WorldWideScience

Sample records for shinarump conglomerate monument

  1. Shinarump Channel Polygons, North Central AUM Region, 1964, USDOE

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This is a polygon shapefile that provides Shinarump channels compiled and mapped by Young and Malan (1964) in the Monument Valley District, San Juan County, Utah,...

  2. UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Monument Valley, Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    The Monument Valley Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site in Cane Valley is a former uranium mill that has undergone surface remediation in the form of tailings and contaminated materials removal. Contaminated materials from the Monument Valley (Arizona) UMTRA Project site have been transported to the Mexican Hat (Utah) UMTRA Project site for consolidation with the Mexican Hat tailings. Tailings removal was completed in February 1994. Three geologic units at the site contain water: the unconsolidated eolian and alluvial deposits (alluvial aquifer), the Shinarump Conglomerate (Shinarump Member), and the De Chelly Sandstone. Water quality analyses indicate the contaminant plume has migrated north of the site and is mainly in the alluvial aquifer. An upward hydraulic gradient in the De Chelly Sandstone provides some protection to that aquifer. This water sampling and analysis plan recommends sampling domestic wells, monitor wells, and surface water in April and September 1994. The purpose of sampling is to continue periodic monitoring for the surface program, evaluate changes to water quality for site characterization, and provide data for the baseline risk assessment. Samples taken in April will be representative of high ground water levels and samples taken in September will be representative of low ground water levels. Filtered and nonfiltered samples will be analyzed for plume indicator parameters and baseline risk assessment parameters

  3. Conglomerates of Stopnik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jože Čar

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available In the area between Stopnik, [ebrelje and Pick of [ebrelje the Ladinian clastic, carbonate and volcanogenic rocks, in the thickness of more then 600 m, are very diversely developed. They are situated on diferent structural blocks bounded by the middle Triassicfaults and overlay partly eroded Anisian dolomite in the footwall. Variegated volcanogenic sedimentary rocks with conglomerate lenses comprising the middle part of the Ladinian succession in the broader sorounding of Stopnik are very important for paleogeographicinterpretation of the area. Ten conglomerate lenses were separated in the middle of volcanoclastic and volcanogenic rocks on the [ebrelje structural block. Cross sections of the conglomerate lenses are some 10 m to 550 m long and 15 to 60 m thick. Their axes arearranged in the direction NW-SE. In the lower and upper part of the lithological succession in the lenses prevail conglomerates with more ordered internal structure, denser packing of pebbles and more distinct bedding but in the middle part of the succession in lensesprevail sandy conglomerates and pebbly sandstones with less ordered internal structure, less denser packing of pebbles and less distinct bedding. The pebbles consist of diferent types of limestone, dolomite, volcanic rocks, tuffs, tuffaceous sandstone and conglomerate.They represent prevailing resedimented lower Ladinian rocks. The described sedimentary rocks are interpreted as a product of alluvial fan and fan delta sedimentary complexes, which were transgressively covered by tuffaceous muddy marine sediments passing intothe Cordevolian dolomite.

  4. The underinvestment problem under conglomeration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques A. Schnabel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This theoretical paper explores whether the underinvestment problem is aggravated or ameliorated by the formation of a pure conglomerate. It establishes that the answer depends critically on the volatility of corporate assets. If volatility is low, conglomeration ameliorates the underinvestment problem, whereas if volatility is high, conglomeration aggravates the underinvestment problem. These analytical results are then invoked as a potential explanation for the ambiguous conclusions of empirical studies that delve into the existence of a conglomerate discount.

  5. Conglomerate memory and cosmopolitanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susannah Ryan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Under what conditions do countries and cultures considered radically different find a basis for allegiance and kinship? What part does memory play in this process? This article responds to these questions in two ways: 1 Through Emmanuel Levinas and Hannah Arendt, I propose that when an other appears in empathetic discourses that both honor difference and cite shared human experiences, seemingly irreconcilable people can develop a sense of mutual responsibility and 2 Conglomerate memory, memories that fuse together others through common pains, contributes to such an appearance. To illustrate this point, I turn to Congolese voices as they are articulated in online American discourses; although currently, authors of online texts typically rely on traditional narrative forms that position Central Africa as incommensurate to Western civilizations, the Internet's worldwide accessibility and intertextual capacities render it a place primed for developing international collectives by connecting memories while maintaining difference.

  6. CONGLOMERATE ROCKS "BRECCIA VERDE ANTICA" ARCHAEOLOGY, PETROLOGY, DETERIORATION AND TECHNOLOGY OF QUARRYING AT HAMMAMAT QUARRIES IN THE EASTEREN DESERT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    dr.HESHAM ABBAS KMALLY

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most interesting of the monumental rocks of Egypt is the green conglomerates of the Hammamat valley which was used for bowls, vessels, sarcophagus and other objects, from a very early period. The quarries of wadi Hammamat produced the green ornamental stone known in Roman period as "Breccia verde antica". Generally the ancient conglomerate was used occasionally in Egypt at pharaonic time and late period, but it was quarried chiefly by the Roman for export to Italy. The conglomerate rocks range from coarse to fine conglomerates. They are composed of great assortment of rock fragments such as meta-sediments, meta-volcanic and granites. Some pebbles of the coarse conglomerates are previously deposited conglomerates. Pollution, humidity or moisture, solar radiation, rainfall and groundwater represent important factors for disintegration of green conglomerate rocks. Many types of destruction have been noted such as micro-cracks, fractures, joints, exfoliation, crumbling, discoloration, leaching and staining with iron oxides. The conglomerate rock sometimes changes into fragmented, soft residual and parent matter of the soil. Moreover, individual grains of feldspar and quartz begin to become loosened and the rock shows superficial granular disintegration due to, growth of salts and physiochemical weathering

  7. Market discipline and incentive problems in conglomerate banks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, A.W.A.; Schmeits, A.

    1998-01-01

    This paper analyzes the optimal conglomeration of bank activities. Weshow that the effectiveness of market discipline forstand-alone activities (divisions) is of crucial importance for thepotential benefits of conglomeration. We find thateffective market discipline reduces the potential benefits

  8. Martian Fluvial Conglomerates at Gale Crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, R. M. E.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Dietrich, W. E.; Gupta, S.; Sumner, D. Y.; Wiens, R. C.; Mangold, N.; Malin, M. C.; Edgett, K. S.; Maurice, S.; Forni, O.; Gasnault, O.; Ollila, A.; Newsom, H. E.; Dromart, G.; Palucis, M. C.; Yingst, R. A.; Anderson, R. B.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Le Mouélic, S.; Goetz, W.; Madsen, M. B.; Koefoed, A.; Jensen, J. K.; Bridges, J. C.; Schwenzer, S. P.; Lewis, K. W.; Stack, K. M.; Rubin, D.; Kah, L. C.; Bell, J. F.; Farmer, J. D.; Sullivan, R.; Van Beek, T.; Blaney, D. L.; Pariser, O.; Deen, R. G.; Kemppinen, Osku; Bridges, Nathan; Johnson, Jeffrey R.; Minitti, Michelle; Cremers, David; Edgar, Lauren; Godber, Austin; Wadhwa, Meenakshi; Wellington, Danika; McEwan, Ian; Newman, Claire; Richardson, Mark; Charpentier, Antoine; Peret, Laurent; King, Penelope; Blank, Jennifer; Weigle, Gerald; Schmidt, Mariek; Li, Shuai; Milliken, Ralph; Robertson, Kevin; Sun, Vivian; Baker, Michael; Edwards, Christopher; Ehlmann, Bethany; Farley, Kenneth; Griffes, Jennifer; Miller, Hayden; Newcombe, Megan; Pilorget, Cedric; Rice, Melissa; Siebach, Kirsten; Stolper, Edward; Brunet, Claude; Hipkin, Victoria; Léveillé, Richard; Marchand, Geneviève; Sobrón Sánchez, Pablo; Favot, Laurent; Cody, George; Steele, Andrew; Flückiger, Lorenzo; Lees, David; Nefian, Ara; Martin, Mildred; Gailhanou, Marc; Westall, Frances; Israël, Guy; Agard, Christophe; Baroukh, Julien; Donny, Christophe; Gaboriaud, Alain; Guillemot, Philippe; Lafaille, Vivian; Lorigny, Eric; Paillet, Alexis; Pérez, René; Saccoccio, Muriel; Yana, Charles; Aparicio, Carlos Armiens; Caride Rodríguez, Javier; Carrasco Blázquez, Isaías; Gómez Gómez, Felipe; Elvira, Javier Gómez; Hettrich, Sebastian; Lepinette Malvitte, Alain; Marín Jiménez, Mercedes; Frías, Jesús Martínez; Soler, Javier Martín; Torres, F. Javier Martín; Molina Jurado, Antonio; Sotomayor, Luis Mora; Muñoz Caro, Guillermo; Navarro López, Sara; González, Verónica Peinado; García, Jorge Pla; Rodriguez Manfredi, José Antonio; Planelló, Julio José Romeral; Alejandra Sans Fuentes, Sara; Sebastian Martinez, Eduardo; Torres Redondo, Josefina; O'Callaghan, Roser Urqui; Zorzano Mier, María-Paz; Chipera, Steve; Lacour, Jean-Luc; Mauchien, Patrick; Sirven, Jean-Baptiste; Manning, Heidi; Fairén, Alberto; Hayes, Alexander; Joseph, Jonathan; Squyres, Steven; Thomas, Peter; Dupont, Audrey; Lundberg, Angela; Melikechi, Noureddine; Mezzacappa, Alissa; DeMarines, Julia; Grinspoon, David; Reitz, Günther; Prats, Benito; Atlaskin, Evgeny; Genzer, Maria; Harri, Ari-Matti; Haukka, Harri; Kahanpää, Henrik; Kauhanen, Janne; Paton, Mark; Polkko, Jouni; Schmidt, Walter; Siili, Tero; Fabre, Cécile; Wray, James; Wilhelm, Mary Beth; Poitrasson, Franck; Patel, Kiran; Gorevan, Stephen; Indyk, Stephen; Paulsen, Gale; Bish, David; Schieber, Juergen; Gondet, Brigitte; Langevin, Yves; Geffroy, Claude; Baratoux, David; Berger, Gilles; Cros, Alain; Uston, Claude d.; Lasue, Jérémie; Lee, Qiu-Mei; Meslin, Pierre-Yves; Pallier, Etienne; Parot, Yann; Pinet, Patrick; Schröder, Susanne; Toplis, Mike; Lewin, Éric; Brunner, Will; Heydari, Ezat; Achilles, Cherie; Oehler, Dorothy; Sutter, Brad; Cabane, Michel; Coscia, David; Szopa, Cyril; Robert, François; Sautter, Violaine; Nachon, Marion; Buch, Arnaud; Stalport, Fabien; Coll, Patrice; François, Pascaline; Raulin, François; Teinturier, Samuel; Cameron, James; Clegg, Sam; Cousin, Agnès; DeLapp, Dorothea; Dingler, Robert; Jackson, Ryan Steele; Johnstone, Stephen; Lanza, Nina; Little, Cynthia; Nelson, Tony; Williams, Richard B.; Jones, Andrea; Kirkland, Laurel; Treiman, Allan; Baker, Burt; Cantor, Bruce; Caplinger, Michael; Davis, Scott; Duston, Brian; Fay, Donald; Hardgrove, Craig; Harker, David; Herrera, Paul; Jensen, Elsa; Kennedy, Megan R.; Krezoski, Gillian; Krysak, Daniel; Lipkaman, Leslie; McCartney, Elaina; McNair, Sean; Nixon, Brian; Posiolova, Liliya; Ravine, Michael; Salamon, Andrew; Saper, Lee; Stoiber, Kevin; Supulver, Kimberley; Van Beek, Jason; Zimdar, Robert; French, Katherine Louise; Iagnemma, Karl; Miller, Kristen; Summons, Roger; Goesmann, Fred; Hviid, Stubbe; Johnson, Micah; Lefavor, Matthew; Lyness, Eric; Breves, Elly; Dyar, M. Darby; Fassett, Caleb; Blake, David F.; Bristow, Thomas; DesMarais, David; Edwards, Laurence; Haberle, Robert; Hoehler, Tori; Hollingsworth, Jeff; Kahre, Melinda; Keely, Leslie; McKay, Christopher; Bleacher, Lora; Brinckerhoff, William; Choi, David; Conrad, Pamela; Dworkin, Jason P.; Eigenbrode, Jennifer; Floyd, Melissa; Freissinet, Caroline; Garvin, James; Glavin, Daniel; Harpold, Daniel; Mahaffy, Paul; Martin, David K.; McAdam, Amy; Pavlov, Alexander; Raaen, Eric; Smith, Michael D.; Stern, Jennifer; Tan, Florence; Trainer, Melissa; Meyer, Michael; Posner, Arik; Voytek, Mary; Anderson, Robert C.; Aubrey, Andrew; Beegle, Luther W.; Behar, Alberto; Brinza, David; Calef, Fred; Christensen, Lance; Crisp, Joy A.; DeFlores, Lauren; Feldman, Jason; Feldman, Sabrina; Flesch, Gregory; Hurowitz, Joel; Jun, Insoo; Keymeulen, Didier; Maki, Justin; Mischna, Michael; Morookian, John Michael; Parker, Timothy; Pavri, Betina; Schoppers, Marcel; Sengstacken, Aaron; Simmonds, John J.; Spanovich, Nicole; de la Torre Juarez, Manuel; Vasavada, Ashwin R.; Webster, Christopher R.; Yen, Albert; Archer, Paul Douglas; Cucinotta, Francis; Jones, John H.; Ming, Douglas; Morris, Richard V.; Niles, Paul; Rampe, Elizabeth; Nolan, Thomas; Fisk, Martin; Radziemski, Leon; Barraclough, Bruce; Bender, Steve; Berman, Daniel; Dobrea, Eldar Noe; Tokar, Robert; Vaniman, David; Leshin, Laurie; Cleghorn, Timothy; Huntress, Wesley; Manhès, Gérard; Hudgins, Judy; Olson, Timothy; Stewart, Noel; Sarrazin, Philippe; Grant, John; Vicenzi, Edward; Wilson, Sharon A.; Bullock, Mark; Ehresmann, Bent; Hamilton, Victoria; Hassler, Donald; Peterson, Joseph; Rafkin, Scot; Zeitlin, Cary; Fedosov, Fedor; Golovin, Dmitry; Karpushkina, Natalya; Kozyrev, Alexander; Litvak, Maxim; Malakhov, Alexey; Mitrofanov, Igor; Mokrousov, Maxim; Nikiforov, Sergey; Prokhorov, Vasily; Sanin, Anton; Tretyakov, Vladislav; Varenikov, Alexey; Vostrukhin, Andrey; Kuzmin, Ruslan; Clark, Benton; Wolff, Michael; McLennan, Scott; Botta, Oliver; Drake, Darrell; Bean, Keri; Lemmon, Mark; Lee, Ella Mae; Sucharski, Robert; Hernández, Miguel Ángel de Pablo; Blanco Ávalos, Juan José; Ramos, Miguel; Kim, Myung-Hee; Malespin, Charles; Plante, Ianik; Muller, Jan-Peter; González, Rafael Navarro; Ewing, Ryan; Boynton, William; Downs, Robert; Fitzgibbon, Mike; Harshman, Karl; Morrison, Shaunna; Kortmann, Onno; Williams, Amy; Lugmair, Günter; Wilson, Michael A.; Jakosky, Bruce; Zunic, Tonci Balic; Frydenvang, Jens; Kinch, Kjartan; Stipp, Susan Louise Svane; Boyd, Nick; Campbell, John L.; Gellert, Ralf; Perrett, Glynis; Pradler, Irina; VanBommel, Scott; Jacob, Samantha; Owen, Tobias; Rowland, Scott; Savijärvi, Hannu; Boehm, Eckart; Böttcher, Stephan; Burmeister, Sönke; Guo, Jingnan; Köhler, Jan; García, César Martín; Mellin, Reinhold Mueller; Schweingruber, Robert Wimmer; McConnochie, Timothy; Benna, Mehdi; Franz, Heather; Bower, Hannah; Brunner, Anna; Blau, Hannah; Boucher, Thomas; Carmosino, Marco; Atreya, Sushil; Elliott, Harvey; Halleaux, Douglas; Rennó, Nilton; Wong, Michael; Pepin, Robert; Elliott, Beverley; Spray, John; Thompson, Lucy; Gordon, Suzanne; Williams, Joshua; Vasconcelos, Paulo; Bentz, Jennifer; Nealson, Kenneth; Popa, Radu; Moersch, Jeffrey; Tate, Christopher; Day, Mackenzie; Kocurek, Gary; Hallet, Bernard; Sletten, Ronald; Francis, Raymond; McCullough, Emily; Cloutis, Ed; ten Kate, Inge Loes; Arvidson, Raymond; Fraeman, Abigail; Scholes, Daniel; Slavney, Susan; Stein, Thomas; Ward, Jennifer; Berger, Jeffrey; Moores, John E.

    2013-05-01

    Observations by the Mars Science Laboratory Mast Camera (Mastcam) in Gale crater reveal isolated outcrops of cemented pebbles (2 to 40 millimeters in diameter) and sand grains with textures typical of fluvial sedimentary conglomerates. Rounded pebbles in the conglomerates indicate substantial fluvial abrasion. ChemCam emission spectra at one outcrop show a predominantly feldspathic composition, consistent with minimal aqueous alteration of sediments. Sediment was mobilized in ancient water flows that likely exceeded the threshold conditions (depth 0.03 to 0.9 meter, average velocity 0.20 to 0.75 meter per second) required to transport the pebbles. Climate conditions at the time sediment was transported must have differed substantially from the cold, hyper-arid modern environment to permit aqueous flows across several kilometers.

  9. Uranium assessment for the Precambrian pebble conglomerates in southeastern Wyoming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borgman, L.E.; Sever, C.; Quimby, W.F.; Andrew, M.E.; Karlstrom, K.E.; Houston, R.S.

    1981-03-01

    This volume is a geostatistical resource estimate of uranium and thorium in quartz-pebble conglomerates, and is a companion to Volume 1: The Geology and Uranium Potential to Precambrian Conglomerates in the Medicine Bow Mountains and Sierra Madre of Southeastern Wyoming; and to Volume 2: Drill-Hole Data, Drill-Site Geology, and Geochemical Data from the Study of Precambrian Uraniferous Conglomerates of the Medicine Bow Mountains and the Sierra Madre of Southeastern Wyoming

  10. Die Voortrekker-Monument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard Moerdyk

    1938-03-01

    Full Text Available Die Eeufeesjaar is vir die Afrikaner ’n tydperk van besieling. Nog nooit sedert die ontstaan van ons volk het een enkele gebeurtenis soveel nasietrots gewek as die honderdjarige herdenking van die Groot Trek. Vir die eerste keer in ons geskiedenis voel ons ons nie meer Kapenaars, Vrystaters, Natalers, en Transvalers nie, maar Afrikaners, saamgesnoer deur die tradisies van ’n selfstandige kultuurvolk. Wanneer die klimaks van die Ossewatrek met die hocksteenlegging van die Voortrekker-Monument bereik word, sal die besieling nie uitsterf nie, die krag wat geskep is sal bly voortgroei tot ’n onweerstaanbare mag. Die Afrikaner sal homself vind, en as die Monument na sowat vyf jaar onthul word, sal die saad wat in hierdie jaar gesaai is, tot voile rypheid gekom het. Dan sal die Monument self tot die volk spreek; intussen egter, is dit wenslik, nee noodsaaklik selfs, om die Monument aan die Afrikaners te verklaar, om ‘n uiteensetting te gee van die noodsaaklikheid van so ’n Monument, sowel as om die motief te verduidelik wat as inspirasie gedien het vir die ontwerpdaar van.

  11. Selected misdemeanors against monuments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Klimczyk

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work is to present selected aspects misdemeanors against monuments and the possibility of counteracting them.The author has used: the method of legal analysis  and literature study.  It was moved, among others issues in which cases occur misconduct, when and  what measures can be taken to prevent it. The aim of this paper is to present the matter directly. Attention  also was paid to the role The Provincial Monuments Conservator  and the Minister of Culture and National Heritage.

  12. Cultural Connections: Lion Funerary Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Arts: The Art Education Magazine for Teachers, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This article describes the Grecian "Lion Funerary Monument" dating back to about 350 BC. Significant historical, cultural, and artistic elements of the ancient monument are highlighted. Details about the artist based on the monument itself are also described and questions to consider are provided.

  13. Merchant Seamen Monument

    OpenAIRE

    1991-01-01

    Postcard. Colour photograph of Merchant Seamen Monument. Printed description on reverse "This memorial was erected in remembrance of the merchant seamen from Limerick and the Shannon Estuary Seamen who lost their lives in the course of duty". 1991 Limerick Treaty 300 logo.

  14. Genesis of uranium-gold pyritic conglomerates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, W.B.

    1981-01-01

    The ancient pyritic ore conglomerates have a common origin best exemplified by the Witwatersrand deposits. All contain detrital pyrite and uraninite, which are unstable in modern oxygenated environments and were deposited in a reducing atmosphere. The Rand reefs are not similar to modern gold placers. Placers result from the near incapacity of streams and currents to transport coarse gold. Placers as rich as Rand reef occur only in narrow paystreaks within 15 kilometers of a coarse-gold source. The board dispersion of gold in the reefs is due to solution transport of metal complexed as aurous sulfide, leached anoxygenically from crustal rocks, probably from sea-floor basalt, and precipitated by a slow reaction driven by the radioactive decay of detrital uraninite. Radiolysis of water on shallow marine unconformities resulted in diffusion of hydrogen to the atmosphere and a slight excess of hydroxyl free radical in the reef environment. The mild oxidizing tendency slowly dissolved uranium, precipitated gold, and oxygenated thucholite. These actions define a maturing process. A uraninite placer accumulating on an unconformity becomes progressively converted to a gold reef with little residual uraninite. The most mature reefs tend to grade toward the thucholite-seam type, very thin but exceedingly rich in gold. A combination of chemical attack and physical reworking accounts for the general thinness of mature reefs. Pyrite, like uraninite, decreases in abundance with increasing maturity; buffering by pyrite moderated the oxidative depletion of uranium. Where pyrite was scanty or absent, uraninite was completely dissolved by the effects of radiolysis and no ore formed

  15. Creating the future with all finance and financial conglomerates

    CERN Document Server

    Berghe, Lutgart

    1998-01-01

    Creating the Future with All Finance and Financial Conglomerates comprises an academic search for an understanding of all finance and financial conglomerates. It presents a strategic and economic analysis of diversification strategies and the growing interface between different types of financial firms. On the basis of a solid analysis of theoretical foundations and practical value, the book develops basic concepts of creating the future: especially solutions in managing risks and fresh ideas for the development of integrated financial services. The structure of the book is logical: starting on theoretical foundations (section 1, part A) and examining the economic value of All Finance and Financial Conglomerates (part B), leads to creating a concept for the future (part C). Case studies add additional practical value to this research. The review of the subject is completed by aspects of risk management in this sector and by political guidelines for the EU single market (section 2). The book builds further on ...

  16. Monument avalikule hetkele = Monument to a public moment / raumlaborberlin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2013-01-01

    Saksamaa arhitektide projekt "Monument avalikule hetkele" tekitas Tallinnas asuva Välisministeeriumi ette massiivne monumendi aluse, mis mõne minuti suitsu välja ajas ja mis seejärel lammutati. Fotokujutist levitati postkaardil

  17. Uraniferous quartz-pebble conglomerates in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    von Backstroem, J.W.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to give a short background statement summarizing data on the Dominion Reef Group, the Witwatersrand Supergroup, and the Ventersdorp Contact Reef, with particular reference to the close relationship of gold and uranium with sedimentary features as well as the mineralization, conditions of deposition, and the nature of the quartz-pebble conglomerates

  18. Cavitated Conglomerate Mass in Silicosis Indicating Associated Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Martins

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Silicosis is the most common occupational lung disease worldwide. It leads to respiratory impairment and may have associated infections that decrease pulmonary function. We describe the case of a 55-year-old man with chronic silicosis who presented with hemoptysis and a cavitated conglomerate mass. The final diagnosis was silicotuberculosis.

  19. Architecture and monument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjen Oosterman

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The relation between architectural history and heritage is ambiguous. Both domains are confronted with rapid changes in scale and complexity, leaving practitioners in both fields with the challenging task to provide new methods and a new vocabulary to enable research and communication. 70 years ago Nicolaus Pevsner could write about Lincoln cathedral and the bicycle shed to discern between architecture and building. These days not only housing and urban development have been accepted as ‘objects’ of research, in fact all material manifestation of human occupation, at least as far as design is involved, is considered worth studying. On the heritage side, developments are comparable: horizontally and vertically the domain has been enlarged tremendously: from a collection of ‘diamonds’ to complete cities, to landscapes and structures. This is not only true for scale and layers, but also for cultural norms of quality. Cultural relativism requires that ‘beauty’ and ‘quality’ are defined in relation to the social group or culture they refer to. The logic that an elite determines what is good and what is right is challenged by the notion that popular taste is in principle equal. So what does this do to our museum collections and lists of protected monuments? The consequences for architectural history are not yet clear. Including new realities like digital design and new fields of practice like the virtual, the knowledge base and toolbox of the architectural historian has to expand beyond the Renaissance ideal of the ‘uomo universale’.

  20. Bank Consolidation, Internationalization, and Conglomeration; Trends and Implications for Financial Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Gianni De Nicolo; Mary G Zephirin; Philip F. Bartholomew; Jahanara Zaman

    2003-01-01

    This paper documents global trends in bank activity, consolidation, internationalization, and financial firm conglomeration, and explores the extent to which financial firm risk and systemic risk potential in banking are related to consolidation and conglomeration. We find that while there is a substantial upward trend in conglomeration globally, consolidation and internationalization exhibit uneven patterns across world regions. Trends in consolidation and conglomeration indicate increased r...

  1. Construction materials, monuments and environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prikryl, R.; Siegesmund, S.; Török, A.; Brimblecombe, P.; Gomez-Heras, M.

    2012-04-01

    Construction materials (natural stone, aggregates, bricks, cement, lime, mortar, etc.) form a wide and heterogeneous group both from the genetic and technological point of view. These materials deserve attention from the scientific community due to their long-term use, importance for society and sensitivity to the environment. Most geomaterials have also been used in important monuments designated as a part of the World Cultural Heritage and/or make part of national monuments. Despite of the wide-ranges of studies and our rapidly increasing understanding of material behaviour, our knowledge is still rather limited in many aspects. This concerns the characterisation of traditional raw materials, the knowledge of their processing and use, and/or durability and compatibility assessment. The exploitation and sustainable use of these materials are also new and emerging challenges in the modern society. The use of local materials for monuments can be considered as a part of our cultural and technological heritage, which has, however, significantly deteriorated during the past several decades. This paper summarizes the general topics related to a modern analysis of traditional construction materials derived from the Earth, and on the characteristic aspects of the behaviour of these materials on selected monuments.

  2. The corporate centre in a financial conglomerate : governance under fundamental industry changes

    OpenAIRE

    Fiole, Eelco Rokus Willem

    2002-01-01

    In part 1, we discuss 1) the fundamental changes in the financial services industry, 2) financial conglomerate structures and 3) value-based-management. These are core components for understanding the challenges and intentions of corporate level management of financial conglomerates. The financial services industry, financial conglomeration and value orientation In the first chapter, we highlight the major trend of consolidation in the financial services industry. This trend...

  3. Uranium deposits in Proterozoic quartz-pebble conglomerates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-09-01

    This report is the result of an effort to gather together the most important information on uranium deposits in Proterozoic quartz-pebble conglomerates in the United States of America, Canada, Finland, Ghana, South Africa and Australia. The paper discusses the uranium potential (and in some cases also the gold potential in South Africa, Western Australia and Ghana) in terms of ores, sedimentation, mineralization, metamorphism, placers, geologic formations, stratigraphy, petrology, exploration, tectonics and distribution. Geologic history and application of geologic models are also discussed. Glacial outwash and water influx is also mentioned. The uranium deposits in a number of States in the USA are covered. The Witwatersrand placers are discussed in several papers. Refs, figs, tabs

  4. (Non-Monumental Layers of Berlin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juli Székely

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The two books reviewed in this article, Hsiu-Ling Kuos’s Monumentality and Modernity in Hitler’s Berlin (2013 and Janet Ward’s Post-Wall Berlin (2011, focus on the structural, political, social and aesthetic transformation of Berlin, from the first half of the twentieth century to the ‘post-wall’ era. Since both authors strongly emphasize the former and present status of monumental architecture and monumental memory, this book review pays particular attention to a critical discussion of the (non-monumental layers of Berlin.

  5. Stability of GNSS Monumentation: Analysis of Co-Located Monuments in the UNAVCO Plate Boundary Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blume, F.; Herring, T.; Mattioli, G. S.; Feaux, K.; Walls, C. P.; Austin, K. E.; Dittmann, S. T.

    2017-12-01

    Geodetic-quality permanent GNSS stations have used a number of different monument styles for the purpose of ensuring that the motions of the GNSS antenna reflect those of the Earth's crust while minimizing non-tectonic motions near the surface. Monuments range from simple masts mounted on buildings or drilled into bedrock, costing a few hundred dollars to machine-drilled-braced monuments in soil costing tens of thousands. The stability of an individual monument will depend on its design, the construction techniques used to install it, and the local surface geology where it is installed. Previous studies have separately investigated pairs of identical monuments at a single site, monument type performance using global statistical analysis, and multiple monument styles at a single site, yet the stability of different monument types in similar geologic conditions has not been adequately determined. To better characterize the stability of various monument styles in diverse geologic conditions UNAVCO constructed two additional monuments at five existing PBO stations in 2013. Deep drilled-braced, short drilled-braced, and single mast type monuments were installed at sites with bedrock at the surface; deep drilled-braced, short driven-braced and pillar type monuments were installed at sites with alluvium or soil at the surface. The sites include a variety of geographic, hydrologic, and geologic conditions. Data collected from the PBO Multi-Monument Experiment have been analyzed using a variety of methods. Each site is characterized using quality-control parameters such as multipath, signal-to-noise and previously determined seasonal variations. High-precision processing by PBO Analysis Centers with GAMIT and GIPSY use regional and global schemes and yield time-series with millimeter-level that determine noise content, overall site stability relative to other PBO sites and differential motions between the individual monuments. Sub-millimeter results from single

  6. Digital Monument to the Jewish Community in the Netherlands and the Jewish Monument Community : commemoration and meaning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faro, L.M.C.

    2014-01-01

    In April 2005, the Digital Monument to the Jewish Community in the Netherlands went online. This monument is an Internet monument dedicated to preserving the memory of more than 100,000 men, women and children, Dutch Jewish victims of the Shoah. As of September 2010, the interactive Jewish Monument

  7. Lower Monumental Spillway Hydraulic Model Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilhelms, Steven

    2003-01-01

    A 1:40 Froudian Scale model was used to investigate the hydraulic performance of the Lower Monumental Dam spillway, stilling basin, and tailrace for dissolved gas reduction and stilling basin apron scour...

  8. Efficient Havinga–Kondepudi resolution of conglomerate amino acid derivatives by slow cooling and abrasive grinding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeman, Michel; Noorduin, Wim L.; Millemaggi, Alessia; Vlieg, Elias; Meekes, Hugo; Enckevort, Willem J.P. van; Kaptein, Bernard; Kellogg, Richard M.

    2010-01-01

    The complete resolution of the conglomerate racemates of two amino acid derivatives susceptible to racemization in solution was achieved by slow crystallization from a supersaturated solution accompanied by cooling and abrasive grinding.

  9. Monuments of the Giza Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggles, Clive L. N.

    The colossal pyramids of the pharaohs Khufu (Cheops), Khafre (Chephren), and Menkaure (Mycerinus) have attracted a huge amount of astronomical interest over the years, both scholarly and popular. Less attention is usually given to the broader context of structures on the Giza Plateau. One of the most notorious ideas connecting the Giza Plateau with astronomy is that the three large pyramids are laid out on the ground so as to reflect the appearance of the three stars of Orion's Belt in the sky. This idea is unsupportable for several reasons but has succeeded in generating huge public interest. Of much greater serious interest is the fact that the three main pyramids were oriented cardinally to extraordinary precision, which raises the questions of why this was important and how it was achieved. Another idea that has attracted serious attention but also some confusion is that the orientations of some narrow shafts within Khufu's pyramid might have been deliberately aligned upon particular stars. The overall layout of monuments on the plateau may certainly have been designed so as to emphasize certain solar phenomena, for symbolic and ideological reasons relating to a dominant sun cult. It is also possible that it formed part of a wider cosmological "master plan" extending to other pyramids and temples up to 20 km distant.

  10. The Monumental Task of Warning Future Generations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NA

    2005-01-01

    Describing preliminary concepts for permanent warning monuments or markers on the mountain's surface will be part of the US Department of Energy's license application to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for a proposed repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The NRC requires that the monuments or markers accurately identify the location of the repository, be designed to be as permanent as practicable and convey a warning against intrusion into the underground repository, because of risk to public health and safety from radioactive wastes. Current concepts include both monuments and markers, but the designs will not be final for some time because they will not be approved by the NRC until shortly before the repository is to be permanently sealed and closed. Closure of the repository would be at least 50 years, and possibly up to 300 years, after the first waste is emplaced deep underground. Design ideas for the monuments and markers have been drawn from a broad range of sources: Yucca Mountain's natural conditions, worldwide archeological studies, materials science, and verbal and symbolic linguistics. The monumental challenge is to address how warnings can be coherently conveyed for thousands of years into the future when human society and languages could change radically

  11. Estimation of immune cell densities in immune cell conglomerates: an approach for high-throughput quantification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels Halama

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Determining the correct number of positive immune cells in immunohistological sections of colorectal cancer and other tumor entities is emerging as an important clinical predictor and therapy selector for an individual patient. This task is usually obstructed by cell conglomerates of various sizes. We here show that at least in colorectal cancer the inclusion of immune cell conglomerates is indispensable for estimating reliable patient cell counts. Integrating virtual microscopy and image processing principally allows the high-throughput evaluation of complete tissue slides.For such large-scale systems we demonstrate a robust quantitative image processing algorithm for the reproducible quantification of cell conglomerates on CD3 positive T cells in colorectal cancer. While isolated cells (28 to 80 microm(2 are counted directly, the number of cells contained in a conglomerate is estimated by dividing the area of the conglomerate in thin tissues sections (< or =6 microm by the median area covered by an isolated T cell which we determined as 58 microm(2. We applied our algorithm to large numbers of CD3 positive T cell conglomerates and compared the results to cell counts obtained manually by two independent observers. While especially for high cell counts, the manual counting showed a deviation of up to 400 cells/mm(2 (41% variation, algorithm-determined T cell numbers generally lay in between the manually observed cell numbers but with perfect reproducibility.In summary, we recommend our approach as an objective and robust strategy for quantifying immune cell densities in immunohistological sections which can be directly implemented into automated full slide image processing systems.

  12. Geology and recognition criteria for uranium deposits of the quartz-pebble conglomerate type. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Button, A.; Adams, S.S.

    1981-03-01

    This report is concerned with Precambrian uraniferous conglomerates. This class of deposit has been estimated to contain between approximately 16 and 35 percent of the global uranium reserve in two rather small areas, one in Canada, the other in South Africa. Similar conglomerates, which are often gold-bearing, are, however, rather widespread, being found in parts of most Precambrian shield areas. Data have been synthesized on the geologic habitat and character of this deposit type. The primary objective has been to provide the most relevant geologic observations in a structural fashion to allow resource studies and exploration to focus on the most prospective targets in the shortest possible time.

  13. Geology and recognition criteria for uranium deposits of the quartz-pebble conglomerate type. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Button, A.; Adams, S.S.

    1981-03-01

    This report is concerned with Precambrian uraniferous conglomerates. This class of deposit has been estimated to contain between approximately 16 and 35 percent of the global uranium reserve in two rather small areas, one in Canada, the other in South Africa. Similar conglomerates, which are often gold-bearing, are, however, rather widespread, being found in parts of most Precambrian shield areas. Data have been synthesized on the geologic habitat and character of this deposit type. The primary objective has been to provide the most relevant geologic observations in a structural fashion to allow resource studies and exploration to focus on the most prospective targets in the shortest possible time

  14. Are Birds a Manace to Outdoor Monuments?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Vasiliu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary results of laboratory tests on real samples have shown that the uric acid which is found in bird droppings has a negative influence on metals. Results of experiments have confirmed that the damage is significant when considering the cultural heritage, statues or monuments.

  15. MONUMENTS TO THE PATRIOTIC WAR OF 1812

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frolov Vladimir Pavlovich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The article covers a relevant historical and cultural problem of elaboration and maintenance of monuments of the military glory of 1812. The author considers various architectural and sculptural monuments illustrating heroic events of Patriotic war of 1812, built in the two Russian capitals - Moscow and Saint Petersburg in different historical periods, and also in primordial Russian towns, such as Smolensk, Vyazma, and Maloyaroslavets. Architectural and composition-related features of this or that monument erected against the background of historic events of the war of 1812 are analyzed in detail. The author demonstrates the links between architecture and sculpture within the framework of town-planning solutions implemented in the pieces that have found their places in the towns enlisted above. The value of symbols of the Victory and Glory of the Russian army and the Russian people is marked. The names of the most famous heroes of this war, starting from a field marshal and ending with a soldier are inscribed. By addressing the historical and cultural heritage of Russia, the author informs readers about the most significant events of the war. The author mentions an acute problem of the modernity, that is, preservation and restoration of monuments, and shares his view point. The value of the historic and cultural heritage of Russia for military and patriotic education is emphasized. The article is prepared within the framework of the year of the Russian history.

  16. Ocatilla : del paisaje monumental al monumento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Quesada

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Resumen

    Este artículo aborda el campamento Ocatilla, construido en el  desierto de Arizona por Frank Lloyd Wright como una estación  experimental de arquitectura en 1929. Se propone este campamento como un prototipo que tendría dos vectores  temporales por lo que se refiere a una posible genealogía y a un posible desarrollo futuro. Hacía el pasado habría que  rastrearlo en la Casa para la Familia Cristiana propuesta por  Catherine Beecher en 1869, mientras que hacia el futuro podría establecerse un posible epígono en la Burbuja Ambiental de  Reyner Banham y François Dallegret de 1965. El texto explora  las posibilidades de un ideal de arquitectura para el paisaje monumental, perfectamente ejemplarizado en los tres casos, frente a la arquitectura como monumento ante el paisaje, que ejemplificaría Taliesin West, su monumental contrafigura.

    Palabras clave

    campamento, prototipo, paisaje, ambiental, monumental

    Abstract

    This article discusses the Ocatilla camp, built in the Arizona  desert by Frank Lloyd Wright as an experimental architecture in  1929. This camp is proposed as a prototype with two temporary vectors, one would be to a possible genealogy and the other a  possible future development. Going to the past should be traced in the House for the Christian Family by Catherine Beecher proposed in 1869, while that to the future could be made a epigone in the Environmental Bubble of Reyner Banham and of François Dallegret in 1965. The text explores the possibilities of an ideal architecture for the monumental landscape, perfectly  exemplified in the three cases, compared to architecture as a monument to the landscape, which exemplify Taliesin West, his monumental counterpart.

    Key words

    camp, prototype, landscape, environment, monumental

  17. Some metallogenic features of the Huronian and post-Huronian uraniferous conglomerates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruzicka, V.

    1981-01-01

    Uraniferous conglomerates with syngenetic mineralization are restricted to lower Proterozoic sediments. The depositional environment was near volcanic centres; excessive sulfur, a product a volcanic and postvolcanic activity, apparently caused sulfurization of some minerals and of hydrocarbon. The sedimentary syngenetic origin of uranium mineralization may be illustrated. The cycle starts with deposition of coarse grains of quartz, continues with the deposition of a mixture of finer grains of quartz and pyrite with distinct graded bedding, is followed by deposition of monazite and brannerite, and ends with deposition of fragmented fine grains of uraninite embedded in sulfur-rich hydrocarbon. This situation apparently testifies to the fact that the carbonaceous material is a product of algal mats that existed in quiet times between cycles of sedimentation. The succeeding cycle again starts with the deposition of coarse grains of quartz. Uraniferous conglomerates with epigenetic mineralization are localized in regions containing rocks with higher contents of uranium. Primary concentration of uranium minerals in these source rocks can also be syngenetic. Deposition of uranium took place by one or more epigenetic processes: adsorption, complexing, precipitation, or redox changes according to the degrees of solubility and stability of uranium compounds. Evidence of these mentioned features is based upon studies on the Huronian uraniferous conglomerate from Elliot Lake, Canada, and on the late Precambrian and Paleozoic radioactive conglomerates from the eastern Ural Mountains and Enisey Crest region, USSR

  18. Opening the black box: internal capital markets and managerial power in conglomerates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glaser, M.; Lopez-de-Silanes, F.; Sautner, Z.

    2010-01-01

    How do firms allocate capital internally across units? Do more powerful and better connected managers inside a conglomerate get larger capital allocations? To answer these questions, we put together a unique five-year business-unit panel data set on planned and actual capital allocations inside a

  19. Managing conflict with a subordinate or a superior : Effectiveness of conglomerated behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Vliert, E.; Euwema, M.C.; Huismans, S.E.

    Rather than a single behavior, handling conflict is a conglomeration of behavioral components characterized by a pattern of occurrence and by a pattern of covariation of its components. Theories (R. R. Blake & J. S. Mouton, 1964, 1970; R.E. Walton, 1969) have predicted (a) that the forcing component

  20. Understanding the unusual reorganization of the nanostructure of a dark conglomerate phase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagaraj, M.; Jones, J. C.; Panov, V. P.; Liu, H.; Portale, G.; Bras, W.; Gleeson, H. F.

    2015-01-01

    The dark conglomerate (DC) phase exhibited by a bent-core liquid crystal shows remarkable properties including an electric-field tunable chiral domain structure and a large (0.045) reduction of refractive index, while maintaining an optically dark texture when observed under crossed polarizers. A

  1. Milleks monumenti = Why a monument? / Heie Treier

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Treier, Heie, 1963-

    2006-01-01

    2006. a. toimunud Jüri Lotmani mälestusmärgi konkursist, Mati Karmini ja Andres Lunge võidutööst. Monumentide positiivseid näiteid: Tubina plats Tartus (Aili Vahtrapuu, Veronika Valk, Louis Dandrel), ideekavandid: Estonia teatri juubelimonument Tallinnas (Tiiu Kirsipuu, Üla Koppel) ja Eesti iseseisvuse monument Pärnus Rüütli platsil (Mart Aas, Kaarel Eelma, Mikk Mutso). Bibl. lk. 73

  2. Ninety years of mining and metallurgy in Trepča-sever conglomerate (part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Branislav

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Present company Trepča-Sever is formed by foreigners after the bombing of Serbia and Monten former Trepča Conglomerate located in northern part of Kosovo and Metohija, namely in three municipalities: North Kosovska Mitrovica, Zvečan and Leposavić. Main office of Trepča Conglomerate was always in Zvečan, flotation of lead-zinc ore (in the period of 1930- 1985, lead smelting and refining plants (founded in 1939, laboratory, Institute, electromechanical workshops and other ancillary services. In Leposavić flotation, ores of Kopaonik mines are processed, while financial and commercial services are located in the North Kosovska Mitrovica.

  3. Eogenetic caves in conglomerate: an example from Udin Boršt, Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lipar Matej

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Udin Boršt is a karstified terrace of carbonate rock, which is of fluvioglacial origin, and is situated in the north-western part of Slovenia. There are 15 registered caves, which have been interpreted as caves in conglomerate, while karst of Udin Boršt itself was interpreted as conglomerate karst, shallow karst or isolated karst. In this article, caves in Udin Boršt have been interpreted as eogenetic caves. Based on porosity and bedding material, different types of caves and cave passages have developed. Four general types of eogenetic caves found in Udin Boršt are; linear stream caves, shelter caves, breakdown caves and vadose shafts.

  4. Relationships between the Brook Street Terrane and Median Tectonic Zone (Median Batholith) : evidence from Jurassic conglomerates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tulloch, A.J.; Kimbrough, D.L.; Landis, C.A.; Mortimer, N.; Johnston, M.R.

    1999-01-01

    U-Pb zircon ages of 237-180 Ma and c. 280 Ma of seven granitoid clasts from the Rainy River Conglomerate which lies within the eastern Median Tectonic Zone (Median Batholith) in Nelson, and the Barretts Formation of the Brook Street Terrane in Southland, constrain the depositional ages of both units to be no older than c. 180-200 Ma (Early Jurassic). The minimum age of the Rainy River Conglomerate is constrained by the 147 +2 -1 Ma (Latest Jurassic) emplacement age of the One Mile Gabbronorite (new name: previously western Buller Diorite). The ages and chemistry of five of the granitoid clasts are broadly compatible with derivation from rocks that are now represented by Triassic plutons of the Median Tectonic Zone (Median Batholith), although ages as young as 180 Ma are slightly outside the range of the latter as currently exposed in New Zealand. The age (273-290 Ma, 237 +/- 3 Ma) and chemistry of the other two clasts (one each from Rainy River Conglomerate and Barretts Formation) suggest derivation from the Brook Street Terrane. Similarity in stratigraphic age, depositional characteristics, granitoid clast ages and composition between Rainy River Conglomerate and Barretts Formation suggests that they are broadly correlative and collectively overlapped a combined Brook Street Terrane - Median Batholith (MTZ) before the Late Jurassic (147 +2 -1 Ma). Sedimentary overlap may also have continued across to Middle Jurassic conglomeratic strata in the Murihiku Terrane to the east of the Brook Street Terrane. A U-Pb zircon age of 261 +/- 2 Ma is reported for Pourakino Trondhjemite of the Brook Street Terrane. (author). 56 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs

  5. Ornithopod and Sauropod Dinosaur Remains from the Maastrichtian Al-Khod Conglomerate, Sultanate of Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann S. Schulp

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Fieldwork in the Upper Cretaceous (Maastrichtian Al-Khod Conglomerates in the Sultanate of Oman led to the discovery of a large bone fragment tentatively identified as a partial distal left humerus of a sauropod and an ornithopod dorsal vertebra. The very fragmentary state of preservation of the dorsal vertebra makes specific attribution difficult, but it shows remarkable similarities to the rhabdodontid dinosaurs Rhabdodon and Zalmoxes.

  6. Ultrastructure and electrophoretic protein pattern of a nuclear fraction enriched in interchromatin granule conglomerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krzyzowska-Gruca, S.; Zborek, A.; Gruca, S.

    1986-01-01

    Rats were injected with a cytostatic 1-nitro-9/3'-dimethylpropyloamine/acridine.2HCl to induce aggregation of interchromatin granules (IG). The conglomerations of IG were well preserved in isolated liver nuclei and in nuclear structures deprived of chromatin. This feature enabled obtaining a nuclear fraction enriched in IG. The method consisted in extraction of isolated nuclei with a non-ionic detergent and digestion with DNase I in a high ionic strength. Each step of isolation was ultrastructurally monitored using both the routine electron microscopy as well as a preferential staining of IG with bismuth. Presence of spots of tightly packed granules within IG conglomerations in the final fraction like in the nuclei in situ was a good ultrastructural marker of IG. The resulting fraction consisted predominantly of IG conglomerations. Their preferential staining with bismuth was well preserved. Minute amounts of fibrillar material originating from nuclear matrix and residual nuclei could be observed. Protein composition of the fraction enriched in IG was studied by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. After electrotransfer, nitrocellulose filters were fixed with glutaraldehyde and stained with bismuth method in order to identify IG proteins. The results of ultrastructural and cytochemical studies in comparison to electrophoretic protein pattern are discussed.

  7. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings: Monument Valley Site, Monument Valley, Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-10-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has reevalated the Monument Valley site in order to revise the March 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Monument Valley, Arizona. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposure of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 1.1 million tons of tailings at the Monument Valley site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The four alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment range from millsite decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material (Option I), to removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings site (Options II through IV). Cost estimates for the four options range from about $6,600,000 for stabilization in-place, to about $15,900,000 for disposal at a distance of about 15 mi. Three principal alternatives for reprocessing the Monument Valley tailings were examined: heap leaching; Treatment at an existing mill; and reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovery is economically unattractive.

  8. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings: Monument Valley Site, Monument Valley, Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-10-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has reevalated the Monument Valley site in order to revise the March 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Monument Valley, Arizona. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposure of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 1.1 million tons of tailings at the Monument Valley site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The four alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment range from millsite decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material (Option I), to removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings site (Options II through IV). Cost estimates for the four options range from about $6,600,000 for stabilization in-place, to about $15,900,000 for disposal at a distance of about 15 mi. Three principal alternatives for reprocessing the Monument Valley tailings were examined: heap leaching; Treatment at an existing mill; and reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovery is economically unattractive

  9. Monumentality on space and cultural democratization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inês Alves

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article proposes a reflection on the idea of monumentality in political and religious power, and its reconversion of a democratic society. There are 3+1 types of cultural exhibition space that are analyzed: the traditional palace or the church, which contain great works of classical art, inside of the historic centers; the art galleries associated with market economy, tend to stimulate the city centre area, and the autonomy of the architectural object in the vicinity of the traditional city. Lastly it is referred the case study - Silo Cultural Space - inside the Norteshopping, but arranged in a peripheral form, which is distinguished by an apparent proximity to multiple public.

  10. Applications of ionizing radiation for monuments conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chyzewski, M.; Galant, S.; Perkowski, J.

    1996-01-01

    Ionizing radiation can be used for conservation of monuments and old art objects. The irradiation of wooden and cellulose objects for disinfestation has been described. The irradiation conditions and lethal doses in respect to different species have been discussed. The different technique is the radiation consolidation of historical objects made of various materials. The method consists in radiation polymerization. The object undergoing conservation is saturated with monomer prior irradiation. The radiation polymerization results in consolidation of the object pieces and reinforcement of its material. 3 figs

  11. GEOLOGICAL ANDGEOMORPHOLOGICAL MAPPING ARCHAEOLOGICAL MONUMENTS OF MOUNTAIN ALTAI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Y. Baryshnikov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the results of geological and geomorphological mapping of archaeological monument, mainly Paleolithic age, the location of which is confined to low-mountain spaces of the Mountain Altai. Using this mapping would greatly clarify the sequence of relief habitat of ancient people and more objectively determine the age characteristics of archaeological monument

  12. Precambrian uranium-bearing quartz-pebble conglomerates: exploration model and United States resource potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houston, R.S.; Karlstrom, K.E.

    1979-11-01

    Uranium has been discovered in fluvial quartz-pebble conglomerates in most of the Precambrian shield areas of the world, including the Canadian, African, South American, Indian, Baltic, and Australian shields. Occurrences in these and other areas are shown. Two of these occurrences, the Huronian supergroup of Canada and the Witwatersrand deposit of South Africa contain 20 to 30 percent of the planet's known uranium reserves. Thus it is critical that we understand the origin of these deposits and develop exploration models that can aid in finding new deposits. Inasmuch as these uranium-bearing conglomerates are confined almost entirely to rocks of Precambrian age, Part I of this review begins with a discussion of Precambrian geology as it applies to the conglomerates. This is followed by a discussion of genetic concepts, a discussion of unresolved problems, and finally a suggested exploration model. Part II summarizes known and potential occurrences of Precambrian fossil placers in the world and evaluates them in terms of the suggested exploration model. Part III discusses the potential for important Precambrian fossil-placer uranium deposits in the United States and includes suggestions that may be helpful in establishing an exploration program in this country. Part III also brings together new (1975-1978) data on uranium occurrences in the Precambrian of the Wyoming Province. Part IV is a complete bibliography of Precambrian fossil placers, divided according to geographical areas. In total, this paper is designed to be a comprehensive review of Precambrian uranium-bearing fossil placers which will be of use to uranium explorationists and to students of Precambrian geology

  13. Precambrian uranium-bearing quartz-pebble conglomerates: exploration model and United States resource potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houston, R.S.; Karlstrom, K.E.

    1979-11-01

    Uranium has been discovered in fluvial quartz-pebble conglomerates in most of the Precambrian shield areas of the world, including the Canadian, African, South American, Indian, Baltic, and Australian shields. Occurrences in these and other areas are shown. Two of these occurrences, the Huronian supergroup of Canada and the Witwatersrand deposit of South Africa contain 20 to 30 percent of the planet's known uranium reserves. Thus it is critical that we understand the origin of these deposits and develop exploration models that can aid in finding new deposits. Inasmuch as these uranium-bearing conglomerates are confined almost entirely to rocks of Precambrian age, Part I of this review begins with a discussion of Precambrian geology as it applies to the conglomerates. This is followed by a discussion of genetic concepts, a discussion of unresolved problems, and finally a suggested exploration model. Part II summarizes known and potential occurrences of Precambrian fossil placers in the world and evaluates them in terms of the suggested exploration model. Part III discusses the potential for important Precambrian fossil-placer uranium deposits in the United States and includes suggestions that may be helpful in establishing an exploration program in this country. Part III also brings together new (1975-1978) data on uranium occurrences in the Precambrian of the Wyoming Province. Part IV is a complete bibliography of Precambrian fossil placers, divided according to geographical areas. In total, this paper is designed to be a comprehensive review of Precambrian uranium-bearing fossil placers which will be of use to uranium explorationists and to students of Precambrian geology.

  14. Summary of the engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings: Monument Valley site, Monument Valley, Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-10-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has reevaluated the Monument Valley site in order to revise the March 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Monument Valley, Arizona. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 1.1 million tons of tailings at the Monument Valley site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The four alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment range from millsite decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material to removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings site. Cost estimates for the four options range from about $6,600,000 for stabilization in-place, to about $15,900,000 for disposal at a distance of about 15 mi. Three principal alternatives for reprocessing the Monument Valley tailings were examined: heap leaching, treatment at an existing mill; and reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovered would be more than $500/lb of U 3 O 8 by heap leach or conventional plant processes. The spot market price for uranium was $25/lb early in 1981. Therefore, reprocessing the tailings for uranium recovery is economically unattractive

  15. Casa do Alambique, estrutura rara e monumental

    OpenAIRE

    Cardoso, João Luís

    2014-01-01

    Uma intervenção arqueológica realizada em 2009 na Casa do Alambique, localizada na Quinta do Marquês de Pombal, em Oeiras, evidenciou a importância da produção de aguardente a partir da destilação do bagaço ou do vinho naquela quinta setecentista. O seu estudo, através da escavação e do registo, revelou assinaláveis cuidados técnicos, viabilizados por um já desenvolvido conhecimento científico, alicerçado no empirismo, conforme era usual na época. Trata-se de uma rara e monumental estru...

  16. Nanomaterials and preservation mechanisms of architecture monuments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ion, Rodica-Mariana; Radu, Adrian; Teodorescu, Sofia; Fierǎscu, Irina; Fierǎscu, Radu-Claudiu; Ştirbescu, Raluca-Maria; Dulamǎ, Ioana Daniela; Şuicǎ-Bunghez, Ioana-Raluca; Bucuricǎ, Ioan Alin; Ion, Mihaela-Lucia

    2016-12-01

    Knowledge of the chemical composition of the building materials of the monuments may help us to preserve and protect them from the pollution of our cities. The aim of this work is to characterize the materials of the walls from ancient buildings, the decay products that could be appear due to the action of pollution and a new method based on nanomaterials (hydroxyapatite -HAp) for a conservative preservation of the treated walls. Some analytical techniques have been used, as follow: X-ray fluorescence energy dispersive (EDXRF) (for the relative abundance of major, minor and trace elements), FTIR and Raman spectroscopy (for stratigraphic study of cross-sections of multi-layered materials found in wall paintings), Optical microscopy (OM), (for morphology of the wall samples). The nanomaterial suspension HAp applied on the sample surface by spraying, decreased the capillary water uptake, do not modify significantly the color of the samples and induced a reduced mass loss for the treated samples.

  17. Some aspects of the genesis of heavy mineral assemblages in Lower Proterozoic uranium-gold conglomerates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clemmey, H.

    1982-01-01

    Some genetic models for Lower Proterozoic gold- and uranium-bearing pyritic conglomerates favour a modified placer origin in which low levels of atmospheric oxygen are used to account for the survival of uraninite and pyrite. There are many difficulties with such models. New evidence concerning the genesis of the deposits is derived from a clast of ferric iron clay thought to represent a precursor sediment of the Witwatersrand Basin. Reworking of such clays and transport of a magnetite and ferric clay assemblage with subsequent sulphidation, could account for the porous pyrites, the absence of magnetite and the lack of hydraulic equivalence of the mineral grains in the conglomerates. The presence of oxygen, as indicated by the ferric iron clasts, would account for the evidence of mobility of uranium and of gold and would enhance their extraction from source rocks; particularly the release of gold from a precursor auriferous iron formation source. It is suggested that some aspects of the genesis of uranium deposits of the Witwatersrand and Elliott Lake may be similar to those of the Phanerozoic 'Roll Front' ores involving interaction between oxidizing uraniferous groundwaters and previously sulphidized and reduzate facies sediments. (author)

  18. A Parallel Algorithm for the Counting of Ellipses Present in Conglomerates Using GPU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyes Yam-Uicab

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Detecting and counting elliptical objects are an interesting problem in digital image processing. There are real-world applications of this problem in various disciplines. Solving this problem is harder when there is occlusion among the elliptical objects, since in general these objects are considered as part of the bigger object (conglomerate. The solution to this problem focusses on the detection and segmentation of the precise number of occluded elliptical objects, while omitting all noninteresting objects. There are a variety of computational approximations that focus on this problem; however, such approximations are not accurate when there is occlusion. This paper presents an algorithm designed to solve this problem, specifically, to detect, segment, and count elliptical objects of a specific size when these are in occlusion with other objects within the conglomerate. Our algorithm deals with a time-consuming combinatorial process. To optimize the execution time of our algorithm, we implemented a parallel GPU version with CUDA-C, which experimentally improved the detection of occluded objects, as well as lowering processing times compared to the sequential version of the method. Comparative test results with another method featured in literature showed improved detection of objects in occlusion when using the proposed parallel method.

  19. Commercial Function as a Treat to the Monument - 25 Years of Experience in the Commercialization of Monuments in Gdansk, Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratajczyk – Piatkowska, Elzbieta

    2017-10-01

    The principles of the market economy adopted in Poland in the nineties have significantly touched the resources of immovable monuments. As a result, monuments have become a product of culture subject to the rules of the free market; and state ownership, patronage and decision-making practice has now been replaced by private interest. Practical monument use has also changed with the shift in ownership of objects after privatization and further advances in technology and the economy. Accordingly, the subject of this research addresses the issue of ensuring protection as well as the profitability of monumental objects of heritage under private investment in association with municipal and state ownership. The nineties of the twentieth century in Poland marked a period of rapid revival in trade based on market principles and openness to contemporary global trends in the design of commercial facilities. Thus, commercial function as a new use has been used for the commercialization of the monument. After 25 years of experience, it turns out that this new use may pose a threat to the conditions of monument preservation. The spatial and location specifics of the monument are poorly matched to the organizational form of trade and product range, despite the huge variety of these forms; the result is bankruptcy of the commercial operation and the consequent loss of use for the monument. Unused objects will eventually be destroyed. Studies have shown that functions supporting the creation of culture, especially museums, are optimal for the use of monuments. The museum function provides sufficiently high prestige and spatial stability, and allows for the maximum preservation of authentic elements, thus performing an additional role as museum piece.

  20. Geological and Hydrodynamical Examination of the Bathyal Tsunamigenic Origin of Miocene Conglomerates in Chita Peninsula, Central Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachibana, Toru; Tsuji, Yoshinobu

    2011-06-01

    A conglomerate appears on a rocky coast called "Tsubutega-ura Coast", located on the southwestern coast near the southern tip of the Chita Peninsula, Aichi Prefecture, central Japan. The conglomerate belongs to Miocene sedimentary rocks termed the Morozaki Group. The conglomerate includes meter-scale boulders, indicating that it was formed by an extraordinary event. In the geological investigation, we observed that the conglomerate shows alternate changes of paleocurrent directions between seaward and landward. This feature is supposed to be formed by tsunami currents. In the hydrodynamical investigation, we obtained following results: (1) the lowest limit of a current velocity to move a boulder of about 3 m in diameter would be about 2-3 m/s, (2) the speed of tsunami currents reproduced by tsunami simulation exceeds 3 m/s at 300 m in depth when the tsunami is generated by a gigantic earthquake with magnitude 9.0 or more, (3) the transport distance of the boulder would be several hundred meters to several kilometers by one tsunami event caused by a gigantic earthquake. We conclude that tsunamis best explain the formation of the conglomerate deposited in upper bathyal environments about 200-400 m depth, both from geological and hydrodynamical viewpoints.

  1. Restoring and structurally reinforcing historic monuments by glass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oikonomopoulou, F.; Bristogianni, T; Karron, Kaisa; Groot, C.J.W.P.; Veer, F.A.; Nijsse, R.; Zingoni, Alphose

    In this paper a pioneering, transparent restoration methodology is presented, introducing structural glass elements to substitute missing components of damaged monuments and simultaneously reinforce the original structure. To prove the feasibility of the concept, a damaged medieval tower in Toolse,

  2. Casa Grande Ruins National Monument acoustical monitoring 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    During September 2010, The Volpe Center collected baseline acoustical data at Casa Grande National Monument (CAGR), at one site for 28 days. The baseline data collected during this period will help park managers and planners estimate the effects of f...

