reorganizations and changes in partnerships, and certain transfers on death...

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Certain corporate reorganizations and changes in..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REGULATIONS UNDER PUBLIC LAW 91-469 FEDERAL INCOME TAX ASPECTS OF THE CAPITAL CONSTRUCTION FUND § 391.8 Certain corporate reorganizations and changes in partnerships, and certain transfers...

  2. Corporate Finance, Incomplete Contracts, and Corporate Control

    Patrick Bolton

    2014-01-01

    This essay in celebration of Grossman and Hart (GH) (Grossman, S., and H. Oliver. 1986. "The Costs and Benefits of Ownership: A Theory of Vertical and Lateral Integration," 94 Journal of Political Economy 691–719.) discusses how the introduction of incomplete contracts has fundamentally changed economists’ perspectives on corporate finance and control. Before GH, the dominant theory in corporate finance was the tradeoff theory pitting the tax advantages of debt (relative to equity) against ba...

  3. Present state of Japan Nuclear Ship Development Agency

    Takada, Yoshio

    1981-01-01

    The Japan Nuclear Ship Development Agency held the annual report meeting on April 8, 1981. The main contents were the plan of research and development of nuclear ships hereafter, the present state of the repair works for the nuclear ship ''Mutsu'', the progress of the selection of the new home port and others. In the last year, the function of research was given to the Agency by the revision of the related law. The full-scale repair works for Mutsu were started in August, 1980, and various equipments and shields in the containment vessel and the upper shields of the containment vessel have been removed. Subsequently, new shields are being installed. According to the report by the committee of nuclear ship research and development, the development of Mutsu, which is valuable as the experimental ship, is continued. Moreover, it is proposed to do the research and development of an improved marine nuclear plant for the purposes of securing the economic efficiency, the proving of the reliability of nuclear merchant ships, and the establishment of safety. As the home port for Mutsu, the new port will be constructed on the open sea side in Aomori Prefecture, and as a candidate, Sekine beach in Mutsu City was named. Till the completion of the new home port, Mutsu will be berthed in Ominato home port. The conditions for entering and berthing in Ominato port will be decided later. (Kako, I.)

  4. Annual report of Japan Nuclear Ship Development Agency, 1980

    1981-01-01

    Japan Nuclear Ship Development Agency executed the works centering around the repair of shielding and the general inspection on safety of the nuclear-Ship Mutsu in the fiscal year 1980. On the other hand, the law revising the law concerning Japan Nuclear Ship Development Agency was enforced, and the Agency was entitled to carry out the research and investigation required for the development of new nuclear ships. As for the repair of reactor shielding, the alteration of the reactor installation was permitted in November, 1979, and the design and the method of construction were approved in August, 1980. The preparatory works were carried out from April to August, 1980, prior to the main works. The repair works were started in August, and the new shields have been manufactured, while the existing shields and the equipments in the containment vessel were removed. The completed new shields have been installed successively in the containment vessel. It was confirmed that there is no problem in the safety of the nuclear ship Mutsu, as the result of the general inspection on safety completed in June, 1980. Maintenance works were carried out for the Mutsu and the normally berthing port. The periodic measurement of radiation dose rate, the selection of the new normally berthing port, the research and development of nuclear ships and others are also reported. (Kako, I.)

  5. 29 CFR 1915.173 - Drums and containers.

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drums and containers. 1915.173 Section 1915.173 Labor... Vessels, Drums and Containers, Other Than Ship's Equipment § 1915.173 Drums and containers. (a) Shipping drums and containers shall not be pressurized to remove their contents. (b) A temporarily assembled...

  6. 46 CFR 188.10-3 - Approved container.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Approved container. 188.10-3 Section 188.10-3 Shipping... PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-3 Approved container. This term means a container which is properly labeled, marked and approved by DOT for the commodity which it contains. [CGFR...

  7. Cybersecurity Framework for Ship Industrial Control System

    Maule, R. William; Hake, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Ship mechanical and electrical control systems, and the communications grid through which these devices operate, are a high priority concern for Navy leadership. Ship systems use microprocessor-based controls to interface with physical objects, and Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) to automate ship electromechanical processes. Ship operations are completely dependent on these devices. The commercial security products upon which ships depend do not work on ICS, leaving ships vulnerable. Th...

  8. Ships and the Sailors Inside Them

    Sims, Philip

    2004-01-01

    .... Iron shipbuilding allowed safer and healthier ships but their internal compartmentation created communication problems which were gradually solved with mechanical systems Ships developed their own...

  9. Bio-indications of sunken ships and ship wrecks

    Parulekar, A

    An evaluation of bottom fauna of ship-wreck sites in estuarine and coastal waters of Goa, India, revealed an exceptionally high biotic enrichment. In terms of number of species, faunal dispersion, faunal diversity, biomass and productivity, in space...

  10. The Corporate Marketing Department

    Ritter, Thomas; Eggert, Andreas; Münkhoff, Eva

    Corporate marketing has been downsized or eliminated in many firms. At the same time, firms that still own a corporate marketing department struggle with organizing and positioning their commercial front‐end. The question arises whether firms need a corporate marketing department, and if so, how...... it can best add value to the firm. Based on a qualitative study among B2B companies, we develop a conceptual framework highlighting the various parental roles through which corporate marketing can contribute to overall firm and business unit performance. In addition, we identify five gaps that restrain...... successful outcomes of corporate marketing activities. In sum, our framework provides important insights on how to successfully organize corporate marketing activities....

  11. 25 CFR 226.8 - Corporation and corporate information.

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Corporation and corporate information. 226.8 Section 226... RESERVATION LANDS FOR OIL AND GAS MINING Leasing Procedure, Rental and Royalty § 226.8 Corporation and corporate information. (a) If the applicant for a lease is a corporation, it shall file evidence of...

  12. Neutrino physics with SHIP

    van Herwijnen, Eric

    2016-01-01

    SHIP is a new general purpose fixed target facility, whose Technical Proposal has been recently reviewed by the CERN SPS Committee. It recommended that the experiment proceed further to a Comprehensive Design phase. In its initial phase, the 400 GeV proton beam extracted from the SPS will be dumped on a heavy target with the aim of integrating 2×1020 POT (Protons On Target) in 5 years. A dedicated detector, based on a long vacuum tank followed by a spectrometer and particle identification detectors, will allow probing a variety of models with light long-lived exotic particles and masses below O(10) GeV/c 2 . The main focus will be the physics of the so-called Hidden Portals. The sensitivity to Heavy Neutrinos will allow to probe for the first time the mass range between the kaon and the charm meson mass, and a range of couplings for which Baryogenesis and active neutrino masses could also be explained. Another dedicated detector will allow the study of neutrino cross-sections and angular distributions. ντ ...

  13. 78 FR 52982 - Experian, Experian US Headquarters: Corporate Departments (Finance, HRMD, Contracts, Corporate...

    2013-08-27

    ...,506R] Experian, Experian US Headquarters: Corporate Departments (Finance, HRMD, Contracts, Corporate... Headquarters: Corporate Departments (finance, HRMD, Contracts, Corporate Marketing, Global Corporate Systems... (finance, HRMD, Contracts, Corporate Marketing, Global Corporate Systems, Legal & Regulatory, Risk...

  14. Production Balance of Ship Erection

    JIANG Ru-hong; TAN Jia-hua; LIU Cun-gen

    2008-01-01

    A network plan model of ship erection was established based on the network planning technologyand the work-package breakdown system. The load-oriented production control method was introduced to buildup a throughput diagram model thus it is possible to describe the ship erection process numerically. Based onthe digitaiized models some cases of production balance of ship erection were studied and three balance indexeswere put forward, they are the load balance rate, the input manpower balance rate and the maximum gantrycrane operating times. Such an analytic method based on the balance evaluation is the important foundationfor digitization and intelligentization of shipyard production management.

  15. Creating corporate advantage.

    Collis, D J; Montgomery, C A

    1998-01-01

    What differentiates truly great corporate strategies from the merely adequate? How can executives at the corporate level create tangible advantage for their businesses that makes the whole more than the sum of the parts? This article presents a comprehensive framework for value creation in the multibusiness company. It addresses the most fundamental questions of corporate strategy: What businesses should a company be in? How should it coordinate activities across businesses? What role should the corporate office play? How should the corporation measure and control performance? Through detailed case studies of Tyco International, Sharp, the Newell Company, and Saatchi and Saatchi, the authors demonstrate that the answers to all those questions are driven largely by the nature of a company's special resources--its assets, skills, and capabilities. These range along a continuum from the highly specialized at one end to the very general at the other. A corporation's location on the continuum constrains the set of businesses it should compete in and limits its choices about the design of its organization. Applying the framework, the authors point out the common mistakes that result from misaligned corporate strategies. Companies mistakenly enter businesses based on similarities in products rather than the resources that contribute to competitive advantage in each business. Instead of tailoring organizational structures and systems to the needs of a particular strategy, they create plain-vanilla corporate offices and infrastructures. The company examples demonstrate that one size does not fit all. One can find great corporate strategies all along the continuum.

