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Sample records for shipping act review

  1. International liner cargo shipping: a review of Part X of the Trade Practices Act 1974

    Productivity Commission

    2001-01-01

    On 12 March 1999 the Assistant Treasurer referred Part X of the Trade Practices Act 1974 and associated regulations to the Commission for inquiry and report within six months. The Commission was to report on the appropriate arrangements for regulation of international cargo shipping services.

  2. Merchant shipping (Safety Convention) Act 1977

    1977-01-01

    When this Act comes into force, it will enable the United Kingdom to ratify and to give effect to the 1974 International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (the SOLAS Convention) which replaces the SOLAS Convention of 1960. Under the Act, the Secretary of State may make such rules as he considers appropriate regarding ships provided with nuclear power plants in accordance with Chapter VIII of the Annex to the 1974 Convention and to Recommendations attached to it, dealing with nuclear ships, and insofar as those provisions have not been implemented by the Merchant Shipping Acts 1894 to 1974. (NEA) [fr

  3. Review of ship slamming loads and responses

    Wang, Shan; Guedes Soares, C.

    2017-12-01

    The paper presents an overview of studies of slamming on ship structures. This work focuses on the hull slamming, which is one of the most important types of slamming problems to be considered in the ship design process and the assessment of the ship safety. There are three main research aspects related to the hull slamming phenomenon, a) where and how often a slamming event occurs, b) slamming load prediction and c) structural response due to slamming loads. The approaches used in each aspect are reviewed and commented, together with the presentation of some typical results. The methodology, which combines the seakeeping analysis and slamming load prediction, is discussed for the global analysis of the hull slamming of a ship in waves. Some physical phenomena during the slamming event are discussed also. Recommendations for the future research and developments are made.

  4. Shipping

    Wijnolst, N.; Wergeland, T.

    1996-01-01

    Shipping is a multi-faceted industry which is rather complex to define from an academic point of view. This book attempts to grasp these complexities and provide the reader with an overview of the main topics and terminology in shipping. The book is based on material from our courses in shipping at

  5. The impact of modifying the Jones Act on US coastal shipping.

    2014-06-01

    The study assesses exempt coastal shipping defined as exempted from the US-built stipulation of the : Jones Act, operating with functional crews and exempted from Harbor Maintenance Tax (HMT). The : study focuses on two research questions: (a) the im...

  6. Shipping

    Wijnolst, N.; Wergeland, T.

    1996-01-01

    Shipping is a multi-faceted industry which is rather complex to define from an academic point of view. This book attempts to grasp these complexities and provide the reader with an overview of the main topics and terminology in shipping. The book is based on material from our courses in shipping at the universities in Delft and Bergen. As with our lectures, we draw upon quite a va ried material, from research studies at a high academic level to lower level student work and purely descriptive ...

  7. Digital Documentation of Ships in Cultural Heritage: a European Review

    Colson, A.

    2017-08-01

    Ships of different shapes and times are lying in harbours, on land or in museums, all over the world. Our aim with this paper was to review work done on digital documentation of ships in Cultural Heritage based on different initiatives in Europe using Coordinate Measuring Machine (Newport Ship and Doel 1); Total Station Theodolite (Vasa and Mary-Rose) and Laser scanning (LaScanMar and Traditional boats of Ireland). Our results showed that some discrepancy exist between the projects, in terms of techniques and expertise at hand. Furthermore, few guidelines have been in practice but only for Archaeology and Ethnology. However, no standards are existing. Three focuses have emerged: documentation of single ship elements, monitoring of the long-term deformation processes and the documentation of collections of ships. We discussed the diversity of expert's background and the complexity of comparability between projects. In conclusion, guidelines are necessary to enable a common ground for all professions to work together, e.g. in Architecture. This path must be taken now for digital documentation of ships, if not information and knowledge will be lost on the way.

  8. Ship

    Keuning, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    The invention concerns a ship designed for use at high speed and heavy seas having a single long and slender hull with a narrow beam and a more or less vertical bow, whereby the front half of the hull has more or less vertical sides, minimal flare in the bow sections and towards the bow an increase in draught at its center line combined with a more or less similar increase of freeboard and whereby the aft end of the hull has a flat or slightly V-shaped bottom with one or more propellers and/o...

  9. Review of the total system related to operation of nuclear-powered ship

    Takamasa, Tomoji; Miyashita, Kunio

    2000-01-01

    It is essential to establish a marine reactor having excellent safety and reliability, which is capable of competing economically with conventional ships, and which can be accepted by international society, in order to be prepared for practical application of future nuclear-powered ships. For this purpose, it is important not only to demonstrate a marine reactor using a model or test device to simulate actual operation, but also to establish the environmental requirements for operation of a nuclear-powered ship, such as safety standards that are operationally and internationally common for ships, and to establish a repair base for nuclear-powered ships. Systems research for the practical application of nuclear-powered ships was conducted for five years, fiscal years 1992 through 1996, by a group in the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), under the project title 'Review of the total system related to operation of nuclear-powered ships.' The project sought to summarize requirements for the practical application of nuclear-powered ships from the standpoint of the need side, e.g., what nuclear-powered ships will be requested, and what functions will be provided under the expected future social environment; to show a complete system concept for the operation of nuclear-powered ships; and to clarify the situations creating demand for nuclear-powered ships, as well as the system and environmental conditions to be established for operation of practical nuclear-powered ships. Study considerations included the size of the operation system for a nuclear-powered ship, a scenario for introducing a nuclear-powered container ship, and economic evolution from the effects on the whole shipping system, based on container ships, of introducing a nuclear-powered ship. The results of these considerations were made the framework for constructing an entire system and evaluating its economy. The treatment and disposal of radioactive waste from a nuclear-powered ship, and the

  10. A Review on the Faults of Electric Machines Used in Electric Ships

    Dionysios V. Spyropoulos; Epaminondas D. Mitronikas

    2013-01-01

    Electric propulsion systems are today widely applied in modern ships, including transport ships and warships. The ship of the future will be fully electric, and not only its propulsion system but also all the other services will depend on electric power. The robust and reliable operation of the ship’s power system is essential. In this work, a review on the mechanical and electrical faults of electric machines that are used in electric ships is presented.

  11. Black carbon from ships: a review of the effects of ship speed, fuel quality and exhaust gas scrubbing

    Lack, D. A.; Corbett, J. J.

    2012-05-01

    The International Maritime Organization (IMO) has moved to address the health and climate impact of the emissions from the combustion of low-quality residual fuels within the commercial shipping industry. Fuel sulfur content (FS) limits and an efficiency design index for future ships are examples of such IMO actions. The impacts of black carbon (BC) emissions from shipping are now under review by the IMO, with a particular focus on the potential impacts of future Arctic shipping. Recognizing that associating impacts with BC emissions requires both ambient and onboard observations, we provide recommendations for the measurement of BC. We also evaluate current insights regarding the effect of ship speed (engine load), fuel quality and exhaust gas scrubbing on BC emissions from ships. Observations demonstrate that BC emission factors (EFBC) increases 3 to 6 times at very low engine loads (engine load, even with reduced load fuel savings. If fleets were required to operate at lower maximum engine loads, presumably associated with reduced speeds, then engines could be re-tuned, which would reduce BC emissions. Ships operating in the Arctic are likely running at highly variable engine loads (25-100%) depending on ice conditions and ice breaking requirements. The ships operating at low load may be emitting up to 50% more BC than they would at their rated load. Such variable load conditions make it difficult to assess the likely emissions rate of BC. Current fuel sulfur regulations have the effect of reducing EFBC by an average of 30% and potentially up to 80% regardless of engine load; a removal rate similar to that of scrubbers. Uncertainties among current observations demonstrate there is a need for more information on a) the impact of fuel quality on EFBC using robust measurement methods and b) the efficacy of scrubbers for the removal of particulate matter by size and composition.

  12. Shielding modification and safety review on the nuclear ship 'Mutsu'

    Osanai, Masao

    1978-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Commission (JAEC) called on the Japan Nuclear Ship Development Agency (JNSDA) for shielding modification and safety review on the nuclear ship ''Mutsu'', and JNSDA has conducted the research and development (R and D) to meet the request of JAEC for the above two items. Concerning the shield modification, the following matters are described: the study on the cause of radiation leakage which was concluded to the fast neutron streaming, the conceptual design for this modification, the mock up experiment for shielding utilizing JRR-4, the basic design following on the conceptual design, including the detailed drawings of the modified construction and the shielding analysis using RADHEAT-V3 code, and the relating experiments such as the heat transfer test of the primary shielding structure and the test of strength in stranding. As for the safety review, the survey of the troubles and the technical problems having been experienced in the light water reactor plants of land use, for example, fuel integrity, stress corrosion cracking and the leakage of steam generator tubes, the revision of the design so as to adapt to current safety standards and regulations, for example, in-service inspection, the setting of additional leak detectors in the primary cooling system, the modification of emergeney filters, etc., and the review of the design and construction corresponding to recent R and D works, such as re-evaluation of the core design, cooling capability of natural circulation, thermal stress analysis of main pipings, and the evaluation of ECCS performance are presented . (Nakai, Y.)

  13. Act N0 65-956 of 12 November 1965 on the third party liability of operators of nuclear ships

    1965-01-01

    This Act determines the liability of operators of nuclear ships according to the general principles of the Paris Convention. In particular, such operators are solely liable for nuclear damage caused by a nuclear incident up to a limit of 500 millions French francs. With regard to French nuclear ships and insofar as the security provided by the operator is insufficient to meet claims for which he is liable up to the above-mentioned limit, the State intervenes to that amount. (NEA) [fr

  14. The Education Act (Ontario) 1980: A Review.

    Hodder, C. J.

    1984-01-01

    Ontario has provided special education legislation through the Education Amendment Act, 1980. Issues related to teacher preparation for special education and program planning and implementation are reviewed. (DF)

  15. The Brussels Nuclear Ship Convention and its impact on the German Atomic Energy Act

    Bernaerts, A.

    1976-01-01

    Although the Brussels Nuclear Ship Liability Convention of 1962, whose incorporation into German law was agreed upon by the German Federal Parliament (the Bundestag) in 1975, will have only minor international significance once it has entered into force, it will yet provide a new legal basis for the nuclear liability of the German vessel N.S. 'Otto Hahn' for the periods of her stay within the Federal Republic of Germany. However, there is no smooth concurrence of the Brussels Convention and the German Atomic Energy Act adapted to the Paris Liability Convention in 1975. This means that a number of questions still need to be resolved with respect to the protection of victims and the liability of shipowners. (orig.) [de

  16. Black carbon from ships: a review of the effects of ship speed, fuel quality and exhaust gas scrubbing

    D. A. Lack

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The International Maritime Organization (IMO has moved to address the health and climate impact of the emissions from the combustion of low-quality residual fuels within the commercial shipping industry. Fuel sulfur content (FS limits and an efficiency design index for future ships are examples of such IMO actions. The impacts of black carbon (BC emissions from shipping are now under review by the IMO, with a particular focus on the potential impacts of future Arctic shipping.

    Recognizing that associating impacts with BC emissions requires both ambient and onboard observations, we provide recommendations for the measurement of BC. We also evaluate current insights regarding the effect of ship speed (engine load, fuel quality and exhaust gas scrubbing on BC emissions from ships. Observations demonstrate that BC emission factors (EFBC increases 3 to 6 times at very low engine loads (<25% compared to EFBC at 85–100% load; absolute BC emissions (per nautical mile of travel also increase up to 100% depending on engine load, even with reduced load fuel savings. If fleets were required to operate at lower maximum engine loads, presumably associated with reduced speeds, then engines could be re-tuned, which would reduce BC emissions.

    Ships operating in the Arctic are likely running at highly variable engine loads (25–100% depending on ice conditions and ice breaking requirements. The ships operating at low load may be emitting up to 50% more BC than they would at their rated load. Such variable load conditions make it difficult to assess the likely emissions rate of BC.

    Current fuel sulfur regulations have the effect of reducing EFBC by an average of 30% and potentially up to 80% regardless of engine load; a removal rate similar to that of scrubbers.

    Uncertainties among current observations demonstrate there is a need for more information on a the impact of fuel quality

  17. The activity-based methodology to assess ship emissions - A review.

    Nunes, R A O; Alvim-Ferraz, M C M; Martins, F G; Sousa, S I V

    2017-12-01

    Several studies tried to estimate atmospheric emissions with origin in the maritime sector, concluding that it contributed to the global anthropogenic emissions through the emission of pollutants that have a strong impact on hu' health and also on climate change. Thus, this paper aimed to review published studies since 2010 that used activity-based methodology to estimate ship emissions, to provide a summary of the available input data. After exclusions, 26 articles were analysed and the main information were scanned and registered, namely technical information about ships, ships activity and movement information, engines, fuels, load and emission factors. The larger part of studies calculating in-port ship emissions concluded that the majority was emitted during hotelling and most of the authors allocating emissions by ship type concluded that containerships were the main pollutant emitters. To obtain technical information about ships the combined use of data from Lloyd's Register of Shipping database with other sources such as port authority's databases, engine manufactures and ship-owners seemed the best approach. The use of AIS data has been growing in recent years and seems to be the best method to report activities and movements of ships. To predict ship powers the Hollenbach (1998) method which estimates propelling power as a function of instantaneous speed based on total resistance and use of load balancing schemes for multi-engine installations seemed to be the best practices for more accurate ship emission estimations. For emission factors improvement, new on-board measurement campaigns or studies should be undertaken. Regardless of the effort that has been performed in the last years to obtain more accurate shipping emission inventories, more precise input data (technical information about ships, engines, load and emission factors) should be obtained to improve the methodology to develop global and universally accepted emission inventories for an

  18. The activity-based methodology to assess ship emissions - A review

    Nunes, R.A.O.; Alvim-Ferraz, M.C.M.; Martins, F.G.; Sousa, S.I.V.

    2017-01-01

    Several studies tried to estimate atmospheric emissions with origin in the maritime sector, concluding that it contributed to the global anthropogenic emissions through the emission of pollutants that have a strong impact on hu' health and also on climate change. Thus, this paper aimed to review published studies since 2010 that used activity-based methodology to estimate ship emissions, to provide a summary of the available input data. After exclusions, 26 articles were analysed and the main information were scanned and registered, namely technical information about ships, ships activity and movement information, engines, fuels, load and emission factors. The larger part of studies calculating in-port ship emissions concluded that the majority was emitted during hotelling and most of the authors allocating emissions by ship type concluded that containerships were the main pollutant emitters. To obtain technical information about ships the combined use of data from Lloyd's Register of Shipping database with other sources such as port authority's databases, engine manufactures and ship-owners seemed the best approach. The use of AIS data has been growing in recent years and seems to be the best method to report activities and movements of ships. To predict ship powers the Hollenbach (1998) method which estimates propelling power as a function of instantaneous speed based on total resistance and use of load balancing schemes for multi-engine installations seemed to be the best practices for more accurate ship emission estimations. For emission factors improvement, new on-board measurement campaigns or studies should be undertaken. Regardless of the effort that has been performed in the last years to obtain more accurate shipping emission inventories, more precise input data (technical information about ships, engines, load and emission factors) should be obtained to improve the methodology to develop global and universally accepted emission inventories

  19. A review of a radioactive material shipping container including design, testing, upgrading compliance program and shipping logistics

    Celovsky, A.; Lesco, R.; Gale, B.; Sypes, J.

    2003-01-01

    Ten years ago Atomic Energy of Canada developed a Type B(U)-85 shipping container for the global transport of highly radioactive materials. This paper reviews the development of the container, including a summary of the design requirements, a review of the selected materials and key design elements, and the results of the major qualification tests (drop testing, fire test, leak tightness testing, and shielding integrity tests). As a result of the testing, improvements to the structural, thermal and containment design were made. Such improvements, and reasons thereof, are noted. Also provided is a summary of the additional analysis work required to upgrade the package from a Type B(U) to a Type B(F), i.e. essentially upgrading the container to include fissile radioisotopes to the authorized radioactive contents list. Having a certified shipping container is only one aspect governing the global shipments of radioactive material. By necessity the shipment of radioactive material is a highly regulated environment. This paper also explores the experiences with other key aspects of radioactive shipments, including the service procedures used to maintain the container certification, the associated compliance program for radioactive material shipments, and the shipping logistics involved in the transport. (author)

  20. Review of the nuclear liability act

    1991-11-01

    The review of the Act has progressed in stages. The first stage was conducted by the staff of the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) and catalogued previously identified difficulties with the Act. The second stage was a preliminary examination of the Act by an Interdepartmental Working Group (IWG). The IWG was formed in 1982 at the direction of the President of the AECB. It was instructed to review all matters relating to the administration of, and experience with, the Act and to examine these matters in as much detail as was required to resolve each point raised during the review. The IWG was composed of representatives of the AECB (which administers the Act), the Department of Energy, Mines and Resources, the Department of Finance, the Department of Insurance, the Department of Justice, and the Treasury Board Secretariat

  1. Review of the nuclear liability act

    1990-01-01

    There has always been concern that nuclear materials have the potential to cause injury and property damage. For this reason, nuclear operators have always been required by national regulatory authorities to exercise special precautions in the operation of their facilities. Federal legislation was drafted in Canada as the Nuclear Liability Act in 1970. The Act ensures that funds are available from all operators of nuclear facilities to provide financial compensation to third parties for injuries or damages suffered as a result of a nuclear incident; at the same time the Act provides protection to the operators by limiting their related liability. The Act also protects persons other than operators. The review of the Act has progressed in stages. The first stage was conducted by the staff of the Atomic Energy Control Board and catalogued previously identified difficulties with the Act. The second stage was a preliminary examination of the Act by an Interdepartmental Working Group. 2 figs

  2. A review of outbreaks of waterborne disease associated with ships: evidence for risk management.

    Rooney, Roisin M; Bartram, Jamie K; Cramer, Elaine H; Mantha, Stacey; Nichols, Gordon; Suraj, Rohini; Todd, Ewen C D

    2004-01-01

    The organization of water supply to and on ships differs considerably from that of water supply on land. Risks of contamination can arise from source water at the port or during loading, storage, or distribution on the ship. The purpose of this article is to review documented outbreaks of waterborne diseases associated with passenger, cargo, fishing, and naval ships to identify contributing factors so that similar outbreaks can be prevented in the future. The authors reviewed 21 reported outbreaks of waterborne diseases associated with ships. For each outbreak, data on pathogens/toxins, type of ship, factors contributing to outbreaks, mortality and morbidity, and remedial action are presented. The findings of this review show that the majority of reported outbreaks were associated with passenger ships and that more than 6,400 people were affected. Waterborne outbreaks due to Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, noroviruses, Salmonella spp, Shigella sp, Cryptosporidium sp, and Giardia lamblia occurred on ships. Enterotoxigenic E. coli was the pathogen most frequently associated with outbreaks. One outbreak of chemical water poisoning also occurred on a ship. Risk factors included contaminated port water, inadequate treatment, improper loading techniques, poor design and maintenance of storage tanks, ingress of contamination during repair and maintenance, cross-connections, back siphonage, and insufficient residual disinfectant. Waterborne disease outbreaks on ships can be prevented. The factors contributing to outbreaks emphasize the need for hygienic handling of water along the supply chain from source to consumption. A comprehensive approach to water safety on ships is essential. This may be achieved by the adoption of Water Safety Plans that cover design, construction, operation, and routine inspection and maintenance.

  3. Wind and Current Forces Acting on Canadian Forces Ships During Tug Operations

    2002-11-01

    McTaggart and Sav- age [1] describe model tests conducted on a generic frigate model to determine wind forces influencing ship capsize. Van Manen and van ...Fn will be 0.06. Based on data presented by van Manen and van Oossanen [2], the fric- tional resistance coefficient will be approximately 0.002 and...Conference on Stability of Ships and Ocean Vehicles (Melbourne, Florida, 1994). 2. J.D. van Manen and P. van Oossanen, Principles of Naval Architecture, Volume

  4. Literature review on the tele medical advice for ships (TMAS) 2005-2015

    Canals, M. Luisa; Jensen, Olaf Chresten; Eliseo Prisno-III, Don

    Background: The presentation will provide a review of the international scientific literature on telemedical assistance for ships (TMAS) during the latest 10 years. Materials and Methods: The literature search was done in collaboration in the three geographical IMHA-research groups by using Pub......Med and the respective national scientific journals. The search terms used: "telemedicine AND maritime, seafarers, ships, shipping, fishermen, fisherman, fishing, passengers". Results: All the abstracts (n= 54) were entered in the Zotero database and distributed in 5 categories: TMAS cross-sectional studies, n=14...... interesting articles can be found. Conclusions: The cross-sectional studies show that cardio-vascular disease and injuries form the main parts of the radio medical advice in the merchant, the fishing and the passenger/cruise ships segments. Even if the national TMAS centres have highly technical developed...

  5. A Critical Review of the Literature on Firm-Level Theories on Ship Investment

    Sinem Celik Girgin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The maritime industry is one of those rare industries that are both highly international integrated to international trade and also highly capital intensive dependent on substantial investment amount. In the literature, ship investments have not been widely examined through the firm-level investment theories to explore the link between investment level and asset price valuation. The general trend in the literature of ship investments is to analyse the relationship among the shipping markets (newbuilding, second-hand, freight rate and scrap and their impact on asset price valuation, the timing of investments and market entry and exit conditions. In this paper, we extensively reviewed the literature of firm-level investment theories and ship investments. We showed that the application of firm-level investment theories to the ship investments is confined to the basic investment valuation models, such as Net Present Value and Real Option Analysis. Ship investments need to be examined by firm-level investment theories to define firm/industry value maximization level within the approach of the solid investment theories.

  6. Review of experiments and calculation procedures for ship collision and grounding damage

    Liu, Bin; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Zhu, Ling

    2018-01-01

    Abstract The paper presents a review of experiments and calculation procedures for the resistances of ship structural components subjected to impact loadings. The purpose of the paper is to highlight the importance of large-scale collision and grounding experiments and to discuss the technical...... and material characteristics. In recent literature, analytical and numerical calculations provide relatively accurate prediction of the purely plastic responses of ship structures under impact loads, but universal approaches have not been found for fracture predictions. The existing formulae for failure...

  7. Act N0 68-1045 of 29 November 1968 amending Act N0 65-956 of 12 November 1965 on the third party liability of operators of nuclear ships

    1968-01-01

    This Act amends the 1965 Act, in particular by specifying that the maximum amount of liability of the operator of a foreign nuclear ship is that fixed by the legislation of the State concerned, unless otherwise agreed with that State, but may in no case be lower than that set out in the 1965 Act, namely 500 million French francs. (NEA) [fr

  8. Reviews on current carbon emission reduction technologies and projects and their feasibilities on ships

    Wang, Haibin; Zhou, Peilin; Wang, Zhongcheng

    2017-06-01

    Concern about global climate change is growing, and many projects and researchers are committed to reducing greenhouse gases from all possible sources. International Maritime (IMO) has set a target of 20% CO2 reduction from shipping by 2020 and also presented a series of carbon emission reduction methods, which are known as Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI) and Energy Efficiency Operation Indicator (EEOI). Reviews on carbon emission reduction from all industries indicate that, Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is an excellent solution to global warming. In this paper, a comprehensive literature review of EEDI and EEOI and CCS is conducted and involves reviewing current policies, introducing common technologies, and considering their feasibilities for marine activities, mainly shipping. Current projects are also presented in this paper, thereby illustrating that carbon emission reduction has been the subject of attention from all over the world. Two case ship studies indicate the economic feasibility of carbon emission reduction and provide a guide for CCS system application and practical installation on ships.

  9. Spontaneous hemoperitoneum in pregnancy (SHiP) and endometriosis - A systematic review of the recent literature.

    Lier, Marit C I; Malik, Romana F; Ket, Johannes C F; Lambalk, Cornelis B; Brosens, Ivo A; Mijatovic, Velja

    2017-12-01

    Spontaneous Hemoperitoneum in Pregnancy (SHiP), an unprovoked (nontraumatic) intraperitoneal bleeding in pregnancy (up to 42days postpartum), is associated with serious adverse pregnancy outcomes. To evaluate the clinical consequences of SHiP and its association with endometriosis, a systematic review was conducted according to the PRISMA guidelines. PubMed, Embase.com and Thomson Reuters/Web of Science were searched for articles published since the latest review (August 2008) until September 2016. After assessment for eligibility, forty-four articles were included in this systematic review, describing 59 cases of SHiP. Endometriosis was present in 33/59 cases (55.9%), most often diagnosed prior to pregnancy. An association between the severity of SHiP and the stage of endometriosis could not be found. In the majority of cases, SHiP occurred in the third trimester of pregnancy (30/59 cases (50.8%)); women presented with (sub)acute abdominal pain (56/59 cases (94.9%)), hypovolemic shock (28/59 cases (47.5%)) and/or a decreased level of hemoglobin (37/59 cases (62.7%)). Signs of fetal distress were observed in 24/59 cases (40.7%). Imaging confirmed free peritoneal fluid in (37/59 cases (62.7%)). At time of surgery active bleeding was revealed in 51/56 cases (91,1%), originating from endometriotic implants (11/51 cases (21.6%)), ruptured utero-ovarian vessels (29/51 cases (56.8%)), hemorrhagic nodules of decidualized cells (1/51 cases (2.0%)) or a combination (10/51 cases (19.6%)). Median amount of hemoperitoneum was 1600mL (IQR 1000mL-2500mL). From the 45/59 cases (76.3%) in which surgical interventions was carried out during pregnancy, 7/45 cases (15.6%) reported a successful continuation of pregnancy. 5/59 cases reported recurrence of SHiP (recurrence rate 8.5%). The perinatal mortality rate was 26.9% (18/67 fetus), one maternal death was reported (1/59 cases (1,7%)). In conclusion, SHiP is a very serious complication of pregnancy, highly associated with adverse

  10. Review and Application of Ship Collision and Grounding Analysis Procedures

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2010-01-01

    It is the purpose of the paper to present a review of prediction and analysis tools for collision and grounding analyses and to outline a probabilistic procedure for which these tools can be used by the maritime industry to develop performance based rules to reduce the risk associated with human,......, environmental and economic costs of collision and grounding events. The main goal of collision and grounding research should be to identify the most economic risk control options associated with prevention and mitigation of collision and grounding events....

  11. Ship breaking or scuttling? A review of environmental, economic and forensic issues for decision support.

    Devault, Damien A; Beilvert, Briac; Winterton, Peter

    2017-11-01

    In a globalized world, the world trade fleet plays a pivotal role in limiting transport costs. But, the management of obsolete ships is an acute problem, with most Ship Recycling Facilities (SRF) situated in developing countries. They are renowned for their controversial work and safety conditions and their environmental impact. Paradoxically, dismantlement is paid for by the shipowners in accordance with international conventions therefore it is more profitable for them to sell off ships destined for scrapping. Scuttling, the alternative to scrapping, is assessed in the present review to compare the cost/benefit ratios of the two approaches. Although scrapping provides employment and raw materials - but with environmental, health and safety costs - scuttling provides fisheries and diving tourism opportunities but needs appropriate management to avoid organic and metal pollution, introduction of invasive species and exacerbation of coastal erosion. It is also limited by appropriate bottom depth, ship type and number. The present review inventories the environmental, health, safety, economic, and forensic aspects of each alternative.

  12. Price-Anderson Act: Congressional review begins

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    Every 10 years Congress reviews, amends, and extends the Price-Anderson Act of 1957, which was designed to encourage the new nuclear industry by guaranteeing insurance beyond the level provided by private insurers. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission is recommending five congressional actions for the 1987 extension: reauthorization, replacement of the absolute insurance limitation with an annual limitation of liability, raising the retrospective premium per reactor per incident from $5 million to $10 million, raising the statute of limitations on claims for 20 to 30 years, and retaining current language dealing with extraordinary events. Two bills, H.R. 421 and H.R. 3277, were introduced with provisions that broaden the opportunity for victims compensation and eliminate the subsidy aspect. Hearings began in July, with reactions from the National Taxpayers Union and Nuclear insurance underwriters in conflict over the limitations on liability. DOE and DOE contractors urge continuation of the Price-Anderson limitation

  13. REVIEW OF CLEANING SOLUTIONS FOR USE ON COMPONENTS OF THE 9975 SHIPPING PACKAGE

    Daugherty, W.

    2013-09-30

    Several candidate cleaning products have been reviewed for use as a disinfectant on 9975 shipping package components which contain or have contacted mold. Following review of the compatibility of these products with each component, ammonia (ammonium hydroxide diluted to 1.5 wt% concentration) appears compatible with all package components that it might contact. Each of the other candidate products is incompatible with one or more package components. Accordingly, ammonia is recommended for this purpose. It is further recommended that all components which are disinfected be subsequently rinsed with di-ionized or distilled water.

  14. Mini-review: Assessing the drivers of ship biofouling management--aligning industry and biosecurity goals.

    Davidson, Ian; Scianni, Christopher; Hewitt, Chad; Everett, Richard; Holm, Eric; Tamburri, Mario; Ruiz, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Biofouling exerts a frictional and cost penalty on ships and is a direct cause of invasion by marine species. These negative consequences provide a unifying purpose for the maritime industry and biosecurity managers to prevent biofouling accumulation and transfer, but important gaps exist between these sectors. This mini-review examines the approach to assessments of ship biofouling among sectors (industry, biosecurity and marine science) and the implications for existing and emerging management of biofouling. The primary distinctions between industry and biosecurity in assessment of vessels biofouling revolve around the resolution of biological information collected and the specific wetted surface areas of primary concern to each sector. The morphological characteristics of biofouling and their effects on propulsion dynamics are of primary concern to industry, with an almost exclusive focus on the vertical sides and flat bottom of hulls and an emphasis on antifouling and operational performance. In contrast, the identity, biogeography, and ecology of translocated organisms is of highest concern to invasion researchers and biosecurity managers and policymakers, especially as it relates to species with known histories of invasion elsewhere. Current management practices often provide adequate, although not complete, provision for hull surfaces, but niche areas are well known to enhance biosecurity risk. As regulations to prevent invasions emerge in this arena, there is a growing opportunity for industry, biosecurity and academic stakeholders to collaborate and harmonize efforts to assess and manage biofouling of ships that should lead to more comprehensive biofouling solutions that promote industry goals while reducing biosecurity risk and greenhouse gas emissions.

  15. Legionnaires' Disease in Hotels and Passenger Ships: A Systematic Review of Evidence, Sources, and Contributing Factors.

    Mouchtouri, Varvara A; Rudge, James W

    2015-01-01

    Travel-associated Legionnaires' disease (LD) is a serious problem, and hundreds of cases are reported every year among travelers who stayed at hotels, despite the efforts of international and governmental authorities and hotel operators to prevent additional cases. A systematic review of travel-associated LD events (cases, clusters, outbreaks) and of environmental studies of Legionella contamination in accommodation sites was conducted. Two databases were searched (PubMed and EMBASE). Data were extracted from 50 peer-reviewed articles that provided microbiological and epidemiological evidence for linking the accommodation sites with LD. The strength of evidence was classified as strong, possible, and probable. Three of the 21 hotel-associated events identified and four of nine ship-associated events occurred repeatedly on the same site. Of 197 hotel-associated cases, 158 (80.2%) were linked to hotel cooling towers and/or potable water systems. Ship-associated cases were most commonly linked to hot tubs (59/83, 71.1%). Common contributing factors included inadequate disinfection, maintenance, and monitoring; water stagnation; poor temperature control; and poor ventilation. Across all 30 events, Legionella concentrations in suspected water sources were >10,000 cfu/L, hotels (587/1,200), while all 12 cruise ships examined were negative. This review highlights the need for LD awareness strategies targeting operators of accommodation sites. Increased standardization of LD investigation and reporting, and more rigorous follow-up of LD events, would help generate stronger, more comparable evidence on LD sources, contributing factors, and control measure effectiveness. © 2015 International Society of Travel Medicine.

  16. SCANS (Shipping Cask ANalysis System) a microcomputer-based analysis system for shipping cask design review: User's manual to Version 3a. Volume 1, Revision 2

    Mok, G.C.; Thomas, G.R.; Gerhard, M.A.; Trummer, D.J.; Johnson, G.L.

    1998-03-01

    SCANS (Shipping Cask ANalysis System) is a microcomputer-based system of computer programs and databases developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for evaluating safety analysis reports on spent fuel shipping casks. SCANS is an easy-to-use system that calculates the global response to impact loads, pressure loads and thermal conditions, providing reviewers with an independent check on analyses submitted by licensees. SCANS is based on microcomputers compatible with the IBM-PC family of computers. The system is composed of a series of menus, input programs, cask analysis programs, and output display programs. All data is entered through fill-in-the-blank input screens that contain descriptive data requests. Analysis options are based on regulatory cases described in the Code of Federal Regulations 10 CFR 71 and Regulatory Guides published by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission in 1977 and 1978

  17. Status of Electricity Act, 2003: A systematic review of literature

    Mukherjee, Shilpi; Dhingra, Tarun; Sengupta, Anirban

    2017-01-01

    The Electricity Act 2003 was a landmark Act which promised to remove the maladies which afflict the Indian Power Sector and that too at a time when the sector was ridden with problems. With concepts such as open access, multiple distribution licensees, wheeling of electricity etc, the said Act intended to encourage competition which in turn was meant bring a paradigm shift in the sector. The paper undertakes a systematic literature review to find the status of review of the promising Act. More than a decade has passed since its enactment and amendments are due with the legislative body of India but none of the literature reviewed gives a comprehensive view encompassing all the objectives of the Act. Moreover, these documents study either the probable impact or the impact on a particular segment only. It has important implications for the Power sector which highlights a significant gap in literature and provides a basis on which future research can be built upon. - Highlights: • Electricity Act 2003 is a landmark in Indian power sector reform. • Systematic literature review is done to find the status of review of the Act. • Status of Electricity Act 2003 not comprehensively reviewed. • Status of the act needs to be reviewed comprehensively through actual data.

  18. Hospital ships adrift? Part 1: a systematic literature review characterizing US Navy hospital ship humanitarian and disaster response, 2004-2012.

    Licina, Derek

    2013-06-01

    United States foreign policy is tied extensively to health initiatives, many related to the use of military assets. Despite substantial resource investment by the US Department of Defense (DoD) in hospital ship humanitarian assistance and disaster response missions, the impact of this investment is unclear. A systematic literature review of both peer-reviewed and grey literature using eight databases representing the international community and multiple sectors was conducted. Data on the characteristics of missions directly related to US Navy hospital ship humanitarian assistance and disaster response from 2004-2012 were extracted and documented. Of the 1445 sources reviewed, a total of 43 publications met criteria for review. Six (13.9%) met empirical documentation criteria and 37 (86.0%) were considered nonempirical expert opinions and anecdotal accounts that were primarily descriptive in nature. Overall, disaster response accounted for 67.4% (29/43) and humanitarian assistance 25.6% (11/43). Public and private sector participants produced 79.0% (34/43) and 20.9% (9/43) of the publications respectively. Of private sector publications, 88.9% (8/9) focused on disaster response compared to 61.8% (21/34) from the public sector. Of all publications meeting inclusion criteria, 81.4% (35/43) focused on medical care, 9.3% (4/43) discussed partnerships, 4.7% (2/43) training, and 4.7% (2/43) medical ethics and strategic utilization. No primary author publications from the diplomatic, development, or participating host nations were identified. One (2.3%) of the 43 publications was from a partner nation participant. Discussion Without rigorous research methods yielding valid and reliable data-based information pertaining to Navy hospital ship mission impact, policy makers are left with anecdotal reports to influence their decision-making processes. This is inadequate considering the frequency of hospital ship deployments used as a foreign policy tool and the considerable

  19. 76 FR 13655 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Ship's Store Declaration

    2011-03-14

    ... Activities: Ship's Store Declaration AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland... will be submitting the following information collection request to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review and approval in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act: Ship's Stores Declaration...

  20. 78 FR 27984 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Ship's Store Declaration

    2013-05-13

    ... Activities: Ship's Store Declaration AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland... will be submitting the following information collection request to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review and approval in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act: Ship's Stores Declaration...

  1. Review and Analysis of Selected Items Management (SIM) Inventory Program Aboard US Surface Ships

    Axinto, Mark I; Giles, Michael S

    2005-01-01

    .... While SIM items constitute only a small portion of the ship's entire COSAL spare parts inventory, they are critical to the ship's material condition and to its preventive and corrective maintenance programs...

  2. REVIEW OF AGING DATA ON EPDM O-RINGS IN THE H1616 SHIPPING PACKAGE

    Skidmore, E.

    2012-03-27

    Currently, all H1616 shipping package containers undergo annual re-verification testing, including containment vessel leak testing to verify leak-tightness (<1 x 10{sup -7} ref cc/sec air) as per ANSI N14.5. The purpose of this literature review is to supplement aging studies currently being performed by SRNL on the EPDM O-rings to provide the technical basis for extending annual re-verification testing for the H1616 shipping package and to predict the life of the seals at bounding service conditions. The available data suggest that the EPDM O-rings can retain significant mechanical properties and sealing force at or below bounding service temperatures (169 F or 76 C) beyond the 1 year maintenance period. Interpretation of available data suggests that a service life of at least 2 years and potentially 4-6 years may be possible at bounding temperatures. Seal lifetimes at lower, more realistic temperatures will likely be longer. Being a hydrocarbon elastomer, EPDM O-rings may exhibit an inhibition period due to the presence of antioxidants. Once antioxidants are consumed, mechanical properties and seal performance could decline at a faster rate. Testing is being performed to validate the assumptions outlined in this report and to assess the long-term performance of O-ring seals under actual service conditions.

  3. 78 FR 27169 - Regulatory Flexibility Act Review

    2013-05-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration 49 CFR Chapter... parts 174, 177, 191, and 192... 2013 2014 Transportation of Natural and Other Gas by Pipeline; Annual... review of some of 49 CFR parts 106, 107, 171. The full analysis document for the hazardous materials...

  4. A Critical Review of the Literature on Firm-Level Theories on Ship Investment

    Sinem Celik Girgin; Thanasis Karlis; Hong-Oanh Nguyen

    2018-01-01

    The maritime industry is one of those rare industries that are both highly international integrated to international trade and also highly capital intensive dependent on substantial investment amount. In the literature, ship investments have not been widely examined through the firm-level investment theories to explore the link between investment level and asset price valuation. The general trend in the literature of ship investments is to analyse the relationship among the shipping markets (...

  5. 76 FR 38654 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

    2011-07-01

    ... consent for an interview. After the data collection phase, a multidisciplinary case review team (CRT) will... Post-Partum HIV- FIMR/HIV Maternal 300 1 1.5 infected Women. Interview Form. Daniel L. Holcomb, Reports...] Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention...

  6. 75 FR 65489 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

    2010-10-25

    ... children. The three environmental chemicals, Bisphenol A (BPA), phthalates, and mercury have been selected...] Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) publishes a list of information collection requests under review by the Office of Management and...

  7. Ship Lock Control System Optimization using GA, PSO and ABC: A Comparative Review

    Željko Kanović

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the comparison of some well-known global optimization techniques in optimization of an expert system controlling a ship locking process. The purpose of the comparison is to find the best algorithm for optimization of membership function parameters of fuzzy expert system for the ship lock control. Optimization was conducted in order to achieve better results in local distribution of ship arrivals, i.e. shorter waiting times for ships and less empty lockages. Particle swarm optimization, artificial bee colony optimization and genetic algorithm were compared. The results shown in this paper confirmed that all these procedures show similar results and provide overall improvement of ship lock operation performance, which speaks in favour of their application in similar transportation problem optimization.

  8. Matters of Responsibility for Marine Pollution under the Legislation of the Russian Federation. (Review of the Main Legislative Acts)

    Kolodkin, A.L.; Kulistikova, O.V.; Mokhova, E.M.

    1997-12-31

    International Northern Sea Route Programme, INSROP, is a five-year multilateral research programme. The main phase of the programme started in 1993. The three principal cooperating partners are research institutes in Russia, Japan and Norway. The aim of INSROP is to build up a knowledge base to provide foundation for a long-term planning and decision making by state agencies and private companies etc., for purposes of promoting rational decision making on the use of the Northern Sea route for transit and regional development. This report reviews the main legislative acts of former USSR and the Russian Federation, systematized by the responsibility types: (1) civil (property), (2) criminal and (3) administrative. It also discusses the issues of responsibility for marine pollution in accordance with the draft of the new Merchant Shipping Code of the Russian Federation, which contains sections on liability for damage caused by oil pollution from ships or by transport of hazardous and noxious substances by sea. 18 refs.

  9. 77 FR 6803 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

    2012-02-09

    ... pregnant during Health Questionnaire/ 750 1 20/60 NHANES 1999-2010. Consent Form. 3. State/local vital...-11CE] Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review The Centers for Disease Control and... about the pregnant women at the time of interview. Having information on their children's birth...

  10. 77 FR 37051 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

    2012-06-20

    ... Year 1 and Year 2. Informed Consent Form... 4,404 1 2/60 Non-Responder Interview. 792 1 5/60 Kimberly S...] Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention...-minute interview will be conducted with a 10% sample of non-responders (up to 792 individuals). In order...

  11. 75 FR 68360 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

    2010-11-05

    ...] Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention... screener questionnaire will be used to determine participation eligibility and obtain oral consent. Approximately 7,000 individuals will be approached and screened (through a 2-minute interview) for eligibility...

  12. 75 FR 6671 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

    2010-02-10

    ... programs implemented a new consent form. This form asked participants for permission for CDC to contact...] Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention... prevention behaviors, CDC will conduct telephone interviews of 425 Matter of Balance program participants six...

  13. 75 FR 24706 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

    2010-05-05

    ... parent consent 214 1 10/60 form. Child Clinic Visit--Case 107 1 1.5 children packet. Parent Clinic Visit...] Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention...; (4) a telephone interview focusing on pregnancy-related events and early life history (biological...

  14. 77 FR 12594 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

    2012-03-01

    ... Script. Refusal Questions Form.. 62 1 2/60 Individual Consent Form. 250 1 3/60 Contact Information Form... Screening 92 1 5/60 Survey. Informed Consent........ 50 1 1/60 Interview Questionnaire. 50 1 1 Network Size...-12-12BL] Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review The Agency for Toxic Substances and...

  15. 76 FR 55915 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

    2011-09-09

    ... type 2 diabetes DPRP Application Form........ 120 1 1 prevention programs. DPRP Evaluation Data... mechanism for recognizing organizations that deliver effective, community-based type 2 diabetes prevention...] Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention...

  16. 77 FR 76045 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

    2012-12-26

    ... case classification (disease staging system). Recommendations for revisions in the case definition were... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [30Day-13-0573] Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention...

  17. 77 FR 40363 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

    2012-07-09

    ... Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) among Patients Recently Discharged from Acute Care... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [30-Day-12-12II] Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention...

  18. 78 FR 40151 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

    2013-07-03

    ... resistant Staphylococcus aureus ABCs Case Report Form. ABCs Invasive Pneumococcal 10 41 10/60 Disease in... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [30-Day 13-13DB] Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention...

  19. 75 FR 20601 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

    2010-04-20

    .... Proposed Project Asthma Information Reporting System (AIRS)--New--Air Pollution and Respiratory Health... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [30Day-10-09CK] Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review The Centers for Disease Control and prevention...

  20. 78 FR 24422 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

    2013-04-25

    ... System (AIRS) (0920-0853, Expiration 06/30/2013)--Extension--Air Pollution and Respiratory Health Branch... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [30Day-13-0853] Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention...

  1. Review of interdisciplinary devices for detecting the quality of ship ballast water.

    Bakalar, Goran

    2014-01-01

    The results of the ship ballast water treatment systems neutralization need to be verified in a transparent and trustful way before the ship enters a port. Some researches and results, explained in this article, confirm a need for a good verification. If there is no good methodology agreed, then it would not be accepted the solution that the BWMC (Ballast Water Management Convention) 2004 did protect the sea environment in full meaning. The main problem of ballast neutralization are remaining microorganisms (algae blooms, bacteria) ≥10 and PROMETHEE II (Preference Ranking Organization Method for Enrichment Evaluations) and results were shown by D-Sight software projections.

  2. Ship ballast tanks a review from microbial corrosion and electrochemical point of view

    Heyer, A.; D'Souza, F.; Morales, C.F.L.; Ferrari, G.; Mol, J.M.C.; Wit, J.H.W. de

    2013-01-01

    Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion (MIC) is the term used for the phenomenon in which corrosion is initiated and/or accelerated by the activities of microorganisms. MIC is a very serious problem for the ship industry as it reduces structural lifetime in combination with safety risks for

  3. An Integrated Process and Digitalization Perspective on the Shipping Supply Chain – a Literature Review

    Feibert, Diana Cordes; Hansen, Mette Sanne; Jacobsen, Peter

    The maritime transport industry operates in an environment characterized by fluctuating fuel prices and low freight rates in a dynamic competitive market. Shipping companies must therefore adopt responsive supply chains whilst containing costs. This study investigates what extant literature can...... offer from an integrated digitalization and business process management perspective to enhance supply chain performance for shipping companies. The main themes identified in literature have been categorized according to their contributions to achieving responsive and efficient supply chains. Furthermore......, the drivers of enhanced supply chain performance have been identified and an agenda for future research is proposed. This study therefore contributes to the research field of maritime transport by enfolding extant literature and guiding decision makers in their efforts to achieve responsive and adaptive...