  3. Comprehensive aerodynamic and dynamic study of independence of ukraine monument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Lebedich

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Comprehensive approach for solution the engineering problems o f creation the high-rise extended pillartype Monument in Kiyv is described. The results o f dynamic tests o f 1:25 scale model and aerodynamictests o f 1:8 scale model o f the Monument in TAD-2 wind tunnel are given. The procedures fordetermination o f actual dynamic characteristics and assurance the efficiency o f damping on the siteare described

  4. Dating ancient monuments by nuclear radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goedicke, C.

    2000-01-01

    In the fifties and sixties several disciplines dealing with chronologies but lacking precise methods of measurements (geology, biology, archaeology and art history) became aware of the radioactive decay as a tool of measuring elapsed time. Among the disciplines that benefit most from physical methods archaeology has to be named first. So was archaeological work revolutionised by the introduction of the C-14 dating method. A wider selection of material became datable after the introduction of luminescence techniques using the effect of nuclear radiation on semiconductors. These minerals are widespread among archaeological materials. In ancient monuments, the objective of this paper, semiconductors almost exclusively form the material basis. Over the last four millennia wood, stone, mortar and fired bricks have been used for the construction of buildings. After discussing methods taking wood as a dating material, a broader view will be given on the results achieved by luminescence dating of fired bricks, mortar and stone. For many years brick dating was performed by thermoluminescence, the recipes followed those of ceramic dating. Preferably multiple aliquot additive dose protocols were used on polymineral fine grain fractions (1-10 μm). It was expected that the error in dating monuments would be smaller compared to ceramic dating, because of the constancy of the environmental conditions which a brick experiences during its lifetime. However, the variability of firing temperatures in brick kilns overthrows this advantage. Therefore, the demands of art historians to fall short of an error margin of 5% could generally not be fulfilled. Especially in medieval or renaissance times the temporal resolution of thermoluminescence is inferior to traditional stylistic dating as long as specific stylistic forms are present. New optical luminescence techniques and a new philosophy of dose evaluation, based on single aliquot regeneration protocols, produce less scatter, and in

  5. Sanitation of cultural monuments - Energy conervation. Energetic improvement of buildings listed as monuments; Kulturdenkmale sanieren - Energie sparen. Energetische Verbesserung denkmalgeschuetzter Gebaeude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-08-15

    The contribution under consideration reports on an energetic improvement of buildings listed as monuments. Substantial aspects are designated which absolutely have to be considered in the energetic sanitation. Depending upon plant (solar thermal power or photovoltaics), dimensions and other design (cell type, colour, reflection) solutions can be found which only insignificantly impair the appearance of the architectural monument. Partners for buildings listed as monument are monument protection authorities. The contribution under consideration also presents an overview of public funding programs.

  6. Activation analysis and classification to source of samples from the Kimberley Reef Conglomerates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, S.E.

    1977-01-01

    Three boreholes were drilled in the west, central, and eastern sections of the Durban Roodepoort Deep Mine, and twelve distinct strata were intersected. Twenty-two samples from the three borehole cores were analysed in triplicate for twenty-six elements, and, including standards, a total of 2000 determinations were made. Statistical analysis of the results obtained for twenty-four elements shows a successful back-classification of 98 per cent, whereas, if the conglomerates or quartzites are treated separately, 100 per cent success is obtained. When the present data are used for classification of the samples from the three cores analysed during the first phase of this project, 100 per cent accuracy of classification is achieved by use of only ten selected elements. The objects of this investigation have therefore been met successfully, and extension to further strata and to sampling beyond the confines of the mine is justified [af

  7. Microdistribution of Thorotrast conglomerates in lymph nodes and radiation exposure of single lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinstraesser, A.; Kemmer, W.; Muth, H.

    1979-01-01

    In Thorotrast patients, chromosome aberrations of lymphocytes from peripheral blood are to be used as a biological dosimeter. To get a significant dose-effect relationship it is necessary to estimate the absorbed dose of a single lymphocyte during its exposure time. In individual cases only average values can be calculated, based on assumptions of special distributions of Thorotrast. At first effects of the size of Thorotrast conglomerates and of their space distribution on the α-radiation dose distribution in their surroundings are described in a model. Then this model is transferred to the real dimensions and the histological structures of lymph nodes bearing Thorotrast. In some individual cases the microdistribution of Thorotrast has been determined in lymph nodes. Some of these results are demonstrated. According to these Thorotrast distributions, calculation of real absorbed dose of lymphocytes are performed. These values can be used for setting up a dose-effect relationship for biological dosimetry

  8. Vascular Plant and Vertebrate Inventory of Chiricahua National Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Brian F.; Schmidt, Cecilia A.; Halvorson, William L.; Anning, Pamela

    2009-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of the first comprehensive inventory of vascular plants and vertebrates at Chiricahua National Monument (NM) in Arizona. This project was part of a larger effort to inventory vascular plants and vertebrates in eight National Park Service units in the Sonoran Desert Network of parks in Arizona and New Mexico. In 2002, 2003, and 2004 we surveyed for plants and vertebrates (amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals) at Chiricahua NM to document the presence of species within the boundaries of the monument. Because we used repeatable study designs and standardized field methods, these inventories can serve as the first step in a biological monitoring program for the monument. This report is also the first summary of previous research from the monument and therefore it provides an important overview of survey efforts to date. We used data from our inventory and previous research to compile complete species lists for the monument and to assess inventory completeness. We recorded a total of 424 species, including 37 not previously found at the monument (Table 1). We found 10 species of non-native plants and one non-native mammal. Most non-native plants were found along the western boundary of the monument. Based on a review of our inventory and past research at the monument, there have been a total of 1,137 species of plants and vertebrates found at the monument. We believe the inventories of vascular plants and vertebrates are nearly complete and that the monument has one of the most complete inventories of any unit in the Sonoran Desert Network. The mammal community at the monument had the highest species richness (69 species) and the amphibian and reptile community was among the lowest species richness (33 species) of any park in the Sonoran Desert Network. Species richness of the plant and bird communities was intermediate. Among the important determinants of species richness for all groups is the geographic location of the monument

  9. Radiation methods in research of ancient monuments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cechak, T.; Gerndt, J.; Kubelik, M.; Musilek, L.; Pavlik, Milan

    2000-01-01

    A 'Laboratory of Quantitative Methods in Monument Research' is being built at the CTU Prague. Its primary orientation is the investigation of historic architecture, although other objects of art can also be investigated. In the first phase, two radiation methods are being established, but it is set up in such a way, that various other methods can readily be added in its future development. The radiation methods chosen for the initial development of the laboratory are: thermoluminescence dating and X-ray fluorescence analysis. The design of the automated TL-reader, built in our laboratories, is adjusted for the purpose of dating of historic brick architecture (which, of course, does not exclude applications for ceramics and other materials). The investigation of renaissance architecture in southern Bohemia and Moravia is under preparation as the first large campaign of this kind in the Czech Republic. Radionuclide X-ray fluorescence analysis has been chosen as the basic analytical method in the laboratory. The possibility of analyses of paintings and fired building materials (bricks, roof tiles) have been investigated. The first results in both the areas are very promising

  10. Accessibility improvement interventions realised in Byzantine monuments of Thessaloniki, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristotelis Naniopoulos

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – Access to culture is a fundamental right of people with disabilities and a significant aspect in the development of accessible tourism. A visit to a monument provides an authentic experience which cannot be substituted by any representation. However, any interventions to improve accessibility should be made carefully, so as not to alter the monument�s character, or damage it visually or structurally. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach – A theoretical approach model was defined in the PROSPELASIS project for the improvement of accessibility in monuments which was applied in Byzantine monuments of Thessaloniki. This approach contains the following steps: evaluation of existing accessibility level; definition of alternative solutions; creation of final studies, approval by archaeological authorities and implementation of interventions. Findings – In six major Byzantine monuments significant improvements were realized which include: installation of two lifts and creation of a new staircase at Acheiropoietos; creation of a metal bridge, a new staircase and installation of a lift at Rotunda; opening of the secondary gate and creation of a ramp at the Heptapyrgion fortress; creation of an accessible toilet at the Saint Demetrios church; installation in the six monuments of a WiFi system providing text and audible information as well as information in Greek and International Sign Language; creation of two tactile models; creation of a �cultural route� connecting three major Byzantine monuments. Originality/value – For the first time, to the knowledge, a set of interventions has been realized in Byzantine monuments focusing on various categories of people with disabilities, i.e. motor, visual, hearing and cognitive.

  11. Social Interest in The Polish Doctrine of Monument Preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoszczyszyn, Marek

    2017-10-01

    The paper discusses a controversy surrounding the latest amendment to the text of the Polish Parliament Act Conservation and the Care of Monuments (2015). It is a common dictum that any edifice cannot exist without good foundations. In this particular case of the mentioned above Act, definition of monument appears to be such a basis. A social interest is one of the constituent elements of the definition mentioned above. In the first part of the paper the notion of the social interest expression has been discussed, particularly from national and international points of view. The second part of the paper comprises some examples from the Polish monument preservation experience with the use of comparison method supported by case study. Only three big Polish cities: Warsaw, Wroclaw and Szczecin are involved in the presented case study but it must be emphasized that many other places on Polish territory experienced the same. Basing on the faith of these cities, the results and discussion chapter proves fundamental discrepancy in social interest notion between national and international scopes using some analytical methods. Finally, in the discussion chapter some proposals for the future amendment of monument definition in the Act of Conservation and the Care of Monuments have been provided.

  12. National Uranium Resource Evaluation. Volume 1. Summary of the geology and uranium potential of Precambrian conglomerates in southeastern Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlstrom, K.E.; Houston, R.S.; Flurkey, A.J.; Coolidge, C.M.; Kratochvil, A.L.; Sever, C.K.

    1981-02-01

    A series of uranium-, thorium-, and gold-bearing conglomerates in Late Archean and Early Proterozoic metasedimentary rocks have been discovered in southern Wyoming. The mineral deposits were found by applying the time and strata bound model for the origin of uranium-bearing quartz-pebble conglomerates to favorable rock types within a geologic terrane known from prior regional mapping. No mineral deposits have been discovered that are of current (1981) economic interest, but preliminary resource estimates indicate that over 3418 tons of uranium and over 1996 tons of thorium are present in the Medicine Bow Mountains and that over 440 tons of uranium and 6350 tons of thorium are present in Sierra Madre. Sampling has been inadequate to determine gold resources. High grade uranium deposits have not been detected by work to date but local beds of uranium-bearing conglomerate contain as much as 1380 ppM uranium over a thickness of 0.65 meters. This project has involved geologic mapping at scales from 1/6000 to 1/50,000 detailed sampling, and the evaluation of 48 diamond drill holes, but the area is too large to fully establish the economic potential with the present information. This first volume summarizes the geologic setting and geologic and geochemical characteristics of the uranium-bearing conglomerates. Volume 2 contains supporting geochemical data, lithologic logs from 48 drill holes in Precambrian rocks, and drill site geologic maps and cross-sections from most of the holes. Volume 3 is a geostatistical resource estimate of uranium and thorium in quartz-pebble conglomerates.

  13. National Uranium Resource Evaluation. Volume 1. Summary of the geology and uranium potential of Precambrian conglomerates in southeastern Wyoming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlstrom, K.E.; Houston, R.S.; Flurkey, A.J.; Coolidge, C.M.; Kratochvil, A.L.; Sever, C.K.

    1981-02-01

    A series of uranium-, thorium-, and gold-bearing conglomerates in Late Archean and Early Proterozoic metasedimentary rocks have been discovered in southern Wyoming. The mineral deposits were found by applying the time and strata bound model for the origin of uranium-bearing quartz-pebble conglomerates to favorable rock types within a geologic terrane known from prior regional mapping. No mineral deposits have been discovered that are of current (1981) economic interest, but preliminary resource estimates indicate that over 3418 tons of uranium and over 1996 tons of thorium are present in the Medicine Bow Mountains and that over 440 tons of uranium and 6350 tons of thorium are present in Sierra Madre. Sampling has been inadequate to determine gold resources. High grade uranium deposits have not been detected by work to date but local beds of uranium-bearing conglomerate contain as much as 1380 ppM uranium over a thickness of 0.65 meters. This project has involved geologic mapping at scales from 1/6000 to 1/50,000 detailed sampling, and the evaluation of 48 diamond drill holes, but the area is too large to fully establish the economic potential with the present information. This first volume summarizes the geologic setting and geologic and geochemical characteristics of the uranium-bearing conglomerates. Volume 2 contains supporting geochemical data, lithologic logs from 48 drill holes in Precambrian rocks, and drill site geologic maps and cross-sections from most of the holes. Volume 3 is a geostatistical resource estimate of uranium and thorium in quartz-pebble conglomerates

  14. The Development of Mobile Application to Introduce Historical Monuments in Manado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markhasi Rupilu Moshe

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Learning the historical value of a monument is important because it preserves cultural and historical values, as well as expanding our personal insight. In Indonesia, particularly in Manado, North Sulawesi, there are many monuments. The monuments are erected for history, religion, culture and past war, however these aren’t written in detail in the monuments. To get information on specific monument, manual search was required, i.e. asking related people or sources. Based on the problem, the development of an application which can utilize LBS (Location Based Service method and some algorithmic methods specifically designed for mobile devices such as Smartphone, was required so that information on every monument in Manado can be displayed in detail using GPS coordinate. The application was developed by KNN method with K-means algorithm and collaborative filtering to recommend monument information to tourist. Tourists will get recommended options filtered by distance. Then, this method was also used to look for the closest monument from user. KNN algorithm determines the closest location by making comparisons according to calculation of longitude and latitude of several monuments tourist wants to visit. With this application, tourists who want to know and find information on monuments in Manado can do them easily and quickly because monument information is recommended directly to user without having to make selection. Moreover, tourist can see recommended monument information and search several monuments in Manado in real time.

  15. The Development of Mobile Application to Introduce Historical Monuments in Manado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupilu, Moshe Markhasi; Suyoto; Santoso, Albertus Joko

    2018-02-01

    Learning the historical value of a monument is important because it preserves cultural and historical values, as well as expanding our personal insight. In Indonesia, particularly in Manado, North Sulawesi, there are many monuments. The monuments are erected for history, religion, culture and past war, however these aren't written in detail in the monuments. To get information on specific monument, manual search was required, i.e. asking related people or sources. Based on the problem, the development of an application which can utilize LBS (Location Based Service) method and some algorithmic methods specifically designed for mobile devices such as Smartphone, was required so that information on every monument in Manado can be displayed in detail using GPS coordinate. The application was developed by KNN method with K-means algorithm and collaborative filtering to recommend monument information to tourist. Tourists will get recommended options filtered by distance. Then, this method was also used to look for the closest monument from user. KNN algorithm determines the closest location by making comparisons according to calculation of longitude and latitude of several monuments tourist wants to visit. With this application, tourists who want to know and find information on monuments in Manado can do them easily and quickly because monument information is recommended directly to user without having to make selection. Moreover, tourist can see recommended monument information and search several monuments in Manado in real time.

  16. INVESTIGATION OF CEMENT CONCRETE CONGLOMERATE SOLIDIFICATION PROCESS BY IMPEDANCE SPECTROSCOPY METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Bandarenka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most prospective directions in preservation  and increase of service live of  road pavements is a construction of  automobile roads with cement concrete surface. Modern tendencies for provision of road construction quality presuppose a necessity to control processes of solidification and subsequent destruction of the material while forming and using cement concrete conglomerate being considered as a basic element of the road surface.  Multiyear practical experience of  automobile road operation using cement concrete pavements reveals an importance for monitoring  such processes as formation and destruction of cement concrete materials. An impedance spectroscopy method has been tried out and proposed as a tool for solution of the given problem.Experimental samples of cement concrete have been prepared for execution of tests, graded silica sand and granite chippings with particle size from 0.63 to 2.5 mm have been used as a fine aggregate in the samples. Dependencies of resistance (impedance on AC-current frequency  have been studied for samples of various nature and granulometric composition. The Gamry  G300 potentiostat has been used for measurement of complex impedance value. A spectrum analysis and calculation of equivalent circuit parameters calculation have been carried out while using EIS Spectrum Analyzer program.Comparison of impedance spectra for the prepared cement concrete samples have made it possible to reveal tendencies in changing spectrum parameters during solidification and subsequent contact with moisture in respect of every type of the sample. An equivalent electrical circuit has been developed that  characterizes physical and chemical processes which are accompanied by charge transfer in cement concrete conglomerate. The paper demonstrates a possibility to use an impedance spectroscopy for solution of a number of actual problems in the field of cement concrete technology problems. Particularly, the problems

  17. 32 CFR 553.21 - Monuments and inscriptions at private expense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of simple design, dignified, and appropriate to a military cemetery. The name of the person(s) or the... maintenance of or damage of the monument. (b) Where a monument has been erected to an individual interred in...

  18. Image based Monument Recognition using Graph based Visual Saliency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalliatakis, Grigorios; Triantafyllidis, Georgios

    2013-01-01

    This article presents an image-based application aiming at simple image classification of well-known monuments in the area of Heraklion, Crete, Greece. This classification takes place by utilizing Graph Based Visual Saliency (GBVS) and employing Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) or Speeded......, the images have been previously processed according to the Graph Based Visual Saliency model in order to keep either SIFT or SURF features corresponding to the actual monuments while the background “noise” is minimized. The application is then able to classify these images, helping the user to better...

  19. Observations of elk movement patterns on Fossil Butte National Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olexa, Edward M.; Soileau, Suzanna Carrithers.; Allen, Leslie A.

    2014-01-01

    The elk herd that frequents Fossil Butte National Monument, a subset of the West Green River elk population, provides visitors with seasonal opportunities to view an iconic species of the western United States. Throughout the year, these elk range across a variety of private, State, and Federal lands within close proximity to the Monument. These lands are managed differently for various uses which can create challenging wildlife-management issues and influence the herd’s seasonal movements and distribution. Research lead by the USGS investigates some of the factors associated with these seasonal changes.

  20. 76 FR 12714 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Marianas Trench Marine National Monument...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-08

    ... culturally significant subsistence, cultural and religious uses within the monument; a program to assess and promote monument-related scientific exploration and research, tourism, and recreational and economic... and research, tourism, and recreational and commercial activities do not degrade the monument's coral...

  1. The job market and temporary work programs. ANalysis of the case of the Greater La Plata conglomerate 2003-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Santa María

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at looking into the job market situation in the Greater La Plata conglomerate, focusing its attention on the implementation of Temporary Work Programs as a clearly passive tool used by the State -especially during the last few decades- to deal with the population's employment issues. Based on the situation that the region presents, the specific situation of the municipality of Berisso which is part of the conglomerate will be looked into, in order to carry out an in-depth analysis of these types of policies' effective implementation forms and strategies on the municipal level. The Permanent Home Survey (EHP - INDEC, information provided by the Municipality and documents on Employment Policies and Programs will be used in order to complete this work.

  2. Monumental heritage exposure to urban black carbon pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrón, D.; Lyamani, H.; Titos, G.; Casquero-Vera, J. A.; Cardell, C.; Močnik, G.; Alados-Arboledas, L.; Olmo, F. J.

    2017-12-01

    In this study, aerosol light-absorption measurements obtained at three sites during a winter campaign were used to analyse and identify the major sources of Black Carbon (BC) particles in and around the Alhambra monument, a UNESCO World Heritage Site that receives over 2 million visitors per year. The Conditional Bivariate Probability Function and the Aethalometer model were employed to identify the main sources of BC particles and to estimate the contributions of biomass burning and fossil fuel emissions to the total Equivalent Black Carbon (EBC) concentrations over the monumental complex. Unexpected high levels of EBC were found at the Alhambra, comparable to those measured in relatively polluted European urban areas during winter. EBC concentrations above 3.0 μg/m3, which are associated with unacceptable levels of soiling and negative public reactions, were observed at Alhambra monument on 13 days from 12 October 2015 to 29 February 2016, which can pose a risk to its long-term conservation and may cause negative social and economic impacts. It was found that road traffic emissions from the nearby urban area and access road to the Alhambra were the main sources of BC particles over the monument. However, biomass burning emissions were found to have very small impact on EBC concentrations at the Alhambra. The highest EBC concentrations were observed during an extended stagnant episode associated with persistent high-pressure systems, reflecting the large impact that can have these synoptic conditions on BC over the Alhambra.

  3. Pärnus avati monument süütusele

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1999-01-01

    Andrus Joonase Pootsi paepäevade raames valminud monument süütusele avati Academia Non Grata teise aastapäeva puhul Lepa kaubamaja ja karja tänava vahelisel alal; autori arvates on hingeline süütus kunstnikule väga tähtis ja Academia Non Grata ainus õppeasutus, kus õpilased seda hoida saavad.

  4. A case study: Death Valley National Monument California-Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel Hamson; Ristau Toni

    1979-01-01

    With passage of the Mining in the Parks Act (P.L. 94-429) in 1976, the National Park Service, Department of the Interior, was given the responsibility of preparing a report to Congress outlining the environmental consequences of mining on claims within Death Valley National Monument. In addition, the Secretary of the Interior is required to formulate a recommendation...

  5. COMPUTER ASSISTED LOOM IN THE REVIVAL OF CONTEMPORARY MONUMENTAL TAPESTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PINTILIE Anca-Aurelia

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The art of tapestry has its basics back in time, probably in the decorations of tent, the house of the nomad. Tapestry in its beginnings is the first wall of the nomad’s home and the decorative wall and canopy in the ancient Greek houses as architect Gottfried Semper stated in the nineteen century. The architectural approach is not unusual even in the next centuries. Tapestry becomes popular as a form of monumental art during the Middle Ages when it is used as decorative architectural element, coating the walls of medieval castles. During the next centuries dominated by decadent styles of baroque, rococo, the tapestry will lose its monumental spirit and architectural quality but at the middle of the XXth century a new approach will sustain the revival of the tapestry as monumental art. Later, in the XXIst century, renowned multimedia artists will approach this medium and will use computer assisted looms in ambitious tapestry projects. This technique will allow them to realize complex and exquisite tapestries, sustaining in this way the revival of the tapestry in the contemporary art world. The paper presents the importance of the architectural side of tapestry and the great achievement that computer assisted loom represents for this form of art. The research activity is willing to inform Romanian textile designers about the possibilities to create tapestries on computer assisted looms. The research was made during the initial stage of a doctoral thesis consisting in a documentary study on monumental aspects of contemporary tapestry.

  6. Vascular Plant and Vertebrate Inventory of Montezuma Castle National Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Cecilia A.; Drost, Charles A.; Halvorson, William Lee

    2006-01-01

    Executive Summary We summarize past inventory efforts for vascular plants and vertebrates at Montezuma Castle National Monument (NM) in Arizona. We used data from previous research to compile complete species lists for the monument and to assess inventory completeness. There have been 784 species recorded at Montezuma Castle NM, of which 85 (11%) are non-native. In each taxon-specific chapter we highlight areas of resources that contributed to species richness or unique species for the monument. Of particular importance are Montezuma Well and Beaver and Wet Beaver creeks and the surrounding riparian vegetation, which are responsible for the monument having one of the highest numbers of bird species in the Sonoran Desert Network of park units. Beaver Creek is also home to populations of federally-listed fish species of concern. Other important resources include the cliffs along the creeks and around Montezuma Well (for cliff and cave roosting bats). Based on the review of past studies, we believe the inventory for most taxa is nearly complete, though some rare or elusive species will be added with additional survey effort. We recommend additional inventory, monitoring and research studies.

  7. The Newest Monument: The Martin Luther King, Jr. National Memorial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Social Studies and the Young Learner, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This article features the newest monument, the Martin Luther King, Jr. National Memorial. The memorial on the National Mall in Washington, D.C., honoring Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. will be an engaging landscape experience to convey four fundamental and recurring themes throughout Dr. King's life--democracy, justice, hope, and love. Natural…

  8. Definition of a magnetic susceptibility of conglomerates with magnetite particles. Particularities of defining single particle susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandulyak, A. A.; Sandulyak, A. V.; Ershova, V.; Pamme, N.; Ngmasom, B.; Iles, A.

    2017-11-01

    Data of a magnetic susceptibility of ferro-and the ferrimagnetic particles of many technogenic, natural, special media are especially demanded for the solution of various tasks connected with purposeful magnetic impact on these particles. One of productive approaches to definition of a magnetic susceptibility χ of these particles consists in receiving experimental data of a susceptibility of disperse samples 〈 χ 〉 with a disperse phase of these particles. The paper expounds and analyses the results of experiments on defining (by Faraday method in a magnetic field with intensity H = 90-730 kA/m) the magnetic susceptibility 〈 χ 〉 of disperse samples (conglomerates) with a given volume ratio γ of magnetite particles (γ = 0.0065-0.25). The corresponding families of concentration and field dependences are provided alongside with discussing the applicability of linear and exponential functions to describe these dependences. We consider the possibility of defining single particles susceptibility χ (with simultaneous obtaining field dependence of this susceptibility) by the commonly used relation χ = 〈 χ 〉 /γ both at relatively small (preferable for accuracy reasons) values γ - to γ = 0.02…0.025, as well as at increased values γ - up to γ = 0.25. The data χ are provided depending on H and correlating with known data at H matter magnetic susceptibility χm (for the case when the particles are traditionally likened to balls with the characteristic for them demagnetising factor equalling 1/3) complies with the anticipated inverse function χm ∼ 1/H in the studied area H (where magnetization M expressed as M = χH reaches saturation M = Const).

  9. Atmospheric Weathering of Historic Monuments and Their Related Conservation Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caner-Saltık Emine N.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric environment affects the materials of historic monuments and their structure starting from the time of their construction. Daily and seasonal changes in temperature and humidity, wind, snow and rainfall, soluble salts carried by water, biological agents, pollutant gases and particulate matter are some of the agents in atmospheric environment that introduce weathering by physical, chemical and biological processes in the materials of the monuments such as natural building stones, bricks, mortars and plasters, mud brick etc. The weathering processes need to be well diagnosed by identification of main mechanisms of decay and major responsible agents, degree and depth of deterioration expressed with measurable parameters of physical, physicomechanical properties, and micro structural changes together with their distribution on the monument. Success of conservation treatments strongly depend on those diagnostic studies and compatibility of the treatments with the deteriorated and relatively sound parts of the historic materials. Current approach to materials conservation is to be able to make minimum intervention to historic material by targeting the conservation treatment to the deteriorated area for the purpose of controlling the deterioration factors and achieving compatible and durable conservation of historical material. In this presentation, two examples of diagnostic research and conservation treatments based on and guided by the diagnostic results are summarized concerning historic stone monuments exposed to atmospheric environment since more than two thousand years. The first example is on the marble walls of Temple of Augustus in Ankara exposed to polluted urban atmosphere. The second example is on the limestone statues of Nemrut Mount Monument in Adıyaman-Turkey, exposed to rural atmosphere with harsh climatic conditions. Finally, a brief discussion on current research issues related to historic materials conservation in

  10. Compositions of stone and stone surface materials of historical monuments from Vidzeme and Zemgale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Actins, A.; Spricis, A.; Zekunde, A.; Nemerova, A.

    2004-01-01

    By means of x-ray analysis composition of stone and stone surface materials of historical monuments from Vidzeme and Zemgale was investigated. Corrosion products of tuffa materials were identified on surfaces of some investigated monuments. Similarity of composition of products of stone corrosion for monuments from Latvia and Poland was recognised. Content of heavy metals at stone materials of historical monuments and at the surface layers of these monuments was investigated by means of atomic absorption and potentiometric stripping methods. Reasons of formation of compounds and pollution of investigated samples were discussed. (full text)

  11. The Monument as Ruin: Natality, Spectrality, and the History of the Image in the Tirana Independence Monument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raino Isto

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the Tirana Independence Monument, first inaugurated in November of 2012 on the hundredth anniversary of Albanian independence from the Ottoman Empire. The monument, designed by Visar Obrija and Kai Roman Kiklas, swiftly fell into disrepair until it was recently renovated in November of 2015. The article analyzes the monument’s function in terms of its doubled existence as a sign of perpetual natality (the possibility of the rebirth of national consciousness and as a ruin with a spectral pseudo-presence (as an object that continually reminds us of the disjunctures that divorce the present from its historicity. It considers the way the monument’s inauguration relates to the politics of monumentality in contemporary Albania, and argues that the monument’s gradual ruination between 2012 and 2015 can be read as a particular manifestation of the history of the image in late capitalist society.Keywords: spectrality, natality, monumentality, Albania, Tirana, independence, national identity, grid, public sculpture

  12. Quartz-pebble-conglomerate gold deposits: Chapter P in Mineral deposit models for resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ryan D.; Anderson, Eric D.

    2018-05-17

    Quartz-pebble-conglomerate gold deposits represent the largest repository of gold on Earth, largely due to the deposits of the Witwatersrand Basin, which account for nearly 40 percent of the total gold produced throughout Earth’s history. This deposit type has had a controversial history in regards to genetic models. However, most researchers conclude that they are paleoplacer deposits that have been modified by metamorphism and hydrothermal fluid flow subsequent to initial sedimentation.The deposits are found exclusively within fault-bounded depositional basins. The periphery of these basins commonly consists of granite-greenstone terranes, classic hosts for lode gold that source the detrital material infilling the basin. The gold reefs are typically located along unconformities or, less commonly, at the top of sedimentary beds. Large quartz pebbles and heavy-mineral concentrates are found associated with the gold. Deposits that formed prior to the Great Oxidation Event (circa 2.4 giga-annum [Ga]) contain pyrite, whereas younger deposits contain iron oxides. Uranium minerals and hydrocarbons are also notable features of some deposits.Much of the gold in these types of deposits forms crystalline features that are the product of local remobilization. However, some gold grains preserve textures that are undoubtedly of detrital origin. Other heavy minerals, such as pyrite, contain growth banding that is truncated along broken margins, which indicates that they were transported into place as opposed to forming by in situ growth in a hydrothermal setting.The ore tailings associated with these deposits commonly contain uranium-rich minerals and sulfides. Oxidation of the sulfides releases sulfuric acid and mobilizes various metals into the environment. The neutralizing potential of the tailings is minimal, since carbonate minerals are rare. The continuity of the tabular ore bodies, such as those of the Witwatersrand Basin, has allowed these mines to be the deepest in

  13. Vascular Plant and Vertebrate Inventory of Tuzigoot National Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Brian F.; Albrecht, E.W.; Halvorson, William Lee; Schmidt, Cecilia A.; Anning, P.; Docherty, K.

    2005-01-01

    Executive Summary From 2002 to 2004, we surveyed for plants and vertebrates (amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals) at Tuzigoot National Monument (NM) and adjacent areas in Arizona. This was the first effort of its kind in the area and was part of a larger effort to inventory vascular plants and vertebrates in eight National Park Service units in Arizona and New Mexico. In addition to our own surveys, we also compiled a complete list of species that have been found by previous studies. We found 330 species, including 142 that had not previously been recorded at the monument (Table 1). We found 39 species of non-native plants, 11 non-native fishes, three non-native birds, and one non-native species each of amphibian and mammal. Based on our work and that of others, there have been 597 species of plants and vertebrates found at the monument. The bird community at the monument had the highest species richness of any national park unit in central and southern Arizona. We found all other taxa to have intermediate species richness compared to other park units in the region. This extraordinary species richness observed for birds, as well as for some other taxa, is due primarily to Tavasci Marsh and the Verde River, two critical sources of perennial water, which provide habitat for many regionally rare or uncommon species. The location of the monument at the northern edge of the Sonoran Desert and at the southern edge of the Mogollon Rim also plays an important role in determining the distribution and community composition of the plant and vertebrate communities. Based on our findings, we believe the high number of non-native species, especially fish and plants, should be of particular management concern. We detail other management challenges, most notably the rapid increase in housing and associated commercial development near the monument, which will continue to impact the plant and vertebrate communities. Based on our data and a review of past studies, we believe the

  14. Coronation Hill U-Au mine, South Alligator Valley, Northern Territory: an epigenetic sandstone-type deposit hosted by debris-flow conglomerate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Needham, R.S.; Stuart-Smith, P.G.

    1987-01-01

    The host rock at the Coronation Hill U-Au mine is a debris flow conglomerate, developed in a high-energy fluvial environment during deposition of the Coronation Sandstone of the El Sherana Group. Mineralisation took place by movement of low-temperature fluids from the U-enriched volcanics into the conduit sandstone and eventually into the reduced debris flow conglomerate and carbonaceous shale

  15. Neolithic Ground Axe-heads and Monuments in Wessex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Field

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available While central southern England is well known for its extant Neolithic monuments and for the fine artefacts recovered from some of its Bronze Age barrows, Neolithic artefacts from the region have received relatively little attention. This might be considered surprising, as the area not only witnessed some of the earliest investigations into the source of materials, notably the Stonehenge bluestones, but it also harbours some of the earliest dated ground axes in the country. This article examines the occurrence and distribution of ground axes found in Wessex when compared to other artefact types, but, more importantly, comparison with the location of extant monuments allows a rather different view of Wessex to emerge. The article will consider the influence of local resources, of flint mines such as those at Durrington, Easton Down and Porton Down in Wiltshire, and the extent and processes by which axes of non-local materials may have been introduced and dispersed across the landscape.

  16. DOCUMENTING LIVING MONUMENTS IN INDONESIA: METHODOLOGY FOR SUSTAINABLE UTILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Suryaningsih

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The systematic documentation of cultural heritage in Indonesia has been developed after the establishment of Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen (1778 and De Oudheidkundige Dienst (1913 by the Netherlands Indies government. After Indonesian independent, the tasks of cultural heritage documentation take over by The Ministry of Culture (now become The Ministry of Education of Culture with focus on the ancient and classical heritage, so called dead monument. The needed of comprehensive documentation data regarding cultural heritage become significant issues since the government and private sector pay attention to the preservation of heritage building in the urban site, so called living monument. The archives of original drawing plan many times do not fit with the existing condition, while the conservation plan demands a document such as built drawing plan to work on. The technology, methodology and system to provide such comprehensive document of heritage building and site become important, to produce good conservation plan and heritage building regular maintenance. It means the products will have a sustainable and various utility values. Since 1994, Documentation Centre for Architecture – Indonesia (PDA, has established to meet the needs of a comprehensive data of heritage building (living monuments, to utilized as basic document for conservation planning. Not only provide document of the digital drawing such site plan, plan, elevation, section and details of architecture elements, but also document of historic research, material analysis and completed with diagnosis and mapping of building damages. This manuscript is about PDA field experience, working in this subject issue

  17. Documenting Living Monuments in Indonesia: Methodology for Sustainable Utility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryaningsih, F.; Purwestri, N.

    2013-07-01

    The systematic documentation of cultural heritage in Indonesia has been developed after the establishment of Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen (1778) and De Oudheidkundige Dienst (1913) by the Netherlands Indies government. After Indonesian independent, the tasks of cultural heritage documentation take over by The Ministry of Culture (now become The Ministry of Education of Culture) with focus on the ancient and classical heritage, so called dead monument. The needed of comprehensive documentation data regarding cultural heritage become significant issues since the government and private sector pay attention to the preservation of heritage building in the urban site, so called living monument. The archives of original drawing plan many times do not fit with the existing condition, while the conservation plan demands a document such as built drawing plan to work on. The technology, methodology and system to provide such comprehensive document of heritage building and site become important, to produce good conservation plan and heritage building regular maintenance. It means the products will have a sustainable and various utility values. Since 1994, Documentation Centre for Architecture - Indonesia (PDA), has established to meet the needs of a comprehensive data of heritage building (living monuments), to utilized as basic document for conservation planning. Not only provide document of the digital drawing such site plan, plan, elevation, section and details of architecture elements, but also document of historic research, material analysis and completed with diagnosis and mapping of building damages. This manuscript is about PDA field experience, working in this subject issue

  18. Cross-sector diversification in financial conglomerates: simulations with a fair-value assets and liabilities model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob A. Bikker

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Risk diversification is one of the many reasons for cross-sector mergers of financialinstitutes. This paper presents a fair-value type asset and liability model in order to identify diversification effects for financial conglomerates (PCs under various shocks. My analysis for the Netherlands reveals that diversification effects on PCs of especially interest rate shocks are very strong. In principle, substantial diversificationeffects argue for lower capital requirements for PCs. However, there are other non-negligible risks run by PCs to consider, namely contagion risk, regulatory arbitrage andcross-sector and TBTF moral hazard risks, which have not yet been quantified.

  19. Three-Dimensional Recording of Bastion Middleburg Monument Using Terrestrial Laser Scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majid, Z.; Lau, C. L.; Yusoff, A. R.

    2016-06-01

    This paper describes the use of terrestrial laser scanning for the full three-dimensional (3D) recording of historical monument, known as the Bastion Middleburg. The monument is located in Melaka, Malaysia, and was built by the Dutch in 1660. This monument serves as a major hub for the community when conducting commercial activities in estuaries Malacca and the Dutch build this monument as a control tower or fortress. The monument is located on the banks of the Malacca River was built between Stadhuys or better known as the Red House and Mill Quayside. The breakthrough fort on 25 November 2006 was a result of the National Heritage Department through in-depth research on the old map. The recording process begins with the placement of measuring targets at strategic locations around the monument. Spherical target was used in the point cloud data registration. The scanning process is carried out using a laser scanning system known as a terrestrial scanner Leica C10. This monument was scanned at seven scanning stations located surrounding the monument with medium scanning resolution mode. Images of the monument have also been captured using a digital camera that is setup in the scanner. For the purposes of proper registration process, the entire spherical target was scanned separately using a high scanning resolution mode. The point cloud data was pre-processed using Leica Cyclone software. The pre-processing process starting with the registration of seven scan data set through overlapping spherical targets. The post-process involved in the generation of coloured point cloud model of the monument using third-party software. The orthophoto of the monument was also produced. This research shows that the method of laser scanning provides an excellent solution for recording historical monuments with true scale of and texture.

  20. Thoughts about uranium-bearing quartz-pebble conglomerates: a summary of ideas presented at the workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, B.J.

    1981-01-01

    A summation of papers given at the Workshop on the Genesis of Uranium- and Gold-Bearing Precambrian Quartz-Pebble Conglomerates held at Golden, Colorado, on October 13-15, 1975, is presented. Seven pertinent topics, chosen by the author, are compiled from the several papers and are critically discussed. The time of formation of these deposits is between 3- and 2-billion years ago. The uraniferous conglomerates appear to be of fluvial origin and the known uranium reserves are plotted along an idealized fluviatile system. The source areas for the placers are related to 3 billion year old granites, greenstones and metamorphic rocks of the cratons - these most probably were located paleogeographically in a polar region. The role of diagenesis in the formation of uranium ores is discussed with respect to oxygen content of Precambrian atmospheres and of subsurface waters. The effect of subsequent metamorphism and recrystallization upon indigenous pyrites and kerogen is related. Finally characteristics of known uranium deposits are correlated to suggest a strategy to be employed while prospecting for undiscovered uranium ores. (DT)

  1. The clasts of Cretaceous marls in the conglomerates of the Konradsheim Formation (Pöchlau quarry, Gresten Klippen Zone, Austria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ślączka, Andrzej; Gasiñski, M. Adam; Bąk, Marta; Wessely, Godfrid

    2009-04-01

    Investigations were carried out on foraminiferids and radiolaria from redeposited clasts within the conglomerates of the Konradsheim Formation (Gresten Klippen Zone) in the area of the Pöchlau hill, east of Maria Neustift. These shales and marls are of Middle to Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous age. In the latter clasts, foraminiferal assemblages with Tritaxia ex gr. gaultina as well as radiolaria species Angulobracchia portmanni Baumgartner, Dictyomitra communis (Squinabol), Hiscocapsa asseni (Tan), Pseudodictyomitra lodogaensis Pessagno, Pseudoeucyrtis hanni (Tan), Rhopalosyringium fossile (Squinabol) were found. In one block from the uppermost part of the sequence there is an assemblage with Caudammina (H) gigantea, Rotalipora appenninica and Globotruncana bulloides. However, the brecciated character of this block and occurrence near a fault suggest that it was probably wedged into the conglomerates of the Konradsheim Formation during tectonic movements. In pelitic siliceous limestones below the Konradsheim Limestone radiolarian assemblages of Middle Callovian to Early Tithonian age were found. They enable correlation with the Scheibbsbach Formation. In a marly sequence, above the conglomeratic limestone, the foraminiferal assemblages contain taxa from mid-Cretaceous up to Paleocene. The present biostratigraphic investigation confirmed the previous stratigraphic assignments and imply clearly that the sedimentation of deposits similar to the Konradsheim Formation also occurred at the end of the Early Cretaceous and deposition of conglomeratic limestones within the Gresten Klippen Zone, and especially within the Konradsheim Formation, was repeated several times during the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous.

  2. Vascular Plant and Vertebrate Inventory of Tonto National Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Eric W.; Powell, Brian F.; Halvorson, William L.; Schmidt, Cecilia A.

    2007-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of the first biological inventory of plants and vertebrates at Tonto National Monument (NM). From 2001 to 2003, we surveyed for vascular plants and vertebrates (amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals) at Tonto NM to record species presence. We focused most of our efforts along the Cave Springs riparian area, but surveyed other areas as well. We recorded 149 species in the riparian area, and 369 species overall in the monument, including 65 plant species and four bird species that were previously unrecorded for the monument. We recorded 78 plant species in the riparian area that previous studies had not indicated were present there. Several species of each taxonomic group were found only in the riparian area, suggesting that because of their concentration in this small area these populations are vulnerable to disturbance and may be of management concern. Four of the bird species that we recorded (Bell's vireo, yellow warbler, summer tanager, and Abert's towhee) have been identified as riparian 'obligate' species by other sources. Bird species that are obligated to riparian areas are targets of conservation concern due to widespread degradation of riparian areas in the desert southwest over the last century. The flora and fauna of the riparian area would benefit from continued limited public access. The dependence of the riparian area on the spring and surface flow suggests monitoring of this resource per se would benefit management of the riparian area's flora and fauna as well. The monument would benefit from incorporating monitoring protocols developed by the Sonoran Desert Network Inventory and Monitoring program rather than initiating a separate program for the riparian area. Park managers can encourage the Inventory and Monitoring program to address the unique monitoring challenges presented by small spatial areas such as this riparian area, and can request specific monitoring recommendations. We suggest that repeat

  3. Gypsum-induced decay in granite monuments in Northwestern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Hermo, B.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the most common forms of decay in granite monuments is the detachment of the superficial layer of the stone (plaques, plaquettes and scales. Previous studies of granite monuments in the northwest Iberian Peninsula revealed a direct relation between this type of weathering and the presence of calcium sulphate, and a mechanism whereby the salt causes this type of decay was suggested. In the present study, various hypotheses as regards the origin of the gypsum found in granite monuments are proposed. The study involved analysis of the contents of ions soluble in water, the results of X-ray diffraction analyses and the ratios of CaO/SO3 in samples of stone, mortar and deposits collected from different monuments. It was concluded that in most cases the gypsum originated from old paintworks or/and from the joint mortars, although inputs from other sources cannot be discounted, as discussed

    Una de las formas de deterioro más frecuente en los monumentos graníticos es la separación de la capa superficial de la piedra (placas, plaquetas y escamas. En trabajos anteriores centrados en monumentos del noroeste de la Península Ibérica, se constató la relación directa entre esta forma de alteración y la presencia de sulfato de calcio y se propuso el mecanismo a través del cual esta sal provoca este tipo de deterioro. En este trabajo se plantean varias hipótesis acerca del origen del yeso encontrado en monumentos graníticos. Para ello se comparan los contenidos de iones solubilizados en agua, los resultados de difracción de rayos X y las relaciones OCa/SO3 de muestras de piedra, morteros y depósitos recogidas en diferentes monumentos. Se llega a la conclusión de que en la mayor parte de los casos el yeso procede de antiguas pinturas o de revestimientos superficiales y de los morteros de juntas entre sillares, pero no se puede descartar la contribución de otros aportes, los cuales se discuten también en este artículo.

  4. Le Case Dureranno Meno di Noi : on the paradox of a monumental futurist cityscape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jenniskens, D.P.H.; van der Westerlaken, M.F.A.

    This essay, accompanying the reprint of J.J.P. Oud's 'The Monumental Cityscape', briefly assesses the lasting value of this small ‘manifesto’, by reflecting upon Oud’s idea of monumentality and by placing his thoughts in the wider context of early twentieth-century architectural avant-garde in

  5. Selected caves and lava-tube systems in and near Lava Beds National Monument, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Aaron Clement; Donnelly-Nolan, Julie M.; Rogers, Bruce W.

    1990-01-01

    Lava Beds National Monument (fig. 1) lies on the north slope of the huge Medicine Lake shield (fig. 2), a complex volcanic edifice of greater volume than the steep-sided Mount Shasta volcanic cone, which towers as a snowclad land mark 40 mi southwest of the monument (fig. 3).

  6. Investigation of the conservation-treatment methods of the Dutch National Monument : The role of microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larbi, J.A.; Hees, R.P.J. van

    1999-01-01

    The Dutch National Monument in Amsterdam, a World War-II memorial structure, was built with an outer face consisting of slabs of travertine. In 1995, the masonry structure forming the core of the monument showed severe deterioration. In order to determine the actual cause of deterioration and to

  7. Microscopical examination of the effectiveness of conservation-treatment methods of the National Monument in Amsterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larbi, J.A.; Hees, R.P.J. van

    1999-01-01

    The Dutch National Monument in Amsterdam, a World War-II memorial structure, was built with an outer face consisting of slabs of travertine. In 1995, the masonry structure forming the core of the monument showed severe deterioration. In order to determine the actual cause of deterioration and to

  8. Vascular Plant and Vertebrate Inventory of Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Cecilia A.; Powell, Brian F.; Halvorson, William L.

    2007-01-01

    Executive Summary We summarized inventory and monitoring efforts for plants and vertebrates at Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument (NM) in Arizona. We used data from previous research to compile complete species lists for the monument and to assess inventory completeness. There have been 1,031 species of plants and vertebrates observed at the monument. Most of the species on the list are documented by voucher specimens. There are 59 non-native species established in the monument: one mammal, three birds, and 55 non-native plants. Most non-native plant species were first recorded along roads. In each taxon-specific chapter, we highlight areas that contribute disproportionately to species richness or that have unique species for the monument. Of particular importance are Quitobaquito Springs and Pond, which are responsible for the monument having one of the highest number of bird species in the Sonoran Desert Network of parks. Quitobaquito also contains the only fish in the monument, the endangered Quitobaquito pupfish (Cyprinodon eremus). Other important resources for the plants and vertebrates include the xeroriparian washes (e.g., Alamo Canyon) and the Ajo Mountains. Based on the review of past studies, we believe the inventories of vascular plants and vertebrates are nearly complete and that the monument has one of the most complete inventories of any unit in the Sonoran Desert Network.

  9. Chronological studies of the Arzhan-2 Scythian monument in Tuva (Russia).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaitseva, GI; Chugunov, KV; Dergachev, VA; Nagler, A; Parzinger, G; Scott, EM; Sementsov, AA; Vasiliev, S; van Geel, B; van der Plicht, J; Lebedeva, LM

    2004-01-01

    The first radiocarbon dates from the unique early Scythian monument Arzhan-2, discovered in 2001, are presented. The monument contained a royal burial (grave nr 5). Unfortunately, precise dating is hampered by the Hallstatt plateau in the calibration curve. However, using both accelerator mass

  10. 76 FR 18773 - Marianas Trench Marine National Monument, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, et al...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-05

    ... during public scoping. Climate change impacts and adaptation. Marine debris impacts and removal. Invasive..., related marine resources and species, and conservation efforts. Traditional access to the Monument by... activities do not degrade the Monument's coral reef ecosystem or related marine resources or species, or...

  11. The straight line hypothesis elaborated: case reference obesity, an argument for acidosis, oxidative stress, and disease conglomeration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkemeyer, Shoma

    2010-07-01

    Studies report on the association between obesity and oxidative stress, with and without additional diseases. Macrophages in adipocytes, and hypoxia in adipose tissue have been suggested to explain how obesity can relate to oxidative stress. The straight line hypothesis using the lactic acid trap construct has been put forward to explain how proton imbalance can relate to obesity. Proton imbalance has been also reported to associate with the production of reactive oxygen species by inhibition of mitochondrial energy production. This review brings together existing literature and concepts to explain how obesity can relate to oxidative stress via protons, uniquely for itself or, as often observed, in conglomeration of additional diseases. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. X-ray analysis of pigments on ancient Egyptian monuments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uda, M.; Sassa, S.; Yoshioka, T.

    1999-01-01

    Ancient pigments were analyzed using PIXE and XRD methods in the laboratory, which were painted on ancient Egyptian monuments. On the other hand, those on monuments remaining with entire shape were investigated using the hand-held type of an XRF spectrometer and an X-ray diffractometer in the field. For the laboratory experiment, several wall fragments of the Malqata palace in ancient Egypt (18th Dynasty, ca. 1390 B.C.) were investigated. In the field experiment, the block of Ramesses II (19th Dynasty, ca. 1270 B.C.), the Wooden Coffin of Neb-sny (18th Dynasty, ca. 1400 B.C.), the Funerary Stele of Amenemhat (11th Dynasty, ca. 2000 B.C.), and the painted walls of the Tomb of Userhat (18th Dynasty, ca. 1400 B.C.) were investigated. From white and blue colored parts, huntite and Egyptian blue were found, respectively, which are a very rare mineral and an artificial pigment prepared only in ancient Egypt, respectively. (author)

  13. X-ray analysis of pigments on ancient Egyptian monuments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uda, M.; Sassa, S.; Yoshioka, T. [Waseda Univ., Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tokyo (JP)] [and others

    1999-07-01

    Ancient pigments were analyzed using PIXE and XRD methods in the laboratory, which were painted on ancient Egyptian monuments. On the other hand, those on monuments remaining with entire shape were investigated using the hand-held type of an XRF spectrometer and an X-ray diffractometer in the field. For the laboratory experiment, several wall fragments of the Malqata palace in ancient Egypt (18th Dynasty, ca. 1390 B.C.) were investigated. In the field experiment, the block of Ramesses II (19th Dynasty, ca. 1270 B.C.), the Wooden Coffin of Neb-sny (18th Dynasty, ca. 1400 B.C.), the Funerary Stele of Amenemhat (11th Dynasty, ca. 2000 B.C.), and the painted walls of the Tomb of Userhat (18th Dynasty, ca. 1400 B.C.) were investigated. From white and blue colored parts, huntite and Egyptian blue were found, respectively, which are a very rare mineral and an artificial pigment prepared only in ancient Egypt, respectively. (author)

  14. 78 FR 12781 - Notice of Availability of the Ironwood Forest National Monument Record of Decision and Approved...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-25

    ... identified as Monument objects in the Proclamation. The Arizona State Director signed the ROD on February 19... motorized vehicle use. Guidance for management of the Monument access route network is provided, and a... of Monument objects while allowing authorized uses, recreation activities, and scientific studies...

  15. Monumental and domestic architecture in Contestania | Arquitectura monumental y arquitectura doméstica en la Contestania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feliciana Sala Sellés

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we consider a group of buildings whose dimensions, internal distribution and constructive characteristics allow their qualification as privileged residences, with a possible palatial function. Their domestic character is joined by that of social representation in the framework of the Iberian urban layout, so we could find the Contestan examples of a monumental domestic architecture. Finally, this analysis leads us to several social and political considerations that explain the appearance of these buildings in the south-east of the Iberian Peninsula at the end of the VI Century BC. | En este trabajo se toma en consideración un conjunto de edificios cuyas dimensiones, distribución interna y características constructivas permiten su calificación como residencias privilegiadas, con una posible función palacial. A su condición doméstico se añade la de representación social en el marco de la trama urbana ibérica, de manera que se podría ver en ellos los ejemplos contestanos de una arquitectura monumental doméstica. Finalmente, dicho análisis nos conduce a una serie de consideraciones sociales y políticas que explican la aparición de estos edificios en el Sureste peninsular a fines del s. VI a.C.

  16. X-ray fluorescence in research on Czech cultural monuments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cechak, T.; Gerndt, J.; Kopecka, I.; Musilek, L.

    2004-01-01

    Radionuclide X-ray fluorescence analysis (RXRFA), as a non-destructive method, relatively simple and allowing measurements to be carried out in situ, is an excellent tool in research on various objects of art. A range of artefacts have been investigated by our laboratory, in part for the purposes of history of art and in part as a basis for restoration works - medieval frescoes in some Czech castles and churches, metal sculptures and objects of applied art, paints and inks of old manuscripts, paintings. Some of these are among the most valuable monuments in the Czech cultural heritage. The contribution of the results of the tests to the investigation of their 'life story' and, in some cases, to their conservation, is not negligible. Later additions and repairs can be recognised, and materials and technologies that are close to their historic counterparts can be used in restoration work

  17. Public works: Building a Monument to Modern Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anayvelyse Allen-Mossman

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the relationship between the project of modernity and urbanism has been key to understanding the city of Buenos Aires’ material transformations throughout the 20th century. This paper considers how thinking about the issues of modernity and urbanism from the perspective of monuments--namely, the Obelisk of Buenos Aires--sheds new light on how elements of this modernizing project were undertaken and how its material markers have been used and manipulated, and modified through their representation in cultural discourse on the city. Rethinking Buenos Aires from the Obelisk implies literally thinking from underground, from the subway lines that form its base and transform it into a popular symbol of mobility.

  18. Monuments deterioration evaluation, using digited images. A methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel, María C.

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work a methodology is proposed for data processing, integrating the techniques of digital images processing and the analytical capacity of graphical referencing systems and relational databases, in relation with the monuments. The images are generated using the digital image processing and they are included into a graphical data processing systems associated with a database containing the characteristics of the ashars or constituent elements. By combination of the images with the database induced properties the information is processed. The results are thematic maps that we save such as images. These maps are layers of new information (deduced levels. The elaboration of these maps allows attacking the problems of the restoration, renovation or treatment of the different monumental spaces on a global way, paying special attention on the most gravely affected areas.

    En este trabajo se propone una metodología para el tratamiento de la información, integrando las técnicas de proceso digital de imágenes, la capacidad de análisis de los sistemas de referenciación gráfica y las bases de datos relacionales, referidas a monumentos. Para ello se elaboran las imágenes base por algoritmos propios del proceso digital, incluyendo aquellas en una aplicación especifica que asocia cada capa a una base de datos con las propiedades petrofísicas, hídricas, etc., o bien entre si, dando lugar a mapas temáticos. La generación de estos mapas permite abordar los problemas de restauración, rehabilitación o tratamiento de los diferentes espacios monumentales de forma global, con incidencia especial en las zonas más afectadas.

  19. Development of cataclastic foliation in deformation bands in feldspar-rich conglomerates of the Rio do Peixe Basin, NE Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicchio, Matheus A.; Nogueira, Francisco C. C.; Balsamo, Fabrizio; Souza, Jorge A. B.; Carvalho, Bruno R. B. M.; Bezerra, Francisco H. R.

    2018-02-01

    In this work we describe the deformation mechanisms and processes that occurred during the evolution of cataclastic deformation bands developed in the feldspar-rich conglomerates of the Rio do Peixe Basin, NE Brazil. We studied bands with different deformation intensities, ranging from single cm-thick tabular bands to more evolved clustering zones. The chemical identification of cataclastic material within deformation bands was performed using compositional mapping in SEM images, EDX and XRD analyses. Deformation processes were identified by microstructural analysis and by the quantification of comminution intensity, performed using digital image processing. The deformation bands are internally non homogeneous and developed during five evolutionary stages: (1) moderate grain size reduction, grain rotation and grain border comminution; (2) intense grain size reduction with preferential feldspar fragmentation; (3) formation of subparallel C-type slip zones; (4) formation of S-type structures, generating S-C-like fabric; and (5) formation of C‧-type slip zones, generating well-developed foliation that resembles S-C-C‧-type structures in a ductile environment. Such deformation fabric is mostly imparted by the preferential alignment of intensely comminuted feldspar fragments along thin slip zones developed within deformation bands. These processes were purely mechanical (i.e., grain crushing and reorientation). No clays or fluids were involved in such processes.

  20. Monitoring the fall of large atmospheric ice conglomerations: a multianalytical approach to the study of the Mejorada del Campo megacryometeor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orellana, Francisco Alamilla; Alegre, José Ma Ramiro; Cordero Pérez, José Carlos; Martín Redondo, Ma Paz; Delgado Huertas, Antonio; Fernández Sampedro, Ma Teresa; Menor-Salván, César; Ruiz-Bermejo, Marta; López-Vera, Fernando; Rodríguez-Losada, José A; Martinez-Frias, Jesus

    2008-04-01

    Certain local atmospheric anomalies, such as the formation of unusually large ice conglomerations (megacryometeors), have been proposed to be a potential natural hazard for people and aviation, as well as geoindicators for fingerprinting larger-scale atmospheric environmental changes. On March 13th 2007, at approximately 10:15 am, an ice chunk weighing about 10 kg fell from the clear-sky and crashed through the roof (around 15 m) of an industrial storage house in Mejorada del Campo, a town located 20 km east from Madrid. The megacryometeor monitoring follow-up and the original investigation presented here includes, for the first time, both logistic and scientific collaboration between the Laboratory of the Environment, Criminalistic Service (SECRIM, the Spanish "Guardia Civil") and academic and scientific institutions (universities and the Spanish National Research Council). We propose that the management procedure of the incident, along with the detailed scientific research and combination of analytical methodologies in different laboratories, can serve as a protocol model for other similar events.

  1. Photocatalytic degradation of clofibric acid, carbamazepine and iomeprol using conglomerated TiO2 and activated carbon in aqueous suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegmann, Markus; Frimmel, Fritz H

    2010-01-01

    The combination of powdered activated carbon (PAC) and TiO(2) has been tested for synergistic/antagonistic effects in the photocatalytic degradation of carbamazepine, clofibric acid and iomeprol. Synergistic effects are thought to be caused by rapid adsorption on the PAC surface followed by diffusion to the TiO(2) surface and photocatalytic degradation. The Freundlich constant K(F) was used for comparing the sorption properties of the three substances and it was found that K(F) for clofibric acid was 3 times lower than for carbamazepine and iomeprol, regardless of the kind of PAC used. A PAC with a distinct tendency to form conglomerates was selected so that a high percentage of the PAC surface was in direct proximity to the TiO(2) surface. The photocatalytic degradation of the pharmaceutically active compounds studied followed pseudo-first order kinetics. Synergistic effects only occurred for clofibric acid (factor 1.5) and an inverse relationship between adsorption affinity and synergistic effects was found. High affinity of the target substances to the PAC surface seemed to be counterproductive for the photocatalytic degradation.

  2. Classification and recognition of the heritage values of the monuments of Tlemcen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walid Hamma

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The first classification of historic monuments of Tlemcen dates from 1900 and the last from 2010. The 82 monuments date back to the Berber, Muslim and Roman eras. After the independence of Algeria, the French colonial heritage is not concerned by the rankings. They were removed from the list of monuments that was established by the French before 1962. The historic city of Tlemcen dates from the year 201 AD and features many old buildings. The latest ranking list does not reflect the architectural richness of this city. We then asked about the possibility of classifying the other historic buildings. From this questioning, we first identified all cultural goods which could be classified. Then we have evaluated these buildings following a grid of 20 heritage values. They are mentioned in the national and international legislation. It turns out that only 1.57 % of monuments of this city are classified.

  3. DEGRADATION WORKS OF MONUMENTAL ART CAST BRONZE UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delia NICA-BADEA

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Intensive pollution, combined with the lack of conservation of monuments exposed to these environments make the main cause of deterioration of cultural objects to atmospheric corrosion metal. This paper proposes a study of the main factors leading to degradation Bronze alloy, cast bronze monuments exposed to open atmosphere: corrosive environmental factors, stability and products of corrosion of bronze. In general, all corrosion products present on a metal surface are indicated as 'skate', can be composed of single-layer or multilayer products. The paper also includes a case study on the influence of environmental factors on degradation Matthias monument statue in Cluj-Napoca, Romania. Visual inspection of the monument informs us that have white spots, gray, reddish not consistent with the base color green patina, surfaces showing depigmentation, the rain washed areas, crystallization, deposition of air-borne particles.

  4. 78 FR 18777 - Establishment of the Charles Young Buffalo Soldiers National Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... father's military service as a Union soldier during the Civil War, and he heeded his father's advice by... appropriation; however, the monument shall be the dominant reservation. Warning is hereby given to all...

  5. Pullman transportation plan : a transportation and access plan for Pullman National Monument and the surrounding neighborhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    The Pullman Transportation Plan provides a holistic set of recommendations to improve access to and from Pullman National Monument and its surrounding neighborhoods for both visitors and residents. In this plan, we identify short-, medium-, and long-...

  6. Microchemical identification of macael white marble in some spanish monuments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bello, M. A.

    1992-03-01

    Full Text Available The white marble from Macael quarries (Almería, Spain has been identified in some monuments of the Southern of Spain; the use of other white marble types has also been confirmed. The microchemical identification has been carried out by means a previously described graphical method (Bello and Martín,1991. Fourteen trace elements have been analyzed from both quarry and building material samples by using atomic absorption and flame emission spectrometry in order to apply the enrichment diagrams for trace elements (EDTE for identification purposes.

    Ha sido confirmado el empleo del mármol blanco procedente de las canteras de Macael (Almería en varios monumentos del Sur de España; también se ha constatado el empleo de otros tipos de mármol blanco. La identificación del mármol de Macael mediante técnicas microquícas ha sido realizada mediante un método gráfico propuesto por los autores (1. Han sido analizados catorce elementos traza en las muestras de cantera y de los edificios mediante espectrofotometría de absorción atómica y de emisión de llama, al objeto de construir los diagramas de enriquecimiento de elementos traza (EDTE, con fines de identificación.

  7. Seismic and Restoration Assessment of Monumental Masonry Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis G. Asteris

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Masonry structures are complex systems that require detailed knowledge and information regarding their response under seismic excitations. Appropriate modelling of a masonry structure is a prerequisite for a reliable earthquake-resistant design and/or assessment. However, modelling a real structure with a robust quantitative (mathematical representation is a very difficult, complex and computationally-demanding task. The paper herein presents a new stochastic computational framework for earthquake-resistant design of masonry structural systems. The proposed framework is based on the probabilistic behavior of crucial parameters, such as material strength and seismic characteristics, and utilizes fragility analysis based on different failure criteria for the masonry material. The application of the proposed methodology is illustrated in the case of a historical and monumental masonry structure, namely the assessment of the seismic vulnerability of the Kaisariani Monastery, a byzantine church that was built in Athens, Greece, at the end of the 11th to the beginning of the 12th century. Useful conclusions are drawn regarding the effectiveness of the intervention techniques used for the reduction of the vulnerability of the case-study structure, by means of comparison of the results obtained.

  8. Radioactivity in fossils at the Hagerman Fossil Beds National Monument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, C Neal; Kathren, Ronald L; Christensen, Craig

    2008-08-01

    Since 1996, higher than background levels of naturally occurring radioactivity have been documented in both fossil and mineral deposits at Hagerman Fossil Beds National Monument in south-central Idaho. Radioactive fossil sites occur primarily within an elevation zone of 900-1000 m above sea level and are most commonly found associated with ancient river channels filled with sand. Fossils found in clay rich deposits do not exhibit discernable levels of radioactivity. Out of 300 randomly selected fossils, approximately three-fourths exhibit detectable levels of natural radioactivity ranging from 1 to 2 orders of magnitude above ambient background levels when surveyed with a portable hand held Geiger-Muller survey instrument. Mineral deposits in geologic strata also show above ambient background levels of radioactivity. Radiochemical lab analysis has documented the presence of numerous natural radioactive isotopes. It is postulated that ancient groundwater transported radioactive elements through sand bodies containing fossils which precipitated out of solution during the fossilization process. The elevated levels of natural radioactivity in fossils may require special precautions to ensure that exposures to personnel from stored or displayed items are kept as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA).