  16. Corporate Business Diplomacy

    Søndergaard, Mikael

    2014-01-01

    This article illustrates the interdisciplinary nature of the field of corporate business diplomacy using examples from academic disciplines, such as economics and political science, which can contribute to the understanding of corporate business diplomacy. Examples also show that corporate business...... diplomacy can complement business theories such as stakeholder theory and agency theory. Examples from practice show that in a broad sense, corporate business diplomacy is concerned with managing external stakeholders, while in a narrow sense, it is concerned with managing internal stakeholders....... The usefulness of an analytical research triangulation is illustrated....

  17. Extension of ship accident analysis to multiple-package shipments

    Mills, G.S.; Neuhauser, K.S.

    1997-11-01

    Severe ship accidents and the probability of radioactive material release from spent reactor fuel casks were investigated previously. Other forms of RAM, e.g., plutonium oxide powder, may be shipped in large numbers of packagings rather than in one to a few casks. These smaller, more numerous packagings are typically placed in ISO containers for ease of handling, and several ISO containers may be placed in one of several holds of a cargo ship. In such cases, the size of a radioactive release resulting from a severe collision with another ship is determined not by the likelihood of compromising a single, robust package but by the probability that a certain fraction of 10's or 100's of individual packagings is compromised. The previous analysis involved a statistical estimation of the frequency of accidents which would result in damage to a cask located in one of seven cargo holds in a collision with another ship. The results were obtained in the form of probabilities (frequencies) of accidents of increasing severity and of release fractions for each level of severity. This paper describes an extension of the same general method in which the multiple packages are assumed to be compacted by an intruding ship's bow until there is no free space in the hold. At such a point, the remaining energy of the colliding ship is assumed to be dissipated by progressively crushing the RAM packagings and the probability of a particular fraction of package failures is estimated by adaptation of the statistical method used previously. The parameters of a common, well characterized packaging, the 6M with 2R inner containment vessel, were employed as an illustrative example of this analysis method. However, the method is readily applicable to other packagings for which crush strengths have been measured or can be estimated with satisfactory confidence

  18. Extension of ship accident analysis to multiple-package shipments

    Mills, G.S.; Neuhauser, K.S.

    1998-01-01

    Severe ship accidents and the probability of radioactive material release from spent reactor fuel casks were investigated previously (Spring, 1995). Other forms of RAM, e.g., plutonium oxide powder, may be shipped in large numbers of packagings rather than in one to a few casks. These smaller, more numerous packagings are typically placed in ISO containers for ease of handling, and several ISO containers may be placed in one of several holds of a cargo ship. In such cases, the size of a radioactive release resulting from a severe collision with another ship is determined not by the likelihood of compromising a single, robust package but by the probability that a certain fraction of 10's or 100's of individual packagings is compromised. The previous analysis (Spring, 1995) involved a statistical estimation of the frequency of accidents which would result in damage to a cask located in one of seven cargo holds in a collision with another ship. The results were obtained in the form of probabilities (frequencies) of accidents of increasing severity and of release fractions for each level of severity. This paper describes an extension of the same general method in which the multiple packages are assumed to be compacted by an intruding ship's bow until there is no free space in the hold. At such a point, the remaining energy of the colliding ship is assumed to be dissipated by progressively crushing the RAM packagings and the probability of a particular fraction of package failures is estimated by adaptation of the statistical method used previously. The parameters of a common, well-characterized packaging, the 6M with 2R inner containment vessel, were employed as an illustrative example of this analysis method. However, the method is readily applicable to other packagings for which crush strengths have been measured or can be estimated with satisfactory confidence. (authors)

  19. Corporate Governance Country Assessment : Malaysia

    World Bank

    2012-01-01

    This report assesses Ghana s corporate governance policy framework. It highlights recent improvements in corporate governance regulation, makes policy recommendations, and provides investors with a benchmark against which to measure corporate governance in Ghana. It is an update of the 2005 Corporate Governance ROSC. Good corporate governance enhances investor trust, helps to protects mino...

  20. Potential risks of nuclear ships

    Oelgaard, P.L.

    1994-07-01

    This report represents an attempt to evaluate the potential risks of nuclear ships. Firstly reasons are given why nuclear ship accidents will not lead to accidents of the magnitude of the Chernobyl accident. This is due to much lower content of radioactive material and to different reactor designs. Next a review is given of the types of accidents which have actually occurred. Of these the reactor accidents which may lead to serious consequences for the crew and the environment are considered further. These are reactivity accidents and loss of coolant accidents. In addition the long term risks of sunken nuclear ships and sea disposed reactor compartments etc. are also discussed. Based on available accident data an attempt is made to estimate the probability of serious nuclear ship accidents. (au)

  1. Occupational accidents aboard merchant ships

    Hansen, H.L.; Nielsen, D.; Frydenberg, Morten

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the frequency, circumstances, and causes of occupational accidents aboard merchant ships in international trade, and to identify risk factors for the occurrence of occupational accidents as well as dangerous working situations where possible preventive measures may...... be initiated. Methods: The study is a historical follow up on occupational accidents among crew aboard Danish merchant ships in the period 1993–7. Data were extracted from the Danish Maritime Authority and insurance data. Exact data on time at risk were available. Results: A total of 1993 accidents were...... aboard. Relative risks for notified accidents and accidents causing permanent disability of 5% or more were calculated in a multivariate analysis including ship type, occupation, age, time on board, change of ship since last employment period, and nationality. Foreigners had a considerably lower recorded...

  2. Travelers' Health: Cruise Ship Travel

    ... and territories). Zika virus was first reported in Brazil in 2015 and subsequently spread across the Caribbean ... 11. Mouchtouri VA, Rudge JW. Legionnaires’ disease in hotels and passenger ships: a systematic review of evidence, ...

  3. Ship Repair Workflow Cost Model

    McDevitt, Mike

    2003-01-01

    The effects of intermittent work patterns and funding on the costs of ship repair and maintenance were modeled for the San Diego region in 2002 for Supervisor of Shipbuilding and Repair (SUPSHIP) San Diego...

  4. Corporate Social Responsibility of Multinational Oil Corporations to ...

    Corporate Social Responsibility of Multinational Oil Corporations to Host ... Exxon Mobil and Elf oil Nigeria Limited within their corporate-community relations strategy in the ... The paper concludes by exploring the implications for partnerships' ...

  5. Criteria for cesium capsules to be shipped as special form radioactive material

    Lundeen, J.E.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to compile all the documentation which defines the criteria for Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) cesium capsules at the IOTECH facility and Applied Radiant Energy Corporation (ARECO) to be shipped as special form radioactive material in the Beneficial Uses Shipping System (BUSS) Cask. The capsules were originally approved as special form in 1975, but in 1988 the integrity of the capsules came into question. WHC developed the Pre-shipment Acceptance Test Criteria for capsules to meet in order to be shipped as special form material. The Department of Energy approved the criteria and directed WHC to ship the capsules at IOTECH and ARECO meeting this criteria to WHC as special form material

  6. Technical Problem Identification for the Failures of the Liberty Ships

    Wei Zhang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The U.S. Liberty Ship Building Program in World War II set a record—a total of 2700 Liberty Ships were built in 6 years, in order to support the battle against Nazi-Germany. However, numerous vessels suffered sudden fracture, some of them being split in half. This paper demonstrates and investigation of the Liberty Ships failure and problems, which reveals that the failures are caused by a combination of three factors. The welds produced by largely unskilled work force contain crack type flaws. Beyond these cracks, another important reason for failure associated with welding is the hydrogen embitterment; most of the fractures initiate at deck square hatch corners where there is a stress concentration; and the ship steel has fairly poor Charpy-Impact tested fracture toughness. It has been admitted that, although the numerous catastrophic failures were a painful experience, the failures of the Liberty Ships caused significant progress in the study of fracture mechanics. Considering their effect, the Liberty Ships are still a success.

  7. Measurement of flows around modern commercial ship models

    Kim, W. J.; Van, S. H.; Kim, D. H.

    To document the details of flow characteristics around modern commercial ships, global force, wave pattern, and local mean velocity components were measured in the towing tank. Three modern commercial hull models of a container ship (KRISO container ship = KCS) and of two very large crude-oil carriers (VLCCs) with the same forebody and slightly different afterbody (KVLCC and KVLCC2) having bow and stern bulbs were selected for the test. Uncertainty analysis was performed for the measured data using the procedure recommended by the ITTC. Obtained experimental data will provide a good opportunity to explore integrated flow phenomena around practical hull forms of today. Those can be also used as the validation data for the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code of both inviscid and viscous flow calculations.

  8. Measurement of flows around modern commercial ship models

    Kim, W J; Van, S H; Kim, D H [Korea Research Inst. of Ships and Ocean Engineering, KORDI, Taejon (Korea)

    2001-11-01

    To document the details of flow characteristics around modern commercial ships, global force, wave pattern, and local mean velocity components were measured in the towing tank. Three modern commercial hull models of a container ship (KRISO container ship = KCS) and of two very large crude-oil carriers (VLCCs) with the same forebody and slightly different afterbody (KVLCC and KVLCC2) having bow and stern bulbs were selected for the test. Uncertainty analysis was performed for the measured data using the procedure recommended by the ITTC. Obtained experimental data will provide a good opportunity to explore integrated flow phenomena around practical hull forms of today. Those can be also used as the validation data for the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code of both inviscid and viscous flow calculations. (orig.)