  4. Estimating Weight and Moments for Ship Control Design Technical Assessment Team Reviews

    2016-07-26

    2. Bow: The front of a ship. See Figure 1 & 2. Centerline: A vertical plane through the center of the hull. See Figure 2. Compartment Number: Often...service life allowances early in life, will be put into a critical status if the rate of consumption is too high. If a class has managed to reduce...an initially high rate of consumption to a moderate level it may be allowed to revert to a less critical status. Stability Status Definition 1 No

  5. Effects of biofouling development on drag forces of hull coatings for ocean-going ships: a review

    Lindholdt, Asger; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Olsen, S. M.

    2015-01-01

    This review presents a systematic overview of the literature and describes the experimental methods used to quantify the drag of hull coatings. It also summarizes the findings of hull coating's drag performance and identifies the main parameters impacting it. The advantages and disadvantages...... of the reported methods listed in this review provide an assessment of the most efficient methods to quantify the drag performance of hull coatings. This review determines that drag performance of hull coating technology varies depending on whether the coating condition is newly applied, after dynamic or static...... seawater exposure. The summarized data reveal that, while several methods have attempted to quantify drag performance of hull coatings, other methods must be explored in order to accurately measure the long-term drag performance of hull coatings in conditions mimicking those that ship hulls encounter...

  6. Civilian nuclear ships

    Oelgaard, P.L.

    1993-03-01

    This report contains a review of the information available on nuclear powered ships, built for civilian purposes. In the introduction a short discussion is given of the reasons for the limited use of nuclear ships for these purposes. In the second section a brief review is presented of data for the three experimental/merchant ships build by the United States, Germany and Japan, i.e. NS Savannah, NS Otto Hahn and NS Mutsu. In the third section the Soviet/Russian icebreaker NS Lenin is considered. Its design, operational experience and the introduction of a new nuclear propulsion plant is reviewed. In the fourth section the newer Soviet/Russian icebreakers with nuclear propulsion are considered. Finally design of the Soviet/Russian icebreaker transport/container ship NS Sevmorput is reviewed in the fifth section. The future Russian plans for nuclear vessels for the arctic waters are briefly discussed. (au)

  7. An Integrated Process and Digitalization Perspective on the Shipping Supply Chain – a Literature Review

    Feibert, Diana Cordes; Hansen, Mette Sanne; Jacobsen, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The maritime transport industry operates in an environment characterized by fluctuating fuel prices and low freight rates in a dynamic competitive market. Shipping companies must therefore adopt responsive supply chains whilst containing costs. This study investigates what extant literature can......, the drivers of enhanced supply chain performance have been identified and an agenda for future research is proposed. This study therefore contributes to the research field of maritime transport by enfolding extant literature and guiding decision makers in their efforts to achieve responsive and adaptive...

  8. 75 FR 6231 - Securities Act of 1933; Securities Exchange Act of 1934; Order Regarding Review of FASB...

    2010-02-08

    ...; Securities Exchange Act of 1934; Order Regarding Review of FASB Accounting Support Fee for 2010 Under Section...'s accounting support fee for calendar year 2010. In connection with its review, the Commission also... contributions from the accounting profession. After its review, the Commission determined that the 2010 annual...

  9. Shipping Information Pipeline

    Jensen, Thomas

    to creating a more efficient shipping industry, and a number of critical issues are identified. These include that shipments depend on shipping information, that shipments often are delayed due to issues with documentation, that EDI messages account for only a minor part of the needed information......This thesis applies theoretical perspectives from the Information Systems (IS) research field to propose how Information Technology (IT) can improve containerized shipping. This question is addressed by developing a set of design principles for an information infrastructure for sharing shipping...... information named the Shipping Information Pipeline (SIP). Review of the literature revealed that IS research prescribed a set of meta-design principles, including digitalization and digital collaboration by implementation of Inter-Organizational Systems based on Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) messages...

  10. July 2011 Memorandum: Improving EPA Review of Appalachian Surface Coal Mining Operations Under the Clean Water Act, National Environmental Policy Act, and the Environmental Justice Executive Order

    Memorandum: Improving EPA Review of Appalachian Surface Coal Mining Operations Under the Clean Water Act, National Environmental Policy Act, and the Environmental Justice Executive Order, July 21, 2011

  11. Book Review: A History of the Czechoslovak Ocean Shipping Company, 1948–1989: How a Small, Landlocked Country Ran Maritime Business During the Cold War

    Taudal Poulsen, René

    2016-01-01

    Review of: Lenka Krátká: A History of the Czechoslovak Ocean Shipping Company, 1948–1989: How a Small, Landlocked Country Ran Maritime Business During the Cold War. Stuttgart: Ibidem Verlag, 2015. x + 271 pp., tables, notes, bibliography. ISBN: 978-3-8382-0666-0, £23.90 (pbk).......Review of: Lenka Krátká: A History of the Czechoslovak Ocean Shipping Company, 1948–1989: How a Small, Landlocked Country Ran Maritime Business During the Cold War. Stuttgart: Ibidem Verlag, 2015. x + 271 pp., tables, notes, bibliography. ISBN: 978-3-8382-0666-0, £23.90 (pbk)....

  12. Deception studies manipulating centrally acting performance modifiers: a review.

    Williams, Emily L; Jones, Hollie S; Sparks, Sandy; Marchant, David C; Micklewright, Dominic; McNaughton, Lars R

    2014-07-01

    Athletes anticipatorily set and continuously adjust pacing strategies before and during events to produce optimal performance. Self-regulation ensures maximal effort is exerted in correspondence with the end point of exercise, while preventing physiological changes that are detrimental and disruptive to homeostatic control. The integration of feedforward and feedback information, together with the proposed brain's performance modifiers is said to be fundamental to this anticipatory and continuous regulation of exercise. The manipulation of central, regulatory internal and external stimuli has been a key focus within deception research, attempting to influence the self-regulation of exercise and induce improvements in performance. Methods of manipulating performance modifiers such as unknown task end point, deceived duration or intensity feedback, self-belief, or previous experience create a challenge within research, as although they contextualize theoretical propositions, there are few ecological and practical approaches which integrate theory with practice. In addition, the different methods and measures demonstrated in manipulation studies have produced inconsistent results. This review examines and critically evaluates the current methods of how specific centrally controlled performance modifiers have been manipulated, within previous deception studies. From the 31 studies reviewed, 10 reported positive effects on performance, encouraging future investigations to explore the mechanisms responsible for influencing pacing and consequently how deceptive approaches can further facilitate performance. The review acts to discuss the use of expectation manipulation not only to examine which methods of deception are successful in facilitating performance but also to understand further the key components used in the regulation of exercise and performance.

  13. Shipping Fairways

    Department of Homeland Security — Various shipping zones delineate activities and regulations for marine vessel traffic. Traffic lanes define specific traffic flow, while traffic separation zones...

  14. Review of Drug Quality and Security Act of 2013: The Drug Supply Chain Security Act (DSCSA

    Elona Gjini

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The Drug Supply Chain Security Act (DSCSA signed into law in November 27, 2013 by president Obama creates a uniform national standard for tracing drug products through the supply chain. The goal of DQSA is to enhance FDA’s ability to help protect consumers by detecting and removing potential dangerous products from the pharmaceutics distribution supply chain. A new electronic, interoperable system will identify and trace only prescription drugs in the finished form for human use while distributed in the United States. The purpose of this review was to shed light on a complex and complicated process that it will require cooperation between FDA and drug manufactures, wholesale drug distributors, repackagers and dispensers. The implementation of the DSCSA is based on several law requirements and FDA has developed a schedule with time frames for each of them to be executed over a 10-year period. From this review, FDA recommendations are provided through the FDA Guidance on Identifying Suspect Product document to help trading partners and provide information about the risk of suspect drugs entering the supply chain. Moreover, FDA organized on April 5-6, 2016 in Silver Spring, MD a public workshop to gather valuable feedback from stakeholders who shared their input about the implementation of the new electronic system and its requirements. By the end of 2023, a unified system will provide easier data exchange and less errors, and will increase the safety and security of the pharmaceutical distribution supply chain.   Type: Student Project

  15. Ship Vibrations

    Sørensen, Herman

    1997-01-01

    Methods for calculating natural frequencies for ship hulls and for plates and panels.Evaluation of the risk for inconvenient vibrations on board......Methods for calculating natural frequencies for ship hulls and for plates and panels.Evaluation of the risk for inconvenient vibrations on board...

  16. A review on the use of gas and steam turbine combined cycles as prime movers for large ships. Part I: Background and design

    Haglind, Fredrik

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to review the prospects of using combined cycles as prime movers for large ships, like, container ships, tankers and bulk carriers. The paper is divided into three parts of which this paper constitutes Part I. Here, the environmental and human health concerns of international shipping are outlined. The regulatory framework relevant for shipping and the design of combined cycles are discussed. In Part II, previous work and experience are reviewed, and an overview of the implications of introducing combined cycles as prime movers is included. In Part III, marine fuels are discussed and the pollutant emissions of gas turbines are compared with those of two-stroke, slow-speed diesel engines. Environmental effects of shipping include contributions to the formation of ground-level ozone, acidification, eutrophication and climate impact. Tightening environmental regulations limit the fuel sulphur content and pollutant emissions. For moderate live steam pressures, a vertical HRSG of drum-type mounted directly over the gas turbine, is suggested to be a viable configuration that minimizes ground floor and space requirements

  17. Approximate Method of Calculating Forces on Rudder During Ship Sailing on a Shipping Route

    K. Zelazny

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Service speed of a ship in real weather conditions is a basic design parameter. Forecasting of this speed at preliminary design stage is made difficult by the lack of simple but at the same accurate models of forces acting upon a ship sailing on a preset shipping route. The article presents a model for calculating forces and moment on plane rudder, useful for forecasting of ship service speed at preliminary stages of ship design.

  18. Test Ship

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The U. S. Navy dedicated the decommissioned Spruance Class destroyer ex-PAUL F. FOSTER (EDD 964), Test Ship, primarily for at sea demonstration of short range weapon...

  19. A literature review of risk assessment of ship-FPSO collisions

    Wang, Ge; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews the state of the art of the research and analysis on the risks of collision with offshore installations. The focus is placed on: existing criteria, FPSO collision accident, design scenarios for FPSO collision, mechanics of collision incidents, and consequences. The content...

  20. 77 FR 29982 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Davis Bacon Act-Price Adjustment...

    2012-05-21

    ...; Submission for OMB Review; Davis Bacon Act-Price Adjustment (Actual Method) AGENCY: Department of Defense... previously approved information collection requirement concerning the Davis-Bacon Act price adjustment... Bacon Act-Price Adjustment (Actual Method), by any of the following methods: Regulations.gov : http...

  1. A document review to characterize Atomic International SNAP fuels shipped to INEL 1966--1973

    Wahnschaffe, S.D.; Lords, R.E.; Kneff, D.W.; Nagel, W.E.; Pearlman, H.; Schaubert, V.J.

    1995-09-01

    This report provides the results of a document search and review study to obtain information on the spent fuels for the following six Nuclear Auxiliary Power (SNAP) reactor cores now stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL): SNAP-2 Experimental Reactor, SNAP-2 Development Reactor, SNAP-10A Ground Test Reactor, SNAP-8 Experimental Reactor, SNAP-8 Development Reactor, and Shield Test Reactor. The report also covers documentation on SNAP fuel materials from four in-pile materials tests: NAA-82-1, NAA-115-2, NAA-117-1, and NAA-121. Pieces of these fuel materials are also stored at INEL as part of the SNAP fuel shipments

  2. 77 FR 49797 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

    2012-08-17

    ... social marketing campaigns under the umbrella of the larger Act Against AIDS campaign. The target... Project Formative Research for the Development of CDC's Act Against AIDS Social Marketing Campaigns... period to develop various social marketing campaigns aimed at increasing HIV testing rates, increasing...

  3. Potential impacts of shipping noise on Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins and implications for regulation and mitigation: a review.

    Li, Songhai; Liu, Mingming; Dong, Lijun; Dong, Jianchen; Wang, Ding

    2018-01-09

    Shipping noise is a widespread and relatively loud sound source among human-induced underwater sounds. The impacts of shipping noise are of special concern for Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis), as they inhabit shallow and nearshore habitats and are highly dependent on sound for survival. This study synthesizes our current understanding of the potential impacts of shipping noise on Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins combined with knowledge on sound production and hearing of these animals and the impacts of noise on other whales and dolphins. For further protection and management of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins and their habitats, shipping noise should be regulated and mitigated to modify sound from ships, to reduce overall noise levels, and to set more marine protected areas (MPAs) covering most Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin habitats with seasonal and geographical restrictions to avoid ensonification of shipping noise. The emphasis for future research should be on obtaining more baseline information about the population distribution, sound production, hearing capabilities at the population level, behavior, and stress hormones of the humpback dolphins under different noise conditions or under different noise-producing activities, and/or in high-noise areas compared with relatively quiet areas, and the noise characteristics of ships of different types, sizes, and speeds. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  4. Fast ship

    Keuning, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    The invention concerns a ship whereby the hull and the mechanical propulsion device are designed such that the Froude number is larger than 0.5. In the aft ship the hull has a bottom with V-shaped bottom surfaces with a deadrise angle that is less than 40 degrees and the hull has substantially vertical sides. In the hull are a passenger compartment and a trim tank. The trim tank volume is such that the weight of a filled trim tank is more than 30 % of the weight of displacement of the hull wi...

  5. SRTC criticality safety technical review: Phase 1 criticality analysis for the 9972-9975 family of shipping casks: (SRT-CMA-940003)

    Rathbun, R.

    1994-01-01

    Review of SRT-CMA-940003, ''Phase I Criticality Analysis For The 9972-9975 Family Of Shipping Casks (U). (SRT-CMA-940003).'' January 22, 1994, has been performed by the SRTC Applied Physics Group. The NCSE is a criticality assessment of the 9972-9975 family of shipping casks. This work is a follow-on of a previous criticality safety evaluation, with the differences between this and the previous evaluation are that now wall tolerances are modeled and more sophisticated analytical methods are applied. The NCSE under review concludes that, with one exception, the previously specified plutonium and uranium mass limits for 9972-9975 family of shipping casks do ensure that WSRC Nuclear Criticality Safety Manual requirements (ref. 1) are satisfied. The one exception is that the plutonium mass limit for the 9974 cask had to be reduced from 4.4 to 4.3 kg. In contrast, the 7.5 kg uranium mass limit for the 9974 cask was raised to 14.5 kg, making the uranium mass identical for all casks in this family. This technical review consisted of an independent check of the methods and models employed, application of ANSI/ANS 8.1 and 8.15, and verification of WSRC Nuclear Criticality Safety Manual procedures

  6. Travelers' Health: Cruise Ship Travel

    ... and territories). Zika virus was first reported in Brazil in 2015 and subsequently spread across the Caribbean ... 11. Mouchtouri VA, Rudge JW. Legionnaires’ disease in hotels and passenger ships: a systematic review of evidence, ...

  7. 75 FR 17410 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

    2010-04-06

    ... for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). [[Page... Health Act, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has been at the forefront..., NIOSH employs engineers and scientists with experience and expertise in mine safety and health issues...

  8. 75 FR 70929 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

    2010-11-19

    ... national anti-terrorism policies and assigned specific missions to federal departments and agencies. The... respond to acts of biological, chemical, or radiological terrorism and other public health emergencies... equipment inventories. The collection of personal identifiable information for the purpose of communication...

  9. 77 FR 70781 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

    2012-11-27

    ... comments should be received within 30 days of this notice. Proposed Project Workplace Violence Prevention... prevention programs. However, little is understood about how effective these laws are in reducing violence... facility compliance with the New Jersey Violence Prevention in Health Care Facilities Act, (2) to evaluate...

  10. The Education Act and Excluded Children. Policy Review.

    Hodgkin, Rachel

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the negative assumptions and outcomes of provisions in Britain's Education Act of 1997 dealing with expulsion of students. Presents some statistics on excluded children; discusses likely outcomes such as increased delinquency, parent-school acrimony, and disparity in schools. Describes the role of teachers' unions in drafting the bill…

  11. 76 FR 5377 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

    2011-01-31

    ... Budget (OMB) in compliance with the Paperwork Reduction Act (44 U.S.C. Chapter 35). To request a copy of... Project Developing a Sexual Consent Norms Instrument--New--National Center for Injury Prevention and... violence prevention strategies are increasingly focusing on promoting positive behavioral norms such as...

  12. 75 FR 37445 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

    2010-06-29

    ... Budget (OMB) in compliance with the Paperwork Reduction Act (44 U.S.C. Chapter 35). To request a copy of... HIV testing, socio-cultural norms, and perceived behavioral control factors that influence HIV testing... identify variables for a survey that will examine attitudes towards HIV testing, socio-cultural norms, and...

  13. 77 FR 51807 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

    2012-08-27

    ... Cervical Cancer Mortality Prevention Act of 1990. Screening services include clinical breast examinations... Minimum Data Elements (MDEs) for the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP... screening and early detection tests for breast and cervical cancer. Mammography is extremely valuable as an...

  14. 76 FR 70729 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

    2011-11-15

    ... each of the four grantees. The surveys will capture information from the program's target audience to... Evaluation of Enhanced Implementation of the ``Learn the Signs. Act Early.'' Campaign in 4 Target Sites,--New... effectively reaching the target populations. The evaluation will be accomplished by a pre-implementation...

  15. 78 FR 14554 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

    2013-03-06

    ... will focus on specific subpopulations at greatest risk for HIV infection. The target audiences will... Project Formative Research for the Development of CDC's Act Against AIDS Social Marketing Campaigns... period to develop various social marketing campaigns aimed at increasing HIV testing rates, increasing...

  16. 76 FR 23818 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

    2011-04-28

    ... Project Evaluating Act Against AIDS Social Marketing Campaign Phases Targeting Consumers--New--National... concurrently. Each phase of the campaign will use mass media and direct-to-consumer channels to deliver HIV... effectiveness of these social marketing messages aimed at increasing HIV awareness and delivering HIV prevention...

  17. 78 FR 9699 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

    2013-02-11

    ... Budget (OMB) in compliance with the Paperwork Reduction Act (44 U.S.C. Chapter 35). To request a copy of... Officer, Office of Management and Budget, Washington, DC 20503 or by fax to (202) 395-5806. Written... through advertisements in laboratory trade publications, at professional meetings, and possibly through...

  18. 75 FR 25859 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

    2010-05-10

    ... drinking water will also be examined: Parkinson's disease, kidney failure and other severe kidney diseases... Budget (OMB) in compliance with the Paperwork Reduction Act (44 U.S.C. Chapter 35). To request a copy of... comparison group. As required by law, health surveys will also be mailed to those who registered with the...

  19. 78 FR 35635 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

    2013-06-13

    ... the cognitive demands that affect a miner's ability to do his or her job. To be consistent with... Systems Integration Needs in Mining--New--National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH... 91-173 as amended by Public Law 95-164 (Federal Mine Safety and Health Act of 1977), and Public Law...

  20. Towards a nuclear merchant ship

    Nicholson, R.L.R.; Llewelyn, G.I.W.; Farmer, A.A.

    1976-01-01

    The operation of nuclear merchant ships is likely to be attended by a number of constraints and requirements. Not all of these can be fully resolved until such ships come into use and the necessary experience and confidence have been acquired. But the timing of commercial introduction, if it comes about, will depend on the relative economics of nuclear versus fossil fuel propulsion, and the differences in turn depend in part on the operating costs particular to nuclear ships. A review of operation aspects is essential not only to commercial appraisal; each country whose trade may be carried in nuclear ships - whether it will build such ships or not - will have occasion to give some attention to the problems. It is an international problem and is, as noted later, being considered internationally. This paper; i) reviews some of the operational aspects as seen in the U.K.; ii) summarizes views received by the Nuclear Merchant Ship Unit (NMSU) from U.K. shipping, shipbuilding and nuclear industries on the prospects of a U.K. nuclear merchant ship. (author)

  1. Ship's barbers

    Unknown

    2003-01-01

    Showing two sailors having their hair cut (? one is possibly being shaved) on board ship. Three other sailors can be seen standing on the right-hand side of the photograph. The photograph is from an album inscribed 'H.M.S. Lancaster; Mediterranean Photographic Album: Diary of Events and Important Places Visited during the Commission 1910-1912' on the cover. This album was the property of Sydney Harold Liddle.

  2. A Review of Policies, Acts and Initiatives in Rice Innovation System ...

    A review of rice policies, acts and initiatives in Nigeria is presented under ... World Bank, World Trade Organization, and International Monetary Fund (IMF) ... the desirable political will by government and sound agricultural rice policy are ...

  3. Letters initiating Clean Water Act 404(c) review of mining at Pebble deposit

    Correspondence between EPA and the Pebble Limited Partnership and the State of Alaska initiating review under section 404(c) of the Clean Water Act of potential adverse environmental effects associated with mining the Pebble deposit in southwest Alaska.

  4. 19 CFR 351.218 - Sunset reviews under section 751(c) of the Act.

    2010-04-01

    ... under section 751(c) of the Act. (a) Introduction. The URAA added a new procedure, commonly referred to... paragraph (d)(3) of this section from respondent interested parties accounting on average for more than 50... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sunset reviews under section 751(c) of the Act...

  5. Effects of ship-induced waves on aquatic ecosystems.

    Gabel, Friederike; Lorenz, Stefan; Stoll, Stefan

    2017-12-01

    Most larger water bodies worldwide are used for navigation, and the intensity of commercial and recreational navigation is expected to further increase. Navigation profoundly affects aquatic ecosystems. To facilitate navigation, rivers are trained and developed, and the direct effects of navigation include chemical and biological impacts (e.g., inputs of toxic substances and dispersal of non-native species, respectively). Furthermore, propagating ships create hydrodynamic alterations, often simply summarized as waves. Although ship-induced waves are recognized as influential stressors, knowledge on their effects is poorly synthesized. We present here a review on the effects of ship-induced waves on the structure, function and services of aquatic ecosystems based on more than 200 peer reviewed publications and technical reports. Ship-induced waves act at multiple organizational levels and different spatial and temporal scales. All the abiotic and biotic components of aquatic ecosystems are affected, from the sediment and nutrient budget to the planktonic, benthic and fish communities. We highlight how the effects of ship-induced waves cascade through ecosystems and how different effects interact and feed back into the ecosystem finally leading to altered ecosystem services and human health effects. Based on this synthesis of wave effects, we discuss strategies for mitigation. This may help to develop scientifically based and target-oriented management plans for navigational waters that optimize abiotic and biotic integrity and their ecosystem services and uses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. 75 FR 12753 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

    2010-03-17

    ... United States and the volume of laboratory tests available certainly warrant such a model. The Laboratory... or studies demonstrating practice effectiveness in the peer reviewed literature, but that they... literature. Healthcare organizations and facilities (laboratories, hospitals, clinics) will have the...

  7. 76 FR 63924 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

    2011-10-14

    ...), National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP), Centers for Disease... review and/or onsite investigations by TB control staff. The purpose of this information collection...

  8. Geothermal Induced Seismicity National Environmental Policy Act Review

    Levine, Aaron L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cook, Jeffrey J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Beckers, Koenraad J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Young, Katherine R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-04

    In 2016, the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM) contracted with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to assist the BLM in developing and building upon tools to better understand and evaluate induced seismicity caused by geothermal projects. This review of NEPA documents for four geothermal injection or EGS projects reveals the variety of approaches to analyzing and mitigating induced seismicity. With the exception of the Geysers, where induced seismicity has been observed and monitored for an extended period of time due to large volumes of water being piped in to recharge the hydrothermal reservoir, induced seismicity caused by geothermal projects is a relative new area of study. As this review highlights, determining the level of mitigation required for induced seismic events has varied based on project location, when the review took place, whether the project utilized the International Energy Agency or DOE IS protocols, and the federal agency conducting the review. While the NEPA reviews were relatively consistent for seismic monitoring and historical evaluation of seismic events near the project location, the requirements for public outreach and mitigation for induced seismic events once stimulation has begun varied considerably between the four projects. Not all of the projects were required to notify specific community groups or local government entities before beginning the project, and only one of the reviews specifically stated the project proponent would hold meetings with the public to answer questions or address concerns.

  9. 78 FR 47699 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

    2013-08-06

    ... risk management practices in these non-hospital settings. In a small study, the National Institute for... on research-to-practice principles and will be assisted by a strong network of dental professional... (CDC) publishes a list of information collection requests under review by the Office of Management and...

  10. 77 FR 75167 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

    2012-12-19

    ... (NACCHO) and Knowledge Networks will disseminate the study results to the public through reports prepared for/by CDC, NACCHO and Knowledge Networks and through peer-reviewed journal articles and related... draw a sample of participants has many advantages. First, because the panel is already recruited...

  11. 78 FR 307 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

    2013-01-03

    ... (CDC) publishes a list of information collection requests under review by the Office of Management and.../AIDS Strategic Plan. (3) reporting has been changed from quarterly to semiannual. (4) the number of... how these efforts have contributed to a reduction in HIV transmission; (2) improve ease of reporting...

  12. 78 FR 33096 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

    2013-06-03

    ... Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Background and Brief Description This project involves a... the participant prior to the testing session. We also included the time needed to review the informed... is to study the natural history of lung disease. For this study, we plan on interviewing and...

  13. 75 FR 6670 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

    2010-02-10

    ... (CDC) publishes a list of information collection requests under review by the Office of Management and... application of Federal regulations. The regulations in 42 Part 70 were developed to facilitate Federal action... permit issued by State health authority. 42 CFR 70.4 Report by the master of a Master of a vessel or 1...

  14. 78 FR 4149 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

    2013-01-18

    ... (CDC) publishes a list of information collection requests under review by the Office of Management and... forms based on the type of respondent: an ill traveler, or the master of a vessel or conveyance engaged... application of Federal regulations. The regulations in 42 Part 70 were developed to facilitate Federal action...

  15. 78 FR 20920 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

    2013-04-08

    ... such as medicines taken, food eaten, hobbies, jobs, etc. In addition, ATSDR asks questions on... manner. The benefits to using the EI Generic Clearance include submission of a standardized OMB review...., breathing, eating, touching), and number of other sources of the chemical(s) (e.g., products used, jobs...

  16. 76 FR 32212 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

    2011-06-03

    ... (CDC) publishes a list of information collection requests under review by the Office of Management and....gov . Send written comments to CDC Desk Officer, Office of Management and Budget, Washington, DC or by... to fill funding gaps in programs that deal with the leading causes of death and disability. Block...

  17. 76 FR 65512 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

    2011-10-21

    ... (CDC) publishes a list of information collection requests under review by the Office of Management and....gov . Send written comments to CDC Desk Officer, Office of Management and Budget, Washington, DC 20503... parents; brand ambassadors; educators; school leadership; program implementers; community representatives...

  18. 77 FR 11539 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

    2012-02-27

    ... (CDC) publishes a list of information collection requests under review by the Office of Management and... . Send written comments to CDC Desk Officer, Office of Management and Budget, Washington, DC 20503 or by... where participants include: Middle school students age 11 to 14 years; middle school parents; brand...

  19. The Great Whale review and the federal government's disappearing act

    Fenge, T.

    1991-01-01

    After considerable political and legal pressure, the Canadian and Quebec governments, plus the electric utility Hydro-Quebec, agreed to a global review and environmental assessment of the Great Whale hydroelectric project in northern Quebec. The assessment is being handled by five committees, each covering distinct areas of geography and responsibility. The initial task of the review committees was to determine the scope of the assessment, and 23 days of public hearings were held in northern and southern Quebec and on the Belcher Islands. The federal government's absence from the scoping hearings was a curious development, since federal agencies normally participate actively in such hearings. A federal guidelines order upheld recently by the Canadian Supreme Court requires federal participation in environmental assessment processes. The Great Whale project affects areas of federal jurisdiction as well as areas outside Quebec, and federal expertise in such matters as the marine environment is crucial in airing environmental issues related to the project. Interviews with federal officials on the reasons for federal absence are summarized. It is concluded that the federal agencies did not really regard scoping hearings as part of the public review, and that this review does not start until hearings begin on the environmental impact statement

  20. A Review of Modeling Pedagogies: Pedagogical Functions, Discursive Acts, and Technology in Modeling Instruction

    Campbell, Todd; Oh, Phil Seok; Maughn, Milo; Kiriazis, Nick; Zuwallack, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    The current review examined modeling literature in top science education journals to better understand the pedagogical functions of modeling instruction reported over the last decade. Additionally, the review sought to understand the extent to which different modeling pedagogies were employed, the discursive acts that were identified as important,…

  1. 75 FR 19335 - Premium Review Process; Request for Comments Regarding Section 2794 of the Public Health Service Act

    2010-04-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary 45 CFR Parts 146 and 148 Premium Review Process; Request for Comments Regarding Section 2794 of the Public Health Service Act AGENCY..., which added Section 2794 to the Public Health Service Act (the PHS Act). Section 2794 of the PHS Act...

  2. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) for Chronic Pain: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses.

    Hughes, Laura S; Clark, Jodi; Colclough, Janette A; Dale, Elizabeth; McMillan, Dean

    2017-06-01

    Chronic pain places a burden on individuals and the economy. Although there is evidence for the effectiveness of cognitive-behavior therapy, it is recognized that the effects are limited. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), which aims to increase valued action in the presence of pain, has been suggested as an alternative approach. The objective of this review was to determine the clinical effectiveness of ACT for chronic pain in adults when compared with control conditions and other active treatments. The searches of this systematic review were conducted in the Cochrane library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL Plus (EBSCO), and PsycINFO. Grey literature, reference list, and reverse citation searches were also completed. Eleven trials were included. ACT was favored over controls (no alternative intervention or treatment as usual). Significant, medium to large effect sizes were found for measures of pain acceptance and psychological flexibility, which are typically considered processes of ACT. Significant small to medium effect sizes were found for measures of functioning, anxiety, and depression. Measures of pain intensity and quality of life were not significantly different than zero. Generally effect sizes were smaller at follow-up. ACT was more clinically effective than controls on a number of outcomes. It is possible that methodological limitations, some of which are common to psychological trials, may have led to overestimated effects. Only a few studies compared ACT to active treatments and while the evidence is promising for ACT in the treatment of chronic pain, further methodologically robust trials are required.

  3. Feasibility Study on Nuclear Propulsion Ship according to Economic Evaluation

    Gil, Youngmi; Yoo, Seongjin; Oh, June; Byun, Yoonchul; Woo, Ilguk [Daewoo Shipbuilding and Marine Engineering Co., Ltd, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jiho; Choi, Suhn [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    The use of nuclear ships has been extending to the icebreaker, the deep-water exploration ship, and the floating nuclear power plant. Prior to developing the new ship, the relevant regulations need to be considered. In this study, we reviewed the nuclear ship-related regulations. In addition, economic value is one of the most important factors which should be considered in the pre-design phase. To evaluate the economics of the nuclear ship, we calculated Capital Expenditure (abbreviated as CAPEX) and Operation Expenditure (abbreviated as OPEX) for various types of ships. We reviewed the nuclear ship-related regulations and evaluated the economics of the nuclear ship compared to the diesel ship. The calculation result shows that economic feasibility of the nuclear ship depends on the oil price as well as the cost of the nuclear reactor.

  4. AUTOCASK (AUTOmatic Generation of 3-D CASK models). A microcomputer based system for shipping cask design review analysis

    Gerhard, M.A.; Sommer, S.C.

    1995-04-01

    AUTOCASK (AUTOmatic Generation of 3-D CASK models) is a microcomputer-based system of computer programs and databases developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for the structural analysis of shipping casks for radioactive material. Model specification is performed on the microcomputer, and the analyses are performed on an engineering workstation or mainframe computer. AUTOCASK is based on 80386/80486 compatible microcomputers. The system is composed of a series of menus, input programs, display programs, a mesh generation program, and archive programs. All data is entered through fill-in-the-blank input screens that contain descriptive data requests

  5. AUTOCASK (AUTOmatic Generation of 3-D CASK models). A microcomputer based system for shipping cask design review analysis

    Gerhard, M.A.; Sommer, S.C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1995-04-01

    AUTOCASK (AUTOmatic Generation of 3-D CASK models) is a microcomputer-based system of computer programs and databases developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for the structural analysis of shipping casks for radioactive material. Model specification is performed on the microcomputer, and the analyses are performed on an engineering workstation or mainframe computer. AUTOCASK is based on 80386/80486 compatible microcomputers. The system is composed of a series of menus, input programs, display programs, a mesh generation program, and archive programs. All data is entered through fill-in-the-blank input screens that contain descriptive data requests.

  6. Potential risks of nuclear ships

    Oelgaard, P.L.

    1994-07-01

    This report represents an attempt to evaluate the potential risks of nuclear ships. Firstly reasons are given why nuclear ship accidents will not lead to accidents of the magnitude of the Chernobyl accident. This is due to much lower content of radioactive material and to different reactor designs. Next a review is given of the types of accidents which have actually occurred. Of these the reactor accidents which may lead to serious consequences for the crew and the environment are considered further. These are reactivity accidents and loss of coolant accidents. In addition the long term risks of sunken nuclear ships and sea disposed reactor compartments etc. are also discussed. Based on available accident data an attempt is made to estimate the probability of serious nuclear ship accidents. (au)

  7. Review of a model to assess stranding of juvenile salmon by ship wakes along the Lower Columbia River, Oregon and Washington

    Kock, Tobias J.; Plumb, John M.; Adams, Noah S.

    2013-01-01

    Long period wake waves from deep draft vessels have been shown to strand small fish, particularly juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tschawytcha, in the lower Columbia River (LCR). The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers is responsible for maintaining the shipping channel in the LCR and recently conducted dredging operations to deepen the shipping channel from an authorized depth of 40 feet(ft) to an authorized depth of 43 ft (in areas where rapid shoaling was expected, dredging operations were used to increase the channel depth to 48 ft). A model was developed to estimate stranding probabilities for juvenile salmon under the 40- and 43-ft channel scenarios, to determine if channel deepening was going to affect wake stranding (Assessment of potential stranding of juvenile salmon by ship wakes along the Lower Columbia River under scenarios of ship traffic and channel depth: Report prepared for the Portland District U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland, Oregon). The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers funded the U.S. Geological Survey to review this model. A total of 30 review questions were provided to guide the review process, and these questions are addressed in this report. In general, we determined that the analyses by Pearson (2011) were appropriate given the data available. We did identify two areas where additional information could have been provided: (1) a more thorough description of model diagnostics and model selection would have been useful for the reader to better understand the model framework; and (2) model uncertainty should have been explicitly described and reported in the document. Stranding probability estimates between the 40- and 43-ft channel depths were minimally different under most of the scenarios that were examined by Pearson (2011), and a discussion of the effects of uncertainty given these minimal differences would have been useful. Ultimately, however, a stochastic (or simulation) model would provide the best opportunity to illustrate

  8. Wind Forces on Container Ships

    Andersen, Ingrid Marie Vincent

    2012-01-01

    An investigation of the wind forces acting on a 9,000+ TEU container ship has been carried out through a series of wind tunnel tests. It was investigated how the wind forces depend on the container configuration on the deck using a 1:450 scale model and a series of appropriate container...... are presented as nondimensional coefficients. It is concluded, that the measured forces and moment depend on the container configuration on deck, and the results may provide a general idea of how the magnitude of the wind forces is affected by a given container stacking configuration on a similar container ship....

  9. 47 CFR 80.59 - Compulsory ship inspections.

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compulsory ship inspections. 80.59 Section 80... STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Applications and Licenses § 80.59 Compulsory ship inspections. (a) Inspection of ships subject to the Communications Act or the Safety Convention. (1) The FCC will not normally...

  10. Green Shipping Practices of Shipping Firms

    Young-Tae Chang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this study is to provide an empirical research using structural equation modeling to identify the factors that motivate shipping firms to adopt green shipping practices (GSP. Furthermore, it also examines if adopting GSP can enhance the shipping firms’ environmental and productivity performance. The findings show that shipping firms are motivated to adopt GSP mostly by industrial norms set by institutionalized associations. They are also motivated by customers’ demand for environmental friendliness and their own strategy to make good image. Unlike our expectation, government regulations and international environmental laws are not significant in influencing shipping firms to adopt GSP. Moreover, adoption of green shipping practices can improve the environmental and productivity performance of the shipping firms.

  11. 75 FR 44724 - Agricultural Bioterrorism Protection Act of 2002; Biennial Review and Republication of the Select...

    2010-07-29

    ... statutory mandate, PPQ and VS each convene separate interagency working groups in order to review the lists... responsibility for implementing the provisions of the Act within the Department of Agriculture (USDA). Veterinary Services (VS) select agents and toxins, listed in 9 CFR 121.3, are those that have been determined to have...

  12. 78 FR 13405 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Health Insurance Market Rules; Rate Review

    2013-02-27

    ... Parts 144, 147, 150, et al. Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Health Insurance Market Rules... Insurance Market Rules; Rate Review AGENCY: Department of Health and Human Services. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This final rule implements provisions related to fair health insurance premiums, guaranteed...

  13. Green shipping management

    Lun, Y H Venus; Wong, Christina W Y; Cheng, T C E

    2016-01-01

    This book presents theory-driven discussion on the link between implementing green shipping practices (GSP) and shipping firm performance. It examines the shipping industry’s challenge of supporting economic growth while enhancing environmental performance. Consisting of nine chapters, the book covers topics such as the conceptualization of green shipping practices (GSPs), measurement scales for evaluating GSP implementation, greening capability, greening and performance relativity (GPR), green management practice, green shipping network, greening capacity, and greening propensity. In view of the increasing quest for environment protection in the shipping sector, this book provides a good reference for firms to understand and evaluate their capability in carrying out green operations on their shipping activities.

  14. Time-Domain Method for Computing Forces and Moments Acting on Three Dimensional Surface-Piercing Ship Hulls with Forward Speed.

    1980-09-01

    where 4BD represents the instantaneous effect of the body, while OFS represents the free surface disturbance generated by the body over all previous...acceleration boundary condition. This deter- mines the time-derivative of the body-induced component of the flow, 4BD (as well as OBD through integration...panel with uniform density ei acting over a surface of area Ai is replaced by a single point source with strength s i(t) - A i(a i(t n ) + (t-t n ) G( td

  15. Ship Creek bioassessment investigations

    Cushing, C.E.; Mueller, R.P.; Murphy, M.T.

    1995-06-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) was asked by Elmendorf Air Force Base (EAFB) personnel to conduct a series of collections of macroinvertebrates and sediments from Ship Creek to (1) establish baseline data on these populations for reference in evaluating possible impacts from Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) activities at two operable units, (2) compare current population indices with those found by previous investigations in Ship Creek, and (3) determine baseline levels of concentrations of any contaminants in the sediments associated with the macroinvertebrates. A specific suite of indices established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was requested for the macroinvertebrate analyses; these follow the Rapid Bioassessment Protocol developed by Plafkin et al. (1989) and will be described. Sediment sample analyses included a Microtox bioassay and chemical analysis for contaminants of concern. These analyses included, volatile organic compounds, total gasoline and diesel hydrocarbons (EPA method 8015, CA modified), total organic carbon, and an inductive-coupled plasma/mass spectrometry (ICP/MS) metals scan. Appendix A reports on the sediment analyses. The Work Plan is attached as Appendix B.

  16. The shipping man adventures in ship finance

    McCleery, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    When restless New York City hedge fund manager Robert Fairchild watches the Baltic Dry Cargo Index plunge 97%, registering an all-time high and a 25-year low within the span of just six months, he decides to buy a ship. Immediately fantasizing about naming a vessel after his wife, carrying a string of worry beads and being able to introduce himself as a "shipowner" at his upcoming college reunion, Fairchild immediately embarks on an odyssey into the most exclusive, glamorous and high stakes business in the world. From pirates off the coast of Somalia and on Wall Street to Greek and Norwegian shipping magnates, the education of Robert Fairchild is an expensive one. In the end, he loses his hedge fund, but he gains a life - as a Shipping Man. Part fast paced financial thriller, part ship finance text book, The Shipping Man is 310 pages of required reading for anyone with an interest in capital formation for shipping.

  17. Mathematical Ship Modeling for Control Applications

    Perez, Tristan; Blanke, Mogens

    2002-01-01

    In this report, we review the models for describing the motion of a ship in four degrees of freedom suitable for control applications. We present the hydrodynamic models of two ships: a container and a multi-role naval vessel. The models are based on experimental results in the four degrees...

  18. Ship-Source Oil Pollution Fund annual report, 1991-1992

    1992-01-01

    The activities of the Ship-Source Oil Pollution Fund (SOPC) are reviewed for the fiscal year commencing 1 April 1991 and ending 31 March 1992. Topics covered include the Canadian compensation regime, activities of the International Oil Pollution Compensation Fund (to which the SOPC contributes), amendments to the Canada Shipping Act, United States legislation, the Haven incident, and the status of the fund. Twenty-three oil spill incidents are described along with actions taken, if any, by the SOPC and details of any claims paid by the SOPC or the international fund. 4 figs., 1 tab

  19. Nuclear ship engineering simulator

    Itoh, Yasuyoshi; Kusunoki, Tsuyoshi; Hashidate, Koji

    1991-01-01

    The nuclear ship engineering simulator, which analyzes overall system response of nuclear ship numerically, is now being developed by JAERI as an advanced design tool with the latest computer technology in software and hardware. The development of the nuclear ship engineering simulator aims at grasping characteristics of a reactor plant under the situation generated by the combination of ocean, a ship hull and a reactor. The data from various tests with the nuclear ship 'MUTSU' will be used for this simulator to modulate and verify its functions of reproducing realistic response of nuclear ship, and then the simulator will be utilized for the research and development of advanced marine reactors. (author)

  20. 78 FR 18586 - Registration Review; Pesticide Dockets Opened for Review and Comment and Other Docket Acts

    2013-03-27

    ...With this document, EPA is opening the public comment period for several registration reviews. Registration review is EPA's periodic review of pesticide registrations to ensure that each pesticide continues to satisfy the statutory standard for registration, that is, the pesticide can perform its intended function without unreasonable adverse effects on human health or the environment. Registration review dockets contain information that will assist the public in understanding the types of information and issues that the Agency may consider during the course of registration reviews. Through this program, EPA is ensuring that each pesticide's registration is based on current scientific and other knowledge, including its effects on human health and the environment. This document also announces the Agency's intent not to open registration review dockets for iodomethane or ethametsulfuron-methyl. Iodomethane and ethametsulfuron-methyl are undergoing phase-outs of all U.S. pesticide registrations. The cancellations of the iodomethane end use registrations became effective on December 31, 2012, and the cancellation of the sole technical product registration will become effective on December 1, 2015. The cancellations of all ethametsulfuron-methyl product registrations became effective on February 20, 2013. Therefore, iodomethane and ethametsulfuron-methyl are not scheduled for review under the registration review program. This document also announces the registration review case closures for the pesticides alkyl amine hydrochloride (case 3051) and halofenozide (case 7425), and the availability of their respective Case Closure Documents. The cancellation of all alkyl amine hydrochloride registrations became effective on October 17, 2012. The cancellation of all U.S. halofenozide registrations became effective December 21, 2012. These case closure are being announced herein with no comment period.

  1. Guide to ship sanitation

    2011-01-01

    "The third edition of the Guide to Ship Sanitation presents the public health significance of ships in terms of disease and highlights the importance of applying appropriate control measures"--Back cover...

  2. Recycling of merchant ships

    Magdalena Klopott

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article briefly outlines the issues concerning ship recycling. It highlights ships' high value as sources of steel scrap and non-ferrous metals, without omitting the fact that they also contain a range of hazardous substances. Moreover, the article also focuses on basic ship demolition methods and their environmental impact, as well as emphasizes the importance of “design for ship recycling” philosophy.

