Sample records for shijing xu chapter

  1. Jiwen Xu

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science. JIWEN XU. Articles written in Bulletin of Materials Science. Volume 37 Issue 4 June 2014 pp 895-902. Structural evolution, electrical and optical properties of AZO films deposited by sputtering ultra-high density target · Jiwen Xu Zupei Yang Hua Wang Xiaowen Zhang.

  2. Dynamic Monitoring of Yin Xu Site by Remote Sensing

    Yang, Ruixia; Peng, Yanyan


    Yin Xu, dates back more than 3,300 years, is the first relic of the capital of the Shang Dynasty literally recorded and confirmed by oracle bone scripts and the archaeological excavation in China. Located in Anyang City of Henan Province(northwestern suburbs of Huanhe banks) it covers an area of around 36 km2. According to the characteristics of Yin Xu, remote sensing has shown its great capabilities to solve many issues in different fields, e.g. visual interpretations of aerial photo were used to identify the feature of Yin Xu site in 1972, 1984, 1998, 2005 and 2010. Using the classification validated by field investigations,the change information such as the monitoring index of settlements, riverway, main roads, factory and green area can be extracted in heritage site. According to the monitoring results of land cover and the surrounding environment, we conclude that the protection planning system is effective, and the rapid expansion of neighboring building area has playing a negative role in Yin Xu protection.

  3. Dynamic Monitoring of Yin Xu Site by Remote Sensing

    Yang, Ruixia; Peng, Yanyan


    Yin Xu, dates back more than 3,300 years, is the first relic of the capital of the Shang Dynasty literally recorded and confirmed by oracle bone scripts and the archaeological excavation in China. Located in Anyang City of Henan Province(northwestern suburbs of Huanhe banks) it covers an area of around 36 km 2 . According to the characteristics of Yin Xu, remote sensing has shown its great capabilities to solve many issues in different fields, e.g. visual interpretations of aerial photo were used to identify the feature of Yin Xu site in 1972, 1984, 1998, 2005 and 2010. Using the classification validated by field investigations,the change information such as the monitoring index of settlements, riverway, main roads, factory and green area can be extracted in heritage site. According to the monitoring results of land cover and the surrounding environment, we conclude that the protection planning system is effective, and the rapid expansion of neighboring building area has playing a negative role in Yin Xu protection

  4. Xu Fengxiang—Daughter of the Mountain Forests


    THE "goddess of the forest"has a weather-beaten face. Eighteen years spent living on the plateau of northwestern China have left Xu Fengxiang, a forest ecologist, with a complexion as ruddy as those of the Tibetan people who hold her in such high respect. Xu had long dreamed of setting up a miniature of Tibetan plateau scenery in the inland to enable more people to enjoy the special landscape of Tibet. So when some people from Beijing’s Mentougou District invited her to choose a site for Tibetan Garden, she agreed readily. She chose the highest peak, Lingshan, 2,303 meters above sea level, and quite appropriately, as it has been called as the Mount Qomolangma (Mt. Everest) of

  5. Concentrating Solar Power Projects - KaXu Solar One | Concentrating Solar

    Power | NREL KaXu Solar One This page provides information on KaXu Solar One, a concentrating solar power (CSP) project, with data organized by background, parcipants and power plant configuration . Status Date: April 14, 2015 Project Overview Project Name: KaXu Solar One Country: South Africa Location

  6. Xu Guangqi’s Thought On Supplementing Confucianism With Christianity

    Anna Seo


    Full Text Available Xu Guangqi is one of the most influential Chinese scholars who accepted Christian faith during the late Ming dynasty. His idea of “supplementing Confucianism and replacing Buddhism by Christianity” had great impact on the development of Christianity in China. His idea, however, has often been accused of syncretism, and genuineness of his Christian faith has been put into question. Some argue that his theology lacks Christology. Others suggest that his ultimate goal was to achieve the Confucian political ideals through adopting some of the Christian moral teachings. Through the analysis of Xu Guangqi’ works and life, we find that he accepted all the essential Christian doctrines and Christology is the core of his understanding of “Tianzhu”. His view on Confucianism itself istransformed through Christian perspective. In his new understanding, the ultimate goal of Confucianism is to serve and to worship “Tianzhu”,same as Christianity. The ultimate problem of life is to save one’s soul.Xu Guangqi considered his scientific works as a way to propagate Christian faith,since science was seen as an integral part of Christian thought and practice. His idea of “supplementing Confucianism by Christianity” integrated Confucianism into the overarching framework of Christian thought.

  7. Toyota beamline (BL33XU) at SPring-8

    Nonaka, T., E-mail:; Dohmae, K.; Hayashi, Y.; Yamaguchi, S.; Nagai, Y.; Hirose, Y. [Toyota Central R& D Labs., Inc., 41-1 Nagakute Aichi 480-1192 Japan (Japan); Araki, T. [Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE UK (United Kingdom); Tanaka, T.; Kitamura, H. [RIKEN Harima Institute 1-1-1 Koto Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Uruga, T.; Yamazaki, H.; Yumoto, H.; Ohashi, H.; Goto, S. [JASRI/SPring-8 1-1-1 Koto Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan)


    The Toyota beamline (BL33XU) at SPring-8 is an undulator beamline developed to assist in the study of various automotive-related materials. The light source is a tapered in-vacuum undulator that provides a variable energy band width as well as a high brilliance X-ray beam. Two different optical arrangements are available: Optics 1 and Optics 2. Optics 1 is dedicated to time-resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAFS), and consists of two channel-cut crystal monochromators and four water-cooled flat Si mirrors. The Si(111) and Si(220) monochromator crystals cover an energy range of 4.0–46.0 keV and are driven by high-speed AC servo motors. These monochromators, in conjunction with the tapered undulator, enable high-quality XAFS data acquisition with a temporal resolution of 10 ms. Optics 2 is optimized for X-ray diffraction, scattering and imaging and includes a recently installed double crystal monochromator, two water-cooled flat Si mirrors and Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) focusing mirrors. The monochromator incorporates parallel mounted Si(111) and Si(311) crystals and covers an energy range of 4.5–70 keV. The beamline provides two experimental stations: Exp. Hutch 2 and Exp. Hutch 3. The gas supply system and mass spectrometers installed in Exp. Hutch 2 allow in-operando measurements under various atmospheres. The scanning three-dimensional X-ray diffraction (scanning 3DXRD) microscopy instrumentation developed and installed in Exp. Hutch 3 enables non-destructive orientation and stress mapping of 1 mm-thick steel specimens using a high energy microbeam.

  8. Toyota beamline (BL33XU) at SPring-8

    Nonaka, T.; Dohmae, K.; Hayashi, Y.; Yamaguchi, S.; Nagai, Y.; Hirose, Y.; Araki, T.; Tanaka, T.; Kitamura, H.; Uruga, T.; Yamazaki, H.; Yumoto, H.; Ohashi, H.; Goto, S.


    The Toyota beamline (BL33XU) at SPring-8 is an undulator beamline developed to assist in the study of various automotive-related materials. The light source is a tapered in-vacuum undulator that provides a variable energy band width as well as a high brilliance X-ray beam. Two different optical arrangements are available: Optics 1 and Optics 2. Optics 1 is dedicated to time-resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAFS), and consists of two channel-cut crystal monochromators and four water-cooled flat Si mirrors. The Si(111) and Si(220) monochromator crystals cover an energy range of 4.0–46.0 keV and are driven by high-speed AC servo motors. These monochromators, in conjunction with the tapered undulator, enable high-quality XAFS data acquisition with a temporal resolution of 10 ms. Optics 2 is optimized for X-ray diffraction, scattering and imaging and includes a recently installed double crystal monochromator, two water-cooled flat Si mirrors and Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) focusing mirrors. The monochromator incorporates parallel mounted Si(111) and Si(311) crystals and covers an energy range of 4.5–70 keV. The beamline provides two experimental stations: Exp. Hutch 2 and Exp. Hutch 3. The gas supply system and mass spectrometers installed in Exp. Hutch 2 allow in-operando measurements under various atmospheres. The scanning three-dimensional X-ray diffraction (scanning 3DXRD) microscopy instrumentation developed and installed in Exp. Hutch 3 enables non-destructive orientation and stress mapping of 1 mm-thick steel specimens using a high energy microbeam.

  9. [Professor Xu Fu-song's traditional Chinese medicine protocols for male diseases: A descriptive analysis].

    Liu, Cheng-yong; Xu, Fu-song


    To analyze the efficacy and medication principles of Professor Xu Fu-songs traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) protocols for male diseases. We reviewed and descriptively analyzed the unpublished complete medical records of 100 male cases treated by Professor Xu Fu-song with his TCM protocols from 1978 to 1992. The 100 cases involved 32 male diseases, most of which were difficult and complicated cases. The drug compliance was 95%. Each prescription was made up of 14 traditional Chinese drugs on average. The cure rate was 32% , and the effective rate was 85%. Professor Xu Fu-song advanced and proved some new theories and therapeutic methods. Professor Xu Fu-song's TCM protocols can be applied to a wide range of male diseases, mostly complicated, and are characterized by accurate differentiation of symptoms and signs, high drug compliance, and excellent therapeutic efficacy.

  10. Comparative Analysis of ACAS-Xu and DAIDALUS Detect-and-Avoid Systems

    Davies, Jason T.; Wu, Minghong G.


    The Detect and Avoid (DAA) capability of a recent version (Run 3) of the Airborne Collision Avoidance System-Xu (ACAS-Xu) is measured against that of the Detect and AvoID Alerting Logic for Unmanned Systems (DAIDALUS), a reference algorithm for the Phase 1 Minimum Operational Performance Standards (MOPS) for DAA. This comparative analysis of the two systems' alerting and horizontal guidance outcomes is conducted through the lens of the Detect and Avoid mission using flight data of scripted encounters from a recent flight test. Results indicate comparable timelines and outcomes between ACAS-Xu's Remain Well Clear alert and guidance and DAIDALUS's corrective alert and guidance, although ACAS-Xu's guidance appears to be more conservative. ACAS-Xu's Collision Avoidance alert and guidance occurs later than DAIDALUS's warning alert and guidance, and overlaps with DAIDALUS's timeline of maneuver to remain Well Clear. Interesting discrepancies between ACAS-Xu's directive guidance and DAIDALUS's "Regain Well Clear" guidance occur in some scenarios.

  11. Study on Yang-Xu Using Body Constitution Questionnaire and Blood Variables in Healthy Volunteers

    Hong-Jhang Chen


    Full Text Available Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM formulates treatment according to body constitution (BC differentiation. Different constitutions have specific metabolic characteristics and different susceptibility to certain diseases. This study aimed to assess the Yang-Xu constitution using a body constitution questionnaire (BCQ and clinical blood variables. A BCQ was employed to assess the clinical manifestation of Yang-Xu. The logistic regression model was conducted to explore the relationship between BC scores and biomarkers. Leave-one-out cross-validation (LOOCV and K-fold cross-validation were performed to evaluate the accuracy of a predictive model in practice. Decision trees (DTs were conducted to determine the possible relationships between blood biomarkers and BC scores. According to the BCQ analysis, 49% participants without any BC were classified as healthy subjects. Among them, 130 samples were selected for further analysis and divided into two groups. One group comprised healthy subjects without any BC (68%, while subjects of the other group, named as the sub-healthy group, had three BCs (32%. Six biomarkers, CRE, TSH, HB, MONO, RBC, and LH, were found to have the greatest impact on BCQ outcomes in Yang-Xu subjects. This study indicated significant biochemical differences in Yang-Xu subjects, which may provide a connection between blood variables and the Yang-Xu BC.

  12. Some comments on flipped SU(5)xU(1) and flipped unification in general

    Barr, S.M.


    A general group-theoretical discussion of flipped embeddings is given. In addition to the well-known flipped SU(5) and flipped SO(10), the existence of flipped E 6 and E 7 is shown, as well as several families and special cases of flipped embeddings. A possible physical reason, essentially based on the group theory of flipped embeddings, why nature prefers the low-energy group SU(3)xSU(2)xU(1) to alternatives such as SU(4)xU(1) and SU(5) is pointed out

  13. The Round Table 03 圆桌: A Conversation with Xu Bing

    Madeline Eschenburg


    Full Text Available The following is an excerpt from a conversation between contemporary Chinese artist Xu Bing, Madeline Eschenburg, and Ellen Larson. Xu Bing curated an exhibition at the Central Academy of Fine Arts titled The Second CAFAM Future Exhibition, Observer-Creator: The Reality Representation of Chinese Young Art, on exhibition through March 2015. Our conversation centered around his thoughts on a new generation of young Chinese artists as well as reflection on his own early career and time in New York. The conversation was conducted in Chinese and has been translated into English.

  14. Naturally light neutrinos in the flipped SU(5)xU(1) superstring model

    Antoniadis, I.; Rizos, J. (Centre de Physique Theorique, Ecole Polytechnique, 91 - Palaiseau (France)); Tamvakis, K. (Physics Dept., Univ. Ioannina (Greece))


    We analyze the SU(5)xU(1)'xU(1){sup 4}xSO(10)xSU(4) superstring model, taking into account non-renormalizable superpotential interactions up to sixth order, and find that all neutrinos stay naturally light within the experimental mass bounds. (orig.).

  15. Data used in Xu et al., 2016 paper entitled "Characteristics and distributions of atmospheric mercury emitted from anthropogenic sources in Guiyang, southwestern China

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Mercury emissions data from anthropogenic sources as described in Xu et al., 2016. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Xu, X., N. Liu, M....

  16. Flipped SU(5)xU(1){sub X} models from F-theory

    Jiang Jing [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Li Tianjun, E-mail: tjli@physics.rutgers.ed [George P. and Cynthia W. Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Key Laboratory of Frontiers in Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Nanopoulos, Dimitri V. [George P. and Cynthia W. Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Astroparticle Physics Group, Houston Advanced Research Center (HARC), Mitchell Campus, Woodlands, TX 77381 (United States); Academy of Athens, Division of Natural Sciences, 28 Panepistimiou Avenue, Athens 10679 (Greece); Xie Dan [George P. and Cynthia W. Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States)


    We systematically construct flipped SU(5)xU(1){sub X} models without and with bulk vector-like particles from F-theory. To realize the decoupling scenario, we introduce sets of vector-like particles in complete SU(5)xU(1) multiplets at the TeV scale, or at the intermediate scale, or at the TeV scale and high scale. To avoid the Landau pole problem for the gauge couplings, we can only introduce five sets of vector-like particles around the TeV scale. These vector-like particles can couple to the Standard Model singlet fields, and obtain suitable masses by Higgs mechanism. We study gauge coupling unification in detail. We show that the U(1){sub X} flux contributions to the gauge couplings preserve the SU(5)xU(1){sub X} gauge coupling unification. We calculate the SU(3){sub C}xSU(2){sub L} unification scales, and the SU(5)xU(1){sub X} unification scales and unified couplings. In most of our models, the high-scale or bulk vector-like particles can be considered as string-scale threshold corrections since their masses are close to the string scale. Furthermore, we discuss the phenomenological consequences of our models. In particular, in the models with TeV-scale vector-like particles, the vector-like particles can be observed at the Large Hadron Collider, the proton decay is within the reach of the future Hyper-Kamiokande experiment, the lightest CP-even Higgs boson mass can be increased, the hybrid inflation can be naturally realized, and the correct cosmic primordial density fluctuations can be generated.

  17. Testable flipped SU(5)xU(1){sub X} models

    Jiang Jing [Institute of Theoretical Science, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403 (United States); Li Tianjun [George P. and Cynthia W. Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States) and Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States)]. E-mail:; Nanopoulos, Dimitri V. [George P. and Cynthia W. Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Astroparticle Physics Group, Houston Advanced Research Center (HARC), Mitchell Campus, Woodlands, TX 77381 (United States); Academy of Athens, Division of Natural Sciences, 28 Panepistimiou Avenue, Athens 10679 (Greece)


    The little hierarchy between the GUT scale and the string scale may give us some hints that can be tested at the LHC. To achieve string-scale gauge coupling unification, we introduce additional vector-like particles. We require that these vector-like particles be standard, form complete GUT multiplets, and have masses around the TeV scale or close to the string scale. Interestingly, only the flipped SU(5)xU(1){sub X} models can work elegantly. We consider all possible sets of vector-like particles with masses around the TeV scale. And we introduce vector-like particles with masses close to the string scale which can mimic the string-scale threshold corrections. We emphasize that all of these vector-like particles can be obtained in the interesting flipped SU(5)xU(1){sub X} string models from the four-dimensional free fermionic string construction. Assuming the low-energy supersymmetry, high-scale supersymmetry, and split supersymmetry, we show that the string-scale gauge coupling unification can indeed be achieved in the flipped SU(5)xU(1){sub X} models. These models can be tested at the LHC by observing simple sets of vector-like particles at the TeV scale. Moreover, we discuss a simple flipped SU(5)xU(1){sub X} model with string-scale gauge coupling unification and high-scale supersymmetry by introducing only one pair of the vector-like particles at the TeV scale, and we predict the corresponding Higgs boson masses. Also, we briefly comment on the string-scale gauge coupling unification in the model with low-energy supersymmetry by introducing only one pair of the vector-like particles at the intermediate scale. And we briefly comment on the mixings among the SM fermions and the corresponding extra vector-like particles.

  18. Xu Fuguan’s Concept of Anxiety and Its Connection to Religious Studies



    Full Text Available Although Xu Fuguan (1903–1982 belongs to the most important representatives of the Modern Confucian intellectual movement, he is rather unknown outside China. However, his concept of “anxiety” (youhuan yishi 憂患意識 is not only relevant for the recognition of the special characteristics, which determines the ideological and political structure of ancient Chinese society, but also for the intercultural elaboration of Jaspers’s “axial age” theory. This article introduces this concept to the European academic readership, and provides an analysis of its connection to the Modern Confucian hypothesis regarding the absence of an external God (or Deities in classical Chinese culture.

  19. [Medication regularity and potential targets of Professor XU Jing-fan's prescription for treating ulcerative colitis].

    Ning, Li-Qin; Ye, Bai; Shen, Hong; Lu, Wei-Min; Xu, Dan-Hua; Yan, Jing; Tan, Chang; Tang, De-Cai


    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic nonspecific inflammation mainly involving rectum and colon mucosa, which seriously affects the health and quality of life of patients, and is listed as one of modern refractory diseases by WHO. Professor XU Jing-fan, a great master of traditional Chinese medicine, has accumulated rich experiences in the treatment of UC. The study collected Professor XU's 77 prescriptions of treating UC, analyzed the frequency of traditional Chinese medicines and there categories, and investigated the medication regularity by the system clustering method. The findings showed that the most frequently used drugs were clearing-heat herbs, which were followed by hemostatic herbs, excreting-dampness herbs, improving-digestion herbs and tonifying-Qi herbs. At the same time, the commonly combined drugs were excavated. Finally, in order to analyze potential molecular targets of the frequently used herbs, GO enrichment analysis and KEGG signal pathway enrichment analysis were performed with bioinformatics analysis tool for molecular mechanism of traditional Chinese medicine (BATMAN-TCM). The results indicated that Chinese herbal compounds may treat UC by activating PPAR-γ pathway and regulating intestinal inflammation. The exact mechanisms shall be verified through subsequent molecular biological experiments. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  20. Adaptation illustrations: Chapter 4

    Maria Janowiak; Patricia Butler; Chris Swanston; Matt St. Pierre; Linda. Parker


    In this chapter, we demonstrate how the Adaptation Workbook (Chapter 3) can be used with the Adaptation Strategies and Approaches (Chapter 2) to develop adaptation tactics for two real-world management issues. The two illustrations in this chapter are intended to provide helpful tips to managers completing the Adaptation Workbook, as well as to show how the anticipated...

  1. Flavor violations in no-scale flipped SU(5)xU(1)

    Faraggi, A.E.; Lopez, J.L.; Nonopoulos, D.V.; Yuan, K.


    We study lepton-number violations in the flipped SU(5)xU(1) model in the context of no-scale supergravity. We find that the experimental limits on>e..gamma..,>eeanti e, and conversion in nuclei generally imply an upper bound on the top quark mass and a lower bound on the gaugino mass. We conclude that the seed of supersymmetry breaking in no-scale models (gaugino masses) radically changes some results obtained in ''minimal'' N=1 supergravity in the leptonic sector, while results in the hadronic sector (e.g. K-anti K, B-anti B mixings, and b->s..gamma..) remain essentially unchanged.

  2. Retracing the phenomenology of the flipped SU(5)xU(1) superstring model

    Rizos, J.; Tamvakis, K. (Ioannina Univ. (Greece). Dept. of Physics)


    We study in detail gauge symmetry breaking in the SU(5)xU(1)'xU(1){sup 4}xSO(10)xSO(6) superstring model, solving the D- and F-flatness conditions and taking into account quartic and quintic superpotential terms. We find that, to this order, the model describes two massive generations of quarks and leptons as well as a massless generation expected to receive naturally suppressed masses from higher order non-renormalizable terms. We show that D-flatness restricts the number of massless isodoublets to four. We also extract an inequality relating the top quark mass to M{sub W}. (orig.).

  3. The bio-crystallography beamline (BL41XU) at SPring-8

    Kawamoto, M; Kamiya, N


    The bio-crystallography beamline (BL41XU), one of two pilot beamlines at SPring-8, was constructed using a standard in-vacuum-type undulator and opened for general users from domestic and overseas countries. Many tests and improvements were carried out on beamline elements and equipment for macromolecular crystallography, especially on the so-called 'pin-post' water cooling crystal of rotated-inclined double crystal monochromator. The maximum brilliance at sample position reached to 4x10 sup 1 sup 5 photons/s/mm sup 2 /mrad sup 2 at an X-ray energy of 11 keV. Commercially available X-ray detectors of CCD and imaging plate were installed in the experimental station. A beamline control software system for beam tracking and an on-line reader for large-format imaging plate were newly developed.

  4. The flipped SU(5)xU(1) string model revamped

    Antoniadis, I.; Ellis, J.; Hagelin, J.S.; Nanopoulos, D.V. (European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland))


    We present a refined version of our three-generation flipped SU(5)xU(1) string model with the following properties. The complete massless spectrum is derived and shown to be free of all gauge and mixed anomalies apart from a single anomalous U(1). The imaginary part of the dilaton supermultiplet is eaten by the anomalous U(1) gauge boson, and the corresponding D-term is cancelled by large VEVs for singlet fields that break surplus U(1) gauge factors, leaving a supersymmetric vacuum with an SU(5)xU(1) visible gauge group and an SO(10)xSO(6) hidden gauge group. There are sufficient Higgs multiplets to break the visible gauge symmetry down to the standard model in an essentially unique way. All trilinear superpotential couplings have been calculated and there are in particular some giving m{sub t}, m{sub b}, m{sub tau}ne0. A renormalization group analysis shows that m{sub t}<190 GeV and m{sub b}{approx equal}3m{sub tau}. Light Higgs doublets are split automatically from heavy Higgs triplets, leaving no residual dimension-five operators for baryon decay, and the baryon lifetime tau{sub B} {approx equal} 2x10{sup 34{plus minus}2} yr. There are no tree-level flavour-changing neutral currents, but muyieldsegamma may occur at a detectable level: B(muyieldsegamma){proportional to} 10{sup -11}-10{sup -14}. (orig.).

  5. Tourette Association Chapters

    ... com Arizona Email: Website: Arkansas Support Group of Northwest ... California/Hawaii Chapter Email: Website: Southern California Chapter Phone: ...

  6. Chapter 10: Management recommendations

    Deborah M. Finch; Janie Agyagos; Tracy McCarthey; Robert M. Marshall; Scott H. Stoleson; Mary J. Whitfield


    This chapter was developed over a series of meetings using a group-consensus process. Our recommendations are based on published results, on information compiled in the previous chapters, on expert opinion, and on unpublished data of conservation team members. This chapter is available as temporary guidance until the Recovery Plan for the southwestern willow flycatcher...

  7. Low Impact Development Intensive Rural Construction Planning in Xu Fu Village Ningbo, China: Planning Review through Rural Resilience Perspective

    Roosmayri Lovina Hermaputi


    Full Text Available Xu Fu Village Ningbo LID Intensive Rural Construction Planning is a cooperation project between Zhejiang University and Ningbo Institute of Technology which named "12th Five-Year National Science and Technology support program-the comprehensive demonstration of the key technology of the beautiful rural construction in the rapid urbanization area of the Yangtze River Delta". This plan focuses on intensive rural construction as part of rural development and construction project that applies the principles of low impact development. Xu Fu Village located in the Yangtze River Delta Region. Currently, the rural growth brings the high impact of development, as a result of rapid urbanization growth arising several issues, such as low land use efficiency, dispersed rural residence, homestead occupies more, rural roads covering over, etc. Meanwhile, Xu Fu village wishes to develop its tourism potential. Thus, the intensive rural construction should be done to avoid the severe effect. The project result hopefully can improve the quality and level of rural residential planning, design, and construction; improve their living environment; save construction land and water use; and improve energy efficiency. The aim of this study is to review the Low Impact Development (LID Intensive Rural Construction in Xu Fu Village, Ningbo City through the rural resilience perspective. This paper will describe the project plan first, then review it through rural resilience perspective. This paper will elaborate the rural resilience theory and then review the rural resiliency through two parts; the first part is identifying rural resilience in rural infrastructure development based on the criteria created by Ayyob S. and Yoshiki Y. (2014, about urban resiliency criteria, and then the second part is reviewing Xu Fu Village resilience through Arup Resilience Qualities (2012, considering three rural resilience domain (economy, ecology, and cultural.

  8. Chapter 27. Superconductors

    Vavra, O.


    In this chapter author deals with superconductors and superconductivity. Different chemical materials used as high-temperature superconductors are presented. Some applications of superconductivity are presented.

  9. Phenomenological constraints imposed by the hidden sector in the flipped SU(5)xU(1) superstring model

    Leontaris, G.K.; Rizos, J.; Tamvakis, K. (Ioannina Univ. (Greece). Theoretical Physics Div.)


    We calculate the trilinear superpotential of the hidden sector of the three generation flipped SU(5)xU(1)xU(1){sup 4}xSO(10)xSU(4) superstring model. We perform a renormalization group analysis of the model taking into account the hidden sector. We find that, in all relevant cases, fractionally charged tetraplets of the hidden SO(6) gauge group are confined at a high scale. Nevertheless, their contribution to the observable U(1) gauge coupling evolution results in a drastic reduction of the available freedom in the values of a{sub 3}(m{sub w}), sin{sup 2}{theta}{sub w} and M{sub x} that allow superunification. (orig.).

  10. XU Jian-zhong (许建中)——An Outstanding Doctor of Integrative Medicine on Respiratory Diseases


    @@Professor XU Jian-zhong was born in a family of traditional Chinese doctor in Beijing, August, 1930. His native place is Putian, Fujian Province. Prof. XU has engaged for more than 40 years in clinical medicine since he was graduated from Shanxi Medical University in 1954. From 1958 to 1961, he was released from work to attend the TCM Learning Class for Doctors of Western Medicine for 3 years and granted the first grade prize by the Ministry of Health at graduation. Since then, the integration of traditional Chinese and western medicine (TCM-WM) has been the cause he devoted himself to. Now, he is Chief Doctor in Xiyuan Hospital, China Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine, visiting professor of postgraduate education Department of China Academy of TCM, and Director of Specialty Committee of Respiratory Diseases, Chinese Association of Integration of Traditional and Western Medicine (CAIM).

  11. Environmental Radioactivity. Chapter 4

    Muhamat Omar; Ismail Sulaiman; Zalina Laili


    This chapter explains several things which consist radioactivity measurements, regular and high background radioactivity, radioactive contaminated soil and radioactivity in fertilizers, rocks, building materials, food, water, environments, sediments, flora and fauna. Besides, the natural radioactive gas concentration of radon and toron in the environment also been discussed specifically in this chapter.

  12. Illusion and Disillusionment in the Name of the “Ghost”:A Study of Xu Xu’s “Ghost Love”

    Qin, Chen


    As one of the most popular writers of the Republican period, Xu Xu (1908-1980) is famous for fiction characterized by a cosmopolitan atmosphere, exoticism, and fantastic encounters. Ghost Love, his first well-known work, presents the traditional narrative of “a man encountering a female ghost” and offers serious contemplation about the nature of reality from the perspective of psychology, philosophy, and politics. In examining the intertextualit...

  13. Chapter 9: Electronics

    Grupen, Claus; Shwartz, Boris A.


    Sophisticated front-end electronics are a key part of practically all modern radiation detector systems. This chapter introduces the basic principles and their implementation. Topics include signal acquisition, electronic noise, pulse shaping (analog and digital), and data readout techniques

  14. Basic Principles - Chapter 6

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This chapter described at a very high level some of the considerations that need to be made when designing algorithms for a vehicle health management application....

  15. Gauge symmetry breaking in the hidden sector of the flipped SU(5)xU(1) superstring model

    Antoniadis, I.; Rizos, J. (Centre de Physique Theorique, Ecole Polytechnique, 91 - Palaiseau (France)); Tamvakis, K. (Theoretical Physics Div., Univ. Ioannina (Greece))


    We analyze the SU(5)xU(1)'xU(1){sup 4}xSO(10)xSU(4) superstring model with a spontaneously broken hidden sector down to SO(7)xSO(5) taking into account non-renormalizable superpotential terms up to eight order. As a result of the hidden sector breaking the 'exotic' states get a mass and the 'observable' spectrum is composed of the standard three families. In addition, Cabibbo mixing arises at sixth order and an improved fermion mass hierarchy emerges. (orig.).

  16. Phenomenology of the hierarchical lepton mass spectrum in the flipped SU(5)xU(1) string model

    Leontaris, G.K.; Nanopoulos, D.V.


    A detailed phenomenological analysis of the lepton mass matrices and their implications in the low energy theory are discussed, within the recently proposed SU(5)xU(1) string model. The unification scale is highly constrained while the Yukawa couplings lie in a natural region. The flavour changing decays -> e..gamma.., -> 3e, -> e are highly suppressed while the depletion in the flux of muon neutrinos reported by the Kamiokande is explained through reversible tau/ oscillations.

  17. The correlational research on the physical mechanical indexes of typical soil collecting from the Xu Wei Lianyungang port

    Liu, Wenbin; Wang, Yuanzhan; Liu, Aimin


    The tests on the physical mechanical indexes of the reclaimed soft clay are necessary to be done before the foundation strengthening treatment. This paper focus on the study of correlational relationship between the physical mechanical indexes, such as the natural water content, the void ratio, the liquid limit etc., by fitting the data of model test on samples collecting from the Xu Wei Lianyungang port. The linear relationship fitting curve of the physical mechanical indexes is proposed, and these results support the high efficient operation in engineering practice.

  18. Recent progress of hard x-ray imaging microscopy and microtomography at BL37XU of SPring-8

    Suzuki, Yoshio, E-mail:; Takeuchi, Akihisa; Terada, Yasuko; Uesugi, Kentaro [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (JASRI/SPring-8), Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Mizutani, Ryuta [Department of Applied Biochemistry, Tokai University, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 259-1292 (Japan)


    A hard x-ray imaging microscopy and microtomography system is now being developed at the beamline 37XU of SPring-8. In the latest improvement, a spatial resolution of about 50 nm is achieved in two-dimensional imaging at 6 keV x-ray energy using a Fresnel zone plate objective with an outermost zone width of 35 nm. In the tomographic measurement, a spatial resolution of about 100 nm is achieved at 8 keV using an x-ray guide tube condenser optic and a Fresnel zone plate objective with an outermost zone width of 50 nm.

  19. Scalar mesons and glueballs in a chiral U(3)xU(3) quark model with 't Hooft interaction

    Nagy, M.; Volkov, M.K.; Yudichev, V.L.


    In a U(3)xU(3) quark chiral model of the Nambu-Jona-Lasino (NJL) type with the 't Hooft interaction, the ground scalar isoscalar mesons and a scalar glueball are described. The glueball (dilaton) is introduced into the effective meson Lagrangian written in a chirally symmetric form on the basis of scale invariance. The singlet-octet mixing of scalar isoscalar mesons and their mixing with the glueball are taken into account. Mass spectra of the scalar mesons and glueball and their strong decays are described

  20. A comment on "The interaction of X2 (X = F, Cl, and Br) with active sites of graphite" [Xu et al., Chem. Phys. Lett., 418, 413 (2006)

    Lechner, Christoph; Baranek, Philippe; Vach, Holger


    In their article, Xu et al. (2006) present the adsorption energies for the chemisorption of the three halogens F2 , Cl2 , and Br2 on the active sites of graphite. The three investigated systems are the three most stable surfaces, (0 0 1), (1 0 0), and (1 1 0); the latter two are also called zigzag and armchair surface, respectively. Due to some inconsistencies in their article, we re-evaluated the results of Xu et al. in order to investigate the impact on the adsorption energies of the halogens. For the (0 0 1) surface, our results agree with Xu et al. However, for the other two surfaces we find major differences. Contrary to Xu et al., we find that the halogens adsorb the strongest on the zigzag surface. The second strongest adsorption is found on the armchair surface for the symmetric configurations, the third strongest for the asymmetric configurations. Several reasons are given which explain this discrepancy. The most striking source of error in the work of Xu et al. is due to the fact that they did not choose the correct spin multiplicities for the model systems which means that they performed the calculations in excited states. This leads to errors between 50 and 600% for the zigzag surface and 3-42% for the armchair surface.

  1. Nursery management [Chapter 16

    Kim M. Wilkinson


    This handbook provides an overview of the factors that go into starting and operating a native plant nursery. Management includes all aspects of working with plants in all their phases of growth as described in Chapter 3, Crop Planning and Developing Propagation Protocols. Management also includes working with the community; organizing materials and infrastructure;...

  2. Chapter 8. Data Analysis

    Lyman L. McDonald; Christina D. Vojta; Kevin S. McKelvey


    Perhaps the greatest barrier between monitoring and management is data analysis. Data languish in drawers and spreadsheets because those who collect or maintain monitoring data lack training in how to effectively summarize and analyze their findings. This chapter serves as a first step to surmounting that barrier by empowering any monitoring team with the basic...

  3. Forestry [Chapter 11

    H. Gyde Lund; William A. Befort; James E. Brickell; William M. Ciesla; Elizabeth C. Collins; Raymond L. Czaplewski; Attilio Antonio Disperati; Robert W. Douglass; Charles W. Dull; Jerry D. Greer; Rachel Riemann Hershey; Vernon J. LaBau; Henry Lachowski; Peter A. Murtha; David J. Nowak; Marc A. Roberts; Pierre Schram; Mahadev D. Shedha; Ashbindu Singh; Kenneth C. Winterberger


    Foresters and other resource managers have used aerial photographs to help manage resources since the late 1920s. As discussed in chapter 1, however, it was not until the mid-1940s that their use became common. Obtaining photographic coverage was always a problem. For many areas of the world, reasonably complete coverage did not exist until after World War II. In...

  4. Radiation biology. Chapter 20

    Wondergem, J. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)


    Radiation biology (radiobiology) is the study of the action of ionizing radiations on living matter. This chapter gives an overview of the biological effects of ionizing radiation and discusses the physical, chemical and biological variables that affect dose response at the cellular, tissue and whole body levels at doses and dose rates relevant to diagnostic radiology.

  5. Water resources (Chapter 12)

    Thomas C. Brown; Romano Foti; Jorge Ramirez


    In this chapter, we focus on the vulnerability of U.S. freshwater supplies considering all lands, not just forest and rangelands. We do not assess the condition of those lands or report on how much of our water supply originates on lands of different land covers or ownerships, because earlier Resources Planning Act (RPA) Assessment work addressed these topics....

  6. Chapter 5: Training



    The chapter 5 presents the 1) initial training; 2) periodic training, which includes: a) periodic training for employees at lower levels of the hierarchy than that of the operator; b) period training for operators; 3) operator training; 4) record of training; 5) safety culture.

  7. Chapter 0: Executive summary


    This chapter deals with the background (Gabcikovo hydro power scheme was input in October 1992), project objective, project framework, equipment, establishment of the integrated modelling system, model setup, calibration and validation, definitions of scenarios for model application and with the results of model applications

  8. Chapter 6: Accidents



    Th chapter 6 presents the accidents of: 1) Stimos (Italy - May, 1975); 2) San Salvador (El Salvador - February 5, 1989); 3) Soreq (Israel - June 21, 1990); 4) Nesvizh (Belarus - October 26, 1991); 5) Illinois (USA - February, 1965); 6)Maryland (EUA - December 11, 1991); 7)Hanoi (Vietnam -November 17, 1992); 8)Fleurus (Belgium - March 11, 2006) and final remarks on accidents.

  9. Radiation Protection. Chapter 24

    Sutton, D. [Ninewells Hospital, Dundee (United Kingdom); Collins, L. T. [Westmead Hospital, Sydney (Australia); Le Heron, J. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)


    Chapter 21, in describing basic radiation biology and radiation effects, demonstrates the need to have a system of radiation protection that allows the many beneficial uses of radiation to be realized while ensuring detrimental radiation effects are either prevented or minimized. This can be achieved with the twin objectives of preventing the occurrence of deterministic effects and of limiting the probability of stochastic effects to a level that is considered acceptable. In a radiology facility, consideration needs to be given to the patient, the staff involved in performing the radiological procedures, members of the public and other staff that may be in the radiology facility, carers and comforters of patients undergoing procedures, and persons who may be undergoing a radiological procedure as part of a biomedical research project. This chapter discusses how the objectives given above are fulfilled through a system of radiation protection and how such a system should be applied practically in a radiology facility.

  10. Chapter 5: Monitoring results

    Poel, Bart; Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Schultz, Jørgen Munthe


    The monitoring results from the IEA Task 13 project "Advanced solar low energy houses" are described in this chapter. The underlying information was collected in the form of questionnaires. The questionnaires were formulated in such a way that participants are provided with a uniform lay......-out to fill in their particular results. Thus it is possible to compare the performances measured, calculated or predicted for the different houses....

  11. Chapter 14. Greenhouses

    Rafferty, Kevin D.