  9. Ship Emission Inventories in Estuary of the Yangtze River Using Terrestrial AIS Data

    Xin Yao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Estuary forms a transition zone between inland river and open sea. In China, the estuary of the Yangtze River plays a vital role in connecting the inland and oversea shipping, and witnesses heavy vessel traffic in the recent decades. Nowadays, more attentions have been directed to the issue of ship pollution in busy waterways. In order to investigate the ship emission inventory, this paper presents an Automatic Identification System(AIS based method. AIS data is the realistic data of vessel traffic including dynamic information (position, speed, course, etc. and static information (ship type, dimensions, name, etc.. According to ship dimensions, the power of engines is estimated for different ship types. By using AIS based bottom-up approach, ship emission inventories and shares of air pollutants and GHGs (Greenhouse gases are developed. Spatial distribution of ship emissions is illustrated in the form of heat map. As a case study, the emission inventories are analyzed using AIS data of 2010 in the estuary, and following results are made:(1 shares of the emission are cruise ships 6.59%, bulk carriers 5.16%, container ships 52.96%, tankers 15.16%, fishing ships 9.16%, other ships 10.97%; (2 CO2 is the dominant part of the emission. (3 Areas of highest emission intensity are generally clustered around the South Channel, the North Channel and ports in the vicinity. The proposed method is promising because it is derived from the AIS data which contains not only real data of individual ship but also vessel traffic situation in the study area. It can server as a reference for other researchers and policy makers working in this field.

  10. On impact mechanics in ship collisions

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Zhang, Shengming

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present analytical, closed-form expressions for the energy released for crushing and the impact impulse during ship collisions. Ship–ship collisions, ship collisions with rigid walls and ship collisions with flexible offshore structures are considered. The derived ...

  11. Strategic corporate sustainability

    Grewatsch, Sylvia; Rohrbeck, René; Madsen, Henning

    antecedents and outcomes. To overcome this limitation we propose an integrated typology which may facilitate more research on the link between corporate sustainability performance (CSP) and corporate financial performance (CFP). Our expectation is that the strategy type might play a moderating or mediating...

  12. The Corporate Law Curriculum

    Mofsky, James S.

    1976-01-01

    On the premise that corporate counsel must be an able diagnostician before he can focus on highly specialized and interrelated issues of business law, the author suggests an approach to corporate law curriculum in which the basic course balances the quality and quantity of material designed to create the needed sensitivity. (JT)

  13. Corporate design management

    drs. Patrick van Thiel; drs. Wil Michels

    2006-01-01

    'Corporate designmanagement' is een vlot geschreven en zeer overzichtelijk standaardwerk op het gebied van corporate designmanagement. Een sterke visuele identiteit is voor een organisatie een doeltreffend middel om zich te positioneren en te profileren. Voorwaarde is wel dat de visuele identiteit

  14. Corporation as climate ambassador

    Trapp, Leila

    2012-01-01

    At a time when corporations are addressing increasingly complex, global corporate social responsibility (CSR) issues, this study examines and evaluates the strategies used in Vattenfall’s challenging and innovative CSR campaign which aimed at establishing the energy company as a credible climate...

  15. Understanding Corporate Culture.

    Cluff, Gary A.

    1988-01-01

    Considers concept of corporate culture and discusses several values which can be considered when assessing corporate culture, and the "compatibility scales" used to measure them. Included are discussions of employee attitudes, work atmosphere, internal communications, management style, employment opportunity, stability, business ethics, corporate…

  16. Piercing the corporate veil

    Goodwin, L.M.

    1992-01-01

    This article addresses the potential problems an economically troubled subsidiary can cause a parent company and offers strategies for insulating the trouble through good business practices and careful planning. The topics of the article include corporations and limited liability, piercing the corporate veil, environmental cleanup liabilities, and avoiding trouble

  17. Corporate Media Governance

    Kempen, Petrus Cornelis

    2011-01-01

    The media can make or break a reputation. This being said, it seems to be essential for companies, governments and institutions to pay specific attention to corporate media management in their daily operations. However, this thesis shows that they often neglect to pay adequate attention to corporate

  18. Reinventing Corporate Communications.

    Toth, Elizabeth L.; Trujillo, Nick

    1987-01-01

    Urges a "re-inventing" of corporate communications in today's organizations, and provides information about how corporations can change in new and positive ways during the current "information age." Discusses specific public relations and organizational communication concepts essential for a comprehensive understanding of…

  19. Corporate plan 1978

    1978-04-01

    The CEGB Corporate Plan is intended as a background document for those in the industry and as a basis for discussions with the Department of Energy on investment programmes and energy policy generally. It contains the most recent information on actions taken or agreed, on remaining problems and an options for further action on these problems. Following an introduction summarising the CEGB's objectives and recent progress the issues are discussed under the following main headings: energy policy background; medium term plans; the year ahead; options, actions and conclusions. Appendices include: three energy scenarios, one a reference case by the Department of Energy, and two CEGB scenarios which identify a credible range of future electricity demands; 1978 capital investment proposals; and medium term forecasts for demand and plant position at winter peak, and for bulk costs and unit sales. The board intends to continue to develop a suitable long term nuclear strategy which includes thermal reactors and the development of the fast reactor as a viable option. (U.K.)

  20. Corporate Language Policies

    Sanden, Guro Refsum

    This paper offers a review of literature dealing with language policies in general and corporate language policies in particular. Based on a discussion of various definitions of these concepts within two research traditions, i.e. sociolinguistics and international management, a three......-level definition of corporate language policies is presented, emphasising that a corporate language policy is a context-specific policy about language use. The three-level definition is based on the argument that in order to acquire a complete understanding of what corporate language policies involve, one needs...... to consider three progressive questions; 1) what is a policy? 2) what is a language policy?, and ultimately, 3) what is a corporate language policy?...

  1. Corporate Language Policies

    Sanden, Guro Refsum

    2015-01-01

    This paper offers a review of literature dealing with language policies in general and corporate language policies in particular. Based on a discussion of various definitions of these concepts within two research traditions, i.e. sociolinguistics and international management, a three......-level definition of corporate language policies is presented, emphasising that a corporate language policy is a context-specific policy about language use. The three-level definition is based on the argument that in order to acquire a complete understanding of what corporate language policies involve, one needs...... to consider three progressive questions; 1) what is a policy? 2) what is a language policy?, and ultimately, 3) what is a corporate language policy?...

  2. Identification and evaluation of influential criteria for the selection of an environmental shipping carrier using DEMATEL

    Jia, Peng; Govindan, Kannan; Kannan, Devika

    2015-01-01

    The current environmental pollution is a major factor in economic development and vehicle pollution is ranked next to industrial emissions in total emissions worldwide. This study focuses on the selection of a suitable shipping carrier from an economic and environmental perspective. In practice......, there are many criteria's available to select a suitable shipping container. But, shipping container companies are struggling to identify the most influential criteria to select a shipping container as it requires in-depth analysis. So, the objective of this paper is to analyse the criteria and identify the most...... influential criteria from an environmental practices perspective. In this study, seventeen factors are identified from literature aimed at locating the most influential criteria to select a suitable shipping carrier using the decision making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL). This procedure helps...

  3. Development of the nuclear ship MUTSU spent fuel shipping cask

    Ishizuka, M.; Umeda, M.; Nawata, Y.; Sato, H.; Honami, M.; Nomura, T.; Ohashi, M.; Higashino, A.

    1989-01-01

    After the planned trial voyage (4700 MWD/MTU) of the nuclear ship MUTSU in 1990, her spent fuel assemblies, initially made of two types of enriched UO 2 (3.2wt% and 4.4wt%), will be transferred to the reprocessing plant soon after cooling down in the ship reactor for more than one year. For transportation, the MUTSU spent fuel shipping casks will be used. Prior to transportation to the reprocessing plant, the cooled spent fuel assemblies will be removed from the reactor to the shipping casks and housed at the spent fuel storage facility on site. In designing the MUTSU spent fuel shipping cask, considerations were given to make the leak-tightness and integrity of the cask confirmable during storage. The development of the cask and the storage function demonstration test were performed by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. (MHI). One prototype cask for the storage demonstration test and licensed thirty-five casks were manufactured between 1987 and 1988

  4. Shipment and Storage Containers for Tritium Production Transportation Casks

    Massey, W.M.

    1998-04-01

    The need for a shipping and storage container for the Tritium production transportation casks is addressed in this report. It is concluded that a shipping and storage container is not required. A recommendation is made to eliminate the requirement for this container because structural support and inerting requirements can be satisfied completely by the cask with a removable basket

  5. Total Analysis System for Ship Structural Strength

    Takuya, Yoneya; Hiroyuki, Kobayashi; Abdul M., Rahim; Yoshimichi, Sasaki; Masaki, Irisawa; Technical Investigation and Information Department, Research Center; Technical Investigation and Information Department, Research Center; Singapore Office; Technical Investigation and Information Department, Research Center; Technical Investigation and Information Department, Research Center

    2001-01-01

    This paper outlines a total analysis system for ship hull structures, which integrates a wide variety of analysis functions to realise practical applications of rational methods for assessing ship structural strength. It is based on direct calculation of wave-induced loads as well as three-dimensional structural analysis of an entire-ship or hold structure. Three major analysis functions of the total system are ship motion and wave load analysis, ship structural analysis and statistical analy...