  3. Potential of biofuels for shipping. Final Report

    Florentinus, A.; Hamelinck, C.; Van den Bos, A.; Winkel, R.; Cuijpers, M. [Ecofys Netherlands, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2012-01-15

    Biofuels could be one of the options to realize a lower carbon intensity in the propulsion of ships and also possibly reduce the effect of ship emissions on local air quality. Therefore, EMSA, the European Maritime Safety Agency, is evaluating if and how biofuels could be used in the shipping sector as an alternative fuel. To determine the potential of biofuels for ships, a clearer picture is needed on technical and organizational limitations of biofuels in ships, both on board of the ship as in the fuel supply chain to the ship. Economic and sustainability analysis of biofuels should be included in this picture, as well as an overview on current and potential policy measures to stimulate the use of biofuels in shipping. Ecofys has determined the potential of biofuels, based on analysis of collected data through literature review, own expertise and experiences, direct communication with EMSA, research publications, market developments based on press and other media, and consultations with relevant stakeholders in the shipping market.

  4. Dutch Ships and Sailors

    de Boer, Victor; Hoekstra, F.G.; Leinenga, Jurjen; van Rossum, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Dutch Ships and Sailors provides an infrastructure for maritime historical datasets, linking correlating data through semantic web technology. It brings together datasets related to recruitment and shipping in the East-India trade (mainly 18th century) and in the shipping of the northern provinces

  5. Reactors. Nuclear propulsion ships

    Fribourg, Ch.

    2001-01-01

    This article has for object the development of nuclear-powered ships and the conception of the nuclear-powered ship. The technology of the naval propulsion P.W.R. type reactor is described in the article B.N.3 141 'Nuclear Boilers ships'. (N.C.)

  6. Nuclear merchant ship propulsion

    Schroeder, E.; Jager, W.; Schafstall, H.G.

    1977-01-01

    The operation of about 300 nuclear naval vessels has proven the feasibility of nuclear ship propulsion. Until now six non military ships have been built or are under construction. In the Soviet Union two nuclear icebreakers are in operation, and a third one is under construction. In the western world three prototype merchant ships have been built. Of these ships only the NS OTTO HAHN is in operation and provides valuable experience for future large scale use of nuclear merchant ship propulsion. In many countries studies and plans are made for future nuclear merchant ships. Types of vessels investigated are large containerships, tankers and specialized ships like icebreakers or ice-breaking ships. The future of nuclear merchant ship propulsion depends on three interrelated items: (1) nuclear ship technology; (2) economy of nuclear ship propulsion; (3) legal questions. Nuclear merchant ship technology is based until now on standard ship technology and light water reactor technology. Except for special questions due to the non-stationary type of the plant entirely new problems do not arise. This has been proven by the recent conceptual licensing procedure for a large nuclear containership in Germany. The economics of nuclear propulsion will be under discussion until they are proven by the operation of privately owned lead ships. Unsolved legal questions e.g. in connection with port entry permissions are at present another problem for nuclear shipping. Efforts are made to solve these questions on an international basis. The future development of nuclear energy electricity production in large land based plants will stimulate the employment of smaller units. Any future development of long distance sea transport will have to take this opportunity of a reliable and economic energy supply into account

  7. Trends in the Mental Health Act Review Tribunals: a Welsh experience 2004-2008.

    Aziz, V M

    2009-10-01

    This study aims at identifying any local trend in the appeal process and to determine if we are complying with the MHA 1983 and the Code of Practice by reviewing all the appeals to Mental Health Review Tribunals in a psychiatric hospital in South Wales for the period from 2004 to 2008. The total numbers of sections and appeals remain steady over the years. Men are slightly more detained than women mainly under Sections 2 and 3 of the MH Act 1983. The main diagnoses for detention were: bipolar affective disorder, schizophrenia and psychosis. 95% of cases had appeals and 5% referrals. A hearing was held in 52% of cases (n=60), the RMO discharged 38% of patients and the patient withdrew appeal in 10% of cases. 95% of cases were British White ethnicity. Single men tended to appeal more than women 68% vs. 32%. There was no observed trend in the result of the appeals and the proportions of appeal discharged by the hearing remained unchanged. The results of the appeals were not associated with gender, ethnicity, marital status, age or the type of section involved. The patients who were previously detained tend to appeal more, i.e. the more number of detentions, the more number of appeals. In only 12% of cases who had the hearings, the appeal was successful and the patients were discharged from their sections. The study shows steady volume of sections and appeals and the appeals are no more likely to result in discharge. The amendments of the Act 2007 also attract an increase in the appeal process especially in relation to the Community Treatment Orders and the Deprivation of Liberty. The use of both the Act and the Mental Capacity Act 2005 will increase workload for all involved practitioners. 2009 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine.

  8. Marine Pollution Prevention Act

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Marine Pollution Prevention Act of 2008 implements the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, including related Protocols (MARPOL)...

  9. Safety of nuclear ships

    1978-01-01

    Interest in the utilization of nuclear steam supply systems for merchant ships and icebreakers has recently increased considerably due to the sharp rise in oil prices and the continuing trend towards larger and faster merchant ships. Canada, for example, is considering construction of an icebreaker in the near future. On the other hand, an accident which could result in serious damage to or the sinking of a nuclear ship is potentially far more dangerous to the general public than a similar accident with a conventional ship. Therefore, it was very important to evaluate in an international forum the safety of nuclear ships in the light of our contemporary safety philosophy, taking into account the results of cumulative operating experience with nuclear ships in operation. The philosophy and safety requirement for land-based nuclear installations were outlined because of many common features for both land-based nuclear installations and nuclear ships. Nevertheless, essential specific safety requirements for nuclear ships must always be considered, and the work on safety problems for nuclear ships sponsored by the NEA was regarded as an important step towards developing an international code of practice by IMCO on the safety of nuclear merchant ships. One session was devoted to the quantitative assessment of nuclear ship safety. The probability technique of an accident risk assessment for nuclear power plants is well known and widely used. Its modification, to make it applicable to nuclear propelled merchant ships, was discussed in some papers. Mathematical models for describing various postulated accidents with nuclear ships were developed and reported by several speakers. Several papers discussed a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) with nuclear steam supply systems of nuclear ships and engineering design features to prevent a radioactive effluence after LOCA. Other types of postulated accidents with reactors and systems in static and dynamic conditions were also

  10. Biogeography of the Oceans: a Review of Development of Knowledge of Currents, Fronts and Regional Boundaries from Sailing Ships in the Sixteenth Century to Satellite Remote Sensing

    Priede, Imants G.

    2014-06-01

    The development of knowledge of global biogeography of the oceans from sixteenthcentury European voyages of exploration to present-day use of satellite remote sensing is reviewed in three parts; the pre-satellite era (1513-1977), the satellite era leading to a first global synthesis (1978-1998), and more recent studies since 1998. The Gulf Stream was first identified as a strong open-ocean feature in 1513 and by the eighteenth century, regular transatlantic voyages by sailing ships had established the general patterns of winds and circulation, enabling optimisation of passage times. Differences in water temperature, water colour and species of animals were recognised as important cues for navigation. Systematic collection of information from ships' logs enabled Maury (The Physical Geography of the Sea Harper and Bros. New York 1855) to produce a chart of prevailing winds across the entire world's oceans, and by the early twentieth century the global surface ocean circulation that defines the major biogeographic regions was well-known. This information was further supplemented by data from large-scale plankton surveys. The launch of the Coastal Zone Color Scanner, specifically designed to study living marine resources on board the Nimbus 7 polar orbiting satellite in 1978, marked the advent of the satellite era. Over subsequent decades, correlation of satellite-derived sea surface temperature and chlorophyll data with in situ measurements enabled Longhurst (Ecological Geography of the Sea. Academic Press, New York 1998) to divide the global ocean into 51 ecological provinces with Polar, Westerly Wind, Trade Wind and Coastal Biomes clearly recognisable from earlier subdivisions of the oceans. Satellite imagery with semi-synoptic images of large areas of the oceans greatly aided definition of boundaries between provinces. However, ocean boundaries are dynamic, varying from season to season and year to year. More recent work has focused on the study of variability of

  11. Biological review of 82 species of coral petitioned to be included in the Endangered Species Act

    Brainard, Russell E.; Birkeland, Charles; Eakin, C. Mark; McElhany, Paul; Miller, Margaret W.; Patterson, Matt; Piniak, G.A.

    2011-01-01

    list 83 coral species as threatened or endangered under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. The petition was based on a predicted decline in available habitat for the species, citing anthropogenic climate change and ocean acidification as the lead factors among the various stressors responsible for the potential decline. The NMFS identified 82 of the corals as candidate species, finding that the petition provided substantive information for a potential listing of these species. The NMFS established a Biological Review Team (BRT) to prepare this Status Review Report that examines the status of these 82 candidate coral species and evaluates extinction risk for each of them. This document makes no recommendations for listing, as that is a separate evaluation to be conducted by the NMFS.

  12. Knowledge and awareness of the Consumer Protection Act among dental professionals in India: A systematic review.

    Singh, Gurminder; Gambhir, Ramandeep Singh; Singh, Simarpreet; Talwar, Puneet Singh; Munjal, Vaibhav

    2014-07-01

    The medical profession has been included in the Consumer Protection Act (CPA), to protect the interests of the patients in case of any unethical treatment rendered by the doctor. The present systematic review was conducted to assess the knowledge and awareness of CPA among dental professionals in India. A systematic review of relevant cross-sectional observational studies was conducted regarding the level of knowledge and awareness of CPA among dental professionals in India. Five studies out of 44 were finally included in the present review, after conducting both an electronic and manual search of scientific databases. The potential biases were reported and appropriate data was extracted by the concerned investigators. More than 90% of the study subjects in one of the studies were aware of the CPA, as compared to other studies. In two studies, when queried about the correct time period during which a patient can sue a doctor, very few subjects (18 and 23.2%) answered correctly. Almost 90% of the subjects were taking some form of consent in one of the studies. Private practitioners had more awareness as compared to academicians and combined practitioners. The results of the present review showed that a majority of the subjects were aware of the existence of CPA, but knowledge about the basic rules and regulations was lacking in a few studies. Therefore, dental professionals need to keep themselves updated on the various rules and latest amendments to save themselves from any litigation.

  13. Buckling of Ship Structures

    Shama, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    Buckling of Ship Structures presents a comprehensive analysis of the buckling problem of ship structural members. A full analysis of the various types of loadings and stresses imposed on ship plating and primary and secondary structural members is given. The main causes and consequences of the buckling mode of failure of ship structure and the methods commonly used to control buckling failure are clarified. This book contains the main equations required to determine the critical buckling stresses for both ship plating and the primary and secondary stiffening structural members. The critical buckling stresses are given for ship plating subjected to the induced various types of loadings and having the most common boundary conditions encountered in ship structures.  The text bridges the gap existing in most books covering the subject of buckling of ship structures in the classical analytical format, by putting the emphasis on the practical methods required to ensure safety against buckling of ship structur...

  14. 78 FR 13298 - Notice of Retrospective Review of the Americans With Disabilities Act Regulations for Over-the...

    2013-02-27

    ... accessible OTRB service. An OTRB is defined as ``a bus characterized by an elevated passenger deck located...] Notice of Retrospective Review of the Americans With Disabilities Act Regulations for Over-the-Road Bus... bus (OTRB) operators. The DOT will review regulations specified in the SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION...

  15. Crushing Strength of Ship Structures

    Cerup-Simonsen, Bo; Abramowicz, W.; Høstgaard-Brene, C.N.S.

    1999-01-01

    The crushing response of ship structures is of primary importance to the designers and practicing engineers concerned with accidental loading and accident reconstruction of marine vehicles. Ship to-ship collisions, ship-harbor infrastructure interaction or ship-offshore structure interaction are ...

  16. Shipping Information Pipeline

    Jensen, Thomas; Vatrapu, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    and national borders within international shipping which is a rather complex domain. The intellectual objective is to generate and evaluate the efficacy and effectiveness of design principles for inter-organizational information infrastructures in the international shipping domain that can have positive...

  17. Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning

    Tierney, Kevin; Jensen, Rune Møller

    2011-01-01

    Liner shipping fleet repositioning consists of moving vessels between services in a liner ship- ping network in order to better orient the overall network to the world economy, and to ensure the proper maintenance of vessels. Thus, fleet repositioning involves sailing and loading activities subject...

  18. Handbook of nuclear ships

    1981-03-01

    First, the government organs and other organizations related to nuclear ships and their tasks are described. The fundamental plan for the development of nuclear ships had been determined in July, 1963, and was revised three times thereafter. However in December, 1980, new determination to carry out the research works also was made. The course of the construction of the nuclear ship ''Mutsu'' from 1955 to 1980, the main particulars of the nuclear ship ''Mutsu'' and the drawing of the general arrangement are shown. The designated port for berthing the Mutsu was completed in 1972 in Ominato, Aomori Prefecture, but after the happening of radiation leak during the trial operation of the Mutsu in 1974, it was agreed to remove the port. The main works to be carried out at the port and the port facilities are explained. The progress of the examination of safety of the Mutsu and the result, the test of raising the power output carried out in 1974, and the course of selecting the port for making the repair works of the Mutsu are described. The law concerning Japan Nuclear Ship Research and Development Agency had been instituted in 1963, and was revised four times thereafter. The change of the budget for the tests and researches related to nuclear ships in Japan is shown. The state of development of nuclear ships in foreign countries, the international organs related to atomic energy, shipping, shipbuilding and energy, and chronological table are introduced. (Kako, I.)

  19. Effective and Safe Ships

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Amdahl, Jørgen; Rutgersson, Olle

    1996-01-01

    A Joint Nordic Research project "Effecive and Safe Ships" is presented. The project is aiming to develop methods and tools for quantitative evaluation fo ship safety. This report is the report of the preliminary phase where the plan for the main project is developed. The objectives of the project...

  20. Concerning the order of the Ministry of Transport for the amendment to part of the Rules for the Vehicle Transportation of Nuclear Fuel, the Rules for Ship Transportation and Storage of Dangerous Objects, and the Rules for the Enforcement of the Aviation Act

    1989-01-01

    The Ministry of Transport is planning to make amendments to the Rules for the Vehicle Transportation of Nuclear Fuel, the Rules for Ship Transportation and Storage of Dangerous objects, and the Rules for the Enforcement of the Aviation Act, on the basis of results of a study carried out by the Working Group for the Protection of Nuclear Material, the Atomic Energy Commission of Japan. The planned amendments to the Rules for the Vehicle Transportation of Nuclear Fuel cover the locking and sealing of containers, the development of transportation plans, the arrangement and operations of responsible persons and guards for its transportation, and improvement in the communications and liaison system. The amendments to the Rules for Ship Transportation and Storage of Dangerous Objects are related to the range of nuclear fuel substances to be protected, the measures to be taken for their protection during transportation by ship, the approval by the Minister of Transport, and the notification to the Regional Maritime Safety Headquarters. The planned amendments to the Rules for the Enforcement of the Aviation Act cover the range of nuclear fuel substances to be protected, etc. (N.K.)

  1. Nuclear ships and their safety

    NONE

    1961-04-15

    Several aspects of nuclear ship propulsion, with special reference to nuclear safety, were discussed at an international symposium at Taormina, Italy, from 14-18 November 1960. Discussions on specific topics are conducted, grouped under the following headings: Economics and National Activities in Nuclear Ship Propulsion; International Problems and General Aspects of Safety for Nuclear Ships; Nuclear Ship Projects from the Angle of Safety; Ship Reactor Problems; Sea Motion and Hull Problems; Maintenance and Refuelling Problems; and Safety Aspects of Nuclear Ship Operation.

  2. Neutrino physics with SHIP

    van Herwijnen, Eric

    2016-01-01

    SHIP is a new general purpose fixed target facility, whose Technical Proposal has been recently reviewed by the CERN SPS Committee. It recommended that the experiment proceed further to a Comprehensive Design phase. In its initial phase, the 400 GeV proton beam extracted from the SPS will be dumped on a heavy target with the aim of integrating 2×1020 POT (Protons On Target) in 5 years. A dedicated detector, based on a long vacuum tank followed by a spectrometer and particle identification detectors, will allow probing a variety of models with light long-lived exotic particles and masses below O(10) GeV/c 2 . The main focus will be the physics of the so-called Hidden Portals. The sensitivity to Heavy Neutrinos will allow to probe for the first time the mass range between the kaon and the charm meson mass, and a range of couplings for which Baryogenesis and active neutrino masses could also be explained. Another dedicated detector will allow the study of neutrino cross-sections and angular distributions. ντ ...

  3. Comparison Review of Short-Acting and Long-Acting Glucagon-like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonists.

    Uccellatore, Annachiara; Genovese, Stefano; Dicembrini, Ilaria; Mannucci, Edoardo; Ceriello, Antonio

    2015-09-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) are useful tools for treating type 2 diabetes mellitus. In their recent position statement, the American Diabetes Association and European Association for the Study of Diabetes recommend GLP1-RAs as add-on to metformin when therapeutic goals are not achieved with monotherapy, particularly for patients who wish to avoid weight gain or hypoglycemia. GLP1-RAs differ substantially in their duration of action, frequency of administration and clinical profile. Members of this class approved for clinical use include exenatide twice-daily, exenatide once-weekly, liraglutide and lixisenatide once-daily. Recently, two new once-weekly GLP1-RAs have been approved: dulaglutide and albiglutide. This article summarizes properties of short- and long-acting GLP-1 analogs, and provides useful information to help choose the most appropriate compound for individual patients.

  4. Ship design methodologies of preliminary design

    Papanikolaou, Apostolos

    2014-01-01

    This book deals with ship design and in particular with methodologies of the preliminary design of ships. The book is complemented by a basic bibliography and five appendices with useful updated charts for the selection of the main dimensions and other basic characteristics of different types of ships (Appendix A), the determination of hull form  from the data of systematic hull form series (Appendix B), the detailed description of the relational method for the preliminary estimation of ship weights (Appendix C), a brief review of the historical evolution of shipbuilding science and technology from the prehistoric era to date (Appendix D) and finally a historical review of regulatory developments of ship's damage stability to date (Appendix E).  The book can be used as textbook for ship design courses or as additional reading for university or college students of naval architecture courses and related disciplines; it may also serve as a reference book for naval architects, practicing engineers of rel...

  5. Results From the Audit of DOD’s American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 Initial Data Quality Review Implementation

    2009-11-03

    Results From the Audit of DoD’s American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 Initial Data Quality Review Implementation Memorandum No. D-2010-RAM...number. 1. REPORT DATE 03 NOV 2009 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2009 to 00-00-2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Results From the Audit of...SUBJECT: Results From the Audit of DOD’ s American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of2009 Initial Data Quality Review Implementation (Report No. D

  6. Hydrodynamics of Ship Propellers

    Breslin, John P.; Andersen, Poul

    This book deals with flows over propellers operating behind ships, and the hydrodynamic forces and moments which the propeller generates on the shaft and on the ship hull.The first part of the text is devoted to fundamentals of the flow about hydrofoil sections (with and without cavitation...... of an intermittently cavitating propeller in a wake and the pressures and forces it exerts on the shaft and on the ship hull is examined. A final chapter discusses the optimization of efficiency of compound propulsors. The authors have taken care to clearly describe physical concepts and mathematical steps. Appendices...

  7. A Systematic Review of Social Media Use to Discuss and View Deliberate Self-Harm Acts.

    Dyson, Michele P; Hartling, Lisa; Shulhan, Jocelyn; Chisholm, Annabritt; Milne, Andrea; Sundar, Purnima; Scott, Shannon D; Newton, Amanda S

    2016-01-01

    To conduct a systematic review of studies of social media platforms used by young people to discuss and view deliberate self-harm. 11 electronic databases were searched from January 2000 to January 2012 for primary research; in June 2014 an updated search of Medline was conducted. Grey literature sources were also searched. Search results were screened by two reviewers. Data were extracted by one reviewer and verified by another. Methodological quality was assessed using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool. Due to heterogeneity in study objectives and outcomes, results were not pooled; a narrative analysis is presented. 26 studies were included. Most were conducted in Canada or the UK (30.8% each), used qualitative designs (42.3%), and evaluated discussion forums (73.1%). Participants were most often aged 19-21 years (69.2%), female (mean 68.6%), and 19.2% had a documented history of depression. The social media platforms evaluated were commonly supportive and provided a sense of community among users. Support included suggestions for formal treatment, advice on stopping self-harming behavior, and encouragement. Harms included normalizing and accepting self-harming behavior; discussion of motivation or triggers, concealment, suicidal ideation or plans; and live depictions of self-harm acts. Although this evidence is limited by its descriptive nature, studies identify beneficial and detrimental effects for young people using social media to discuss and view deliberate self-harm. The connections users make online may be valuable to explore for therapeutic benefit. Prospective, longitudinal investigations are needed to identify short- and long-term potential harms associated with use.

  8. A Systematic Review of Social Media Use to Discuss and View Deliberate Self-Harm Acts.

    Michele P Dyson

    Full Text Available To conduct a systematic review of studies of social media platforms used by young people to discuss and view deliberate self-harm.11 electronic databases were searched from January 2000 to January 2012 for primary research; in June 2014 an updated search of Medline was conducted. Grey literature sources were also searched. Search results were screened by two reviewers. Data were extracted by one reviewer and verified by another. Methodological quality was assessed using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool.Due to heterogeneity in study objectives and outcomes, results were not pooled; a narrative analysis is presented. 26 studies were included. Most were conducted in Canada or the UK (30.8% each, used qualitative designs (42.3%, and evaluated discussion forums (73.1%. Participants were most often aged 19-21 years (69.2%, female (mean 68.6%, and 19.2% had a documented history of depression. The social media platforms evaluated were commonly supportive and provided a sense of community among users. Support included suggestions for formal treatment, advice on stopping self-harming behavior, and encouragement. Harms included normalizing and accepting self-harming behavior; discussion of motivation or triggers, concealment, suicidal ideation or plans; and live depictions of self-harm acts.Although this evidence is limited by its descriptive nature, studies identify beneficial and detrimental effects for young people using social media to discuss and view deliberate self-harm. The connections users make online may be valuable to explore for therapeutic benefit. Prospective, longitudinal investigations are needed to identify short- and long-term potential harms associated with use.

  9. A Systematic Review of Social Media Use to Discuss and View Deliberate Self-Harm Acts

    Dyson, Michele P.; Hartling, Lisa; Shulhan, Jocelyn; Chisholm, Annabritt; Milne, Andrea; Sundar, Purnima; Scott, Shannon D.; Newton, Amanda S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To conduct a systematic review of studies of social media platforms used by young people to discuss and view deliberate self-harm. Study Design 11 electronic databases were searched from January 2000 to January 2012 for primary research; in June 2014 an updated search of Medline was conducted. Grey literature sources were also searched. Search results were screened by two reviewers. Data were extracted by one reviewer and verified by another. Methodological quality was assessed using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool. Results Due to heterogeneity in study objectives and outcomes, results were not pooled; a narrative analysis is presented. 26 studies were included. Most were conducted in Canada or the UK (30.8% each), used qualitative designs (42.3%), and evaluated discussion forums (73.1%). Participants were most often aged 19–21 years (69.2%), female (mean 68.6%), and 19.2% had a documented history of depression. The social media platforms evaluated were commonly supportive and provided a sense of community among users. Support included suggestions for formal treatment, advice on stopping self-harming behavior, and encouragement. Harms included normalizing and accepting self-harming behavior; discussion of motivation or triggers, concealment, suicidal ideation or plans; and live depictions of self-harm acts. Conclusions Although this evidence is limited by its descriptive nature, studies identify beneficial and detrimental effects for young people using social media to discuss and view deliberate self-harm. The connections users make online may be valuable to explore for therapeutic benefit. Prospective, longitudinal investigations are needed to identify short- and long-term potential harms associated with use. PMID:27191728

  10. Designing Adaptable Ships: Modularity and Flexibility in Future Ship Designs

    2016-01-01

    with motors, belts, shafts , seals, valves, hose spindles , and switches. If ship installation is not installed, the system will be status quo. Ship...Impact: the current centrifugal purifiers (Alfa-Laval) have experienced frequent failures with motor, belts, shafts , seals, valves, hose spindles ... Designing Adaptable Ships Modularity and Flexibility in Future Ship Designs John F. Schank, Scott Savitz, Ken Munson, Brian Perkinson, James

  11. Optimization in liner shipping

    Brouer, Berit Dangaard; Karsten, Christian Vad; Pisinger, David

    2017-01-01

    Seaborne trade is the lynchpin in almost every international supply chain, and about 90% of non-bulk cargo worldwide is transported by container. In this survey we give an overview of data-driven optimization problems in liner shipping. Research in liner shipping is motivated by a need for handling...... still more complex decision problems, based on big data sets and going across several organizational entities. Moreover, liner shipping optimization problems are pushing the limits of optimization methods, creating a new breeding ground for advanced modelling and solution methods. Starting from liner...... shipping network design, we consider the problem of container routing and speed optimization. Next, we consider empty container repositioning and stowage planning as well as disruption management. In addition, the problem of bunker purchasing is considered in depth. In each section we give a clear problem...

  12. Ship propulsion reactors technology

    Fribourg, Ch.

    2002-01-01

    This paper takes the state of the art on ship propulsion reactors technology. The french research programs with the corresponding technological stakes, the reactors specifications and advantages are detailed. (A.L.B.)

  13. Ship construction and welding

    Mandal, Nisith R

    2017-01-01

    This book addresses various aspects of ship construction, from ship types and construction materials, to welding technologies and accuracy control. The contents of the book are logically organized and divided into twenty-one chapters. The book covers structural arrangement with longitudinal and transverse framing systems based on the service load, and explains basic structural elements like hatch side girders, hatch end beams, stringers, etc. along with structural subassemblies like floors, bulkheads, inner bottom, decks and shells. It presents in detail double bottom construction, wing tanks & duct keels, fore & aft end structures, etc., together with necessary illustrations. The midship sections of various ship types are introduced, together with structural continuity and alignment in ship structures. With regard to construction materials, the book discusses steel, aluminum alloys and fiber reinforced composites. Various methods of steel material preparation are discussed, and plate cutting and form...

  14. Nuclear ship accidents

    Oelgaard, P.L.

    1993-05-01

    In this report available information on 28 nuclear ship accident and incidents is considered. Of these 5 deals with U.S. ships and 23 with USSR ships. The ships are in almost all cases nuclear submarines. Only events that involve the nuclear propulsion plants, radiation exposures, fires/explosions and sea water leaks into the submarines are considered. Comments are made on each of the events, and at the end of the report an attempt is made to point out the weaknesses of the submarine designs which have resulted in the accidents. It is emphasized that much of the available information is of a rather dubious nature. consequently some of the assessments made may not be correct. (au)

  15. Performance Monitoring of Ships

    Hansen, Søren Vinther

    is used as input to the system and by comparing model and ship behaviour, an index describing the ship’s performance is generated. The work in this thesis is based on data logged through the automation system on board a PostPanmax container ship where data have been logged through a year. A routine...... in the models have been identified. The models used in this work are based on empirical relations or based on regression analyses of model tests and full-scale trials. In order to achieve valid results the conditions where performance is estimated have to be inside the boundaries of the model. Filters have been......The purpose of the research project is to establish a reliable index in the performance evaluation of ships. During operation the ship will experience added resistance due to fouling of hull and propeller. The added resistance will lead to increased fuel consumption and thus increased emissions...

  16. Distributed propulsion for ships

    Nylund, Vilde

    2017-01-01

    It is anticipated that using distributed electric propulsion (DEP) on conventional ships will increase the total propulsive efficiency. This is mainly due to two reasons; firstly, because the total propeller disk area can be increased. Secondly, because each propeller can be optimised for the local wake where it is operating. In this work, the benefits of using DEP has been investigated for a 14 000 TEU container ship. Based on a literary study of the present state of propeller modelling ...

  17. SHIPPING REQUESTS ON EDH

    Logistics Group

    2001-01-01

    Users are informed that as from 1 September 2001 all Shipping Requests must be made on EDH using the appropriate electronic form. The submission of user requests directly into EDH will help rationalise the activities of the Shipping Service (Import & Export), with requests being automatically forwarded to hierarchical supervisors thereby improving the processing speed and facilitating the follow-up. Thank you for your collaboration.

  18. Plastic Pollution from Ships

    Čulin, Jelena; Bielić, Toni

    2016-01-01

    The environmental impact of shipping on marine environment includes discharge of garbage. Plastic litter is of particular concern due to abundance, resistance to degradation and detrimental effect on marine biota. According to recently published studies, a further research is required to assess human health risk. Monitoring data indicate that despite banning plastic disposal at sea, shipping is still a source of plastic pollution. Some of the measures to combat the problem are discussed.

  19. On the Global Ship Hull Bending Energy in Ship Collisions

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Li, Y.

    2004-01-01

    During ship collisions part of the kinetic energy of the involved vessels prior to contact is absorbed as energy dissipated by crushing of the hull structures, by friction and by elastic energy. The purpose of this report is to present an estimate of the elastic energy that can be stored in elastic...... hull vibrations during a ship collision. When a ship side is strengthened in order to improve the crashworthiness it has been argued in the scientific literature that a non trivial part of the energy released for structural deformation during the collision can be absorbed as elastic energy in global...... ship hull vibrations, such that with strong ship sides less energy has to be spent in crushing of the striking ship bow and/or the struck ship side. In normal ship-ship collision analyses both the striking and struck ship are usually considered as rigid bodies where structural crushing is confined...

  20. 77 FR 70583 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Health Insurance Market Rules; Rate Review

    2012-11-26

    ... Parts 144, 147, 150, et al. Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Health Insurance Market Rules... and 156 [CMS-9972-P] RIN 0938-AR40 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Health Insurance Market... Affordable Care Act with respect to health insurance issuers and group health plans that are non-federal...

  1. BALTIC CONTAINER SHIPPING MARKET GOES GLOBAL

    Ernest Czermański

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at summarizing the last period of the Baltic container shipping mar-ket’s development, especially after 2000. The author, taking especially into account changes that have occurred in 2010, ultimately demonstrate that through the analyzed changes, this market has become a global one - thus being shaped by global determinants influencing its further development. Author selected and analyzed some chosen, most important factors influencing future market development. Secondly, some chances and threats resulting from the described changes were presented, either for the entire market as a base for international trade of Baltic Sea Region countries, and for its actors, mainly shipping owners and operators acting as a supply side of the Baltic container market. Finally, author has tried to verify and questioned the doubts and strong concerns about the future of the Baltic container shipping, especially about the feeder services, as because there are real indications and arguments against these concern.

  2. Outer Dynamics of Ship Collisions

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1996-01-01

    The purpose is to present analysis procedures for the motion of ships during ship-ship collisions and for ship collisions with offshore structures. The aim is to estimate that part of the lost kinetic energy which will have to be absorbed by rupture and plastic damage of the colliding structures....

  3. Recent situations around nuclear ships

    Mizuno, Hiroshi

    1978-01-01

    The philosophy when the safety standard for nuclear ships is drawn up and the international rules specifically for nuclear ships are summarized. As for the safety standard for nuclear ships, the safety requirements for ordinary ships, for the ships transporting nuclear reactors, for ordinary nuclear reactors, and for the reactors moving around the seas must be included. As for the international rules for nuclear ships, there are chapter 8 ''Nuclear ships'' in the International Convention on the Safety of Life at Sea, 1960 and 1974, and Safety Consideration in the Use of Ports and Approaches by Nuclear Merchant Ships. Also there are national rules and standards in Japan and foreign countries. One of the means to explore the practicality of nuclear ships is the investigation of the economy. At this time, the social merits and demerits of nuclear ships must be compared with conventional ships by taking total expenses into account without omission. When oil is depleted, the age of nuclear ships will not necessarily begin, and the will be still some competitors. The investigations concerning the economy of nuclear ships have been carried out in various countries. The present state of the development of nuclear ships in Japan and foreign countries is explained. Many conferences and symposia have been held concerning nuclear ships, and those held recently are enumerated. The realization of nuclear ship age cannot be anticipated from existing papers and shipbuilding projects. (Kako, I.)

  4. Outer Dynamics of Ship Collisions

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of these notes is to present analysis procedures for the motion of ships during ship-ship collisions and for ship collisons with offshore structures. The aim is to estimate that part of the lost kinetic energy which will have to be absorbed by rupture and plastic damage of the colliding...

  5. Review of organic nitrile incineration at the Toxic Substances Control Act Incinerator

    1997-10-01

    Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (LMES) operates the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP), formerly called the Oak Ridge K-25 Site, where uranium was enriched under contract with the US Department of Energy (DOE). Currently, ETTP missions include environmental management, waste management (WM), and the development of new technologies. As part of its WM mission, ETTP operates the TSCA (Toxic Substances Control Act) Incinerator (TSCAI) for treatment of hazardous waste and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) contaminated with low-level radioactivity. Beginning in the autumn of 1995, employees from diverse ETTP buildings and departments reported experiencing headaches, fatigue, depression, muscle aches, sleeplessness, and muscle tremors. These symptoms were judged by a physician in the ETTP Health Services Department to be consistent with chronic exposures to hydrogen cyanide (HCN). The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) was called in to perform a health hazard evaluation to ascertain whether the employees' illnesses were in fact caused by occupational exposure to HCN. The NIOSH evaluation found no patterns for employees' reported symptoms with respect to work location or department. NIOSH also conducted a comprehensive air sampling study, which did not detect airborne cyanides at the ETTP. Employees, however, expressed concerns that the burning of nitrile-bearing wastes at the TSCAI might have produced HCN as a combustion product. Therefore, LMES and DOE established a multidisciplinary team (TSCAI Technical Review Team) to make a more detailed review of the possibility that combustion of nitrile-bearing wastes at the TSCAI might have either released nitriles or created HCN as a product of incomplete combustion (PIC)

  6. Luminally Acting Agents for Constipation Treatment: A Review Based on Literatures and Patents

    Hong Yang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Constipation is one of the most frequently reported gastrointestinal (GI disorders that negatively impacts quality of life and is associated with a significant economic burden to the patients and society. Traditional treatments including lifestyle modification and laxatives are often ineffective in the more severe forms of constipation and over the long term. New medications targeting at intestinal chloride channels and colonic serotonin receptors have been demonstrated effective in recent years. Emerging agents focusing on improving intestinal secretion and/or colonic motility have been shown effective in animal models and even in clinical trials. Recognization of the role of cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR and calcium-activated chloride channels (CaCCs in intestine fluid secretion and motility modulation makes CFTR and CaCCs promising molecule targets for anti-constipation therapy. Although there are multiple choices for constipation treatment, there is still a recognized need for new medications in anti-constipation therapy. The present review covers the discovery of luminally acting agents for constipation treatment described in both patents (2011–present and scientific literatures.

  7. Accidents in nuclear ships

    Oelgaard, P L [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark)

    1996-12-01

    This report starts with a discussion of the types of nuclear vessels accidents, in particular accidents which involve the nuclear propulsion systems. Next available information on 61 reported nuclear ship events in considered. Of these 6 deals with U.S. ships, 54 with USSR ships and 1 with a French ship. The ships are in almost all cases nuclear submarines. Only events that involve the sinking of vessels, the nuclear propulsion plants, radiation exposures, fires/explosions, sea-water leaks into the submarines and sinking of vessels are considered. For each event a summary of available information is presented, and comments are added. In some cases the available information is not credible, and these events are neglected. This reduces the number of events to 5 U.S. events, 35 USSR/Russian events and 1 French event. A comparison is made between the reported Soviet accidents and information available on dumped and damaged Soviet naval reactors. It seems possible to obtain good correlation between the two types of events. An analysis is made of the accident and estimates are made of the accident probabilities which are found to be of the order of 10{sup -3} per ship reactor years. It if finally pointed out that the consequences of nuclear ship accidents are fairly local and does in no way not approach the magnitude of the Chernobyl accident. It is emphasized that some of the information on which this report is based, may not be correct. Consequently some of the results of the assessments made may not be correct. (au).

  8. Accidents in nuclear ships

    Oelgaard, P.L.

    1996-12-01

    This report starts with a discussion of the types of nuclear vessels accidents, in particular accidents which involve the nuclear propulsion systems. Next available information on 61 reported nuclear ship events in considered. Of these 6 deals with U.S. ships, 54 with USSR ships and 1 with a French ship. The ships are in almost all cases nuclear submarines. Only events that involve the sinking of vessels, the nuclear propulsion plants, radiation exposures, fires/explosions, sea-water leaks into the submarines and sinking of vessels are considered. For each event a summary of available information is presented, and comments are added. In some cases the available information is not credible, and these events are neglected. This reduces the number of events to 5 U.S. events, 35 USSR/Russian events and 1 French event. A comparison is made between the reported Soviet accidents and information available on dumped and damaged Soviet naval reactors. It seems possible to obtain good correlation between the two types of events. An analysis is made of the accident and estimates are made of the accident probabilities which are found to be of the order of 10 -3 per ship reactor years. It if finally pointed out that the consequences of nuclear ship accidents are fairly local and does in no way not approach the magnitude of the Chernobyl accident. It is emphasized that some of the information on which this report is based, may not be correct. Consequently some of the results of the assessments made may not be correct. (au)

  9. On the global ship hull bending energy in ship collisions

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Li, Yujie

    2009-01-01

    During ship collisions part of the kinetic energy of the involved vessels immediately prior to contact is absorbed as energy dissipated by crushing of the hull structures, by friction and by elastic energy. The purpose of this report is to present an estimate of the elastic energy that can...... be stored in elastic hull vibrations during a ship collision. When a ship side is strengthened in order to improve the crashworthiness it has been argued in the scientific literature that a non-trivial part of the energy released for structural deformation during the collision can be absorbed as elastic...... energy in global ship hull vibrations, such that with strong ship sides less energy has to be spent in crushing of the striking ship bow and/or the struck ship side. In normal ship–ship collision analyses both the striking and struck ship are usually considered as rigid bodies where structural crushing...

  10. Effect of stern hull shape on turning circle of ships

    Jaswar, Maimun, A.; Wahid, M. A.; Priyanto, A.; Zamani, Pauzi, Saman

    2012-06-01

    Many factors such as: stern hull shape, length, draught, trim, propulsion system and external forces affecting the drift angle influence rate of turn and size of turning circle of ships. This paper discusses turning circle characteristics of U and V stern hull shape of Very Large Crude Oil Carrier (VLCC) ships. The ships have same principal dimension such as length, beam, and draught. The turning circle characteristics of the VLCC ships are simulated at 35 degree of rudder angle. In the analysis, firstly, turning circle performance of U-type VLCC ship is simulated. In the simulation, initial ship speed is determined using given power and rpm. Hydrodynamic derivatives coefficients are determined by including effect of fullness of aft run. Using the obtained, speed and hydrodynamic coefficients, force and moment acting on hull, force and moment induced by propeller, force and moment induced by rudder are determined. Finally, ship trajectory, ratio of speed, yaw angle and drift angle are determined. Results of simulation results of the VLCC ship are compared with the experimental one as validation. Using the same method, V-type VLCC is simulated and the simulation results are compared with U-type VLCC ship. Results shows the turning circle of U-type is larger than V-type due to effect stern hul results of simulation are.

  11. Port entry of nuclear ships differences, procedures and conditions

    McMichael, D.; Bianchi, H.

    1978-01-01

    There are about 250 nuclear propelled ships, only 2 of them are merchant ships: the US freighter Savannah and the bulk carrier Otto Hahn of the Federal Republic of Germany. This paper is restricted to the experience with both of these ships, showing partly similar and partly different procedures for port entry. They have called at 107 ports in 40 countries. The Savannah was operated in the periods from 1962 - 1971 and the Otto Hahn is still in operation. The endeavours of the OECD and IMCO to review and to harmonize international rules for nuclear merchant ships should be supported and continued

  12. 78 FR 32698 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    2013-05-31

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 8340] Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee... Technical Co-operation Committee --Protection of vital shipping lanes --Periodic review of administrative... of the Organization since the twenty-eighth regular session of the Assembly --External relations...

  13. 75 FR 65551 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Subcommittee Meeting

    2010-10-25

    ... from passenger ships. --Review of damage stability regulations for ro-ro passenger ships. --Legal and... SOLAS chapter II-1 subdivision and damage stability regulations. --Consideration of IACS unified... 2012. --Any other business. --Report to the Maritime Safety Committee. Members of the public may attend...

  14. A Way Forward for Ship Classification and Technical Services

    Lam-Bee Goh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Classification societies are one of key organizations that promote the highest standards in ship safety and quality shipping. The paper reviews the ship classification industry and identifies what the classification societies can do to add value to the maritime industry more effectively. To meet this objective, an analysis of the five competitive forces is carried out, together with an opinion survey performed on some of the leading shipping companies, to assess and to establish some of the key factors which should be considered when formulating an overall business strategy for the growth of the classification services business. The findings from the study are discussed with the strategic options and choices. A classification services industrial value chain analysis together with ship management and operation is undertaken to explore the opportunities for classification societies. These findings also provide guidance to policy-makers who design and seek to implement more effective international shipping policies.

  15. Ship operations report, 1973

    1973-01-01

    The NOAA Fleet Operations Report 1973 was developed to provide a summary of project accomplishments during calendar year 1973. The report was prepared from season, cruise and special reports submitted by ships of the fleet. Centralized management of the NOAA Fleet was finalized by changing the operational control of the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) Ships DAVID STARR JORDAN (FRS 44), TOWNSEND CROMWELL (FRS 43) and MURRE II (FRV 63) from NMFS to the National Ocean Survey on July 1, 1973. Throughout the year, ships routinely collected and transmitted weather data. Similarly, as NOAA participants in the Integrated Global Ocean Station System (IGOSS) service program, XBT observations were taken and either radioed or submitted in log form via mail. In addition, particulate and radionuclide samples were taken in cooperation with the Atomic Energy Commission, sediment samples were obtained for the Smithsonian Institution and observations were made of marine mammals

  16. Ship operations report, 1975

    1976-01-01

    The NOAA Ship Operations Report 1975 was developed to provide a summary of projects undertaken during calendar year 1975. The report was prepared from season, cruise and special reports submitted by ships of the fleet. This report is promulgated for inhouse dissemination in the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, for collaborating and interested agencies, and for use by members of the scientific community. Throughout the year, ships routinely collected and transmitted weather data. Similarly, as NOAA participants in the Integrated Global Ocean Station System (IGOSS) service program, XBT observations were taken and either radioed or submitted in log form via mail. In addition, particulate and radionuclide samples were taken in cooperation with the Atomic Energy Commission, sediment samples were obtained for the Smithsonian Institution and observations were made of marine mammals

  17. Internationalisation Within Liner Shipping

    Prockl, Günter; Kinra, Aseem; Kotzab, Herbert

    2018-01-01

    , the degree of internationalisation, measured on the basis of sea-oriented operations, differs from that measured according to land-oriented front-end marketing and sales activities. The purpose of this study is to further examine the internationalisation patterns of shipping lines. An examination...... of the front-end activities and the structures of leading container-shipping companies is conducted. The sales office networks of the sector’s 20 largest companies worldwide (by twenty-foot equivalent unit capacity) are analysed as key indicators. The numbers of sales offices are measured by analysing...... the websites of the sample (20 companies), as well as annual reports and other publicly available data sources. The findings show that not all shipping companies are international, by virtue of the industry. While it is difficult to observe differences in the overall patterns of the sales networks at a macro...

  18. Insulin degludec as an ultralong-acting basal insulin once a day: a systematic review

    Wang F

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Fei Wang,1 Justine Surh,1 Manmeet Kaur21University of Connecticut School of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy Practice, Storrs, 2Joslin Diabetes Center Affiliate, Hospital of Central Connecticut, New Britain, CT, USABackground: Insulin degludec (IDeg is a neutral, ultralong-acting new generation basal insulin analog developed by NovoNordisk currently in Phase III clinical development. IDeg offers a duration of action of more than 42 hours in adults, much longer than current basal insulin formulations.Objective: The aim of this review is to assess the efficacy and safety data of IDeg in the treatment of type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus.Methods: Relevant English language articles from 2010 to 2012 were identified through MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, BIOSIS, and Google Scholar. Online conference proceedings of the 71st ADA Scientific Sessions and the 47th EASD Annual Meeting were reviewed. Studies were compared in terms of their study designs, primary and secondary efficacy parameters, and tolerability data.Results: There are a total of nine published trials investigating the clinical efficacy and safety of IDeg in over 3000 subjects with type 1 and 2 diabetes. Only three trials were published in full. All were open-label, randomized multicenter trials with durations of 16 to 52 weeks. IDeg and coformulations of IDeg with insulin aspart (IAsp were compared to insulin glargine (IGlar, detemir, and biphasic IAsp 30 (BIAsp 30.Conclusion: Based upon the available evidence, there appear to be no reported differences between IDeg and IGlar, detemir, or BIAsp 30 in the reduction of the primary efficacy end-points of HbA1c and mean fasting plasma glucose (FPG concentrations. Only flexible dosing of IDeg provided a significant reduction in FPG compared to IGlar. IDeg demonstrated a significant reduction in nocturnal hypoglycemia in type 1 diabetes. In type 2 diabetes, IDeg reduced the incidence of hypoglycemia by 18% and 58% compared to IGlar and

  19. Shipping emissions in ports

    Merk, Olaf

    2014-01-01

    Shipping emissions in ports are substantial, accounting for 18 million tonnes of CO2 emissions, 0.4 million tonnes of NOx, 0.2 million of SOx and 0.03 million tonnes of PM10 in 2011. Around 85% of emissions come from containerships and tankers. Containerships have short port stays, but high emissions during these stays. Most of CO2 emissions in ports from shipping are in Asia and Europe (58%), but this share is low compared to their share of port calls (70%). European ports have much less emi...