  9. Seismic and Restoration Assessment of Monumental Masonry Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asteris, Panagiotis G.; Douvika, Maria G.; Apostolopoulou, Maria; Moropoulou, Antonia

    2017-01-01

    Masonry structures are complex systems that require detailed knowledge and information regarding their response under seismic excitations. Appropriate modelling of a masonry structure is a prerequisite for a reliable earthquake-resistant design and/or assessment. However, modelling a real structure with a robust quantitative (mathematical) representation is a very difficult, complex and computationally-demanding task. The paper herein presents a new stochastic computational framework for earthquake-resistant design of masonry structural systems. The proposed framework is based on the probabilistic behavior of crucial parameters, such as material strength and seismic characteristics, and utilizes fragility analysis based on different failure criteria for the masonry material. The application of the proposed methodology is illustrated in the case of a historical and monumental masonry structure, namely the assessment of the seismic vulnerability of the Kaisariani Monastery, a byzantine church that was built in Athens, Greece, at the end of the 11th to the beginning of the 12th century. Useful conclusions are drawn regarding the effectiveness of the intervention techniques used for the reduction of the vulnerability of the case-study structure, by means of comparison of the results obtained. PMID:28767073

  10. Mountains, Monuments, and other Matter: Environmental Affects at Manzanar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladino, Jennifer K.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This essay investigates the natural landscapes and built structures at the Manzanar National Historic Site, the first of ten incarceration camps to open in 1941 and a temporary home for over 11,000 Japanese Americans. Using former incarceree Jeanne Wakatsuki Houston’s writing as a touchstone, my essay foregrounds the environmental features of the (relocation: the extreme desert weather, the mountain vistas, the incarceree-created rock gardens, the reconstructed barracks, guard tower, and barbed wire fence, and the cemetery/monument. I bring together concepts from ecocriticism and from affect theory—particularly Ben Anderson’s “affective atmospheres,” Sianne Ngai’s “tone,” and Sara Ahmed’s characterization of affect as “sticky”—and develop the notion of affective agency to describe the impacts generated by environments and objects at this national memory site. I assess how the visual and written rhetoric at the site addresses what I call an implied tourist, and I show how powerful emotions of shame, anger, grief, and compassion—and sometimes, mixed, even contradictory, affects—are not only represented in visual and written rhetoric but are also, in a sense, communicated by the environment itself. More broadly, I suggest that ecocritical theory brings a useful lens to discussions of public memory, and that affect theory helps account for the less tangible, visceral, experiences visitors have at Manzanar and other fraught historical sites, as well as within our everyday environments.

  11. Phase II, Title I engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings, Monument Valley site, Monument Valley, Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    An engineering assessment was made of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at the Monument Valley millsite in Arizona. The Phase II, Title I services include the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and other radium-contaminated materials, the evaluation of resulting radiation exposures of individuals residing nearby, the investigation of site hydrology and meteorology and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas release from the tailings on the site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation are also factors. The sparse population and relatively low radiation levels yield minimal immediate environmental impact; hence, the two alternative actions presented are directed towards restricting access to the site and returning the windblown tailings to the pile and stabilizing the pile. Both options include remedial action costs for offsite locations where tailings have been placed. Cost estimates for the two options are $585,000 and $1,165,000

  12. Reconnaissance Report of Damage to Historic Monuments in Cairo, Egypt Following the October 12, 1992 Dahshur Earthquake

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sykora, D

    1993-01-01

    .... Damage to historic monuments can be generally described as having resulted from the continuous degradation of foundation and structural masonry from environmental effects, especially groundwater...

  13. Activities of the Volgograd Branch of All-Russian Society for Protection of Historical and Cultural Monuments on the Protection of Labour Glory Monuments of the Soviet People in the 1970s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filatov Dmitriy N.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the causes and origins of the all-Russian society for protection of monuments of history and culture. On the basis of archival documents the author shows the appearance of the Volgograd branch of all-Russian society of protection of monuments of history and culture. The author describes its activities on studying, preserving and promoting the monuments of history and culture of the Volgograd region in the 1970s. The author discusses the causes of establishing in 1974 the section of the regional Department for the protection and promotion of monuments of labour glory of the Soviet people. He indicates that its appearance in the structure of all-Russian society of protection of monuments of history and culture was associated with an increased conducted by the then government work on military-Patriotic education of youth. Under this policy, the section has been considered from the point of view of propaganda of Soviet history and focused on the identification, promotion and protection of monuments of history of Soviet society. The article studies its activities related to the identification, research, description, and preservation of monuments of labour achievements of the Soviet period. The author indicates the difficulties encountered after the adoption in 1976 of the USSR Law “On the protection and use of monuments of history and culture”, where the monuments of labour glory in a separate category werenot distinguished and were classified as historical monuments. The author describes the closure of the section of monuments to the labour of fame in 1979 and evaluates the results of the section, its contribution to the preservation of the cultural heritage of the Volgograd region.

  14. Vascular Plant and Vertebrate Inventory of Casa Grande Ruins National Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Brian F.; Albrecht, Eric W.; Schmidt, Cecilia A.; Halvorson, William L.; Anning, Pamela; Docherty, Kathleen

    2006-01-01

    Executive Summary This report summarizes results of the first comprehensive biological inventory of Casa Grande Ruins National Monument (NM) in southern Arizona. Surveys at the monument were part of a larger effort to inventory vascular plants and vertebrates in eight National Park Service units in Arizona and New Mexico. In 2001 and 2002 we surveyed for vascular plants and vertebrates (amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals) at Casa Grande Ruins NM to document the presence, and in some cases relative abundance, of species. By using repeatable study designs and standardized field techniques, which included quantified survey effort, we produced inventories that can serve as the basis for a biological monitoring program. Of the National Park Service units in the region, no other has experienced as much recent ecological change as Casa Grande Ruins NM. Once situated in a large and biologically diverse mesquite bosque near the perennially flowing Gila River, the monument is now a patch of sparse desert vegetation surrounded by urban and commercial development that is rapidly replacing agriculture as the dominant land use in the area. Roads, highways, and canals surround the monument. Development, and its associated impacts, has important implications for the plants and animals that live in the monument. The plant species list is small and the distribution and number of non-native plants appears to be increasing. Terrestrial vertebrates are also being impacted by the changing landscape, which is increasing the isolation of these populations from nearby natural areas and thereby reducing the number of species at the monument. These observations are alarming and are based on our review of previous studies, our research in the monument, and our knowledge of the biogeography and ecology of the Sonoran Desert. Together, these data suggest that the monument has lost a significant portion of its historic complement of species and these changes will likely intensify as

  15. Drill-hole data, drill-site geology, and geochemical data from the study of Precambrian uraniferous conglomerates of the Medicine Bow Mountains and Sierra Madre of southeastern Wyoming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlstrom, K.E.; Houston, R.S.; Schmidt, T.G.; Inlow, D.; Flurkey, A.J.; Kratochvil, A.L.; Coolidge, C.M.; Sever, C.K.; Quimby, W.F.

    1981-02-01

    This volume is presented as a companion to Volume 1: The Geology and Uranium Potential of Precambrian Conglomerates in the Medicine Bow Mountains and Sierra Madre of Southeastern Wyoming; and to Volume 3: Uranium Assessment for Precambrian Pebble Conglomerates in Southeastern Wyoming. Volume 1 summarized the geologic setting and geologic and geochemical characteristics of uranium-bearing conglomerates in Precambrian metasedimentary rocks of southeastern Wyoming. Volume 3 is a geostatistical resource estimate of U and Th in quartz-pebble conglomerates. This volume contains supporting geochemical data, lithologic logs from 48 drill holes in Precambrian rocks of the Medicine Bow Mountains and Sierra Madre, and drill site geologic maps and cross-sections from most of the holes

  16. Drill-hole data, drill-site geology, and geochemical data from the study of Precambrian uraniferous conglomerates of the Medicine Bow Mountains and Sierra Madre of southeastern Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlstrom, K.E.; Houston, R.S.; Schmidt, T.G.; Inlow, D.; Flurkey, A.J.; Kratochvil, A.L.; Coolidge, C.M.; Sever, C.K.; Quimby, W.F.

    1981-02-01

    This volume is presented as a companion to Volume 1: The Geology and Uranium Potential of Precambrian Conglomerates in the Medicine Bow Mountains and Sierra Madre of Southeastern Wyoming; and to Volume 3: Uranium Assessment for Precambrian Pebble Conglomerates in Southeastern Wyoming. Volume 1 summarized the geologic setting and geologic and geochemical characteristics of uranium-bearing conglomerates in Precambrian metasedimentary rocks of southeastern Wyoming. Volume 3 is a geostatistical resource estimate of U and Th in quartz-pebble conglomerates. This volume contains supporting geochemical data, lithologic logs from 48 drill holes in Precambrian rocks of the Medicine Bow Mountains and Sierra Madre, and drill site geologic maps and cross-sections from most of the holes.

  17. A Monument as a Text, or The Message of the Brothers Dostoevsky

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Zakharov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the circumstances of the creation of a monument to the writer's mother Maria Fyodorovna Dostoevskaya. Mikhail Andreevich, father of the brothers Dostoevsky, asked Mikhail and Fyodor to compose the text for the monument. In March and April of 1837 the brothers worked out the idea and conception of the monument, wrote the text of the first and fourth epigraphs, chose evangelic verses and an epitaph of N.M. Karamzin. This was their first collective act of creative work embodied in stone. The monument is not only a symbol of love and sorrow for their mother’s death but also hope for her salvation and future resurrection. The brothers’ words and those chosen from the Gospel as well as the Karamzin’s ones have one more meaning. These convey a sense of beingness and an Easter idea of individual creative work. It is necessary to renew the tomb of Maria Fyodorovna Dostoevskaya and bring the monument back to Lazarevskoye cemetery in Moscow.

  18. Monumentality and public space in Lourenço Marques in the 1930 and 1940

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerbert Verheij

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lourenço Marques, actual Maputo (Mozambique, is subjected to a series of aesthetic interventions in its public space during the 1930s e 1940s. These seek to “monumentalize” and “portugalize” the city, responding to its recently acquired status as capital of the Colony. Two monuments appear as especially important and exemplary: the Padrão de Guerra, a lately built First War memorial (1935, and the monument to the hero of the “pacification campaigns” of the 1890s, Mouzinho de Albuquerque (1940. Around these monuments, a large number of commemorative and celebrative practices are developed. Such practices posit the monument as a “national allegory” and reproduce, in the context of a modern city, auratic and cult values. As such, they add an important dimension to the monument’s role in the authoritarian reformulation of the city’s public space as an “imperial” space, as well as in the putative hegemonization of the representations of the community imagined as a “Nation”. They allow, therefore, to approach the political-ideological use and utility of the monument within the organization of public space.

  19. Monumental Masonry Buildings Pre-Assessment Method Based on Risk Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meltem VATAN

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Depending on the construction period, geometrical typology, construction and organization of the structure, element size and construction material of historic monumental structures; constructed with bricks, stones, adobe and mortar, are diverse and very complicated. Structural safety is guaranteed by the codes, guidelines, and specifications for recently constructed concrete and steel buildings, but there is no specific criterion for evaluating the historic monumental buildings. This study presents a scoring system method for classifying the risk level of the historic monumental structures based on visual information. This method is based on the acquisition of visual data of the building by using the developed building inspection form, storage of the acquired data on the web database and evaluation of the risk score of the inspected building automatically by the computer database system.

  20. EAARL Topography - George Washington Birthplace National Monument 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, John C.; Nayegandhi, Amar; Wright, C. Wayne; Stevens, Sara; Yates, Xan

    2009-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of Lidar-derived bare earth (BE) and first surface (FS) topography were produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL; the National Park Service (NPS), Northeast Coastal and Barrier Network, Kingston, RI; and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of the George Washington Birthplace National Monument in Virginia, acquired on March 26, 2008. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural resource managers. An innovative airborne Lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL) was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) Lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive Lidar, a down-looking red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera, a high-resolution multi-spectral color infrared (CIR) camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers, and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit, which provide for submeter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine Cessna 310 aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. A single pilot, a Lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal topography within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the EAARL

  1. 3 CFR 8335 - Proclamation 8335 of January 6, 2009. Establishment of the Marianas Trench Marine National Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... significant subsistence, cultural and religious uses within the monument; 4. a program to assess and promote monument-related scientific exploration and research, tourism, and recreational and economic activities and... and enforcement necessary to ensure that scientific exploration and research, tourism, and...

  2. 75 FR 21034 - Notice of Availability of Record of Decision for the Agua Fria National Monument and Bradshaw...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-22

    ....241A] Notice of Availability of Record of Decision for the Agua Fria National Monument and Bradshaw... availability of the Record of Decision (ROD)/Approved Resource Management Plan (RMP) for the Agua Fria National... of the planning area during prehistoric or historic times. The Agua Fria National Monument includes...

  3. Stable isotope compositions of quartz pebbles and their fluid inclusions as tracers of sediment provenance: Implications for gold- and uranium-bearing quartz pebble conglomerates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vennemann, T.W.; Kesler, S.E.; O' Neil, J.R. (Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor (United States))

    1992-09-01

    Oxygen isotope compositions of pebbles from late Archean to paleo-Proterozoic gold- and/or uranium-bearing oligomictic quartz pebble conglomerates of the Witwatersrand district, South Africa, and Huronian Supergroup, Canada, were determined in an attempt to define the nature of the source terrain. The [delta][sup 18]O values of quartz pebbles within any one sample typically vary by [approximately] 4[per thousand] or more, but occasionally by as much as 8[per thousand], even for adjacent pebbles within the same hand specimen. In addition, adjacent quartz pebbles of widely contrasting [delta][sup 18]O values also preserve distinct isotopic signatures of their fluid inclusions. This overall heterogeneity suggests that the pebbles did not undergo significant oxygen isotope exchange after incorporation in the conglomerates. Therefore, oxygen isotope analyses of such quartz pebbles, in combination with a detailed investigation of their mineral and fluid inclusions, can provide a useful method for characterizing pebble populations and hence dominant sediment source modes. Comparison of values found in this study with [delta][sup 18]O values of quartz from Archean granites, pegmatites, and mesothermal greenstone gold veins, i.e., [delta][sup 18]O values of sources commonly proposed for the conglomerate ores, suggests that uranium is derived from a granitic source, whereas gold has a mesothermal greenstone gold source. Low [delta][sup 18]O values of chert pebbles (9[per thousand] to 11.5[per thousand]) relative to those expected for Archean and Proterozoic marine cherts (commonly [ge] 17[per thousand]) effectively exclude marine cherts, and therefore, auriferous iron formations and exhalatives, as likely sources of gold.

  4. Stable isotope compositions of quartz pebbles and their fluid inclusions as tracers of sediment provenance: Implications for gold- and uranium-bearing quartz pebble conglomerates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vennemann, T.W.; Kesler, S.E.; O'Neil, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    Oxygen isotope compositions of pebbles from late Archean to paleo-Proterozoic gold- and/or uranium-bearing oligomictic quartz pebble conglomerates of the Witwatersrand district, South Africa, and Huronian Supergroup, Canada, were determined in an attempt to define the nature of the source terrain. The δ 18 O values of quartz pebbles within any one sample typically vary by ∼ 4 per-thousand or more, but occasionally by as much as 8 per-thousand, even for adjacent pebbles within the same hand specimen. In addition, adjacent quartz pebbles of widely contrasting δ 18 O values also preserve distinct isotopic signatures of their fluid inclusions. This overall heterogeneity suggests that the pebbles did not undergo significant oxygen isotope exchange after incorporation in the conglomerates. Therefore, oxygen isotope analyses of such quartz pebbles, in combination with a detailed investigation of their mineral and fluid inclusions, can provide a useful method for characterizing pebble populations and hence dominant sediment source modes. Comparison of values found in this study with δ 18 O values of quartz from Archean granites, pegmatites, and mesothermal greenstone gold veins, i.e., δ 18 O values of sources commonly proposed for the conglomerate ores, suggests that uranium is derived from a granitic source, whereas gold has a mesothermal greenstone gold source. Low δ 18 O values of chert pebbles (9 per-thousand to 11.5 per-thousand) relative to those expected for Archean and Proterozoic marine cherts (commonly ≥ 17 per-thousand) effectively exclude marine cherts, and therefore, auriferous iron formations and exhalatives, as likely sources of gold

  5. The occurrence, origin and stratigraphic significance of bone-bearing mudstone pellet conglomerates from the Beaufort group in the Jansenville district, Cape Province, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, B.R.

    1981-01-01

    The lack of useful lithostratigraphic markers in the Beaufort Group in the southern Karoo Basin has focused attention on the biostratigraphy of the sediments. As a result a more refined scheme of biostratigraphic classification is now possible which may prove useful in fixing the stratigraphic position of the uranium mineralized horizons. The most important mineralized horizon in the Beaufort West area (contains about 90 per cent of all known uranium occurrences) is associated with the Pristerognathus/Diictodon assemblage zone, but the way in which this relates to the important uranium occurrences farther east, between Graaff-Reinet and Jansenville, is uncertain because of the lack of biostratigraphic control. Vertebrate remains have recently been found in mudstone pellet conglomerates in Beaufort channel sandstones along the Bullrivier in the Jansenville District, in an area that is extensively mineralized. The sandstones were deposited as point bar sands within a meandering river system flowing towards the north-east. The rivers drained a dry, arid to semi-arid alluvial plain and were characterized by fluctuating discharge and periods of low or negligible flow. These conditions promoted flood scour and fill activity and the deposition of internal mudstone pellet conglomerates. Hydrodynamic considerations suggest that estimates of bone transport velocity from their hydrodynamically equivalent quartz sphere is of limited value and can seldom, if ever, be applied to fossil bone accumulations. Identification of the bones from the conglomerates indicates that they belong to the Dino-cephalia biozone and not the overlying Pristerognathus/Diictodon zone. This suggests that the lower part of the Beaufort succession (formerly the Tapinocephalus zone) extends farther east than previously thought, and that the main mineralized horizon in this area occurs lower down in the succession than that around Beaufort West

  6. MARINE CONGLOMERATE AND REEF MEGACLASTS AT MAURITUS ISLAND: Evidences of a tsunami generated by a flank collapse of the PITON DE LA Fournaise volcano, Reunion Island?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Paris

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Tsunamis related to volcano flank collapse are typically a high-magnitude, low frequency hazard for which evaluation and mitigation are difficult to address. In this short communication, we present field evidences of a large tsunami along the southern coast of Mauritius Island ca. 4400 years ago. Tsunami deposits described include both marine conglomerates and coral boulders up to 90 m3 (> 100 tons. The most probable origin of the tsunami is a flank collapse of Piton de la Fournaise volcano, Réunion Island.

  7. Vascular Plant and Vertebrate Inventory of Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Brian F.; Albrecht, Eric W.; Halvorson, William L.; Schmidt, Cecilia A.; Docherty, Kathleen; Anning, Pamela

    2006-01-01

    Executive Summary This report summarizes the results of the first comprehensive biological inventory of Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument (NM) in western New Mexico. This project was part of a larger effort to inventory plants and vertebrates in eight National Park Service units in Arizona and New Mexico. Our surveys address many of the objectives that were set forth in the monument's natural resource management plan almost 20 years ago, but until this effort, those goals were never accomplished. From 2001 to 2003 we surveyed for vascular plants and vertebrates (amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals) at Gila Cliff Dwellings NM to document presence of species within the boundaries of the monument. For all taxonomic groups that we studied, we collected 'incidental' sightings on U.S. Forest Service lands adjacent to the monument, and in a few cases we did formal surveys on those lands. Because we used repeatable study designs and standardized field techniques, these inventories can serve as the first step in a biological monitoring program for Gila Cliff Dwellings NM and surrounding lands. We recorded 552 species at Gila Cliff Dwellings NM and the surrounding lands (Table 1). We found no non-native species of reptiles, birds, or mammals, one non-native amphibian (American bullfrog), and 33 non-native plants. Particularly on lands adjacent to the monument we found that the American bullfrog was very abundant, which is a cause for significant management concern. Species of non-native plants that are of management concern include red brome, bufflegrass, and cheatgrass. For a park unit of its size and geographic location, we found the plant and vertebrate communities to be fairly diverse; for each taxonomic group we found representative species from a wide range of taxonomic orders and/or families. The monument's geographic location, with influences from the Rocky Mountain, Chihuahuan Desert, and Madrean ecological provinces, plays an important role in determining

  8. Pecos National Monument, New Mexico: Its Geologic Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ross Byron

    1969-01-01

    The ruins of the pueblos and missions of Pecos lie on the east bank of Glorieta Creek near its junction with the Pecos River at the south end of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains in north-central New Mexico. Here the Pecos River and Glorieta Creek have formed a broad rolling valley in which the red adobe walls of the mission church stand as a striking monument to a historic past. This is beautiful country; the bright hues of red rocks are complemented by the varied greens of the junipers, pi?ons, and ponderosa pines. Northward the Sangre de Cristo Mountains stretch for miles in a blue mist toward the Truchas Peaks and forests of the Pecos Wilderness. A few miles south of the ruins the steep high escarpment of Glorieta Mesa marks, in a general way, the southern termination of the Rocky Mountain System, which here is represented by the Sangre de Cristos. The escarpment of Glorieta Mesa has been formed largely by the Pecos River and its tributaries eroding the soft sedimentary layers. The Pecos flows southward from the high mountains in the north, parallels the mesa escarpment for 15 miles, and breaches the mesa near San Jose. About 1-1/2 miles southwest of the Pecos ruins at Cerro de Escobas is the highest point on Glorieta Mesa. It is the most conspicuous feature of the local landscape and rises to an elevation of 8,212 feet - 1,270 feet above the ruins. The slope of the escarpment here is very steep, rising 6 feet in every 10 horizontal feet. Along the north side of the Glorieta Mesa escarpment is a 30-mile-long natural pass around the south end of the Sangre de Cristos that extends from Canoncito on the west to Starvation Peak on the east (fig. 1). The elevation of the pass is greater than 6,000 feet at all places, and it reaches its summit of 7,432 feet near the village of Glorieta near the west end of the pass. This pass has been used as a major travel route for more than 800 years by the Indians, Spanish, and Americans. The famous Santa Fe Trail passed through

  9. Gravity-induced stress as a factor reducing decay of sandstone monuments in Petra, Jordan

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řihošek, J.; Bruthans, J.; Mašín, D.; Filippi, Michal; Carling, G. T.; Schweigstillová, Jana

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 19, 1 May (2016), s. 415-425 ISSN 1296-2074 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-28040S Institutional support: RVO:67985831 ; RVO:67985891 Keywords : Decay * Petra * sandstone monument * stability * stress Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 1.838, year: 2016

  10. Optimal setpoint operation of the climate control of a monumental church

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijndel, van A.W.M.; Neilen, D.; Schellen, H.L.; Aarle, van M.A.P.; Carmeliet, J.

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents the characteristics of the Walloon Church in Delft (Netherlands) and a description of constraints for the indoor climate, giving criteria for the indoor air temperature and relative humidity with the focus on the preservation of the monumental organ. The setpoint operation of the

  11. Optimal setpoint operation of the climate controle of a monumental church

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijndel, van A.W.M.

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents the characteristics of the Walloon Church in Delft (Netherlands) and a description of constraints for the indoor climate, giving criteria for the indoor air temperature and relative humidity with the focus on the preservation of the monumental organ. The setpoint operation of the

  12. 78 FR 18783 - Establishment of the R[iacute]o Grande del Norte National Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... protection of religious and cultural sites in the monument and provide access to the sites by members of... Indian Religious Freedom Act (92 Stat. 469, 42 U.S.C. 1996) and Executive Order 13007 of May 24, 1996 (Indian Sacred Sites). Laws, regulations, and policies followed by the BLM in issuing and administering...

  13. A preliminary population study of alcove bog orchid (Platanthera zothecina) at Navajo National Monument, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laura E. Hudson

    2001-01-01

    This study on Platanthera zothecina (alcove bog orchid) was initiated by the National Park Service after a recent threatened and endangered species survey at Navajo National Monument. It is listed as Category 2 (species of special concern) by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and Category 3 (likely to become endangered) by the Navajo Nation. Because P. zothecina is a...

  14. 41 CFR 102-75.455 - May historic monuments be used for revenue-producing activities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., rehabilitation, restoration, and maintenance of the property; (c) Approves the grantee's plan for financing the... connection with the management, operation, or development of the property for revenue producing activities... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May historic monuments...

  15. Air Quality at Devils Postpile National Monument, Sierra Nevada Mountains, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joel D. Burley; Andrzej Bytnerowicz; Monica Buhler; Barbara Zielinska; Donald Schweizer; Ricardo Cisneros; Susan Schilling; Jennifer Chapman Varela; Mark McDaniel; Michelle Horn; Deanna Dulen

    2016-01-01

    Ambient concentrations of O3, PM2.5, NH3, NO, NO2, HNO3, SO2 and VOCs were measured at Devils Postpile National Monument (DEPO) during the summer seasons of 2013 and 2014. The measurements were impacted by the Aspen and Rim Fires in...

  16. Our National Monument of Art: Constructing and Debating the National Body at the Library of Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Sarah J.

    2010-01-01

    It is not surprising that the Library of Congress would be defined as our national monument of art given the scale of the project, its federal sponsorship, and its posture as a public library with access to all Americans. Paralleling the assumption of the Library of Congress as not merely a building for housing books but a ritualistic center of…

  17. Monuments and energy efficiency between conservation and modernization; Denkmal und Energieeffizienz zwischen Konservierung und Anpassung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, Roswitha [LWL - Amt fuer Denkmalpflege, Muenster (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Protection of monuments does not necessarily mean conservation of buildings in their original state, but modernization with a view to energy conservation should be an important goal as well. The contribution shows how the two goals can be combined. (orig./AKB)

  18. Pages of the phytomorphology history in the monuments of material culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Yu. Barshteyn

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available It was reviewed Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome sources of plants morphology, plant morphology knowledge in Renaissance age – scientific works of Andrea Cesalpino, Joachim Jungius, Marcello Malpighi and plant morphology formation as the separate branch of science due to Johann Wolfgang von Goethe scientific works and its reflection in the monuments of material culture.

  19. Landscape of Memory. Commemorative monuments, memorials and public statuary in post-apartheid South-Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marschall, S.

    2010-01-01

    Under the aegis of post-apartheid government, much emphasis has been placed on the transformation and democratisation of the heritage sector in South Africa. The emergent new landscape of memory comprises a host of commemorative monuments, memorials and statues installed since 1994 to create a

  20. Indoor climate design for a monumental building with periodic high indoor moisture loads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijndel, van A.W.M.; Lony, R.J.M.; Schellen, H.L.

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents a case study on the performance based design for the indoor climate of a monumental building with periodic high indoor moisture loads. Several scenarios of the past performance and new control classes are simulated and evaluated. The results include the influence of hygric inertia

  1. Indoor climate design for a monumental building with incidental high indoor moisture loads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijndel, van A.W.M.

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents a study of the indoor climate of a monumental building with periodic high indoor moisture loads. Several scenarios of the past performance and new control classes are simulated and evaluated. The results include the influence of hygric inertia on the indoor climate and

  2. Permanent Transiency, Tele-visual Spectacle, and the Slum as Postcolonial Monument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dasgupta, S.

    2013-01-01

    With their makeshift structures and seemingly itinerant inhabitants, slums suggest transiency. Yet, like monuments, they acquire a paradoxical permanency in the context of continual social upheaval, the historical ebbs and flows of the nation-state, and the economic transformations engendered by

  3. 40 CFR 230.54 - Parks, national and historical monuments, national seashores, wilderness areas, research sites...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....54 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING SECTION 404(b... Human Use Characteristics § 230.54 Parks, national and historical monuments, national seashores... -managed. Note: Possible actions to minimize adverse impacts regarding site or material characteristics can...

  4. Historical floods in central Europe and their documentation by means of floodmarks and other epigraphical monuments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Munzar, Jan; Deutsch, M.; Elleder, L.; Ondráček, Stanislav; Kallabová, Eva; Hrádek, Mojmír

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 3 (2006), s. 26-44 ISSN 1210-8812 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA3086601 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : historical floods * floodmarks * epigraphical monuments * Central Europe Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography

  5. The Places of Memory in a Square of Monuments: Conceptions of Past, Freedom and History at Szabadság Tér

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Thorstensen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I try to approach contemporary Hungarian political culture through an analysis of the history of changing monuments at Szabadság Tér in Budapest. The paper has as its point of origin a protest/irredentist monument facing the present Soviet liberation monument. In order to understand this irredentist monument, I look into the meaning of the earlier irredentist monuments under Horthy and try to see what monuments were torn down under Communism and which ones remained. I further argue that changes in the other monuments also affect the meaning of the others. From this background I enter into a brief interpretation of changes in memory culture in relation to changes in political culture. The conclusions point toward the fact that Hungary is actively pursuing a cleansing of its past in public spaces, and that this process is reflected in an increased acceptance of political authoritarianism.

  6. Beyond the chalice: monuments manifesting utraquist religious identity in the Bohemian urban context in the fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horníčková, Kateřina

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 1 (2013), s. 137-152 ISSN 1350-7486 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : utraquism * Bohemia * religious history * religious symbolism * denominational culture * denominational monuments Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  7. Cultural monuments from exceptional importance in Serbia as anthropogenic tourist values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćirković Sanja

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Cultural monuments mark historical past. They are included in anthropogenic tourist values. They present rare copies of creativity and they have exceptional artistic and esthetic values. The most numerous group are sacral objects. The largest attention deserve objects assigned in World cultural inheritance - monastery Studenica and monastery Sopoćani with old town Ras. It is necessary to build caterer capacities, parking lots and sanitary devices in encirclement. Manifestations and presentations on domestic and foreign market contribute to cultural affirmation. Tourist valorization is impeded with that there are no evidence about number of visitors. In separating priorities we must consider uniqueness, rarity and fame. That’s the reason why Čele kula has tourist importance. Cultural monuments increase stay and serve as complementary tourist values. That’s why is necessary synthesis access in their learn and tourist presentation.

  8. Christian interpretation of the Ancient monuments in Rome Sixtus V (1585-1590

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Verdugo Santos

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The view of the counter reformation on the ancient monuments was very different from the thought of Renaissance men. The pagan world was conquered by Christianity, and therefore had the remains of one reason only be based on the exaltation of the glory of Christ and his Church. According to this belief Sixtus V acts on the columns of Trajan and Marcus Aurelius; statues on the Capitol or Coliseum, transforming them into monuments to the victory of Christianity. Other operations will be moving the Vatican obelisk located on the spina of the circus of Caligula. A challenge for the technology of the time, which was used in propagandize by the pope. The obelisk had an archaeological and symbolic value, for tradition stated that circus as the place where early Christians were martyred.

  9. IMPLEMENTING TQM IN RURAL MONUMENTAL BAROQUE SCULPTURE IN THE BANAT AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. PETROMAN

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The cultural patrimony preserves the memory and identity of the Banat’s rural area, defining the personality specific to each locality depending on the colonizing ethnic group after the liberation from the Turkish yoke. Steadily degrading, this baroque sculptural patrimony must be saved and integrated into a tourist circuit through the development of a managerial strategy and the implementation of a total quality management that cover the widest area possible of issues related to the intact preservation of monuments and to their conservation. The valorisation of monumental baroque sculpture in the rural area must be done together with the development of a managerial strategy of sustainable development thus contributing to the making up of an emblematic image specific to the Banat village and to the inclusion into regional, national, and international tourist circuits through such modern forms of tourism as cultural tourism, rural tourism, heritage tourism, interethnic tourism, religious tourism, and business tourism.

  10. Creating/Curating Cultural Capital: Monuments and Museums for Post-Apartheid South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Rankin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the first democratic elections in 1994, South Africa has faced the challenge of creating new cultural capital to replace old racist paradigms, and monuments and museums have been deployed as part of this agenda of transformation. Monuments have been inscribed with new meanings, and acquisition and collecting policies have changed at existing museums to embrace a wider definition of culture. In addition, a series of new museums, often with a memorial purpose, has provided opportunities to acknowledge previously marginalized histories, and honor those who opposed apartheid, many of whom died in the Struggle. Lacking extensive collections, these museums have relied on innovative concepts, not only the use of audio-visual materials, but also the metaphoric deployment of sites and the architecture itself, to create affective audience experiences and recount South Africa’s tragic history under apartheid.

  11. The Catholic of Stilo. Survey and analysis of a Byzantine monument.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinella Arena

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Cattolica di Stilo, one of the greatest monu-ments of Calabria, is the most important example of the secular Byzantine influence on this region. The Greek cross inscribed in a square, with its five domes, denounces his connection with an archi-tectural style of oriental origin. Although built in a remote province of the Empire, the Catho-lic is not the expression of a poor art; all poetics typical of Byzantine architecture are manifested with originality. The first paragraph, written by Domenico Mediati, analyzes the geometries and correlates with contemporary buildings (X-XI cen-tury and similar in size and shape. The second paragraph, written by Marinella Arena, highlights the differences of construction compared to the theoretical form. The third paragraph, written by Daniele Colistra, reviews some representations of the monument trying to identify those who most influenced the collective imagination.

  12. The research of contamination regularities of historical buildings and architectural monuments by methods of computer modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuzmichev Andrey A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the active step of urbanization and rapid development of industry the external appearance of buildings and architectural monuments of urban environment from visual ecology position requires special attention. Dust deposition by polluted atmospheric air is one of the key aspects of degradation of the facades of buildings. With the help of modern computer modeling methods it is possible to evaluate the impact of polluted atmospheric air on the external facades of the buildings in order to save them.

  13. Enhancing the Durability of Calcareous Stone Monuments of Ancient Egypt Using CaCO3 Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad A. Aldoasri

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The unwanted changes in valuable historic calcareous stone monuments due to exposure to many physical and chemical effects may lead to its deterioration. The growing interest in the field of conservation of stone monuments encourages the development of consolidation and water-repellent materials. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of CaCO3 nanoparticles as a consolidation and protection material for calcareous stone monuments, when those nanoparticles used are dispersed in acrylic copolymer; polyethylmethacrylate (EMA/methylacrylate (MA (70/30, respectively. Samples were subjected to artificial aging by relative humidity/temperature to show the optimum conditions of durability and the effectiveness of the nano-mixture in improving the physical and mechanical properties of the stone material. The synthesis process of CaCO3 nanoparticles/polymer nanocomposite has been prepared by in situ emulsion polymerization system. The prepared nanocomposites with 0.15 g CaCO3 nanoparticles showed obvious transparency features and represent nanocomposites coating technology with hydrophobic, consolidating and good protection properties. Some tests were performed in order to estimate the superficial consolidating and protective effect of the treatment. The obtained nanocomposites have been characterized by TEM, while the surface morphology before and after treatment and homogeneous distribution of used consolidation materials on stone surface were examined by SEM. Improvement of stone mechanical properties was evaluated by compressive strength tests. Change in water-interaction properties was evaluated by water absorption capillarity measurements, and colorimetric measurements were used to evaluate the optical appearance. Taken together, the results indicate that CaCO3/polymer nanocomposite is a completely compatible, efficient material for the consolidation of artistic and architectural limestone monuments capable of enhancing the

  14. METRIC SURVEY OF THE MONUMENT OF QUEEN ELISENDA'S TOMB IN THE MONASTERY OF PEDRALBES, BARCELONA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Núñez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available When an urban development is planned the cartography of this territory is necessary, in the same way before starting a project to rehabilitate a monument the graphic information about it has to be available. At present, different techniques are available which allow to obtain three-dimensional models with a different accuracy level and runtimes.This paper shows the work carried out to obtain the graphic information and three-dimensional models that are necessary for the rehabilitation project of the tomb of Queen Elisenda in the Monastery of Pedralbes, Barcelona (Spain. This monument has the peculiarity of being symmetrical about the wall separating monastery church and the cloister. To do this, different techniques have been used that allow us to obtain an accurate model and as complete as possible, for the analysis of the construction process of the monument. In order to achieve the complete architectural survey the integration of laser scanning and photogrammetric data, and CAD models has been necessary. Due to the detail of the sculptures and the Queen’s sarcophagus two sensors, with different resolution, range and accuracy, have been used to obtain the laser scanning data. Stereo pairs have been taken to obtain the 3D model of these elements to complete the model and obtain an ortophotography.In this way, a comparative analysis of both techniques has been carried out, in order to decide which one is the suitable for certain application. This investigation has been restricted to the tomb, in the two symmetrical parts of the monument.

  15. Data for the geochemical investigation of UMTRAP designated site at Monument Valley, Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markos, G.; Bush, K.J.

    1983-09-01

    This report contains the geochemical data and the methods of data collection from the former tailings site at Monument Valley, Arizona. Data are from a one-time sampling of waters and solid material from the background, the area adjacent to the site, and the site. Selected solid samples are water extracted to remove easily soluble salts. The waters and extracts of solid samples were analyzed for selected major and trace elements. 3 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  16. Een monument voor het land. Overheidsstatistiek in België, 1795-1870

    OpenAIRE

    Bracke, Nele

    2008-01-01

    In A monument to the country. Official statistics in Belgium, 1795-1870, Nele Bracke unravels why and how the Belgian state and its predecessors organized and developed an official statistical apparatus in order to collect numerical information. The study captures the underlying objectives and structures, as well as the methods to compile statistics. Nele Bracke investigates the meaning and significance of government statistics in the 19th-century State and society. In Belgium, early social s...

  17. Monumental Misjudgements? Early Conservative Interventions and their Impact on Orcadian Neolithic Sites

    OpenAIRE

    Ritchie, Georgina

    2014-01-01

    The contemporary experience of visiting many Neolithic sites in Orkney is dominated by the physical manifestations of early conservative interventions; the most striking of these being a series of cover-houses, installed over chambered tombs to ensure their protection from the elements. These shelters range in scale from small concrete domes enclosing the interior of the monuments (such as that over the Knowe of Yarso, depicted in the cover image), to a vast free-standing steel enclosure (see...

  18. The use of nuclear analytical methods in the investigation of objects of art and historical monuments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janovsky, I.

    2006-01-01

    Special nuclear analytical methods contribute significantly to the identification of the origin, manufacturing technology and/or authenticity of objects of art and historical monuments, Such methods primarily include variants of X-ray fluorescence analysis and activation analysis. The former enables non/destructive testing of materials, the latter features a high sensitivity. The article presents numerous examples of use of such methods especially in the Czech Republic (or former Czechoslovakia). (author)

  19. MONITORING OF NATURAL MONUMENTS IN THE PARK ZAMKOWY IN ŻYWIEC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Elżbieta Salachna

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of monitoring of trees monumenst of Park Zamkowy in Żywiec, which is a one of most valuable dendrological collection in the Silesia region. It was found that among the 27 studied monuments of nature, most (76% is in a satisfactory state of health and requires only care intervention. Of the remaining group 13% presented of good condition and for 11% it is necessary to take immediate treatments.

  20. Neutron-activation analysis of wall soils of ancient architectural monuments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khatamov, Sh.; Zhumamuratov, A.; Ibragimov, T.; Tillyaev, T.; Osinskaya, N.S.; Rakhmanova, T.P.; Pulatov, D.D.

    2001-01-01

    The simplified, relatively inexpensive, and productive multielemental neutron activation techniques for analysis of solid of the architectural monuments of Karakalpakstan have been elaborated. A comparison of the elemental composition of the wall soils of the ancient buildings, constructed at different historical periods, with the composition of the agricultural soils allows us to estimate the present ecological and agrogeochemical states of the agricultural soils and to trace changing the dynamics of about 30 chemical elements. (author)

  1. Facade renovation - replacement and restoration of the panels in a monument protected object

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotný, Michal

    2017-12-01

    The article deals with problems of reconstruction of the facade and the associated problem of replacement or repair of the panels. In conventional buildings it is a smooth operation, but it is problematic in monument-protected objects. In the case of a common building, it is possible to choose any modern panels and simply replace them, but for historical objects we have to follow the claims and the rules of monument protection. In practice, it usually means the impossibility of use of modern panels, but at least a combination of old and modern technologies. Another possible solution to the problem is renovation, or repairs to the original state of the existing panels, of course with respect to the functionality of such panels. The implementation of such repairs must always be based on the technical and historical survey of the condition of the object and the repairs must be professionally designed. Subsequently, corrections are made, during which it is necessary to pay particular attention to observance of the technological procedures, rules and instructions particularly in terms of monument protection. However, the functionality of the works or elements made with regard to the quality of the environment within the building is not negligible. A common problem is the lack of control of technical requirements and functional requirements. Underestimation of the problems then leads to difficult repairs. The article points to the mistakes and problems of one such construction project on a historically protected chateau building.

  2. Bacterial bio-mediated calcite precipitation for monumental stones conservation: methods of evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiano, P; Biagiotti, L; Mastromei, G

    1999-05-01

    The weathering of monumental stones is a complex process inserted in the more general 'matter transformation cycle' operated by physical, chemical and biological factors. The consequence of these combined actions is a loss of cohesion with dwindling and scaling of stone material and the induction of a progressive mineral matrix dissolution. In the case of calcareous stones, calcite leaching increases the material porosity and decreases its mechanical features with a general weakening of the superficial structural strength. Attempts to stop, or at least to slow down, deterioration of monumental stones has been made by conservative treatments with both inorganic or organic products. More recent studies show a new approach to hinder these phenomena by inducing a bio-mediated precipitation of calcite directly inside the stone porosity. This can be achieved either through the application of organic matrix macromolecules extracted from sea shells or of living bacteria. The effectiveness of the treatment using calcinogenic bacteria has been evaluated with laboratory tests specifically developed to evaluate the parameters such as : porosity, superficial strength and chromatic changes, influenced by the treatment itself. The results obtained seem to indicate that this type of treatment might not be suitable for monumental stone conservation.

  3. Technical Limitations in Merging Secular and Sacred Functions in Monumental Churches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piatkowska, Ksenia

    2017-10-01

    The abandonment of churches and their adaptation for secular purposes is a current subject in Europe and worldwide. Most cases involve objects that were desacralized and then rebuilt as a whole object for alternative functions. Thus far, the merging of secular and sacred functions in one monumental Catholic church has not raised any issues. The paper describes the case of St. Catherine’s Church in Gdansk, Poland, where sacred function exists parallel to the new secular function being implemented. The study is based on the authentic, professional experience of the author. It describes the technical limitations arising from the need to ensure destinies for the optimal conditions of both sacred and secular function, while avoiding undesirable interference between them. The author further identifies architectural solutions most relevant to current requirements for protection of sacred zones in the church, for preservation of the monument, and for optimal function of a modern science museum. Significant design issues include: the inviolability of the sacred zone, preservation of the historical value of the monument, proper operation of new secular zones in compliance with contemporary standards of safety, performance of the assumed mission and profitability. The research indicates specific areas where the highest probability of collision exists between the sacred and profane and where technical problems are likely to occur.

  4. Biodiversity of cyanobacteria and green algae on monuments in the Mediterranean Basin: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, Maria Filomena; Miller, Ana Zélia; Dionísio, Amélia; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo

    2009-11-01

    The presence and deteriorating action of micro-organisms on monuments and stone works of art have received considerable attention in the last few years. Knowledge of the microbial populations living on stone materials is the starting point for successful conservation treatment and control. This paper reviews the literature on cyanobacteria and chlorophyta that cause deterioration of stone cultural heritage (outdoor monuments and stone works of art) in European countries of the Mediterranean Basin. Some 45 case studies from 32 scientific papers published between 1976 and 2009 were analysed. Six lithotypes were considered: marble, limestone, travertine, dolomite, sandstone and granite. A wide range of stone monuments in the Mediterranean Basin support considerable colonization of cyanobacteria and chlorophyta, showing notable biodiversity. About 172 taxa have been described by different authors, including 37 genera of cyanobacteria and 48 genera of chlorophyta. The most widespread and commonly reported taxa on the stone cultural heritage in the Mediterranean Basin are, among cyanobacteria, Gloeocapsa, Phormidium and Chroococcus and, among chlorophyta, Chlorella, Stichococcus and Chlorococcum. The results suggest that cyanobacteria and chlorophyta colonize a wide variety of substrata and that this is related primarily to the physical characteristics of the stone surface, microclimate and environmental conditions and secondarily to the lithotype.

  5. Site observational work plan for the UMTRA Project site at Monument Valley, Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The site observational work plan (SOWP) for the Monument Valley, Arizona, US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action(UMTRA) Project site is one of the first site-specific documents developed to achieve ground water compliance at the site. This SOWP applies information about the Monument Valley site to a regulatory compliance framework that identifies strategies that could be used to meet ground water compliance. The compliance framework was developed in the UMTRA Ground Water programmatic environmental impact statement (DOE, 1996). The DOE`s goal is to implement a cost-effective site strategy that complies with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards and protects human health and the environment. The compliance strategy that emerges in the final version of the SOWP will be evaluated in the site-specific environmental assessment to determine potential environmental impacts and provide stakeholders a forum for review and comment. When the compliance strategy is acceptable, it will be detailed in a remedial action plan that will be subject to review by the state and/or tribe and concurrence by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Information for the preparation of this SOWP indicates active remediation is the most likely compliance strategy for the Monument Valley site. Additional data are needed to determine the most effective remediation technology.

  6. Site observational work plan for the UMTRA Project site at Monument Valley, Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The site observational work plan (SOWP) for the Monument Valley, Arizona, US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site is one of the first site-specific documents developed to achieve ground water compliance at the site. This SOWP applies information about the Monument Valley site to a regulatory compliance framework that identifies strategies that could be used to meet ground water compliance. The compliance framework was developed in the UMTRA Ground Water programmatic environmental impact statement (DOE, 1995). The DOE`s goal is to implement a cost-effective site strategy that complies with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards and protects human health and the environment. The compliance strategy that emerges in the final version of the SOWP will assess potential environmental impacts and provide stakeholder a forum for review and comment. When the compliance strategy is acceptable, it will be detailed in a remedial action plan that will be subject to review by the state and/or tribe and concurrence by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Information available for the preparation of this SOWP indicates active remediation is the most likely compliance strategy for the Monument Valley site. Additional data are needed to determine the most effective remediation technology.

  7. Time–frequency analysis of GPR data to investigate the damage of monumental buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leucci, Giovanni; Persico, Raffaele; Masini, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    The presence of particular microclimatic conditions inside monumental buildings is responsible for bio-deterioration processes. In many cases, efflorescence and moulds are visible on the facades of several monuments of historical importance. In many other cases, the effects of decay processes are not visible, thus making difficult the diagnosis and the consequent setup of effective rehabilitation and preservation interventions, especially in the presence of a complex geometry and/or a large variability of construction materials. In such cases, a valuable contribution could be provided by geophysical methods (such as electrical resistivity, electromagnetic conductivity, ground-penetrating radar (GPR), etc), which have been proved to be successful tools for sub-surface investigation and characterization of historical buildings. In old monumental buildings, the masonry structures frequently exhibit cracks, voids, detachments and high moisture contrasts that can give rise to reflection events in radar signals. However, the complexity of the geometry and the structural heterogeneity that characterize these old structures often make the GPR results difficult to analyse and interpret. In particular, the spatial variation in GPR signal attenuation can provide important information about the electrical properties of the investigated materials that, in turn, can be used to assess the physical parameters associated with damage. In this paper, we propose an approach that analyses the data in the form of ‘frequency maps’ to evidence absorption losses probably linked to higher moisture content. Two real case histories back up the proposed method. (paper)

  8. Acoustical features of two Mayan monuments at Chichen Itza: Accident or design?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubman, David

    2002-11-01

    Chichen Itza dominated the early postclassic Maya world, ca. 900-1200 C.E. Two of its colossal monuments, the Great Ball Court and the temple of Kukulkan, reflect the sophisticated, hybrid culture of a Mexicanized Maya civilization. The architecture seems intended for ceremony and ritual drama. Deducing ritual practices will advance the understanding of a lost civilization, but what took place there is largely unknown. Perhaps acoustical science can add value. Unexpected and unusual acoustical features can be interpreted as intriguing clues or irrelevant accidents. Acoustical advocates believe that, when combined with an understanding of the Maya worldview, acoustical features can provide unique insights into how the Maya designed and used theater spaces. At Chichen Itza's monuments, sound reinforcement features improve rulers and priests ability to address large crowds, and Ball Court whispering galleries permit speech communication over unexpectedly large distances. Handclaps at Kukulkan stimulate chirps that mimic a revered bird (''Kukul''), thus reinforcing cultic beliefs. A ball striking playing field wall stimulates flutter echoes at the Great Ball Court; their strength and duration arguably had dramatic, mythic, and practical significance. Interpretations of the possible mythic, magic, and political significance of sound phenomena at these Maya monuments strongly suggests intentional design.

  9. Site observational work plan for the UMTRA Project site at Monument Valley, Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    The site observational work plan (SOWP) for the Monument Valley, Arizona, US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action(UMTRA) Project site is one of the first site-specific documents developed to achieve ground water compliance at the site. This SOWP applies information about the Monument Valley site to a regulatory compliance framework that identifies strategies that could be used to meet ground water compliance. The compliance framework was developed in the UMTRA Ground Water programmatic environmental impact statement (DOE, 1996). The DOE's goal is to implement a cost-effective site strategy that complies with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards and protects human health and the environment. The compliance strategy that emerges in the final version of the SOWP will be evaluated in the site-specific environmental assessment to determine potential environmental impacts and provide stakeholders a forum for review and comment. When the compliance strategy is acceptable, it will be detailed in a remedial action plan that will be subject to review by the state and/or tribe and concurrence by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Information for the preparation of this SOWP indicates active remediation is the most likely compliance strategy for the Monument Valley site. Additional data are needed to determine the most effective remediation technology

  10. Site observational work plan for the UMTRA Project site at Monument Valley, Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    The site observational work plan (SOWP) for the Monument Valley, Arizona, US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site is one of the first site-specific documents developed to achieve ground water compliance at the site. This SOWP applies information about the Monument Valley site to a regulatory compliance framework that identifies strategies that could be used to meet ground water compliance. The compliance framework was developed in the UMTRA Ground Water programmatic environmental impact statement (DOE, 1995). The DOE's goal is to implement a cost-effective site strategy that complies with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards and protects human health and the environment. The compliance strategy that emerges in the final version of the SOWP will assess potential environmental impacts and provide stakeholder a forum for review and comment. When the compliance strategy is acceptable, it will be detailed in a remedial action plan that will be subject to review by the state and/or tribe and concurrence by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Information available for the preparation of this SOWP indicates active remediation is the most likely compliance strategy for the Monument Valley site. Additional data are needed to determine the most effective remediation technology

  11. Astronomy, Illumination and Heritage: the Arles-Fontvieille megalithic monuments and their implications for archaeoastronomy and world heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling Saletta, Morgan

    2015-08-01

    Recent archaeoastronomical research at the Arles-Fontvieille monuments has important implications for establishing potential Outstanding Universal Value of megalithic monuments and establishing the credibility of archaeoastronomical sites. My discovery of seasonal light and shadow hierophanies within the Arles-Fontvieille monuments has interpretive and heritage value implications not only for these sites but for late prehistoric European monuments more generally.While horizon astronomy was very likely used for time-reckoning in the Neolithic, I argue the ‘seasonal illumination hypothesis’ is more appropriate than the ‘celestial targeting paradigm’ not only for the interpretation of the role of astronomy and cosmological symbolism in the construction of the Arles-Fontvieille monuments but also for late prehistoric European tombs with chambers and passages more generally.Multiple lines of evidence suggest a cosmologically symbolic link between houses of the living and houses of the dead in late prehistoric Europe. I will suggest that this practice originated not only in symbolic aspects of domestic dwellings, but also in functional solar orientation.If seasonal illumination was a major impetus for the orientation signatures of late prehistoric European monuments, how best to establish this? Time-lapse photography or video, while not unproblematic, is a powerful method of establishing the credibility of archaeoastronomical sites- one which has been used to great effect at monuments such as Newgrange and Stonehenge. In the past, this method was limited by the cost of equipment and the time needed to visit sites and at specific periods of time. Both of these limitations have been significantly lessened in recent years. Digital cameras have become ubiquitous. More importantly, examples of “crowd-sourcing” research problems in science provide a strategy for field documentation of sites whose level of preservation is sufficient to reveal seasonal illumination

  12. Monuments in the Structure of an Urban Environment: The Source of Social Memory and the Marker of the Urban Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonova, N.; Grunt, E.; Merenkov, A.

    2017-10-01

    The major research objective was to analyze the role of monuments in the formation of local residents’ and guests’ representations about the city, its history and traditions. The authors consider the system of monuments’ location in the urban space as a way of its social construction, as the system of influence on citizens’ aesthetic feelings, as the formation of their attitudes towards maintaining of continuity in the activities of different generations for the improvement of the territory of their permanent residence. Methodology. An urban monument is considered in two ways: as a transfer of historical memory and as a social memory transfer, which includes the experience of previous generations. One of the main provisions of the study is the idea that monuments can lose their former social value, transforming into “simple” objects of a public place. The study was conducted in the city of Yekaterinburg, one of the largest, cultural, scientific and industrial Russian megalopolises in 2015. The primary data was collected using standardized interviews. Four hundred and twenty respondents at the age of and above 18 were questioned on the basis of quota sampling. Interviews with respondents were conducted in order to identify key problems involved and reasons for shaping respondents’ representations of monuments in the urban environment typical for the population of Russian megalopolises. The standardized interview guide included 15 questions. Findings and discussion. Our investigation has revealed that different monuments fulfil various functions in an urban environment (ideological, aesthetic, transferring, valuable, etc.). The study has unequivocally confirmed that objects in the urban space have a different emotional colour background: people paint them in accordance with the feelings that arise in their perception. Hence, some monuments effectively fulfil the functions of social memory transfer: they are remembered, they tell us about the events to

  13. The geological position, sedimentary record and composition of the Tylicz Conglomerate (Late Eocene-Oligocene): stratigraphical and paleogeographical implications (Magura Nappe, Polish Outer Carpathians)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszewska, Barbara; Oszczypko, Nestor

    2010-02-01

    During the Late Cretaceous to Paleogene the Magura Basin was supplied with clastic material from, non-existing today, source areas situated on the northern and southern margins of the basin. The northern source area is traditionally connected with Silesian Ridge, whereas the position of the southern one is still under discussion. The Upper Eocene-Oligocene pebbly mudstones of the Tylicz/Krynica facies zone contain exotic material derived from the south-Magura source area. The studied pebbles and clasts contain fragments of crystalline rocks, derived from a continental type of crust, and frequent clasts of Mesozoic to Paleogene deep and shallow-water limestones. Volcanites, rarely granitoides as well as schists, gneisses, quartzites and cataclasites were found in the group of crystalline exotic pebbles. The isotopic ages of "exotic" pebbles from the Tylicz section document a Variscan age of plutonic and metamorphic rocks. The composition of the Tylicz exotic conglomerates occupied the transitional position between the Jarmuta/Proč (Maastrichtian-Lower Eocene) and Strihovce (Eocene) exotic pebbles. The provenance of these rocks could be connected with Eocene exhumation of the SE sector of the Magura Basin basement. Another possibility can be explain by supply of siliciclastic material from a SE source area (Dacia and Tisza Mega-Units) and carbonate material from a S source area (ALCAPA Mega-Unit: Central Carpathian Block and Pieniny Klippen Belt).

  14. Age and provenance of mica-schist pebbles from the Eocene conglomerates of the Tylicz and Krynica Zone (Magura Nappe, Outer Flysch Carpathians)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oszczypko, Nestor; Salata, Dorota; Konečný, Patrik

    2016-06-01

    During the Łate Cretaceous to Palaeogene, the Magura Basin was supplied by clastic material from source areas situated on the northern and southern margins of the basin, which do not outcrop on the surface at present. The northern source area is traditionally connected with the Silesian Ridge, whereas the position of the southern one is still under discussion. A source area situated SE of the Magura Basin supplied the Eocene pebbly para-conglomerates containing partly exotic material. The studied clastic material contains fragments of crystalline rocks, and frequent clasts of Mesozoic to Palaeogene deep and shallow-water limestones. Numerous mica schists, scarce volcanites and granitoids as well as gneisses, quartzites and cataclasites were found in the group of crystalline exotic pebbles. Monazite ages of "exotic" mica-schist pebbles from the Tylicz, Zarzecze and Piwniczna-Mniszek sections document the Variscan 310±10 Ma age of metamorphic processes. The provenance of these exotic rocks could be connected with a remote source area located SE of the Magura Basin, which could be the NW part of the Dacia Mega Unit. The idea is strongly supported by palaeotransport directions from the SE, the absence of material derived from the Pieniny Klippen Belt, the presence of shallow water limestones, typical facies of the Median Dacides belt and metamorphic age distribution proved by monazite dating.

  15. U-Pb ages in zircon of the Grao Mogol diamond-bearing conglomerate (Espinhaco supergroup): implications for the diamond origin in the Espinhaco range in Minas Gerais

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaves, Mario Luiz de Sa Carneiro; Silva, Marcio Celio Rodrigues da; Babinski, Marly; Scholz, Rixcardo

    2013-01-01

    The Espinhaco Range in the Grao Mogol region, center-north of Minas Gerais state, is composed by fine grained quartzites with large cross stratifications (Resplandescente Formation), which are covered with erosional unconformity by monomictic conglomerates, and medium to coarse grained quartzites (Grao Mogol Formation), both units belonging to the Espinhaco Supergroup, of Proterozoic age. At the locality known as 'Pedra Rica' (signify Rich Rock, an old diamond digging), rocks of these formations were sampled and separated detrital zircons to acquire U-Pb by Laser Ablation Inductively LA-ICPMS) ages. The analyzed grains are rounded to slightly rounded and show oscillatory zoning. The obtained results indicate a maximum depositional age of 1,595±20 Ma for the Resplandescente Formation, and 1,052±50 Ma for the Grao Mogol Formation. The comparison between the obtained data and the available ages for the Diamantina region and proximities, in the same diamond province, indicates a strong evidence for the existence of at least two primary mineralizing events in the basin, in the age range of 1.35 to 1.05 Ga. (author)

  16. Two-phase flow visualization under reservoir conditions for highly heterogeneous conglomerate rock: A core-scale study for geologic carbon storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kue-Young; Oh, Junho; Han, Weon Shik; Park, Kwon Gyu; Shinn, Young Jae; Park, Eungyu

    2018-03-20

    Geologic storage of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) is considered a viable strategy for significantly reducing anthropogenic CO 2 emissions into the atmosphere; however, understanding the flow mechanisms in various geological formations is essential for safe storage using this technique. This study presents, for the first time, a two-phase (CO 2 and brine) flow visualization under reservoir conditions (10 MPa, 50 °C) for a highly heterogeneous conglomerate core obtained from a real CO 2 storage site. Rock heterogeneity and the porosity variation characteristics were evaluated using X-ray computed tomography (CT). Multiphase flow tests with an in-situ imaging technology revealed three distinct CO 2 saturation distributions (from homogeneous to non-uniform) dependent on compositional complexity. Dense discontinuity networks within clasts provided well-connected pathways for CO 2 flow, potentially helping to reduce overpressure. Two flow tests, one under capillary-dominated conditions and the other in a transition regime between the capillary and viscous limits, indicated that greater injection rates (potential causes of reservoir overpressure) could be significantly reduced without substantially altering the total stored CO 2 mass. Finally, the capillary storage capacity of the reservoir was calculated. Capacity ranged between 0.5 and 4.5%, depending on the initial CO 2 saturation.

  17. Main Features of a 3d GIS for a Monumental Complex with AN Historical-Cultural Relevance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scianna, A.; La Guardia, M.

    2017-05-01

    The last achievements of technologies in geomatics especially in survey and restitution of 3D models (UAV/drones and laser scanner technologies) generated new procedures and higher standards of quality in representation of archaeological sites. Together with Geomatics, the recent development of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) strongly contribute to document and the Cultural Heritage (CH). The representation and documentation of CH using these new technologies has became necessary in order to satisfy different needs: - for restorers in order to acquire a deep knowledge of the cultural good and to define possible strategies of restoration; - for the conservation of information, allowing to preserve the 3D geometry of the monumental complex with the integration of descriptions about architectural elements; - for touristic aims, giving the opportunity of sharing CH information on web, allowing users to visit and explore, in a virtual way, monumental complexes, acquiring information details about architectural elements or the history of monumental complex. Looking through these new scenarios, the development of a 3D Geographic Information System (GIS) applied to a cultural good could be, today, an added value of fundamental importance for full description and data management of monumental complexes. In this work, the main features necessary for the correct construction of a 3D GIS of a monumental complex will be analyzed, with a particular focus on the possibilities for creating a standardized procedure to follow.

  18. MONUMENTO JEROGLÍFICO MAYA DE XKOMBEC, CAMPECHE: UNA REVISIÓN (Maya Hieroglyphic Monument from Xkombec, Campeche: A Revision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Galeev

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available El reanálisis del Monumento 1 de Xkombec (Campeche, México, basado sobre su nueva documentación realizada en 2014 por los colaboradores del Proyecto Atlas Epigráfico de Yucatán, permite descartar la datación de esta inscripción en 866 d. C. y ubicarla a mediados del siglo VIII d. C., contemporánea de los monumentos de Xcalumkín y otros sitios cercanos del Puuc campechano. De acuerdo con el texto, la organización política de Xkombec era parecida a otros centros de Puuc. La ciudad contaba con su propia casa noble, cuyos miembros Xok Tun y B’ahlam eran de rango secundario y llevaban el título de b’ahkab y, probablemente, estaban relacionados con Xcalumkín. ENGLISH: Recent analysis of the epigraphy on Monument 1 from Xkombec indicates that the monument can be dated to A.D. 866, not to the mid-8th century as was previously argued. This new date marks Monument 1 as contemporary to the monuments at Xcalumkin and other neighboring Puuc sites. According to the text contained on Monument 1, political organization of Xkombec was similar to that of other Puuc centers. The association between these two centers may indicate that members of the noble house at Xkombec (Xok Tun and his son B’ahlam may have been related to the nobility of Xcalumkin.

  19. Attacks on South African monuments: Mediating heritage in post-conflict society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ntsikelelo B. Breakfast

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The controversy surrounding the notion of national heritage and what constitutes a proper heritage in post-apartheid South Africa intersects with issues of identity and identity formation in a post-conflict society. That it impinges powerfully on social cohesion has been thrust into the spotlight in view of recent protest action related to colonial and apartheid era monuments. We have made the point elsewhere that conflict resolution in South Africa through negotiations, the National Peace Accord and the Truth and Reconciliation Commission has, at best, been partial, that it has not always been taken sufficiently seriously to engage with the fault-lines of protracted social conflict in the country. This article has employed a qualitative methodology because it is both descriptive and explorative in nature. The main aim of this article is to provide a critique on how issues of intersectionality (race, class and gender coincide with the attacks of the monuments by university students in South Africa. This article utilises two theoretical frameworks, namely, classical Marxism and Black Consciousness, simply because both the psychological and class analysis were invoked by the student bodies to diagnose and prognose the challenges of black South Africans within the context of higher education in South Africa. The central thesis of this article is that the attacks on monuments in South African universities were instigated by a group of young people who claim to be revolutionary in thinking and are calling for transformation, free education, dismantling gender oppression and doing away with institutionalisation of racism.