    Greenhouse heating is one of the most common uses of geothermal resources. Because of the significant heating requirements of greenhouses and their ability to use very low- temperature fluids, they are a natural application. The evaluation of a particular greenhouse project involves consideration of the structure heating requirements, and the system to meet those requirements. This chapter is intended to provide information on each of these areas.

  12. Water resources (Chapter 5)

    Hobbs, Philip


    Full Text Available and relationships that inform the association between geology, shale gas and groundwater that is discussed in this Chapter. The mudstones and sandstones of the Adelaide Subgroup at the base of the Beaufort Group succession of sedimentary strata represent... migration to surface. The sedimentary rocks of the Ecca Group cover a further ~6% of the study area. In agreement with Rosewarne et al. (2013), who recognise a western, a central and an eastern subarea; this study recognises an additional southern subarea...

  13. Calculation of the top quark mass in the flipped SU(5)xU(1) superstring model

    Leontaris, G.K.; Rizos, J.; Tamvakis, K. (Ioannina Univ. (Greece). Dept. of Physics)


    We present a complete renormalization group calculation of the top-quark mass in the SU(5)xU(1) superstring model. We solve the coupled renormalization group equations for the gauge and Yukawa couplings in the two-loop approximation and obtain the top-quark mass as a function of two parameters of the model which could be chosen to be ratios of singlet VEVs associated with the surplus (U(1)){sup 4} breaking. We obtain a heavy top-quark with 150 GeV{le}m{sub t}<200 GeV, for most part of the parameter space, while lower values are possible only in a very small extremal region. We also compute the allowed range of unification parameters (M{sub x}, sin{sup 2}{theta}{sub w}, {alpha}{sub 3}(M{sub W})) in the presence of a heavy top-quark. (orig.).

  14. Global analysis of general SU(2)xSU(2)xU(1) models with precision data

    Hsieh, Ken; Yu, Jiang-Hao; Yuan, C.-P.; Schmitz, Kai


    We present the results of a global analysis of a class of models with an extended electroweak gauge group of the form SU(2)xSU(2)xU(1), often denoted as G(221) models, which include as examples the left-right, the leptophobic, the hadrophobic, the fermiophobic, the un-unified, and the nonuniversal models. Using an effective Lagrangian approach, we compute the shifts to the coefficients in the electroweak Lagrangian due to the new heavy gauge bosons, and obtain the lower bounds on the masses of the Z ' and W ' bosons. The analysis of the electroweak parameter bounds reveals a consistent pattern of several key observables that are especially sensitive to the effects of new physics and thus dominate the overall shape of the respective parameter contours.

  15. ASFMRA Chapter Strategic Planning: Iowa Chapter Case Study

    Trede, Larry


    This paper summarizes the strategic planning process used by the Iowa Chapter of the American Society of Farm Managers and Rural Appraisers to develop a new vision, mission statement, and chapter objectives. Procedures included the use of a focus group and a quantitative survey. The results indicated a strong need for chapter member continuing education, a chapter member services program, and a strong outreach/public relations program. As a result of the strategic planning process, a new chap...

  16. Chapter 6: Conclusions and recommendations


    This chapter provides a brief summary of conclusions with respect to project implementation issues. Furthermore, the chapter contains recommendations on future applications of the modelling system and on water resources management in the project area

  17. Summary and conclusions [Chapter 11

    Daniel G. Neary; John N. Rinne; Alvin L.. Medina


    Summaries and conclusions of each chapter are compiled here to provide a “Quick Reference” guide of major results and recommendations for the UVR. More detail can be obtained from individual chapters.

  18. Chapter 13. Radionuclides in medicine

    Toelgyessy, J.; Harangozo, M.


    This is a chapter of textbook of radioecology for university students. In this chapter authors deal with problems connected with using of radionuclides in medicine. Methods of treatment with using of radionuclides are reviewed. Chapter consists of next parts: (1) Remotion of thyroid gland; (2) Treatment of cerebrally tumour in nuclear reactor; (3) Artificial heart

  19. Chapter 2: Irradiators



    The chapter 2 presents the subjects: 1) gamma irradiators which includes: Category-I gamma irradiators (self-contained); Category-II gamma irradiators (panoramic and dry storage); Category-III gamma irradiators (self-contained in water); Category-IV gamma irradiators (panoramic and wet storage); source rack for Category-IV gamma irradiators; product transport system for Category-IV gamma irradiators; radiation shield for gamma irradiators; 2) accelerators which includes: Category-I Accelerators (shielded irradiator); Category-II Accelerators (irradiator inside a shielded room); Irradiation application examples.

  20. Quality Management. Chapter 19

    Hiles, P. A. [Glan Clwyd Hospital, Bodelwyddan (United Kingdom); McLean, I. D. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Christofides, S. [New Nicosia General Hospital, Nicosia (Cyprus)


    This chapter introduces the principles and definitions of quality management systems (QMSs) for radiology facilities, to give a framework to assist in the setting up of such systems and to emphasize the role of the medical physicist in this context. While there is a diversity of terms currently in use to describe quality processes both generally and specifically within radiology, there is broad agreement that the effective management of radiation medicine services demands a quality culture that includes a systematic approach to the elements that govern the delivery of that service. Therefore, the concept of quality assurance (QA) within the radiological facility covers, in its widest sense, all those factors that affect the intended outcome, that is, a clinical diagnosis. The medical physicist has an important role in the overall QMS, especially, but not exclusively, with respect to the equipment performance. A worked example of a quality control (QC) programme is included at the end of the chapter, to demonstrate the depth of detail and involvement of the medical physicist.

  1. BCQ+: a body constitution questionnaire to assess Yang-Xu. Part I: establishment of a first final version through a Delphi process.

    Su, Yi-Chang; Chen, Li-Li; Lin, Jun-Dai; Lin, Jui-Shan; Huang, Yi-Chia; Lai, Jim-Shoung


    Assessing an individual's level of Yang deficiency (Yang-Xu) by its manifestations is a frequent issue in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) clinical trials. To this end, an objective, reliable and rigorous diagnostic tool is required. This study aimed to develop a first final version of the Yang-Xu Constitution Questionnaire. We conducted 3 steps to develop such an objective measurement tool: 1) the research team was formed and a panel of 26 experts was selected for the Delphi process; 2) items for the questionnaire were generated by literature review and a Delphi process; items were reworded into colloquial questions; face and content validity of the items were evaluated through a Delphi process again; 3) the difficulty of the questionnaire was evaluated in a pilot study with 81 subjects aged 20-60 years. The literature review retrieved 35 relevant items which matched the definition of 'constitution' and 'Yang-Xu'. After a first Delphi process, 22 items were retained and translated into colloquial questions. According to the second part of the Delphi process, the content validity index of each of the 22 questions ranged between 0.85-1. These 22 questions were evaluated by 81 subjects, 2 questions that were hard to tell the difference were combined; 3 questions were modified after the research team had discussed the participants' feedback. Finally, the questionnaire was established with 21 questions. This first final version of a questionnaire to assess Yang-Xu constitution with considerable face and content validity may serve as a basis to develop an advanced Yang-Xu questionnaire. 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Palaeoclimate. Chapter 6

    Jansen, E.; Overpeck, J.; Briffa, K.R.; Duplessy, J.C.; Joos, F.; Masson-Delmotte, V.; Olago, D.; Otto-Bliesner, B.; Peltier, W.R.; Rahmstorf, S.; Ramesh, R.; Raynaud, D.; Rind, D.; Solomina, O.; Villalba, R.; Zhang, D.


    This chapter assesses palaeoclimatic data and knowledge of how the climate system changes over interannual to millennial time scales, and how well these variations can be simulated with climate models. Additional palaeoclimatic perspectives are included in other chapters. Palaeoclimate science has made significant advances since the 1970s, when a primary focus was on the origin of the ice ages, the possibility of an imminent future ice age, and the first explorations of the so-called Little Ice Age and Medieval Warm Period. Even in the first IPCC assessment, many climatic variations prior to the instrumental record were not that well known or understood. Fifteen years later, understanding is much improved, more quantitative and better integrated with respect to observations and modelling. After a brief overview of palaeoclimatic methods, including their strengths and weaknesses, this chapter examines the palaeoclimatic record in chronological order, from oldest to youngest. This approach was selected because the climate system varies and changes over all time scales, and it is instructive to understand the contributions that lower-frequency patterns of climate change might make in influencing higher-frequency patterns of variability and change. In addition, an examination of how the climate system has responded to large changes in climate forcing in the past is useful in assessing how the same climate system might respond to the large anticipated forcing changes in the future. Cutting across this chronologically based presentation are assessments of climate forcing and response, and of the ability of state-of-the-art climate models to simulate the responses. Perspectives from palaeoclimatic observations, theory and modelling are integrated wherever possible to reduce uncertainty in the assessment. Several sections also assess the latest developments in the rapidly advancing area of abrupt climate change, that is, forced or unforced climatic change that involves

  3. Palaeoclimate. Chapter 6

    Jansen, E.; Overpeck, J.; Briffa, K.R.; Duplessy, J.C.; Joos, F.; Masson-Delmotte, V.; Olago, D.; Otto-Bliesner, B.; Peltier, W.R.; Rahmstorf, S.; Ramesh, R.; Raynaud, D.; Rind, D.; Solomina, O.; Villalba, R.; Zhang, D.


    This chapter assesses palaeoclimatic data and knowledge of how the climate system changes over interannual to millennial time scales, and how well these variations can be simulated with climate models. Additional palaeoclimatic perspectives are included in other chapters. Palaeoclimate science has made significant advances since the 1970s, when a primary focus was on the origin of the ice ages, the possibility of an imminent future ice age, and the first explorations of the so-called Little Ice Age and Medieval Warm Period. Even in the first IPCC assessment, many climatic variations prior to the instrumental record were not that well known or understood. Fifteen years later, understanding is much improved, more quantitative and better integrated with respect to observations and modelling. After a brief overview of palaeoclimatic methods, including their strengths and weaknesses, this chapter examines the palaeoclimatic record in chronological order, from oldest to youngest. This approach was selected because the climate system varies and changes over all time scales, and it is instructive to understand the contributions that lower-frequency patterns of climate change might make in influencing higher-frequency patterns of variability and change. In addition, an examination of how the climate system has responded to large changes in climate forcing in the past is useful in assessing how the same climate system might respond to the large anticipated forcing changes in the future. Cutting across this chronologically based presentation are assessments of climate forcing and response, and of the ability of state-of-the-art climate models to simulate the responses. Perspectives from palaeoclimatic observations, theory and modelling are integrated wherever possible to reduce uncertainty in the assessment. Several sections also assess the latest developments in the rapidly advancing area of abrupt climate change, that is, forced or unforced climatic change that involves

  4. Chapter 8: Youth Culture

    Stald, Gitte Bang


    Gitte Stald has been researching mobile technologies since their early days of adoption by younger audiences. In her talk, she focuses on adolescents and their mobile media use. Stald shares her findings from the longitudinal and cross-cultural studies she has been conducting over the years....... The chapter builds on findings from a Danish and a European context, but they can be expanded to think about mobile youth culture in general. Gitte Stald discusses the concepts of digital natives and digital immigrants, sharing, immediacy, and the feeling of presence (or absent presence), social coordination...... their phones as indispensable to managing their social lives. Stald observes that while being connected all the time gives youth a sense of freedom, control and autonomy, their increasing access to mobile phones is a cause anytime, anywhere access to one another is now possible with mobile phones, time...

  5. CHAPTER 1. Introduction

    Zhang, Lianbin; Wang, Peng


    With the development of modern industry and modern economies, environmental problems, especially water pollution and water scarcity, have become the most serious global challenges. In dealing with these challenges, various kinds of functionalized materials and devices are purposefully developed, fabricated, and utilized. It is clear that smart materials have not only provided effective strategies for solving environmental problems, but have also exhibited unprecedented advantages over traditional materials by integrating multifunctions and/or processes into one advanced device/material. In this book, we will present a broad collection of bioinspired smart materials and systems that are used in environmental problem solving. The topics of these chapters span from bioinspired fog collection, self-healing materials, responsive particle-stabilized emulsions, smart draw solutions in forward osmosis, slippery coating, insightful analysis of problems and opportunities for hydrophobic surfaces applied in real conditions, to superwetting materials for oil-water separation.

  6. Melt inclusions: Chapter 6

    ,; Lowenstern, J. B.


    Melt inclusions are small droplets of silicate melt that are trapped in minerals during their growth in a magma. Once formed, they commonly retain much of their initial composition (with some exceptions) unless they are re-opened at some later stage. Melt inclusions thus offer several key advantages over whole rock samples: (i) they record pristine concentrations of volatiles and metals that are usually lost during magma solidification and degassing, (ii) they are snapshots in time whereas whole rocks are the time-integrated end products, thus allowing a more detailed, time-resolved view into magmatic processes (iii) they are largely unaffected by subsolidus alteration. Due to these characteristics, melt inclusions are an ideal tool to study the evolution of mineralized magma systems. This chapter first discusses general aspects of melt inclusions formation and methods for their investigation, before reviewing studies performed on mineralized magma systems.

  7. CHAPTER 1. Introduction

    Zhang, Lianbin


    With the development of modern industry and modern economies, environmental problems, especially water pollution and water scarcity, have become the most serious global challenges. In dealing with these challenges, various kinds of functionalized materials and devices are purposefully developed, fabricated, and utilized. It is clear that smart materials have not only provided effective strategies for solving environmental problems, but have also exhibited unprecedented advantages over traditional materials by integrating multifunctions and/or processes into one advanced device/material. In this book, we will present a broad collection of bioinspired smart materials and systems that are used in environmental problem solving. The topics of these chapters span from bioinspired fog collection, self-healing materials, responsive particle-stabilized emulsions, smart draw solutions in forward osmosis, slippery coating, insightful analysis of problems and opportunities for hydrophobic surfaces applied in real conditions, to superwetting materials for oil-water separation.

  8. Chapter 6: Temperature

    Jones, Leslie A.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Hauer, F. Richard; F. Richard Hauer,; Lamberti, G.A.


    Stream temperature has direct and indirect effects on stream ecology and is critical in determining both abiotic and biotic system responses across a hierarchy of spatial and temporal scales. Temperature variation is primarily driven by solar radiation, while landscape topography, geology, and stream reach scale ecosystem processes contribute to local variability. Spatiotemporal heterogeneity in freshwater ecosystems influences habitat distributions, physiological functions, and phenology of all aquatic organisms. In this chapter we provide an overview of methods for monitoring stream temperature, characterization of thermal profiles, and modeling approaches to stream temperature prediction. Recent advances in temperature monitoring allow for more comprehensive studies of the underlying processes influencing annual variation of temperatures and how thermal variability may impact aquatic organisms at individual, population, and community based scales. Likewise, the development of spatially explicit predictive models provide a framework for simulating natural and anthropogenic effects on thermal regimes which is integral for sustainable management of freshwater systems.

  9. Chapter 15. Attachments


    In this chapter used abbreviations and radiation safety of NPPs in Slovak Republic are presented. Results of monitoring of NPP Bohunice V-1 and V-2 as well as NPP Mochovce are presented. A brief account of activities carried out by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic in 2000 is presented. The collective dose is one of the fundamental indicators to assess the level of nuclear safety and safety culture. This is the total dose of both external and internal exposure of the whole of the body measured with a personal dosimeter and a calculated internal exposure over a certain period of time. Measured doses to the utility personnel, the staff of supplier organisations and official working visits are included

  10. Upper bounds on Higgs and top quark masses in the flipped SU(5)xU(1) superstring model

    Durand, L.; Lopez, J.L.


    In this letter, we use a simplified method to calculate high-energy unitarity constraints on grand unified broken supersymmetric models. We apply the method to the ''flipped'' SU(5)xU(1) superstring model, obtain the constraints at a grand unified mass scale M/sub G/=4x10/sup 16/ GeV, and then use the renormalization group equations to evolve the constraints to the low-energy mass scale M/sub W/. We find upper bounds on the low-energy superpotential parameters which in turn imply absolute upper bounds on the top quark mass, m/sub t/< or approx.200 GeV, and on the lightest neutral Higgs boson mass, Msub(H/sub 1//sup 0/)< or approx.155 GeV. We also obtain an upper bound on Msub(H/sub 1//sup 0/) as a function of m/sub t/ which shows that for favored values of the ratio of Higgs vacuum expectation values Msub(H/sub 1//sup 0/)< or approx.125 GeV.

  11. An SU(3)xU(1) theory of weak-electromagnetic interactions with charged boson mixing

    Singer, M.


    An SU(3)xU(1) gauge theory of weak electromagnetic interactions is proposed in which the charged bosons mix with each other. The model naturally ensures e-μ and quark-lepton universality in couplings, and the charged boson mixing permits an equal number of leptons and quark flavours. There are no new stable leptons. All the fermions are placed in triplets and singlets and the theory is vector-like and hence free of anomalies. In addition one of the charged bosons can have a mass less than 43 GeV. Discrete symmetries and specific choices for Higgs fields are postulated to obtain the appropriate boson and fermion masses. Calculations for the decay of the tau particle, which is described as a heavy electron, are given. Multimuon events are discussed as are neutrino neutral currents. Calculations are also given for testing asymmetries in e-hadron scattering due to weak electron neutral currents along with other phenomenology of the model

  12. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Chapter 15

    Leach, M. O. [The Institute of Cancer Research and The Royal Marsden Hospital, London (United Kingdom)


    In Chapter 14, the principles of nuclear magnetic resonance were presented, along with an introduction to image forming processes. In this chapter, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) will be reviewed, beginning with the hardware needed and its impact on image quality. The acquisition processes and image reconstruction will be discussed, as well as the artefacts that are possible, with discussion of the important area of safety and bioeffects completing the chapter.

  13. Career development through local chapter involvement: perspectives from chapter members.

    Thomas, Melissa; Inniss-Richter, Zipporah; Mata, Holly; Cottrell, Randall R


    The importance of career development in professional organizations has been noted in the literature. Personal and professional benefits of membership regardless of discipline can be found across the career spectrum from student to executive. The benefits of professional membership with respect to career development in local chapter organizations have seldom been studied. Local chapter participation may offer significant career development opportunities for the practitioner, faculty member, and student. The purpose of this study was to explore the importance of local chapter involvement to the career development of health education practitioners. An 18-item questionnaire was disseminated to the membership of three local SOPHE (Society for Public Health Education) chapters that explored the level of local chapter involvement and the impact of how specific professional development activities impacted career development. The results of the survey highlighted the importance of continuing education programs, networking, and leadership experience in developing one's career that are offered by local SOPHE chapter involvement. Making a positive impact in the community and earning the respect of one's peers were most often reported as indicators of career success. These factors can directly impact local chapter participation. Career development can certainly be enhanced by active participation in the local chapter of a professional association.

  14. Image Reconstruction. Chapter 13

    Nuyts, J. [Department of Nuclear Medicine and Medical Imaging Research Center, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Matej, S. [Medical Image Processing Group, Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)


    This chapter discusses how 2‑D or 3‑D images of tracer distribution can be reconstructed from a series of so-called projection images acquired with a gamma camera or a positron emission tomography (PET) system [13.1]. This is often called an ‘inverse problem’. The reconstruction is the inverse of the acquisition. The reconstruction is called an inverse problem because making software to compute the true tracer distribution from the acquired data turns out to be more difficult than the ‘forward’ direction, i.e. making software to simulate the acquisition. There are basically two approaches to image reconstruction: analytical reconstruction and iterative reconstruction. The analytical approach is based on mathematical inversion, yielding efficient, non-iterative reconstruction algorithms. In the iterative approach, the reconstruction problem is reduced to computing a finite number of image values from a finite number of measurements. That simplification enables the use of iterative instead of mathematical inversion. Iterative inversion tends to require more computer power, but it can cope with more complex (and hopefully more accurate) models of the acquisition process.

  15. Silicate glasses. Chapter 1

    Lutze, W.


    This chapter is a survey of world-wide research and development efforts in nuclear waste glasses and its production technology. The principal glasses considered are silicate glasses which contain boron, i.e. borosilicate glass. A historical overview of waste form development programs in nine countries is followed by a summary of the design criteria for borosilicate glass compositions glass compositions. In the sections on glass properties the waste form is characterized in terms of potential alterations under the influence of heat, thermal gradients, radiation, aqueous solutions and combinations thereof. The topics are phase transformations, mechanical properties, radiation effects and chemical durability. The results from studies of volcanic glasses, as natural analogues for borosilicate nuclear waste glasses in order to verify predictions obtained from short-term tests in the laboratory, have been compiled in a special section on natural analogues. A special section on advanced vitrification techniques summarizes the various actual and potential processing schemes and describes the facilities. The literature has been considered until 1985. (author). 430 refs.; 68 figs.; 29 tabs

  16. Chapter 11. Heat Exchangers

    Rafferty, Kevin D.; Culver, Gene


    Most geothermal fluids, because of their elevated temperature, contain a variety of dissolved chemicals. These chemicals are frequently corrosive toward standard materials of construction. As a result, it is advisable in most cases to isolate the geothermal fluid from the process to which heat is being transferred. The task of heat transfer from the geothermal fluid to a closed process loop is most often handled by a plate heat exchanger. The two most common types used in geothermal applications are: bolted and brazed. For smaller systems, in geothermal resource areas of a specific character, downhole heat exchangers (DHEs) provide a unique means of heat extraction. These devices eliminate the requirement for physical removal of fluid from the well. For this reason, DHE-based systems avoid entirely the environmental and practical problems associated with fluid disposal. Shell and tube heat exchangers play only a minor role in low-temperature, direct-use systems. These units have been in common use in industrial applications for many years and, as a result, are well understood. For these reasons, shell and tube heat exchangers will not be covered in this chapter.

  17. Towards the next chapter


    In the late 1970s, while the CERN community was busy preparing the SPS to operate as a collider and planning for LEP, people also had their eyes on the next chapter in the unfolding story of CERN.   That the LEP tunnel should be built with a future hadron collider in mind was a given by the end of the decade. But there had also been proposals to build large proton storage rings, or re-equip the ISR with superconducting magnets. Some people had suggested building an electron-proton collider at CERN, and there were ambitious plans looking far into the future at a possible Very Big Accelerator to be built somewhere in the world, which went by its acronym VBA. For the field of particle physics, with its very long lead times, this is part of the normal cycle, and while most of those options never came to fruition, this process did pave the way for the LHC. Today, with the LHC programme underway, the time has come for CERN to start seriously considering the options for its post-LHC future. Perhaps ...

  18. Synthesis: Chapter 19

    Pardo, L.H.; Geiser, L.H.; Fenn, M.E.; Driscoll, C.T.; Goodale, C.L.; Allen, E.B.; Baron, Jill S.; Bobbink, R.; Bowman, W.D.; Clark, C.M.; Emmett, B.; Gilliam, F.S.; Greaver, T.; Hall, S.J.; Lilleskov, E.A.; Liu, L.; Lynch, J.A.; Nadelhoffer, K.; Perakis, S.S.; Robin-Abbott, M. J.; Stoddard, J.L.; Weathers, K. C.


    Human activity in the last century has led to a substantial increase in nitrogen (N) emissions and deposition (Galloway et al. 2003). Because of past, and, in some regions, continuing increases in emissions (Lehmann et al. 2005, Nilles and Conley 2001), this N deposition has reached a level that has caused or is likely to cause alterations and damage in many ecosystems across the United States. In some ecoregions, the impact of N deposition has been severe and has changed the biotic community structure and composition of ecosystems. In the Mediterranean California ecoregion, for example (see Chapter 13), replacement of native by exotic invasive vegetation is accelerated because exotic species are often more productive under elevated N deposition than native species in some California grasslands, coastal sage scrub, and desert scrub (Fenn et al. 2010, Rao and Allen 2010, Rao et al. 2010, Weiss 1999, Yoshida and Allen 2004). Such shifts in plant community composition and species richness can have consequences beyond changes in ecosystem structure: shifts may lead to overall losses in biodiversity and further impair particular threatened or endangered species (Stevens et al. 2004). Th e extirpation of the endangered checkerspot butterfl y (Euphydryas editha bayensis), because the host plant for the larval stage disappears in N-enriched ecosystems (Fenn et al. 2010, Weiss 1999), is just one example of the detrimental impacts of elevated N deposition.

  19. Phenomenological analysis of supersymmetric σ-models on coset spaces SO(10)/U(5) and E6/[SO(10)xU(1)

    Nyawelo, T.S.


    We discuss some phenomenological aspects of gauged supersymmetric σ-models on homogeneous coset-spaces E 6 /[SO(10)xU(1)] and SO(10)/U(5) which are some of the most interesting for phenomenology. We investigate in detail the vacuum configurations of these models, and study the resulting consequences for supersymmetry breaking and breaking of the internal symmetry. Some supersymmetric minima for both models with gauged full isometry groups E 6 and SO(10) are physically problematic as the Kaehler metric becomes singular ad hence the kinetic terms of the Goldstone boson multiplets vanish. This leads us to introduce recently proposed soft supersymmetry-breaking mass terms which displace the minimum away from the singulax point. A non-singular Kaehler metric breaks the linear subgroup SO(10)xU(1) of the E 6 model spontaneously. The particle spectrum of all these different models is computed. (author)

  20. Sign of the neutron-proton mass difference in an SU(2)xU(1) supersymmetric toy model: A possible scenario for solving the old puzzle

    Desai, B.R.; Xu, G.


    Based on the idea that electromagnetism is responsible for mass differences within isotopic multiplets (e.g., pointlike neutron and proton or u and d quarks), we generalize an SU(2)xU(1) model in a toy field theory of vectors to a supersymmetric model and investigate the finite mass difference within the isotopic doublet. It is found that under soft-supersymmetry breaking, a positive n-p mass difference can be obtained under reasonable assumptions for the parameters involved

  1. Monte Carlo analysis of the SU(2)xU(1) and U(2) lattice gauge theories at different space-time dimensionalities

    Baig, M.; Colet, J.


    Using Monte Carlo simulations the SU(2)xU(1) lattice gauge theory has been analyzed, which is equivalent for the Wilson action to a U(2) theory, at space-time dimensionalities from d=3 to 5. It has been shown that there exist first-order phase transitions for both d=4 and d=5. A monopole-condensation mechanism seems to be responsible for these phase transitions. At d=3 no phase transitions have been detected. (orig.)

  2. Collective Intelligence. Chapter 17

    Wolpert, David H.


    Many systems of self-interested agents have an associated performance criterion that rates the dynamic behavior of the overall system. This chapter presents an introduction to the science of such systems. Formally, collectives are defined as any system having the following two characteristics: First, the system must contain one or more agents each of which we view as trying to maximize an associated private utility; second, the system must have an associated world utility function that rates the possible behaviors of that overall system. In practice, collectives are often very large, distributed, and support little, if any, centralized communication and control, although those characteristics are not part of their formal definition. A naturally occurring example of a collective is a human economy. One can identify the agents and their private utilities as the human individuals in the economy and the associated personal rewards they are each trying to maximize. One could then identify the world utility as the time average of the gross domestic product. ("World utility" per se is not a construction internal to a human economy, but rather something defined from the outside.) To achieve high world utility it is necessary to avoid having the agents work at cross-purposes lest phenomena like liquidity traps or the Tragedy of the Commons (TOC) occur, in which agents' individually pursuing their private utilities lowers world utility. The obvious way to avoid such phenomena is by modifying the agents utility functions to be "aligned" with the world utility. This can be done via punitive legislation. A real-world example of an attempt to do this was the creation of antitrust regulations designed to prevent monopolistic practices.

  3. Conclusion. Chapter 4


    Beginning 1992, January 1 Semipalatinsk test site was transforming into large research scientific center. The National Nuclear Center (NNC) was formed on the base of site's research enterprises. The principal problems of NNC are as follows: liquidation of nuclear tests consequences; liquidation of technological infrastructure for preparation and conducting of nuclear tests, creation of technology for radioactive wastes store; implementation of atomic energy development conception in Kazakhstan, etc. Program of site conversion constantly is expanding. In this chapter measures by rehabilitation of injured population are revealed. Taking into account radioecological situation, dose loadings, demographic indexes, sick rate and mortality of population on territories exposed to site's influence Government of Kazakhstan adopted Decree on declaration of these lands of zone of ecological catastrophe. Measures on improvement of radioecological situation are reduce to following ones: determination of irradiation doses received by population during testing period; study of existing radiation contamination; study of all possible sources for dose increasing and taking into account other ones; information of population about radioecological situation and about all consequences of nuclear tests. In 1992 Supreme Soviet of Republic of Kazakhstan worked out and adopted law On social defence of citizens suffered from consequences of nuclear tests on Semipalatinsk test site. It was distinguished four zones of radiation risk. The first zone is zone of extreme risk. It is part of territory subjected to radiation contamination with dose of influence on population above 100 rem during of total period of tests conducting. To this zone belong following inhabited settlements: Budene, Dolon', Cheremushki, Mostik, Sarzhal, Isa, Sarpan, Karakoryk, Zagotskot-2. Second zone is zone of maximal radiation risk. To this zone belong inhabited settlements of following districts: Abaj, Abraly, Beskargaj

  4. Advanced Concepts. Chapter 21

    Johnson, Les; Mulqueen, Jack


    Before there is a funded space mission, there must be a present need for the mission. Space science and exploration are expensive, and without a well-defined and justifiable need, no one is going to commit significant funding for any space endeavor. However, as discussed in Chapter 1, applications of space technology and many and broad, hence there are many ways to determine and establish a mission need. Robotic science missions are justified by their science return. To be selected for flight, questions like these must be addressed: What is the science question that needs answering, and will the proposed mission be the most cost-effective way to answer it? Why does answering the question require an expensive space flight, instead of some ground-based alternative? If the question can only be answered by flying in space, then why is this approach better than other potential approaches? How much will it cost? And is the technology required to answer the question in hand and ready to use? If not, then how much will it cost and how long will it take to mature the technology to a usable level? There are also many ways to justify human exploration missions, including science return, technology advancement, as well as intangible reasons, such as national pride. Nonetheless, many of the questions that need answering, are similar to those for robotic science missions: Where are the people going, why, and will the proposed mission be the most cost-effective way to get there? What is the safest method to achieve the goal? How much will it cost? And is the technology required to get there and keep the crew alive in hand and ready to use? If not, then how much will it cost and how long will it take to mature the technology to a usable level? Another reason for some groups sending spacecraft into space is for profit. Telecommunications, geospatial imaging, and tourism are examples of proven, market-driven space missions and applications. For this specific set of users, the

  5. American Red Cross Chapter Regions

    Department of Homeland Security — The Regions are part of the national field level structure to support chapters. The Regions role is admistrative as well as provides oversight and program technical...

  6. Neutrino masses in the flipped SU(5)xU(1) and the SU(4)xO(4) GUT models

    Papageorgiu, E.; Ranfone, S. (Rutherford Appleton Lab., Chilton (United Kingdom))


    We classify the different neutrino-mass patterns arising in string-inspired GUT and supersymmetric GUT models based on the flipped SU(5)xU(1) and the SU(4)xO(4) gauge groups. Phenomenologically interesting spectra are obtained through the interplay of the two seesaw mechanisms present, with typical neutrino masses {proportional to}10{sup -3} eV in the supersymmetric GUT models and of order 0.1-10 keV in the ordinary GUTs. (orig.).

  7. Fundamentals of Dosimetry. Chapter 3

    Yoshimura, E. M. [Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo (Brazil)


    Determination of the energy imparted to matter by radiation is the subject of dosimetry. The energy deposited as radiation interacts with atoms of the material, as seen in the previous chapter. The imparted energy is responsible for the effects that radiation causes in matter, for instance, a rise in temperature, or chemical or physical changes in the material properties. Several of the changes produced in matter by radiation are proportional to the absorbed dose, giving rise to the possibility of using the material as the sensitive part of a dosimeter. Also, the biological effects of radiation depend on the absorbed dose. A set of quantities related to the radiation field is also defined within the scope of dosimetry. It will be shown in this chapter that, under special conditions, there are simple relations between dosimetric and field description quantities. Thus, the framework of dosimetry is the set of physical and operational quantities that are studied in this chapter.

  8. General U(1)xU(1) F-theory Compactifications and Beyond: Geometry of unHiggsings and novel Matter Structure

    Cvetic, Mirjam; Piragua, Hernan; Taylor, Washington


    We construct the general form of an F-theory compactification with two U(1) factors based on a general elliptically fibered Calabi-Yau manifold with Mordell-Weil group of rank two. This construction produces broad classes of models with diverse matter spectra, including many that are not realized in earlier F-theory constructions with U(1)xU(1) gauge symmetry. Generic U(1)xU(1) models can be related to a Higgsed non-Abelian model with gauge group SU(2)xSU(2)xSU(3), SU(2)^3xSU(3), or a subgroup thereof. The nonlocal horizontal divisors of the Mordell-Weil group are replaced with local vertical divisors associated with the Cartan generators of non-Abelian gauge groups from Kodaira singularities. We give a global resolution of codimension two singularities of the Abelian model; we identify the full anomaly free matter content, and match it to the unHiggsed non-Abelian model. The non-Abelian Weierstrass model exhibits a new algebraic description of the singularities in the fibration that results in the first expl...

  9. Nuevos hallazgos documentales y biográficos sobre Alonso Xuárez maestro de Sebastián Durón

    de la Fuente Charfolé, José Luis


    Full Text Available Alonso Xuárez was no minor composer in the musical field of his time. The quality and effectiveness of his compositions makes them deserving of a leading place in Spanish and European music of the 17th century. In spite of this almost nothing is known about this composer prior to his being appointed to teach in the chapel of Cuenca cathedral. Virtually all the currently available data is of a secondary and collateral nature and arises from research into his disciple the organist Sebastián Durón, the renowned opera composer and teacher at the Capilla Real of Charles II.

    Alonso Xuárez no fue un compositor menor dentro del panorama musical de su tiempo. La calidad y eficacia de su música merece estar en primera línea de la música española y europea del siglo XVII. Sin embargo, el desconocimiento de este músico es casi completo con anterioridad a su nombramiento en el magisterio de capilla de la catedral de Cuenca. Prácticamente todos los datos expuestos hasta el momento han sido restos secundarios y colaterales desprendidos de otras investigaciones realizadas sobre la figura de su discípulo, el reputado compositor de teatro lírico y maestro de la Capilla Real de Carlos II, el organista Sebastián Durón.

  10. Basic Radiation Detectors. Chapter 6

    Van Eijk, C. W.E. [Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands)


    Radiation detectors are of paramount importance in nuclear medicine. The detectors provide a wide range of information including the radiation dose of a laboratory worker and the positron emission tomography (PET) image of a patient. Consequently, detectors with strongly differing specifications are used. In this chapter, general aspects of detectors are discussed.

  11. Quantitative Nuclear Medicine. Chapter 17

    Ouyang, J.; El Fakhri, G. [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston (United States)


    Planar imaging is still used in clinical practice although tomographic imaging (single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET)) is becoming more established. In this chapter, quantitative methods for both imaging techniques are presented. Planar imaging is limited to single photon. For both SPECT and PET, the focus is on the quantitative methods that can be applied to reconstructed images.

  12. Chapter 3: Traceability and uncertainty

    McEwen, Malcolm


    Chapter 3 presents: an introduction; Traceability (measurement standard, role of the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures, Secondary Standards Laboratories, documentary standards and traceability as process review); Uncertainty (Example 1 - Measurement, M raw (SSD), Example 2 - Calibration data, N D.w 60 Co, kQ, Example 3 - Correction factor, P TP ) and Conclusion

  13. Behavioral service substitution (Chapter 9)

    Stahl, C.; Aalst, van der W.M.P.; Bouguettaya, A.; Sheng, Q.Z.; Daniel, F.


    Service-oriented design supports system evolution and encourages reuse and modularization. A key ingredient of service orientation is the ability to substitute one service by another without reconfiguring the overall system. This chapter aims to give an overview of the state of the art and open

  14. Energy and wastes. Chapter 1


    In the Chapter 1 'Energy and wastes' it is shown the wastes generation inevitability at power production, because there are no absolutely wasteless technologies. After energy production technologies analysis the data that nuclear energy is most ecologically acceptable at maintenance related radiation safety measures

  15. Vegetation and acidification, Chapter 5

    David R. DeWalle; James N. Kochenderfer; Mary Beth Adams; Gary W. Miller


    In this chapter, the impact of watershed acidification treatments on WS3 at the Fernow Experimental Forest (FEF) and at WS9 on vegetation is presented and summarized in a comprehensive way for the first time. WS7 is used as a vegetative reference basin for WS3, while untreated plots within WS9 are used as a vegetative reference for WS9. Bioindicators of acidification...

  16. Chapter 1. Traditional marketing revisited

    Lambin, Jean-Jacques


    The objective of this chapter is to review the traditional marketing concept and to analyse its main ambiguities as presented in popular textbooks. The traditional marketing management model placing heavy emphasis of the marketing mix is in fact a supply-driven approach of the market, using the understanding of consumers’ needs to mould demand to the requirements of supply, instead of adapting supply to the expectations of demand. To clarify the true role of marketing, a distinction is made b...

  17. Instrumentation for Dosimetry. Chapter 21

    Hourdakis, J. C. [Greek Atomic Energy Commission, Athens (Greece); Nowotny, R. [Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria)


    Measurements of absorbed dose (or air kerma) are required in varying situations in diagnostic radiology. The radiation fields vary from plain, slit and even point projection geometry, and may be stationary or moving, including rotational. Owing to the use of low photon energies for these fields, it is important that dosimeters have a satisfactory energy response. In general, the requirements for dosimeter accuracy are less stringent than those in radiation therapy; however, the dose and dose rate measurements cover a large range. Patient dosimetry (see Chapter 22) is a primary responsibility of the medical physicist specializing in diagnostic radiology and is required by legislation in many countries. Dose data are also required in the optimization of examinations for image quality and dose. Radiation measurement is also critical for occupational and public exposure control (see Chapter 24). Dose measurements are essential in acceptance testing and quality control (see Chapter 19). Several types of dosimeter can be used, provided that they have a suitable energy response, but typically, ionization chambers of a few cubic centimetres in volume, or solid state detectors specifically designed for such measurements, are used. If dosimeters are used to make measurements during an examination, they must not interfere with the examination. These devices are also used for determination of the half value layer (HVL). Special types of ionization chamber are employed for computed tomography (CT), mammography and interventional radiology dosimetry.