  20. 78 FR 64210 - Extension of Review Periods Under the Toxic Substances Control Act; Certain Chemicals and...

    2013-10-28

    ... Under the Toxic Substances Control Act; Certain Chemicals and Microorganisms; Premanufacture... 325 and 324110), e.g., chemical manufacturing and petroleum refineries. The North American Industrial... Agency under section 5 of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), received by EPA on or before October 1...

  1. Nigeria's national health act 2014: a review of some of its ...

    Nigeria's National Health Act 2014 was enacted on the 31st of October, 2014. The Act which provides a legal framework for the regulation and management of Nigeria's national health system, bristles with implications such as the need for improved political commitment by government to the health of Nigerians, improved ...

  2. Ship-Source Oil Pollution Fund annual report, 1992-1993

    1993-01-01

    The activities of the Ship-Source Oil Pollution Fund (SOPC) are reviewed for the fiscal year commencing 1 April 1992 and ending 31 March 1993. Topics covered include the Canadian compensation regime, activities of the International Oil Pollution Compensation Fund (to which the SOPC contributes), amendments to the Canada Shipping Act, major international incidents, the International Conference on the Revision of the 1969 Civil Liability Convention and the 1971 Fund Convention, the 1993 Oil Spill Conference, and the status of the fund. Twenty-nine oil spill incidents are described along with actions taken, if any, by the SOPC and details of any claims paid by the SOPC or the international fund. 3 figs

  3. Are nuclear ships environmentally safer than conventionally powered ships

    Bone, C.A.; Molgaard, C.A.; Helmkamp, J.C.; Golbeck, A.L.

    1988-01-01

    An epidemiologic analysis was conducted to determine if risk of hospitalization varied by age, ship type, or occupation between nuclear and conventional powered ship crews in the U.S. Navy. Study cohorts consisted of all male enlisted personnel who served exclusively aboard conventional or nuclear powered aircraft carriers and cruisers during the years 1975-1979; cases were those men hospitalized during this period (N = 48,242). Conventional ship personnel showed significantly elevated rates of injury and disease when compared to nuclear ship personnel. The largest relative risks by age occurred for conventional ship crewmen less than 30 years old. Seaman, logistics (supply), and healthcare personnel serving aboard conventional ships comprised the occupational groups exhibiting the highest hospitalization rate differentials. The results strongly suggest that nuclear ships provide a healthier, safer working and living environment than conventional ships

  4. Mechanics of Ship Grounding

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1996-01-01

    In these notes first a simplified mathematical model is presented for analysis of ship hull loading due to grounding on relatively hard and plane sand, clay or rock sea bottoms. In a second section a more rational calculation model is described for the sea bed soil reaction forces on the sea bott...

  5. SHIPPING OF RADIOACTIVE ITEMS

    TIS/RP Group

    2001-01-01

    The TIS-RP group informs users that shipping of small radioactive items is normally guaranteed within 24 hours from the time the material is handed in at the TIS-RP service. This time is imposed by the necessary procedures (identification of the radionuclides, determination of dose rate and massive objects require a longer procedure and will therefore take longer.

  6. Ship Roll Motion Control

    Perez, Tristan; Blanke, Mogens

    2010-01-01

    . This tutorial paper presents an account of the development of various ship roll motion control systems and the challenges associated with their design. The paper discusses how to assess performance, the applicability of dierent models, and control methods that have been applied in the past....

  7. Ship Roll Damping Control

    Perez, Tristan; Blanke, Mogens

    2012-01-01

    limitations and large variations of the spectral characteristics of wave-induced roll motion. This tutorial paper presents an account of the development of various ship roll motion control systems together with the challenges associated with their design. It discusses the assessment of performance...

  8. Options of ship discharge

    NONE

    2010-05-15

    Environmental performance is a key design consideration for manufacturers of bulk handling machines, not least ship unloaders, with features being introduced to minimise dust and noise pollution. The article reports on developments in grab unloaders, slewing grabcranes and mobile grabcranes by manufacturers such as Konecrane, EMS-Tech, Liebherr-Werk Nenzing and Gottwald. 2 photos.

  9. Hydroelastic Vibrations of Ships

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Folsø, Rasmus

    2002-01-01

    A formula for the necessary hull girder bending stiffness required to avoid serious springing vibrations is derived. The expression takes into account the zero crossing period of the waves, the ship speed and main dimensions. For whipping vibrations the probability of exceedance for the combined...

  10. Classification of Ship Routing and Scheduling Problems in Liner Shipping

    Kjeldsen, Karina Hjortshøj

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a classification scheme for ship routing and scheduling problems in liner shipping in line with the current and future operational conditions of the liner shipping industry. Based on the classification, the literature is divided into groups whose main characteristics...

  11. Changes in Ocean Heat, Carbon Content, and Ventilation: A Review of the First Decade of GO-SHIP Global Repeat Hydrography.

    Talley, L D; Feely, R A; Sloyan, B M; Wanninkhof, R; Baringer, M O; Bullister, J L; Carlson, C A; Doney, S C; Fine, R A; Firing, E; Gruber, N; Hansell, D A; Ishii, M; Johnson, G C; Katsumata, K; Key, R M; Kramp, M; Langdon, C; Macdonald, A M; Mathis, J T; McDonagh, E L; Mecking, S; Millero, F J; Mordy, C W; Nakano, T; Sabine, C L; Smethie, W M; Swift, J H; Tanhua, T; Thurnherr, A M; Warner, M J; Zhang, J-Z

    2016-01-01

    Global ship-based programs, with highly accurate, full water column physical and biogeochemical observations repeated decadally since the 1970s, provide a crucial resource for documenting ocean change. The ocean, a central component of Earth's climate system, is taking up most of Earth's excess anthropogenic heat, with about 19% of this excess in the abyssal ocean beneath 2,000 m, dominated by Southern Ocean warming. The ocean also has taken up about 27% of anthropogenic carbon, resulting in acidification of the upper ocean. Increased stratification has resulted in a decline in oxygen and increase in nutrients in the Northern Hemisphere thermocline and an expansion of tropical oxygen minimum zones. Southern Hemisphere thermocline oxygen increased in the 2000s owing to stronger wind forcing and ventilation. The most recent decade of global hydrography has mapped dissolved organic carbon, a large, bioactive reservoir, for the first time and quantified its contribution to export production (∼20%) and deep-ocean oxygen utilization. Ship-based measurements also show that vertical diffusivity increases from a minimum in the thermocline to a maximum within the bottom 1,500 m, shifting our physical paradigm of the ocean's overturning circulation.

  12. Wallops Ship Surveillance System

    Smith, Donna C.

    2011-01-01

    Approved as a Wallops control center backup system, the Wallops Ship Surveillance Software is a day-of-launch risk analysis tool for spaceport activities. The system calculates impact probabilities and displays ship locations relative to boundary lines. It enables rapid analysis of possible flight paths to preclude the need to cancel launches and allow execution of launches in a timely manner. Its design is based on low-cost, large-customer- base elements including personal computers, the Windows operating system, C/C++ object-oriented software, and network interfaces. In conformance with the NASA software safety standard, the system is designed to ensure that it does not falsely report a safe-for-launch condition. To improve the current ship surveillance method, the system is designed to prevent delay of launch under a safe-for-launch condition. A single workstation is designated the controller of the official ship information and the official risk analysis. Copies of this information are shared with other networked workstations. The program design is divided into five subsystems areas: 1. Communication Link -- threads that control the networking of workstations; 2. Contact List -- a thread that controls a list of protected item (ocean vessel) information; 3. Hazard List -- threads that control a list of hazardous item (debris) information and associated risk calculation information; 4. Display -- threads that control operator inputs and screen display outputs; and 5. Archive -- a thread that controls archive file read and write access. Currently, most of the hazard list thread and parts of other threads are being reused as part of a new ship surveillance system, under the SureTrak project.

  13. Program to assess the effects of extraordinary environments on radioactive material shipping systems

    Sandoval, R.P.; Reese, R.T.

    1980-01-01

    The highlights of the Transportation System Safety Evaluation (TSSE) Program at Sandia National Laboratories are reviewed and the origins of the program and the relationships to other programs addressing safety concerns are outlined. The areas of current activity in the assessment of possible effects an intentional act or extreme environment could have on nuclear material shipping systems are described. Early information has been obtained on the formation of aerosols, and a significant body of experimentally determined source term data will be available for radiological consequence evaluations

  14. Added masses of ship structures

    Korotkin, Alexandr I

    2008-01-01

    This essentially self-contained reference book contains data on added masses of ships and various ship and marine engineering structures. Theoretical and experimental methods for determining added masses of these objects are described.

  15. Ship Observations - VOS and Navy

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Combination of Voluntary Observing Ship (VOS) and US Navy Ship weather observations. Obs generally taken 2-4 times daily at 00, 06, 12, and 18z.

  16. Trends of shipping markets development

    Tomasz Nowosielski

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Shipping markets are dependent on international trade transactions that generate transport needs. These needs can dynamically change depending on global natural resources and commodity markets situation. The changes affecting shipping markets can also be caused by changes to the existing cargo flows and by establishing new ones in different geographies. It is anticipated that in the future shipping markets will change, visible by a decline in shipping in North America and Europe and an increase in Asia.

  17. 78 FR 77772 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    2013-12-24

    ... emissions of Black Carbon from international shipping --Review of relevant non-mandatory instruments as a... should contact the meeting coordinator, Mr. Timothy Brown, by email at timothy.m.brown@uscg.mil , by...

  18. High cost for drilling ships

    Hooghiemstra, J.

    2007-01-01

    Prices for the rent of a drilling ship are very high. Per day the rent is 1% of the price for building such a ship, and those prices have risen as well. Still, it is attractive for oil companies to rent a drilling ship [nl

  19. Towards Real Time Simulation of Ship-Ship Interaction

    Lindberg, Ole; Bingham, Harry B.; Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter

    2012-01-01

    We present recent and preliminary work directed towards the development of a simplified, physics-based model for improved simulation of ship-ship interaction that can be used for both analysis and real-time computing (i.e. with real-time constraints due to visualization). The goal is to implement...... accurate (realistic) and much faster ship-wave and ship-ship simulations than are currently possible. The coupling of simulation with visualization should improve the visual experience such that it can be perceived as more realistic in training. Today the state-of-art in real-time ship-ship interaction...... is for efficiency reasons and time-constraints in visualization based on model experiments in towing tanks and precomputed force tables. We anticipate that the fast, and highly parallel, algorithm described by Engsig-Karup et al. [2011] for execution on affordable modern high-throughput Graphics Processing Units...

  20. EMP coupling to ships

    Deadrick, F.J.; Cabayan, H.S.; Kunz, K.F.; Bevensee, R.M.; Martin, L.C.; Egbert, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    Scale-model tests were conducted to establish the adequacy and limitations of model measurements as tools for predicting electromagnetic pulse (EMP) coupling voltages and currents to the critical antennas, cables, and metallic structures on ships. The scale-model predictions are compared with the results of the full-scale EMP simulation test of the Canadian ASW ship, HMCS Huron. (The EMP coupling predictions in this report were made without prior knowledge of the results of the data from the HMCS Huron tests.) This report establishes that the scale-model tests in conjunction with the data base from EMP coupling modules provides the necessary information for source model development and permits effective, low-cost study of particular system configurations. 184 figures, 9 tables

  1. Towards new educational potentialities: Review and commentary of the Preliminary draft Act on higher education

    Madžar Ljubomir

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The Higher Education Act is a long-awaited legal act. A number of uncompleted attempts to prepare it have been undertaken in the course of the last three years. So far without success. Having been and still being a matter of highest social priority, the renewed effort to create and subsequently to enact this act is welcome as a worthwhile and a highly productive endeavor. Welcome also are the main innovations offered by this act, particularly its conspicuous consistency with the Bologna Declaration and other internationally launched and accepted documents. The draft act follows the international documents tracing down the paths of the future development of the educational systems of the European countries and providing for their mutual compatibility. A number of other positive contributions of the draft act are singled out, such as introducing clear and rigorous criteria and procedures for accreditation and quality control, introducing a wide coverage of arts and sciences as a precondition for an institution of higher education to qualify as a university, flexibility in the regime of studying including the domestic and international mobility of the students and requirement for the schools of higher education to have large cores of permanently employed teaching staff. A much larger part of the paper is, however, devoted to critical commentaries. To begin with, the draft is produced without any participation of the private universities, which is seen as a form of discrimination. The organizational pattern of a university is laid out with insufficient clarity and the status of departments (faculties is particularly short of precision and even contradictory. The draft seems to be laden with the old bias towards excessive and potentially disastrous centralization, drastically reducing the decision making capacity of the system. The treatment of the property of the departments (faculties is found inconsistent and legally unfounded. Inconsistency is

  2. A case law review of the individuals with disabilities education act for children with hearing loss or auditory processing disorders.

    Kreisman, Brian M; John, Andrew B

    2010-01-01

    In 1975, Congress passed the Education for All Handicapped Children Act (Public Law 94-142), and it has been revised and modified several times. At the time of this writing, this law was most recently amended by the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (Pub. L. No. 108-446, 118 Stat. 2647, December 3, 2004), which took effect on July 1, 2005. Colloquially the law is still referred to as the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). Children with hearing loss or auditory processing disorder (APD) may qualify for services under IDEA. However, a review of the literature found no review of case law for such children. This article provides a comprehensive review of case law involving the IDEA and children with hearing loss or APD from the U.S. Supreme Court and U.S. courts of appeals. We conducted a systematic review of case law. A LexisNexis search for cases involving IDEA and children with hearing loss or APDs was conducted. For the purpose of the present case review, all appellate decisions (cases accepted by the U.S. courts of appeals or the U.S. Supreme Court) were included if they found that the child had hearing loss or APD, regardless of the reason for the appeal under IDEA. In the instance of multiple cases that involved the same two parties, these cases are summarized together to provide the legal context. Brief explanations of IDEA and the federal judicial process as it pertains to IDEA disputes are presented. Following these explanations, a chronological review of IDEA appellate cases concerning students with hearing loss or APD is provided. The IDEA cases reviewed focus on three main issues: placement of the child, methodology of teaching, and the provision of services. This case law review provides a helpful summary of higher court cases for educational audiologists and parents of children with hearing loss or APDs, as well as educators, individualized education program team members, school administrators, and legal

  3. SHIPPING OF RADIOACTIVE ITEMS

    TIS/RP Group

    2001-01-01

    The TIS-RP group informs users that shipping of small radioactive items is normally guaranteed within 24 hours from the time the material is handed in at the TIS-RP service. This time is imposed by the necessary procedures (identification of the radionuclides, determination of dose rate, preparation of the package and related paperwork). Large and massive objects require a longer procedure and will therefore take longer.

  4. Ship and Shoot

    Woods, Ron

    2012-01-01

    Ron Woods shared incredibly valuable insights gained during his 28 years at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) packaging Flight Crew Equipment for shuttle and ISS missions. In particular, Woods shared anecdotes and photos from various processing events. The moral of these stories and the main focus of this discussion were the additional processing efforts and effects related to a "ship-and-shoot" philosophy toward flight hardware.

  5. Efficacy and safety of artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) for non-falciparum malaria: a systematic review

    Visser, Benjamin J.; Wieten, Rosanne W.; Kroon, Daniëlle; Nagel, Ingeborg M.; Bélard, Sabine; van Vugt, Michèle; Grobusch, Martin P.

    2014-01-01

    Artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) is recommended as first-line treatment for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria, whereas chloroquine is still commonly used for the treatment of non-falciparum species (Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium ovale and Plasmodium malariae). A more simplified, more

  6. A review of policy acts and initiatives in plantain and banana ...

    The study concluded that stakeholder's cohesion and coordination of efforts is needed for increased production and commercialization. Also governmental intervention is needed in the areas of policy initiatives and acts that will go beyond the ad-hoc response which are usually triggered by natural disaster such as pest and ...

  7. 75 FR 42363 - Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002; Biennial Review...

    2010-07-21

    ... be e-mailed to: [email protected] . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Robbin Weyant, Director..., Atlanta, GA 30333. Telephone: (404) 718- 2000. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Bioterrorism Act requires... to the Select Agent regulations (42 CFR Part 73) to implement a tiering and/or stratification schema...

  8. 75 FR 55295 - List of Rules To Be Reviewed Pursuant to the Regulatory Flexibility Act

    2010-09-10

    ... securities held or to be acquired by the fund. The rule requires 17j-1 organizations to adopt codes of ethics... liability for manipulation under Sections 9(a)(2) and 10(b) of the Exchange Act, and Rule 10b-5 thereunder...

  9. Five years after implementation: A review of the Irish Mental Health Act 2001.

    Ramsay, Hugh

    2013-01-01

    The Mental Health Act 2001 (MHA 2001) was implemented in November 2006. Since that time, there has been considerable research into its impact, including the impact on service provision, use of coercive practices and the perceptions by key stakeholders. Our objective is to present a summary of research into the MHA 2001 since its implementation in the Irish state in the context of international standards and practice.

  10. Ship Detection and Measurement of Ship Motion by Multi-Aperture Synthetic Aperture Radar

    2014-06-01

    otherwise they would break. Both transverse and torsional modes are present and are driven by the ship structure, the shape of the sea surface, bow slamming...used, the ship’s loading and the ship’s operation [11], [16]. Very large vessels are the most flexible . The schematic shown in Figure 4 [12] provides...different orientations and thin (with respect to a radar wavelength) rods and cables act as linear diffraction centers. The orientation of the

  11. Analysis of a ship-to-ship collision

    Porter, V.L.; Ammerman, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is involved in a safety assessment for the shipment of radioactive material by sea. One part of this study is investigation of the consequences of ship-to-ship collisions. This paper describes two sets of finite element analyses performed to assess the structural response of a small freighter and the loading imparted to radioactive material (RAM) packages during several postulated collision scenarios with another ship. The first series of analyses was performed to evaluate the amount of penetration of the freighter hull by a striking ship of various masses and initial velocities. Although these analyses included a representation of a single RAM package, the package was not impacted during the collision so forces on the package could not be computed. Therefore, a second series of analyses incorporating a representation of a row of seven packages was performed to ensure direct package impact by the striking ship. Average forces on a package were evaluated for several initial velocities and masses of the striking ship. In addition to. providing insight to ship and package response during a few postulated ship collisions scenarios, these analyses will be used to benchmark simpler ship collision models used in probabilistic risk assessment analyses

  12. Hospital Ship Replacement

    2011-08-01

    serious contender. Although it is a proven hull design for stability, integrating the ability to quickly transfer patients aboard is challenging . The...Waste management afloat is a constant challenge for the Navy. It is even more so when designing a hospital ship. In addition to the typical waste...0.97 Optbrs: Corrmon rail fuellrijacllon,crude oil. Rated power generating sets 61:ili:ln()q;to~ 50Htl760rpm &.gne type -1801.\\ Vlc )l ~W.’/cyl SI;O k

  13. PARTICIPATION BASED MODEL OF SHIP CREW MANAGEMENT

    Toni Bielić

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 This paper analyse the participation - based model on board the ship as possibly optimal leadership model existing in the shipping industry with accent on decision - making process. In the paper authors have tried to define master’s behaviour model and management style identifying drawbacks and disadvantages of vertical, pyramidal organization with master on the top. Paper describes efficiency of decision making within team organization and optimization of a ship’s organisation by introducing teamwork on board the ship. Three examples of the ship’s accidents are studied and evaluated through “Leader - participation” model. The model of participation based management as a model of the teamwork has been applied in studying the cause - and - effect of accidents with the critical review of the communication and managing the human resources on a ship. The results have showed that the cause of all three accidents is the autocratic behaviour of the leaders and lack of communication within teams. Normal 0 21 false false false HR X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4

  14. The Prohibition of Employment as Manual Scavengers and their Rehabilitation Act, 2013: A Review

    Aparajita Baruah

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Manual scavenging is a caste-based and hereditary occupation for Dalits (untouchables, which is predominantly linked with forced labour or slavery. In this article, an attempt has been made to trace out the brief history of the practice of manual scavenging in India. The author has also dwelt upon the constitutional commitment as well as measures taken up by the successive governments to improve the conditions of this class of people. The hallmark of the article lies in the detailed analysis along with some suitable suggestions on the Prohibition of Employment as Manual Scav- engers and their Rehabilitation Act, 2013 recently enacted by the Parliament of India.

  15. ERDC Ship/Tow Simulator

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Performing Advanced Hydrodynamic ModelingEngineers and ship pilots can now overcome the challenges of evaluating navigation channel designs, modifications and safety...

  16. [Fourth evaluation of the law on the review of termination of life on request and assisted suicide (Euthanasia Act)].

    van der Heide, A; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, B D; van Delden, J J M; Gevers, J K M; van der Maas, P J; van der Wal, G

    2005-09-24

    This fall, an extensive study will start to evaluate the Dutch Euthanasia Act. This law was enacted in 2002. According to this law, physicians must report cases of euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide. The cases are then judged by regional euthanasia review committees consisting of a lawyer, a physician and an ethicist. Only if they conclude that the case does not meet the requirements for prudent practice, it will be sent to the public prosecutor. The study will be focused on the practice of medical end-of-life decision-making, the functioning and effects of the Euthanasia Act, and opinions of physicians about the scope of the law and the demarcation between different end-of-life decisions. The study will comprise 4 sub-studies: a judicial evaluation, a death certificate study, a survey among physicians and a panel study among physicians, nurses, members of euthanasia review committees, lawyers and ethicists. This study is the fourth in a row of nationwide studies into end-of-life practices that have been performed since 1990. The previous studies contributed to the public debate about medical care at the end of life and to the development of policy in this field. It is expected that this study, by providing up-to-date information on and insight into end-of-life care in the Netherlands, will do the same.

  17. [Psychiatry and occupational diseases act in Chile: historical and critical review of a complex relationship].

    Almonte, Juan C; Mena, Cristián; Ortiz, Sofía; Osorio, Juan P

    2016-12-01

    The Work Accidents and Occupational Diseases Act exists in Chile since 1968. It uses a single model for the understanding and management of both somatic diseases like silicosis and psychiatric disorders. During the last decade in Chile, the consultation rates due to psychiatric conditions of probable labor origin has rose over 1,000%, a factor that underscored the deficiencies of this model. The aim of this paper is to analyze the consequences of the application of this act in the psychiatric field for almost 50 years after its promulgation. This article contains an historical overview and an epistemological debate based on the authors’ experience dealing with clinical and administrative work both in occupational psychiatry departments and in regulatory entities. The development of occupational mental health in Chile is examined as part of an historical process that initially did not consider the relationship between work and mental suffering as relevant. The application of a single causality model in psychiatry, as well as the effects of building a psychiatric nosology upon legal rather than medical criteria is contested.

  18. Risperidone long-acting injection: a review of its long term safety and efficacy

    Michael K Rainer

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Michael K RainerMemory-Clinic and Psychiatric Department, Donauspital, Vienna, AustriaAbstract: A long-acting form of the second-generation antipsychotic drug risperidone is now broadly available for the treatment of schizophrenia and closely related psychiatric conditions. It combines the advantage of previously available depot formulations for first-generation drugs with the favorable characteristics of the modern “atypical” antipsychotics, namely higher efficacy in the treatment of the negative symptoms of schizophrenia and reduced motor disturbances. Published clinical studies show an objective clinical efficacy (as per psychiatric symptom scores and relapse data that exceeds that of oral atypical antipsychotics when patients are switched to the long-acting injectable form, a low incidence of treatment-emergent extrapyramidal side effects, and very good acceptance by patients. Available data for maintenance treatment of bipolar disorder show equivalence with the oral form instead of superiority, but are still limited. As it seems likely that efficacy benefits are mostly due to the fact that the injectable form reduces the demand for patient compliance to one physician visit every 2 weeks instead of self-administration on a daily or twice-daily basis, additional potential could exist in other psychiatric disorders where atypical antipsychotic drugs are of benefit but where patient adherence to treatment schedules is typically low.Keywords: risperidone, schizophrenia, psychotic disorders, patient compliance; delayed-action preparations, injections, intramuscular

  19. 76 FR 79141 - List of Rules To Be Reviewed Pursuant to the Regulatory Flexibility Act

    2011-12-21

    ... initial notice within a reasonable time after establishing a customer relationship in two additional..., requires an agency to review its rules that have a significant economic impact upon a substantial number of... be amended or rescinded * * * to minimize any significant economic impact of the rules upon a...

  20. 77 FR 71743 - List of Rules To Be Reviewed Pursuant to the Regulatory Flexibility Act

    2012-12-04

    ... complexity of the rule; The extent to which the rule overlaps, duplicates or conflicts with other federal... 19251 (Mar. 30, 1981). List of Rules To Be Reviewed Title: Role of Independent Directors of Investment... solely of independent directors that oversees the fund's accounting and auditing processes; (ii) adopts...

  1. Efficacy of long-acting release octreotide for preventing chemotherapy-induced diarrhoea: protocol for a systematic review.

    Deng, Chao; Deng, Bo; Jia, Liqun; Tan, Huangying

    2017-06-21

    Diarrhoea is a common adverse effect induced by chemotherapy that can reduce the dose of chemotherapeutic drugs or interrupt the chemotherapy schedule. The current treatment strategies have various limitations. It has been shown that long-acting release octreotide (octreotide LAR) can decrease the occurrence and severity of diarrhoea, yet the efficacy of octreotide LAR in preventing chemotherapy-induced diarrhoea (CID) remains to be assessed. The main objective of this paper was to draw up a protocol for systematic review to evaluate the protective effects of octreotide LAR on CID. We searched Medline, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang Data and the VIP Database without language restrictions from inception until 1 September 2016. The references of relevant studies were also manually searched. Two investigators independently accessed the selected studies, extracted data and assessed the reliability of the studies. Any discrepancies were resolved by a third investigator. The effect size of the selected studies was assessed by different measures based on the type of data. The selected studies were descriptively analysed. We then chose a fixed-effect model or a random-effect model based on statistical homogeneity, and pooled data from the studies for meta-analysis, if possible. The primary outcome was the incidence of diarrhoea. The secondary outcomes were the duration of diarrhoea, incidence of diarrhoea-associated symptoms, physical function and quality of life. All statistical analyses were performed by Review Manager V.5.3. This systematic review did not require ethics approval, because it included aggregated published data, and not individual patient data. The review was published in a peer-reviewed journal. This systematic review protocol was registered with PROSPERO (registration number: CRD 42016048573). © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights

  2. On Impact Mechanics in Ship Collisions

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Zhang, Shengming

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present analytical, closed-form expressions for the energy released for crushing and the impact impulse during ship collisions. Ship-ship collisions, ship collisions with rigid walls and ship collisions with flexible offshore structures are considered. The derived ...

  3. Luggage and shipped goods

    Vogel, H.; Haller, D.

    2007-01-01

    Summary: Purpose: Control of luggage and shipped goods are frequently carried out. The possibilities of X-ray technology shall be demonstrated. Materials and methods: There are different imaging techniques. The main concepts are transmission imaging, backscatter imaging, computed tomography, and dual energy imaging and the combination of different methods The images come from manufacturers and personal collections. Results: The search concerns mainly, weapons, explosives, and drugs; furthermore animals, and stolen goods, Special problems offer the control of letters and the detection of Improvised Explosive Devices (IED). Conclusion: One has to expect that controls will increase and that imaging with X-rays will have their part. Pattern recognition software will be used for analysis enforced by economy and by demand for higher efficiency - man and computer will produce more security than man alone

  4. Global Shipping Game

    2011-01-28

    information please contact the Chairman, War Gaming Department, Naval War College, 686 Cushing Road, Newport, RI 02841 or via electronic mail at... Game ……………………………………………...9 c. Overarching Research Question……………………………………………..…10 d. Subsidiary Questions…………………………………………………………...10 e ...An e -SLOC is the “cyber network that supports the global maritime trade network.” Industry Global Shipping Game Report 27 experts felt that

  5. The criminal act of commercial surrogacy in Australia: a call for review.

    Stuhmcke, Anita

    2011-03-01

    Australian surrogacy legislation punishes the pursuit of a commercial surrogacy arrangement as a criminal offence. Such legislation was first introduced in Victoria in 1986 and has since been applied in every Australian jurisdiction except for the Northern Territory. The current application of criminal law is based upon this 1980s policy which has never been subject to public debate. This article argues that the continued application of criminal penalties to commercial surrogacy requires review.

  6. Single liner shipping service design

    Plum, Christian Edinger Munk; Pisinger, David; Salazar-González, Juan-José

    2014-01-01

    The design of container shipping networks is an important logistics problem, involving assets and operational costs measured in billions of dollars. To guide the optimal deployment of the ships, a single vessel round trip is considered by minimizing operational costs and flowing the best paying...

  7. Ship exhaust gas plume cooling

    Schleijpen, H.M.A.; Neele, P.P.

    2004-01-01

    The exhaust gas plume is an important and sometimes dominating contributor to the infrared signature of ships. Suppression of the infrared ship signatures has been studied by TNO for the Royal Netherlands Navy over considerable time. This study deals with the suppression effects, which can be

  8. Navy Hospital ships in history

    Sougat Ray

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hospital ships are operated by the Naval forces in or near war zones to provide medical assistance to the wounded personnel of all nationalities and not be used for any military purpose. Hospital ships possibly existed in ancient times and the Athenian Navy had a ship named Therapia. However, it was only during the 17th century that it became a common practice for the naval squadrons to be accompanied by large ships with the facilities of carrying the wounded after each engagement. In 1860, the steamships HMS Melbourne and HMS Mauritius were equipped with genuine medical facilities. They were manned by the Medical Staff Corps and provided services to the British expedition to China. During the World War I and World War II, passenger ships were converted for use as hospital ships and were started to be used on a massive scale. RMS Aquitania and HMHS Britannic were two famous examples of hospital ships used extensively. Modern US hospital ships USNS Mercy and USNS Comfort are operated by Military Sealift Command of the US Navy. Their primary mission is to provide emergency on-site care for US combatant forces deployed in war or other operations.

  9. Identification of Dynamically Positioned Ships

    Thor I. Fossen

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Todays model-based dynamic positioning (DP systems require that the ship and thruster dynamics are known with some accuracy in order to use linear quadratic optical control theory. However, it is difficult to identify the mathematical model of a dynamically posititmed (DP ship since the ship is not persistently excited under DP. In addition the ship parameter estimation problem is nonlinear and multivariable with only position and thruster state measurements available for parameter estimation. The process and measurement noise must also be modeled in order to avoid parameter drift due to environmental disturbances and sensor failure. This article discusses an off-line parallel extended Kalman filter (EKF algorithm utilizing two measurement series in parallel to estimate the parameters in the DP ship model. Full-scale experiments with a supply vessel are used to demonstrate the convergence and robustness of the proposed parameter estimator.

  10. Review of Post-Marketing Safety Data on Tapentadol, a Centrally Acting Analgesic.

    Stollenwerk, Ariane; Sohns, Melanie; Heisig, Fabian; Elling, Christian; von Zabern, Detlef

    2018-01-01

    Tapentadol is a centrally acting analgesic that has been available for the management of acute and chronic pain in routine clinical practice since 2009. This is the first integrated descriptive analysis of post-marketing safety data following the use of tapentadol in a broad range of pain conditions relating to the topics overall safety, dose administration above approved dosages, administration during pregnancy, serotonin syndrome, respiratory depression, and convulsion. The data analyzed pertain to spontaneous reports from healthcare and non-healthcare professionals and were put in the context of safety information known from interventional and non-interventional trials. The first years of routine clinical practice experience with tapentadol have confirmed the tolerability profile that emerged from the clinical trials. Moreover, the reporting of expected side effects such as respiratory depression and convulsion was low and no major risks were identified. The evaluation of available post-marketing data did not confirm the theoretical risk of serotonin syndrome nor did it reveal unexpected side effects with administration of higher than recommended doses. More than 8 years after its first introduction, the favorable overall safety profile of tapentadol in the treatment of various pain conditions is maintained in the general population. Grünenthal GmbH.

  11. Book review: Implementing the Endangered Species Act on the Platte Basin water commons

    Sherfy, Mark H.

    2014-01-01

    The Platte River is a unique midcontinent ecosystem that is world-renowned for its natural resources, particularly the spectacular spring concentrations of migratory birds, such as sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis), ducks, and geese. The Platte River basin also provides habitat for four federally listed endangered or threatened species—interior least tern (Sternula antillarum athalassos), piping plover (Charadrius melodus), whooping crane (G. americana), and pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus)—that require specific hydrological conditions in order for habitat to be suitable. Flows on the Platte River are subject to regulation by a number of dams, and it is heavily relied upon for irrigation in Colorado, Wyoming, and Nebraska. Accordingly, it also has become a political battleground for the simple reason that the demand for water exceeds supply. David Freeman’s book takes a detailed look at water-use issues on the Platte River, focusing on how implementation of the Endangered Species Act influences decision-making about water allocations. 

  12. Genocide, paramilitary and victims in Indonesia. A review of the documentary film The Act of Killing (2012

    Sandro Alberto Díaz Boada

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary documentary cinema continues to seek innovative ways to produce subjectivities. This paper centers around the Danish documentary film The act of killing (2012 made by two American filmmakers —Joshua Oppenheimer and Christine Cynn—, along with a third one, who does not disclose his/her identity appearing in the credits as Anonymous. The way in which a process of investigation conducted in Indonesia, a territory swarmed with impunity, can expose before the international community several decades afterwards the effects of a genocide that was orchestrated by huge economic and political forces and carried out by executors such as Anwar Congo, Herman Koto, gangsters and paramilitary groups who up to today have ties with the current democratic regime, is here commented and analyzed.  The documentary film is reviewed noting violence devices and the  continuity between violent acts and their representations and imagery in mass media and sometimes in artistic productions such as film and television programs. One of the questions raised has to do with the role of victims in the documentary, since they seem part of a backdrop while perpetrators are visually given a huge power.

  13. The Dangerous Drugs Act Amendment in Jamaica: Reviewing goals, implementation, and challenges.

    Davenport, Steven; Pardo, Bryce

    2016-11-01

    After decades of internal discussion, the Government of Jamaica recently amended its laws to create a regulated and licensed cannabis industry for medical and scientific purposes. The new law also decriminalizes personal possession and use of cannabis; allows cannabis to be used by individuals for religious, medical, scientific and therapeutic purposes; and permits home cultivation of up to five plants. We first describe the statutory changes under the Dangerous Drugs (Amendment) Act of 2015 and compare it with other jurisdictions. We provide an analytical framework for understanding how the DDA Amendment affects key populations and achieves its stated goals, drawing on publicly available information and unstructured interviews with non-governmental stakeholders in Jamaica. The Amendment's primary goals are to deliver economic impact and reduce criminal justice costs. A relaxed policy of enforcement toward possession and use seems to have occurred even before the law's passage; after the law's passage, enforcement remains limited. To access medical cannabis under the DDA residents must receive authorization from a certified health professional in Jamaica; tourists may self-declare their medical need; and Rastafarians may grow and exchange non-commercially for religious purposes. Internally, many see "ganja" as an industry sorely needed to drive economic growth in Jamaica. Indeed, the potential impacts could be large, especially if Jamaica draws additional tourism or creates a viable export industry. A growing cannabis-related tourism industry seems more realistic. We maintain that policymakers and observers should proceed in an orderly fashion, continuing to identify and resolve remaining uncertainties, initiate new types of data collection, and make decisions based on realistic assessments of potentials for economic impact. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Cybersecurity Framework for Ship Industrial Control System

    Maule, R. William; Hake, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Ship mechanical and electrical control systems, and the communications grid through which these devices operate, are a high priority concern for Navy leadership. Ship systems use microprocessor-based controls to interface with physical objects, and Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) to automate ship electromechanical processes. Ship operations are completely dependent on these devices. The commercial security products upon which ships depend do not work on ICS, leaving ships vulnerable. Th...

  15. The psychosocial work environment and fatigue in Danish ferry shipping

    Bøggild Dohrmann, Solveig

    and endangerment of occupational safety, and in ferry shipping employees’ fatigue can lead not only to poor individual health and wellbeing but also to accidents, which can potentially jeopardize passengers’ safety. Objective Due to the risk of fatigue in the ferry shipping industry – and a lack of prior research...... on this topic - the main aim of this Phd study was to investigate the link between fatigue and working environmental factors among ferry shipping employees. The investigation specifically focuses on the role of psychosocial factors, as there is a distinct lack of research on such determinants in a seafaring...... of two Danish ferry shipping companies. Methods A systematic review and quality assessment of the empirical evidence was conducted as an initial step to summarize and analyze what was known about fatigue-determining factors in seafaring, the results of which were published in article 1. Two further...

  16. Containment of spills from ships

    Engerer, M.J.

    1992-01-01

    Oil escaping from a ship is contained within a limited area surrounding the ship by means of a flexible ring structure. The ring structure is stored in a collapsed state in a compartment extending around the ship. In response to an oil spill, the ring structure is dropped from the compartment and immediately surrounds the ship. A circular inflatable flotation section of the ring structure is charged with gas under pressure. The gas is supplied from a bottle cascade aboard the ship, through lines preconnected to the flotation section and paid out from free-wheeling reels. The flotation section supports a thin circumferential wall of predetermined height that submerges and assumes a vertical cylinder-like shape surrounding the escaping oil. The oil floats within the confines of the ring structure, and the ring structure is progressively expanded to a predetermined size selected to accommodate the total volume of oil carried by the ship. When the ring structure achieves its expanded state, pressure in the flotation section is raised to render the structure relatively rigid and resistant to collapse in response to wave action. Oil can be removed from the interior of the ring structure by recovery ships using suction lines or other conventional recovery methods. 12 figs

  17. Ships and the Sailors Inside Them

    Sims, Philip

    2004-01-01

    .... Iron shipbuilding allowed safer and healthier ships but their internal compartmentation created communication problems which were gradually solved with mechanical systems Ships developed their own...

  18. Bio-indications of sunken ships and ship wrecks

    Parulekar, A

    An evaluation of bottom fauna of ship-wreck sites in estuarine and coastal waters of Goa, India, revealed an exceptionally high biotic enrichment. In terms of number of species, faunal dispersion, faunal diversity, biomass and productivity, in space...

  19. Production Balance of Ship Erection

    JIANG Ru-hong; TAN Jia-hua; LIU Cun-gen

    2008-01-01

    A network plan model of ship erection was established based on the network planning technologyand the work-package breakdown system. The load-oriented production control method was introduced to buildup a throughput diagram model thus it is possible to describe the ship erection process numerically. Based onthe digitaiized models some cases of production balance of ship erection were studied and three balance indexeswere put forward, they are the load balance rate, the input manpower balance rate and the maximum gantrycrane operating times. Such an analytic method based on the balance evaluation is the important foundationfor digitization and intelligentization of shipyard production management.

  20. Occupational accidents aboard merchant ships

    Hansen, H.L.; Nielsen, D.; Frydenberg, Morten

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the frequency, circumstances, and causes of occupational accidents aboard merchant ships in international trade, and to identify risk factors for the occurrence of occupational accidents as well as dangerous working situations where possible preventive measures may...... be initiated. Methods: The study is a historical follow up on occupational accidents among crew aboard Danish merchant ships in the period 1993–7. Data were extracted from the Danish Maritime Authority and insurance data. Exact data on time at risk were available. Results: A total of 1993 accidents were...... aboard. Relative risks for notified accidents and accidents causing permanent disability of 5% or more were calculated in a multivariate analysis including ship type, occupation, age, time on board, change of ship since last employment period, and nationality. Foreigners had a considerably lower recorded...

  1. Ship Repair Workflow Cost Model

    McDevitt, Mike

    2003-01-01

    The effects of intermittent work patterns and funding on the costs of ship repair and maintenance were modeled for the San Diego region in 2002 for Supervisor of Shipbuilding and Repair (SUPSHIP) San Diego...

  2. The Occurrence of Paraffin and Other Petroleum Waxes in the Marine Environment: A Review of the Current Legislative Framework and Shipping Operational Practices

    Giuseppe Suaria

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Among the various materials that make up marine debris, lumps of petroleum waxes such as paraffin and microcrystalline wax, are regularly found on beaches worldwide, although not included in the current definition of marine litter. Ingestion by marine organisms is occasionally documented in the scientific literature and mass beaching events are frequently reported along the European coasts, with obvious detrimental consequences to the local communities that have to manage the clean-up and disposal of this substance. According to Annex II of the MARPOL regulation, petroleum waxes are classified as “high viscosity, solidifying, and persistent floating products,” whose discharge at sea of tank-washing residues is strictly regulated, but currently permitted within certain limits. Starting from the description of a large stranding event occurred along the Italian coasts in 2017, we review the existing knowledge and regulatory framework and urge the relevant authorities to address this issue, showing that wax pollution is creating evident damages to the European coastal municipalities. Pending further investigations on the potential hazard that this kind of pollution is posing to marine ecosystems, we suggest a careful and more stringent revision of the policies regulating discharges of these products at sea.

  3. TMI-2 spent fuel shipping

    Quinn, G.J.; Burton, H.M.

    1985-01-01

    TMI-2 failed fuel will be shipped to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for use in the DOE Core Examination Program. The fuel debris will be loaded into three types of canisters during defueling and dry loaded into a spent fuel shipping cask. The cask design accommodates seven canisters per cask and has two separate containment vessels with ''leaktight'' seals. Shipments are expectd to begin in early 1986

  4. Littoral Combat Ship: Knowledge of Survivability and Lethality Capabilities Needed Prior to Making Major Funding Decisions

    2015-12-01

    USS Port Royal hit a coral reef in order to provide an independent review of the damage the ship sustained. Our classified report discussed...Improved Weight Management Needed Prior to Further Investments, GAO-14-349SU (Washington, D.C.: Apr. 8, 2014); Littoral Combat Ship: Knowledge of...Early in the program, the Navy decided to forgo a number of traditional ship requirements in order to help reduce the costs and the weight and size

  5. Marginality and Social Rejection in Amiri Baraka's Slave Ship

    Hamid Hammad Abed

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Marginality and social rejection are the most influential matters exploited by Baraka to intentionally criticize the American society.  More often than not, these two matters have become the scenes of major or minor acts of humiliation and dehumanization that threaten to violate the ethical rules of living. This paper aims at investigating the impact of marginality and social rejection on a number of black characters in Baraka's Slave Ship who are brought to America to be sold as commodities. It is divided into two sections and conclusion. Section one deals with Amiri Baraka’s dramatic thought and experience of marginality within the American society. The textual analysis of Slave Ship is investigated in section two. The significance of the study lies in its textual exploration of the impact of marginality and social rejection in subverting the American dream of democracy, freedom, and equality in Baraka’s Slave Ship.

  6. On impact mechanics in ship collisions

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Zhang, Shengming

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present analytical, closed-form expressions for the energy released for crushing and the impact impulse during ship collisions. Ship–ship collisions, ship collisions with rigid walls and ship collisions with flexible offshore structures are considered. The derived ...

  7. Development of the nuclear ship MUTSU spent fuel shipping cask

    Ishizuka, M.; Umeda, M.; Nawata, Y.; Sato, H.; Honami, M.; Nomura, T.; Ohashi, M.; Higashino, A.

    1989-01-01

    After the planned trial voyage (4700 MWD/MTU) of the nuclear ship MUTSU in 1990, her spent fuel assemblies, initially made of two types of enriched UO 2 (3.2wt% and 4.4wt%), will be transferred to the reprocessing plant soon after cooling down in the ship reactor for more than one year. For transportation, the MUTSU spent fuel shipping casks will be used. Prior to transportation to the reprocessing plant, the cooled spent fuel assemblies will be removed from the reactor to the shipping casks and housed at the spent fuel storage facility on site. In designing the MUTSU spent fuel shipping cask, considerations were given to make the leak-tightness and integrity of the cask confirmable during storage. The development of the cask and the storage function demonstration test were performed by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. (MHI). One prototype cask for the storage demonstration test and licensed thirty-five casks were manufactured between 1987 and 1988

  8. The cost effectiveness of long-acting/extended-release antipsychotics for the treatment of schizophrenia: a systematic review of economic evaluations.