  6. Analysis of SHIP1 expression and activity in Crohn’s disease patients

    R. Somasundaram (Rajesh); S. Fernandes (Sandra); J.J. Deuring (Jasper); C.J. de Haar (Colin); E.J. Kuipers (Ernst); L. Vogelaar (Lauran); F.A. Middleton (Frank A.); C.J. van der Woude (Janneke); M.P. Peppelenbosch (Maikel); W.G. Kerr (William ); G.M. Fuhler (Gwenny)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstract_Background_ SH2 domain containing inositol-5-phosphatase (SHIP1) is an important modulator of innate and adaptive immunity. In mice, loss of SHIP1 provokes severe ileitis resembling Crohn's disease (CD), as a result of deregulated immune responses, altered cytokine

  7. Assessment of shipping emissions on four ports of Portugal.

    Nunes, R A O; Alvim-Ferraz, M C M; Martins, F G; Sousa, S I V

    2017-12-01

    In the last few years, ship emissions have attracted growing attention in the scientific community. The main reason is the constant increase of marine emissions over the last twenty years due to the intensification of port traffic. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate ship emissions (PM 10 , PM 2.5 , NO x , SO 2 , CO, CO 2 , N 2 O CH 4 , NMVOC, and HC) through the activity-based methodology in four of the main ports of Portugal (Leixões, Setúbal, Sines and Viana do Castelo) during 2013 and 2014. The analysis was performed according to ship types (bulk carrier, container, general cargo, passenger, Ro-Ro cargo, tanker and others) and operational modes (manoeuvring, hotelling and during cruising). Results indicated that tankers were the largest emitters in two of the four analysed ports. Regarding cruising emissions, container ships were the largest emitters. . CO 2 , NO x and SO 2 estimated emissions represented more than 95% of the cruising and in-port emissions. Results were also compared with the total national emissions reported by the Portuguese Environment Agency, and if the in-port emissions estimated in the present study would have been taken into account to these totals, emissions of NO x and SO 2 would increase 15% and 24% in 2013 and 16% and 28% in 2014. Summing up ships seem to be an important source of air pollution, mainly regarding NO x and SO 2 . Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Concrete shielding for nuclear ship 'Mutsu'

    Nagase, Tetsuo; Saito, Tetsuo

    1983-01-01

    The repair works of the shielding for the nuclear ship ''Mutsu'' were completed in August, 1982. For the primary shielding, serpentine concrete was adopted as it contains a large quantity of water required for neutron shielding, and in the secondary shielding at the upper part of the reactor containment vessel, the original shielding was abolished, and the heavy concrete (high water content, high density concrete) which is effective for neutron and gamma-ray shielding was newly adopted. In this report, the design and construction using these shielding concrete are outlined. In September, 1974, Mutsu caused radiation leak during the test, and the cause was found to be the fast neutrons streaming through a gap between the reactor pressure vessel and the primary shielding. The repair works were carried out in the Sasebo Shipyard. The outline of the repair works of the shielding is described. The design condition for the shielding, the design standard for the radiation dose outside and inside the ship, the method of shielding analysis and the performance required for shielding concrete are reported. The selection of materials, the method of construction and mixing ratio, the evaluation of the soundness and properties of concrete, and the works of placing the shielding concrete are outlined. (Kako, I.)

  9. Transformations in gas shipping : Market structure and efficiency

    Engelen, Steve; Dullaert, Wout

    This article aims to improve understanding of the gas shipping markets which, contrary to the main merchant markets- namely the dry, the tanker and the container markets- have not been subject to the same scrutiny. We examine the fundamentals and segment these versatile markets in which expanding

  10. Flexible ship loading problem with transfer vehicle assignment and scheduling

    Iris, Çağatay; Christensen, Jonas; Pacino, Dario

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents the flexible containership loading problem for seaport container terminals. The integrated management of loading operations, planning of the transport vehicles to use and their scheduling is what we define as the Flexible Ship Loading Problem (FSLP). The flexibility comes from...

  11. Crash testing of spent-nuclear-fuel shipping systems

    Yoshimura, H.R.

    1978-01-01

    Full scale testing to date has verified that current analytical tools and the use of scale model testing are both accurate methods for predicting shipping cask response to severe accident conditions. The containers tested are capable of surviving severe transportation accidents

  12. Container for hydrogen isotopes

    1976-01-12

    A container is described for storage, shipping and and dispensing of hydrogen isotopes such as hydrogen, deuterium, tritium, or mixtures of the same. The container is compact, safe against fracture or accident, and is reusable. It consists of an outer housing with suitable inlet and outlet openings and electrical feed elements, the housing containing an activated sorber material in the form, for example of titanium sponge or an activated zirconium aluminate cartridge. The gas to be stored is introduced into the chamber under conditions of heat and vacuum and is retained in the sorber material. Subsequently, it may be released by heating the unit to drive off the stored gas at desired rates.

  13. Container for hydrogen isotopes

    1976-01-01

    A container is described for storage, shipping and and dispensing of hydrogen isotopes such as hydrogen, deuterium, tritium, or mixtures of the same. The container is compact, safe against fracture or accident, and is reusable. It consists of an outer housing with suitable inlet and outlet openings and electrical feed elements, the housing containing an activated sorber material in the form, for example of titanium sponge or an activated zirconium aluminate cartridge. The gas to be stored is introduced into the chamber under conditions of heat and vacuum and is retained in the sorber material. Subsequently, it may be released by heating the unit to drive off the stored gas at desired rates

  14. Transnucleaire's experience in ship adaptation

    Brachet, Y.; Vallette-Fontaine, M.

    2000-01-01

    Due to the application of the new IMDG regulations for the transport of radioactive material by sea, the conditions of transport of MTR spent fuel have drastically changed five years ago. In this paper, TRANSNUCLEAIRE analyses the necessary modifications to apply to existing ships in order to comply with the IMDG/INF regulations as well as with the Japanese KAISA 520 regulation. In the MTR spent fuel transport market characterized by a competitive approach, TRANSNUCLEAIRE has carried out many transports by sea in full compliance with the regulations at a price which is as close as possible to that of other industrial goods and without the need to fully dedicate the BOUGUENAIS ship to nuclear transports. Innovative ship design solutions have been implemented and accepted by different Authorities uncluding the Advisory Committee of the Japanese MOT. Due to efficient finite element calculations, benchmarked by laboratory large scale tests, high performances crushing materials have been developed in order to absorb the energy of collision between ships. These developments have led ta propose an efficient ship design complying with all the existing worldwide nuclear regulations. (author)

  15. Effect of Buffer Bow Structure in Ship-Ship Collision

    Yamada, Yasuhira; Endo, Hisayoshi; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2008-01-01

    tankers, the introduction of buffer bulbous bows has been proposed. Relatively soft buffer bows absorb part of the kinetic energy of the striking ship before penetrating the inner hull of the struck vessel. The purpose of the present paper is to verify the effectiveness of a prototype buffer bulbous bow......) and the forward velocity of the struck ship on the collapse mode of the bow of the striking vessel are investigated. Collapse modes, contact forces and energy absorption capabilities of the buffer bows are compared with those of conventional bows....

  16. A Base Integer Programming Model and Benchmark Suite for Liner-Shipping Network Design

    Brouer, Berit Dangaard; Alvarez, Fernando; Plum, Christian Edinger Munk

    2014-01-01

    . The potential for making cost-effective and energy-efficient liner-shipping networks using operations research (OR) is huge and neglected. The implementation of logistic planning tools based upon OR has enhanced performance of airlines, railways, and general transportation companies, but within the field......The liner-shipping network design problem is to create a set of nonsimple cyclic sailing routes for a designated fleet of container vessels that jointly transports multiple commodities. The objective is to maximize the revenue of cargo transport while minimizing the costs of operation...... sources of liner shipping for OR researchers in general. We describe and analyze the liner-shipping domain applied to network design and present a rich integer programming model based on services that constitute the fixed schedule of a liner shipping company. We prove the liner-shipping network design...

  17. Corporate Blogging For Dummies

    Karr, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    Establish a successful corporate blog to reach your customers. Corporate blogs require careful planning and attention to legal and corporate policies in order for them to be productive and effective. This fun, friendly, and practical guide walks you through using blogging as a first line of communication to customers and explains how to protect your company and employees through privacy, disclosure, and moderation policies. Blogging guru Douglas Karr demonstrates how blogs are an ideal way to offer a conversational and approachable relationship with customers. You'll discover how to prepare, e

  18. European Corporate Law

    Dorresteijn, Adriaan; Teichmann, Christoph; Werlauff, Erik

    , and the United Kingdom are taken into account; Italy is now included in this new edition. As in earlier editions, the authors demonstrate that analysis and comparison of national corporate laws yield highly valuable general principles and observations, not least because business organizations, wherever located...... initiatives in such aspects of the corporate environment as regulation of financial institutions and non-financial reporting obligations with a view to sustainability and other social responsibility concerns. The authors, all leading experts in European corporate law, describe current and emerging trends...