  18. Study on the most early glass eye-beads in China unearthed from Xu Jialing Tomb in Xichuan of Henan Province, China

    GAN FuXi; CHENG HuanSheng; HU YongQing; MA Bo; GU DongHong


    The eye-beads dating to the early Warring States Period unearthed from Xu Jialing Tomb in Xichuan County of Henan Province, China are studied. The structure and the chemical composition of the samples are analysed by the undestructive methods of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) technique. The results show that these eye-beads are of glass state. Its chemical composition indicates that they belong to the glass of soda lime silicate system (Na2O-CaO-SiO2). By comparing the decorative design and the chemical composition of the samples with those from ancient Babylon and ancient Egypt, we think that these ancient eye-beads in Xichuan were most possibly imported from the West.

  19. Study on the most early glass eye-beads in China unearthed from Xu Jialing Tomb in Xichuan of Henan Province,China


    The eye-beads dating to the early Warring States Period unearthed from Xu Jialing Tomb in Xichuan County of Henan Province, China are studied. The structure and the chemical composition of the sam- ples are analysed by the undestructive methods of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) technique. The results show that these eye-beads are of glass state. Its chemical composition indicates that they belong to the glass of soda lime silicate system (Na2O-CaO-SiO2). By comparing the decorative design and the chemical composition of the samples with those from ancient Babylon and ancient Egypt, we think that these ancient eye-beads in Xichuan were most possibly im- ported from the West.

  20. Chapter 2. Radionuclides in the biosphere

    Toelgyessy, J.; Harangozo, M.


    This is a chapter of textbook of radioecology for university students. In this chapter authors deal with role of radionuclides in the biosphere. Chapter consists of next parts: (1) Natural radionuclides in biosphere; (2) Man-made radionuclides in the biosphere; (3) Ecologically important radionuclides; (4) Natural background; (5) Radiotoxicity and (6) Paths of transfer of radionuclides from the source to human

  1. Chemical Tracer Methods: Chapter 7

    Healy, Richard W.


    Tracers have a wide variety of uses in hydrologic studies: providing quantitative or qualitative estimates of recharge, identifying sources of recharge, providing information on velocities and travel times of water movement, assessing the importance of preferential flow paths, providing information on hydrodynamic dispersion, and providing data for calibration of water flow and solute-transport models (Walker, 1998; Cook and Herczeg, 2000; Scanlon et al., 2002b). Tracers generally are ions, isotopes, or gases that move with water and that can be detected in the atmosphere, in surface waters, and in the subsurface. Heat also is transported by water; therefore, temperatures can be used to trace water movement. This chapter focuses on the use of chemical and isotopic tracers in the subsurface to estimate recharge. Tracer use in surface-water studies to determine groundwater discharge to streams is addressed in Chapter 4; the use of temperature as a tracer is described in Chapter 8.Following the nomenclature of Scanlon et al. (2002b), tracers are grouped into three categories: natural environmental tracers, historical tracers, and applied tracers. Natural environmental tracers are those that are transported to or created within the atmosphere under natural processes; these tracers are carried to the Earth’s surface as wet or dry atmospheric deposition. The most commonly used natural environmental tracer is chloride (Cl) (Allison and Hughes, 1978). Ocean water, through the process of evaporation, is the primary source of atmospheric Cl. Other tracers in this category include chlorine-36 (36Cl) and tritium (3H); these two isotopes are produced naturally in the Earth’s atmosphere; however, there are additional anthropogenic sources of them.

  2. X ray Production. Chapter 5

    Nowotny, R. [Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria)


    The differential absorption of X rays in tissues and organs, owing to their atomic composition, is the basis for the various imaging methods used in diagnostic radiology. The principles in the production of X rays have remained the same since their discovery. However, much refinement has gone into the design of X ray tubes to achieve the performance required for today’s radiological examinations. In this chapter, an outline of the principles of X ray production and a characterization of the radiation output of X ray tubes will be given. The basic processes producing X rays are dealt with in Section 1.4.

  3. Chapter 4: Agriculture and trade

    Gray, P.S.


    This chapter describes the responses of governments to the fallout, particularly with respect to the contamination of food and the effect of governmental decisions on agriculture and trade. To put the subsequent description of events in perspective, it is prefaced with a brief explanation of how permitted levels of radiation in food can be derived from radiation dose recommendations. Although much of this work was done after Chernobyl, it is one of several possible systematic calculation methods, a knowledge of which allows a better understanding of the limits adopted under the pressure of events. (orig.)

  4. Chapter 9. The landscape sector

    Larivaille, Pierrette


    The object of this work is to examine the interactions between the activities of the electric industry (generating, transmission and distribution) and the environment, whilst showing to what extent the facilities are likely to affect it adversely and describing the measures taken to lessen the detrimental effects. The chapter devoted to the 'landscape' includes a section covering the electricity generating facilities, and among these, the nuclear power stations. The studies carried out on the main units of insertion into the site are presented, particularly the landscaping involved in setting up a power station [fr

  5. Fourier Transform Methods. Chapter 4

    Kaplan, Simon G.; Quijada, Manuel A.


    This chapter describes the use of Fourier transform spectrometers (FTS) for accurate spectrophotometry over a wide spectral range. After a brief exposition of the basic concepts of FTS operation, we discuss instrument designs and their advantages and disadvantages relative to dispersive spectrometers. We then examine how common sources of error in spectrophotometry manifest themselves when using an FTS and ways to reduce the magnitude of these errors. Examples are given of applications to both basic and derived spectrophotometric quantities. Finally, we give recommendations for choosing the right instrument for a specific application, and how to ensure the accuracy of the measurement results..

  6. Why Radiotherapy Works. Chapter 6

    Tashiro, S.; Nishibuchi, I.; Wondergem, J.


    The history of radiotherapy began in 1895, when Röntgen discovered X rays, and in the following year, radiation was used for medical treatment. In the early days, the development of radiotherapy was based extensively on empiricism. Radiotherapists worked closely with radiation biologists in attempting to describe and understand the phenomena produced by ionizing radiation in the clinic and in biological systems. During the ensuing 120 years, radiotherapy has been improved significantly and, in addition to radiation biology, medical physics has played an important role in the design and development of equipment, quality assurance and dosimetry. Over recent decades, advances have been made in the field of molecular biology. Currently available techniques enable us to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of cellular response to ionizing irradiation, and it is anticipated that the role and contributions of radiation biology in radiotherapy will remain relevant. This chapter describes the clinically important biological points, including knowledge from current molecular biology.

  7. Chapter 12. Space Heating Equipment

    Rafferty, Kevin D.


    The performance evaluation of space heating equipment for a geothermal application is generally considered from either of two perspectives: (a) selecting equipment for installation in new construction, or (b) evaluating the performance and retrofit requirements of an existing system. With regard to new construction, the procedure is relatively straightforward. Once the heating requirements are determined, the process need only involve the selection of appropriately sized hot water heating equipment based on the available water temperature. It is important to remember that space heating equipment for geothermal applications is the same equipment used in non-geothermal applications. What makes geothermal applications unique is that the equipment is generally applied at temperatures and flow rates that depart significantly from traditional heating system design. This chapter presents general considerations for the performance of heating equipment at non-standard temperature and flow conditions, retrofit of existing systems, and aspects of domestic hot water heating.

  8. Chapter 8. The radioactivity sector

    Conti, Robert; Debetencourt, Michel; Cregut, Andre; Grauby, Andre; Sousselier, Yves


    The object of this work is to examine the interactions between the activities of the nuclear industry (generating, transmission and distribution) and the environment, whilst showing to what extent the facilities are likely to affect it adversely and describing the measures taken to lessen the detrimental effects. The chapter dealing with radioactivity among the 'nuisance sectors' includes the following headings: natural radioactivity and the biological effects of radiation, the operation of a power station (principle, generating steam from nuclear energy, different types of reactors, safety barriers), radioactive effluents and wastes, nuclear controls and the environment, measures taken in the event of an accident occurring in a nuclear power station, the dismantling and decommissioning of power stations [fr

  9. Chapter 08: Comments on, and additional information for, wood identification

    Alex C. Wiedenhoeft


    This manual has described the theory of identification (Chapter 1), the botanical basis of wood structure (Chapter 2), the use of a hand lens (Chapter 3), how to use cutting tools to prepare wood for observation with a lens (Chapter 4), and the characters used in hand lens wood identification (Chapter 5) before leading you through an identification key (Chapter 6) and...

  10. Review of Cycadophila Xu, Tang & Skelley (Coleoptera: Erotylidae: Pharaxonothinae) inhabiting Cycas (Cycadaceae) in Asia, with descriptions of a new subgenus and thirteen new species.

    Skelley, Paul; Xu, Guang; Tang, William; Lindström, Anders J; Marler, Thomas; Khuraijam, Jibankumar Singh; Singh, Rita; Radha, P; Rich, Stephen


    The genus Cycadophila Xu, Tang & Skelley (Coleoptera: Erotylidae: Pharaxonothinae) associated with Cycas L. (Cycadacaeae) in Asia is reviewed. Strobilophila, new subgenus, with five species is described: Cycadophila (Strobilophila) assamensis new species, C. (S.) hiepi new species, C. (S.) kwaiensis new species, C. (S.) tansachai new species and C. (S.) yangi new species, all associated with Cycas. For the nominate subgenus Cycadophila eight new species are described, Cycadophila (Cycadophila) abyssa new species, C. (C.) collina new species,C. (C.) samara new species, C. (C.) convexa new species, C. (C.) cyclochasma new species, C. (C.) eurynota new species, C. (C.) papua new species, and C. (C.) torquata new species and four new generic combinations are proposed: C. (C.) vittata (Arrow) new combination, C. (C.) discimaculata (Mader) new combination, C. (C.) intermedia (Chûjô) new combination, and C. (C.) lata (Grouvelle) new combination. Only the first three listed species of the nominate subgenus have known associations with Cycas. Species are distinguished on the basis of morphology and/or by analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences. The larva of subgenus Strobilophila is described based on individuals collected together with adults and matched with analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences. Keys to subgenera and species of known adults and larvae are provided.

  11. PI3K/Akt Pathway Contributes to Neurovascular Unit Protection of Xiao-Xu-Ming Decoction against Focal Cerebral Ischemia and Reperfusion Injury in Rats

    Rui Lan


    Full Text Available In the present study, we used a focal cerebral ischemia and reperfusion rat model to investigate the protective effects of Xiao-Xu-Ming decoction (XXMD on neurovascular unit and to examine the role of PI3K (phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway in this protection. The cerebral ischemia was induced by 90 min of middle cerebral artery occlusion. Cerebral infarct area was measured by tetrazolium staining, and neurological function was observed at 24 h after reperfusion. DNA fragmentation assay, combined with immunofluorescence, was performed to evaluate apoptosis of neuron, astrocyte, and vascular endothelial cell which constitute neurovascular unit. The expression levels of proteins involved in PI3K/Akt pathway were detected by Western blot. The results showed that XXMD improved neurological function, decreased cerebral infarct area and neuronal damage, and attenuated cellular apoptosis in neurovascular unit, while these effects were abolished by inhibition of PI3K/Akt with LY294002. We also found that XXMD upregulated p-PDKl, p-Akt, and p-GSK3β expression levels, which were partly reversed by LY294002. In addition, the increases of p-PTEN and p-c-Raf expression levels on which LY294002 had no effect were also observed in response to XXMD treatment. The data indicated the protective effects of XXMD on neurovascular unit partly through the activation of PI3K/Akt pathway.

  12. Generic Performance Measures. Chapter 8

    Daube-Witherspoon, M. E. [Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)


    The generic nuclear medicine imager, whether a gamma camera, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) system or positron emission tomography (PET) scanner, comprises several main components: a detection system, a form of collimation to select γ rays at specific angles, electronics and a computing system to create the map of the radiotracer distribution. This section discusses these components in more detail. The first stage of a generic nuclear medicine imager is the detection of the γ rays emitted by the radionuclide. In the case of PET, the radiation of interest are the 511 keV annihilation photons that result from the interaction of the positron emitted by the radionuclide with an electron in the tissue. For general nuclear medicine and SPECT, there is one or sometimes more than one γ ray of interest, with energies in the range of <100 to >400 keV. The γ rays are detected when they interact and deposit energy in the crystal(s) of the imaging system. There are two main types of detector: crystals that give off light that can be converted to an electrical signal when the γ ray interacts (‘scintillators’) and semiconductors, crystals that generate an electrical signal directly when the γ ray deposits energy in the crystal. Scintillation detectors include NaI(Tl), bismuth germanate (BGO) and lutetium oxyorthosilicate (LSO); semiconductor detectors used in nuclear medicine imagers include cadmium zinc telluride (CZT). Radiation detectors are described in more detail in Chapter 6.

  13. Chapter 2. The production units


    In the second chapter of this CD ROM the production units of the Slovak Electric, Plc. (Slovenske elektrarne, a.s.), are presented. It consist of next paragraphs: (1) Nuclear power plants (A-1 Nuclear Power Plant (History, Technological scheme, basic data are presented); V-1, V-2 Bohunice Nuclear Power Plant (History 1972-1985, technological scheme; nuclear safety, radiation protection, heat supply, international co-operation and basic data are presented); Mochovce Nuclear Power Plant (History 1980-1998, technological scheme, construction completion, milestones of commissioning, safety and environmental protection as well as basic data are included). (2) Conventional sources of energy (Vojany fossil power plant (History 1959-1992, Technological units of power plant, Impact of operation on the environment, Plant of Vojany FPP Renewal and Reconstruction, Basic data are listed), Novaky fossil power plant (History 1949-1998, Technological scheme, current investment construction, basic data, Handlova heating plant). Kosice Combined Heat Power Plant (History 1960-1995, technological scheme, State metrology centre, acredited chemical laboratory, basic data). (3) Hydroelectric power plants (Trencin HPPs: Cierny Vah pumped storage HPP, Liptovska Mara HPP, Orava HPP, Sucany HPP, Miksova HPP, Nosice HPP, Velke Kozmalovce HPP, Gabcikovo HPP, Dubnica HPP, Nove Mesto n/V HPP, Madunice HPP, Kralova HPP) and Dobsina HPPs: (Dobsina HPP, Ruzin HPP, Domasa HPP, small HPPs) are presented

  14. The Chapter 1 Challenge: Colorado's Contribution 1993.

    Petro, Janice Rose; And Others

    An overview is provided of Colorado's participation in Chapter 1, the largest federally funded program designed to provide services to elementary and secondary students. Chapter 1 provides financial assistance to state and local education agencies to meet the special needs of educationally deprived children who reside in areas with high…

  15. 31 CFR Appendixes to Chapter V - Note


    .... Freight forwarders and shippers may not charter, book cargo on, or otherwise deal with blocked vessels. 7. References to regulatory parts in chapter V or other authorities: [BALKANS]: Western Balkans Stabilization... the economic sanctions programs in chapter V. (Please call OFAC Compliance Programs Division for...

  16. Chapter 6: Selenium Toxicity to Aquatic Organisms

    This chapter addresses the characteristics and nature of organic selenium (Se) toxicity to aquatic organisms, based on the most current state of scientific knowledge. As such, the information contained in this chapter relates to the 'toxicity assessment' phase of aquatic ecologi...

  17. 106-17 Telemetry Standards Chapter 1


    Telemetry Standards, RCC Standard 106-17 Chapter 1, July 2017 1-1 CHAPTER 1 Introduction The Telemetry Standards address the here-to-date...for Federal Radio Frequency Management . Copies of that manual may be obtained from: Executive Secretary, Interdepartmental Radio Advisory Committee

  18. Various chapter styles for the memoir class

    Madsen, Lars


    Document showcasing various chapter title page designs either included in the LaTeX memoir class or is easily manually coded.......Document showcasing various chapter title page designs either included in the LaTeX memoir class or is easily manually coded....

  19. Function of site. Chapter 2


    In Semipalatinsk test site's history there are two stages for nuclear tests. In first stage (1949-1962) when the nuclear tests have being conducted in atmosphere, and second one (1963-1989) when underground nuclear explosions have being carried out. There were 456 nuclear tests, from which 117 were both the surface and the atmospheric explosions and other underground ones. In the chapter general characteristics of atmospheric nuclear tests, conducted on Semipalatinsk test site in 1949-1962 (chronology of conducting, release energy and kinds of nuclear explosions) are presented in tabular form. Most powerful of explosion was test of hydro- nuclear (hydrogen) bomb - prototype of thermonuclear charge in 1955 with capacity 1.6 Mt. In 1990-1992 the target-oriented radioecological investigation of territory around Semipalatinsk test site was carried out. Specialists dividing all atmospheric explosions by rate local traces, forming out of test site into 4 groups: with very strong contamination, with strong contamination, with weak contamination, and with very weak contamination. To nuclear explosions with very strong contamination were attributed the four explosions carrying out in 29.08.1949, 24.09.1951, 12.08.1953, 24.08.1956. Estimations of radiological situation including external doses of radiation and environment contamination and content of radioactive substances in human body was given by 10 European experts in collaboration with Kazakstan scientists. Results of investigation show that during past period surface contamination, called by nuclear weapons' fissile products was subjected to considerable decay. External doses completely coincidence with natural background. Remains of long living radionuclides are insignificant as well, and in 1995 its approximately were equal to annual exposition doses. One of most damaged settlements is Chagan. On it territory 530 radioactive sources with doses capacity from 100 up to 400 μR/h. Scientists of Semipalatinsk defined

  20. The Innovation in Libraries Awesome Foundation Chapter

    Joshua Finnell


    Full Text Available In Brief: This article discusses the creation, philosophy, and future directions of the Innovation in Libraries Awesome Foundation Chapter, a grassroots crowdfunding initiative incubated within Library Pipeline.

  1. The reinvigorated South African GRSS Chapter

    Schwegmann, Colin P


    Full Text Available Looking ahead, the South African GRSS Chapter is investigating the possibility of organizing a meeting with local GRSS members, universities, and other remote-sensing organizations with the purpose of engaging undergraduate and early postgraduate...

  2. Chapter 8: Final thought on safety



    The chapter presents the objective of implementing and maintaining a good safety system: to prevent the occurrence of accidents and incidents (the abnormalities must be the exception) and if they occur their consequences should be mitigated. And make other considerations.

  3. Chapter 1. Economic aspects of aluminium production

    Yanko, E.A.; Kabirov, Sh.O.; Safiev, Kh.; Azizov, B.S.; Mirpochaev, Kh.A.


    This article is devoted to economic aspects of aluminium production. Therefore, the perspectives of development of aluminium production, the base components of aluminium cost and economic security of enterprise are considered in this chapter.

  4. How to write a medical book chapter?

    Kendirci, Muammer


    Invited medical book chapters are usually requested by editors from experienced authors who have made significant contributions to the literature in certain fields requested by an editor from an experienced. Before the start of the writing process a consensus should be established between the editor and the author with regard to the title, deadline, specific instructions and content of the manuscript. Certain issues concerning a chapter can be negotiated by the parties beforehand, but some issues cannot. As writing a medical book chapter is seen as an honor in its own right, the assignment needs to be treated with sincerity by elucidating the topic in detail, and maximal effort should be made to keep in mind that the chapter will reach a large target audience. The purpose of this review article is to provide guidance to residents and junior specialists in the field of urology to improve their writing skills. PMID:26328134

  5. Chapter 5: Summary of model application


    This chapter provides a brief summary of the model applications described in Volume III of the Final Report. This chapter dealt with the selected water management regimes; ground water flow regimes; agriculture; ground water quality; hydrodynamics, sediment transport and water quality in the Danube; hydrodynamics, sediment transport and water quality in the river branch system; hydrodynamics, sediment transport and water quality in the Hrusov reservoir and with ecology in this Danube area

  6. Chapter 4. Radioactivity of waters and factors influencing its value

    Toelgyessy, J.; Harangozo, M.


    This is a chapter of textbook of radioecology for university students. In this chapter authors deal with radioactivity of waters and factors influencing its value. Chapter consists of next parts: (1) Natural radioactivity of hydrosphere; (2) Radioactive contamination of hydrosphere

  7. May 2013 Council of Chapter Representatives Notes

    Robbins RA


    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. The Council of Chapter Representatives met in conjunction with the ATS meeting in Philadelphia on May 18, 2012.Roll Call. The meeting was called to order at 11 AM. Representatives from Arizona, California, DC Metro, Louisiana, Michigan, New Mexico, New York, Oregon, and Rhode Island were in attendance, and by telephone from Washington.Chapter Updates. Information on chapter activities and a chapter brochure. There are currently 19 active chapters. Most are having annual meetings. Advocacy. Gary Ewart from ATS Government Relations gave a presentation on Washington activities. Highlights included activities on the SGR, a number of air pollution regulations and a letter campaign advocating regulation of cigars. ATS President 2013-14-vision for the coming year. Patrician Finn gave a summary of what she hopes to accomplish over the next year. The theme of her presidency will be health equality. ATS Executive Director-update. Steve Crane gave a positive presentation on the …

  8. Secondary School Mathematics, Chapter 13, Perpendiculars and Parallels (I), Chapter 14, Similarity. Student's Text.

    Stanford Univ., CA. School Mathematics Study Group.

    The first chapter of the seventh unit in this SMSG series discusses perpendiculars and parallels; topics covered include the relationship between parallelism and perpendicularity, rectangles, transversals, parallelograms, general triangles, and measurement of the circumference of the earth. The second chapter, on similarity, discusses scale…

  9. Chapter 12. Nullification of nuclear reactors

    Toelgyessy, J.; Harangozo, M.


    This is a chapter of textbook of radioecology for university students. In this chapter authors deal with problems connected with nullification of nuclear reactors. There are tree basic methods of nullification of nuclear reactors: (1) conservation, (2) safe close (wall up, embed in concrete), (3) direct dismantlement and remotion and two combined ways: (1) combination of mothball with subsequent dismantlement and remotion and (2) combination of safe close with subsequent dismantlement and remotion. Activity levels as well as volumes of radioactive wastes connected with decommissioning of nuclear reactors are reviewed

  10. Chapter 3. Current management situation: Flammulated owls

    Jon Verner


    The flammulated owl (Otus flammeolus) is a western mountain species associated mainly with ponderosa (Pinus ponderosa) and Jeffrey pine (Pinus jefferyi) forests in the United States and Canada (see Chapter 4). As a neotropical migrant, this small forest owl occurs on national forests in the United States during...

  11. Chapter 8. Current management situation: Boreal owls

    Jon Verner


    The range of boreal owls (Aegolius funereus) in the United States includes Alaska, the mountains of the western United States, and the northern tier states from the Atlantic to Pacific (see Chapter 9). Based on the species' documented distribution (see National Geographic Society 1987, Hayward et al. 1987, Johnsgard 1988, and others) the owl may...

  12. The Chapter I Challenge: Colorado's Contribution 1995.

    Petro, Janice Rose

    Chapter I of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) is the largest federally-funded program designed to provide services to elementary and secondary students to meet the special needs of educationally deprived students who reside in areas with high concentrations of low-income families. The 1994-95 school year is the last year of…

  13. Denmark - Chapter in Handbook of Global Bioethics

    Nielsen, Linda; Faber, Berit A.


    This chapter about bioethics in Denmark focuses on specific Danish characteristics. These are the early start of a bioethics debate, legislation and bioethics councils; the independence of the councils and the parliamentarians voting on ethical issues; the introduction and extraordinary importance...... of laymen as a part of the bioethical debate and decisions; and the strong focus on debate and educational tools....

  14. Transfer of property inter vivos : chapter 7

    van Vliet, Lars


    This chapter will give an overview of the various transfer systems for movable property and immovable property. It will focus on voluntary transfers based on a legal act between the transferor and transferee. First the difference between the unitary approach and the functional approach to passing of

  15. Chapter Five: Language Learning and Discursive Practice

    Young, Richard F.


    This chapter is framed by the three questions related to learning in Practice Theory posed by Johannes Wagner (2008): (1) What is learned?; (2) Who is learning?; and (3) Who is participating in the learning? These questions are addressed in two learning theories: Language Socialization and Situated Learning theory. In Language Socialization, the…

  16. Adaptation strategies and approaches: Chapter 2

    Patricia Butler; Chris Swanston; Maria Janowiak; Linda Parker; Matt St. Pierre; Leslie. Brandt


    A wealth of information is available on climate change adaptation, but much of it is very broad and of limited use at the finer spatial scales most relevant to land managers. This chapter contains a "menu" of adaptation actions and provides land managers in northern Wisconsin with a range of options to help forest ecosystems adapt to climate change impacts....

  17. Explanatory chapter: introducing exogenous DNA into cells.

    Koontz, Laura


    The ability to efficiently introduce DNA into cells is essential for many experiments in biology. This is an explanatory chapter providing an overview of the various methods for introducing DNA into bacteria, yeast, and mammalian cells. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Invasive species in southern Nevada [Chapter 4

    Mathew L. Brooks; Steven M. Ostoja; Jeanne C. Chambers


    Southern Nevada contains a wide range of topographies, elevations, and climatic zones emblematic of its position at the ecotone between the Mojave Desert, Great Basin, and Colorado Plateau ecoregions. These varied environmental conditions support a high degree of biological diversity (Chapter 1), but they also provide opportunities for a wide range of invasive species...

  19. Chapter 10:Hardwoods for timber bridges

    James P. Wacker; Ed T. Cesa


    This chapter describes the joint efforts of the Forest Service and the FHWA to administer national programs including research, demonstration bridges, and technology transfer components. Summary information on a number of Forest Service-WIT demonstration bridges constructed with hardwoods is also provided.

  20. Forest management practices and silviculture. Chapter 12.

    Donald A. Perala; Elon S. Verry


    This chapter is an overview of forest management and silviculture practices, and lessons learned, on the Marcell Experimental Forest (MEF). The forests there are a mosaic of natural regeneration and conifer plantations. Verry (1969) described forest-plant communities in detail for the study watersheds (Sl through S6) on the MEF. The remaining area is described in...

  1. Chapter 13, Policy options: North America

    Jane Barr; James Dobrowolski; John Campbell; Philippe Le Prestre; Lori Lynch; Marc Sydnor; Robert Adler; Jose Etcheverry; Alexander Kenny; Catherine Hallmich; Jim Lazar; Russell M. Meyer; Robin Newmark; Janet Peace; Julie A. Suhr Pierce; Stephen. Yamasaki


    As previously indicated, GEO-5 shifts the GEO focus from identifying environmental problems to identifying solutions that governments can then prioritize. This chapter provides examples of a number of policy options and market mechanisms that have shown some success in improving environmental conditions in North America. They are organized by priority environmental...

  2. Chapter 3: Status and trends of vegetation

    James M. Guldin; Frank R. Thompson; Lynda L. Richards; Kyra C. Harper


    This chapter provides information about the vegetation cover of the Assessment area. The types and areal extent of vegetation in the Highlands are of interest for many reasons. Vegetation cover largely determines the availability of habitat for terrestrial animals, plants, and other organisms. Vegetation cover strongly influences what uses {e.g., timber, forage,...

  3. Chapter 8: Youth, Technology, and Media Cultures

    Sefton-Green, Julian


    This chapter begins with a scenario contrasting two seemingly different images of child and media from before and after the "digital revolution." The author argues that there is much greater continuity in how this relationship has been conceptualized over the period than is commonly imagined. While not offering a comprehensive study of recent…

  4. Radioactive wastes storage and disposal. Chapter 8


    The Chapter 8 is essentially dedicated to radioactive waste management - storage and disposal. The management safety is being provided due to packages and facilities of waste disposal and storage. It is noted that at selection of sites for waste disposal it is necessary account rock properties and ways of the wastes delivery pathways

  5. Workplace innovation in the Netherlands: chapter 8

    Pot, F.; Dhondt, S.; Korte, E. de; Oeij, P.; Vaas, F.


    Social innovation of work and employment is a prerequisite to achieve the EU2020 objectives of smart, sustainable and inclusive growth. It covers labor market innovation on societal level and workplace innovation on organizational level. This chapter focuses on the latter. Workplace innovations are

  6. Science, practice, and place [Chapter 2

    Daniel R. Williams


    Place-oriented inquiry and practice are proposed as keys to overcoming the persistent gap between science and practice. This chapter begins by describing some of the reasons science fails to simplify conservation practice, highlighting the challenges associated with the social and ecological sciences of multi-scaled complexity. Place concepts help scientists and...

  7. Other pospiviroids infecting Solanaceous plants (Book Chapter)

    Aside from potato spindle tuber viroid, the genus Pospiviroid contains several agents reported to naturally infect solanaceous crops (e.g. tomato, potato, pepper) or ornamental plants (e.g. Petunia hybrida, Solanum spp., Brugmansia spp.). The present chapter focuses on the following so-called solana...

  8. Chapter 9: Questions from CNEN specific exams



    The following are real questions from CNEN specific exams for obtaining the certification of RSO for gamma irradiators. These are questions that require essay answers, that are interpretative ones and therefore that may accept more than one interpretation, therefore more than one answer. For this reason, suggestions of answers will be presented in the second part of this chapter.

  9. Chapter 9: Questions from CNEN specific exams


    The following are real questions from CNEN specific exams for obtaining the certification of RSO for gamma irradiators. These are questions that require essay answers, that are interpretative ones and therefore that may accept more than one interpretation, therefore more than one answer. For this reason, suggestions of answers will be presented in the second part of this chapter

  10. Chapter 6: Accidents; Capitulo 6: Acidentes



    The chapter 6 talks about the accidents with radiators all over the world, specifically, the Stimos, in Italy, 1975, San Salvador, in El Salvador, 1989, Soreq, in Israel, 1990, Nesvizh, in Byelorussian, 1991, in Illinois, US, 1965, in Maryland, US, 1991, Hanoi, Vietnam, 1992, Fleurus, in Belgium, 2006. Comments on the accidents and mainly the learned lessons.

  11. Basic Physics for Nuclear Medicine. Chapter 1

    Podgorsak, E. B. [Department of Medical Physics, McGill University, Montreal (Canada); Kesner, A. L. [Division of Human Health, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Soni, P. S. [Medical Cyclotron Facility, Board of Radiation and Isotope Technology, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)


    The technologies used in nuclear medicine for diagnostic imaging have evolved over the last century, starting with Röntgen’s discovery of X rays and Becquerel’s discovery of natural radioactivity. Each decade has brought innovation in the form of new equipment, techniques, radiopharmaceuticals, advances in radionuclide production and, ultimately, better patient care. All such technologies have been developed and can only be practised safely with a clear understanding of the behaviour and principles of radiation sources and radiation detection. These central concepts of basic radiation physics and nuclear physics are described in this chapter and should provide the requisite knowledge for a more in depth understanding of the modern nuclear medicine technology discussed in subsequent chapters.

  12. Gaia DR2 documentation Chapter 3: Astrometry

    Hobbs, D.; Lindegren, L.; Bastian, U.; Klioner, S.; Butkevich, A.; Stephenson, C.; Hernandez, J.; Lammers, U.; Bombrun, A.; Mignard, F.; Altmann, M.; Davidson, M.; de Bruijne, J. H. J.; Fernández-Hernández, J.; Siddiqui, H.; Utrilla Molina, E.


    This chapter of the Gaia DR2 documentation describes the models and processing steps used for the astrometric core solution, namely, the Astrometric Global Iterative Solution (AGIS). The inputs to this solution rely heavily on the basic observables (or astrometric elementaries) which have been pre-processed and discussed in Chapter 2, the results of which were published in Fabricius et al. (2016). The models consist of reference systems and time scales; assumed linear stellar motion and relativistic light deflection; in addition to fundamental constants and the transformation of coordinate systems. Higher level inputs such as: planetary and solar system ephemeris; Gaia tracking and orbit information; initial quasar catalogues and BAM data are all needed for the processing described here. The astrometric calibration models are outlined followed by the details processing steps which give AGIS its name. We also present a basic quality assessment and validation of the scientific results (for details, see Lindegren et al. 2018).

  13. Chapter 13. Phonology: Stress and Vowel Reduction

    Nesset, Tore


    Where do the complex stress patterns in Modern Russian come from? And why is Москва ‘Moscow’ pronounced with an unstressed [a] in the first syllable? In this chapter, you learn about the history of two related phenomena that cause problems for learners of Russian: stress patterns and vowel reduction in unstressed syllables. Click on the links below to learn more!13.2 Akanje

  14. Interactions of Radiation with Matter. Chapter 2

    Cunningham, J. R.; Dance, D. R. [Royal Surrey County Hospital, Guildford (United Kingdom)


    This chapter deals with the physics of events that occur when photons and electrons interact with matter. These are the radiations that are important for diagnostic radiology, and only those interactions that result in their attenuation, absorption and scattering are dealt with. Other interactions, such as those with nuclei, are not considered here because they only occur for radiation that is higher in energy than that used for diagnostic radiology.

  15. Haramekhala - tantra (the first chapter on medicine).

    Sharma, P V


    This translation of Haramekhala - tantra of the author is based on Banaras Hindu University manuscript which seems to be a novel one. The manuscript runs into 133 stanzas in all in the form of dialogue between lord Siva and goddess Parvati. This is only the first chapter (of the great work) dealing with medicine. From stanza 109 onwards some magic spells are described and as such those have not been included in this translation.

  16. Chapter 1. The structure of the company


    In the first chapter of this CD ROM the structure of the Slovak Electric, Plc. (Slovenske elektrarne, a.s.) in 1998 is presented. It consist of next paragraphs (1) The history (The origin of the SE, Plc.; Main events of 1995; Main events of 1996; Main events of 1997); (2) The bodies of SE, Plc. (General Meeting of Shareholders; Supervisory Board; Board of Directors); (3) Organizational structure of the the Company (The Headquarters of SE, Plc.; SE, Plc, Transmission System)

  17. Thick-joint welding process. Chapter 5

    Wood, D.; Terry, P.; Dickinson, F.S.


    This chapter reviews the techniques currently employed in the welding of pressure vessels, ranging from traditional manual metal arc and submerged arc processes to the more recently introduced narrow-gap and high-energy processes, e.g. electron beam and laser. The effect on the properties of the base materials being joined and the relative economics of the various processes is examined, from which guidance on the balance between joint properties and economy can be gained. (author)

  18. Nuclear Medicine Imaging Devices. Chapter 11

    Lodge, M. A.; Frey, E. C. [Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States)


    Imaging forms an important part of nuclear medicine and a number of different imaging devices have been developed. This chapter describes the principles and technological characteristics of the main imaging devices used in nuclear medicine. The two major categories are gamma camera systems and positron emission tomography (PET) systems. The former are used to image γ rays emitted by any nuclide, while the latter exploit the directional correlation between annihilation photons emitted by positron decay. The first section of this chapter discusses the principal components of gamma cameras and how they are used to form 2-D planar images as well as 3-D tomographic images (single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)). The second section describes related instrumentation that has been optimized for PET data acquisition. A major advance in nuclear medicine was achieved with the introduction of multi-modality imaging systems including SPECT/computed tomography (CT) and PET/CT. In these systems, the CT images can be used to provide an anatomical context for the functional nuclear medicine images and allow for attenuation compensation. The third section in this chapter provides a discussion of the principles of these devices.

  19. Management of Therapy Patients. Chapter 20

    Dauer, L. T. [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York (United States)


    The basic principles of radiation protection and their implementation as they apply to nuclear medicine are covered in general in Chapter 3. This chapter will look at the specific case of nuclear medicine used for therapy. In addition to the standards discussed in Chapter 3, specific guidance on the release of patients after radionuclide therapy can be found in the IAEA’s Safety Reports Series No. 63 [20.1]. When the patient is kept in hospital following radionuclide therapy, the people at risk of exposure include hospital staff whose duties may or may not directly involve the use of radiation. This can be a significant problem. However, it is generally felt that it can be effectively managed with well trained staff and appropriate facilities. On the other hand, once the patient has been released, the groups at risk include members of the patient’s family, including children, and carers; they may also include neighbours, visitors to the household, co-workers, those encountered in public places, on public transport or at public events, and finally, the general public. It is generally felt that these risks can be effectively mitigated by the radiation protection officer (RPO) with patient-specific radiation safety precaution instructions.

  20. Assessing the Multiple Benefits of Clean Energy Chapter 1: Introduction

    Chapter 1 of “Assessing the Multiple Benefits of Clean Energy” provides an introduction to the document. /meta name=DC.title content=Assessing the Multiple Benefits of Clean Energy Chapter 1: Introduction

  1. Life story chapters, specific memories and the reminiscence bump

    Thomsen, Dorthe Kirkegaard; Pillemer, David B.; Ivcevic, Zorana


    Theories of autobiographical memory posit that extended time periods (here termed chapters) and memories are organised hierarchically. If chapters organise memories and guide their recall, then chapters and memories should show similar temporal distributions over the life course. Previous research...... are over-represented at the beginning of chapters. Potential connections between chapters and the cultural life script are also examined. Adult participants first divided their life story into chapters and identified their most positive and most negative chapter. They then recalled a specific memory from...... demonstrates that positive but not negative memories show a reminiscence bump and that memories cluster at the beginning of extended time periods. The current study tested the hypotheses that (1) ages marking the beginning of positive but not negative chapters produce a bump, and that (2) specific memories...

  2. Chapter 14. Radionuclides in vegetal production and food processing

    Toelgyessy, J.; Harangozo, M.


    This is a chapter of textbook of radioecology for university students. In this chapter authors deal with problems connected with using of radionuclides in vegetal production and food processing. Chapter consist of next parts: (1) Influence of radiation on foods; (2) Radiation sterilisation in health service

  3. Using Kolb's Experiential Learning Cycle in Chapter Presentations

    Stokes-Eley, Stephanie


    Student-led chapter presentations provide an excellent opportunity for instructors to evaluate a student's comprehension of the assigned chapter, as well as the student's ability to present and convey information in a public forum. Although several instructors realize the benefits of requiring students to complete chapter presentations either as…

  4. Promoting the APS Chapter Program by sharing its history, best practices, and how-to guide for establishing new chapters.

