WorldWideScience

Sample records for shigen hyoka ni

  1. Geological evaluation on productibility of coal seam gas; Coal seam gas no chishitsugakuteki shigen hyoka ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, K [University of Shizuoka, Shizuoka (Japan). Faculty of Education

    1996-09-01

    Coal seam gas is also called coal bed methane gas, indicating the gas existing in coal beds. The gas is distinguished from the oil field based gas, and also called non-conventional type gas. Its confirmed reserve is estimated to be 24 trillion m {sup 3}, with the trend of its development seen worldwide as utilization of unused resource. For the necessity of cultivating relevant technologies in Japan, this paper considers processes of production, movement, stockpiling, and accumulation of the gas. Its productibility is controlled by thickness of a coal bed, degree of coalification, gas content, permeability, groundwater flow, and deposition structure. Gas generation potential is evaluated by existing conditions of coal and degree of coalification, and methane production by biological origin and thermal origin. Economically viable methane gas is mainly of the latter origin. Evaluating gas reserve potential requires identification of the whole mechanism of adsorption, accumulation and movement of methane gas. The gas is expected of effect on environmental aspects in addition to availability as utilization of unused energy. 5 figs.

  2. Report on evaluation of research and development of resources recycling/reutilization systems. Phase 2; Shigen saisei riyo gijutsu system no kenkyu kaihatsu (dainiki) ni kansuru hyoka hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1983-08-01

    Described herein are the final evaluation results obtained by the 7-year R and D project, beginning in the FY 1976, established by the national project system for developing the techniques for treating urban solid wastes. This project has developed a semi-wet type selective crushing/sorting unit for sorting the wastes, and established the elementary techniques for recycling the wastes into various products, e.g., compost, pulp, combustible gases, aggregates, methane gas, or fuel oil. Two types of total treating systems, in which these elementary techniques are integrated, have been developed; one is to recover materials and the other energy. They can comprehensively, efficiently treat the wastes, adapting themselves to various situations. Pyrolysis which discharges reduced quantities of flue gases is adopted. Waste water is treated, mainly by biological treatment which is supported by the conventional methods, e.g., coagulation and adsorption. The cost estimation results indicate that the total system developed by this project can compare favorably with the conventional incineration system under general conditions, at a capacity of 300 t/d or more, when taking into consideration the secondary effects brought by the recycling/reutilization. This system is commercially feasible, when it meets with local characteristics, e.g., garbage collecting systems, market values of recycled resources, treatment/disposal conditions, and natural and social environments. This project has sufficiently achieved the original objectives. (NEDO)

  3. Report on final evaluation of industrial science and technology research and development system. Comprehensive basic technologies for development of ocean resources. Manganese nodule exploitation system; Kaiyo shigen sogo kiban gijutsu (mangan dankai saiko system). Saishu hyoka hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    Described herein are the final evaluation results of the basic research and development of the system for exploiting manganese nodules as one of ocean resources. A 9-year project was started in the FY 1981 to establish the techniques to efficiently, economically exploit Mn nodules on a commercial basis, which are occurring on deep sea bottoms (4,000 to 6,000 m deep), in order to stably supply non-ferrous metallic resources, e.g., Ni, Cu, Co and Mn, which are essential for economic activities of Japan. Originally, the UN convention related to ocean laws raised development of unique exploitation techniques as the prerequisite condition for obtaining the right to develop Mn nodules. However, the situations around development of Mn nodules were changed since then, to devalue objects, significance and urgency of this project. The fourth amendment of the basic plans decided to suspend the comprehensive ocean tests in 1996, and to implement only the ocean/land tests in which part of the individual elementary techniques were combined. Therefore, the technological validation of the overall system could not be done sufficiently, and degree of achievement of the project is low, viewed from insufficient prospects of the commercial production. However, this project produced good results in individual elementary techniques, which are of significance for the resources policies. (NEDO)

  4. Characterization of the various catalyst for solvent hydrogenation at 1t/d PSU; 1t/d PSU ni okeru kakushu yozai suisoka shokubai no seino hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakebayashi, H.; Nogami, Y.; Inokuchi, K. [Mitsui SRC Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Aihara, Y.; Imada, K. [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    Performance of various catalysts for hydrogenation of recycle solvent was evaluated for the operation of NEDOL process 1 t/d process supporting unit (PSU). Distillate between 220 and 538{degree}C derived from the liquefaction of Tanito Harum coal was used as recycle solvent. Deactivation behaviors of catalysts were compared using a prediction equation of catalyst life, by which aromatic carbon index (fa) after hydrogenation can be determined from the fa of recycle oil before hydrogenation, reaction temperature, and total hydrogenation time. Total hydrogenation time satisfying the {Delta}fa, 0.05 before and after hydrogenation were 8,000, 4,000, and 2,000 hours for NiMo-based catalysts C, A, and B, respectively. Catalyst C showed the longest life. Used catalysts were also characterized. The catalyst C showed larger mean pore size than those of the others, which resulted in the longer life due to the delay of pore blockage. From measurements by XPS and EPMA, relative atomic concentration of carbon increased remarkably after the use for all of catalysts, which was considered to be due to the adhesion of hydrocarbons. Increase of metal atoms, such as Fe and Cr, was also observed due to the contamination of entrainment residues. Deactivation of catalysts was caused by the adhesion of hydrocarbons, and metallic compounds, such as Fe and Cr. 3 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  5. Non-contact evaluation of mechanical properties of electroplated wear resistant Ni-P layer from the velocity dispersion of laser SAW; Laser reiki Rayleigh ha no sokudo bunsan wo mochiita taimamo Ni-P mekkiso tokusei no hisesshoku hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morikawa, Y.; Cho, H.; Takemoto, M. [Aoyama Gakuin University, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Science and Engineering; Nakayama, T. [Kobe Steel Ltd., Kobe (Japan)

    1996-11-01

    We developed a new laser surface acoustic wave (SAW) system and applied this to estimate the mechanical properties of the wear-resistant Ni-P layer electroplated on a stainless steel. The velocity dispersions of Rayleigh wave of the as -plated and heat-treated Ni-P layer were obtained by the one point time domain signal processing. The Ni-P layers with excellent wear resistance produced by the heated treatment higher than 725K were found to show higher Rayleigh velocities than that of the substrate steel, while the Ni-P layer with poor wear resistance showed lower velocities. Young`s moduli of the Ni-P layer, estimated so as the computed velocity dispersion agreed with the measured one, increased with the increase of wear resistance. 10 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Design of environment-friendly and next generation-type conversion system for unused carbon resources by developing highly functional materials; Kokino zairyo kaihatsu ni yoru kankyo chowagata jisedai miriyo tanso shigen tenkan system no kochiku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakabayashi, K; Morooka, S; Arai, Y [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Sakanishi, K [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Institute of Advanced Material Study

    1997-02-01

    Studies are conducted for the development of now-unused kinds of fossil carbon resources, such as low rank coal and heavy gravity crude oil, into higher-value liquid fuel. In the preliminary treatment process, the fossil carbon resources are dried by use of supercritical carbon dioxide, when it is found that the resources are disintegrated and water is desorbed. In a low rank coal liquefaction process using the NiMo/KB (Kefjen Black) catalyst, more than 60% is converted into oil, which rate is improved by use of the dual-temperature liquefaction process. This catalyst may be recovered by separation utilizing specific gravity difference. As a low temperature gasification catalyst, the alkaline carbonate-carried carbon catalyst is very quick at the initial stage of reaction. The perovskite-carried alkaline carbonate catalyst is high in carbon oxidizing/activating efficiency at low temperatures. The silica film deposited on an alumina-coated support tube is excellent in selectivity and speed as a hydrogen separating film, and a carbonized polyimide film as a carbon dioxide separating film. For the supercritical phase adsorption/separation of chemicals not to be distilled easily, the NaY-type zeolite functions effectively. Pd/ZrO2 serving as a carbon monoxide conversion catalyst enables the recovery of more MeOH when Pd grains are smaller in diameter.

  7. Achievement report for fiscal 1995 on the research and development of comprehensive basic technologies on marine resources (manganese nodule mining system) in industrial and scientific technology research and development project. Trends and forecasts of the supply-demand for metal resources (Ni, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn) that are contained in manganese nodules; 1995 nendo kaiyo shigen sogo kiban gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu (mangan dankai saiko system) seika hokokusho. Mangan dankai ni kakawaru kinzoku shigen (Ni, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn) no kyokyu ni kansuru shorai doko no suitei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    Living standards improving in developing countries especially in China are the most influential factor to determine the demand for Cu. Consumption of Ni will depend on the trends of advanced technologies such as Ni-hydrogen battery, fuel cell, shape memory alloy, hydrogen absorbing alloy, in addition to increase in global population and developing countries' living standards improvement. Co is far more dependent on advanced technologies than Ni is. On the land, Ni ore is increasingly lower in quality and Co is being retrieved from by-products of Cu production, both meeting the problem of unstable supply. Consideration is made to apply new extraction methods to Cu production; there are some potential resources for Fe and Mn. The Mn nodule exists in great quantities and is a attractive source of supply, but a long time will be required before it is exploited. It is necessary to speed up the study to exploit the Mn nodule, but first of all the problem of its competition with land resources in terms of cost has to be solved. It needs to be found out at what stage of production the Mn nodule is competitive with land products. In any case, Japan should undertake the efforts of marine resources exploitation leading other countries of the world. (NEDO)

  8. Fiscal 1980 Sunshine Project research report. International cooperation project for energy technology. International research cooperation for geothermal energy (Japan-U.S. R and D cooperation for geothermal resource assessment); 1980 nendo energy gijutsu kokusai kyoryoku jigyo chinetsu energy kokusai kyoryoku seika hokokusho. Chinetsu shigen hyoka ni kansuru Nichibei kenkyu kaihatsu kyoryoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-03-01

    Based on the Japan-U.S. agreement on promotion of geothermal energy applications, the R and D cooperation specialist panel was held in America on March 12-20, 1981 to exchange the current R and D information on geothermal resources. It was clarified through the meeting in Department of Energy (DOE) that the U.S. budget was reduced by the Reagan Administration largely, resulting in delays in development of geothermal energy and construction of geothermal power plants. The following themes were discussed: Japanese and American geothermal development programs, DOE's industrialization activity, hot dry rock program, geoscience program, and geothermal prospecting technology program. It was clarified through the meeting in U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) that since the governmental resource assessment is made by USGS, however, wide data collection is made by other organizations generally, acquisition of data required for the assessment is difficult. Study on MOU is necessary together with fund allocation. Field survey was also made in Raft River, Cove Fort and Roosevelt. (NEDO)

  9. Fiscal 1980 Sunshine Project research report. International cooperation project for energy technology. International research cooperation for geothermal energy (Japan-U.S. R and D cooperation for geothermal resource assessment); 1980 nendo energy gijutsu kokusai kyoryoku jigyo chinetsu energy kokusai kyoryoku seika hokokusho. Chinetsu shigen hyoka ni kansuru Nichibei kenkyu kaihatsu kyoryoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-03-01

    Based on the Japan-U.S. agreement on promotion of geothermal energy applications, the R and D cooperation specialist panel was held in America on March 12-20, 1981 to exchange the current R and D information on geothermal resources. It was clarified through the meeting in Department of Energy (DOE) that the U.S. budget was reduced by the Reagan Administration largely, resulting in delays in development of geothermal energy and construction of geothermal power plants. The following themes were discussed: Japanese and American geothermal development programs, DOE's industrialization activity, hot dry rock program, geoscience program, and geothermal prospecting technology program. It was clarified through the meeting in U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) that since the governmental resource assessment is made by USGS, however, wide data collection is made by other organizations generally, acquisition of data required for the assessment is difficult. Study on MOU is necessary together with fund allocation. Field survey was also made in Raft River, Cove Fort and Roosevelt. (NEDO)

  10. Report on the surveys in fiscal 1999 on the long term energy technology strategy investigations. Investigations on evaluation on impact of research and development investments, and optimal resource distribution; 1999 nendo choki energy gijutsu senryaku chosa hokokusho. Kenkyu kaihatsu toshi no impact hyoka oyobi saiteki shigen haibun ni kansuru chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This paper is a survey report for fiscal 1999 related to investigations on evaluation on impact (influential effect) of research and development investments, and on optimal resource distribution. First, a quantification analysis was performed on the impact imposed by the New Sunshine Project having been executed in the past. The analysis used as the base the regressive analysis between the project techno-stock (an index of the project budget amount depleted by a certain obsoletion rate after having been substantiated and aggregated) and the number of theses. In a case where time-series data can be obtained on the quantity of practical application, the regressive analysis was also performed between the number of theses and the quantity of practical application. A large number of projects are stimulating research and development activities of the subject themes of all about Japan. Some are imposing great influential effect on the practical application. In addition, it was found that emphasized and concentrated investment cases in the initial stage of a project have high influential effect. As a budget distribution pattern, the concentrated and emphasized investments in the initial stage of a project are more effective than investing dispersedly over an extended period of time. Suggestions were acquired on the future budget distribution. (NEDO)

  11. Fiscal 1999 geothermal energy development promotion survey. Report on resource assessment for Shiramizugoe area; 1999 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa hokokusho. Shiramizugoe chiiki shigen hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Under an assumed plan of building a geothermal power station in the Shiramizugoe area of Makizono-cho, Aira-gun, Kagoshima Prefecture, investigations will be conducted under a 4-year program into the amount of geothermal resources, the dimensions and cost performance of a geothermal power station under consideration, and the environmental impact that the locating of such will incur, through for example identifying areas containing geothermal reservoirs suitable for geothermal power generation. In fiscal 1999, activities were conducted in the three fields of (1) survey plan preparation, (2) comprehensive analysis, and (3) environmental assessment. Under item (1), a survey and coordination implementation plan was prepared, existing data were analyzed for the construction of geothermal models out of which a suitable geothermal structure was specified for digging, and a list was drafted of locations for borehole digging for fiscal 2000. Under item (2), it was found that most of the past surveys covered the Ogiri area and that the Shiramizugoe area was but poorly covered. Discussion was made on the geological structure, geothermal structure, geothermal water hydraulic structure, and the geothermal water system. Under item (3), the plan was summarily explained to the local administration, associations of hot spring hotels, and inhabitants in the vicinity, and their consent was obtained. (NEDO)

  12. Evaluation of environmental impact by LCA method. LCA shuho ni yoru kankyo fuka hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakamura, H.; Utsuno, F.; Yasui, I. (The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Institute of Industrial Science)

    1994-06-01

    This paper explains the concept, history, and analytic methods of life cycle assessment (LCA), showing its application to beer bottles and cement factories as specific examples. The LCA is a method to calculate substances and energies put into the whole process of production of a product from raw material mining to product wasting and environmental loads emitted therefrom. It also evaluates the result collectively and quantitatively. A first case of the research is reportedly the one performed at Coca-Cola Co., Ltd. in 1969. Full-scale researches have gone forward in European countries in the recent several years, and are progressing to international networks. The analytic methods can be divided largely into an accumulation method to analyze data in each process and add them up, and a method to use an industrial association table. The former method is the most generally used method currently in overseas countries if referred to the LCA. Because the LCA can cause the analytic result and evaluation to vary depending on the purpose, it is important to define the goal, and set the scope. The LCA must develop in the future although it has a number of problems. 10 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Test and evaluation on safety relating to biotechnology; Biotechnology ni kansuru anzensei no shiken to hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, M. [Bio-Oriented Technology Research Advancement Inst., Saitama (Japan)

    1996-09-05

    This paper describes the current status and how works are being carried out on safety tests and evaluation of gene recombinants in plants and microorganisms. In the field of plants, Flavr Savr tomato which has been improved in fully ripe fruit distribution and keeping quality was commercialized as the world`s first recombinant food in May 1994 by Calgene, Inc. of America. Other vegetables, such as soybean, corn, potato, and pumpkin have been completed of all items of safety evaluation, and are approaching the commercialization phase. The safety evaluation system for living organisms created by using recombinant DNA technologies has been established internationally with regard to its general framework and contents based on accumulated knowledeges and experiences as a result of utilization of over twenty years. Industrial utilization guidelines for recombinants in Japan have been established in correspondence with the OECD recommendation in 1986. Experiments to verify recombinants to be safe in environment, and cultivation of the recombinants for utilization are performed based on the experimental guidelines and utilization guidelines. 15 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  14. International research cooperation project. Assessment report on the R and D of the comprehensive development/utilization technology of energy of gas hydrate resource; Gas hydrate shigen no energy sogo kaihatsu riyo gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu hyoka hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    As to 'the R and D of the comprehensive development/utilization technology of gas hydrate resource,' assessment was conducted and reported from an aspect of the third party. This R and D is a timely project being aimed at establishing the basic technology on gas hydrate from both aspects of fundamental research and practical research. In the development of gas hydrate resource in the tundra zone, the development of measuring methods for thermal conductivity and dielectric constants advanced the establishment of a guide for exploration and possibilities of assessment of the resource amount. In the development/production, it can be said that the knowledge/information collected by exchanging methane in gas hydrate with CO2 means no needs for new supply of heat and also contributes to the isolation of CO2. As to the utilization technology, the results were rated very high also internationally of tackling the quantitative evaluation method at molecular levels of the gas included in hydrate using Raman spectroscopy to establish the industrial gas separation method using the low-temperature environment in the tundra zone. (NEDO)

  15. Evaluation of permeability of Nojima fault by hydrophone VSP; Hydrophone VSP ni yoru Nojima danso no tosuisei hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiguchi, T; Ito, H; Kuwahara, Y; Miyazaki, T [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    The multi-offset hydrophone VSP experiments were carried out using a 750m deep borehole as the oscillation receiver, which penetrates the Nojima fault, to detect water-permeable cracks and evaluate their characteristics. Soil around the borehole is of granodiorite, and fault clay is found at a depth in a range from 623 to 624m. A total of 4 dynamite tunnels were provided around the borehole as the focus. The VSP results show that the tube waves are generated at 22 depths, including the depth at which fault clay is found. However, these waves are generated at only 6 depths in an approximately 150m long fracture zone, suggesting that the cracks in the zone are not necessarily permeable. It is also found that crack angle determined by the analysis of tube waves almost coincides with that of fault clay determined by the core, BHTV and FMI, and that permeability is of the order of 100md at a depth of fault clay or shallower. 3 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Treatability evaluation of membrane technique by virus. Maku shori ni okeru shorisei hyoka to shite no virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yano, K. (Tokyo Metropolitan Research Lab. of Public Health, Tokyo (Japan))

    1990-08-10

    Concerning a high level treating method of regeneration of sewage water, there are methods of coagulation/precipitation, sand filtering and ozone treatment in addition to the conventional active sludge method. However, none of these methods are perfect from the viewpoint of virus. A film treating method to remove micro-organisms in water is twofold, i.e., microfiltration and reverse osmosis. For such filter treatments, polio virus is most suited as an experimental index for conducting an assessment of the treating ability of viruses. The reasons are as follows: 1. It is the smallest virus among the viruses which are mixed in the water systems. 2. Polio virus is always detected in the study of actual conditions of the viruses contained in the sewage waters. 3. It involves less danger in handling because there are vaccines which are made less poisonous. 4. Separation and quantification of viruses is easily conducted by means of cultured cells. 8 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.

  17. Application of cytotoxicity test for toxic micropollutants. Saibo dokusei shiken ni yoru yugai kagaku busshitsu osen no hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Utsumi, H; Hamada, A [Showa University, Tokyo (Japan). School of Pharmaceutical Science; Ono, Y [National Institute of Hygienic Sciences, Tokyo (Japan)

    1992-10-01

    Considerations were given from a viewpoint of assessing toxicity to human bodies on methods of assessing water pollutants and organisms, and applicability of cytotoxity test using cultured cells to water quality assessment. Biological assessment systems used for water environment may use tests using multicellular organisms, cells, or organelles in cells. The organism assessment method is intended mainly for assessing ecological effects, and a suitable method must be selected upon extrapolating it to human bodies. A toxicity parameter used most frequently in a cytotoxity test is the cell revival rate, and life and death are determined from liberation of enzymes in cells, or with color rejection tests and incorporation tests. There are a number of test specimens of raw tap water and its chlorine treatment condensate that show no mutagenicity but cytotoxity. Efficiencies of removal by means of mild chlorine treatment, fast filtration, and activated carbon adsorption vary greatly with cytotoxity and mutagenicity. Introducing the cytotoxity test is expected of further contributing to improving safety in water quality. 24 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.

  18. Microbiological indicators for evaluating treatability on water purification process. Josui shori ni okeru shorisei hyoka kara mita biseibutsu shihyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichikawa, H [Kanagawa Prefectural Government Public Enterprise Egency Water Works Bureau, Kanagawa (Japan). Tanigahara Purification Plant

    1990-08-10

    This report describes the historical procedure of a bacterial test for a certain respective bacteria, and also describes the removal of micro-organisms by a water treatment and treatment with disinfectants. The disinfection is made mainly on basis of foreign literature. This is because there exist few literature published in Japan. In a good sense, this is because of the Japanese habit of drinking raw water which has contributed to high level of facilities and the maintenance. If seen from a different viewpoint, the prsent concern is concentrated to a contamination of the underground water by organic solvent and the counter measure against such minute quantity of organic chemicals as trihalomethane and the agricultural chemicals in the golf courses. From the consumers {prime} standpoint, these are of the level of problems that only one affected person increases per year for 100,000 inhabitants even if they continue to drink such drinking waters continuously through their life years. The reality is that it is remote from the realities in life. 37 refs., 9 tabs.

  19. Accuracy of parameters of permeable fractures by hydrophone VSP; Hydrophone VSP ni yoru tosuisei kiretsu no tokusei hyoka no seido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiguchi, T; Ito, H; Kuwahara, Y; Miyazaki, T [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Yabuuchi, S; Hasegawa, K [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-22

    Hydrophone VSP (vertical seismic profiling) experiment is under way as a technique for detecting subsurface water-permeable cracks by use of boreholes and for evaluating their characteristics (permeability index, crack direction, dip angle). In this report, tube waves observed by hydrophone VSP are subjected to analysis for the determination of water-permeable crack characteristics, the impact caused by errors in the value inputted for analysis is estimated, and a model calculation is performed in case there is no agreement between data from the borehole and data from VSP, all for examining the VSP records for accuracy. When an error rate of 15% is given to the tube wave/P-wave amplitude ratio, a change of 40% or lower results in the permeability index, and a change of 10deg or less in the dip angle, which means that an error in the amplitude ratio does not affect the analysis very much. Changes in the amplitude ratio resulting from changes in crack direction and dip angle differ, dependent on the offset rate. When angular differences among plural crack directions are within 90deg and dip angles within 60deg, the result of analysis represents the average characteristics of the plural cracks. 7 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Evaluation on the effect of tsunami and seaquake on the floating structure; Tsunami kaishin no futai ni taisuru eikyo hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, K; Suzuki, H; Hosomi, I [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Nahata, H [The Long-Term Credit Bank of Japan, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-12-31

    The effects of tsunami and seaquake on large floating structures are theoretically studied, where these effects are followed in terms of local strength using the equation proposed by Sells to predict surface shapes changed by seaquake-caused uplift of the seabottom. The equation is combined with the one for tsunami propagation, to better predict the tsunami motion. The simulation results indicate the necessity of considering the effects of tsunami for the design of a large floating structure. The authors discuss that the effect of tsunami is minimized when a floating structure is set at a depth of at least 40 to 50m, chain length should be determined by equalizing the breaking weight with the load at which the structure starts to move, and a structure should be set at a position where it is not attacked by transverse waves. They also discuss that seaquake intensity should be predicted by the equation of motion of compressible fluid, and, noting local strength of a floating structure, it will not be damaged when it is at least 16mm thick under the conditions of 2m as seabottom uplift and 0.5m as draft depth. 15 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Study of evaluation for grouting effect in a borehole; Yakueki chunyu koka hyoka gijutsu ni okeru ichikosatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, H; Matsuo, T [Fukuoka Municipal Transportation Bureau, Fukuoka (Japan); Yamauchi, Y; Imanishi, H [Osaka Soil Test, Osaka (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    For the foundation improvement works by grouting in a borehole, evaluation of grouting effect is one of the most important management items. The grouting design and works are sometimes reconsidered depending on the evaluation of grouting effect during the test injection. The purpose of the evaluation of grouting effect is to grasp the range of improvement and consolidation after the injection, and to judge and estimate the strength and permeability of the consolidation part. This paper describes the judgment method of the strength using PS logging results and borehole televiewer (BHTV) logging results. The reflection intensity (Ir) by the BHTV logging increased after the grouting, which showed a same tendency as that using S-wave and P-wave velocities (Vs and Vp) before and after the grouting. This was considered to demonstrate the grouting effect. A relation was obtained between the Vs, Vp and Ir before and after the grouting, which was expressed by following equation. Ir=0.143{times}Vs-70=0.093{times}Vp-110. The relation with the dynamic elastic coefficient (Ed) was also obtained as follow; Ir=0.0013{times}Ed. 9 figs.

  2. Fracture mapping in rock slope using geophysical instruments; Butsuri tansa ni yoru ganban shamennai no kiretsu bunpu hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurahashi, T; Inazaki, T [Public Works Research Institute, Tsukuba (Japan); Watanabe, S [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    An attempt was made to visualize distribution of cracks in a rock slope by applying geophysical survey onto a rock slope. Geophysical logging and seismic survey using the reflection method were used as the methods for the geophysical survey. The rock slope subjected to the survey is located in a gorge along the Yoshino river in Yamashiro Town, Tokushima Prefecture. The slope has a width of 25 m and a height of 30 m. Its overhang in a nose form may has a possibility of causing collapse due to sliding. Cracks developed by horizontal schistosity were detected by performing geophysical logging on VSP, calipers, natural gamma-ray spectra, temperature and borehole in a borehole drilled vertically from the top of the slope. The seismic survey using the reflection method detected the cracks by emphasizing joints in the perpendicular direction. A possibility was shown to visualize the crack distribution with high resolution by using the above geophysical survey on the rock slope. In order to detect the crack distribution with still higher resolution, development into a three-dimensional exploration in the future is desired, not to speak of improvement in signal receivers, and discussions on geometry. 1 ref., 6 figs.

  3. Feasibility study for seismic monitoring of gas injection; Atsunyu gasu monitaringu no kanosei hyoka ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishida, A.; Ogawa, T.; Yokota, T.; Shimada, N.; Onozuka, S.; Kono, F.; Miyagi, T. [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-10-30

    In this study, seismic monitoring of injected gas in a carbonate reservoir was investigated using multidisciplinary approach which consisted of geological/reservoir modeling, reservoir flow simulation, rock physics and seismic modeling. A case study was conducted over Lower Cretaceous carbonate reservoir offshore Abu Dhabi. The gas saturation and reservoir pressure data were obtained from the reservoir flow simulation. The velocity data of dry rock samples under the various conditions were also obtained from rock physics study. These outputs were converted to the velocity model using Gassmann's equation. The calculated velocity from Gassmann's equation is well correlated with velocity from laboratory measurements. Therefore we con confirm that the Gassmann's equation is applicable to estimate the velocity of the gas saturated reservoir rock. Based on the velocity model, synthetic seismic sections before and after gas injection were constructed in order to verify the influence of gas flood. As the results, amplitude difference between the two synthetic seismograms was observed at top and bottom reflectors of the reservoir zone. This amplitude variation is caused by both gas saturation change and pressure change. Although further investigation is needed to detect the cause of the variation, this study indicates the possibility of seismic reservoir monitoring. (author)

  4. Evaluation on the effect of tsunami and seaquake on the floating structure; Tsunami kaishin no futai ni taisuru eikyo hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, K.; Suzuki, H.; Hosomi, I. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Nahata, H. [The Long-Term Credit Bank of Japan, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    The effects of tsunami and seaquake on large floating structures are theoretically studied, where these effects are followed in terms of local strength using the equation proposed by Sells to predict surface shapes changed by seaquake-caused uplift of the seabottom. The equation is combined with the one for tsunami propagation, to better predict the tsunami motion. The simulation results indicate the necessity of considering the effects of tsunami for the design of a large floating structure. The authors discuss that the effect of tsunami is minimized when a floating structure is set at a depth of at least 40 to 50m, chain length should be determined by equalizing the breaking weight with the load at which the structure starts to move, and a structure should be set at a position where it is not attacked by transverse waves. They also discuss that seaquake intensity should be predicted by the equation of motion of compressible fluid, and, noting local strength of a floating structure, it will not be damaged when it is at least 16mm thick under the conditions of 2m as seabottom uplift and 0.5m as draft depth. 15 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Survey of an evaluation method for research and development projects; Kenkyu kaihatsu project no hyoka shuho ni kansuru chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This report describes an interim evaluation method and a concrete evaluation method for projects promoted by the Agency of Industrial Science and Technology, and NEDO. As a result of the survey, a method of highly practical interim evaluation, concrete evaluation items, and evaluation criteria have been proposed by assuming that the projects are evaluated by the project evaluation department independent of the project promotion department. Long-term issues for constructing the evaluation system are also described. It is the most essential for the evaluation to fulfill the function of effective promotion of the following projects. It is also indispensable for the evaluation method and issues proposed in this report to communicate closely to project promoters and researchers, and to reassess the projects continuously. Continuous consideration for the feedback of evaluation process and the improvement of evaluation are significant for the long-term construction of system. 21 refs., 9 figs., 23 tabs.