  20. Biofilm forming cyanobacteria, algae and fungi on two historic monuments in Belgrade, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljaljević-Grbić Milica

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Biofilm on the sandstone substrata of the bridge 'Brankov most' and on the granite substrata of the 'Monument of the Unknown Hero' contains a complex consortia of cyanobacteria, algae, and fungi. Coccoid and filamentous cyanobacteria, green algae and diatoms make up the photosynthetic part of the biofilm while hyphal fragments, chlamydospores, fruiting bodies and spores take part as fungal components. These structures make a dense layer by intertwining and overlapping the stone surface. Five cyanobacterial, 11 algal and 23 fungal taxa were found. The interaction of the biofilm's constituents results in the bioweathering of the stone substrata through mechanical penetration, acid corrosion and the production of secondary mycogenic biominerals. .

  1. Non-destructive analysis for the inspection and control of metalic monuments and historical manuscripts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faubel, W.; Heissler, S.; Klewe-Nebenius, H.; Willin, E.

    2003-01-01

    As a contribution to the increasing efforts to preserve cultural heritage of historical bronze monuments exposed to atmospheric corrosion as well as historical books and manuscripts non-destructive analytical methods are highly desirable enabling an in-situ examination of the surface status of an object. The development and application of novel non-destructive analytical methods based on the photoacoustic and photothermal deflection spectroscopy allowed to investigate the state of bronze patina as well as the effectiveness of conservation procedures for historical manuscripts. (orig.)

  2. Architectonic context and technological implements for Teodoro Ansagasti’s Monumental Cinema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lavilla

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Overcoming the economical crisis that Spain suffered in the twentieth century allowed to build more edifices and made possible to follow the concepts of modern European movement. Cinemas were one of the best examples of this attempt of modernity. There are few examples of real quality architecture, and majority of them were built in Madrid or Barcelona. In this context, one of that years’ greatest works has to be put in value: Teodoro Anasagasti’s Monumental Cinema, providing additional architectonic and technological data to the existing historiography.

  3. The laboratory of quantitative methods in historic monument research at the CTU Prague

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musilek, L.; Cechak, T.; Kubelik, M.; Pavelka, K.; Pavlik, M.

    2001-01-01

    A 'Laboratory of Quantitative Methods in Historic Monument Research' has been established at the Department of Dosimetry and Application of Ionizing Radiation of the CTU Prague. Its primary orientation is the investigation of historic architecture, although other objects of art can also be, investigated. In the first phase, one investigative method was established for each of the above groups: X-ray fluorescence as the analytic method, thermoluminescence for dating and photogrammetry for surveying. The first results demonstrate the need and usefulness of these methods for investigations in the rich architectural heritage of the Czech Republic.

  4. ADULT CADDISFLY (TRICHOPTERA) PHENOLOGY AT THE HANFORD REACH NATIONAL MONUMENT, WASHINGTON STATE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zack, Richard S.; Ruiter, David E.; Strenge, Dennis L.; Landolt, Peter J.

    2006-01-01

    Adult caddisflies were sampled on the Wahluke Wildlife Area and Saddle Mountain National Wildlife Refuge subunits of the newly created (2000) Hanford Reach National Monument using 15-watt ''black lights'' from April 2002 through April 2003. A diverse fauna consisting of nine families, 21 genera, and 33 species were collected. Protoptila Coloma Ross, Agraylea multipunctata Curtis, Hydroptila xera Ross, Ceraclea alagma (Ross), Nectopsych Iahontanensis Haddock Oecetis cinerascens (Hagen), and Ylodes reuteri (MacLachlan) represent new records for Washington State. Species composition and phenology are presented in tabular form

  5. Conservarea şi restaurarea monumentelor istorice: unele obiective şi principii (probleme inginereşti la monumente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian-Constantin Diaconu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Even when large parts of the original substance were lost throughout its existence, the monument should be regarded as a spatial structure, participating to the reality around them. Precepts governing the conservation and rehabilitation of historical monuments have to be applied individually to each monument, according to his personality, his past or future function, conservation status, in the way that the rehabilitation concept results from obligations balance to not harm the monument - Primum non Nocera (Carta de la Veneţia even to act for the future generation’s heritage. Monument to be seen through all the three attributes: FIRMITAS (solid, technical achievement, UTILITAS (functionality, the purpose for which it was made, PULCHRITAS (beauty, aesthetic expression. The historical monument’s components are: the land – cadastral lot, constructions, exterior arrangements, other elements, cultural mobile goods. The actions of historical monuments should consider the following objectives and principles: maintenance, rehabilitation, consolidation, security, social, economic and cultural lifeof the local community. The principles underlying these goals:building’s state expertise from all points of view, the building’sconsolidation solution must not affect the architectural appearance, to maintain authenticity, the level of response and earthquake insurance, as a matter of urgency execution of building works, reversible methods applied in conservation and / or rehabilitation, compatible materials used in conservation and / or rehabilitation, the loads resulting from new building elements should not exceed the capable strength of materials of (blocks of masonry, mortar, etc.., the resulting structure after consolidation should lead to good seismic behavior of the assemble "old structure - new structural elements," reintegration cultural and social, etc.

  6. Celebrating the Immigrant: An Administrative History of the Statue of Liberty National Monument, 1952-1982. Cultural Resource Management Study 10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumberg, Barbara

    This book focuses on the history of the Statue of Liberty National Monument from 1952 through 1982. It describes how the monument has come to symbolize an expanding set of ideals, how the symbolism has produced responses in various groups of people ranging from celebrations to physical attacks upon the Statue, and the manner in which the monument…

  7. The effects of wildfire on the peak streamflow magnitude and frequency, Frijoles and Capulin Canyons, Bandelier National Monument, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veenhuis, J.E.

    2004-01-01

    In June of 1977, the La Mesa fire burned 15,270 acres in and around Frijoles Canyon, Bandelier National Monument and the adjacent Santa Fe National Forest, New Mexico. The Dome fire occurred in April of 1996 in Bandelier National Monument, burned 16,516 acres in Capulin Canyon and the surrounding Dome Wilderness area. Both canyons are characterized by extensive archeological artifacts, which could be threatened by increased runoff and accelerated rates of erosion after a wildfire. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the National Park Service monitored the fires' effects on streamflow in both canyons. Copyright 2004 ASCE.

  8. Final audit report of remedial action construction at the UMTRA Project Mexican Hat, Utah -- Monument Valley, Arizona, sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-10-01

    The final audit report for remedial action at the Mexican Hat, Utah, Monument Valley, Arizona, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project sites consists of a summary of the radiological surveillances/audits, quality assurance (QA) in-process surveillances, and QA remedial action close-out inspections performed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC); on-site construction reviews (OSCR) performed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC); and a surveillance performed by the Navajo Nation. This report refers to remedial action activities performed at the Mexican Hat, Utah--Monument Valley, Arizona, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project sites

  9. Participative restoration of the monument national Bosque de Piedra Isabel Rubio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbarita Mijans Moreno

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The work was carried out in four hectares of the «Monument National» Bosque Piedra Isabel Rubio, belonging to the Forest Company Macurije municipality Guane. Ecosystem that possesses national significance because it constitutes a valuable monumental example, it summarizes natural aspects as their calcareous formations of the Jurassic period, besides their intangible values associated to the rural traditions. The objective of the research is to propose a plan of action participative for the restoration of this ecosystem starting from the results obtained in diagnose participative. Among the used scientific methods, they are the research Action Participative and the participant observation, for the collection of information the interview was used in depth, and the meetings in groups. As important results the presence of a strong pressure antropic is obtained on the flora, fauna and rocks of the minimogotes, the introduction of exotic and invasive species, and soil erosion, in consequence the degradation of the ecosystem and loss of the biodiversity. Another significant result constituted it the scarce level of the actors' knowledge regarding the category of this forest and the administrative juridical regulations that govern it. The removed evidences of these communities show that the necessity to diminish the antropics actions and to elevate the sensibility regarding the conservation, they impose a demand of knowledge to satisfy by means of training actions with the participation of the local actors and instrumentation of the regulative apparatus.

  10. An investigation of sulfur concentrations in soils and pine needles in Bandelier National Monument, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gladney, E.S.; Ferenbaugh, R.W.; Jones, E.A.; Bell, M.G.; Morgan, J.D.; Stallings, E.A.; Nelson, L.A.; Lundstrom, C.; Bowker, R.G.

    1993-03-01

    Sulfur measurements in different age groups of pinon pine needles and adjacent soil samples from ten sampling sites at Bandelier National Monument were determined using combustion elemental analysis and chromatographic techniques. The primary goal was to establish base-line levels for elemental sulfur in the Monument. Sulfur levels in foliage and soils were evaluated using analysis of variance techniques. Foliage sulfur concentrations differed significantly among the 10 sampling sites and among trees within sites; however, needles of different ages did not differ significantly in sulfur content. Average soil concentrations were very low, approximately 12% of the average needle concentrations. Soil sulfur concentrations also differed significantly among the 10 sampling sites and at different depths in the soil. No statistical differences were evident in soils sampled at the four compass points (N,S,E,W) around each tree. These differences imply that large numbers of samples are needed to identify small effects from anthropogenic inputs of sulfur into the system or that the effects must be large relative to the differences among sampling sites and individual trees in order to be detected

  11. Terrestrial scanning or digital images in inventory of monumental objects? - case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markiewicz, J. S.; Zawieska, D.

    2014-06-01

    Cultural heritage is the evidence of the past; monumental objects create the important part of the cultural heritage. Selection of a method to be applied depends on many factors, which include: the objectives of inventory, the object's volume, sumptuousness of architectural design, accessibility to the object, required terms and accuracy of works. The paper presents research and experimental works, which have been performed in the course of development of architectural documentation of elements of the external facades and interiors of the Wilanów Palace Museum in Warszawa. Point clouds, acquired from terrestrial laser scanning (Z+F 5003h) and digital images taken with Nikon D3X and Hasselblad H4D cameras were used. Advantages and disadvantages of utilisation of these technologies of measurements have been analysed with consideration of the influence of the structure and reflectance of investigated monumental surfaces on the quality of generation of photogrammetric products. The geometric quality of surfaces obtained from terrestrial laser scanning data and from point clouds resulting from digital images, have been compared.

  12. Visualizing a monumental past: Archeology, Nasser's Egypt, and the early Cold War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruthers, William

    2017-09-01

    This article examines geographies of decolonization and the Cold War through a case study in the making of archeological knowledge. The article focuses on an archeological dig that took place in Egypt in the period between the July 1952 Free Officers' coup and the 1956 Suez crisis. Making use of the notion of the 'boundary object', this article demonstrates how the excavation of ancient Egyptian remains at the site of Mit Rahina helped to constitute Nasserist revolutionary modernity and its relationship to wider, post-Second World War political geographies. The dig took place as a result of an Egyptian-American collaboration designed to institute the possibility of archeology taking place along the lines of the Point Four modernization program promoted by the United States. The article discusses how this situation not only engendered contention surrounding the role of the international 'experts' appointed to run this excavation work, but also - and as a result - helped to constitute the monumental visual and material shape that archeological evidence relating to the Egyptian past could now take. Egypt's revolution sat within wider Cold War political struggles, yet the 'ground-up' realities of this relationship helped to constitute the sort of past (and future) monumentality proposed by Nasser's government.

  13. Polymer-Silica nanoparticles composite films as protective coatings for stone-based monuments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manoudis, P [Department of Chemical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124, Thessaloniki (Greece); Papadopoulou, S [Department of Chemical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124, Thessaloniki (Greece); Karapanagiotis, I [' Ormylia' Art Diagnosis Centre, Ormylia, Chalkidiki, 63071 (Greece); Tsakalof, A [Medical Department, University of Thessaly, Larissa, 41222 (Greece); Zuburtikudis, I [Department of Industrial Design Engineering, TEI of Western Macedonia, Kozani, 50100 (Greece); Panayiotou, C [Department of Chemical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124, Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2007-04-15

    The decrease of surface energy of mineral substrates similar to those used in many stone monuments of cultural heritage by the application of protective polymer coatings along with the simultaneous increase of their surface roughness can increase their ability to repel water substantially. In this work, the effect of artificially induced roughness on the water repellency of mineral substrates coated with protective polymer films was investigated. Natural marble samples or home made calcium carbonate blocks were tried as the mineral substrates. The roughness increase was achieved by mineral chemical etching or by creation of nanoscale binary composition film on the substrate surface. PMMA and PFPE were the polymers used, while different-sized silica nanoparticles were employed for the production of the nanocomposite films. Examination of the coated and uncoated surfaces with profilometry and AFM and measurements of water contact angles reveal a pronounced effect of the surface roughness on water repellency. Especially in the case of nanocomposite coatings, the surfaces become super-hydrophobic. This result indicates that the nanoscale binary composition film scheme, which is characterized by its simplicity and low cost, is a suitable candidate for the water protection of stone-based monuments on large scale.

  14. Polymer-Silica nanoparticles composite films as protective coatings for stone-based monuments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manoudis, P; Papadopoulou, S; Karapanagiotis, I; Tsakalof, A; Zuburtikudis, I; Panayiotou, C

    2007-01-01

    The decrease of surface energy of mineral substrates similar to those used in many stone monuments of cultural heritage by the application of protective polymer coatings along with the simultaneous increase of their surface roughness can increase their ability to repel water substantially. In this work, the effect of artificially induced roughness on the water repellency of mineral substrates coated with protective polymer films was investigated. Natural marble samples or home made calcium carbonate blocks were tried as the mineral substrates. The roughness increase was achieved by mineral chemical etching or by creation of nanoscale binary composition film on the substrate surface. PMMA and PFPE were the polymers used, while different-sized silica nanoparticles were employed for the production of the nanocomposite films. Examination of the coated and uncoated surfaces with profilometry and AFM and measurements of water contact angles reveal a pronounced effect of the surface roughness on water repellency. Especially in the case of nanocomposite coatings, the surfaces become super-hydrophobic. This result indicates that the nanoscale binary composition film scheme, which is characterized by its simplicity and low cost, is a suitable candidate for the water protection of stone-based monuments on large scale

  15. CONTESTED HERITAGE: AN ANALYSIS OF THE PHYSICAL TRANSFORMATION OF DERRY/LONDONDERRY’S SIEGE MONUMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gehan Selim

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Transformations of Derry/Londonderry’s medieval city walls during the twentieth century have shaped an urbanism of segregated settlements within a city of religious confrontation. The heritage of military blockades, peace lines and watchtowers imposed upon the city’s Walls has influenced the disintegration of public space and created areas of no man’s land around the peripheries of the monument. The aim of this paper is to examine physical transformation and trace the consequences of urban planning regarding the historic city Walls. This change includes the shifting of residential settlements in the Bogside/Fountain areas and the movement of Protestant settlements towards the Waterside of Derry/Londonderry. The history and heritage of the Walls are analysed by focusing on four periods: 1600, when the first medieval walls were constructed; the housing crisis of 1948; the 1968 urban area plan and the beginning of the ‘Troubles’; and the present day. This analysis offers an understanding of the spatial relationships between enclaves and the monument over key moments of conflict and political change. The paper reveals that the manifestations of the Walls have aided in the further division of religiously segregated communities in Derry/Londonderry.

  16. Assessment of the radiological impact of the inactive uranium-mill tailings at Monument Valley, Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haywood, F.F.; Goldsmith, W.A.; Hubbard, H.M. Jr.; Fox, W.F.; Shinpaugh, W.H.

    1979-12-01

    Results of a radiological survey that was conducted at the inactive uranium-mill site at Monument Valley, Arizona, in March 1976, in cooperation with a team from Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc., are presented. Consideration of these data and of previously published information on radiological conditions at the site lead to the conclusion that potential health effects from exposure to radionuclides in the mill tailings are relatively small. The occupants of three residences within 0.8 km (0.5 mile) of the tailings constitute the principal population at risk, but direct gamma-exposure rate measurements near the two residences closest to the tailings and calculations of radon dispersion indicate that the tailings do not raise either pathway of radiation exposure significantly above the background level. Data are not available to evaluate fully other possible exposure pathways, but the available information indicates that it is unlikely that doses through these pathways will add significantly to the total population dose. The low estimates of potential health effects from exposure to direct radiation and to exposure to radionuclides in the Monument Valley tailings piles are ascribed to the low 226 Ra inventory, to almost complete absence of small particles that are readily moved by wind and water, and to a small population in the vicinity of the tailings

  17. Kala-tau Hill as a Medieval Monument of Archaeology and Epigraphy in the Western Urals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabdrafikov I.M.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To provide a description of Starokalmashevo hillfort and the Starokalmashevo gravestone with an Arabic epitaph found in the mid-20th century in close proximity to the site of ancient settlement. They are here described not only as monuments of the Middle Ages, but also as objects of historical heritage testifying to the continuous process of ethno-culturogenesis in the Western Cis-Urals up to modern times. Research materials: The author considers the issues of medieval history, ethno- and cultural genesis of the Western Cis-Urals in light of the example of the Starokalmashevo hillfort, located on the hill of Kala-tau (Chekmagushevsky district of the Republic of Bashkortostan, as well as the Starokalmashevo gravestone. The author provides a complex description of these archaeological and cultural monuments and points out the importance of preserving these objects as an integral part of the local population and the entire Volga-Ural region’s collective historical memory. Research novelty: The author presents new materials, including the stories of community elders about the origin of the above-mentioned archaeological sites. He analyzes the inscriptions on the tombstone, including its new reading, and draws a conclusion about the continuity of the population of this territory for a sustained period.

  18. Unintentional Monuments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Runa

    2015-01-01

    The Mughrabi Bridge leading to Haram al-Sharif/Temple Mount in the Old City of Jerusalem was built in 2005 with the intent of being a temporary infrastructural solution while a new and permanent bridge was on the drawing table. But the natural forces that had led the old stone ramp to collapse...

  19. Monumentalizing Landscape: from present perceptions to the original meanings of Galician Megalithism (NW Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Criado Boado, Felipe

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available The study of Landscape as social construction implies considering its economic and territorial dimensions, as much as its symbolic ones. A major topic in such kind of studies is to reconstruct the ways as natural and social space was perceived by past societies. We ought approach the project of building an Archaeology of Perception. One of the aims of such research programme would be to evaluate the effect of natural and artificial landscape features on past human observers. This paper will argue that a possible strategy for studying these dimensions of past landscapes could be based on the systematic analysis of visual features of the prehistoric monuments and in the characterization of the escenic effects and vistas related to them. A detailed analysis of the pattern of location of megalithic monuments, of their visibility and visibilization conditions, allow us to recognize certain regularities what display an intentional will to remark on the existence of the monument and provoke dramatic artificial effects. In such way we could approach a phenomenology of prehistoric perception without falling in mere subjetive solutions. This study is based in a systematic review of the megalithic monuments from Sierra de Barbanza (NW Iberia. Its final scope is proposing theoretical and methodological standpoints to approach these phenomena, but as well producing a case-study to reconstruct monumental strategies to shape cultural landscapes in Neolithic Europe and observe the diacrony (ie, continuities and changes of these traditions.

    El estudio del paisaje como construcción social implica considerar sus dimensiones económicas, territoriales y simbólicas. Sería importante reconstruir cómo fue percibido el espacio natural y social, para lo que se debería construir una Arqueología de la Percepción que tendría entre sus objetivos evaluar el efecto de los rasgos naturales y artificiales del paisaje sobre sus observadores pretéritos. Aquí se

  20. Elucidating tectonic events and processes from variably tectonized conglomerate clast detrital geochronology: examples from the Hongliuhe Formation in the southern Central Asian Orogenic Belt, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleven, Nathan; Lin, Shoufa; Davis, Donald; Xiao, Wenjiao; Guilmette, Carl

    2017-04-01

    This work expands upon detrital zircon geochronology with a sampling and analysis strategy dating granitoid conglomerate clasts that exhibit differing degrees of internal ductile deformation. As deformation textures within clastic material reflect the variation and history of tectonization in the source region of a deposit, we outline a dating methodology that can provide details of the provenance's tectonomagmatic history from deformation-relative age distributions. The method involves bulk samples of solely granitoid clasts, as they are representative of the magmatic framework within the provenance. The clasts are classified and sorted into three subsets: undeformed, slightly deformed, and deformed. LA-ICPMS U-Pb geochronology is performed on zircon separates of each subset. Our case study, involving the Permian Hongliuhe Formation in the southern Central Asian Orogenic Belt, analyzes each of the three clast subsets, as well as sandstone detrital samples, at three stratigraphic levels to yield a profile of the unroofed provenance. The age spectra of the clast samples exhibit different, wider distributions than sandstone samples, considered an effect of proximity to the respective provenance. Comparisons of clast data to sandstone data, as well as comparisons between stratigraphic levels, yield indications of key tectonic processes, in addition to the typical characteristics provided by detrital geochronology. The clast data indicates a minimal lag time, implying rapid exhumation rates, whereas sandstone data alone would indicate a 90 m.y. lag time. Early Paleozoic arc building episodes appear as Ordovician peaks in sandstone data, and Silurian-Devonian peaks in clast data, indicating a younging of magmatism towards the proximal provenance. A magmatic hiatus starts in the Devonian, correlating with the latest age of deformed clasts, interpreted as timing of collisional tectonics. Provenance interpretation using the correlations seen between the clast and sandstone

  1. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings, Monument Valley site, Monument Valley, Arizona. A summary of the Phase II, Title I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has performed an engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at the Monument Valley millsite in Arizona. The Phase II, Title I services include the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and other radium-contaminated materials, the evaluation of resulting radiation exposures of individuals residing nearby, the investigation of site hydrology and meteorology and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas release from the tailings on the site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation are also factors. The sparse population and relatively low radiation levels yield minimal immediate environmental impact; hence, the two alternative actions presented are directed towards restricting access to the site (Options I and II), and returning the windblown tailings to the pile and stabilizing the pile with 2 ft of cover material (Option II). Both options include remedial action costs for offsite locations where tailings have been placed. Cost estimates for the two options are $585,000 and $1,165,000. Reprocessing the tailings for uranium is not economically feasible

  2. 3 CFR 8337 - Proclamation 8337 of January 6, 2009. Establishment of the Rose Atoll Marine National Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of the Rose Atoll Marine National Monument 8337 Proclamation 8337 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 8337 of January 6, 2009 Proc. 8337 Establishment of the Rose Atoll Marine National... 130 nautical miles east-southeast of Pago Pago Harbor, American Samoa, lies Rose Atoll—the easternmost...

  3. Combination of three-dimensional laser scanning and digital photogrammetric shoot for fixing and measurement of architectural monuments

    OpenAIRE

    S.V. Tiurin; S.G. Tihonov

    2010-01-01

    Several variants of architectural monument fixing using photogrammetric method are considered: black-and-white and colour three-dimensional point models; black-and-white and colour orthophotomaps in format SPO; black-and-white and colour orthophotomaps in standard raster formats. For different aims authors recommend corresponding data formats.

  4. Water quality study at the Congaree Swamp National monument of Myers Creek, Reeves Creek and Toms Creek. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rikard, M.

    1991-11-01

    The Congaree Swamp National Monument is one of the last significant near virgin tracts of bottom land hardwood forests in the Southeast United States. The study documents a water quality monitoring program on Myers Creek, Reeves Creek and Toms Creek. Basic water quality parameters were analyzed. High levels of aluminum and iron were found, and recommendations were made for further monitoring

  5. Monument et espace urbain. Pour une Sémiotique des parcours et des structures de la ville

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruggero Ragonese

    2012-11-01

    Cependant, partant de cet exigu corpus bibliographique, on peut chercher des bases pour commencer un travail sur le texte architectural, à partir de l'étude de monuments, capable de décrire le processus de transformation urbaine et les formes de l'espace construit.

  6. Conservation and Management of Archaeological Monuments and Sites in Greece and Turkey: A Value-Based Approach to Anastylosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalliopi Vacharopoulou

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Heritage management and monument conservation play a significant role in the preservation of archaeological heritage. Anastylosis, a process with a long history in the Mediterranean region, is discussed with relevance to current debates concentrating on concepts of value-based approaches. Examination of the diverse values that may be attributed to monuments provides an insight into the evolution of ideas in heritage management, conservation and restoration practices. In the current theoretical framework the concept of values, as attributed by all stakeholders, and its application when preserving archaeological heritage, are constantly debated. The participation of stakeholders in the process of value identification is considered fundamental by heritage management experts. This paper presents the findings of a survey conducted to collect the opinions of anastylosis and restoration professionals, with reference to case studies on a number of monuments subjected to anastylosis in Greece and Turkey, highlighting the importance of assessing values in order to establish the appropriate type and extent of intervention. The paper concludes that a value-based approach to decision-making and planning for anastylosis, or any other form of architectural conservation, is crucial for preserving monuments in a way that satisfies those who want to experience and benefit from heritage.

  7. THE UNDERSTANDING OF THE TOURISTIC VALUE OF PORTUGUESE OVERSEAS MONUMENTS: THE CASE OF ANGOLA (1959-1974

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Mariz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to evaluate the understanding of the touristic value of Portuguese overseas monuments during Estado Novo, having as case-study the then colony of Angola between 1959 and 1974, years marked by the creation of the Information and Tourism Centre and the fall of the regime. Thus, considering the reality of the metropolis, we aimed to identify and analyse the evolution of tourism in this territory, as well the understanding and use of historic monuments by a nationalist regime as points of touristic interest and legitimisers of the national colonialism. We argue that during two different but totally complementary moments devoted to the relation between tourism and historic monuments of Angola, there was a real understanding of their touristic value. Besides that we claim that the believers of the touristic value of those monuments were very often advocates of the preservation or restoration of their pristine characteristics, an idea that we can affiliate to the thought of António Ferro to whom the success of tourism was extremely dependent on preserving and emphasizing the picturesque and idiosyncratic characteristics of those tourist destinations. To achieve our goals we have identified and analysed some tourism-related periodicals, thematic studies and legislation.

  8. Monitoring of atmospheric pollutants passive sampling for the protection of historic buildings and monuments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Santis, F.; Fino, A.; Vazzana, C.; Allegrini, I. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto Inquinamento Atmosferico, Rome (Italy)

    2001-12-01

    When considering the various possibilities to assess the effects of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub 2} on historic buildings and monuments, a distinction can be made according to the completeness of the scope of the assessment itself. A first approach can be limited to gathering data as they become available through the official bodies established under air quality legislation. This approach is based on a single point measurement where a general purpose monitoring station is located, often quite far from the monument to protect and often without investigating local and temporal variations. A more comprehensive assessment should include a generalisation that covers the territory. This can be made on the basis of the knowledge of the spatial distribution of concentrations and the knowledge of the causes of air pollution. Passive samplers allow the measurement of air quality in numerous sites and to assess the pollutant spatial distribution over a large area with a high resolution. As an application of the method, the spatial distribution of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub 2} in the city of Siracusa, Sicily, Italy, has been studied to identify areas of high deposition fluxes in relation to the protection of buildings and monuments of the historic centre. [Italian] E' noto che gli inquinanti presenti in aria, tra questi in particolare l'SO{sub 2} e l'NO{sub 2}, sono causa di danno sui monumenti e sulle opere d'arte. La valutazione dell'impatto di questi due inquinanti viene solitamente effettuata sulla base del monitoraggio eseguito secondo la legislazione vigente ma spesso lontano dal monumento da proteggere. Cio', evidentemente, non consente di valutare correttamente il grado di rischio al quale un monumento e' esposto poiche' non fornisce informazioni sulle variazioni spaziali e temporali dei due inquinanti in prossimita' del monumento stesso. Allo scopo di raccogliere quindi informazioni complete sulla distribuzione degli inquinanti, e

  9. Baseline risk assessment for groundwater contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Monument Valley, Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    This baseline risk assessment evaluates potential impact to public health or the environment resulting from groundwater contamination at the former uranium mill processing site near Monument Valley, Arizona. The tailings and other contaminated material at this site are being relocated and stabilized in a disposal cell at Mexican Hat, Utah, through the US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The tailings removal is planned for completion by spring 1994. After the tailings are removed, groundwater contamination at the site will continue to be evaluated. This risk assessment is the first document specific to this site for the Groundwater Project. It will be used to assist in determining what remedial action is needed for contaminated groundwater at the site

  10. Isolation and characterisation of barium sulphate and titanium oxides in monument crusts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luis Perez-Rodriguez, Jose; Carmen Jimenez de Haro, Maria del; Maqueda, Celia

    2004-10-25

    Black crusts from historical ornamental materials contain Ba and Ti. These elements are in low proportion, making their determination difficult and especially the characterisation of the phases in which they are present. For this reason, works on the mineralogical composition of the two elements in black crusts is scarce. Thus the isolation, previous to their characterisation, is important for the study of the surface layer in altered monuments. An acid attack for the isolation of barium sulphate and titanium oxides in black crusts from polluted areas has been used. The acid employed is a mixture of HF, HNO{sub 3} and HClO{sub 4}. The residue isolated by acid attack was analysed by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence and X-ray diffraction. It was characterised, and the percentages of barite (barium sulphate), anatase (titanium oxide), and rutile (titanium oxide) phases present in the surface layers were calculated.

  11. Reducing visitor noise levels at Muir Woods National Monument using experimental management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stack, David W; Peter, Newman; Manning, Robert E; Fristrup, Kurt M

    2011-03-01

    Noise impacts resources and visitor experience in many protected natural areas, and visitors can be the dominant source of noise. This experimental study tested the efficacy and acceptability of signs asking visitors to be quiet at Muir Woods National Monument, California. Signs declaring a "quiet zone" (at the park's Cathedral Grove) or a "quiet day" (throughout the park) were posted on a randomized schedule that included control days (no signs). Visitor surveys were conducted to measure the cognitive and behavioral responses of visitors to the signs and test the acceptability of these management practices to visitors. Visitors were highly supportive of these management practices and reported that they consciously limited the amount of noise they produced. Sound level measurements showed substantial decreases on days when signs were posted. © 2011 Acoustical Society of America

  12. Monuments devoted to artists in public spaces around museums: A nineteenth-century strategy to enhance the urban space of art districts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorente, J. Pedro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Monuments to kings or military heroes have always been positioned in main squares and avenues, whilst those erected to famous cultural figures were a novelty introduced in the Enlightenment and Romanticism, placing busts or sitting monuments to writers or musicians in secluded gardens and in the surroundings of libraries, theatres, etc. During the nineteenth century, monuments to artists became also a common feature in many cities, where a most likely emplacement for them was in front of some art museum. In a way, they were a complement to the ornaments of such building, usually decorated with portraits and inscriptions glorifying great artists; but the monument to Murillo erected in 1863 by public subscription in Seville's Plaza del Museo was also an urban milestone, catching the attention of promenading public passing along a lateral street. Later, the monuments erected in the piazzas around the Prado Museum in Madrid, or in gardens outside the Louvre, became a popular prototype, emulated in many other cities up to the early 20th century. Their role as interfaces between public spaces and museum sites would thereafter be taken over by other kinds of artistic landmarks: not monuments to artists, but monumental artworks, often owned by the museum itself, thus bringing part of its collection outside, as a welcome starter to prospective cultural consumers.

  13. Trace element quantification of lead based roof sheets of historical monuments by Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syvilay, D., E-mail: delphine.syvilay@culture.gouv.fr [LRMH USR 3224, 29 rue de Paris, 77420 Champs-sur-Marne (France); Texier, A. [LRMH USR 3224, 29 rue de Paris, 77420 Champs-sur-Marne (France); Arles, A.; Gratuze, B. [IRAMAT, 3D, rue de la Férollerie, 45071 Orléans Cedex 2 (France); Wilkie-Chancellier, N.; Martinez, L.; Serfaty, S. [SATIE, UMR CNRS 8029, Université de Cergy-Pontoise, ENS Cachan, 95000 Cergy-Pontoise Cedex (France); Detalle, V. [LRMH USR 3224, 29 rue de Paris, 77420 Champs-sur-Marne (France)

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to identify the different periods of construction or restoration of the lead roof of a historic monument. Trace elements in a lead matrix can be a signature of the metallurgical processes, allowing identification of a specific time period for the production of the lead used to build the roof. The ability of LIBS (Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy) to detect such trace elements in a lead matrix is therefore explored and checked by comparing its results with LA-ICP-MS as a reference method (Laser Ablation-Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry). Concentrations of 263 samples were compared between LIBS and LA-ICP-MS data and their correlation was evaluated. Another way to compare their results is also suggested by combining PCA (Principal Component Analysis) and GIS (Geographic Information System). As a result statistical mappings were created, highlighting metallurgical groups of samples across the roof of the building. This innovative approach links concentration and spatial location resulting in an easily interpretable graphical presentation of the data. The results of both spectrometry methods lead to similar conclusions with distinctive areas of different lead compositions and by extension different lead dating across the roof. But since LIBS is portable we can conclude that it is a suitable and reliable instrument for in-situ applications on historic monuments. - Highlights: • Quantification of trace elements (Ag, Bi, Cu and Sn) in a lead matrix by LIBS and LA-ICP-MS • Low limit of detection for Ag, Bi, Cu and Sn by using LIBS portable instrumentation • Set up a specific data processing combining PCA and GIS for cultural heritage application • Comparison of LIBS and LA-ICP-MS results with 263 samples • 488 samples analyzed by LIBS.

  14. Detect, map, and preserve Bronze & Iron Age monuments along the pre-historic Silk Road

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balz, Timo; Caspari, Gino; Fu, Bihong

    2017-02-01

    Central Asia is rich in cultural heritage generated by thousands of years of human occupation. Aiming for a better understanding of Central Asia’s archaeology and how this unique heritage can be protected, the region should be studied as a whole with regard to its cultural ties with China and combined efforts should be undertaken in shielding the archaeological monuments from destruction. So far, international research campaigns have focused predominantly on single-sites or small-scale surveys, mainly due to the bureaucratic and security related issues involved in cross-border research. This is why we created the Dzungaria Landscape Project. Since 2013, we have worked on collecting remote sensing data of Xinjiang including IKONOS, WorldView-2, and TerraSAR-X data. We have developed a method for the automatic detection of larger grave mound structures in optical and SAR data. Gravemounds are typically spatially clustered and the detection of larger mound structures is a sufficient hint towards areas of high archaeological interest in a region. A meticulous remote sensing survey is the best planning tool for subsequent ground surveys and excavation. In summer 2015, we undertook a survey in the Chinese Altai in order to establish ground-truth in the Hailiutan valley. We categorized over 1000 monuments in just three weeks thanks to the previous detection and classification work using remote sensing data. Creating accurate maps of the cemeteries in northern Xinjiang is a crucial step to preserving the cultural heritage of the region since graves in remote areas are especially prone to looting. We will continue our efforts with the ultimate aim to map and monitor all large gravemounds in Dzungaria and potentially neighbouring eastern Kazakhstan.

  15. Water availability and flood hazards in the John Day Fossil Beds National Monument, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Frank J.; Oster, E.A.

    1979-01-01

    The rock formations of the John Day Fossil Beds National Monument area are aquifers that can be expected to yield less than 10 gallons of water per minute to wells. The most permeable of the geologic units is the alluvium that occurs at low elevations along the John Day River and most of the smaller streams. Wells in the alluvial deposits can be expected to yield adequate water supplies for recreational areas; also, wells completed in the underlying bedrock at depths ranging from 50 to 200 feet could yield as much as 10 gallons per minute. Pumping tests on two unused wells indicated yields of 8 gallons per minute and 2 gallons per minute. Nine of the ten springs measured in and near the monument area in late August of 1978 were flowing 0.2 to 30 gallons per minute. Only the Cant Ranch spring and the Johnny Kirk Spring near the Sheep Rock unit had flows exceeding 6 gallons per minute. Chemical analyses of selected constituents of the ground water indicated generally low concentrations of dissolved minerals. Although cloudbursts in the Painted Hills unit could generate a flood wave on the valley floors, flood danger can be reduced by locating recreational sites on high ground. The campground in Indian Canyon of the Clarno unit is vulnerable to cloudburst flooding. About 80 percent of the proposed campground on the John Day River in the Sheep Rock unit is above the estimated level of 1-percent chance flood (100-year flood) of the river. The 1-percent chance flood would extend about 120 feet from the riverbank into the upstream end of the campground. (USGS).

  16. NIPGAT: new tool for investigating the deterioration of monuments and historic buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaafar Abdullah; Lahasen Norman Shah Dahing; Susan Maria Sipaun; Md Fakaruddin Abdul Rahman; Ismail Mustapha

    2004-01-01

    The degradation of some building materials such as brick and mortar is a major problem for the preservation of monuments or historic structures, especially where it is desirable to preserve the original fabric of the building. Such degradation often arises from the presence of contaminants in the constituent materials. Knowledge of the presence and distribution of contaminants is needed for effective treatment and preservation. In building materials, water and soluble salt are considered two unwanted contaminants. Their concentrations and distribution in these materials are very important factor in estimating the degree of building deterioration. Water is a major course of deterioration, both by acting as a solvent for various building materials components and by exerting stresses on the structure during thermal cycle. The soluble salts, notably chlorides, damage the structure either by periodically dissolving and recrystallising within the pores or by promoting corrosion. Neutrons are useful as probes for non-destructive examination of extended media because neutrons can travel relatively long distances before interacting with the nuclei of the media. Depending on the type of material, neutrons can have a mean free path of tens of centimeters to meters. It is for this reason that neutrons in conjunction with gamma-ray spectroscopy have been used extensively in oil-well logging and mineral exploration. For the same reason, a new method, called neutron-induced prompt gamma-ray technique, NIPGAT is being developed at MINT for preservation of monuments and historic buildings. NIPGAT can be used for in-situ quantitative determination and location of contaminants, particularly water and soluble salt in building materials. This paper presents a brief overview and gives preliminary results of NIPGAT research activities at MINT. It is hoped that it may raise awareness and promote further opportunities for the collaboration of the nuclear research scientists with the museum

  17. HOLDİNGLEŞME EKSENİNDE TÜRK MEDYASINDA TEKELLEŞME SORUNU - THE MONOPOLIZATION PROBLEM IN TURKISH MEDIA ON THE AXIS OF CONGLOMERATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barış BULUNMAZ

    2012-11-01

    tosurvive without advertisement income, dragged mediacompanies into fairly difficult conditions. Media sector movedto a different position since almost all of the ‘leader’institutions continued their activities as a subsidiary companyunder major holdings. These media companies have manyadvantages such as strong financial support, distributionfacilities and having presence in every part of masscommunication. In time, as a result of these advantages, thosemedia companies caused ‘monopolization’ which is a greatthreat for Turkish media sector. In this study, first of allinformation about Turkish media sector will be given. Lateron, evaluations will be put forward regarding negative effectscaused by the monopolization problem in Turkish media onthe axis of conglomerate and alternative solutions will beexamined.

  18. Bathymetry of NPS's Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument (Inshore), St. John, US Virgin Islands 2005, 1M Grid, UTM 20 NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains an ESRI Grid with 1 meter cell size representing the bathymetry of an inshore portion of the NPS's Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument,...

  19. Effect of the acid rain in the constituent material of the Mayan Mexican monuments; Efecto de la lluvia acida en el material constituyente de los monuments mayas mexicanos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bravo Alvarez, H; Soto Ayala, R; Sosa Echeverria, R; Sanchez Alvarez, P [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2003-10-15

    Actually, acid rain is considered as a potential problem that affects materials and ecosystems. The effect on monuments, made mainly from limestone, has been studied for long time. In this work, a sample of limestone from Tulum, Qintana Roo, was studied. The following parameters were measured: density, porosity and percentage of water adsorption. Also, the sample was irrigated with acid rain prepared in the laboratory (pH = 4.6), based in the chemical composition of 56 rain samples from Puerto Morelos, Quintana Roo, in 1994 and 1995. The results obtained show that acid rain is neutralized by calcium carbonate from the limestone. The high calcium concentrations in the effluent, show that limestone is dissolved by acid rain. Superficial recession was 4.4 {mu}m/year under experimental conditions used. [Spanish] Actualmente la lluvia acida se ha convertido en un problema potencial que afecta en mayor o menor grado a materiales y a los ecosistemas. El efecto que causa la lluvia acida en monumentos construidos fundamentalmente de roca caliza, ha sido objeto de muchas investigaciones realizadas, prioritariamente, por paises que poseen estructuras, cuyo material de construccion es caliza. En este trabajo de investigacion se estudio una muestra de roca caliza proveniente de los monumentos mayas de Tulum, Quintana Roo. Se determinaron los parametros de densidad, porosidad y porcentaje de adsorcion de agua. Asimismo, se efectuo la irrigacion de la muestra con lluvia acida (pH aprox.4.6), preparada en el laboratorio con base en la composicion quimica que se determino en 56 muestras de agua de lluvia provenientes de Puerto Morelos, punto cercano a los monumentos de Tulum, Quintana Roo, durante los anos 1994 y 1995. Los resultados permiten concluir que la lluvia acida sufre un proceso de naturalizacion con el carbonato de calcio de la roca caliza. Las altas concentraciones de calcio en el efluente, mostraron que la roca caliza sufrio una disolucion con la lluvia acida. La

  20. Measuring change over time: the use of geotagged photographs to evaluate the weathering of monuments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doehne, E.

    2012-04-01

    Evaluating the condition of weathered stone surfaces on a monument, building or sculpture requires information on how those surfaces have evolved. In a number of cases, the documentation related to a site or object is either not readily available or has been lost (due to war, fire, etc.). Exploring the use of geotagged photographs to supplement the evaluation of surface changes to monuments was tested using two sites: the Mausoleum at the Huntington Library, Art Collections, and Botanical Gardens in San Marino, California and the Duomo in Florence, Italy. Increasingly, photographs are being geo-located or geotagged, either automatically via GPS/WiFi or manually. Geolocation tags increase the value of a photograph to researchers by providing the geographic location where the image was taken, often along with the date and time the photograph was acquired. Estimates of the number of geolocated photographs posted to the Internet include 148 million on Flickr.com (as of June 3, 2011) increasing to 172 million as of January 15, 2012. On Panarimo.com five million geolocated images were archived as of October 2007. Tools such as auto-geotag and PhotoOverlay are making it easier for users to locate and exactly position existing photographs and historic photographs on sites such as Google Earth (PhotoOverlays are images that are directly embedded in the Google Earth's landscape). 42 photo sharing websites are listed currently on Wikipedia, with seven having Alexa rankings of less than 200, indicating the popularity of photo sharing and the vast nature of this resource. Preliminary results from the Huntington and the Duomo indicate that geolocated images are indeed a useful tool for aiding in understanding stone weathering patterns and changes over time. However, greater software support and new tools are needed to enable researchers to search, organize and analyze groups of photographs from a single geolocation. Such software would have obvious uses beyond the conservation

  1. Data Validation Package, December 2015, Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Monument Valley, Arizona, Processing Site March 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyrrell, Evan [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Oak Ridge, NV (United States); Denny, Angelita [USDOE Office of Legacy Management, Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-03-23

    Fifty-two groundwater samples and one surface water sample were collected at the Monument Valley, Arizona, Processing Site to monitor groundwater contaminants for evaluating the effectiveness of the proposed compliance strategy as specified in the 1999 Final Site Observational Work Plan for the UMTRA Project Site at Monument Valley, Arizona. Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated, http://energy.gov/lm/downloads/sampling-and-analysis-plan-us-department- energy-office-legacy-management-sites). Samples were collected for metals, anions, nitrate + nitrite as N, and ammonia as N analyses at all locations.

  2. Beyond Restoration. Valorization of the Public. Monumental Heritage Asset The Istituto degli Innocenti and the MUDI Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Terpolilli

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available While protection of our collective monumental heritage is a value and an objective we pass along to future generations, at the same time it must be conceived of a commitment to making these assets available to citizens of the present time. This means applying the disciplines of preservation and restoration and at the same time going beyond with a cultural approach that interprets the monumental asset as a fabbrica; that is, as a place of ongoing design activity: a workshop for a work in progress. This approach necessitates programs for valorization and productive investments that operate in full respect of the assets themselves while employing the innovative tools available for ensuring that the asset as a whole produces income. This is the framework for the MUDI project in Florence.

  3. Monumental Architecture of Late Intermediate Period Cuzco: Continuities of Ritual Reciprocity and Statecraft between the Middle and Late Horizons

    OpenAIRE

    McEwan, Gordon; Gibaja, Arminda; Chatfield, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    The culture history of the valley of Cuzco prior to the rise of the Incas is being revealed by twelve years of fieldwork at the site of Chokepukio. Located in the Lucre Basin at the eastern end of the valley, Chokepukio contains the only surviving monumental architecture of Late Intermediate Period Cuzco. Excavations in a series of large niched structures on the site reveals that they functioned as feasting halls. Quantities of polychrome ceramic serving and feasting vessels and high quality ...

  4. “Tomar” e “Zona Monumental de Ajuda Belem”. Dois projectos de salvaguardia, dois casos de estudo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Maria Augusto de Sousa Rosa

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Prosseguindo os propósitos deste Il Seminário internacional “Conservazione del Património Arquitectónico e Urbano”, onde irão ser confrontadas as experiências realizadas em Itália e Portugal no âmbito da conservação do património arquitectónico e urbano, são apresentados dois casos de estudo, objectivando a salvaguarda dos centros históricos, realizados em duas cidades portuguesas - Tomar (Centro Histórico e Lisboa (Zona Monumental Ajuda-Belém. Os dois Planos então realizados – Tomar, em 1996, e zona monumental Ajuda-Belém, em 2004 – ambos recorrendo a suporte informático, evidenciam na “decalage” de 8 anos, a importância dos avanços tecnológicos e informáticos, patente no projecto mais recente (Zona Monumental Ajuda - Belém, quer na aquisição e processamento de dados, quer ainda na consulta dos mesmos, processos que se têm revelado valiosíssimos para a conservação e salvaguarda do património arquitectónico, urbano e ambiental desta zona da cidade de Lisboa.

  5. Megaliths as land-marks. Chronicle of the territorial role of the megalithic monuments through written sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinón-Torres, Marcos

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Megalithic monuments have played dijferent roles throughout History. One of them has a spatial function, i.e. as landmarks. The aim of this paper has been to collect and analyse every written reference concerning Galician megaliths operating as landmarks between the 6th and 19th centuries AD. On this basis, the evolution of this social-territorial function of the monuments through time is reconstructed, and an interpretative hypothesis for this phenomenon is proposed. Finally, the importance of reviewing written sources as a methodology for archaeological survey and for studies of the topographic settings of monuments is emphasised.

    A lo largo de la Historia, los monumentos megalíticos han desempeñado, entre otras, una función espacial, como marcos de territorio. Para este artículo se recogen y analizan las referencias escritas a megalitos gallegos funcionando como marcadores o identificadores espaciales, entre los siglos VI y XIX d.C. A partir de este registro de fuentes se reconstruye la evolución de este papel social-territorial de los monumentos en las distintas épocas. Se plantea un modelo interpretativo para este fenómeno, y se valora la revisión de fuentes escritas como metodología para la prospección arqueológica y para los estudios de emplazamiento de megalitos.

  6. Monitoring Mechanism in Preservation of Monuments in Hot and Wet Climate Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, M. C.; Tsai, Y. L.; Lin, M. L.; Hang, L. W.; Chen, C. Y.

    2015-08-01

    Historic monuments and buildings are critical cultural assets which cannot be presented by again by human beings. Longer affected by natural climate, environment and biological behavior (including human), resulting in damage and the need for repair. Therefore, UNESCO proposed periodic reporting and reactive monitoring in 2007, in order to achieve "early detection, early repair". This study discusses about suitable preservation monitoring methods for Taiwan. To shed light on damage and impact factors of historical buildings and cultural relics, the study is based on impact and sensor, monitoring method, monitoring period and maintenance personnel in order to propose standard operating procedures of monitoring method. To reduce the rate of the human and sensor monitoring, with the long-term monitoring data analysis, it is calculated that 30 minutes is the best period of data collecting. Besides, the study is adopted regression analysis to select temperature variable only then calculate humidity variable function. This study provides a reference monitoring method for monitoring personnel and maintenance personnel, and establishes a long-term monitoring data based information for damage and destroy in the future. Monitoring period and maintenance personnel can follow the data based to find out the damage points and problems, to keep the value of cultural assets.

  7. GPR identification of an early monument at Los Morteros in the Peruvian coastal desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandweiss, Daniel H.; Kelley, Alice R.; Belknap, Daniel F.; Kelley, Joseph T.; Rademaker, Kurt; Reid, David A.

    2010-05-01

    Los Morteros (8˚39'54″S, 78˚42 '00″W) is located in coastal, northern Peru, one of the six original centers of world civilization. The site consists of a large, sand-covered, isolated prominence situated on a Mid-Holocene shoreline, ˜ 5 km from the present coast. Preceramic archaeological deposits (4040 ± 75 to 4656 ± 60 14C yr BP or ˜ 3600-5500 cal yr BP) cap this feature, which has been identified by prior researchers as a sand-draped, bedrock-cored landform or a relict dune deposit. Because neither explanation is geomorphologically probable, we used ground-penetrating radar (GPR) and high-resolution mapping to assess the mound's interior structure. Our results indicate an anthropogenic origin for Los Morteros, potentially placing it among the earliest monumental structures in prehistoric South America. The extremely arid setting raises new questions about the purpose and the logistics of early mound construction in this region. This work demonstrates the value of an integrated Quaternary sciences approach to assess long-term landscape change and to understand the interaction between humans and the environment.

  8. A brief geological history of Cockspur Island at Fort Pulaski National Monument, Chatham County, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swezey, Christopher S.; Seefelt, Ellen L.; Parker, Mercer

    2018-03-09

    Fort Pulaski National Monument is located on Cockspur Island in Chatham County, Georgia, within the Atlantic Coastal Plain province. The island lies near the mouth of the Savannah River, and consists of small mounds (hummocks), salt marshes, and sediment dredged from the river. A 1,017-foot (ft) (310-meter [m])-deep core drilled at Cockspur Island in 2010 by the U.S. Geological Survey revealed several sedimentary units ranging in age from 43 million years old to present. Sand and mud are present at drilling depths from 0 to 182 ft (56 m), limestone is present at depths from 182 ft (56 m) to 965 ft (295 m), and glauconitic sand is present at depths from 965 ft (295 m) to 1,017 ft (310 m). The limestone and the water within the limestone are referred to collectively as the Floridan aquifer system, which is the primary source of drinking water for the City of Savannah and surrounding communities. In addition to details of the subsurface geology, this fact sheet identifies the following geologic materials used in the construction of Fort Pulaski: (1) granite, (2) bricks, (3) sandstone, and (4) lime mud with oyster shells.

  9. Water-resources investigations in Dinosaur National Monument, Utah-Colorado, fiscal year 1970

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumsion, C.T.

    1971-01-01

    Water-resources data were acquired during fiscal year 1970 by the U.S. Geological Survey at Dinosaur National Monument, Utah-Colorado, for the U.S. National Park Service as part of a continuing project. The data provide a basis for planning the development, management, and use of the available water resources to provide adequate water supplies. Thirty-one springs, 19 in relatively inaccessible areas, were evaluated as sources of water supplies. Seven potential well sites were evaluated for drilling depths in specific aquifers. A well drilled in Echo Park near the confluence of the Green and Yampa Rivers was tested. The pumping test showed the well to yield 130 gallons per minute with a drawdown of 1.96 feet; specific capacity of the well at 130 gallons per minute is 66 gallons per minute per foot. Water samples for chemical analysis were - collected from nine springs and one well; all except that from Disappointment Spring, were of good chemical quality.

  10. The research on the buried public monumental complexes of Lupiae (Lecce) by geophysical prospecting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leucci, Giovanni; De Giorgi, Lara; Di Giacomo, Giacomo; Ditaranto, Imma; Miccoli, Ilaria; Scardozzi, Giuseppe

    2017-10-01

    Ongoing and extensive urbanisation may threaten important archaeological structures that are still buried in urban areas. The ground penetrating radar (GPR) method is the most promising alternative for resolving buried archaeological structures in urban territories. This paper presents a case study that involves a geophysical survey employing the surface three-dimensional (3D) GPR techniques, in order to archaeologically characterise the investigated areas. The site is located in the south-western sector of the historical centre of Lecce (Apulia, Italy), where the modern city overlaps the main public monuments of the Roman municipium of Lupiae, only partially preserved or excavated: the amphitheatre, the theatre, the baths and maybe also the Forum. GPR measurements, integrated with the results of archaeological excavations and the topographical surveys of the preserved remains, were carried out in several areas regarding sectors of the ancient roman city. The GPR data were collected along a dense network of parallel profiles. The GPR sections were processed applying specific filters to the data in order to enhance their information content. The GPR images significantly contributed in reconstructing the complex subsurface properties in these modern urban areas. Strong GPR reflections features were correlated with possible ancient structures and they were integrated in the digital archaeological map of the city.

  11. Effect of Ground Motion Characteristics on the Seismic Response of a Monumental Concrete Arch Bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caglayan, B. Ozden; Ozakgul, Kadir; Tezer, Ovunc

    2008-07-01

    Railway network in Turkey dates back to more than a hundred years ago and according to official records, there are approximately 18,000 railway bridges with spans varying between 50 cm up to 150 meters. One of them is a monumental concrete arch bridge with a total length of 210 meters having three major spans of 30 meters and a height of 65 meters, located in an earthquake-prone region in southern part of the country. Three-dimensional finite element model of the bridge was generated using a commercially available general finite element analysis software and based on the outcomes of a series of in-depth acceleration measurements that were conducted on-site, the model was refined. Types of ground motion records were used to investigate the seismic response and vulnerability of this massive structure in order to provide information regarding (i) damage-susceptible regions of the structure for monitoring purposes, and, (ii) seismic loads to be taken into account during evaluation and possible strengthening phases for this type of structures.

  12. Effect of Ground Motion Characteristics on the Seismic Response of a Monumental Concrete Arch Bridge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caglayan, B. Ozden; Ozakgul, Kadir; Tezer, Ovunc

    2008-01-01

    Railway network in Turkey dates back to more than a hundred years ago and according to official records, there are approximately 18,000 railway bridges with spans varying between 50 cm up to 150 meters. One of them is a monumental concrete arch bridge with a total length of 210 meters having three major spans of 30 meters and a height of 65 meters, located in an earthquake-prone region in southern part of the country. Three-dimensional finite element model of the bridge was generated using a commercially available general finite element analysis software and based on the outcomes of a series of in-depth acceleration measurements that were conducted on-site, the model was refined. Types of ground motion records were used to investigate the seismic response and vulnerability of this massive structure in order to provide information regarding (i) damage-susceptible regions of the structure for monitoring purposes, and, (ii) seismic loads to be taken into account during evaluation and possible strengthening phases for this type of structures

  13. Building the Monumental Source Alameda Afonso Henriques (1938-1948 through journals and administrative process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Elias

    2010-02-01

    The research was based primarily on data collected in the process of work, existing file. The journals have been the prime source to describe the construction of the Monumental Fountain. However, given the political context of the time, the journals say little about the logic that led to the belated realization of the work, since their concern is, above all, credibility and consolidate the political image of the regime. In this study, the consultation of journals made by the need to contextualize the motivations of political and ideological order that accompanied the launching of the construction. In the absence of justification on the grounds that caused the delay in the work, we used to see the file's administrative order. This made it possible to obtain unpublished data on the construction of commemorative works such as launching an international tender for electrical installation and plumbing of water games or contingencies that led to the tardy commencement of the works and the replacement of material originally intended for artistic commissions.

  14. Intrasite motions and monument instabilities at Medicina ITRF co-location site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarti, Pierguido; Abbondanza, Claudio; Legrand, Juliette; Bruyninx, Carine; Vittuari, Luca; Ray, Jim

    2013-03-01

    We process the total-station surveys performed at the ITRF co-location site Medicina (Northern Italy) over the decade (2001-2010) with the purpose of determining the extent of local intrasite motions and relating them to local geophysical processes, the geological setting and the design of the ground pillars. In addition, continuous observations acquired by two co-located GPS stations (MEDI and MSEL separated by ≈27 m) are analysed and their relative motion is cross-checked with the total-station results. The local ground control network extends over a small area (<100 × 100 m) but the results demonstrate significant anisotropic deformations with rates up to 1.6 mm a-1, primarily horizontal, a value comparable to intraplate tectonic deformations. The results derived from GPS and total-station observations are consistent and point to the presence of horizontal intrasite motions over very short distances possibly associated with varying environmental conditions in a very unfavourable local geological setting and unsuitable monument design, these latter being crucial aspects of the realization and maintenance of global permanent geodetic networks and the global terrestrial reference frame.

  15. Study of the mechanical behavior of the fronts of exterior monuments in Morelia, Michoacan, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, E.; Martinez, W.; Avalos, M.; Castano, V.; Martinez, L.

    2005-01-01

    There are 1,130 architectural ancient monuments in the historic center in Morelia, Michoacan, Mexico built with ignimbrites from the surrounding quarry stones. In some facades is acute the damage. The walls are between 0.50 and 1.50 meters wide, it helps the structure under seismic or accidental loads. The main winds come from the S-SW and their ratio speed (4-20 m/s) does not allow mechanical corrosion (corrosion) but it is able to carry anthropogenic particles (2-25 m), form the burnt of fossil fuels, and they lay on the facades. The damage is observed specially on the facades on the dominant winds and also on the facades located on streets less than 6.0 m wide. The capillary humidity is visible until highs of 2.0 meters on the streets, and it is appreciate the efflorescence crystals and biologic patinas. We performance non destructive tests in situ with the Schmidt hammer to quantify the mechanical resistance on the ignimbrite blocks forming the buildings, in the lowest part of them we took the data because the damage is acute in that wet zone and because in this part could occur the collapse in an extraordinary earthquake. The collected data were compared with the data obtained in ignimbrites blocks taken from the 'healthy' quarry stones. (Author)

  16. Preliminary Study on Controlling Black Fungi Dwelling on Stone Monuments by Using a Microwave Heating System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana-Adriana CUZMAN

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Microcolonial black fungi have their natural ecological niche on rocks and walls of hypogean environments, playing an important role in the deterioration of materials and aesthetical alteration of monumental stones and mortars. Three black fungi (Sarcinomyces sp., Pithomyces sp. and Scolecobasidium sp. have been isolated from cultural assets of historical interest. These fungal strains have been used to test the microwave heating method as a new control methodology for eradicating the fungal biological growth on cultural stone artifacts. This methodology is based on a 2.45 GHz microwave electromagnetic radiation, generated by a new apparatus with an appropriate applicator. The first results showed the best dose of 65°C for three minutes, for all the investigated fungal strains. This methodology is very promising because is safety for the operator and the environment, and can be easily applied on site. The use of this method to kill biodeteriogens can avoid the application of chemicals formulates potentially dangerous for substrates and environment.

  17. Vertebrate paleontology, stratigraphy, and paleohydrology of Tule Springs Fossil Beds National Monument, Nevada (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Kathleen; Pigati, Jeffery S.; Scott, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Tule Springs Fossil Beds National Monument (TUSK) preserves 22,650 acres of the upper Las Vegas Wash in the northern Las Vegas Valley (Nevada, USA). TUSK is home to extensive and stratigraphically complex groundwater discharge (GWD) deposits, called the Las Vegas Formation, which represent springs and desert wetlands that covered much of the valley during the late Quaternary. The GWD deposits record hydrologic changes that occurred here in a dynamic and temporally congruent response to abrupt climatic oscillations over the last ~300 ka (thousands of years). The deposits also entomb the Tule Springs Local Fauna (TSLF), one of the most significant late Pleistocene (Rancholabrean) vertebrate assemblages in the American Southwest. The TSLF is both prolific and diverse, and includes a large mammal assemblage dominated by Mammuthus columbi and Camelops hesternus. Two (and possibly three) distinct species of Equus, two species of Bison, Panthera atrox, Smilodon fatalis, Canis dirus, Megalonyx jeffersonii, and Nothrotheriops shastensis are also present, and newly recognized faunal components include micromammals, amphibians, snakes, and birds. Invertebrates, plant macrofossils, and pollen also occur in the deposits and provide important and complementary paleoenvironmental information. This field compendium highlights the faunal assemblage in the classic stratigraphic sequences of the Las Vegas Formation within TUSK, emphasizes the significant hydrologic changes that occurred in the area during the recent geologic past, and examines the subsequent and repeated effect of rapid climate change on the local desert wetland ecosystem.

  18. Disruption rates for one vulnerable soil in Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument, Arizona, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Robert H.; Esque, Todd C.; Nussear, Kenneth E.; Sturm, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Rates of soil disruption from hikers and vehicle traffic are poorly known, particularly for arid landscapes. We conducted an experiment in Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument (ORPI) in western Arizona, USA, on an air-dry very fine sandy loam that is considered to be vulnerable to disruption. We created variable-pass tracks using hikers, an all-terrain vehicle (ATV), and a four-wheel drive vehicle (4WD) and measured changes in cross-track topography, penetration depth, and bulk density. Hikers (one pass = 5 hikers) increased bulk density and altered penetration depth but caused minimal surface disruption up to 100 passes; a minimum of 10 passes were required to overcome surface strength of this dry soil. Both ATV and 4WD traffic significantly disrupted the soil with one pass, creating deep ruts with increasing passes that rendered the 4WD trail impassable after 20 passes. Despite considerable soil loosening (dilation), bulk density increased in the vehicle trails, and lateral displacement created berms of loosened soil. This soil type, when dry, can sustain up to 10 passes of hikers but only one vehicle pass before significant soil disruption occurs; greater disruption is expected when soils are wet. Bulk density increased logarithmically with applied pressure from hikers, ATV, and 4WD.

  19. SHM experiences of monuments in different structural use and environmental conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modena, C.

    2015-01-01

    In the last decades the need for an effective seismic protection and vulnerability reduction of strategic structures and particularly the architectural heritage determined a growing interest in Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) as measure of passive mitigation of earthquake effects. The object of monitoring is to identify, locate and classify type and severity of damage induced by external actions or degradation phenomena and to assess their effects on the structural performance. In this way it is possible to take appropriate measures to reduce the danger of collapse and, when necessary, perform straightening interventions to improve the structural and seismic capacity. Motivated by the above reasons, the paper provide a contribution to the application of integrated methodologies and techniques, based on SHM, for the assessment and protection of Cultural Heritage (CH) buildings and monuments. Selected case studies, equipped with distributed sensors and acquisition systems. allowed the definition and successive validation of SHM as a knowledge-based assessment tool, implemented to evaluate intervention needs, following an incremental approach during their execution, and to control the damage states of buildings in a post-seismic scenario. In order to maximize the benefits of SHM and optimize the entire process, dedicated software for static monitoring and automated algorithms for modal parameters identification have been developed, able to provide almost real time information on the health state of the monitored structure. Finally integrated procedures based on robust statistical and numerical models have been implemented to interpret and exploit SHM outputs to assess the structural conditions of the investigated CH buildings.