    Hopper, Mari K


    Early establishment of physiological societies in Oklahoma and Ohio demonstrated the benefits of networking physiologists and paved the way for establishing the APS Chapter Program. Designed to promote the general objectives of the APS, the Chapter Program was officially launched in 1995, with Ohio being the first recognized chapter. There are 13 active chapters regularly engaged in numerous activities designed to advance physiology education and research. In the hopes that others will recognize the important offerings of state chapters and consider organizing one, the aims for this paper are to 1) share a brief history, 2) provide rationale for chapter initiation, and 3) describe the process involved in establishing a chapter. In light of current changes in American Medical Association and Liaison Committee on Medical Education guidelines, the present time may be critical in promoting chapters, as they play a vital role in sustaining recognition and support for the discipline. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  5. Chapter 17. Electric schema and its changes

    Feik, K.; Kmosena, J.


    In this chapter an electric schema and its changes of the A1 nuclear power plant in Jaslovske Bohunice (the Slovak Republic) are described. Three turbogenerators with power 50 MW were installed in the A1 NPP. Basic description of electrical equipment installed according authentic project and authentic conception of accidental cooling are presented in detail. New conception and equipment of accidental and super-accidental after-cooling of the A1 NPP as well as final solution of electrical part with new functions of accidental and super-accidental after-cooling are presented. Shortcomings of electrical equipment, which originated and were eliminated during construction and operation, are also described.

  6. Space Applications of Mass Spectrometry. Chapter 31

    Hoffman, John H.; Griffin, Timothy P.; Limero, Thomas; Arkin, C. Richard


    Mass spectrometers have been involved in essentially all aspects of space exploration. This chapter outlines some of these many uses. Mass spectrometers have not only helped to expand our knowledge and understanding of the world and solar system around us, they have helped to put man safely in space and expand our frontier. Mass spectrometry continues to prove to be a very reliable, robust, and flexible analytical instrument, ensuring that its use will continue to help aid our investigation of the universe and this small planet that we call home.

  7. Special Topics in Radiography. Chapter 10

    Mclean, I. D. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Shepherd, J. A. [University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, United States of America (United States)


    Up to this point, this handbook has described the use of X rays to form 2-D medical images of the 3-D patient. This process of reducing patient information by one dimension results in an image of superimposed tissues where important information might be obscured. Chapter 11 begins a section of the book involving the creation of cross-sectional medical images through computed tomography (CT), ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This Chapter describes a number of special X ray imaging modalities and their associated techniques, and forms a transition between projection and cross-sectional imaging. The first of these special topics is dental radiography, which is characterized by a diversity of technology and innovation. The common intraoral radiograph of a single tooth has seen little fundamental change since the time of Roentgen and is, today, along with the simple chest radiograph, the most commonly performed radiographic examination. By contrast, the challenge to create an image of all the teeth simultaneously has placed dentistry at the cutting edge of technology, through the development of panographic techniques and, most recently, with the application of cone beam CT (CBCT). Moreover, the small size of the tooth and the consequent reduced need for X ray generation power promotes equipment mobility. The effect of the need for equipment mobility also forms a special topic that is examined in this chapter. Quantification of the composition of the body is another special X ray imaging technique. Dual energy X ray absorptiometry (DXA) is primarily used to derive the mass of one material in the presence of another, through knowledge of their unique X ray attenuation at different energies. DXA’s primary commercial application has been to measure body mineral density as an assessment of fracture risk and to diagnose osteoporosis; thus, the X ray energies used are optimized for bone density assessment. Currently, there are estimated to be over 50 000

  8. Gaia DR2 documentation Chapter 7: Variability

    Eyer, L.; Guy, L.; Distefano, E.; Clementini, G.; Mowlavi, N.; Rimoldini, L.; Roelens, M.; Audard, M.; Holl, B.; Lanzafame, A.; Lebzelter, T.; Lecoeur-Taïbi, I.; Molnár, L.; Ripepi, V.; Sarro, L.; Jevardat de Fombelle, G.; Nienartowicz, K.; De Ridder, J.; Juhász, Á.; Molinaro, R.; Plachy, E.; Regibo, S.


    This chapter of the Gaia DR2 documentation describes the models and methods used on the 22 months of data to produce the Gaia variable star results for Gaia DR2. The variability processing and analysis was based mostly on the calibrated G and integrated BP and RP photometry. The variability analysis approach to the Gaia data has been described in Eyer et al. (2017), and the Gaia DR2 results are presented in Holl et al. (2018). Detailed methods on specific topics will be published in a number of separate articles. Variability behaviour in the colour magnitude diagram is presented in Gaia Collaboration et al. (2018c).

  9. Radiological departments. Chapter 4.3.5


    The book deals with the problems of health, labor and fire protection in the public health service of the GDR as a whole. A special chapter treats these items concerning the conditions in radiological departments. In this connection the main legal regulations are presented. Introducing remarks on generation and properties of ionizing radiations and on biological radiation effects are outlined. Further, the responsibilities in radiation protection, maximum permissible radiation doses and the handling of X-ray devices, sealed and unsealed radiation sources are discussed

  10. Chapter 2: uranium mines and mills

    O'Connell, W.J.


    This chapter will be included in a larger ASCE Committee Report. Uranium mining production is split between underground and open pit mines. Mills are sized to produce yellowcake concentrate from hundreds to thousands of tons of ore per day. Miner's health and safety, and environmental protection are key concerns in design. Standards are set by the US Mine Safety and Health Administration, the EPA, NRC, DOT, the states, and national standards organizations. International guidance and standards are extensive and based on mining experience in many nations

  11. Investment in electricity for development. Chapter 5


    In this short chapter, we discuss first the role of reliable and affordable electricity in underpinning economic development and in enabling the achievement of the MDGs in health and education. We then review some estimates of investment requirements for energy needs in sub Saharan Africa. In the next section we discuss briefly how financing sources for investment in the sector in sub-Saharan Africa are constrained. In the main and final section we list priority policies, which, if implemented, can help overcome these constraints so that increased amounts of investment begin to flow into the sector, resulting in the desired improvement in electricity services

  12. Measures of Image Quality. Chapter 4

    Maidment, A. D.A. [University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (United States)


    A medical image is a pictorial representation of a measurement of an object or function of the body. This information can be acquired in one to three spatial dimensions. It can be static or dynamic, meaning that it can also be measured as a function of time. Certain fundamental properties can be associated with all of these data. Firstly, no image can exactly represent the object or function; at best, one has a measurement with an associated error equal to the difference between the true object and the measured image. Secondly, no two images will be identical, even if acquired with the same imaging system of the same anatomic region; this variability is generally referred to as noise. There are many different ways to acquire medical image data; the various mechanisms of acquisition are described in detail in the subsequent chapters. However, regardless of the method of image formation, one must be able to judge the fidelity of the image in an attempt to answer the question “How accurately does the image portray the body or the bodily function?” This judgement falls under the rubric of ‘image quality’. In this chapter, methods of quantifying image quality are described.

  13. Image Perception and Assessment. Chapter 18

    Reiser, I. [University of Chicago, Chicago (United States)


    The main purpose of a medical image is to provide information to a human reader, such as a radiologist, so that a diagnosis can be reached — rather than to display the beauty of the human internal workings. It is important to understand how the human visual system affects the perception of contrast and spatial resolution of structures that are present in the image. If the image is not properly displayed, or the environment is not appropriate, subtle clinical signs may go unnoticed, which can potentially lead to a misdiagnosis. This chapter provides an introduction to human visual perception and task based objective assessment of an imaging system. A model for the contrast sensitivity of the human visual system is presented. This model is used to derive the greyscale standard display function for medical displays. Task based assessment measures the quality of an imaging system as the ability of an observer to perform a well defined task, based on a set of images. Metrics for observer performance are introduced, as well as experimental methodologies for the measurement of human performance. The last section of the chapter describes the estimation of task performance based on mathematical observer models.

  14. Chapter 44: history of neurology in Italy.

    Bentivoglio, Marina; Mazzarello, Paolo


    The chapter starts from the Renaissance (although the origins of Italian neurology can be traced back to the Middle Ages), when treatises of nervous system physiopathology still followed Hippocratic and Galenic "humoral" theories. In Italy, as elsewhere in Europe, the concepts of humoral pathology were abandoned in the 18th century, when neurology was influenced by novel trends. Neurology acquired the status of clinical discipline (as "clinic of mental diseases") after national reunification (declared in 1861 but completed much later). At the end of the 19th and first decades of the 20th century, eminent Italian "neuropsychiatrists" (including, among many others, Ugo Cerletti, who introduced electroconvulsive shock therapy in 1938) stimulated novel knowledge and approaches, "centers of excellence" flourished, and "Neurological Institutes" were founded. In the first half of the 20th century, the history of Italian neurology was dominated by World Wars I and II (which stimulated studies on the wounded) and the fascist regime in-between the Wars (when the flow of information was instead very limited). Italy became a republic in 1946, and modern neurology and its distinction from psychiatry were finally promoted. The chapter also provides detailed accounts of scientific societies and journals dedicated to the neurological sciences in Italy.

  15. Environment. Chapter 5; Medio ambiente. Capitulo 5

    Martin del Castillo, Carlos [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)


    In this chapter it is mentioned the concern for the care of the environment in Mexico by prominent foreign and Mexican scientists who impelled the creation of a Forest Law. The ecological policies for the conservation of natural resources that cause a sustainable development in Mexico are commented; it is described what the environmental infrastructure consists of; the case of trash handling is analyzed and the Chapter concludes with the relationship of the environment, the climatic change, the infrastructure and the planning. [Spanish] En este capitulo se menciona la preocupacion por el cuidado del medio ambiente en Mexico, por prominentes cientificos extranjeros y mexicanos que impulsaron la creacion de una Ley Forestal. Se comentan las politicas ecologicas para la conservacion de recursos naturales que propicien un desarrollo sustentable en Mexico; se describe en que consiste la infraestructura ambiental; se analiza el caso del manejo de la basura y; se concluye con la relacion del medio ambiente, el cambio climatico, la infraestructura y la planeacion.

  16. WIN Chapters: Milestones and Future Plans

    Castro, P.; Pelegrí, M.


    In this paper the WIN Chapters: milestones and future plans are presented. WIN-IAEA has rewarded-in the three last years - to Australia-2014, South-Africa-2013 and Sweden-2012. WIN-Global -specially WiN IAEA- can collaborate a lot with the CTBTO presenting the content of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons actually increasing the signatory members in 2015. Historical decisions on NTP are already affecting WiN IAEA. The research reactors or high flux reactors are important in the field of medical applications and other future applications. In Australia women-scientist of OPAL, can become WiN. Between the OPAL applications there is a production of silicon plates to be used in laptops/mobiles. WIN-Europe activities related with the climatic change and with the academic promotion. 2015 is also a very important year due the celebration of 20th Anniversary of WIN-Spain; plans of this Chapter and Conferences of WIN-Global are presented. In addition there are women working in ITER, in some activities in the EU, China, India, Japan, South Korea, USA and Russia both in the academic (R+D) field and into the Industry. (Author)

  17. Chapter 2: Stand-alone Applications - TOPCAT

    Miller, C. J.

    Tool for OPerations on Catalogues And Tables or TOPCAT is a graphical viewer for table data. It offers a variety of ways to work with data tables, including a browser for the cell data, viewers for information about table and column metadata, dataset visualization, and even analysis. We discuss a small subset of TOPCAT's functionalities in this chapter. TOPCAT was originally developed as part of the Starlink program in the United Kingdom. It is now maintained by AstroGrid. The program is written in pure Java and available under the GNU General Public License. It is available for download and a version is included in the software distribution accompanying this book. TOPCAT is a GUI interface on top of the STIL library. A command line interface to this library, STILTS, described in Chapter 21 provides scriptable access to many of the capabilities described here. The purpose of this tutorial is to provide an overview of TOPCAT to the novice user. The best place to look for and learn about TOPCAT is the web page maintained by Mark B. Taylor. There, TOPCAT documentation is provided in HTML, PDF, via screen shots, etc. In this chapter we take the user through a few examples that give the general idea of how TOPCAT works. The majority of the functionality of TOPCAT is not included in this short tutorial. Our goal in this tutorial is to lead the reader through an exercise that would result in a publication quality figure (e.g. for a journal article). Specifically, we will use TOPCAT to show how the color-magnitude relation of a galaxy cluster compares to that of all galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (York et al. 2000). This diagnostic is used not only in cluster finding, but its linear fit can provide insight into the age and/or metallicity of the oldest galaxies in galaxy clusters (which are some of the oldest galaxies in the Universe). The data we need for this exercise are: 1) the entire spectroscopic galaxy catalog from the SDSS, with galaxy positions, galaxy

  18. Tamarix, hydrology and fluvial geomorphology: Chapter 7

    Auerbach, Daniel A.; Merritt, David M.; Shafroth, Patrick B.; Sher, Anna A; Quigley, Martin F.


    This chapter explores the impact of hydrology and fluvial geomorphology on the distribution and abundance of Tamarix as well as the reciprocal effects of Tamarix on hydrologic and geomorphic conditions. It examines whether flow-regime alteration favors Tamarix establishment over native species, and how Tamarix stands modify processes involved in the narrowing of river channels and the formation of floodplains. It begins with an overview of the basic geomorphic and hydrologic character of rivers in the western United States before analyzing how this setting has contributed to the regional success of Tamarix. It then considers the influence of Tamarix on the hydrogeomorphic form and function of rivers and concludes by discussing how a changing climate, vegetation management, and continued water-resource development affect the future role of Tamarix in these ecosystems.

  19. Chapter 13 - Active Rectifiers and Their Control

    Davari, Pooya; Zare, Firuz; Abdelhakim, Ahmed


    This chapter investigates the control design of active rectifiers and their applications in power electronics-based power system. The harmonic emission and measures are firstly addressed as a basis of evaluating the active rectifier's effectiveness. Furthermore, the importance of new coming...... standards is highlighted. Application-oriented design of active rectifiers as a main reason behind evolvement of different topologies is discussed. Then, the main principle in designing different control schemes in single-phase and three-phase rectifiers is investigated, analyzed, and experimentally...... verified. The influence of nonideal operating conditions with possible solutions is addressed. Finally, future prospective of active rectifiers as a one of the key enabler of carbon-free power system is summarized....

  20. Environment-effect reporting. Chapter 6

    Hermens, P.A.H.


    Environment-effect reporting is a tool in the resolution of one or more government bodies about activities which may have important disadvantageous impacts upon the environment. This chapter gives a treatment of environment-effect reporting as a process consisting of the preparation, draw-up, judgement and use of an environment-effect report (MER), followed by an evaluation. The contentsof an environment-effect report are indicated. The role of environment-effect reporting in relation with other procedures is discussed. Some experience with the application of environment-effect reporting is presented and a number of experiences in the application are discussed. (H.W.). 5 refs.; 3 figs.; 3 tabs

  1. Mercury and halogens in coal: Chapter 2

    Kolker, Allan; Quick, Jeffrey C.; Granite, Evan J.; Pennline, Henry W.; Senior, Constance L.


    Apart from mercury itself, coal rank and halogen content are among the most important factors inherent in coal that determine the proportion of mercury captured by conventional controls during coal combustion. This chapter reviews how mercury in coal occurs, gives available concentration data for mercury in U.S. and international commercial coals, and provides an overview of the natural variation in halogens that influence mercury capture. Three databases, the U.S. Geological Survey coal quality (USGS COALQUAL) database for in-ground coals, and the 1999 and 2010 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Information Collection Request (ICR) databases for coals delivered to power stations, provide extensive results for mercury and other parameters that are compared in this chapter. In addition to the United States, detailed characterization of mercury is available on a nationwide basis for China, whose mean values in recent compilations are very similar to the United States in-ground mean of 0.17 ppm mercury. Available data for the next five largest producers (India, Australia, South Africa, the Russian Federation, and Indonesia) are more limited and with the possible exceptions of Australia and the Russian Federation, do not allow nationwide means for mercury in coal to be calculated. Chlorine in coal varies as a function of rank and correspondingly, depth of burial. As discussed elsewhere in this volume, on a proportional basis, bromine is more effective than chlorine in promoting mercury oxidation in flue gas and capture by conventional controls. The ratio of bromine to chlorine in coal is indicative of the proportion of halogens present in formation waters within a coal basin. This ratio is relatively constant except in coals that have interacted with deep-basin brines that have reached halite saturation, enriching residual fluids in bromine. Results presented here help optimize mercury capture by conventional controls and provide a starting point for

  2. The Students’ misconceptions profile on chapter gas kinetic theory

    Jauhariyah, M. N. R.; Suprapto, N.; Suliyanah; Admoko, S.; Setyarsih, W.; Harizah, Z.; Zulfa, I.


    Students have conception and misconceptions in the learning process. Misconceptions are caused by the teacher, students, and learning source. In the previous study, the researcher developed a misconception diagnosis instrument using three-tier on chapter gas kinetic theory. There are 14 items including 5 sub-chapters on gas kinetic theory. The profile of students’ misconceptions shows that students have misconceptions in each sub-chapter. The cause of misconceptions came from preconceptions, associative thinking, reasoning, intuition, and false negative. The highest cause of misconception in this chapter is student’s humanistic thinking.

  3. Numerical Prediction of Dust. Chapter 10

    Benedetti, Angela; Baldasano, J. M.; Basart, S.; Benincasa, F.; Boucher, O.; Brooks, M.; Chen, J. P.; Colarco, P. R.; Gong, S.; Huneeus, N.; hide


    Covers the whole breadth of mineral dust research, from a scientific perspective Presents interdisciplinary work including results from field campaigns, satellite observations, laboratory studies, computer modelling and theoretical studies Explores the role of dust as a player and recorder of environmental change This volume presents state-of-the-art research about mineral dust, including results from field campaigns, satellite observations, laboratory studies, computer modelling and theoretical studies. Dust research is a new, dynamic and fast-growing area of science and due to its multiple roles in the Earth system, dust has become a fascinating topic for many scientific disciplines. Aspects of dust research covered in this book reach from timescales of minutes (as with dust devils, cloud processes, and radiation) to millennia (as with loess formation and oceanic sediments), making dust both a player and recorder of environmental change. The book is structured in four main parts that explore characteristics of dust, the global dust cycle, impacts of dust on the Earth system, and dust as a climate indicator. The chapters in these parts provide a comprehensive, detailed overview of this highly interdisciplinary subject. The contributions presented here cover dust from source to sink and describe all the processes dust particles undergo while travelling through the atmosphere. Chapters explore how dust is lifted and transported, how it affects radiation, clouds, regional circulations, precipitation and chemical processes in the atmosphere, and how it deteriorates air quality. The book explores how dust is removed from the atmosphere by gravitational settling, turbulence or precipitation, how iron contained in dust fertilizes terrestrial and marine ecosystems, and about the role that dust plays in human health. We learn how dust is observed, simulated using computer models and forecast. The book also details the role of dust deposits for climate reconstructions

  4. Gaia DR1 documentation Chapter 6: Variability

    Eyer, L.; Rimoldini, L.; Guy, L.; Holl, B.; Clementini, G.; Cuypers, J.; Mowlavi, N.; Lecoeur-Taïbi, I.; De Ridder, J.; Charnas, J.; Nienartowicz, K.


    This chapter describes the photometric variability processing of the Gaia DR1 data. Coordination Unit 7 is responsible for the variability analysis of over a billion celestial sources. In particular the definition, design, development, validation and provision of a software package for the data processing of photometrically variable objects. Data Processing Centre Geneva (DPCG) responsibilities cover all issues related to the computational part of the CU7 analysis. These span: hardware provisioning, including selection, deployment and optimisation of suitable hardware, choosing and developing software architecture, defining data and scientific workflows as well as operational activities such as configuration management, data import, time series reconstruction, storage and processing handling, visualisation and data export. CU7/DPCG is also responsible for interaction with other DPCs and CUs, software and programming training for the CU7 members, scientific software quality control and management of software and data lifecycle. Details about the specific data treatment steps of the Gaia DR1 data products are found in Eyer et al. (2017) and are not repeated here. The variability content of the Gaia DR1 focusses on a subsample of Cepheids and RR Lyrae stars around the South ecliptic pole, showcasing the performance of the Gaia photometry with respect to variable objects.

  5. Energy. Chapter 4; Energia. Capitulo 4

    Martin del Castillo, Carlos [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)


    This chapter stands out that the infrastructure for the electric energy generation, as well as the one departing from fossil fuels has been the responsibility of two institutions with great solvency in the scope of engineering: the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) and Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX). It is presented here the energy future in a sustainable context; a prospective study to year 2050; a strategic proposal of Petroleos Mexicanos; the forecast of the oil industry in Mexico and a technological prospective of the energy. [Spanish] En este capitulo se destaca que la infraestructura para la generacion de energia, tanto electrica como a partir de combustibles fisiles ha corrido a cargo de dos instituciones con gran solvencia en el ambito de la ingenieria: la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) y Petroleos Mexicanos (Pemex). Se presenta el futuro de la energia en un contexto sustentable; un estudio prospectivo al ano 2050; una propuesta estrategica de Petroleos Mexicanos; la prospectiva de la industria petrolera en Mexico y; una prospectiva tecnologica de la energia.

  6. Microscopic functional anatomy: Integumentary system: Chapter 17

    Elliott, Diane G.; Ostrander, Gary K.


    Many of the features of the fish integument can only be observed microscopically. Because there are over 20,000 living fishes, mostly higher bony fishes (teleosts), a great diversity exists in the microscopic anatomy of the integument. This chapter presents several examples from varied taxonomic groups to illustrate the variation in morphological features. As in all vertebrate epidermis, the fundamental structural unit is the epithelial cell. This is the only constant feature, as a great diversity of cell types exists in the various fish taxa. Some of these include apocrine mucous cells and a variety of other secretory cells, ionocytes, sensory cells, and wandering cells such as leukocytes. The dermis consists essentially of two sets of collagen fibers arranged in opposing geodesic spirals around the body. The dermis of most fishes is divided into two major layers. The upper (outer) layer, the stratum spongiosum or stratum laxum, is a loose network of connective tissue, whereas the lower layer, the stratum compactum, is a dense layer consisting primarily of orthogonal collagen bands. There are also specialized dermal elements such as chromatophores scales, and fin rays.

  7. Moving forward with imperfect information: chapter 19

    Averyt, Kristen; Brekke, Levi D.; Kaatz, Laurna; Welling, Leigh; Hartge, Eric H.; Iseman, Tom


    This chapter summarized the scope of what is known and not known about climate in the Southwestern United States. There is now more evidence and more agreement among climate scientists about the physical climate and related impacts in the Southwest compared with that represented in the 2009 National Climate Assessment (Karl, Melillo, and Peterson 2009). However, there remain uncertainties about the climate system, the complexities within climate models, the related impacts to the biophysical environment, and the use of climate information on decision making. Uncertainty is introduced in each step of the climate planning-an-response process--in the scenarios used to drive the climate models, the information used to construct the models, and the interpretation and use of the model' data for planning and decision making (Figure 19.1). There are server key challenge, drawn from recommendations of the authors of this report, that contribute to these uncertainties in the Southwest: - There is a dearth of climate observations at high elevations and on the lands of Native nations.

  8. Chapter 15--chew before you swallow.

    Lund, James P


    The main text of this chapter, written by James P. Lund, summarizes most of the work related to the neural control of mastication that he conducted with his collaborators throughout the years. From his early PhD work showing that mastication is centrally patterned to his latest work related to the interaction between pain and movement, Lund will have addressed many essential questions regarding the organization and functioning of the masticatory central pattern generator (CPG). His earliest studies examined how the CPG modulates reflexes and the excitability of primary afferents, interneurons, and motoneurons forming their circuitry. He then tackled the question of how the CPG itself was modulated by different types of sensory and cortical inputs. Another series of studies focused on the organization of the subpopulations of neurons forming the CPG, their intrinsic and network properties. Shortly before his untimely passing, he had turned his attention to the potential contribution of muscle spindle afferents to the patterning of mastication as well as to the development of chronic muscle pain. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. HPLC–MS and HPLC–MS/MS analysis of seven active constituents of Xiao-Xu-Ming decoction and application to a pharmacokinetic study after oral administration to rat

    Yilin Wang


    Full Text Available Xiao-xu-ming decoction (XXMD is a traditional Chinese medicine that has been widely used to treat theoplegia and its sequelae. This paper reports the development of three separate assays based on reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (HPLC–MS and HPLC–MS/MS for the determination of seven active constituents of XXMD viz oroxylin A-7-O-glucuronide, wogonoside, liquiritigenin, cimifugin, 5-O-methylvisammiol, glycyrrhizic acid and glycyrrhetinic acid in rat plasma. All calibration curves were linear (r >0.99 with lower limits of quantitation (LLOQs<12.4 ng/mL. Intra- and inter-day precisions (as relative standard deviation were all <10.7% with recoveries in the range of 88.7–113%. In addition, the seven analytes were shown to be stable in rat plasma samples under relevant storage conditions. The validated methods were successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study in rat after oral administration of XXMD.

  10. Poly(Dopamine-Assisted Immobilization of Xu Duan on 3D Printed Poly(Lactic Acid Scaffolds to Up-Regulate Osteogenic and Angiogenic Markers of Bone Marrow Stem Cells

    Chia-Hung Yeh


    Full Text Available Three-dimensional printing is a versatile technique to generate large quantities of a wide variety of shapes and sizes of polymer. The aim of this study is to develop functionalized 3D printed poly(lactic acid (PLA scaffolds and use a mussel-inspired surface coating and Xu Duan (XD immobilization to regulate cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of human bone-marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs. We prepared PLA scaffolds and coated with polydopamine (PDA. The chemical composition and surface properties of PLA/PDA/XD were characterized by XPS. PLA/PDA/XD controlled hBMSCs’ responses in several ways. Firstly, adhesion and proliferation of hBMSCs cultured on PLA/PDA/XD were significantly enhanced relative to those on PLA. In addition, the focal adhesion kinase (FAK expression of cells was increased and promoted cell attachment depended on the XD content. In osteogenesis assay, the osteogenesis markers of hBMSCs cultured on PLA/PDA/XD were significantly higher than seen in those cultured on a pure PLA/PDA scaffolds. Moreover, hBMSCs cultured on PLA/PDA/XD showed up-regulation of the ang-1 and vWF proteins associated with angiogenic differentiation. Our results demonstrate that the bio-inspired coating synthetic PLA polymer can be used as a simple technique to render the surfaces of synthetic scaffolds active, thus enabling them to direct the specific responses of hBMSCs.

  11. Poly(Dopamine)-Assisted Immobilization of Xu Duan on 3D Printed Poly(Lactic Acid) Scaffolds to Up-Regulate Osteogenic and Angiogenic Markers of Bone Marrow Stem Cells.

    Yeh, Chia-Hung; Chen, Yi-Wen; Shie, Ming-You; Fang, Hsin-Yuan


    Three-dimensional printing is a versatile technique to generate large quantities of a wide variety of shapes and sizes of polymer. The aim of this study is to develop functionalized 3D printed poly(lactic acid) (PLA) scaffolds and use a mussel-inspired surface coating and Xu Duan (XD) immobilization to regulate cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of human bone-marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs). We prepared PLA scaffolds and coated with polydopamine (PDA). The chemical composition and surface properties of PLA/PDA/XD were characterized by XPS. PLA/PDA/XD controlled hBMSCs' responses in several ways. Firstly, adhesion and proliferation of hBMSCs cultured on PLA/PDA/XD were significantly enhanced relative to those on PLA. In addition, the focal adhesion kinase (FAK) expression of cells was increased and promoted cell attachment depended on the XD content. In osteogenesis assay, the osteogenesis markers of hBMSCs cultured on PLA/PDA/XD were significantly higher than seen in those cultured on a pure PLA/PDA scaffolds. Moreover, hBMSCs cultured on PLA/PDA/XD showed up-regulation of the ang-1 and vWF proteins associated with angiogenic differentiation. Our results demonstrate that the bio-inspired coating synthetic PLA polymer can be used as a simple technique to render the surfaces of synthetic scaffolds active, thus enabling them to direct the specific responses of hBMSCs.

  12. Chapter 2: Optical Properties of the Water Column

    Kiefer, D. A.; Collins, D. J.


    In this chapter, and in chapter 29, the basic inter-relationship between the flux of radiant energy through the water column and the fixation of carbon by the phytoplankton in the ocean through processes of photosynthesis or primary production will be discussed.

  13. Chapter 7: Transport and load of radioactive material



    Related to the topic, the chapter 7 presents: 1) import License; 2) transport; 3) loading the irradiator. The information presented in this chapter is based on the Brazilian legislation, but said legislation is based on international guidelines; therefore there will be several common and different points from country to country.

  14. Education and Training of Radiotherapists. Chapter 17

    Coffey, M.


    The radiotherapist (RTT) is a member of the multidisciplinary team responsible for the preparation and delivery of a course of radiotherapy to cancer patients. The roles and responsibilities of the RTT vary significantly among countries and, in some instances, within countries. They are a reflection of both the local or broader national factors and the available resources, but must always incorporate accurate and safe practice. Irrespective of the scope of practice, roles and responsibilities, any educational programme developed for this professional group must not only prepare the RTTs for current practice, but enable them to adapt to future developments and challenges. Quality and equality of care for all patients receiving radiotherapy are the ultimate goals. To achieve these goals, educational programmes must include the subjects underpinning accurate and safe practice and must integrate academic and clinical components. Health care is undergoing reform in many countries, with a much stronger emphasis on patient centred care. However, reform of the delivery and quality of health care cannot be achieved without the parallel reform in health professional education. This need for reform is emphasized in the report on health professions education issued by the Institute of Medicine of the National Academies, wherein it is stated that “all health professionals should be educated to deliver patient-centered care as members of an interdisciplinary team, emphasizing evidence-based practice, quality improvement approaches, and informatics” [17.1]. This chapter deals with health care education in the United States of America, but the sentiment is equally applicable to the delivery of high quality health care for cancer patients throughout the world.

  15. Getting the Most from Pi Sigma Alpha Chapters: Exploring the Chapter Activity Grant Program and Its Multiplier Effects

    Alexander, Robert M.


    The political science honor society, Pi Sigma Alpha, has chapters in nearly 700 institutions across the United States. The organization sponsors many programs that can contribute a great deal to students of political science; however, many students are unaware of these opportunities. This article encourages chapter advisors to make use of these…

  16. Seville City Hall Chapter Room ceiling decoration

    Robador, M. D.


    Full Text Available The present article describes a chemical and physical study of the colour, chemical composition and mineral phases of the decorative materials in the Seville City Hall Chapter House ceiling. The findings showed that the inner most layer of material, calcite, was covered with white lead, in turn concealed under a layer of gilded bole. The ceiling underwent re-gilding, also over bole, due in all likelihood to wear on the original gold leaf. In the nineteenth century, the entire ceiling with the exception of the inscriptions was whitewashed with calcite and white lead. Silver was employed on King John I’s sword (coffer 27. Gold leaf was used to adorn the royal attributes: crowns, belts, sceptres, swords and rosary beads. The high reliefs were likewise gilded. The pigments identified on the ceiling adornments included azurite, malachite, vermilion and gas black. A lime and ground dolomite mortar was used throughout.

    El objetivo de este trabajo es el estudio de diferentes aspectos, como el color, la composición química y las fases mineralógicas presentes en los diferentes materiales que forman la ornamentación del techo de la Sala Capitular del Ayuntamiento de Sevilla, mediante métodos físicos y químicos. Nuestros resultados muestran que el dorado fue realizado sobre una capa de bol previamente depositada sobre una lámina de blanco de plomo que cubría un estrato de calcita. Posteriormente, y probablemente debido a alteraciones en el dorado original, el techo fue de nuevo dorado usando una técnica similar. En el siglo XIX, casi todo el techo, excepto las zonas con inscripciones, fue blanqueado usando una mezcla de calcita y blanco de plomo. Se empleó plata para cubrir la espada del rey Juan I (casetón 27. Finísimas láminas de oro se usaron para decorar los atributos reales: coronas, cinturones, cetros, espadas y rosarios. En diferentes partes de la decoración fueron detectados pigmentos como azurita, malaquita, bermellón y

  17. Summary and evaluation of nuclear waste forms. Chapter 12

    Lutze, W.; Ewing, R.C.


    In this chapter data are compiled from the foregoing contributed chapters into tables. In a few cases additional more recent data not found in the chapters have been included in the tables. The following waste form data are summarized: physical properties, chemical durability, radiation effects and the status of processing techniques. In addition important aspects of the comparison of waste forms and the response of waste forms (glass and ceramic) to corrosion and radiation effects are discussed. (author). 119 refs.; 6 figs.; 5 tabs

  18. Chapter 8: Plasma operation and control

    ITER Physics Expert Group on Disruptions, Control, Plasma, and MHD; ITER Physics Expert Group on Energetic Particles, Heating, Current and Drive; ITER Physics Expert Group on Diagnostics; ITER Physics Basis Editors


    well as in plasma periphery and divertor. The planned diagnostics (Chapter 7) serve as sensors for kinetic control, while gas and pellet fuelling, auxiliary power and angular momentum input, impurity injection, and non-inductive current drive constitute the control actuators. For example, in an ignited plasma, core density controls fusion power output. Kinetic control algorithms vary according to the plasma state, e.g. H- or L-mode. Generally, present facilities have demonstrated the kinetic control methods required for a reactor scale device. Plasma initiation - breakdown, burnthrough and initial current ramp - in reactor scale tokamaks will not involve physics differing from that found in present day devices. For ITER, the induced electric field in the chamber will be ~0.3V· m-1 - comparable to that required by breakdown theory but somewhat smaller than in present devices. Thus, a start-up 3MW electron cyclotron heating system will be employed to assure burnthrough. Simulations show that plasma current ramp up and termination in a reactor scale device can follow procedures developed to avoid disruption in present devices. In particular, simulations remain in the stable area of the li-q plane. For design purposes, the resistive V·s consumed during initiation is found, by experiments, to follow the Ejima expression, 0.45μ0 RIp. Advanced tokamak control has two distinct goals. First, control of density, auxiliary power, and inductive current ramping to attain reverse shear q profiles and internal transport barriers, which persist until dissipated by magnetic flux diffusion. Such internal transport barriers can lead to transient ignition. Second, combined use poloidal field shape control with non-inductive current drive and NBI angular momentum injection to create and control steady state, high bootstrap fraction, reverse shear discharges. Active n = 1 magnetic feedback and/or driven rotation will be required to suppress resistive wall modes for steady state plasmas

  19. Loss and modification of habitat: Chapter 1

    Lemckert, Francis; Hecnar, Stephen; Pilliod, David S.


    Amphibians live in a wide variety of habitats around the world, many of which have been modified or destroyed by human activities. Most species have unique life history characteristics adapted to specific climates, habitats (e.g., lentic, lotic, terrestrial, arboreal, fossorial, amphibious), and local conditions that provide suitable areas for reproduction, development and growth, shelter from environmental extremes, and predation, as well as connectivity to other populations or habitats. Although some species are entirely aquatic or terrestrial, most amphibians, as their name implies, lead a dual life and require a mosaic of habitats in both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. With over 6 billion people on Earth, most species are now persisting in habitats that have been directly or indirectly influenced by human activities. Some species have disappeared where their habitats have been completely destroyed, reduced, or rendered unsuitable. Habitat loss and degradation are widely considered by most researchers as the most important causes of amphibian population decline globally (Barinaga 1990; Wake and Morowitz 1991; Alford and Richards 1999). In this chapter, a background on the diverse habitat requirements of amphibians is provided, followed by a discussion of the effects of urbanization, agriculture, livestock grazing, timber production and harvesting, fire and hazardous fuel management, and roads on amphibians and their habitats. Also briefly discussed is the influence on amphibian habitats of natural disturbances, such as extreme weather events and climate change, given the potential for human activities to impact climate in the longer term. For amphibians in general, microhabitats are of greater importance than for other vertebrates. As ectotherms with a skin that is permeable to water and with naked gelatinous eggs, amphibians are physiologically constrained to be active during environmental conditions that provide appropriate body temperatures and adequate

  20. 75 FR 17927 - Kevin Xu: Debarment Order


    ... debarment to the Division of Dockets Management (HFA-305), Food and Drug Administration, 5630 Fishers Lane... and attempt to traffic in counterfeit goods, to cause the introduction and delivery for introduction... trademarks in violation of 18 U.S.C. 371, three counts of causing the introduction and delivery for...

  1. Seleucid, Demotic and Mediterranean mathematics versus Chapters VIII and IX of the Nine Chapters: accidental or significant similarities?

    Høyrup, Jens

    Similarities of geometrical diagrams and arithmetical structures of problems have often been taken as evidence of transmission of mathematical knowledge or techniques between China and “the West”. Confronting on one hand some problems from Chapter VIII of the Nine Chapters with comparable problems...... known from Ancient Greek sources, on the other a Seleucid collection of problems about rectangles with a subset of the triangle problems from Chapter IX, it is concluded, (1) that transmission of some arithmetical riddles without method – not “from Greece” but from a transnational community of traders...

  2. Europe Chapter of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Meeting



    The Final Proceedings for Europe Chapter of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Meeting, 7 November 2001 - 9 November 2001 This is an interdisciplinary conference in human factors and ergonomics...

  3. Methodic of payment determination for environment pollution. Chapter 2


    In the chapter 2 the methodic for determination of payments for environmental impacts from coal thermal power plant including the specifications of enterprises payments for harmful gases discharges into atmosphere and payments for solid wastes disposition is presented

  4. Part I. Chapter IV. Coldness is coming from Wienna

    Blaha, M.


    In this chapter author reviewed a political pressure of Austrian government and Austrian legislative assembly on Slovakia before fuel assembly insertion and commissioning of the Unit-1 of the Mochovce NPP. Mission of Walkdown II is described.