  6. Framework of information system assessment based on function and quality; Kino to hinshitsu ni motozuku joho system hyoka no wakugumi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, M.; Hishitani, J. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-03-01

    As for function and quality of information system, an assessment method of productivity at planning and at completion has been developed. In this method, functional size expressing the size of functional kinds provided by the system, value-added size expressing the size with corrected functional size in response to the quality level of each function, and production size expressing the size of products and processes under the given conditions were employed as indexes for evaluating the size of system. In addition, a method using the quality property tree has been developed. In this method, to evaluate the quality level which is essential for calculating the value-added size, users and providers evaluate the system quality from their own viewpoints. By this system, validity of user`s demand and validity/efficiency of realizing process can be evaluated for client/server type systems from the systematic viewpoint in a whole life cycle of systems from development planning to abandonment of systems. 24 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Evaluation on lifetime risk in reinforced concrete structure; RC kozo no lifetime risk no hyoka ni kansuru kisoteki kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, M. [Public Works Research Institute, Tsukuba (Japan); Adachi, H. [Taisei Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Akakura, Y. [Ministry of Transport, Tokyo (Japan); Ibayashi, K.; Ozaka, Y. [Tohoku Gakuin Univ., Sendai (Japan)

    1996-02-15

    To evaluate the risk during longevity of reinforced concrete structure subjected to earthquake motions, called lifetime risk, damage and safety were estimated by means of the earthquake risk analysis and earthquake response analysis. For the earthquake risk analysis, historical earthquake data with relatively low accuracy were efficiently taken into account, to determine the annual mean generation probability against the earthquake motion strength in ten main cities. A new damage index with load hysteresis was defined as an anti-earthquake evaluation index where accumulative damage is taken into consideration. Assuming that the damage transits from `certain state` to `certain state` every time the earthquake motion generates at the noticeable place, damage transition matrix expressing transition probability was calculated by using the results of earthquake risk analysis and the accumulative damage index. The lifetime risk was calculated from the damage transition matrix and the earthquake motion generation probability, to evaluate the safety. 21 refs., 10 figs., 8 tabs.

  8. Study on visibility evaluation model which is considered field factors; Field factor wo koryoshita shininsei hyoka model ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakanishi, M; Hagiwara, T [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    The present study proposes a model to evaluate visual performance of road traffic facilities required for drivers. Two factors were employed to obtain the suitable contrast for drivers under driving situation. One factor is a suitable luminance range, which is derived from minimum required luminance and glare luminance. Another is a field. The model showed capability of providing visibility range in some cases. 8 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Primary study on quantitative evaluation of driver fatigue; Unten hiro no teiryo hyoka gijutsu ni kansuru kiso kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noguchi, Y; Mochizuki, M; Toyofuku, K [Isuzu Advanced Engineering Center, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Katsuura, T [Chiba University, Chiba (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Quantitative evaluation of physical and mental loads are effective in developing more human-friendly vehicles. Here attention has been focused on the mental load. Attempts were made to find some physiological indices that can be used for quantifying the mental load and resultant fatigue. Subjects were told to perform three different tasks in a climatoron, and the relation between physiological indices and their perception of fatigue as well as their capability of performing the tasks were analyzed. As a result, heart rate variability is a good index for quantitative evaluation of mental load and fatigue. 5 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  10. Studies on substitutional protein sources for fish meal in the diet of Japanese flounder; Hirame shiryo ni okeru miriyo shigen no riyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, K; Furuta, T; Sakaguchi, I [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-08-01

    Effectiveness of livestock industry wastes and vegetable protein added to fish meal in fish farming is tested by feeding the Japanese flounder. In the experiment, a part or the whole of the fish meal protein is replaced by the meat meal (MM), meat and bone meal (MBM), corngluten meal (CGM), or dried silkworm pupa meal (SPM), and fries of the Japanese flounder are fed on the new diets for eight weeks. On a diet containing 60% or less of MM, no change is detected in the fish in terms of increase in weight, protein efficiency ratio, and blood components, indicating that 60% at the highest of fish meal may be replaced by MM. In the case of MBM, it can occupy approximately 20%. As for CGM, the proper substitution rate is approximately 40%. Essential amino acids that the new diets may lack are added for an approximately 10% improvement on the result. The SPM substitution works up to 40%, when, however, the blood components are degraded. The proper substitution rate is therefore placed at approximately 20%. 38 refs., 2 figs., 17 tabs.

  11. Fiscal 1998 research report. Research on energy conversion technology using biomass resources; 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho. Biomass shigen wo genryo to suru energy henkan gijutsu ni kansuru chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Feasibility study was made on construction of the new energy production system by thermochemical conversion or combination of thermochemical and biological conversions of agricultural, fishery and organic waste system biomass resources. This report first outlines types and characteristics of biomass over the world, proposes the classification method of biomass from the viewpoint of biomass energy use, and shows the introduction scenario of biomass energy. The energy potential is calculated of agricultural waste, forestry waste and animal waste as the most promising biomass energy resources, and the biomass energy potential of energy plantation is estimated. The present and future of biochemical energy conversion technologies are viewed. The present and future of thermochemical energy conversion technologies are also viewed. Through evaluation of every conversion technology, the difference in feature between each conversion technology was clarified, and the major issues for further R and D were showed. (NEDO)

  12. Report on the cooperative study of technology to collect valuable resources in brine; Kansuichu no yuka shigen kaishu gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu kyoryoku hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    The paper reported on the research, design, and evaluation on a system to recover by sedimentation magnesium from the brine in the salt manufacture by solar evaporation in Mexico, and a system to recover by adsorbent lithium, boron, etc. from the brine of the solar pond salt field in China. In the case of Mexico, an overall recovery system was developed, but in the evaluation of economy of the system, it cannot be said that the system is feasible even if assuming that the required fresh water can be secured. It was found out that the economical efficiency largely depends upon the cost of hydrated lime and the selling price of magnesia clinker. In the case of China, a plant for production of 500 tons/year of lithium carbonate was conceptually designed to evaluate the economical efficiency. As a result, the internal profitability of the plant is not so high, approximately 6%, though continuously profitable during the operation of 15 years. It was indicated that the project was not economically very efficient. 164 figs., 44 tabs.

  13. Model experiments on imaging subsurface fracture permeability by pulsed Doppler borehole televiewer; Pulse doppler borehole televiewer ni yoru kiretsu tosuisei hyoka ni kansuru model jikken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inagaki, Y; Niitsuma, H [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-05-01

    This paper reports model experiments to evaluate flow rates of fluids passing through a fracture by using a Doppler borehole televiewer (DBHTV). A supersonic transducer disposed on a well axis transmits transmission pulses, and a transducer receives scattered waves generated by particulates in water and waves reflected on a well wall. This signal is applied with time gating to extract only the scattered waves from particulates in the vicinity of the well wall. Deriving spectra in the recorded Doppler signal obtains flow velocity components in the direction of the well radius. A model was made with a polyvinylchloride pipe with a diameter of 14.6 cm to simulate a well, to which an aluminum pipe with an inner diameter of 2 mm is connected to be used as a simulated fracture, and mud water is circulated in the pipe. The result of deriving a passed flow volume in this model by integrating flow rate distribution derived by using the above method to a predetermined range in the vicinity of the fracture showed a good proportional relationship with actual flow rate in the simulated fracture. 1 ref., 7 figs.

  14. Evaluation stationariness of triaxial seismic while drilling and detection of reflected wave; Kosei kussaku ni tomonau danseiha no sanjiku kaiseki ni yoru hiteijo hyoka to hanshaha no kenshutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, T; Asanuma, H; Niitsuma, H [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-05-01

    This paper reports a method to detect reflected wave components contained in an elastic wave caused in association with well drilling. Measurement was made on an elastic wave caused in association with well drilling in an experimental field by using a triaxial elastic wave detector disposed in a measurement well. Analyzing the particle motion tracks in the derived elastic wave signals (to derive the main axial direction of a three-dimensional hologram) revealed that oscillation direction of the signals changes non-steadily by time centering around the S-wave oscillation direction. In addition, a sound source position was estimated during the drilling. Existence probability of the S-wave signal in the non-steady continuous signals was estimated by handling the particle motion tracks stochastically. In addition, this existence probability was used as a weighting function for a correlative analysis to detect a reflected wave from directly reaching wave components in the non-steady continuous signals. Thus, improvement in reliability of reflected wave detection was attempted. Effectiveness of this method was endorsed by the field data. 3 refs., 7 figs.

  15. Leading research in FY 1995. Research of product evaluation and advanced measurements - Part 1 (product evaluation); 1995 nendo sendo kenkyu. Seihin hyoka kodo keisoku bunseki gijutsu ni kansuru chosa kenkyu - 1 (seihin hyoka)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Product evaluation has been investigated from a viewpoint of compatibility with human life by considering human being as the subject of life. This report describes the investigation results. Product evaluation is defined as evaluating products on a consumer-oriented viewpoint and informing consumers of the evaluation results. According to a questionnaire survey with regard to daily living products, products in the low degree of satisfaction in their usage were electric tooth brush, video camera, electric rice jar, vacuum cleaner, and electric iron. Contents of dissatisfaction with these products were classified by aspect, i.e., human aspect regarding human body/recognition, life aspect regarding functions of products and how to use them, and sensitivity aspect such as appearance of products. Thus, points at issue were clarified. As regards the human aspect, incompatibility between the size/form of products and human body/posture, and recognition psychological incompatibility such as difficulty in understanding function or operation of products were pointed out. Establishment of a method for measuring and evaluating the human`s body functions and the compatibility with products, and necessity of the acquisition of human`s body characteristic data and the consolidation positions are also described. 4 refs., 42 figs., 30 tabs.

  16. Local approach to brittle fracture under residual stress field. Assessment of pre-loading effect; Local approach no tekiyo ni yoru zanryu oryoku wo motsu buzai no zeisei hakai kyodo hyoka. Yokaju no eikyo no hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashita, Y.; Sakano, K.; Onozuka, M. [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Minami, F. [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan)

    2000-01-01

    The effect of residual stresses on brittle fracture was investigated on the basis of the Local Approach. Compressive residual stress was introduced by pre-loading and the subsequent fracture test conducted with a 780 MPa class steel. Preloading apparently increased the critical load and critical CTOD at the onset of brittle fracture initiation. The Weibull stress criterion was used to evaluate the brittle fracture resistance of the pre-loaded specimen. The critical Weibull stress is a material property independent of test conditions with and without pre-loading. Using the Weibull stress criterion, the critical CTOD of the pre-loaded specimen can be predicted from test results of the specimen without pre-loading. (author)

  17. NEDO Forum 2000. Proliferation of information and achievements, and evaluation session (toward achievement evaluation and information signaling); Joho seika no fukyu to hyoka session. Seika no hyoka to joho hasshin ni mukete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-09-01

    The following themes were presented at the present session: (1) fundamental survey on evaluation of projects, (2) the IEA information exchange agreement project and information providing activities by NEDO, (3) the NEDO technological information database, (4) the NEDO's intelligent property releasing institution and utilization of the patent database, (5) examples of successful utilization of NEDO patents (mask producing equipment by means of electronic beam depiction), and (6) special lectures (the current status of information network technologies and their new development in the future). Item (1) describes a method to evaluate reasonability of decision makings at each time point around project management, in which time divisions are set, and compared with requirements in each time. It also describes discussions on the reasonability thereof. As the execution agreement with IEA for energy technology data exchange (ETDE), Item (2) introduces the IEA energy and environment technology information (a project by Centre for the Analysis and Dissemination of Demonstrated Energy Technology (CADDET) and a project of Greenhouse Gas Technology Information Exchange (GREENTIE)), as well as the execution agreement to establish IEA coal researches, and the NEDO information providing activities. Item (3) introduces the NEDO project information, NEDO achievement report, CADDET database, and GREENTIE database as the databases provided by the NEDO Information Center. (NEDO)

  18. Research report of fiscal 1997. Survey on creation of high-efficiency renewable resources, and bioconversion technology; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho. Kokoritsu saisei kano shigen no sosei narabi ni bioconversion gijutsu ni kansuru chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Survey was made on material production technology using creation technology of high-efficiency renewable resources (photosynthesis reaction of plants). Industrially usable plant resources in overseas countries and Japan were arranged, and plant resources unused for food were also surveyed. The present state of genetic engineering necessary for metabolic engineering of higher plants such as fit and high-expression technology of genes, plant cell cultivation, and control technology of plant cell multiplication is described, and elementary technologies required for future gene-recombined plants are predicted. Survey was also made on the trend of creation technology of industrial plants for fat and oil, biodegradable polyester, amino acid, cellulose, fiber (cotton) and forest wood. A patent list on plant biotechnology was prepared, and study on bioconversion of plant resources was also surveyed. Overseas R & D trends on conversion and effective use technologies of renewable bio- resources are reported, and process design and its profitability were evaluated through a case study. 414 refs., 87 figs., 55 tabs.

  19. Ni hombres ni mujeres providenciales

    OpenAIRE

    Montaño Virreira, Sonia

    2000-01-01

    Debo advertir a la y el lector de este texto que lo que a continuación se presenta no es, ni de lejos, una propuesta realista, si por ella entendemos la traducción, enclave mujer, de las actuales tendencias de liderazgo político vigentes en la región. Por el contrario, intento argumentaren favor de un liderazgo que supere el caudillismo como estilo y se aproxime al máximo hacia el respeto de las formas, entendiendo que sin ellas no es posible construir la democracia. Para hacerlo reviso rápid...

  20. Evaluation report on the research and development of automatic sewing systems; 'Jido hosei system' no kenkyu kaihatsu ni kansuru hyoka hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-03-01

    A comprehensive evaluation is made upon completion of the automatic sewing system research and development project. The project aims to achieve a 50% increase in productivity through effective use of a multiple-product/small-amount production scheme in small and medium sewing industries. The intelligent cloth inspecting machine (prior to sewing) in a laser-aided cutting system is as competent as the currently used sewing mill inspection system, and the resultant data are effectively utilized in the cutting process. As for the cutter, it is demonstrated that it is more than two times higher in cutting speed than a currently used laser cutting system; that it is sufficiently accurate in avoiding parts with flaws and in pattern matching; and that it is reliable in complying with process information provided. As for the flexible sewing system, it is acknowledged that it correctly recognizes information attached to cut parts and that it joins them with flexibility in response to changes in the material, pattern, or size. As for the high-technology assembling system, satisfaction is found in its automated 3-dimensional sewing of parts received from the previous stage and in its flow of production. As for the 3-dimensional flexible press, the quality after finish is found satisfying. The said systems are integratedly operated, and it is found that the goal of the research and development has been achieved. (NEDO)

  1. Environmental assessment of surfactant using aquatic microcosm system; Konuma no suiken seitaikei ni oyobosu kaimen kasseizai no microcosm system wo mochiita hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takamatsu, Y.; Matsumura, M. [University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba (Japan); Inamori, Y. [National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba (Japan); Sudo, R. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1995-10-10

    Microcosm system was applied to assess effect of surfactants on aquatic ecosystem. Surfactants such as LAS and Soap were added to an aquatic flask-size microcosm consisting of four species of bacteria as decomposer, one species of ciliate protozoa (Cyclidium glaucoma), two rotifers (Philodina sp. and Lepadella sp.) and one aquatic oligochaete (Aeolosoma hemprichi) as predator, and a green alga (Chlorella sp.) and a filamentous blue-green alga (Tolypothrix sp.) as producer. In the system, NOEC (no observed effect concentration) of LAS was below 1.5mg{center_dot}l{sup -1}, whereas soap was below 30mg{center_dot}l{sup -1}. Microcosm test is a pertinent tool to assess the effect of surfactant on ecosystem because microcosm test makes it possible to evaluate the effect of surfactant from a viewpoint of the interaction of microorganisms, material cycle and energy flow. With these respects, microcosm test is useful environmental assessment method which can reflect aquatic ecosystem. 10 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Ecological effects assessment of anionic surfactant on aquatic ecosystem using microcosm system; Microcosm wo mochiita in ion kaimen kasseizai no suiken seitaikei ni oyobosu eikyo hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takamatsu, Y. [University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba (Japan); Inamori, Y. [National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba (Japan); Sudo, R. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Kurihara, Y. [Ou Univ., Fukushima (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Matsumura, M. [University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba (Japan). Institute of Applied Biochemical

    1997-11-10

    Microcosm system was applied to assess effect of anionic surfactant (LAS) on aquatic ecosystem. Anionic surfactant such as LAS was added to an flask microcosm consisting of four species of bacteria as decomposer, one species of ciliate protozoa (Cyclidium glaucoma), two rotifers (Philodina sp. and Lepadella sp.) and one aquatic oligochaete (Aeolosoma hemprichi) as predator, and a green alga (Chlorella sp.) and a filamentous blue-green alga (Tolypothrix sp.) as producer, comparing with that of an natural lake model ecosystem derived from natural lake water. In the flask microcosm system and the natural lake model ecosystem, biodegradation rates of LAS were almost same and NOECs (no observed effect concentration) of LAS were also below 1.5 mg{center_dot} l{sup -1}. It was found that flask microcosm test could provide precise ecological effect assessment of LAS on number of microorganisms because the system showed higher reproducibility and stability than natural take model ecosystem. It was suggested that flask microcosm test was useful ecological effect assessment method which can reflect natural aquatic ecosystem. 10 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Characterization of interactions of coal surface with solvent by flow microcalorimetric measurement. 3; Netsuryo sokutei ni yoru sekitan hyomen to yozai tono sogo sayo no hyoka. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, N.; Sasaki, M.; Yoshida, T. [Hokkaido National Industrial Research Institute, Sapporo (Japan); Kotanigawa, T. [Japan International Corporation Agency, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    An investigation was given on the relationship between methanol adsorbing behavior of reformed coal surface and oxygen containing functional groups in coal. Akabira bituminous coal was air-oxidized or Yallourn brown coal was decarbonated in oil as a reformation treatment. Both of the treated and untreated coals showed an adsorption heat curve of the Langmuir type. The Akabira coal had its oxygen content and the adsorption heat increased as a result of the air oxidizing reformation treatment. The Yallourn coal had its oxygen content and adsorption heat decreased as a result decarbonation reformation treatment. Oxygen containing functional groups act as strong adsorption sites for methanol, and the maximum adsorption amount depends on oxygen content in the coals. Since the coal surface is non-uniform in terms of energy, methanol is adsorbed first into sites with higher molar adsorption heat, and then into lower sites sequentially. Therefore, distribution of the molar adsorption heat can be derived from the relationship between adsorption amount and adsorption heat by changing methanol adsorption amount. The distribution of molar adsorption heat becomes broader when the oxygen content is high, and narrower when low. 2 refs., 2 figs.

  4. Study on state grouping and opportunity evaluation for reinforcement learning methods; Kyoka gakushuho no tame no jotai grouping to opportunity hyoka ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, W.; Yokoi, H.; Kakazu, Y. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)

    1997-08-20

    In this paper, we propose the State Grouping scheme for coping with the problem of scaling up the Reinforcement Learning Algorithm to real, large size application. The grouping scheme is based on geographical and trial-error information, and is made up with state generating, state combining, state splitting, state forgetting procedures, with corresponding action selecting module and learning module. Also, we discuss the Labeling Based Evaluation scheme which can evaluate the opportunity of the state-action pair, therefore, use better experience to guide the exploration of the state-space effectively. Incorporating the Labeling Based Evaluation and State Grouping scheme into the Reinforcement Learning Algorithm, we get the approach that can generate organized state space for Reinforcement Learning, and do problem solving as well. We argue that the approach with this kind of ability is necessary for autonomous agent, namely, autonomous agent can not act depending on any pre-defined map, instead, it should search the environment as well as find the optimal problem solution autonomously and simultaneously. By solving the large state-size 3-DOF and 4-link manipulator problem, we show the efficiency of the proposed approach, i.e., the agent can achieve the optimal or sub-optimal path with less memory and less time. 14 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Fiscal 1998 survey report. Survey on method of environmental-impact assessment in wind power development; 1998 nendo furyoku kaihatsu ni okeru kankyo eikyo hyoka shuho chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    With the purpose of preparing the main points of 'environmental-impact assessment guidelines for wind power developments (draft)', examples of environmental-impact assessments, related laws and regulations in Japan and abroad were collected, and rearranged in respect to requirements in environmental-assessments, concrete procedures, survey/projection/assessment method, summarisation of results, etc. It was clarified, for example; in a large-scale wind power development, it can be dealt with by choosing items and contents on the assumption that a land area is developed; in a small-scale development, there is basically no need of considering the possible effect of the construction work; and, as far as noise, vibration and the ecosystem (plants/animals) are concerned, however, the characteristics of the site be taken into consideration. Objects for general assessment are noise, low-frequency air vibration, radio wave interference, the ecosystem (plants and animals) and the landscape. The guideline draft is constituted of (1) basic items, (2) overview of the area, (3) determination of items for environmental-impact assessment and (4) research, prediction, assessment, conservation measures and follow-up research; in the basic items, importance of preliminary consideration was emphasized, as were priority/simplification, implementation of environmental conservation measures, and implementation of follow-up research. (NEDO)

  6. Evaluation of water content in rock mass by electromagnetic and resistivity tomography. Denjiha, hiteiko tomography ni yoru ganban no gansui jotai hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inaba, T; Inoue, M; Matsumoto, K [Kajima Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1993-10-31

    As a method to evaluate the rock mass, electromagnetic tomography and resistivity tomography were tested on the original site. The electromagnetic tomography can tomographically analyze the propagation velocity and initial amplitude damping. The resistivity tomography uses a finite element method from the initial resistivity distribution model and finally gives a model which is nearly equal to the actual resistivity distribution. Both the above tomographic analyses can detect the crushed spot as a low velocity, high damping and low resistivity spot. However, the electromagnetic tomography could detect finer structure than the resistivity tomography. The water content of rock mass was evaluated from the damping coefficient which was given by the amplitude damping tomography of electromagnetic wave. If it is compared with the water content which is given by the dielectric constant of velocity tomography, there partially exists discrepancy between both, because the damping coefficient contains information on cracks which disperse and reflect the electromagnetic wave. Between the resistivity and porosity, there exists a known experimental formula, which was satisfied by the presently given resistivity. 9 refs., 10 figs.

  7. Report on evaluation concerning R and D of magneto hydrodynamic (MHD) generation. Introduction; Denji ryutai (MHD) hatsuden no kenkyu kaihatsu ni kansuru hyoka hokokusho. Soron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1984-03-01

    Evaluation was conducted concerning R and D on magneto hydrodynamic (MHD) generation, with proposals made for the future R and D. As a result of the experimental operation and studies of the Mark 7 machine for MHD generation, a cold wall type generation channel was found promising in the long-term durability under MHD generation conditions. In addition, R and D was conducted on the exhaust gas control system that fulfilled an environmental standard, seed recovery method, grasp of seed coagulation state, etc. The R and D on element technologies were carried out along with the R and D of the Mark 7 and played a role in the backup of its experiment. MHD generation presents a large number of attractive characteristics, with its development expected in the future. However, it seems too early to immediately move on to the next step. Examinations should be made on such matters as comparisons with various kinds of new power generation systems using coal, trends in foreign countries particularly the U-500 project of the Soviet Union, the ideal system for more efficient development, and possibility of international cooperation. (NEDO)

  8. Evaluation report on research and development of 'seawater purification and byproduct utilization'; 'Kaisui Tansuika to fukusanbutsu riyo' no kenkyu kaihatsu ni kansuru hyoka hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1978-03-01

    Research, development, and evaluation were made on seawater purification for the purpose of supplying inexpensive city water stably in the future. In the research of the high flow rate long-tube type multi-stage flash process, basic characteristics were identified by studying fluidity, heat transfer, deaeration, and decarburization by using a test plant with a capacity of 3,000 m{sup 3}/d. A number of findings were derived in carrying out demonstration studies by using a test module with a capacity of 100,000 m{sup 3}/d. Research on heat transfer pipe materials covered a wide area including copper alloys, titanium and aluminum alloys, and ferrous materials, where a prospect was obtained on materials which may be practically usable in the future as transfer pipes in large seawater purifying equipment. Research on a concrete evaporator body proved that it is more economical than steel evaporators, and has sufficient corrosion resistance even against high-temperature brine. Other activities included researches on effects of contaminated seawater, brine diffusion, byproduct utilization, and total systems. Social and economic evaluations were also performed. (NEDO)

  9. Hydrogen cracking susceptibility evaluation of buried steel pipe under cathodic protection. Cathode boshokuka ni okeru maisetsu kokan no suisoware kanjusei hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, Y.; Nonaka, H. (Osaka Gas Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan)); Yamakawa, K. (University of Osaka Prefecture, Osaka (Japan). College of Engineering)

    1992-12-01

    An evaluation was given on effects of hydrogen on pipeline materials in order to determine a most base value in an optimal cathodic protection potential in cathodic protection of buried pipelines. Protection potentials were estimated from the relation between critical hydrogen amount and the potentials in marine clays and sodium acetate as electrolyte. The materials were evaluated using a strain rate tensile experiment method. The following results were obtained: The more base the potential, the elongation was somewhat less than the result in air, while the tensile strength increased slightly; difference in water content in soils varies the cross section contraction rate; the rate does not change in a marine clay containing water at 20%, but it decreases in a 30%-content soil; an SEM observation revealed pseudo cleavage faces; and the critical hydrogen amount that causes hydrogen cracking is 10 ppb, which corresponds to -1.4V in a marine clay containing water at 30%, and -1.2V at 14%. A loading experiment with actual loads verified that no fracture due to hydrogen cracking occurs even under an overprotection environment when a load imposed on an actual pipeline is kept constant. 16 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Fault fracture zone evaluation using borehole geophysical logs; case study at Nojima fault, Awaji island; Kosei butsuri kenso ni yoru danso hasaitai no hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, R; Omura, K [National Research Institute for Disaster Prevention, Tsukuba (Japan); Yamamoto, T [Geophysical Surveying and Consulting Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-22

    Ikeda, et al., in their examination of log data obtained from a borehole (2000m deep) drilled at Ashio, Tochigi Prefecture, where micro-earthquakes swarm at very shallow levels, pay special attention to porosity. Using correlationship between the porosity and elastic wave velocity/resistivity, the authors endeavor to find the presence of secondary pores, dimensions of faults, composition of water in strata in faults, and difference in matrix between rocks, all these for the classification and evaluation of fault fracture zones. In the present report, log data from a borehole (1800m deep) drilled to penetrate the Nojima fault (Nojima-Hirabayashi, Awaji island) that emerged during the Great Hanshin-Himeji Earthquake are analyzed in the same way as the above-named Ashio data, and the results are compared with the Ashio results. Immediately below the Nojima-Hirabayashi fault fractured zone, stress is found remarkably reduced and the difference stress quite small in size. This is interpreted as indicating a state in which clay has already developed well in the fault fractured zone ready to allow the occurrence of shear fracture or a state in which such has already occurred for the release of stress. 4 refs., 5 figs.

  11. Remote sensing data analysis for assessment of sea level change in Asia; Asia ni okeru kaisuijun hendo eikyo hyoka no tame no remote sensing gazo kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okubo, Y; Tanaka, A [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Kaku, M [Bishimetal Exploration Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-22

    Remote sensing images include information of coastal land division, sea level change such as sedimentary environment and vegetation, and distribution of artificial structures. Past sea level changes and their causes can be regionally obtained by analyzing these data and by integrating them with information obtained from geological survey. In this study, causes and history of past sea level changes, formation mechanism of coastal topography, and past sea level change survey in Thailand have been reviewed. This paper describes an extraction method of the sea level change information in coastal districts by analyzing several actual remote sensing images. For understanding the current sea level rise, it is required to clarify the causes quantitatively among three causes of sea level changes, i.e., volumetric change of total ocean water on the earth, relative sea level change due to the crustal deformation, and change of irregularity of sea surface with ocean current. It is also required to compile maps in Asian or global scales. 13 refs., 6 figs.