    Achilla, Evanthia; McCrone, Paul

    2013-04-01

    Antipsychotic medication is the mainstay of treatment in schizophrenia. Long-acting medication has potential advantages over daily medication in improving compliance and thus reducing hospitalization and relapse rates. The high acquisition and administration costs of such formulations raise the need for pharmacoeconomic evaluation. The aim of this article is to provide a comprehensive review of the available evidence on the cost effectiveness of long-acting/extended-release antipsychotic medication and critically appraise the strength of evidence reported in the studies from a methodological viewpoint. Relevant studies were identified by searching five electronic databases: PsycINFO, MEDLINE, EMBASE, the NHS Economic Evaluation Database and the Health Technology Assessment database (HTA). Search terms included, but were not limited to, 'long-acting injection', 'economic evaluation', 'cost-effectiveness' and 'cost-utility'. No limits were applied for publication dates and language. Full economic evaluations on long-acting/extended-release antipsychotics were eligible for inclusion. Observational studies and clinical trials were also checked for cost-effectiveness information. Conference abstracts and poster presentations on the cost effectiveness of long-acting antipsychotics were excluded. Thirty-two percent of identified studies met the selection criteria. Pertinent abstracts were reviewed independently by two reviewers. Relevant studies underwent data extraction by one reviewer and were checked by a second, with any discrepancies being clarified during consensus meetings. Eligible studies were assessed for methodological quality using the quality checklist for economic studies recommended by the NICE guideline on interventions in the treatment and management of schizophrenia. After applying the selection criteria, the final sample consisted of 28 studies. The majority of studies demonstrated that risperidone long-acting injection, relative to oral or other long-acting

  9. Thermal Evaluation of a KRI-BGM Shipping Cask

    Bang, K. S.; Lee, J. C.; Seo, K. S.

    2007-01-01

    Radioactive isotopes are used extensively in the fields of industry, medical treatment, food and agriculture. Use of radioactive isotopes is expected to increase continuously with the growth of each field. In order to safely transport radioactive isotopes from the place of manufacture to the place of use, a shipping package is required. Therefore KAERI is developing the KRI-BGM shipping cask to transport the Ir-192 bulk radioactive material, which is produced at the HANARO research reactor. The shipping package should satisfy the requirements which are prescribed in the Korea MOST Act 2001-23, IAEA Safety Standard Series No. TS-R-1, US 10 CFR Part 71 and the US 49 CFR Part 173. These regulatory classify the KRI-BGM shipping cask as a Type B package, and their regulatory guidelines state that the Type B package for transporting radioactive materials should be able to withstand a period of 30 minutes under a thermal condition of 800 .deg. C. However, the polyurethane, which is to be used as the filling within the cavity of the KRIBGM shipping cask, has a very weak characteristic in a high temperature. Therefore it is difficult for the depleted uranium(hereafter DU), which is used as shielding material, to be protected under a thermal condition of 800 .deg. C. Accordingly, the KRI-BGM shipping cask, which applied non-combustible polyurethane and fireproof materials as the filling, was fabricated. The thermal tests by using prototype cask have been performed to estimate the thermal integrity of the KRI-BGM shipping cask under a thermal condition of 800 .deg. C

  10. Total Analysis System for Ship Structural Strength

    Takuya, Yoneya; Hiroyuki, Kobayashi; Abdul M., Rahim; Yoshimichi, Sasaki; Masaki, Irisawa; Technical Investigation and Information Department, Research Center; Technical Investigation and Information Department, Research Center; Singapore Office; Technical Investigation and Information Department, Research Center; Technical Investigation and Information Department, Research Center

    2001-01-01

    This paper outlines a total analysis system for ship hull structures, which integrates a wide variety of analysis functions to realise practical applications of rational methods for assessing ship structural strength. It is based on direct calculation of wave-induced loads as well as three-dimensional structural analysis of an entire-ship or hold structure. Three major analysis functions of the total system are ship motion and wave load analysis, ship structural analysis and statistical analy...

  11. A Review of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act Smart Grid Projects and Their Implications for China

    Liu, Xu [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Marnay, Chris [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Feng, Wei [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Zhou, Nan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Karali, Nihan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-06-21

    The Chinese government has paid growing attention to renewable energy development and has set ambitious goals for carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions reduction and energy savings. Smart grid (SG) technologies have been regarded as emerging ways to integrate renewable energy and to help achieve these climate and energy goals. This report first reviews completed SG demonstrations under the U.S. American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA); especially two key programs: the SG Investment Grant (SGIG) and the SG Demonstration Project (SGDP). Under the SGIG, the larger of the two programs, over $3.4 billion was used to help industry deploy existing advanced SG technologies and tools to improve grid performance and reduce costs. Including industry investment, a total of $8 billion was spent on 99 cost-shared projects, which involved more than 200 participating electric utilities and other organizations. These projects aimed to modernize the electric grid, strengthen cyber security, improve interoperability, and collect comprehensive data on SG operations and benefits.

  12. Dumping at Sea Act 1974

    1974-01-01

    This Act enables the United Kingdom Government to ratify both the Oslo Convention of 1972 for the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping from Ships and Aircraft and the London Convention of 1972 on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter. (NEA) [fr

  13. Transnucleaire's experience in ship adaptation

    Brachet, Y.; Vallette-Fontaine, M.

    2000-01-01

    Due to the application of the new IMDG regulations for the transport of radioactive material by sea, the conditions of transport of MTR spent fuel have drastically changed five years ago. In this paper, TRANSNUCLEAIRE analyses the necessary modifications to apply to existing ships in order to comply with the IMDG/INF regulations as well as with the Japanese KAISA 520 regulation. In the MTR spent fuel transport market characterized by a competitive approach, TRANSNUCLEAIRE has carried out many transports by sea in full compliance with the regulations at a price which is as close as possible to that of other industrial goods and without the need to fully dedicate the BOUGUENAIS ship to nuclear transports. Innovative ship design solutions have been implemented and accepted by different Authorities uncluding the Advisory Committee of the Japanese MOT. Due to efficient finite element calculations, benchmarked by laboratory large scale tests, high performances crushing materials have been developed in order to absorb the energy of collision between ships. These developments have led ta propose an efficient ship design complying with all the existing worldwide nuclear regulations. (author)

  14. Effect of Buffer Bow Structure in Ship-Ship Collision

    Yamada, Yasuhira; Endo, Hisayoshi; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2008-01-01

    tankers, the introduction of buffer bulbous bows has been proposed. Relatively soft buffer bows absorb part of the kinetic energy of the striking ship before penetrating the inner hull of the struck vessel. The purpose of the present paper is to verify the effectiveness of a prototype buffer bulbous bow......) and the forward velocity of the struck ship on the collapse mode of the bow of the striking vessel are investigated. Collapse modes, contact forces and energy absorption capabilities of the buffer bows are compared with those of conventional bows....

  15. World Ships: The Solar-Photon Sail Option

    Matloff, G. L.

    The World Ship, a spacecraft large enough to simulate a small-scale terrestrial internal environment, may be the best feasible option to transfer members of a technological civilization between neighboring stars. Because of the projected size of these spacecraft, journey durations of ~1,000 years seem likely. One of the propulsion options for World Ships is the hyper-thin, likely space-manufactured solar-photon sail, unfurled as close to the migrating civilization's home star as possible. Because the sail and associated structure can be wound around the habitat while not in use, it represents the only known ultimately feasible interstellar propulsion system that can be applied for en route galactic-cosmic ray shielding as well as acceleration/ deceleration. This paper reviews the three suggested sail configurations that can be applied to world ship propulsion: parachute, hollow-body and hoop sails. Possible existing and advanced sail and structure materials and the predicted effects on the sail of the near-Sun space environment are reviewed. Consideration of solar-photon-sail World Ships also affects SETI (the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence). Can we detect such craft in flight? When in a star's lifetime is migration using such craft likely? What classes of stars are good candidates for solar-sail World-Ship searches?

  16. EX1001 Ship Shakedown (EX1001, EM302) on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer in Hawaiian Islands

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The ship has been alongside for repairs and leave since November, 2009. The ship shakedown cruise is scheduled to provide an opportunity for the ship to get underway...

  17. A critical review of patients under Section 5(2) of the Mental Health Act of 1983.

    Najim, Hellme; Shaik, Raja

    2013-09-01

    Patients who suffer from mental illness within the definition of the Mental Health Act of 1983 and present a risk to themselves, to other people or at risk of self neglect or deterioration, can be detained under section. Section 5(2) applies for patients who are already admitted to hospital and express their wish to leave against medical advice. It requires the recommendation of one medical practitioner. It gives the power to detain them for 72 hours in hospital for further assessment. To safeguard malpractice of this section, trusts have developed policies and procedures which define good medical practice within the legal framework of the MHA 1983. To evaluate current medical practice and insure that it complies with trust's policies and procedures and applies good medical practice. Medical case notes of patients admitted from 1.1.07-30.6.07 and were detained under Section 5(2) were reviewed. A special form was devised to collect information from the notes. It included age, sex, marital status, occupation, diagnosis, history of violence, history of drug and alcohol abuse and circumstances of their detention were obtained. 44 patients were identified. 40% were men, 65% above the age of 50 years; 52% were sectioned after hours or at the weekends. Measures to persuade patients to stay as informal patients were taken by 16%. 55% were sectioned by the on-call doctor. 68.5% exhibited threatening behaviour. 30% had self neglect, 13% were a risk to others, 26% had a deliberate self harm risk. 60% had moderate to severe suicidal risk and ideation. 68% did not have mental health capacity to give consent for admission. 60% had been assessed in the first 24 hours of their section. 60% were converted to Section 2,3 of the Mental Health Act. 25% stayed as informal patients and 7% were discharged. Female patients were more likely to be put on Section 5(2), which was against expectation. Older people were more likely to be put on section 5(2), which was again against expectation

  18. Reliability Based Ship Structural Design

    Dogliani, M.; Østergaard, C.; Parmentier, G.

    1996-01-01

    This paper deals with the development of different methods that allow the reliability-based design of ship structures to be transferred from the area of research to the systematic application in current design. It summarises the achievements of a three-year collaborative research project dealing...... with developments of models of load effects and of structural collapse adopted in reliability formulations which aim at calibrating partial safety factors for ship structural design. New probabilistic models of still-water load effects are developed both for tankers and for containerships. New results are presented...... structure of several tankers and containerships. The results of the reliability analysis were the basis for the definition of a target safety level which was used to asses the partial safety factors suitable for in a new design rules format to be adopted in modern ship structural design. Finally...

  19. Design of Crashworthy Ship Strucures

    Toernqvist, Rikard

    2003-01-01

    The main purpose of the project has been to develop a rational procedure for designing new crashworthy side structures for those ship types where it could be expected that a substantial improvement of the crashworthiness and the related safety could be achieved by careful consideration of the str......The main purpose of the project has been to develop a rational procedure for designing new crashworthy side structures for those ship types where it could be expected that a substantial improvement of the crashworthiness and the related safety could be achieved by careful consideration...... in collision and grounding analysis is the prediction of the onset of fracture and crack propagation in the shell plating. In simulations of accidental loading on ships it is crucial that fracture is determined correctly, as it will influence the global deformation mode and the amount of damage to the hull...

  20. On Grounding of Fast Ships

    Simonsen, Bo Cerup; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1997-01-01

    The paper deals with analysis of grounding of high-speed crafts. It is the purpose to present a comprehensive mathematical model for calculation of the overall dynamic ship response during grounding. This procedure is applied to derive the motions, the time varying sectional forces and the local...... loads during grounding on plane, sloping, sandy bottoms for six different designs of fast monohull ships made from steel, aluminium or GRP sandwich materials. The results show that the effect of the hull flexibility is to reduce the overall dynamic sectional loads on the hull girder. The considered...... numerical examples also indicate that, even with impact speeds of 40 knots against a 1:10 sloping bottom, the global strength of the hull girder is not exceeded by the grounding induced loads.For the local deformation of high-speed ship hulls at the point of contact with the ground, the paper presents...

  1. Fuel exchanger for nuclear ships

    Suda, Koji; Kanbara, Takahisa; Watanabe, Masaharu.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent enviromental contamination landing radioactive materials from the inside of a ship. Constitution: A provisional cabin having a shape covering a reactor hatch and a hatch cover is disposed on the upper deck of a ship body. A ceiling shutter is disposed to the cabin. A protection cylinder having a shutter and a filter fan is attached on the cabin. Materials to be discharged out of the ship are transported to a fuel exchange tower on land by using a crane while being contained in the protection cylinder with the shutter being closed. The protection cylinder is connected by means of a wire rope to a loop-wheel machine which disposed on the trolly of a crane. While the bellows through which the suspending wire for the discharged products passes is perforated, since the inside of the cylinder is depressurized by a filter fan, there is no air leakage through the perforation to the outside. (Ikeda, J.)

  2. Fuel exchanger for nuclear ships

    Suda, Koji; Kanbara, Takahisa; Watanabe, Masaharu

    1984-11-29

    To prevent enviromental contamination by radioactive materials from the inside of a ship a provisional cabin having a shape covering a reactor hatch and a hatch cover is disposed on the upper deck of a ship body. A ceiling shutter is disposed to the cabin. A protection cylinder having a shutter and a filter fan is attached on the cabin. Materials to be discharged out of the ship are transported to a fuel exchange tower on land by using a crane while being contained in the protection cylinder with the shutter being closed. The protection cylinder is connected by means of a wire rope to a loop-wheel machine which is disposed on the trolly of a crane. While the bellows through which the suspending wire for the discharged products passes is perforated, since the inside of the cylinder is depressurized by a filter fan, there is no air leakage through the perforation to the outside.

  3. The decommissioning plan of the Nuclear Ship MUTSU

    Adachi, M.; Matsuo, R.; Fujikawa, S.; Nomura, T.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the review about the decommissioning plan and present state of the Nuclear Ship Mutsu. The decommissioning of the Mutsu is carried out by Removal and Isolation method. The procedure of the decommissioning works is presented in this paper. The decommissioning works started in April, 1992 and it takes about four years after her last experimental voyage. (author)

  4. Ships - inspiring objects in architecture

    Marczak, Elzbieta

    2017-10-01

    Sea-going vessels have for centuries fascinated people, not only those who happen to work at sea, but first and foremost, those who have never set foot aboard a ship. The environment in which ships operate is reminiscent of freedom and countless adventures, but also of hard and interesting maritime working life. The famous words of Pompey: “Navigare necesseest, vivere non estnecesse” (sailing is necessary, living - is not necessary), which he pronounced on a stormy sea voyage, arouse curiosity and excitement, inviting one to test the truth of this saying personally. It is often the case, however, that sea-faring remains within the realm of dreams, while the fascination with ships demonstrates itself through a transposition of naval features onto land constructions. In such cases, ship-inspired motifs bring alive dreams and yearnings as well as reflect tastes. Tourism is one of the indicators of people’s standard of living and a measure of a society’s civilisation. Maritime tourism has been developing rapidly in recent decades. A sea cruise offers an insight into life at sea. Still, most people derive their knowledge of passenger vessels and their furnishings from the mass media. Passenger vessels, also known as “floating cities,” are described as majestic and grand, while their on-board facilities as luxurious, comfortable, exclusive and inaccessible to common people on land. Freight vessels, on the other hand, are described as enormous objects which dwarf the human being into insignificance. This article presents the results of research intended to answer the following questions: what makes ships a source of inspiration for land architecture? To what extent and by what means do architects draw on ships in their design work? In what places can we find structures inspired by ships? What ships inspire architects? This article presents examples of buildings, whose design was inspired by the architecture and structural details of sea vessels. An analysis of

  5. Quality management in shipping companies

    Đergović Dragana M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As international business becomes more competitive, companies are finding that they need to work more effectively to stay in business. Quality assurance has become very important to the majority of production and service companies with international activity. Shipping companies were also required to implement a quality management system. The huge importance of safety in maritime transport operations resulted in the International Safety Management Code (ISM Code by the International Maritime Organization. The general management system principles embodied by the maritime ISM Code and generics ISO standards, have enabled their complementary application in establishing a quality management system in shipping companies, within a safety management system as its subset.

  6. The economic potential of a cassette-type-reactor-installed nuclear ice-breaking container ship

    Kondo, Koichi; Takamasa, Tomoji

    1999-01-01

    An improved cassette-type marine reactor MRX (Marine Reactor X) which is currently researched and developed by the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute is designed to be easily removed and transferred to another ship. If the reactor in a nuclear-powered ship, which is the reason for its higher cost, were replaced by the cassette-type-MRX, the reusability of the MRX would reduce the cost difference between nuclear-powered and diesel ships. As an investigation of one aspect of a cassette-type MRX, we attempted in this study to do an economic review of an MRX-installed nuclear-powered ice-breaking container ship sailing via the Arctic Ocean. The transportation cost between the Far East and Europe to carry one TEU (twenty-foot-equivalent container unit) over the entire life of the ship for an MRX (which is used for a 20-year period)-installed container ship sailing via the Arctic Ocean is about 70% higher than the Suez Canal diesel ship, carrying 8,000 TEU and sailing at 25 knots, and about 10% higher than the Suez Canal diesel ship carrying 4,000 TEU and sailing at 34 knots. The cost for a cassette-type-MRX (which is used for a 40-year period, removed and transferred to a second ship after being used for 20 years in the first ship)-installed nuclear-powered container ship is about 7% lower than that for the one operated for 20 years. Considering any loss or reduction in sales opportunities through the extension of the transportation period, the nuclear-powered container ship via the Arctic Sea is a more suitable means of transportation than a diesel ship sailing at 25 knots via the Suez Canal when the value of the commodities carried exceeds 2,800 dollars per freight ton. (author)

  7. Economic potential of nuclear-powered ice-breaking container ship via the northern sea route

    Takamasa, Tomoji; Kondo, Koichi

    2000-01-01

    An improved cassette-type marine reactor MRX (Marine Reactor X) which is currently researched and developed by the JAERI is designed to be easily removed and transferred to another ship. If the reactor in a nuclear-powered ship, which is the reason for its higher cost, were replaced by the cassette-type-MRX, the reusability of the MRX would reduce the cost difference between nuclear-powered and diesel ships. As an investigation of one aspect of a cassette-type MRX, we attempted in this study to do an economic review of an MRX-installed nuclear-powered ice-breaking container ship sailing via the Arctic Ocean. The transportation cost between the Far East and Europe to carry one TEU (twenty-foot-equivalent container unit) over the entire life of the ship for an MRX (which is used for a 20-year period)-installed container ship sailing via the Arctic Ocean is about 70% higher than the Suez Canal diesel ship, carrying 8,000 TEU and sailing at 25 knots, and about 10% higher than the Suez Canal diesel ship carrying 4,000 TEU and sailing at 34 knots. The cost for a cassette-type-MRX (which is used for a 40-year period, removed and transferred to a second ship after being used for 20 years in the first ship)-installed nuclear-powered container ship is about 7% lower than that for the one operated for 20 years. Considering any loss or reduction in sales opportunities through the extension of the transportation period, the nuclear-powered container ship via the Arctic Sea is a more suitable means of transportation than a diesel ship sailing at 25 knots via the Suez Canal when the value of the commodities carried exceeds 2,800 dollars per freight ton. (author)

  8. Dutch National Security Reform Under Review : Sufficient Checks and Balances in the Intelligence and Security Services Act 2017?

    Quirine Eijkman; Nico van Eijk; Robert van Schaik

    2018-01-01

    In May 2018, the new Dutch Intelligence and Security Services Act 2017 (Wet op de Inlichtingen- en veiligheidsdiensten, Wiv) will enter into force. It replaces the previous 2002 Act and incorporates many reforms to the information gathering powers of the two intelligence and security services as

  9. 77 FR 58111 - Notice of Submission for OMB Review; Office of Postsecondary Education; Higher Education Act (HEA...

    2012-09-19

    ...; Higher Education Act (HEA) Title II Report Cards on State Teacher Credentialing and Preparation SUMMARY: The Higher Education Opportunity Act of 2008 (HEOA) calls for annual reports from states and institutions of higher education (IHEs) on the quality of teacher preparation and state teacher certification...

  10. Teaching Students with Disabilities: A Review of Music Education Research as It Relates to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act

    Jones, Sara K.

    2015-01-01

    This article explores trends in research since the 1975 passage of the Education for All Handicapped Children Act (now known as the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act), notes gaps in the literature, and offers suggestions for future directions music education researchers could take in exploring the needs and experiences of music teachers…

  11. 75 FR 2578 - 2010 Special 301 Review: Identification of Countries Under Section 182 of the Trade Act of 1974...

    2010-01-15

    ... Canada affecting United States cultural industries. The USTR must identify any act, policy or practice of Canada that affects cultural industries, is adopted or expanded after December 17, 1992, and is... assessing the effect of the acts, policies, and practices. Any comments that include quantitative loss...

  12. 76 FR 81555 - 2012 Special 301 Review: Identification of Countries Under Section 182 of the Trade Act of 1974...

    2011-12-28

    ... Canada affecting United States cultural industries. The USTR must identify any act, policy or practice of Canada that affects cultural industries, is adopted or expanded after December 17, 1992, and is... of the acts, policies, and practices. Any comments that include quantitative loss claims should be...

  13. 75 FR 82424 - 2011 Special 301 Review: Identification of Countries Under Section 182 of the Trade Act of 1974...

    2010-12-30

    ... Canada affecting United States cultural industries. The USTR must identify any act, policy or practice of Canada that affects cultural industries, is adopted or expanded after December 17, 1992, and is... assessing the effect of the acts, policies, and practices. Any comments that include quantitative loss...

  14. Helicopter-Ship Qualification Testing

    Hoencamp, A.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this research project is to develop a novel test methodology which can be used for optimizing cost and time efficiency of helicopter-ship qualification testing without reducing safety. For this purpose, the so-called “SHOL-X” test methodology has been established, which includes the

  15. Container for shipping dangerous material

    Blum, P.T.

    1987-01-01

    This container for shipping dangerous material is made by a cylindrical casing of austenitic stainless steel with rounded ends and walls of uniform thickness with welded joins, a tubular metal shock absorber fixed over each end of the casing, removable lugs fixed to the casing, optionally retainers for the material within the casing [fr

  16. Modeling of Ship Propulsion Performance

    Pedersen, Benjamin Pjedsted; Larsen, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Full scale measurements of the propulsion power, ship speed, wind speed and direction, sea and air temperature, from four different loading conditions has been used to train a neural network for prediction of propulsion power. The network was able to predict the propulsion power with accuracy...

  17. Lifecycle Readiness and Ship Deployment

    2013-06-01

    incidence of vomiting reported on military transport ships traveling across the Atlantic to vary from 8.5% to 22.1% on three crossings. Bruner (1955...Butterworth (pp. 455-471). Bruner , J. M. (1955). Seasickness in a destroyer escort squadron. United States Armed Forces Medical Journal, 6(4), 469-490

  18. Rudder roll stabilization for ships

    van Amerongen, J.; van der Klugt, P.G.M.; van Nauta lemke, H.R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the design of an autopilot for rudder roll stabilization for ships. This autopilot uses the rudder not only for course keeping but also for reduction of the roll. The system has a series of properties which make the controller design far from straightforward: the process has

  19. Designing Indonesian Liner Shipping Network

    Armand Omar Moeis

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available As the largest archipelago nation in the world, Indonesia’s logistics system has not shown excellence according to the parameters of logistics performance index and based on logistics costs percentages from overall GDP. This is due to the imbalances of trading on the western and eastern regions in Indonesia, which impacts the transportation systems costs to and from the eastern regions. Therefore, it is imperative to improve the competitiveness of Indonesian maritime logistics through maritime logistics network design. This research will focus on three levels of decision making in logistics network design, which include type of ships in the strategic level, shipping routes in the tactical level, and container allocation in the operational level with implementing butterfly routes in Indonesia’s logistics networking problems. Furthermore, this research will analyze the impact of Pendulum Nusantara and Sea Toll routes against the company profits and percentages of containers shipped. This research will also foresee how demand uncertainties and multi-period planning should affect decision making in designing the Indonesian Liner Shipping Network.

  20. Legal risk management in shipping

    Siig, Kristina

    The book discusses the most typical legal challenges met in the chartering, broker, agent or port management part of the shipping industry. It discusses these issues in both English and Scandinavian law and gives indications on how to best ensure your legal risk management in these parts...

  1. Nuclear or conventional power for surface combatant ships: Department of the Navy. Report to the Congress

    1977-01-01

    GAO reviewed the controversy over whether the Navy's major surface combatant ships should be all nuclear powered, all conventionally powered, or a mix of both. Nuclear ships are more capable but cost more and their relative cost-effectiveness cannot be measured because Navy analysts cannot quantify many benefits of nuclear power. The Congress, in reviewing Navy shipbuilding plans for surface combatant ships, should be cognizant that buying only conventional ships will maximize naval firepower; buying only nuclear ships will provide mobility and greater freedom from logistics support; and buying a mix is a third option providing, to varying degrees, the advantages and disadvantages of the all-nuclear and all-conventional options

  2. Wave Loads on Ships Sailing in Restricted Water Depth

    Vidic-Perunovic, Jelena; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    2003-01-01

    depth for a container vessel. The results show that if the water depth is less than two times the draft of the vessel, the wave-induced bending moment becomes significant larger than in deep water with the same sea state description. The peak in the frequency response function for the wave bending......The wave-induced bending moment in ships is the most important sea load parameter for ships larger than 100m in length. Hence, any rational ship design procedure must include a reasonable accurate determination of this load and a large amount of various hydrodynamic formulations have been published......, ranging from semi-empirical formulas to three-dimensional non-linear procedures. A review of the state-of-the art can be found in ISSC.VI.1 (2000). These procedures must be combined with operational and sea state information to predict the probability distribution of the maximum wave-induced bending...

  3. Rose George: Deep Sea and Foreign Going: Inside Shipping, the Invisible Industry that Brings you 90% of Everything

    Taudal Poulsen, René

    2014-01-01

    Book review of: Rose George: Deep Sea and Foreign Going: Inside Shipping, the Invisible Industry that Brings you 90% of Everything. London :Portobello Books, 2013. 320 pp. ISBN 9781846272639......Book review of: Rose George: Deep Sea and Foreign Going: Inside Shipping, the Invisible Industry that Brings you 90% of Everything. London :Portobello Books, 2013. 320 pp. ISBN 9781846272639...

  4. Strength Analysis on Ship Ladder Using Finite Element Method

    Budianto; Wahyudi, M. T.; Dinata, U.; Ruddianto; Eko P., M. M.

    2018-01-01

    In designing the ship’s structure, it should refer to the rules in accordance with applicable classification standards. In this case, designing Ladder (Staircase) on a Ferry Ship which is set up, it must be reviewed based on the loads during ship operations, either during sailing or at port operations. The classification rules in ship design refer to the calculation of the structure components described in Classification calculation method and can be analysed using the Finite Element Method. Classification Regulations used in the design of Ferry Ships used BKI (Bureau of Classification Indonesia). So the rules for the provision of material composition in the mechanical properties of the material should refer to the classification of the used vessel. The analysis in this structure used program structure packages based on Finite Element Method. By using structural analysis on Ladder (Ladder), it obtained strength and simulation structure that can withstand load 140 kg both in static condition, dynamic, and impact. Therefore, the result of the analysis included values of safety factors in the ship is to keep the structure safe but the strength of the structure is not excessive.

  5. Logistical Analysis of the Littoral Combat Ship

    Rudko, David

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the Littoral Combat Ship (LCS) is to provide the Navy with an affordable, small, multi-mission ship capable of independent, interdependent, and integrated operations inside the littorals...

  6. Facts about Noroviruses on Cruise Ships

    ... Cruise Tips for Healthy Cruising Related Resources Cruise Ship Inspection Scores & Information Inspection Scores Cruise Line Directory Green ... 800-CDC-INFO ( 1-800-232-4636 ). Cruise Ship Inspection Scores & Information Inspection Scores Cruise Line Directory Green ...

  7. New Zealand code for nuclear powered shipping

    1976-06-01

    This report recommends guidelines for the safety precautions and procedures to be implemented when New Zealand ports and approaches are used by nuclear powered merchant ships and nuclear powered naval ships

  8. LNG systems for natural gas propelled ships

    Chorowski, M.; Duda, P.; Polinski, J.; Skrzypacz, J.

    2015-12-01

    In order to reduce the atmospheric pollution generated by ships, the International Marine Organization has established Emission Controlled Areas. In these areas, nitrogen oxides, sulphur oxides and particulates emission is strongly controlled. From the beginning of 2015, the ECA covers waters 200 nautical miles from the coast of the US and Canada, the US Caribbean Sea area, the Baltic Sea, the North Sea and the English Channel. From the beginning of 2020, strong emission restrictions will also be in force outside the ECA. This requires newly constructed ships to be either equipped with exhaust gas cleaning devices or propelled with emission free fuels. In comparison to low sulphur Marine Diesel and Marine Gas Oil, LNG is a competitive fuel, both from a technical and economical point of view. LNG can be stored in vacuum insulated tanks fulfilling the difficult requirements of marine regulations. LNG must be vaporized and pressurized to the pressure which is compatible with the engine requirements (usually a few bar). The boil-off must be controlled to avoid the occasional gas release to the atmosphere. This paper presents an LNG system designed and commissioned for a Baltic Sea ferry. The specific technical features and exploitation parameters of the system will be presented. The impact of strict marine regulations on the system's thermo-mechanical construction and its performance will be discussed. The review of possible flow-schemes of LNG marine systems will be presented with respect to the system's cost, maintenance, and reliability.

  9. International climate policy : consequences for shipping

    Mæstad, Ottar; Evensen, Annika Jaersen; Mathiesen, Lars; Olsen, Kristian

    2000-01-01

    This report summarises the main results from the project Norwegian and international climate policy consequences for shipping. The aim of the project has been to shed light on how climate policies might affect shipping, both from the cost side and from the demand side. The project has been divided into three sub-projects, investigating the consequences of climate policies for 1. Optimal shipping operations and management 2. The competitiveness of shipping relative to land transport 3. The tra...

  10. Note from the radioprotection group's shipping service

    2006-01-01

    The service for the import/export of radioactive materials reminds you that shipping requests for potentially radioactive materials must be made via the EDH request form by ticking the box 'radioactive material'. All the necessary information is given on the web site: http://cern.ch/service-rp-shipping Requests not complying with the above procedure will not be taken into account. Radioactive Shipping Service http://cern.ch/service-rp-shipping Tel. 73171 Fax: 69200

  11. Real-Time Simulation of Ship-Structure and Ship-Ship Interaction

    Lindberg, Ole; Glimberg, Stefan Lemvig; Bingham, Harry B.

    2013-01-01

    , because it is simple, easy to implement and computationally efficient. Multiple many-core graphical processing units (GPUs) are used for parallel execution and the model is implemented using a combination of C/C++, CUDA and MPI. Two ship hydrodynamic cases are presented: Kriso Container Carrier at steady...

  12. Ship-to-Ship Radiocommunication Trial by Using Wireless LAN

    Yasuyuki Niwa

    2015-12-01

    In a former field radiocommunication trial, omni-directional antennas were used and a few hundred kbps throughput between two ships was measured, which was not enough for our research target (over 1Mbps. In order to get faster throughput, a field radiocommunication trial was carried out again with a few types of directional antennas and RSSI (Received Signal Strength Indication and the throughput between two ships was measured simultaneously. As a result, multi-path (2-path model affected by the reflection of the sea surface was confirmed and also the characteristics of the directional antennas such as half-power angle were confirmed, but the measured throughput was fast enough to meet our expectation.

  13. Accidents on ships in the Danish International Ship register

    Ádám, Balázs; Rasmussen, Hanna Barbara

    to report accidents causing at least one day off work beyond the day of accident but the first source contains several accidents not fulfilling this criterion, too. Radio Medical is an independent service where all Danish ships may seek medical advice. The data sets were merged by identification number...... of our study is to describe trend of accidents and their contributing factors, with special focus on nationality, occurring in ships under Danish flag in the period 2010-2012. The study used two independent data sources, the Danish Maritime Authority and the Danish Radio Medical. It is mandatory...... to create a single database that has been studied by descriptive statistics and regression analysis. Findings show a stabilised number of accidents in the analysed period. The occurrence of accidents is influenced by nationality. There is a higher frequency of reported injuries found among Danish and other...

  14. 19 CFR 4.69 - Shipping articles.

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shipping articles. 4.69 Section 4.69 Customs... VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Foreign Clearances § 4.69 Shipping articles. No vessel of the U.S... officer, of the shipping articles agreements, including any seaman's allotment agreement, required by 46 U...

  15. 15 CFR 750.11 - Shipping tolerances.

    2010-01-01

    ... in the ECCN applicable to your item reads “ $ value” or “in $ value”, there is no shipping tolerance... is no shipping tolerance with respect to the number of units. However, the value of all of your... shipping tolerance on this license because the items are controlled by an ECCN where “$ value” is the...

  16. 29 CFR 1915.162 - Ship's boilers.

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ship's boilers. 1915.162 Section 1915.162 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Ship's Machinery and Piping Systems § 1915.162 Ship's boilers. (a) Before...

  17. 27 CFR 44.187 - Shipping containers.

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shipping containers. 44... Shipping containers. Each shipping case, crate, or other container in which tobacco products, or cigarette... same containers in which they were received from the factory. (72 Stat. 1418, as amended; 26 U.S.C...

  18. 27 CFR 44.254 - Shipping containers.

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shipping containers. 44.254 Section 44.254 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Requirements § 44.254 Shipping containers. Each shipping case, crate, or other container, in which cigars are...

  19. 49 CFR 176.24 - Shipping papers.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shipping papers. 176.24 Section 176.24... Requirements § 176.24 Shipping papers. (a) A person may not accept a hazardous material for transportation or transport a hazardous material by vessel unless that person has received a shipping paper prepared in...

  20. 49 CFR 177.817 - Shipping papers.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shipping papers. 177.817 Section 177.817... Information and Regulations § 177.817 Shipping papers. (a) General requirements. A person may not accept a... received a shipping paper prepared in accordance with part 172 of this subchapter or the material is...

  1. 49 CFR 174.24 - Shipping papers.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shipping papers. 174.24 Section 174.24... Requirements § 174.24 Shipping papers. (a) A person may not accept a hazardous material for transportation or transport a hazardous material by rail unless that person receives a shipping paper prepared in accordance...

  2. Improving the competitiveness of green ship recycling

    Jain, K.P.

    2017-01-01

    The end of life of a ship is determined by its owner on the basis of various commercial and technical factors. Once decided to scrap a ship, almost all end-of-life (EOL) ships are sold to recycling yards for dismantling; except for a few which are converted into museums, hotels, storage, and

  3. Clean Air Act : historical information on EPA's process for reviewing California waiver requests and making waiver determinations

    2009-01-01

    Emissions from mobile sources, such as automobiles and trucks, contribute to air quality degradation and can threaten public health and the environment. Under the Clean Air Act, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulates these emissions. The...

  4. Emergency Medical Treatment and Labor Act (EMTALA) 2002-15: Review of Office of Inspector General Patient Dumping Settlements.

    Zuabi, Nadia; Weiss, Larry D; Langdorf, Mark I

    2016-05-01

    The Emergency Medical Treatment and Labor Act (EMTALA) of 1986 was enacted to prevent hospitals from "dumping" or refusing service to patients for financial reasons. The statute prohibits discrimination of emergency department (ED) patients for any reason. The Office of the Inspector General (OIG) of the Department of Health and Human Services enforces the statute. The objective of this study is to determine the scope, cost, frequency and most common allegations leading to monetary settlement against hospitals and physicians for patient dumping. Review of OIG investigation archives in May 2015, including cases settled from 2002-2015 ( https://oig.hhs.gov/fraud/enforcement/cmp/patient_dumping.asp ). There were 192 settlements (14 per year average for 4000+ hospitals in the USA). Fines against hospitals and physicians totaled $6,357,000 (averages $33,435 and $25,625 respectively); 184/192 (95.8%, $6,152,000) settlements were against hospitals and eight against physicians ($205,000). Most common settlements were for failing to screen 144/192 (75%) and stabilize 82/192 (42.7%) for emergency medical conditions (EMC). There were 22 (11.5%) cases of inappropriate transfer and 22 (11.5%) more where the hospital failed to transfer. Hospitals failed to accept an appropriate transfer in 25 (13.0%) cases. Patients were turned away from hospitals for insurance/financial status in 30 (15.6%) cases. There were 13 (6.8%) violations for patients in active labor. In 12 (6.3%) cases, the on-call physician refused to see the patient, and in 28 (14.6%) cases the patient was inappropriately discharged. Although loss of Medicare/Medicaid funding is an additional possible penalty, there were no disclosures of exclusion of hospitals from federal funding. There were 6,035 CMS investigations during this time period, with 2,436 found to have merit as EMTALA violations (40.4%). However, only 192/6,035 (3.2%) actually resulted in OIG settlements. The proportion of CMS-certified EMTALA

  5. Trends in oil spills from tanker ships 1995-2004

    Huijer, K.

    2005-01-01

    The trends in oil spills around the world over from 1995 to 2004 were examined and analyzed for possible influences on spill volumes and frequencies for incidents of 3 spill size classes. The International Tanker Owners Pollution Federation (ITOPF) has maintained a database since 1974 of all oil spills from tankers, combined carriers and barges. The number of oil spills has decreased significantly in the last 30 years despite a steady increase in maritime oil trade since the 1980s. The recent trends were identified by causes, locations, oil type, and shipping legislation. The causes include ship loading/discharging, bunkering, collisions, groundings, hull failures and fires. The types of oil spilt include bunker, crude, cargo fuel, white product and some unknowns. It was concluded that the decline in oil spills is due to a range of initiatives taken by governments and the shipping industry rather than any one factor. Some notable influences towards reduced number of spills include: the international convention for the prevention of pollution from ships of 1972, as modified by the Protocol of 1978; the international convention for the safety of life at sea of 1974; and the Oil Pollution Act of 1990. Results of investigations into the causes of spills serve the purpose of informing the international process to further prevent and reduce marine oil pollution due to tankers. 7 refs., 5 tabs., 12 figs

  6. Performance of Ships and Offshore Structures in Waves

    Shukui Liu

    2012-01-01

    for predicting large amplitude motions of ships and floating structures in response to incoming waves in the frame of potential theory. The developed alternative set of time domain methods simulate the hydrodynamic forces acting on ships advancing in waves with constant speed. For motions’ simulation, the diffraction forces and radiation forces are calculated up to the mean wetted surface, while the Froude-Krylov forces and hydrostatic restoring forces are calculated up to the undisturbed incident wave surface in case of large incident wave amplitude. This enables the study of the above waterline hull form effect. Characteristic case studies on simulating the hydrodynamic forces and motions of standard type of ships have been conducted for validation purpose. Good agreement with other numerical codes and experimental data has been observed. Furthermore, the added resistance of ships in waves can be calculated by the presented methods. This capability supports the increased demand of this type of tools for the proper selection of engine/propulsion systems accounting for ship’s performance in realistic sea conditions, or when optimizing ship’s sailing route for minimum fuel consumption and toxic gas emissions.

  7. Comparative efficacy of long-acting muscarinic antagonist monotherapies in COPD: a systematic review and network meta-analysis

    Ismaila AS

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Afisi Segun Ismaila,1,2 Eline L Huisman,3 Yogesh Suresh Punekar,4 Andreas Karabis31Value Evidence and Outcomes, GlaxoSmithKline, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA; 2Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada; 3Real World Strategy and Analytics, Mapi Group, Houten, the Netherlands; 4Value Evidence and Outcomes, GlaxoSmithKline, Uxbridge, UKBackground: Randomized, controlled trials comparing long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA efficacy in COPD are limited. This network meta-analysis (NMA assessed the relative efficacy of tiotropium 18 µg once-daily (OD and newer agents (aclidinium 400 µg twice-daily, glycopyrronium 50 µg OD, and umeclidinium 62.5 µg OD.Methods: A systematic literature review identified randomized, controlled trials of adult COPD patients receiving LAMAs. A NMA within a Bayesian framework examined change from baseline in trough forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1, transitional dyspnea index focal score, St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire score, and rescue medication use.Results: Twenty-four studies (n=21,311 compared LAMAs with placebo/each other. Aclidinium, glycopyrronium, tiotropium, and umeclidinium, respectively, demonstrated favorable results versus placebo, for change from baseline (95% credible interval in 12-week trough FEV1 (primary endpoint: 101.40 mL [77.06–125.60]; 117.20 mL [104.50–129.90]; 114.10 mL [103.10–125.20]; 136.70 mL [104.20–169.20]; 24-week trough FEV1 (128.10 mL [84.10–172.00]; 135.80 mL [123.10–148.30]; 106.40 mL [95.45–117.30]; 115.00 mL [74.51–155.30]; 24-week St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire score (-4.60 [-6.76 to -2.54]; -3.14 [-3.83 to -2.45]; -2.43 [-2.92 to -1.93]; -4.69 [-7.05 to -2.31]; 24-week transitional dyspnea index score (1.00 [0.41–1.59]; 1.01 [0.79–1.22]; 0.82 [0.62–1.02]; 1.00 [0.49–1.51]; and 24-week rescue medication use (data not available; -0.41 puffs/day [-0.62 to -0.20]; -0.52 puffs/day [-0

  8. 29 Has the licensing ACT 2003 affected levels of violence in England and Wales? A systematic review of hospital and police studies.

    Callan, Caitríona; Boyle, Adrian

    2017-12-01

    Population-level legislation has been implemented in many countries to try and address alcohol misuse and related harms, including assault. Most violent incidents in the UK are alcohol-related, with alcohol misuse accounting for a substantial proportion of Accident and Emergency Department attendances. The Licensing Act 2003 aimed to reduce alcohol-related crime and disorder by abolishing set closing times and giving local authorities control over premises licensing in England and Wales. Concerns were raised, however, that greater availability of alcohol would lead to increased consumption and violence. This review examines primary research from hospital and police settings to evaluate whether the implementation of the Act in 2005 reduced or increased violence rates in England and Wales. We performed an inclusive systematic review of the major biomedical databases. We included original research that evaluated changes in violence rates before and after the implementation of the Licensing Act, including hospital- and police- defined measures for this primary outcome. Our secondary outcome was whether there was change in temporal distribution of violent incidents after implementation of the Act. We identified 184 studies. 15 studies were included. The evidence was of overall poor quality, with the majority of included studies being uncontrolled before-after studies. 8 of these studies were conducted in the hospital setting, and 7 were from the police setting. Overall, 7 studies found reduced violence rates after implementation of the Licensing Act, 3 found increased rates, and 5 found no significant change. A subset of 9 papers analysed temporal distribution of violent incidents, 8 finding evidence of temporal displacement of assaults further into the early hours of the morning. This is the most complete analysis to date of the effects of the Licensing Act on violence. There is no evidence for the Act having a significant or consistent effect on community violence

  9. Intelligent Prediction of Ship Maneuvering

    Miroslaw Lacki

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author presents an idea of the intelligent ship maneuvering prediction system with the usage of neuroevolution. This may be also be seen as the ship handling system that simulates a learning process of an autonomous control unit, created with artificial neural network. The control unit observes input signals and calculates the values of required parameters of the vessel maneuvering in confined waters. In neuroevolution such units are treated as individuals in population of artificial neural networks, which through environmental sensing and evolutionary algorithms learn to perform given task efficiently. The main task of the system is to learn continuously and predict the values of a navigational parameters of the vessel after certain amount of time, regarding an influence of its environment. The result of a prediction may occur as a warning to navigator to aware him about incoming threat.

  10. Competitive Liner Shipping Network Design

    Karsten, Christian Vad

    .The contributions of this thesis cover modeling, methodology, and applications.The developed methods address operational (cargo routing), tactical (speed optimization and service selection), and strategic (network design) planning problems faced by liner shipping companies. Ultimately, the proposed methods help...... take the container transportation times that can be realized in the network nor the number of transshipments into consideration. This is mainly because the optimization problem is based on other transportation networks where these constraints are not decisive to the quality of the network. Furthermore......, the problem in itself is challenging to optimize due to its size and complexity. However, the field has seen crucial progress and is mature to include handling of competitiveness in the actual design of the network.As a liner shipping network is an organic entity, which is constantly changed to reflect...

  11. Evaluation of the Service Performance of Ships

    Andersen, Poul; Borrod, Anne-Sophie; Blanchot, Hervé

    2005-01-01

    A simple method has been established for the evaluation of the service performance of ships. Input data are easily collected daily on board and transformed to a well-defined condition that makes possible the comparison between ships, for instance, sister ships, and between different time periods...... of voyages for the same ship. The procedure has been applied to two ships that are identical, with the exception that one has a conventional propeller, whereas the other one is fitted with a high-efficiency propeller of the KAPPEL type. The results are obtained from a period of 2 years steaming for both...