  5. Chapter 3: Assessing the Electric System Benefits of Clean Energy

    Chapter 3 of Assessing the Multiple Benefits of Clean Energy presents detailed information about the energy system, specifically electricity benefits of clean energy, to help policy makers understand how to identify and assess these benefits based upon t

  6. Japanese contributions to IAEA INTOR workshop, phase two A, part 2, chapter XI: concept evolution, chapter XII: design concept, and chapter XIII: operation and test programme

    Tomabechi, Ken; Fujisawa, Noboru; Iida, Hiromasa


    This report corresponds to Chapters XI, XII, and XIII of Japanese contribution report to IAEA INTOR Workship, Phase Two A, Part 2. In the phase Two A, Part 2 workshop, we have studied critical technical issues and have also assessed scientific and technical data bases. Based on those results, the INTOR design have been modified to upgrade the design concept. The major modification items are related to plasma beta value, plasma operation scenario, reactor size reduction, neutron fluence, tritium producing blanket, and implementation of active control coils. In those chapters, the concept evolution for the design modification and main results are described. (author)

  7. Implications of climate and land use change: Chapter 4

    Hall, Jefferson S.; Murgueitio, Enrique; Calle, Zoraida; Raudsepp-Hearne, Ciara; Stallard, Robert F.; Balvanera, Patricia; Hall, Jefferson S.; Kirn, Vanessa; Yanguas-Fernandez, Estrella


    This chapter relates ecosystem services to climate change and land use. The bulk of the chapter focuses on ecosystem services and steepland land use in the humid Neotropics – what is lost with land-cover changed, and what is gained with various types of restoration that are sustainable given private ownership. Many case studies are presented later in the white paper. The USGS contribution relates to climate change and the role of extreme weather events in land-use planning.

  8. Mirror Lake: Past, present and future: Chapter 6

    Likens, Gene E.; LaBaugh, James W.; Winter, Thomas C.; Likens, Gene E.


    This chapter discusses the hydrological and biogeochemical characteristics of Mirror Lake and the changes that resulted from air-land-water interactions and human activities. Since the formation of Mirror Lake, both the watershed and the lake have undergone many changes, such as vegetation development and basin filling. These changes are ongoing, and Mirror Lake is continuing along an aging pathway and ultimately, it will fill with sediment and no longer be a lake. The chapter also identifies major factors that affected the hydrology and biogeochemistry of Mirror Lake: acid rain, atmospheric deposition of lead and other heavy metals, increased human settlement around the lake, the construction of an interstate highway through the watershed of the Northeast Tributary, the construction of an access road through the West and Northeast watersheds to the lake, and climate change. The chapter also offers future recommendations for management and protection of Mirror Lake.


    Ekechukwu, A


    The most common method of analysis for beryllium is inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). This method, along with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), is discussed in Chapter 6. However, other methods exist and have been used for different applications. These methods include spectroscopic, chromatographic, colorimetric, and electrochemical. This chapter provides an overview of beryllium analysis methods other than plasma spectrometry (inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry or mass spectrometry). The basic methods, detection limits and interferences are described. Specific applications from the literature are also presented.

  10. Exotic Image of Southeast Asia in Xu Dishan’s Literature--Focus onSymbiotic Birds andKeep Mending Nets Spiders%许地山笔下的南洋形象--以《命命鸟》《缀网劳蛛》为中心

    李朦; 孙良好


    As a distinctive scholar in the history of the 1920s Chinese Modern Literature, Xu Dishan describes quite a lot of exotic features about the Southeast Asian style in his early novels. Both the deeply quiet Buddhist spirits in Burma from his Symbiotic Birds and the Christian feelings of mercy in Malaysia from his Keep Mending Nets Spiders embody the influence of the religion fusion and the exotic folk-custom in Xu Dishan’s novel. The factors of geographic, family, deity make a complicated relationship between Nan Yang (Southeast Asia) and the whole world, especially the Chinese civilization. The exotic images of Nan Yang, which Xu Dishan portrayed in his novels from the 19th to 20th century, hide the way behind “the others” how Xu Dishan makes efforts to solve the national issues in China by means of Southeast Asian literature.%许地山是20世纪中国现代文学史上与众不同的一位,他早期小说中描画的南洋风情极具异域特色。《命命鸟》中缅甸深厚静谧的佛教精神、《缀网劳蛛》中“我爱人人”的马来基督教情怀,都是宗教及异域风情浸润其早期小说的集中体现。地缘、族缘和神缘的因素让南洋和世界,尤其是和中国产生了复杂的交集和羁绊。19世纪20年代许地山小说中所描绘的南洋异域形象,在“他者”的背后,看许地山如何借助南洋文化试图解决中国本土的国民性问题。

  11. Reply to Comment by Xu et al. on "Sr-Nd isotope composition and clay mineral assemblages in eolian dust from the central Philippine Sea over the last 600 kyr: Implications for the transport mechanism of Asian dust" by Seo et al.

    Seo, Inah; Lee, Yong Il; Yoo, Chan Min; Kim, Hyung Jeek; Hyeong, Kiseong


    Against Xu et al. (2016), who argued that East Asian Desert (EAD) dust that traveled on East Asian Winter Monsoon winds dominates over Central Asian Desert (CAD) dust in the Philippine Sea with presentation of additional data, we reconfirm Seo et al.'s (2014) conclusion that CAD dust carried on the Prevailing Westerlies and Trade Winds dominates over EAD dust in overall dust budget of the central Philippine Sea. The relative contribution of dust from EADs and CADs using clay mineral composition should be evaluated with elimination of mineralogical contribution from the volcanic end-member which is enriched in kaolinite and overestimate the contribution of EAD dust.

  12. Impacts on integrated spatial and infrastructure planning (Chapter18)

    Van Huyssteen, Elsona


    Full Text Available In this chapter the implications of shale gas development (SGD) in the Karoo are explored in the context of 1) local development realities, 2) legal requirements and associated development pressures related to land development and land-use change, 3...

  13. The four facets of multimedia streaming (Chapter 7)

    Agboma, F.; Liotta, A.; Pierre, S.


    Recent advances in media coding techniques and network access technologies have made multimedia streaming practicable and affordable in both fixed and mobile environments. Multimedia streaming services from anywhere and at anytime is fast becoming a reality. This chapter provides a snapshot of the

  14. Chapter 13. Current management situation: Great gray owls

    Jon Verner


    The breeding range of great gray owls (Strix nebulosa) in the United States includes portions of Alaska, mountains in the western United States including portions of the Cascades and Sierra Nevada ranges and the northern Rockies, and portions of Minnesota, Michigan, Wisconsin, and New York (see Chapter 14 and Map 3). The species is sometimes observed...

  15. Chapter 3: Crossing Boundaries--Foundation Degrees in England

    Longhurst, Derek


    This chapter traces the history, purposes, and distinctive features of the foundation degree, a short-cycle higher education qualification introduced in England in 2000-2001 and offered by both universities and further education colleges. The key characteristics of the foundation degree are discussed: employer involvement in curriculum development…

  16. Introduction to public-key cryptography (Chapter 1)

    Avanzi, R.; Lange, T.; Cohen, H.; Frey, G.


    In this chapter we introduce the basic building blocks for cryptography based on the discrete logarithm problem that will constitute the main motivation for considering the groups studied in this book. We also briefly introduce the RSA cryptosystem as for use in practice it is still an important

  17. The role of place-based social learning [Chapter 7

    Daniel R. Williams


    Hummel's observations on the limits of science to inform practice provides a useful starting point for a book chapter devoted to examining post-normal environmental policy where the "facts are uncertain, values in dispute, stakes high, and decisions urgent" (Funtowicz and Ravetz 1993, 739, 744). Central to the argument here is that the integration of...

  18. Forest management and water in the United States [Chapter 13

    Daniel G. Neary


    This chapter outlines a brief history of the United States native forests and forest plantations. It describes the past and current natural and plantation forest distribution (map, area, main species), as well as main products produced (timber, pulp, furniture, etc.). Integrated into this discussion is a characterization of the water resources of the United States and...

  19. Techniques for discrimination-free predictive models (Chapter 12)

    Kamiran, F.; Calders, T.G.K.; Pechenizkiy, M.; Custers, B.H.M.; Calders, T.G.K.; Schermer, B.W.; Zarsky, T.Z.


    In this chapter, we give an overview of the techniques developed ourselves for constructing discrimination-free classifiers. In discrimination-free classification the goal is to learn a predictive model that classifies future data objects as accurately as possible, yet the predicted labels should be

  20. Chapter 4: Establishment of the integrated modelling system


    This chapter summarizes how the Integrated Modelling System has been established. The Danubian Lowland Information System (DLIS) has been developed, providing a central database and Geographical Information System (GIS) with facilities for data storage, maintenance, processing and presentation. In addition, data can be imported and exported in the file formats readable for the applied modelling system

  1. Chapter 4: Lateral design of cross-laminated timber buildings

    John W. van de Lindt; Douglas Rammer; Marjan Popovski; Phil Line; Shiling Pei; Steven E. Pryor


    Cross-laminated timber (CLT) is an innovative wood product that was developed approximately two decades ago in Europe and has since been gaining in popularity. Based on the experience of European researchers and designers, it is believed that CLT can provide the U.S. market the opportunity to build mid- and high-rise wood buildings. This Chapter presents a summary of...

  2. Fire history, effects and management in southern Nevada [Chapter 5

    Mathew L. Brooks; Jeanne C. Chambers; Randy A. McKinley


    Fire can be both an ecosystem stressor (Chapter 2) and a critical ecosystem process, depending on when, where, and under what conditions it occurs on the southern Nevada landscape. Fire can also pose hazards to human life and property, particularly in the wildland/urban interface (WUI). The challenge faced by land managers is to prevent fires from occurring where they...

  3. Conclusion Chapters in Doctoral Theses: Some International Findings

    Trafford, Vernon; Leshem, Shosh; Bitzer, Eli


    This study investigated how candidates claimed to have made an original contribution to knowledge in the conclusion chapters of 100 PhD theses. Documentary analysis was used to discover how this was explained within theses at selected universities in three countries. No other documents were accessed and neither were candidates, supervisors or…

  4. Element cycling in upland/peatland watersheds Chapter 8.

    Noel Urban; Elon S. Verry; Steven Eisenreich; David F. Grigal; Stephen D. Sebestyen


    Studies at the Marcell Experimental Forest (MEF) have measured the pools, cycling, and transport of a variety of elements in both the upland and peatland components of the landscape. Peatlands are important zones of element retention and biogeochemical reactions that greatly influence the chemistry of surface water. In this chapter, we summarize findings on nitrogen (N...

  5. Fundamentals of Atomic and Nuclear Physics. Chapter 1

    Ng, K. -H. [University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Dance, D. R. [Royal Surrey County Hospital, Guildford (United Kingdom)


    Knowledge of the structure of the atom, elementary nuclear physics, the nature of electromagnetic radiation and the production of X rays is fundamental to the understanding of the physics of medical imaging and radiation protection. This, the first chapter of the handbook, summarizes those aspects of these areas which, being part of the foundation of modern physics, underpin the remainder of the book.

  6. Woody biomass from short rotation energy crops. Chapter 2

    R.S., Jr. Zalesny Jr.; M.W. Cunningham; R.B. Hall; J. Mirck; D.L. Rockwood; J.A. Stanturf; T.A. Volk


    Short rotation woody crops (SRWCs) are ideal for woody biomass production and management systems because they are renewable energy feedstocks for biofuels, bioenergy, and bioproducts that can be strategically placed in the landscape to conserve soil and water, recycle nutrients, and sequester carbon. This chapter is a synthesis of the regional implications of producing...


    FENDOĞLU, Doç.Dr.Hasan Tahsin


    CHAPTER FOUR LIBERTY AND TURKISH CONSTITUTIONS: Doç.Dr.Hasan Tahsin FENDOĞLU ABSTRACT: Turkish Constitution of 1982 is the first and only Turkish Constitution that has a main purpose on strengthening the political power not the liberty or democr...

  8. Introducing positive discrimination in predictive models (Chapter 14)

    Calders, T.G.K.; Verwer, S.E.; Custers, B.H.M.; Calders, T.G.K.; Schermer, B.W.; Zarsky, T.Z.


    In this chapter we give three solutions for the discrimination-aware classification problem that are based upon Bayesian classifiers. These classifiers model the complete probability distribution by making strong independence assumptions. First we discuss the necessity of having discrimination-free

  9. Chapter 13. Exploring Use of the Reserved Core

    Holmen, John [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). SCI Inst. and School of Computing; Humphrey, Alan [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). SCI Inst. and School of Computing; Berzins, Martin [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). SCI Inst. and School of Computing


    In this chapter, we illustrate benefits of thinking in terms of thread management techniques when using a centralized scheduler model along with interoperability of MPI and PThread. This is facilitated through an exploration of thread placement strategies for an algorithm modeling radiative heat transfer with special attention to the 61st core. This algorithm plays a key role within the Uintah Computational Framework (UCF) and current efforts taking place at the University of Utah to model next-generation, large-scale clean coal boilers. In such simulations, this algorithm models the dominant form of heat transfer and consumes a large portion of compute time. Exemplified by a real-world example, this chapter presents our early efforts in porting a key portion of a scalability-centric codebase to the Intel Xeon Phi coprocessor. Specifically, this chapter presents results from our experiments profiling the native execution of a reverse Monte-Carlo ray tracing-based radiation model on a single coprocessor. These results demonstrate that our fastest run configurations utilized the 61st core and that performance was not profoundly impacted when explicitly oversubscribing the coprocessor operating system thread. Additionally, this chapter presents a portion of radiation model source code, a MIC-centric UCF cross-compilation example, and less conventional thread management technique for developers utilizing the PThreads threading model.

  10. Cascade probabilistic function and the Markov's processes. Chapter 1


    In the Chapter 1 the physical and mathematical descriptions of radiation processes are carried out. The relation of the cascade probabilistic functions (CPF) for electrons, protons, alpha-particles and ions with Markov's chain is shown. The algorithms for CPF calculation with accounting energy losses are given

  11. Effects of climate change on ecological disturbances [Chapter 8

    Danielle M. Malesky; Barbara J. Bentz; Gary R. Brown; Andrea R. Brunelle; John M. Buffington; Linda M. Chappell; R. Justin DeRose; John C. Guyon; Carl L. Jorgensen; Rachel A. Loehman; Laura L. Lowrey; Ann M. Lynch; Marek Matyjasik; Joel D. McMillin; Javier E. Mercado; Jesse L. Morris; Jose F. Negron; Wayne G. Padgett; Robert A. Progar; Carol B. Randall


    This chapter describes disturbance regimes in the Intermountain Adaptation Partnership (IAP) region, and potential shifts in these regimes as a consequence of observed and projected climate change. The term "disturbance regime" describes the general temporal and spatial characteristics of a disturbance agent (e.g., insects, disease, fire, weather, human...

  12. Chapter 7. Assessing soil factors in wildland improvement programs

    Arthur R. Tiedemann; Carlos F. Lopez


    Soil factors are an important consideration for successful wildland range development or improvement programs. Even though many soil improvement and amelioration practices are not realistic for wildlands, their evaluation is an important step in selection of adapted plant materials for revegetation. This chapter presents information for wildland managers on: the...

  13. Landscape ecology: Past, present, and future [Chapter 4

    Samuel A. Cushman; Jeffrey S. Evans; Kevin McGarigal


    In the preceding chapters we discussed the central role that spatial and temporal variability play in ecological systems, the importance of addressing these explicitly within ecological analyses and the resulting need to carefully consider spatial and temporal scale and scaling. Landscape ecology is the science of linking patterns and processes across scale in both...

  14. Chapter 1: A little of Radiation Physics and radiation protection



    The chapter 1 presents the subjects: 1) quantities and units of radiation physics which includes: the electron volt (eV); Exposure (X); Absorbed dose (D); Dose equivalent (H); Activity (A); Half-life; Radioactive decay; 2) Radiation protection which includes: irradiation and radioactive contamination; irradiation; contamination; background radiation; dose limits for individual occupationally exposed (IOE) and for the general public.

  15. The effects of fire on subsurface archaeological materials [Chapter 7

    Elizabeth A. Oster; Samantha Ruscavage-Barz; Michael L. Elliott


    In this chapter, we concentrate on the effects of fire on subsurface archaeological deposits: the matrix containing post-depositional fill, artifacts, ecofactual data, dating samples, and other cultural and noncultural materials. In order to provide a context for understanding these data, this paper provides a summary of previous research about the potential effects of...

  16. Missing Chapters II: West Virginia Women in History.

    Hensley, Frances S., Ed.

    This collection of essays chronicles the contributions of 14 West Virginia women active in individual and group endeavors from 1824 to the present. Because the achievements of these women are absent from previous histories of West Virginia, their stories constitute missing chapters in the state's history. Some of these women made contributions in…

  17. Chapter 8: The "Citizen" in Youth Civic Engagement

    Roholt, Ross VeLure; Hildreth, R. W.; Baizerman, Michael


    The concept of citizenship is a central, necessary, and defining feature of youth civic engagement. Any effort to educate young people for citizenship entails an implicit idea of what a "good citizen" is. There are a number of different and sometimes competing versions of what is a "good citizen." This chapter reviews "standard" accounts of…

  18. A supply chain approach to biochar systems [Chapter 2

    Nathaniel M. Anderson; Richard D. Bergman; Deborah S. Page-Dumroese


    Biochar systems are designed to meet four related primary objectives: improve soils, manage waste, generate renewable energy, and mitigate climate change. Supply chain models provide a holistic framework for examining biochar systems with an emphasis on product life cycle and end use. Drawing on concepts in supply chain management and engineering, this chapter presents...

  19. Non-Imaging Detectors and Counters. Chapter 10

    Zanzonico, P. B. [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York (United States)


    Historically, nuclear medicine has been largely an imaging based specialty, employing such diverse and increasingly sophisticated modalities as rectilinear scanning, (planar) gamma camera imaging, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET). Non-imaging radiation detection, however, remains an essential component of nuclear medicine. This chapter reviews the operating principles, performance, applications and quality control (QC) of the various non-imaging radiation detection and measurement devices used in nuclear medicine, including survey meters, dose calibrators, well counters, intra-operative probes and organ uptake probes. Related topics, including the basics of radiation detection, statistics of nuclear counting, electronics, generic instrumentation performance parameters and nuclear medicine imaging devices, are reviewed in depth in other chapters of this book.

  20. Chapter 1 Historical Background on Gamete and Embryo Cryopreservation.

    Ali, Jaffar; AlHarbi, Naif H; Ali, Nafisa


    This chapter describes the development of the science of cryopreservation of gametes and embryos of various species including human. It attempts to record in brief the main contributions of workers in their attempts to cryopreserve gametes and embryos. The initial difficulties faced and subsequent developments and triumphs leading to present-day state of the art are given in a concise manner. The main players and their contributions are mentioned and the authors' aim is to do justice to them. This work also attempts to ensure that credit is correctly attributed for significant advances in gamete and embryo cryopreservation. In general this chapter has tried to describe the historical development of the science of cryopreservation of gametes and embryos as accurately as possible without bias or partiality.

  1. On reforming chapter VI of the Euratom Treaty

    Sandtner, W.


    The supply of uranium to the countries of the EC has been provided for in Chapter VI of the European Treaty. An Euratom Supply Agency was created, which enjoys a monopoly. However, this arrangement was hardly ever utilized in practice. For this reason, several attempts were made in the course of time to reform Chapter VI, most recently in 1979 on the initiative of France. The EC Commission now presented a ''new nuclear power strategy'' in early 1982, which was followed by a detailed report about the proposed changes in late 1982. Its main points as outlined and discussed in this article are these: defining the range of application; the unity of the market; international relations; solidarity measures; the future role of the Supply Agency. (orig.) [de

  2. Examples of storm impacts on barrier islands: Chapter 4

    Plant, Nathaniel G.; Doran, Kara; Stockdon, Hilary F.


    This chapter focuses on the morphologic variability of barrier islands and on the differences in storm response. It describes different types of barrier island response to individual storms, as well as the integrated response of barrier islands to many storms. The chapter considers case study on the Chandeleur Island chain, where a decadal time series of island elevation measurements have documented a wide range of barrier island responses to storms and long-term processes that are representative of barrier island behaviour at many other locations. These islands are low elevation, extremely vulnerable to storms and exhibit a diversity of storm responses. Additionally, this location experiences a moderately high rate of relative sea-level rise, increasing its vulnerability to the combined impacts of storms and long-term erosional processes. Understanding how natural processes, including storm impacts and intervening recovery periods interact with man-made restoration processes is also broadly relevant to understand the natural and human response to future storms.

  3. Chapter 1: A Brief Introduction to Lignin Structure

    Katahira, Rui [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Beckham, Gregg T [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Elder, Thomas J. [USDA-Forest Service


    Lignin is an alkyl-aromatic polymer found in the cell walls of terrestrial plants. Lignin provides structure and rigidity to plants, is a natural, highly effective barrier against microbial attack, and enables water and nutrient transport through plant tissues. Depending on the plant species, the constituents of lignin can vary considerably, leading to substantial diversity in lignin chemistry and structure. Despite nearly a century of research and development attempting to convert lignin into valuable products, lignin in most current and planned biorefinery contexts remains underutilized, most often being burned to generate heat and power. However, the drive towards effective lignin valorization processes has witnessed a significant resurgence in the past decade, catalyzed by advances in improved understanding of lignin chemistry, structure, and plasticity in parallel with new catalytic and biological approaches to valorize this important, prevalent biopolymer. As a preface to the subsequent chapters in this book, this chapter briefly highlights the known aspects of lignin structure.

  4. Planning and setting objectives in field studies: Chapter 2

    Fisher, Robert N.; Dodd, C. Kenneth


    This chapter enumerates the steps required in designing and planning field studies on the ecology and conservation of reptiles, as these involve a high level of uncertainty and risk. To this end, the chapter differentiates between goals (descriptions of what one intends to accomplish) and objectives (the measurable steps required to achieve the established goals). Thus, meeting a specific goal may require many objectives. It may not be possible to define some of them until certain experiments have been conducted; often evaluations of sampling protocols are needed to increase certainty in the biological results. And if sampling locations are fixed and sampling events are repeated over time, then both study-specific covariates and sampling-specific covariates should exist. Additionally, other critical design considerations for field study include obtaining permits, as well as researching ethics and biosecurity issues.

  5. Chapter 10: Mining genome-wide genetic markers.

    Xiang Zhang

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association study (GWAS aims to discover genetic factors underlying phenotypic traits. The large number of genetic factors poses both computational and statistical challenges. Various computational approaches have been developed for large scale GWAS. In this chapter, we will discuss several widely used computational approaches in GWAS. The following topics will be covered: (1 An introduction to the background of GWAS. (2 The existing computational approaches that are widely used in GWAS. This will cover single-locus, epistasis detection, and machine learning methods that have been recently developed in biology, statistic, and computer science communities. This part will be the main focus of this chapter. (3 The limitations of current approaches and future directions.

  6. Chapter 19: Catalysis by Metal Carbides and Nitrides

    Schaidle, Joshua A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Nash, Connor P [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Yung, Matthew M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chen, Yuan [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; Carl, Sarah [University of Michigan; Thompson, Levi [University of Michigan


    Early transition metal carbides and nitrides (ETMCNs), materials in which carbon or nitrogen occupies interstitial sites within a parent metal lattice, possess unique physical and chemical properties that motivate their use as catalysts. Specifically, these materials possess multiple types of catalytic sites, including metallic, acidic, and basic sites, and as such, exhibit reactivities that differ from their parent metals. Moreover, their surfaces are dynamic under reaction conditions. This chapter reviews recent (since 2010) experimental and computational investigations into the catalytic properties of ETMCN materials for applications including biomass conversion, syngas and CO2 upgrading, petroleum and natural gas refining, and electrocatalytic energy conversion, energy storage, and chemicals production, and attempts to link catalyst performance to active site identity/surface structure in order to elucidate the present level of understanding of structure-function relationships for these materials. The chapter concludes with a perspective on leveraging the unique properties of these materials to design and develop improved catalysts through a dedicated, multidisciplinary effort.

  7. Introduction: Aims and Requirements of Future Aerospace Vehicles. Chapter 1

    Rodriguez, Pedro I.; Smeltzer, Stanley S., III; McConnaughey, Paul (Technical Monitor)


    The goals and system-level requirements for the next generation aerospace vehicles emphasize safety, reliability, low-cost, and robustness rather than performance. Technologies, including new materials, design and analysis approaches, manufacturing and testing methods, operations and maintenance, and multidisciplinary systems-level vehicle development are key to increasing the safety and reducing the cost of aerospace launch systems. This chapter identifies the goals and needs of the next generation or advanced aerospace vehicle systems.

  8. Nuclear criticality safety. Chapter 0530 of AEC manual


    The programme objectives of this chapter of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission manual on nuclear criticality safety are to protect the health and safety of the public and of the government and contractor personnel working in plants that handle fissionable material and to protect public and private property from the consequences of a criticality accident occurring in AEC-owned plants and other AEC-contracted activities involving fissionable materials

  9. Chapter 3. The economical power of the company


    In the third chapter of this CD ROM the economic power of the Slovak Electric, Plc. (Slovenske elektrarne, a.s.), is presented. It consist of next paragraphs (1) Property of Slovak Electric, Plc, the company; (2) Position of the Company; (3) Business performance of the Company (Economic results, Installed capacity, Generation of electricity and heat; Electricity trade, Distribution of electricity and heat trade are reviewed); (4) Shareholdings in other companies and international co-operation

  10. Academic Entrepreneurialism and Private Higher Education in Europe (Chapter 6)

    Kwiek, Marek


    In this chapter we will focus on basic ideas and key concepts functioning in research on academic entrepreneurialism. The reference point here will be public institutions (the original focus of reflection both in Europe and the USA) and private institutions (under-researched from this particular analytical perspective both in Europe and in the USA). Apart from the discussion of the individual core elements of the “entrepreneurial university”, there will be discussions intended to see the d...

  11. Materials and design issues for military helmets - Chapter 6

    Hamouda, A.M.S.; Sohaimi, R.M.; Zaidi, A.M.A.; Abdullah, S.


    Abstract: As weaponry technology has advanced, the ballistic threat to humans has increased significantly. As well as the military, civilians who are exposed to these threats as part of their everyday work require adequate protective equipment. This increasing demand for body armour and ballistic helmets is driving the protective equipment industry to create lightweight, reliable protection adapted for specific applications and marketable to a wide range of consumers. This chapter focuses on ...

  12. Summary and Conclusions. Final chapter of Scholarly Communication for Librarians.

    Morrison, Heather


    Summary and Conclusions of Scholarly Communication for Librarians, a book designed to provide librarians at all levels with the basics of how scholarly communication works, an understanding of the academic library as an essential support for scholarly communication, the impact of the decisions librarians make, and emerging roles for libraries and librarians in scholarly communication. Includes major points from all chapters, on: scholarship, scholarly journals, the scholarly publishing indus...

  13. Future Prospects: Ionization Radiation Processing Technology. Chapter 12

    Rida Tajau


    This final chapter concluded that the ionizing radiation processing technology was potentially used to develop new and advanced products. The new advanced products which been discussed was HBPUA, printing ink, PSA, hydrogel, bioplastic, SWA, CNT, RVNRL and others. With this new innovative technology, it will develop the country's economy and increase the productivity of manufacturing industry, medical, science and technology and also strenghten the social science field.

  14. Computer modelling for ecosystem service assessment: Chapter 4.4

    Dunford, Robert; Harrison, Paula; Bagstad, Kenneth J.


    Computer models are simplified representations of the environment that allow biophysical, ecological, and/or socio-economic characteristics to be quantified and explored. Modelling approaches differ from mapping approaches (Chapter 5) as (i) they are not forcibly spatial (although many models do produce spatial outputs); (ii) they focus on understanding and quantifying the interactions between different components of social and/or environmental systems and (iii)

  15. Lectures on Antitrust Economics, Chapter 2: Price Fixing

    Whinston, Michael D.


    In this chapter, we begin our discussion of antitrust economics by considering what many consider its most central element: its ban on "price fixing" - that is, agreements among competitors over the prices they will charge or the outputs they will produce. Indeed, the prohibition on price fixing is one area of antitrust law that even those generally skeptical of governmental compe- tition policy typically regard approvingly. Nevertheless, despite its current uncontroversial status, we shall s...

  16. Chapter 6. Operation of electrolytic cell in standard operating practices

    Yanko, E.A.; Kabirov, Sh.O.; Safiev, Kh.; Azizov, B.S.; Mirpochaev, Kh.A.


    This chapter is devoted to operation of electrolytic cell in standard operating practices. Therefore, the electrolyte temperature, the composition of electrolyte, including the level of metals was considered. The regulation of electrolyte composition by liquidus temperature and electrolyte overheating was studied. Damping of anode effects was studied as well. Maintenance of electrolytic cells was described. Heat and energy balances of aluminium electrolytic cells were considered.

  17. Chapter 10. Professional migration from Latin America and the Caribbean


    From NGO to multilateral organisation and government involvement: three case studiesFernando Lema Executive summary In this chapter we present three case studies of the Latin American diaspora: one on the experience of non-profit organisations (NGO) in France (AFUDEST and ALAS), one on work in an international organisation (UNESCO) and one about field work with a government agency, Argentina's Secretariat for Science, Technology and Productive Innovation (SETCIP). The three experiences took p...

  18. Fundamentals of Physics, Volume 1, (Chapters 1 - 21)

    Walker, Jearl


    Chapter 1. Measurement 1. How does the appearance of a new type of cloud signal changes in Earth's atmosphere? 1-1 What Is Physics? 1-2 Measuring Things. 1-3 The International System of Units. 1-4 Changing Units. 1-5 Length. 1-6 Time. 1-7 Mass. Review & Summary. Problems. Chapter 2. Motion Along a Straight Line. What causes whiplash injury in rear-end collisions of cars? 2-1 What Is Physics? 2-2 Motion. 2-3 Position and Displacement. 2-4 Average Velocity and Average Speed. 2-5 Instantaneous Velocity and Speed. 2-6 Acceleration. 2-7 Constant Acceleration: A Special Case. 2-8 Another Look at Constant Acceleration. 2-9 Free-Fall Acceleration. 2-10 Graphical Integration in Motion Analysis. 2 Review & Summary. Questions. Problems. Chapter 3. Vectors. How does an ant know the way home with no guiding clues on the desert plains? 3-1 What Is Physics? 3-2 Vectors and Scalars. 3-3 Adding Vectors Geometrically. 3-4 Components of Vectors. 3-5 Unit Vectors. 3-6 Adding Vectors by Components. 3-7 Vectors and the Laws of Physics. 3-8 Multiplying Vectors. Review & Summary. Questions. Problems. Chapter 4. Motion in Two and Three Dimensions. In a motorcycle jump for record distance, where does the jumper put the second ramp? 4-1 What Is Physics? 4-2 Position and Displacement. 4-3 Average Velocity and Instantaneous Velocity. 4-4 Average Acceleration and Instantaneous Acceleration. 4-5 Projectile Motion. 4-6 Projectile Motion Analyzed. 4-7 Uniform Circular Motion. 4-8 Relative Motion in One Dimension. 4-9 Relative Motion in Two Dimensions. Review & Summary. Questions. Problems. Chapter 5. Force and Motion--I. When a pilot takes off from an aircraft carrier, what causes the compulsion to .y the plane into the ocean? 5-1 What Is Physics? 5-2 Newtonian Mechanics. 5-3 Newton's First Law. 5-4 Force. 5-5 Mass. 5-6 Newton's Second Law. 5-7 Some Particular Forces. 5-8 Newton's Third Law. 5-9 Applying Newton's Laws. Review & Summary. Questions. Problems. Chapter 6. Force and Motion--II. Can a

  19. Chapter 29: Using an Existing Environment in the VO (IDL)

    Miller, C. J.

    The local environment of a Brightest Cluster Galaxy (BCG) can provide insight into the (still not understood) formation process of the BCG itself. BCGs are the most massive galaxies in the Universe, and their formation and evolution are a popular and current research topic (Linden et al. 2006, Bernardi et al. 2006, Lauer et al. 2006). They have been studied for some time (Sandage 1972, Ostriker & Tremaine 1975, White 1976, Thuan & Romanishin 1981, Merritt 1985, Postman and Lauer 1995, among many others). Our goal in this chapter is to study how the local environment can affect the physical and measurable properties of BCGs. We will conduct an exploratory research exercise. In this chapter, we will show how the Virtual Observatory (VO) can be effectively utilized for doing modern scientific research on BCGs. We identify the scientific functionalities we need, the datasets we require, and the service locations in order to discover and access those data. This chapter utilizes IDL's VOlib, which is described in Chapter 24 of this book and is available at IDL provides the capability to perform the entire range of astronomical scientific analyses in one environment: from image reduction and analysis to complex catalog manipulations, statistics, and publication quality figures. At the 2005 and 2006 NVO Summer Schools, user statistics show that IDL was the most commonly used programming language by the students (nearly 3-to-1 over languages like IRAF, Perl, and Python). In this chapter we show how the integration of IDL to the VO through VOlib provides even greater capabilities and possibilities for conducting science in the era of the Virtual Observatory. The reader should familiarize themselves with the VOlib libraries before attempting the examples in this tutorial. We first build a research plan. We then discover the service URLs we will need to access the data. We then apply the necessary functions and tools to these data before we can do our

  20. Fundamentals of Physics, Part 1 (Chapters 1-11)

    Halliday, David; Resnick, Robert; Walker, Jearl


    Chapter 1.Measurement. How does the appearance of a new type of cloud signal changes in Earth's atmosphere? 1-1 What Is Physics? 1-2 Measuring Things. 1-3 The International System of Units. 1-4 Changing Units. 1-5 Length. 1-6 Time. 1-7 Mass. Review & Summary. Problems. Chapter 2.Motion Along a Straight Line. What causes whiplash injury in rear-end collisions of cars? 2-1 What Is Physics? 2-2 Motion. 2-3 Position and Displacement. 2-4 Average Velocity and Average Speed. 2-5 Instantaneous Velocity and Speed. 2-6 Acceleration. 2-7 Constant Acceleration: A Special Case. 2-8 Another Look at Constant Acceleration. 2-9 Free-Fall Acceleration. 2-10 Graphical Integration in Motion Analysis. Review & Summary. Questions. Problems. Chapter 3.Vectors. How does an ant know the way home with no guiding clues on the deser t plains? 3-2 Vectors and Scalars. 3-3 Adding Vectors Geometrically. 3-4 Components of Vectors. 3-5 Unit Vectors. 3-6 Adding Vectors by Components. 3-7 Vectors and the Laws of Physics. 3-8 Multiplying Vectors. Review & Summary. Questions. Problems. Chapter 4.Motion in Two and Three Dimensions. In a motorcycle jump for record distance, where does the jumper put the second ramp? 4-1 What Is Physics? 4-2 Position and Displacement. 4-3 Average Velocity and Instantaneous Velocity. 4-4 Average Acceleration and Instantaneous Acceleration. 4-5 Projectile Motion. 4-6 Projectile Motion Analyzed. 4-7 Uniform Circular Motion. 4-8 Relative Motion in One Dimension. 4-9 Relative Motion in Two Dimensions. Review & Summary. Questions. Problems. Chapter 5.Force and Motion-I. When a pilot takes off from an aircraft carrier, what causes the compulsion to fly the plane into the ocean? 5-1 What Is Physics? 5-2 Newtonian Mechanics. 5-3 Newton's First Law. 5-4 Force. 5-5 Mass. 5-6 Newton's Second Law. 5-7 Some Particular Forces. 5-8 Newton's Third Law. 5-9 Applying Newton's Laws. Review & Summary. Questions. Problems. Chapter 6.Force and Motion-II. Can a Grand Prix race car be driven

  1. Chapter Leadership Profiles among Citizen Activists in the Drunk Driving Movement.

    Ungerleider, Steven; Bloch, Steven


    Study of Mothers Against Drunk Drivers (MADD) analyzed the chapter emphasis, levels of satisfaction and relationship to national office on several measures. Surveying 212 chapters, MADD leadership provided profile of independent, autonomous activists in the drunk driving countermeasure movement. (Author)

  2. Proposed recommendations for the reform of chapter 11 U.S. Bankruptcy Code

    Wessels, B.; de Weijs, R.


    The US Bankruptcy Code’s chapter 11 procedure is both in practice and conceptually the most important insolvency procedure worldwide. Many countries, including the Netherlands, look at Chapter 11 for inspiration in revising their own insolvency laws. Chapter 11 is, however, itself up for revision.

  3. Chapter 6: The scientific basis for conserving forest carnivores: considerations for management

    L. Jack Lyon; Keith B. Aubry; William J. Zielinski; Steven W. Buskirk; Leonard F. Ruggiero


    The reviews presented in previous chapters reveal substantial gaps in our knowledge about marten, fisher, lynx, and wolverine. These gaps severely constrain our ability to design reliable conservation strategies. This problem will be explored in depth in Chapter 7. In this chapter, our objective is to discuss management considerations resulting from what we currently...

  4. 2 CFR 1.200 - Purpose of chapters I and II.


    ... (and thereby implement the Federal Financial Assistance Management Improvement Act of 1999, Pub. L. 106... Introduction toSubtitle A § 1.200 Purpose of chapters I and II. (a) Chapters I and II of subtitle A provide OMB... procedures for management of the agencies' grants and agreements. (b) There are two chapters for publication...

  5. Telemetry Standards, IRIG Standard 106-17, Chapter 22, Network Based Protocol Suite


    requirements. 22.2 Network Access Layer 22.2.1 Physical Layer Connectors and cable media should meet the electrical or optical properties required by the...Telemetry Standards, IRIG Standard 106-17 Chapter 22, July 2017 i CHAPTER 22 Network -Based Protocol Suite Acronyms...iii Chapter 22. Network -Based Protocol Suite

  6. Chapter 8. Ionisation radiation and human organism. Radioactivity of human tissues

    Toelgyessy, J.; Harangozo, M.