  19. Corporate income tax

    Popová, Barbora

    2014-01-01

    1 RESUMÉ Corporate Income Tax The aim of this diploma thesis on "Corporate Income Tax" is to outline the current legal background of the corporate income tax and asses and evaluate the most substantial changes regarding the Act no. 586/1992 Coll., Income Tax Act, as amended that have become effective as of January 1, 2014. The changes discussed in this thesis include especially, but are not limited to, the changes adopted in connection with the recodification of Czech Civil Law. This thesis c...

  20. Water-immersion type ship reactor

    Okada, Hiroki; Yamamura, Toshio.

    1996-01-01

    In a water immersion-type ship reactor in which a water-tight wall is formed around a pressure vessel by way of an air permeable heat insulation layer and immersing the wall under water in a reactor container, a pressure equalizing means equipped with a back flow check valve and introducing a gas in a gas phase portion above the water level of the container into a water tight wall and a relief valve for releasing the gas in the water tight wall to the reactor container are disposed on the water tight wall. When the pressure in the water tight wall exceeds the pressure in the container, the gas in the water tight wall is released from the relief valve to the reactor container. On the contrary, when the pressure in the container exceeds the pressure in the water tight wall, the gas in the gas phase portion is flown from the pressure equalizing means equipped with a back flow check valve to the inside of the water tight wall. Thus, a differential pressure between both of them is kept around 0kg/cm 2 . A large differential pressure is not exerted on the water tight wall thereby capable of preventing rupture of them to improve reliability, as well as the thickness of the plate can be decreased thereby enabling to moderate the design for the pressure resistance and reduce the weight. (N.H.)

  1. EX1001 Ship Shakedown (EX1001, EM302) on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer in Hawaiian Islands

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The ship has been alongside for repairs and leave since November, 2009. The ship shakedown cruise is scheduled to provide an opportunity for the ship to get underway...

  2. Reliability Based Ship Structural Design

    Dogliani, M.; Østergaard, C.; Parmentier, G.

    1996-01-01

    This paper deals with the development of different methods that allow the reliability-based design of ship structures to be transferred from the area of research to the systematic application in current design. It summarises the achievements of a three-year collaborative research project dealing...... with developments of models of load effects and of structural collapse adopted in reliability formulations which aim at calibrating partial safety factors for ship structural design. New probabilistic models of still-water load effects are developed both for tankers and for containerships. New results are presented...... structure of several tankers and containerships. The results of the reliability analysis were the basis for the definition of a target safety level which was used to asses the partial safety factors suitable for in a new design rules format to be adopted in modern ship structural design. Finally...

  3. Design of Crashworthy Ship Strucures

    Toernqvist, Rikard

    2003-01-01

    The main purpose of the project has been to develop a rational procedure for designing new crashworthy side structures for those ship types where it could be expected that a substantial improvement of the crashworthiness and the related safety could be achieved by careful consideration of the str......The main purpose of the project has been to develop a rational procedure for designing new crashworthy side structures for those ship types where it could be expected that a substantial improvement of the crashworthiness and the related safety could be achieved by careful consideration...... in collision and grounding analysis is the prediction of the onset of fracture and crack propagation in the shell plating. In simulations of accidental loading on ships it is crucial that fracture is determined correctly, as it will influence the global deformation mode and the amount of damage to the hull...

  4. On Grounding of Fast Ships

    Simonsen, Bo Cerup; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1997-01-01

    The paper deals with analysis of grounding of high-speed crafts. It is the purpose to present a comprehensive mathematical model for calculation of the overall dynamic ship response during grounding. This procedure is applied to derive the motions, the time varying sectional forces and the local...... loads during grounding on plane, sloping, sandy bottoms for six different designs of fast monohull ships made from steel, aluminium or GRP sandwich materials. The results show that the effect of the hull flexibility is to reduce the overall dynamic sectional loads on the hull girder. The considered...... numerical examples also indicate that, even with impact speeds of 40 knots against a 1:10 sloping bottom, the global strength of the hull girder is not exceeded by the grounding induced loads.For the local deformation of high-speed ship hulls at the point of contact with the ground, the paper presents...

  5. Quality assurance inspections for shipping and storage containers

    Stromberg, H.M.; Roberts, G.D.; Bryce, J.H. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1996-04-01

    This is a guide for conducting quality assurance inspections of transportation packaging and dry spent fuel storage system suppliers. (Suppliers are defined as designers, fabricators, distributors, users or owners of those packaging and storage systems.) This guide may be used during inspection to determine regulatory compliance with 10 CFR, Part 71, Subpart H; 10 CFR, Part 72, Subpart G; 10 CFR, Part 21; and supplier`s quality assurance program commitments. It was developed to provide a structured, consistent approach to inspections. The guidance therein provides a framework for evaluation of transportation packaging and dry spent fuel storage systems quality assurance programs. Inspectors are provided with the flexibility to adapt the methods and concepts to meet inspection requirements for the particular facility. The method used in the guide treats each activity at a facility as a separate performance element and combines the activities within the framework of an ``inspection tree.``The method separates each performance element into several areas for inspection and identifies guidelines, based on regulatory requirements, to qualitatively evaluate each area. This guide also serves as a field manual to facilitate quality assurance inspection activities. This guide replaces an earlier one, NUREG/CR-5717 (Packing Supplier Inspection Guide). This replacement guide enhances the inspection activities for transportation packagings and adds the dry spent fuel storage system quality assurance inspection activities.

  6. Quality assurance inspections for shipping and storage containers

    Stromberg, H.M.; Roberts, G.D.; Bryce, J.H.

    1996-04-01

    This is a guide for conducting quality assurance inspections of transportation packaging and dry spent fuel storage system suppliers. (Suppliers are defined as designers, fabricators, distributors, users or owners of those packaging and storage systems.) This guide may be used during inspection to determine regulatory compliance with 10 CFR, Part 71, Subpart H; 10 CFR, Part 72, Subpart G; 10 CFR, Part 21; and supplier's quality assurance program commitments. It was developed to provide a structured, consistent approach to inspections. The guidance therein provides a framework for evaluation of transportation packaging and dry spent fuel storage systems quality assurance programs. Inspectors are provided with the flexibility to adapt the methods and concepts to meet inspection requirements for the particular facility. The method used in the guide treats each activity at a facility as a separate performance element and combines the activities within the framework of an ''inspection tree.''The method separates each performance element into several areas for inspection and identifies guidelines, based on regulatory requirements, to qualitatively evaluate each area. This guide also serves as a field manual to facilitate quality assurance inspection activities. This guide replaces an earlier one, NUREG/CR-5717 (Packing Supplier Inspection Guide). This replacement guide enhances the inspection activities for transportation packagings and adds the dry spent fuel storage system quality assurance inspection activities

  7. Transfer Function for Powerline Cables on Refrigerated Container Ships

    Kolle, Klaus; Hansen, Børge Meltzer

    Eliminering af parametre i overføringsfunktionen for signaler transmitteret over elledninger er nødvendig af hensyn til mulig simulation af større komplekse netværk.......Eliminering af parametre i overføringsfunktionen for signaler transmitteret over elledninger er nødvendig af hensyn til mulig simulation af større komplekse netværk....

  8. Tramp Ship Routing and Scheduling - Incorporating Additional Complexities

    Vilhelmsen, Charlotte

    to mergers, pooling, and collaboration efforts between shipping companies, the fleet sizes have grown to a point where manual planning is no longer adequate in a market with tough competition and low freight rates. This thesis therefore aims at developing new mathematical models and solution methods...... for tramp ship routing and scheduling problems. This is done in the context of Operations Research, a research field that has achieved great success within optimisation-based planning for vehicle routing problems and in many other areas. The first part of this thesis contains a comprehensive introduction...

  9. Ships - inspiring objects in architecture

    Marczak, Elzbieta

    2017-10-01

    Sea-going vessels have for centuries fascinated people, not only those who happen to work at sea, but first and foremost, those who have never set foot aboard a ship. The environment in which ships operate is reminiscent of freedom and countless adventures, but also of hard and interesting maritime working life. The famous words of Pompey: “Navigare necesseest, vivere non estnecesse” (sailing is necessary, living - is not necessary), which he pronounced on a stormy sea voyage, arouse curiosity and excitement, inviting one to test the truth of this saying personally. It is often the case, however, that sea-faring remains within the realm of dreams, while the fascination with ships demonstrates itself through a transposition of naval features onto land constructions. In such cases, ship-inspired motifs bring alive dreams and yearnings as well as reflect tastes. Tourism is one of the indicators of people’s standard of living and a measure of a society’s civilisation. Maritime tourism has been developing rapidly in recent decades. A sea cruise offers an insight into life at sea. Still, most people derive their knowledge of passenger vessels and their furnishings from the mass media. Passenger vessels, also known as “floating cities,” are described as majestic and grand, while their on-board facilities as luxurious, comfortable, exclusive and inaccessible to common people on land. Freight vessels, on the other hand, are described as enormous objects which dwarf the human being into insignificance. This article presents the results of research intended to answer the following questions: what makes ships a source of inspiration for land architecture? To what extent and by what means do architects draw on ships in their design work? In what places can we find structures inspired by ships? What ships inspire architects? This article presents examples of buildings, whose design was inspired by the architecture and structural details of sea vessels. An analysis of

  10. Quality management in shipping companies

    Đergović Dragana M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As international business becomes more competitive, companies are finding that they need to work more effectively to stay in business. Quality assurance has become very important to the majority of production and service companies with international activity. Shipping companies were also required to implement a quality management system. The huge importance of safety in maritime transport operations resulted in the International Safety Management Code (ISM Code by the International Maritime Organization. The general management system principles embodied by the maritime ISM Code and generics ISO standards, have enabled their complementary application in establishing a quality management system in shipping companies, within a safety management system as its subset.