  20. Controls on dripwater chemistry of Oregon Caves National Monument, northwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushdi, Ahmed I.; Ersek, Vasile; Mix, Alan C.; Clark, Peter U.

    2018-02-01

    Cave dripwater chemistry of Oregon Caves National Monument (OCNM) was studied, where the parameters pH, total alkalinity, calcium, magnesium, strontium, sodium and barium were analyzed at quasi-monthly intervals from 2005 to 2007. Different statistical analyses have been used to investigate the variability of the chemical parameters in the different sites in the OCNM cave system. The dripwater varies in response to seasonal changes in rainfall. The drip rates range from zero in summer to continuous flow in winter, closely following the rainfall intensity. Spatial variations of dripwater chemistry, which is nonlinearly related to dripwater discharge likely, reflect the chemical composition of bedrock and overlying soil, and the residence time of the ground water within the aquifer. The residence time of infiltrated water in bedrock cracks control the dissolution carbonate bedrock, reprecipitation of calcium carbonate and the degree of saturation of dripwater with respect to calcium carbonate minerals. Spatiotemporal fluctuations of dripwater Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca ratios are controlled by dissolution of carbonate bedrock and the degree of calcite reprecipitation in bedrock cracks. This suggests that trace elements in speleothem deposits at the OCNM may serve as paleoclimatological proxies for precipitation, if interpreted within the context of understanding local bedrock chemistry.

  1. Ecology of juvenile hawksbills (Eretmochelys imbricata) at Buck Island Reef National Monument, US Virgin Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Kristen M.; Sartain-Iverson, Autumn R.; Hillis-Starr, Zandy; Phillips, Brendalee; Mayor, Philippe A.; Roberson, Kimberly; Pemberton, Roy A.; Allen, Jason B.; Lundgren, Ian; Musick, Susanna

    2013-01-01

    Surveys of juvenile hawksbills around Buck Island Reef National Monument, US Virgin Islands from 1994 to 1999 revealed distributional patterns and resulted in a total of 75 individual hawksbill captures from all years; turtles ranged from 23.2 to 77.7 cm curved carapace length (CCL; mean 42.1 ± 12.3 cm SD). Juveniles concentrated where Zoanthid cover was highest. Length of time between recaptures, or presumed minimum site residency, ranged from 59 to 1,396 days (mean 620.8 ± 402.4 days SD). Growth rates for 23 juveniles ranged from 0.0 to 9.5 cm year−1 (mean 4.1 ± 2.4 cm year−1SD). Annual mean growth rates were non-monotonic, with the largest mean growth rate occurring in the 30–39 cm CCL size class. Gastric lavages indicated that Zoanthids were the primary food source for hawksbills. These results contribute to our understanding of juvenile hawksbill ecology and serve as a baseline for future studies or inventories of hawksbills in the Caribbean.

  2. Lipid residues preserved in sheltered bedrock features at Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument, New Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tammy Buonasera

    2016-10-01

    Bedrock features represent various economic, social, and symbolic aspects of past societies, but have historically received little study, particularly in North America. Fortunately, new techniques for analyzing spatial configurations, use-wear, and organic residues are beginning to unlock more of the interpretive potential of these features. Though preliminary in nature, the present study contributes to this trend by documenting an application of lipid analysis to bedrock features in a dry rockshelter. Results of this initial application indicate that bedrock features in dry rockshelters may provide especially favorable conditions for the preservation and interpretation of ancient organic residues. Abundant lipids, comparable to concentrations present in some pottery sherds, were extracted from a bedrock grinding surface at Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument and analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Though the lipids were highly oxidized, degradation products indicative of former unsaturated fatty acids were retained. Comparisons to experimentally aged residues, and absence of a known biomarker for maize, indicate that the bulk of the lipids preserved in the milling surface probably derive from processing an oily nut or seed resource, and not from processing maize. Substantially lower amounts of lipids were recovered from a small, blackened cupule. It is hypothesized that some portion of the lipids in the blackened cupule was deposited from condensed smoke of cooking and heating fires in the caves. Potential for the preservation of organic residues in similar sheltered bedrock contexts is discussed, and a practical method for sampling bedrock features in the field is described.

  3. Aerial multispectral surveys - from the analysis of architectural monuments to the identification of archaeological sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mario, Bottoni; Fabretti, Giuseppe; Fabretti, Maurizio

    2010-05-01

    define the theoretical relationship existing between solar dynamics and the monument. Yet the information deduced from such a model, that could be easily examined by a user system realised on computer, had to be compared with real data obtained by thermographic surveys. This comparison was aimed to evaluate the contribution that other climatic phenomena and/or the dishomogeneities in the constituent materials could give to the recorded thermal distribution and then to the global thermal system. In other words, it was necessary to accomplish seasonal campaigns on field aimed to evaluate the significance of the theoretically computed data and then the reliability of the model as a way to foretell the actual behaviour of the monument from a thermodynamic point of view. The operative problem was to find locations that could be useful to accomplish significant recordings of the thermal behaviour of the various elements that constitute the Dome. A useful place was Giotto's bell-tower but it allowed a partial vision of the structure, it was instead necessary to obtain recordings, that could be considered practically instantaneous, of the whole dome. It was therefore necessary to flank the seasonal campaigns accomplished from the bell-tower with a survey accomplished by air recordings from an helicopter. Security reasons and the high costs (in terms of resources and persons) of such an investigation compelled to optimise times and methods of air recordings. To this purpose the user system was used with the aim of defining a period that could conciliate the operative needs with the necessity of evaluating the significance of the mathematical model. A short description of this case will be exposed to underline both the differences and the similarities between these two different ways to accomplish aerial multispectral analysis.

  4. Integration of Jeddah Historical BIM and 3D GIS for Documentation and Restoration of Historical Monument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Baik

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This work outlines a new approach for the integration of 3D Building Information Modelling and the 3D Geographic Information System (GIS to provide semantically rich models, and to get the benefits from both systems to help document and analyse cultural heritage sites. Our proposed framework is based on the Jeddah Historical Building Information Modelling process (JHBIM. This JHBIM consists of a Hijazi Architectural Objects Library (HAOL that supports higher level of details (LoD while decreasing the time of modelling. The Hijazi Architectural Objects Library has been modelled based on the Islamic historical manuscripts and Hijazi architectural pattern books. Moreover, the HAOL is implemented using BIM software called Autodesk Revit. However, it is known that this BIM environment still has some limitations with the non-standard architectural objects. Hence, we propose to integrate the developed 3D JHBIM with 3D GIS for more advanced analysis. To do so, the JHBIM database is exported and semantically enriched with non-architectural information that is necessary for restoration and preservation of historical monuments. After that, this database is integrated with the 3D Model in the 3D GIS solution. At the end of this paper, we’ll illustrate our proposed framework by applying it to a Historical Building called Nasif Historical House in Jeddah. First of all, this building is scanned by the use of a Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS and Close Range Photogrammetry. Then, the 3D JHBIM based on the HOAL is designed on Revit Platform. Finally, this model is integrated to a 3D GIS solution through Autodesk InfraWorks. The shown analysis presented in this research highlights the importance of such integration especially for operational decisions and sharing the historical knowledge about Jeddah Historical City. Furthermore, one of the historical buildings in Old Jeddah, Nasif Historical House, was chosen as a test case for the project.

  5. Integration of Jeddah Historical BIM and 3D GIS for Documentation and Restoration of Historical Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baik, A.; Yaagoubi, R.; Boehm, J.

    2015-08-01

    This work outlines a new approach for the integration of 3D Building Information Modelling and the 3D Geographic Information System (GIS) to provide semantically rich models, and to get the benefits from both systems to help document and analyse cultural heritage sites. Our proposed framework is based on the Jeddah Historical Building Information Modelling process (JHBIM). This JHBIM consists of a Hijazi Architectural Objects Library (HAOL) that supports higher level of details (LoD) while decreasing the time of modelling. The Hijazi Architectural Objects Library has been modelled based on the Islamic historical manuscripts and Hijazi architectural pattern books. Moreover, the HAOL is implemented using BIM software called Autodesk Revit. However, it is known that this BIM environment still has some limitations with the non-standard architectural objects. Hence, we propose to integrate the developed 3D JHBIM with 3D GIS for more advanced analysis. To do so, the JHBIM database is exported and semantically enriched with non-architectural information that is necessary for restoration and preservation of historical monuments. After that, this database is integrated with the 3D Model in the 3D GIS solution. At the end of this paper, we'll illustrate our proposed framework by applying it to a Historical Building called Nasif Historical House in Jeddah. First of all, this building is scanned by the use of a Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS) and Close Range Photogrammetry. Then, the 3D JHBIM based on the HOAL is designed on Revit Platform. Finally, this model is integrated to a 3D GIS solution through Autodesk InfraWorks. The shown analysis presented in this research highlights the importance of such integration especially for operational decisions and sharing the historical knowledge about Jeddah Historical City. Furthermore, one of the historical buildings in Old Jeddah, Nasif Historical House, was chosen as a test case for the project.

  6. Understanding and managing experiential aspects of soundscapes at Muir woods national monument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilcher, Ericka J; Newman, Peter; Manning, Robert E

    2009-03-01

    Research has found that human-caused noise can detract from the quality of the visitor experience in national parks and related areas. Moreover, impacts to the visitor experience can be managed by formulating indicators and standards of quality as suggested in park and outdoor recreation management frameworks, such as Visitor Experience and Resource Protection (VERP), as developed by the U.S. National Park Service. The research reported in this article supports the formulation of indicators and standards of quality for human-caused noise at Muir Woods National Monument, California. Phase I identified potential indicators of quality for the soundscape of Muir Woods. A visitor "listening exercise" was conducted, where respondents identified natural and human-caused sounds heard in the park and rated the degree to which each sound was "pleasing" or "annoying." Certain visitor-caused sounds such as groups talking were heard by most respondents and were rated as annoying, suggesting that these sounds may be a good indicator of quality. Loud groups were heard by few people but were rated as highly annoying, whereas wind and water were heard by most visitors and were rated as highly pleasing. Phase II measured standards of quality for visitor-caused noise. Visitors were presented with a series of 30-second audio clips representing increasing amounts of visitor-caused sound in the park. Respondents were asked to rate the acceptability of each audio clip on a survey. Findings suggest a threshold at which visitor-caused sound is judged to be unacceptable, and is therefore considered as noise. A parallel program of sound monitoring in the park found that current levels of visitor-caused sound sometimes violate this threshold. Study findings provide an empirical basis to help formulate noise-related indicators and standards of quality in parks and related areas.

  7. Geologic field-trip guide to Medicine Lake Volcano, northern California, including Lava Beds National Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly-Nolan, Julie M.; Grove, Timothy L.

    2017-08-17

    Medicine Lake volcano is among the very best places in the United States to see and walk on a variety of well-exposed young lava flows that range in composition from basalt to rhyolite. This field-trip guide to the volcano and to Lava Beds National Monument, which occupies part of the north flank, directs visitors to a wide range of lava flow compositions and volcanic phenomena, many of them well exposed and Holocene in age. The writing of the guide was prompted by a field trip to the California Cascades Arc organized in conjunction with the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth’s Interior (IAVCEI) quadrennial meeting in Portland, Oregon, in August of 2017. This report is one of a group of three guides describing the three major volcanic centers of the southern Cascades Volcanic Arc. The guides describing the Mount Shasta and Lassen Volcanic Center parts of the trip share an introduction, written as an overview to the IAVCEI field trip. However, this guide to Medicine Lake volcano has descriptions of many more stops than are included in the 2017 field trip. The 23 stops described here feature a range of compositions and volcanic phenomena. Many other stops are possible and some have been previously described, but these 23 have been selected to highlight the variety of volcanic phenomena at this rear-arc center, the range of compositions, and for the practical reason that they are readily accessible. Open ground cracks, various vent features, tuffs, lava-tube caves, evidence for glaciation, and lava flows that contain inclusions and show visible evidence of compositional zonation are described and visited along the route.

  8. Chemical composition of granite uraninites and of quartz-pebble-conglomerates-type uranium deposits: evidences for a placer-type origin for these deposits; Composition chimique des uraninites des granites et des gisements d'uranium de type conglomerats a galets de quartz: evidences pour une origine de type placer de ces gisements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duhamel, I.; Cuney, M. [Nancy-Universite, Laboratoire G2R - UMR 7566, CNRS, CREGU, 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)

    2009-07-01

    The authors report and comment data obtained by geochemical and mineralogical studies performed in several conglomerate-type uranium deposits located in South Africa and in Canada. These data display positive correlations between uranium enriching and that of thorium, rare earth notably. They compare the geochemical signature of uraninites of these conglomerates with that of granitoid uraninites of same age which could be their source. Measurements have been performed with an electronic microprobe for uranium oxide species and a ionic microprobe for rare earth contents. Different types of uranium-bearing minerals are identified which correspond to different mechanisms and origins of formation of uraninites

  9. Surveillance for White-Nose Syndrome in the bat community at El Malpais National Monument, New Mexico, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Ernest W.

    2012-01-01

    From late winter to summer 2011, the U.S. Geological Survey Arid Lands Field Station conducted mist-netting efforts at El Malpais National Monument and on adjacent lands belonging to Bureau of Land Management and U.S. Forest Service to detect the occurrence of white-nose syndrome or causal fungal agent (Geomyces destructans). During this assessment, 421 bats belonging to 8 species were documented at El Malpais National Monument and adjacent lands. None of these captures showed evidence for the presence of white-nose syndrome or G. destructans, but it is possible that the subtle signs of some infections may not have been observed. Throughout the field efforts, Laguna de Juan Garcia was the only water source located on El Malpais National Monument and was netted on June 20 and 27, July 25, and August 2, 2011. During these dates, a total of 155 bats were captured, belonging to eight species including: Corynorhinus townsendii (Townsend's Big-Eared Bat), Eptesicus fuscus (Big Brown Bat), Lasionycterics noctivagans (Silver-Haired Bat), Myotis ciliolabrum (Small-Footed Myotis), M. evotis (Long-eared myotis), M. thysanodes (Fringed Myotis), M. volans (Long-Legged Myotis), and Tadarida brasiliensis (Brazilian Free-Tailed Bat). Overall, Laguna de Juan Garcia had the greatest number of captures (79 bats) during one night compared to the other sites netted on adjacent lands and had the greatest species diversity of 8 species netted, not including Euderma maculatum (Spotted Bat) that was detected by its audible calls as it flew overhead. Laguna de Juan Garcia is an important site to bats because of its accessibility by all known occurring species, including the less-maneuverable T. brasiliensis that is known to form large colonies in the park. Laguna de Juan Garcia is also important as a more permanent water source during drought conditions in the earlier part of the spring and summer, as observed in 2011.

  10. Educational use of 3D models and photogrammetry content: the Europeana space project for Cypriot UNESCO monuments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannides, M.; Chatzigrigoriou, P.; Bokolas, V.; Nikolakopoulou, V.; Athanasiou, V.

    2016-08-01

    Digital heritage data are now more accessible through crowdsourcing platforms, social media and blogs. At the same time, evolving technology on 3D modelling, laser scanning and 3D reconstruction is constantly upgrading and multiplying the information that we can use from heritage digitalisation. The question of reusing the information in different aspects rises. Educators and students are potential users of the digital content; developing for them an adaptable environment for applications and services is our challenge. One of the main objective of the EU Europeana Space project is the development of a holistic approach for educating people (grown ups and kids) on Monuments that are listed at UNESCO world heritage list, in Cyprus. The challenge was the use of Europeana Data (Pictures and the 3D objects) in a way that the information on the platform would be comprehensible by the users. Most of the data have little metadata information and they lack history and cultural value description (semantics). The proposed model ction is based on the cross cultural approach which responds to the multicultural features of present era but at the same time to the contemporary pedagogical and methodological directions. The system uses all innovative digital heritage resources, in order to help the user, in a UX friendly way, to learn about the different phases of the monument, the history, the pathology state, the architectural value and the conservation stage. The result is a responsive platform, accessible through smart devices and desktop computers, (in the frame of "Bring Your Own Device" a.k.a. BYOD) where every Monument is a different course and every course is addressed to different age groups (from elementary level to adults' vocational training).

  11. Metal exposure and effects in voles and small birds near a mining haul road in Cape Krusenstern National Monument, Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumbaugh, William G; Mora, Miguel A; May, Thomas W; Phalen, David N

    2010-11-01

    Voles and small passerine birds were live-captured near the Delong Mountain Regional Transportation System (DMTS) haul road in Cape Krusenstern National Monument in northwest Alaska to assess metals exposure and sub-lethal biological effects. Similar numbers of animals were captured from a reference site in southern Cape Krusenstern National Monument for comparison. Histopathological examination of selected organs, and analysis of cadmium, lead, and zinc concentrations in liver and blood samples were performed. Voles and small birds captured from near the haul road had about 20 times greater blood and liver lead concentrations and about three times greater cadmium concentrations when compared to those from the reference site, but there were no differences in zinc tissue concentrations. One vole had moderate metastatic mineralization of kidney tissue, otherwise we observed no abnormalities in internal organs or DNA damage in the blood of any of the animals. The affected vole also had the greatest liver and blood Cd concentration, indicating that the lesion might have been caused by Cd exposure. Blood and liver lead concentrations in animals captured near the haul road were below concentrations that have been associated with adverse biological effects in other studies; however, subtle effects resulting from lead exposure, such as the suppression of the activity of certain enzymes, cannot be ruled out for some individual animals. Results from our 2006 reconnaissance-level study indicate that overall, voles and small birds obtained from near the DMTS road in Cape Krusenstern National Monument were not adversely affected by metals exposure; however, because of the small sample size and other uncertainties, continued monitoring of lead and cadmium in terrestrial habitats near the DMTS road is advised.

  12. The «discorso per immagini» of Superstudio: from Continuous Monument to Supersurface, 1968-1971

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice Lampariello

    2016-06-01

    With a Christmas card from 1968 in the form of a poster, Superstudio inaugurated the production of photomontages which were to bring fame to the group. It is, however, for the competition dedicated to the theme of Architecture and Freedom, launched in 1969 by the Tri-National Biennial of Graz, that photomontage became the preferred graphical tool for the construction of a «discorso per immagini» for Superstudio, a narrative in which project descriptions and traditional forms of architectural representation are replaced by images representing enigmatic volumes, seemingly devoid of function and open to multiple interpretations. Compared to similar and contemporary images produced, amonst others, by Archigram and Yona Friedman, the photomontages of Superstudio do not intend to give veracity to futuristic urban and territorial visions. The impenetrable volumes, designed beyond any program or structural logic, are an expression of absolute rationality and order which Superstudio has been searching for its founding to ward off the crisis and to ward for uncertainty of contemporary era. Graphic techniques used by the group for their representations evolved over the years, and were adapted to achieve different effects, all still oriented to building a strong environmental realism, as far away as possible from comic and surprising effects. Through the «discorso per immagini» the theory of the group became eloquent: after having imagined a new form of land occupation designed as a monumental infinite linear structure that crosses cities and virgin landscapes – the Continuous Monument – Superstudio staged the dissolution of conventional boundaries of architecture, to move towards its «non-physical» re-foundation. After all, the «happy death of architecture should not frighten anybody: we have been preparing for long, increasingly distancing ourselves from the physicality of the construction», as revealed by one of the members of the group in 1971. Key words

  13. A política bancária do regime militar: o projeto de conglomerado (1967-1973 The finance policy of military regime: the conglomerate project (1967-1973

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Pedro Macarini

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo examina a política bancária e financeira conduzida por Delfim Netto de 1967 a 1973, a qual se revestiu de características específicas. São examinadas as pronunciadas tendências à concentração no segmento dos bancos comerciais privados e a sua expansão para outras faixas de operação, formando conglomerados financeiros e, assim, alterando profundamente a estrutura projetada originalmente pela reforma de 1964. Ambos os processos estiveram vinculados à orientação particular da política econômica a partir de 1967, cujo sentido maior encontrou expressão na tentativa de implementar, no governo Médici, um projeto de conglomerado integrando banco e indústria, visando a consolidar um segmento de grandes empresas privadas nacionais. O artigo sistematiza evidência disponível acerca desse projeto estratégico - um capítulo importante da política econômica durante uma fase do regime militar.This article discusses the banking policy led by Delfim Netto from 1967 trough 1973, which had special features. It is examined the tendency to banking concentration, very intense in those years, as well as the acute centralization process which led to the constitution of financial conglomerates, thus transforming the financial structure in a way not foreseen by the banking and financial reforms of 1964. Both processes reflected the new course of economic policy since 1967, having as its major objective to induce the formation of a new form of private capitalist organization - the conglomerate, integrating banking and industry -, which would led to the consolidation of a segment of big national private firms. The article seeks to collect the available evidence about that strategic project developed during a phase of the military regime.

  14. Preliminary hydrogeologic assessment near Tassi and Pakoon Springs, western part of Grand Canyon-Parashant National Monument, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truini, Margot

    2013-01-01

    Tassi and Pakoon Springs are both in the Grand Wash Trough in the western part of Grand Canyon-Parashant National Monument on the Arizona Strip. The monument is jointly managed by the National Park Service (NPS) and the Bureau of Land Management. This study was in response to NPS’s need to better understand the influence from regional increases in groundwater withdrawals near Grand Canyon-Parashant on the groundwater discharge from Tassi and Pakoon Springs. The climate of the Arizona Strip is generally semiarid to arid, and springs in the monument provide the water for the fragile ecosystems that are commonly separated by large areas of dry washes in canyons with pinyon and juniper. Available hydrogeologic data from previous investigations included water levels from the few existing wells, location information for springs, water chemistry from springs, and geologic maps. Available groundwater-elevation data from the wells and springs in the monument indicate that groundwater in the Grand Wash Trough is moving from north to south, discharging to springs and into the Colorado River. Groundwater may also be moving from east to west from Paleozoic rocks in the Grand Wash Cliffs into sedimentary deposits in the Grand Wash Trough. Finally, groundwater may be moving from the northwest in the Mesoproterozoic crystalline rocks of the Virgin Mountains into the northern part of the Grand Wash Trough. Water discharging from Tassi and Pakoon Springs has a major-ion chemistry similar to that of other springs in the western part of Grand Canyon-Parashant. Stable-isotopic signatures for oxygen-18 and hydrogen-2 are depleted in the water from both Tassi and Pakoon Springs in comparison to other springs on the Arizona Strip. Tassi Spring discharges from multiple seeps along the Wheeler Fault, and the depleted isotopic signatures suggest that water may be flowing from multiple places into Lake Mead and seems to have a higher elevation or an older climate source. Elevated water

  15. A survey of macromycete diversity at Los Alamos National Laboratory, Bandelier National Monument, and Los Alamos County; A preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarmie, N.; Rogers, F.J. [Mycology Associates, Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    1997-11-01

    The authors have completed a 5-year survey (1991--1995) of macromycetes found in Los Alamos County, Los Alamos National Laboratory, and Bandelier National Monument. The authors have compiled a database of 1,048 collections, their characteristics, and identifications. The database represents 123 (98%) genera and 175 (73%) species reliably identified. Issues of habitat loss, species extinction, and ecological relationships are addressed, and comparisons with other surveys are made. With this baseline information and modeling of this baseline data, one can begin to understand more about the fungal flora of the area.

  16. TUMULI, ROADS AND PLOTS. DECODING THE MONUMENTAL FUNERARY SPACE OF THE 4TH-3RD CENTURIES BC KALLATIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Magdalena Ștefan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The study focusses on the monumental elements of the 4th-3rd centuries BC cemeteries of Kallatis: the use of large tumuli, the implementation of a systematized network of funerary plots, the extent of the burial grounds, the discovery of a series of built chamber tombs under tumuli with elements of decorated architecture, including mural paintings and exceptional presence of a statue topping a tumulus. The detection and morphological characterisation of archaeological features and the recovering of the funerary landscapes’ spatial layout were based on historiographic study, remote-sensing and geophysical investigations.

  17. Silsesquioxane-based hybrid nanocomposites with methacrylate units containing titania and/or silver nanoparticles as antibacterial/antifungal coatings for monumental stones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aflori, Magdalena [“Petru Poni” Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, 41A Grigore Ghica Voda Alley, 700487 Iasi (Romania); Simionescu, Bogdana [“Petru Poni” Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, 41A Grigore Ghica Voda Alley, 700487 Iasi (Romania); “Costin D. Nenitescu” Centre of Organic Chemistry, 202B Splaiul Independentei, 7114 Bucharest (Romania); Bordianu, Irina-Elena; Sacarescu, Liviu; Varganici, Cristian-Dragos; Doroftei, Florica; Nicolescu, Alina [“Petru Poni” Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, 41A Grigore Ghica Voda Alley, 700487 Iasi (Romania); Olaru, Mihaela, E-mail: olaruma@icmpp.ro [“Petru Poni” Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, 41A Grigore Ghica Voda Alley, 700487 Iasi (Romania)

    2013-11-20

    Highlights: • Synthesis of nanocomposites with noble metals having high antibacterial efficiency. • Silver nanoparticles antibacterial activity for monumental stone conservation. • A high antibacterial activity while assuring good stone protection. -- Abstract: The present paper reports on the evaluation of two silsesquioxane-based hybrid nanocomposites with methacrylate units containing titania and/or silver nanoparticles aimed as antibacterial coatings for monumental stones. Sol–gel reaction of titanium isopropoxide and/or 3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate, in the presence of silver nitrate and a primary amine surfactant, yielded new types of hybrid nanocomposites with high antibacterial/antifungal efficacy. Different polymer behaviours regarding a frequently used monumental stone originating from Romania were evidenced through Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) technique. Conclusions regarding the stones acid-resistant character and lower influence of salt weathering on its durability, as well as a better protective coating containing titania units were revealed.

  18. Silsesquioxane-based hybrid nanocomposites with methacrylate units containing titania and/or silver nanoparticles as antibacterial/antifungal coatings for monumental stones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aflori, Magdalena; Simionescu, Bogdana; Bordianu, Irina-Elena; Sacarescu, Liviu; Varganici, Cristian-Dragos; Doroftei, Florica; Nicolescu, Alina; Olaru, Mihaela

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Synthesis of nanocomposites with noble metals having high antibacterial efficiency. • Silver nanoparticles antibacterial activity for monumental stone conservation. • A high antibacterial activity while assuring good stone protection. -- Abstract: The present paper reports on the evaluation of two silsesquioxane-based hybrid nanocomposites with methacrylate units containing titania and/or silver nanoparticles aimed as antibacterial coatings for monumental stones. Sol–gel reaction of titanium isopropoxide and/or 3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate, in the presence of silver nitrate and a primary amine surfactant, yielded new types of hybrid nanocomposites with high antibacterial/antifungal efficacy. Different polymer behaviours regarding a frequently used monumental stone originating from Romania were evidenced through Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) technique. Conclusions regarding the stones acid-resistant character and lower influence of salt weathering on its durability, as well as a better protective coating containing titania units were revealed

  19. Geophysical Exploration of Tyuonyi Pueblo in Bandelier National Monument, New Mexico, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sica, C.; Graham, D.; Peacock, E.; Suen, C.; Creighton, A.; Carchedi, C.; Feucht, D. W.; Civitello, J. A.; Jarret, J.; Martin, C.; Ferguson, J. F.; McPhee, D.; Pellerin, L.

    2017-12-01

    The Summer of Applied Geophysical Experience (SAGE) class of 2017 carried out near-surface geophysical investigations of the Tyuonyi Pueblo of Bandelier National Monument, New Mexico in order to aid trail planning and identification of archeological features that could potentially be impacted. Tyuonyi is located in Frijoles Canyon, carved by the Rito de los Frijoles, between the SE flank of the Jemez Mountains and the Rio Grande, and contains pueblo room blocks, kivas and cavates that were occupied by ancestral Puebloans between 1350 and 1550 CE. SAGE collected seismic refraction, magnetic, electromagnetic (EM) and GPR data along targeted profiles and grids north and east of Tyuonyi Pueblo. Two 30 X 30 m grids of GPR data were recorded along 1-m spaced lines using the 250 MHz Sensors and Software NOGGIN® 250 Smart Tow and processed using the EKKO Project V5 program. Seismic refraction data were collected using a 48-channel Geometrics Strataview recorder and seven spreads with 0.5 m geophone spacing, a 6 m shot point interval, and a hammer source. Shot point offsets between 0.5 m and 48 m provided overlapping subsurface coverage. Seismic data from SAGE 2016 and 2017 were merged into a 168 m-long profile. Magnetic data were collected along 1-m spaced N-S lines in two 30 X 30 m grids and along the seismic line using a Geometrics 858 cesium vapor magnetometer. In addition, EM data were collected using a Geonics, EM-31 system along the seismic line. A velocity model was created to fit the seismic travel times. The GPR images and seismic model can be used to interpret the Quaternary geology of the site. These data trace incision of the Rito de los Frijoles into the Bandelier Tuff over several stages of the canyon development. The seismic model indicates a number of narrow, shallow channels carved into a broader strath. Holocene alluvial terrace deposits overlie the Bandelier Tuff surface, and the Tyuonyi Pueblo was constructed on top of the highest terrace. On the north

  20. Use of microorganisms to improve the cementation of granular structures. Applications in the restoration of monuments

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Isabel; Mayoral, Eduardo; Ortiz, Pilar; Segura, Dolores; Vazquez, Auxiliadora; Barba, Cinta; Ortiz, Rocio; Romero, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    focuses on finding out the best conditions to cultivate populations of bacterias Bacillus pasteurii and Myxococcus xanthus and the suitable proportions of the mixing of urea, with building material, calcium chloride; to come out with structural components interesting for the civil engineering. Trials with some stone materials with alteration problems (granular disintegration) have been carried out to assess their application to the restoration of monuments. Porosity and petrographical characterization has been analyzed before and after the process.

  1. Building monument materials during the 3rd-4rd millennium (Portugal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moita, Patricia; Pedro, Jorge; Boaventura, Rui; Mataloto, Rui; Maximo, Jaime; Almeida, Luís; Nogueira, Pedro

    2014-05-01

    Dolmens are the most conspicuous remains of the populations of the 4th and first half of 3rd millennia BCE. These tombs are impressive not only for their monumentality, but also because of the socioeconomic investment they represent for those Neolithic communities, namely from the Central-South of Portugal, who built them. Although dolmens have been studied for their funerary content and typologies, an interdisciplinary approach toward the geological characterization and sourcing of stones used in these constructions has not received enough attention from researchers. With MEGAGEO project a multidisciplinary group of geologist and archaeologists intends to assess the relationship between the distribution of dolmens in Central-South Portugal, their source materials, and the geological landscape. GIS will map the information gathered and will be used to analyse these relationships. The selection of the areas, with distinctive geologies (limestone vs granite), will allow to verify if human patterns of behaviour regarding the selection of megaliths are similar or different regionally. Geologically the first target area (Freixo, Alentejo) is dominated by a small intrusion of gabbro mingled/mixed within a granodioritic intrusion both related with variscan orogeny. Granodiorite exhibit several enclaves of igneous and metamorphic nature attesting the interaction between both igneous rocks as well with enclosing gneisses. Despite Alentejo region have a reduced number of outcrops the granodiorite provides rounded to tabular metric blocks. The gabbro is very coarse grained, sometimes with a cumulate texture, and their fracturing and weathering provide very fresh tabular blocks. The five studied dolmens (Quinta do Freixo #1 to #5) are implanted in a large granodioritic intrusion, around the gabbroic rocks, within an area of approximately 9km2. The medium grained granodiorite is ubiquity in all the dolmens slabs and occasionally it can be observed features of mixing and

  2. Caracterización petrográfica y petrofísica de la piedra monumental en la Provincia de Segovia

    OpenAIRE

    Pedrazuela González, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    La piedra monumental es un material que se ha venido utilizando en todas las épocas históricas que nos han precedido, además de la contemporánea. Es necesario conocer la piedra monumental tanto para su uso en las nuevas edificaciones y obra civil, como para poder mantener y restaurar el magnífico patrimonio en piedra que nos ha sido legado. Esta tesis se circunscribe al ámbito geográfico actual de la provincia de Segovia, la cual cuenta con una gran variedad litológica; beneficiándose gr...

  3. Ecology and identification of environmental fungi and metabolic processes involved in the biodeterioration of Brazilian soapstone historical monuments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boniek, D; de Castro Mendes, I; Paiva, C A O; de Paula Lana, U G; Dos Santos, A F B; de Resende Stoianoff, M A

    2017-11-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the action of organic acids produced by the fungal population associated with the biodeterioration process of the Twelve Prophets of Aleijadinho, a set of soapstone sculptures in Congonhas, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. For this, samples of fungi were obtained from the surface of each of the 12 outdoor stone sculptures that comprise the set of Prophets. The identification of the colonizing filamentous fungi was performed by classical microbiology and molecular methods. Some species of filamentous fungi-dependent cultivation were detected, and the presence of species Aspergillus versicolor, Curvularia lunata, Epicoccum nigrum, Penicillium citrinum and Pseudocercospora norchiensis indicated a connection with the excretion of organic acids. The acids produced by each of these fungal species were analysed quantitatively by chromatographic methods, revealing potential biodeterioration by the action of acidic metabolites excreted in the stone. Minas Gerais, Brazil, is vulnerable to the activities of mineral extraction industries, posing an imminent risk to United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) recognized cities, e.g. Congonhas. Many of these municipalities hold many soapstone religious sculptures and historical monuments. Consequently, soapstone is susceptible to filamentous fungi attack causing irreversible biodeterioration. Despite the concern related to nondestructive sampling of 18th century sculptures, in this study, we have discussed the factors that lead to biodeterioration of soapstone due to organic acid excretion by the fungi that damage the stone, thereby providing an insight in conserving and preserving the soapstone monuments. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  4. Atmospheric composition and micro-climate in the Alhambra monument, Granada (Spain), in the context of preventive conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horemans, B; Schalm, O; De Wael, K; Van Grieken, R; Cardell, C

    2012-01-01

    The world famous Alhambra monument in Granada, Southern Spain, listed as UNESCO world cultural heritage since 1984, represents probably the most beautiful example of Islamic art and architecture from the Middle Ages in Europe. It is visited by ca. 2 million people annually. Granada is situated in a natural basin, surrounded by mountains with altitudes up to 3500 m. Due to this topography and the prevailing low wind speeds, pollution-derived and especially traffic-derived particulate matter often accumulates in the urban air. In order to evaluate the potential conservation risks from the surrounding air, the atmospheric composition in the Alhambra monument was evaluated. Indoor temperature and relative humidity fluctuations were evaluated for their potential degenerative effects. Furthermore, the atmospheric composition in the Alhambra was analyzed in terms of inorganic gases (NO 2 , SO 2 , O 3 , and NH 3 ) and black carbon. It was found that the open architecture protected the indoor environments from developing a potentially harmful microclimate, such as the build-up of humidity resulting from the huge number of daily tourists. On the downside, the strong ventilation made the indoor air hardly different from outdoor air, as characterized by strong diurnal temperature and relative humidity gradients and high traffic-derived pollutant levels.

  5. Atmospheric composition and micro-climate in the Alhambra monument, Granada (Spain), in the context of preventive conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horemans, B.; Schalm, O.; De Wael, K.; Cardell, C.; Van Grieken, R.

    2012-07-01

    The world famous Alhambra monument in Granada, Southern Spain, listed as UNESCO world cultural heritage since 1984, represents probably the most beautiful example of Islamic art and architecture from the Middle Ages in Europe. It is visited by ca. 2 million people annually. Granada is situated in a natural basin, surrounded by mountains with altitudes up to 3500 m. Due to this topography and the prevailing low wind speeds, pollution-derived and especially traffic-derived particulate matter often accumulates in the urban air. In order to evaluate the potential conservation risks from the surrounding air, the atmospheric composition in the Alhambra monument was evaluated. Indoor temperature and relative humidity fluctuations were evaluated for their potential degenerative effects. Furthermore, the atmospheric composition in the Alhambra was analyzed in terms of inorganic gases (NO2, SO2, O3, and NH3) and black carbon. It was found that the open architecture protected the indoor environments from developing a potentially harmful microclimate, such as the build-up of humidity resulting from the huge number of daily tourists. On the downside, the strong ventilation made the indoor air hardly different from outdoor air, as characterized by strong diurnal temperature and relative humidity gradients and high traffic-derived pollutant levels.

  6. Basaltic caves at Craters of the Moon National Monument and Preserve as analogs for Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinman, N. W.; Richardson, C. D.; McHenry, L.; Scott, J. R.

    2010-12-01

    Basaltic caves and lava tubes offer stable physicochemical conditions for formation of secondary minerals. Such features, putatively observed on Mars, intercept groundwater to weather country rock, leading to formation of secondary minerals. Further, caves are stable environments to search for evidence of past life, as they could offer protection from the oxidizing martian atmosphere. Searching for signs of life in a cave that could protect bio/organic compounds would preclude the need for risky drilling on Mars. Craters of the Moon National Monument (COM) offers an opportunity to study caves in Holocene iron-rich basalt flows to characterize secondary mineral deposits and search for organic compounds associated with secondary minerals; COM basalts are a good analog for martian basalts because of their high iron but other elements are higher at COM than on Mars. The Blue Dragon flow (~2.1 ka) contains the majority of the accessible caves and lava tubes. Two types of secondary mineral deposits were observed in these caves: ceiling coatings and crack or floor precipitates. Hematite, silica, and calcite comprise ceiling coatings. The crack and floor precipitates are white, efflorescent deposits in cavities along cave walls and ceilings or in localized mounds on cave floors. The secondary minerals in crack and floor precipitates are mainly thenardite and mirabilite with some minor concentrations of trona and/or burkeite. Organic compounds were found associated with the efflorescent deposits. Formation of the deposits is likely due to chemical leaching of basalt by meteoritic water. To test this, fluids collected from the ceiling and walls of the caves were analyzed. Solutions were modeled with the geochemical code, PHREEQC. The model tracked composition as water evaporated. Selected minerals were allowed to precipitate as they became oversaturated. Among the first minerals to become oversaturated were quartz and calcite, which are observed in ceiling deposits. Iron

  7. Sedimentary differentiation of aeolian grains at the White Sands National Monument, New Mexico, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, Lori K.; Bishop, Janice L.; King, Sara; Lafuente, Barbara; Horgan, Briony; Bustos, David; Sarrazin, Philippe

    2017-06-01

    Gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O) has been identified as a major component of part of Olympia Undae in the northern polar region of Mars, along with the mafic minerals more typical of Martian dune fields. The source and age of the gypsum is disputed, with the proposed explanations having vastly different implications for Mars' geological history. Furthermore, the transport of low density gypsum grains relative to and concurrently with denser grains has yet to be investigated in an aeolian setting. To address this knowledge gap, we performed a field study at White Sands National Monument (WSNM) in New Mexico, USA. Although gypsum dominates the bulk of the dune field, a dolomite-rich [CaMg(CO3)2] transport pathway along the northern border of WSNM provides a suitable analog site to study the transport of gypsum grains relative to the somewhat harder and denser carbonate grains. We collected samples along the stoss slope of a dune and on two coarse-grained ripples at the upwind margin of the dune field where minerals other than gypsum were most common. For comparison, additional samples were taken along the stoss slope of a dune outside the dolomite transport pathway, in the center of the dune field. Visible and near-infrared (VNIR), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), and Raman analyses of different sample size fractions reveal that dolomite is only prevalent in grains larger than ∼1 mm. Other minerals, most notably calcite, are also present in smaller quantities among the coarse grains. The abundance of these coarse grains, relative to gypsum grains of the same size, drops off sharply at the upwind margin of the dune field. In contrast, gypsum dominated the finer fraction (MCD) are consistent with the observed concentration of gypsum at dune crests. Density-driven differentiation in transport should not influence sediment fluxes of finer grains (<1 mm) as strongly on Earth, suggesting that the high ratio of fine gypsum grains to other minerals at WSNM is caused by a relatively

  8. Application of X-ray fluorescence in investigation of historical monuments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cechak, Tomas; Trojek, Tomas; Musilek, Ladislav; Paulusova, Hana

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Nuclear techniques represent invaluable tools in non-destructive diagnostics applied to archaeological findings and objects of arts, mainly for dating and determining the composition of materials used in the production of artefacts. In this work we present the application of X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRFA). The X-ray fluorescence apparatus built and operated in the Laboratory of Quantitative Methods in Research of Ancient Monuments, constituent part of the Department of Dosimetry and Application of Ionizing Radiation, FNSPE, was used for the purpose of old relics measurements. The X-ray sources (radionuclides) generate the characteristic X-ray photons from the sample. After processing the resulting signal, we obtain information about the chemical composition of the tested sample. These results give data for qualitative and quantitative analysis of samples. XRFA is relatively simple and non-destructive method. Capability of in-situ measurement is one of big advantages of this method. The radionuclide sources of exciting radiation (e.g. 55 Fe enables the excitation of elements with Z up to 23, 238 Pu is used in interval of Z from 20 to 39 etc.) and X-ray tube with Mo anode were used. Narrow collimation of the exciting beam makes it possible to select the measured area of e.g. pigments in old manuscripts. X-ray fluorescence analysis, both in its energy form and in its wave dispersive form, is one of the most widespread methods using ionising radiation to study the elemental composition of materials. It is frequently used for studies of various cultural and historic relicts and objects of art. This work summarizes the author's experience with X-ray fluorescence analysis in investigating historical relicts namely by means of portable spectroscopic devices. Utilization of these methods is demonstrated in the investigation of fresco paintings, metal objects and old manuscripts. The results of these measurements provide the information on the composition of

  9. SURVEY, HBIM AND CONSERVATION PLAN OF A MONUMENTAL BUILDING DAMAGED BY EARTHQUAKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Oreni

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Surveying a monumental building damaged by the earthquake means to analyse its geometries, the structural elements, the connection still exist between the different parts, in order to define its state of conservation, to make structural analysis and to plan a proper project of restoration, consolidation, seismic improvement or addition of new elements. The survey of structural geometry represents the first necessary moment of building’ knowledge investigation, to be performed after the securing of the building by the Firefighters or Civil Protection. How and by which instruments the geometric analysis are conducted depends on many factors, not always exclusively on the will of the experts involved in the restoration project, but more often dictated by political, technical, social or economic needs. The accurate geometrical survey is referred as fundamental operation even by national Directive for evaluation and earthquake risk reduction of cultural heritage (GU n. 24 – 29/01/2008 and 2011 updates, which defines guidelines for preventive interventions on built heritage in order to make the structures less vulnerable in case of earthquake. Nowadays, the wide use of tools and accurate surveying techniques makes it possible to achieve an adequate level of accuracy of information related to the buildings, overcoming the difficulties due to accessibility of the damaged structures. The geometrical survey of the Basilica of Santa Maria di Collemaggio in L'Aquila, was made by Politecnico di Milano starting from 2013, within the project "Ripartire da Collemaggio" (http://www.ungiornoacollemaggio.it/content/2027, financed by Eniservizi. The basilica, an important symbol for the community of L'Aquila, was gravely damaged by the earthquake of 6th April 2009. The objective of Eni was to turn the restoration of the building in a re-birth moment for all the community. The knowledge step was aimed to plan a restoration project able of returning the basilica

  10. Survey, Hbim and Conservation Plan of a Monumental Building Damaged by Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oreni, D.; Brumana, R.; Della Torre, S.; Banfi, F.

    2017-05-01

    Surveying a monumental building damaged by the earthquake means to analyse its geometries, the structural elements, the connection still exist between the different parts, in order to define its state of conservation, to make structural analysis and to plan a proper project of restoration, consolidation, seismic improvement or addition of new elements. The survey of structural geometry represents the first necessary moment of building' knowledge investigation, to be performed after the securing of the building by the Firefighters or Civil Protection. How and by which instruments the geometric analysis are conducted depends on many factors, not always exclusively on the will of the experts involved in the restoration project, but more often dictated by political, technical, social or economic needs. The accurate geometrical survey is referred as fundamental operation even by national Directive for evaluation and earthquake risk reduction of cultural heritage (GU n. 24 - 29/01/2008 and 2011 updates), which defines guidelines for preventive interventions on built heritage in order to make the structures less vulnerable in case of earthquake. Nowadays, the wide use of tools and accurate surveying techniques makes it possible to achieve an adequate level of accuracy of information related to the buildings, overcoming the difficulties due to accessibility of the damaged structures. The geometrical survey of the Basilica of Santa Maria di Collemaggio in L'Aquila, was made by Politecnico di Milano starting from 2013, within the project "Ripartire da Collemaggio" (http://www.ungiornoacollemaggio.it/content/2027), financed by Eniservizi. The basilica, an important symbol for the community of L'Aquila, was gravely damaged by the earthquake of 6th April 2009. The objective of Eni was to turn the restoration of the building in a re-birth moment for all the community. The knowledge step was aimed to plan a restoration project able of returning the basilica to a safe and full use

  11. In-situ diagnosis of stone monuments; the Ruin Garden in Székesfehérvár

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodoridou, Magdalini; Török, Ákos

    2014-05-01

    Székesfehérvár is a city in central Hungary, located around 65 km southwest of Budapest. In the Middle Ages (11th and 12th centuries), the city was a Royal residence and until the Turkish occupation in 1543, one of the most important cities of Hungary. The Ruin Garden of Székesfehérvár is a unique assemblage of monuments belonging to the cultural heritage of Hungary due to its important role in the Middle Ages as the coronation church for the kings of the Hungarian Christian Kingdom and the burial place for fifteen kings and other members of the royal families and the high nobility. It was also the home of the royal treasury and relics. It is comprised of a provostal church dedicated to Virgin Mary, so called today "Royal Basilica", royal tombs and related ecclesial and lay buildings. Since it has been nominated for "National Memorial Place", its present and future protection is required. Its several reconstructions and expansions throughout Hungarian history introduce another aspect of the importance of the historical site. By a quick overview of the current state of the monument, the presence of several lithotypes could be found among the remained building and decorative stones. Therefore, the research related to the materials in order to understand their composition, structure, origin and behavior was crucial not only for the conservation of that specific monument but also for a series of other historic structures in the Hungarian territory. In order to help the study of the Ruin Garden in Székesfehérvár, a series of maps was created based on in-situ investigations. Five wall sections were selected for the sake of the different lithotypes distribution and the different construction periods were the ruins belong to. The total mapped area covers about 30 m2 of the existing walls surfaces. Three different kinds of maps were designed for each wall section. The first series of maps depicts the different construction periods of the selected section of the

  12. Wiki Loves Monuments 2011: experiència a Espanya i reflexions des de la difusió del patrimoni cultural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio José Rodríguez Posada

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available La Wikipedia va néixer al ciberespai. Els seus primers anys es van caracteritzar per una feina distribuïda i asíncrona entre usuaris de tot el planeta, que amb prou feines tenien relació personal fora de la xarxa. Amb el pas del temps, alguns dels seus voluntaris van fer les anomenades wikitrobades, però al començament les reunions de wikimedistes tenien la finalitat d'estrènyer llaços i no comportaven cap millora directa dels continguts dels projectes. Més endavant van sorgir iniciatives presencials en les quals es van involucrar, a més de voluntaris, algunes entitats culturals; la més recent i que ha tingut més impacte és Wiki Loves Monuments 2011, un concurs destinat a fotografiar monuments de divuit països europeus, entre els quals hi ha Espanya. Gràcies a l'alta participació, s'han pres en conjunt més de 160.000 fotografies de monuments. Espanya ha ocupat el tercer lloc en nombre d'imatges. En aquest article estudiem els orígens de Wiki Loves Monuments, com es va posar en marxa, com es va desenvolupar i els resultats obtinguts. L'èxit de l'edició 2011 i les peticions d'altres països han fet que ja es treballi en l'organització de Wiki Loves Monuments 2012, aquesta vegada a escala mundial.

  13. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Monument Valley Uranium Mill Tailings Site, Cane Valley, Arizona. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    This baseline risk assessment evaluates potential impact to public health or the environment from ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site in Cane Valley near Monument Valley, Arizona. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project has relocated and stabilized this site's tailings and other contaminated material in a disposal cell at Mexican Hat, Utah. The second phase of the UMTRA Project is to evaluate ground water contamination. This risk assessment is the first document specific to this site for the Ground Water Project that evaluates potential health and environmental risks. It will help determine the approach required to address contaminated ground water at the site

  14. Contaminants assessment in the coral reefs of Virgin Islands National Park and Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargar, Timothy A.; Garrison, Virginia H.; Alvarez, David A.; Echols, Kathy

    2013-01-01

    Coral, fish, plankton, and detritus samples were collected from coral reefs in Virgin Islands National Park (VIIS) and Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument (VICR) to assess existing contamination levels. Passive water sampling using polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS) and semi-permeable membrane devices found a few emerging pollutants of concern (DEET and galaxolide) and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. Very little persistent organic chemical contamination was detected in the tissue or detritus samples. Detected contaminants were at concentrations below those reported to be harmful to aquatic organisms. Extracts from the POCIS were subjected to the yeast estrogen screen (YES) to assess potential estrogenicity of the contaminant mixture. Results of the YES (estrogen equivalency of 0.17–0.31 ng/L 17-β-estradiol) indicated a low estrogenicity likelihood for contaminants extracted from water. Findings point to low levels of polar and non-polar organic contaminants in the bays sampled within VICR and VIIS.

  15. The Ecology of Coral Reef Top Predators in the Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan J. Dale

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Coral reef habitats in the Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument (PMNM are characterized by abundant top-level predators such as sharks and jacks. The predator assemblage is dominated both numerically and in biomass by giant trevally (Caranx ignobilis and Galapagos sharks (Carcharhinus galapagensis. A lower diversity of predatory teleosts, particularly groupers and snappers, distinguishes the PMNM from other remote, unfished atolls in the Pacific. Most coral reef top predators are site attached to a “home” atoll, but move extensively within these atolls. Abundances of the most common sharks and jacks are highest in atoll fore reef habitats. Top predators within the PMNM forage on a diverse range of prey and exert top-down control over shallow-water reef fish assemblages. Ecological models suggest ecosystem processes may be most impacted by top predators through indirect effects of predation. Knowledge gaps are identified to guide future studies of top predators in the PMNM.

  16. Baseline risk assessment for groundwater contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Monument Valley, Arizona. Draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    This baseline risk assessment evaluates potential impact to public health or the environment resulting from groundwater contamination at the former uranium mill processing site near Monument Valley, Arizona. The tailings and other contaminated material at this site are being relocated and stabilized in a disposal cell at Mexican Hat, Utah, through the US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The tailings removal is planned for completion by spring 1994. After the tailings are removed, groundwater contamination at the site will continue to be evaluated. This risk assessment is the first document specific to this site for the Groundwater Project. It will be used to assist in determining what remedial action is needed for contaminated groundwater at the site.

  17. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Monument Valley Uranium Mill Tailings Site, Cane Valley, Arizona. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    This baseline risk assessment evaluates potential impact to public health or the environment from ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site in Cane Valley near Monument Valley, Arizona. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project has relocated and stabilized this site`s tailings and other contaminated material in a disposal cell at Mexican Hat, Utah. The second phase of the UMTRA Project is to evaluate ground water contamination. This risk assessment is the first document specific to this site for the Ground Water Project that evaluates potential health and environmental risks. It will help determine the approach required to address contaminated ground water at the site.

  18. Ca (OH)2Nanoparticles Based on Acrylic Copolymers for the consolidation and protection of Ancient Egypt Calcareous Stone Monuments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dosari, Mohammad A.; Darwish, Sawsan S.; Adam, Mahmoud A.; Elmarzugi, Nagib A.; Al-Mouallimi, Nadia; Ahmed, Sayed M.

    2017-04-01

    The deterioration of calcareous stones materials used in artistic/architectural field is one of the most serious problems facing conservation today. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of nanosized particles of calcium hydroxide (slaked lime) as a consolidation and protection material dispersed in acrylic copolymer, poly ethylmethacrylate/methylacrylate (70:30) (Poly (EMA/MA), for calcareous stone monuments and painted surfaces affected by different kinds of decay. The synthesis process of Ca (OH)2 nanoparticles/polymer nanocomposites have been prepared by in situ emulsion polymerization system. The prepared nanocomposite containing 5% of Ca (OH)2 nanoparticles showed obvious transparency features and represent nanocomposites coating technology with hydrophobic, consolidating and well protection properties.

  19. Photo Scanner 3D Survey for Monitoring Historical Monuments. the Case History of Porta Praetoria in Aosta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Salonia

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Accessibility to cultural heritage is one of the most important factors in cultural heritage preservation, as it assures knowledge, monitoring, Public Administration management and a wide interest on cultural heritage sites. Nowdays 3D surveys give the geometric basis for an effective artefact reconstruction but most of the times 3D data are not completely and deeply investigated to extract other useful information on historical monuments for their conservation and safeguard. The Cultural Heritage Superintendence of Aosta decided to run a time continual project of monitoring of the Praetorian Roman Gate with the collaboration of the ITABC, CNR of Italy. The Praetorian Roman Gate in Aosta, Italy, of Augustus ages, is one of the most well-known roman monumental gates, it is a double gate with three arches each side, 12 meters high, 20 meters wide, made of pudding stone ashlars, Badoglio, travertine, marble blocks and other stone insertion due to restorations between 1600 and 1950. In years 2000 a final restoration intervention brought the gate at the present state of art, within the frame of a restoration and conservation building site with the purpose of treat the different decay pathologies and conditions. A complete 3D geometric survey campaign has been the first step for the monitoring of the gate morphologic changes and decay progress in time. The main purpose is to collect both quantitative data, related to the geometry of the gate, and the qualitative data, related to the chromatic change on the surface due to the stone decay. The geometric data with colour information permits to associate materials and stone pathologies to chemical or mechanical actions and to understand and analyse superficial decay kinetics. The colours survey will also permit to directly locate on the 3D model areas of different stratigraphic units. The project aims to build a rigorous quantitative-qualitative database so to be uploaded into a GIS. The GIS will become

  20. Ca (OH)2Nanoparticles Based on Acrylic Copolymers for the consolidation and protection of Ancient Egypt Calcareous Stone Monuments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Dosari, Mohammad A.; Ahmed, Sayed M.; Darwish, Sawsan S.; Adam, Mahmoud A.; Elmarzugi, Nagib A.; Al-Mouallimi, Nadia

    2017-01-01

    The deterioration of calcareous stones materials used in artistic/architectural field is one of the most serious problems facing conservation today. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of nanosized particles of calcium hydroxide (slaked lime) as a consolidation and protection material dispersed in acrylic copolymer, poly ethylmethacrylate/methylacrylate (70:30) (Poly (EMA/MA), for calcareous stone monuments and painted surfaces affected by different kinds of decay. The synthesis process of Ca (OH) 2 nanoparticles/polymer nanocomposites have been prepared by in situ emulsion polymerization system. The prepared nanocomposite containing 5% of Ca (OH) 2 nanoparticles showed obvious transparency features and represent nanocomposites coating technology with hydrophobic, consolidating and well protection properties. (paper)

  1. Stratigraphic and tectonic control of deep-water scarp accumulation in Paleogene synorogenic basins: a case study of the Súľov Conglomerates (Middle Váh Valley, Western Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soták Ján

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Súľov Conglomerates represent mass-transport deposits of the Súľov-Domaniža Basin. Their lithosomes are intercalated by claystones of late Thanetian (Zones P3 - P4, early Ypresian (Zones P5 - E2 and late Ypresian to early Lutetian (Zones E5 - E9 age. Claystone interbeds contain rich planktonic and agglutinated microfauna, implying deep-water environments of gravity-flow deposition. The basin was supplied by continental margin deposystems, and filled with submarine landslides, fault-scarp breccias, base-of-slope aprons, debris-flow lobes and distal fans of debrite and turbidite deposits. Synsedimentary tectonics of the Súľov-Domaniža Basin started in the late Thanetian - early Ypresian by normal faulting and disintegration of the orogenic wedge margin. Fault-related fissures were filled by carbonate bedrock breccias and banded crystalline calcite veins (onyxites. The subsidence accelerated during the Ypresian and early Lutetian by gravitational collapse and subcrustal tectonic erosion of the CWC plate. The basin subsided to lower bathyal up to abyssal depth along with downslope accumulation of mass-flow deposits. Tectonic inversion of the basin resulted from the Oligocene - early Miocene transpression (σ1 rotated from NW-SE to NNW-SSE, which changed to a transpressional regime during the Middle Miocene (σ1 rotated from NNE-SSW to NE-SW. Late Miocene tectonics were dominated by an extensional regime with σ3 axis in NNW-SSE orientation.

  2. Monumental megalithic burial and rock art tell a new story about the Levant Intermediate Bronze “Dark Ages”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barash, Alon; Eisenberg-Degen, Davida; Grosman, Leore; Oron, Maya; Berger, Uri

    2017-01-01

    The Intermediate Bronze Age (IB) in the Southern Levant (ca. 2350–2000 BCE) is known as the “Dark Ages,” following the collapse of Early Bronze urban society and predating the establishment of the Middle Bronze cities. The absence of significant settlements and monumental building has led to the reconstruction of IB social organization as that of nomadic, tribal society inhabiting rural villages with no central governmental system. Excavation in the Shamir Dolmen Field (comprising over 400 dolmens) on the western foothills of the Golan Heights was carried out following the discovery of rock art engravings on the ceiling of the central chamber inside one of the largest dolmens ever recorded in the Levant. Excavation of this multi-chambered dolmen, covered by a basalt capstone weighing some 50 tons, revealed a secondary multi-burial (of both adults and children) rarely described in a dolmen context in the Golan. Engraved into the rock ceiling above the multi-burial is a panel of 14 forms composed of a vertical line and downturned arc motif. 3D-scanning by structured-light technology was used to sharpen the forms and revealed the technique employed to create them. Building of the Shamir dolmens required a tremendous amount of labor, architectural mastery, and complex socio-economic organization well beyond the capacity of small, rural nomadic groups. The monumental megalithic burial of the Shamir dolmens indicates a hierarchical, complex, non-urban governmental system. This new evidence supports a growing body of recent criticism stemming from new discoveries and approaches that calls for rethinking our views of the Levantine IB “Dark Ages.” PMID:28253312

  3. The role of monumental trees for the preservation of saproxylic biodiversity: re-thinking their management in cultural landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Zapponi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Ancient trees present structural and functional characteristics fundamental for sustaining complex and unique assemblages of species. They are a resource globally threatened by both intensive land uses and lack of recruitment. Their disappearance would involve not only the loss of majestic organisms with high intrinsic value, but may also result in the disappearance of rare and endangered species. Italy is currently implementing a new list of noteworthy ancient trees (i.e. monumental trees and the preliminary results of this new inventory have been analysed as a case study of a national initiative. The provisional list included 950 complete records, corresponding to 65 genera and 118 species. The most abundant species was Quercus pubescens Willd while the most common genera were Quercus, Larix, Cedrus, Fagus and Platanus. Age and size were the most used criteria for inclusion of trees in the census. The fundamental novelty of the new inventory is that it is based on a set of well-defined criteria of monumentality and that it clearly recognised the ecological value of ancient trees. Preserving a tree for its ecological role requires a profound cultural shift. The value of microhabitats, structures that have historically been considered defects, should be recognised and managed accordingly. Ancient trees are often part of disappearing cultural landscapes: to preserve the richness and diversity of these habitats, new policies and regulations are needed. The preservation of landscapes, where there is still a high density of ancient trees, should be a priority for all European countries in order to conserve their unique associated fauna and for their irreplaceable functional value for biodiversity conservation.

  4. A new approach to assess the chemical composition of powder deposits damaging the stone surfaces of historical monuments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fermo, Paola; Turrion, Raquel Gonzalez; Rosa, Mario; Omegna, Alessandra

    2015-04-01

    The issue of conservation of the monumental heritage worldwide is mainly related to atmospheric pollution that causes the degradation of stone surfaces. The powder deposits present on the stone monuments reflect the composition of the aerosol particulate matter (PM) to which the surfaces are exposed, so the chemical characterization of the outermost damaged layers is necessary in order to adopt mitigation measurements to reduce PM emissions. In the present paper, a new analytical approach is proposed to investigate the chemical composition of powder deposits present on Angera stone, a dolomitic rock used in the Richini courtyard, a masterpiece of Lombard Baroque and placed in Milan. Inorganic and organic components present in these deposits have been analyzed by IC (ion chromatography) and a new approach mainly bases on thermal analyses, respectively. Gypsum is the main inorganic constituent indicating a composition similar to that of black crusts, hard black patina covering the degraded building surfaces. Ammonium nitrate present in the powder is able to react with the stone substrate to form magnesium nitrate which can migrate into the porous stone. The carbonaceous fraction powder deposits (i.e. OC = Organic Carbon and EC = Elemental Carbon) have been quantified by a new simple thermal approach based on carbon hydrogen nitrogen (CHN) analysis. The presence of high concentration of EC confirms that the powder deposits are evolving to black crust. Low values of water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC, determined by total organic carbon-TOC), with respect to what is normally found in PM, may indicate a migration process of organic substances into the stone with a worsening of the conservation conditions. The presence of heavy metals of anthropogenic origin and acting as catalysts in the black crust formation process has been highlighted by SEM-EDS (electron microscopy coupled with an energy dispersive spectrometer) as well.

  5. Monumental megalithic burial and rock art tell a new story about the Levant Intermediate Bronze "Dark Ages".

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonen Sharon

    Full Text Available The Intermediate Bronze Age (IB in the Southern Levant (ca. 2350-2000 BCE is known as the "Dark Ages," following the collapse of Early Bronze urban society and predating the establishment of the Middle Bronze cities. The absence of significant settlements and monumental building has led to the reconstruction of IB social organization as that of nomadic, tribal society inhabiting rural villages with no central governmental system. Excavation in the Shamir Dolmen Field (comprising over 400 dolmens on the western foothills of the Golan Heights was carried out following the discovery of rock art engravings on the ceiling of the central chamber inside one of the largest dolmens ever recorded in the Levant. Excavation of this multi-chambered dolmen, covered by a basalt capstone weighing some 50 tons, revealed a secondary multi-burial (of both adults and children rarely described in a dolmen context in the Golan. Engraved into the rock ceiling above the multi-burial is a panel of 14 forms composed of a vertical line and downturned arc motif. 3D-scanning by structured-light technology was used to sharpen the forms and revealed the technique employed to create them. Building of the Shamir dolmens required a tremendous amount of labor, architectural mastery, and complex socio-economic organization well beyond the capacity of small, rural nomadic groups. The monumental megalithic burial of the Shamir dolmens indicates a hierarchical, complex, non-urban governmental system. This new evidence supports a growing body of recent criticism stemming from new discoveries and approaches that calls for rethinking our views of the Levantine IB "Dark Ages."