    This is a chapter of textbook of radioecology for university students. In this chapter authors deal with ionisation radiation and human organism as well as with radioactivity of human tissues. Chapter consists of next parts: (1) Radiation stress of human organism; (2) Radioactivity of human tissues and the factors influencing radioactive contamination; (3) Possibilities of decreasing of radiation stress

  7. Continuing Chapter 1's Leadership in Modeling Best Practices in Evaluation. A Symposium Presentation.

    Ligon, Glynn

    This paper examines whether the Title I/Chapter 1 tradition of leading the way in educational evaluation will continue or whether Chapter 1 will change its role by delegating decision-making authority over evaluation methodology to state and local school systems. Whatever direction Chapter 1 takes, states, school systems, and schools must be held…

  8. The cascade probabilistic functions and the Markov's processes. Chapter 1


    In the Chapter 1 the physical and mathematical descriptions of radiation processes are carried out. The relation of the cascade probabilistic functions (CPF) with Markov's chain is shown. The CPF calculation for electrons with the energy losses taking into account are given. The calculation of the CPF on the computer was carried out. The estimation of energy losses contribution in the CPFs and radiation defects concentration are made. Besides calculation of the primarily knock-on atoms and radiation defects at electron irradiation with use of the CPF with taking into account energy losses are conducted

  9. Aerothermodynamics of Blunt Body Entry Vehicles. Chapter 3

    Hollis, Brian R.; Borrelli, Salvatore


    In this chapter, the aerothermodynamic phenomena of blunt body entry vehicles are discussed. Four topics will be considered that present challenges to current computational modeling techniques for blunt body environments: turbulent flow, non-equilibrium flow, rarefied flow, and radiation transport. Examples of comparisons between computational tools to ground and flight-test data will be presented in order to illustrate the challenges existing in the numerical modeling of each of these phenomena and to provide test cases for evaluation of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code predictions.

  10. Energy consumption and quality of man's life. Chapter 1


    In Chapter 1 a dependence of public life quality showings from energy consumption value is proved. Priority of fuel-energetic complex development is grounded as well. Specific features of Kazakhstan power engineering during its integration into world economics are given. Problems of liberalization of power engineering economy are illustrated. Dependences between assessments of human potential and energy consumption level in the world and Kazakhstan are given in tabular form. In Kazakhstan under relatively stable education level index an energy consumption reduction was resulted to gross national product decrease on via capita

  11. Skull lichens: a curious chapter in the history of phytotherapy.

    Modenesi, P


    Lichens growing on skulls were known in late medieval times as usnea or moss of a dead man's skull and were recommended as highly beneficial in various diseases. They were, in addition, the main ingredient of Unguentum armariun, a liniment used in a curious medical practice: the magnetic cure of wounds. We can place this chapter of the history of phytotherapy within the wider cultural context of the period, which saw the definition of nature become increasingly more fluid and open to a variety of novel interpretations.

  12. Chapter 5. The strategic plans of the Company


    In the fifth chapter of this CD ROM the strategic plans of the Slovak Electric, Plc. (Slovenske elektrarne, a.s.), are presented. It consist of next paragraphs (1) The programme of strategic changes (Declaration of the programme; The need for change; Major tasks; The management structure; Interconnections between the PSC target areas; The PSC projects); (2) The development of the Company (The major objectives of the Company; The energy plan of Slovakia; Analysis of development Alternatives; Results of the analysis; Economic comparison of the alternatives; Development of generation, The information system; Strategic goals and legislation). (3) The quality control system

  13. Chapter 5. The strategic plans of the Company


    In the fifth chapter of this CD ROM the strategic plans of the Slovak Electric, Plc. (Slovenske elektrarne, a.s.), are presented. It consist of next paragraphs (1) The programme of strategic changes (Declaration of the programme; The need for change; Major tasks; The management structure; Interconnections between the PSC target areas; The PSC projects); (2) The development of the Company (The major objectives of the Company; The energy plan of Slovakia; Analysis of development Alternatives; Results of the analysis; Economic comparison of the alternatives; Development of generation, The information system; Strategic goals and legislation). (3) The quality control system

  14. Irradiation capsules VISA-2a-f, chapter VI

    Pavicevic, M.


    Irradiation capsules VISA-2a, b,c,d, and e were constructed in Saclay according to the drawings from Vinca and according to the demand of the experimentators. This chapter VI includes documentation for each type of capsule, review about each experiment within the VISA-2 project, the objective and purpose of the experiment as well as experimental device. Irradiation capsule VISA-2f was placed in the RA reactor core in September 1962. It was completely manufactured in Vinca including sample holders and leak tight shells. It will remain in the reactor core for about month in order to obtain the integral fast neutron flux [sr

  15. Fundamentals of Physics, Part 2 (Chapters 12-20)

    Halliday, David; Resnick, Robert; Walker, Jearl


    Chapter 12 Equilibrium and Elasticity. What injury can occur to a rock climber hanging by a crimp hold? 12-1 What Is Physics? 12-2 Equilibrium. 12-3 The Requirements of Equilibrium. 12-4 The Center of Gravity. 12-5 Some Examples of Static Equilibrium. 12-6 Indeterminate Structures. 12-7 Elasticity. Review & Summary Questions Problems. Chapter 13 Gravitation. What lies at the center of our Milky Way galaxy? 13-1 What Is Physics? 13-2 Newton's Law of Gravitation. 13-3 Gravitation and the Principle of Superposition. 13-4 Gravitation Near Earth's Surface. 13-5 Gravitation Inside Earth. 13-6 Gravitational Potential Energy. 13-7 Planets and Satellites: Kepler's Laws. 13-8 Satellites: Orbits and Energy. 13-9 Einstein and Gravitation. Review & Summary Questions Problems. Chapter 14 Fluids. What causes ground effect in race car driving? 14-1 What Is Physics? 14-2 What Is a Fluid? 14-3 Density and Pressure. 14-4 Fluids at Rest. 14-5 Measuring Pressure. 14-6 Pascal's Principle. 14-7 Archimedes' Principle. 14-8 Ideal Fluids in Motion. 14-9 The Equation of Continuity. 14-10 Bernoulli's Equation. Review & SummaryQuestionsProblems. Chapter 15 Oscillations. What is the "secret" of a skilled diver's high catapult in springboard diving? 15-1 What Is Physics? 15-2 Simple Harmonic Motion. 15-3 The Force Law for Simple Harmonic Motion. 15-4 Energy in Simple Harmonic Motion. 15-5 An Angular Simple Harmonic Oscillator. 15-6 Pendulums. 15-7 Simple Harmonic Motion and Uniform Circular Motion. 15-8 Damped Simple Harmonic Motion. 15-9 Forced Oscillations and Resonance. Review & Summary Questions Problems. Chapter 16 Waves--I. How can a submarine wreck be located by distant seismic stations? 16-1 What Is Physics? 16-2 Types of Waves. 16-3 Transverse and Longitudinal Waves. 16-4 Wavelength and Frequency. 16-5 The Speed of a Traveling Wave. 16-6 Wave Speed on a Stretched String. 16-7 Energy and Power of a Wave Traveling Along a String. 16-8 The Wave Equation. 16-9 The Principle of Superposition

  16. Chapter 7. Cloning and analysis of natural product pathways.

    Gust, Bertolt


    The identification of gene clusters of natural products has lead to an enormous wealth of information about their biosynthesis and its regulation, and about self-resistance mechanisms. Well-established routine techniques are now available for the cloning and sequencing of gene clusters. The subsequent functional analysis of the complex biosynthetic machinery requires efficient genetic tools for manipulation. Until recently, techniques for the introduction of defined changes into Streptomyces chromosomes were very time-consuming. In particular, manipulation of large DNA fragments has been challenging due to the absence of suitable restriction sites for restriction- and ligation-based techniques. The homologous recombination approach called recombineering (referred to as Red/ET-mediated recombination in this chapter) has greatly facilitated targeted genetic modifications of complex biosynthetic pathways from actinomycetes by eliminating many of the time-consuming and labor-intensive steps. This chapter describes techniques for the cloning and identification of biosynthetic gene clusters, for the generation of gene replacements within such clusters, for the construction of integrative library clones and their expression in heterologous hosts, and for the assembly of entire biosynthetic gene clusters from the inserts of individual library clones. A systematic approach toward insertional mutation of a complete Streptomyces genome is shown by the use of an in vitro transposon mutagenesis procedure.

  17. Experiences gained by establishing the IAMG Student Chapter Freiberg

    Ernst, Sebastian M.; Liesenberg, Veraldo; Shahzad, Faisal


    The International Association for Mathematical Geosciences (IAMG) Student Chapter Freiberg was founded in 2007 at the Technische Universität Bergakademie Freiberg (TUBAF) in Germany by national and international graduate and undergraduate students of various geoscientific as well as natural science disciplines. The major aim of the IAMG is to promote international cooperation in the application and use of Mathematics in Geosciences research and technology. The IAMG encourages all types of students and young scientists to found and maintain student chapters, which can even receive limited financial support by the IAMG. Following this encouragement, generations of students at TUBAF have build up and established a prosperous range of activities. These might be an example and an invitation for other young scientists and institutions worldwide to run similar activities. We, some of the current and former students behind the student chapter, have organised talks, membership drives, student seminars, guest lectures, several short courses and even international workshops. Some notable short courses were held by invited IAMG distinguished lecturers. The topics included "Statistical analysis in the Earth Sciences using R - a language and environment for statistical computing and graphics", "Geomathematical Natural Resource Modeling" and "Introduction to Geostatistics for Environmental Applications and Natural Resources Evaluation: Basic Concepts and Examples". Furthermore, we conducted short courses by ourselves. Here, the topics included basic introductions into MATLAB, object oriented programming concepts for geoscientists using MATLAB and an introduction to the Keyhole Markup Language (KML). Most of those short courses lasted several days and provided an excellent and unprecedented teaching experience for us. We were given credit by attending students for filling gaps in our university's curriculum by providing in-depth and hands-on tutorials on topics, which were merely

  18. Positron annihilation spectroscopy for chemical analysis (PASCA). Chapter 9

    Cheng, K.L.; Jean, Y.C.


    This chapter gives an up to date overview of positron annihilation spectroscopy for chemical analysis (PASCA). As an in situ technique PASCA is especially suitable for studying processes occurring at surfaces. The in situ characteristics of PASCA are treated. The principes of positron annihilation life time spectroscopy (PAL) are discussed and some important analytical applications such as, in determining of total surface areas and cavity volumes in chemical reactions, in the study of chemisorption and catalytic reactions on porous surfaces, in the analysis of bulk materials, in determining molecular association constants in biological systems, in proton and neutron activation analysis, in thin layer chromatography and in tracer technology. 28 refs.; 15 figs.; 8 tabs

  19. Chapter 16 - Predictive Analytics for Comprehensive Energy Systems State Estimation

    Zhang, Yingchen [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Yang, Rui [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hodge, Brian S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhang, Jie [University of Texas at Dallas; Weng, Yang [Arizona State University


    Energy sustainability is a subject of concern to many nations in the modern world. It is critical for electric power systems to diversify energy supply to include systems with different physical characteristics, such as wind energy, solar energy, electrochemical energy storage, thermal storage, bio-energy systems, geothermal, and ocean energy. Each system has its own range of control variables and targets. To be able to operate such a complex energy system, big-data analytics become critical to achieve the goal of predicting energy supplies and consumption patterns, assessing system operation conditions, and estimating system states - all providing situational awareness to power system operators. This chapter presents data analytics and machine learning-based approaches to enable predictive situational awareness of the power systems.

  20. Chapter 16: Lignin Visualization: Advanced Microscopy Techniques for Lignin Characterization

    Zeng, Yining [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Donohoe, Bryon S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)


    Visualization of lignin in plant cell walls, with both spatial and chemical resolution, is emerging as an important tool to understand lignin's role in the plant cell wall's nanoscale architecture and to understand and design processes intended to modify the lignin. As such, this chapter reviews recent advances in advanced imaging methods with respect to lignin in plant cell walls. This review focuses on the importance of lignin detection and localization for studies in both plant biology and biotechnology. Challenges going forward to identify and delineate lignin from other plant cell wall components and to quantitatively analyze lignin in whole cell walls from native plant tissue and treated biomass are also discussed.

  1. High-energy spectroscopy of lanthanide materials. Chapter 62

    Baer, Y.; Schneider, W.-D.


    This chapter starts with a treatment of the general principles of high-energy spectroscopic techniques and the basic concepts used to analyze the spectra. Then the different aspects of the electronic structure resulting from the presence of the 4f states, as revealed by spectroscopic techniques, are accounted for. The conventional and established 4f manifestations which are commonly quoted as fingerprints of the initial state are also briefly reviewed. A particular effort has been made to find out the merit and complementarity of the different spectroscopies applied to the elucidation of specific problems and the emphasis is put on the fact that a credible interpretation can only result from an unified model accounting for all observations. In this respect Ce plays a central role since, together with Yb, it offers the simplest initial situation but displays many unconventional manifestations which have been carefully investigated and can be accounted for by many-body calculations. (authhor). 204 refs.; 29 figs.; 2 tabs

  2. Archiving and access systems for remote sensing: Chapter 6

    Faundeen, John L.; Percivall, George; Baros, Shirley; Baumann, Peter; Becker, Peter H.; Behnke, J.; Benedict, Karl; Colaiacomo, Lucio; Di, Liping; Doescher, Chris; Dominguez, J.; Edberg, Roger; Ferguson, Mark; Foreman, Stephen; Giaretta, David; Hutchison, Vivian; Ip, Alex; James, N.L.; Khalsa, Siri Jodha S.; Lazorchak, B.; Lewis, Adam; Li, Fuqin; Lymburner, Leo; Lynnes, C.S.; Martens, Matt; Melrose, Rachel; Morris, Steve; Mueller, Norman; Navale, Vivek; Navulur, Kumar; Newman, D.J.; Oliver, Simon; Purss, Matthew; Ramapriyan, H.K.; Rew, Russ; Rosen, Michael; Savickas, John; Sixsmith, Joshua; Sohre, Tom; Thau, David; Uhlir, Paul; Wang, Lan-Wei; Young, Jeff


    Focuses on major developments inaugurated by the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites, the Group on Earth Observations System of Systems, and the International Council for Science World Data System at the global level; initiatives at national levels to create data centers (e.g. the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Distributed Active Archive Centers and other international space agency counterparts), and non-government systems (e.g. Center for International Earth Science Information Network). Other major elements focus on emerging tool sets, requirements for metadata, data storage and refresh methods, the rise of cloud computing, and questions about what and how much data should be saved. The sub-sections of the chapter address topics relevant to the science, engineering and standards used for state-of-the-art operational and experimental systems.

  3. Neutron-nucleus interactions and fission. Chapter 1


    The central problem in nuclear-reactor kinetics is to predict the evolution in time of the neutron population in a multiplying medium. Point kinetics allows study of the global behaviour of the neutron population from the average properties of the medium. Before tackling, in the following chapters, the equations governing the time variation of the reactor power (proportional to the total neutron population), the properties of a neutron-multiplying medium shall be discussed briefly. After recalling a number of definitions, a qualitative description shall be given of the principal nuclear reactions at play in a self-sustaining chain reaction, with emphasis on the source of fission neutrons. Since delayed neutrons play a crucial role in reactor kinetics, their production in a reactor shall be described in greater detail. (author)

  4. Chapter 54: the discovery of neurotransmitters, and applications to neurology.

    Sourkes, Theodore L


    The theory of chemical transmission has proved to be a powerful tool in the analysis of many aspects of neurological function, and its implications loom large on the horizon of neurology and psychiatry. Neurotransmitters are released at neuronal endings, diffuse rapidly across the synaptic cleft, and then act upon receptor proteins embedded in the membrane of the post-synaptic neuron or gland. Drugs are evaluated for their ability to stimulate or to block specific receptors, and in that way modify activity of the postsynaptic organ in order to achieve some desirable therapeutic effect. This chapter is concerned with our knowledge of some of the principal neurotransmitters, namely the primary amines: dopamine, noradrenaline, and serotonin; the quaternary amine: acetylcholine; and the aminoacids: gamma-aminobutyric acid, glutamic acid and glycine. The historical background to the discovery of these molecules as physiological neurotransmitters is presented, and their relation to various clinical states is discussed.

  5. Chapter 3: Science and Pathways for Bending the Curve

    William D. Collins


    Full Text Available Greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuel combustion and land use are changing the radiative budget of the Earth and changing its climate. The negative impacts of this climate change on natural and human systems are already emergent. The solution is to eliminate greenhouse gas emissions altogether as soon as possible, but the rate at which these emissions can decrease is limited by human reliance on fossil fuels for energy and the infrastructural, socio-economic, and behavioral inertia of current systems around the world. In this chapter, we discuss the physical impacts as well as the many challenges and obstacles to ‘bending the curve’, and provide a framework of possible solutions.

  6. Chapter 3 – VPPD-Lab: The Chemical Product Simulator

    Kalakul, Sawitree; Cignitti, Stefano; Zhang, L.


    for computer-aided chemical product design and evaluation, implemented in the software called VPPD-Lab, is presented. In the same way a typical process simulator works, the VPPD-Lab allows users to: (1) analyze chemical-based products by performing virtual experiments (product property and performance......Computer-aided methods and tools for current and future product–process design and development need to manage problems requiring efficient handling of models, data, and knowledge from different sources and at different times and size scales. In this chapter, a systematic model-based framework...... lotion design. Through these case studies, the use of design templates, associated workflows (methods), data flows (software integration), and solution strategies (database and tools) are highlighted....

  7. Chapter 9: The rock coast of the USA

    Hapke, Cheryl J.; Adams, Peter N.; Allan, Jonathan; Ashton, Andrew; Griggs, Gary B.; Hampton, Monty A.; Kelly, Joseph; Young, Adam P.


    The coastline of the USA is vast and comprises a variety of landform types including barrier islands, mainland beaches, soft bluffed coastlines and hard rocky coasts. The majority of the bluffed and rocky coasts are found in the northeastern part of the country (New England) and along the Pacific coast. Rocky and bluffed landform types are commonly interspersed along the coastline and occur as a result of relative lowering of sea level from tectonic or isostatic forcing, which can occur on timescales ranging from instantaneous to millenia. Recent research on sea cliffs in the contiguous USA has focused on a broad range of topics from documenting erosion rates to identifying processes and controls on morphology to prediction modelling. This chapter provides a detailed synthesis of recent and seminal research on rocky coast geomorphology along open-ocean coasts of the continental United States (USA).

  8. Electronics Related to Nuclear Medicine Imaging Devices. Chapter 7

    Ott, R. J. [Joint Department of Physics, Royal Marsden Hospital and Institute of Cancer Research, Surrey (United Kingdom); Stephenson, R. [Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom)


    Nuclear medicine imaging is generally based on the detection of X rays and γ rays emitted by radionuclides injected into a patient. In the previous chapter, the methods used to detect these photons were described, based most commonly on a scintillation counter although there are imaging devices that use either gas filled ionization detectors or semiconductors. Whatever device is used, nuclear medicine images are produced from a very limited number of photons, due mainly to the level of radioactivity that can be safely injected into a patient. Hence, nuclear medicine images are usually made from many orders of magnitude fewer photons than X ray computed tomography (CT) images, for example. However, as the information produced is essentially functional in nature compared to the anatomical detail of CT, the apparently poorer image quality is overcome by the nature of the information produced. The low levels of photons detected in nuclear medicine means that photon counting can be performed. Here each photon is detected and analysed individually, which is especially valuable, for example, in enabling scattered photons to be rejected. This is in contrast to X ray imaging where images are produced by integrating the flux entering the detectors. Photon counting, however, places a heavy burden on the electronics used for nuclear medicine imaging in terms of electronic noise and stability. This chapter will discuss how the signals produced in the primary photon detection process can be converted into pulses providing spatial, energy and timing information, and how this information is used to produce both qualitative and quantitative images.

  9. Approximate solutions: ramps and periodic variations. Chapter 5


    The aim of reactor regulation is generally to maintain reactor power at the demand power, or to vary it slowly to attain a new demand power. On the other hand, the purpose of reactor shutdown systems (SDS) is to insert rapidly, on actuation, a large negative reactivity in order to minimize an overpower, or limit the energy released during a transient, so that fuel failure is improbable. Control mechanisms are therefore characterized by: their reactivity worth (mk), which must exceed the reactivity effect which the mechanism is designed to compensate; and their insertion rate (mk/s), which must be at least as fast as the effect to be controlled. Table 5.1 gives a summary of the various control mechanisms in a CANDU 6 reactor. The reactivity worth shown for each mechanism is the static reactivity change associated with full movement of the device. In reality, the dynamic reactivity will vary in a continuous manner, not suddenly, as assumed in the previous chapter. The realistic simulation of a reactivity insertion in the reactor must then take into account the rate of insertion of reactivity, which is governed by the insertion speed of the mechanism. We have seen in the previous chapter that it is possible to solved analytically the point-kinetics equations for constant reactivity. We could generalize these solutions to step-wise reactivity variations by linking together the analytic solutions to for a sequence of step changes. This approach is not necessarily the best from a numerical point of view. By introducing one or more simplifying assumptions, it will be possible to obtain an analytical solution of arbitrary variations in reactivity or in the external source. These assumptions will undoubtedly limit the applicability of the results, but the approximate solutions obtained will allow us to describe the reactor behaviour analytically. (author)

  10. Japanese contributions to IAEA INTOR workshop, phase two A, part 2, chapter I: introduction, and chapter II: summary

    Mori, Sigeru; Tomabechi, Ken; Fujisawa, Noboru; Iida, Hiromasa; Sugihara, Masayoshi; Seki, Masahiro; Honda, Tsutomu; Kasai, Masao; Itoh, Shin-ichi.


    This report corresponds to Chapters I and II of Japanese contribution report to IAEA INTOR Workshop, Phase Two A, Part 2. The major objectives of the INTOR workshop, Phase Two A, Part 2 are to study critical technical issues, and to assess scientific and technical data bases, and to finally upgrade the INTOR design concept. To study critical technical issues that affect the feasibility or practicability of the INTOR design concept, the following five groups are organized; (A) Impurity control, (B) RF heating and current drive, (C) Transient electromagnetics, (D) Maintainability, (E) Technical benefit. In addition to those groups, the three disciplinary groups are organized to assess the worldiode scientific and technical data bases that exist now and that will exist 4-5 years to support the detailed design and construction of an INTOR-like machine, and to identify additional R D that is required; (F) Physics, (G) Engineering, (H) Nuclear. (author)

  11. The northern pike, a prized native but disastrous invasive: Chapter 14

    Rutz, David; Massengill, Robert L.; Sepulveda, Adam; Dunker, Kristine J.


    As the chapters in this book describe, the northern pike Esox lucius Linneaus, 1758 is a fascinating fish that plays an important ecological role in structuring aquatic communities (chapter 8), has the capacity to aid lake restoration efforts (chapter 11), and contributes substantially to local economies, both as a highlysought after sport fish (chapter 12) and as a commercial fishing resource (chapter 13). However, despite the magnificent attributes of this fish, there is another side to its story. Specifically, what happens when northern pike, a highly efficient predator, becomes established outside its natural range? To explore this question, this chapter will investigate observed consequences from many locations where northern pike (hereafter referred to as “pike”) have been introduced and discuss potential reasons why pike, under the right circumstances, can be considered an invasive species.

  12. Telemetry Standards, RCC Standard 106-17. Chapter 3. Frequency Division Multiplexing Telemetry Standards


    Standard 106-17 Chapter 3, July 2017 3-5 Table 3-4. Constant-Bandwidth FM Subcarrier Channels Frequency Criteria\\Channels: A B C D E F G H Deviation ...Telemetry Standards , RCC Standard 106-17 Chapter 3, July 2017 3-i CHAPTER 3 Frequency Division Multiplexing Telemetry Standards Acronyms...Frequency Division Multiplexing Telemetry Standards ................................ 3-1 3.1 General

  13. Observations. Surface and Atmospheric Climate Change. Chapter 3

    Trenberth, K.E.; Jones, P.D.; Ambenje, P.; Bojariu, R.; Easterling, D.; Klein Tank, A.; Parker, D.; Rahimzadeh, F.; Renwick, J.A.; Rusticucci, M.; Soden, B.; Zhai, P.


    This chapter assesses the observed changes in surface and atmospheric climate, placing new observations and new analyses made during the past six years (since the Third Assessment Report TAR) in the context of the previous instrumental record. In previous IPCC reports, palaeo-observations from proxy data for the pre-instrumental past and observations from the ocean and ice domains were included within the same chapter. This helped the overall assessment of the consistency among the various variables and their synthesis into a coherent picture of change. A short synthesis and scrutiny of the consistency of all the observations is included here (see Section 3.9). In the TAR, surface temperature trends were examined from 1860 to 2000 globally, for 1901 to 2000 as maps and for three sub-periods (1910-1945, 1946-1975 and 1976-2000). The first and third sub-periods had rising temperatures, while the second sub-period had relatively stable global mean temperatures. The 1976 divide is the date of a widely acknowledged 'climate shift' and seems to mark a time when global mean temperatures began a discernible upward trend that has been at least partly attributed to increases in greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere. The picture prior to 1976 has essentially not changed and is therefore not repeated in detail here. However, it is more convenient to document the sub-period after 1979, rather than 1976, owing to the availability of increased and improved satellite data since then (in particular Television InfraRed Observation Satellite (TIROS) Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS) data) in association with the Global Weather Experiment (GWE) of 1979. The post-1979 period allows, for the first time, a global perspective on many fields of variables, such as precipitation, that was not previously available. The availability of high-quality data has led to a focus on the post-1978 period, although physically this new regime seems to have begun in 1976

  14. Image Post-Processing and Analysis. Chapter 17

    Yushkevich, P. A. [University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (United States)


    For decades, scientists have used computers to enhance and analyse medical images. At first, they developed simple computer algorithms to enhance the appearance of interesting features in images, helping humans read and interpret them better. Later, they created more advanced algorithms, where the computer would not only enhance images but also participate in facilitating understanding of their content. Segmentation algorithms were developed to detect and extract specific anatomical objects in images, such as malignant lesions in mammograms. Registration algorithms were developed to align images of different modalities and to find corresponding anatomical locations in images from different subjects. These algorithms have made computer aided detection and diagnosis, computer guided surgery and other highly complex medical technologies possible. Nowadays, the field of image processing and analysis is a complex branch of science that lies at the intersection of applied mathematics, computer science, physics, statistics and biomedical sciences. This chapter will give a general overview of the most common problems in this field and the algorithms that address them.

  15. Chapter 4: neurology in the Bible and the Talmud.

    Feinsod, Moshe


    The Bible, a major pillar of Western Civilization consists of Hebrew Scriptures, assembled over a millennium and accepted as of divine origin. The Talmud is a compendium of Jewish laws, covering every possible aspect of life, analyzed in depth from 200 BCE to 600 CE, becoming the foundation of Jewish existence. The all-encompassing character of the books provides numerous medical problems and observations that appear in various connotations. When in need to clarify various legal dilemmas, the Talmudic sages displayed astoundingly accurate anatomical knowledge and were pioneers in clinical-pathological correlations. The descriptions of "neurological" events in the Bible are very precise but show no evidence of neurological knowledge. Those reported in the various tractates of the Talmud are evidence of a substantial medical knowledge, marked by Hellenistic influence. Subjects such as head and spinal injuries, epilepsy, handedness neuralgias aphasia tinnitus and tremor were discussed in depth. This chapter is an updated collection of the studies, extracting observations and discussions of neurological manifestations from the ancient texts.

  16. Chapter 20: neurological illustration from photography to cinematography.

    Aubert, Geneviève


    This chapter explores iconography in neurology from the birth of photography up to the early medical applications of cinematography before 1914. The important visual part of neurological diagnosis explains why these techniques were adopted very early by neurologists. Duchenne published the first medical book illustrated with photographs of patients. The first and most famous photographic laboratory was created in Charcot's department, at the Salpêtrière in Paris, under the direction of Albert Londe. Londe published the first book dedicated to medical photography. The physiologist Marey and the photographer Muybridge, in association with neurologists, played key roles in the development of chronophotography and cinematography. Germany was the first country to welcome cinematography in a neurology department. Independently, neurologists began to film patients in other countries in Europe and in America. In 1905, Arthur Van Gehuchten (1861-1914), Belgian anatomist and neurologist, began systematically to film neurologic patients, with the intention of building up a complete neurological iconographic collection. This collection has survived and has been restored in the laboratory of the Royal Belgian Film Archive where the films are now safely stored in their vaults.

  17. United Nations Charter, Chapter VII, Article 43: Now or Never.

    Burkle, Frederick M


    For more than 75 years, the United Nations Charter has functioned without the benefit of Chapter VII, Article 43, which commits all United Nations member states "to make available to the Security Council, on its call, armed forces, assistance, facilities, including rights of passage necessary for the purpose of maintaining international peace and security." The consequences imposed by this 1945 decision have had a dramatic negative impact on the United Nation's functional capacity as a global body for peace and security. This article summarizes the struggle to implement Article 43 over the decades from the onset of the Cold War, through diplomatic attempts during the post-Cold War era, to current and often controversial attempts to provide some semblance of conflict containment through peace enforcement missions. The rapid growth of globalization and the capability of many nations to provide democratic protections to their populations are again threatened by superpower hegemony and the development of novel unconventional global threats. The survival of the United Nations requires many long overdue organizational structure and governance power reforms, including implementation of a robust United Nations Standing Task Force under Article 43. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018;page 1 of 8).

  18. CHAPTER 6. Biomimetic Materials for Efficient Atmospheric Water Collection

    Zhang, Lianbin


    Water scarcity is a severe problem in semi-arid desert regions, land-scarce countries and in countries with high levels of economic activity. In these regions, the collection of atmospheric water - for example, fog - is recognized as an important method of providing water. In nature, through millions of year evolution, some animals and plants in many of the arid regions have developed unique and highly efficient systems with delicate microstructures and composition for the purpose of fog collection to survive the harsh conditions. With the unique ability of fog collection, these creatures could readily cope with insufficient access to fresh water or lack of precipitation. These natural examples have inspired the design and fabrication of artificial fog collection materials and devices. In this chapter, we will first introduce some natural examples for their unique fog collection capability, and then give some examples of the bioinspired materials and devices that are fabricated artificially to mimic these natural creatures for the purpose of fog collection. We believe that the biomimetic strategy is one of the most promising routes for the design and fabrication of functional materials and devices for the solution of the global water crisis.

  19. Valley plugs, land use, and phytogeomorphic response: Chapter 14

    Pierce, Aaron R.; King, Sammy L.; Shroder, John F.


    Anthropogenic alteration of fluvial systems can disrupt functional processes that provide valuable ecosystem services. Channelization alters fluvial parameters and the connectivity of river channels to their floodplains which is critical for productivity, nutrient cycling, flood control, and biodiversity. The effects of channelization can be exacerbated by local geology and land-use activities, resulting in dramatic geomorphic readjustments including the formation of valley plugs. Considerable variation in the response of abiotic processes, including surface hydrology, subsurface hydrology, and sedimentation dynamics, to channelization and the formation of valley plugs. Altered abiotic processes associated with these geomorphic features and readjustments influence biotic processes including species composition, abundance, and successional processes. Considerable interest exists for restoring altered fluvial systems and their floodplains because of their social and ecological importance. Understanding abiotic and biotic responses of channelization and valley-plug formation within the context of the watershed is essential to successful restoration. This chapter focuses on the primary causes of valley-plug formation, resulting fluvial-geomorphic responses, vegetation responses, and restoration and research needs for these systems.

  20. Nuclear power and deregulation in the United Kingdom. Chapter 3

    Thomas, S.


    This article (Chapter Three) reviews the development of the British nuclear industry and the country's experience with privatised and liberalized electricity markets - an experience that is much earlier than Canada's. The U.K. industry is of special interest because a British firm, British Energy, has leased the Bruce A and B nuclear stations until 2018. This article tries to explain how the economic transformation of nuclear power has been achieved, and why nuclear power and a competitive electricity market are so hard to reconcile. The article gives a brief history of nuclear power in Britain up to 1987; a summary of the main events relating to nuclear power; a discussion of why nuclear power could not be privatised in 1990, but could be in 1996; examines the improvements in cost and competitiveness since 1990; a discussion of the issues surrounding the discharge of nuclear liabilities; the future for British Energy, Britain's leading nuclear company, and nuclear power in Britain; and finally, changes to other nuclear companies in Britain

  1. 21 CFR 812.47 - Emergency research under § 50.24 of this chapter.


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Emergency research under § 50.24 of this chapter. 812.47 Section 812.47 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN....47 Emergency research under § 50.24 of this chapter. (a) The sponsor shall monitor the progress of...

  2. Draft of chapters 4-9 as of May 11, 1979


    A revised outline for the final report is given, and the first draft of chapters 4 - 9 are included. The chapters cover enrichment demands according to various fuel cycle strategies, comparison of enrichment demand and availability, assessment and comparison of the proliferation aspects of enrichment, assurance of supply, special needs of developing countries, and general conclusions

  3. Omega Psi Phi Fraternity, Pi Chapter: African American Male Identity and Fraternity Culture, 1923-2003

    Johnson, Edwin T.


    Pi Chapter of the Omega Psi Phi Fraternity, Inc. at Morgan State University made a significant contribution to the identity construction of college-educated African American men in the state of Maryland. The initiates of Pi Chapter constructed identities that allowed the members to see themselves as participants in mainstream American society as…

  4. Telemetry Standards, RCC Standard 106-17. Chapter 21. Telemetry Network Standard Introduction


    Critical RF radio frequency RFC Request for Comment SNMP Simple Network Management Protocol TA test article TCP Transmission Control Protocol...chapters might be of most interest for a particular reader. In order to guide the reader toward the chapters of further interest , the applicable... Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) to pass management information through the system. The SNMP management information bases (MIBs) provide

  5. 15 CFR Appendix A to Chapter Xx - Administration of the Trade Agreements Program


    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administration of the Trade Agreements Program A Appendix A to Chapter XX Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Foreign Trade Agreements OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Ch. XX, App. A Appendix A to Chapter XX...

  6. Data on distribution and abundance: Monitoring for research and management [Chapter 6

    Samuel A. Cushman; Kevin S. McKelvey


    In the first chapter of this book we identified the interdependence of method, data and theory as an important influence on the progress of science. The first several chapters focused mostly on progress in theory, in the areas of integrating spatial and temporal complexity into ecological analysis, the emergence of landscape ecology and its transformation into a multi-...

  7. Examining End-of-Chapter Problems across Editions of an Introductory Calculus-Based Physics Textbook

    Xiao, Bin


    End-Of-Chapter (EOC) problems have been part of many physics education studies. Typically, only problems "localized" as relevant to a single chapter were used. This work examines how well this type of problem represents all EOC problems and whether EOC problems found in leading textbooks have changed over the past several decades. To…

  8. Conclusion: From describing to prescribing--transitioning to place-based conservation [Chapter 18

    William P. Stewart; Daniel R. Williams; Linda E. Kruger


    The chapters of this book describe various perspectives from the social sciences of place-based conservation. The prescriptive implications are often close to the surface and become entangled with them. This chapter highlights four overlapping approaches to the practice of place-based conservation and acknowledges the difficulty of separating descriptions from...

  9. Chapter 1. Impacts of the oceans on climate change.

    Reid, Philip C; Fischer, Astrid C; Lewis-Brown, Emily; Meredith, Michael P; Sparrow, Mike; Andersson, Andreas J; Antia, Avan; Bates, Nicholas R; Bathmann, Ulrich; Beaugrand, Gregory; Brix, Holger; Dye, Stephen; Edwards, Martin; Furevik, Tore; Gangstø, Reidun; Hátún, Hjálmar; Hopcroft, Russell R; Kendall, Mike; Kasten, Sabine; Keeling, Ralph; Le Quéré, Corinne; Mackenzie, Fred T; Malin, Gill; Mauritzen, Cecilie; Olafsson, Jón; Paull, Charlie; Rignot, Eric; Shimada, Koji; Vogt, Meike; Wallace, Craig; Wang, Zhaomin; Washington, Richard


    The oceans play a key role in climate regulation especially in part buffering (neutralising) the effects of increasing levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and rising global temperatures. This chapter examines how the regulatory processes performed by the oceans alter as a response to climate change and assesses the extent to which positive feedbacks from the ocean may exacerbate climate change. There is clear evidence for rapid change in the oceans. As the main heat store for the world there has been an accelerating change in sea temperatures over the last few decades, which has contributed to rising sea-level. The oceans are also the main store of carbon dioxide (CO2), and are estimated to have taken up approximately 40% of anthropogenic-sourced CO2 from the atmosphere since the beginning of the industrial revolution. A proportion of the carbon uptake is exported via the four ocean 'carbon pumps' (Solubility, Biological, Continental Shelf and Carbonate Counter) to the deep ocean reservoir. Increases in sea temperature and changing planktonic systems and ocean currents may lead to a reduction in the uptake of CO2 by the ocean; some evidence suggests a suppression of parts of the marine carbon sink is already underway. While the oceans have buffered climate change through the uptake of CO2 produced by fossil fuel burning this has already had an impact on ocean chemistry through ocean acidification and will continue to do so. Feedbacks to climate change from acidification may result from expected impacts on marine organisms (especially corals and calcareous plankton), ecosystems and biogeochemical cycles. The polar regions of the world are showing the most rapid responses to climate change. As a result of a strong ice-ocean influence, small changes in temperature, salinity and ice cover may trigger large and sudden changes in regional climate with potential downstream feedbacks to the climate of the rest of the world. A warming Arctic Ocean may lead to

  10. Chapter 11: Web-based Tools - VO Region Inventory Service

    Good, J. C.