  12. Evaluation report on research and development of a subsea petroleum production system; Kaitei sekiyu seisan system no kenkyu kaihatsu ni kansuru hyoka hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1985-03-01

    In order to assure stable supply of oil and natural gas resources, and achieve enhancement in ocean development technologies in general, development has been made on the subsea petroleum production system (SBPPS), which is effective in ocean floor petroleum production from oil fields at great depths (300 m or deeper), and can be applicable to continental shelves and continental slopes around Japan. The SBPPS consists of four sub-systems of shafts, pipelines, manifolds, and riser and oil storage, whose basic development targets were established for the total system. The system was given a conceptual design for the total system, and the above four sub-systems were designed according to the conceptual design. The experimenting devices of each system were fabricated on a trial basis while fundamental studies are being made on component technologies, and experiments were performed to verify basic functions of the sub-systems. Developments were made on such operation technologies as the system operation technology, production control technology, safety control technology, and maintenance and repair technology required to operate the SBPPS. On-shore and general off-shore experiments were carried out to verify the functions of the experimenting devices of each system, the comprehensive functions and the operation technology. Comprehensive evaluation was given on the above achievements from the technical, economic and social viewpoints. (NEDO)

  13. Achievement report on research and development of optics-aided measurement/control system; Hikari oyo keisoku seigyo system no kenkyu kaihatsu ni kansuru hyoka hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1986-03-01

    The project aims to establish technologies for putting the above-named system to practical use. Such a system will measure, transmit, and control, with safety and stability by use of optical technologies, industrial process related information to be generated in certain areas such as industrial complexes and very large plants, the information including images, temperatures, flow rates, constituents, etc. Total system evaluation was performed in demonstration tests for appropriateness conducted for 32 systems in fiscal 1980 and 10 systems in fiscal 1981. Studied in the development of element technologies are opto-electronic integrated circuits (OEIC), semiconductor laser devices, light-intercepting devices, optical transmission paths, dielectric light switches, and optical sensors. For OEIC, in particular, since it is believed to be the nucleus of an optical application system, an optical technology joint research office is established, where efforts center on the substrate crystal growth technology, process technology, and crystal/process evaluation technology. (NEDO)

  14. Study on the inside gas flow visualization of oxygen sensor cover; Kashika ni yoru O2 sensor cover nai no gas nagare hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hocho, S; Mitsuishi, Y; Inagaki, M [Nippon Soken, Inc., Tokyo (Japan); Hamaguchi, S; Mizusawa, K [Toyota Motor Corp., Aichi (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    In order to make clear the difference of the response time between the oxygen sensors with different protection covers, we visualized gas flow inside of sensor covers by means of two experimental methods: One is `Smoke Suspension Method` using liquid paraffin vapor as the smoke. With smoke suspension method, we detected the streamlines inside of the covers. The other is `Color Reaction Method` using the reaction of phenolphthalein and NH3 gas. With color reaction method, we confirmed the streamline inside of the cover and furthermore detected the difference of the response time of each sensor. 3 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Experimental analysis of the structure attenuation characteristics on engine noise by pseudo cylinder pressure excitation; Giji tonaiatsu kashin ni yoru engine kozo no soon tokusei hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozawa, H; Nakada, T [Isuzu Advanced Engineering Center, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    The engine structure attenuation has been experimentally analyzed by the newly developed in-cylinder excitation system. It can reproduce the complete cylinder pressure in non-running engine conditions by adopting the hydraulic and the piezoelectric actuator. The structure attenuation measured in this system has a good coincidence with the ones measured in actually engine operating conditions, meanwhile the current method, which applied only high frequency components as the excitation pressure, was shown to have the unsatisfied agreement. As a result, the proposed system has been concluded to be very useful to estimate the engine noise characteristics in non-running conditions. 4 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Assessment of global environmental impacts by utilizing methodology of LCA on solar water heater for dwellings; LCA shuho ni yoru taiyonetsu onsuiki no kankyo fuka hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamoshida, J [Shibaura Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Asai, S [Yazaki Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    CO2 emission was quantified through the life cycle of a solar water heater to assess its environment impact. Although LCA (life cycle assessment) originally sums up I/O of all materials and energy through the whole life cycle of a product to examine environment impact, this assessment was carried out for only CO2. Calculation of CO2 emission assumed a natural circulating solar water heater of 200 l in effective hot water capacity, 2.78m{sup 2} in effective collecting area, and 0.5 in average annual collecting efficiency of total solar radiation, and an auxiliary city gas heat source for compensating insufficient heat quantity. The total CO2 emission in the life cycle of a solar water heater was obtained from an industrial association table assuming the life cycles of 10 and 20 years. CO2 emission was estimated to be 5407.1kg-CO2 and 10665.2kg-CO2 for 10 and 20 years, respectively. CO2 emission due to city gas was largest in the total CO2 emission in the life cycle. As a result, for reduction of CO2 emission due to a solar water heater, improvement of equipment efficiency was most important. 6 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Characteristic on photovoltaic/thermal hybrid collector. Evaluation of excergetic theory; Taiyoko netsu hybrid collector no tokusei. Exergy ni yoru hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwawaki, H; Morita, Y; Fujisawa, T; Tani, T [Science University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    Described herein are characteristics of photovoltaic (PV)/thermal hybrid collectors (PV/Ts), in which a PV module is combined with a plate-shape solar heat collector to simultaneously produce electric power and heat. Their efficiency is assessed by exergy. The test results indicate that the PV/T system gives a 1.07 times higher exergy than the PV system, 86.3 versus 80.7kWh. In terms of energy, the optimum values (OVs) are 5, 44 and 37% lower than the measuring values (MVs) for electrical energy, thermal energy and total exergy. In terms of exergy, on the other hand, OV is 5% lower than MV for electrical energy, but 893 times higher for thermal energy and 1.26 times higher for total exergy. As a result, the exergy level is 26% higher than that of a system which generates power as the main product and heat as the auxiliary product. 3 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. Evaluation report on research and development of 'the comprehensive water recycling and utilization systems'; 'Mizu sogo saisei riyo system' no kenkyu kaihatsu ni kansuru hyoka hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-08-01

    This research and development project is aimed at treatment of sewage, industrial waste water and the like at lower cost for reutilization, while efficiently producing methane or the like by the systems annexed to the water treatment systems with high-concentration bio-reactor systems incorporating separation membranes. The waste water types studied to be treated by these systems include sewage discharged in large quantities and waste water containing oil/fat and protein (low-concentration waste water), and starch-, alcohol and paper/pulp-containing waste water, and excrements (medium-concentration waste water). The project has found the optimum systems, by adequately configuring the separation membrane modules, and combining dissolution of suspended solid with methane fermentation reactors for selective treatment of organic substances; improved efficiencies of removing organic substances and producing methane by fermentation, and realized reduction in quantities of discharged sludge; and thereby established the bases for the new waste water treatment techniques. The reactor systems developed for water treatment are those based on biological removal of nitrogen. They greatly reduce treatment time to produce treated water of high quality. For treatment of sludge, the techniques have been developed to convert sludge into oil. These results are well applicable to various areas, e.g., sewage treatment, and food and pulp industries. (NEDO)

  19. Evaluation of flux-trapping and magneto-resistibility of superconductors by ESR spectroscopy; ESR ho ni yoru chodendotai no jisoku hosoku to taijiba tokusei no hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusumori, T; Matsuura, K; Muto, H [National Industrial Research Institute of Nagoya, Nagoya (Japan)

    1995-09-28

    The abnormal sisal, which was observed in the ESR measurement of superconductors, was confirmed to be a non-ESR (non resonant) signal, from an ESR experiment applying parallel and vertically polarized microwave fields and from the calculation of the ESR transition probabilities. The field modulation dependence of the spectra revealed that the signal was composed of two components. From the modulation-scheme analysis and a study of type I and II superconductors, two components were assigned to the microwave responses to magnetizations trapped in the crystalline portion and at intergranular Josephson junctions. The former B and the batter J components are observed in the first derivative and absorption a form, respectively, and their polarities differently behave for the field sweep reversal. Based on these results, we have improved an ESR spectrometer, which makes it possible to measure separately two kinds of magnetization and to study the trapping ability and quantum flux. 11 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Evaluation report on research and development of an ultra-advanced processing system. 3; Chosentan kako system no kenkyu kaihatsu ni kansuru hyoka hokokusho. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-08-01

    This paper describes comprehensive evaluation on the following technologies as the ultra-advanced processing system: (1) large output excimer laser, (2) high-density ion beam, (3) an ultra-precision machining device, (4) ultra-advanced processing, (5) measurement and evaluation, and (6) comprehensive test. In the item (1), research and development was performed on such technologies as output increasing, output stabilization and beam formation, having achieved the targets. In the item (2), research and development was performed on such technologies as beam convergence, plasma control, ion transportation, high-frequency quadruple pole acceleration, and large-capacity class ion beam, having achieved the targets. In the item (3), research and development was performed on form creation and ultra-precision machining, having achieved the targets. In the item (4), research and development was performed on formation of high function thin films to apply the laser abrasion process to large area, ion surface modification, wide band area optics, high reflectance optics, ion injection, dynamic mixing, and modification of ultra high-grade metal surface, having achieved the targets. In the item (5), research and development was performed on high-accuracy roughness measurement, shape measurement, optical property evaluation, a wavelength meter, ultra advanced processing standard measurement, and environment correction technology, having achieved the targets. In the item (6), comprehensive demonstration was carried out on the component technologies. (NEDO)

  1. Coal structure construction system with construction knowledge and partial energy evaluation; Kochiku chishiki to bubunteki energy hyoka ni yoru sekitan bunshi kozo kochiku system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okawa, T.; Sasai, T.; Komoda, N. [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-28

    The computer aided coal structure construction system is proposed, and a computational construction example is presented. The coal structure construction engine of this system fabricates molecular structure by connecting fragments sequentially inputted through a user interface. The best structure candidate is determined using construction knowledge and partial energy evaluation every addition of one fragment, and this process is subsequently repeated. The structure evaluation engine analyzes the 3-D conformation candidate by molecular dynamics, and evaluates the conformation by determining the energy value of an optimum structure. As an example, this system was applied to construction of coal molecular structure based on the actual data of partial structure composed of 26 structures from 2l kinds of aromatic cluster structures, 27 bonds from 2 kinds of bridged bonds, and 16 groups from 2 kinds of terminal substitutional groups. As a result, this system could construct a superior structure according to expert knowledge from the viewpoint of energy. 6 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Report on evaluation of research and development of superhigh-function electronic computers; Chokoseino denshi keisanki no kenkyu kaihatsu ni kansuru hyoka hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1973-02-20

    Described herein is development of superhigh-function electronic computers.This project was implemented on a 6-year joint project, beginning in FY 1966, by the government, industrial and academic circles, with the objective to develop standard, large-size computers comparable with those of the world's highest functions by the beginning of the 70's. The computers developed by this project met almost all of the specifications of the world's representative, large-size commercial computers, partly surpassing the world's machine. In particular, integration of the virtual memory, buffer memory and multi-processor functions, which were considered to be the central technical features of the computers of the next generation, into one system was a Japan's unique concept, not seen in other countries. The other developments considered to have great ripple effects are seen in LSI's, and techniques for utilizing and mounting them and for improving their reliability. Development of magnetic discs is another notable result for the peripheral devices. Development of the input/output devices was started to correspond to inputting, outputting and reading Chinese characters, which are characteristics of Japan. The software developed has sufficient functions for common use and is considered to be the world's leading, large-size operating system, although evaluation thereof largely awaits the actual specification results. (NEDO)

  3. Evaluation report on the research and development of automatic sewing systems; 'Jido hosei system' no kenkyu kaihatsu ni kansuru hyoka hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-03-01

    A comprehensive evaluation is made upon completion of the automatic sewing system research and development project. The project aims to achieve a 50% increase in productivity through effective use of a multiple-product/small-amount production scheme in small and medium sewing industries. The intelligent cloth inspecting machine (prior to sewing) in a laser-aided cutting system is as competent as the currently used sewing mill inspection system, and the resultant data are effectively utilized in the cutting process. As for the cutter, it is demonstrated that it is more than two times higher in cutting speed than a currently used laser cutting system; that it is sufficiently accurate in avoiding parts with flaws and in pattern matching; and that it is reliable in complying with process information provided. As for the flexible sewing system, it is acknowledged that it correctly recognizes information attached to cut parts and that it joins them with flexibility in response to changes in the material, pattern, or size. As for the high-technology assembling system, satisfaction is found in its automated 3-dimensional sewing of parts received from the previous stage and in its flow of production. As for the 3-dimensional flexible press, the quality after finish is found satisfying. The said systems are integratedly operated, and it is found that the goal of the research and development has been achieved. (NEDO)

  4. Fiscal 1998 survey report. Survey on method of environmental-impact assessment in wind power development; 1998 nendo furyoku kaihatsu ni okeru kankyo eikyo hyoka shuho chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    With the purpose of preparing the main points of 'environmental-impact assessment guidelines for wind power developments (draft)', examples of environmental-impact assessments, related laws and regulations in Japan and abroad were collected, and rearranged in respect to requirements in environmental-assessments, concrete procedures, survey/projection/assessment method, summarisation of results, etc. It was clarified, for example; in a large-scale wind power development, it can be dealt with by choosing items and contents on the assumption that a land area is developed; in a small-scale development, there is basically no need of considering the possible effect of the construction work; and, as far as noise, vibration and the ecosystem (plants/animals) are concerned, however, the characteristics of the site be taken into consideration. Objects for general assessment are noise, low-frequency air vibration, radio wave interference, the ecosystem (plants and animals) and the landscape. The guideline draft is constituted of (1) basic items, (2) overview of the area, (3) determination of items for environmental-impact assessment and (4) research, prediction, assessment, conservation measures and follow-up research; in the basic items, importance of preliminary consideration was emphasized, as were priority/simplification, implementation of environmental conservation measures, and implementation of follow-up research. (NEDO)

  5. Fiscal 2000 research report on the study on management program for comprehensive assessment of chemical materials; 2000 nendo kagaku busshitsu sogo hyoka kanri program ni kansuru chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    For the realization of environmentally friendly, sound economic activities and the assurance of a safe and peaceful daily life for people, studies were conducted about comprehensive risk assessment and management techniques to use in dealing with chemical substances. Concerning the above-named management program, a workshop was called, where panel discussion and exchange of views and opinions were held. In the study of overseas technological trends, visits were paid to interested institutes and corporations in Denmark, Sweden, and Germany, where hearings were held over the management and manufacture of chemical substances. Concerning the control of chemical substances, surveys were conducted of the control in Japan and abroad and of the methods that businesses and other organizations followed in meeting the control. It was found that the control was being dealt with earnestly in every country and that chemical substances would stay managed under international collaborative conditions. Efforts were being positively exerted by businesses and other organizations to properly manage and reduce chemical substances and to develop and use substitutes. It was found that measures for handling chemical substances were closely knit into business management. (NEDO)

  6. Evaluation of building envelopes from the viewpoint of capability of controlling thermal environment; Onnetsu kankyo chosei noryoku ni yoru kenchiku gaihi no hyoka no kokoromi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umeda, K; Ono, S [Taisei Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Shukuya, M [Musashi Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    The ability that architectural space improves the thermal environment in comparison with outdoor environment is called the `capability of controlling thermal environment.` As the value becomes higher, the indoor thermal environment is more improved. In this paper, the controlling capability of six building envelopes with different window systems was compared. The heat transfer in the wall and window system is approximated using a lumped mass model of heat capacity to obtain a heat balance equation and combined with the heat balance equation in indoor air for backward difference. The wall surface temperature and indoor air temperature in a calculation model are then calculated. A radiation absorption coefficient is used for mutual radiation on each wall. In the model, the adjoining room or first- and second-floor rooms were made the same in conditions as the model on the assumption that the one-side lighted office in an RC reference floor is in the non-illumination and non-airconditioning state. In summer, the controlling capability remarkably varies depending on the window system. For the window facing the south, the annual capability is more advanced than in other directions and the indoor thermal environment is improved on the average. 7 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Evaluation of the performance in the solar assisted heat pump system; Taiyonetsu riyo heat pump system no seino hyoka ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Y [Osaka Institute of Technology, Osaka (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    Performance of a solar heating system with a hydrothermal source heat pump was evaluated and compared with that of a direct solar heating system. The sun-dependency rates ({Sigma}D and {Sigma}H)of the direct system and heat pump (HP)-provided system were expressed as a function of the rate ({alpha}) of the auxiliary heat against the collected heat and as a function of the performance coefficient and {alpha}, respectively. When the sun-dependency rates are compared, it is found that the HP-provided system is the more advantageous when {Sigma}H/{Sigma}D>1. The relationship between the {alpha}`s of the two systems was clarified and computation was performed to compare the sun-dependency rates on condition that the two are equal in the heat collecting area. Although the sun-dependence rate cannot be elevated to 100% in the HP-provided system, it achieves a sun-dependency rate higher than that of the direct system even when the heat collecting area is small. In cases where the building is economically limited, for instance, with respect to the area for solar collector installation, it is advantageous to employ the HP-provided system. 5 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Evaluation report on research and development of an ultra-advanced processing system. Summary edition; Chosentan kako system no kenkyu kaihatsu ni kansuru hyoka hokokusho. Gaiyohen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-08-01

    Research, development and evaluation were performed with an objective of establishing the basic processing technology and ultra-precision machining device technology utilizing large output excimer laser and high density ion beams. With regard to the large output excimer laser technology, the short wavelength excimer laser life extension technology has demonstrated ong-life operation of 1.02 times 10{sup 9} shots exceeding the final target at the initial laser output of 105 mJ/pulse. With respect to the high-density ion beam technology, the gas phase converged ion beam technology has achieved an ionic current density of 2.5 {mu}A/sr. and a beam current of 25 pA. Regarding the ultra-precision machining device technology, a large ultra-precision grinding machine of five shaft control type was developed as a final target demonstrating machine, which exhibited the shape accuracy of 0.7 {mu}m and surface roughness of 3.45nm. The surface roughness satisfied the final target. Other activities include studies on the ultra-advanced processing technology, measurement and evaluation technology, comprehensive tests, and practical application of the technologies, having derived respective achievements. (NEDO)

  9. Evaluation report on research and development of high-speed computation system for technological use; Kagaku gijutsuyo kosoku keisan system no kenkyu kaihatsu ni kansuru hyoka hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-08-01

    The above-named project is an effort implemented under the large-scale industrial technology research and development system through the cooperation of industrial, academic, and governmental circles in the nine-year-long period beginning in fiscal 1981. The project aims to establish technologies required for putting to practical use a high-speed computation system capable of speedily dealing with huge technological problems which the computers available at the commencement of the project failed to solve. The goals set for new devices and comprehensive systems were sufficiently challenging in view of the technological level of those days, and are still at the highest level in the world. It is judged that the goals were set with reason and appropriateness. The liaison council for the implementation of the project is constituted of people of experience or academic standing, entrusted research and development activities, Ministry of International Trade and Industry bureaus concerned, and the Electrotechnical Laboratory of the same ministry. Discussion, coordination, and communication on concrete matters are under way between the constituent members, contributing to the enhancement of research and development. The liaison council activities are evaluated to be appropriate and effective. (NEDO)

  10. Development of a user interface and evaluation of an ontology for menu-based retrieval; Soho menu ni tekishita interface no kaihatsu to yogo bunrui no hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Y.; Shinohara, Y.

    2000-06-01

    We have proposed the 'complementary menu system' as an easy-to-build and easy-to-use menu system. It has two component menu systems, one is based on a word taxonomy and the other is based on the document structure (e.g., the table of contents of the target document). By the user's selection of an item on a menu, the positions and relevance of related items are shown on the other menu, which makes users easier to select proper menu items. We have also shown the combination of context-sensitive menus reduces user's errors of selection of menu items by several experiments. In this report, we investigate the choice of word taxonomies effective for novice users and the design of structure and interface of menus to reduce overlooked related items. 1. Comparative experiment among a complementary menu using a general-purpose word taxonomy used in a thesaurus and the ones using domain-specific taxonomies based on quick references used in the target document, shows that even novice users prefer domain-specific word taxonomies and exhibit higher performance in retrieval significantly. 2. Comparison between a domain-specific word taxonomy that arranges different categories in a line and another domain-specific word taxonomy which reorganizes the categories under one parent category, suggests users relatively prefer the latter taxonomy but the preference depends on the amount of user's domain specific knowledge. 3. Component menu system which has only one menu showing the whole taxonomic hierarchy with scrollbars on which the positions and relevance of related items are shown is effective to reduce the number of overlooked items. (author)

  11. Decay of 57Ni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos Scardino, A.M. dos.

    1987-01-01

    The decay of 57 Ni to 57 Co was studied by gamma ray spectroscopy using both singles and coincidence spectra. The sources were obtained with the 58 Ni (Y,n) 57 Ni reaction. Natural metallic nickel was irradiated in the bremsstrahluhng beam of the linear accelerator of the Instituto de Fisica da Universidade de Sao Paulo with 30 MeV electrons. The singles espectra were taken with 104 cc HPGe detector and the coincidences espectra with 27 and 53cc Ge(Li) and 104 cc. HPGe detectors. The energies of transitions that follow the 57 Ni decay were measured using 56 Co as standard (which was obtained by (Y,np) reaction in 58 Ni) and taking into account the cascade cross-over relations. (author) [pt

  12. FY 2000 project on the research cooperation for the environmental response type water resource effective utilization system; 2000 nendo kenkyu kyoryoku jigyo. Kankyo taiogata mizu shigen yuko riyo system ni kansuru kenkyu kyoryoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    For the purpose of prevention of water pollution, stable water supply in the Philippines, etc., developmental study was made of a waste water treatment/water recycling system, and the FY 2000 results were summed up. In the operational study of Pilot Plant 1, for the waste water in the papermaking process of used paper recycling plant, development was studied of a waste water treatment/water recycling system. There occurred problems on minuteness, outflow, etc. of anaerobic granules, but those were caused by malfunction of SS removal equipment at plant side. The problems were solved by increasing flocculation/precipitation facilities. As to Pilot Plant 2 of which the R and D are planned to be started in April 2001, the food processing plant was surveyed for study, and SYSCORE was selected. Relating to the waste water treatment test of Pilot Plant 2, researchers of the Industrial Technology Development Institute (ITDI) of the Philippines conducted it under the guidance of the experimental data analysis. Besides, the paper carried out the training for technology spread/acceptance, technology spread seminar, support study in Japan, etc. (NEDO)

  13. Report on achievements in fiscal 1975 in Sunshine Project. Studies on wide area existence of geothermal resources in great depth; 1975 nendo koiki shinbu chinetsu shigen fuson ni kansuru kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1976-03-01

    This paper reports the achievements in the following study items: (1) studies on the AFMT method, (2) observation of heat dissipation by using infrared thermal images, (3) evaluation on the annular topographic pattern in the Hachimantai area identified from the Landsat satellite images, (4) studies on the Tamagawa welded pyroclastic rocks, (5) studies on minerals transformed from the Tamagawa welded pyroclastic rocks, and (6) a method to analyze ground temperature data by using graphic display. Items 2 and 6 in the studies are on the heat balance method, and Item 3 is on remote sensing. Items 4 and 5 were performed as the study on geologic thermometry. In Item 1, a prototype AFMT method exploration device was fabricated, and field experiments were performed in the Onuma area in the Hachimantai wide-area geothermal experiment field. The experiment placed importance on finding problems in transmission and reception of signals from an artificially fluctuating magnetic field, whose result was found greatly contributive to understanding the physical phenomena. However, it was not possible to reach a level to analyze geological structures from the data. In Item 2, simple meteorological observation was performed on ground surface temperature distribution by using an infrared radiation thermometer of remote sensing type. Development was made on a method to measure natural heat dissipation amount from heat balance on the ground surface. (NEDO)

  14. Comprehensive research concerning the development of effective utilizing techniques of biological resources (large scale research out of the framework). Seibutsu shigen no koritsuteki riyo gijutsu no kaihatsu ni kansuru sogo kenkyu (ogata betsuwaku kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-25

    This paper is a research report in which the cultivated production of forest resources, the development to useful substances and the systematization to take the root in a region were studied. The distribution maps of biological resources on respective woodland systems: that is, the nationwide distribution maps of the amount of resources in Japan as to the broadleaf trees in private forests and national forests, the available amount and kinds of tree were prepared. As for the establishment of cultivation technique of the super-short deforestation forest, that is, pursue of wooden growth to the maximum limit, the superior clone 26 system was selected from the willow group through the research of wooden cultivation and the clone which showed the maximum yield reached 24t/ha every year. As for the material preparation technique due to microbial enzymes, that is, the creation and breeding of fungi which have the high lignin decomposition power, a stock of fungi which has the high lignin decomposition power and the decomposition selectivity was created by the cell fusion and the UV (ultraviolet ray) radiation treatment. As for the use of effective components in wooden resources, many useful characteristics could be detected by applying the boiling, bursting and ozone treatment. As for the mushroom cultivation through the application of unused tree kinds, a new kind of mushroom for food service was selected to clarify the possibility of fruit body formation. The development of a new material from conifers is promising. 1 tab.

  15. FY 1996 report on the cooperative research on the development of environmentally friendly high efficiency mineral resource extraction/treatment technology; 1996 nendo kankyo chowagata kokoritsu kobutsu shigen chushutsu shori gijutsu no kaihatsu ni kansuru kenkyu kyoryoku hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This promotion project on the cooperative research aims at developing technology to efficiently extract and recover valuable metals including in large quantity in tailings of ores in the Republic of Kazakhstan in consideration of the environmental harmony. The support study in Japan was conducted as follows. As to the Nikolayevska low grade ore, high leaching speed and high leaching rate by grain refining were made possible. The coarse grain was also possible of leaching if leached for a long time. The sulfide froth is possible of leaching in fine grain and in the temperature range of 50 degrees C. The Zhezkent tailings were possible of leaching with sulfuric acid, by aeration, and in the range of medium temperature. The sulfide froth was possible of leaching in fine grain and at temperature of 50 degrees C. After filtration/washing and regrinding, high sampling rates of bulk concentrate and pyrite concentrate were obtained by sulfide flotation by zanthate. The Zhezkent copper concentrate was tested on various factors such as grain size, temperature, and washing/no washing, to confirm effects of bacteria. In the pre-observation test on Au and Ag leaching, cyanogen leaching test was conducted using Cu leaching residue. About Cu, studied were leaching (vat leaching, flotation froth machine agitation (temperature increase, bacteria)), solvent extraction, and electrowinning. About Au and Ag, studied were cyanogen leaching and process of adsorption of activated carbon. (NEDO)

  16. Report on a survey in fiscal 1999. Part 2. Survey on the biomass-derived energy conversion technology; 1999 nendo biomass shigen wo genryo to suru energy henkan gijutsu ni kansuru chosa hokokusho. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Biomass energy is positioned as a promising environment harmonizing energy in the 21st century because it does not break down the CO2 balance in the global scale. The present survey has investigated quantity of biomass resources utilizable as energy resources, investigated and analyzed the biomass-derived energy conversion technology, searched for a promising practically usable technology, and discussed the means to achieve the technological introduction. The foreword chapter describes that now is the good time to recognize importance of and introduce the biomass-derived technology. First and second chapters estimate energy potential and utilizable quantity of wastes-based biomass in Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, and Brazil. Chapter 3 investigates feasibility of methane fermentation and ethanol fermentation as a promising bio-chemical conversion process. Chapter 4 has performed feasibility studies on biomass electric power generation, methanol synthesis by gasification, thermal decomposition and gasification as promising thermo-chemical conversion processes. Chapter 5 proposed a biomass electric power generation system, a biomass-gasified methanol synthesizing system, and a dimethyl ether production system. (NEDO)

  17. Achievement report for fiscal 2000 on international research cooperation project. Research on technologies to decompose heavy hydrocarbon resources; 2000 nendo jushitsu tanka suiso shigen no bunkai gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Researches have been made on structuring a hydrocracking process for vacuum distillation residue of Marlim crude oil produced in Brazil (Marlim-VR) being one of the heavy hydrocarbon resources. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 2000. In discussing the hydrocracking conditions, discussions were given on the effects of different iron-based catalysts, reaction pressures, reaction temperatures, effects of solvent addition, and the catalyst made of natural limonite produced in Brazil. As a result, the bottom yield was reduced successfully to 5.5% VR, and conversely oil yield was enhanced up to 84.8% VR by using the limonite produced in Brazil as a catalyst, and by performing bottom recycles under the conditions of 450 degrees C and 10 MPa. In discussing the up-grading of hydrocracking produced oil, a result of 99% by weight or higher was obtained in both of denitration and desulfurization rates. In the fuel evaluation test, a product exceeding 45 being the JIS standard for light oil was derived, which was found a clean product having lower sulfur concentration than the existing heavy oil. (NEDO)

  18. Report on follow-up for joint research of valuable resources recovery techniques from brackish water; Kansuichu no yuka shigen kaishu gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu kyoryoku follow up hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This report describes follow-up for research and development on the recovery of valuable resources, such as magnesium, bromine and boron, contained in the brackish water for manufacture of common salt in the coastal region of Mexico. For the field survey, salt garden, irrigation plant and manufacturing plant of dinning salt were inspected. The optimum site was examined by assuming desalination plant and solar pond. The groundwater in coastal regions is progressively salified. Since the coastal region is a tourist resort with an round-trip area of whales, environmental protection is indispensable. For the joint research with invited researchers, the solar pond system and fresh water generation were studied. As a result, it was found that the solar pond system is an excellent method for keeping thermal energy in a low cost at the salt garden with abundant solar energy, and that the desalination system combined with distilling is the most suitable method. 7 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Fiscal 1993 investigational report on the strengthening of the resource/energy industrial basis of CIS Central Asia (the Republic of Kazakhstan); 1993 nendo CIS Chuo Asia (Kazafusutan kyowakoku) no shigen energy sangyo kiban kyoka ni kansuru chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-05-01

    The paper grasps the present situation of economy and industry in Kazakhstan and studies a policy for developing the industrial machine manufacturing industry of the country. Since the independence in 1992, the country is now at the great turning point in politics, economy, society and industry. The country is forced to convert from the industrial structure of one local area where much of its own discretion had not been given under the economy system of power centralization to the industrial structure which meets the international economic market system as an independent country. Making good use of agricultural and industrial property in the former U.S.S.R., the country needs to export energy resource like oil, natural gas and coal, and abundant ore resource like iron and non-ferrous metal, which were added with values. As the technical base for it, fostering and strengthening of the industrial machine manufacturing industry is important. At present, the situation is that because of the economic sluggishness, the country cannot manufacture domestically even basic mechanical parts and simply-manufactured parts which are required by the domestic energy industry, machine manufacturing industry, and other industries. The technical program to be proposed by Japan is planned to be worked out later based on the basic research made in fiscal 1993. 6 figs., 14 tabs.