  12. 19 CFR 351.213 - Administrative review of orders and suspension agreements under section 751(a)(1) of the Act.

    2010-04-01

    ... concludes that, during the period covered by the review, there were no entries, exports, or sales of the... administrative review under this section will cover, as appropriate, entries, exports, or sales during the period... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Administrative review of orders and suspension...

  13. 19 CFR 351.214 - New shipper reviews under section 751(a)(2)(B) of the Act.

    2010-04-01

    ... procedures for conducting such reviews. (b) Request for new shipper review—(1) Requirement of sale or export... notice of initiation of the requested review. (2) Absence of entry and sale to an unaffiliated customer...; and (ii) An expansion of the normal period of review to include an entry and sale to an unaffiliated...

  14. Naval Ship Database: Database Design, Implementation, and Schema

    2013-09-01

    ClassId Class identifier Name Ship name Pendant Ship pendant CommissionDate Ship commission date DecommissionDate Ship decommission date; NULL if still...active FlagshipId Ship Id of the ship Figure 3: Ship table definition Table 3: Ship table example rows Id Prefix ClassId Name Pendant ...computation if required. A bridged connection will allow computation analysis to be done in Matlab and allow the processed data to be imported back

  15. Long-acting insulin analogues for type 1 diabetes: An overview of systematic reviews and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Laranjeira, Fernanda O; de Andrade, Keitty R C; Figueiredo, Ana C M G; Silva, Everton N; Pereira, Mauricio G

    2018-01-01

    The comparison between long acting insulin analogues (LAIA) and human insulin (NPH) has been investigated for decades, with many randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and systematic reviews giving mixed results. This overlapping and contradictory evidence has increased uncertainty on coverage decisions at health systems level. To conduct an overview of systematic reviews and update existing reviews, preparing new meta-analysis to determine whether LAIA are effective for T1D patients compared to NPH. We identified systematic reviews of RCTs that evaluated the efficacy of LAIA glargine or detemir, compared to NPH insulin for T1D, assessing glycated hemoglobin (A1C) and hypoglycemia. Data sources included Pubmed, Cochrane Library, EMBASE and hand-searching. The methodological quality of studies was independently assessed by two reviewers, using AMSTAR and Jadad scale. We found 11 eligible systematic reviews that contained a total of 25 relevant clinical trials. Two reviewers independently abstracted data. We found evidence that LAIA are efficacious compared to NPH, with estimates showing a reduction in nocturnal hypoglycemia episodes (RR 0.66; 95% CI 0.57; 0.76) and A1C (95% CI 0.23; 0.12). No significance was found related to severe hypoglycemia (RR 0.94; 95% CI 0.71; 1.24). This study design has allowed us to carry out the most comprehensive assessment of RCTs on this subject, filling a gap in diabetes research. Our paper addresses a question that is important not only for decision makers but also for clinicians.

  16. The Human Element and Autonomous Ships

    Sauli Ahvenjärvi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The autonomous ship technology has become a “hot” topic in the discussion about more efficient, environmentally friendly and safer sea transportation solutions. The time is becoming mature for the introduction of commercially sensible solutions for unmanned and fully autonomous cargo and passenger ships. Safety will be the most interesting and important aspect in this development. The utilization of the autonomous ship technology will have many effects on the safety, both positive and negative. It has been announced that the goal is to make the safety of an unmanned ship better that the safety of a manned ship. However, it must be understood that the human element will still be present when fully unmanned ships are being used. The shore-based control of a ship contains new safety aspects and an interesting question will be the interaction of manned and unmanned ships in the same traffic area. The autonomous ship technology should therefore be taken into account on the training of seafarers. Also it should not be forgotten that every single control algorithm and rule of the internal decision making logic of the autonomously navigating ship has been designed and coded by a human software engineer. Thus the human element is present also in this point of the lifetime navigation system of the autonomous ship.

  17. 46 CFR 167.05-25 - Nautical school ship.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nautical school ship. 167.05-25 Section 167.05-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Definitions § 167.05-25 Nautical school ship. The term nautical school ship means a vessel operated by or in connection with a nautical school...

  18. The law for Japan Nuclear Ship Research and Development Agency

    1981-01-01

    The agency intends to develop and research nuclear ships according to the principles of the atomic energy act and contribute to advance the utilization of atomic energy and the development of ship building and marine transportation. It shall be a juridical person, and its main office shall be in Tokyo Metropolis. Its capital shall be the sum of 100 million yen paid in by the government and the amounts invested by persons other than the government at the time of establishment. The agency may increase, if necessary, its capital with the approval of the competent minister. It shall define the following matters by its articles: object, name, the place of the office, the matters concerning capital, investments and assets, executives, advisers and meeting, business and its execution, finance and accounting, public announcement and the change of the articles. Its executives consist of a chief director, a representative director, directors not more than 3 and an auditor. The chief director and the auditor are appointed by the competent minister after hearing opinions of the Atomic Energy Commission. The representative and other directors are determined by the chief director with approval of the competent minister. The term of office is four years for the chief director, the representative director and other directors, and two years for the auditor. The agency performs business, such as study and research necessary for the development of nuclear ships, design, building and operation of these ships and the training of crew for these nuclear ships, etc. It is under the superintendence of the competent minister. (Okada, K.)

  19. Privacy Act

    Learn about the Privacy Act of 1974, the Electronic Government Act of 2002, the Federal Information Security Management Act, and other information about the Environmental Protection Agency maintains its records.

  20. Development of nuclear powered ship in Japan

    Sato, Hiroshi

    1976-01-01

    The development of nuclear merchant ship in Japan was started in 1955 by the establishment of Nuclear Ship Study Group, and since then, the investigation, test and research on nuclear ships have been continued. As a result, a nuclear ocean observation and supply ship was designed for trial. Researches were carried out also in JAERI and Institute for Technical Research of Ships. Meanwhile, the nuclear icebreaker Lenin was completed in Soviet Union in 1959, the nuclear ship Savannah set out for maiden voyage in U.S. in 1962, and the construction of the nuclear ore carrier Otto Hahn was prepared in FRG. Japan Nuclear Ship Development Corp. was established in 1963, and started the design and construction of the first nuclear ship in Japan, Mutsu. The basic policy in the construction is the improvement of nuclear ship technology, the securing of safety, and the use of domestic technologies as far as possible. The progress of the design, construction and test of the Mutsu is described. Owing to the problem of radiation leak, the development of nuclear ships stagnated for a while, but the nuclear plant of the Mutsu demonstrated the expected performance in the functional test, land criticality test and zero output test, and it is expected that the bud of the independent development brought up so far can bear valuable fruit. The independent development of marine nuclear reactors should be continued by selecting the way most suitable to Japan. (Kako, I.)

  1. Stroke mimics under the drip-and-ship paradigm.

    Mehta, Sonal; Vora, Nirav; Edgell, Randall C; Allam, Hesham; Alawi, Aws; Koehne, Jennifer; Kumar, Abhay; Feen, Eliahu; Cruz-Flores, Salvador; Alshekhlee, Amer

    2014-01-01

    Recent reports suggested better outcomes associated with the drip-and-ship paradigm for acute ischemic stroke (AIS) treated with thrombolysis. We hypothesized that a higher rate of stroke mimics (SM) among AIS treated in nonspecialized stroke centers that are transferred to comprehensive centers is responsible for such outcomes. Consecutive patients treated with thrombolysis according to the admission criteria were reviewed in a single comprehensive stroke center over 1 academic year (July 1, 2011 to June 30, 2012). Information on the basic demographic, hospital complications, psychiatric diagnoses, and discharge disposition was collected. We identified those patients who were treated at a facility and then transferred to the tertiary center (ie, drip-and-ship paradigm). In addition to comparative and adjusted analysis to identify predictors for SM, a stratified analysis by the drip-and-ship status was performed. One hundred twenty patients were treated with thrombolysis for AIS included in this analysis; 20 (16.7%) were discharged with the final diagnosis of SM; 14 of those had conversion syndrome and 6 patients had other syndromes (seizures, migraine, and hypoglycemia). Patients with SM were younger (55.6 ± 15.0 versus 69.4 ± 14.9, P = .0003) and more likely to harbor psychiatric diagnoses (45% versus 9%; P ≤ .0001). Eighteen of 20 SM patients (90%) had the drip-and-ship treatment paradigm compared with 65% of those with AIS (P = .02). None of the SM had hemorrhagic complications, and all were discharged to home. Predictors of SM on adjusted analysis included the drip-and-ship paradigm (odds ratio [OR] 12.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.78, 92.1) and history of any psychiatric illness (OR 12.08; 95% CI 3.14, 46.4). Eighteen of 83 drip-and-ship patients (21.7%) were diagnosed with SM compared with 2 of 37 patients (5.4%) presented directly to the hub hospital (P = .02). The drip-and-ship paradigm and any psychiatric history predict the diagnosis of

  2. Management Systems of Gdynia Maritime University’s the Training Ships Operation

    Katarzyna Muszynska

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this elaboration is to present management systems working in Gdynia Maritime University. Compliance with the International Safety Management Code (ISM Code, the International Safety Ship and Port Facility Security Code (ISPS Code and with the Quality Management System complies with ISO 9001 standard, allows to ensure safe operations of ships and to meet requirements of regulations. In the theoretical parts of this elaboration it has been described the definition of the quality, according to different authors, as well as Quality Management Systems. Whole activity of the Gdynia Maritime University’s ships and Shipowner Brunch is covered by ISM and ISPS Code. The International Safety Management, it is a system of the training ships’ safe operation and prevention of pollution, elaborated by International Maritime Organization (IMO. ISPS system consists of detailed Ship Security Plan, is divided into unclassified part and the part which is classified and owned to shipowner. The Quality Management System refers to The University’s activity, and only the part of the procedures, which covers student’s trainings refers to the ships and Shipowner Branch. In view of very specific operational activity of the training ships: “Dar M?odzie?y” and “Horyzont II”, only the principle conventions, acts and regulations, which the Shipowner and the ships are obliged to obey, has been expressed.

  3. Analytical support management shipping company

    S.V. Tarasenko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article to determine areas of improvement of the economic analysis of the shipping companies tested, allowing to identify the problems of organization and methods, which are as follows: lack of regulation of economic analysis, unregulated and methods of economic analysis, using methods such as coefficient method, absolute differences method relative differences groupings balance method, while as factor analysis and correlation are ignored. Proved that today the priority targets of management that should be subject to economic analysis are: analysis of the efficiency of the fleet; analysis of the efficiency of transport services; analysis of the cost of transport services and costs; analysis of the efficiency of resource use.

  4. Japan nuclear ship sea trial

    Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Kitamura, Toshikatus; Mizushima, Toshihiko

    1992-01-01

    The sea trial of the first Japan nuclear Ship 'MUTSU' was conducted from the end of October to December in 1990. The purpose of the sea trial was to verify the nuclear propulsive performances and maneuverabilities. The present report describes the results of the sea trial. These results are classified into four items: 1. Speed test and engineering performance tests 2. Maneuvering performance tests 3. Vibration tests 4. Other tests. Acceptable performances were demonstrated, as expected in the original design. The experience of the use of the Global Positioning System (GPS), which were newly adopted for the sea trial, is also reported. (author)

  5. Competitive Liner Shipping Network Design

    Karsten, Christian Vad; Brouer, Berit Dangaard; Pisinger, David

    2017-01-01

    We present a solution method for the liner shipping network design problem which is a core strategic planning problem faced by container carriers. We propose the first practical algorithm which explicitly handles transshipment time limits for all demands. Individual sailing speeds at each service...... leg are used to balance sailing speed against operational costs, hence ensuring that the found network is competitive on both transit time and cost. We present a matheuristic for the problem where a MIP is used to select which ports should be inserted or removed on a route. Computational results...

  6. Competitive Liner Shipping Network Design

    Karsten, Christian Vad; Brouer, Berit Dangaard; Pisinger, David

    We present a solution method for the liner shipping network design problem which is a core strategic planning problem faced by container carriers. We propose the first practical algorithm which explicitly handles transshipment time limits for all demands. Individual sailing speeds at each service...... leg are used to balance sailings speed against operational costs, hence ensuring that the found network is competitive on both transit time and cost. We present a matheuristic for the problem where a MIP is used to select which ports should be inserted or removed on a route. Computational results...

  7. Decommission of nuclear ship 'MUTSU'

    Tateyama, Takeshi

    1996-01-01

    The nuclear-powered ship 'MUTSU' was decommissioned by removing the reactor room in June 1995, which was hoisted and transported by a floating crane to a shore storage room at Sekinehama, Aomori Prefecture. This work was carried out in three stages: extraction of the spent fuel assemblies and neutron sources, dismantling of the machinery in the reactor auxiliary room, and separation and transportation of the reactor together with the secondary shielding structure and surrounding hull. IHI mainly conducted the third stage work. The separation work of the reactor room structure using a semisubmersible barge is outlined. Stress analysis and design of the reactor room for lifting work is also described. (author)

  8. TMI-2 Core Shipping Preparations

    Ball, L.J.; Barkanic, R.J.; Conaway, W.T. II; Schmoker, D. S.; Post, Roy G.

    1988-01-01

    Shipping the damaged core from the Unit 2 reactor of Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Station near Harrisburg, PA, to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory near Idaho Falls, ID, required development and implementation of a completely new spent fuel transportation system. This paper describes of the equipment developed, the planning and activities used to implement the hard-ware-systems into the facilities, and the planning involved in making the rail shipments. It also includes a summary of recommendations resulting from this experience. (author)

  9. The Contribution from Shipping Emissions to Air Quality and Acid Deposition in Europe

    Derwent, Richard G.; Stevenson, David S.; Doherty, Ruth M.; Cofala, Janusz; Mechler, Reinhard; Amann, Markus; Dentener, Frank J.

    2005-01-01

    A global three-dimensional Lagrangian chemistry-transport model STOCHEM is used to describe the European regional acid deposition and ozone air quality impacts along the Atlantic Ocean seaboard of Europe, from the SO 2 , NO x , VOCs and CO emissions from international shipping under conditions appropriate to the year 2000. Model-derived total sulfur deposition from international shipping reaches over 200 mg S m-2 yr-1 over the southwestern approaches to the British Isles and Brittany. The contribution from international shipping to surface ozone concentrations during the summertime, peaks at about 6 ppb over Ireland, Brittany and Portugal. Shipping emissions act as an external influence on acid deposition and ozone air quality within Europe and may require control actions in the future if strict deposition and air quality targets are to be met

  10. Development of a nuclear ship safety philosophy

    Thompson, T.E.

    1978-01-01

    A unique safety philosophy must be recognized and accepted as an integral part of the design and operation of a nuclear ship. For the nuclear powered ship, the ultimate safety of the reactor and therefore the crew and the environment lies with the safety of the ship itself. The basis for ship safety is its ability to navigate and survive the conditions or the environment in which it may find itself. The subject of traditional ship safety is examined along with its implication for reactor protection and safety. Concepts of reactor safety are also examined. These two philosophies are combined in a manner so as to provide a sound philosophy for the safety of nuclear ships, their crews, and the environment

  11. Ship emissions and air pollution in Denmark

    Olesen, Helge Rørdam; Winther, Morten; Ellermann, Thomas

    A project has been carried out to map the contribution from ship traffic to air pollution in Denmark. A main element in the project is the establishment of a new, improved inventory of ship emissions for the waters around Denmark. The inventory makes use of the so-called AIS system, which...... continuously keeps track of ship positions. The inventory provides basis for model calculations of air quality in Denmark for the years 2007, 2011 and 2020. The study has focus on identifying the contribution from ships, and on assessing the effect of international regulations of ship pollution. A minor...... component of the study concerns the contribution to local air pollution from ships at port....

  12. Spent fuel shipping cask development status

    Henry, K.H.; Lattin, W.C.

    1989-01-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA) authorized the US Department of Energy (DOE) to establish a national system for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste from commercial power generation, and established the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) within the DOE-Headquarters (DOE-HQ) to carry out these duties. A 1985 presidential decision added the disposal of high-level radioactive waste generated by defense programs to the national disposal system. A primary element of the disposal program is the development and operation of a transportation system to move the waste from its present locations to the facilities that will be included in the waste management system. The primary type of disposal facility to be established is a geologic repository; a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility may also be included as an intermediate step in the nuclear waste disposal process. This paper focuses on the progress and status of one facet of the transportation program--the development of a family of shipping casks for transporting spent fuel from nuclear power reactor sites to the repository of MRS facility

  13. On the collision protection of ships

    Jones, N.

    1976-01-01

    A brief survey of the literature extant on the collision protection of ships is presented herein. An examination of the characteristics of different energy-absorbing methods suggests that honeycomb structures provide an alternative to deck structures which are currently used to achieve the collision protection of ships. Various features of honeycomb panels are explored and a particular structural arrangement which utilizes both sides of a hull and incorporates honeycomb panels is proposed for the collision protection of a ship. (Auth.)

  14. Auxiliary facilities on nuclear ship 'MUTSU'

    Tsujimura, Shotaro; Takigami, Yoshio.

    1989-01-01

    The nuclear ship 'MUTSU' has been moored at SEKINEHAMA, MUTU City in AOMORI Prefecture and several tests and works are being carried out on the ship. The construction of the auxiliary facilities for these works on the ship was completed in safety in August 1988. After that the facilities have fulfilled their function. The outlines of design, fabrication and construction of the facilities are described in this paper. (author)

  15. Proposal for an Environmental Ship Index. Air pollutants and CO2

    Den Boer, E.; Faber, J.; Nelissen, D.

    2009-02-15

    This report develops an environmental index for the air emissions of seagoing ships. The ports of Le Havre (France), Antwerp (Belgium), Rotterdam (Netherlands), Bremen and Hamburg (both Germany) want to develop a uniform Environmental Ship Index (ESI) that identifies ships that go beyond the current average technology in reducing air emissions. The index should be transparent, easy to determine and easy to verify. It should build on current legislation on air pollutant emissions. Therefore, the report reviews current legislation, existing indices in the maritime sector and in other modes of transport.

  16. MASTER OF THE SHIP, MANAGER AND INSTRUCTOR

    Florin IORDANOAIA

    2010-01-01

    The master of the ship is the person on the board who has the qualification and the necessary certificate of competency for running a maritime transport ship. He is the one who takes the ship into administration from the ship-owner, he is the only leader, the legal and direct chief of the entire crew, being invested with authority upon all the members of the crew. The master fulfils the attributes and displays his activity according to the legal laws of his flag, of the marine regulations and...

  17. Nuclear powered freight ships - safe and reliable

    Schafstall, H.C.

    1978-12-01

    The five nuclear-powered ships built in the world so far have entered over 100 ports in 14 countries about 1000 times in 15 years, during which there were no accidents endangering the safety of a ship. However, for the expansion of freight shipping with nuclear power, comprehensive international regulations for safety requirements, responsibility etc., are necessary. Although the NEA/IAEO symposium excluded economic questions on the safety of nuclear powered ships, the trends regarding further development in individual countries became clear

  18. Shipping/Receiving and Quality Control

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Shipping receiving, quality control, large and precise inspection and CMM machines. Coordinate Measuring Machines, including "scanning" probes, optical comparators,...

  19. Ship emissions and their externalities for Greece

    Tzannatos, Ernestos

    2010-06-01

    The existing and emerging international and European policy framework for the reduction of ship exhaust emissions dictates the need to produce reliable national, regional and global inventories in order to monitor emission trends and consequently provide the necessary support for future policy making. Furthermore, the inventories of ship exhaust emissions constitute the basis upon which their external costs are estimated in an attempt to highlight the economic burden they impose upon the society and facilitate the cost-benefit analysis of the proposed emission abatement technologies, operational measures and market-based instruments prior to their implementation. The case of Greece is of particular interest mainly because the dense ship traffic within the Greek seas directly imposes the impact of its exhaust emission pollutants (NO x, SO 2 and PM) upon the highly populated, physically sensitive and culturally precious Greek coastline, as well as upon the land and seas of Greece in general, whereas the contribution of Greece in the global CO 2 inventory at a time of climatic change awareness cannot be ignored. In this context, this paper presents the contribution of Greece in ship exhaust emissions of CO 2, NO x, SO 2 and PM from domestic and international shipping over the last 25 years (1984-2008), utilizing the fuel-based (fuel sales) emission methodology. Furthermore, the ship exhaust emissions generated within the Greek seas and their externalities are estimated for the year 2008, through utilizing the fuel-based (fuel sales) approach for domestic shipping and the activity-based (ship traffic) approach for international shipping. On this basis, it was found that during the 1984 to 2008 period the fuel-based (fuel sales) ship emission inventory for Greece increased at an average annual rate of 2.85%. In 2008, the CO 2, NO x, SO 2 and PM emissions reached 12.9 million tons (of which 12.4 million tons of CO 2) and their externalities were found to be around 3

  20. Note from the radioprotection group's shipping service

    2006-01-01

    Le service SHIPPING du groupe de radioprotection souhaite vous rappeler qu'avant toute expédition de matériel susceptible d'être radioactif, une demande de transport doit être établie par EDH en cochant la case appropriée (danger radioactif). Merci de bien vouloir prendre note des informations figurant dans le site Web: http://cern.ch/service-rp-shipping Toute demande non conforme ne sera pas prise en compte. Radioactive Shipping Service http://cern.ch/service-rp-shippingTél: 73171Fax: 69200

  1. International Standardization in the Design of "Shore to Ship" - Power Supply Systems of Ships in Port

    Tarnapowicz, Dariusz; German-Galkin, Sergiej

    2018-03-01

    The decisive source of air pollution emissions in ports is the berthed ships. This is primarily caused by the work of ship's autonomous generator sets. One way of reducing the air pollution emissions in ports is the supply of ships from electricity inland system. The main problem connected with the power connection of ships to the inland network is caused by different values of levels and frequencies of voltages in these networks (in various countries) in relation to different values of levels and frequencies of voltages present in the ship's network. It is also important that the source power can range from a few hundred kW up to several MW. In order to realize a universal „Shore to Ship" system that allows the connection of ships to the electricity inland network, the international standardization is necessary. This article presents the current recommendations, standards and regulations for the design of „Shore to Ship" systems.

  2. Navy Ships: Turning Over Auxiliary Ship Operations to the Military Sealift Command Could Save Millions

    1997-01-01

    .... One additional multiproduct ship of a new class is currently under construction. The Navy has delegated operational control of 27 of these ships to MSC, the military's single manager for sealift, to better...

  3. Ship Technology Workshop Materials from Collaboration with Mexico to Reduce Emissions from Ships

    On September 26, 2012, a ship technology seminar was held to provide Mexican stakeholders with information about some of the ship technologies needed to meet the requirements of MARPOL Annex VI and an ECA.

  4. Nuclear accumulation of SHIP1 mutants derived from AML patients leads to increased proliferation of leukemic cells.

    Nalaskowski, Marcus M; Ehm, Patrick; Rehbach, Christoph; Nelson, Nina; Täger, Maike; Modest, Kathrin; Jücker, Manfred

    2018-05-28

    The inositol 5-phosphatase SHIP1 acts as negative regulator of intracellular signaling in myeloid cells and is a tumor suppressor in myeloid leukemogenesis. After relocalization from the cytoplasm to the plasma membrane SHIP1 terminates PI3-kinase mediated signaling processes. Furthermore, SHIP1 is also found in distinct puncta in the cell nucleus and nuclear SHIP1 has a pro-proliferative function. Here we report the identification of five nuclear export signals (NESs) which regulate together with the two known nuclear localization signals (NLSs) the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of SHIP1. Mutation of NLSs reduced the nuclear import and mutation of NESs decreased the nuclear export of SHIP1 in the acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cell line UKE-1. Interestingly, four SHIP1 mutants (K210R, N508D, V684E, Q1153L) derived from AML patients showed a nuclear accumulation after expression in UKE-1 cells. In addition, overexpression of the AML patient-derived mutation N508D caused an increased proliferation rate of UKE-1 cells in comparison to wild type SHIP1. Furthermore, we identified serine and tyrosine phosphorylation as a molecular mechanism for the regulation of nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of SHIP1 where tyrosine phosphorylation of distinct residues i.e. Y864, Y914, Y1021 reduces nuclear localization, whereas serine phosphorylation at S933 enhances nuclear localization of SHIP1. In summary, our data further implicate nuclear SHIP1 in cellular signaling and suggest that enhanced accumulation of SHIP1 mutants in the nucleus may be a contributory factor of abnormally high proliferation of AML cells. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Advanced ship systems condition monitoring for enhanced inspection, maintenance and decision making in ship operations

    Lazakis, Iraklis; Dikis, Konstantinos; Michala, Anna Lito; Theotokatos, Gerasimos

    2016-01-01

    Structural and machinery failures in the day-to-day ship operations may lead to major accidents, endangering crew and\\ud passengers onboard, posing a threat to the environment, damaging the ship itself and having a great impact in terms of business\\ud losses. In this respect, this paper presents the INCASS (Inspection Capabilities for Enhanced Ship Safety) project which aims\\ud bringing an innovative solution to the ship inspection regime through the introduction of enhanced inspection of shi...

  6. APPLICATION OF LEAN CONCEPT TO SHIP SAFETY INSPECTION: A CASE STUDY AT PORT OF SURABAYA

    Cahyadi, F.

    2012-01-01

    The Lean Concept is a mindset widely used in various industries seeking for efficiency and effectiveness through improvement of process flow and elimination of waste. This research applies lean thinking to ship safety inspection at Port of Surabaya to investigate the existing procedure and to identify the wastes and non-value-add (NVA) activity. It used a combination of literature review, examination on the data of 520 inspections that have been carried out to 201 ships in the last two years ...

  7. Inventory Funding Methods on Navy Ships: NWCF vs. End-use

    2013-06-01

    OPTAR Operating Target OSO Other Supply Officer POM Pre/Post-Overseas Movement R-Supply Relational Supply RoR Reorder Review SAC Service...process called other supply officer ( OSO ) transfer. Since end-use ships own their inventory, the supply officer can choose to transfer a part being...requested by another ship at their discretion, based on their ship’s anticipated requirements and their own goodwill. OSO transfers among end-use

  8. The Green Ship Routing and Scheduling Problem (GSRSP): A conceptual approach

    Kontovas, Christos A.

    2014-01-01

    Recent reviews of the literature on ship routing and scheduling note the increased attention to environmental issues. This is an area of paramount importance for international shipping and will be even more so in the future. This short communication is motivated by the increasing attention......) based on existing formulations and highlights all the important parameters of the problem. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  9. The impact of international shipping on European air quality and climate forcing

    van Aardenne, J. [European Environment Agency (EEA), Copenhagen (Denmark); Colette, A. [INERIS (France); Degraeuwe, B.; de Vlieger, I. [VITO (Belgium); Hammingh, P. [PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (Netherlands); Viana, M. [CSIC (Spain)

    2013-03-15

    This EEA Technical report provides an overview on the state of knowledge on the impact of international shipping in European waters to air quality and climate change. Based on literature review and model assessment studies information is provided on past and future emissions of air pollutants and greenhouse gases, monitoring of ship emissions, emission mitigation policies and impact on European air quality and radiative forcing. (Author)

  10. Viking FellowSHIP: Norwegian hydrogen ship on the right course

    Larssen-Aas, Kari

    2006-01-01

    In the future fuel cells will change the world of shipping's economical conditions, and environmental effects from this industry. A new model of a hydrogen fuelled ship was presented at the ONS exhibition in Stavanger 2006. The technology may revolutionize the shipping industry. A brief description of the project is presented (ml)

  11. LCA-ship. Design tool for energy efficient ships. A Life Cycle Analysis Program for Ships. Final report

    Jiven, Karl; Sjoebris, Anders [MariTerm AB, Goeteborg (Sweden); Nilsson, Maria [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Stiftelsen TEM; Ellis, Joanne; Traegaardh, Peter; Nordstroem, Malin [SSPA Sweden AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2004-05-01

    In order to make it easier to include aspects during ship design that will improve environmental performance, general methods for life cycle calculations and a prototype tool for LCA calculations of ships and marine transportation have been developed. The base of the life cycle analyses is a comprehensive set of life cycle data that was collected for the materials and consumables used in ship construction and vessel operations. The computer tool developed makes it possible to quickly and simply specify (and calculate) the use of consumables over the vessel's life time cycle. Special effort has been made to allow the tool to be used for different types of vessels and sea transport. The main result from the project is the computer tool LCA ship, which incorporates collected and developed life cycle data for some of the most important materials and consumables used in ships and their operation. The computer application also contains a module for propulsion power calculations and a module for defining and optimising the energy system onboard the vessel. The tool itself is described in more detail in the Computer application manual. The input to the application should, as much as possible, be the kind of information that is normally found in a shipping company concerning vessel data and vessel movements. It all starts with defining the ship to be analysed and continues with defining how the ship is used over the lifetime. The tool contains compiled and processed background information about specific materials and processes (LCA data) connected to shipping operations. The LCA data is included in the tool in a processed form. LCA data for steel will for example include the environmental load from the steel production, the process to build the steel structure of the ship, the scrapping and the recycling phase. To be able to calculate the environmental load from the use of steel the total amount of steel used over the life cycle of the ship is also needed. The

  12. Simple analytical relations for ship bow waves

    Noblesse, Francis; Delhommeau, G.?Rard; Guilbaud, Michel; Hendrix, Dane; Yang, Chi

    Simple analytical relations for the bow wave generated by a ship in steady motion are given. Specifically, simple expressions that define the height of a ship bow wave, the distance between the ship stem and the crest of the bow wave, the rise of water at the stem, and the bow wave profile, explicitly and without calculations, in terms of the ship speed, draught, and waterline entrance angle, are given. Another result is a simple criterion that predicts, also directly and without calculations, when a ship in steady motion cannot generate a steady bow wave. This unsteady-flow criterion predicts that a ship with a sufficiently fine waterline, specifically with waterline entrance angle 2, may generate a steady bow wave at any speed. However, a ship with a fuller waterline (25E) can only generate a steady bow wave if the ship speed is higher than a critical speed, defined in terms of αE by a simple relation. No alternative criterion for predicting when a ship in steady motion does not generate a steady bow wave appears to exist. A simple expression for the height of an unsteady ship bow wave is also given. In spite of their remarkable simplicity, the relations for ship bow waves obtained in the study (using only rudimentary physical and mathematical considerations) are consistent with experimental measurements for a number of hull forms having non-bulbous wedge-shaped bows with small flare angle, and with the authors' measurements and observations for a rectangular flat plate towed at a yaw angle.

  13. 46 CFR 148.02-1 - Shipping papers.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shipping papers. 148.02-1 Section 148.02-1 Shipping... MATERIALS IN BULK Vessel Requirements § 148.02-1 Shipping papers. (a) Carriers may not accept for..., unless the hazardous materials offered for such shipment is accompanied by a shipping paper on which the...

  14. 46 CFR 151.45-7 - Shipping papers.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shipping papers. 151.45-7 Section 151.45-7 Shipping... BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Operations § 151.45-7 Shipping papers. Each barge carrying... towing vessel shall either have a copy of the shipping papers for each barge in his tow or he shall make...

  15. 46 CFR 173.051 - Public nautical school ships.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public nautical school ships. 173.051 Section 173.051 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES PERTAINING TO VESSEL USE School Ships § 173.051 Public nautical school ships. Each public nautical school...

  16. Study on analysing the criteria's for selection of shipping carriers in Chinese shipping market using analytical hierarchy process

    Shen, Lixin; Mathiyazhagan, K.; Kannan, Devika

    2015-01-01

    Globalisation has led to the increased export and import of goods worldwide. Due to this, the selection of the right mode of transportation for heavy (huge) goods items is a challenging task for industries. In this regard, maritime transport is the best way to send huge goods compared to other...... are cargoes' damage degree when they are received (R2). It is acting as an important criteria and reliability for on-time delivery (R1) and the carrier's ability of multimodal transportation (C1) are the next priority criteria's for the selection of shipping carrier....

  17. SNF shipping cask shielding analysis

    Johnson, J.O.; Pace, J.V. III.

    1996-01-01

    The Waste Management and Remedial Action Division has planned a modification sequence for storage facility 7827 in the Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA). The modification cycle is: (1) modify an empty caisson, (2) transfer the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) of an occupied caisson to a hot cell in building 3525 for inspection and possible repackaging, and (3) return the package to the modified caisson in the SWSA. Although the SNF to be moved is in the solid form, it has different levels of activity. Thus, the following 5 shipping casks will be available for the task: the Loop Transport Carrier, the In- Pile Loop LITR HB-2 Carrier, the 6.5-inch HRLEL Carrier, the HFIR Hot Scrap Carrier, and the 10-inch ORR Experiment Removal Shield Cask. This report describes the shielding tasks for the 5 casks: determination of shielding characteristics, any streaming avenues, estimation of thermal limits, and shielding calculational uncertainty for use in the transportation plan

  18. Impact analysis of shipping casks

    Pfeiffer, P.A.; Kennedy, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    Shipping casks are being used in the United States Department of Energy to transport irradiated experiments, reactor fuel, radioactive waste, etc. One of the critical requirements in shipping cask analysis is the necessity to withstand severe impact environments. It is still conventional to develop the design and to verify the design requirements by hand calculations. Full three dimensional computations of impact scenarios have been performed but they are too expensive and time consuming for design purposes. Typically, on the order of more than an hour of CRAY time is required for a detailed, three dimensional analysis. The paper describes how simpler two- and three-dimensional models can be used to provide an intermediate level of detail between full three dimensional finite element calculations and hand calculations. The regulation that is examined here is: 10 CFR-71.73 hypothetical accident conditions, free drop. Free drop for an accident condition of a Class I package (approximate weight of 22,000 lb) is defined as a 30 foot drop onto a flat, essentially unyielding, horizontal surface, striking the surface in a position for which maximum damage is expected. Three free drop scenarios are analyzed to assess the integrity of the cask when subjected to large bending and axial stresses. These three drop scenarios are: (1) a thirty foot axial drop on either end, (2) a thirty foot oblique angle drop with the cask having several different orientations from the vertical with impact on the top end cask corner, and (3) a thirty foot side drop with simultaneous impact on the strength of the various components that comprise the cask. The predicted levels of deformation and stresses in the cask will be used to assess the potential damage level. 5 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  19. The mechanics of ship impacts against bridges

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Zhang, Shengming

    1998-01-01

    a glancing blow between the ship and the bridge structure. This model is based on rigid body mechanics and well suited for inclusion in a probabilistic analysis procedure. Finally, some empirical expressions are presented which relate the energy absorbed by crushing of ship structures to the maximum impact...

  20. Some concepts of future nuclear ship

    Fujino, Masataka

    2000-01-01

    Characteristic features of nuclear power generation are as follows: (1) Thermal energy can be continuously extracted for a long time without fuel feed, (2) Nuclear energy is suitable for generating huge power, (3) Oxygen is unnecessary for combustion of fuel, and (4) Unlike fossil fuel, nuclear power generation does not exhaust NOx, SOx, and CO 2 : it can be considered environmentally friendly. In view of these features, the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute commissioned the Shipbuilding Research Association of Japan (JSRA) to survey what kinds of nuclear ship would be put to practical use in the near future. For this purpose, a research committee was organized in 1992 by the JSRA, and concluded its investigation in 1996. The main aim of this research was to clarify the requirements of ship performance as nuclear ships, and then to extract the technical issues of the marine reactor installed in nuclear ships to be solved. As a result of the survey, it was suggested that displacement-type large high-speed container ship would be one of the promising future nuclear merchant ships, and 6500 m deep-sea and 600 m undersea scientific research submersibles would be other promising nuclear special purpose ships. At the same time, various requirements of marine reactors, which are expected to be installed in these ships, were clarified mainly from the technical viewpoints. (author)

  1. Detecting potential ship objects from satellite pictures

    Luo, B.; Yang, C.C.; Chang, S.K.; Yang, M.C.K.

    1984-01-01

    Heuristic techniques are presented to detect potential ship objects from satellite pictures. These techniques utilize some noise structures of the pixel gray levels, and certain inherent features of a ship in a satellite picture. The scheme has been implemented and successfully tested on SEASAT satellite pictures. A general approach for database-oriented object detection is also suggested

  2. Infrared ship signature analysis and optimisation

    Neele, F.P.

    2005-01-01

    The last decade has seen an increase in the awareness of the infrared signature of naval ships. New ship designs show that infrared signature reduction measures are being incorporated, such as exhaust gas cooling systems, relocation of the exhausts and surface cooling systems. Hull and

  3. India's ship recycling trade-off

    Worrell, E.; Athanasopoulou, V.

    2014-01-01

    The special nature of India's steel industry lends particular importance to ship recycling as a source of scrap. Ship recycling in upgraded 'green' facilities can substitute other 'dirty' ironmaking processes, resulting in energy savings and air pollutant emission reductions for the Indian steel

  4. Automatic temperature control method of shipping can

    Nishikawa, Kaoru.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention provides a method of rapidly and accurately controlling the temperature of a shipping can, which is used upon shipping inspection for a nuclear fuel assembly. That is, a measured temperature value of the shipping can is converted to a gas pressure setting value in a jacket of the shipping can by conducting a predetermined logic calculation by using a fuzzy logic. A gas pressure control section compares the pressure setting value of a fuzzy estimation section and the measured value of the gas pressure in the jacket of the shipping can, and conducts air supply or exhaustion of the jacket gas so as to adjust the measured value with the setting value. These fuzzy estimation section and gas pressure control section control the gas pressure in the jacket of the shipping can to control the water level in the jacket. As a result, the temperature of the shipping can is controlled. With such procedures, since the water level in the jacket can be controlled directly and finely, temperature of the shipping can is automatically controlled rapidly and accurately compared with a conventional case. (I.S.)

  5. Underactuated ship tracking control : theory and experiments

    Pettersen, K.Y.; Nijmeijer, H.

    2001-01-01

    We consider complete state tracking feedback control of a ship having two controls, namely surge force and yaw moment. The ship model has similarities with chained form systems but cannot directly be transformed in chained form. In particular, the model has a drift vector field as opposed to the

  6. Strength of Ship Plates under Combined Loading

    Cui, W.; Wang, Y.; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2002-01-01

    Strength of ship plates plays a significant role in the ultimate strength analysis of ship structures. In recent years several authors have proposed simplified analytical methods to calculate the ultimate strength of unstiffened plates. The majority of these investigations deal with plates subjec...

  7. Strength of ship plates under combined loading

    Cui, Weiching; Wang, Yongjun; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2000-01-01

    Strength of ship plates plays a significant role for the ultimate strength analysis of ship structures. In recent years several authors have proposed simplified methods to calculate the ultimate strength of unstiffened plates. The majority of these investigations deal with plates subjected to lon...

  8. Regulations for the use of radioactive sources on board Norwegian drilling platforms and other mobile drilling units, laid down by the Norwegian Maritime Directorate on 13 January 1986 pursuant to the Act of 9 June 1903 No 7 relating to public control of the seaworthiness of ships etc

    1986-01-01

    Under these Regulations, which entered into force on 15 February 1986, permits are required from the Maritime Directorate for the transport, storage and use of radioactive sources. When the radioactive source is carried by ship to the platforms, the operation is governed by the Regulations of 30 November 1979 on carriage by ships of special or dangerous cargo. The transport containers must comply with IAEA safety requirements. The storage room for the radioactive equipment must be marked with an appropriate warning sign and the distances between the room and other areas must comply with the relevant provisions of the IMO International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code. Personnel must be trained for work with radioactive sources and must wear dosimeters during this work. In addition, protective measures must be taken to prevent any harmful effects from radiation to such personnel and to the general crew on board the platform. (NEA) [fr

  9. Control mechanisms for Nordic ship emissions

    Martinsen, K. [DNV, Oslo (Norway); Torvanger, A. [Cicero, Oslo (Norway)

    2013-04-15

    Shipping today operates under a complex set of international and domestic regulations. However, the environmental regulations have lagged behind those of other industries. This situation is now changing quite dramatically. The increased focus on environmental issues, combined with the growing realisation of the actual pollution burden imposed by shipping, has led to an upsurge in both international and national regulations. Some are ready and will enter into force in the near future, while others are still being developed. On behalf of the Nordic Council of Ministers DNV has carried out a study on possible control mechanisms for Nordic ship emission. The aim is to assess the baseline shipping emissions and reduction potential and the possible controlling mechanisms (both incentives and regulations) available for reducing the emissions to air from shipping within the Nordic region. (Author)

  10. Spent fuel shipping cask sealing concepts

    Sonnier, C.S.

    1989-05-01

    In late 1985, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) requested the US Program for Technical Assistance to IAEA Safeguards (POTAS) to provide a study which examined sealing concepts for application to spent fuel shipping casks. This request was approved, and assigned to Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia). In the course of this study, discussions were held with personnel in the International Safeguards Community who were familiar with the shipping casks used in their States. A number of shipping casks were examined, and discussions were held with two shipping cask manufacturers in the US. As a result of these efforts, it was concluded that the shipping casks provided an extremely good containment, and that many of the existing casks can be effectively sealed by applying the seal to the cask closure bolts/nuts

  11. From bohrium to copernicium and beyond SHE research at SHIP

    Münzenberg, G., E-mail: G.Muenzenberg@gsi.de [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Planckstrasse 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Manipal Centre for Natural Sciences, Manipal University, Manipal 576104, Karnataka (India)

    2015-12-15

    Heavy-element research with SHIP at GSI is reviewed including the discovery of the chemical elements bohrium to copernicium, experimental developments, cold fusion of heavy ions, and the discovery of a shell region around hassium. Elements bohrium and heavier are located beyond the limit of liquid-drop stability. They exist by shell stabilization. A universal, sensitive, and fast method: in-flight separation and identification of single atomic nuclei has been developed with the velocity filter SHIP and the detector system to measure decay sequences of individual atoms. Research with single atomic nuclei including detection methods, identification, and physics results will be discussed. Experiments with actinide targets as well as prospects with NUSTAR at FAIR will be addressed.

  12. Active noise control technique and its application on ships

    CHEN Kean

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Due to the rapid development during past three decades, Active Noise Control(ANC has become a highly complementary noise control approach in comparison with traditional approaches, and has formed a complete system including basic theory, investigation approach, key techniques and system implementation. Meanwhile, substantial progress has been achieved in such fields as the practical application, industrialization development and commercial popularization of ANC, and this developed technique provides a practical and feasible choice for the active control of ship noise. In this review paper, its sound field analysis, system setup and key techniques are summarized, typical examples of ANC-based engineering applications including control of cabin noise and duct noise are briefly described, and a variety of forefronts and problems associated with the applications of ANC in ship noise control, such as active sound absorption, active sound insulation and smart acoustic structure, are subsequently discussed.

  13. Stress analysis of closure bolts for shipping casks

    Mok, G.C.; Fischer, L.E.; Hsu, S.T.

    1993-01-01

    This report specifies the requirements and criteria for stress analysis of closure bolts for shipping casks containing nuclear spent fuels or high level radioactive materials. The specification is based on existing information conceming the structural behavior, analysis, and design of bolted joints. The approach taken was to extend the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code requirements and criteria for bolting analysis of nuclear piping and pressure vessels to include the appropriate design and load characteristics of the shipping cask. The characteristics considered are large, flat, closure lids with metal-to-metal contact within the bolted joint; significant temperature and impact loads; and possible prying and bending effects. Specific formulas and procedures developed apply to the bolt stress analysis of a circular, flat, bolted closure. The report also includes critical load cases and desirable design practices for the bolted closure, an in-depth review of the structural behavior of bolted joints, and a comprehensive bibliography of current information on bolted joints

  14. 75 FR 78619 - Shipping Act, Merchant Marine, and Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act...

    2010-12-16

    ... that boat too much quota to catch. Response: FFP lending decisions and fishery management decisions are... FFP direct lending is subject to the above general credit standards and requirements found in Sec. Sec...) Credit decision. (1) The Program shall issue to approved applicants an AIP letter, which shall describe...

  15. Estimating Uncertainties of Ship Course and Speed in Early Navigations using ICOADS3.0

    Chan, D.; Huybers, P. J.

    2017-12-01

    Information on ship position and its uncertainty is potentially important for mapping out climatologists and changes in SSTs. Using the 2-hourly ship reports from the International Comprehensive Ocean Atmosphere Dataset 3.0 (ICOADS 3.0), we estimate the uncertainties of ship course, ship speed, and latitude/longitude corrections during 1870-1900. After reviewing the techniques used in early navigations, we build forward navigation model that uses dead reckoning technique, celestial latitude corrections, and chronometer longitude corrections. The modeled ship tracks exhibit jumps in longitude and latitude, when a position correction is applied. These jumps are also seen in ICOADS3.0 observations. In this model, position error at the end of each day increases following a 2D random walk; the latitudinal/longitude errors are reset when a latitude/longitude correction is applied.We fit the variance of the magnitude of latitude/longitude corrections in the observation against model outputs, and estimate that the standard deviation of uncertainty is 5.5 degree for ship course, 32% for ship speed, 22km for latitude correction, and 27km for longitude correction. The estimates here are informative priors for Bayesian methods that quantify position errors of individual tracks.