    As the size and number of datasets available through the VO grows, it becomes increasingly critical to have services that aid in locating and characterizing data pertinent to a particular scientific problem. At the same time, this same increase makes that goal more and more difficult to achieve. With a small number of datasets, it is feasible to simply retrieve the data itself (as the NVO DataScope service does). At intermediate scales, "count" DBMS searches (searches of the actual datasets which return record counts rather than full data subsets) sent to each data provider will work. However, neither of these approaches scale as the number of datasets expands into the hundreds or thousands. Dealing with the same problem internally, IRSA developed a compact and extremely fast scheme for determining source counts for positional catalogs (and in some cases image metadata) over arbitrarily large regions for multiple catalogs in a fraction of a second. To show applicability to the VO in general, this service has been extended with indices for all 4000+ catalogs in CDS Vizier (essentially all published catalogs and source tables). In this chapter, we will briefly describe the architecture of this service, and then describe how this can be used in a distributed system to retrieve rapid inventories of all VO holdings in a way that places an insignificant load on any data supplier. Further, we show and this tool can be used in conjunction with VO Registries and catalog services to zero in on those datasets that are appropriate to the user's needs. The initial implementation of this service consolidates custom binary index file structures (external to any DBMS and therefore portable) at a single site to minimize search times and implements the search interface as a simple CGI program. However, the architecture is amenable to distribution. The next phase of development will focus on metadata harvesting from data archives through a standard program interface and distribution

  11. Assessing Needs and Demand for Radiotherapy. Chapter 3

    Barton, M.; Williams, M.


    Cancer services, such as screening, surgery, chemotherapy or radiotherapy, should be delivered in the type and amount that meet local demand. Estimating demand requires knowledge of the types and numbers of cancers and the indications for services. For example, the demand for breast screening can be calculated by determining the number of women aged 50 to 70 years old. It is more complicated to determine the demand for services, such as radiotherapy or chemotherapy, that have a large number of indications relevant to small proportions of the cancer population. Different populations will have different incidence rates of cancer, and the proportions of the common types of cancer may vary. Cancer registries provide information on the types and frequency of cancer in a population. They may also record data about stage at presentation, which has a critical influence on the outcomes. In addition, factors relating to specific groups of patients, such as performance status and co-morbidities, may alter treatment recommendations. Unfortunately all these details are often poorly recorded by cancer registries. Nevertheless, planning of sufficient services to meet the needs of the treatment population is vital in providing optimal care. This chapter describes an evidence based approach to estimating the demand for radiotherapy, and its application to different treatment modalities and different populations. The work was done mainly for Australia, but has been used in Europe and North America. Cancer services include all cancer control interventions, such as screening, early detection, diagnosis, treatment, palliation and rehabilitation. The estimation of the demand for radiotherapy will be described in detail, and examples given of how this approach has been adapted to other modalities and other populations.

  12. Ecological impacts of non-native species: Chapter 2

    Pilliod, David S.; Griffiths, R.A.; Kuzmin, S.L.; Heatwole, Harold; Wilkinson, John W.


    management of non-native species has only just begun but some promising results have already emerged (see below), giving hope to a very difficult conservation issue. This chapter provides an overview of the role of non-native species in amphibian declines and summarizes the current state of knowledge of non-native species that are known, or considered to be, a threat to amphibian species and populations. The biological and socio-economic issues of non-native species control are examined and brief case studies of successful eradication programmes are provided.

  13. Student chapters: effective dissemination networks for informal optics and photonics education

    Fabian, Dirk; Vermeulen, Nathalie; Van Overmeire, Sara


    Professional societies sponsor student chapters in order to foster scholarship and training in photonics at the college and graduate level, but they are also an excellent resource for disseminating photonics knowledge to pre-college students and teachers. Starting in 2006, we tracked the involvement of SPIE student chapter volunteers in informal pre-college education settings. Chapter students reached 2800, 4900 and 11800 pre-college students respectively from 2006-2008 with some form of informal instruction in optics and photonics. As a case study, the EduKit, a self-contained instruction module featuring refractive and diffractive micro-optics developed by the European Network of Excellence on Micro-Optics (NEMO), was disseminated through student chapters in Argentina, Belgium, Canada, China, Colombia, India, Latvia, Mexico, Peru, Russia, Singapore, South Africa, and the United States. We tracked the movement of this material through the network, up to the student-teacher feedback stage. The student chapter network provided rapid dissemination of the material, translation of the material into the local language, and leveraged existing chapter contacts in schools to provide an audience. We describe the student chapter network and its impact on the development of the EduKit teaching module.

  14. Chapter No.12. UJD personnel and economic data


    second place belonged to employees at the age of 51-60 years representing 26% of overall number of employees. This statistics proves, that the state supervision was provided mostly by employees with the long-standing practice, i.e., by employees at the age of 41-60 years representing 62% of an overall number of employees. Other age categories were represented as follows: 23% of all employees at the age of 20-30 years, 10% of all employees at the age of 31-40 years an 5% of all employees at the age over 60 years. UJD as the central state body has an independent status and acts independently in the budgetary process, i.e., it has its own budgetary chapter with incomes and outcomes directly connected with the State Budget. In 2001, the state regulation and supervision over the nuclear safety was funded from the State Budget amounting to SKK 77,911 thousands. Apart from these funds, UJD used the extra-budgetary funds from abroad (from the Swiss Government through the SWISSLOVAK, SWISSUP Project, Evita Project, IAEA Projects and from the Temporary Secretariat of Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organisation) amounting to SKK 1,773 thousands. Overall expenditures as of 31 December 2001 amounted to SKK 79,684 thousands. From total amount of budgetary funds, the amount of SKK 71,394 thousands was used as running expenditures and the amount of SKK 6,517 thousands was used for capital assets acquisition. Total amount of finance from the State Budget did not exceed the limit of available funds, i.e. the amount of SKK 3,685 thousands from the budgetary chapter was not drawn. This situation is connected with unrealised foreign transfers in favour of the international organisations (payment obligation did not arise) as well as with lower use of other current expenditures. Current foreign transfers amounting to SKK 24,967 thousands represented the largest portion of budgetary expenditures, i.e. transfer to EBRD on Chernobyl containment renovation, two contributions to IAEA Technical Co

  15. Chapter 8: Design and Control of Voltage Source Converters With LCL-Filters

    Pena-Alzola, Rafael; Blaabjerg, Frede


    presents many options for the LCL-filter design, passive damping design, and active damping design, and this chapter will present well-known practical methods. In this chapter, the LCL-filter design uses a step-by-step procedure with simple formulas that avoid trial-and-error iterations. Different......-type procedures result in a robust design against line inductance variations. The capacitor-current feedback method requires an additional sensor and the lead-lag network avoid additional sensors by using the capacitor voltage also for synchronization. The filter-based procedure presented in the chapter uses...

  16. Chapter 7. Radioactivity of animals and animal organs and factors influencing their value

    Toelgyessy, J.; Harangozo, M.


    This is a chapter of textbook of radioecology for university students. In this chapter authors deal with radioactivity of animals and animal organs and factors influencing their value. Chapter consist of next parts: (1) Natural radioactivity of animals; (2) Radioactive contamination of animal tissues; (3) Connection of radioactive contamination with species of animals and discriminatingly ability of animal organism; (4) Connection of radioactive contamination with age of animal and with biological half-life T b ; (5) Factors influencing radioactive contamination of biological cycle: food - animal; (6) Possibilities of decreasing of radioactive contamination of foods with animal origin

  17. Chapter 18: Web-based Tools - NED VO Services

    Mazzarella, J. M.; NED Team

    The NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database (NED) is a thematic, web-based research facility in widespread use by scientists, educators, space missions, and observatory operations for observation planning, data analysis, discovery, and publication of research about objects beyond our Milky Way galaxy. NED is a portal into a systematic fusion of data from hundreds of sky surveys and tens of thousands of research publications. The contents and services span the entire electromagnetic spectrum from gamma rays through radio frequencies, and are continuously updated to reflect the current literature and releases of large-scale sky survey catalogs. NED has been on the Internet since 1990, growing in content, automation and services with the evolution of information technology. NED is the world's largest database of crossidentified extragalactic objects. As of December 2006, the system contains approximately 10 million objects and 15 million multi-wavelength cross-IDs. Over 4 thousand catalogs and published lists covering the entire electromagnetic spectrum have had their objects cross-identified or associated, with fundamental data parameters federated for convenient queries and retrieval. This chapter describes the interoperability of NED services with other components of the Virtual Observatory (VO). Section 1 is a brief overview of the primary NED web services. Section 2 provides a tutorial for using NED services currently available through the NVO Registry. The "name resolver" provides VO portals and related internet services with celestial coordinates for objects specified by catalog identifier (name); any alias can be queried because this service is based on the source cross-IDs established by NED. All major services have been updated to provide output in VOTable (XML) format that can be accessed directly from the NED web interface or using the NVO registry. These include access to images via SIAP, Cone- Search queries, and services providing fundamental, multi

  18. Chapter 13. Personnel and economic data of the UJD


    The results achieved by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (UJD) in the area of state supervision upon nuclear safety in 2000 were also backed up by the quality of work resulting from the UJD financial policy and personnel management. As of 31 December 2000, a staff of 82 in natural persons were in the employ of UJD, of which 30 women and 52 men. The total share of the employed women accounts for 36.6 %. Of total staff, 44 employees carried out a direct inspection activity of nuclear safety, of which 4 women. The staff education pattern had a direct impact on the professional level of UJD. As many as 77% of staff are university graduates, 21% received full secondary education, as did 2% secondary vocational education. The position of UJD as a central state administrative authority means also its independent position and action in the process of financial policy and budgeting in relation to the state budget. Funding of the performance of state supervision upon nuclear safety in 2000 was realised from public funds through UJD's chapter of budget. In addition to this financial resource, funding from assistance funds by the Swiss government under the projects SWISSLOVAK, SWISSUP, EVITA and IAEA projects was provided to beef up and complete lacking resources. The aggregate volume of expense drawn came to 73,222 th. slovak crowns (SKK) (including extra-budgetary funds). A sum of 69,135 th. SKK was expended toward the UJD current activities, while funds totalling 4,087 th. SKK were drawn to procure capital assets. Following the deduction of extra-budgetary funds running at 1,219 th. SKK, the actual draw down of public funds amounted to 72,003 th. SKK. According to the provided financial resource, the draw down in 2000 under the basic type classification spending in th. SKK was as follows: In the current budgetary expenditure structure, the highest share was held by payments for current transfers to abroad totalling 24,512 th. SKK, i.e. the

  19. Assessment and management of ecological integrity: Chapter 12

    Kwak, Thomas J.; Freeman, Mary C.


    emphasized in this chapter, they are broadly applicable among all aquatic systems.

  20. Chapter 2: Assessing the Potential Energy Impacts of Clean Energy Initiatives

    Chapter 2 of Assessing the Multiple Benefits of Clean Energy helps state energy, environmental, and economic policy makers identify and quantify the many benefits of clean energy to support the development and implementation of cost-effective clean energ

  1. Master plan study - District heating Sillamaee municipality. Estonia. Final report. Appendices for chapter 9



    The appendices to the final report on the master plan study on district heating in the municipality in Estonia, chapter nine, gives data related to general economic assumptions for financial and economic calculations, fuel consumption, financing, prices, fuel consumption. (ARW)

  2. 48 CFR 1201.301-70 - Amendment of (TAR) 48 CFR chapter 12.


    ...) 48 CFR chapter 12 is maintained by the SPE through the TAR/TAM change process. This process consists... (C) To issue guidance which may be effective for a period of 1 year or less. (ii) Each TN will expire...

  3. Teaching molecular genetics: Chapter 1--Background principles and methods of molecular biology.

    Knoers, Nine V A M; Monnens, Leo A H


    In this first chapter of the series "Teaching molecular genetics," an introduction to molecular genetics is presented. We describe the structure of DNA and genes and explain in detail the central dogma of molecular biology, that is, the flow of genetic information from DNA via RNA to polypeptide (protein). In addition, several basic and frequently used general molecular tools, such as restriction enzymes, Southern blotting, DNA amplification and sequencing are discussed, in order to lay the foundations for the forthcoming chapters.

  4. Telemetry Standards, RCC Standard 106-17. Chapter 8. Digital Data Bus Acquisition Formatting Standard


    incorrect word count/message and illegal mode codes are not considered bus errors. 8.6.2 Source Signal The source of data is a signal conforming to...Telemetry Standards, RCC Standard 106-17 Chapter 8, July 2017 CHAPTER 8 Digital Data Bus Acquisition Formatting Standard Acronyms...check FCS frame check sequence HDDR high-density digital recording MIL-STD Military Standard msb most significant bit PCM pulse code modulation

  5. Manhattan Project Technical Series The Chemistry of Uranium (I) Chapters 1-10

    Rabinowitch, E. I.; Katz, J. J.


    This constitutes Chapters 1 through 10. inclusive, of The Survey Volume on Uranium Chemistry prepared for the Manhattan Project Technical Series. Chapters are titled: Nuclear Properties of Uranium; Properties of the Uranium Atom; Uranium in Nature; Extraction of Uranium from Ores and Preparation of Uranium Metal; Physical Properties of Uranium Metal; Chemical Properties of Uranium Metal; Intermetallic Compounds and Alloy systems of Uranium; the Uranium-Hydrogen System; Uranium Borides, Carbides, and Silicides; Uranium Nitrides, Phosphides, Arsenides, and Antimonides.

  6. Chapter 4. Assessment and inspection of nuclear installations


    develop protocols in which the findings from these inspections are specified. This protocol also contains orders and measures imposed by UJD to correct the shortcomings found. Qualifications and examinations of nuclear safety inspectors are assured in accordance with an internal guideline of UJD. Inspectors take part not only in training courses and other technical meetings organised by the IAEA, but also in some special training courses organised in co-operation with nuclear safety regulators from European countries, USA, Canada and Japan. In next part of this chapter there are presented in details the assessment activity as well as the inspection activity of UJD on the NPP V-1 Bohunice, NPP V-2 Bohunice, NPP Mochovce, NPP A-1 Bohunice, Interim spent fuel storage Bohunice, Technology for treatment and conditioning of radioactive waste Bohunice, National Radioactive Waste Repository Mochovce, Nuclear facilities of VUJE Trnava, Statistical data on assessment and inspection activity of UJD

  7. Information and Communication Technology Reputation for XU030 Quote Companies

    Seker, Sadi Evren; Cankir, Bilal; Arslan, Mehmet Lutfi


    By the increasing spread of information technology and Internet improvements, most of the large-scale companies are paying special attention to their reputation on many types of the information and communication technology. The increasing developments and penetration of new technologies into daily life, brings out paradigm shift on the perception of reputation and creates new concepts like esocieties, techno-culture and new media. Contemporary companies are trying to control their reputation ...

  8. Distribution system reliability evaluation using credibility theory | Xu ...

    In this paper, a hybrid algorithm based on fuzzy simulation and Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) is applied to determine fuzzy reliability indices of distribution system. This approach can obtain fuzzy expected values and their variances of reliability indices, and the credibilities of reliability indices meeting specified ...

  9. Distribution system reliability evaluation using credibility theory | Xu ...

    for Researchers · for Journals · for Authors · for Policy Makers · about Open Access · Journal Quality. 521 African Journals. Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free To Read Titles This Journal is Open Access. Featuring journals from 32 Countries: Algeria (5); Benin (2); Botswana ...

  10. Surface water quality in streams and rivers: introduction, scaling, and climate change: Chapter 5

    Loperfido, John


    A variety of competing and complementary needs such as ecological health, human consumption, transportation, recreation, and economic value make management and protection of water resources in riverine environments essential. Thus, an understanding of the complex and interacting factors that dictate riverine water quality is essential in empowering stake-holders to make informed management decisions (see Chapter 1.15 for additional information on water resource management). Driven by natural and anthropogenic forcing factors, a variety of chemical, physical, and biological processes dictate riverine water quality, resulting in temporal and spatial patterns and cycling (see Chapter 1.2 for information describing how global change interacts with water resources). Furthermore, changes in climatic forcing factors may lead to long-term deviations in water quality outside the envelope of historical data. The goal of this chapter is to present fundamental concepts dictating the conditions of basic water quality parameters in rivers and streams (herein generally referred to as rivers unless discussing a specific system) in the context of temporal (diel (24 h) to decadal) longitudinal scaling. Understanding water quality scaling in rivers is imperative as water is continually reused and recycled (see also Chapters 3.1 and 3.15); upstream discharges from anthropogenic sources are incorporated into bulk riverine water quality that is used by downstream consumers. Water quality parameters reviewed here include temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), and suspended sediment and were selected given the abundance of data available for these parameters due to recent advances in water quality sensor technology (see Chapter 4.13 for use of hydrologic data in watershed management). General equations describing reactions affecting water temperature, pH, DO, and suspended sediment are included to convey the complexity of how simultaneously occurring reactions can affect water quality

  11. Packaging and transportation manual. Chapter on the packaging and transportation of hazardous and radioactive waste


    The purpose of this chapter is to outline the requirements that Los Alamos National Laboratory employees and contractors must follow when they package and ship hazardous and radioactive waste. This chapter is applied to on-site, intra-Laboratory, and off-site transportation of hazardous and radioactive waste. The chapter contains sections on definitions, responsibilities, written procedures, authorized packaging, quality assurance, documentation for waste shipments, loading and tiedown of waste shipments, on-site routing, packaging and transportation assessment and oversight program, nonconformance reporting, training of personnel, emergency response information, and incident and occurrence reporting. Appendices provide additional detail, references, and guidance on packaging for hazardous and radioactive waste, and guidance for the on-site transport of these wastes

  12. Packaging and transportation manual. Chapter on the packaging and transportation of hazardous and radioactive waste



    The purpose of this chapter is to outline the requirements that Los Alamos National Laboratory employees and contractors must follow when they package and ship hazardous and radioactive waste. This chapter is applied to on-site, intra-Laboratory, and off-site transportation of hazardous and radioactive waste. The chapter contains sections on definitions, responsibilities, written procedures, authorized packaging, quality assurance, documentation for waste shipments, loading and tiedown of waste shipments, on-site routing, packaging and transportation assessment and oversight program, nonconformance reporting, training of personnel, emergency response information, and incident and occurrence reporting. Appendices provide additional detail, references, and guidance on packaging for hazardous and radioactive waste, and guidance for the on-site transport of these wastes.

  13. Environmental implementation plan: Chapter 5, Chemical management, pollution prevention and other compliance programs

    Peterson, G.L.


    Compliance with environmental regulations and US Department of Energy Orders (DOE) relating to environmental protection is an important part of SRS's program. Over the past few years, the number of environmental regulations has increased. The strategy to comply with new and existing environmental regulations and DOE orders is described in chapter two. In this chapter, the following environmental programs are described: Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA); Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA); Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA); and SPCC/BMP/Pollution Prevention Plans;The implementation section identifies issues and those responsible to achieve defined objectives


    Vladimir V. Gromov


    Full Text Available The article concerns personal income tax in relation to income, source of which is a capital gain of taxpayers. Some countries impose this tax as a separate payment because capital gain cannot be identified with other types of income by the reason of its nature. There is no capital gain tax in Russia, and capital gain is taxed under the rules of chapter 23 of the Russian Tax Code. In this regard the article contains the analysis of features of introduction of capital gain tax in this chapter of the code, reflects the shortcomings inherent in methodology of its fixing in it, and offers on elimination of the revealed problems.

  15. Chapter 7: Renewable Energy Options and Considerations for Net Zero Installations

    Booth, Samuel


    This chapter focuses on renewable energy options for military installations. It discusses typical renewable technologies, project development, and gives examples. Renewable energy can be combined with conventional energy sources to provide part or all of the energy demand at an installation. The appropriate technology mix for an installation will depend on site-specific factors such as renewable resources, energy costs, local energy policies and incentives, available land, mission compatibility, and other factors. The objective of this chapter is to provide basic background information and resources on renewable energy options for NATO leaders and energy personnel.

  16. Chapter 11. Conservation status of boreal owls in the United States

    Gregory D. Hayward


    Previous chapters outlined the biology and ecology of boreal owls as well as the ecology of important vegetation communities based on literature from North America and Europe. That technical review provides the basis to assess the current conservation status of boreal owls in the United States. By conservation status, we mean the demographic condition of the species as...

  17. Chapter 16. Conservation status of great gray owls in the United States

    Gregory D. Hayward


    Previous chapters outlined the biology and ecology of great gray owls as well as the ecology of this species in the western United States. That technical review provides the basis to assess the current conservation status of great gray owls in the United States. Are populations of great gray owls in the United States currently threatened? Are current land management...

  18. Chapter 6. Conservation status of flammulated owls in the United States

    D. Archibald McCallum


    The status of the flammulated owl will be evaluated in this chapter by asking a series of critical questions about the species and its habitat. Answers to these questions will be used to reach one of the following conclusions: (1) populations in the United States are secure and will likely remain so given current land management practices; (2) populations are in peril...

  19. Chapter 24: the coming of molecular biology and its impact on clinical neurology.

    Smith, Christopher U M


    Although the chemical study of the nervous system dates back well into the 19th century, molecular biology and especially molecular neurobiology only began to be established in the second half of the 20th century. This chapter reviews their impact on clinical neuroscience during the 50 years since Watson and Crick published their seminal paper. After a short review of the part played by F.O. Schmitt in establishing molecular neuroscience the chapter outlines work that led to a detailed understanding of the biochemical structure and function of nerve cell membranes and their embedded channel proteins, receptors, and other molecules. The chapter then turns to the numerous pathologies that result from disorders of these elements: the various channel and gap-junction pathologies. The chapter continues with a discussion of some of the diseases caused by defective DNA, especially the trinucleotide repeat expansion diseases (TREDs) and ends with a short account of the development of molecular approaches to prion diseases, myasthenia gravis, and the neurodegenerative diseases of old age. Francis Bacon said long ago that "knowledge is power." The hope is that increasing molecular knowledge will help cure some of the human suffering seen in the neurological ward and clinic.

  20. Japanese contributions to IAEA INTOR workshop, phase two A, part 2, chapter V: transient electromagnetics

    Kasai, Masao; Niikura, Setsuo; Ueda, Koju


    This report corresponds to Chapter V of Japanese contribution report to IAEA INTOR Workshop, Phase Two A, Part 2. Simulation results are shown for feedback control of plasma position, electromagnetic forces at disruptions, penetration of electric and magnetic fields, and benchmark tests for transient electromagnetics. Design guide lines for feedback control system and database assessments are also reported. (author)

  1. Chapter 21. Intelligent light therapy for older adults: Ambient assisted living.

    H.T.G. Weffers; M.P.J. Aarts; MD E.J.M. Wouters; A.C. Westerlaken; B. Schrader; M.B.C. Aries; J. van Hoof


    van Hoof, J., Wouters, E.J.M., Schräder, B, Weffers, H.T.G., Aarts, M.P.J., Aries, M.B.C., Westerlaken, A.C. (2013) Chapter 21. Intelligent light therapy for older adults: Ambient assisted living. In: Agah, A. (ed.) Medical Applications of Artificial Intelligence. CRC Press/Taylor & Francis Group,

  2. Applications of landscape genetics to connectivity research in terrestrial animals [Chapter 12

    Lisette P. Waits; Samuel A. Cushman; Steve F. Spear


    Landscape genetic studies have focused on terrestrial animals more than any other taxonomic group. This chapter focuses on applications of landscape genetics for understanding connectivity of terrestrial animal populations. It starts with a general introduction covering unique characteristics and challenges of the terrestrial study system. This is followed by...

  3. Effects of watershed experiments on water chemistry at the Marcell Experimental Forest. Chapter 14.

    Stephen D. Sebestyen; Elon S. Verry


    The Marcell Experimental Forest (MEF) was established during the 1960s to study the hydrology and ecology of lowland watersheds where upland mineral soils drain to central peatlands (Boelter and Verry 1977). The effects of seven large-scale manipulations on water chemistry have been studied on the MEF watersheds and the data now span up to four decades. In this chapter...

  4. Chapter 14: Evaluating the Leaching of Biocides from Preservative-Treated Wood Products

    Stan T. Lebow


    Leaching of biocides is an important consideration in the long term durability and any potential for environmental impact of treated wood products. This chapter discusses factors affecting biocide leaching, as well as methods of evaluating rate and quantity of biocide released. The extent of leaching is a function of preservative formulation, treatment methods, wood...

  5. Chi Sigma Iota Chapter Leadership and Professional Identity Development in Early Career Counselors

    Luke, Melissa; Goodrich, Kristopher M.


    As the academic and professional honor society of counseling, Chi Sigma Iota (CSI) has been recognized in developing advocacy, leadership, and professional identity in student and professional members. A qualitative, grounded theory study was conducted to investigate experiences of 15 early career counselors who were CSI chapter leaders as…

  6. Exotic annual Bromus invasions: Comparisons among species and ecoregions in the western United States [Chapter 2

    Matthew L. Brooks; Cynthia S. Brown; Jeanne C. Chambers; Carla M. D' Antonio; Jon E. Keeley; Jayne Belnap


    Exotic annual Bromus species are widely recognized for their potential to invade, dominate, and alter the structure and function of ecosystems. In this chapter, we summarize the invasion potential, ecosystem threats, and management strategies for different Bromus species within each of five ecoregions of the western United States. We characterize invasion...

  7. Peer-to-peer over mobile ad hoc networks (Chapter 11)

    Qadri, N.N.; Liotta, A.; Pierre, S.


    In this chapter we review various approaches for the convergence of Peer-to-Peer (P2P) and Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs), identifying strengths and weaknesses, and putting things in perspective. P2P and MANETs are among the most active research topics in pervasive computing. The convergence of P2P

  8. Teaching molecular genetics: Chapter 1--Background principles and methods of molecular biology.

    Knoers, N.V.A.M.; Monnens, L.A.H.


    In this first chapter of the series "Teaching molecular genetics," an introduction to molecular genetics is presented. We describe the structure of DNA and genes and explain in detail the central dogma of molecular biology, that is, the flow of genetic information from DNA via RNA to polypeptide

  9. Synthesis Gas Demonstration Plant, Baskett, Kentucky: environmental report. [Contains chapter 4 and appendix 4A



    This volume contains chapter 4 and Appendix 4A which include descriptions of use of adjacent land and water (within miles of the proposed site), baseline ecology, air quality, meteorology, noise, hydrology, water quality, geology, soils and socio-economic factors. Appendix 4A includes detailed ecological surveys made in the area including the methods used. (LTN)

  10. 27 CFR 53.172 - Credit or refund of manufacturers tax under chapter 32.


    ... total inventory, by model number and quantity, of all such articles purchased tax-paid and held for sale... that the article is not subject to tax under chapter 32 of the Code. (C) Inventory requirement. The inventory shall not include any such article, title to which, or possession of which, has previously been...

  11. 26 CFR 48.6416(a)-3 - Credit or refund of manufacturers tax under chapter 32.


    ... total inventory, by model number and quantity, of all such articles purchased tax-paid and held for sale... article is not subject to tax under chapter 32. (C) Inventory requirement. The inventory shall not include... the price of the article with respect to which it was imposed nor collected the amount of the tax from...

  12. Planning the Future of U.S. Particle Physics (Snowmass 2013): Chapter 1: Summary

    Rosner, J.L.; et al.


    These reports present the results of the 2013 Community Summer Study of the APS Division of Particles and Fields ("Snowmass 2013") on the future program of particle physics in the U.S. Chapter 1 contains the Executive Summary and the summaries of the reports of the nine working groups.

  13. A Comparison of Preschool Children's Discussions with Parents during Picture Book and Chapter Book Reading

    Leech, Kathryn A.; Rowe, Meredith L.


    Discussions that occur during book reading between parents and preschool children relate to children's language development, especially discussions during picture books that include extended discourse, a form of abstract language. While a recent report shows increased chapter book reading among families with preschool children, it is unknown…

  14. Animal movement data: GPS telemetry, autocorrelation and the need for path-level analysis [chapter 7

    Samuel A. Cushman


    In the previous chapter we presented the idea of a multi-layer, multi-scale, spatially referenced data-cube as the foundation for monitoring and for implementing flexible modeling of ecological pattern-process relationships in particulate, in context and to integrate these across large spatial extents at the grain of the strongest linkage between response and driving...

  15. Shaking It up: How to Run the Best Club and Chapter Program

    Peterson, Erin


    Alumni clubs and chapters are powerful tools for keeping alumni connected to each other and the institution, gathering insight into what alumni want from their alma mater, and even raising money for the institution. And while alumni leaders do not need to devote a large amount of their budget to create successful groups, they do need to ensure…

  16. Healthy outdoor recreation: An integrated approach to linking physical activity with wellness goals. Chapter 38

    Paul H. Gobster; David M. Buchner


    The purpose of this chapter is to discuss the shared interest of the public health and leisure fields in promoting outdoor recreation. We describe how trans disciplinary integration of research efforts across these fields can lead to a better understanding of how outdoor recreation facilities and programs can help realize a full range of health and wellness benefits....

  17. 77 FR 60170 - Americans With Disabilities Act: Proposed Circular Chapter, Vehicle Acquisition


    ... specifications in Part 38 by vehicle type. The section begins by emphasizing that an accessible bus or rail car... With Disabilities Act: Proposed Circular Chapter, Vehicle Acquisition AGENCY: Federal Transit... buses and rail cars they acquire meet the requirements of the U.S. Department of Transportation's (DOT...

  18. 26 CFR 1.6662-5 - Substantial and gross valuation misstatements under chapter 1.


    ... is added to the tax an amount equal to 20 percent of such portion. Section 6662(h) increases the... value or adjusted basis of any property claimed on a return of tax imposed under chapter 1 is 400... TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Additions to the Tax, Additional Amounts, and...

  19. Chapter 6: quantifying greenhouse gas sources and sinks in managed forest systems

    Coeli Hoover; Richard Birdsey; Bruce Goines; Peter Lahm; Yongming Fan; David Nowak; Stephen Prisley; Elizabeth Reinhardt; Ken Skog; David Skole; James Smith; Carl Trettin; Christopher. Woodall


    This chapter provides guidance for reporting greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with entity-level fluxes from the forestry sector. In particular, it focuses on methods for estimating carbon stocks and stock change from managed forest systems. Section 6.1 provides an overview of the sector. Section 6.2 describes the methods for forest carbon stock accounting....

  20. Historical and pictorial perspective of the Upper Verde River [Chapter 2

    Alvin L. Medina; Daniel G. Neary


    The UVR corridor is a diverse riverine ecosystem in central Arizona (see Chapter 1). Since European settlement, it has witnessed many events such as droughts, floods, construction of Sullivan Dam, groundwater withdrawals, cattle grazing, mining, nonnative fish introductions, native fish extinctions, and urbanization that are not fully understood. Geologically, the UVR...

  1. Chapter 05: Basic characters used in the identification of wood with a hand lens

    Alex Wiedenhoeft


    The characters presented in this chapter represent the minimal set of terms and concepts necessary to build skill and proficiency in wood identification with a hand lens. This list is not exhaustive, nor is it in complete agreement with the characters used by other authors, in other references, or in traditional microscopic wood anatomy.

  2. Effects of climate change on rangeland vegetation in the Northern Rockies Region [Chapter 7

    Matt C. Reeves; Mary E. Manning; Jeff P. DiBenedetto; Kyle A. Palmquist; William K. Lauenroth; John B. Bradford; Daniel R. Schlaepfer


    Rangelands are dominated by grass, forb, or shrub species, but are usually not modified by using agronomic improvements such as fertilization or irrigation (Lund 2007; Reeves and Mitchell 2011) as these lands would normally be considered pastures. Rangeland includes grassland, shrubland, and desert ecosystems, alpine areas, and some woodlands (box 7.1). This chapter...

  3. 106-17 Telemetry Standards Digitized Audio Telemetry Standard Chapter 5


    Digitized Audio Telemetry Standard 5.1 General This chapter defines continuously variable slope delta (CVSD) modulation as the standard for signal. The CVSD modulator is, in essence , a 1-bit analog-to-digital converter. The output of this 1-bit encoder is a serial bit stream, where

  4. Chapter 7. Monitoring of chemical contamination of the environment and analytical-chemical monitoring

    Sojak, L.


    This chapter deals with the monitoring of chemical contamination of the environment and analytical-chemical monitoring. There are presented: the concept o monitoring of the environment of the Slovak Republic; unified monitoring system and complex information about state and development of the environment; analytical methods determination of chemical contaminants in the environment

  5. Oklo: The fossil nuclear reactors. Physics study - Translation of chapters 6, 13 and conclusions

    Naudet, R [CEA, Paris (France)


    Three parts of the 1991 book `Oklo: reacteurs nucleaires fossiles. Etude physique` have been translated in this report. The chapters bear the titles `Study of criticality`(45 p.), `Some problems with the overall functioning of the reactor zones`(45 p.) and `Conclusions` (15 p.), respectively.

  6. Oklo: The fossil nuclear reactors. Physics study - Translation of chapters 6, 13 and conclusions

    Naudet, R.


    Three parts of the 1991 book 'Oklo: reacteurs nucleaires fossiles. Etude physique' have been translated in this report. The chapters bear the titles 'Study of criticality'(45 p.), 'Some problems with the overall functioning of the reactor zones'(45 p.) and 'Conclusions' (15 p.), respectively

  7. 41 CFR 304-2.1 - What definitions apply to this chapter?


    ... title, the Foreign Affairs Manual (FAM), and the Joint Travel Regulations (JTR) for transportation, food... to this chapter? 304-2.1 Section 304-2.1 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System PAYMENT OF TRAVEL EXPENSES FROM A NON-FEDERAL SOURCE EMPLOYEE'S ACCEPTANCE OF PAYMENT FROM...

  8. Creating historical range of variation (HRV) time series using landscape modeling: Overview and issues [Chapter 8

    Robert E. Keane


    Simulation modeling can be a powerful tool for generating information about historical range of variation (HRV) in landscape conditions. In this chapter, I will discuss several aspects of the use of simulation modeling to generate landscape HRV data, including (1) the advantages and disadvantages of using simulation, (2) a brief review of possible landscape models. and...

  9. Telemetry Standards, RCC Standard 106-17, Chapter 4, Pulse Code Modulation Standards


    A-4 Appendix 4-B. Citations ...investigation can be found in a paper by J. L. Maury, Jr. and J. Styles , “Development of Optimum Frame Synchronization Codes for Goddard Space Flight Center...Standards, RCC Standard 106-17 Chapter 4, July 2017 B-1 APPENDIX 4-B Citations Aeronautical Radio, Inc. Mark 33 Digital Information Transfer

  10. Implementation of the Takeover Bids Directive in the Netherlands : Chapter 12

    Cremers, Jan; van Het Kaar, R.H.; Cremers, Jan; Vitols, Sigurt


    Chapter dedicated to the Dutch implementation of EU Takeover Bids Directive. The case is particularly interesting because of the strong position of works councils within Dutch companies, including in restructuring situations. Implementation of the Takeover Bids Directive in the Netherlands did not

  11. Japanese contributions to IAEA INTOR workshop, phase two A, part 2, chapter IX: engineering

    Iida, Hiromasa; Seki, Masahiro; Sawada, Yoshio


    This report corresponds to Chapter IX of Japanese contribution report to IAEA INTOR Workshop, Phase Two A, Part 2. Data base assessment are made for systems engineering, magnet systems, torus systems, and NBI heating systems. R and D programme and impact on INTOR design are also specified. In addition to the data base assessment, studies have been made for several new tasks. (author)

  12. The Missing Psychological Behaviorism Chapter in "A History of the Behavioral Therapies."

    Staats, Arthur W.


    "A History of the Behavioral Therapies" (O'Donohue, et al., 2001) contains no description of psychological behaviorism (PB) and the role it played as one of the foundations of behavior therapy. This article indicates some of the contributions made by PB that make the missing chapter and related phenomena a major aberration in science. (Contains 39…

  13. Queering Chapter Books with LGBT Characters for Young Readers: Recognizing and Complicating Representations of Homonormativity

    Hermann-Wilmarth, Jill M.; Ryan, Caitlin L.


    In this paper, we consider the limited chapter book options with lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) characters available for upper elementary readers. While these texts all include one or more LGBT character(s), the overall representations of LGBT people and issues highlight particular normative identities and silence others. We are…

  14. The Helping Book: Fourth Grade. For Parents of ECIA, Chapter 1. Bulletin 1709.

    Louisiana State Dept. of Education, Baton Rouge.

    Intended for parents of fourth grade children who are participating in Chapter 1 programs that support basic skills education, the learning activities in this booklet give children practice with reading and writing. Among the language skills covered in the activities are (1) vocabulary (in context, synonyms, antonyms, homophones, homographs,…

  15. Space and time in ecology: Noise or fundamental driver? [chapter 2

    Samuel A. Cushman


    In this chapter I frame the central issue of the book, namely is spatial and temporal complexity in ecological systems merely noise around the predictions of non-spatial, equilibrium processes? Or, alternatively, do spatial and temporal variability in the environment and autogenic space­time processes in populations fundamentally alter system behavior such that ideal...

  16. Why unbiased computational processes can lead to discriminative decision procedures (Chapter 3)

    Calders, T.G.K.; Zliobaite, I.; Custers, B.H.M.; Calders, T.G.K.; Schermer, B.W.; Zarsky, T.Z.


    Nowadays, more and more decision procedures are supported or even guided by automated processes. An important technique in this automation is data mining. In this chapter we study how such automatically generated decision support models may exhibit discriminatory behavior towards certain groups

  17. 77 FR 18290 - Reinstate Index to Chapter III in 20 CFR


    ...-800-325-0778, or visit our Internet site, Social Security Online, at SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION [Docket No. SSA-2012-0018] Reinstate Index to Chapter III in 20 CFR AGENCY: Social Security Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: At the request of the Office of the...

  18. 77 FR 19408 - Reinstate Index to Chapter III in 20 CFR


    ... visit our Internet site, Social Security Online, at . Correction In the... SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION [Docket No. SSA-2012-0018] Reinstate Index to Chapter III in 20 CFR AGENCY: Social Security Administration. ACTION: Notice; correction. SUMMARY: The Social Security...

  19. Japanese contributions to IAEA INTOR workshop, phase two A, part 2, chapter X: nuclear

    Tomabechi, Ken; Iida, Hiromasa; Honda, Tsutomu


    This report corresponds to Chapter X of Japanese contribution report to IAEA INTOR Workshop, Phase Two A, Part 2. Data base of the nuclear technology for INTOR is assessed focusing on the four fields; Blanket, Shield, Tritium and Safty. Ongoing R and D programs in these fields are also reviewed and required new programs are discussed. (author)

  20. Charcterization of meadow ecosystems based on watershed and valley segment/reach scale characteristics [chapter 7

    Wendy Trowbridge; Jeanne C. Chambers; Dru Germanoski; Mark L. Lord; Jerry R. Miller; David G. Jewett


    Great Basin riparian meadows are highly sensitive to both natural and anthropogenic disturbance. As detailed in earlier chapters, streams in the central Great Basin have a natural tendency to incise due to their geomorphic history (Miller and others 2001, 2004). Anthropogenic disturbances, including overgrazing by livestock, mining activities, and roads in the valley...