  11. Corporate Sustainable Development Assessment Base on the Corporate Social Responsibility

    Sun Mei; Nagata Katsuya; Onoda Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    With the resource exhaustion, bad affections of human activities and the awakening of the human rights, the corporate social responsibility became popular corporate strategy achieving sustainable development of both corporation and society. The issue of Guideline of Chinese Corporate Social Responsibility Report promotes greatly corporation to take social responsibility. This paper built the index system according to this guideline and takes the textile industry as an exa...

  12. Corporate Social Responsibility and Corporate Financial Performance: Evidence from Korea

    Choi, Jong-Seo; Kwak, Young-Min; Choe, Chongwoo

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies the empirical relation between corporate social responsibility (CSR) and corporate financial performance in Korea using a sample of 1122 firm-years during 2002-2008. We measure corporate social responsibility by both an equal-weighted CSR index and a stakeholder-weighted CSR index suggested by Akpinar et al. (2008). Corporate financial performance is measured by ROE, ROA and Tobin’s Q. We find a positive and significant relation between corporate financial performance and t...

  13. The corporate security professional

    Petersen, Karen Lund

    2013-01-01

    In our age of globalization and complex threat environments, every business is called upon to manage security. This tendency is reflected in the fact that a wide range of businesses increasingly think about security in broad terms and strive to translate national security concerns into corporate...... speech. This article argues that the profession of the security manager has become central for understanding how the relationship between national and corporate security is currently negotiated. The national security background of most private sector security managers makes the corporate security...... professional inside the company a powerful hybrid agent. By zooming in on the profession and the practice of national security inside companies, the article raises questions about where to draw the line between corporate security and national security along with the political consequences of the constitution...

  14. Corporate Involvement in C AI

    Baker, Justine C.

    1978-01-01

    Historic perspective of computer manufacturers and their contribution to CAI. Corporate CAI products and services are mentioned, as is a forecast for educational involvement by computer corporations. A chart of major computer corporations shows gross sales, net earnings, products and services offered, and other corporate information. (RAO)

  15. Corporate Governance Country Assessment : Uruguay

    World Bank

    2005-01-01

    This report provides an assessment of Uruguay's corporate governance policy framework, enforcement and compliance practices. It highlights recent improvements in corporate governance regulation, makes policy recommendations, and provides investors with a benchmark against which to measure corporate governance in Uruguay. The report identifies several key next steps that focus on implementation including: Improving corporate information, particularly ownership disclosure, related party transac...

  16. Corporate Governance and Shareholder Litigation

    Kalchev, Georgi

    2009-01-01

    The probability for shareholder litigation is studied and how corporate governance characteristics and other factors explain it. Shareholder litigation results from failure of corporate governance. Thus a better quality of corporate governance is hypothesized to decrease the litigation probability. Corporate governance index is constructed based on principal components. It is found to be a significant predictor of shareholder litigation.

  17. Corporate risk management : an overview

    Oosterhof, Casper M.

    2001-01-01

    Corporate risk management and hedging are important activities within financial as well as non-financial corporations. Under the assumptions of Modigliani and Miller [1958], corporate risk management is a redundant activity. However, the existence of market imperfections can explain the corporate

  18. The Corporations Act 2001

    Bostock, Tom

    2002-01-01

    The author outlines reforms made in Australia in the area of company law with an analysis of the Corporations Act 2001, which along with the Australian Securities and Investments Commission Act 2001 comprises Corporations legislation in Australia. Article by Tom Bostock (a partner in the law firm Mallesons Stephen Jaques, Melbourne, Australia). Published in Amicus Curiae - Journal of the Institute of Advanced Legal Studies and its Society for Advanced Legal Studies. The Journal is produced by...

  19. Tax planning in corporation

    Nevodnicheva, Yulia

    2010-01-01

    This thesis "Tax planning in corporation" puts brain to legal entity income tax and it is looking for possible solutions in tax planning in corporation. The first part deals with the tax theory, the other part is the theory of tax planning, comparison of tax regimes and tax policy and tax revenue by optimizing both internationally and in the local aspect. The last part discusses options for optimizing tax

  20. Corporate Social Responsibility

    Kampf, Constance

    2007-01-01

    Understanding Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) as having explicit policies and implicit norms situated in cultural systems highlights the connections between institutional and cultural structures of nation states and business' commitment to CSR as reflected in the strategies used to communic......Understanding Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) as having explicit policies and implicit norms situated in cultural systems highlights the connections between institutional and cultural structures of nation states and business' commitment to CSR as reflected in the strategies used...

  1. Social responsibility of corporations

    Babić Jovan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The issue at stake in the article is corporate social responsibility. There are two rival theories regarding this issue. According to the classical theory managers are responsible to owners (stockholders and their obligation is to pursue the goal of maximizing the profit. According to the other, stakeholder theory, the interests of all corporate stakeholders, all those affected by business, not only stockholders, must be taken in consideration. In the paper these two theories are subject of thorough ethical analysis.

  2. Improving Corporate Governance Practices

    M. Huse; J. Gabrielsson; A. Minichilli

    2009-01-01

    Peak performing organizations may benefit from active value creating boards. Suggestions to improve board behaviour and corporate governance practices are presented in this article. The suggestions result from findings in the “Valued Creating Board” research programme. However, active boards working in a shareholder activism framework may destroy rather than support value creation processes within firms. In peak performing organizations corporate governance practices should be designed and de...

  3. Corporate Risk Disclosure and Corporate Governance

    Kaouthar Lajili

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available To date, research which integrates corporate governance and risk management has been limited. Yet, risk exposure and management are increasingly becoming the core function of modern business enterprises in various sectors and industries domestically and globally. Risk identification and management are crucial in any business strategy design and implementation. From the investors’ point of view, knowledge of the risk profile, risk appetite and risk management are key elements in making sound portfolio investment decisions. This paper examines the relationships between corporate governance mechanisms and risk disclosure behavior using a sample of Canadian publicly-traded companies (TSX 230. Results show that Canadian public companies are more likely to disclose risk management information over and above the mandatory risk disclosures, if they are larger in size and if their boards of directors have more independent members. Minority voting control ownership structures appear to negatively impact risk disclosure and CEO incentive compensation shows mixed results. The paper concludes that more research is needed to further assess the impact of various governance mechanisms on corporate risk management and disclosure behavior.

  4. Wave-induced Ship Hull Vibrations in Stochastic Seaways

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Dogliani, M.

    1996-01-01

    A theoretical Study is undertaken on the determination of wave-induced loads in flexible ship hulls. The calculations are performed within the framework of a non-linear, quadratic strip theory formulated in the frequency domain. Included are non-linear effects due to changes in added mass......, hydrodynamic damping and water line breadth with sectional immersion in waves. The study is limited to continuous excitations from the waves and thus transient so-called whipping vibrations due to slamming loads are not considered.Because of the non-linearities the ship hull responses become non...... to the large separation between dominating wave frequencies and the lowest two-node frequency of the hull beam. Both extreme value predictions and fatigue damage are considered.For a fast container ship the rigid body and two-node (springing) vertical wave-induced bending moments amidship are calculated...

  5. Wave Loads on Ships Sailing in Restricted Water Depth

    Vidic-Perunovic, Jelena; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    2003-01-01

    depth for a container vessel. The results show that if the water depth is less than two times the draft of the vessel, the wave-induced bending moment becomes significant larger than in deep water with the same sea state description. The peak in the frequency response function for the wave bending......The wave-induced bending moment in ships is the most important sea load parameter for ships larger than 100m in length. Hence, any rational ship design procedure must include a reasonable accurate determination of this load and a large amount of various hydrodynamic formulations have been published......, ranging from semi-empirical formulas to three-dimensional non-linear procedures. A review of the state-of-the art can be found in ISSC.VI.1 (2000). These procedures must be combined with operational and sea state information to predict the probability distribution of the maximum wave-induced bending...

  6. Helicopter-Ship Qualification Testing

    Hoencamp, A.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this research project is to develop a novel test methodology which can be used for optimizing cost and time efficiency of helicopter-ship qualification testing without reducing safety. For this purpose, the so-called “SHOL-X” test methodology has been established, which includes the

  7. Modeling of Ship Propulsion Performance

    Pedersen, Benjamin Pjedsted; Larsen, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Full scale measurements of the propulsion power, ship speed, wind speed and direction, sea and air temperature, from four different loading conditions has been used to train a neural network for prediction of propulsion power. The network was able to predict the propulsion power with accuracy...