  20. FY 1995 report on the cooperative research on the development of environmentally friendly high efficiency mineral resource extraction/treatment technology; 1995 nendo kankyo chowagata kokoritsu kobutsu shigen chushutsu shori gijutsu no kaihatsu ni kansuru kenkyu kyoryoku hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This promotion project on the cooperative research aims to efficiently extract and recover valuable metals (gold, silver, copper, rare metal, etc.) including in large quantity in tailings of ores in the Republic of Kazakhstan. In FY 1995, conducted were the field survey, support study in Japan, acceptance of researchers from Kazakhstan, conceptual design of pilot plant, etc. The ore/mineral for Cu is mainly an alteration ore of chalcopyrite. Au and Ag are low grade and unknown, and the main gangue mineral is pyrite. The low grade ore (waste/much) of the Nikolayevska mine has a tendency to leaching at normal temperature, but the ore of mostly chalcopyrite such as tailings from each place has difficulty in leaching. It gets leaching by increasing temperature. The more the temperature rises, the more conspicuous the reaction becomes. Further, chalcopyrite is leached with priority over pyrite. From the result, a technical potentiality was obtained of leaching of low grade chalcopyrite in tailings mostly of pyrite. The existence of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans was confirmed. As to the recovery method for Au and Ag, CIC is studied. The process of waste/much is solvent extraction, electrowinning study and leaching, and that of tailings is bacteria leaching and leaching study. (NEDO)

  1. FY 2000 report on the results of the survey on the biomass-derived energy conversion technology. III; 2000 nendo biomass shigen wo genryo to suru energy henkan gijutsu ni kansuru chosa. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    In relation to the biomass-derived energy conversion technology which was regarded as promising from the results of the survey already made, the survey was made on the present situation and subjects of the technical development, social needs, energy efficiency, economical efficiency and the future. Studies were conducted on the development of technology for effective biomass utilization and the conceptual design and evaluation of a system for effective biomass utilization. As to the effective biomass utilization technology, the survey was made on the biomass combustion power generation technology/gasification power generation technology, gasification methanol synthesis of biomass, biomass gasification dimethyl ether synthesis, technology of ethanol production by alcohol fermentation via saccharification of biomass, methy-esterification of grease biomass, especially palm oil, and diesel oil production via reformation of by-product glycerin, and energy production from biomass using super- (sub- ) critical reaction. As to the system for effective biomass utilization, the survey was carried out of the regional outline, resource amount and sampling amount, selection of the conversion technology, and economical efficiency of Takatsuki city, Osaka, Shimokawa town, Hokkaido, Yufutsu/Hidaka region, Hokkaido, and Aogaki town, Hyogo. (NEDO)

  2. FY1996 research cooperation for the development of the environmentally friendly technology for highly efficient mineral resources extraction and treatment; 1997 nendo kankyo chowagata kokoritsu kobutsu shigen chushutsu shori gijutsu no kaihatsu ni kansuru kenkyu kyoryoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The above-named project aims to jointly develop technologies to efficiently extract and recover valuable metals (gold, silver, copper, rare metals, etc.) from slag, with caution fully exercised to conserve the environment, for effectively utilizing non-ferrous resources in the Republic of Kazakhstan. The effort covers a seven-year period beginning in fiscal 1994. The elements which are studied are technologies that involve leaching, solvent extraction, electroextraction, recovery of gold and silver, and waste water treatment. In this fiscal year, wet treatment, gold and silver treatment, and waste water treatment are studied in on-site joint researches and in domestic researches for specimens sampled at the Kazakhstan site. In addition, based on the results of the above-said basic researches, some parts of the pilot plant to be constructed is designed and manufactured. For propelling forward the project, equipment necessary for joint research is procured and forwarded to the site, and Kazakhstan scientists are invited to Japan for training. (NEDO)

  3. Survey report for fiscal 1998. Survey of creation of highly efficient renewable resources and bioconversion technologies; 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho. Kokoritsu saisei kano shigen no sosei narabini bio conversion gijutsu ni kansuru chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    A survey is conducted concerning environmentally friendly industrial technologies that utilize renewable resources, which are technologies of creating highly renewable resources and converting renewable resources by breeding industrial vegetation. In relation with the creation technologies, the state of research and development of basic technologies is surveyed, which involves the fabrication of environmental stress resisting vegetation, studies for the application of the gene expression control mechanism, introduction of multigenes and site-directed genes, etc. Concerning the respective target products expected to be produced by industrial vegetation, as much information as possible relative to genes is collected on the current state of production, metabolism in vegetation and microbials, and biosynthesis. Surveyed in relation with the bioconversion technology are the conversion of vegetation-derived polymers, construction of environmentally friendly ligno-bioprocess, conversion of sugar, production of biofuels, etc. Furthermore, the technology of treating ligneous wastes with supercritical water is surveyed, this to determine the practicality of the technology at the current stage. (NEDO)

  4. Survey on hydraulic power resources. Survey plan (draft) (For clean energy of the future generations); Chikyu kibo suiryoku shigen chosa chosa keikakusho (an). Mirai no sedai ni clean energy wo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-03-01

    Promotion of development of hydraulic power and others as fossil fuel alternative energy sources is one of the most important measures for solving the global environmental problems. This draft plan proposes, first of all, to conduct surveys on hydraulic power resources on a global scale, to collect the basic data for development of the energy sources. It is estimated that developed hydraulic power resources account for approximately 14% of the total developable resources, the remainder being left untouched. By region, these percentages rise to approximately 55 and 45% in North America and Europe, respectively. These percentages in Asia, Africa, Latin America and FSU are significantly lower, and their undeveloped resources are estimated to total approximately 6 times as large as those already developed worldwide. It is expected that the hydraulic power resources are surveyed on a 10-year plan (1991 to 2000) with a total budget of 30 billion yen, to collect the data and establish the databases in cooperation with international organizations, e.g., UN organizations, regional organizations (e.g., ASEAN organizations) and newly founded organizations. (NEDO)

  5. Bridging exchange bias effect in NiO and Ni(core)@NiO(shell) nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinaldi-Montes, Natalia, E-mail: nataliarin@gmail.com [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Oviedo, E-33007 Oviedo (Spain); Gorria, Pedro [Departamento de Física & IUTA, EPI, Universidad de Oviedo, E-33203 Gijón (Spain); Martínez-Blanco, David [Servicios Científico-Técnicos, Universidad de Oviedo, E-33006 Oviedo (Spain); Fuertes, Antonio B. [Instituto Nacional del Carbón, CSIC, E-33080 Oviedo (Spain); Fernández Barquín, Luis [CITIMAC, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Cantabria, E-39005 Santander (Spain); Puente-Orench, Inés [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragón, CSIC-Universidad de Zaragoza and Institut Laue-Langevin, BP 156, F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Blanco, Jesús A. [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Oviedo, E-33007 Oviedo (Spain)

    2016-02-15

    Among all bi-magnetic core(transition metal)@shell(transition metal oxide) nanoparticles (NPs), Ni@NiO ones show an onset temperature for the exchange bias (EB) effect far below the Néel temperature of bulk antiferromagnetic NiO. In this framework, the role played by the magnetism of NiO at the nanoscale is investigated by comparing the microstructure and magnetic properties of NiO and Ni@NiO NPs. With the aim of bridging the two systems, the diameter of the NiO NPs (~4 nm) is chosen to be comparable to the shell thickness of Ni@NiO ones (~2 nm). The EB effect in Ni@NiO NPs is attributed to the exchange coupling between the core and the shell, with an interfacial exchange energy of ΔE~0.06 erg cm{sup −2}, thus comparable to previous reports on Ni/NiO interfaces both in thin film and NP morphologies. In contrast, the EB detected in NiO NPs is explained in a picture where uncompensated spins located on a magnetically disordered surface shell are exchange coupled to the antiferromagnetic core. In all the studied NPs, the variation of the EB field as a function of temperature is described according to a negative exponential law with a similar decay constant, yielding a vanishing EB effect around T~40–50 K. In addition, the onset temperature for the EB effect in both NiO and Ni@NiO NPs seems to follow a universal dependence with the NiO crystallite size. - Highlights: • Comparison of the exchange bias effect in NiO and Ni(core)@NiO(shell) nanoparticles. • Universal temperature dependence of the exchange bias effect. • Suggested similar physical origin of the effect in both systems. • Size and crystallinity of the NiO shell hold the key for exchange bias properties.

  6. Research on estimation of methane generated in paddy field and release mechanism of the gas into the atmosphere. Suiden ni okeru methane hasseiryo no hyoka to sono hoshutsu kiko ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minami, K; Nouchi, I; Yagi, K [National Institute of Agro-Environmental Science, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1991-11-25

    Research and estimation have been carried out on a mechanism to generate methane in paddy fields, which relates closely to global warming. For methane flux measurement, the chamber method was used. The result revealed that with paddy fields mixed with organic substances, methane generation was abundant in the order of raw rice straw mixed area > rice straw compost mixed area > chemical fertilizer mixed area. At the Ryugasaki test area, the raw rice straw and fertilizer mixed areas have generated methane annually at 27.0 gm[sup [minus]2] and 8.2 gm[sup [minus]2], respectively. With regard to soil types, the order was peat soil > gley soil > Kuroboku soil > light-colored Kuroboku soil, where the peat soil generated about 40 times as much of methane as the light-colored Kuroboku soil. As regards the influence from drainage adjustment, normally water-filled field, wet field, and dry field generated methane at 9.25, 4.79, and 0.34 gm[sup [minus]1] y[sup [minus]1], respectively. Amount of methane generated annually from paddy fields over the whole world was estimated at 22 to 73[times]10[sup 12] g. It was determined from the above facts that methane generation may be reduced if organic substance mixing and water in paddy fields are controlled properly. 8 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Euro-NCAP and the German ideas for new safety assessment of car in Europe; Euro-NCAAP to Europe ni okeru joyosha no atarashii anzen hyoka hoho ni taisuru Doitsu no kenkai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omae, H. [Japan Automobile Research Institute Inc., Tsukuba (Japan)

    2000-03-01

    This report summarized German's proposed revised plan of Euro-NCAP (European New Car Assessment Programme) presently implemented in Europe. As to the estimation of car safety, by entrusting it to Technical University Berlin in the latter half of the 1980s, German has been studying since then and summed up the results as TUB-NCAP. In this proposal, three tests were conducted on full-lap, offset front collision, and European side collision. The car damage in each collision form in accidents on the market, frequency of occurrence of handicap of each crew member. By putting weight of each frequency on the data obtained from each test, the estimation can be made comprehensively in a scoring method. In this method, wherever the test is conducted, the whole car can be estimated in the quantified form in which the objective element is not included. And the effect in the market accident also increases, and the accurate information is conveyed to users. It is unknown that in what form this German proposal can be reflected by Euro-NCAP and other countries. (NEDO)

  8. Report on evaluation of research and development of direct steel-making using high-temperature reducing gas. Phase 1. Draft; Koon kangen gas riyo ni yoru chokusetsu seitetsu no kenkyu kaihatsu (daiikki) ni kansuru hyoka hokokusho (an)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-01-01

    Described herein is development of direct steel-making using high-temperature reducing gas. A light hydrocarbon fraction (boiling point: 230 degrees C or lower), produced by steam cracking of vacuum residua, is reformed into a reducing gas in the presence of steam, using heat to be supplied by a nuclear plant which produces high-temperature gases for various purposes. This reducing gas is then supplied to a plant for producing reduced iron. This project has established basic techniques for designing, constructing and operating a direct steel-making pilot plant, to be connected to a 50 MWt high-temperature gas test furnace. The closed iron-making system and greatly reduced SOx emissions to several fractions of the current level are some of the expected effects. The environmental impacts of the high-temperature gas furnace will be on a level with those associated with a light-water reactor. Cracking and gasification of vacuum residua, which has found limited purposes so far, should expand its applicable areas and reduce dependence on fossil resources, leading to diversification of energy sources. The overall thermal efficiency of the high-temperature gas furnace is expected to increase to at least 60%, because its high-temperature gases of around 1,000 degrees C can be used for heating processes, and the waste heat can be further used for generation of steam for power production. (NEDO)

  9. Formation of secondary products in water purification. ; Toxicological evaluation of mutagenic chlorination by-products during drinking water treatment. Josui shori ni okeru fukuseiseibutsu. ; Josui shori ni okeru hen'i genseibusshitsu no dokusei hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamuro, K [Setsunan Univ., Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences; Sayato, Y [Setsunan Univ., Osaka (Japan)

    1993-12-10

    The biological effects of acute toxicity, chronic toxicity, carcinogenicity, etc. of chlorination by-products detected in drinking water in Japan are discussed. The biological effects of representative chlorination by-products such as trihalomethane, haloacetic acid, haloaldehyde, haloacetonitrile, chlorophenol, chloropicrin, etc. as well as the evaluation of mutagenicity in drinking water purification process, for which Ames Salmonella/microsome assay is used for safety evaluation of drinking water, are discussed. The extent of the contribution of mutagenicity of chlorination disinfection by-products to the mutagenicity of drinking water is investigated. It must be admitted that biological evaluation of the safety of water quality is impossible currently by using only the known chemical substances contained in drinking water. The effects of chlorination and ozone treatment which are often applied to drinking water treatment are different each other. 58 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  10. Report on a survey in fiscal 1999. Survey on the actual state of utilizing unified evaluation models for global warming; 1999 nendo chikyu ondanka ni kansuru togo hyoka model no katsuyo jittai ni kansuru chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The present survey is intended to compare and analyze major unified global warming evaluation models available inside and outside the country, and analyze the directionality on supports for the future model developments that will be performed by the Ministry of International Trade and Industry. The report describes in Section 1 how the summaries of the global warming evaluation models may be put into order. A unified evaluation model may be positioned basically as a platform to unify the processes of recognizing scientific problems and the processes of determining the policies. Section 2 describes how the summaries of the major global warming evaluation models may be put into order. The models include the followings: DNE21 (Dynamic New Earth 21), GRAPE model, AIM model, MESSAGE (IIASA) model, IMAGE2 (RIVM), and GREEN (Gene Ral Equilibrium Environment)(OECD). Section 3 summarizes the purposes, general situation of development, scope of the objects, and technological features as the features of each model. Section 4 describes the analysis of the actual state of utilizing unified evaluation models for global warming. The results of the analysis were put into order in a map form to make clear the positioning of the major models that have been put into order. (NEDO)

  11. Study of a fuel injection quantity sensor in diesel engine. Part 3. Experimental evaluation of the improved type micro turbine sensor; Diesel kikan ni okeru nenryo funsharyo sensor no kenkyu. 3. Funsharyo keisoku no seido kojo ni kansuru jikken hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maehara, H; Iwasaki, T; Kobayashi, T [Zexel Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    A Micro Turbine Sensor has been developed to measure fuel injection quantity and injection rate. Previous reports described results of experiments on the MTS which were carried out under steady and unsteady flow conditions. The MTS has been improved in shape of a holder tip and a detecting procedure for rotating speed of a turbine. As a result revolution speed of the turbine increased 18% over the conventional type holder under steady flow condition. Furthermore the measurement resolution of the MTS came up to about 2(mm{sup 3}/pulse) at 20(mm{sup 3}/stroke) under intermittent spray conditions using fuel injection pump. 11 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Ab initio MO study on the thermal stability of 1-phenyl-1H-tetrazoles; Hikeikenteki bunshi kidoho ni yoru 1-Ph-1H tetorazoru yudotai no netsu anteisei hyoka ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, Yoshio.; Akutsu, Yoshiaki.; Arai, Mitsuru.; Tamura, Masamitsu. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). School of Engineering; Matsunaga, Takehiro. [National Institute of Materials and Chemical Research, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1999-06-30

    Ab initio MO calculations of 1-phenyl-1H-tetrazoles were carried out, in order to explain a substituent effects on its high thermal stability and to estimate the thermal stability of the other tetrazoles. Similar to 1H-tetrazole, five bonds in the tetrazole ring have intermediate lengths between single and double bond lengths. Phenyl and tetrazole rings are not both on one plane showing no interaction. Three indexes addopted as a measure of thermal stability indicate that the more equal the bond lengths of the ring are and that the bigger the stabilization energy by ring formation is, the more thermally stable they are. It is found out that there is the relationship between the thermal stability and the ring charge. That is, the more negative the ring charge is, the more thrmally stable the tetrazole is. Also, there is a good relationship between the thermal stability and the energy level of orbital of which orbital is an anti bonding type with respect to the N3-N4 bond. The higher the energy level is, the more thermally stable the tetrazole is. (author)

  13. Achievement report on research and development (1st phase) of direct iron making by use of high-temperature; Koon kangen gas riyo ni yoru chokusetsu seitetsu no kenkyu kaihatsu (daiikki) ni kansuru hyoka hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-02-01

    Efforts are put into the study of direct iron making for use in a closed system where heat energy from a multi-purpose high-temperature gas furnace expected to be developed in the near future will be utilized for iron making. The researches, carried out for the establishment of technologies necessary for designing, building, and operating a pilot plant dimensionally suitable for connection to a 50MWt multi-purpose high-temperature gas furnace, cover the plant total system, a high-temperature heat exchanger, ultrahigh-temperature alloys, high-temperature insulating materials, a reduced gas generating unit, and a reduced iron making unit. When the effort is evaluated as a whole, it is found that the newly developed system is effective in preventing pollution, emitting but 0.1Nm{sup 3} of SOx per 1 ton of crude iron against the 0.4-0.9Nm{sup 3} emitted by a blast furnace/converter iron making mill. It is also found effective in reducing fossil fuel dependence and in enhancing energy source diversification. When it comes to energy conversion efficiency, furthermore, it is shown that the new system achieves a rate of 60% or more while only approximately 30% is attained by light water reactor power generation and approximately 40% by a high-temperature gas furnace. (NEDO)

  14. Survey report for fiscal 1998. Evaluation by industrial circles of the COP3 outcome and their future response (America); 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho. COP3 no kekka ni taisuru sangyokai no hyoka oyobi kongo no taio ni tsuite (Beikoku)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Response in America to COP3 (Third Session of the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change) is investigated. Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE) of America's Department of Energy conducts activities designed to protect environments and supports America's economic competitiveness. The scope of EE activities is quite wide, covering efforts at energy efficiency improvement and renewal energy utilization for all energy consuming sectors involving construction work and equipment for buildings, various industries and public utility works, and transportation. EE also supports and promotes the development of advanced industrial materials, electric vehicles, hybrid vehicles, fuel cells, etc. In the field of renewable energy, it deals with the exploitation of sunlight, biomass, wind force, water power, geothermal energy, etc. It also supports efficiency improvement efforts being undertaken through studies of advanced power transmission and distribution, high-temperature superconduction, energy storage, etc. The said supports are provided not only by Federal Government but also by state governments, and include financial aids. A number of programs are under way, worked out and promoted by the respective bureaus and departments. They are evaluated, protected, and implemented through the partnership of official and civilian organizations. (NEDO)

  15. OpenNI cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Falahati, Soroush

    2013-01-01

    This is a Cookbook with plenty of practical recipes enriched with explained code and relevant screenshots to ease your learning curve. If you are a beginner or a professional in NIUI and want to write serious applications or games, then this book is for you. Even OpenNI 1 and OpenNI 1.x programmers who want to move to new versions of OpenNI can use this book as a starting point. This book uses C++ as the primary language but there are some examples in C# and Java too, so you need to have about a basic working knowledge of C or C++ for most cases.

  16. Gd-Ni-Si system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodak, O.I.; Shvets, A.F.

    1983-01-01

    By X-ray phase analysis method isothermal cross section of phase diagram of the Gd-Ni-Si system at 870 K is studied. The existence of nine previously known compounds (GdNisub(6.72)Sisub(6.28), GdNi 10 Si 2 , GdNi 5 Si 3 , GdNi 4 Si, GdNi 2 Si 2 , GdNiSi 3 , GdNiSi 2 , Gd 3 Ni 6 Si 2 and GdNiSi) is confirmed and three new compounds (GdNisub(0.2)Sisub(1.8), Gdsub(2)Nisub(1-0.8)Sisub(1-1.2), Gd 5 NiSi 4 ) are found. On the base of Gd 2 Si 3 compound up to 0.15 at. Ni fractions, an interstitial solid solution is formed up to 0.25 at Ni fractions dissolution continues of substitution type. The Gd-Ni-Si system is similar to the Y-Ni-Si system

  17. Internal carbonitriding behavior of Ni-V, Ni-Cr, and Ni-3Nb alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, A.T.; Douglass, D.L.

    1999-01-01

    Ni-2V, Ni-5V, Ni-12V, Ni-10Cr, Ni-20Cr, and Ni-3Nb alloys were carbonitrided in C 3 H 6 and NH 3 gas mixtures (bal H 2 ) over the range 700--1,000 C. Carbonitridation of Ni-12V and Ni-20Cr in C 3 H 6 /NH 3 /H 2 (1.5/1.5/97 v/o) and (1.5/10/88.5 v/o) produced duplex subscales consisting of near-surface nitrides with underlying carbides. Growth of each zone obeyed the parabolic rate law under most conditions. The presence of carbon generally did not effect the depth of the nitride zones compared to nitriding the alloys in NH 3 /H 2 (10/90 v/o). However, at 700 C, the nitride zones were deeper in the carbonitrided Ni-V alloys and Ni-20Cr. The presence of nitrogen generally increased the depth of the carbide zones in Ni-12V and Ni-20Cr compared to carburizing these alloys in C 3 H 6 /H 2 (1.5/98.5 v/o). VN, CrN, and NbN formed in Ni-V, Ni-Cr, and Ni-Nb alloys, respectively, whereas the underlying carbide layers contained V 4 C 3 in Ni-12V, Cr 3 C 2 above a zone of Cr 7 C 3 in Ni-20Cr, and NbC in Ni-3Nb. The solubilities and diffusivities of nitrogen and carbon in nickel were determined. Nitrogen and carbon each exhibited retrograde solubility with temperature in pure Ni in both carbonitriding environments. Nitrogen diffusion in nickel was generally lower in each carbonitriding mixture compared to nitrogen diffusion in a nitriding environment, except at 700 C when nitrogen diffusion was higher. Carbon diffusion in nickel was generally higher in the carbonitriding environments compared to carbon diffusion in a carburizing environment

  18. Nipah Virus (NiV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Nipah Virus (NiV) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... gov . Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Nipah virus (NiV) is a member of the family Paramyxoviridae , ...

  19. Ni República parlamentaria ni presidencialista

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez Tardío, Manuel

    2004-01-01

    Revista de Estudios Políticos (Nueva Época), Núm. 123. Enero-Marzo 2004 Este trabajo está dedicado al estudio de un aspecto básico del sistema político de la II República española (1931-1936): el modelo de presidencia de la República y de relaciones de la misma con el parlamento y el gobierno. Aquí se sostiene que la Segunda República, de acuerdo con su Constitución, no fue un régimen parlamentario ni presidencial. Combinó de forma extraña y ambigua elementos de ambos modelos. Probablement...

  20. Microstructural development in NiAl/Ni-Si-B/Ni transient liquid phase bonds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gale, W.F.; Orel, S.V.

    1996-01-01

    A transmission electron microscopy (TEM) based investigation of microstructural development during transient liquid phase bonding of near-stoichiometric NiAl to commercial purity nickel is presented in this article. The work described employed Ni-4.5 wt pct Si-3.2 wt pct B (BNi-3) melt-spun interlayers. The precipitation of both Ni-Al based phases and borides within the joint and adjacent substrate regions is discussed. The article considers martensite formation (within the NiAl substrate) and the precipitation of L1 2 type phases (both within the joint and at the interface with the NiAl substrate). The relative roles of the two substrate materials (NiAl and Ni) in the isothermal resolidification process are identified. The preferential formation of Ni 3 B boride phases in the Ni substrate near the original location of the Ni substrate-joint interface is discussed and contrasted with the absence of similar events in the NiAl substrate

  1. Ni landsbyer i Danmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jacob Norvig

    Denne rapport beskriver en evaluering af statsstøttede forsøg med at styrke og udvikle mindre lokalsamfund. Forsøgene er gennemført i ni kommuner. Da der i disse år er stor opmærksomhed om de små byers og samfunds udviklingsmuligheder, har erfaringerne fra forsøgsprojekterne bred interesse. Forsø...

  2. Analysis and evaluation of data to accompany the development of geothermal water use power plant, etc. Analysis and evaluation of polymeric materials exposed to geothermal heat at depths; Nessui riyo hatsuden plant nado kaiahtsu ni tomonau data no kaiseki hyoka. Shinbu chinetsuyo kobunshi zairyo no kaiseki hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenmochi, K.; Takahashi, J.; Takayanagi, H.; Tsuda, H.; Nagai, H.; Takeuchi, K. [Agency of Industrial Science and Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Nagasawa, C. [Kumamoto Prefectural Industrial Technology Center, Kumamoto (Japan); Hamada, T. [Science University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Industrial Science and Technology

    1998-11-20

    Remaining life assessment technologies for polymeric materials for geothermal power generation and methods for improving their heat resistance are reviewed, and concepts of scale-free technologies for FRP (fiber-reinforced plastic)-sandwiched pipelines for hot water transportation are described. Materials based on PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene) and NBR (acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber) are chosen for use as DHM (down-hole motor) sealing material and for application to the stator. With PTFE as the matrix, four candidates are prepared, which are additive-free PTFE, and GF/PTFE, GF/CF/PTFE, CF/PTFE, each containing 20w% GF (glass fiber) and/or 20w% CF (carbon fiber). With NBR serving as the matrix, two candidates are prepared, which are NBR-A containing 20w% aramid fiber and NBR-W which is a vulcanized NBR-A. External force, heat, light, and mud are named as the degradation factors, and each factor and some combinations of external force, heat, and light are repeatedly imposed on the materials. During the effort to develop an apparatus for simulating geothermal circumstances in which the factors will affect the materials in complicated ways, a life assessment technique is developed for such polymeric materials. A technology is developed for providing polymeric rubber elastomer with a heat resistant feature. A study is made to replace transportation pipelines for injection wells with FRP sandwiched pipelines. (NEDO)

  3. Survey for development feasibility in fiscal 1999 investigation of geothermal development and promotion. Evaluation report on practicability technology survey SWD method (Evaluation report concerning verification test); 1999 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa no uchi kaihatsu kanosei chosa. Jitsuyoka gijutsu chosa SWD ho hyoka hokokusho (jissho shiken ni kakawaru hyoka hokokusho)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-05-01

    An evaluation test was conducted on SWD (Seismic While Drilling) method as a part of the investigation of geothermal development and promotion. The test was implemented at the time of drilling of N11-MD-3 well in the northeast base area of Busadake, Hokkaido. The test items were such as verification of direct waves propagating from a bit to the surface, identification of signals passing through a fault zone using direct waves and reflected waves, estimation of distance between a fault and a bent zone, and grasping the direction of signal propagation at the time of inclined drilling. As a result of the experiments and studies, following conclusions were obtained. Reflected waves extracted are not necessarily limited to those from a reflection area from which the shape of a fault can be grasped; unless there is a clear reflection area that can be picked up on the surface near a fault, the application of this method is not effective. In an analysis using direct waves, it was possible to obtain an inclined angle of a fault plane from the estimation of velocity structure, propagation route, and assumption of the shape of the fault plane and, therefore, to grasp the shape of the fault. Obtaining reference data is essential for identifying bit signals. (NEDO)

  4. Research report for fiscal 1996 on analysis and evaluation of demonstration tests for establishment of residential photovoltaic power generation load leveling technology. Evaluation on durability of device installed with inverter to protect grid connection; 1996 nendo kenkyu hokokusho. Jutaku you taiyoko hatsuden fuka heijunka gijutsu tou kakuritsu jissho shiken ni kansuru kaiseki hyoka - Inbata tsuki keito renkei hogo sochi no taikyusei hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Discussions and evaluations have been performed on the safety and durability of the device installed with inverter to protect grid connection being an important device in the photovoltaic power generation system. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 1996. The current fiscal year performed data collection and long-term continuous operation according to the durability test program for the device installed with inverter to protect grid connection, as the continuation from the previous fiscal year. In the electrical characteristics, although no large changes have been found in AC overvoltage and AC undervoltage, instability was observed in the detection level. With regard to temperatures in different components, the temperature rise has become nearly the same as in the maximum output continuous operation as a result of the repetition of the operation and shutdown, whereas the influence on the electrical and thermal stresses have increased. Particularly, when temperature rise in the AC side noise filter was given observation, the measurement of conductive high-frequency terminal voltage showed a value higher by several ten dB than in the previous fiscal year. The current fiscal year has gone farther to starting the measurement of noise electric field intensity as the base of electromagnetic interference. (NEDO)