  6. Monumental megalithic burial and rock art tell a new story about the Levant Intermediate Bronze "Dark Ages".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharon, Gonen; Barash, Alon; Eisenberg-Degen, Davida; Grosman, Leore; Oron, Maya; Berger, Uri

    2017-01-01

    The Intermediate Bronze Age (IB) in the Southern Levant (ca. 2350-2000 BCE) is known as the "Dark Ages," following the collapse of Early Bronze urban society and predating the establishment of the Middle Bronze cities. The absence of significant settlements and monumental building has led to the reconstruction of IB social organization as that of nomadic, tribal society inhabiting rural villages with no central governmental system. Excavation in the Shamir Dolmen Field (comprising over 400 dolmens) on the western foothills of the Golan Heights was carried out following the discovery of rock art engravings on the ceiling of the central chamber inside one of the largest dolmens ever recorded in the Levant. Excavation of this multi-chambered dolmen, covered by a basalt capstone weighing some 50 tons, revealed a secondary multi-burial (of both adults and children) rarely described in a dolmen context in the Golan. Engraved into the rock ceiling above the multi-burial is a panel of 14 forms composed of a vertical line and downturned arc motif. 3D-scanning by structured-light technology was used to sharpen the forms and revealed the technique employed to create them. Building of the Shamir dolmens required a tremendous amount of labor, architectural mastery, and complex socio-economic organization well beyond the capacity of small, rural nomadic groups. The monumental megalithic burial of the Shamir dolmens indicates a hierarchical, complex, non-urban governmental system. This new evidence supports a growing body of recent criticism stemming from new discoveries and approaches that calls for rethinking our views of the Levantine IB "Dark Ages."

  7. The problem of mechanical compatibility of natural building stones in restoration of monuments. Part I: Composite specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourkoulis, Stavros K.; Ninis, Nikolaos L.

    2011-12-01

    The mechanical compatibility of natural building stones used in the restoration of ancient monuments as substitutes of the authentic material is studied in this short two-paper series. Attention is focused on the porous oolitic limestone of Kenchreae used in the erection of the monuments at the Epidaurean Asklepieion. In Part I experimental results are presented concerning the mechanical properties and constants of both the authentic (ancient and freshly quarried) material and the various stones proposed so far as possible substitutes. It is concluded that only the Kenchreae stone satisfactorily simulates the behaviour of the material used by ancient Greeks. The other types of stones have a substantially different character and their incorporation in the restoration should be treated with caution. In an effort to quantify the influence of the substitute stone on the authentic one, a series of experiments were carried out using composite specimens made from equal parts of authentic and substitute material with various inclination angles of the adhesion plane with respect to the load. It was concluded that the mechanical properties of the composite specimen are strongly affected by this angle and the dependence is not monotonous. In addition, strong strain discontinuities are recorded in the vicinity of the adhesion plane, which are responsible for the initiation of cracking in either of the two materials. It was pointed out that in some cases the incompatibility causes violation of the basic restoration principle concerning the protection of the ancient material. In this context certain geometrical configurations of the boundaries of the specimens are examined in Part II as a possible means of modifying the mechanical behaviour of the substitute stones, in order to make them as compatible as possible with the authentic material.

  8. NOAA TIFF Image - 1 m Backscatter Mosaic of an offshore portion of the NPS's Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument, south of St. John, US Virgin Islands, Project NF-05-05, 2005, UTM 20 WGS84

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a 1 meter resolution backscatter mosaic of an offshore portion of the NPS's Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument, south of St. John, US...

  9. NOAA TIFF Image - 1 m Backscatter Mosaic of an inshore portion of the NPS's Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument, south of St. John, US Virgin Islands, Project NF-05-05, 2005, UTM 20 WGS84 (NCEI Accession 0131860)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a 1 meter resolution backscatter mosaic of the inshore portion of the NPS's Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument, south of St. John, US...

  10. NOAA TIFF Image - 1 m Backscatter Mosaic of an offshore portion of the NPS's Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument, south of St. John, US Virgin Islands, Project NF-05-05, 2005, UTM 20 WGS84 (NCEI Accession 0131860)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a 1 meter resolution backscatter mosaic of an offshore portion of the NPS's Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument, south of St. John, US...

  11. Geodetic Control Points, Benchmarks; Vertical elevation bench marks for monumented geodetic survey control points for which mean sea level elevations have been determined., Published in 1995, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Rhode Island and Providence Plantations.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — Geodetic Control Points dataset current as of 1995. Benchmarks; Vertical elevation bench marks for monumented geodetic survey control points for which mean sea level...

  12. NOAA TIFF Image - 1 m Backscatter Mosaic of an inshore portion of the NPS's Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument, south of St. John, US Virgin Islands, Project NF-05-05, 2005, UTM 20 WGS84

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a 1 meter resolution backscatter mosaic of the inshore portion of the NPS's Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument, south of St. John, US...

  13. Parcels and Land Ownership, Parcels derived from legal descriptions and surveys. Tied to section monuments with coordinates derived from traditional survey and GPS., Published in 2013, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Portage County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Parcels and Land Ownership dataset current as of 2013. Parcels derived from legal descriptions and surveys. Tied to section monuments with coordinates derived from...

  14. Pu sorption to activated conglomerate anaerobic bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Takayuki; Kudo, Akira

    2001-01-01

    The sorption of Pu to the anaerobic bacteria activated under specific conditions of temperature, pH and depleted nutrients after long dormant period was investigated. After 4 h at neutral pH, the distribution coefficient (K d ) between bacteria and aqueous phase at 308 and 278 K had around 10 3 to 10 4 . After over 5 days, however, the K d at only 308 K had increased to over 10 5 . Sterilized (dead) and dormant anaerobic bacteria adsorbed Pu to the same extent. (author)

  15. New Conglomerates and the Ecosystem Advantage

    OpenAIRE

    Walton, Nigel

    2014-01-01

    It is the purpose of this paper to explore the emergence of a new form of web-based company and how the new organisational form is able to access multiple-markets and industries by exploiting the benefits of a platform ecosystem business model. Internet-based companies such as Amazon, Google, Facebook and Apple were referred to as the “Gang of Four” in May, 2011, by Eric Schmidt, Executive Chairman of Google. These twenty first century companies are leading an Internet-based consumer revoluti...

  16. Biofouling of granite-rapakivi in St. Petersburg monuments and in the quarry in Russia and Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlasov, Dmitry; Panova, Elena; Alampieva, Elena; Olhovaya, Elena; Popova, Tatyana; Vlasov, Alexey; Zelenskaya, Marina

    2013-04-01

    Granite-rapakivi was widely used in the architecture of St. Petersburg: the facades of buildings, embankments of rivers and canals, bridges, sculptural monuments, pedestals, facing the metro stations. This stone is rapidly destroyed due to the peculiarities of its structure. Biofouling of granite is insufficiently studied. Cause the destruction of granite can be bacteria, microscopic algae, fungi, mosses, lichens, higher plants, invertebrates and vertebrates. They often form specific lithobiotic communities that contribute to the destruction of granite-rapakivi. The objects of research were monuments of St. Petersburg (granite sculpture, facades, facing embankments) as well as granite-rapakivi quarries in Russia and Finland, where the stone was quarried for use in St. Petersburg. Sampling was carried out from the most typical biofouling sites. Different methods were applied for the study of damaged granite: petrographic analysis, light and scanning electron microscopy, methods for detection and identification of microorganisms, X-ray microprobe analysis. As result the main forms of granite destruction were described: fractures, ovoid weathering, granular disintegration, surface films, crusts and layers, pitting and fouling. Lichens, mosses, herbaceous and micromycetes were dominated on the granite-rapakivi in quarries. For example, in a Monferran quarry (Virolahti region) the complicated lithobiotic community was revealed. It included 30 species of micromycetes, 31 species of lichens, 10 species of moss. Bacteriological analysis showed the dominance of bacteria Bacillus, and actinomycetes in microbial biofilms. More than 100 species of plants were found on the granite embankments in St. Petersburg. They were confined to the cracks, seams of granite blocks. Plants and mosses were common to the granite embankments of rivers and canals in the central (historical) part of the city. Dimensions of mosses depend on the area of the deepening which they occupy. The most

  17. Radiological audit of remedial action activities at the processing sites Mexican Hat, Utah and Monument Valley, Arizona. Audit date: May 3--7, 1993, Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project's Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) performed a radiological audit of the Remedial Action Contractor (RAC), MK-Ferguson and CWM Federal Environmental Services, Inc., at the processing sites in Mexican Hat, Utah, and Monument Valley, Arizona. This audit was conducted May 3--7, 1993, by Bill James and Gerry Simiele of the TAC. Three site-specific findings and four observations were identified during the audit and are presented in this report. The overall conclusion from the audit is that the majority of the radiological aspects of the Mexican Hat, Utah, and Monument Valley, Arizona, remedial action programs are performed adequately. However, the findings identify that there is some inconsistency in following procedures and meeting requirements for contamination control, and a lack of communication between the RAC and the DOE on variances from the published remedial action plan (RAP)

  18. Environmental diagnosis of the Monument Natural Pedra do Cachorro, Pernambuco, Brazil | Diagnóstico ambiental do Monumento Natural Pedra do Cachorro, Pernambuco , Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deivide Benício Soares

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Conservation Unit Monument Natural Pedra do Cachorro, located in Pernambuco Agreste, helped to increase the representativeness of the Caatinga legally protected in the state of Pernambuco, reconcile the preservation of biological diversity and the use of natural resources with ecotourism and tourism adventure already developed in the region with great potential for expansion. This protected area was established by a state decree in 2014, but were not realized, until now, environmental diagnostics to characterize the natural environment of this area, nor was it prepared its management plan. The objective of this work is then present the main environmental characteristics of the Monument Natural Pedra do Cachorro, regarding the physical and biotic environment. It is expected also that this text will serve as a basis for further technical studies to be conducted in this Conservation Unit.

  19. Distribution and abundance of elkhorn coral, Acropora palmata, and prevalence of white-band disease at Buck Island Reef National Monument, St. Croix, US Virgin Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayor, Philippe A.; Rogers, Caroline S.; Hillis-Starr, Zandy M.

    2006-05-01

    In the 1970s and 1980s elkhorn coral, Acropora palmata, declined dramatically throughout the Caribbean primarily due to white-band disease (WBD). In 2005, elkhorn coral was proposed for listing as threatened under the US Endangered Species Act. WBD was first documented at Buck Island Reef National Monument (BIRNM). Together with hurricanes WBD reduced live elkhorn coral coverage by probably over 90%. In the past decade some recovery has been observed at BIRNM. This study assessed the distribution and abundance of elkhorn coral and estimated the prevalence of WBD at the monument. Within an area of 795 ha, we estimated 97,232 134,371 (95% confidence limits) elkhorn coral colonies with any dimension of connected live tissue greater than one meter, about 3% of which were infected by WBD. Despite some recovery, the elkhorn coral density remains low and WBD may continue to present a threat to the elkhorn coral population.

  20. Eastern Traditions and Innovations in Sarmatian Monuments of Second Half of the 2nd – 4th cc. AD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail V. Krivosheev

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The appearance of the monuments of the late Sarmatian culture has been recorded since the middle of the 2nd century AD on a vast territory from the Southern Urals to the Lower Don. The new culture is characterized by its own characteristics that distinguish it from the previous culture. This is the northern orientation of the buried, narrow pits and graves, artificial deformation of skulls, square censers, long stalks, mirrors with a central loop, stone tops and staples of swords. In different regions the formation of culture is characterized by specific features. In the Southern Urals, the late Sarmatian culture is represented in the purest form. In the Lower Volga region, a complex is formed, in which the signs of both late Sarmatian and Middle Sarmatian cultures are combined. This is due to the large number of the previous population which remained here. In the Lower Don region, there is a rapid change of cultures. The given article attempts to determine the area of distribution of elements of the late Sarmatian culture and the degree of their influence in different regions. The analysis shows that as for second half of the 2nd –first half of the 3rd century AD, we can talk about a unified late Sarmatian culture from the Trans-Ural to the Lower Don. Some features of the late Sarmatian culture are revealed in the Northern Black Sea region, but they are disjointed and not dominant. This does not allow to include the Northern Black Sea Coast in the area of distribution of the late Sarmatian culture. Finds of eastern origin in the late Sarmatian monuments indicate the absence of stable trade and economicties with the territories of Middle and Central Asia. The occurrence of such things was of an accidental nature, and they were distributed together with their owners. At present, there is no reason to talk about the possible functioning of the northern branch of the Silk Road through the steppes of the Ural-Don region in the late Sarmatian

  1. Industrial monument and symbol of a new beginning. Coal scrubber on mine Zollverein; Industriedenkmal und Symbol eines Neubeginns. Die Kohlenwaesche auf Zeche Zollverein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seht, Bernd von; Schneider, Helmut; Ferrarini, Dario [Ingenieurbuero Wetzel und von Seht, Hamburg (Germany)

    2008-09-15

    The former coal mine ''Zollverein'' has been accepted in the UNESCO World Heritage List, which proves its status as an outstanding monument of industrial culture in the Ruhr region. Currently, the buildings are being converted into a culture and design forum of international renown. The coal scrubber building of Schacht XII is presented as an example to show how the conflicting goals of conservation and transformation can be integrated in consideration of current standards for supporting structures. (orig.)

  2. From a storehouse to a modern office block. Retrofitting of a listed historic industrial monument; Vom Lagerhaus zum modernen Buerokomplex. Sanierung eines denkmalgeschuetzen Industriedenkmals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fingerling, Anne

    2011-07-01

    A monument-protected depot in Geislingen (Federal Republic of Germany) received a new utilization. The upper floors were rearranged to an office space. In the ground floor a room for events was developed. An open kitchen was developed in the adjacent former storage for artificial fertilizers. The historical charm of the building established in 1921 remained large - despite modern technical equipment, a decentralized energy management system and low-energy building standard.

  3. El Sistema de Información de la Alhambra SIALH. Nuevas tecnologías en la tutela del Conjunto Monumental de la Alhambra y el Generalife

    OpenAIRE

    María del Mar Villafranca; Francisco Lamolda; Antonio Manuel Montufo; Lucía Pérez; Belén Prados

    2012-01-01

    The SIALH project aims to set up the Information System of the Alhambra, considered as tool for the knowledge, management and dissemination of the Monument, considered World Heritage by UNESCO. Based on a Geographic Information System (GIS), SIALH integrates thematic databases, process management systems and electronic records management systems on a common framework. The methodology used in the project follows the standard Metrica v3 for software developments. SIALH is built using free softw...

  4. Museum Institutions in Monuments - Positive and Negative Aspects of Adaptation: The New Amber Museum and Museum of Science in Gdansk, Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piatkowska, Ksenia

    2017-10-01

    The issue of the creation and location of new museums is a current topic. The decision of where and how to create new museum facilities will impact successful function in the future. Museums are either located in newly designed buildings or in existing buildings. In general, existing buildings adapted for museum use are either formally under conservational protection or not. With regard to museum location in preserved monuments, the author notes that the true impact on authentic monumental building structure still needs intense research. The adaptation of the Great Mill and St. Catherine’s Church - two preserved medieval objects located in the historical city center of Gdansk - provide case studies to investigate positive and negative aspects. In both cases, the author carried out architectural projects for the functional purposes of museums: The New Amber Museum and Museum of Science. The author concludes that mutual benefits of adaptation result from: the financial means of the museum institution to invest long-term; the institutional respect of the museum towards heritage, which translates into respect for conservational protection; and the competitive advantage created by the monumental features of the building and the privileged location in a well-established, branded space. Negative aspects result from: space limitations of monuments that disable the museum from extending its exposition and thus prevent institutional development; the overly restrictive requirements of restoration that take priority over the museum mission; and the lack of technically functional space required for contemporary museum technologies, which forces unconventional engineering solutions that are more expensive than the location of the museum in a newly constructed building.

  5. A monument to the player: preserving a landscape of socio-cultural capital in the transitional MMORPG

    Science.gov (United States)

    `Adrir'Scott, Michael

    2012-12-01

    Massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) produce dynamic socio-ludic worlds that nurture both culture and gameplay to shape experiences. Despite the persistent nature of these games, however, the virtual spaces that anchor these worlds may not always be able to exist in perpetuity. Encouraging a community to migrate from one space to another is a challenge now facing some game developers. This paper examines the case of Guild Wars® and its "Hall of Monuments", a feature that bridges the accomplishments of players from the current game to the forthcoming sequel. Two factor analyses describe the perspectives of 105 and 187 self-selected participants. The results reveal four factors affecting attitudes towards the feature, but they do not strongly correlate with existing motivational frameworks, and significant differences were found between different cultures within the game. This informs a discussion about the implications and facilitation of such transitions, investigating themes of capital, value perception and assumptive worlds. It is concluded that the way subcultures produce meaning needs to be considered when attempting to preserve the socio-cultural landscape.

  6. Distribution and Diversity of Bacteria and Fungi Colonization in Stone Monuments Analyzed by High-Throughput Sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Li

    Full Text Available The historical and cultural heritage of Qingxing palace and Lingyin and Kaihua temple, located in Hangzhou of China, include a large number of exquisite Buddhist statues and ancient stone sculptures which date back to the Northern Song (960-1219 A.D. and Qing dynasties (1636-1912 A.D. and are considered to be some of the best examples of ancient stone sculpting techniques. They were added to the World Heritage List in 2011 because of their unique craftsmanship and importance to the study of ancient Chinese Buddhist culture. However, biodeterioration of the surface of the ancient Buddhist statues and white marble pillars not only severely impairs their aesthetic value but also alters their material structure and thermo-hygric properties. In this study, high-throughput sequencing was utilized to identify the microbial communities colonizing the stone monuments. The diversity and distribution of the microbial communities in six samples collected from three different environmental conditions with signs of deterioration were analyzed by means of bioinformatics software and diversity indices. In addition, the impact of environmental factors, including temperature, light intensity, air humidity, and the concentration of NO2 and SO2, on the microbial communities' diversity and distribution was evaluated. The results indicate that the presence of predominantly phototrophic microorganisms was correlated with light and humidity, while nitrifying bacteria and Thiobacillus were associated with NO2 and SO2 from air pollution.

  7. The Underwater Recovery of Monumental Marble Column Drums from an Ancient Shipwreck at Kızılburun, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Deborah N.

    2016-08-01

    In the first century B.C., a stone carrier sank off the Aegean coast of Turkey at Kızılburun transporting all the elements of a monumental marble column, including a single Doric capital and eight drums. The 60-tonne cargo lay at a depth of 45-48 m and was excavated in its entirety by the Institute of Nautical Archaeology at Texas A&M University between 2005 and 2011. Ongoing research has shown that the Doric column pieces in the Kızılburun cargo originated in the marble quarries on Proconnesus Island in the Sea of Marmara and were very likely heading for the Temple of Apollo at Claros when the ship sank just 50 km short of its destination. The complete recovery of the ship's cargo posed a unique set of methodological challenges involving lifting the multi-tonne marble drums without disturbing the delicate waterlogged wooden hull remains preserved beneath. This report summarizes the solutions developed over five seasons in order to rig, hoist, move, and ultimately raise to the surface eight large ancient marble column drums (as well as all the other marble artifacts in the cargo) from a depth of almost 50 m under water.

  8. Distribution and Diversity of Bacteria and Fungi Colonization in Stone Monuments Analyzed by High-Throughput Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiang; Zhang, Bingjian; He, Zhang; Yang, Xiaoru

    The historical and cultural heritage of Qingxing palace and Lingyin and Kaihua temple, located in Hangzhou of China, include a large number of exquisite Buddhist statues and ancient stone sculptures which date back to the Northern Song (960-1219 A.D.) and Qing dynasties (1636-1912 A.D.) and are considered to be some of the best examples of ancient stone sculpting techniques. They were added to the World Heritage List in 2011 because of their unique craftsmanship and importance to the study of ancient Chinese Buddhist culture. However, biodeterioration of the surface of the ancient Buddhist statues and white marble pillars not only severely impairs their aesthetic value but also alters their material structure and thermo-hygric properties. In this study, high-throughput sequencing was utilized to identify the microbial communities colonizing the stone monuments. The diversity and distribution of the microbial communities in six samples collected from three different environmental conditions with signs of deterioration were analyzed by means of bioinformatics software and diversity indices. In addition, the impact of environmental factors, including temperature, light intensity, air humidity, and the concentration of NO2 and SO2, on the microbial communities' diversity and distribution was evaluated. The results indicate that the presence of predominantly phototrophic microorganisms was correlated with light and humidity, while nitrifying bacteria and Thiobacillus were associated with NO2 and SO2 from air pollution.

  9. A Knowledge-Based System For Analysis, Intervention Planning and Prevention of Defects in Immovable Cultural Heritage Objects and Monuments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valach, J.; Cacciotti, R.; Kuneš, P.; ČerÅanský, M.; Bláha, J.

    2012-04-01

    The paper presents a project aiming to develop a knowledge-based system for documentation and analysis of defects of cultural heritage objects and monuments. The MONDIS information system concentrates knowledge on damage of immovable structures due to various causes, and preventive/remedial actions performed to protect/repair them, where possible. The currently built system is to provide for understanding of causal relationships between a defect, materials, external load, and environment of built object. Foundation for the knowledge-based system will be the systemized and formalized knowledge on defects and their mitigation acquired in the process of analysis of a representative set of cases documented in the past. On the basis of design comparability, used technologies, materials and the nature of the external forces and surroundings, the developed software system has the capacity to indicate the most likely risks of new defect occurrence or the extension of the existing ones. The system will also allow for a comparison of the actual failure with similar cases documented and will propose a suitable technical intervention plan. The system will provide conservationists, administrators and owners of historical objects with a toolkit for defect documentation for their objects. Also, advanced artificial intelligence methods will offer accumulated knowledge to users and will also enable them to get oriented in relevant techniques of preventive interventions and reconstructions based on similarity with their case.

  10. Pre-Columbian landscape impact and agriculture in the Monumental Mound region of the Llanos de Moxos, lowland Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Bronwen S.; Dickau, Ruth; Mayle, Francis E.; Soto, J. Daniel; Iriarte, José

    2013-09-01

    We present a multiproxy study of land use by a pre-Columbian earth mounds culture in the Bolivian Amazon. The Monumental Mounds Region (MMR) is an archaeological sub-region characterized by hundreds of pre-Columbian habitation mounds associated with a complex network of canals and causeways, and situated in the forest-savanna mosaic of the Llanos de Moxos. Pollen, phytolith, and charcoal analyses were performed on a sediment core from a large lake (14 km2), Laguna San José (14°56.97'S, 64°29.70'W). We found evidence of high levels of anthropogenic burning from AD 400 to AD 1280, corroborating dated occupation layers in two nearby excavated habitation mounds. The charcoal decline pre-dates the arrival of Europeans by at least 100 yr, and challenges the notion that the mounds culture declined because of European colonization. We show that the surrounding savanna soils were sufficiently fertile to support crops, and the presence of maize throughout the record shows that the area was continuously cultivated despite land-use change at the end of the earth mounds culture. We suggest that burning was largely confined to the savannas, rather than forests, and that pre-Columbian deforestation was localized to the vicinity of individual habitation mounds, whereas the inter-mound areas remained largely forested.

  11. Delineation and hydrologic effects of a gasoline leak at Stovepipe Wells Hotel, Death Valley National Monument, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buono, A.; Packard, Elaine M.

    1982-01-01

    Ground water is the only local source of water available to the Stovepipe Wells Hotel facilities of the Death Valley National Monument, California. A leak in a service station storage tank caused the formation of a gasoline layer overlying the water table, creating the potential for contamination of the water supply. The maximum horizontal extent of the gasoline layer was mathematically estimated to be 1,300 feet downgradient from the leaky gasoline tank. Exploratory drilling detected the gasoline layer between 900 and 1,400 feet downgradient and between 50 and 150 feet upgradient from the source. Traces of the soluble components of gasoline were also found in the aquifer 150 feet upgradient, and 250 feet distant from the source perpendicular to the direction of ground-water movement. The gasoline spill is not likely to have an effect on the supply wells located 0.4 mile south of the leak source, which is nearly perpendicular to the direction of ground-water movement and the primary direction of gasoline movement in the area. No effect on phreatophytes 2 miles downgradient from the layer is likely, but the potential effects of gasoline vapors within the unsaturated zone on local xerophytes are not known. (USGS)

  12. The remarkable endemism of moths at White Sands National Monument in New Mexico, USA, with special emphasis on Gelechioidea (Lepidoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric H. Metzler

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The white sands formation, a snow-white gypsum dunes system, is the world's largest gypsum dune field. White Sands National Monument protects about 40% of the dunes; the dunes formation as it is known today was formed ca. 8,000 years BP. Prior to 8,000 years BP, the area covered by the dunes was a wet cool forest of the last glacial maximum in North America. The dunes were formed as a result of the hypsithermal, a warming and drying period which followed the most recent glacial maximum. The white sands formation is located in south central New Mexico in the Tularosa Basin of southwestern United States. A 10-year study of moths at the dunes was commissioned by the U. S. National Park Service in 2006. Almost immediately species new to science were detected. In the period of 6 years, 30 new species were discovered in the dunes. Several of the new species are white or very pale in color, and are endemic to the dunes. The focus of the 10 year project was modified to emphasize naming the undescribed species which helps the National Park Service catalog and manage the habitats. The data should encourage other researchers to explore the interactions of the animals with the plants and the harsh desert environment, to study DNA and evolution, and to study the rapid adaptation which seems to be occurring.

  13. Prediction of elastic and acoustic behaviors of calcarenite used for construction of historical monuments of Rabat, Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelaali Rahmouni

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Natural materials (e.g. rocks and soils are porous media, whose microstructures present a wide diversity. They generally consist of a heterogeneous solid phase and a porous phase which may be fully or partially saturated with one or more fluids. The prediction of elastic and acoustic properties of porous materials is very important in many fields, such as physics of rocks, reservoir geophysics, civil engineering, construction field and study of the behavior of historical monuments. The aim of this work is to predict the elastic and acoustic behaviors of isotropic porous materials of a solid matrix containing dry, saturated and partially saturated spherical pores. For this, a homogenization technique based on the Mori–Tanaka model is presented to connect the elastic and acoustic properties to porosity and degree of water saturation. Non-destructive ultrasonic technique is used to determine the elastic properties from measurements of P-wave velocities. The results obtained show the influence of porosity and degree of water saturation on the effective properties. The various predictions of Mori–Tanaka model are then compared with experimental results for the elastic and acoustic properties of calcarenite.

  14. Plant population and habitat characteristics of the endemic Sonoran Desert cactus Peniocereus striatus in Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Greta; Rutman, Sue; Munson, Seth M.

    2010-01-01

    Peniocereus striatus (Brandegee) Buxb. (Cactaceae) is an endemic Sonoran Desert cactus that reaches its northern range limit in southwestern Arizona. One U.S. population occupies a small area of Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument near the U.S./Mexico international boundary, which has been monitored since 1939. An extensive survey conducted in 2002, covering 177 ha, resulted in the discovery of 88 new plants, in addition to the relocation of 57 plants found in previous surveys. Despite potential increases in population size and spatial distribution, mean plant height and number of basal stems has not significantly changed in recent years. Bud scars revealed that a majority of the population was sexually mature. Peniocereus striatus occurrence increased with decreasing slope, spanned every slope aspect, and was highest on rocky soils, but was noticeably low on west and northwest slopes and areas where severe land degradation had previously occurred. Over half of P. striatus plants were nursed by shrubs and subshrubs, while 40% occurred under leguminous trees. A severe frost in January 2002 top-killed 19% of the population, with the greatest damage in drainage bottoms. However, long-term (1944–2002) climate records show that there has been an overall increase in the number of frost free days in the region, which, coupled with land use change, has implications for the future health of this population.

  15. Secondary Sulfate Mineralization and Basaltic Chemistry of Craters of the Moon National Monument, Idaho: Potential Martian Analog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. Doc Richardson; Nancy W. Hinman; Lindsay J. McHenry; J. Michelle Kotler; Jill R. Scott

    2012-05-01

    Secondary deposits associated with the basaltic caves of Craters of the Moon National Monument (COM) in southern Idaho were examined using X-ray powder diffraction, X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR-MS). The secondary mineral assemblages are dominated by Na-sulfate minerals (thenardite, mirabilite) with a small fraction of the deposits containing minor concentrations of Na-carbonate minerals. The assemblages are found as white, efflorescent deposits in small cavities along the cave walls and ceilings and as localized mounds on the cave floors. Formation of the deposits is likely due to direct and indirect physiochemical leaching of meteoritic water through the overlying basalts. Whole rock data from the overlying basaltic flows are characterized by their extremely high iron concentrations, making them good analogs for martian basalts. Understanding the physiochemical pathways leading to secondary mineralization at COM is also important because lava tubes and basaltic caves are present on Mars. The ability of FTICR-MS to consistently and accurately identify mineral species within these heterogeneous mineral assemblages proves its validity as a valuable technique for the direct fingerprinting of mineral species by deductive reasoning or by comparison with reference spectra.

  16. Palaeogene to Early Miocene sedimentary history of the Sierra Espuña (Malaguide complex, internal zone of the Betic cordilleras, SE Spain. Evidence for extra-Malaguide (Sardinian? provenance of oligocene conglomerates: Palaeogeographic implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geel, T.

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available The Sierra Espuña is situated at the northern edge of the Internal Zone in the eastern Betic Cordilleras and is part of the unmetamorphosed Malaguide Complex. Palaeontological and sedimentological analysis of the Eocene to Aquitanian sediments on the northwest side of the Espuña yielded unexpected new information of importance for the reconstruction of the history of the Espuña itself and the Malaguides in general. The socalled Upper Eocene (Auversian rocks are of Early Oligocene (P20 age and contain supermature detritus derived from outside the Malaguide realm. The hundreds of meters thick limestone conglomerate formation of the Espuña is of Middle Oligocene (P21 age and represents a backstepping fan delta complex at the margin of a carbonate platform situated to the northeast of the Espuña. Analysis of the clasts suggests that this platform was a part of the north Sardinian block given the majority of fragments of Upper Jurassic sheltered inner platform (Clypeina-Trocholina limestones and dolomites. Contrary to former views (Paquet, 1966; Lonergan, 1993, the conglomerates cannot be considered to be the erosional products of Malaguide imbricated units. Therefore, one of the main arguments for early (Late Eocene to Oligocene thrusting and nappe emplacement in the Espuña area is not valido Other arguments for early kinematics are discussed, among others the allegedly continuous sedimentation from the Late Eocene until the Langhian northwest of the Espuña. Our data indicate the existence of a stratigraphic gap, comprising the middle Aquitanian to middle Burdigalian. A new model for the development of the Espuña within the Malaguide realm during the Palaeogene to Early Miocene is presented. Main thrusting and nappe emplacement is thought to have been taken place during the late Aquitanian. Finally, the recently proposed 2000 clockwise rotation of the Espuña as a coherent block during the Early to Middle Miocene (AlIerton el al., 1993 is

  17. Evaluation of consolidating and water repellent treatments applied to the miocene sandstone used in Tunisian Heritage Monuments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoghlami, K.

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary The research reported in the present paper focused on the behaviour of the Miocene sandstone used to build the Roman aqueduct at Zaghouan-Carthage and other Tunisian Heritage monuments, after application of water repellent and consolidating treatments as a preliminary to restoration. Commercial consolidants and water repellents were used in the experiments: two ethyl silicate consolidants, Tegovakon (TV and Keim-Silex OH (KSOH; two (siloxane water repellents, Tegosivin THE 328 (THE and Tegosivin HLJ00 (THE; and a dual (consolidate and water repellent action substance, Keim- Silex H (KSH (silicate acid ester base with siloxane. A mixed treatment consisting of successive coats of TV and THL (TVHL was also applied. These organosilicate consolidants and water repellents acted on the porous structure of the sandstone, reducing total porosity and water vapour permeability. The water repellent THE was found to affect these properties least, with a pore size distribution that resembled the distribution in the untreated sandstone most closely. Water repellents diminish water absorption and consolidants increase mechanical strength. The TV-THL mix, which yielded results similar to those obtained with water repellents alone, was unable to prevent the substantial scaling that occurs during (RILEM salt crystallisation-induced artificial ageing. The best results were found with the dual action consolidant! water repellent product (KSH, which improved the mechanical properties while affording protection from the decay caused by salts in artificial ageing trials. This substance was found to reduce water vapour permeability, however

    Esta investigación se centra en la evaluación del comportamiento de la arenisca miocénica utilizada en el acueducto de Zaghouan-Cartago y otros monumentos del Patrimonio Monumental de Túnez tras la aplicación de tratamientos de hidrofugación y de consolidación. Para los tratamientos se han seleccionado productos

  18. Environmental effects on deterioration of the historic monuments: case study of the ramparts of Sale's city - NW Morocco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bounakhla, M.; Zahry, F.; Tahri, M.; Baghdad, B.; Garcia Orellana, I.; Garci Leon, M.

    2010-01-01

    The observation of differents shapes of weathering on ramparts of Sale city (black crust, efflorescence, alveolar, peeling, cracks...) reflects a very advanced degree of deterioration. They are essentially constituted by the gray calcarenite of the Plio-Quaternary (Sale's Stone) that characterizes himself by a middle toughness, and an elevated enough porosity. The different analyses (scaning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, ion chromatography and particle induced x-rays emission: PIXE) make on samples appropriated the long of ramparts (crusts, efflorescence, stone , mortar) permitted to identify a mineralogical phases present in these samples, and to quantity the soluble solt, the marine sprays as well as the heavy metals (Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, CI; Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni,Cu, Zn, As, Br, Sr, Zr,Pb). The results can be generalized as follows: the first factor contains the elements originated from anthropogenic activities, and the second factor is composed of marine elements and soil dust. One noted an abundance of sulphates and chlorides that are going to crystallize and to form gypsum and halite while driving to the less porous crust formation. These last limit exchanges with the stone while provoking some different thermal and mechanical behaviors and there after the decay of the underlying material. The heavy metal presence (Pb, Zn, Cr, Cu, Ni) descended especially some fossil fuels, confirm the contribution of the atmospheric pollution in the phenomenon of deterioration of these ramparts. The gypsum detected are generally formed by oxidation of SO2 atmospheric what confirm the action of the atmospheric pollutants in the deterioration of these monuments

  19. Rock paintings in Fern Cave, Lava Beds National Monument, California: Not the 1054 A.D. (Crab Nebula) Supernova

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armitage, R.A.; Hyman, M.; Rowe, M. W.

    1997-01-01

    On July 4, 1054 A.D. a supernova brighter than Venus appeared in the sky, remaining visible for approximately 23 days and 650 nights. It was chronicled in five independent historic accounts, four in China and one in Japan. For at least 40 years investigators have attributed certain distinctive rock paintings and carvings in the western United States as recordings of the 1054 A.D. supernova. More than twenty such depictions (circle or star-like symbols and a crescent) have been located. Two panels of rock paintings in Lava Beds National Monument, California, one at Fern Cave and one at Symbol Bridge, were listed as recording the 1054 A.D. supernova. The only direct means of assessing the likelihood that a 'supernova' representation records the 1054 A.D. event is to date the rock painting or carving. At Texas A and M University, was developed a plasma-chemical extraction technique that permits to analyze the 14 C in rock paintings, whether the pigments used were charcoal or inorganic Fe- and Mn- oxides and hydroxides with organic binder/vehicles. This paper presents direct 14 C age estimates on a rock painting suggested to represent the 1054 A.D. supernova. Charcoal pigment samples were collected from three figures in proximity at Fern Cave: a crescent pointing downward and two nearby circles, one above and one below the crescent. The AMS 14 C analysis on each sample using this technique show that these images do not represent the 1054 A.D. supernova

  20. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Monument Valley uranium mill tailings site Cane Valley, Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project (Phase I) and the Ground Water Project (Phase II). Under the UMTRA Surface Project, tailings, radioactive contaminated soil, equipment, and materials associated with the former uranium ore processing at UMTRA Project sites are placed into disposal cells. The cells are designed to reduce radon and other radiation emissions and to minimize further contamination of ground water. Surface cleanup at the Monument Valley UMTRA Project site near Cane Valley, Arizona, was completed in 1994. The Ground Water Project evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination that resulted from the uranium ore processing activities. The Ground Water Project is in its beginning stages. Human health may be at risk from exposure to ground water contaminated by uranium ore processing. Exposure could occur by drinking water pumped out of a hypothetical well drilled in the contaminated areas. Adverse ecological and agricultural effects may also result from exposure to contaminated ground water. For example, livestock should not be watered with contaminated ground water. A risk assessment describes a source of contamination, how that contamination reaches people and the environment, the amount of contamination to which people or the ecological environment may be exposed, and the health or ecological effects that could result from that exposure. This risk assessment is a site-specific document that will be used to evaluate current and potential future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. The results of this evaluation and further site investigations will be used to determine a compliance strategy to comply with the UMTRA ground water standards

  1. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Monument Valley uranium mill tailings site Cane Valley, Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project (Phase I) and the Ground Water Project (Phase II). Under the UMTRA Surface Project, tailings, radioactive contaminated soil, equipment, and materials associated with the former uranium ore processing at UMTRA Project sites are placed into disposal cells. The cells are designed to reduce radon and other radiation emissions and to minimize further contamination of ground water. Surface cleanup at the Monument Valley UMTRA Project site near Cane Valley, Arizona, was completed in 1994. The Ground Water Project evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination that resulted from the uranium ore processing activities. The Ground Water Project is in its beginning stages. Human health may be at risk from exposure to ground water contaminated by uranium ore processing. Exposure could occur by drinking water pumped out of a hypothetical well drilled in the contaminated areas. Adverse ecological and agricultural effects may also result from exposure to contaminated ground water. For example, livestock should not be watered with contaminated ground water. A risk assessment describes a source of contamination, how that contamination reaches people and the environment, the amount of contamination to which people or the ecological environment may be exposed, and the health or ecological effects that could result from that exposure. This risk assessment is a site-specific document that will be used to evaluate current and potential future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. The results of this evaluation and further site investigations will be used to determine a compliance strategy to comply with the UMTRA ground water standards.

  2. Monument protection and energy conservation. Status quo five years after the EnEV 2007; Denkmalschutz und Energieeinsparung. Stand der Dinge fuenf Jahre nach der EnEV 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-11-01

    The meeting ''Monument conservation and energy conservation'' at 9th February 2012 in Wiesbaden (Federal Republic of Germany) focuses on the status quo five years after the revised version of the Energy Saving Ordinance (EnEV) in the year 2007. Within this meeting the following lectures were held: (1) Monument conservation and energy conservation - Status Quo five years after the EnEV 2007 (Roswitha Kaiser); (2) Interior insulation with exterior hydrophic treatment - material appropriate and monument appropriate? (Anatol Worch, Michael Auras); (3) Hints regarding to planning, execution and quality assurance of a subsequent core insulation (Heinrich Wigger, Kerstin Stoelken, Britta Schreiber); (4) Comparison of different interior insulation materials (Rudolf Platte); (5) Urban structural energy study Winterthur (Reto Bieli); (6) Remodelling of an industrial plant protected as a historical monument - Historical window systems, exposed masonry and modern installations (Andr Kramm, Marcel Kremer); (7) Model project - Facade insulation with VIP panels at a Ernst-May building protected as a historical building in Frankfurt (Main) (Juergen Werner); (8) The former tax office Wiesbaden - Energetic strengthening (Klaus Daniels); (9) House of the Evangelical Church in Wiesbaden - Energetic strengthening of the facades (Dominik Loh); (10) Conservation versus comfort and energy demand - Potentials of optimization by means of a targeting controlled operation of plant-technical systems in a historical monument (Harald Garrecht); (11) Energy efficient construction - Compound insulation materials as a disposal problem for dismantling and renovation (Ulrich Langer, Thomas Egloffstein).

  3. Building materials as intrinsic sources of sulphate: A hidden face of salt weathering of historical monuments investigated through multi-isotope tracing (B, O, S)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloppmann, W.; Bromblet, P.; Vallet, J.M.; Verges-Belmin, V.; Rolland, O.; Guerrot, C.; Gosselin, C.

    2011-01-01

    Sulphate neoformation is a major factor of degradation of stone monuments. Boron, sulphur and oxygen isotope signatures were investigated for five French historical monuments (Bourges, Chartres and Marseille cathedrals, Chenonceau castle, and Versailles garden statues) to investigate the role of intrinsic sulphate sources (gypsum plasters and mortars) in stone degradation, compared to the influence of extrinsic sources such as atmospheric pollution. Gypsum plasters and gypsum-containing mortars fall systematically in the δ 34 S and δ 18 O range of Paris Basin Eocene evaporites indicating the origin of the raw materials (so-called 'Paris plaster'). Black crusts show the typical S and O isotope signatures observed elsewhere in Europe that can be attributed to atmospheric pollution, together with a marine component for Marseille. Boron isotopes for black crusts indicate coal combustion as principal boron source. Mortar isotope compositions discriminate three types, one similar to gypsum plasters, one strongly depleted in 34 S, attributed to pyrite oxidation, and a third one close to atmospheric sulphates. The isotopic composition of sulphates and boron of most degraded building stones of the different monuments is well explained by the identified sulphate sources. In several cases (in particular for Chenonceau and Bourges, to some extent for Chartres), the impact of gypsum plaster as building and restoration material on the degradation of the stones in its vicinity was clearly demonstrated. The study illustrates the usefulness of multi-isotope studies to investigate stone degradation factors, as the combination of several isotope systematics increases the discriminatory power of isotope studies with respect to contaminant sources. - Research Highlights: → Insight in stone weathering mechanisms by multi-isotope fingerprinting (B, S, O). → Intrinsic sulphate sources (gypsum plaster, mortar) contribute to stone degradation. → Origin of building materials

  4. Building materials as intrinsic sources of sulphate: A hidden face of salt weathering of historical monuments investigated through multi-isotope tracing (B, O, S)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kloppmann, W., E-mail: w.kloppmann@brgm.fr [BRGM, BP 6009, F-45060 Orleans cedex 2 (France); Bromblet, P.; Vallet, J.M. [CICRP, 21, rue Guibal, F-13003 Marseille (France); Verges-Belmin, V. [LRMH, 29, rue de Paris, F-77420 Champs sur Marne (France); Rolland, O. [Independent restorer, 3, rue du Gue, 37270 Montlouis s/Loire (France); Guerrot, C. [BRGM, BP 6009, F-45060 Orleans cedex 2 (France); Gosselin, C. [BRGM, BP 6009, F-45060 Orleans cedex 2 (France); LRMH, 29, rue de Paris, F-77420 Champs sur Marne (France)

    2011-04-01

    Sulphate neoformation is a major factor of degradation of stone monuments. Boron, sulphur and oxygen isotope signatures were investigated for five French historical monuments (Bourges, Chartres and Marseille cathedrals, Chenonceau castle, and Versailles garden statues) to investigate the role of intrinsic sulphate sources (gypsum plasters and mortars) in stone degradation, compared to the influence of extrinsic sources such as atmospheric pollution. Gypsum plasters and gypsum-containing mortars fall systematically in the {delta}{sup 34}S and {delta}{sup 18}O range of Paris Basin Eocene evaporites indicating the origin of the raw materials (so-called 'Paris plaster'). Black crusts show the typical S and O isotope signatures observed elsewhere in Europe that can be attributed to atmospheric pollution, together with a marine component for Marseille. Boron isotopes for black crusts indicate coal combustion as principal boron source. Mortar isotope compositions discriminate three types, one similar to gypsum plasters, one strongly depleted in {sup 34}S, attributed to pyrite oxidation, and a third one close to atmospheric sulphates. The isotopic composition of sulphates and boron of most degraded building stones of the different monuments is well explained by the identified sulphate sources. In several cases (in particular for Chenonceau and Bourges, to some extent for Chartres), the impact of gypsum plaster as building and restoration material on the degradation of the stones in its vicinity was clearly demonstrated. The study illustrates the usefulness of multi-isotope studies to investigate stone degradation factors, as the combination of several isotope systematics increases the discriminatory power of isotope studies with respect to contaminant sources. - Research Highlights: {yields} Insight in stone weathering mechanisms by multi-isotope fingerprinting (B, S, O). {yields} Intrinsic sulphate sources (gypsum plaster, mortar) contribute to stone degradation

  5. Corporate level strategic analysis and choice as a measure of achieving performance in organizations: (a survey of Dangote groups of companies/conglomerates quoted on Nigeria stock exchange market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sev Joseph Teryima

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research is to establish the factors that are responsible to organizational growth level in Dangote group of companies. These factors ranges from market share growth, sales volume growth (turnover, profitability, competitive advantage and share capital size amongst others. Corporate level strategic analysis and choice was adopted with specific emphasis on Boston Consulting Group (BCG matrix – portfolio analysis. Four (4 companies from Dangote conglomerate quoted on the Nigerian Stock Exchange market namely; Dangote Cement Plc, Dangote Flour Plc, Dangote Sugar Refinery Company Plc and National Salt Company of Nigeria Plc were surveyed with a population size of 5060. The sample size survey was 371. 209 respondents from Dangote Cement Company Plc, 75 respondents from Dangote Flour Mill Plc, 48 respondents from Dangote Sugar Refinery Company Plc and 39 respondents from National Salt Company Plc using judgmental and convenience sampling technique. The Quasi-experimental survey technique especially the cross-sectional design method was adopted. The Friedman Ranking test was carried out in testing the formulated hypothesis. The test of the result revealed that there is a relationship between organizational factors such as market share growth, sales volume growth (turnover, profitability growth, effective strategy application, competitive advantage and share capital size and organizational growth in the Dangote Cement Company Plc and Dangote Flour Mills Plc with a 0.425 and 0.360 strength of association respectively and the hypothesis was rejected while for Dangote Sugar Refinery Company Plc and National Salt Company of Nigeria Plc, that was not the case and the hypothesis was accepted that organizational factors such as market share, sales volume (turnover, profitability growth, effective strategy application, competitive advantage and share capital growth does not influence organizational growth hence their hypothesis were

  6. The Otolith Group’s “Monuments to Dead Television.” Independent Cinema and the Migrant Experience in Europe between Television and the Museum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice Ferrara

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available “Monument to dead television” is the expression the British collective The Otolith Group uses to define its activity of recuperating long-lost quality films, and re-screening them in contemporary art museums and gallery spaces. What these films share is a cinematic vocation and a complex approach to the question of memory and migration in Europe, and to the role of images as testimonies or documents. This essay explores The Otolith Group’s interest in such forgotten archives of modern television in order to unearth their significance for contemporary museums today.

  7. Art and politics in the former "Portuguese Colonial Empire". The monument to Mouzinho de Albuquerque in Lourenço Marques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verheij, Gerbert

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1940, a monument to Mouzinho de Albuquerque is inaugurated in the former capital of the Portuguese Colony of Mozambique, Lourenço Marques. The result of a lenghty commissioning process, this homage to one of the main heroes of the colonial pantheon becomes a center-piece in the many political rituals which had become common-place during the 1930s. The concepts of aura and cult value are used to analyse its "traditionalist" aesthetics and the role it played in political spectacles, arguing that it obeys a strategy of representation of the public space as "Empire".

  8. The alkaline volcanic rocks of Craters of the Moon National Monument, Idaho and the Columbia Hills of Gusev Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neakrase, L. D.; Lim, D. S. S.; Haberle, C. W.; Hughes, S. S.; Kobs-Nawotniak, S. E.; Christensen, P. R.

    2016-12-01

    Idaho's Eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) is host to extensive expressions of basaltic volcanism dominated by non evolved olivine tholeiites (NEOT) with localized occurrences of evolved lavas. Craters of the Moon National Monument (COTM) is a polygenetic lava field comprised of more than 60 lava flows emplaced during 8 eruptive periods spanning the last 15 kyrs. The most recent eruptive period (period A; 2500-2000 yr B.P.) produced flows with total alkali vs. silica classifications spanning basalt to trachyte. Coeval with the emplacement of the COTM period A volcanic pile was the emplacement of the Wapi and King's Bowl NEOT 70 km SSE of COTM along the Great Rift. Previous investigations have determined a genetic link between these two compositionally distinct volcanic centers where COTM compositions can be generated from NEOT melts through complex ascent paths and variable degrees of fractionation and assimilation of lower-middle crustal materials. The Mars Exploration Rover, Spirit, conducted a robotic investigation of Gusev crater from 2004-2010. Spirit was equipped with the Athena science payload enabling the determination of mineralogy (mini-Thermal Emission Spectrometer, Pancam multispectral camera, and Mössbauer spectrometer), bulk chemistry (Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer) and context (Pancam and Microscopic Imager). During sol 32 Spirit investigated an olivine basalt named Adirondack, the type specimen for a class of rock that composes much of the plains material within Gusev Crater and embays the Columbia Hills. Following the characterization of the plains material, Spirit departed the plains targeting the Columbia Hills and ascending at Husband Hill. During Spirit's ascent of Husband Hill three additional classes of volcanic rock were identified as distinct by their mini-TES spectra; Wishstone, Backstay and Irvine. These rocks are classified as tephrite, trachy-basalt and basalt, respectively, and are the first alkaline rocks observed on Mars. These

  9. The Ecology of Parasite-Host Interactions at Montezuma Well National Monument, Arizona - Appreciating the Importance of Parasites

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Chris; van Riper, Charles

    2009-01-01

    Although parasites play important ecological roles through the direct interactions they have with their hosts, historically that fact has been underappreciated. Today, scientists have a growing appreciation of the scope of such impacts. Parasites have been reported to dominate food webs, alter predator-prey relationships, act as ecosystem engineers, and alter community structure. In spite of this growing awareness in the scientific community, parasites are still often neglected in the consideration of the management and conservation of resources and ecosystems. Given that at least half of the organisms on earth are probably parasitic, it should be evident that the ecological functions of parasites warrant greater attention. In this report, we explore different aspects of parasite-host relationships found at a desert spring pond within Montezuma Well National Monument, Arizona. In three separate but related chapters, we explore interactions between a novel amphipod host and two parasites. First, we identify how host behavior responds to this association and how this association affects interactions with both invertebrate non-host predators and a vertebrate host predator. Second, we look at the human dimension, investigating how human recreation can indirectly affect patterns of disease by altering patterns of vertebrate host space use. Finally - because parasites and diseases are of increasing importance in the management of wildlife species, especially those that are imperiled or of management concern - the third chapter argues that research would benefit from increased attention to the statistical analysis of wildlife disease studies. This report also explores issues of statistical parasitology, providing information that may better inform those designing research projects and analyzing data from studies of wildlife disease. In investigating the nature of parasite-host interactions, the role that relationships play in ecological communities, and how human

  10. Title: Vision of the Reconstruction of Destructed Monuments of Palmyra (3D) as a Step to Rehabiliate and Preserve the Wholesite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkawi, A.

    2017-08-01

    Syria is one of the world's most impressive Cultural Heritages in terms of the number and historical significance of its monuments. Palmyra lies in the heart of Syria, an oasis in the midst of the arid desert.it could be considered as a part of this human heritage. In1980 was registered on the world and national heritage list for its huge historical importance. In addition, it was the focus of many studies and researches in the fields of restoration. Then the disaster happened, many monuments were demolished, temple of Ba'al, temple of Bael-shameen, Arch of triumph and the Castle. Lately the Tetrapylon and the Stag. Every Syrian was hurt, the whole world was hurt. The destruction of the city caused its people to become homeless and Palmyra was no longer the oasis we know. We felt pain, so we wanted to make a move, a step forward, to present a work that expresses our love for Palmyra, we organized Palmyra workshop to provide a vision for the reconstruction and revival of the historic site importance. Visions with using new idea & new technology. Palmyra historical areas are considered a large open museum for heritage through history, which is the reason to treat these area as a historical protection precinct and give a vision, ideas, suggestions to the future of Palmary as a first step to preserve the historical buildings& the archeological park.

  11. TITLE: VISION OF THE RECONSTRUCTION OF DESTRUCTED MONUMENTS OF PALMYRA (3D AS A STEP TO REHABILIATE AND PRESERVE THE WHOLESITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Arkawi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Syria is one of the world’s most impressive Cultural Heritages in terms of the number and historical significance of its monuments. Palmyra lies in the heart of Syria, an oasis in the midst of the arid desert.it could be considered as a part of this human heritage. In1980 was registered on the world and national heritage list for its huge historical importance. In addition, it was the focus of many studies and researches in the fields of restoration. Then the disaster happened, many monuments were demolished, temple of Ba’al, temple of Bael-shameen, Arch of triumph and the Castle. Lately the Tetrapylon and the Stag. Every Syrian was hurt, the whole world was hurt. The destruction of the city caused its people to become homeless and Palmyra was no longer the oasis we know. We felt pain, so we wanted to make a move, a step forward, to present a work that expresses our love for Palmyra, we organized Palmyra workshop to provide a vision for the reconstruction and revival of the historic site importance. Visions with using new idea & new technology. Palmyra historical areas are considered a large open museum for heritage through history, which is the reason to treat these area as a historical protection precinct and give a vision, ideas, suggestions to the future of Palmary as a first step to preserve the historical buildings& the archeological park.

  12. Võidu monument / Marco Montanari

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Montanari, Marco

    2007-01-01

    Itaallasest autori sõnul on pronkssõduri juhtum midagi niisugust, mida itaallased mõistavad. Ta kirjeldab, kuidas Lõuna-Tiroolis püstitatud Võidu monumendi tähtsus aastatega muutus, ning arvab, et ka Eesti inimesed peaksid pronkssõdurit ümbritsevad kired maha jahutama

  13. Fabergé monument

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2015-01-01

    Pärnust pärit eduka juveliiri ja maailmakuulsa juveelifirma Fabergé asutanud Gustav Fabergé monumendi avamisest Pärnu Kontserdimaja ees, monumendi kinkis Pärnu linnale Peterburi juveelimaja Tenzo Jewellery House omanik, Eesti juurtega Alexander Tenzo, 3. jaanuaril kontserdimajas toimuvast ballist

  14. Monuments to Academic Carelessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    In 1942, Katherine Frost Bruner published an article titled “Of psychological writing: Being some valedictory remarks on style.” It was published in Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, the journal for which she served as editorial assistant between 1937 and 1941. Her collection of advice to writing scholars has been widely quoted, including by several editions of The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. The most frequently quoted message in Bruner’s article deals with the importance of making sure that references in academic texts are complete and accurate. Exploring the citation history of this particular message reveals an ironic point: the great majority of those who have quoted Bruner’s words on reference accuracy have not done so accurately. The case may serve as a reminder of the importance of the basic academic principle of striving to use primary sources. The most startling finding in this study is how frequently this principle is violated, even by authors who advise and educate academic writers. PMID:28479644

  15. Ground-Water Flow Direction, Water Quality, Recharge Sources, and Age, Great Sand Dunes National Monument, South-Central Colorado, 2000-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupert, Michael G.; Plummer, Niel

    2004-01-01

    Great Sand Dunes National Monument is located in south-central Colorado along the eastern edge of the San Luis Valley. The Great Sand Dunes National Monument contains the tallest sand dunes in North America; some rise up to750 feet. Important ecological features of the Great Sand Dunes National Monument are palustrine wetlands associated with interdunal ponds and depressions along the western edge of the dune field. The existence and natural maintenance of the dune field and the interdunal ponds are dependent on maintaining ground-water levels at historic elevations. To address these concerns, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a study, in collaboration with the National Park Service, of ground-water flow direction, water quality, recharge sources, and age at the Great Sand Dunes National Monument. A shallow unconfined aquifer and a deeper confined aquifer are the two principal aquifers at the Great Sand Dunes National Monument. Ground water in the unconfined aquifer is recharged from Medano and Sand Creeks near the Sangre de Cristo Mountain front, flows underneath the main dune field, and discharges to Big and Little Spring Creeks. The percentage of calcium in ground water in the unconfined aquifer decreases and the percentage of sodium increases because of ionic exchange with clay minerals as the ground water flows underneath the dune field. It takes more than 60 years for the ground water to flow from Medano and Sand Creeks to Big and Little Spring Creeks. During this time, ground water in the upper part of the unconfined aquifer is recharged by numerous precipitation events. Evaporation of precipitation during recharge prior to reaching the water table causes enrichment in deuterium (2H) and oxygen-18 (18O) relative to waters that are not evaporated. This recharge from precipitation events causes the apparent ages determined using chlorofluorocarbons and tritium to become younger, because relatively young precipitation water is mixing with older waters

  16. Preliminary Report on the White Canyon Area, San Juan County, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, William Edward Barnes; Trites, A.F.; Beroni, E.P.; Feeger, J.A.

    1952-01-01

    The White Canyon area in San Juan County, Utah, contains known deposits of copper-uranium ore and is currently being mapped and studied by the Geological Survey. To date, approximately 75 square miles, or about 20 percent of the area, has been mapped on a scale 1 inch=1 mile. The White Canyon area is underlain by more than 2,000 feet of sedimentary rocks, Carboniferous to Jurassic(?) in age. The area is on the flank of the Elk Ridge anticline, and the strata have a regional dip of 1 deg to 2 deg SW. The Shinarump conglomerate of Late Triassic age is the principal ore-bearing formation. The Shinarump consists of lenticular beds of sandstone, conglomeratic sandstone, clay, and siltstone, and ranges in thickness from a feather edge to as much as 75 feet. Locally the sandstones contain silicified and carbonized wood and fragments of charcoal. These vegetal remains are especially common in channel-fill deposits. Jointing is prominent in the western part of the area, and apparently affects all formations. Adjacent to the joints some of the redbeds in the sequence are bleached. Deposits of copper-uranium minerals have been found in the Moenkopi, Shinarump, and Chinle formations, but the only production of ore has been from the Shinarump conglomerate. The largest concentration of these minerals is in the lower third of the Shinarump, and the deposits seem to be controlled in part by ancient channel fills and in part by fractures. Locally precipitation of the copper and uranium minerals apparently has been aided by charcoal and clays. Visible uranium minerals include both hard and soft pitchblende and secondary hydrosulfates, phosphates, and silicates. In addition, unidentified uranium compounds are present in carbonized wood and charcoal, and in veinlets of hydrocarbons. Base-metal sulfides have been identified in all prospects that extend beyond the oxidized zone. Secondary copper minerals in the oxidized zone include the hydrous sulfates and carbonates, and possibly

  17. Scanning electron microscopy applied to the study of solid pollution particles deposited on monumental stone; La microscopia electronica de barrido aplicada al estudio de particulas solidas de contaminacion depositadas sobre la piedra momumental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz-Pache, F.; Alonso, F.J.; Esbert, R.M. [Departamento de Geologia, Universidad de Oviedo (Spain)

    1996-06-01

    Solid pollution particles play an important role in the decay of monumental stone. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in conjunction with microanalysis (EDX) are a very valuable study tool. In the present paper, particular attention is paid to sample collection and preparation. Examples of particles providing information on the source of decay are submitted. (Author) 9 refs.

  18. From the Palais des Papes in Avignon to the 'Chateau d'eau Perret' at Saclay: study of historical monuments to understand the long term behaviour on metal/concrete interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    L'Hostis, V.; Dillmann, Ph.; Chitty, W.J.; Millard, A.; Faquin, R.

    2007-01-01

    Corrosion of reinforcement is one of the major causes of concrete cracking and degradation of reinforced concrete structures in atmospheric environments. The life time of several reinforced concrete buildings (civil engineering, nuclear infrastructures, bridges, historical monuments...) depends on the interaction between metallic and cementitious materials. For instance, historical monuments contain an important quantity of iron since the roman period (30 tons for the dungeon of the 'Chateau de Vincennes', 100 tons for the Palais des Papes in Avignon), and play a role in the mechanical behaviour of the building. It is then necessary to determine the degradation state of metallic objects submitted to corrosion and to predict their behaviour with time. In this context, this paper shows how analysis of the metal/cementitious materials interface from a corpus of historical monuments allows to understand the corrosion mechanisms and to model them. Moreover, corrosion rates and products that are characterized can be used as input data for a macroscopic mechanical damage model of reinforced concrete submitted to corrosion of steels. This model is able to predict the cracking pattern of the monument. (authors)

  19. Geologic and geophysical maps and volcanic history of the Kelton Pass SE and Monument Peak SW Quadrangles, Box Elder County, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felger, Tracey J.; Miller, David; Langenheim, Victoria; Fleck, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    The Kelton Pass SE and Monument Peak SW 7.5' quadrangles are located in Box Elder County, northwestern Utah (figure 1; plate 1). The northern boundary of the map area is 8.5 miles (13.7 km) south of the Utah-Idaho border, and the southern boundary reaches the edge of mud flats at the north end of Great Salt Lake. Elevations range from 4218 feet (1286 m) along the mud flats to 5078 feet (1548 m) in the Wildcat Hills. Deep Creek forms a prominent drainage between the Wildcat Hills and Cedar Hill. The closest towns are the ranching communities of Snowville, Utah (10 miles [16 km] to the northeast) (figure 1), and Park Valley, Utah (10 miles [16 km] to the west).The Kelton Pass SE and Monument Peak SW 7.5' quadrangles are located entirely within southern Curlew Valley, which drains south into Great Salt Lake, and extends north of the area shown on figure 1 into Idaho. Curlew Valley is bounded on the west by the Raft River Mountains and on the east by the Hansel Mountains (figure 1). Sedimentary and volcanic bedrock exposures within the quadrangles form the Wildcat Hills, Cedar Hill, and informally named Middle Shield (figure 1). Exposed rocks and deposits are Permian to Holocene in age, and include the Permian quartz sandstone and orthoquartzite of the Oquirrh Formation (Pos), tuffaceous sedimentary rocks of the Miocene Salt Lake Formation (Ts), Pliocene basaltic lava flows (Tb) and dacite (Tdw), Pleistocene rhyolite (Qrw) and basalt (Qb), and Pleistocene and Holocene surficial deposits of alluvial, lacustrine, and eolian origin. Structurally, the map area is situated in the northeastern Basin and Range Province, and is inferred to lie within the hanging wall of the late Miocene detachment faults exposed in the Raft River Mountains to the northwest (e.g., Wells, 1992, 2009; figure 1).This mapping project was undertaken to produce a comprehensive, large-scale geologic map of the Wildcat Hills, as well as to improve understanding of the volcanic and tectonic evolution of

  20. Public monuments of Juan Cristóbal in Salamanca: the one to the poet Gabriel y Galán

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Muñoz Pérez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews the role of the sculptor Juan Cristóbal González Quesada in the monument dedicated to José María Gabriel y Galán in Salamanca, which was made in the 1920s and represents an important contribution to the public art collection of the city during the twentieth century. We also analyze the aesthetic, technical and procedural components of the project, the social impact at that time, what contributes to expand the cultural spectrum of this paper to the field of Sociology. This perspective helps to get a broader picture of Salamanca and its artistic reality in the first half of the last century.