  8. Lifecycle Readiness and Ship Deployment

    2013-06-01

    incidence of vomiting reported on military transport ships traveling across the Atlantic to vary from 8.5% to 22.1% on three crossings. Bruner (1955...Butterworth (pp. 455-471). Bruner , J. M. (1955). Seasickness in a destroyer escort squadron. United States Armed Forces Medical Journal, 6(4), 469-490

  9. Rudder roll stabilization for ships

    van Amerongen, J.; van der Klugt, P.G.M.; van Nauta lemke, H.R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the design of an autopilot for rudder roll stabilization for ships. This autopilot uses the rudder not only for course keeping but also for reduction of the roll. The system has a series of properties which make the controller design far from straightforward: the process has

  10. Legal risk management in shipping

    Siig, Kristina

    The book discusses the most typical legal challenges met in the chartering, broker, agent or port management part of the shipping industry. It discusses these issues in both English and Scandinavian law and gives indications on how to best ensure your legal risk management in these parts...

  11. Solution to Reduce Air Environmental Pollution from Ships

    Phẁm Tân HỚu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Exhaust gas emissions from ships are increasingly polluting the air environment seriously. Therefore, the MARPOL 73/78 Annex VI is applied for all ships from 2017, Annex VI provided that the concentrations of NOx,SOx CO contained in ship’s exhaust gases must be less than 6.4 g/kWh, 0.6 g/kWh, and 5.5g/kWh respectively. Today, there are many solutions to reduce pollution emissions from exhaust gas of ships, such as improving combustion, using oil emulsion, using biofuel,…However, these solutions also have a handful of disadventages such as being unable to thoroughly resoulve problems, high cost, and very difficult to improve the quality of ship exhaust gas emissions for old ships. Exhaust gas treatment method uses a centralized treatment system where exhaust gas from the thermal engines is taken in a centralized treatment system before discharging into the air. After centralized treatment system, in comparision with raw exhaust gas, soot can be reduced by 98%, NOx can be reduced by 75%, SOx can be reduced by 80%. This method of treatment is not only low cost, good quality but also make marine heat-engines still use traditional fuels as well as need not improve its structure.

  12. Effects of ship's vibration and motion on plant parameters

    Kakuta, Tsunemi; Kitamura, Toshikatsu; Mizushima, Toshihiko; Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Nakahara, Takeshi; Kamiya, Eisei; Kudou, Takahiro; Naitoh, Akira; Tominaga, Mineo.

    1992-03-01

    Present report was written about the study of the effects of ship's vibration and motion on reactor plant performances measured and analyzed to confirm the total balance for control systems of reactor to propulsion. On July 10, 1990, or on the first day of the first voyage for the power up test, the sea trials of MUTSU, nuclear ship made first in Japan, started from the anchoring test. The trial tests had finished through the third voyage between October 30 and November 9 to the fourth voyage between 7 and 14 of December. The trial tests had been conducted over ten items or so containing in-house tests of the measurements of ship's vibration and motion in order to research the effects on reactor performance. We here call the in-house tests the plant correlation tests. In regard to the correlation with ship's vibration, we confirmed that the inherent vibrations of hull and reactor containment arisen from ship structure had precisely been measured and that the plant correlations due to the hull and local vibrations arising from propeller revolutions are very small. Concerning the correlation with ship's motion, it was shown that her rolling motion strongly had affected on the propulsion system such as shaft power and shaft revolutions. About the correlation with reactor systems it was found that her pitching motion had given effect on the water level in pressurizer, primary coolant average temperature, ε-signal of the auto-control of reactor power and primary coolant pressure etc, particularly, most-strongly on the water level in pressurizer; her rolling and pitching motions had given effect on nuclear characteristics such as reactivity and startup rate; in addition the fluctuation of 0.06 Hz, we think the response inherent in (MUTSU) reactor systems, had been observed on her reactor parameters like reactivity and startup rate, and her propulsion systems like shaft horse power. (author)

  13. Corporate governance and international business: Essays on multinational enterprises, ownership, finance and institutions

    Rygh, Asmund

    2016-01-01

    This is an article based doctoral dissertation. Due to copyright matters, the attached pdf file only contains the mantel. This Thesis contributes to the literature on corporate governance in international business, with a focus on corporate ownership, corporate finance and institutions. It consists of five theoretical and empirical studies. Three studies focus on corporate ownership and consider, respectively, whether state ownership shields multinational enterprises (MNEs) from host-c...

  14. Logistical Analysis of the Littoral Combat Ship

    Rudko, David

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the Littoral Combat Ship (LCS) is to provide the Navy with an affordable, small, multi-mission ship capable of independent, interdependent, and integrated operations inside the littorals...

  15. Facts about Noroviruses on Cruise Ships

    ... Cruise Tips for Healthy Cruising Related Resources Cruise Ship Inspection Scores & Information Inspection Scores Cruise Line Directory Green ... 800-CDC-INFO ( 1-800-232-4636 ). Cruise Ship Inspection Scores & Information Inspection Scores Cruise Line Directory Green ...

  16. New Zealand code for nuclear powered shipping

    1976-06-01

    This report recommends guidelines for the safety precautions and procedures to be implemented when New Zealand ports and approaches are used by nuclear powered merchant ships and nuclear powered naval ships

  17. 46 CFR Appendix A to Subpart A of... - Oath for Qualification of Corporation as a Citizen of the United States Under the Act of...

    2010-10-01

    ... Qualification of Corporation as a Citizen of the United States Under the Act of September 2, 1958 (46 U.S.C. app... Citizen of the United States Under the Act of September 2, 1958 (46 U.S.C. app. 883-1) Corporation: Name... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Oath for Qualification of Corporation as a Citizen of...

  18. The Relationship of Corporate Governance, Corporate Social Responsibilities and Corporate Financial Performance in One Continuum

    Murwaningsari, Etty

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to identify the impact of Good Corporate Governance, represented by institutional ownership and managerial ownership, on Corporate Social Responsibility and Corporate Financial Performance.It examines 126 manufacturing companies listed at the Indonesian Stock Exchange (IDX) and have issued audited financial statements for 2006. The statistical method used to test the hypothesis is Path Analysis. The main results suggest that Good Corporate Governance has effects on both Corpor...

  19. Hubungan Corporate Governance, Corporate Social Responsibilities dan Corporate Financial Performance Dalam Satu Continuum

    Etty Murwaningsari

    2009-01-01

    This research aims to identify the influence of Good Corporate Governance, represented by institutional ownership and managerial ownership, on Corporate Social Responsibility and Corporate Financial Performance, and also to observe the possible influence of Corporate Social Responsibility on Corporate Financial Performance. This research examines 126 manufacturing companies which are listed in Indonesian Stock Exchange (ISX) and have issued an audited financial statement for 2006. The statist...

  20. International climate policy : consequences for shipping

    Mæstad, Ottar; Evensen, Annika Jaersen; Mathiesen, Lars; Olsen, Kristian

    2000-01-01

    This report summarises the main results from the project Norwegian and international climate policy consequences for shipping. The aim of the project has been to shed light on how climate policies might affect shipping, both from the cost side and from the demand side. The project has been divided into three sub-projects, investigating the consequences of climate policies for 1. Optimal shipping operations and management 2. The competitiveness of shipping relative to land transport 3. The tra...

  1. Note from the radioprotection group's shipping service

    2006-01-01

    The service for the import/export of radioactive materials reminds you that shipping requests for potentially radioactive materials must be made via the EDH request form by ticking the box 'radioactive material'. All the necessary information is given on the web site: http://cern.ch/service-rp-shipping Requests not complying with the above procedure will not be taken into account. Radioactive Shipping Service http://cern.ch/service-rp-shipping Tel. 73171 Fax: 69200

  2. Ship-to-Ship Radiocommunication Trial by Using Wireless LAN

    Yasuyuki Niwa

    2015-12-01

    In a former field radiocommunication trial, omni-directional antennas were used and a few hundred kbps throughput between two ships was measured, which was not enough for our research target (over 1Mbps. In order to get faster throughput, a field radiocommunication trial was carried out again with a few types of directional antennas and RSSI (Received Signal Strength Indication and the throughput between two ships was measured simultaneously. As a result, multi-path (2-path model affected by the reflection of the sea surface was confirmed and also the characteristics of the directional antennas such as half-power angle were confirmed, but the measured throughput was fast enough to meet our expectation.

  3. 19 CFR 4.69 - Shipping articles.

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shipping articles. 4.69 Section 4.69 Customs... VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Foreign Clearances § 4.69 Shipping articles. No vessel of the U.S... officer, of the shipping articles agreements, including any seaman's allotment agreement, required by 46 U...

  4. 15 CFR 750.11 - Shipping tolerances.

    2010-01-01

    ... in the ECCN applicable to your item reads “ $ value” or “in $ value”, there is no shipping tolerance... is no shipping tolerance with respect to the number of units. However, the value of all of your... shipping tolerance on this license because the items are controlled by an ECCN where “$ value” is the...