  5. Fiscal 1994 research report. Demonstration test for establishing technology for peakload shaving with dispersed small residential PV systems (Evaluation of weatherability of house-use solar light electric power generating system equipment); 1994 nendo jutakuyo taiyoko hatsuden fuka heijunka gijutsu nado kakuritsu jissho shiken ni kansuru kaiseki hyoka no uchi jutakuyo taiyoko hatsuden system kiki no taikosei hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    Weatherability tests such as exposure to the atmosphere are conducted to collect and accumulate information on the degradation of house-use photovoltaic equipment expected to come into use in areas where weather conditions are hostile. Based on the thus collected data, analysis and evaluation are conducted about the mechanisms of corrosion and degradation for the establishment of designing and evaluating methods for maintaining weatherability. Since fiscal 1994 is the first year of the project, preparations are made for tests to be conducted. In carrying out research activities, a Weatherability Evaluation Committee for House-Use Solar Light Electric Power Generating System Equipment is organized, who discuss implementation of the project. Discussion is made on the shape and structural materials of the exposure rack. An aluminum alloy coated with a clear coating of alumite sulfate is selected, and a rack is built. Specifications of a sea salt particle collector are discussed, and preparations are made for arresting and quantifying sea salt particles under the Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS) dry gauze method and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) wet candle method. Solar cell module initial characteristics are measured. (NEDO)

  6. Research report for fiscal 1995 on analysis and evaluation of demonstration tests for establishment of residential photovoltaic power generation load leveling technology. Evaluation on durability of device installed with inverter to protect grid connection; 1995 nendo kenkyu hokokusho. Jutaku you taiyoko hatsuden fuka heijunka gijutsu tou kakuritsu jissho shiken ni kansuru kaiseki hyoka - Inbata tsuki keito renkei hogo sochi no taikyusei hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Discussions and evaluations have been performed on the safety and durability of the device installed with inverter to protect grid connection being an important device in the photovoltaic power generation system. In discussing the durability test items, electrical property changes were observed on AC overvoltage, AC undervoltage, frequency rise, and frequency fall, as the continuation from the previous fiscal year, in order to evaluate temperature rise in different parts due to lapse of operation time and the effects of thermal stress in each component on the stress of the entire product. Furthermore, verification of single operation detecting function, tests on sudden input power change, sudden grid voltage change, and measurement of conductive high frequency terminal voltage were conducted in addition to the above observations. In discussing the durability test methods, repetition of operation and shutdown during the rated operation was adopted in place of the simulated operation using variation in the insolation having been discussed in the previous year. As a result of the tests, no noticeable changes were recognized from the evaluation result after a lapse of 5,000 hours from the start of the operation, as compared to those after the aging operation. (NEDO)

  7. Research report for fiscal 1997 on analysis and evaluation of demonstration tests for establishment of residential photovoltaic power generation load leveling technology. Evaluation on durability of device installed with inverter to protect grid connection; 1997 nendo kenkyu hokokusho. Jutaku you taiyoko hatsuden fuka heijunka gijutsu tou kakuritsu jissho shiken ni kansuru kaiseki hyoka - Inbata tsuki keito renkei hogo sochi no taikyusei hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Tests and discussions have been performed on the safety and durability of the device installed with inverter to protect grid connection, being an important device in the photovoltaic power generation system. The particularly important requirements demanded in the device were specified as maintenance of electric power quality, coordination with the protection system in the grid side, and assurance of safety of personnel and facilities. The current fiscal year has performed operation corresponding to that in the actual field for 20 years in total, and the evaluation tests on electrical characteristics and electric power quality. This paper summarizes the achievements in four years including the results available up to the previous fiscal year. Although no large change has been identified in the electrical characteristics, variance has been found in the detection time of overvoltage in the grid side. With regard to the electric power quality, the value has exceeded 89 dB as the determining condition for the certification test in the conduction interfering waves of 5 kHz to 10 kHz. In addition, it was confirmed that the conductive high-frequency noise terminal voltage in the grid side after the repetition of operations and shutdowns tends to increase according to the operation lapse time. (NEDO)

  8. Quantitative evaluation of ground improvement by chemical grouting using electrical resistivity. Part 3. Applicability of evaluation of improved region by resistivity tomography; Denki hiteiko ni yoru yakueki chunyu kairyo koka no teiryoteki hyoka hoho. 3. Hiteiko tomography wo riyoshita jiban kairyo han`i hyoka hoho no tekiyosei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komine, H. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-02-01

    This paper describes a method for evaluating grouting that is a means for improving the ground for excavation for building underground structures in urban areas. This is an effort for improving reliability, and evaluates the rate of filling of the water glass base chemical liquid injected for improving the ground utilizing the fact that this liquid is higher in conductivity than the soil or ground water. An experiment was conducted using a model ground so as to define the limit of applicability of this resistivity tomography by studying electrode arrangements and difference in resistivity between the grouted liquid and ground water. It was then found that the liquid-injected region is evaluated more accurately when the measuring electrodes are installed nearer to the region, that evaluation is satisfactorily accomplished when the region spans not less than 75% of the distance between the electrodes, that higher accuracy is expected when the difference in resistivity is greater between the grouted liquid and ground water, that evaluation is satisfactorily accomplished when the resistivity of the grouted liquid is not more than 10% of that of ground water, and that any grouting liquid usable for ground improvement in civil engineering in urban areas can be applied to any other grounds except where there is influence of seawater. 31 refs., 55 figs., 8 tabs.

  9. Reduction mechanism of Ni2+ into Ni nanoparticles prepared from ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    journal of. March 2009 physics pp. 577–586. Reduction mechanism of Ni2+ into Ni ..... and at high field, no domain wall is available and hence, the system becomes a .... [23] J Ding, T Tsuzuki, P G McCormick and R Street, J. Phys. D: Appl.

  10. Achievement report for fiscal 1999. Research on mesh-based estimation of natural energy for Southeast Asia as represented by Myanmar (Assessment of wind power and solar energy using numerical weather model); 1999 nendo Myanmar koku wo rei ni shita Tonan Asia ni okeru shizen energy no mesh suitei ni kansuru kenkyu seika hokokusho. Suchi kisho model ni yoru furyoku taiyo energy hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    As the first step for the introduction of wind power systems and photovoltaic power systems into developing countries in Southeast Asia etc. and for their diffusion in them for the exploitation of natural energy, a numerical weather model useable in Southeast Asia is developed to make up for the insufficiency of weather data in the region. A technique is developed, to explain which the case of Myanmar is cited, for estimating with accuracy such natural conditions as wind direction, wind velocity, and solar radiation in the past one-year period for the assessment of power to be generated using wind turbines and solar panels. The results of the observation of wind conditions indicate that wind directions are mainly northerly or westerly and that wind speeds are as week as 1-3m/s on the average. As for total solar radiation per diem in December through March, it is found that there is 17-23MJ/m{sup 2}/day, which is twice the level to be measured in Tokyo. A comparison is made between the weather observation results and a model calculation, and it is found that the latter sufficiently reproduces the actual weather conditions. Based on the values of wind conditions and solar radiation estimated in Myanmar, the amount of power to be obtained from an assumed arrangement of wind power systems and solar panels is assessed. (NEDO)

  11. Study on climate control of dwellings using underground air tunnel in the cold region. Part 1. Cooling performance of the underground air tunnel connected to a small-scaled test house; Kanreichi ni okeru chika air tunnel ni yoru junetsukankyo kaizen ni kansuru kenkyu. 1. Shokibo shiken kaoku ni okeru kaki no ryobo seino hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miki, Y; Sanji, H; Ito, J; Komoda, T; Mitsuoka, K; Mogami, S [Kitami Institute of Technology, Hokkaido (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    Underground air tunnel is provided for cooling an experimentally built small house and the cooling performance is examined at Kitami Institute of Technology, Hokkaido. The house is provided with 120mm-thick layers of insulating material under the floor and inside the side walls and partitioning walls. The windows are equipped with blinds, with reed screens positioned outside to cover the windows. The air tunnel is a hard vinyl chloride tube, 200mm in internal diameter. It is buried 4.5m deep in the ground, and extends as long as 27m. A filter-provided 72W blower installed at the tunnel outlet is driven to force air through. As for the natural soil temperature in summer, it is found variable between 7.2 and 8.5degC. As the result of the experiment, it is found that thanks to the underground tunnel the room temperature is kept below 27degC even when the maximum temperature in the daytime is 30degC or higher provided the air flow is appropriately regulated. In this experiment, the maximum rate of instantaneously removed heat is approximately 2.5 times higher than the values in other previously reported experiments. The daily coefficient of performance is 6.5-11.1, again higher than the previously reported values. Different from application in warm regions, the effect of rise in the surrounding soil temperature on the cooling performance is not so conspicuous. 3 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Reactive Ni/Ti nanolaminates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, D. P.; Bai, M. M.; Rodriguez, M. A.; McDonald, J. P.; Jones, E. Jr.; Brewer, L.; Moore, J. J.

    2009-01-01

    Nickel/titanium nanolaminates fabricated by sputter deposition exhibited rapid, high-temperature synthesis. When heated locally, self-sustained reactions were produced in freestanding Ni/Ti multilayer foils characterized by average propagation speeds between ∼0.1 and 1.4 m/s. The speed of a propagating reaction front was affected by total foil thickness and bilayer thickness (layer periodicity). In contrast to previous work with compacted Ni-Ti powders, no preheating of Ni/Ti foils was required to maintain self-propagating reactions. High-temperature synthesis was also stimulated by rapid global heating demonstrating low ignition temperatures (T ig )∼300-400 deg. C for nanolaminates. Ignition temperature was influenced by bilayer thickness with more coarse laminate designs exhibiting increased T ig . Foils reacted in a vacuum apparatus developed either as single-phase B2 cubic NiTi (austenite) or as a mixed-phase structure that was composed of monoclinic B19 ' NiTi (martensite), hexagonal NiTi 2 , and B2 NiTi. Single-phase, cubic B2 NiTi generally formed when the initial bilayer thickness was made small.

  13. Electroplated Ni on the PN Junction Semiconductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Joo; Uhm, Young Rang; Son, Kwang Jae; Kim, Jong Bum; Choi, Sang Moo; Park, Jong Han; Hong, Jintae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Nickel (Ni) electroplating was implemented by using a metal Ni powder in order to establish a Ni-63 plating condition on the PN junction semiconductor needed for production of betavoltaic battery. PN junction semiconductors with a Ni seed layer of 500 and 1000 A were coated with Ni at current density from 10 to 50 mA cm{sup 2}. The surface roughness and average grain size of Ni deposits were investigated by XRD and SEM techniques. The roughness of Ni deposit was increased as the current density was increased, and decreased as the thickness of Ni seed layer was increased.

  14. Electroplated Ni on the PN Junction Semiconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Joo; Uhm, Young Rang; Son, Kwang Jae; Kim, Jong Bum; Choi, Sang Moo; Park, Jong Han; Hong, Jintae

    2015-01-01

    Nickel (Ni) electroplating was implemented by using a metal Ni powder in order to establish a Ni-63 plating condition on the PN junction semiconductor needed for production of betavoltaic battery. PN junction semiconductors with a Ni seed layer of 500 and 1000 A were coated with Ni at current density from 10 to 50 mA cm 2 . The surface roughness and average grain size of Ni deposits were investigated by XRD and SEM techniques. The roughness of Ni deposit was increased as the current density was increased, and decreased as the thickness of Ni seed layer was increased

  15. Synthesis and electrochemical behavior of nanostructured cauliflower-shape Co-Ni/Co-Ni oxides composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Vinay; Kawaguchi, Toshikazu; Miura, Norio

    2009-01-01

    Nanostructured Co-Ni/Co-Ni oxides were electrochemically deposited onto stainless steel electrode by electrochemical method and characterized for their structural and supercapacitive properties. The SEM images indicated that the obtained Co-Ni/Co-Ni oxides had cauliflower-type nanostructure. The X-ray diffraction pattern showed the formation of Co 3 O 4 , NiO, Co and Ni. The EDX elemental mapping images indicated that Ni, Co and O are distributed uniformly. The deposited Co-Ni/Co-Ni oxides showed good supercapacitive characteristics with a specific capacitance of 331 F/g at 1 mA/cm 2 current density in 1 M KOH electrolyte. A mechanism of the formation of cauliflower-shape Co-Ni/Co-Ni oxides was proposed. A variety of promising applications in the fields such as energy storage devices and sensors can be envisioned from Co-Ni/Co-Ni oxides

  16. Evaluation report on research and development of an ultra high performance laser applied composite production system. Achievement report; Chokoseino laser oyo fukugo seisan system no kenkyu kaihatsu ni kansuru hyoka hokokusho. Seika hokokuhen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1985-08-01

    Research, development, and evaluation were made on a composite production system applicable to manufacture products of a large number of types in small quantities. In the research and development of a total system, verification works were carried out by studying basic designs, operation of the composite production system, and experiment plant operation. Research and development on cutting and processing technologies included studies on composite cutting mechanisms, general purpose fitting technologies, control systems, and drive systems. In the research and development of laser applied technologies, studies were performed on large output laser oscillators, the control thereof, and laser processing technologies. In the research and development of automatic diagnosis technologies, studies were executed on failure diagnosis, accuracy compensation, automatic inspection, and accuracy diagnostic technologies. In the research and development of design and control technologies, studies were carried out on automatic designing, process designing, and process controlling technologies. In the study of operation of the Tsukuba experiment plant, discussions were given on configuration of the experiment plant, laser processing mechanism, composite assembly mechanism, production inspection mechanism, and system operation. Furthermore, design studies were also carried out on practically usable systems. (NEDO)

  17. FY1995 comprehensive assessments of measures mitigating heat island phenomena in urban areas; 1995 nendo heat shinku wo riyoshita daikibo reibo system no kaihatsu (daitoshi ni okeru kaki koonka taisaku gijutsu no hyoka shuho)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The urban heat-island phenomenon is one of the man-made changes of local climate. The objectives of this research are to develop a heat-island model to cover the building scale to mesoscale and to assess the countermeasures to heat- island effects. The analysis of Tokyo by remote-sensing, field observation and estimates of anthropogenically exhausted heat using energy consumption data were conducted. And, techniques to assess the most effective countermeasure against the urban warming were developed. (NEDO)

  18. Fiscal 1999 research report. Data acquisition and analysis on the advanced high-efficiency energy system field test; 1999 nendo sendoteki kokoritsu energy system field test jigyo ni okeru data shuyaku oyobi hyoka kaiseki chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Although the next-generation phosphoric acid fuel cell has nearly reached its practical application stage as far as technology is concerned, its diffusion is yet to come due to lack of data about its cost efficiency and reliability. Under the circumstances, the goal now is to collect and analyze various data obtained in the above-named project which was started in fiscal 1997 for the compilation of data useful for full-scale diffusion in the future so that a foundation may be built for the overall popularization of the fuel cell. In this fiscal year, assessment and analysis have been conducted at 15 test sites now in presence. At the second plant of the Semboku LNG Terminals where approximately 17,000 hours have elapsed since the test began, the cell has operated for more than 16,000 hours in total. The Mycal Bore Sanda has established the longest uninterrupted operation record of 6,500. As for power generation efficiency, a town gas 13A-fueled system exhibits approximately 40% operating smoothly at a high overall efficiency of not less than 90%. (NEDO)

  19. Evaluation of performance for solar house with Trombe wall. Part 6; Trombe kabeshiki solar house no hyoka kenkyu (toki tan`i ni okeru Trombe heki naihyomen kyuhonetsuryo no santei hoho no kento)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamazaki, R.; Nakajima, Y. [Kogakuin University, Tokyo (Japan); Yoshida, N. [Nishimatsu Construction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Watanabe, T. [Tokyo Electric Power Service Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Abe, H. [National Land Agency, Tokyo (Japan); Yamaga, K. [Mitsubishi Estate Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    `Equivalent heat loss factor` used in the simplified load calculation method for the Trombe wall is a version modified to fit a solar house equipped with a Trombe wall. To compute the factor, it is necessary to input the quantities of Trombe wall inner surface absorbed/radiated heat for whose calculation the effect of the delay in solar heat storage by the Trombe wall has to be taken into consideration. The daily summation of the quantities of absorbed/radiated heat can be easily calculated using the day`s and the previous day`s insolation amounts. In this report, the hourly summation of the quantities of Trombe wall surface absorbed/radiated heat is performed by use of two variables which are the day`s and the previous day`s insolation amounts. In calculating the hourly summation of the quantities of absorbed/radiated heat, the daily summation of the quantities of absorbed/radiated heat is first calculated using the chart of predicted lines for the Trombe wall and, based on the data thus obtained, the quantities of absorbed/absorbed heat are divided and assigned to the respective hours and, as the result, approximations are obtained for the calculation of the hourly summation of the quantities of Trombe wall absorbed/radiated heat. A `time-dependent performance prediction curves for the Trombe wall` is proposed, which enables the visual comprehension of the effect of Trombe wall hourly units. 1 ref., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Seismic risk assessment of building based on damaged database of 1995 Hyogoken Nanbu Earthquake; Hyogoken nanbu jishin no hisai database wo mochiita kenchikubutsu no jishin risk hyoka ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suwa, H.; Nobata, A.; Seki, M. [Obayashi Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-01-10

    The objective of this paper is to evaluate a vulnerability function and a repair cost in terms of each structural damage level based on the damaged database of the 1995 Hyogoken Nanbu Earthquake. The seismic risk of a building in Kobe is calculated through the analytical results. As a result, the following are verified : 1. The expectation of vulnerability function, in which peak ground acceleration is taken for seismic intensity, is about 550 cm/s{sup 2} for minor damage, about 700 cm/s{sup 2} for moderate damage, and about 950 cm/s{sup 2} for major damage respectively. However, the coefficient of variation (C. O. V. ) is about 0.5 for all damage levels. 2. The expectation of repair cost per square meter is about 29000 yen for minor damage, about 60000 yen for moderate damage, and about 64000 yen for major damage respectively. However, the variation is very large, for example, the C. O. V. for repair cost varies from 1.2 to 1.6. 3. The seismic risk of a building in Kobe, that is normalized by new construction cost, is about three percent on condition that the design lifetime is assumed to be 50 years. (author)

  1. Evaluation of the autonomic neuropathy function immediately after a change to upright posture using the impulse response function; Impulse oto kansu wo mochiita shisei henkan katoki ni okeru jiritsu shinkei kino hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoyama, K. [Nagoya City University, Nagoya (Japan); Moyoshi, M.; Takata, K. [Daido Institute of Technology, Nagoya (Japan); Watanabe, Y. [Toyota College of Technology, Aichi (Japan)

    1997-05-20

    Autonomic neuropathy function immediately after a change to upright posture has been evaluated by applying transient response function of the system to the blood regulation system. The impulse response function was determined from the change in heart rate before postural change to the upright posture, and was compared with the transient change immediately after a change to the upright posture. The time series of R-R interval of electrocardiogram was used as the time series of the change in heart rate. To determine the impulse response function, an autoregressive model was applied to the R-R interval time series. The impulse response function at the steady state is a transient reaction at the impulse stimulation added to the blood regulation system. The R-R interval decreases rapidly by the autonomic neuropathy reaction in which the blood is rapidly transferred into the legs immediately after a change to upright posture. There is a close correlation between the initial temporary decrease in R-R interval and the impulse response function derived from the change in heart rate immediately after a change to the upright posture. Accordingly, the blood regulation and autonomic neuropathy functions can be evaluated by the impulse response function without actual standing test and load of tested persons. 9 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  2. FY1995 development of a clean CVD process by evaluation and control of gas phase nucleation phenomena; 1995 nendo kisokaku seisei gensho no hyoka to seigyo ni yoru clean CVD process no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a high-rate and clean chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process as a breakthrough technique to overcome the problems that particles generated in the gas phase during CVD process for preparation of functional thin films cause reduced product yield and deterioration of the films. In the CVD process proposed here, reactant gas and generated particles are electrically charged to control the motion of them with an electric field. In this study, gas-phase nucleation phenomena are evaluated both theoretically and experimentally. A high-rate, ionized CVD method is first developed, in which reactant gas and generated particles are charged with negative ions generated from a radioisotope source and the UV/photoelectron method, and the motion of the charged gas and particles is controlled with an electric field. Charging and transport processes of fine particles are then investigated experimentally and theoretically to develop a clean CVD method in which generated particles are removed with the electric forces. As a result, quantitative evaluation of the charging and transport process was made possible. We also developed devices for measuring the size distribution and concentration of fine particles in low pressure gas such as those found in plasma CVD processes. In addition, numerical simulation and experiments in this study for a TEOS/O{sub 3} CVD process to prepare thin films could determine reaction rates which have not been known so far and give information on selecting good operation conditions for the process. (NEDO)

  3. Non-contact estimation of the bond quality in soldered thin laminate by laser generated lamb waves; Laser reiki ramuha ni yoru handazuke sekisohaku no setsugo seijo no hisesshoku hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasama, H.; Futatsugi, T.; Cho, H.; Takemoto, M. [Aoyama-Gakuin University, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Science and Engineering

    1998-03-20

    The bond quality of a solder-bonded copper laminated plate was modeled into rigid contact (rc) and slip contact (sc) to calculate the velocity dispersion of lamb waves. The velocity dispersion of laser generated lamb waves was measured, and the bond quality or the thickness of a solder layer was evaluated by non-contact. In the model whose bond surface is rc, the velocity dispersion of lamb waves can be calculated under conditions where the stress and displacement in an interface are continuous. In the model whose bond surface is sc, it can be calculated under conditions where an interface slips freely. Weak bond indicates the velocity dispersion between rc and sc. In this model, the velocity dispersion can also be calculated by a change in the thickness of a solder layer and used for quantitative evaluation of a bond interface. A three-layer solder bond manufactured for trial could be evaluated from the velocity dispersion of laser lamb waves. At the room temperature, the change in bond quality near the solder melting point of bond laminate that was judged as rc was investigated. When the solidus temperature is exceeded, the amplitude of lamb waves and the velocity dispersion changed largely. The amplitude of lamb waves increases as the liquid phase ratio increases. The bond quality near the solder melting point can be evaluated using lamb waves. 9 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Fiscal 1996 survey report. Data collection and evaluation analysis in the project on field tests on the fuel cell generation; 1996 nendo kenkyu hokokusho. Nenryo denchi hatsuden field test jigyo ni okeru data shuyaku oyobi hyoka kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The paper installed fuel cell power generation equipment experimentally at various facilities which are the final diffusion form of the new energy power generation, conducted long-term operation under the actual load, collected/analyzed various data, arranged them as data useful for full scale introduction/diffusion, aiming at forming the base for general diffusion of the fuel cell power generation. The number of the systems installed for field test execution has been 24 places/28 units since the start of the project, and the system capacity totaled 4,250kW. The actual operation hours in five years are 6,000-28,000. In fiscal 1996, the average cumulative accumulated operational rate was approximately 68%, a little over that in fiscal 1995, 65%. The average load factor was 69% in fiscal 1995 and 70% in fiscal 1996. The utilization rate increased as a whole to about 57% on average if seeing only fiscal 1996, as compared with that in fiscal 1995, about 48%. The power generating efficiency was approximately 34% on average. As to the status of shutdown of the fuel cell power generation, the paper surveyed the average interval of failure, the rate of frequency of shutdown, the analysis of shutdown, etc. 250 figs., 29 tabs.

  5. Report on evaluation of research and development of combined production systems aided by superhighly functional laser. Evaluation; Chokoseino laser oyo fukugo seisan system no kenkyu kaihatsu ni kansuru hyoka hokokusho. Hyokahen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1985-08-01

    Described herein are combined production systems, capable of flexibly, quickly producing diversified types of machine members in small quantities in an integrated manner from raw stock processing to assembling/inspection. Development of the related techniques, including those for development of lasers of high output, has been implemented in an integrated manner for development of optical members, processing techniques and so on. The techniques developed by this project are expected to be applicable to various industrial purposes, because of their high synergistic effects. There was no oscillator of high output, when the project was started. This project has reduced device size and cost and improved their reliability, greatly contributing to expanded use of lasers. The solid-state lasers have been developed, not only for growing large-size crystals but also for transmission of light. The automation guidelines for assembling and inspection steps, which heavily depended on manual works, have been drawn. The machining functions have been improved by incorporating the processing techniques aided by lasers of high or medium output. One of the major problems involved in the conventional system is very time-consuming works required for establishing the software for the computer by which it is aided for operation. This problem has been solved by providing the modular structure machines developed by this project with flexibility of machining machine. (NEDO)

  6. Report on evaluation of research and development of methods for producing basic chemicals from carbon monoxide and other stocks; Issanka tanso nado wo genryo to suru kiso kagakuhin no seizoho no kenkyu kaihatsu ni kansuru hyoka hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1987-08-01

    This project was aimed at developing methods for producing basic chemicals from carbon monoxide and other stocks (the so-called C1 chemistry), in order to establish the techniques that could promote stable supply of basic chemicals from the new carbon resources in place of oil. It was a 7-year national project beginning in FY 1980, jointly implemented by the government, academic and industrial circles. Described herein are the overall evaluation of the results. There are several carbon resources other than oil, e.g., coal, natural gas, oil shale and tar sand. They are abundantly occurring, although unevenly, and various countries are developing these resources. They can be advantageously utilized as stocks for chemicals, after being converted into synthesis gases. In Japan, they have been efficiently developed cooperatively by national institutes, enterprises, academic circles and chemical industry, to produce the world's results, e.g., gas separation/purification techniques and new catalysts for new synthesis methods. This project was terminated because of the relaxed oil supply/demand situations and lowered crude prices in the middle of the 80's, which made stock conversion less urgent. (NEDO)

  7. Fiscal 1997 research report on the data collection, evaluation and analysis in the PV power generation field test project for public facilities; 1997 nendo kokyo shisetsu nado yo taiyoko hatsuden field test jigyo ni okeru shushu data hyoka kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    As a part of the field test project for diffusing PV power generation into public facilities generally, evaluation and analysis were made on the collected data from 105 sites installed during fiscal 1993-1996. Analysis of operation characteristics was made by using parameters obtained by developing a basic equation for every component. 94% of all the sites fell under the total solar irradiation of 3.0- 4.5kWh/m{sup 2}/D. 83% of those fell under the equivalent array operation time of 2.5-4.0h/D. 70% of those fell under the equivalent system operation time of 2.5-3.5h/D. 72% of those fell under the system operation time of 9.0-12.0h/D. 78% of those fell under the effective inverter efficiency of 0.84- 0.96. 68% of those fell under the inverter load factor of 0.25-0.35. 85% of those fell under the array performance ratio of 0.7-1.0. 83% of those fell under the system performance ratio of 0.6-0.9. The generation cost decreased from 270yen/kWh in 1993 to 100yen/kWh in 1996 because reduction of an installation cost largely contributed to reduction of the total cost. (NEDO)

  8. Investigational study of evaluation of the global energy system as a global environmental protection technology; Chikyu kankyo taisaku gijutsu toshite no global energy system no hyoka ni kansuru chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    With relation to some global energy systems of which viability is predicted in the future, an evaluation was conducted from the viewpoints of economical efficiency, energy balance, CO2 emission, etc. The fossil fuel CO2 capture system, the conventional thermal power plant added with CO2 recovery/treatment facilities, is expected to reduce approximately 70-75% of the CO2 emission. The fossil fuel decarbonated hydrogen system, which decarbonates fossil fuels, recovers/treats CO2 at the place of fuel supply and uses as hydrogen, is of poor practical application from an economical point of view. The fossil fuel methanol synthesis system, which synthesizes methanol from fossil fuels at the place of fuel supply, generates electric power and recovers/treats CO2 with the methanol, is large in energy loss and CO2 emission and low in overall efficiency and CO2 reduction effect at the time of methanol synthesis. The renewable energy hydrogen system is an ultimate system with no emission of CO2, though it costs much. 110 refs., 83 figs., 107 tabs.