  1. A refreshing alternative to the pilgrimage to the Holy Sepulchre: the monumental burials of Christ in France (XVth-XVIth centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Karsallah

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the 1420’s in France some groups of sculptures appeared representing the life-size burial of Christ. These monumental “Entombments” experienced a strong expansion from the mid-15th century until approximately 1520, in France as well in bordering regions such as Belgium, Germany, Switzerland and Italy. From the end of the 19th century they were studied in a primarily stylistic perspective while the problem of their functions and uses have been addressed only very recently. The intent here is to appraise the hypothesis according to which they would have served as substitutes in a spiritual pilgrimage. First the study considers the situation of the pilgrimage in the Holy Land during the 15th century, then it analyzes the relationships between images and indulgences. Finally it ends with the examination of a number of burials accompanied by indulgences, that could be utilised as supports of a spiritual pilgrimage.

  2. El Sistema de Información de la Alhambra SIALH. Nuevas tecnologías en la tutela del Conjunto Monumental de la Alhambra y el Generalife

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Mar Villafranca

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The SIALH project aims to set up the Information System of the Alhambra, considered as tool for the knowledge, management and dissemination of the Monument, considered World Heritage by UNESCO. Based on a Geographic Information System (GIS, SIALH integrates thematic databases, process management systems and electronic records management systems on a common framework. The methodology used in the project follows the standard Metrica v3 for software developments. SIALH is built using free software and ensures interoperability. In addition to software development, SIALH involves other projects such as the geocoding of the Alhambra, new maps and orthophotos and the publication of augmented reality of the Alhambra.

  3. La enfermera en el monumento madrileño (1908-1936 The nurse in Madrid`s monuments (1908 - 1936

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª Teresa Miralles-Sangro

    2005-03-01

    first third into the XXth Century. We will be analysing nursing influence in its social context. As well, we will striving to discover its presence in the public/private monuments as social recognition. The aim will be to look at Madrid's female images and select those representing the nursing profession. We chose this chronological frame due to the fact that, on the one hand, nursing as a profession started in the XIXth Century and, on the other one, it was in this same period that this type of monument started to appear in cities. In our research we came across the monument to the Duchess of ‘la Victoria’, its origin, date and artistic style. The Red Cross identified its nurses with it. It illustrated their work with the ‘injured soldiers in the Morocco’s campaign’ and achieved the iconographic analysis of a monument related to nursing care identifying its iconographic theme, historic context and iconological interpretation. Our conclusion is that nurses had little possibility of recognition in the social scheme at the time but, they excelled in their care and professionalism and through this they gained social acknowledgement.

  4. Le premier élément du patrimoine maritime de Saint-Pierre-et-Miquelon protégé au titre des monuments historiques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herveline Delhumeau

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Ymac a été classé par arrêté du 14 février 2008 au titre des monuments historiques en raison de l’intérêt ethnologique lié à sa fonction de bateau-pilote. (fig. n° 1Figure 1Ymac, ex-Radar III. Photographie après 2003. © Yannick Lafourcade.Construit en 1965 à Mavilette (Nouvelle-Ecosse, Canada par le chantier Alfred Boudreau, ce bateau traditionnel de pêche à coque en bois avait été initialement armé pour la pêche aux poissons plats par Alex Doucet, d’où son premier nom Alex D. Après avoir p...

  5. Potential of High-Resolution Satellite Imagery for Mapping Distribution and Evaluating Ecological Characteristics of Tree Species at the Angkor Monument, Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomita Mizuki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Large trees play several vital roles in the Angkor monuments landscape. They protect biodiversity, enhance the tourism experience, and provide various ecosystem services to local residents. A clear understanding of forest composition and distribution of individual species, as well as timely monitoring of changes, is necessary for conservation of these trees. using traditional field work, obtaining this sort of data is time-consuming and labour-intensive. This research investigates classification of very high resolution remote sensing data as a tool for efficient analyses. QuickBird satellite imagery was used to clarify the tree species community in and around Preah Khan temple, to elucidate differences in ecological traits among the three dominant species (Dipterocarpus alatus, Lagerstroemia calyculata and Tetrameles nudiflora, and to identify crowns of the dominant species.

  6. Utilizing remote sensing to supplement ground monitoring of Diorhabda elongata as a control agent for Tamarix ramosissima in Dinosaur National Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archambault, V.; Auch, J.; Landy, J.; Rudy, G.; Seifert, C.; Schmidt, C.; Skiles, J.

    2008-12-01

    The plant Tamarix ramosissima has invaded significant riparian habitat along the Green River in Dinosaur National Monument. Commonly known as salt cedar or tamarisk, it was introduced from Eurasia to the Southwestern United States to prevent soil erosion along riverbanks and as an ornamental plant. It has since come to affect water resources, recreation, wildlife, and ecosystem services. Various methods used to control tamarisk's spread have had moderate success but have drained National Park Service of human and monetary resources. In June 2006, the salt cedar leaf beetle (Diorhabda elongata) was released as a biological control agent within the park to defoliate and ultimately eradicate the invasive species. This study examines the efficacy of using Landsat TM imagery to supplement ground monitoring of the beetle's spread and its effects on tamarisk in Dinosaur National Monument, and discusses the development of a GIS model to predict annual change in tamarisk cover and beetle populations. Through fieldwork, we determined four areas of interest with favorable attributes for satellite detection. A change detection model was created by layering 2005-2008 data and quantifying mean NDVI. Results show that intra-year NDVI trends may be more effective for accurate detection than single-image year-to-year comparisons largely because intra-year environmental variability is significantly smaller. Additionally, our GIS model predicted significant growth of beetle population, implying that defoliation will become more apparent in future years. However, challenges to detecting this defoliation include the year-to-year variability of environmental factors, low spatial resolution of Landsat TM data, low visibility into parts of the Green River canyon, and the spectral mixing of tamarisk and native vegetation.

  7. A new technique to preserve raw materials of ancient monuments against the humidity and its test using 22Na labeled solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, G.L.; Navarrete, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    Erosion caused by external factors such as wind, rain, sunlight and temperature changes is considerable in raw materials used to build pre-hispanic monuments. However, there does exist an internal destruction factor even stronger: the humidity coming from the soil, which goes up by capillarity, depositing soluble salts on the walls surface. Therefore, one way to find some figure related to the specific capillarity or porosity shown by each raw material, is to obtain small prism-shaped pieces cut out from the large debris fallen down spontaneously from ancient walls due to internal humidity. Once these small samples are placed in contact with a 22 Na labeled solution during a given time, at the same geometrical conditions, dried overnight, conditioned either in test tubes or wrapped into polyethylene and detected in a well type 3' x 3' scintillation detector, the counts accumulated per time and weight units are a measure of the relative porosity shown by each material. In order to pull down this porosity, the samples are impregnated with a gelatin solution (50 g/l) at 60-80 deg C plus food preservatives such as potassium sorbate (2.5%) and sodium benzoate (2.5%). When gelatin begins to be formed 3 hours later and the samples look humid and brilliant, they are impregnated with formaldehyde solution (38%), and their absorption rate is dramatically reduced overnight (75-100%), which can be proven when samples are tested by making use of the 22 Na labeled solution. This technique has been applied at real scale in some pre-hispanic monuments. Ancient raw materials seems to be much more compact and well preserved during one limited period of time (10 to 13 months). Treatment is unnoticeable and reversible, and it may be applied periodically. (author)

  8. Remedial Action Plan for the codisposal and stabilization of the Monument Valley and Mexican Hat uranium mill tailings at Mexican Hat, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-02-01

    This document is a revision of the original Mexiacan Hat Remedial Action Plan (RAP) and RAP Modification submitted in July 1988 and January 1989, respectively, along with updated design documents. This RAP has been developed to serve a two-fold purpose. It presents the activities proposed by the Department of Energy (DOE) to accomplish long-term stabilization and control of the residual radioactive materials (RRM) from Monument Valley, Arizona, and Mexican Hat, Utah, at the Mexican Hat disposal site. It also serves to document the concurrence of both the Navajo Nation and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in the remedial action. This agreement, upon execution by DOE and the Navajo Nation and concurrence by the NRC, becomes Appendix B of the Cooperative Agreement. This document has been structured to provide a comprehensive understanding of the remedial action proposed for the Monument Valley and Mexican Hat sites. It includes specific design and construction requirements for the remedial action. Pertinent information and data are included with reference given to the supporting documents. Section 2.0 presents the EPA standards, including a discussion of their objectives. Section 3. 0 summarizes the present site characteristics and provides a definition of site-specific problems. Section 4.0 is the site design for the proposed action. Section 5.0 presents the water resources protection strategy. Section 6.0 summarizes the plan for ensuring health and safety protection for the surrounding community and the on- site workers. Section 7.0 lists the responsibilities of the project participants. Section 8.0 describes the features of the long-term surveillance and maintenance plan

  9. Sugaring marble in the Monumental Cemetery in Bologna (Italy): characterization of naturally and artificially weathered samples and first results of consolidation by hydroxyapatite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassoni, Enrico; Franzoni, Elisa

    2014-12-01

    The so-called sugaring of marble is a very common degradation phenomenon, affecting both historical monuments and modern buildings, which is originated by environmental temperature fluctuations. Thermal cycles are indeed responsible for micro-cracks formation at the boundaries between calcite grains, so that marble is subjected to granular disintegration and can be reduced to a sugar-like powder of isolated calcite grains by just the pressure of a finger. Since no effective, compatible and durable treatment for sugaring marble consolidation is currently available, in this paper a novel consolidating treatment recently proposed for limestone, based on the formation of hydroxyapatite inside the stone, was investigated for weathered marble. To test the new treatment on suitably decayed marble samples, some naturally sugaring marbles from the Monumental Cemetery in Bologna (Italy, nineteenth century) were firstly characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) and ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) measurement. Then, artificially weathered samples were produced by heating fresh Carrara marble samples at 400 °C for 1 h. The effects of artificial weathering were characterized using the same techniques as above, and a very good agreement was found between microstructure and mechanical features of naturally and artificially weathered samples. Then, the hydroxyapatite-based treatment was tested on the so-obtained artificially weathered samples, and the treatment effects were characterized by UPV, MIP and SEM equipped with energy dispersive spectrometry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The hydroxyapatite-based treatment exhibited a remarkable ability of restoring marble cohesion and a good compatibility in terms of modifications in pore size distribution, which leads to regard this treatment as a very promising consolidant for weathered marble.

  10. River flow and riparian vegetation dynamics - implications for management of the Yampa River through Dinosaur National Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Michael L; Friedman, Jonathan M.

    2018-01-01

    This report addresses the relation between flow of the Yampa River and occurrence of herbaceous and woody riparian vegetation in Dinosaur National Monument (DINO) with the goal of informing management decisions related to potential future water development. The Yampa River in DINO flows through diverse valley settings, from the relatively broad restricted meanders of Deerlodge Park to narrower canyons, including debris fan-affected reaches in the upper Yampa Canyon and entrenched meanders in Harding Hole and Laddie Park. Analysis of occurrence of all plant species measured in 1470 quadrats by multiple authors over the last 24 years shows that riparian vegetation along the Yampa River is strongly related to valley setting and geomorphic surfaces, defined here as active channel, active floodplain, inactive floodplain, and upland. Principal Coordinates Ordination arrayed quadrats and species along gradients of overall cover and moisture availability, from upland and inactive floodplain quadrats and associated xeric species like western wheat grass (Pascopyrum smithii), cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum), and saltgrass (Distichlis spicata) to active channel and active floodplain quadrats supporting more mesic species including sandbar willow (Salix exigua), wild licorice (Glycyrrhiza lepidota), and cordgrass (Spartina spp.). Indicator species analysis identified plants strongly correlated with geomorphic surfaces. These species indicate state changes in geomorphic surfaces, such as the conversion of active channel to floodplain during channel narrowing. The dominant woody riparian species along the Yampa River are invasive tamarisk (Tamarix ramosissima), and native Fremont cottonwood (Populus deltoides ssp. wislizenii), box elder (Acer negundo L. var. interius), and sandbar willow (Salix exigua). These species differ in tolerance of drought, salinity, inundation, flood disturbance and shade, and in seed size, timing of seed dispersal and ability to form root sprouts. These

  11. Oceanographic data and ROV dive-related multimedia and information collected during the EX1504L4 Campaign to Address Pacific monument Science, Technology, and Ocean NEeds (CAPSTONE) Leg IV on NOAA Ship OKEANOS EXPLORER in the North Pacific Ocean from 2015-09-07 to 2015-09-30 (NCEI Accession 0131887)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains oceanographic data collected in the deep waters in and around Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument (PMNM) in the Northwestern Hawaiian...

  12. "Through Minos blocks escape by sea and land / the unconfined skies remain …": The Icarus Figure on the Sepulchral Monuments of Noricum and Pannonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Šmid

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The motif of Icarus is richly represented in small objects, such as gems and cameos, as well as in wall paintings, but appears only rarely in stone sculpture. As pointed out by Arnold Schober, it has achieved its greatest popularity in Noricum and especially in Pannonia: outside these provinces, a larger number is represented only in Regio X Venetia et Histria. Icarus is accompanied by Daedalus or one of the Parcae, who is attaching wings to his arms. The majority of the statuettes shows Icarus standing, naked or draped only in a chlamys, with large wings attached to his shoulders. Since the Roman Empire has so few representations of the young hero just before or during the fight, Schober has labelled this motif as a special feature of Norico-Pannonian sepulchral monuments. Most of the statuettes were found in the territory of a Roman necropolis, and they apparently belonged to the decoration of the sepulchral monuments. They usually served as the acroteria of the tympanums of the aedicule tomb, which is confirmed by their more or less rudimentary workmanship and in some cases by a pair of holes in the plinth. Icarus was also one of the rare mythological motifs depicted on the sepulchral monuments of the eastern part of Gallia Cisalpina, where it doubtlessly decorated the acroterium. Statues were found in the necropolises of Aquileia and Altinum. All date to the Julio-Claudian era and resemble those from Noricum and Pannonia. The theme probably came to the Danubian provinces with a time delay through well-established merchant connections. The high-quality fragment from Flavia Solva shows sitting on Icarus’ left side a naked woman, usually interpreted as one of the Parcae, who is securing his wings. In this position she replaces Daedalus, who is sculpted beside Icarus especially from the 5th  century BC onward. She might be an allusion to Icarus’ premature death. An almost identical composition is found in a wall painting from Echzell

  13. The monuments of the UNESCO List under threat in the 21rst century: the Project "MONUNESCO-PARIS" (2012-2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menendez, B.; Brimblecombe, P.; Deque, M.; Grossi, C. M.; Ionescu, A.; Lefevre, R. A.

    2012-04-01

    The banks of the River Seine in Paris are inscribed on the UNESCO List of the World Cultural Heritage since 1991 because they are studded with a succession of masterpieces such as Notre- Dame Cathedral, Sainte Chapelle, Louvre, Place de la Concorde, Tour Eiffel, and with prestigious museums: Louvre, Orsay, Quai Branly, Petit Palais…Unfortunately, these banks are crossed by the Pompidou urban motorway, an important and continuous source of atmospheric pollution. The aim of the Project is to evaluate the evolution of the weathering of limestone, glass and stained glass in the centre of Paris in the 21rst century by crossing Climate and Pollution Models with Dose-Response Functions (DRF) for limestone, glass and stained glass and with Climatology of Salt Transitions for limestone. A Lutetian limestone (« Courville Stone ») has been used for the construction and the restoration of the most important monuments (Notre-Dame, Louvre…) and haussmannian buildings in Paris. It has a fine grain, a medium porosity (19%) and contains 90% of CaO. The modern glass of windows and large contemporaneous façades has a Si-Ca-Na composition, it is chemically inert, has a low thermal inertia, a flat surface, no open porosity and no surface roughness, therefore it is very durable. The glass of stained glass windows has a Si-Ca-K composition and it is low durable. Using different climate and pollution scenarios of the 21rst century, the project will evaluate different schemes of material degradations: (i) - Recession of limestone surface; (ii) - Soiling of limestone surface; (iii) - Soiling of modern glass; (iv) - Leaching of ancient stained glass windows; (v) - Deterioration of limestone by salts. The British Hadley Models, the French Météo- France Arpège-Aladin Models and the ENSEMBLES Approach will be crossed with DRF and Climatology of Salts Transitions. An in-the-field inventory (stock at risk) of the surface occupied on the façades by each kind of material (stone

  14. Assessment of metal and trace element contamination in water, sediment, plants, macroinvertebrates, and fish in Tavasci Marsh, Tuzigoot National Monument, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beisner, Kimberly R.; Paretti, Nicholas V.; Brasher, Anne M.D.; Fuller, Christopher C.; Miller, Matthew P.

    2014-01-01

    Tavasci Marsh is a large freshwater marsh within the Tuzigoot National Monument in central Arizona. It is the largest freshwater marsh in Arizona that is unconnected to the Colorado River and is designated as an Important Bird Area by the Audubon Society. The marsh has been altered significantly by previous land use and the monument’s managers are evaluating the restoration of the marsh. In light of historical mining activities located near the marsh from the first half of the 20th century, evaluations of water, sediment, plant, and aquatic biota in the marsh were conducted. The evaluations were focused on nine metals and trace elements commonly associated with mining and other anthropogenic activities (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Se, and Zn) together with isotopic analyses to understand the presence, sources and timing of water and sediment contaminants to the marsh and the occurrence in aquatic plants, dragonfly larvae, and fish. Results of water analyses indicate that there were two distinct sources of water contributing to the marsh during the study: one from older high elevation recharge entering the marsh at Shea Spring (as well as a number of unnamed seeps and springs on the northeastern edge of the marsh) and the other from younger low elevation recharge or from Pecks Lake. Water concentrations for arsenic exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency primary drinking water standard of 10 μg/L at all sampling sites. Surface waters at Tavasci Marsh may contain conditions favorable for methylmercury production. All surficial and core sediment samples exceeded or were within sample concentration variability of at least one threshold sediment quality guideline for As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn. Several sediment sites were also above or were within sample concentration variability of severe or probable effect sediment quality guidelines for As, Cd, and Cu. Three sediment cores collected in the marsh have greater metal and trace element concentrations

  15. La presa y el ninfeo del Sotillo (Alfaro, La Rioja: un conjunto monumental en la vía De Italia in Hispanias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio HERNÁNDEZ VERA

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Se estudian los restos de una construcción romana localizada junto al río Alhama, en las inmediaciones de la ciudad de Graccurris (Alfaro, La Rioja. La obra fue expoliada ya en época antigua, por lo que apareció incompleta, con buena parte de los materiales arquitectónicos que formaban parte de ella desplazados de su posición original. Los restos en mejor estado de conservación corresponden a una presa construida con grandes sillares de arenisca. A partir de los materiales arquitectónicos aislados respetados por el expolio, se puede restituir un gran conjunto monumental que, además de la presa, contaba con una fuente o ninfeo y un pequeño templo. Se documenta el paso por el sitio de la vía De Italia in Hispanias, ya que apareció también un miliario de Augusto. Tras ser expoliada, la obra fue definitivamente sepultada por un potente estrato de aluvión aportado por una crecida del Alhama. En este estrato la excavación proporcionó material cerámico romano, sin restos de épocas posteriores, lo que permite datar esta inundación hacia finales del siglo II.ABSTRACT: A study is made of Román remains located beside the Alhama River near the city of Gracurris (Alfaro, La Rioja. The site had already been plundered in ancient times so it was incomplete when uncovered, and a large number of the architectural materials had been moved from their original positions. The remains that are in the best state of preservation are those of a dam built of large sandstone blocks. A large monumental group can be restored from the isolated architectural materials left that were not plundered, including a nymphaeum and a small temple, in addition to the dam. It can also be shown that the Román road De Italia in Hispanias went through this site, since an Augustan milestone has also been found. After having been plundered, the site was completely buried by a layer of alluvium brought by a rise in the Alhama River. Román ceramic materials were

  16. Staryi Krym and Its Monuments through the Eyes of the Travelers of the late 18th – early 19th centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khrapunov N.I.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Research objective: This article addresses the accounts on Staryi Krym, a town in the Crimean Peninsula, supplied by travelogues written after the joining of the region to Russia. Research materials: Modern archaeolgoists can use these textual and visual accounts as a source of information on the condition of Moslem monuments, which were later damaged by anthropogenic and natural factors, and science historians can draw conclusions on the features of discoverying and interpretation of Moslem history and “Oriental” architecture in the period of the Enlightenment. The travelogues developed a multi-dimensional image of Staryi Krym. Abandoned and collapsing Moslem town, a living illustration from the outgoing age, with still standing ancient mosques, baths, fortifications, and graves, got virtual connections with classic past of the Crimea, finding itself to be a “heir” of one or another settlement documented by Greco-Roman geographers. Research results and novelty: Through the travellers’ eyes, Staryi Krym, by images of the Cimmerians and the Cimbrians, got a key role in the history of Crimean Peninsula, and even supplied it with the name of Crimea, which connected the “noble barbarians” of antiquity with the “modern Celts” – the Frenchs and the Scots, and the Past of Europe with its Present. Staryi Krym became a component of literatural discourse, allowing the classics of the Sentimentalism to think of the frailty of earthly life. This town also became a subject of painting, which made it a part of romantic appearance of Taurica.

  17. O monumental e o íntimo: dimensões da memória da resistência no documentário brasileiro recente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Seliprandy Fernandes

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Propõe-se um exercício acerca da memória da resistência à ditadura no documentarismo brasileiro contemporâneo. Monumentalização e intimidade são as noções guias das análises de Hércules 56 (Silvio Da-Rin, 2006 e Diário de uma busca (Flavia Castro, 2010. No caso do primeiro filme, sugere-se que os cânones do documentário de entrevista, primando pela coesão, estabelecem uma memória monumental e conciliadora. Quanto ao segundo filme, sustenta-se que a perspectiva íntima, plena de hesitações, pode sinalizar a permanência de lacunas na conciliação democrática brasileira. O contraste entre memória celebrativa e memória introspectiva ressalta a necessidade de crítica da impunidade presente.

  18. Study of material stability surrounding with loess-clay-loam rocks on an example of 'Olviya' monument of Ukrainian Northern Prichernomor'ya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zlobenko, B.; Kadoshnikov, V.; Manichev, V.; Demchenko, L.; Golovko, T.; Krapivina, V.

    2000-01-01

    In this work we have examined the archaeological material exhumed from the archaeology monument Olviya. The ancient State Olviya is situated on the territory of Ukraine (Nikolaev region) and it is considered to be an integral part of the world historical legacy. The samples of glasses were collected from P-25 excavation. The collected glasses and metals dated by I-II centuries of our era. They are situated in the south-east part of the Upper State on the territory of the Rome times. Study with the facilitation of physical-chemical and physical methods of research of chemical structure and surface layers of materials. The various physical methods of samples investigation were the following: investigation with half-quantitative spectral analysis performed on spectrograph (CTE-1); X-ray powder diffraction with DRON-UM-1 diffractometers use, X-ray fluorescent analysis (spectrometer VPA-30) and the x-ray microanalysis (JXA-5). Carried out microscopic researches have revealed the specific forms of metals and glasses; corrosion and dissolution of the surface that character is determined by structure and physic-chemical conditions of its burial place. (authors)

  19. Evaluation of the potential for debris and hyperconcentrated flows in Capulin Canyon as a result of the 1996 Dome fire, Bandelier National Monument, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Susan H.

    1997-01-01

    The Dome fire of April 1996 burned 6684 ha in Bandelier National Monument and the adjacent Sante Fe National Forest. The potential for significant debris- and hyperconcentrated-flow activity in Capulin Canyon is evaluated through 1) a systematic consideration of geologic and geomorphic factors that characterize the condition of the hillslope materials and channels following the fire, 2) examination of sedimentologic evidence for past debris-flow activity in the canyon, and 3) evaluation of the response of the watershed through the 1996 summer monsoon season. The lack of accumulations of dry-ravel material on the hillslopes or in channels, the absence of a continuous hydrophobic layer, the relatively intact condition of the riparian vegetation and of the fibrous root mat on the hillslopes, and the lack of evidence of widespread past debris- and hyperconcentrated-flow activity, even with evidence of past fires, indicate a low potential for debris-flow activity in Capulin Canyon. In addition, thunderstorms during the summer monsoon of 1996 resulted in abundant surface overland flow on the hillslopes which transported low-density pumice, charcoal, ash and some mineral soil downslope as small-scale and non-erosive debris flows. In some places cobble- and boulder-sized material was moved short distances. A moderate potential for debris- and hyperconcentrated-flow activity is identified for the two major tributary canyons to Capulin Canyon based on evidence of both summer of 1996 and possible historic significant debris-flow activity.

  20. Araneofauna of the Křéby National Nature Monument (Eastern Moravia, Czech Republic with some notes to conservation management of the locality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondřej Košulič

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper makes a faunistic contribution to knowledge of spider composition in the xerothermic habitats of the Křéby National Nature Monument which is located in Kroměříž district, eastern Moravia. Spiders were collected by four different methods during 25 April–28 October 2013: pitfall traps, sweeping of herb vegetation, individual collecting and beating the branches of shrubs and trees. In total, 1070 individuals (865 adult spiders were collected and identified as 114 species of 19 families. The species diversity in the Křéby area is rather high, representing approximately 13% of Czech araneofauna. Of the identified species, five are listed in the Red List of Threatened Species in the Czech Republic. These included critically endangered Dysdera hungarica Kulczynski 1897, endangered Alopecosa solitaria (Herman, 1879, Cheiracanthium montanum (C. L. Koch, 1877 and vulnerable Lathys stigmatisata (Menge, 1869 and Haplodrassus dalmatensis (L. Koch, 1866. The findings of Alopecosa solitaria and Dysdera hungarica belong to the northernmost occurrence of these rare species in the Czech Republic. In general, the great richness of spider fauna and the occurrence of rare and threatened species for Czech region confirm the high biotic value of the investigated area. In addition, the author discussed management methods of the locality and suggest management conservation system for slowing down the succession rate on overgrown places.

  1. GC/MS in the study of deterioration process of historical monuments: characterization of the black crust formed in the Cathedral of Seville

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes, J.; Hermosin, B.; Saiz J, C.

    2006-01-01

    Here, we present an interesting application of Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS) technique which permitted to differentiate successfully between natural and anthropogenic compounds present in the black crust formed in the Cathedral of Seville. This building, considered as one of the most important historic and cultural European monuments suffers from intense blackening of its outside walls and sculptures due to the interaction with the urban environment. Fragment of black crusts were removed from the Cathedral walls and extraction process with organic solvents was carried out. The aliphatic, aromatic and polar fractions were separated and analyzed using GC/MS. A complex organic composition of the black crusts indicated the accumulative character of the deposition process of atmospheric particles as a function of the time. The presence of high molecular weight n-alkanes, n-fatty acids and natural molecular markers identified during the study were indicative of current biogenic contributions. It was also found an important group of petrogenic molecular markers related with diesel soot emissions from motor engines. The diesel soot and molecular markers were entrapped within the black crust mineral matrix and contribute to the observed blackening of the Seville Cathedral. (Author)

  2. POLICY EVALUATION OF RESTRUCTURING STREET VENDORS IN SURAKARTA CITY (Study of Street Vendors in Monument Park Banjarsari and Street Vendors in Manahan Stadium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frahlevi Prajasari

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the policy evaluation of restructuring street vendors in Surakarta city. Street vendors represent the economic actors in the informal sector of urban economic activity. The government of City/District usually removes these street vendors by disguising this activity behind the reason of structuring, . The study used descriptive research with a qualitative approach. The relocation of street vendors in Surakarta City is orderly and smooth without violence which may impact badly on physic and material because the government of Surakarta City, especially Surakarta Mayor, uses persuasive approach. Notoharjo Market is a relocation place for street vendors at Banjarsari Monument Park. In the beginning, Notoharjo Market is crowded with buyers but current days, street vendors who occupy Notoharjo Market complain about lack of buyers. The lack of buyers at Notoharjo Market is because the facilities previously provided by the government of Surakarta City are not well maintained. The government of Surakarta City must listening all complains of street vendors for the smoothness and orderliness of trading activity of street vendors. Not only listening, but the government of Surakarta City also gives appropriate and best solution to street vendors such that street vendors feel comfort in selling and their income is better than before.

  3. A novel painted monument. Byzantine Art between Aesthetic Redefining and Dogmatic Perennity. The church Saint John the Baptist of Bârnova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihail M. Gheaţău

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Being remarkable through the monumentality and elegance of proportions, the architecture of the Church “Saint John the Baptist” from Bârnova derives from the so-called old Wallachian style, skillfully reshaping a structure which combines elements which are specific to Byzantine Balkanic ecclesiastical buildings. The unseen pictural work of Ștefan Constantinescu is characterized by the attempt to associate the results of experiencing freedom of interpretation and expression with the rules of the iconographic canon, inside the same ensemble. Its representations do not reproduce the traditional Byzantine manner, nor it is delivered as a form of quoting reality, but it is filtered and interpreted. From a theological point of view, the author respects the iconographic program, except for the topographic placement of some episodes, adapting the discourse according to the configuration and features of the liturgical space. We are in front of a case which places us in the position of managing the relationship between the value of artistic creation and the meticulosity of theological involvement. Neither Byzantine, nor realistic, the artistic solution of the mural painting from Bârnova is closer to the manner of iconic transfiguration than to the one of improvisation or artistic intermediation through which the daily tridimensional world is reflected.

  4. Preliminary assessment, by means of Radon exhalation rate measurements, of the bio-sustainability of microwave treatment to eliminate biodeteriogens infesting stone walls of monumental historical buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, S.; Caliendo, E.; Guida, M.; Bisceglia, B.

    2017-10-01

    The main purpose of the work described in this paper has been to establish the protocol for a new non-disruptive technique of intervention, based on microwave treatment, for cleaning operations on monumental historical buildings, to eliminate biodeteriogens infesting stones. Non-destructive methods in the cleaning operations, should not only preserve the physical integrity, the chemical-mineralogical and structural identity of materials, but, when the exhalation of pollutant agents (like for example Radon gas) from building materials is considered, also, make the indoor air quality (IAQ) levels healthy. Therefore, one of the main steps of the protocol proposed in this paper is concerned with the assessment of the Radon exhalation rate in order to verify that microwave treatments do not increase the Radon naturally exhalated by building materials. In this paper, the preliminary results of the Radon measurements performed on two different type of tuff samples (grey tuff and yellow tuff), typical of the Italian traditional construction heritage, with the E-PERM passive technique at the Environmental Radioactivity Laboratory (Amb.Ra.), University of Salerno, Italy, ISO 9001:2008 certified, are summarized.

  5. Characterization of water quality and suspended sediment during cold-season flows, warm-season flows, and stormflows in the Fountain and Monument Creek watersheds, Colorado, 2007–2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Lisa D.; Stogner, Sr., Robert W.

    2017-09-01

    From 2007 through 2015, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Colorado Springs City Engineering, conducted a study in the Fountain and Monument Creek watersheds, Colorado, to characterize surface-water quality and suspended-sediment conditions for three different streamflow regimes with an emphasis on characterizing water quality during storm runoff. Data collected during this study were used to evaluate the effects of stormflows and wastewater-treatment effluent discharge on Fountain and Monument Creeks in the Colorado Springs, Colorado, area. Water-quality samples were collected at 2 sites on Upper Fountain Creek, 2 sites on Monument Creek, 3 sites on Lower Fountain Creek, and 13 tributary sites during 3 flow regimes: cold-season flow (November–April), warm-season flow (May–October), and stormflow from 2007 through 2015. During 2015, additional samples were collected and analyzed for Escherichia coli (E. coli) during dry weather conditions at 41 sites, located in E. coli impaired stream reaches, to help identify source areas and scope of the impairment.Concentrations of E. coli, total arsenic, and dissolved copper, selenium, and zinc in surface-water samples were compared to Colorado in-stream standards. Stormflow concentrations of E. coli frequently exceeded the recreational use standard of 126 colonies per 100 milliliters at main-stem and tributary sites by more than an order of magnitude. Even though median E. coli concentrations in warm-season flow samples were lower than median concentrations in storm-flow samples, the water quality standard for E. coli was still exceeded at most main-stem sites and many tributary sites during warm-season flows. Six samples (three warm-season flow and three stormflow samples) collected from Upper Fountain Creek, upstream from the confluence of Monument Creek, and two stormflow samples collected from Lower Fountain Creek, downstream from the confluence with Monument Creek, exceeded the acute water

  6. Peyzaj Mimarlığında Heykel Kullanımı: Trabzon Kenti Örneği / Monument Usage in Landscape Architecture: Example of Trabzon City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuğba Düzenli

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Monuments play a key role in the formation of a common memory and community consciousness by symbolizing important events or situations in the lives of people and societies and establish diverse dialogues with their surroundings in this context. The monument-art works to be placed in open spaces are important in terms of shaping social life and fulfill functions such as warning and activating society. For this reason, the use of monuments in open spaces is a matter for landscape architects to explore. The aim of the study is to determine the purposes and functions of monuments in urban open spaces. In this context, monuments in the city center of Trabzon are photographed and their usage types are classified. As a result, the monuments in urban open spaces in Trabzon are mostly composed of Atatürk and the persons in the history of the city (Kanuni Sultan Süleyman, Yavuz Sultan Selim, Mimar Sinan Etc. And secondly the figures and events reflecting the culture of the city (horon/dancing figures, kamancha playing figures, anchovy, Trabzonspor etc. Finally, it is seen that the expressions (military, martyr, etc. reflect the national spirit. So in the monuments; it has been determined that the historical, cultural and social characteristics of the city are gaining more importance.   Öz Toplum ve bireylerin yaşamında yer alan önemli olayları simgeleyen, ortak toplumsal bilinç ve hafıza oluşturan heykeller çevreleriyle ilişki kurarlar. Açık mekanlarda yeralan heykeller, toplumun yaşantısında, sanatsal, estetik, kültürel öneme sahiptir. Bu nedenle heykellerin açık alanlardaki kullanım amaçları peyzaj mimarları için araştırılması gereken bir konudur. Çalışmada amaç kentsel açık mekanlardaki heykellerin kullanım amaçlarını belirlemektir. Bu bağlamda Trabzon kent merkezideki heykeller fotoğraflanarak kullanım türleri sınıflandırılmıştır. Sonuçta Trabzon’da kentsel açık mekanlardaki

  7. Monitoring and research to describe geomorphic effects of the 2011 controlled flood on the Green River in the Canyon of Lodore, Dinosaur National Monument, Colorado and Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Erich R.; Grams, Paul E.; Schmidt, John C.; Hazel, Joseph E.; Kaplinski, Matt; Alexander, Jason A.; Kohl, Keith

    2014-01-01

    In 2011, a large magnitude flow release from Flaming Gorge Reservoir, Wyoming and Utah, occurred in response to high snowpack in the middle Rocky Mountains. This was the third highest recorded discharge along the Green River downstream of Flaming Gorge Dam, Utah, since its initial closure in November 1962 and motivated a research effort to document effects of these flows on channel morphology and sedimentology at four long-term monitoring sites within the Canyon of Lodore in Dinosaur National Monument, Colorado and Utah. Data collected in September 2011 included raft-based bathymetric surveys, ground-based surveys of banks, channel cross sections and vegetation-plot locations, sand-bar stratigraphy, and painted rock recovery on gravel bars. As part of this surveying effort, Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) data were collected at benchmarks on the canyon rim and along the river corridor to establish a high-resolution survey control network. This survey control network allows for the collection of repeatable spatial and elevation data necessary for high accuracy geomorphic change detection. Nearly 10,000 ground survey points and more than 20,000 bathymetric points (at 1-meter resolution) were collected over a 5-day field campaign, allowing for the construction of reach-scale digital elevation models (DEMs). Additionally, we evaluated long-term geomorphic change at these sites using repeat topographic surveys of eight monumented cross sections at each of the four sites. Analysis of DEMs and channel cross sections show a spatially variable pattern of erosion and deposition, both within and between reaches. As much as 5 meters of scour occurred in pools downstream from flow constrictions, especially in channel segments where gravel bars were absent. By contrast, some channel cross sections were stable during the 2011 floods, and have shown almost no change in over a decade of monitoring. Partial mobility of gravel bars occurred, and although in some locations

  8. Provenance of granites used to build the Santa Maria de Valdeiglesias Monastery, Pelayos de la Presa (Madrid, Spain), and conservation state of the monumental complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fort, R.; Alvarez de Buergo, M.; Vazquez-Calvo, C.; Perez-Monserrat, E. M.; Varas-Muriel, M. J.; Lopez-Arce, P.

    2012-04-01

    The construction of the Cistercian Monastery began at 1180, in an initial Late Romanesque style in which the Church was erected; later on, in 1258, the church underwent a severe fire, only the apse stood standing. The church was reconstructed at the end of the 13th century in Mudejar style. Gothic style was used later on, in the 16th century, for the reconstruction of the funerary chapel, and Renaissance style for the Plateresque door in between the church and the sacristy. At the end of the 16th century, the main door to access the church was built in Baroque style. In 1836, the Ecclesiastical Confiscations resulted on transfer the Monastery into particular owners. This fact favoured its abandon and ruin state until 1979, when architect Mariano Garcia Benito purchased the property and started the conservation and consolidation of the complex, beginning with the Bell Tower. Natural stone materials used in the Monastery are igneous (granite) and metamorphic rocks (gneiss and schist), and artificial stone materials are bricks and mortars, both joint and rendering ones. Granite is the most abundant material used in the complex, with a structural/reinforcing role in elements such as lintels, jambs, buttresses, or bottom areas of the walls with greater sizes and better dimensioned. Some pillars are granite built, from the large ashlars of the sacristy, to the rubble-work of the Mozarab chapel. Two types of monzogranite can be differentiated in relation to distinct constructive stages: the coarse texture monzogranite is used in the first building stages, while the fine texture monzogranite was employed mainly from 17th century on. Petrophysical characteristics of these granites are different but show a good quality to be used in construction. Nevertheless, the abandon and partial ruin of the complex, the devastating fire events (the second one in 1743) leaded to the decay acceleration of the monumental complex, being nowadays the church in ruin, with no roofs and walls

  9. Ceremonial dress of the Achaemenid nobility of the VI– V centuries BC (according to findings from the fifth Pazyryk kurgan and synchronous iconic monuments of the Achaemenid time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsareva E.G.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article represents the results of study of a unique composite horse trapping and breast belt, found by expedition of S.I. Rudenko in the 5th Pazyryk kurgan (Mountain Altai, mid. 3rd century BC, and initially attributed as Iranian. The research has been aimed at definition the place and time of creation of three fragmented ornamented textiles, which decorated the trapping and the belt; as well as their original usage and way of coming to the Altai. To achieve the goal the author carefully studied the structures of items under research. The one with purple ground and “tower’s” pattern, which covers the ends of felt foundation of the trapping, is woven with wool and linen Z-spun threads, in warp sharing “kilim” technique, “dove tail” variant. The cloth is identified as Syrian, supposedly the time of reign of Darius I. Two other ones, with “lion procession” pattern (breast belt and “priestess and maidservant in front of an incense burner” (framing of panels was also made from wool and linen, although of different quality and S-spinning, in slit-kilim technique. Both are identified as Egyptian, and dated (most probably to the XXVII (Persian dynasty period. Comparison with representations of similar in decor textiles from synchronous in time monuments, and study of historic data on textile industry of the Achaemenid Empire made it possible to suggest, that “purple kilim” and “lion procession” belt made parts of ceremonial dress of Achaemenid nobility. The cloak could be brought to the Altai by one of the “Scythians”, who got it as a reward when served in the army of Alexander the Great during his Asian campaign.

  10. Soil Sampling to Demonstrate Compliance with Department of Energy Radiological Clearance Requirements for the ALE Unit of the Hanford Reach National Monument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritz, Brad G.; Dirkes, Roger L.; Napier, Bruce A.

    2007-04-01

    The Hanford Reach National Monument consists of several units, one of which is the Fitzner/Eberhardt Arid Lands Ecology Reserve (ALE) Unit. This unit is approximately 311 km2 of shrub-steppe habitat located to the south and west of Highway 240. To fulfill internal U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) requirements prior to any radiological clearance of land, DOE must evaluate the potential for residual radioactive contamination on this land and determine compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 5400.5. Historical soil monitoring conducted on ALE indicated soil concentrations of radionuclides were well below the Authorized Limits. However, the historical sampling was done at a limited number of sampling locations. Therefore, additional soil sampling was conducted to determine if the concentrations of radionuclides in soil on the ALE Unit were below the Authorized Limits. This report contains the results of 50 additional soil samples. The 50 soil samples collected from the ALE Unit all had concentrations of radionuclides far below the Authorized Limits. The average concentrations for all detectable radionuclides were less than the estimated Hanford Site background. Furthermore, the maximum observed soil concentrations for the radionuclides included in the Authorized Limits would result in a potential annual dose of 0.14 mrem assuming the most probable use scenario, a recreational visitor. This potential dose is well below the DOE 100-mrem per year dose limit for a member of the public. Spatial analysis of the results indicated no observable statistically significant differences between radionuclide concentrations across the ALE Unit. Furthermore, the results of the biota dose assessment screen, which used the ResRad Biota code, indicated that the concentrations of radionuclides in ALE Unit soil pose no significant health risk to biota.

  11. Mass coral bleaching due to unprecedented marine heatwave in Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument (Northwestern Hawaiian Islands).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couch, Courtney S; Burns, John H R; Liu, Gang; Steward, Kanoelani; Gutlay, Tiffany Nicole; Kenyon, Jean; Eakin, C Mark; Kosaki, Randall K

    2017-01-01

    2014 marked the sixth and most widespread mass bleaching event reported in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, home to the Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument (PMNM), the world's second largest marine reserve. This event was associated with an unusual basin-scale warming in the North Pacific Ocean, with an unprecedented peak intensity of around 20°C-weeks of cumulative heat stress at Lisianksi Island. In situ bleaching surveys and satellite data were used to evaluate the relative importance of potential drivers of bleaching patterns in 2014, assess the subsequent morality and its effects on coral communities and 3D complexity, test for signs of regional acclimation, and investigate long-term change in heat stress in PMNM. Surveys conducted at four island/atoll (French Frigate Shoals, Lisianski Island, Pearl and Hermes Atoll, and Midway Atoll) showed that in 2014, percent bleaching varied considerably between islands/atolls and habitats (back reef/fore reef and depth), and was up to 91% in shallow habitats at Lisianski. The percent bleaching during the 2014 event was best explained by a combination of duration of heat stress measured by Coral Reef Watch's satellite Degree Heating Week, relative community susceptibility (bleaching susceptibility score of each taxon * the taxon's abundance relative to the total number of colonies), depth and region. Mean coral cover at permanent Lisianski monitoring sites decreased by 68% due to severe losses of Montipora dilatata complex, resulting in rapid reductions in habitat complexity. Spatial distribution of the 2014 bleaching was significantly different from the 2002 and 2004 bleaching events likely due to a combination of differences in heat stress and local acclimatization. Historical satellite data demonstrated heat stress in 2014 was unlike any previous event and that the exposure of corals to the bleaching-level heat stress has increased significantly in the northern PMNM since 1982, highlighting the increasing

  12. Hi-tech restoration by two steps biocleaning process of Triumph of Death fresco at the Camposanto Monumental Cemetery (Pisa, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranalli, Giancarlo; Zanardini, Elisabetta; Andreotti, Alessia; Colombini, Maria Perla; Corti, Cristina; Bosch-Roig, Pilar; De Nuntiis, Paola; Lustrato, Giuseppe; Mandrioli, Paolo; Rampazzi, Laura; Giantomassi, Carlo; Zari, Donatella

    2018-05-13

    In this work, the "hi-tech" complex biocleaning and restoration of the 14th-century fresco Triumph of Death (5.6x15.0 m) at the Camposanto Monumental Cemetery (Pisa, Italy) is reported. Since 2000, the restoration based on the biological cleaning of noble medieval frescoes, has been successfully utilized in this site. The novelty of this study is the 2-steps biocleaning process using Pseudomonas stutzeri A29 viable cells, previously applied for recovering other valuable frescoes. In this case, after the fresco detachment from the asbestos-cement support (eternity), both the animal glue and the residues of calcium caseinate were biologically removed respectively from the front and from the back of the fresco in 3 hours as indicated by GC-MS and PY/GC-MS analyses. The data obtained during the monitoring of the bio-restoration process confirmed that the adopted procedure does not leave residual cells on the fresco surfaces as showed by plate count method, ATP determination and also SEM observation. In addition, to avoid the risk of condensation phenomena after the relocation of the restored fresco sections onto the original walls, the use of a new support has been set up together with the design of a control system that allows a continuous monitoring of environmental parameters for prevention and conservation purposes. This large-scale biorestoration work clearly shows and confirms that this biotechnology is highly efficient, safe, non-invasive, risk-free and very competitive compared to the traditional cleaning methods, offering an unusual "resurrection" of the degraded artworks also in very complicated and delicate conditions such as the Triumph of Death fresco, defined for its dimension and artistic importance the 'Pisa's Sistina frescoes'. These findings can be of significant importance for other future new restoration activities and they are crucial for determining preservation strategies in this field. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved

  13. Integrated Techniques for Analysis and Monitoring of Historical Monuments: the case of S.Giovanni al Sepolcro in Brindisi (Southern Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calia, A.; Giannotta, M. T.; Masini, N.; Quarta, G.; Persico, R.

    2009-04-01

    Non destructive testing has been gaining a large interest in the field of the diagnostics applied to the cultural heritage. The exceptional and brittle nature of the investigated structures, in fact, discourages invasive investigation techniques even more than in other applications. In particular, non-destructive testing can be exploited for the detection of fractures or for the investigation of pillars and columns within churches of particular historical and/or architectural relevance. This has been recently done in the cathedral of Matera [1], and previously in the crypt of the Romanesque cathedral of Otranto [2]. In both cases, integrated prospecting has been performed, where GPR data have been considered together with acoustic sounding or resistive measurements and even microclimatic investigation. Integrated prospecting is a good help to perform not only the diagnosis of the structure but also its restoring and continuative preservation. In this contribution, we propose a case study where integrated methodologies have been adopted for the analysis of the conservation state of the architectural elements which constitute the church of S.Giovanni al Sepolcro, in Brindisi (Southern Italy). This church is a precious artifact of medieval age, which recently underwent restoration works. IBAM-CNR has been put in charge of the task to analyse the constitutive materials, the superficial finishing (paintings, patinas, plasters etc.) and the causes and the products of the decay. The information retrieved from the analysis of the materials have been fruitfully integrated with non-destructive testing of the structure. Some results will be shown at the conference. References [1] N. Masini, R. Persico, A. Guida, A. Pagliuca, "A Multifrequency and Multisensor Approach for the Study and the Restoration of Monuments: the Case of the Cathedral of Matera.", Advances in Geoscience, vol. 18, pp. 1-6, 2008. [2] G. Leucci, R. Persico, F. Soldovieri, "Detection of Fracture From GPR

  14. La geografia come monumento. Il progetto di Auguste Perret per Le Havre / Geography as a monument. The Auguste Perret’s project for Le Havre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Nitti

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Nel progetto di Auguste Perret per Le Havre una forma chiaramente compatta ed evocativa dell’urbanità della città storica si definisce a partire dalle relazioni stabilite con quegli elementi della geografia fisica che costituiscono l’identità del luogo nel quale questa si colloca, e costruisce una significativa relazione con gli spazi aperti e vasti della natura, acquisendo in questo modo quella ‘dimensione’ e quei caratteri propri della città contemporanea. Nei suoi spazi collettivi, che rimandano a una cultura dell’abitare che affonda le proprie radici nella più generale storia della città francese, Le Havre rappresenta sé stessa e traduce nella Place de l’Hôtel de Ville le ripide pendici della falesia, nella Porte Océane l’orizzonte lontano dell’Oceano, nel Front-de-mer Sud l’altra riva della foce della Senna, e fa di questi i veri ‘monumenti’ della città. / In the Auguste Perret’s project for Le Havre a clearly compact form, evocative of urbanity of the historical city, is defined starting from the relations established with those elements of physical geography which constitute the identity of the place where the city is located, and builds a significant relationship with the open and vast spaces of nature, thus acquiring the ‘size’ and those features of the contemporary city. In its public spaces, which refer to a culture of inhabiting that is rooted in the more general history of the French city, Le Havre represents itself and translates in the Place de l'Hôtel de Ville, the steep slopes of the cliff, in the Porte Oceane the distant horizon of the ocean, in the Front-de-mer South the other bank of the mouth of the Seine, and defines these as the real 'monuments' of the city.

  15. Electrical Resistivity Tomography and Ground Penetrating Radar for locating buried petrified wood sites: a case study in the natural monument of the Petrified Forest of Evros, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargemezis, George; Diamanti, Nectaria; Tsourlos, Panagiotis; Fikos, Ilias

    2014-05-01

    A geophysical survey was carried out in the Petrified Forest of Evros, the northernmost regional unit of Greece. This collection of petrified wood has an age of approximately 35 million years and it is the oldest in Greece (i.e., older than the well-known Petrified Forest of Lesvos island located in the North Aegean Sea and which is possibly the largest of the petrified forests worldwide). Protection, development and maintenance projects still need to be carried out at the area despite all fears regarding the forest's fate since many petrified logs remain exposed both in weather conditions - leading to erosion - and to the public. This survey was conducted as part of a more extensive framework regarding the development and protection of this natural monument. Geophysical surveying has been chosen as a non-destructive investigation method since the area of application is both a natural ecosystem and part of cultural heritage. Along with electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), ground penetrating radar (GPR) surveys have been carried out for investigating possible locations of buried fossilized tree trunks. The geoelectrical sections derived from ERT data in combination with the GPR profiles provided a broad view of the subsurface. Two and three dimensional subsurface geophysical images of the surveyed area have been constructed, pointing out probable locations of petrified logs. Regarding ERT, petrified trunks have been detected as high resistive bodies, while lower resistivity values were more related to the surrounding geological materials. GPR surveying has also indicated buried petrified log locations. As these two geophysical methods are affected in different ways by the subsurface conditions, the combined use of both techniques enhanced our ability to produce more reliable interpretations of the subsurface. After the completion of the geophysical investigations of this first stage, petrified trunks were revealed after a subsequent excavation at indicated

  16. Mass coral bleaching due to unprecedented marine heatwave in Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument (Northwestern Hawaiian Islands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney S Couch

    Full Text Available 2014 marked the sixth and most widespread mass bleaching event reported in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, home to the Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument (PMNM, the world's second largest marine reserve. This event was associated with an unusual basin-scale warming in the North Pacific Ocean, with an unprecedented peak intensity of around 20°C-weeks of cumulative heat stress at Lisianksi Island. In situ bleaching surveys and satellite data were used to evaluate the relative importance of potential drivers of bleaching patterns in 2014, assess the subsequent morality and its effects on coral communities and 3D complexity, test for signs of regional acclimation, and investigate long-term change in heat stress in PMNM. Surveys conducted at four island/atoll (French Frigate Shoals, Lisianski Island, Pearl and Hermes Atoll, and Midway Atoll showed that in 2014, percent bleaching varied considerably between islands/atolls and habitats (back reef/fore reef and depth, and was up to 91% in shallow habitats at Lisianski. The percent bleaching during the 2014 event was best explained by a combination of duration of heat stress measured by Coral Reef Watch's satellite Degree Heating Week, relative community susceptibility (bleaching susceptibility score of each taxon * the taxon's abundance relative to the total number of colonies, depth and region. Mean coral cover at permanent Lisianski monitoring sites decreased by 68% due to severe losses of Montipora dilatata complex, resulting in rapid reductions in habitat complexity. Spatial distribution of the 2014 bleaching was significantly different from the 2002 and 2004 bleaching events likely due to a combination of differences in heat stress and local acclimatization. Historical satellite data demonstrated heat stress in 2014 was unlike any previous event and that the exposure of corals to the bleaching-level heat stress has increased significantly in the northern PMNM since 1982, highlighting

  17. Plan de mejora de la periferia de Terrassa: el caso del conjunto monumental de las iglesias de Sant Pere y su integración en el núcleo urbano

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Val, Ricardo; Peig Ginabreda, Concepció

    2015-01-01

    Terrassa is nowadays a post-industria/ cíty ín the períphery of Barcelona. Since 2004 it has become the see of the new created bishop of Terrossa. lt existed once Jrom Vth to Vlllth but Jater disappeared and its see was held in Sant Pere1s monumental ensemble. Nowadays Ws not because it was considered to be far away from the city centre. This ensemble began a decadent process because it /ost ali political and geogrophical importance. At the end of the XXth century política/ ...

  18. Multinational cash management and conglomerate discounts in the euro zone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eije, Henk von; Westerman, Wim

    2001-01-01

    We discuss the impact of liberalisation, deregulation and the introduction of a single currency on cash management within multinationals in the euro zone. The developments in the euro zone reduce financial market imperfections in transferring cash and diminish the need for separate local cash

  19. Strategic Market Planning in Conglomerate Continuing Education Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, James P.

    1987-01-01

    The author tells how very large, multidivision continuing education programs can use their size as a marketing advantage. Some advantages include (1) superior service, (2) an image of high quality, (3) the bandwagon effect, and (4) stronger buying power. (CH)

  20. Valuation Biases, Error Measures, and the Conglomerate Discount

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Dittmann (Ingolf); E.G. Maug (Ernst)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractWe document the importance of the choice of error measure (percentage vs. logarithmic errors) for the comparison of alternative valuation procedures. We demonstrate for several multiple valuation methods (averaging with the arithmetic mean, harmonic mean, median, geometric mean) that the

  1. Acid rain effect in the constituent material of Mexican Mayan monuments; Efecto de la lluvia acida en el material constituyente de los monumentos Mayas mexicanos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bravo Alvarez, H.; Soto Ayala, R.; Sosa Echeverria, R.; Sanchez Alvarez, P. [Facultad de Ingenieria, UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2003-12-01

    Actually, acid rain is considered as a potential problem that affects materials and ecosystems. The effect on monuments, made mainly from limestone, has been studied for long time. In this work, a sample of limestone from Tulum, Quintana Roo, was studied. The following parameters were measured: density, porosity and percentage of water adsorption. Also, the sample was irrigated with acid rain prepared in the laboratory (pH 4.6), based in the chemical composition of 56 rain samples from Puerto Morelos, Quintana Roo, in 1994 and 1995. The results obtained show that acid rain is neutralized by calcium carbonate from the limestone. The high calcium concentrations in the effluent show that limestone is dissolved by acid rain. Superficial recession was 4.4 {mu}m/year under experimental conditions used. [Spanish] Actualmente la lluvia acida se ha convertido en un problema potencial que afecta en mayor o menor grado a materiales y a los ecosistemas. El efecto que causa la lluvia acida en monumentos construidos fundamentalmente de roca caliza, ha sido objeto de muchas investigaciones realizadas, prioritariamente, por paises que poseen estructuras, cuyo material de construccion es caliza. En este trabajo de investigacion se estudio una muestra de roca caliza proveniente de los monumentos mayas de Tulum, Quintana Roo. Se determinaron los parametros de densidad, porosidad y porcentaje de adsorcion de agua. Asimismo, se efectuo la irrigacion de la muestra con lluvia acida (pH aprox. 4.6), preparada en el laboratorio con base en la composicion quimica que se determino en 56 muestras de agua de lluvia provenientes de Puerto Morelos, punto cercano a los monumentos de Tulum, Quintana Roo, durante los anos 1994 y 1995. Los resultados permiten concluir que la lluvia acida sufre un proceso de neutralizacion con el carbonato de calcio de la roca caliza. Las altas concentraciones de calcio en el efluente, mostraron que la roca caliza sufrio una disolucion con la lluvia acida. La

  2. Study of Monumental Heritage Traditional Moroccan for a Valorization and Conservation of Collective Memory Development for Socio-Eco-Sustainable Tourism-case Kasbah Chellah, Rabat

    Science.gov (United States)

    belhaj, siham; Bahi, Lahcen; Akhssas, Ahmed

    2016-04-01

    Rabat imperial city and capital of Morocco in 2012 was named a World Heritage Site by Unesco for its value,location and heritage significance of several historic sites it contains, which dating back to the 8th century by Chellah example. Chellah is an important historical site economically, culturally and archaeologically .This site is a result of a combination between the Muslim Arab past and the Western modernism, it not only contains the remains of ancient civilizations Phoenician, Carthaginian and Roman but its walls and gates illustrate various lifestyles and multiples legends, the architecture of this site has inspired many writers and painters during all the centuries. Chellah Attracts more and more tourists from milliers of different origins and of different ages, it is ultimate touristiclandmark-forsaken-, it Suffers of ruthless effect of nature (physicals-chemicals degradations) and human and urban development. The authorities aware of the historical, cultural, social, economic heritage of this site, and Demanded Decided to valorize, Rehabilitate and restore the Kasbah Chellah. But given the complexity of the action of "safeguard" the site is still drowning in the economic constraints(size of the site and diversity of its components and architecture, priority, state of the financial markets), legal,social, technical (lack of data, the problem of integration of research centers in the proposed rehabilitation of historic sites in degradation old method, misdiagnosis) and also in the maze to find an integrated restoration policy that takes into account all aspects of rehabilitated the historical monuments. The objective of this project is to develop a clear vision of actually situation by enumeration of problems of degradation that knows the site of Chellah, to sew a multidimensional table of issues facing the current project of rehabilitation the site in question, to raise awareness stakeholders on the need for networking of all energies and all knowledge

  3. THE SIGNIFICANCE OF ORKHON INSCRIPTIONS IN TURKISH LANGUAGE TEACHING IN TERMS OF VALUE TRANSFER I: TUNYUQUQ MONUMENT - ORHUN ABİDELERİNİN TÜRKÇE ÖĞRETİMİNDE DEĞER AKTARIMI AÇISINDAN ÖNEMİ I: TONYUKUK ABİDESİ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Nuri KARDAŞ

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Orkhon Inscriptions is one of the largest cultural heritages of the Turkish nation. These cultural assets are the property of being the memory of the nation they were born through. Indeed since these monuments transfer the values they contain to the future, they have a characteristic that is the masterpiece of the Turkish nation which plays a significant role. What a nation keeps alive is its values. In this sense, for the Turkish nation, it is important that these monuments is examined in terms of the transfer value and is used in educational activities. The aim of this study is to identify the values in Tunyuquq Monument which is the first of Orkhon Inscriptions and to determine the importance of these values in Turkish value transfer. In the study, the descriptive analysis, one of the qualitative research techniques, has been used. By the researcher, values form was prepared in consultation with experts and the value elements in Tunyuquq Monument were determined and then with the problem of the study, the following conclusions were reached: ?\tIn Tunyuquq Monument, about 179 value elements have been identified, directly or indirectly, including 25 different values of the Turkish nation. These values and their handling frequencies in the Monument are given as follows: Bravery - bravery value (f = 24, Leadership value (f = 21, Nation-family unity value (f = 15, Homeland - the nation benefit (f = 15, Taking responsibility value (f = 12, Freedom and independence value (f = 11, Diligence value (f = 9; Farsightedness value (f = 9, belief in God value (f = 9; Sacrifice value (f = 7, Integrity value (f = 5, Sensitivity-kindness value (f = 5, Respect value (f = 5, Solidarity value (f = 4, Loyalty value (f = 4, Tradition-customs value (f = 4, Wisdom value (f = 4, Peace value (f = 3, comply with laws-law of value (f = 3, Protect the language value (f = 3, Patriotism value (f = 2, Esteeming Elder’s sayings value (f= 2, faithfulness value (f=1

  4. MONUMENTOS ARQUEOLÓGICOS DEL ÁREA DE GUAQUITEPEC-SITALÁ, CHIAPAS, MÉXICO: DATOS DISPONIBLES Y NUEVAS INTERPRETACIONES (Archaeological Monuments of the Guaquitepec-Sitalá Area, Chiapas, Mexico: Available Data and New Interpretations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Sheseña

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available El artículo está dedicado al estudio de un grupo de monumentos arqueológicos localizados en la región de Guaquitepec y Sitalá, en el norte de Chiapas, México, una región poco socorrida por los estudiosos de la cultura maya. Se propone, a la luz de los conocimientos con los que actualmente se cuenta sobre la historia de los antiguos mayas, que dichos monumentos son evidencia de la existencia de una importante confluencia de rutas de comunicación en este lugar, ampliamente usada en la antigüedad por las entidades políticas circunvecinas. ENGLISH: This article is devoted to the study of a group of archaeological monuments located in the region around Guaquitepec and Sitalá in the north of Chiapas, Mexico, a region little served by scholars of Maya culture. In light of current research available on the history of the ancient Maya in the region, this article proposes that these monuments are evidence of an important confluence of communication routes that were widely used in antiquity by the surrounding political entities.

  5. Tranquebar - cemeteries and grave monuments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kryger, Karin; Gasparski, Lisbeth

    Danish and Norwegian tradesmen and officials, military personnel, German missionaries and British officers with their wives and children-a motley assortment of people-all found their last resting place in the former Danish trading station of Tranquebar in southern India. The bereaved relatives de...

  6. Monuments For A Departed Future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryding, Karin; Løvlie, Anders Sundnes

    2018-01-01

    The increasing spread of smartphones gives new opportunities for museums dealing with ideologically contested collections. In this paper we explore how playful interactions and user comments can be used to encourage critical engagement with museum collections. This is done through a research...... through design experiment at the Museum of Yugoslavia, which houses the grave of the former communist leader Josep Tito. Building on earlier work by Mary Flanagan and Andrea Witcomb, we present a playful design that utilizes Artcodes to connect the physical museum exhibits with a digital experience...