  5. 29 CFR 1915.162 - Ship's boilers.

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ship's boilers. 1915.162 Section 1915.162 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Ship's Machinery and Piping Systems § 1915.162 Ship's boilers. (a) Before...

  6. 49 CFR 176.24 - Shipping papers.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shipping papers. 176.24 Section 176.24... Requirements § 176.24 Shipping papers. (a) A person may not accept a hazardous material for transportation or transport a hazardous material by vessel unless that person has received a shipping paper prepared in...

  7. 49 CFR 177.817 - Shipping papers.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shipping papers. 177.817 Section 177.817... Information and Regulations § 177.817 Shipping papers. (a) General requirements. A person may not accept a... received a shipping paper prepared in accordance with part 172 of this subchapter or the material is...

  8. 49 CFR 174.24 - Shipping papers.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shipping papers. 174.24 Section 174.24... Requirements § 174.24 Shipping papers. (a) A person may not accept a hazardous material for transportation or transport a hazardous material by rail unless that person receives a shipping paper prepared in accordance...

  9. Improving the competitiveness of green ship recycling

    Jain, K.P.

    2017-01-01

    The end of life of a ship is determined by its owner on the basis of various commercial and technical factors. Once decided to scrap a ship, almost all end-of-life (EOL) ships are sold to recycling yards for dismantling; except for a few which are converted into museums, hotels, storage, and

  10. APL: a corporate strategy.

    Fox, J; Nyatanga, L; Ringer, C; Greaves, J

    1992-06-01

    This paper is based on, and summarises, papers read at the second annual international conference of Nurse Education Tomorrow held at the University of Durham (UK) September 1991. To this end this paper will offer: Some Accreditation of Prior Learning (APL) definition and process as reflected in the literature available. A distinction will be made between APL and Accreditation of Prior Experiential Learning (APEL) although the procedures and processes for assessing them will be shown to be the same. A brief outline of corporate strategy, as it applies to APL, will be given to form the basis for logical demonstration of how Derbyshire Institute of Health and Community Studies has employed such a corporate strategy. Insights developed and gained from APL research currently being undertaken through the college of nursing and midwifery will be used to inform the development and nature of corporate strategy. A flowchart of the operationalisation of the corporate strategy is offered as an integrative summary of how all the APL ideas have had a positive cumulative effect. The paper finishes by highlighting the possible strengths and limitations of APL corporate strategy.

  11. High-speed quantum networking by ship

    Devitt, Simon J.; Greentree, Andrew D.; Stephens, Ashley M.; van Meter, Rodney

    2016-11-01

    Networked entanglement is an essential component for a plethora of quantum computation and communication protocols. Direct transmission of quantum signals over long distances is prevented by fibre attenuation and the no-cloning theorem, motivating the development of quantum repeaters, designed to purify entanglement, extending its range. Quantum repeaters have been demonstrated over short distances, but error-corrected, global repeater networks with high bandwidth require new technology. Here we show that error corrected quantum memories installed in cargo containers and carried by ship can provide a exible connection between local networks, enabling low-latency, high-fidelity quantum communication across global distances at higher bandwidths than previously proposed. With demonstrations of technology with sufficient fidelity to enable topological error-correction, implementation of the quantum memories is within reach, and bandwidth increases with improvements in fabrication. Our approach to quantum networking avoids technological restrictions of repeater deployment, providing an alternate path to a worldwide Quantum Internet.

  12. The Politicization of Corporations

    Garsten, Christina; Sörbom, Adrienne

    This paper departs from an interest in the involvement of business leaders in the sphere of politics, in the broad sense. At a general level, we are seeing a proliferation of usages of non-market corporate strategies, such as testimony, lobbying, interlocking of positions and other means...... that corporations find a strategically positioned amplifier for their non-market interests in the WEF. The WEF functions to enhance and gain leverage for their ideas and priorities in a highly selective and resourceful environment. In the long run, both the market priorities and the political interests of business...... as political. What is the role of business in the WEF, and how do business corporations advance their interests through the WEF? Empirically we depart from ethnographic field studies of the World Economic Forum, drawing on observations from WEF-events and interviews with participants and organizers. We propose...

  13. Corporate governance and liquidity

    Farooq, Omar; Derrabi, Mohamed; Naciri, Monir

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of corporate governance mechanisms on liquidity in the MENA region, i.e. Morocco, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Jordan, Kuwait, and Bahrain. Using turnover as a proxy for liquidity, we document significant difference in liquidity between the pre......- and the post-crisis periods in the MENA region. In addition, our results show that bulk of this reduction in turnover can be explained due to weaknesses of corporate governance mechanisms. For example, that dividend payout ratio and choice of auditors – proxies for agency problems – can explain the entire...... difference in liquidity between the two periods. Furthermore, our results indicate that more than 50% of this difference between the two periods can be explained by operational and informational complexity of a firm – proxy for transparency. We argue that poor corporate governance mechanisms increase...

  14. How can stakeholders promote environmental and social responsibility in the shipping industry?

    Parviainen, Tuuli; Lehikoinen, Annukka; Kuikka, Sakari

    2017-01-01

    The highly globalized and competitive nature of the shipping industry poses serious governance challenges. Recently, the use of voluntary measures, such as corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives, has been explored in terms of moving towards environmentally and socially responsible...... as well as safe shipping industry practices. Limited attention has been paid on the role of stakeholders such as consumers, employees, NGOs, and academia in pressuring the shipping industry towards greater environmental and social responsibility. Here, by applying stakeholder theory and drawing...... of multi-stakeholder pressure and action to promote the adoption of CSR activities, support the transparency, legitimacy, and enforcement of the practices, as well as widen the scope and focus of CSR initiatives and practices by focusing on a broad range of social and environmental issues. Finally...

  15. The Ethics of Deontology in Corporate Communication

    Francis E.A. Owakah and Daniel R. Aswani

    Corporate communication, public relations, ethics, deontology, teleology. Introduction. Corporate .... function of a corporate communicator is necessary in strategy formulation and implementation. ..... Exploring Public Relations. Essex: Pearson.

  16. Iranian Corporations and Corporate Social Responsibility

    Hadi Chapardar

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Comparative studies have demonstrated that the themes for corporate social responsibility (CSR initiatives are different among nations and geographic regions based on their cultural, political, legal, social, and economic contexts. In this research, which was conducted on 56 corporations from IMI100 (100 Iranian companies with highest annual sales, ranked by Industrial Management Institute or IMI, CSR themes in priority have been identified. Data collected from a semistructured questionnaire and some complementary interviews were analyzed against the results of a reference study over 100 companies from developed countries. The resulted themes, some of which may have several subthemes, were developed in three economic, environmental, and social categories. Beside these qualitative findings, two indices are constructed for indicating the “importance” of and “contribution” to each theme. The results and discussions are supposed to help business leaders, international companies inside Iran, governmental authorities, and researchers to improve CSR discussions and practices in the country where CSR undergoes a less structured platform.

  17. Design of a leak detection device for marine airtight container

    Li, Yuan; Zhu, Faxin; Lu, Jinshu; Li, Yule; Wu, Wenfeng; Zhang, Jianwei; Qin, Beichen

    2018-04-01

    The ship airtight container as the research object, according to the tightness of the traditional detection methods of sealed container from the shortcomings of the design of modern ship sealed container leak detection device based on the requirements of the use of AutoCAD to design a ship leakage detection device using airtight container, and introduces its working principle and main components. Finally, from the aspects of technology, structure, operation and economy, the feasibility analysis of the leak detection device for marine airtight container is designed, and it is concluded that the device has the advantages of simple operation, short detection time, easy maintenance and cost control, and has high feasibility.

  18. Intelligent Prediction of Ship Maneuvering

    Miroslaw Lacki

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author presents an idea of the intelligent ship maneuvering prediction system with the usage of neuroevolution. This may be also be seen as the ship handling system that simulates a learning process of an autonomous control unit, created with artificial neural network. The control unit observes input signals and calculates the values of required parameters of the vessel maneuvering in confined waters. In neuroevolution such units are treated as individuals in population of artificial neural networks, which through environmental sensing and evolutionary algorithms learn to perform given task efficiently. The main task of the system is to learn continuously and predict the values of a navigational parameters of the vessel after certain amount of time, regarding an influence of its environment. The result of a prediction may occur as a warning to navigator to aware him about incoming threat.

  19. Approximate Method of Calculating Forces on Rudder During Ship Sailing on a Shipping Route

    K. Zelazny

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Service speed of a ship in real weather conditions is a basic design parameter. Forecasting of this speed at preliminary design stage is made difficult by the lack of simple but at the same accurate models of forces acting upon a ship sailing on a preset shipping route. The article presents a model for calculating forces and moment on plane rudder, useful for forecasting of ship service speed at preliminary stages of ship design.

  20. Corporate culture: It's impact on corporate life and business ...

    Corporate culture: It's impact on corporate life and business practices in Nigeria. ... on the work behaviour of management strategists and business policy makers. ... culture include, multinational organizations as well as mergers/acquisitions.