  9. Report on evaluation of research and development of light-aided instrumentation/control systems. Abstract; Hikari oyo keisoku seigyo system no kenkyu kaihatsu ni kansuru hyoka hokokusho. Gaiyohen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1986-08-01

    This research and development project is aimed at commercialization of the light-aided instrumentation technology systems which safely, stably measure, transmit and control process information including image information, e.g., temperature, flow rates and components at large plants in industrial complexes, in the severe atmospheres in the presence of, e.g., electromagnetic induction and combustible gases. These optical systems need development of light transmitting/receiving devices, various optical devices that constitute the network nodes, and various types of sensors of improved functions and reliability, in addition to development of the techniques required for transmitting large quantities of information on a large scale. This project has attempted to systematically make break-through in the individual elementary techniques, in particular those in the widely diversified technological areas for the advanced devices, and thereby to expand the instrumentation/control technology frontiers. The results of studies on gallium/arsenic crystals, which are prerequisite for photoelectronic integrated circuits as the bases for the light application technology, and processes for producing thereof are highly rated worldwide. It is planned to effectively utilize the total system, constructed at then Nippon Mining's Mizushima Refinery, and thereby to establish the effective instrumentation techniques for commercial plants and to promote commercialization of these results. (NEDO)

  10. Fiscal 1997 research report on the survey on public test and evaluation organizations for development of welfare equipment; 1997 nendo fukushi kiki kaihatsu ni kakawaru koteki shiken hyoka kikan chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This research studies the construction policy of public test and evaluation systems for future development and practical use of welfare equipment, through survey on the current methods for development, practical test and evaluation of welfare equipment in countries advanced in welfare, and preparation of basic data for promoting establishment of public test and evaluation functions in Japan. Infrastructure preparation for standards and public test and evaluation organizations for developing welfare equipment is being promoted by Technical Laboratory of Bicycle Industry Promotion Association and some national organizations such as Product Evaluation Technical Center, Mechanical Engineering Laboratory, National Institute of Bioscience and Human Technology, and Living and JIS Center. However, preparation of objective and across test and evaluation systems for developing welfare equipment is still insufficient. Product Evaluation Technical Center is now approaching to evaluation and standardization of welfare equipment. Public test and evaluation organizations of the UK, Sweden and Denmark are presented. (NEDO)

  11. Characterization on impact damage resistance of CF/PEEK laminates under low and high velocity impact tests; Teisoku/kosoku shogeki shiken ni yoru CF/PEEK no taishogeki sonshosei no hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morita, H; Hamamoto, A [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Adachi, T; Nishimori, K; Matsumoto, H [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-04-15

    Experiments were conducted to learn the impact damage on jet engine CFRP components for sucking birds or others. A great mass low velocity collision experiment using a falling weight and a small mass high velocity collision experiment using an air gun were conducted. The damages inflicted upon CF/PEEK (polyetheretherketone) laminates in the respective experiments were compared with each other by using the ultrasonic flaw detection method (C-Scan). There was a linear relationship in both experiments between the projected damaged area DA measured by C-Scan and the impact energy IE, enabling the relative evaluation of impact-withstanding damage characteristics by using the DA/IE ratios. DA/IE in the high velocity impact was higher than that in the low velocity impact, but the DA/IE ratio between the high velocity impact and the low velocity impact remained approximately the same, not dependent on the fiber orientation. The lamination parameter {beta} defined on the basis of the difference in-plane rigidity between the layers constituting the laminate is proportional to DA/IE, with {beta} enabling the generalized numerical expression of the impact of the fiber orientation upon the impact-withstanding damage characteristics. 9 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Report on evaluation on endocrine disturbing effect of chemicals and development of test methods; 1999 nendo kagaku busshitsu no naibunpi kakuran koka ni kansuru hyoka oyobi shikenho no kaihatsu hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    With regard to endocrine disturbing effect being the new deleteriousness of chemicals, data were collected and evaluated by using the existing testing methods, data were collected by using the screening test, the testing methods were developed, and international investigation was carried out to establish the risk evaluation methods. In the evaluation by using the existing test methods, seven substance groups deficient in deleteriousness data qualitatively and quantitatively were given reproduction toxicity tests to evaluate availability of the endocrine activity. Development of the screening test method has been carried out by participating the validation test by OECD to make the uterotrophic assay method and the Hershberger assay method a test guideline having international matching property. International investigations to establish the risk evaluation were executed on the molecular mechanism of nuclear receptors, the chemical, metabolic and environmental behaviors of endocrine active substances, the effects of the endocrine active substances on experimental animals and human, the utilization thereof for risk assessment in human, and the effects of endocrine disturbance acting substances in wildlife species. (NEDO)

  13. Report on evaluation of research and development of combined production systems aided by superhigh-functional lasers. Abstract; Chokoseino laser oyo fukugo seisan system no kenkyu kaihatsu ni kansuru hyoka hokokusho. Gaiyohen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1985-04-01

    This research and development project is aimed at development of combined production systems, which can flexibly, quickly process metallic stock materials in an integrated manner, with the objectives to promote rationalization and manpower saving for producing diversified types of machine parts in small quantities. Application of laser techniques to metal processing area is another objective of this project. The techniques to be developed by this project include those for system designing/controlling to integrate/combine the steps of processing and cutting stock materials, assembling the parts, and heat treatment and examination of the assemblies; for diversified types of cutting/processing by the mechanisms in which exchangeable constituent elements are assembled; for diversified types of processing shaped stock materials by the mechanisms in which molds and rolls are integrated; for diversified types of automatic assembling and transfer; for applying lasers to cutting, welding, heat treatment and measurement; for precision compensation and failure prediction by automatically diagnosing working conditions throughout the system; and for designs and production management for efficient production. The test plant has started general trial operation. (NEDO)

  14. National research and development project. Report on evaluation of research and development of remotely controlled excavators for highly deep submarine oil fields; Ogata kenkyu kaihatsu project. Daishindo enkaku sosa kaitei sekiyu kussaku sochi no kenkyu kaihatsu ni kakawaru hyoka hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1976-02-04

    Described herein are results of evaluation of the developed excavators remotely controlled for highly deep submarine oil fields. The excavator system was designed to work at the target water depth of 200 to 250 m and excavation depth of 8,000 to 9,000 m, though not quite satisfactorily. There were several practical problems to be solved, e.g., those found in accuracy of reentry in the excavated section, cables connecting the driving equipment to the excavated section, and entangled hoses. The works were divided and system was configured in an attempt to secure all-weather type serviceability and to improve economic viability. The other major works included attempts to improve equipment functions and reduce manpower cost. Nevertheless, however, the construction cost was considered to be higher than expected, and no firm prospect was obtained whether the new excavator system was economically competitive with the conventional rig. The factors that pushed up the construction cost were various facilities needed by the new system with the separated excavation and driving sections, e.g., those facilities for helping the system land on the sea bottoms, material supply/storage facilities, and automated/unmanned facilities. The system failure and other items related to reliability are no clearly understood, making it difficult to compare it with the conventional rig in service factor. It was not adequate, therefore, to advance the next R and D phase as planned, and decided that the project was suspended to see the world development trends, because the clear plans for the future could not be drawn at that time. (NEDO)

  15. Report on the evaluation of the development of the catalyst surface high accuracy quantitative analysis technology using electron spectroscopy; Denshi bunkoho ni yoru shokubai hyomen koseido teiryo bunseki gijutsu no kaihatsu hyoka hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    An objective evaluation from a third party was conducted on the purpose, plan, execution method, achievement, etc. of a project 'The devilment of the catalyst surface high accuracy quantitative analysis technology using electron spectroscopy.' The purpose of the project is to make the relationing possible between the analytical results of the catalyst surface and the catalyst performance which has been so far difficult by heightening the accuracy of the catalyst quantitative surface analytical accuracy using the electron spectroscopy. The purpose and significance are judged to be worth a lot. This project is an industry/university/government joint project between the two countries. The project is excellent both in connection among research institutes and leadership of chief researchers, and it is judged that the joint research system fully functioned. The term of the project was shortened from 3 years in the first plan to 2 years, and therefore, the study was finished only on silicon oxide and organic thin films. However, it was determined that the study results are to be run in the magazine 'Surface and Interface Analysis,' which indicates that the achievement was judged to be very worth in the academic viewpoint. (NEDO)

  16. International research cooperation in fiscal 1997. Report on the research, development, and evaluation of environmentally-friendly combustion technologies; Kokusai kyoryoku jigyo. Kankyo chowagata nensho gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu kaihatsu hyoka hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Concerning the research and development of environmentally-friendly combustion technologies that had been conducted for six years beginning in 1992, analysis and discussion were made by a special committee dedicated to the evaluation of the efforts, and the outcome is stated. In the study of zeolite-base catalysts, a highly active catalyst was developed which assumes a multilayer structure of mordenite, etc., with titanium introduced thereinto using an NO-selective reducing catalyst. As for metal complex oxide-base catalysts, various catalysts high in activity were developed, based on saponite which is a laminar, clayey compound. As for alumina-base catalysts, details were learned of the reaction mechanism and catalysis activation sites and, helped by the findings, a silver-supporting alumina catalyst was produced. In the study of direct decomposition type NOx removing catalysts, a success was achieved in causing NO to be decomposed with high selectivity in an oxygen atmosphere by use of new-type electrodes, functional layers, and solid electrolytes. In the field of catalytic combustion, a PdO-Pt/Ba-Al2O3 catalyst was developed, which is to serve for a hybrid type catalytic combustion method. 19 refs., 112 figs., 25 tabs.

  17. FY1992 research report on the evaluation and analysis of data collected in fuel cell power generation field test project; 1992 nendo nenryo denchi hatsuden field test jigyo ni okeru shushu data hyoka kaiseki kenkyu hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-03-01

    This paper describes the achievements in fiscal 1992 in the field tests on fuel cell power generation systems. The three locations subjected to the present analysis are all installed with 50-kW systems, whereas power generation efficiency of around 35% such as 35.3, 34.2 and 34.6% was obtained when the systems were operated at the rated output. When the load gets to below a certain load band (about 30 kW), the power generation efficiency decreases proportionately with the load. The overall efficiency including heat supply was 77.8, 70.7 and 80.3% respectively at about the rated output, showing a trend that the higher the thermal efficiency, the higher the overall efficiency. The case of generating both electric power and heat simultaneously has higher efficiency than the case of heat supply alone. The contribution rate of the fuel cell as a base load was 2.8, 4.6 and 13.6%, respectively. The system with as high value as 13.6% takes a power load following type operation mode, in which power is generated during a time band with large load during weekdays, and no power is generated at nighttime and in holidays when load is smaller, playing a role of peak responding power supply. Only one trouble has occurred in an auxiliary generator in the heat recovery system. (NEDO)

  18. Detection of shear-wave traveltime delay by using wavelet transform and characterization of an artificial subsurface fracture; Wavelet henkan ni yoru toka S ha denpa jikan henka no koseido kenshutsu to jinko chika kiretsu no seijo hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, K; Moriya, H; Asanuma, H; Niitsuma, H [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    As characterization of artificial cracks formed underground by using the water pressure fracturing method, experiments have been carried out to detect relationship of pressurization and S-wave propagation time with the polarizing direction dependence. Openings are created when pressure in the vicinity of the artificial cracks increases greater than reopening pressure of micro cracks. Elastic wave velocity decreases in this region because of water in the opened micro cracks. Anisotropy is created in the S-wave propagation velocity due to influence from anisotropic reopening region when the artificial cracks are pressurized, and is separated into two components which polarize orthogonally with each other (micro splitting). Field experiments conducted at the Higashi-hachimantai field were analyzed by using wavelet transform. It was possible to detect the S-wave arrival time at high accuracy, and the arrival of an orthogonally polarized wave was observed in 0.03 to 0.11 ms after the arrival of the S-wave. Possibility was indicated on separation of the two components in the orthogonally polarized wave of the S-wave if the micro splitting is used. If this mechanism is elucidated, it may be possible to extract information on cracking systems (direction of micro crack orientation and crack density). 8 refs., 10 figs.

  19. Report on evaluation of research and development of methods for producing basic chemicals from carbon monoxide and other stocks; Issanka tanso nado wo genryo to suru kiso kagakuhin no seizoho no kenkyu kaihatsu ni kansuru hyoka hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1987-08-01

    This project was aimed at developing methods for producing basic chemicals from carbon monoxide and other stocks (the so-called C1 chemistry), in order to establish the techniques that could promote stable supply of basic chemicals from the new carbon resources in place of oil. It was a 7-year national project beginning in FY 1980, jointly implemented by the government, academic and industrial circles. Described herein are the overall evaluation of the results. There are several carbon resources other than oil, e.g., coal, natural gas, oil shale and tar sand. They are abundantly occurring, although unevenly, and various countries are developing these resources. They can be advantageously utilized as stocks for chemicals, after being converted into synthesis gases. In Japan, they have been efficiently developed cooperatively by national institutes, enterprises, academic circles and chemical industry, to produce the world's results, e.g., gas separation/purification techniques and new catalysts for new synthesis methods. This project was terminated because of the relaxed oil supply/demand situations and lowered crude prices in the middle of the 80's, which made stock conversion less urgent. (NEDO)

  20. Fiscal 1998 survey report. Assessment and analysis of collected data in wind power generation field test project; 1998 nendo furyoku hatsuden field test jigyo ni okeru shushu data hyoka kaiseki chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Examination was made on wind conditions, power generating characteristics, and the reliability of a system by analyzing the operation record of the wind power generation equipment which was installed at Hiraizumi-cho, Nishi-Iwai gun, Iwate prefecture and at Misaki-cho, Miura-shi, Kanagawa prefecture. The equipment at Hiraizumi had a rated output of 490 kW, and at Miura 400 kW. The period of the examination was from April, 1998 through February, 1999, the items for data collection being the generator output, generated energy, average wind velocity, record of abnormality occurrence, and maximum wind velocity. At Hiraizumi, annual average utilization rate was 12.9%; annual average operation rate, 49.9%; average wind velocity, 4.6 m/s; and maximum wind velocity of the period, 31 m/s. At Miura, annual average utilization rate was 16.5%; annual average operation rate, 77.0%; and average wind velocity, 5.0 m/s. The utilization rate is desirably 17%. The top three abnormalities were drop in AC control voltage, actuation of main shaft brake and eddy current/actuation of open phase relay, accounting for 83.3% of the total abnormalities at Hiraizumi, while they were unbalance in current, grid drop and automatic unwinding of cable, accounting for 74.5% at Miura. (NEDO)

  1. Evaluation report on research and development of a database system for mutual computer operation; Denshi keisanki sogo un'yo database system no kenkyu kaihatsu ni kansuru hyoka hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-03-01

    This paper describes evaluation on the research and development of a database system for mutual computer operation, with respect to discrete database technology, multi-media technology, high reliability technology, and mutual operation network system technology. A large number of research results placing the views on the future were derived, such as the issues of discretion and utilization patterns of the discrete database, structuring of data for multi-media information, retrieval systems, flexible and high-level utilization of the network, and the issues in database protection. These achievements are publicly disclosed widely. The largest feature of this project is in aiming at forming a network system that can be operated mutually under multi-vender environment. Therefore, the researches and developments have been executed under the spirit of the principle of openness to public and international cooperation. These efforts are represented by organizing the rule establishment committee, execution of mutual interconnection experiment (including demonstration evaluation), and development of the mounting rules based on the ISO's 'open system interconnection (OSI)'. These results are compiled in the JIS as the basic reference model for the open system interconnection, whereas the targets shown in the basic plan have been achieved sufficiently. (NEDO)

  2. Assessment of effects of maturity of Japan`s economy and society and improvement in automotive fuel consumption on demand for automotive fuels; Nippon keizai shakai no seijukuka to nenpi kaizen ga jidoshayo nenryo juyo ni ataeru eikyo hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimomura, S. [The Institute of Energy Economics, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-04-01

    This paper evaluates impacts of the maturity of Japan`s economy and society and the improvement in automotive fuel efficiency on the demand for automotive fuels by FY 2010. Standard case and lower order case were examined. When the traffic volume of passenger cars in FY 1995 is assumed to be 100, it become 121 and 119 in standard and lower order cases, respectively. The traffic volume of lorries become 106 and 102 in standard and lower order cases, respectively, which showed a rather small growth. Deterioration rate of the fuel consumption was estimated by considering the difference in fuel consumption of new cars and existing cars. Although the fuel consumption will be lowered by FY 2000 when the cassation rate of ordinary passenger cars will rapidly increase, the impact will be lowered after that. For lorries for commercial use, the running fuel consumption will be gradually lowered due to the increased carrying capacity and vehicle weight a lorry with improving the transportation efficiency. Decreased running speed by traffic jam is also a cause of the deterioration of fuel consumption. When a policy of improvement in the fuel consumption is promoted in a background of CO2 issues, the fuel consumption of each vehicle will be gradually improved. The peak of fuel demand will be in FY 2005 by considering the changes in economical and social structures and the improvement in fuel consumption for the environmental protection. 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Evaluation report on the study on the application of 3D woven C/C composite materials; Sanjigenori C/C composite zairyo no kikai buhin eno oyo ni kansuru kenkyu hyoka hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The paper described a study made during 1995 through 1998 on the application of 3D woven C/C composite materials to machine parts. The materials are large in rigidity, small in specific gravity, excellent in specific rigidity, and suitable for high speed rotation. They are excellent in heat resistance/dynamic reformation and expected as materials which can exceed limits of the existing steel for machine parts. However, to use them as machine parts, a possibility of high precision cutting is required. Therefore, a study was made on metal multi-layer membrane coating to C/C composites. Pitch-system high-elastic carbon fibers were made a 4-directional material by orienting horizontally in 3 directions at 120 degrees per plane and also orienting vertically. Various materials such as W, Mo and WC were coated by the laser assisted plasma hybrid spraying method. High adhesion coats with little pore were obtained. Multi-directionally woven C/C composites used to be poor in surface precision workability, but the problem was able to be solved by coating surfaces with metal layers and metal multi-layer membranes. The application is expanded not only to polygonal mirrors (for laser printing machine) and milling spindles, but largely to machine parts. 11 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Report on the basic design of a hydrogen transportation system utilizing metal hydrides and the evaluation thereon; Kinzoku suisokabutsu wo riyoshita suiso yuso system no kihon sekkei to sono hyoka ni kansuru hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-03-26

    This paper describes a hydrogen transportation system utilizing metal hydrides. For a storage method for moving, metal hydrides having high hydrogen containing performance like Mg-based hydrides would have high portability, less weight disadvantage, and high economic performance. In the fixed location storage, metal hydrides are superior in safety and maintenance cost to the conventional high-pressure gas holder and liquefied hydrogen storage. Because of their high dependence on equilibrium pressure and temperature, the significance of development thereof is large as the source of high-pressure hydrogen generation and motive force. More effective utilization of low-level heat, and separation and refining of hydrogen may also be expected. With regard to fuel supply for hydrogen fueled automobiles, metal hydrides are better in safety and total energy cost than liquefied hydrogen, but have a number of disadvantageous points in weight demerit. Eliminating the weight demerit would be the central issue of the development. Accompanying the development of hydrogen fueled automobiles, there are a number of technological elements to be developed on fuel supply system, such as storage, moving and transportation in hydrogen manufacturing sites, and filling and storage at using sites. Arranging the related infrastructures would be the issue. (NEDO)

  5. Study of numerical simulations concerning the performance of antennas used for automobile wireless communications; Jidosha no musen tsushin ni okeru antenna seino hyoka no tame no suchi simulation no ichikosatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sueyoshi, M; Yano, T; Noda, Y; Goto, H [Honda Lock Mfg. Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Automobiles and communication technologies will be more closely related with each other in the advanced intelligence society. Anti-theft security systems apply those technologies, where antenna performance is one of the key elements. This is a study of numerical simulations of the performance of those vehicle antennas. 2 refs., 2 figs.

  6. Evaluation report on research and development of an ultra-advanced processing system. Sections 1 and 2; Chosentan kako system no kenkyu kaihatsu ni kansuru hyoka hokokusho. 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-08-01

    The ultra-advanced processing system is intended to develop an ultra-advanced processing device technology and an ultra-advanced processing technology. These technologies are indispensable to create such new processing technologies as ultra-precision and ultra-micro processing, and ultra high-grade surface modification processing, which have been impossible by the processing technologies having been available to date. It is also intended to develop a measuring and evaluating technology to support the above technologies. The intended system makes it possible to produce 21st century electronic components and ultra-high grade environment resistant materials. In order to achieve these goals, research and development has been performed on the excited beam technologies such as large output excimer laser and high-density ion beams, the ultra-precision machining device technology, the ultra-advanced processing technology using the above technologies, and the measuring and evaluating technology to assure the reliability of these technologies as the fundamental technologies. This project has begun in fiscal 1986, where fiscal 1987 has achieved development of component technologies related to the large output excimer laser and high-density ion beams, the ultra-precision machining device technology, the ultra-advanced processing technology using the above technologies, and the measuring and evaluating technology, and completed the device technology, having achieved the final target. (NEDO)

  7. Evaluation report on research and development of a database system for mutual computer operation; Denshi keisanki sogo un'yo database system no kenkyu kaihatsu ni kansuru hyoka hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-03-01

    This paper describes evaluation on the research and development of a database system for mutual computer operation, with respect to discrete database technology, multi-media technology, high reliability technology, and mutual operation network system technology. A large number of research results placing the views on the future were derived, such as the issues of discretion and utilization patterns of the discrete database, structuring of data for multi-media information, retrieval systems, flexible and high-level utilization of the network, and the issues in database protection. These achievements are publicly disclosed widely. The largest feature of this project is in aiming at forming a network system that can be operated mutually under multi-vender environment. Therefore, the researches and developments have been executed under the spirit of the principle of openness to public and international cooperation. These efforts are represented by organizing the rule establishment committee, execution of mutual interconnection experiment (including demonstration evaluation), and development of the mounting rules based on the ISO's 'open system interconnection (OSI)'. These results are compiled in the JIS as the basic reference model for the open system interconnection, whereas the targets shown in the basic plan have been achieved sufficiently. (NEDO)

  8. Research and development of photovoltaic power system. Characterization and control of surface/interface recombination velocity of crystalline silicon thin films; Taiyoko hatsuden system no kenkyu kaihatsu. Silicon kessho usumaku ni okeru hyomen kaimen saiketsugo sokudo no hyoka to seigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, H [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1994-12-01

    This paper reports the result obtained during fiscal 1994 on characterization and control of surface/interface recombination velocity of crystalline silicon thin films. To optimize design and manufacture of solar cells, it is necessary to identify correctly resistance factor (or doping) of bulk of materials, bulk minority carrier life, and recombination velocity on surface, passivation interface and electrode interface. A group in the Hokkaido University has been working since a few years ago on development of non-contact and non-destructive photo-luminescence surface level spectroscopy (PLS{sup 3}). A new non-contact C-V method was also introduced. Using these methods, basic discussions were given on possibility of separate measurements on surface/interface and bulk characteristics of solar cell materials. The PLS{sup 3} method and the non-contact C-V method were used for experimental discussions on evaluation of silicon mono-crystalline and poly-crystalline materials. Discussions were given on separate evaluations by using the DLTS method. 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Equivalent CTOD concept based on the local approach and its application to fracture performance evaluation of welded joints; Local approach ni motozuku toka CTOD gainen no teian to tsugite hakai seino hyoka eno oyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohata, M.; Minami, F.; Toyoda, M. [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Tanaka, T.; Arimochi, K. [Sumitomo Metal Industries, Ltd., Osaka (Japan); Glover, A. [Nova Gas Transmission Ltd., Calgary (Canada); North, T. [University of Toronto (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    A proposal was given on an equivalent crack tip opening displacement (CTOD) concept which relates quantitatively fracture performance of a structural member with the result of a three-point bending CTOD test via the Weibull stress based on a local approach. The equivalent CTOD is defined as a CTOD in which a three-point CTOD test piece and a structural member provide the same Weibull stress. Experimental and analytical discussions were performed on X80 steel welded joints. Effectiveness of the equivalent CTOD concept was verified from the fact that the fracture performance in welded joints with a large width estimated from the result of the three-point bending CTOD test using the equivalent CTOD concept showed good correspondence with the fracture performance obtained in the experiments. On the other hand, the result of estimation using the conventional CTOD concept is considerably smaller than measurements. As an application of the equivalent CTOD concept, a new determination procedure was introduced on required fracture tenacity to ensure deformation performance required on structural elements. The required CTOD value shows a trend that the smaller the ratio of yield stress of the welded metals to that in the base material, the greater the required CTOD grows. 16 refs., 19 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Hybrid utilization of solar energy. Part 2. Performance analyses of heating system with air hybrid collector; Taiyo energy no hybrid riyo ni kansuru kenkyu. 2. Kuki shunetsu hybrid collector wo mochiita danbo system no seino hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshinaga, M; Okumiya, M [Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    For the effective utilization of solar energy at houses, a heating system using an air hybrid collector (capable of simultaneously performing heat collection and photovoltaic power generation). As the specimen house, a wooden house of a total floor area of 120m{sup 2} was simulated. Collected air is fanned into a crushed stone heat accumulator (capable of storing one day`s collection) or into a living room. The output of solar cell arrays is put into a heat pump (capable of handling a maximum hourly load of 36,327kJ/h) via an inverter so as to drive the fan (corresponding to average insolation on the heat collecting plate of 10.7MJ/hm{sup 2} and heat collecting efficiency of 40%), and shortage in power if any is supplied from the system interconnection. A hybrid collector, as compared with the conventional air collector, is lower in thermal efficiency but the merit that it exhibits with respect to power generation is far greater than what is needed to counterbalance the demerit. When the hybrid system is in heating operation, there is an ideal heat cycle of collection, accumulation, and radiation when the load is light, but the balance between accumulation and radiation is disturbed when the load is heavy. 4 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Valuation of the quantity of electric output from photovoltaic generation system in case of PV module applied to installing to vertical direction; Taiyo denchi wo suichoku ni haichishita baai no hatsudenryo hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyajima, K [Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc., Osaka (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    In general, it is most efficient and economical to install photovoltaic (PV) modules with proper slope. There are room spaces on the wall except ground or roof. The PV modules were installed on the vertical wall, to consider the compensative method for this weak point. When modules were installed vertically, there is an advantage that reflecting solar light as well as incident solar light can be utilized compared with the installation with slope. The PV modules were installed on the roof of building with inclination of 90{degree} facing to south using the roof material as a reflecting material (S90), and with inclination of 15{degree} facing to south (S15), to compare their output. The output ratio, S90/S15 was 0.42. When it was very fine, this value increased to 0.60. When using plated steel plate as the reflecting material, this value increased to 0.74, which provided 10 to 30% larger output than the roof material. From these results, about 50% of module output of S15 can be expected for S90. If receiving larger reflection, there would only a slight difference in the module output between S15 and S90. 3 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Report on evaluation of research and development of production of olefins from heavy oil as the stock material; 'Jushitsuyu wo genryo to suru olefin no seizoho' no kenkyu kaihatsu ni kansuru hyoka hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-08-01

    This project is aimed at stable supply of the stocks for the petrochemical industry to cope with the keenly felt depletion of oil resources in the long run and price hikes, and promotion of effective utilization of high-sulfur heavy oil fractions difficult to desulfurize, thereby promoting prevention of pollution. The techniques have been developed to economically produce high-value products, e.g., olefins and aromatic hydrocarbons, by thermally cracking abundant stocks, e.g., vacuum residue. A 120 t/d fluidized bed pilot plant with coke as the heat medium was constructed to develop various techniques, e.g., those for controlling coking, decoking, quenching cracking products, and controlling coke particles as the heat medium, to realize stable, continuous operation for extended periods of at least 1,000 hours. The techniques have been also developed for effective utilization of heavy oils as by-products containing sulfur at high concentrations. Economic viability of the process is considered to be on a level with that associated with naphtha cracking at present, when an intermediate base vacuum residue is used as the stock material. It will be sufficiently competitive with naphtha cracking with all types of heavy oils as the stock materials, including intermediate base vacuum residue, in an intermediate term. (NEDO)

  13. FY 1998 evaluation/analysis of the data collected in the field test project for photovoltaic power generation for public facilities; 1998 nendo kokyo shisetsu nadoyo taiyoko hatsuden field test jigyo ni okeru shushu data hyoka kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    In the field test project for the photovoltaic power generation for public facilities, operational data were collected/analyzed on facilities at 158 sites installed from FY 1994 to FY 1997. As a result, the following were found out: Average values of the global radiation on an inclined surface, equivalent array operation time, equivalent system operation time, system operation time, inverter performance efficiency, inverter load factor, array power coefficient, and system power coefficient are 3.51 kWh/m{sup 2}/D, 2.72 h/D, 2.47 h/D, 10.3 h/D, 0.91, 0.30, 0.77 and 0.70, respectively. No deterioration with age was recognized in the 4-year operation data. As to the maintenance, the item, 'there are a lot of failures in the photovoltaic power system,' was 2% in rate. As to the inspection, times are mostly once a month. The annual maintenance cost was widely between about 360 yen/kW and about 30,000 yen/kW. Supposing annual expenses to be a total of capital expense, direct expense, and general administrative expense, the power generation cost dropped from approximately 240 yen/kWh in FY 1994 to 100 yen/kWh in FY 1997. (NEDO)

  14. Evaluation of ride-quality and incidence of seasickness. 4. Motion sickness incidence and change of facial expression; Senpaku no norigokochi hyoka ni kansuru kenkyu ( 4 ). Norimonoyoi hasshoji no hyojo no henka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arima, M.; Hirai, T.; Hosoda, R. [Osaka City Univ. (Japan)

    1998-12-31

    This paper studies the method of predicting and evaluating the motion sickness incidence from subject`s facial expressions during the whole-body exposure to oscillations. The facial expressions are recorded with a video camera which can measure them without invasion physiologically and mentally. Facial parameters, which are considered to relate to the motion sickness incidence, are selected, measured and analyzed quantitatively, and a method of evaluating the motion sickness incidence objectively from the facial expressions is proposed. Three facial expression parameters now selected to evaluate the motion sickness incidence are brow width, eye opening and mouth opening. It was clarified that the motion sickness incidence could be expressed joining the above parameters together. This paper consists of three sections, viz. Oscillation experiment for ride-quality evaluation, Measurement and analysis of facial expressions, and Modeling for evaluating facial expressions. 11 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. Equivalent CTOD concept based on the local approach and its application to fracture performance evaluation of welded joints; Local approach ni motozuku toka CTOD gainen no teian to tsugite hakai seino hyoka eno oyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohata, M; Minami, F; Toyoda, M [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Tanaka, T; Arimochi, K [Sumitomo Metal Industries, Ltd., Osaka (Japan); Glover, A [Nova Gas Transmission Ltd., Calgary (Canada); North, T [University of Toronto (Canada)

    1997-12-31

    A proposal was given on an equivalent crack tip opening displacement (CTOD) concept which relates quantitatively fracture performance of a structural member with the result of a three-point bending CTOD test via the Weibull stress based on a local approach. The equivalent CTOD is defined as a CTOD in which a three-point CTOD test piece and a structural member provide the same Weibull stress. Experimental and analytical discussions were performed on X80 steel welded joints. Effectiveness of the equivalent CTOD concept was verified from the fact that the fracture performance in welded joints with a large width estimated from the result of the three-point bending CTOD test using the equivalent CTOD concept showed good correspondence with the fracture performance obtained in the experiments. On the other hand, the result of estimation using the conventional CTOD concept is considerably smaller than measurements. As an application of the equivalent CTOD concept, a new determination procedure was introduced on required fracture tenacity to ensure deformation performance required on structural elements. The required CTOD value shows a trend that the smaller the ratio of yield stress of the welded metals to that in the base material, the greater the required CTOD grows. 16 refs., 19 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. FY 1999 report on the results of the investigational study on the promotion of application of aluminum materials to automobiles by the development of low-cost aluminum materials and aluminum resource recycling technology; 1999 nendo tei cost aluminium zai oyobi arumi shigen junkan gijutsu no kaihatsu ni yoru jidosha eno aluminium zai tekiyo suishin ni kansuru chosa kenkyu hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Presently, the aluminum demand in Japan is approximately 3.8 million tons, and the aluminum discharged as scrap reaches approximately 1.7 million tons/year. Out of the discharged scrap, 54% is recovered as the secondary metal, and the rest, 0.77 million tons, is not recovered and dumped for land reclamation. In future, if the present cascade type recycling goes on, it is predicted that a gap between supply and demand of about 0.5 million tons will arise. To cope with this problem, the following are the measures to be taken : 1) development of the technology to promote the use of recycled aluminum metal for automobiles in which a lot of aluminum is most likely to be used because of the increasing fuel consumption, etc. 2) establishment of a recycling system by which the waste sash discharged in quantity from the construction field is again used as sash. From the two points of view, which are needed in the case of using a lot of aluminum for automobiles, the heightening of competitiveness in the aluminum industry and the recycling in which the aluminum expanded materials used for automobiles are efficiently recycled as expanded materials in the recycling economic system, this survey extracted problems and made proposals, overlooking the state of the aluminum use in automobiles, state of the treatment of used cars, state of manufacturing/processing technology of aluminum products. (NEDO)

  17. Survey report for fiscal 1999 on internationalization of technologies for effective use of energy resources. Survey by exploration of international cooperative researches on energy-saving through advanced use of steel slag; 1999 nendo energy shigen yuko riyo gijutsu kenkyu kokusaika chosa hokokusho. Tekko slag no kodo riyo ni yoru sho energy gijutsu ni kansuru kokusai kyodo kenkyu no tansaku chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    As for the collection of sensible heat, 1/3 of blast-furnace slag is treated to the purpose at the Teesside Technology Centre, Britain, but none is collected in the latter half of tapping in case there is so much slag that cooling cannot be done in time. In the case of a large blast furnace, some measures have to be contrived because molten iron comes out of the furnace intermittently. In Germany, the heat collection rate is as low as 3%, with no effort made at heat collection. In North America, desire to develop such a technology is not strong. A visit was made to the Institute of Ocean Sciences, Canada, in relation to the concept of using steel slag as a eutrophic source for marine photo-plankton. A large-scale long-term test is under way for examining the relationship between global warming and ocean current circulation. There are possibilities that Japan will enter into the project for a joint study, for example, of heavy metal elution from slag though the test fails to name slag as the direct object of study. Not only for Canada but also for any other country who faces the sea, it may be a meaningful national policy to inject some active ingredients into the sea for an increase in living marine resources. Greece is engaged in the ocean dumping of nickel slag on an experimental basis but, in view of the purpose of the experiment, Japan will not be a participant in the project. (NEDO)

  18. Radiochemical method for 63Ni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm, E.; Nilsson, U.; Hallstadius, L.