  1. Chapter 6: Above Ground Deterioration of Wood and Wood-Based Materials

    Grant Kirker; Jerrold Winandy


    Wood as a material has unique properties that make it ideal for above ground exposure in a wide range of structural and non-strucutral applications. However, no material is without limitations. Wood is a bio-polymer which is subject to degradative processes, both abiotic and biotic. This chapter is a general summary of the abiotic and biotic factors that impact service...

  2. 38 CFR 21.382 - Training and staff development for personnel providing assistance under Chapter 31.


    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Training and staff....382 Training and staff development for personnel providing assistance under Chapter 31. (a) General. VA shall provide a program of ongoing professional training and development for staff of the VR&E...

  3. Large-scale diversity patterns in spore communities of Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi [Chapter 2

    Javier Alvarez-Sanchez; Nancy C. Johnson; Anita Antoninka; V. Bala Chaudhary; Matthew K. Lau; Suzanne M. Owen; Patricia Gauadarrama; Silvia. Castillo


    Surprising little is known about the factors controlling Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (AM) fungal diversity and distribution patterns. A better understanding of these factors is necessary before mycorrhizas can be effectively managed for their benefits in ecosystem restoration and agriculture. The goal of this chapter is to examine the relationships between AM fungal...

  4. Implementing United States Pharmacopeia Chapter quality assurance in pharmaceutical compounding, Part 5: Outsourcing and responsible personnel.

    Allen, Loyd V


    This final installment of a five-part series relating to United States Pharmacopeia Chapter provides the pros and cons of outsourcing, an extremely important topic because of the many drug shortages and discontinued drugs being experienced, and provides a brief discussion of the importance of having a responsible employee in charge of the quality-assurance program.

  5. Chapter 3: Omics Advances of Biosynthetic Pathways of Isoprenoid Production in Microalgae

    Paniagua-Michel, J.; Subramanian, Venkataramanan


    In this chapter, the current status of microalgal isoprenoids and the role of omics technologies, or otherwise specified, in bioproducts optimization and applications are reviewed. Emphasis is focused in the metabolic pathways of microalgae involved in the production of commercially important products, namely, hydrocarbons and biofuels, nutraceuticals, and pharmaceuticals.

  6. One of Gibbs's ideas that has gone unnoticed (comment on chapter IX of his classic book)

    Sukhanov, Alexander D; Rudoi, Yurii G


    We show that contrary to the commonly accepted view, Chapter IX of Gibbs's book [1] contains the prolegomena to a macroscopic statistical theory that is qualitatively different from his own microscopic statistical mechanics. The formulas obtained by Gibbs were the first results in the history of physics related to the theory of fluctuations in any macroparameters, including temperature. (from the history of physics)

  7. Current status, future opportunities, and remaining challenges in landscape genetics [Chapter 14

    Niko Balkenhol; Samuel A. Cushman; Lisette P. Waits; Andrew Storfer


    Landscape genetics has advanced the field of evolutionary ecology by providing a direct focus on relationships between landscape patterns and population processes, such as gene flow, selection, and genetic drift. This chapter discusses the current and emerging challenges and opportunities, which focus and facilitate future progress in the field. It presents ten...

  8. Chapter 6: Research needs for the conservation of the cactus ferruginous pygmy-owl in Arizona

    Jean-Luc E. Cartron; W. Scott Richardson; Deborah M. Finch; David J. Krueper


    In this chapter, we describe research needs for the conservation of the cactus ferruginous pygmy-owl (Glaucidium brasilianum cactorum) in Arizona. Estimates of population size, structure, and dynamics, as well as demographic data, are needed for the recovery team to formulate sound population objectives. Habitat loss due to residential development...

  9. Human interactions with the environment through time in southern Nevada [Chapter 8] (Executive Summary)

    Carol B. Raish


    Southern Nevada is rich in irreplaceable cultural resources that include archeological remains, historic sites, cultural landscapes, and other areas of significance to Native Americans and other cultural groups. This chapter provides information related to Goal 2 in the SNAP Science Research Strategy, which is to “Provide for responsible use of Southern Nevada’s lands...

  10. Water and water use in southern Nevada [Chapter 3] (Executive Summary)

    Wayne R. Belcher; Michael J. Moran; Megan E. Rogers


    Water and water use in southern Nevada is an important issue. The scarcity of water resources for both human and biologic communities often leads to intense competition for both surface and ground waters. Anthropogenic and climate change impacts on scarce water resources need to be understood to assess human and ecosystem health for southern Nevada. Chapter 3 outlines...

  11. Production, radiochemical processing and quality evaluation of 68Ge. Chapter 2

    Roesch, F.; Filosofov, D.V.


    In this chapter, the optimum chemical forms of the target material for the most relevant 68 Ge production routes are discussed. The principal methods for separation of 68 Ge (ion exchange, extraction, volatilization, precipitation, etc.) allowing high chemical separation yields of the parent radionuclide are also discussed

  12. Grief, Anger, Social Action: Experiences of the Windsor Chapter, Mothers against Drunk Driving (MADD).

    Kroeker, B. J.; And Others


    The experiences of the Windsor, Ontario, Canada, chapter of Mothers Against Drunk Driving (MADD), in its development and progress through the grief-anger-social action continuum, are described. This article also portrays a model for problem resolution which emphasizes incorporating the respective strengths and efficiencies of self-help groups and…

  13. Student Self-Perceptions of Leadership in Two Missouri FFA Chapters: A Collective Case Study

    Kagay, Rachel Bartholomew; Marx, Adam A.; Simonsen, Jon C.


    The focus of this study is the self-perceptions of leadership engagement of FFA members in two FFA chapters in Missouri. This multiple case study used documentation of student self-perceptions, researcher observations, and focus groups. The two cases included 24 high school students comprised of FFA officers and members, who provided their…

  14. Chapter 6: Culture and Learning in the Context of Globalization--Research Directions

    Lam, Wan Shun Eva


    The goal of this chapter is to lay out some new conceptualizations and research directions for understanding the relation of culture and learning in the shifting terrains of globalized economies and media flows, youth cultures, and transnational migration. In a time when young people's experiences and life pathways are increasingly forged in the…

  15. Effects of climate change on ecosystem services in the Northern Rockies Region [Chapter 11

    Travis Warziniack; Megan Lawson; S. Karen Dante-Wood


    In this chapter, we focus on the ecosystem services provided to people who visit, live adjacent to, or otherwise benefit from natural resources on public lands. Communities in the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture (USFS) Northern Region and the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA), hereafter called the Northern Rockies region, are highly dependent on ecosystem...

  16. Opportunities and uses of biochar on forest sites in North America [Chapter 15

    Deborah S. Page-Dumroese; Mark D. Coleman; Sean C. Thomas


    Biochar may be useful for restoring or revitalizing degraded forest soils and help with carbon sequestration, nutrient leaching losses, and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. However, biochar is not currently widely used on forested lands across North America. This chapter provides an overview of several biochar experiments conducted in North America and discusses the...

  17. Chapter 3: Selecting materials for mine soil construction when establishing forests on Appalachian mined lands

    Jeff Skousen; Carl Zipper; Jim Burger; Christopher Barton; Patrick. Angel


    The Forestry Reclamation Approach (FRA), a method for reclaiming coal-mined land to forest (Chapter 2, this volume), is based on research, knowledge, and experience of forest soil scientists and reclamation practitioners. Step 1 of the FRA is to create a suitable rooting medium for good tree growth that is no less than 4 feet deep and consists of topsoil, weathered...

  18. CHAPTER 6

    methodologies to enable rapid and accurate analysis of the micronutrients of ... Various carotenoids are present in plant material, not all of which are ..... the next 10 years are sure to be significant, strengthening the breeding pipeline for.

  19. CHAPTER 1

    Dr Olaleye

    A Biometric Study of Some Reproductive Components of the. Male Domestic Local Breed Cat (Felis catus domestica) in. Northwest Nigeria. *1M.A Umaru;2 A. Bello; ... and security test for new drugs (Elcock and Schoning,. 1984). Little information is available regarding the morphology and biometry of the male genitalia of ...

  20. CHAPTER 1

    Dr Olaleye

    This study was designed to investigate the ameliorative and antioxidant effects of crude Aqueous Leaf Extract of. Ficus exasperata (ALEFE) .... Mean relative kidney weights in control and diabetic rats with or without aqueous leaf extracts of Ficus exasperata. (ALEFE). ..... (2005): Red wine prevents brain oxidative stress and.

  1. CHAPTER 1

    Dr Olaleye

    ABSTRACT. Exposure of school children to lead from various sources, including the school environment, is perilous to their health. In this study, teachers' knowledge of Lead Poisoning (LP) was assessed and the effects of training on their knowledge, perceptions and self-efficacy for preventing childhood LP in Ido Local ...

  2. CHAPTER 1

    Dr Olaleye

    treatment of gastroenteritis, enteric fever, uretritis, and wound infections associated with the test bacteria. REFERENCES. Adaramoye OA, VO Nwaneri , KC Anyanwu , EO. Farombi and GO Emerole (2005). Possible anti- atherogenic effect of kolaviron (a Garcinia kola seed extract) in hypercholesterolaemic rats. Clin Exp ...

  3. CHAPTER 1

    Dr Olaleye

    on food intakes. The higher DDS for the rural sector is in contrast to previous findings (Arroyo and Mendez,. 2007 and Clausen et al, 2005), that reported higher. DDS in the urban settings. People who reside in the rural areas are more likely to adopt their traditional food culture and this has been found to be associated.



    simulated and safety indices corresponding to the probability of failure of the slab were determined. ... curing procedure following proper mixing and placing of .... 2.4 Construction Load Distribution .... Method (FORM) as packaged in FORM5.

  5. CHAPTER 1

    Dr Olaleye


    Feb 1, 2001 ... research and financial institutions; acquiring famous faculty; multidisciplinary science replacing single disciplines; and .... patents issued for the fiscal year 2007 (Market Research ... is reducible to one of three categories –war, crises, or ..... ccismay042700.html> The Graduate School of International.

  6. CHAPTER 1

    Dr Olaleye

    (MERH) based on histopathological alterations in the gills, liver, kidney, brain and heart of the African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) over a 56-day ... and haemorrhage were some of the changes observed in the heart. In view of these findings, the use ..... Unexposed fingerlings had normal neurons arranged in a regular pattern ...

  7. CHAPTER 1

    Dr Olaleye

    various ailments are plants and plant based products (Kamba and Hassan ..... help protect the colon mucus membrane from cancer causing .... nociception and involve the reaction of animals to painful .... fresh, and devoid of dental plaque carries (Okwu and Okeke, ... cells of the perianal skin or the lining of the anal canal.

  8. Chapter Ten


    differences in behavior. Research motivated from this perspective focuses on ways to ... work serves as a case study for the way cultural psychology can provide a framework for better understanding ...... emotion, and motivation. Psychological ...

  9. CHAPTER 1

    Dr Olaleye

    gastrointestinal tract, thereby increasing surface area and promoting rapid release of the ... Afr. J. Biomed. Res. Vol. 17, No.3 (September) 2014. Ayorinde and Odeniyi ..... fractal dimension of whey protein precipitates: implications for scale-up ...

  10. CHAPTER 1

    Dr Olaleye

    establish and provide baseline information on the health and nutritional ... Nutrition problems are not usually given attention until a ... The area covers a land mass of 2264 ..... most mothers complained that their children were so selective.

  11. CHAPTER 1

    Dr Olaleye

    The amplicons were sequenced and subjected to basic local alignment search tool ... Out of the 12 amplicons in agarose gel, there were 6 sharp and 6 faint bands .... A: Consensus sequence with (-) and (*) signs representing gaps and points ...

  12. CHAPTER 1

    Dr Olaleye

    form of natural DNA. .... either covalent or non-covalent bonding. In a covalent binding the reactive part of the compounds interacts with a nitrogen base of DNA such as guanine N7 e.g., ... electrostatic and groove binding of cationic metal.

  13. CHAPTER 1

    Dr Olaleye

    It also recommends appropriate interventions in order to address the problem and discuss the implications of these findings for prevention and control programmes. The study was approved by the University of Ibadan/University. College Hospital Ethics Review Committee. This study was aimed to address the following: one,.

  14. CHAPTER 1

    Dr Olaleye

    known as tic douloureux. Carbamazepine (CBZ) is the drug of choice,but some patients develop adverse effects and some others may become .... Trigeminal neuralgia is an idiopathic disorder, but it is suggested that unrelieved vascular compression of the trigeminal nerve entry zone initiates a focal demyelination that ...

  15. Chapter Nine


    Communication Barriers and the Second Language Learner. The ability to interact among human beings is made possible by communication. Human language has a ... individuals and groups for better understanding and relationships. (qtd in ...

  16. CHAPTER 1

    Dr Olaleye

    survey and were asked to fill a questionnaire that had questions on various aspects of the teaching ... Results: The module on computer skills. (80%) and Human behavioural sciences (75%) were identified as the least enjoyable subjects.

  17. CHAPTER 1

    Bouis, Howarth (HarvestPlus)

    Key words: Biofortification, Micronutrient deficiency, Agriculture, Nutrition,. Micronutrient targets ... development and thus low educational attainment, and decreased work capacity and earning potential ..... Hb: Hemoglobin. ID: iron deficiency.


    Chipo P Mubaya

    ... Tanzania through the Institute of Resource Assessment (IRA) implemented a three ... 10% of the total number of households was used for household interviews. .... trends, and seasonality affecting productivity. ... in Tanzania and specific villages used as a case study. .... production, carpentry, bicycle repair, food vending,.

  19. Chapter Eleven


    not just have much in common with, but also differ from communication. Yet, there is ... Department of English, University of Lagos, Akoka, Yaba, Lagos. 126 ..... According to him, effective communication depends on the choices that we make.

  20. CHAPTER 1

    Dr Olaleye

    diet experienced an age-dependent loss of glucose tolerance. ... developed insulin resistance and severe diabetes. Oleic acid is a ... ability to reduce blood pressure, regulation of insulin ..... a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Am.

  1. CHAPTER 10

    help combat the adverse health effects of iron deficiency widespread in these ... consumer background, crop development, release, and delivery of iron bean varieties and ... Consuming biofortified beans results in increased iron .... iron, and zinc biofortification interventions based on their production and consumption.

  2. CHAPTER 1

    Dr Olaleye

    Environmental exposure to cadmium is widespread and its toxicity has been linked with generation of reactive oxygen species. Dietary antioxidants .... Groups 2: Rats in this group were administered 200 mg/kg ... The p-nitrophenol released is.

  3. CHAPTER 1

    Dr Olaleye


    Feb 13, 2012 ... economic development in his fourth Reith Lecture from his series entitled 'The ... Bioline International, African Journals online (AJOL), Index. Copernicus ... a seeming incapacity to transform itself using its own scientific and ...

  4. CHAPTER 1

    Dr Olaleye

    as foreign body impaction, ruminal tympany, dystocia that require surgical intervention, necessitating the use of anaesthesia . The aim of this study, was to .... fewer hazards, they are easier to administer and require minimal equipment. ... body weight and antibiotics (20% oxytetracycline) against opportunistic/ concurrent ...

  5. Chapter One


    Learning theorists and language teachers want to know the answers to certain questions. ... defines it as an emerging linguistic system that has been developed by a learner of a second ... Selinker identifies the following as the learning strategies through which a learner's ... From the learner's processing of these materials.

  6. Chapter 2


    For the Aarhus School of Architecture contribution to this book on creativity, we have decided to focus on the role of the workplace. It has been striking after attending several of the Practice Research Symposia organised by ADAPT-r how often creative practice researchers examine the spatial...... organisation of their offices or workshops to form a better understanding of their practice. This has led us to investigate and discuss how the spatial context of creative practices shapes – and is shaped by – design processes. We have asked ourselves about what role the broader spatial and cultural context...

  7. CHAPTER 1

    Dr Olaleye

    coercion, by any person regardless of their relationship to the victim” ... place at any point in a woman's life. Children as .... consequences of rape and outcome of report to the police .... **family member, boss at work, teacher in school, colleague. Table 5: ..... standards, power imbalances and male entitlement to sex, and ...

  8. CHAPTER 1

    Dr Olaleye

    infarction and pancreatitis (Olorunnisola et al., 2012;. Harikumar et al. ... liver cholestasis, alcohol, nephrotic syndrome, chronic renal failure .... Acute Toxicity Studies of Camel Milk. Determination of ..... many metabolic processes. The presence ...

  9. CHAPTER 1

    Dr Olaleye

    They were divided into two groups based on gender. ... there was no significant difference (p>0.05) in the cortisol level during basal and pre-exercise states between the male and ... random sampling from athletic students in the University of.

  10. CHAPTER 1

    Dr Olaleye

    The effects of methanol extract of Hyphane thebaica (L) mart fruit pulp on some ... SCOPUS, Global Health Abstracts, Asian Science Index, Index Veterinarius .... (a) Photomicrograph of rat testis of control group showing normal features.

  11. CHAPTER 1

    Dr Olaleye

    1Non-steroidal drugs, cigarettes, alcohol usage,. Helicobacter pylori, and stress have been shown to contribute to gastric ulcer formation (Mózsik, and Jávor,. 1988 ... E-mail: Tel: +234-8053601577. Date Received: March, 2015. Date Accepted:, May, 2015. 2011). Many of the anti-ulcer drugs in ...

  12. Chapter 2

    Prof Anna-Maria Oberholster

    non petroleum products, including vegetable oils and animal fats, share common physical properties in ... vegetable oil contamination come from marine environments (Poulton et al., 1997). Because of the ... Work Association and Water Pollution Control Federation, 1989). Other in situ water quality parameters such as ...

  13. Chapter Three


    Nyerhovwo J. TonukariY, *, John S. Scott-Craig and Jonathan D. Walton. Department of Energy Plant Research Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824. Accepted 18 November 2002. The expression of four Cochliobolus carbonum endo-1,4-β-xylanase genes (XYL1, XYL2, XYL3, XYL4),.

  14. Chapter Seventeen


    non-native speakers) increases with time; the story is different with the Igbo language which ... when language is analyzed, it can be seen to be composed of names of immediate ... There are three major reasons for the decline in the learning and speaking of Igbo language. .... Nigeria, Agbor, Nigeria: Central Books Limited.

  15. CHAPTER 1

    Dr Olaleye

    Differential Effects of Alcoholic Beverages and Cigarette. Smoke on Humoral ... hypothesised the development of auto-immune disease in long term alcohol- and cigarette-users. Key Words: ... high parasite densities, abnormal liver functions,.

  16. CHAPTER 1

    Dr Olaleye

    investigated on sexual behaviour based on the parameters of sexual indices such as mount and intromission latencies ... In Homo sapiens, reproduction is initiated by the mating of a ..... oxidative stress (Joseph et al 2007) Therefore, observed.

  17. CHAPTER 1

    Dr Olaleye

    1Department of Physiotherapy, Faculty of College Allied Health Sciences, Bayero University, Kano, Nigeria ... motor recovery on QoL of Nigerian stroke survivors in the acute and sub-acute stages of recovery is .... instruments include the World Health Organization .... Preedly VR and Ronald R Watson (eds) Handbook of.

  18. Chapter 2


    For the Aarhus School of Architecture contribution to this book on creativity, we have decided to focus on the role of the workplace. It has been striking after attending several of the Practice Research Symposia organised by ADAPT-r how often creative practice researchers examine the spatial org...

  19. Chapter Twenty


    manipulation of their natural resource blessing from God, the crude oil, ... pictures of destitute, starving children, raped and battered women and cases of pollution. This ..... 70) This is very simple and straightforward demands that can easily be ...

  20. CHAPTER 1

    Dr Olaleye

    Research article. Knowledge of Diets as A Modifiable Risk Factor of Obesity ... Frequently consumed high calorie foods included cocoa-based drinks (24.8%), .... of risky food items (fatty, junk and sugary foods) was categorized ... biological children. Details .... “constant exposure to adverts and marketing of high calorie foods ...

  1. CHAPTER 1

    Dr Olaleye

    plate, acetic acid-induced writhing, carrageenan-induced paw oedema and air pouch models. No death was recorded when WAP .... treatment. A single high dose as recommended by the. Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development ... The visual observations included changes in the skin and fur, locomotor ...

  2. CHAPTER 1

    Dr Olaleye

    ABSTRACT. The liver is one of the most important organs in the body which aids in the maintenance of normal body functions. It is the center of alcohol metabolism and alcohol has been implicated in the elevation of liver enzymes and damage to the parenchyma cells of the liver. Plants had been used for medicinal ...

  3. CHAPTER 1

    Dr Olaleye

    247(98.9%), Resistance was highest to Co-trimoxazole 108(44.8%) and Tetracycline: 108(43.7%). ... (Lieff et al., 2004) and gram-negative anaerobic bacteria .... pregnancy is as shown in Table 2. Table 3: Antibiotic Sensitivity Pattern. Antibiotic. Sensitive. Frequency (%). Resistant. Frequency (%). Augmentin. 166 (84.7).

  4. CHAPTER 1

    Dr Olaleye

    Official Publication of the African Association of Physiological Sciences ... noradrenaline (NA)-evoked vascular responses in carotid circulation in rats. Furthermore, whether the .... PowerLab/8S at 100 Hz and connected to a computer by Chart ...

  5. CHAPTER 1

    Dr Olaleye

    The Probit regression showed statistical significant (p<0.05) impact of contact and precautionary indices .... parameters of the estimated model are denoted as β. ... Where is the constant term and is the stochastic error term.




    Sep 4, 2012 ... Ripe plantain flour has been used in making bread, biscuits and ... energy of the samples was determined using ballistic bomb calorimeter ... were determined spectrophotometrically by using Buck 200 atomic absorption ...

  7. CHAPTER 1

    Dr Olaleye

    ABSTRACT: Crinum jagus plant has been reportedly used for treatment of infectious diseases in Nigeria. In this study, the antibacterial activity of the crude extract and chromatographic fractions from the bulb of Crinium jagus against Mycobacterium tuberculosis ... Medicinal plants have been used to treat infectious diseases ...

  8. CHAPTER 8

    ... vitamin A maize varieties can be developed without compromising yield levels and that these varieties can ... maize varieties, the delivery efforts in Zambia and impact measurement. It also synthesizes ..... However,the gap will narrow with ...

  9. CHAPTER 1

    Dr Olaleye

    Background: The deleterious effect of cigarette smoke on several health parameters due to pollution of air is .... in separate room from the exposed group to prevent passive ..... partly explain the corresponding reduction in number of embryonic ...

  10. CHAPTER 1

    Dr Olaleye

    spatial and short-term working memory in mice ... insulin administration did not affect long-term visuo-spatial memory and short-term ..... involving rehearsal and meaningful association. A ... insulin plays a definite role in cognitive function.

  11. CHAPTER 1

    Dr Olaleye

    Department of Biological Sciences, College of Science, Engineering and Technology Minnesota State University,. Mankato, MN 56001 .... in a cage that is placed on a receiver plate connected to a computer. Each telemetry device is assigned a code and hence could be used for different animals at a given time. Fig. 1: Total ...

  12. CHAPTER 1


    He highlights that, while social and economic inequalities and ethnicity are ... Williams puts forward the argument that neopatrimonalism is not the only element ... resources are not the central ingredient to conflict, but rather resource conflicts.

  13. CHAPTER 1

    Dr Olaleye

    the University College Hospital, Ibadan. Systematic random sampling technique was used to select 392 HIV positive adults at ... In 2009, about 22.4 million people were estimated to be living with the infection in sub-Saharan .... Based on the calculated sample size and the study population on record at time of study, the ...

  14. CHAPTER 1

    Dr Olaleye

    We have previously reported raised resting diastolic blood pressure (BP) in subjects with single S-gene ... bubbled throughout with 95% O2-5% CO2 gas mixture. The rings were given an .... Regulation of arginine transport and metabolism by.



    AIDS patients, particularly ... Fluconazole agar diffusion susceptibility testing was carried out on each isolate, compared with the NCCLS ... and is therefore, recommended for continued use. ... Antifungal drug resistance is fast becoming a major.

  16. CHAPTER 9

    Bouis, Howarth (HarvestPlus)

    biofortified vitamin A cassava varieties in Nigeria, progress in monitoring and ..... development of food market in 2014 to absorb production in excess of .... communication tools like jingles, radio talk shows, movies, interviews, feature articles,.

  17. CHAPTER 1

    Dr Olaleye

    Blood collection: Overnight, prior to euthanasia, the animals were placed on eighteen (18) hours fasting after the last administration and on the 15th day, all the animals were sacrificed by cervical dislocation as described by Ochei and. Kolhatkar (2006). Blood samples were taken from each rat by terminal bleeding from the ...

  18. CHAPTER 1

    Dr Olaleye

    be gastric ulcer or duodenal ulcer depending on its site of (localized) ... The toxicity of manganese varies with the route of exposure, when ... the underlying mechanism has not been investigated. This study ... with normal saline and returned into the abdominal cavity . ..... vitamin A, k, boron, chromium, copper, iodine, iron,.

  19. Chapter Seven


    after all, “a mystery moving at the whim of an inscrutable God but a mechanism operating by a rational formula that can be understood by any rational man or woman. .... (1966:51) aggressive and hostile reaction to Sinclair's “Taking a Poem to ... rear-guard action which the literary critic held against “the precocious child with ...

  20. CHAPTER 1

    Dr Olaleye

    using water, locally made alcoholic drink or lemon-juice and give such decoctions to their patients. This study was ... properly mixed in universal bottles. The mixture was aseptically poured into sterile Petri dishes ..... from Helicobacter pylori: crystal structure characterization with enzymatic inhibition assay. Protein Sci., 17: ...

  1. CHAPTER 1

    Dr Olaleye


    Aug 20, 2017 ... expertise and poor infrastructure (Kay et al. 2011; King et al. 2012); concerns around security, and privacy of highly sensitive patient data (Wickramasinghe & Goldberg, 2009;. Whittaker, 2012), scalable architecture, which would enable programmes to run on every device in the market (Ehrler et al. 2013).

  2. CHAPTER 1

    Dr Olaleye


    Mar 28, 2014 ... We had earlier reported that thyroxine treatment accelerates gastric ulcer healing while thyroidectomy delayed ... Thyroxine treated animals had highest reduction in lipid peroxidation (57.0 ± 0.5% [p< 0.001]) and the least reduction in ... 1991), H. pylori (Konturek et al., 1999) and acetic acid induced ulcer ...

  3. CHAPTER 1

    Dr Olaleye

    administration of 70% ethanol to induce gastric mucosal damage followed by pyloric ligation. The same procedure was ... anti-ulcer drugs has remained a field of active research ... arrythmias, impotence, gynaecomastia, nephrotoxicity, and.

  4. CHAPTER 1

    Dr Olaleye

    ABSTRACT. Menopausal experiences and perceptions of menopausal women in Ibadan South East Local Government Area were determined. A three-stage sampling technique was used to select the LGA, wards, and participants for the study. Eight Focus Group. Discussions (FGDs) were conducted and a validated ...



    sugar/electrolyte powder to treat every episode of diarrhoea in all young ... isolates using the modified agar disc and agar well-diffusion methods. ..... detection of virulence genes in Yersinia enterocolitica and ... to pasteurized milk. Journal of ...

  6. CHAPTER 1

    Dr Olaleye

    interviewer administered questionnaire containing a 47- point knowledge scale were used for data collection. Data were analysed ... FMOH guidelines. The contraceptives ever dispensed by respondents included: male condoms (96.1%), female condoms (4.3%), .... every wrong response had zero mark. Maximum.

  7. CHAPTER 14

    assess the potential impact of biofortification, quantify its cost-effectiveness and ... Ultimately, the most cost-effective application and greatest impact of .... (including those associated with price changes over time), subnational variation, market .... that combines mortality and morbidity into a single metric that is expressed.



    No doubt this ... Only when answers to these and other questions have been sought and found ... resolve this problem by incorporating African forms into his paintings. ... traditional and modern Nigerian art, Enwonwu‟s actions helped to chart the .... 1. JULY, 2012. 5 which literally means „great artist‟ and it is more of title ...

  9. CHAPTER 1

    Dr Olaleye

    ABSTRACT: To determine cost of therapy to patients of Ear Nose and Throat infections in a Nigerian ... resources are being used wisely even before the global ... economic based operational researches to improve .... calculated based on time spent in the hospital and loss ..... 2005) and may be due to low level of immunity.

  10. CHAPTER 1

    Dr Olaleye

    abnormality observed was rudimentary tail and secondary abnormalities included bent mid-piece, curved mid-piece, bent tail, curved tail, tail-less head, ... become more beneficial to humans and animals, toxicity assessment of these plants is .... of spermatozoa with rudimentary tails in the Wistar rats administered with the.

  11. CHAPTER 1

    Dr Olaleye

    blood banking and clinical transfusion. The test exploits characteristic/ physiologic and structural changes which the erythrocyte membrane undergoes when the cell is subjected to osmotic stress. (Orcutt et al, 1995). Variables such as techniques of blood ‗sampling, handling and storage, changes in pH, temperature,.

  12. CHAPTER 1

    Dr Olaleye

    formed islet cells of Langerhans in rats administered doses ≤ 1000 mg/kg body .... respiration, skin and hair coat, salivation, lacrimation, ... quantitative measurement take place within the .... cellular enzymes ALT and AST are present in low.

  13. CHAPTER 2


    Melse-Boonstra A4, Talsma E5 and B Burri6. *Corresponding author email: ... released in 2002 and OSP are currently available through agricultural extension workers ..... Muzhingi, T, Gadaga T, Siwela A, Grusak M, Russell R and Tang G Yellow ... Gannon B, Kaliwile C, Arscott S, Schmaelzle S, Chileshe J, Kalungwana N,.

  14. CHAPTER 1

    Dr Olaleye

    important gut-brain signal for appetite control and energy balance. ... induction of growth hormone release from the somatotroph cells of the anterior ... Copyright 2015 African Association of Physiological Sciences -ISSN: 2315-9987; e-ISSN: 2449-108X All rights reserved ..... Ghrelin administration on left ventricular function,.

  15. CHAPTER 1

    Dr Olaleye

    nocturnal changes in urinary Na+/K+ ratio, and to test if aldosterone plays a key role. Methods: We investigated the Na+/K+ ratios ... This nocturnal dipping in blood pressure may be as a result of the circadian rhythm, which .... animals have shown that in the absence of endogenous aldosterone, the circadian excretion of K+ ...

  16. CHAPTER 1

    Dr Olaleye

    Pregnancy outcome in different clinical phenotypes of antiphospholipid syndrome. Lupus Jan 19(1):58-64. Christensson A., Ekberg J., Grubb A., Ekberg H.,. Lindstrom V and Lilja H. (2003). Serum cystatin C is a more sensitive and more accurate marker of glomerular filtration rate than enzymatic measurements of creatinine ...

  17. CHAPTER 1

    Dr Olaleye

    while 53.2% engaged in moderate physical fitness 1-2 days a week but less than 30 minutes per day. Only few (26.1%) received .... physical activity such as brisk walking and cycling lasting for at least 30 min/day, to be observed at ..... (2011): Exposing women to workplace stress factors as a risk factor for developing arterial ...

  18. CHAPTER 1

    Dr Olaleye

    pathophysiology of dehydration of the cells. In this study, we ... samples comprising of HbSS (10), HbAS (10) and HbAA (10) were obtained from subjects after an informed .... include chronic liver disease, iron deficiency anemia, thalassemia ...

  19. CHAPTER 1

    Dr Olaleye

    history of IPTp-Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine (SP) use in the index pregnancy were recorded. Finger and heel pricks blood samples from mothers and neonates respectively were used to detect malaria parasitaemia and to determine packed cell volume (PCV). Median number of ANC visits made by the enrollees was 4.0 ...

  20. CHAPTER 1

    Dr Olaleye

    have received formal training in clinical education prior to this study. Seven themes ... improve the clinical competence of the students when they become professionals. University ... student and enhancing the therapeutic abilities of the student.

  1. CHAPTER 7

    James Sales

    ISSN 0375-1589 (print), ISSN 222-4062 (online) ... 2 University of Stellenbosch, Department of Food Science, Private Bag X1, Matieland ... Ostrich fat depots are used in the meat processing trade as a fat source in processed products or sold ... Australia). Gas flow rates were hydrogen, 25 mL/min; and hydrogen carrier gas 2 ...

  2. CHAPTER 1

    Dr Olaleye

    Urquhart G M, Armour J, Duncan J L, Dunn A M and. Jennings F W (1996): Veterinary Parasitology. 2nd ed. 307p. Black Well Science Limited, London. Yoseph S, Smith DG, Mengistu A, Teklu F, Firew T,. Betere Y (2005): Seasonal Variation in the Parasite Burden and Body Condition of Working Donkeys in East Shewa and.



    made more efficient with the development of solid-phase peptide synthetic methods. (SPPS).3,4. Side-chain amide protection of asparagine (Asn) or glutamine (Gln) has been considered optional.5 These amide side-chains are liable to undergo dehydration during the coupling steps.6–8 This side reaction does not occur ...

  4. CHAPTER 1

    Dr Olaleye

    internal systems function efficiently. Appropriate ... share; and sales from restaurants and takeaways. The foods are .... high-end food courts and cuisines service centers. The number of ..... using standardized methods and appropriate quality.

  5. Chapter Twelve


    okada na obere jenareto ai passi mai nebo·. 17 ... Oluchukwu Micro-Finance Bank gbasara aka inyere ndi 10. Mmadu aka n'uzo di .... Nigeria· This in no small measure has been helping unemployed people, graduates ... Even in the transport sector people have been empowered to be self reliant· This could be seen in the ...

  6. CHAPTER 1

    Dr Olaleye

    Journal of African Association of Physiological Sciences. Official Publication ... Review Article. The effects of .... to post-translational modification of proteins that may .... by Akt and PDK recruitment to the plasma membrane – in close proximity.

  7. CHAPTER 4


    there were no standardized strategies to sustain HMIS. ... selected because of time and financial constraints and also because they .... Page 7 ... districts, such as administrators and politicians, who have a great say in formulating plans and.

  8. CHAPTER 1

    Dr Olaleye

    Both periodontal diseases and negative pregnancy outcomes are common among pregnant women in Nigeria; however ..... (2015): Pregnancy-associated asymptomatic bacteriuria and ... canals of teeth associated with apical periodontitis.



    Information Needs of Law Students in Delta State University, Abraka,. Nigeria ... corroborated this in their study of the information seeking behaviour of international Islamic. University Malaysia law faculty members. The study also reveals that ...

  10. CHAPTER 1

    Dr Olaleye

    Changes in Plasmodium Falciparum Population Dynamics in ... vaccine. The most polymorphic genetic loci is msp-2 gene and it has been suggested that ... Thick blood smears stained with Giemsa were prepared ... specific Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). ..... anti-malarial drug treatment in Tanzanian children with acute.

  11. Chapter Thirty


    made to provide the Igbo word-class correspondences – between words or, where .... (Things Fall Apart 25, 70) “the okwo ... is a hollow trunk; (The Concubine 35); ... his glossary at the end of Danda, “the novel is set in Ibo (sic) land and there ...



    causes of job related stress to all library staff in Polytechnics in Nigeria, ... imperative for librarians and library support staff to develop new technical skills to promote ..... Continuing professional development and workplace learning: human.

  13. CHAPTER 1

    Dr Olaleye

    1Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Biopharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Olabisi ... 2Department of Medicine, Endocrinology unit, Olabisi Onabanjo University Teaching .... mellitus who received medical care from endocrinology clinic.

  14. Chapter 5

    Sun Botha

    Mean maximum shear force values were calculated from the shear force values recorded for ... When deviations from normality were detected, outliers were removed until data were symmetrical or .... P – Probability value of F-ratio test.

  15. CHAPTER 1

    Dr Olaleye

    an ordered pair of real numbers (x, y) called its. Cartesian ... Denotes A1 X A2 X - - - Am = { ( a1, a2, - - - am)/ ai ϵAi and i=1, 2, - - -, m }. Subsets of .... Using Matrices to denote Cartesian Products of the set. G = { T, I, Z } The table of the Cartesian product G X. G is the table of first phyla generation of nine different families. X. T.

  16. CHAPTER 1

    Dr Olaleye

    Apoptosis plays an important role in the treatment of cancer, as it is a common target of many treatment schemes. We aim to investigate the expression of and relationship between PD-1, PD-L1 and PD-L2 in OSCC. This is important because there are now immunotherapies that target the cell programmed death pathway.

  17. CHAPTER 1

    Dr Olaleye

    resource settings showed that the use of pap smear for routine screening of women resulted in ..... Research in Mexico, Ecuador and Venezuela for Latin ... University College Hospital by Arulogun and Maxwell (2012) and contradicts a study in ...

  18. CHAPTER 1

    Dr Olaleye

    research in Nigeria, this study identified predictors of child mortality. ... The hazard of under-five mortality was higher for children of mothers residing in the; South ..... This phenomenon can be explained ... crop residue, dung, straw and lignite.

  19. CHAPTER 1

    Dr Olaleye

    Glucose metabolism was assessed by glucose tolerance test (GTT) and insulin tolerance test. (ITT), and ... Results: The FSS rats had decreased food intake as well as final body weight and without ... Stress also increased corticosterone, decreased INSR and ..... stress hormones stimulate protein breakdown while the.

  20. CHAPTER 1

    Dr Olaleye

    In conclusion, data from the present study showed that pre-treatment with Immunocal® and dexamethasone before exposure to a single dose of 2 ... either alone or as an adjunct to chemotherapy and surgical management in the treatment of ..... Prevention and treatment of Alzheimer Disease and aging: Antioxidants. Mini- ...