  16. Review process for low-level radioactive waste disposal license application under Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act

    Pittiglio, C.L. Jr.

    1987-08-01

    This document estimates the level of effort and expertise that is needed to review a license application within the required time. It is intended to be used by the NRC staff as well as States and interested parties to provide a better understanding of what the NRC envisions will be involved in licensing a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. 5 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  17. Internet cigarette vendor compliance with credit card payment and shipping bans.

    Williams, Rebecca S; Ribisl, Kurt M

    2014-02-01

    Most Internet cigarette sales have violated taxation and youth access laws, leading to landmark 2005 agreements with credit card companies, PayPal, and private shippers (United Parcel Service, Federal Express, DHL) to cease participation in these transactions. Despite their promise at the time, loopholes allowed for check payment and U.S. Postal Service (USPS) shipping. This study assessed actual vendor compliance with the payment and shipping bans using a purchase survey. In late 2007 and early 2008, an adult buyer attempted to order cigarettes from the 97 most popular Internet cigarette vendors (ICVs) using banned payment and shipping methods. When banned payment or shipping methods were unavailable, purchases were attempted with alternate methods (e.g., checks, e-checks, USPS). Twenty-seven of 100 orders were placed with (banned) credit cards; 23 were successfully received. Seventy-one orders were placed with checks (60 successfully received). Four orders were delivered using banned shippers; 79 of 83 successfully received orders were delivered by the USPS. About a quarter of ICVs violated the payment ban, others adapted by accepting checks. Most vendors complied with the shipping ban, perhaps because USPS was an easy substitute shipping option. Better enforcement of the bans is needed; the 2009 Prevent All Cigarette Trafficking Act closed the USPS loophole by making cigarettes nonmailable material; evaluation of enforcement efforts and adaptations by vendors are needed. These sorts of bans are a promising approach to controlling the sale of restricted goods online.

  18. A review of state regulations that exceed those of the federal Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)

    Coutant, C.C.; Heckman, C.L.

    1988-04-01

    This report identifies and provides information on state hazardous waste management programs and regulations in states where the US Department of Energy (DOE) has facilities. The objective is to describe for the DOE defense program and its contractors how state requirements are more stringent than the federal regulations under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). DOE defense programs are located in 13 of the 50 states. Most of these states have regulations that are essentially equivalent to the federal RCRA requirements as they existed prior to the 1984 amendments, but their regulations are, in most instances, more stringment than the federal requirements. Differences are both substantive and procedural, and they are summarized and tabulated herein. All but three of these 13 states have been granted Final Authorization from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to operate their own hazardous waste management program in accord with the federal RCRA program prior to the 1984 amendments; two of the three others have some stage of Interim Authorization. EPA currently administers all of the provisions of the 1984 amendments, including requirements for corrective action under Sect. 3004(u). Two states, Colorado and Tennessee, have been granted revisions to their Final Authorizations delegating responsibility for the hazardous wastes. Responsible state agencies (with appropriate telephone numbers) are indicated, as are the relevant laws and current regulatory statutes

  19. Necessity of Proper Lashing of Containers on the Ship's Deck as Part of Optimization of the Sea Voyage

    Zoran Radišić

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available These days we are witnessing an increase of container trafficin general and at sea in particular. In order to economizetheir business the ship owners are building bigger container vesselswhich can carry up to 8000 TEUs (Maersk line and otherbig carriers are following suit. On the drawing board is the vesselof 12000 TEUs from the mentioned ship owner. Obviously,such large quantity of containers requires highly efficient lashingequipment in order to secure them, particularly thosestowed on the deck Under the deck, almost as a rule all contemporarycontainer ships have cell guides as securing devices.Attention in this work is focused on container lashing systemexposed on the ship's deck and the relevant forces acting on thelash system during transportation at sea. Once containers areloaded on the ship's deck they should be safely secured by oneof the lashing systems in order to prevent damage and that is theprincipal task of the lashing equipment engaged within theframe of the lash system. In order to fulfill its objective theforces acting on the container should be properly calculated.The acting forces, their influence and the way of calculatingthem have been explained for all the major ship movementsand suggestions for optimum lashing equipment are given.

  20. ACTS 2014

    Co-curator of ACTS 2014 together with Rasmus Holmboe, Judith Schwarzbart and Sanne Kofoed. ACTS is the Museum of Contemporary Art’s international bi-annual festival. ACTS was established in 2011 and, while the primary focus is on sound and performance art, it also looks toward socially oriented art....... For the 2014 festival, the museum has entered into a collaboration with the Department for Performance Design at Roskilde University – with continued focus on sound and performance art, and social art in public spaces. With ACTS, art moves out of its usual exhibition space and instead utilizes the city, its...... various possibilities and public spaces as a stage. ACTS takes place in and around the museum and diverse locations in Roskilde city. ACTS is partly curated by the museum staff and partly by guest curators. ACTS 2014 is supported by Nordea-fonden and is a part of the project The Museum goes downtown....

  1. Spent Nuclear Fuel Transportation: An Examination of Potential Lessons Learned From Prior Shipping Campaigns

    M. Keister; K, McBride

    2006-01-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA), as amended, assigned the Department of Energy (DOE) responsibility for developing and managing a Federal system for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW). The Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) is responsible for accepting, transporting, and disposing of SNF and HLW at the Yucca Mountain repository (if licensed) in a manner that protects public health, safety, and the environment; enhances national and energy security; and merits public confidence. OCRWM faces a near-term challenge--to develop and demonstrate a transportation system that will sustain safe and efficient shipments of SNF and HLW to a repository. To better inform and improve its current planning, OCRWM has extensively reviewed plans and other documents related to past high-visibility shipping campaigns of SNF and other radioactive materials within the United States. This report summarizes the results of this review and, where appropriate, lessons learned. The objective of this lessons learned study was to identify successful, best-in-class trends and commonalities from past shipping campaigns, which OCRWM could consider when planning for the development and operation of a repository transportation system. Note: this paper is for analytical and discussion purposes only, and is not an endorsement of, or commitment by, OCRWM to follow any of the comments or trends. If OCRWM elects to make such commitments at a future time, they will be appropriately documented in formal programmatic policy statements, plans and procedures. Reviewers examined an extensive study completed in 2003 by DOE's National Transportation Program (NTP), Office of Environmental Management (EM), as well as plans and documents related to SNF shipments since issuance of the NTP report. OCRWM examined specific planning, business, institutional and operating practices that have been identified by DOE, its transportation contractors

  2. Transversus abdominis plane block using a short-acting local anesthetic for postoperative pain after laparoscopic colorectal surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Oh, Tak Kyu; Lee, Se-Jun; Do, Sang-Hwan; Song, In-Ae

    2018-02-01

    Transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block using a short-acting local anesthetic as part of multimodal analgesia is efficient in various abdominal surgeries, including laparoscopic surgery. However, information regarding its use in laparoscopic colorectal surgery is still limited and sometimes controversial. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine whether TAP block using a short-acting anesthetic has a positive postoperative analgesic outcome in patients who have undergone laparoscopic colorectal surgery. We searched for studies comparing the postoperative pain outcome after laparoscopic colorectal surgery between patients who received TAP block and a control group (placebo or no treatment). Outcome measures were early pain at rest (numeric rating scale [NRS] score at 0-2 h postoperatively), late pain at movement (NRS score at 24 h postoperatively), late pain at rest (NRS score at 24 h postoperatively), and postoperative opioid consumption (up to 24 h postoperatively). We used a random-effects model for the meta-analysis and Egger's regression test to detect publication bias. We included six studies involving 452 patients (224 in the TAP block group, 228 in the control group). Early and late pain scores at movement were significantly different between the TAP block and control groups (standardized mean difference: - 0.695, P consumption (P = 0.257). The TAP block using a short-acting anesthetic had a significant effect on the postoperative pain outcome in the early (0-2 h) and late (24 h) period at movement. However, it did not have a significant effect on the postoperative pain outcome in the early (0-2 h) and late (24 h) periods at rest after laparoscopic surgery.

  3. Arctic shipping emissions inventories and future scenarios

    J. J. Corbett

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents 5 km×5 km Arctic emissions inventories of important greenhouse gases, black carbon and other pollutants under existing and future (2050 scenarios that account for growth of shipping in the region, potential diversion traffic through emerging routes, and possible emissions control measures. These high-resolution, geospatial emissions inventories for shipping can be used to evaluate Arctic climate sensitivity to black carbon (a short-lived climate forcing pollutant especially effective in accelerating the melting of ice and snow, aerosols, and gaseous emissions including carbon dioxide. We quantify ship emissions scenarios which are expected to increase as declining sea ice coverage due to climate change allows for increased shipping activity in the Arctic. A first-order calculation of global warming potential due to 2030 emissions in the high-growth scenario suggests that short-lived forcing of ~4.5 gigagrams of black carbon from Arctic shipping may increase global warming potential due to Arctic ships' CO2 emissions (~42 000 gigagrams by some 17% to 78%. The paper also presents maximum feasible reduction scenarios for black carbon in particular. These emissions reduction scenarios will enable scientists and policymakers to evaluate the efficacy and benefits of technological controls for black carbon, and other pollutants from ships.

  4. MASTER OF THE SHIP, MANAGER AND INSTRUCTOR

    Florin IORDANOAIA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The master of the ship is the person on the board who has the qualification and the necessary certificate of competency for running a maritime transport ship. He is the one who takes the ship into administration from the ship-owner, he is the only leader, the legal and direct chief of the entire crew, being invested with authority upon all the members of the crew. The master fulfils the attributes and displays his activity according to the legal laws of his flag, of the marine regulations and of the international conventions. In all the relationships which he establishes with physical or juridical people, the master represents the ship-owner, in a double condition, as an officer and as a commercial manager. In this paper, it is analysed the situation of the ship masters, the relationships which these masters have with the crew and the problems which appear during their voyage. At the end of the paper there are proposed measures to increase the quality of the training of the ship masters, to solve the situations connected with the members of the crew.

  5. Report of Nuclear Powered Ship Meeting

    1984-01-01

    The development of nuclear-powered ships in Japan broke down due to the radiation leak on the nuclear ship ''Mutsu'' in 1974, and the objective has not yet been attained. The Japan Nuclear Ship Research and Development Agency was reorganized to advance the development of nuclear-powered ships and to develop marine nuclear reactors. Recently, various opinions have been expressed regarding the development of nuclear-powered ships and Mutsu, accordingly, it is necessary to clarify the way it should be. The Atomic Energy Commission organized this meeting to discuss the problem. The practical use of nuclear-powered ships is expected at the beginning of the 21st century, but it is only the guess. But it is important to accumulate the technology, knowledge and experience to prepare for the use of nuclear-powered ships. The continuation of the development of Mutsu is important for the future, and the construction of the new home port is unavoidable. The aim of the research and development, and the concrete way of advancing the research and development of Mutsu are discussed. It is scheduled that the Agency is integrated with other atomic energy organizations by March, 1985. The consideration to be given for implementing the integration is described. (Kako, I.)

  6. Patient Selection for Drip and Ship Thrombolysis in Acute Ischemic Stroke.

    Lyerly, Michael J; Albright, Karen C; Boehme, Amelia K; Shahripour, Reza Bavarsad; Donnelly, John P; Houston, James T; Rawal, Pawan V; Kapoor, Niren; Alvi, Muhammad; Sisson, April; Alexandrov, Anne W; Alexandrov, Andrei V

    2015-07-01

    The drip and ship model is a method used to deliver thrombolysis to acute stroke patients in facilities lacking onsite neurology coverage. We sought to determine whether our drip and ship population differs from patients treated directly at our stroke center (direct presenters). We retrospectively reviewed consecutive patients who received thrombolysis at an outside facility with subsequent transfer to our center between 2009 and 2011. Patients received thrombolysis after telephone consultation with a stroke specialist. We examined demographics, vascular risk factors, laboratory values, and stroke severity in drip and ship patients compared with direct presenters. Ninety-six patients were identified who received thrombolysis by drip and ship compared with 212 direct presenters. The two groups did not differ with respect to sex, ethnicity, vascular risk factors, or admission glucose. The odds ratio (OR) of arriving at our hospital as a drip and ship for someone 80 years or older was 0.31 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.15-0.61, P < 0.001). Only 21% of drip and ship patients were black versus 38% of direct presenters (OR 0.434, 95% CI 0.25-0.76, P = 0.004). Even after stratifying by age (<80 vs ≥80), a smaller proportion of drip and ship patients were black (OR 0.44, 95% CI 0.24-0.81, P = 0.008). Furthermore, we found that fewer black patients with severe strokes arrived by drip and ship (OR 0.33, 95% CI 0.11-0.98, P = 0.0028). Our study showed that a smaller proportion of blacks and older adults arrived at our center by the drip and ship model. This may reflect differences in how patients are selected for thrombolysis and transfer to a higher level of care.

  7. Behavior analysis of container ship in maritime accident in order to redefine the operating criteria

    Ancuţa, C.; Stanca, C.; Andrei, C.; Acomi, N.

    2017-08-01

    In order to enhance the efficiency of maritime transport, container ships operators proceeded to increase the sizes of ships. The latest generation of ships in operation has 19,000 TEU capacity and the perspective is 21,000 TEU within the next years. The increasing of the sizes of container ships involves risks of maritime accidents occurrences. Nowadays, the general rules on operational security, tend to be adjusted as a result of the evaluation for each vessel. To create the premises for making an informed decision, the captain have to be aware of ships behavior in such situations. Not less important is to assure permanent review of the procedures for operation of ship, including the specific procedures in special areas, confined waters or separation schemes. This paper aims at analysing the behavior of the vessel and the respond of the structure of a container ship in maritime accident, in order to redefine the operating criteria. The method selected by authors for carrying out the research is computer simulations. Computer program provides the responses of the container ship model in various situations. Therefore, the simulations allow acquisition of a large category of data, in the scope of improving the prevention of accidents or mitigation of effects as much as possible. Simulations and assessments of certain situations that the ship might experience will be carried out to redefine the operating criteria. The envisaged scenarios are: introducing of maneuver speed for specific areas with high risk of collision or grounding, introducing of flooding scenarios of some compartments in loading programs, conducting of complex simulations in various situations for each vessel type. The main results of this work are documented proposals for operating criteria, intended to improve the safety in case of marine accidents, collisions and groundings. Introducing of such measures requires complex cost benefit analysis, that should not neglect the extreme economic impact

  8. Effect of school wellness policies and the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act on food-consumption behaviors of students, 2006-2016: a systematic review.

    Mansfield, Jennifer L; Savaiano, Dennis A

    2017-07-01

    Federal regulation mandates that the US National School Lunch Program nutrition standards align with the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. As students consume a substantial proportion of their nutrition during school lunch, increasing access to healthy foods is proposed to improve student dietary outcomes. The purpose of this review is to assess whether policy changes impacted food-consumption behaviors of students during periods when (1) school wellness policies were implemented (2006-2007); (2) the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act was passed (2010-2012); and (3) the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act was implemented (2012-present). PubMed, Web of Science, and Science Direct were searched for primary research studies. Policy evaluations and interventions implemented from 2006 to 2016 were included. A total of 31 studies evaluating plate waste, dietary intake, food selection, and/or purchasing patterns were identified and reviewed. Fourteen of 19 intervention and longitudinal observation studies reported improved food-consumption behaviors (increased selection, intake, and sales of healthy foods, and decreased plate waste). Only 2 of 12 one-time observation studies reported food-consumption behaviors meeting target nutrition standards. The majority of studies indicated that increasing access to healthy foods during school lunch improved students' dietary intakes. Challenges related to study design, adaptation period, quality of foods, and policy implementation likely affect a school lunch program's ability to impact students' food-consumption behaviors. Ongoing evaluation of these programs is warranted. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Nuclear fuel shipping inspection device

    Takahashi, Toshio; Hada, Koji.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To provide an nuclear fuel shipping inspection device having a high detection sensitivity and capable of obtaining highly reliable inspection results. Constitution: The present invention concerns a device for distinguishing a fuel assembly having failed fuel rods in LMFBR type reactors. Coolants in a fuel assembly to be inspected are collected by a sampling pipeway and transferred to a filter device. In the filter device, granular radioactive corrosion products (CP) in the coolants are captured, to reduce the background. The coolants, after being passed through the filter device, are transferred to an FP catching device and gamma-rays of iodine and cesium nuclides are measured in FP radiation measuring device. Subsequently, the coolants transferred to a degasing device to separate rare gas FP in the coolants from the liquid phase. In a case if rare gas fission products are detected by the radiation detector, it means that there is a failed fuel rod in the fuel assembly to be inspected. Since the CP and the soluble FP are separated and extracted for the radioactivity measurement, the reliability can be improved. (Kamimura, M.)

  10. Improving the competitiveness of green ship recycling

    Jain, K.P.

    2017-01-01

    The end of life of a ship is determined by its owner on the basis of various commercial and technical factors. Once decided to scrap a ship, almost all end-of-life (EOL) ships are sold to recycling yards for dismantling; except for a few which are converted into museums, hotels, storage, and artificial reefs. As the decision is a commercial one, the selection of a yard is predominantly based on the offer price, which depends on the location of the yard and the recycling process employed.Among...

  11. Environmental and societal influences acting on cardiovascular risk factors and disease at a population level: a review.

    Chow, Clara Kayei; Lock, Karen; Teo, Koon; Subramanian, S V; McKee, Martin; Yusuf, Salim

    2009-12-01

    It has long been known that cardiovascular disease (CVD) rates vary considerably among populations, across space and through time. It is now apparent that most of the attributable risk for myocardial infarction 'within' populations from across the world can be ascribed to the varying levels of a limited number of risk factors among individuals in a population. Individual risk factors (e.g. blood pressure) can be modified with resulting health gains. Yet, the persistence of large international variations in cardiovascular risk factors and resulting CVD incidence and mortality indicates that there are additional factors that apply to 'populations' that are important to understand as part of a comprehensive approach to CVD control. This article reviews the evidence on why certain populations are more at risk than others.

  12. AIS Ship Traffic: Hawaii: 2011-2012

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Ship position data from a satellite-based Automatic Identification System (AIS) were obtained jointly by PacIOOS (J. Potemra), SOEST/ORE of the University of Hawaii...

  13. Fuel exchanging machine for a nuclear ship

    Hayashi, Tetsuji.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent atmospheric contaminations upon fuel exchange thereby keep the environmental circumstance clean in the periphery of the nuclear ship. Constitution: A nuclear reactor container is disposed to the inside of a containing vessel in the ship body and a shutter is mounted to the upper opening of the ship body. Further, a landing container having a bottom opening equipped with shutter for alingning the upper opening equipped with shuuter of the ship is elevatably suspended to the trolley of a crane by way of a wire rope and a winch, and a fuel exchange cask is elevatably disposed to the inside of the landing container. Further, airs in the inside of the container is adapted to be discharged externally through a filter by means of a blower and the inside is kept at a negative pressure. Thus, since the containing vessel is covered with the landing container upon fuel exchanging operation, atmospheric contamination can be prevented sufficiently. (Sekiya, K.)

  14. Solvency and Liquidity in Shipping Companies

    Heejung Yeo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines factors affecting the solvency of shipping firms. The paper uses a panel dataset and employs the GLM and FGLS regression analyses. This study explores the financial structure of top 130 shipping firms provided by the Factiva database during the period between 2009 and 2013. The paper finds that liquidity is closely related to the leverage of shipping companies. The negative association between the asset liquidity and the leverage level implies that there exist conflicts of interest between managers and investors. Shipping firms have a comfortable high liquidity position, but they have a high degree of leverage. They need to take steps to reduce debts. There is evidence of heterogeneity in the determinants of leverage level. The paper also finds that the variables such as profitability, FSIZE, FAGE influence differently the leverage level whether the debt is short-term or long-term.

  15. Dynamic Escape Routes for Naval Ships

    Villalonga, Francisco J

    2005-01-01

    This thesis addresses the problem of optimal evacuation of a naval ship. We propose the use of a dynamic escape-route system which employs a signaling system to adapt the emergency egress process to the instigating contingency...

  16. Ship dynamics for maritime ISAR imaging.

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2008-02-01

    Demand is increasing for imaging ships at sea. Conventional SAR fails because the ships are usually in motion, both with a forward velocity, and other linear and angular motions that accompany sea travel. Because the target itself is moving, this becomes an Inverse- SAR, or ISAR problem. Developing useful ISAR techniques and algorithms is considerably aided by first understanding the nature and characteristics of ship motion. Consequently, a brief study of some principles of naval architecture sheds useful light on this problem. We attempt to do so here. Ship motions are analyzed for their impact on range-Doppler imaging using Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar (ISAR). A framework for analysis is developed, and limitations of simple ISAR systems are discussed.

  17. Nuclear ship accidents, description and analysis

    Oelgaard, P.L.

    1993-03-01

    In this report available information on 44 reported nuclear ship events is considered. Of these 6 deals with U.S. ships and 38 with USSR ships. The ships are in almost all cases nuclear submarines. Only events that involve the sinking of vessels, the nuclear propulsion plants, radiation exposures, fires/ explosions, sea-water leaks into the submarines and sinking of vessels are considered. Comments are made on each of the events, and at the end of the report an attempt is made to point out the weaknesses of the submarine designs which have resulted in the accidents. It is emphasized that some of the information of which this report is based, may be of dubious nature. Consequently some of the results of the assessments made may not be correct. (au)

  18. Communication from the Radioactive Shipping Service

    DDGS Unit

    2011-01-01

    The radioactive materials Import/Export service reminds you that all movements of potentially radioactive material must be declared in advance. For exports, shipping requests must be made via the EDH request form, ticking the box “radioactive material”. For imports, an electronic form must be completed before the arrival of the material. Requests which do not comply with the above procedure and any unauthorized imports of radioactive material will be refused.The same applies to imports/exports of radioactive sources. All necessary information is given in the web site: http://cern.ch/service-rp-shipping Yann Donjoux / Radioactive Shipping Service Phone: +41 22 767.31.71 Fax: +41 22 766.92.00 Email: service-rp-shipping@cern.ch

  19. Changing Strategies in Global Wind Energy Shipping, Logistics, and Supply Chain Management

    Poulsen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Within the global wind energy market, a number of derived industries support the continued expansion of the ever larger onshore and offshore wind farms. One such derived industry is that of shipping, logistics, and supply chain management. Based on extensive case study work performed since 2009......, the paper reviews different wind energy markets globally. Subsequently, a number of supply chain set-ups serviced by the shipping, logistics, and supply chain management industry are reviewed. Finally, winning business models and strategies of current as well as emerging supply chain constituencies...

  20. Ships as future floating farm systems?

    Moustafa, Khaled

    2018-04-03

    Environmental and agriculture challenges such as severe drought, desertification, sprawling cities and shrinking arable lands in large regions in the world compel us to think about alternative and sustainable farming systems. Ongoing projects to build floating cities in the sea suggest that building specific ships for farming purposes (as farming ships or farming boats) would also be attainable to introduce new farming surfaces and boost food production worldwide to cope with food insecurity issues.

  1. A Nonlinear Ship Manoeuvering Model: Identification and adaptive control with experiments for a model ship

    Roger Skjetne

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Complete nonlinear dynamic manoeuvering models of ships, with numerical values, are hard to find in the literature. This paper presents a modeling, identification, and control design where the objective is to manoeuver a ship along desired paths at different velocities. Material from a variety of references have been used to describe the ship model, its difficulties, limitations, and possible simplifications for the purpose of automatic control design. The numerical values of the parameters in the model is identified in towing tests and adaptive manoeuvering experiments for a small ship in a marine control laboratory.

  2. Software requirements definition Shipping Cask Analysis System (SCANS)

    Johnson, G.L.; Serbin, R.

    1985-01-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff reviews the technical adequacy of applications for certification of designs of shipping casks for spent nuclear fuel. In order to confirm an acceptable design, the NRC staff may perform independent calculations. The current NRC procedure for confirming cask design analyses is laborious and tedious. Most of the work is currently done by hand or through the use of a remote computer network. The time required to certify a cask can be long. The review process may vary somewhat with the engineer doing the reviewing. Similarly, the documentation on the results of the review can also vary with the reviewer. To increase the efficiency of this certification process, LLNL was requested to design and write an integrated set of user-oriented, interactive computer programs for a personal microcomputer. The system is known as the NRC Shipping Cask Analysis System (SCANS). The computer codes and the software system supporting these codes are being developed and maintained for the NRC by LLNL. The objective of this system is generally to lessen the time and effort needed to review an application. Additionally, an objective of the system is to assure standardized methods and documentation of the confirmatory analyses used in the review of these cask designs. A software system should be designed based on NRC-defined requirements contained in a requirements document. The requirements document is a statement of a project's wants and needs as the users and implementers jointly understand them. The requirements document states the desired end products (i.e. WHAT's) of the project, not HOW the project provides them. This document describes the wants and needs for the SCANS system. 1 fig., 3 tabs

  3. Ultimate Strength of Ship Hulls under Torsion

    Paik, Jeom Kee; Thayamballi, Anil K.; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2001-01-01

    For a ship hull with large deck openings such as container vessels and some large bulk carriers, the analysis of warping stresses and hatch opening deformations is an essential part of ship structural analyses. It is thus of importance to better understand the ultimate torsional strength characte......For a ship hull with large deck openings such as container vessels and some large bulk carriers, the analysis of warping stresses and hatch opening deformations is an essential part of ship structural analyses. It is thus of importance to better understand the ultimate torsional strength...... characteristics of ships with large hatch openings. The primary aim of the present study is to investigate the ultimate strength characteristics of ship hulls with large hatch openings under torsion. Axial (warping) as well as shear stresses are normally developed for thin-walled beams with open cross sections...... subjected to torsion. A procedure for calculating these stresses is briefly described. As an illustrative example, the distribution and magnitude of warping and shear stresses for a typical container vessel hull cross section under unit torsion is calculated by the procedure. By theoretical and numerical...

  4. Report of Nuclear Powered Ship Council

    1982-01-01

    From the forecast of energy balance in the world to 21st century, the diversification of energy supply and the technical development enabling it are necessary in Japan. The stable supply of marine fuel is important to maintain and develop the national life. At present, as the marine fuel substituting for petroleum, atomic energy is at the position nearest to practical use. In advanced countries, the basic technology required for the practical use of nuclear-powered merchant ships seems to have been established, but Japan is about 10 years behind them due to the delay of the Mutsu project. In order to maintain and improve the technical level of shipbuilders, the independent technology related to nuclear-powered ships must be established in Japan. In the economical examination of nuclear-powered ships, ice breakers and ice breaking tankers are advantageous, but in other types of ships, a number of conditions must be satisfied to be economical. The Mutsu must be operated to collect the data and experience, and the project of an improved marine prototype reactor must be decided. Also a demonstration ship must be built. The standards for the design, construction and operation of nuclear-powered ships and the public acceptance are necessary. (Kako, I.)

  5. Structural health monitoring for ship structures

    Farrar, Charles [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Park, Gyuhae [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Angel, Marian [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bement, Matthew [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Salvino, Liming [NSWC, CADEROCK

    2009-01-01

    Currently the Office of Naval Research is supporting the development of structural health monitoring (SHM) technology for U.S. Navy ship structures. This application is particularly challenging because of the physical size of these structures, the widely varying and often extreme operational and environmental conditions associated with these ships missions, lack of data from known damage conditions, limited sensing that was not designed specifically for SHM, and the management of the vast amounts of data that can be collected during a mission. This paper will first define a statistical pattern recognition paradigm for SHM by describing the four steps of (1) Operational Evaluation, (2) Data Acquisition, (3) Feature Extraction, and (4) Statistical Classification of Features as they apply to ship structures. Note that inherent in the last three steps of this process are additional tasks of data cleansing, compression, normalization and fusion. The presentation will discuss ship structure SHM challenges in the context of applying various SHM approaches to sea trials data measured on an aluminum multi-hull high-speed ship, the HSV-2 Swift. To conclude, the paper will discuss several outstanding issues that need to be addressed before SHM can make the transition from a research topic to actual field applications on ship structures and suggest approaches for addressing these issues.

  6. Curatorial Acts

    Bal, M.

    2012-01-01

    In a self-critical inquiry into my own recent work of co-curating and the experience of seeing my video work being curated by others, this article examines acts of framing as performative acts that seek to transform visitors' preconceptions. This affective effect is pursued by means of immersion,

  7. Study on variation in ship's forward speed under regular waves depending on rudder controller

    Sung-Soo Kim

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to compare and analyze the advanced speed of ships with different rudder controller in wavy condition by using a simulation. The commercial simulation tool named AQWA is used to develop the simulation of ship which has 3 degree of freedom. The nonlinear hydrodynamic force acting on hull, the propeller thrust and the rudder force are calculated by the additional subroutine which interlock with the commercial simulation tool, and the regular wave is used as the source of the external force for the simulation. Rudder rotational velocity and autopilot coefficients vary to make the different rudder controller. An advanced speed of ships depending on the rudder controller is analyzed after the autopilot simulations.

  8. Automatic production planning for the construction of complex ships

    Rose, C.D.

    2017-01-01

    European shipyards specialize in building complex ship types including offshore vessels, yachts, dredgers, and cruise ships. One key difference between these ships and the simple cargo ships typically built in the Far East is the amount and variety of mission-related equipment required to operate

  9. Solving the Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem with Cargo Flows

    Tierney, Kevin; Askelsdottir, Björg; Jensen, Rune Møller

    2015-01-01

    We solve a central problem in the liner shipping industry called the liner shipping fleet repositioning problem (LSFRP). The LSFRP poses a large financial burden on liner shipping firms. During repositioning, vessels are moved between routes in a liner shipping network. Liner carriers wish...

  10. Computational methods for more fuel-efficient ship

    Koren, B.

    2008-01-01

    The flow of water around a ship powered by a combustion engine is a key factor in the ship's fuel consumption. The simulation of flow patterns around ship hulls is therefore an important aspect of ship design. While lengthy computations are required for such simulations, research by Jeroen Wackers

  11. 48 CFR 1371.118 - Changes-ship repair.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Changes-ship repair. 1371.118 Section 1371.118 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE DEPARTMENT SUPPLEMENTAL REGULATIONS ACQUISITIONS INVOLVING SHIP CONSTRUCTION AND SHIP REPAIR Provisions and Clauses 1371.118 Changes—ship repair. Insert clause...

  12. 46 CFR 169.817 - Master to instruct ship's company.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Master to instruct ship's company. 169.817 Section 169.817 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Operations § 169.817 Master to instruct ship's company. The master shall conduct drills and give instructions as necessary to insure that al...

  13. 46 CFR 71.75-5 - Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. 71.75-5 Section 71.75-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS INSPECTION AND... Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. (a) All vessels on an international voyage are required to have a...

  14. Modelling ship operational reliability over a mission under regular inspections

    Christer, A.H.; Lee, S.K.

    1997-01-01

    A ship is required to operate for a fixed mission period. Should a critical item of equipment fail at sea, the ship is subject to a costly event with potentially high risk to ship and crew. Given warning of a pending defect, the ship can try to return to port under its own power and thus attempt to

  15. 46 CFR Sec. 5 - Measures to protect ship's payrolls.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Measures to protect ship's payrolls. Sec. 5 Section 5... SHIP'S PERSONNEL Sec. 5 Measures to protect ship's payrolls. (a) General Agents are not required to consider the amount of the payroll delivered to the Master at the conclusion of a voyage in determining the...

  16. 32 CFR 700.872 - Ships and craft in drydock.

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ships and craft in drydock. 700.872 Section 700... Special Circumstances/ships in Naval Stations and Shipyards § 700.872 Ships and craft in drydock. (a) The... ship or craft, not in commission, is in a naval drydock, the provisions of this article shall apply...

  17. A building cost estimation method for inland ships

    Hekkenberg, R.G.

    2014-01-01

    There is very little publicly available data about the building cost of inland ships, especially for ships that have dimensions that differ significantly from those of common ships. Also, no methods to determine the building cost of inland ships are described in literature. In this paper, a method

  18. The Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem with Cargo Flows

    Tierney, Kevin; Jensen, Rune Møller

    2012-01-01

    We solve an important problem for the liner shipping industry called the Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem (LSFRP). The LSFRP poses a large financial burden on liner shipping firms. During repositioning, vessels are moved between services in a liner shipping network. Shippers wish...

  19. APPLICATION OF LEAN CONCEPT TO SHIP SAFETY INSPECTION: A CASE STUDY AT PORT OF SURABAYA

    F. Cahyadi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Lean Concept is a mindset widely used in various industries seeking for efficiency and effectiveness through improvement of process flow and elimination of waste. This research applies lean thinking to ship safety inspection at Port of Surabaya to investigate the existing procedure and to identify the wastes and non-value-add (NVA activity. It used a combination of literature review, examination on the data of 520 inspections that have been carried out to 201 ships in the last two years (2009 - 2011, investigation on related regulations and guidelines, observation on the actual conduct of inspection, and interview with 59 marine inspectors and ship officers. Analysis is conducted using Value Stream Mapping (VSM. It is found that the existing procedure lacks significant impact in terms of imposing a reduction in the total number of detected deficiency between the earlier and subsequent inspections. Only 37% of the ships experience a reduction, indicating that the performance of inspection is currently at the level of 37 on a 100-point scale. It was mainly due to severe violation of the regulations, which is demonstrated by the issuance of ship certificate regardless of corrective action undertaken relating to the detected deficiency. Keywords: Lean concept, ship safety inspection, value stream mapping.

  20. Development of software for handling ship's pharmacy.

    Nittari, Giulio; Peretti, Alessandro; Sibilio, Fabio; Ioannidis, Nicholas; Amenta, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Ships are required to carry a given amount of medicinal products and medications depending on the flag and the type of vessel. These medicines are stored in the so called ship's "medicine chest" or more properly - a ship pharmacy. Owing to the progress of medical sciences and to the increase in the mean age of seafarers employed on board ships, the number of pharmaceutical products and medical devices required by regulations to be carried on board ships is increasing. This may make handling of the ship's medicine chest a problem primarily on large ships sailing on intercontinental routes due to the difficulty in identifying the correspondence between medicines obtained abroad with those available at the national market. To minimise these problems a tool named Pharmacy Ship (acronym: PARSI) has been developed. The application PARSI is based on a database containing the information about medicines and medical devices required by different countries regulations. In the first application the system was standardised to comply with the Italian regulations issued on the 1st October, 2015 which entered into force on the 18 January 2016. Thanks to PARSI it was possible to standardize the inventory procedures, facilitate the work of maritime health authorities and make it easier for the crew, not professional in the field, to handle the 'medicine chest' correctly by automating the procedures for medicines management. As far as we know there are no other similar tools available at the moment. The application of the software, as well as the automation of different activities, currently carried out manually, will help manage (qualitatively and quantitatively) the ship's pharmacy. The system developed in this study has proved to be an effective tool which serves to guarantee the compliance of the ship pharmacy with regulations of the flag state in terms of medicinal products and medications. Sharing the system with the Telemedical Maritime Assistance Service may result in

  1. A Ship Cargo Hold Inspection Approach Using Laser Vision Systems

    SHEN Yang; ZHAO Ning; LIU Haiwei; MI Chao

    2013-01-01

    Our paper represents a vision system based on the laser measurement system (LMS) for bulk ship inspection. The LMS scanner with 2-axis servo system is installed on the ship loader to build the shape of the ship. Then, a group of real-time image processing algorithms are implemented to compute the shape of the cargo hold, the inclination angle of the ship and the relative position between the ship loader and the cargo hold. Based on those computed inspection data of the ship, the ship loader c...

  2. Development of the Nuclear Ship Database. 1. Outline of the Nuclear Ship Experimental Database

    Kyouya, Masahiko; Ochiai, Masa-aki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Hashidate, Kouji

    1995-03-01

    We obtained the experimental data on the effects of the ship motions and the change in load and caused by the ship operations, the waves, the winds etc., to the nuclear power plant behavior, through the Power-up Tests and Experimental Voyages of the Nuclear Ship MUTSU. Moreover, we accumulated the techniques, the knowledge and others on the Nuclear Ship development at the each stage of the N.S. MUTSU Research and Development program, such as the design stage, the construction stage, the operation stage and others. These data, techniques, knowledge and others are the assembly of the experimental data and the experiences through the design, the construction and the operation of the first nuclear ship in JAPAN. It is important to keep and pigeonhole these products of the N.S. MUTSU program in order to utilize them effectively in the research and development of the advanced marine reactor, since there is no construction plan of the nuclear ship for the present in JAPAN. We have been carrying out the development of the Nuclear Ship Database System since 1991 for the purpose of effective utilization of the N.S. MUTSU products in the design study of the advanced marine reactors. The part of the Nuclear Ship Database System on the experimental data, called Nuclear Ship Experimental Database, was already accomplished and utilized since 1993. This report describes the outline and the use of the Nuclear Ship Experimental Database.The remaining part of the database system on the documentary data, called Nuclear Ship Documentary Database, are now under development. (author).

  3. Development of the Nuclear Ship Database. 1. Outline of the Nuclear Ship Experimental Database

    Kyouya, Masahiko; Ochiai, Masa-aki; Hashidate, Kouji.

    1995-03-01

    We obtained the experimental data on the effects of the ship motions and the change in load and caused by the ship operations, the waves, the winds etc., to the nuclear power plant behavior, through the Power-up Tests and Experimental Voyages of the Nuclear Ship MUTSU. Moreover, we accumulated the techniques, the knowledge and others on the Nuclear Ship development at the each stage of the N.S. MUTSU Research and Development program, such as the design stage, the construction stage, the operation stage and others. These data, techniques, knowledge and others are the assembly of the experimental data and the experiences through the design, the construction and the operation of the first nuclear ship in JAPAN. It is important to keep and pigeonhole these products of the N.S. MUTSU program in order to utilize them effectively in the research and development of the advanced marine reactor, since there is no construction plan of the nuclear ship for the present in JAPAN. We have been carrying out the development of the Nuclear Ship Database System since 1991 for the purpose of effective utilization of the N.S. MUTSU products in the design study of the advanced marine reactors. The part of the Nuclear Ship Database System on the experimental data, called Nuclear Ship Experimental Database, was already accomplished and utilized since 1993. This report describes the outline and the use of the Nuclear Ship Experimental Database.The remaining part of the database system on the documentary data, called Nuclear Ship Documentary Database, are now under development. (author)

  4. Water Safety Plan on cruise ships: a promising tool to prevent waterborne diseases.

    Mouchtouri, Varvara A; Bartlett, Christopher L R; Diskin, Arthur; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2012-07-01

    Legionella spp. and other waterborne pathogens have been isolated from various water systems on land based premises as well as on ships and cases of Legionnaires' disease have been associated with both sites. Peculiarities of cruise ships water systems make the risk management a challenging process. The World Health Organization suggests a Water Safety Plan (WSP) as the best approach to mitigate risks and hazards such as Legionella spp. and others. To develop WSP on a cruise ship and discuss challenges, perspectives and key issues to success. Hazards and hazardous events were identified and risk assessment was conducted of the ship water system. Ship company management, policies and procedures were reviewed, site visits were conducted, findings and observations were recorded and discussed with engineers and key crew members were interviewed. A total of 53 hazards and hazardous events were taken into consideration for the risk assessment and additional essential barriers were established when needed. Most of them concerned control measures for biofilm development and Legionella spp. contamination. A total of 29 operational limits were defined. Supplementary verification and supportive programs were established. Application of the WSP to ship water systems, including potable water, recreational water facilities and decorative water features and fountains, is expected to improve water management on ships. The success of a WSP depends on support from senior management, commitment of the Captain and crew members, correct execution of all steps of a risk assessment and practicality and applicability in routine operation. The WSP provides to shipping industry a new approach and a move toward evidence based water safety policy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Requirement of a Ship Breaking Yard at the Arvand Free Zone Area

    Homayoun Yousefi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the author is going to investigate the concept of ship recycling which implies to the materials and equipment including end of ships life. The scraped steel is melted down and is commonly used in the construction industries of ship recycling countries, and some equipment might be re-used in other industries too. A segment of this paper is dedicated to describe about the strategic position of Arvand River and the location of Arvand Free Zone area at the Persian Gulf. It should be noted that ship recycling commonly takes place in developing countries which tend to have a competitive advantage due to the low cost labor, may have weaker environmental protection / worker health and safety regulations, and have national demand for the outputs of the activity. The International Maritime Organization (IMO adopted the Hong Kong International Convention related to the safety and environmental sound recycling of ships to address the growing about the environment, job health and safety risks related to ship recycling. A part of this paper dedicated to review the role of the Hong Kong Convention in order to ensure the process of ship recycling without risks to human health and to the environment. The main part of this paper is designated to evaluate the role of establishment of a ship scraping yard at the Arvand Free Zone Area, its market at the Persian Gulf and improving the safety of navigation at the Arvand River. The research methodology of this paper will be designated to consider the qualitative part of this research by using interview with the experts in order to find out and select the key factors for further consideration; as a result of that a model will be created which can be tested by a questioner. In addition to the above explanation, relationship between the variables and testing hypothesizes of this research will be analyzed by using SPSS and Lisrel software as quantitative part of this research.

  6. Turbulence modeling of transverse flow on ship hulls in shallow water

    Jakobsen, Ken-Robert Gjelstad

    2010-09-15

    The hydrodynamic forces acting on a ship that travels in restricted water vary greatly with water depth and the geometry of the ship hull. This will affect the ship maneuverability in terms of various flow effects like for instance squat, when the ship is sucked down towards the seabed due to a pressure drop on the hull at forward speed. It is, thus, important to gain detailed knowledge on these aspects of marine engineering. The problem is in the present work addressed through a numerical investigation of turbulent transverse flow on two-dimensional ship sections in shallow water. The numerical code is validated against traditional flow problems in the literature. Namely, the Backward-facing step (BFS) and the Smoothly-contoured ramp (SCR). 2D and 3D laminar flows and 2D low Reynolds number turbulent flows are calculated, and the results are found to be in good agreement with the previous numerical and experimental comparison data. The turbulence model used in the calculations is the one-equation Spalart-Allmaras model. The overall goal of achieving more efficient and accurate numerical schemes will always be in focus of code development. Adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) is then a very helpful tool to save both time for grid generation prior to the calculations in question and the CPU hours needed to solve the governing equations. The latter is even more evident in a parallel environment. These aspects are included in the present investigation as part of the process to adapt and investigate a CFD tool suitable to handle turbulent flows on a ship hull in shallow water. Several physical and numerical parameters are included in the present study and the Plackett-Burman screening design is utilized to efficiently analyze the results. With the latter method, a simple function for calculating the drag force on a two-dimensional ship section as function of the given parameters has been obtained. (Author)

  7. Analysis of ship maneuvering data from simulators

    Frette, V.; Kleppe, G.; Christensen, K.

    2011-03-01

    We analyze complex manuevering histories of ships obtained from training sessions on bridge simulators. Advanced ships are used in fields like offshore oil exploration: dive support vessels, supply vessels, anchor handling vessels, tugs, cable layers, and multi-purpose vessels. Due to high demands from the operations carried out, these ships need to have very high maneuverability. This is achieved through a propulsion system with several thrusters, water jets, and rudders in addition to standard propellers. For some operations, like subsea maintenance, it is crucial that the ship accurately keeps a fixed position. Therefore, bridge systems usually incorporate equipment for Dynamic Positioning (DP). DP is a method to keep ships and semi submersible rigs in a fixed position using the propulsion systems instead of anchors. It may also be used for sailing a vessel from one position to another along a predefined route. Like an autopilot on an airplane, DP may operate without human involvement. The method relies on accurate determination of position from external reference systems like GPS, as well as a continuously adjusted mathematical model of the ship and external forces from wind, waves and currents. In a specific simulator exercise for offshore crews, a ship is to be taken up to an installation consisting of three nearby oil platforms connected by bridges (Frigg field, North Sea), where a subsea inspection is to be carried out. Due to the many degrees of freedom during maneuvering, including partly or full use of DP, the chosen routes vary significantly. In this poster we report preliminary results on representations of the complex maneuvering histories; representations that allow comparison between crew groups, and, possibly, sorting of the different strategic choices behind.

  8. The Transformation of Swedish Shipping, 1970-2010

    Sjögren, Hans; Taro Lennerfors, Thomas; Taudal Poulsen, Rene

    2012-01-01

    Since the early 1970s, as shipping has undergone a period of structural change, Swedish shipping has rapidly declined from a position of global importance. The Swedish-controlled fleet has dwindled, and the structure of the industry itself has changed. This article explores the influence of shipping markets, shipping regulations, company strategies, maritime know-how, and financial resources on the development of Swedish shipping from 1970 to 2010. A comparison is made between, on the one han...