    1985-01-01

    A radianalytical method for the determination of 63 Ni content in environmental samples of activated corrosion products is described. After chemical separation and electrodepositing of 63 Ni on silver briquets, the chemical yield is determined by X-ray fluorescence analysis. For the detection of low-energy beta activity, an open gas flow GM-counter with an anticoincidence guard counter is put to use

  19. Electronic structure of Ni/sub 3/Al and Ni/sub 3/Ga alloys

    CERN Document Server

    Pong, W F; Chang, Y K; Tsai, M H; Hsieh, H H; Pieh, J Y; Tseng, P K; Lee, J F; Hsu, L S

    1999-01-01

    This work investigates the charge transfer and Al(Ga) p-Ni d hybridization effects in the intermetallic Ni/sub 3/Al(Ni/sub 3/Ga) alloy using the NiL/sub 3.2/- and K-edge and Al(Ga)K X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) measurements. We find that the intensity of white-line features at the NiL/sub 3.2/-edge in the Ni/sub 3/Al(Ni /sub 3/Ga) alloy decreased in comparison with that of pure Ni, which can be attributed to the enhancement of Ni3d states filling and the depletion of the density of Ni 3d unoccupied states in the Ni/sub 3 /Al(Ni/sub 3/Ga) alloy. Two clear features are also observed in the Ni/sub 3/Al(Ni/sub 3/Ga) XANES spectrum at the Al(Ga) K-edge, which can be assigned to the Al(Ga) unoccupied 3p (4p) states and their hybridized states with the Ni 3d/4sp states above the Fermi level in Ni/sub 3/Al(Ni/sub 3/Ga). The threshold at Al K-edge XANES for Ni/sub 3/Al clearly shifts towards higher photon energies relative to that of pure Al, indicating that Al loses charges upon forming Ni/sub 3 /Al. ...

  20. Nitriding behavior of Ni and Ni-based binary alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonovic, Matej

    2015-01-15

    Gaseous nitriding is a prominent thermochemical surface treatment process which can improve various properties of metallic materials such as mechanical, tribological and/or corrosion properties. This process is predominantly performed by applying NH{sub 3}+H{sub 2} containing gas atmospheres serving as the nitrogen donating medium at temperatures between 673 K and 873 K (400 C and 600 C). NH{sub 3} decomposes at the surface of the metallic specimen and nitrogen diffuses into the surface adjacent region of the specimen whereas hydrogen remains in the gas atmosphere. One of the most important parameters characterizing a gaseous nitriding process is the so-called nitriding potential (r{sub N}) which determines the chemical potential of nitrogen provided by the gas phase. The nitriding potential is defined as r{sub N} = p{sub NH{sub 3}}/p{sub H{sub 2}{sup 3/2}} where p{sub NH{sub 3}} and p{sub H{sub 2}} are the partial pressures of the NH{sub 3} and H{sub 2} in the nitriding atmosphere. In contrast with nitriding of α-Fe where the nitriding potential is usually in the range between 0.01 and 1 atm{sup -1/2}, nitriding of Ni and Ni-based alloys requires employing nitriding potentials higher than 100 atm{sup -1/2} and even up to ∞ (nitriding in pure NH{sub 3} atmosphere). This behavior is compatible with decreased thermodynamic stability of the 3d-metal nitrides with increasing atomic number. Depending on the nitriding conditions (temperature, nitriding potential and treatment time), different phases are formed at the surface of the Ni-based alloys. By applying very high nitriding potential, formation of hexagonal Ni{sub 3}N at the surface of the specimen (known as external nitriding) leads to the development of a compound layer, which may improve tribological properties. Underneath the Ni{sub 3}N compound layer, two possibilities exist: (i) alloying element precipitation within the nitrided zone (known as internal nitriding) and/or (ii) development of metastable and

  1. Ni4Ti3 precipitate structures in Ni-rich NiTi shape memory alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holec, D.; Bojda, O.; Dlouhy, A.

    2008-01-01

    Non-uniform distributions of Ni 4 Ti 3 precipitate crystallographic variants are investigated in a Ni-rich NiTi shape memory alloy after aging, assisted by external stress. A finite-element method model is presented that considers the elastic anisotropy of the B2 parent phase and also mutual misorientations of grains in a polycrystalline sample. On loading by the external stress, the stress is redistributed in the microstructure and the precipitation of some Ni 4 Ti 3 crystallographic variants becomes distinctly favorable in grain boundary regions since these variant configurations minimize the elastic interaction energy. The volume fraction of the affected grain boundary regions is calculated and the numerical results are compared with the data obtained by differential scanning calorimetry and transmission electron microscopy

  2. Ni4Ti3 precipitate structures in Ni-rich NiTi shape memory alloys

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holec, David; Bojda, Ondřej; Dlouhý, Antonín

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 481, Sp. Iss. (2008), s. 462-465 ISSN 0921-5093. [ESOMAT 2006. Bochum, 10.09.2006-15.09.2006] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA106/05/0918 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : NiTi shape memory alloys * Ni4Ti3 precipitates * Multi-step martensitic transformations Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.806, year: 2008

  3. Electronic structure of Ni-- and Ni2--ethylene cluster complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basch, H.; Newton, M.D.; Moskowitz, J.W.

    1978-01-01

    The electronic structure of metal cluster--ethylene complexes has been investigated by carrying out ab initio bonding pair-correlated, self-consistent field, and configuration interaction (CI) calculations on the NiC 2 H 4 and Ni 2 C 2 H 4 species. The π-NiC 2 H 4 and π-Ni 2 C 2 H 4 cluster complexes are found to be bound, the former only with CI, while disigma-Ni 2 C 2 H 4 has only a repulsive Ni 2 --C 2 H 4 ground state potential curve. The bonding in the π-type cluster complexes can be described as follows: The metal atom configuration is 3d 9 4s 1 with the 4s hybridized (by the metal 4p) away from the ethylene molecule, thereby allowing the π orbital to form a dative sigma bond with the metal atom. The bonding interaction is promoted by the presence of a second nickel atom behind the first one, leading to a 4s orbital electron deficiency of the bonded nickel atom and thus making this nickel atom a better electron acceptor. Back donation from the occupied metal 3d into the ethylene π* molecular orbital also takes place to some extent, and thus both features of the classical Dewar--Chatt--Duncanson model are observed. The π-Ni 2 C 2 H 4 species is analyzed in terms of the addition of a bare nickel atom to a π-NiC 2 H 4 cluster complex, with concomitant stabilization of the orbitals of the bonded nickel atom. A study of the excited electronic states of π-NiC 2 H 4 shows that low-lying 4s→π* and 3d→π* (M→L) charge transfer transitions are predicted. The former is not observed experimentally, probably due to the diffuse nature of the 4s orbital. The relationship between small cluster--ethylene complex systems and ethylene chemisorption on a nickel metal surface is discussed

  4. Radioactive 63Ni in biological research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasprzak, K.S.; Sunderman, F.W. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Applications of 63 Ni in biological research are reviewed, with emphasis upon recent investigations of nickel metabolism and toxicology in experimental animals. The radiochemistry of 63 Ni is summarized, including consideration of the preparation of certain 63 Ni compounds (e.g. 63 Ni(CO) 4 and 63 Ni 3 S 2 ) that are of current interest in toxicology, teratology and cancer research. Practical guidance is given regarding the detection and determination of 63 Ni in biological materials by autoradiography and liquid scintillation spectrometry. (author)

  5. Superstructure of NiAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nozue, Tatsuhiro; Kobayashi, Hisao; Kamimura, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Yasuo

    2001-01-01

    The structural transition in NiAs was studied by neutron diffraction on the single crystalline sample. The crystal structure of NiAs has been reported to be bottom-centered orthorhombic with Cmc2 1 symmetry (niccolite-type). The measurement of temperature dependence of the powder X-ray diffraction revealed that NiAs undergoes a structural transition to the NiAs-type at T t =335 K. In present neutron diffraction experiment at room temperature, we observed the reflections indexed on the basis of the orthorhombic unit cell. The intensities of these reflections are qualitatively explained in terms of the niccolite-type structure with taking account of three domain structures, except for the weak reflections indexed as (001), (003) and (012). Then, the intensities of (001), (002) and (004) reflections were measured in temperature range of 20 to 420 K. The temperature dependences of (002) and (004) reflections qualitatively agree with those of the calculated intensities using the atomic positions of niccolite-type structure. However, the temperature dependence of (001) reflection shows the anomaly around T t , which suggests the symmetry of crystal structure of NiAs is not the Cmc2 1 symmetry. (author)

  6. Thermal stability and electrical characteristics of NiSi films with electroplated Ni(W) alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xin Yuhang; Hu Anmin; Li Ming; Mao Dali

    2011-01-01

    In this study, an electroplating method to deposited Ni, crystalline NiW(c-NiW), amorphous NiW (a-NiW) films on P-type Si(1 0 0) were used to form Ni-silicide (NiSi) films. After annealed at various temperatures, sheet resistance of Ni/Cu, c-NiW/Cu and a-NiW/Cu was measured to observe the performance of those diffusion barrier layers. With W added in the barrier layer, the barrier performance was improved. The results of XRD and resistance measurement of the stacked Si/Ni(W)/Cu films reveal that Cu atom could diffuse through Ni barrier layer at 450 deg. C, could diffuse through c-NiW at 550 deg. C, but could hardly diffuse through a-NiW barrier layer. c-NiW layer has a better barrier performance than Ni layer, meanwhile the resistance is lower than a-NiW layer.

  7. Giant magnetoimpedance effect in sputtered single layered NiFe film and meander NiFe/Cu/NiFe film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, L.; Zhou, Y.; Lei, C.; Zhou, Z.M.; Ding, W.

    2010-01-01

    Giant magnetoimpedance (GMI) effect on NiFe thin film is very promising due to its application in developing the magnetic field sensors with highly sensitivity and low cost. In this paper, the single layered NiFe thin film and NiFe/Cu/NiFe thin film with a meander structure are prepared by the MEMS technology. The influences of sputtering parameters, film structure and conductor layer width on GMI effect in NiFe single layer and meander NiFe/Cu/NiFe film are investigated. Maximum of the GMI ratio in single layer and sandwich film is 5% and 64%, respectively. The results obtained are useful for developing the high-performance magnetic sensors based on NiFe thin film.

  8. High Ni in Archean tholeiites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, Nicholas T.

    1991-03-01

    Archean tholeiites generally have higher Ni, Co. Cr and Fe than most younger tholeiites with similar MgO contents. These characteristics cannot be attributed to high T or P batch melting in the Archean mantle, because, although such melts are enriched in siderophile elements, they have higher MgO than normal tholeiites. As primary melts fractionate to lower MgO, they lose Ni, Co and Cr. Nor can the differences between Archean and younger tholeiites be attributed to secular variation in mantle compositions because Archean komatiites have Ni, Co, Cr contents similar to modern (Gorgona) komatiites. It is suggested that the high siderophile element content of Archean tholeiites results from mixing of either komatiitic with basaltic magmas, as might occur in an ascending, melting mantle plume or column, or of komatiite and more evolved rocks, as may take place when komatiite encounters and assimilates crustal rocks.

  9. Relation between shape of Ni-particles and Ni migration in Ni-YSZ electrodes – a hypothesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg; Hauch, Anne; Sun, Xiufu

    2016-01-01

    This is an attempt to explain a phenomenon of total depletion of Ni next to the electrolyte in Ni-YSZ cermet electrodes in solid oxide electrolysis cells during electrolysis at high current density/overpotential. Intuitively, we would think that Ni would always migrate down the steam partial...

  10. Ni-NiO core-shell inverse opal electrodes for supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Hun; Kang, Soon Hyung; Zhu, Kai; Kim, Jin Young; Neale, Nathan R; Frank, Arthur J

    2011-05-14

    A general template-assisted electrochemical approach was used to synthesize three-dimensional ordered Ni core-NiO shell inverse opals (IOs) as electrodes for supercapacitors. The Ni-NiO IO electrodes displayed pseudo-capacitor behavior, good rate capability and cycling performance. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  11. CONFIGURATION-INTERACTION IN NI METAL AND NI-ALLOYS AND HIGH-ENERGY SPECTROSCOPY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    TANAKA, A; JO, T; SAWATZKY, GA

    We discuss the electronic state of Ni atoms in Ni metal and of Ni impurity in Cu and Au metals from the viewpoint of 3d configuration interaction (CI) using the Anderson impurity model including atomic multiplets. On the basis of the discussion, we give an interpretation for the Ni 2p-core X-ray

  12. Iodine capture by Hofmann-type clathrate Ni(II)(pz)[Ni(II)(CN)_4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massasso, Giovanni; Long, Jerome; Haines, Julien; Devautour-Vinot, Sabine; Maurin, Guillaume; Larionova, Joulia; Guerin, Christian; Guari, Yannick; Grandjean, Agnes; Onida, Barbara; Donnadieu, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    The thermally stable Hofmann-type clathrate framework Ni(II)(pz)[Ni(II)(CN)_4] (pz = pyrazine) was investigated for the efficient and reversible sorption of iodine (I_2) in the gaseous phase and in solution with a maximum adsorption capacity of 1 mol of I_2 per 1 mol of Ni(II)pz)[Ni(II)(CN)_4] in solution. (authors)

  13. Density functional theory study of the interfacial properties of Ni/Ni3Si eutectic alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Yuhong; Wen, Zhiqin; Hou, Hua; Guo, Wei; Han, Peide

    2014-01-01

    In order to clarify the heterogeneous nucleation potential of α-Ni grains on Ni 3 Si particles in Ni-Ni 3 Si eutectic alloy, the work of adhesion (W ad ), fracture toughness (G), interfacial energy (γ i ), and electronic structure of the index (0 0 1), (1 1 0) and (1 1 1) Ni/Ni 3 Si interfaces with two different cohesive manners are investigated using first-principles method based on density functional theory. Results indicate that the center site stacking sequence (OM) is preferable to continue the natural stacking sequence of bulk Ni and Ni 3 Si. Since OM stacking interfaces have larger W ad , G and γ i than that of the top site stacking (OT) interfaces. The Ni/Ni 3 Si (1 1 0) interface with OM stacking has the best mechanical properties. Therefore, the formation of this interface can improve the stability, ductility and fracture toughness of Ni-Ni 3 Si eutectic alloy. The calculated interfacial energy of Ni/Ni 3 Si (0 0 1), (1 1 0) and (1 1 1) interfaces with OM stacking proves the excellent nucleation potency of Ni 3 Si particles for α-Ni phase from thermodynamic considerations. Besides, the electronic structure and chemical bonding of (1 1 0) interface with OM stacking are also discussed.

  14. Density of Liquid Ni-Cr Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The density of liquid Ni-Cr alloy was measured by a modified sessile drop method. The density of liquid Ni-Cr alloywas found to decrease with increasing temperature and Cr concentration in the alloy. The molar volume of liquidNi-Cr alloy increases with increasing the Cr concentration in the alloy. The molar volume of Ni-Cr alloy determinedin the present work shows a positive deviation from the linear molar volume.

  15. Laser alloyed Al-Ni-Fe coatings

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pityana, SL

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to produce crack-free thin surface layers consisting of binary (Al-Ni, Al-Fe) and ternary (Al-Ni-Fe) intermetallic phases by means of a high power laser beam. The laser surface alloying was carried out by melting Fe and Ni...

  16. Nanostructure analysis of friction welded Pd-Ni-P/Pd-Cu-Ni-P metallic glass interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohkubo, T.; Shoji, S.; Kawamura, Y.; Hono, K.

    2005-01-01

    Friction welded Pd 40 Ni 40 P 20 /Pd 40 Cu 30 Ni 10 P 20 metallic glass interface has been characterized by energy filtering transmission electron microscopy. The interface is fully amorphous with a gradual compositional change of Cu and Ni in the range of 30 nm. By annealing above T g , the interdiffusion of Cu and Ni progressed in the supercooled liquid region, and the crystallization occurred from the Pd 40 Ni 40 P 20 glass

  17. Study of dipole interaction in micron-width NiFe/Cu/NiFe/NiO wire using exchange anisotropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Takashi; Itagaki, Yoshio; Wakaya, Fujio; Gamo, Kenji

    2001-01-01

    The dipole interaction between a NiFe layer pinned by a NiO and a free NiFe layer in a micron-wide NiFe/Cu/NiFe/NiO wire was studied by changing the direction of the exchange bias from the NiO layer. The effect of the dipole interaction when the exchange bias was perpendicular to the wire axis was larger than that when the exchange bias was parallel to the wire axis, and was consistently explained by the stray field caused by the magnetic charges of the pinned layer. It was demonstrated that this method, using exchange anisotropy, is useful for investigating the dipole interaction between ferromagnetic materials separated by a nonmagnetic material in small-scale magnetic multilayers. [copyright] 2001 American Institute of Physics

  18. Effects of Ni particle morphology on cell performance of Na/NiCl2 battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mangi; Ahn, Cheol-Woo; Hahn, Byung-Dong; Jung, Keeyoung; Park, Yoon-Cheol; Cho, Nam-ung; Lee, Heesoo; Choi, Joon-Hwan

    2017-11-01

    Electrochemical reaction of Ni particle, one of active cathode materials in the Na/NiCl2 battery, occurs on the particle surface. The NiCl2 layer formed on the Ni particle surface during charging can disconnect the electron conduction path through Ni particles because the NiCl2 layer has very low conductivity. The morphology and size of Ni particles, therefore, need to be controlled to obtain high charge capacity and excellent cyclic retention. Effects of the Ni particle size on the cell performance were investigated using spherical Ni particles with diameters of 0.5 μm, 6 μm, and 50 μm. The charge capacities of the cells with spherical Ni particles increased when the Ni particle size becomes smaller because of their higher surface area but their charge capacities were significantly decreased with increasing cyclic tests owing to the disconnection of electron conduction path. The inferior cyclic retention of charge capacity was improved using reticular Ni particles which maintained the reliable connection for the electron conduction in the Na/NiCl2 battery. The charge capacity of the cell with the reticular Ni particles was higher than the cell with the small-sized spherical Ni particles approximately by 26% at 30th cycle.

  19. One dimensional motion of interstitial clusters and void growth in Ni and Ni alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshiie, T.; Ishizaki, T.; Xu, Q.; Satoh, Y.; Kiritani, M.

    2002-12-01

    One dimensional (1-D) motion of interstitial clusters is important for the microstructural evolution in metals. In this paper, the effect of 2 at.% alloying with elements Si (volume size factor to Ni: -5.81%), Cu (7.18%), Ge (14.76%) and Sn (74.08%) in Ni on 1-D motion of interstitial clusters and void growth was studied. In neutron irradiated pure Ni, Ni-Cu and Ni-Ge, well developed dislocation networks and voids in the matrix, and no defects near grain boundaries were observed at 573 K to a dose of 0.4 dpa by transmission electron microscopy. No voids were formed and only interstitial type dislocation loops were observed near grain boundaries in Ni-Si and Ni-Sn. The reaction kinetics analysis which included the point defect flow into planar sink revealed the existence of 1-D motion of interstitial clusters in Ni, Ni-Cu and Ni-Ge, and lack of such motion in Ni-Si and Ni-Sn. In Ni-Sn and Ni-Si, the alloying elements will trap interstitial clusters and thereby reduce the cluster mobility, which lead to the reduction in void growth.

  20. First-principles calculations for the elastic properties of Ni-base model superalloys: Ni/Ni3Al multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun-Jiang, Wang; Chong-Yu, Wang

    2009-01-01

    A model system consisting of Ni[001](100)/Ni 3 Al[001](100) multi-layers are studied using the density functional theory in order to explore the elastic properties of single crystal Ni-based superalloys. Simulation results are consistent with the experimental observation that rafted Ni-base superalloys virtually possess a cubic symmetry. The convergence of the elastic properties with respect to the thickness of the multilayers are tested by a series of multilayers from 2γ'+2γ to 10γ'+10γ atomic layers. The elastic properties are found to vary little with the increase of the multilayer's thickness. A Ni/Ni 3 Al multilayer with 10γ'+10γ atomic layers (3.54 nm) can be used to simulate the mechanical properties of Ni-base model superalloys. Our calculated elastic constants, bulk modulus, orientation-dependent shear modulus and Young's modulus, as well as the Zener anisotropy factor are all compatible with the measured results of Ni-base model superalloys R1 and the advanced commercial superalloys TMS-26, CMSX-4 at a low temperature. The mechanical properties as a function of the γ' phase volume fraction are calculated by varying the proportion of the γ and γ' phase in the multilayers. Besides, the mechanical properties of two-phase Ni/Ni 3 Al multilayer can be well predicted by the Voigt–Reuss–Hill rule of mixtures. (classical areas of phenomenology)

  1. Flowsheet for 63Ni production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, D.F.; Knauer, J.B.; O'Kelley, G.D.; Wiggins, J.T.; Porter, C.E.

    1992-01-01

    The production of large quantities of high specific activity 63 Ni (>10Ci/g) requires both a highly enriched 62 Ni target and a long irradiation period at high neutron flux. Trace impurities in the nickel and associated target materials are also activated and account for a significant fraction of the discharged activity and essentially all of the gamma activity. While most of these undesirable activation products (mainly transition metals) can be easily removed as chloride complexes during anion exchange, chromium, present as 51 Cr, and manganese, present as 54 Mn, are exceptions and require solvent extraction of the in-cell product to achieve the desired purity. In addition to summarizing the current development and production experience, optimized flowsheets are discussed

  2. Microstructural investigations of Ni and Ni2Al3 coatings exposed in biomass power plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, D. L.; Dahl, K. V.; Christiansen, T. L.

    2018-01-01

    The present work investigates the corrosion resistance of Ni and Ni2Al3 coated austenitic stainless steel (TP347H) tubes, which were exposed in a biomass-fired boiler with an outlet steam temperature of 540 °C for 6757 h. The Ni2Al3 coating was produced by electroplating Ni followed by low...... temperature pack cementation. After exposure, microstructural investigations were performed by light optical and electron microscopy (SEM-EDS). Electroplated Ni coatings were not protective in straw firing power plants and exhibited similar corrosion morphology as uncoated tubes. For Ni2Al3 coatings...

  3. Influence of ni thickness on oscillation coupling in Cu/Ni multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagorowska, B; Dus-Sitek, M [Institute of Physics, Czestochowa University of Technology, Al. Armii Krajowej 19, 42-200 Czestochowa (Poland)

    2007-08-15

    The results of investigation of magnetic properties of [Cu/Ni]x100 were presented. Samples were deposited by face-to-face sputtering method onto the silicon substrate, the thickness of Cu layer was constant (d{sub Cu} = 2 nm) and the thickness of Ni layer - variable (1 nm {<=} d{sub Ni} {<=} 6 nm). In Cu/Ni multilayers, for the thickness of Ni layer bigger than 2 nm antiferromagnetic coupling (A-F) were observed, for the thickness of Ni smaller than 2 nm A-F coupling is absent.

  4. Influence of ni thickness on oscillation coupling in Cu/Ni multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagorowska, B; Dus-Sitek, M

    2007-01-01

    The results of investigation of magnetic properties of [Cu/Ni]x100 were presented. Samples were deposited by face-to-face sputtering method onto the silicon substrate, the thickness of Cu layer was constant (d Cu = 2 nm) and the thickness of Ni layer - variable (1 nm ≤ d Ni ≤ 6 nm). In Cu/Ni multilayers, for the thickness of Ni layer bigger than 2 nm antiferromagnetic coupling (A-F) were observed, for the thickness of Ni smaller than 2 nm A-F coupling is absent

  5. Exclusive study of Ni+Ni and Ni+Au central collisions: phase coexistence and spinodal decomposition; Etude exclusive des collisions centrales Ni+Ni et Ni+Au: coexistence de phase et decomposition spinodale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guiot, B

    2002-12-01

    The INDRA multidetector allowed us to study the Ni+Ni collisions at 32A MeV and the Ni+Au collisions at 52,4 MeV. Central collisions leading to 'quasi-fused' systems were isolated using multidimensional analysis techniques: the Discriminant Analysis and the Principal Component Analysis. Comparison with a statistical model shows that the selected events are compatible with thermodynamical equilibrium. The average thermal excitation energy is 5A MeV for both systems. Calculations of heat capacities show that the deexcitation of the hot sources are akin to a liquid-gas phase transition of nuclear matter. Indeed heat capacities exhibit a negative branch as expected for a phase transition of a finite system. The dynamics of this phase transition has been investigated by applying the charge correlation method. An enhanced production of events with equal-sized fragments has been evidenced for Ni+Au at 52A MeV. No signal was found for Ni+Ni at 32A MeV. Finally this method was improved by taking into account the total charge conservation. The signal is seen more clearly for Ni+Au at 52A MeV, but is ambiguous for Ni+Ni at 32A MeV. The path followed in the state diagram, or the involved time scales, seem to be different for these systems. (authors)

  6. niños preescolares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Rosario Portilla Ramírez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio explora la relación entre la escritura y la comprensión de la referencia a través de una tarea de sinonimia en niños entre 5 y 6 años de edad, de origen latinoamericano, escolarizados en Barcelona (España. Las variables relacionadas con la tarea de sinonimia fueron (a la comprensión de la entidad lingüística nombre y (b el nivel de conceptualización de la escritura de los niños y la presencia de etiquetas escritas durante la tarea. Para la tarea de sinonimia se utilizaron pares de sinónimos dialectales del español (de Latinoamérica y de la Península Ibérica. Los resultados mostraron una diferenciación en el razonamiento de los niños, la cual dependía de la comparación entre lenguaje oral y lenguaje escrito en el desarrollo de la tarea, evidenciando una mayor aceptación de la sinonimia en la modalidad de lenguaje oral que en la modalidad de lenguaje escrito.

  7. Reinvestigation of 56Ni decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sur, B.; Norman, E.B.; Lesko, K.T.; Browne, E.; Larimer, R.