  7. Film nagu monument / Tiit Tuumalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuumalu, Tiit, 1971-

    2003-01-01

    Esinduslik filmiajakiri "Sight & Sound" hääletas Orson Welles'i filmi "Kodanik Kane" ("Citizen Kane", Ameerika Ühendriigid, 1941) maailma kõigi aegade parimaks mängufilmiks. Selle filmi fenomenist

  8. Geomaterials and architecture of the medieval monuments of Sardinia (Italy): petrophysical investigations on their construction materials and documentation on the architectonic aspects using digital technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Columbu, Stefano; Verdiani, Giorgio

    2015-04-01

    The Sardinia Island is in the core area of the Mediterranean Sea. Its position has made it the crossing point of many cultural and political events, but at the same time its isolation has favoured the manifestation of specific and unique Cultural Heritage phenomena. The network of several medieval monuments (i.e., Romanesque churches) disseminated all around the island clearly shows how an architectural language can be declined according to site specific materials and specific artistical and practical choices, always preserving its original logic and grammar. On the bases of different architectural characteristics and petrophysical features of their lithology, a significant number of churches have been chosen from the different medieval geographical-political areas of the Sardinia named (at that time) "Giudicati". Each of these churches were surveyed using the following methods: photography, 3D Laser Scanner for the whole interior and exterior parts (using a Leica HDS 6000 and a Cam/2 Faro Photon units), photogrammetry (using high resolution Nikon D700 and D800e) of a selected set of the extern surface of significant altered samples (aimed to the production of high quality and highly detailed 3D digital models), direct sampling of representative rocks and ancient mortars for geochemical and minero-petrographic analysis using optical polarized microscope, electronic microscopy (SEM), X-Ray fluorescence (XRF), X-Ray diffractometry (XRD). The physical-mechanical properties (real and bulk densities, open and closed porosity, water absorption and saturation, vapour permeability, flexion and compression strengths, etc.) of various geomaterials are determined with helium picnometry, microscopic image analysis, gas-permeability thermostatic chamber, oil-hydraulic press machine, Point Load Test (PLT), abrasimeter. For each church, when there was the occasion, some specific case study has been developed, matching the information about the materials and the specific events

  9. De lo inmaterial literario al monumento arquitectónico: la casa museo de Ricardo Rojas / From the literary immateriality to the architectural monument: the House Museum of Ricardo Rojas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Salvioni

    2015-02-01

    The House Museum of Ricardo Rojas, built in 1927 by the architect Angel Guido in Buenos Aires, is an ideal starting point for a reflection on the social uses of cultural heritage in Twentieth Century Argentina. The House reflects an aesthetic program that intended to reinvent the national tradition as a fusion between indigenous and Hispanic elements. Nonetheless, the national tradition codified by Rojas and Guido was the result of an arbitrary selection of heterogeneous elements that excluded immigrants and did not guarantee access to cultural heritage of all sectors of society. The project of the House was directly related to the emergence of cultural and politic nationalism that took place in Argentina from the Centenary of Independence in 1910 to the beginning of Second World War. This essay focuses on the contradictions of monumentalization of intangible cultural heritage in a multicultural society.

  10. Památky starověké Núbie na známkách světa // Monuments of Ancient Nubia on postage stamps of the modern world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Břetislav Vachala

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The successful International UNESCO Campaign to Save the Monuments of (Egyptian and Sudanese Nubia became an important motif on the postage stamps of 47 countries of the world in the years 1960–1980. The stamps host famous rescued temples (listed here according to frequency of the used motifs, including general views, details of architecture and relief decoration of Abu Simbel, Philae, Wadi es-Sebua, and Dakka, the Kiosk of Qertassi and the South - ern temple of Buhen. Moreover, some of the unique painted murals found in the episcopal cathedral at Faras were reproduced on Polish stamps. The philatelic contribution to the campaign was far from symbolic. The total philatelic revenue (including income from the Philae Medals reached 112,665.64 US dollars. The philatelic activity of 47 countries substantially contributed to the publicity of the UNESCO Nubia Campaign around the world.

  11. National uranium resource evaluation, Las Vegas Quadrangle, Nevada, Arizona, and California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, C.; Glynn, J.

    1982-03-01

    The Las Vegas 1 0 x 2 0 quadrangle, Nevada, Arizona, and California, contains rocks and structures from Precambrian through Holocene in age. It lies within the Basin and Range physiographic province adjacent to the westernmost portion of the Colorado Plateau. Miocene nonmarine sedimentary rocks of the Horse Spring Formation contain in excess of 100 tons U 3 O 8 in deposits at a grade of 0.01% or greater, and therefore meet National Uranium Resource Evaluation base criteria for uranium favorability. One favorable area lies in the South Virgin Mountains at the type locality of the Horse Spring Formation, although the favorable environment extends into the unevaluated Lake Mead National Recreation Area and Desert National Wildlife Range. Environments within the Las Vegas Quadrangle considered unfavorable for uranium include the Shinarump Conglomerate member of the Triassic Chinle Formation, Mesozoic sediments of the Glen Canyon Group, Precambrian pegmatites, Pliocene and Quaternary calcrete, Laramide thrust faults, and a late Precambrian unconformity

  12. Results of elemental analyses of water and waterborne sediment samples from areas of Alaska proposed for the Chukchi Imuruk National Reserve, Selawik National Wildlife Refuge, and Cape Krusenstern National Monument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharp, R.R. Jr.

    1978-10-01

    During July--August 1976, waters and sediments were collected from streams and lakes over an area of 100,000 km 2 around Kotzebue, Alaska, as part of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance. The work provides multielement results for 949 waters and 886 sediments from 979 locations. Of these, 492 waters and 452 sediments are from 517 locations in the proposed Chukchi Imuruk Reserve; 447 waters and 423 sediments are from 451 locations in the proposed Selawik Wildlife Refuge; and 10 waters and 11 sediments are from 11 locations in the proposed Cape Krusenstern Monument. The field data, with concentrations of 13 elements in the waters and 43 in the sediments, are presented, and the sample locations are shown on accompanying plates. The waters were analyzed for uranium by fluorometry or delayed-neutron counting and calcium, chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, magnesium, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, titanium, and zinc by plasma-source emission spectrography. The sediment samples were analyzed for uranium by delayed-neutron counting, beryllium and lithium by arc-source emission spectrography, bismuth, cadmium, copper, lead, nickel, niobium, silver, tin, and tungsten by x-ray fluorescence, and aluminum, antimony, barium, calcium, cerium, cesium, chlorine, chromium, cobalt, dysprosium, europium, gold, hafnium, iron, lanthanum, lutetium, magnesium, manganese, potassium, rubidium, samarium, scandium, sodium, strontium, tantalum, terbium, thorium, titanium, vanadium, ytterbium, and zinc by neutron activation. Uranium to thorium ratios in each sediment are also provided

  13. Conservation of Monuments by a Three-Layered Compatible Treatment of TEOS-Nano-Calcium Oxalate Consolidant and TEOS-PDMS-TiO2 Hydrophobic/Photoactive Hybrid Nanomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrysi Kapridaki

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In the conservation of monuments, research on innovative nanocomposites with strengthening, hydrophobic and self-cleaning properties have attracted the interest of the scientific community and promising results have been obtained as a result. In this study, stemming from the need for the compatibility of treatments in terms of nanocomposite/substrate, a three-layered compatible treatment providing strengthening, hydrophobic, and self-cleaning properties is proposed. This conservation approach was implemented treating lithotypes and mortars of different porosity and petrographic characteristics with a three-layered treatment comprising: (a a consolidant, tetraethoxysilane (TEOS-nano-Calcium Oxalate; (b a hydrophobic layer of TEOS-polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS; and (c a self-cleaning layer of TiO2 nanoparticles from titanium tetra-isopropoxide with oxalic acid as hole-scavenger. After the three-layered treatment, the surface hydrophobicity was improved due to PDMS and nano-TiO2 in the interface substrate/atmosphere, as proven by the homogeneity and the Si–O–Ti hetero-linkages of the blend protective/self-cleaning layers observed by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM, Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM and Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR. The aesthetic, microstructural, mechanical and permeabile compatibility of the majority of treated substrates ranged within acceptability limits. The improved photocatalytic activity, as proven by the total discoloration of methylene blue in the majority of cases, was attributed to the anchorage of TiO2, through the Si–O–Ti bonds to SiO2, in the interface with the atmosphere, thus enhancing photoactivation.

  14. Characterization of Near-Surface Geology and Possible Voids Using Resistivity and Electromagnetic Methods at the Gran Quivira Unit of Salinas Pueblo Missions National Monument, Central New Mexico, June 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Lyndsay B.; Lucius, Jeffrey E.; Land, Lewis A.; Teeple, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    At the Gran Quivira Unit of Salinas Pueblo Missions National Monument in central New Mexico, a partially excavated pueblo known as Mound 7 has recently become architecturally unstable. Historical National Park Service records indicate both natural caves and artificial tunnels may be present in the area. Knowledge of the local near-surface geology and possible locations of voids would aid in preservation of the ruins. Time-domain and frequency-domain electromagnetic as well as direct-current resistivity methods were used to characterize the electrical structure of the near-surface geology and to identify discrete electrical features that may be associated with voids. Time-domain electromagnetic soundings indicate three major electrical layers; however, correlation of these layers to geologic units was difficult because of the variability of lithologic data from existing test holes. Although resistivity forward modeling was unable to conclusively determine the presence or absence of voids in most cases, the high-resistivity values (greater than 5,000 ohm-meters) in the direct-current resistivity data indicate that voids may exist in the upper 50 meters. Underneath Mound 7, there is a possibility of large voids below a depth of 20 meters, but there is no indication of substantial voids in the upper 20 meters. Gridded lines and profiled inversions of frequency-domain electromagnetic data showed excellent correlation to resistivity features in the upper 5 meters of the direct-current resistivity data. This technique showed potential as a reconnaissance tool for detecting voids in the very near surface.

  15. Monument to Lack: The New University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Andee

    2015-01-01

    The present article is the fourth in an unintended series charting the author's experiences of academic censure via social exclusion, or "amicable exclusion" as the Vietnamese reprint has it (Jones, 2012, 2013, 2014). Here in talking about academic censure, Jones touches on former psychoanalyst Jeffrey Mason's (1990) excoriation by the…

  16. Threatened coastal monuments at Tranquebar, Tamil Nadu

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sundaresh; ManiMurali, R.; Jayakumar, S.

    Tranquebar (Tamil Nadu, India), also known as Tarangampadi, is situated about 15 kms south of Poompuhar and has the habitation of Chola period till date. It had become a principal port during Dutch and Danish periods. The earliest reference...

  17. Last of the Monumental Book Catalogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, William J.

    1981-01-01

    Reviews the history of the National Union Catalog and the publication of the Pre-1956 Imprints. The roles of the ALA and Mansell Publishing in the completion of what is probably the last large-scale nonautomated bibliographic project, editorial problems, and the role of automation in future projects are discussed. (JL)

  18. 3D Modelling of Kizildag Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karauguz, Güngör; Kalayci, İbrahim; Öğütcü, Sermet

    2016-10-01

    The most important cultural property that the nations possess is their historical accumulation, and bringing these to light, taking measures to preserve them or at least maintain the continuity of transferring them to next generations by means of recent technic and technology, ought to be the business of present generations. Although, nowadays, intensive documentation and archiving studies are done by means of classical techniques, besides studies towards preserving historical objects, modelling one-to-one or scaled modelling were not possible until recently. Computing devices and the on-going reflection of this, which is acknowledged as digital technology, is widely used in many areas and makes it possible to document and archive historical works. Even virtual forms in quantitative environments can be transferred to next generations in a scaled and one-to-one modelled way. Within this scope, every single artefact categorization belonging to any era or civilization present in our country can be considered in separate study areas. Furthermore, any work or likewise can be evaluated in separate categories. Also, it is possible to construct travelable virtual 3D museums that make it possible to visit these artefacts. Under the auspices of these technologies, it is quite possible to construct single virtual indoor museums or also, at the final stage, a 3D travelable open-air museum, a platform or more precisely, to establish a data system that spreads all over the country on a broad spectrum. With a long-termed, significant and extensive study and a substantial organization, such a data system can be established, which also serves as a serious infrastructure for alternative tourism possibilities. Located beside a stepped altar and right above the Kizildag IV inscription, the offering pot is destructed and rolled away a few meters to the south slope of the mould. Every time visiting these artefacts with our undergraduate students, unfortunately, we observe more demolishment. This case study aims to construct the extensive data system mentioned above, and in the context of historical artefacts it aims-which is the lowest stage of such a study gathering information about the Kizildag findings using the previously mentioned technologies. This paper will explain how the geometry and texture of historical objects can be automatically constructed, modelled and visualized from digital image processing software. In this context, the second research has been conducted, aimed to obtain the visuals of the Hittite hieroglyph inscriptions located in Kizildag by using digital photogrammetry technique. After obtaining the visuals, they will be evaluated in a photogrammetric software which endues the finally constructed 3D virtual product with its original texture. In this way, the current destructed artefacts mentioned above can be handed down to the next generations in form of scaled, virtual models. We consider this to be of particular importance.

  19. Fødselsdagsfest for et monument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Peter Thule

    2013-01-01

    Som et led i fejringen af 40 året for Sydney Opera House udstilledes dansk design i operafoyeren, danske arkitekter og designere bidrog til symposiet Architecture Makes the City og der lanceres et studenterudvekslingsprogram Made by The Opera House. Artiklen er en reportage fra arrangementerne....

  20. Monumentality vs. everyday life: architecture's public role

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim Manoel Guedes Sobrinho

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Conference held in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, on March 18, 2006. Thoughts about architecture and the nation." Architecture is everything dealing with construction." (ARGAN, c. 1992. An object's cultural and ethical value is measured by how well it addresses demand, which in turn is related to the planet Earth, to scarce resources, and to people's survival. Architecture, its craft, and its teaching are studied from the perspective of the act, which is the art of building, to meet social, public and private demands through historical processes of power games, at a given place and time. Architecture is reduced to its essence to unveil the roots of its emergence and understand the architect's responsibilities in the new mass society, when we enter this" new popular period in history" (SANTOS; SOUZA, c1998. We suggest the following sequence of procedures as a path of knowledge and to support the free development of invention: 1 Initially assess the prospective problem to choose and study the location and the tasks of the architect, the client, society, and government; 2 identify and understand building plans for that location; 3 study the activities, flows, quantity, quality and combination of spaces resulting from the conflicting yearnings of people, in line with social needs and translated into private and public building plans; 4 graphically analyze the sectorial subsystems of areas associated according to affinities, considering their arrangement and organization in the site; 5 work on the rigorous construction of architecture, which in final analysis is matter and form; It should be pointed out that it is necessary to: 6 expand the supply of information on specific architectural problems to be addressed, and to organize the actual and effective involvement of people in the discussion of projects and works of their interest, unlike assembly and participative meetings; 7 expand opportunities to allow a greater number of architects to take part in building the nation, which implies the government implementing new recruitment policies. Three projects are presented to illustrate the involvement of architects in the architectural craft in Brazil: 1 Brasília's Pilot Plan, 1957; 2 the city of Caraíba, (Pillar, Jaguarari, Bahia, 1978; and 3 Bicocca project, in Milan, Italy, 1987.

  1. Monumental painting as public space / Gregor Taul

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Taul, Gregor, 1986-

    2012-01-01

    Detsembris 2012 valminud NO99 teatri laemaalist, autor Tõnis Saadoja. Maali valmimist dokumenteerivast ja eesti monumentaalmaali ajalugu tutvustavast raamatust, fotograaf Paul Kuimet. Monumentaalmaali idee on taaselustatud ja peagi näeb, kas monumentaalmaal kui avalik kunst on võimalik kapitalistlikus Eestis

  2. Do financial conglomerates create or destroy value? Evidence for the EU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lelyveld, Iman; Knot, Klaas

    2009-01-01

    There is an ongoing debate about whether firm focus creates or destroys shareholder value. Earlier literature has shown significant diversification discounts: firms that engage in multiple activities are valued lower. Various factors are important in determining the size of the discount, for example

  3. Process for obtaining sintered conglomerates with a high density of rare earth oxides and actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasto, A.E.

    1974-01-01

    The invention concerns a method to produce agglomerates of actinide and rare earth oxides possessing a cubic-monoclinic transformation in order to obtain high densities close to the theoretical density, and the articles produced by the method. The process is based on the use of a rare earth or actinide oxide, in particular Eu 2 O 3 , with a cubic-monoclinic phase transformation, the oxide being sintered by hot compression at a temperature 50 deg C to 100 deg C above the transformation temperature. The sintered agglomerates obtained can have a purity of at least 99.9% and a density of practically 100%. These agglomerates are suitable in particular for the formation of nuclear reactor control rods [fr

  4. Exercises in Free Syntax. Syntax Definition, Parsing, and Assimilation of Language Conglomerates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bravenboer, M.

    2008-01-01

    In modern software development the use of multiple software languages to constitute a single application is ubiquitous. Despite the omnipresent use of combinations of languages, the principles and techniques for using languages together are ad-hoc, unfriendly to programmers, and result in a poor

  5. International banking conglomerates and the transmission of lending shocks across borders

    OpenAIRE

    Gropp, Reint; Radev, Deyan

    2017-01-01

    We investigate how solvency and wholesale funding shocks to 84 OECD parent banks affect the lending of 375 foreign subsidiaries. We find that parent solvency shocks are more important than wholesale funding shocks for subsidiary lending. Furthermore, we find that parent undercapitalization does not affect the transmission of shocks, while wholesale shocks transmit to foreign subsidiaries of parents that rely primarily on wholesale funding. We also find that transmission is affected by the str...

  6. Investigation of Witwatersrand uranium-bearing quartz-pebble conglomerates in 1944-1945

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourret, W.

    1981-01-01

    The paper discusses the results-both short- and long-term of a 1944 study undertaken by a team from the Manhattan Project (supported by the governments of Great Britain and Canada) to assess the potential for uranium occurrence in the Witwatersrand mining region of South Africa. Details are given on the methods used by the Manhattan team and the results of the sampling study and survey that the team conducted in South Africa. The findings for 23 mines that were surveyed in the Witwatersrand are documented. These mines were the major producing mines in the Witwatersrand region. The prior research that led the Manhattan Project administrators to concentrate efforts on the Witwatersrand is described. The history of uranium production in the Rand since the 1944 study is delineated. Tables show the findings of the sampling study in terms of various major mines. A graph is included to show the growth of uranium production in the Witwatersrand from the initiation of the first operation in 1952 to 1975

  7. Institutional forces and divestment performance of South African conglomerates: Case study evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David King

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The history of South Africa serves as a natural experiment in how a changing institutional environment impacts corporate structure. Based on institutional theory, we anticipate higher performance through emulating successful strategies or through restructuring consistent with mimetic isomorphism. Conversely, coercive isomorphism results from restructuring driven by regulation, and we anticipate that they are associated with lower performance. To examine these relationships, we consider divestment by South African firms over two periods, using mixed methods. We find tentative support for our predictions, and we outline implications for policymakers, as well as for management research and practice.

  8. Aggression from Patients or Next of Kin and Exposure to Bullying Behaviors: A Conglomerate Experience?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iselin Reknes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Although workplace violence and aggression have been identified as important stressors in the nursing profession, studies simultaneously comparing patient-initiated aggression and exposure to bullying behaviors at work are rather scarce. The aim of this study was to compare aggression from patients or next of kin and exposure to bullying behaviors in terms of prevalence, health-related quality of life outcomes, and potential overlap in those targeted. In the period of 2008-2009, data were collected among 2059 members of the Norwegian Nurses Organization. Latent class (LC analysis and a multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA were used to investigate the proposed relationships. The results showed that aggression from patients or next of kin and exposure to bullying behaviors were perceived as separate and independent stressors. Although aggression from patients or next of kin was more frequent than workplace bullying, the latter was the only significant stressor related to health-related quality of life in terms of reduced mental health functioning. Although being a rather infrequent experience, exposure to bullying behaviors seems to have more severe health-related outcomes for nurses than aggression from patients or next of kin. Hence, the results of the study strengthen previous findings and suggest that managers must aim to maintain a positive psychosocial work environment with zero-tolerance for bullying.

  9. 78 FR 50089 - Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument Monument Advisory Committee; Meeting/Conference Call

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... a telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD) may call the Federal Information Relay Service (FIRS... a land health subcommittee to assist with the development of the MMP amendment, future meeting dates...

  10. 75 FR 51477 - Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument, Monument Advisory Committee: Call for Nominations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-20

    ... financial disclosure requirements in the Ethics in Government Act and 5 CFR 2634. Travel reimbursement is... expertise: Archaeology; Botany; Geology; Paleontology; Social science; Systems ecology; and Wildlife biology...

  11. 76 FR 18775 - Pacific Remote Islands Marine National Monument; Monument Management Plan, Comprehensive...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-05

    ... issues during public scoping. Climate change impacts and adaptation. Marine debris impacts and removal. Invasive species prevention and control. Other potential threats to the ecosystem (e.g., trespass; illegal...

  12. GC/MS in the study of deterioration process of historical monuments: characterization of the black crust formed in the Cathedral of Seville; GC/MS en el estudio del proceso de deterioro de monumentos historicos: caracterizacion de la costra negra presente en la Catedral de Sevilla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes, J. [Programa de Corrosion del Golfo de Mexico. Universidad Autonoma de Campeche. Av. Agustin Melgar s/n, Campeche (Mexico); Hermosin, B.; Saiz J, C. [Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Agrobiologia de Sevilla. Avenida de la Reina Mercedes 10. Sevilla, Espana (Spain)]. e-mail: javreyes@uacam.mx

    2006-07-01

    Here, we present an interesting application of Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS) technique which permitted to differentiate successfully between natural and anthropogenic compounds present in the black crust formed in the Cathedral of Seville. This building, considered as one of the most important historic and cultural European monuments suffers from intense blackening of its outside walls and sculptures due to the interaction with the urban environment. Fragment of black crusts were removed from the Cathedral walls and extraction process with organic solvents was carried out. The aliphatic, aromatic and polar fractions were separated and analyzed using GC/MS. A complex organic composition of the black crusts indicated the accumulative character of the deposition process of atmospheric particles as a function of the time. The presence of high molecular weight n-alkanes, n-fatty acids and natural molecular markers identified during the study were indicative of current biogenic contributions. It was also found an important group of petrogenic molecular markers related with diesel soot emissions from motor engines. The diesel soot and molecular markers were entrapped within the black crust mineral matrix and contribute to the observed blackening of the Seville Cathedral. (Author)

  13. BLM Colorado National Monument and National Conservation Area Polygons

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — Shapefile Format –This data set consists of digital data describing BLM National Conservation Lands or National Landscape Conservation System (NLCS) in the State of...

  14. Teaching Art with Art: Images of Ancient Monuments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Guy

    1999-01-01

    Addresses how 18th and 19th century artists made pictures of ancient ruins throughout Europe and the Middle East to sell. Expounds that watercolors, landscapes, and lithographs enabled artists to easily record the sights during their travels. Provides summaries of four artists (John Constable, David Roberts, Frederick Catherwood, and Giovanni…

  15. Plant components and authenticity of landscape architecture monuments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloš Pejchal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants specifications emphasize the fundamental meaning of the “fourth space dimension” – time by their usage: (a the space cannot be composed as a static image; (b some used plants are not the planned part of the target state; (c delayed onset of full functionality; (d substantial importance of care for achieving and maintaining of the full functionality; (e cultivation measures must be implemented in a certain time period, i.e. the “time window”; (f replacement of already obsolete generation of full-grown and long-aged trees with a new generation is often carried out in the amended site conditions and different social situation. Historical authenticity of the plant components has the following specifics: (a its basic assumption may not be the original specimens of plants, it is the preservation of the principle contained in this original substance; (b the period during which the plant is able to represent the principle of the original substance is often shorter than the length of its existence; (c gradual recovery of surviving individuals is often difficult to impossible in plants groups and stands; (d it is often impossible to meet the recommendations of Venice Charter to not to apply the hypothesis and differentiation of added parts from the original ones. There was not paid enough attention to following aspects of the authenticity of plant components: (a the importance of particular developmental stages of the element; (b the role of age structure (the same age – different age for different types of elements; (c the effect of different length of the existence of space-formative elements (different periods of their recovery to the overall composition effect; (d role of historical technologies.

  16. 76 FR 68625 - Establishment of the Fort Monroe National Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-07

    ... period of slavery in the colonies and, later, this Nation. Two hundred and forty-two years later, Fort... 1863. Thus, Old Point Comfort marks both the beginning and end of slavery in our Nation. The Fort... North Beach area lies the only undeveloped shoreline remaining on Old Point Comfort, providing modern...

  17. A postcolonial gaze on monumentality: the need for interdisciplinary approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cunha Leal

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This article is a reflection on a master thesis. The article tries to unravel some of the interdisciplinary keys present in the work and necessary for the development of research on Public Space and Public Art. At the same time argues in favor of “post colonial” reading over the-produced space by the colonial powers, both in terms of its structural dimension and in the dimension of “decorum”.

  18. Consuming Danger, Signifying Danger: Postnuclear Monuments, museums and Gardens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira Engler

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Marked by the scientific discovery of atomic energy, the nuclear age, which spans the twentieth century, has changed the nature of culture as well as the landscape. Despite recent talks on nuclear disarmament, the dread of nuclear arms production, proliferation, and waste storage is pervasive at both global and local levels, haunting governments, communities, and individuals alike. Nuclear sites concern not only scientists and politicians but also environmental designers. The need to evoke a cultural discourse, protect future generations, reveal or conceal radioactive burial sites, and recycle retired installations engenders the participation of artists and designers. How do designers intersect with these hellish places? Do we have a potent role in addressing this conundrum? In what follows, I confront the consumption and design of today’s most daunting places - the landscapes of nuclear and radioactive material production, processing, testing, and burial.

  19. Zhao Tiancong——A MONUMENT TO ANTIMONY IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1992-01-01

    Professor Zhao Tiancong is a famous specialist of our country in nonferrous merallurgy field and a doctoral teacher of Central South University of Technology. He has been devoting diligently his life to the development of the antimony metallurgy.

  20. La racionalidad imperialista en la monumental obra de James Mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homero Cuevas

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Este ensayo, parte de un trabajo más extenso sobre la dominación internacional en la economía mundial, revisa los procesos más relevantes para el análisis teórico tomando como referencia La historia de la India británica de James Mill, obra que es un hito en este campo y es la base de todas las teorías posteriores

  1. 78 FR 18769 - Establishment of the First State National Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... New Castle Court House built in 1732. To gain access to the Atlantic Ocean for his new Quaker Colony... the same as when he purchased them: farm fields and forest predominate, dotted with old farmsteads...

  2. Cityscapes and Monuments of Western Asia Minor. Memories and Identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Eva; Poulsen, Birte

    , finally, more than half a millennium of Roman rule. Identities are voiced through several media and visible at many levels of the ancient societies. So are the places of memory – the Lieux de Mémoire – and the studies presented here provide new insights into how human beings chose, deliberately...... and various identities. The present volume publishes 25 contributions written by scholars specializing in the history and archaeology of western Asia Minor. New and well-known material – literary, epigraphical, numismatic, and archaeological – is presented and analyzed through the twin lenses of memory...... and identity. The contributions cover more than 1000 years of cultural diversity during changing political systems, from the Lydian and Persian hegemony in the Archaic period through Athenian supremacy and Persian satrapal rule in the Classical period, then autocratic kingship in Hellenistic times until...

  3. The Organization of Museums: Practical Advice. Museums and Monuments, IX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Philip R.; And Others

    This manual deals with the organization of museums. The manual includes 10 chapters written by different people involved in museum work in various parts of the world. Chapter I, The Museum and Its Functions, deals with such topics as definition, collecting, identifying, and recording. Chapter II considers the administration of museums. Chapter…

  4. Admiral Pitka monument valmib 17. veebruariks / Dagne Hanschmidt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hanschmidt, Dagne

    2007-01-01

    Eesti väejuhi, Kaitseliidu asutaja ja Eesti sõjalaevastiku looja admiral Johan Pitka (1872-1944) mälestusmärgi (autor Tõnu Maarand) saatusest. Tallinnas Hirvepargis on alanud arhitekt Mart Kadariku projekti järgi ausamba paigaldamise eeltööd

  5. The Aeronautical Monument from Michałowice, Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iosif RUS

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available After World War I Romania was sized with contradictory feelings: on the one hand: a general euphoria, stimulating many ambitions, on the other hand, the fear that everything that had been obtained through the sacrifice of half a million Romanian soldiers could have been lost.The insecurity of its borders and the fear of the revisionist forces counterattack determined Romania to conclude a treaty of alliance with Poland (March 3, 1921, then to join the countries that were part of the Little Entente (Czechoslovakia, the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. It was followed by France, terrified by its inability to stop the expansion of Germany.

  6. PREPARATION OF MORTARS FOR RESTORATION OF ARCHITECTURAL MONUMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TEREZA TRIBULOVÁ

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Mortar mixtures were prepared considering the microscopic observation, granulometric analysis, mercury porosimetry, XRD analysis, thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis of the original plaster. Two series of lime mortar samples containing identical mixture of aggregates and admixtures but varying in the kind of a lime binder were prepared. In addition, the sample series varied in the ratio between mixing aggregate and binder. Prepared test bodies were subjected to accelerated carbonation process. Carbonated samples were characterized by the measurement of compressive strength, open porosity, water absorption and resistance to salt crystallization. The samples were also again compared with the original plaster by optical microscopy and XRD analysis. Based on the results of analyses of the original plasters and prepared samples of repair mortar the sample containing lime slurry with the mixture of aggregates in the mixing ratio of 1 : 2 was recommended for the restoration procedure.

  7. The Water Supply of El Morro National Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Samuel Wilson; Baldwin, Helene Louise

    1964-01-01

    In the land of enchantment, between Gallup and Grants, N. Mex., near the Zuni Mountains, a huge sandstone bluff rises abruptly 200 feet above the plain. The Spaniards called it 'El Morro,' which means 'the headland' or 'bluff.' Around it are other mesas and canyons and stands of pinon and ponderosa pine. Other great rocks are nearby, but none are as popular as El Morro, and none have been as important to the traveler. For at El Morro there is water. In that country, water is scarce and precious. In the old days, travelers from Santa Fe would tell each other about the pool of clear, refreshing water at the base of the huge rock. This is the story of the great bluff, its water supply, and the rocks around it. In the late summer of 1849, an American lieutenant of the Topographical Engineers, James H. Simpson, accompanied infantry and artillery troops on a reconnaissance march from Santa Fe into the Navajo Country. On September 18, at the urging of one Mr. Lewis, an Indian trader, Lieutenant Simpson left the main party in order to see 'half an acre of inscriptions' upon a huge rock (fig. 1) . Although somewhat dubious, the Lieutenant had allowed himself to be persuaded by Lewis that the trip was worthwhile. Taking with him an artist named R. H. Kern, another man by the name of Bird, and Mr. Lewis as guide, he set off through miles of desert country, filled with huge red and white sandstone rocks, 'some of them looking like steamboats, and others presenting very much the appearance of facades of heavy Egyptian architecture'.

  8. 77 FR 59275 - Establishment of the Chimney Rock National Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-27

    ..., political, and religious interdependence centered in Chaco Canyon, New Mexico, about 100 miles south of... areas near and far, these lands support a growing travel and tourism sector that is a source of economic...

  9. Special Operations Commemoration: Monuments, Memory & Memorialization Practices of Elite Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    historical narrative, feminist agendas that reject masculine war commemoration efforts, general anti-war sentiment, and, probably most significant of...Collective Memory of Political Events: Social Psychological Perspectives (Mahwah, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1997), 18. 37 Malgorzata...44 James W. Pennebaker, Collective Memory of Political Events: Social Psychological Perspectives (Mahwah, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1997

  10. Calibration under uncertainty for finite element models of masonry monuments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atamturktur, Sezer,; Hemez, Francois,; Unal, Cetin

    2010-02-01

    Historical unreinforced masonry buildings often include features such as load bearing unreinforced masonry vaults and their supporting framework of piers, fill, buttresses, and walls. The masonry vaults of such buildings are among the most vulnerable structural components and certainly among the most challenging to analyze. The versatility of finite element (FE) analyses in incorporating various constitutive laws, as well as practically all geometric configurations, has resulted in the widespread use of the FE method for the analysis of complex unreinforced masonry structures over the last three decades. However, an FE model is only as accurate as its input parameters, and there are two fundamental challenges while defining FE model input parameters: (1) material properties and (2) support conditions. The difficulties in defining these two aspects of the FE model arise from the lack of knowledge in the common engineering understanding of masonry behavior. As a result, engineers are unable to define these FE model input parameters with certainty, and, inevitably, uncertainties are introduced to the FE model.

  11. Protection of archaeological monuments in 2001-2005 / Ants Kraut

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kraut, Ants

    2006-01-01

    Kultuurimälestiste riikliku registri Internetis kättesaadavaks muutmisest. Muististe kaardistamisest ja nende kaitsevööndite kindlaks määramisest. Uurimislubade väljastamisest, röövarheoloogide probleemist, looduslike pühapaikade väljaselgitamisest ja kaardistamisest, rahvusvahelisest koostööst, arheoloogiamälestiste tähistamisest. Nimeliselt mainitud üksikute töölõikude eest vastutajad.

  12. 36 CFR 7.63 - Dinosaur National Monument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... by the Bureau of Land Management on designated grazing allotments adjacent to the Artesia Entrance... Superintendent. (5) Grazing fees shall be the same as those approved for the Bureau of Land Management and will... file with the Superintendent a copy of his stock brand or other mark. (v) The permittee shall, upon...

  13. Aniakchak National Monument and Preserve: Geologic resources inventory report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hults, Chad P.; Neal, Christina

    2015-01-01

    This GRI report is a companion document to previously completed GRI digital geologic map data. It was written for resource managers to support science-informed decision making. It may also be useful for interpretation. The report was prepared using available geologic information, and the NPS Geologic Resources Division conducted no new fieldwork in association with its preparation. Sections of the report discuss distinctive geologic features and processes within the park, highlight geologic issues facing resource managers, describe the geologic history leading to the present-day landscape, and provide information about the GRI geologic map data. A poster illustrates these data. The Map Unit Properties Table summarizes report content for each geologic map unit.

  14. monumente ter gedagtenis aan lt. kol henning pn pretorius (1844 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1844-1897). IN DIE TRANSVAALSE. HOOFSTAD. Kol Dr Jan Ploeger*. 1. Die Agtergrond. Die korps 'Staatsartillerie van die ZA Republiek' se benaming is aan Wet No. 1 van 1896 ontleen en het vanaf sy ontstaan in 1881 'n verwarrende.

  15. Tartusse tuleb Wilde'i ja Vilde monument

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1998-01-01

    Tartu kesklinnas Wilde Irish Pubi ees peaks 1999. a. kevadel avatama kirjanike Oscar Wilde'i ja Eduard Vilde pronkskujud. Elusuuruses kirjanikud hakkavad istuma graniitistmel. Idee autorid - pubipidaja Liam Allen, ettevõtja Marju Unt, skulptor Tiiu Kirsipuu.

  16. Temporary and Travelling Exhibitions. Museums and Monuments, X.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daifuku, Hiroshi; And Others

    The permanent exhibition, the most typical form of museum exhibition, has failed to attract repeated visitation, since visitors quickly become familiar with the objects shown. The temporary exhibition evolved as a result for the need of repeated visitation. The temporary exhibition, set up for a period of one to six months, introduces fresh…

  17. Monumental Novels in a Global and Digital Age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Ven, I.G.M.

    2015-01-01

    During the last decade, the question of the end of the novel has been given new urgency. Authors and critics have expressed their concern about the future of the literary novel. Some worry that shorter textual forms, such as Tweets and the internet’s flashy, distracting overload of textual and

  18. Roosevelti monument vene kunstnikult / Maria-Kristiina Soomre

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soomre, Maria-Kristiina, 1978-

    2001-01-01

    Zurab Tsereteli uus projekt on Queensi ja Manhattani vahelisele Roosevelt Islandile rajatava kaasaegse vene kunsti muuseumi ette plaanitav Theodore Roosevelti mälestusmärk. New Yorgis ÜRO peakorteri ees asub Z. Tsereteli Püha Jüri skulptuur

  19. 77 FR 24579 - Establishment of the Fort Ord National Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-25

    ... 1775-1776, Anza established the first overland route from ``New Spain,'' as Mexico was then known, to..., approximately 6 miles of which pass through the Fort Ord area. Although much of the historic route currently... tourists and recreationalists from near and far, and enhance its unique natural resources, for the...

  20. Monuments on Gemiler Ada and Karacaören Ada

    OpenAIRE

    Masuda, Tomoyuki

    1995-01-01

    Contents : 1. Church I on Gemiler Ada, 2. Church II on Gemiler Ada, 3. Church III on Gemiler Ada, 4. Church IV on Gemiler Ada, 5. Basilica on Karacaören Ada, 6. Painted Tomb on Karacaören Ada, 7. The Baptistery and the Chronology of Construction of the Karacaören Ada Basilica Complex, 8. Ölüdeniz Beach Basilica, 9. Iskender Basilica on Ölüdeniz Lagoon, 10. Mustafa Basilica near Beştaş Cove.

  1. Book Review: A monumental contribution to the genre of African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Filosofia Theoretica: Journal of African Philosophy, Culture and Religions. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 5, No 1 (2016) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  2. INAA and petrological study of sandstones from the Angkor monuments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucera, J.; Kranda, K.; Soukal, L.; Novak, J.K.; Lang, M.; Poncar, J.; Krausova, I.; Cunin, O.

    2008-01-01

    We determined 35 major, minor and trace elements in sandstone samples taken from building blocks of 19 Angkor temples and from an old and a new quarry using INAA. We also characterized the sandstone samples with conventional microscopy and electron microprobe analysis. Using cluster analysis, we found no straightforward correlation between the chemical/petrological properties of the sandstones and a presumed period of individual temples construction. The poor correlation may result either from the inherent inhomogeneity of sandstone or just reflect the diversity of quarries that supplied building blocks for the construction of any particular temple. (author)

  3. Conservation heating for a museum environment in a monumental building

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neuhaus, E.; Schellen, H.L.

    2007-01-01

    For the conservation of an important museum collection in a historic building a better controlled indoor climate may be necessary. One of the most important factors is controlling relative humidity. Museum collections often are part of the interior of a historic building. In most cases the

  4. 36 CFR 7.73 - Buck Island Reef National Monument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... be cast or dragged or placed, so as to strike or otherwise cause damage to any underwater features... Islands. (e) Fishing. (1) All forms of fishing are prohibited including, but not limited to, spearfishing..., seine, and long-line. (2) The use or possession of any type of fishing equipment or any of the items...

  5. Gold and uranium occurrences in quartz - pebble conglomerate of Iron Ore Group, Bagiyabahal - Baratangra area, Sundargarh district, Odisha , India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jana, Ashim; Sarkar, B.C.; Kumar, Suresh; Kumar, Ajay; Yadav, G.S.; Kumar, Pramod

    2016-01-01

    India is deficient in both gold and uranium resources. Almost one-third of the annual global mine production of ∼2500 tonnes of gold is imported into India to fulfil the high gold consumption. Uranium is important for production of nuclear energy, more specifically to execute the country's ambitious programme to generate 20 GW of electricity by 2020

  6. Conglomeration or Chameleon? Teachers' Representations of Language in the Assessment of Learners with English as an Additional Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Sheena; Rea-Dickins, Pauline

    2001-01-01

    Investigates teacher representations of language in relation to assessment contexts. Analyzes not only what is represented in teachers' use of metalanguage, but also how it is presented--in terms of expression, voice, and source. The analysis is based on interviews with teachers, transcripts of lessons, and classroom-based assessments, formal…

  7. Stratigraphy and structure of the Miners Mountain area, Wayne County, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luedke, Robert G.

    1953-01-01

    The Miners Mountain area includes about 85 square miles in Wayne County, south-central Utah. The area is semiarid and characterized by cliffs and deep canyons. Formations range in age from Permian to Upper Jurassic and have an aggregate thickness of about 3,500 feet. Permian formations are the buff Coconino sandstone and the overlying white, limy, shert-containing Kaibab limestone. Unconformably overlying the Kaihab is the lower Triassic Moenkopi formation of reddish-brown and yellow mudstone, siltstone, and sandstone; it contains the Sinbad limestone member (?) in the lower part. Thin, lenticular Shinarump conglomerate unconformably overlies the Moenkopi, but grades upward into the Upper Triassic Chinle formation of variegated mudstone with some interbedded sandstone and limestone lenses. Uncomformably overlying the Chinle are the Wingate sandstone, Kayenta formation, and Navajo sandstone of the Jurassic (?) Glen Canyon group, which consist of red to white sandstone. Only the lower part of the Carmel formation of the Upper Jurassic San Rafael group is exposed in the area; it consists of variegated siltstone, sandstone, limestone, and gypsum. The conspicuous structural feature in the area is the Teasdale anticline which trends northwest, is about 14 miles long, and is asymmetric with a steeper west flank. Bounding the anticline on the northeast and east is the Capitol Reef monocline, the northern part of the Waterpocket Fold. Strata in the area are broken by steeply-dipping normal faults with small displacements, except for the Teasdale fault which has a maximum displacement of over 1,000 feet. Jointing is prominent in some formations. The major orogenic movement in the area is believed to be late Upper Cretaceous to early Tertiary. Epeirogenic uplift occurred intermittently throughout Tertiary and perhaps Quaternary time.

  8. THE IMPACT OF BRAND IMAGE ON CUSTOMER'S LOYALTY TOWARDS PRIVATE LABEL BRANDS: THE MEDIATING EFFECT OF SATISFACTION. HUBLI-DHARWAD CONGLOMERATE CITY OF KARNATAKA

    OpenAIRE

    Mr. Basavaraj Sulibhavi & Dr. SHIVASHANKAR K

    2017-01-01

    Brand image is the current view of the customers about the brand. Customer’s loyalty is the state of fear or confusion regarding purchase or consumption of a product at a moment and it is further extended to repeat purchase, ingestion of repurchase and world of mouth. This can also be measured by through satisfaction. The focus of this study is to show the relationship between the brand image, satisfaction and customer’s loyalty towards private label brands in Hubli-Dharwad city. This study c...

  9. In pursuit of common interests: struggles and crisis of merchant conglomerate of Santafé de Bogotá at late colonial period

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Fernando Franco Rodríguez

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to show the existence in the city of Bogotá in the late eighteenth century and early nineteenth century of an important group of traders with great social, political and economic power that, acting as a body, ensured defending their interests before the viceregal authorities and the Consulado de Cartagena, and how that group broke up as a result of the political situation created by the crisis of the Spanish monarchy in 1808 and the independence of the Nuevo Reino de Granada.

  10. In pursuit of common interests: struggles and crisis of merchant conglomerate of Santafé de Bogotá at late colonial period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fernando Franco Rodríguez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to show the existence in the city of Bogotá in the late eighteenth century and early nineteenth century of an important group of traders with great social, political and economic power that, acting as a body, ensured defending their interests before the viceregal authorities and the Consulado de Cartagena, and how that group broke up as a result of the political situation created by the crisis of the Spanish monarchy in 1808 and the independence of the Nuevo Reino de Granada.

  11. Loodusmonumendid kui rahvuse monumendid : Eesti rändrahnude tähendusest = Monuments of Nature as Monuments of Nation / Robert W Smurr ; tõlk. Heie Treier

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Smurr, Robert W

    2001-01-01

    Rahvaluule- ja loodusteadlastele viidates analüüsib autor eesti rahvusliku identiteedi konstrueerimist loodusmonumendi mõiste abil. Artikkel on lühendatud versioon uurimistööst "Loodustaju ja selle rahvuslik avaldumine : Eesti keskkondlik ajalugu"

  12. Monument of nature? An ethnography of the world heritage of Mt. Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akker, van den M.L.

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation examines the World Heritage status of Mt. Kenya, an alpine area in Central Kenya. The mountain joined the World Heritage List in 1997 and in 2013 the original designation expanded to cover a larger area. Both events were formulated exclusively in natural scientific language. This

  13. THE EXAMPLE OF USING THE XIAOMI CAMERAS IN INVENTORY OF MONUMENTAL OBJECTS - FIRST RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Markiewicz

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available At present, digital documentation recorded in the form of raster or vector files is the obligatory way of inventorying historical objects. Today, photogrammetry is becoming more and more popular and is becoming the standard of documentation in many projects involving the recording of all possible spatial data on landscape, architecture, or even single objects. Low-cost sensors allow for the creation of reliable and accurate three-dimensional models of investigated objects. This paper presents the results of a comparison between the outcomes obtained when using three sources of image: low-cost Xiaomi cameras, a full-frame camera (Canon 5D Mark II and middle-frame camera (Hasselblad-Hd4. In order to check how the results obtained from the two sensors differ the following parameters were analysed: the accuracy of the orientation of the ground level photos on the control and check points, the distribution of appointed distortion in the self-calibration process, the flatness of the walls, the discrepancies between point clouds from the low-cost cameras and references data. The results presented below are a result of co-operation of researchers from three institutions: the Systems Research Institute PAS, The Department of Geodesy and Cartography at the Warsaw University of Technology and the National Museum in Warsaw.

  14. The Example of Using the Xiaomi Cameras in Inventory of Monumental Objects - First Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markiewicz, J. S.; Łapiński, S.; Bienkowski, R.; Kaliszewska, A.

    2017-11-01

    At present, digital documentation recorded in the form of raster or vector files is the obligatory way of inventorying historical objects. Today, photogrammetry is becoming more and more popular and is becoming the standard of documentation in many projects involving the recording of all possible spatial data on landscape, architecture, or even single objects. Low-cost sensors allow for the creation of reliable and accurate three-dimensional models of investigated objects. This paper presents the results of a comparison between the outcomes obtained when using three sources of image: low-cost Xiaomi cameras, a full-frame camera (Canon 5D Mark II) and middle-frame camera (Hasselblad-Hd4). In order to check how the results obtained from the two sensors differ the following parameters were analysed: the accuracy of the orientation of the ground level photos on the control and check points, the distribution of appointed distortion in the self-calibration process, the flatness of the walls, the discrepancies between point clouds from the low-cost cameras and references data. The results presented below are a result of co-operation of researchers from three institutions: the Systems Research Institute PAS, The Department of Geodesy and Cartography at the Warsaw University of Technology and the National Museum in Warsaw.

  15. Recording and Modelling of MONUMENTS' Interior Space Using Range and Optical Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiadis, Charalampos; Patias, Petros; Tsioukas, Vasilios

    2016-06-01

    Three dimensional modelling of artefacts and building interiors is a highly active research field in our days. Several techniques are being utilized to perform such a task, spanning from traditional surveying techniques and photogrammetry to structured light scanners, laser scanners and so on. New technological advancements in both hardware and software create new recording techniques, tools and approaches. In this paper we present a new recording and modelling approach based on the SwissRanger SR4000 range camera coupled with a Canon 400D dSLR camera. The hardware component of our approach consists of a fixed base, which encloses the range and SLR cameras. The two sensors are fully calibrated and registered to each other thus we were able to produce colorized point clouds acquired from the range camera. In this paper we present the initial design and calibration of the system along with experimental data regarding the accuracy of the proposed approach. We are also providing results regarding the modelling of interior spaces and artefacts accompanied with accuracy tests from other modelling approaches based on photogrammetry and laser scanning.

  16. Role of color in monumental and interior design of indergartens and school

    OpenAIRE

    Artemenko, G.

    2016-01-01

    Features of formation of architectural and planning solutions of park zones which settled down in territories of negative influence of the airports, possibility of protection of their environmental friendliness are considered. Рассматриваются особенности формирования архитектурно-планировочных решений парковых зон, которые располагаются на территориях негативного влияния аэропортов, возможности защиты их экологичности. Розглядаються особливості ролі кольору в формування архітектурно-пла...

  17. 78 FR 18789 - Establishment of the San Juan Islands National Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... tribe. The Secretary shall, in consultation with Indian tribes, ensure the protection of religious and... cultural and customary uses, consistent with the American Indian Religious Freedom Act (42 U.S.C. 1996) and Executive Order 13007 of May 24, 1996 (Indian Sacred Sites). Nothing in this proclamation shall be deemed to...

  18. Effects of environmental factors on monuments: the Harkhuf Tomb in Aswan, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldi, Marina

    2015-04-01

    The tombs of the nobles excavated in the rocks on the Nile west bank at Qubbet el-Hawa in Aswan (Egypt) testify the role of the city as the southern gate of Egypt. In old times Aswan was the starting point of caravans travelling far south in uncovered territories and bringing back precious and exotic goods. Inscriptions on the tombs reflect the explorations and trades of that time and the cultural exchanges with southern territories. Nowadays the tombs, exposed to the environmental factors - wind, sun, rainfall - and to air polluttants originated from the town of Aswan are under a fast deterioration process. It is therefore necessary a full documentation of the tombs and of their façade and a study of the deterioration process due to the impact of the environmental factors. As a case study the tomb of Harkhuf at Qubbet el-Hawa has been chosen, because of its importance, its status of decay, and for the old documentation by the Italian Egyptologist E. Schiaparelli. The climate factors affecting the tomb of Harkhuf are air temperature, its diurnal excursion, and wind, and, at some extent, relative humidity. In fact, in Aswan, night time Humidity can be more than 30% during the winter months, while precipitation is a very rare event occurring once every 1 or 2 years, but has important impact due to its high intensity and short duration with devastating impact on manufact and structures in the area. The experiment, designed using portable meteorological instruments, permitted to define if the microclimate near the Harkhuf Tomb has the same characteristics of the larger Aswan area which can be derived by the meteorological station located at the Aswan airport. However differences in the microclimate are evident and preliminary analysis of data collected between 8:00 am and 4:00 pm during some consecutive days will be presented. The study permitted to identify and measure the differential heating of the façade, with the right part reaching temperatures much warmer than the left and for a longer period, being under the direct sunrays for a longer period. In the interior, during the day, the temperature excursion is much more moderate, but some dew formation has been observed which contributes to the mold formation in parts of the walls of the tumb. In addition, some measurements of wind intensity and direction show a persistent wind blowing from N-NE starting mid-morning, around 10:30 am until late afternoon. In particular, the observations permitted: > to understand if the different parts of the façade of the tomb are under the influence of physical stress of different intensity due to the temperature gradient detected along the façade itself; > to determine if and in which conditions the temperatures excursion together with the right level of relative humidity of the air favor the formation of dew at dawn and of high dew point values. This study is part of the multidisciplinary project TECH (Technologies for the Egyptian Cultural Heritage) funded by the National Reserach Council of Italy and by the Academy of Scientific Research and Technology of Egypt (ASRT).

  19. 77 FR 59221 - Information Collection Activities: Timpanogos Cave National Monument Visitor and Community Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-26

    ... of how each of the above management issue affects their overall quality of visit experience. Visitors... collect visitors and local community members' perceptions and evaluations of four management issues (1... management issues: (1) Cave tour size and frequency. (2) Ticketing process and fees. (3) Concession service...

  20. War Games: "Ender's Game", "The Monuments Men", and Movies for Peace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    The popularity of adolescent fantasy movies about cosmic war and the enjoyment of military adventures that we find in World War II movies suggest the unique importance of war-themed culture in fostering solidarity in large, complex, and factionalized societies. War movies offset the power of sub-cultural movements by emphasizing the togetherness…

  1. El patrimonio natural e histórico-monumental español. Algunos problemas actuales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Bosque Maurel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se analizan los diversos impactos de la urbanización incontrolada o «salvaje» en el patrimonio natual e histórico español. Asimismo se identifican los principales problemas y amenazas territoriales derivados del estallido de la «burbuja inmobiliaria».

  2. Fabre Daniel, Iuso Anna, (Dir., Les monuments sont habités

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude Rivière

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Un coup fumant en couverture ! Une pyramide pharaonique, au pied de laquelle un touriste a laissé sa twingo verte, laisse échapper d’une cheminée un joli panache. Hello, mon vieux Kheops !... Pilote de la recherche patrimoniale au Ministère de la Culture, C. Hottin énonce d’abord sa mission monumentale de sauvegarde de châteaux et cités en adoptant le point de vue de D. Fabre sur la dynamique : déclassement du stigmate – classement comme mémoire – sur-classement pour une glorification, ainsi ...

  3. Scraping the Monumental: Stepan Bandera through the Lens of Quantitative Memory Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fredheim, R.; Howanitz, G.; Makhortykh, M.

    2014-01-01

    In this essay we use the example of Stepan Bandera to demonstrate the effectiveness of web-scraping methods as a tool to explore how people interact with memory content online. Using data from Wikipedia, Twitter and YouTube, we analyse the traces left by users interested in Stepan Bandera and assess

  4. Jevgenij V. Doc: We do not want to build a monument at Mochovce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janoska, J.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper the interview with the General Manager of Inter RAO JES - Jevgenij V. Doc is published. Inter RAO JES applies for the privatisation of Slovenske elektrarne (Slovak Electric - SE). According to the General Manager of Inter RAO JES, the company does not need a foreign partner to provide financial support after the privatisation of SE, but rather it requires a political support. Plans about Bohunice NPP and of completion of the Mochovce NPP as well as of privatisation of the SE by the Inter RAO JES are presented

  5. Benthic Habitat Maps for Rose Atoll Marine National Monument in American Samoa from 2004 to 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic habitat maps for Rose Atoll, American Samoa were derived from high resolution, multispectral satellite imagery for 2004, 2006, and 2010. The benthic habitat...

  6. The Educational System as a Monument of Functionalism in Educational Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuta Uryga

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The theme of the article is the concept of the educational system—its origin and relationship with a specific strand of scientific thought, which is functionalism. “The education system,” the key term for education in Poland, is saturated with content that less and less corresponds to the needs and expectations of society. The author carries out an analysis of the content, referring to some currents of pedagogical thought and pointing at the traps in the educational discourse, dangerous to its thoughtless participants.

  7. The Issue of Chronological Classifi cation of Monuments of the Mellia-Tamak Type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazakov Evgeniy P.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article features a publication of material on the Mellia-Tamak V burial ground. Starting with the 1970s, the Early Bolgar Archaeological Expedition headed by the author of the article has discovered and researched the unique sites of the Stone Age in the Trans-Kama areas of Tatarstan, such as Minnarovo, Russkii Shugan and Mellia-Tamak burial grounds, as well as the Izmeri site. Of particular significance are the Minnarovo and Mellia-Tamak V burial grounds. The author distinguishes the necropoleis of the Mellia-Tamak type located in the Trans-Kama region and the Southern Urals. They are characterized by abundant and unique burial inventories indicating the foreign nature of the population they were established by. It allowed the author to attribute these sites to a new Mellia-Tamak archaeological culture. Its chronological classification remains problematic, although many groups of the stone inventory have preserved evident Mesolithic traditions.

  8. El reverso de lo monumental. Memorial de los Veteranos de Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Vicente

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available El Memorial de los Veteranos de Vietnam fue el primer monumento realmente abstracto de Estados Unidos. Es una obra que se resiste a clasificaciones convencionales; estuvo marginada de los debates arquitectónicos del momento y, además, fue diseñada por una mujer de veintiún años de edad, estudiante, y de origen asiático. Todos estos componentes singulares se conjugaron para desatar una de las mayores controversias que se han tejido alrededor de una obra de carácter público.

  9. Radon levels in some dwellings around the international monument Taj Mahal, Agra using SSNTDs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Rupesh; Mahur, A.K.; Singh, H.; Sonkawade, R.G.; Swarup, R.

    2010-01-01

    The Taj Mahal, Agra had been on top priority of India and safe guarded by Taj Mahal Corridor. All the gaseous industrial discharges as well as fluid chemicals and water due to rain and river Yamuna toxic polluting entities had been taken into account while maintaining the beauty of Taj and purity of environment around it's rural areas. Indoor radon concentration depends in a complex way on the characteristic of the soil, the type of building structure, ventilation condition and occupant's behaviour. LR-115 Type II Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors (SSNTD's) have been used to measure the airborne radon levels in some dwellings near Taj Mahal, Agra. Radon concentrations were found to vary from 98 to 305 Bqm -3 with an average value of 213 Bqm -3 . Annual effective dose in these dwellings were found to vary from 1.3 to 4.4 mSv. (author)

  10. Hydrologic data, 1974-77, Stovepipe Wells Hotel area, Death Valley National Monument, Inyo County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Charles Edwin; Downing, D.J.

    1979-01-01

    Ground-water levels in most wells did not change significantly from 1974 to 1977 in the Stovepipe Wells Hotel area, California. The average water-level decline was less than 0.10 foot between August 1974 and August 1977 in 10 observation wells. Water-level contours show a depression centered on the two pumping wells, but this depression existed before the National Park Service started pumping its well. The chemical quality of the ground water is poor. Dissolved-solids concentrations in water samples ranged from 2,730 to 6,490 milligrams per liter. Analyses of water samples from two wells showed large changes in some constituents from 1976 to 1977. Streamflow in Salt Creek has been monitored since February 1974. Base flow is seasonal, being 0.10 to 0.20 cubic foot per second during the summer and as much as three times that amount during the winter. Two chemical analyses of water from Salt Creek, representing summer and winter flow conditions, show large differences for many constituents. (Woodard-USGS)

  11. Renovation and development of the «Fortress of Bard» monument complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Cacozza

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available At the heart of the restoration and development project lies the ambition to make the fort a centre for alpine culture, based on an ongoing dialogue between tradition and modernity. A forum for the understanding and exploration of the Alps of today, with their appeal and contradictions, combined with a perspective on the history and tradition of the area. A cultural project that merges the precision of the scientific and educational mission of its museum with the power of communication offered by the theme park, to allow visitors to discover and learn with fun and excitement. The Fortress of Bard offers visitors privileged access into the heritage of the Valley of Aosta and the lower valley, with the Vallée Culture space, the Info Lounge and the many initiatives related to the Bard/Donnas/Pont Saint-Martin, microsystem, in which Bard plays an integral role.

  12. 75 FR 61415 - Admiralty National Monument: Tongass National Forest; Alaska; Expansion of Tailings Disposal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-05

    ... Greens Creek Mine to allow for continuous site operations in a safe, environmentally sound, technically... CFR 1501.7 and 1508.22; 36 CFR 220.5; also Forest Service Handbook 1909.15, Section 21). Comments...

  13. 2 PROBLEM OF PRESERVATION OF ARCHITECTURAL MONUMENTS OF OLD MOSCOW AS VIEWED BY ITS RESIDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savitskaya Anastasiya Valer'evna

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors consider one of the most relevant issues of the present-day urban planning, the issue of preservation of the historic environment, the architectural and urban planning space of the megalopolis in the context of the accelerated pace of urbanization, expansion of the capital in the course of its implementation. The authors argue that the problem considered in the paper is not easy to tackle. The point is that the need to preserve historic built-up areas is hardly reconcilable with the need to upgrade the urban infrastructure. A social conflict is inevitable in this context. The authors track development of this social conflict from the sixties of the 20ieth century and through the present time and provide their resolutions to this contradiction.

  14. Archaeological Monuments of the Siberian Khanates: Search of the Markers of the Statehood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.F. Tataurov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Research objectives: To identify several sets of archaeological materials, which allow to unite all the Turkic-Tatar population of the forest-steppe zone of Western Siberia not only on the basis of socio-economic relations, but also on the principles of the existence of state entities. Research materials: Archaeological material (ceramics, weapons and funeral rite of warriors, ring-seals and attributes of supreme authority – helmets and tamgas. Results and novelty of the research: At present, the Turkic-Tatar state formations remain one of the most poorly studied issues in the medieval history of Western Siberia. An unformed base of archaeological sources could be added to a small amount of written documents. As a result, academic community is not able to make a full description of specific khanates – of their boundaries, administrative division and management, the level of development of state institutions, etc. Moreover, we do not have a chronological scale of cultural layers of any archaeological complex of this time including the capitals of khanates – Chimgi-Tura and Isker. Ordinary settlements and cemeteries remain with indefinite characteristics (cultural phenomena, which could allow to combine all these complexes into one whole, to become markers of the Siberian statehood. The author proposes to identify several sets of archaeological materials, which allow to unite all the Turkic-Tatar population of the forest-steppe zone of Western Siberia not only on the basis of socio-economic relations, but also on the principles of the existence of state entities. The author presents as these features ceramics, weapons and funeral rite of warriors, ring-seals and attributes of supreme authority – helmets and tamgas. It is possible that in the course of research this range of sources can be increased. Therefore, this work serves as an impulse for the development of scientific research in this direction.

  15. The Shakespeare in All of Us: A Monumental, Multitudinous, Premeditated Approach to Vocabulary Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savino, Jennifer Ann

    2011-01-01

    Shakespeare, who worked actively with words through punning, playing, and inventing, serves as the model for students to experience a deepening knowledge of vocabulary and love of words. Through instructional activities aimed at increasing word play, word exposure, and word consciousness, students gain the verbal capacity needed to understand…

  16. The Basilica Forensis of the Municipium Claudium Baelo. Monument and History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick LE ROUX

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The historical study of a building of archaeological nature fully excavated and well identified poses numerous Interpretation related to excavation methods, development, the functioning and the municipal role of one of the best known basilicas of the Roman West. In this respect, the history of the municipium Claudium Baelo between the Augustan period and the government of Trajan represents The main challenge. It is, therefore, an aspect that raises the question Of the urban transformations in the province of Hispania Later Baetica during the first century of the Empire. «Traductor de Google».

  17. Archaeological Salvage of the Joso Trestle Construction Camp, 45-FR-51 Lower Monumental Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Manager, Marketing Department, Crescent Foods, Seattle; Terry Corrado Spyrison, Corrado Cutlery , Chicago; Jacqueline Stone, Assistant Curator, U.S...gold "D. Corrado, 204 No. Clark Str., Chicago, Ill." The Corrado Cutlery Co., which has been in business for some 75 years, reports that they probably...locating parties (McHenry 1903:75; Beahan 1904:87-88; Lavis 1906:43) can give some idea of the variety of edibles that might be represented in

  18. Deterioration of carbonate rocks used for archeological monuments in Tauric Chersonesos (Crimea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander V. Mosyagin

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the mineralogy and petrography of the Proconesian marble and Chersonesian limestone, used as building materials from Antiquity to the medieval times in the Tauric Chersonesos, Crimea. The deterioration process, due to the modern time’s pollution and the climatic factors, is represented by forming of mainly gypsum-rich patina. The ubiquitous presence of micromycetes favors the stone decay.

  19. NATURAL ANTIBIOFOULING AGENTS AS NEW CONTROL METHOD FOR PHOTOTROPHIC BIOFILMS DWELLING ON MONUMENTAL STONE SURFACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana-Adriana CUZMAN

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Five natural antibiofoulants with terrestrial (capsaicine - CS, cinnamaldehyde - CI and marine origin (zosteric acid - ZA, poly-alkylpyridinium salts - pAPS and Ceramium botryocarpum extract - CBE have been selected and tested against phototrophic biofilm formation on the stone surfaces for their inhibitory properties. The antibiofouling agents (ABAs were incorporated into two commercial silicone based coatings (Silres BS OH 100 - S and Silres BS 290 - W. In this work, phototrophic growth was evaluated by epifluorescence microscopy and semi-quantitative image analysis. The results showed an inhibitory efficiency for almost all tested ABAs. However, this efficiency has been found for short time or when the incorporating agent were incompletely cured. Among the ABAs tested, the poly-alkylpyridinium salts and cinnamaldehyde incorporated into Silres BS 290 showed the best inhibitory efficiency.

  20. ISIS's Destruction of Mosul's Historical Monuments: Between Media Spectacle and Religious Doctrine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Melčák, Miroslav; Beránek, Ondřej

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 2 (2017), s. 389-415 ISSN 2045-5895 Institutional support: RVO:68378009 Keywords : taswiyat al-qubur * levelling of graves * Islamic State * isis * Islamic architecture * heritage destruction Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion OBOR OECD: Religious studies