  9. Long acting β2 agonists for stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with poor reversibility: a systematic review of randomised controlled trials

    Mensinkai Shaila

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The long acting β2-agonists, salmeterol and formoterol, have been recommended, by some, as first line treatment of stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. We reviewed evidence of efficacy and safety when compared with placebo or anticholinergic agents in patients with poorly reversible COPD. Methods After searching MEDLINE, EMBASE, HealthSTAR, BIOSIS Previews, PASCAL, ToxFile, SciSearch, the Cochrane Library, and PubMed, as well as Web sites, selected journals, reference lists, and contacting drug manufacturers, two reviewers independently screened reports of randomised controlled trials of parallel or crossover design lasting four weeks or longer and including patients with a forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 ≤ 75% of predicted, a ratio of FEV1 to forced vital capacity (FVC ≤ 88% of predicted, and Results Twelve trials satisfied our inclusion criteria; eight were high quality (Jadad score >2 and four were low quality (≤ 2. The adequacy of allocation concealment was unclear in all of them. We did not perform a meta-analysis due to differences in trial design and how outcomes were reported. Two trials comparing salmeterol with ipratropium did not detect differences; one trial comparing formoterol and ipratropium described greater improvement with formoterol in morning PEFR (15.3 versus 7.1 l/min, p = 0.040. Of twelve trials comparing long acting β2 agonists with placebo, six reported no improvement in exercise capacity, eleven reported improvements in FEV1 lung function (one reported no improvement, six reported less rescue inhaler usage (one reported no difference and five reported improved dyspnea scores (two reported no improvement. Differences in quality of life were detected in one salmeterol trial ; however, two salmeterol, and one formoterol trial reported no differences. Adverse effects of interest were not reported. Conclusion In terms of clinical outcomes and safety, we could not find

  10. High Concentrations of Organic Contaminants in Air from Ship Breaking Activities in Chittagong, Bangladesh.

    Nøst, Therese H; Halse, Anne K; Randall, Scott; Borgen, Anders R; Schlabach, Martin; Paul, Alak; Rahman, Atiqur; Breivik, Knut

    2015-10-06

    The beaches on the coast of Chittagong in Bangladesh are one of the most intense ship breaking areas in the world. The aim of the study was to measure the concentrations of organic contaminants in the air in the city of Chittagong, including the surrounding ship breaking areas using passive air samplers (N = 25). The compounds detected in the highest amounts were the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs), whereas dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were several orders of magnitude lower in comparison. PCBs, PAHs, and HCB were highest at sites near the ship breaking activities, whereas DDTs and SCCPs were higher in the urban areas. Ship breaking activities likely act as atmospheric emission sources of PCBs, PAHs, and HCB, thus adding to the international emphasis on responsible recycling of ships. Concentrations of PAHs, PCBs, DDTs, HCB, and SCCPs in ambient air in Chittagong are high in comparison to those found in similar studies performed in other parts of Asia. Estimated toxic equivalent quotients indicate elevated human health risks caused by inhalation of PAHs at most sites.

  11. Ship Collision and Grounding Analysis

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2010-01-01

    It is the purpose of the paper to present a review of prediction and analysis tools for collision and grounding analyses and to outline a probabilistic procedure whereby these tools can be used by the maritime industry to develop performance based rules to reduce the risk associated with human, e...

  12. Analysis of ship life cycles: the impact of economic cycles and ship inspection

    Bijwaard, G.E.; Knapp, S.

    2009-01-01

    Due to the shipping industry's international legal framework, there are loopholes in the system, which can increase the risk of incidents with high economic costs due to the substandard operation of vessels. This article uses duration analysis and through the creation of ship life cycles provides

  13. Ship Acquisition of Shipping Companies by Sale & Purchase Activities for Sustainable Growth: Exploratory Fuzzy-AHP Application

    Keun-Sik Park

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Strengthening sale and purchase (S&P capacity has become a fundamental requirement for sustainable growth and corporate competitiveness in the modern shipping market. However, there is a lack of research related to S&P and its priority when shipping companies attempt to implement ship acquisition through S&P activities. To fill this gap, this paper conducts an empirical analysis to analyze priority factors during the acquisition of second-hand ships from the perspective of shipping companies. Business criteria are considered to be the most important factors in the analysis of the priority of ship acquisition and investment in shipping companies. To the best of our knowledge, this research is the first exploration covering Korean shipping companies’ ship acquisition through S&P activities. This study is expected to contribute to the better understanding of the role of S&P in ensuring the sustainability of shipping companies and to provide stakeholders with valuable insights.

  14. Advanced Shipboard Communications Demonstrations with ACTS

    Axford, Roy A.; Jedrey, Thomas C.; Rupar, Michael A.

    2000-01-01

    For ships at sea. satellites provide the only option for high data rate (HDR), long haul communications. Furthermore the demand for HDR satellite communications (SATCOM) for military and commercial ships. and other offshore platforms is increasing. Presently the bulk of this maritime HDR SATCOM connectivity is provided via C-band and X-band. However, the shipboard antenna sizes required to achieve a data rate of, say T 1 (1.544 Mbps) with present C-/X-band SATCOM systems range from seven to ten feet in diameter. This limits the classes of ships to which HDR services can be provided to those which are large enough to accommodate the massive antennas. With its high powered K/Ka-band spot beams, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) was able to provide T I and higher rate services to ships at sea using much smaller shipboard antennas. This paper discusses three shipboard HDR SATCOM demonstrations that were conducted with ACTS between 1996 and 1998. The first demonstration involved a 2 Mbps link provided to the seismic survey ship MN Geco Diamond equipped with a 16-inch wide, 4.5-inch tall, mechanically steered slotted waveguide array antenna developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. In this February 1996 demonstration ACTS allowed supercomputers ashore to process Geco Diamond's voluminous oceanographic seismic data in near real time. This capability allowed the ship to adjust its search parameters on a daily basis based on feedback from the processed data, thereby greatly increasing survey efficiency. The second demonstration was conducted on the US Navy cruiser USS Princeton (CG 59) with the same antenna used on Geco Diamond. Princeton conducted a six-month (January-July 1997) Western Hemisphere solo deployment during which time T1 connectivity via ACTS provided the ship with a range of valuable tools for operational, administrative and quality-of-life tasks. In one instance, video

  15. The Radiation Protection Act

    Persson, L.

    1989-01-01

    The new Radiation Protection Act (1988:220) entered into force in Sweden on July 1st, 1988. This book presents the Act as well as certain regulations connected to it. As previously, the main responsibility for public radiation protection will rest with one central radiation protection authority. According to the 1988 Act, the general obligations with regard to radiation protection will place a greater responsibility than in the past on persons carrying out activities involving radiation. Under the act, it is possible to adjust the licensing and supervisory procedures to the level of danger of the radiation source and the need for adequate competence, etc. The Act recognises standardised approval procedures combined with technical regulations for areas where the risks are well known. The Act contains several rules providing for more effective supervision. The supervising authority may in particular decide on the necessary regulations and prohibitions for each individual case. The possibilities of using penal provisions have been extended and a rule on the mandatory execution of orders has been introduced. The Ordinance on Radiation Protection (1988:293) designates the National Institute of Radiation Protection (SSI) as the central authority referred to in the Radiation Protection Act. The book also gives a historic review of radiation protection laws in Sweden, lists regulations issued by SSI and presents explanations of radiation effects and international norms in the area. (author)

  16. ACT Test

    ... to clot, the higher the degree of clotting inhibition. During surgery, the ACT is kept above a ... What is ECLS? An Introduction to Extracorporeal Life Support. University of Michigan Health System [On-line information]. ...

  17. Risk Analysis on Ship Wreck and Container Cargo to Ship Navigation

    Muhammad Badrus Zaman

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Wreck of a ship is an incident that must be avoided. Ship accidents are generally caused by a several cases, such as human error, natural disaster, technical errors, missed communication, poor condition of the ship, and many more. Ship wreckage have huge impact for ship navigation, environment, economics, and others. Those impact have many disadvantages for the shipowners, and also for environment. For examples the fuel spills that pollute the environment, make disturbance to sailing ship because the track for those navigation is blocked by the ship wreck and their cargo especially on shallow location (<50 m. These research will discuss the effect the container when it is floats on the sea and its interference other ships. The main objective of this study is to present a risk assessment on the environmental impact of the wreck and container cargo. Wrecks on the seabed is likely to pose a risk to passing ships. container and its contents as well as the possibility of refloat, and also their environmental risks emanating from the wreck and container cargo, such as fuels, lubricants, and chemical cargo. Variations scenario is a collision between ships that pass by floating containers. The frequency of refloating container, and the consequences of the passing ship depends on several factors, which will be the subject of research. However, because of the frequency of refloating containers is unlikely, then the risk is low and does not pose a danger to navigation. These risk assessment using risk matrix 5x5 which is the combined value of the frequency and consequences of the incident. The results of this study indicate the level of risk, whether the risk is accepted, not accepted or received by considering the costs and benefits (ALARP. To consequence, there are two parameters which energy is absorbed and the penetration occurs. The absorbed energy is divided into two, namely the energy absorbed by ship and the energy absorbed by containers. In this

  18. An assessment of simplified methods to determine damage from ship-to-ship collisions

    Parks, M.B.; Ammerman, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is studying the safety of shipping, radioactive materials (RAM) by sea, the SeaRAM project (McConnell, et al. 1995), which is sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE). The project is concerned with the potential effects of ship collisions and fires on onboard RAM packages. Existing methodologies are being assessed to determine their adequacy to predict the effect of ship collisions and fires on RAM packages and to estimate whether or not a given accident might lead to a release of radioactivity. The eventual goal is to develop a set of validated methods, which have been checked by comparison with test data and/or detailed finite element analyses, for predicting the consequences of ship collisions and fires. These methods could then be used to provide input for overall risk assessments of RAM sea transport. The emphasis of this paper is on methods for predicting- effects of ship collisions

  19. Radiative Forcing Over Ocean by Ship Wakes

    Gatebe, Charles K.; Wilcox, E.; Poudyal, R.; Wang, J.

    2011-01-01

    Changes in surface albedo represent one of the main forcing agents that can counteract, to some extent, the positive forcing from increasing greenhouse gas concentrations. Here, we report on enhanced ocean reflectance from ship wakes over the Pacific Ocean near the California coast, where we determined, based on airborne radiation measurements that ship wakes can increase reflected sunlight by more than 100%. We assessed the importance of this increase to climate forcing, where we estimated the global radiative forcing of ship wakes to be -0.00014 plus or minus 53% Watts per square meter assuming a global distribution of 32331 ships of size of greater than or equal to 100000 gross tonnage. The forcing is smaller than the forcing of aircraft contrails (-0.007 to +0.02 Watts per square meter), but considering that the global shipping fleet has rapidly grown in the last five decades and this trend is likely to continue because of the need of more inter-continental transportation as a result of economic globalization, we argue that the radiative forcing of wakes is expected to be increasingly important especially in harbors and coastal regions.

  20. Quantitative analysis method for ship construction quality

    FU Senzong

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The excellent performance of a ship is assured by the accurate evaluation of its construction quality. For a long time, research into the construction quality of ships has mainly focused on qualitative analysis due to a shortage of process data, which results from limited samples, varied process types and non-standardized processes. Aiming at predicting and controlling the influence of the construction process on the construction quality of ships, this article proposes a reliability quantitative analysis flow path for the ship construction process and fuzzy calculation method. Based on the process-quality factor model proposed by the Function-Oriented Quality Control (FOQC method, we combine fuzzy mathematics with the expert grading method to deduce formulations calculating the fuzzy process reliability of the ordinal connection model, series connection model and mixed connection model. The quantitative analysis method is applied in analyzing the process reliability of a ship's shaft gear box installation, which proves the applicability and effectiveness of the method. The analysis results can be a useful reference for setting key quality inspection points and optimizing key processes.

  1. Orchestrating Transnational Environmental Governance in Maritime Shipping

    Lister, Jane; Taudal Poulsen, René; Ponte, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Maritime shipping is the transmission belt of the global economy. It is also a major contributor to global environmental change through its under-regulated air, water and land impacts. It is puzzling that shipping is a lagging sector as it has a well-established global regulatory body—the Interna......Maritime shipping is the transmission belt of the global economy. It is also a major contributor to global environmental change through its under-regulated air, water and land impacts. It is puzzling that shipping is a lagging sector as it has a well-established global regulatory body......—the International Maritime Organization. Drawing on original empirical evidence and archival data, we introduce a four-factor framework to investigate two main questions: why is shipping lagging in its environmental governance; and what is the potential for the International Maritime Organization to orchestrate......, and growing regulatory fragmentation and uncertainty. The paper concludes with pragmatic recommendations for the International Maritime Organization to acknowledge the regulatory difficulties and seize the opportunity to orchestrate environmental progress....

  2. Report of nuclear powered ship meeting

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    The research and development of nuclear powered ships in Japan have been advanced centering around the Japan Nuclear Ship Development Agency established in 1963. It is regretful that the development of ''Mutsu'' is largely behind the schedule due to the radiation leak in 1974, and the expected objective has not yet been attained even today. The government decided to advance the research on the improvement of marine nuclear reactors in 1980, and this new research function was given to the Agency by changing its organization. However, recently various arguments have arisen concerning the way of the research and development of nuclear ships in Japan centering around ''Mutsu'', such as the necessity of developing nuclear ships, the enormous expenditure for the development, the aging of ''Mutsu'' more than 10 years after the construction, the introduction of nuclear ship technology from foreign countries and so on. By the end of fiscal 1984, the Agency is expected to merge with other organization related to atomic energy, therefore, it is necessary to decide the way of research and development. This meeting organized by the Atomic Energy Commission makes this report to show the way of thinking about the above arguments. (Kako, I.)

  3. Capital structure in the global shipping industry

    Paun Cristian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The current economic crisis emerged from a particular financial crisis that started in the United States and being rapidly propagated all over the world. It did not affect a limited region or a limited economic sector. This crisis induced significant changes in all management areas, including financial management. This study is focused on financing strategies adopted by shipping companies during the crisis, analyzing relevant factors for a specific issue - the capital structure. The research methodology proposed for this analysis on relevant factors that could explain the capital structure of shipping is OLS regression applied on selected variables derived from the financial statements of the major shipping companies. The dependent variables reflecting capital structure are book value to total liabilities ratio and book value to total debt ratio. The explanatory variables are derived from the theory of capital structure. This study empirically illustrates the relevance of the capital structure theory for the studied economic sector and is a useful tool for the shipping companies, providing relevant information about the optimal capital structure adopted by shipping companies and about factors that influence this decision during a crisis period.

  4. Application of the Coasting Trade Act to offshore oil and gas operations

    De Jonge, B.B.

    2002-01-01

    The main features of the 1992 Coasting Trade Act are summarized. The main purpose of the Act is to protect Canadian ship owners and to ensure they have an opportunity to recover their investments in having Canadian built and crewed vessels. The Coasting Trade Act replaces provisions of the Canada Shipping Act which prohibited non-British ships from entering into Canadian domestic trade. The intention for the Coasting Trade Act is to reserve the coasting trade of Canada to Canadian-registered ships. However, when a Canadian ship is not available, a suitable foreign ship may be temporarily permitted to engage in the Canadian coasting trade as long as Canadian safety standards are met and duties are paid. The Canada Customs and Revenue Agency deals with licence applications while the Canadian Transportation Agency deals with unfair practices and enforcement. The provisions relating to the Coasting Trade License applications are examined along with how they are administered with particular reference to offshore oil and gas operations. The paper also presents recent decisions regarding application licences for Tycom (US) Inc., the Norwegian Polar Ship Management, and the Cyprus-registered seismic vessel, the Northern Access. It is noted that in evaluating the suitability and availability of a Canadian vessel for an activity proposed to be performed by a foreign vessel, the Canadian Transportation Agency examines the technical, financial and commercial elements brought by the parties

  5. A review of intensity modulated radiation therapy: incorporating a report on the seventh education workshop of the ACPSEM - ACT/NSW branch

    Williams, M.; Liverpool Health Service, NSW

    2002-01-01

    Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is an evolving treatment technique that has become a clinical treatment option in several radiotherapy centres around the world. In August 2001 the ACT/NSW branch of the ACPSEM held its seventh education workshop, the subject was IMRT. This review considers the current use of IMRT and reports on the proceedings of the workshop. The workshop provided some of the theory behind IMRT, discussion of the practical issues associated with IMRT, and also involved presentations from Australian centres that had clinically implemented IMRT. The main topics of discussion were patient selection, plan assessment, multi-disciplinary approach, quality assurance and delivery of IMRT. Key points that were emphasised were the need for a balanced multi-disciplinary approach to IMRT, in both the establishment and maintenance of an IMRT program; the importance of the accuracy of the final dose distribution as compared to the minor in-field fluctuations of individual beams; and that IMRT is an emerging treatment technique, undergoing continuing development and refinement. Copyright (2002) Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine

  6. Columbia River System Operation Review final environmental impact statement. Appendix S: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Coordination Act Report

    1995-11-01

    This document constitutes the report of the US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) relating to the proposed Columbia River System Operation Review (SOR). The SOR proposed alternative consists of a number of specific water management manipulations and new management targets for operating the network of existing Federal Columbia River Power System dams and facilities. This report, therefore, presents a broader, ecosystem planning and management approach for evaluating and resolving those operational and biological uncertainties. Potential mitigation, enhancement and restoration actions associated with the preferred alternative will require an adaptive implementation approach. At the present time and as further changes anticipated in SOR operations occur, the complete, ecosystemwide, synergistic effects of the operation of the current Federal Columbia River Power System cannot be adequately ascertained. However, the initial elements of ecosystem-based remedies are presented in Sections 4 and 5 of this report. These remedies are intended to stimulate action to help conserve distressed fish and wildlife populations, while furthering understanding of the impacts of the SOR preferred alternative on the ecosystem. This Coordination Act Report is the first attempt to integrate fish and wildlife mitigation, enhancement, recovery and restoration needs with the proposed action and the existing Federal Columbia River Power System

  7. 46 CFR 147.8 - OMB control numbers assigned pursuant to the Paperwork Reduction Act.

    2010-10-01

    ...) DANGEROUS CARGOES HAZARDOUS SHIPS' STORES General Provisions § 147.8 OMB control numbers assigned pursuant... Management and Budget (OMB) pursuant to the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1980 (44 U.S.C. 3501 et seq.). The...

  8. Ship information system: overview and research trends

    Sheng Liu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Ship Information Systems (SISs have been one of the main research focuses in ship design and become a multidisciplinary area. With these growing research trends, it is important to consolidate the latest knowledge and information to keep up with the research needs. In this paper, the SIS and its different forms are introduced and discussed. The beginning of this paper discusses the history and evolution of SIS. The next part of this paper focuses on different fields and research areas such as networking technology, information fusion, information decision, message display, ship control in real-time SISs. A Semi-Physical Simulation Platform (SPSIM designed for SIS research and its running effect through a new Fuzzy-PID fusion algorithm are introduced in this paper then. A brief literature survey and possible future direction concerning each topic is included.

  9. Standardized analyses of nuclear shipping containers

    Parks, C.V.; Hermann, O.W.; Petrie, L.M.; Hoffman, T.J.; Tang, J.S.; Landers, N.F.; Turner, W.D.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes improved capabilities for analyses of nuclear fuel shipping containers within SCALE -- a modular code system for Standardized Computer Analyses for Licensing Evaluation. Criticality analysis improvements include the new KENO V, a code which contains an enhanced geometry package and a new control module which uses KENO V and allows a criticality search on optimum pitch (maximum k-effective) to be performed. The SAS2 sequence is a new shielding analysis module which couples fuel burnup, source term generation, and radial cask shielding. The SAS5 shielding sequence allows a multidimensional Monte Carlo analysis of a shipping cask with code generated biasing of the particle histories. The thermal analysis sequence (HTAS1) provides an easy-to-use tool for evaluating a shipping cask response to the accident capability of the SCALE system to provide the cask designer or evaluator with a computational system that provides the automated procedures and easy-to-understand input that leads to standarization

  10. The Two Regimes of Postwar Shipping

    Iversen, Martin Jes; Tenold, Stig

    2014-01-01

    the bargaining that accompanied the shift from the national regime to the competitive regime. Specifically, we show that the new regime primarily accommodated the interests of private actors such as shipping companies, rather than the interests of the authorities and the trade unions.......The aim of this article is to illustrate the most important changes in the regulatory framework of the shipping sector from the 1960s to 2010, and to analyse the basis for, and effects of, these changes. In order to explain how the transformation has occurred, we use two traditional maritime...... nations—Denmark and Norway—as case studies. First, we introduce the two regimes of Danish and Norwegian shipping: ‘the national regime’ from the early 1960s to the mid-1970s; and ‘the competitive regime’, which was fully established by the middle of the 1990s and still persists. Then, we briefly sketch...

  11. Malaria infections in crews of Japanese ships.

    Shoda, M; Shimizu, K; Nagano, M; Ishii, M

    2001-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum malaria is the most dangerous infection for seafarers in West Africa. In December 1998, five cases of this infection occurred among Japanese seafarers in West Africa, two of them died, one on board ship, and another died five days after the admission to the hospital in Reunion island, East Africa. Six other cases of falciparum malaria infection occurred among Japanese seafarers on another ship in December 1999. Three infected persons were admitted to hospitals in Abidjan (Ivory Coast) and Point Noire (Congo). In Japan, over 100 cases of imported malaria were recorded each year during the period from 1990 to 1997, and about 40% of these cases were falciparum infections. It is not known how many of them occurred among seafarers. We estimate that at least 5% of all malaria cases in Japan are seafarers. Measures to protect crews of ships against malaria are discussed.

  12. Applicabilities of ship emission reduction methods

    Guleryuz, Adem [ARGEMAN Research Group, Marine Division (Turkey)], email: ademg@argeman.org; Kilic, Alper [Istanbul Technical University, Maritime Faculty, Marine Engineering Department (Turkey)], email: enviromarineacademic@yahoo.com

    2011-07-01

    Ships, with their high consumption of fossil fuels to power their engines, are significant air polluters. Emission reduction methods therefore need to be implemented and the aim of this paper is to assess the advantages and disadvantages of each emissions reduction method. Benefits of the different methods are compared, with their disadvantages and requirements, to determine the applicability of such solutions. The methods studied herein are direct water injection, humid air motor, sea water scrubbing, diesel particulate filter, selected catalytic reduction, design of engine components, exhaust gas recirculation and engine replacement. Results of the study showed that the usefulness of each emissions reduction method depends on the particular case and that an evaluation should be carried out for each ship. This study pointed out that methods to reduce ship emissions are available but that their applicability depends on each case.

  13. Hydromechanics of Wind-Assisted Ship Propulsion : Modeling of Hydrodynamic Sideforce

    van der Kolk, N.J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with the hydrodynamic sideforce production of a wind-assisted ship. The subject is introduced, both in physical terms, and with an overview of current and recent work. The importance of the hydrodynamic sideforce is established, before classical models are reviewed. Finally, the

  14. Field test of available methods to measure remotely SOx and NOx emissions from ships

    Balzani Lööv, J.M.; Alfoldy, B.; Gast, L.F.L.; Hjorth, J.; Lagler, F.; Mellqvist, J.; Beecken, J.; Berg, N.; Duyzer, J.; Westrate, H.; Swart, D.P.J.; Berkhout, A.J.C.; Jalkanen, J.P.; Prata, A.J.; Van Der Hoff, G.R.; Borowiak, A.

    2014-01-01

    Methods for the determination of ship fuel sulphur content and NOx emission factors based on remote measurements have been compared in the harbour of Rotterdam and compared to direct stack emission measurements on the ferry Stena Hollandica. The methods were selected based on a review of the

  15. 46 CFR 505.5 - Agency review.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Agency review. 505.5 Section 505.5 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION GENERAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS ADMINISTRATIVE OFFSET § 505.5 Agency review. (a... request to review a disputed debt must be submitted to the Commission official who provided notification...

  16. Analysis of Dynamic Inertia Forces at Main Bearing of Ship Reciprocating Engines

    F. Louhenapessy Louhenapessy,

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available During operation, a ship reciprocating engine will vibrate due to the force resulting from the cycle movement of the dynamic components. Soon or later, the vibration will cause wear of engine components. Therefore, the cause of vibration should be early identified so that the propagation of wear can be anticipated. The study modeled the ship reciprocating engine as a two stroke engine, and analyzed one of the causes of the engine vibration, i.e. the force acting on main bearing, using a numerical simulation. An experimental study was also carried out for measuring the acceleration of vibration response due to the numerical dynamic inertia force. The results showed that the dynamic inertia force acting on the main bearing is the main cause of the vibration of engine.

  17. Addendum to Technical Proposal: A Facility to Search for Hidden Particles (SHiP) at the CERN SPS

    SHiP Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    With the Technical Proposal submitted to the SPSC committee in April 2015, the SHiP collaboration declared its interest in proceeding towards a Comprehensive Design Study phase with the aim of preparing for the Technical Design Reports pending an approval by the CERN committees. Following the recommendation by the SPSC, it has been decided to complement the TP with this addendum that provides an update of the key aspects for the review of the SHiP project.

  18. Natural gas for ship propulsion in Denmark - Possibilities for using LNG and CNG on ferry and cargo routes

    Stuer-Lauridsen, F.; Nielsen, Jesper B. (LITEHAUZ, Copenhagen (Denmark)); Odgaard, T.; Birkeland, M. (IncentivePartners, Birkeroed (Denmark)); Winter Graugaard, C.; Blikom, L.P. (DNV, Copenhagen (Denmark)); Muro-Sun, N.; Andersen, Morten; OEvlisen, F. (Ramboell Oil and Gas, Esbjerg (Denmark))

    2010-07-01

    The project's main task was to review logistical, technical and economic feasibility for using Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) and Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) as fuel for ship propulsion and the supply of LNG or CNG to Danish ports from existing natural gas lines, trucks or by ship. The following key findings are related to the use of natural gas as fuel for ships in Denmark: Natural gas as propulsion fuel in ships: 1) Advantages: Provide solution to present air emission challenges 2) Barriers: Capital investments large 3) Synergies: Developments in Norway and Baltic Sea area 4) Economy: Positive case for operation for large consumers 5) Future: Develop bunkering options for short sea shipping LNG: 6) Propulsion technology in ships is mature and proven 7) Distribution network not yet developed for use in ships 8) Safety concerns are demanding but manageable 9) Can enter existing bunkering value chain CNG: 10) Well developed for land based transport, not yet for shipping 11) Distribution network for natural gas exists in Denmark 12) Safety concerns are demanding but manageable 13) No seaborne CNG value chains in operation An immediate focus on the ferry sector in Denmark will reap benefits on a relatively short time scale. For the short sea shipping sector away to promote the conversion to natural gas is to support the development of storage and bunkering facilities in main ports. Given the general expectations in the shipping community LNG will presumably be the de facto choice at least for the 5-10 years ahead and the demand for facilities and bunkers will be for LNG. (LN)

  19. Global Loads on FRP Ship Hulls

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1997-01-01

    Fibre reinforced plastic (FRP) composites used for high-speed vessels have lower modulus of elasticity than the conventionally used steels.Therefore, for large fast ships the lowest natural frequencies of the global hull modes can be relatively low compared to the frequency of waveencounter....... As part of the NoKoS project it was decided to investigate the effect of hull flexibility on the wave-induced as well as accidental structural loads on high-speed ships.Especially it was decided to determine whether there is an upper size of FRP and aluminium mono-hulls caused by continuous wave action...

  20. Network Design Models for Container Shipping

    Reinhardt, Line Blander; Kallehauge, Brian; Nielsen, Anders Nørrelund

    This paper presents a study of the network design problem in container shipping. The paper combines the network design and fleet assignment problem into a mixed integer linear programming model minimizing the overall cost. The major contributions of this paper is that the time of a vessel route...... is included in the calculation of the capacity and that a inhomogeneous fleet is modeled. The model also includes the cost of transshipment which is one of the major cost for the shipping companies. The concept of pseudo simple routes is introduced to expand the set of feasible routes. The linearization...

  1. Code of safety for nuclear merchant ships

    1982-01-01

    The Code is in chapters, entitled: general (including general safety principles and principles of risk acceptance); design criteria and conditions; ship design, construction and equipment; nuclear steam supply system; machinery and electrical installations; radiation safety (including radiological protection design; protection of persons; dosimetry; radioactive waste management); operation (including emergency operation procedures); surveys. Appendices cover: sinking velocity calculations; seaway loads depending on service periods; safety assessment; limiting dose-equivalent rates for different areas and spaces; quality assurance programme; application of single failure criterion. Initial application of the Code is restricted to conventional types of ships propelled by nuclear propulsion plants with pressurized light water type reactors. (U.K.)

  2. Absorbed Energy in Ship Collisions and Grounding

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Zhang, Shengming

    1998-01-01

    is that the absorbed energy does not depend on the arrangement of the structure, the material properties, and the damage mode.The purpose of the present paper is to establish a new simple relation between the absorbed energy and the destroyed material volume, which can be used as a design tool for analysis of ship...... collisions and grounding. The developed expressions reflect the structural arrangement, the material properties and different damage patterns.The present method is validated against a large number of existing experimental results and detailed numerical simulation results. Applications to full-sale ship...

  3. Transport impacts on atmosphere and climate: Shipping

    Eyring, Veronika; Isaksen, Ivar S. A.; Berntsen, Terje; Collins, William J.; Corbett, James J.; Endresen, Oyvind; Grainger, Roy G.; Moldanova, Jana; Schlager, Hans; Stevenson, David S.

    2010-12-01

    Emissions of exhaust gases and particles from oceangoing ships are a significant and growing contributor to the total emissions from the transportation sector. We present an assessment of the contribution of gaseous and particulate emissions from oceangoing shipping to anthropogenic emissions and air quality. We also assess the degradation in human health and climate change created by these emissions. Regulating ship emissions requires comprehensive knowledge of current fuel consumption and emissions, understanding of their impact on atmospheric composition and climate, and projections of potential future evolutions and mitigation options. Nearly 70% of ship emissions occur within 400 km of coastlines, causing air quality problems through the formation of ground-level ozone, sulphur emissions and particulate matter in coastal areas and harbours with heavy traffic. Furthermore, ozone and aerosol precursor emissions as well as their derivative species from ships may be transported in the atmosphere over several hundreds of kilometres, and thus contribute to air quality problems further inland, even though they are emitted at sea. In addition, ship emissions impact climate. Recent studies indicate that the cooling due to altered clouds far outweighs the warming effects from greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide (CO 2) or ozone from shipping, overall causing a negative present-day radiative forcing (RF). Current efforts to reduce sulphur and other pollutants from shipping may modify this. However, given the short residence time of sulphate compared to CO 2, the climate response from sulphate is of the order decades while that of CO 2 is centuries. The climatic trade-off between positive and negative radiative forcing is still a topic of scientific research, but from what is currently known, a simple cancellation of global mean forcing components is potentially inappropriate and a more comprehensive assessment metric is required. The CO 2 equivalent emissions using

  4. Superconducting DC homopolar motors for ship propulsion

    Heiberger, M.; Reed, M.R.; Creedon, W.P.; O' Hea, B.J. [General Atomic (United States)

    2000-07-01

    Superconducting DC homopolar motors have undergone recent advances in technology, warranting serious consideration of their use for ship propulsion. Homopolar motor propulsion is now practical because of two key technology developments: cryogen-free superconducting refrigeration and high performance motor fiber brushes. These compact motors are ideal for podded applications, where reduced drag and fuel consumption are predicted. In addition, the simple DC motor controller is more efficient and reliable compared with AC motor controllers. Military ships also benefit from increased stealth implicit in homopolar DC excitation, which also allows the option for direct hull or pod mounting. (authors)

  5. Probabilistic Damage Stability Calculations for Ships

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    1996-01-01

    The aim of these notes is to provide background material for the present probabilistic damage stability rules fro dry cargo ships.The formulas for the damage statistics are derived and shortcomings as well as possible improvements are discussed. The advantage of the definiton of fictitious...... compartments in the formulation of a computer-based general procedure for probabilistic damaged stability assessment is shown. Some comments are given on the current state of knowledge on the ship survivability in damaged conditions. Finally, problems regarding proper account of water ingress through openings...

  6. Load and Global Response of Ships

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    The present monograph covers wave load and global structural response for ships. It is primary written as a textbook for students with an introductionary background in naval architecture and a basic knowledge of statistics and strength of materials. The subjects are treated in details starting from...... first principles. The aim has been to derive and present the necessary theoretical framework for predicting the extreme loads and the corresponding hull girder stresses the ship may be subjected to during its operational lifetime.Although some account is given to reliabiity analysis, the present...

  7. Nuclear shipping and waste disposal cost estimates

    Hudson, C.R. II.

    1977-11-01

    Cost estimates for the shipping of spent fuel from the reactor, shipping of waste from the reprocessing plant, and disposal of reprocessing plant wastes have been made for five reactor types. The reactors considered are the light-water reactor (LWR), the mixed-oxide-fueled light-water reactor (MOX), the Canadian deuterium-uranium reactor (CANDU), the fast breeder reactor (FBR), and the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR). In addition to the cost estimates, this report provides details on the bases and assumptions used to develop the cost estimates

  8. Time constrained liner shipping network design

    Karsten, Christian Vad; Brouer, Berit Dangaard; Desaulniers, Guy

    2017-01-01

    We present a mathematical model and a solution method for the liner shipping network design problem. The model takes into account coordination between vessels and transit time restrictions on the cargo flow. The solution method is an improvement heuristic, where an integer program is solved...... iteratively to perform moves in a large neighborhood search. Our improvement heuristic is applicable as a real-time decision support tool for a liner shipping company. It can be used to find improvements to the network when evaluating changes in operating conditions or testing different scenarios...

  9. A numerical study on ship-ship interaction in shallow and restricted waterway

    Sungwook Lee

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, a numerical prediction method on the hydrodynamic interaction force and moment between two ships in shallow and restricted waterway is presented. Especially, the present study proposes a methodology to overcome the limitation of the two dimensional perturbation method which is related to the moored-passing ship interaction. The validation study was performed and compared with the experiment, firstly. Afterward, in order to propose a methodology in terms with the moored-passing ship interaction, further studies were performed for the moored-passing ship case with a Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS calculation which is using OpenFOAM with Arbitrary Coupled Mesh Interface (ACMI technique and compared with the experiment result. Finally, the present study proposes a guide to apply the two dimensional perturbation method to the moored-passing ship interaction. In addition, it presents a possibility that the RANS calculation with ACMI can applied to the ship-ship interaction without using a overset moving grid technique.

  10. Achieving Energy Efficient Ship Operations Under Third Party Management

    Taudal Poulsen, René; Sornn-Friese, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Profitable energy saving measures are often not fully implemented in shipping, causing energy efficiency gaps. The paper identifies energy efficiency gaps in ship operations, and explores their causes. Lack of information on energy efficiency, lack of energy training at sea and onshore and lack...... of time to produce and provide reliable energy efficiency information cause energy efficiency gaps. The paper brings together the energy efficiency and ship management literatures, demonstrating how ship management models influence energy efficiency in ship operations. Achieving energy efficiency in ship...

  11. Prototypic fabrication of TRIGA irradiated fuel shipping casks

    Kim, B.K.; Lee, Y.W.; Whang, C.K.; Lee, J.B.

    1980-01-01

    This is the safety analysis report on the prototypic fabrication of ''TRIGA Irradiated Fuel Shipping Cask'' conducted by KAERI in 1980. The results of the evaluation show that the shipping cask is in compliance with the applicable regulation for the normal conditions of transport as well as hypothetical accident conditions. The prototypic fabrication of the shipping cask (type B) was carried out for the first time in Korea after getting technical experience from fabrication of the ''TRIGA Spent Fuel Shipping Cask'' and ''the KO-RI Unit 1 surveillance capsule shipping cask'' in 1979. This report contains structural evaluation, thermal evaluation, shielding, criticality, quality assurance, and handling procedures of the shipping cask

  12. Challenges to Ship Hydrodynamics in the XXI Century

    Lech Kobylinski

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The beginning of twenty-first century is characterized with important changes in world shipping and exploitation of ocean resources. Three important trends are clearly visible: environment protection, safety and economy. They materialize in important changes in the structure of world fleet where some existing ship types are going to disappear and new ship types emerge. Increasing the size of some ship types is another visible tendency. Stress on environment protection has serious impact on the hydrodynamic characteristics of ships whether with regard to safety zero accident rate is the goal. Important challenges to ship hydrodynamics caused by those tendencies are discussed in the paper.

  13. 33 CFR 20.1303 - Authentication and certification of extracts from shipping articles, logbooks, and the like.

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Authentication and certification... Suspension and Revocation Hearings § 20.1303 Authentication and certification of extracts from shipping...) Authentication and certification must include a statement that the person acting has seen the original, compared...

  14. Surveillance study of vector species on board passenger ships, Risk factors related to infestations

    Hatzoglou Chrissi

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Passenger ships provide conditions suitable for the survival and growth of pest populations. Arthropods and rodents can gain access directly from the ships' open spaces, can be carried in shiploads, or can be found on humans or animals as ectoparasites. Vectors on board ships may contaminate stored foods, transmit illness on board, or, introduce diseases in new areas. Pest species, ship areas facilitating infestations, and different risk factors related to infestations were identified in 21 ferries. Methods 486 traps for insects and rodents were placed in 21 ferries. Archives of Public Health Authorities were reviewed to identify complaints regarding the presence of pest species on board ferries from 1994 to 2004. A detail questionnaire was used to collect data on ship characteristics and pest control practices. Results Eighteen ferries were infested with flies (85.7%, 11 with cockroaches (52.3%, three with bedbugs, and one with fleas. Other species had been found on board were ants, spiders, butterflies, beetles, and a lizard. A total of 431 Blattella germanica species were captured in 28 (9.96% traps, and 84.2% of them were nymphs. One ship was highly infested. Cockroach infestation was negatively associated with ferries in which Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point system was applied to ensure food safety on board (Relative Risk, RR = 0.23, p = 0.03, and positively associated with ferries in which cockroaches were observed by crew (RR = 4.09, p = 0.007, no cockroach monitoring log was kept (RR = 5.00, p = 0.02, and pesticide sprays for domestic use were applied by crew (RR = 4.00, p = 0.05. Cockroach infested ships had higher age (p = 0.03. Neither rats nor mice were found on any ship, but three ferries had been infested with a rodent in the past. Conclusion Integrated pest control programs should include continuing monitoring for a variety of pest species in different ship locations; pest control measures should be more

  15. Water Safety Plan on cruise ships: A promising tool to prevent waterborne diseases

    Mouchtouri, Varvara A., E-mail: mouchtourib@med.uth.gr [Department of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Thessaly, Larissa (Greece); Bartlett, Christopher L.R. [University College London, Centre for Infectious Disease Epidemiology Department of Primary Care and Population Sciences Royal Free and University College Medical School, London (United Kingdom); Diskin, Arthur [Royal Caribbean Cruise Line, Miami (United States); Hadjichristodoulou, Christos [Department of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Thessaly, Larissa (Greece)

    2012-07-01

    Background: Legionella spp. and other waterborne pathogens have been isolated from various water systems on land based premises as well as on ships and cases of Legionnaires' disease have been associated with both sites. Peculiarities of cruise ships water systems make the risk management a challenging process. The World Health Organization suggests a Water Safety Plan (WSP) as the best approach to mitigate risks and hazards such as Legionella spp. and others. Objectives: To develop WSP on a cruise ship and discuss challenges, perspectives and key issues to success. Methods: Hazards and hazardous events were identified and risk assessment was conducted of the ship water system. Ship company management, policies and procedures were reviewed, site visits were conducted, findings and observations were recorded and discussed with engineers and key crew members were interviewed. Results: A total of 53 hazards and hazardous events were taken into consideration for the risk assessment and additional essential barriers were established when needed. Most of them concerned control measures for biofilm development and Legionella spp. contamination. A total of 29 operational limits were defined. Supplementary verification and supportive programs were established. Conclusions: Application of the WSP to ship water systems, including potable water, recreational water facilities and decorative water features and fountains, is expected to improve water management on ships. The success of a WSP depends on support from senior management, commitment of the Captain and crew members, correct execution of all steps of a risk assessment and practicality and applicability in routine operation. The WSP provides to shipping industry a new approach and a move toward evidence based water safety policy. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We conducted risk assessment and developed a Water Safety Plan on a cruise ship. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 53 hazards and hazardous events were

  16. Water Safety Plan on cruise ships: A promising tool to prevent waterborne diseases

    Mouchtouri, Varvara A.; Bartlett, Christopher L.R.; Diskin, Arthur; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2012-01-01

    Background: Legionella spp. and other waterborne pathogens have been isolated from various water systems on land based premises as well as on ships and cases of Legionnaires' disease have been associated with both sites. Peculiarities of cruise ships water systems make the risk management a challenging process. The World Health Organization suggests a Water Safety Plan (WSP) as the best approach to mitigate risks and hazards such as Legionella spp. and others. Objectives: To develop WSP on a cruise ship and discuss challenges, perspectives and key issues to success. Methods: Hazards and hazardous events were identified and risk assessment was conducted of the ship water system. Ship company management, policies and procedures were reviewed, site visits were conducted, findings and observations were recorded and discussed with engineers and key crew members were interviewed. Results: A total of 53 hazards and hazardous events were taken into consideration for the risk assessment and additional essential barriers were established when needed. Most of them concerned control measures for biofilm development and Legionella spp. contamination. A total of 29 operational limits were defined. Supplementary verification and supportive programs were established. Conclusions: Application of the WSP to ship water systems, including potable water, recreational water facilities and decorative water features and fountains, is expected to improve water management on ships. The success of a WSP depends on support from senior management, commitment of the Captain and crew members, correct execution of all steps of a risk assessment and practicality and applicability in routine operation. The WSP provides to shipping industry a new approach and a move toward evidence based water safety policy. - Highlights: ► We conducted risk assessment and developed a Water Safety Plan on a cruise ship. ► 53 hazards and hazardous events were taken into consideration for the risk assessment.

  17. Carrier portfolio management for shipping seasonal products

    Lu, T.; Fransoo, J.C.; Lee, C.-Y.

    2017-01-01

    Many seasonal products are transported via ocean carriers from origin to destination markets. The shipments arriving earlier in the market may sell at higher prices, but faster shipping services can be costly. In this paper, we study a newsvendor-type shipper who transports and sells seasonal

  18. Exergy Analysis of Complex Ship Energy Systems

    Pierre Marty

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available With multiple primary and secondary energy converters (diesel engines, steam turbines, waste heat recovery (WHR and oil-fired boilers, etc. and extensive energy networks (steam, cooling water, exhaust gases, etc., ships may be considered as complex energy systems. Understanding and optimizing such systems requires advanced holistic energy modeling. This modeling can be done in two ways: The simpler approach focuses on energy flows, and has already been tested, approved and presented; a new, more complicated approach, focusing on energy quality, i.e., exergy, is presented in this paper. Exergy analysis has rarely been applied to ships, and, as a general rule, the shipping industry is not familiar with this tool. This paper tries to fill this gap. We start by giving a short reminder of what exergy is and describe the principles of exergy modeling to explain what kind of results should be expected from such an analysis. We then apply these principles to the analysis of a large two-stroke diesel engine with its cooling and exhaust systems. Simulation results are then presented along with the exergy analysis. Finally, we propose solutions for energy and exergy saving which could be applied to marine engines and ships in general.

  19. Statistical modelling for ship propulsion efficiency

    Petersen, Jóan Petur; Jacobsen, Daniel J.; Winther, Ole

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a state-of-the-art systems approach to statistical modelling of fuel efficiency in ship propulsion, and also a novel and publicly available data set of high quality sensory data. Two statistical model approaches are investigated and compared: artificial neural networks...

  20. Flooding and sinking of nuclear merchant ships

    Lettnin, H.K.J.; Wehowsky, P.

    1978-01-01

    In contrast to land-based power plants for ship reactors the marine environment brings up the peril of sinking. But this peril is low for nuclear ships with its high safety standard. An evaluation of casualties from 1964 - 1974 for ships>8000 GRT allows to estimate a very low sink probability for nuclear ships in the range of 10 -7 to 10 -8 p.a. In spite of this low probability a sinking cannot be excluded absolutely. Therefore passive means must be provided for sinking in deep waters: to maintain the integrity of at least one enclosure as activity barrier; to supply seawater into the safety containment for decay heat removal. For sinking in shallow waters and flooding at least one of the redundant decay heat removal systems including power supply stays operable. A mathematical tool is available for the design of flood openings of sufficient cross sections to flood the containment and to reach a pressure balance in case of postulated sinking in deep waters of any depth