    1990-01-01

    In a series of experiments, we have reinvestigated the decay of the doubly magic nucleus 56 Ni, which is believed to be copiously produced in supernovae. We have confirmed its previously known decay scheme and half-life, and have searched for several rare decay modes. We establish an upper limit of 5.8x10 -7 for the branching ratio of the second forbidden unique β + decay to the 158-keV level in 56 Co, leading to a lower limit of 2.9x10 4 yr for the half-life of fully ionized 56 Ni nuclei in cosmic rays. We also establish an upper limit of 5.0x10 -3 for the branching ratio of the isospin forbidden Fermi electron capture transition to the 1451-keV level in 56 Co, which in turn leads to an upper limit of 124 keV for the isospin mixing Coulomb matrix element of the 56 Ni ground state

  8. On the nature of Ni···Ni interaction in a model dimeric Ni complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiński, Radosław; Herbaczyńska, Beata; Srebro, Monika; Pietrzykowski, Antoni; Michalak, Artur; Jerzykiewicz, Lucjan B; Woźniak, Krzysztof

    2011-06-07

    A new dinuclear complex (NiC(5)H(4)SiMe(2)CHCH(2))(2) (2) was prepared by reacting nickelocene derivative [(C(5)H(4)SiMe(2)CH=CH(2))(2)Ni] (1) with methyllithium (MeLi). Good quality crystals were subjected to a high-resolution X-ray measurement. Subsequent multipole refinement yielded accurate description of electron density distribution. Detailed inspection of experimental electron density in Ni···Ni contact revealed that the nickel atoms are bonded and significant deformation of the metal valence shell is related to different populations of the d-orbitals. The existence of the Ni···Ni bond path explains the lack of unpaired electrons in the complex due to a possible exchange channel.

  9. Synthesis of Ni core NiO shell nanostructure and magnetic investigation for shell thickness determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arabi, H.; Bruck, E.; Tichelaar, F.D.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Nickel oxide has received a considerable amount of attention in recent years for its catalytic, electronic and magnetic properties. Ni nanoparticles with an average size of 8 nm were prepared by dc - arc discharge in argon atmosphere. A current of 130 A and 300 milli bar pressure of argon have been applied. The produced Ni nanoparticles were annealed for oxidizing in air at 350 for six hours to produce antiferromagnetic NiO particles. The structure of Ni and NiO nanoparticles and size estimation of them studied by means of X-ray diffraction. The size and morphology of the particles were also characterized by high resolution transmission microscopy (TEM). The Ni core NiO shell structure, resulting from the oxidation process, were studied by magnetic properties measurements. A quantum design squid magnetometer, model MPMS5S was used for measuring saturation magnetization of both nanoparticles of Ni with and without NiO layer. By knowing the density of Ni and NiO, we were able to deduce the thickness of the Ni core and NiO outer layer. They are around 3 and 5 nanometers respectively. (authors)

  10. Exclusive study of Ni+Ni and Ni+Au central collisions: phase coexistence and spinodal decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guiot, B.

    2002-12-01

    The INDRA multidetector allowed us to study the Ni+Ni collisions at 32A MeV and the Ni+Au collisions at 52,4 MeV. Central collisions leading to 'quasi-fused' systems were isolated using multidimensional analysis techniques: the Discriminant Analysis and the Principal Component Analysis. Comparison with a statistical model shows that the selected events are compatible with thermodynamical equilibrium. The average thermal excitation energy is 5A MeV for both systems. Calculations of heat capacities show that the deexcitation of the hot sources are akin to a liquid-gas phase transition of nuclear matter. Indeed heat capacities exhibit a negative branch as expected for a phase transition of a finite system. The dynamics of this phase transition has been investigated by applying the charge correlation method. An enhanced production of events with equal-sized fragments has been evidenced for Ni+Au at 52A MeV. No signal was found for Ni+Ni at 32A MeV. Finally this method was improved by taking into account the total charge conservation. The signal is seen more clearly for Ni+Au at 52A MeV, but is ambiguous for Ni+Ni at 32A MeV. The path followed in the state diagram, or the involved time scales, seem to be different for these systems. (authors)

  11. Atomistic calculations of hydrogen interactions with Ni3Al grain boundaries and Ni/Ni3Al interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baskes, M.I.; Angelo, J.E.; Moody, N.R.

    1995-01-01

    Embedded Atom Method (EAM) potentials have been developed for the Ni/Al/H system. The potentials have been fit to numerous properties of this system. For example, these potentials represent the structural and elastic properties of bulk Ni, Al, Ni 3 Al, and NiAl quite well. In addition the potentials describe the solution and migration behavior of hydrogen in both nickel and aluminum. A number of calculations using these potentials have been performed. It is found that hydrogen strongly prefers sites in Ni 3 Al that are surrounded by 6 Ni atoms. Calculations of the trapping of hydrogen to a number of grain boundaries in Ni 3 Al have been performed as a function of hydrogen chemical potential at room temperature. The failure of these bicrystals under tensile stress has been examined and will be compared to the failure of pure Ni 3 Al boundaries. Boundaries containing a preponderance of nickel are severely weakened by hydrogen. In order to investigate the potential embrittlement of γ/γ' alloys, trapping of hydrogen to a spherical Ni 3 Al precipate in nickel as a function of chemical potential at room temperature has been calculated. It appears that the boundary is not a strong trap for hydrogen, hence embrittlement in these alloys is not primarily due to interactions of hydrogen with the γ/γ interface

  12. Structural features in Ni-Al alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abylkalykova, R.B.; Kveglis, L.I.; Rakhimova, U.A.; Nasokhova, Sh.B.; Tazhibaeva, G.B.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose of the work is study of structural transformations under diverse memory effect in Ni-Al alloys. Examination were conducted in following composition samples: Ni -75 at.% and Al - 25 at.%. The work is devoted to clarification reasons both formation atom-ordered structures in inter-grain boundaries of bulk samples under temperature action and static load. Revealed inter-grain inter-boundary layers in Ni-Al alloy both bulk and surface state have complicated structure

  13. Compositional and structural characterisation of Ni-phyllosilicates in hydrous silicate type Ni-laterite deposits

    OpenAIRE

    Villanova de Benavent, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Ni-bearing Mg-phyllosilicates (commonly known as garnierites) are significant ore minerals in many Ni-laterite deposits worldwide. However, the characterisation of these mineral phases is complex, as well as their classification and nomenclature, due to their fine-grained nature, low crystallinity and frequent occurrence as mixtures. The aim of this study is to shed some light to the nature of the Ni-bearing Mg-phyllosilicates occurring at the Falcondo Ni-laterite. In this deposit, these ...

  14. Thermal capture cross section for 58Ni (n,γ)59 Ni reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbonari, A.W.; Pecequilo, B.R.S.

    1989-01-01

    The 58 Ni total thermal capture cross section was determined by suming the partial cross sections calculated for the primary transitions of the reaction 58 Ni (n,γ) 59 Ni. The primary transitions energies and intensities were determined from the 58 Ni thermal neutrons prompt gamma capture gamma rays spectrum in the 3.7 to 9.3 MeV region. The obtained value for the total cross section was 4.52 + 0.10b. (author) [pt

  15. Formation enthalpy of NiBe and Ni5Be21

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, M.I.; Karpova, T.F.; Dalago, N.Yu.

    1981-01-01

    The method of dissolution calorimetry is used to determine standard enthalpies of NiBe and Ni 5 Be 21 formation, which are 84.8+-2.2 and (-669+-37)kJ/mol. The enthalpy values of NiBe and Ni 5 Be 21 at 331 K are shown to coincide (within the limits of errors of these values) with the values at the standard temperature of 298.15 K [ru

  16. Effects of Ni vacancy, Ni antisite, Cr and Pt on the third-order elastic constants and mechanical properties of NiAl

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Shaohua; Wu, Xiaozhi; Wang, Rui; Liu, Qing; Gan, Liyong

    2014-01-01

    Effects of Ni vacancy, Ni antisite in Al sublattice, Cr in Al sublattice, Pt in Ni sublattice on the second-order elastic constants (SOECs) and third-order elastic constants (TOECs) of the B2 NiAl have been investigated using the first-principles methods. Lattice constant and the SOECs of NiAl are in good agreement with the previous results. The brittle/ductile transition map based on Pugh ratio G/B and Cauchy pressure Pc shows that Ni antisite, Cr, Pt and pressure can improve the ductility of NiAl, respectively. Ni vacancy and lower pressure can enhance the Vickers hardness Hv of NiAl. The density of states (DOS) and the charge density difference are also used to analysis the effects of vacancy, Ni antisite, Cr and Pt on the mechanical properties of NiAl, and the results are in consistent with the transition map. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of Ni vacancy, Ni antisite, Cr and Pt on the third-order elastic constants and mechanical properties of NiAl

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Shaohua

    2014-12-01

    Effects of Ni vacancy, Ni antisite in Al sublattice, Cr in Al sublattice, Pt in Ni sublattice on the second-order elastic constants (SOECs) and third-order elastic constants (TOECs) of the B2 NiAl have been investigated using the first-principles methods. Lattice constant and the SOECs of NiAl are in good agreement with the previous results. The brittle/ductile transition map based on Pugh ratio G/B and Cauchy pressure Pc shows that Ni antisite, Cr, Pt and pressure can improve the ductility of NiAl, respectively. Ni vacancy and lower pressure can enhance the Vickers hardness Hv of NiAl. The density of states (DOS) and the charge density difference are also used to analysis the effects of vacancy, Ni antisite, Cr and Pt on the mechanical properties of NiAl, and the results are in consistent with the transition map. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Creep and shrinkage of Mo(Ni)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaysser, W.A.; Hofmann-Amtenbrink, M.; Petzow, G.

    1984-01-01

    To avoid some of the errors inherent in a quantitative interpretation of shrinkage of powder compacts as Mo-Ni, other experiments were looked for, where the influence of Ni on the material transport properties of Mo could be measured semi-quantitatively during heating up to temperature and subsequent isothermal annealing. The bending of thin Mo foils under small loads was found to be an experimental arrangement, where variations in stress, in Ni-concentration and in intrinsic material properties could be realized. The results of these creep experiments will be compared in a qualitative sense with sintering experiments in Mo-Ni done under similar conditions as the creep experiments

  19. Structure-activity relations for Ni-containing zeolites during NO reduction. II. Role of the chemical state of Ni

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mosqueda Jimenez, B.I.; Jentys, A.; Seshan, Kulathuiyer; Lercher, J.A.

    2003-01-01

    The influence of the metal in Ni-containing zeolites used as catalysts for the reduction of NO with propane and propene was studied. In the fresh catalysts, Ni is located in ion exchange positions for Ni/MOR, Ni/ZSM-5, and Ni/MCM-22. The formation of carbonaceous deposits, the removal of Al from

  20. Ni-P/Zn-Ni compositionally modulated multilayer coatings - Part 2: Corrosion and protection mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadormanesh, Behrouz; Ghorbani, Mohammad

    2018-06-01

    The Ni-P/Zn-Ni compositionally modulated multilayer coatings CMMCs were electrodeposited from a single bath by switching the deposition current density. The corrosion resistance of the deposits was studied and compared with that of monolayers of Ni-P and Zn-Ni alloys via Tafel polarization, EIS and salt spray tests. Characterization of corrosion products by means of EDS and XRD revealed more details from the corrosion mechanism of the monolayers and multilayers. The corrosion current density of Ni-P/Zn-Ni CMMCs were around one tenth of Zn-Ni monolayer. The CMMC with incomplete layers performed lower polarization resistance and higher corrosion current density compared to the CMMC with complete layers. The electrical circuit that was proposed for modeling the corrosion process based on the EIS spectrum, proved that layering reduces the porosity and consequently improves the barrier properties. Although, layering of Zn-Ni layers with Ni-P deposits increased the time to red rust in salt spray test, the time for white rust formation decreased. The corrosion mechanism of both Zn-Ni and Ni-P (containing small amount of Zn) was preferential dissolution of Zn and the corrosion products were comprised of mainly Zn hydroxychloride and Zn hydroxycarbonate. Also, Ni and P did not take part in the corrosion products. Based on the electrochemical character of the layers and the morphology of the corroded surface, the corrosion mechanism of multilayers was discussed.

  1. Joining of Ni-TiC FGM and Ni-Al Intermetallics by Centrifugal Combustion Synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohmi, Tatsuya; Matsuura, Kiyotaka; Iguchi, Manabu; Mizuma, Kiminori

    2008-01-01

    A centrifugal combustion synthesis (CCS) process has been investigated to join a Ni-Al intermetallic compound and a Ni-TiC cermet. The cermet, a tubular graphite mold, and a green compact of reactants consisting of Al, Ni and NiO were set in a centrifugal caster. When the combustion synthesis reaction was induced in the centrifugal force field, a synthesized molten Ni-Al alloy flowed into the graphite mold and joined to the cermet. The soundness of the joint interface depended on the volume percentage of TiC phase in the cermet. A lot of defects were formed near the interface between the Ni-TiC cermet and the cast Ni-Al alloy when the volume percentage of TiC was 50% or higher. For this kind of cermet system, using a functionally graded cermet such as Ni-10 vol.%TiC/Ni-25 vol.%TiC/Ni-50 vol.%TiC overcame this difficulty. The four-point bending strength of the joined specimen consisting of the three-layered FGM cermet and cast Ni-29 mol%Al alloy was 1010 MPa which is close to the result for a Ni-29 mol%Al alloy specimen

  2. Dynamic recovery in nanocrystalline Ni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Z.; Van Petegem, S.; Cervellino, A.; Durst, K.; Blum, W.; Van Swygenhoven, H.

    2015-01-01

    The constant flow stress reached during uniaxial deformation of electrodeposited nanocrystalline Ni reflects a quasi-stationary balance between dislocation slip and grain boundary (GB) accommodation mechanisms. Stress reduction tests allow to suppress dislocation slip and bring recovery mechanisms into the foreground. When combined with in situ X-ray diffraction it can be shown that grain boundary recovery mechanisms play an important role in producing plastic strain while hardening the microstructure. This result has a significant consequence for the parameters of thermally activated glide of dislocations, such as athermal stress and activation volume, which are traditionally derived from stress/strain rate change tests

  3. Morphological control of Ni/NiO core/shell nanoparticles and production of hollow NiO nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chopra, Nitin; Claypoole, Leslie; Bachas, Leonidas G.

    2010-01-01

    Chemical synthesis coupled with a microwave irradiation process allowed for the control of size (6-40 nm), shape, and shell thickness of Ni/NiO core/shell nanoparticles. In this unique synthetic route, the size of Ni nanoparticles (NiNPs) was strongly influenced by the nickel salt-to-stabilizer ratio and the amount of the stabilizer. Interestingly, it was observed that the shape of the nanoparticles was altered by varying the reaction time, where longer reaction times resulted in annealing effects and rupture of the stabilizer micelle leading to distinct shapes of Ni/NiO core/shell nanostructures. Product cooling rate was another important parameter identified in this study that not only affected the shape, but also the crystal structure of the core/shell nanoparticles. In addition, a simple and cost-effective method of microwave irradiation of NiNPs led to the formation of distinctly shaped hollow NiO nanoparticles. These high surface area core/shell nanoparticles with well-controlled morphologies are important and can lead to significant advancement in the design of improved fuel cells, electrochromic display devices, and catalysis systems.

  4. Morphological control of Ni/NiO core/shell nanoparticles and production of hollow NiO nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chopra, Nitin [University of Alabama, Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Center for Materials for Information Technology (MINT) (United States); Claypoole, Leslie [Fairmont State University (United States); Bachas, Leonidas G., E-mail: bachas@uky.ed [University of Kentucky, Department of Chemistry (United States)

    2010-10-15

    Chemical synthesis coupled with a microwave irradiation process allowed for the control of size (6-40 nm), shape, and shell thickness of Ni/NiO core/shell nanoparticles. In this unique synthetic route, the size of Ni nanoparticles (NiNPs) was strongly influenced by the nickel salt-to-stabilizer ratio and the amount of the stabilizer. Interestingly, it was observed that the shape of the nanoparticles was altered by varying the reaction time, where longer reaction times resulted in annealing effects and rupture of the stabilizer micelle leading to distinct shapes of Ni/NiO core/shell nanostructures. Product cooling rate was another important parameter identified in this study that not only affected the shape, but also the crystal structure of the core/shell nanoparticles. In addition, a simple and cost-effective method of microwave irradiation of NiNPs led to the formation of distinctly shaped hollow NiO nanoparticles. These high surface area core/shell nanoparticles with well-controlled morphologies are important and can lead to significant advancement in the design of improved fuel cells, electrochromic display devices, and catalysis systems.

  5. Continuum mechanics simulations of NiO/Ni-YSZ composites during reduction and re-oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihlatie, Mikko; Frandsen, Henrik Lund; Kaiser, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    for the dimensional change arises from the volumetric change related to the phase change NiO ↔ Ni. The measurable change in bulk length is given by the ceramic YSZ backbone as a response to the stress created by the chemical strain. The different subprocesses described in the model for YSZ were elastic and anelastic...... expansion, diffusional creep, grain boundary sliding (GBS) and microcracking due to excessive stress. In the Ni/NiO phase, nonelastic strains in terms of diffusional and power law creep were implemented, and additionally for NiO deformation due to microcracking and/or pseudoplasticity. Semi...

  6. Niños y niñas como cuidadores familiares

    OpenAIRE

    María Rosa Estupiñán Aponte

    2015-01-01

    En el contexto familiar, el cuidado de otra persona por parte de niños y niñas constituye un terreno inexplorado tanto en su significado como en las implicaciones que podrían darse en el proceso. Aunque históricamente se ha asignado el cuidado familiar a las mujeres generando condiciones de inequidad, incrementada con los cambios sociales de los últimos tiempos, es necesario reconocer que en muchos hogares niños y niñas se han visto obligados a desempeñar esta labor sin la preparación ni las ...

  7. .';.:NI~

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    al wat ons werd was. Na middagete op 29 Junie, is ek per kar suid om die grand te gaan besigtig en om te sien hoe my stellings, van die vyandelike oogpunt, daaruit .... van Gatt se optrede moes die. Nieu-Seelanders, in 'n briljante nagaanval, met gevelde bajonette, 'n weg baan deur die vyand am daardie nag te ontvlug.

  8. Water dissociation on Ni(100) and Ni(111): Effect of surface temperature on reactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seenivasan, H.; Tiwari, Ashwani K.

    2013-01-01

    Water adsorption and dissociation on Ni(100) and Ni(111) surfaces are studied using density functional theory calculations. Water adsorbs on top site on both the surfaces, while H and OH adsorb on four fold hollow and three fold hollow (fcc) sites on Ni(100) and Ni(111), respectively. Transition states (TS) on both surfaces are identified using climbing image-nudged elastic band method. It is found that the barrier to dissociation on Ni(100) surface is slightly lower than that on Ni(111) surface. Dissociation on both the surfaces is exothermic, while the exothermicity on Ni(100) is large. To study the effect of lattice motion on the energy barrier, TS calculations are performed for various values of Q (lattice atom coordinate along the surface normal) and the change in the barrier height and position is determined. Calculations show that the energy barrier to reaction decreases with increasing Q and increases with decreasing Q on both the surfaces. Dissociation probability values at different surface temperatures are computed using semi-classical approximation. Results show that the influence of surface temperature on dissociation probability on the Ni(100) is significantly larger compared to that of Ni(111). Moreover, on Ni(100), a dramatic shift in energy barrier to lower incident energy values is observed with increasing surface temperature, while the shift is smaller in the case of Ni(111)

  9. Creatividad en niños superdotados

    OpenAIRE

    González Román, María del Pilar

    1992-01-01

    Se ha realizado un estudio sobre la creatividad en los niños superdotados. Analizándose los diferentes modelos de creatividad y superdotacion avalados por un estudio empírico, en el cual se han valorado las diferencial que existen entre los niños superdotados y contraste a nivel verbal y grafico-espacial.

  10. Preparation of one-step NiO/Ni-CGO composites using factorial design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, A.J.M. de; Sousa, A R.O. de; Camposa, L.F.A.; Macedo, D.A.; Loureiro, F. J.A.; Fagg, D.P.

    2016-01-01

    This work deals with the synthesis, processing and characterization of NiO/Ni- CGO composite materials as potential solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) anodes. The particulate materials were obtained by a one-step synthesis method and characterized by thermal analysis (prior to calcination) and X-ray diffraction (calcined powder). The ceramic processing of samples containing from 30 to 70 wt.% NiO was carried out by factorial design. Besides the NiO content controlled during the chemical synthesis, the impacts of the pore-former content (citric acid, used in proportions of 0, 7.5 and 15 wt.%) and the sintering temperature (1300, 1350 and 1400 °C) were also investigated. The open porosity of NiO-CGO composites and reduced Ni-CGO cermets was modeled as a function of factors (NiO content, citric acid content and sintering temperature) and interaction of factors. (author)

  11. Nanoscale structural heterogeneity in Ni-rich half-Heusler TiNiSn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglas, Jason E.; Pollock, Tresa M.; Chater, Philip A.; Brown, Craig M.; Seshadri, Ram

    2014-01-01

    The structural implications of excess Ni in the TiNiSn half-Heusler compound are examined through a combination of synchrotron x-ray and neutron scattering studies, in conjunction with first principles density functional theory calculations on supercells. Despite the phase diagram suggesting that TiNiSn is a line compound with no solid solution, for small x in TiNi 1+x Sn there is indeed an appearance—from careful analysis of the scattering—of some solubility, with the excess Ni occupying the interstitial tetrahedral site in the half-Heusler structure. The analysis performed here would point to the excess Ni not being statistically distributed, but rather occurring as coherent nanoclusters. First principles calculations of energetics, carried out using supercells, support a scenario of Ni interstitials clustering, rather than a statistical distribution.

  12. Analysis and evaluation for practical application of photovoltaic power generation system. Analysis and evaluation for thin substrate polycrystalline solar cells (alloy-base amorphous materials, PIN layers, strains in the interface, and effects of impurities); Taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka no tame no kaiseki hyoka. Usumaku taiyo denchi jitsuyoka no tame no kaiseki hyoka (gokinkei amorphous zairyo pin kakuso kaimen ni okeru yugami fujunbutsu nado no eikyo)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, A; Oeda, H; Yamasaki, S; Hata, N; Kondo, M; Toshima, Y; Sakata, I; Ganguly, G; Suzuki, A; Kamei, T; Okushi, H; Nonaka, H; Oda, N; Katagiri, H; Ichimura, N; Kokubu, K; Nakamura, K; Sekikawa, T; Yamanaka, M [Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    Described herein are the results of the FY1994 research program for analysis and evaluation for thin film solar cells. The study on quantitative analysis of hydrogen atoms in a plasma determines quantity of hydrogen atoms in the plasma of monosilane diluted with hydrogen. It is found, contrary to expectation, that quantity of hydrogen atoms in the plasma decreases as it is more diluted with hydrogen. The study on light-induced degradation of the thin chlorine-base amorphous silicon films confirms that the plasma CVD method with 20% of dichlorosilane gas added to monosilane gas produces the thin amorphous silicon film 3 times faster than the conventional method. The thin film has essentially the same defect density as the one prepared by the conventional method, showing good photoelectric characteristics. The thin film of chlorinated amorphous silicon has a 1 digit lower defect density than the conventional one of amorphous silicon, as revealed by the accelerated degradation test with irradiated laser light and the constant current method to determine saturated defect density. 3 figs.

  13. Research report for fiscal 1995 on analysis and evaluation of demonstration tests for establishment of residential photovoltaic power generation load leveling technology, of which evaluation on weatherability of devices used in residential photovoltaic power generation system; 1995 nendo kenkyu hokokusho. Jutaku you taiyoko hatsuden fuka heijunka gijutsu tou kakuritsu jissho shiken ni kansuru kaiseki hyoka no uchi jutaku you taiyoko hatsuden system kiki no taikosei hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Weatherability tests have been performed on devices used in the residential photovoltaic power generation system by means of exposure, with the objectives to analyze and evaluate the safety and reliability due to aging of the devices used in the residential photovoltaic power generation system. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 1995. In the outdoor exposure test on solar cell modules, multi-crystalline silicon solar cell modules were selected as the test specimens, and thermo-couples were embedded in the modules to measure the temperatures. Also for the purpose of comparison, storage test specimens were stored in a constant temperature and humidity chamber. The exposure tests were carried out in three locations of the city of Choshi in Chiba Prefecture, the Miyako Island test site in Okinawa Prefecture, and the Miyako Island seashore. In the measurement and evaluation, appearance observation and measurements of output characteristics and insulation resistance were executed in summer and winter. No noticeable changes were observed in the measurements after lapse of four months and six months. In the outdoor exposure tests of metal test pieces, aluminum alloys were tested for corrosion caused by contact with different kinds of metals. Although the test period was short in the current fiscal year, difference in corrosion degrees in the aluminum alloys was found already in three months. (NEDO)

  14. Research report for fiscal 1996 on analysis and evaluation of demonstration tests for establishment of residential photovoltaic power generation load leveling technology, of which evaluation on weatherability of devices used in residential photovoltaic power generation system; 1996 nendo kenkyu hokokusho. Jutaku you taiyoko hatsuden fuka heijunka gijutsu tou kakuritsu jissho shiken ni kansuru kaiseki hyoka no uchi jutaku you taiyoko hatsuden system kiki no taikosei hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Weatherability tests have been performed on devices used in the residential photovoltaic power generation system by means of exposure, with the objectives to analyze and evaluate the safety and reliability due to aging of the devices used in the residential photovoltaic power generation system. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 1996. In the outdoor exposure tests on solar cell modules, results of the tests were derived for up to 18 months after the start of the exposure at Choshi City, Miyako Island and the Miyako Island seashore. In the appearance observation, some white rust has appeared in the contact section of the aluminum frames of the solar cell modules and fixing screws, which have been exposed at Miyako Island and the Miyako Island seashore, but no changes that may give influence on the performance of the solar cells have been observed. The results showed performance similar to or slightly inferior to that before the exposure as a whole. The insulation resistances were all found good. According to the result of the outdoor exposure test of metal test pieces, noticeable difference in the corrosion degrees was recognized in the contact corrosion section of the aluminum alloys exposed in three areas having different meteorological and environmental factors. Electroplated zinc was found to have severer pitting corrosion in the contact sections than treatment-free zinc. (NEDO)

  15. Research report for fiscal 1997 on analysis and evaluation of demonstration tests for establishment of residential photovoltaic power generation load leveling technology, of which evaluation on weatherability of devices used in residential photovoltaic power generation system; 1997 nendo kenkyu hokokusho. Jutaku you taiyoko hatsuden fuka heijunka gijutsu tou kakuritsu jissho shiken ni kansuru kaiseki hyoka no uchi jutaku you taiyoko hatsuden system kiki no taikosei hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    With the objectives to analyze and evaluate the safety and reliability due to aging of the devices used in the residential photovoltaic power generation system, weatherability tests have been performed on devices used in the residential photovoltaic power generation system by means of exposure. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 1997. In the outdoor exposure tests on multi-crystalline silicon solar cell modules at Choshi City, Miyako Island and the Miyako Island seashore, the output characteristics after the exposure tests showed a result that the insolation intensity and the change in the short circuit current are approximately proportional, and the temperature in the module and the change in the open voltage are inversely proportional. The module characteristics retention rate showed no change in the 29-month exposure at all of the three exposure locations. The insulation resistance in the exposure test specimens have been good at 2,000 M{omega} or more in all the locations until 18 months have elapsed. However, the test specimens in Miyako Island and the Miyako Island seashore showed 99 M{omega} after 23 months, and 129 to 1,774 M{omega} after 29 months. According to the outdoor exposure tests of metal test pieces, noticeable difference was found in corrosion due to difference in the environment by each exposure location, whose order of the corrosion degree was the Miyako Island seashore > Miyako Island > Choshi City. (NEDO)

  16. Microstructural evolution of Ni40Zr60 alloy during early stage of mechanical alloying of intermetallic compounds NiZr2 and Ni11Zr9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee Peeyew; Koch, C.C.

    1994-01-01

    The microstructural change of Ni 40 Zr 60 alloy during mechanical alloying of mixtures of the intermetallic compounds NiZr 2 and Ni 11 Zr 9 has been studied by transmission electron microscopy. A specific ''cauliflower'' phase was formed during early stage of mechanical alloying process. It is suggested that the solid state reaction between intermetallic compounds NiZr 2 and Ni 11 Zr 9 is not the only origin for the formation of the ''cauliflower'' phase. ((orig.))

  17. Fiscal 1996 research cooperation promotion project. Report on the Japan/Mexico international cooperation research on recovery of valuable elements in brine; 1996 nendo kenkyu kyoryoku suishin jigyo. Kansuichu no yuka shigen kaishu gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu kyoryoku follow up hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    In the research cooperation promotion projects having been carried out, the R and D of an overall recovery system have been conducted which recovers effectively and systematically valuable resources such as magnesium, bromine and boron including in brine made after the salt manufacturing in the coastal region in Mexico. In this project, as the research on the distilling process needed for commercialization of the system to recover valuable resources from the brine, Japan has been collecting information on various distilling processes and solar pond systems and studying a distilling process appropriate to the site jointly with Mexico. As a result, a seawater desalination process which combined the solar pond using solar energy and the evaporation method was recommended as a low-priced distilling method. Moreover, it was indicated that the solar still method for condensing/recovering the evaporated water of the Guerrero Negro salt pan is also less influential in the salt manufacturing process and is viable as a most economical distilling process by studying the structural design and operational method of more efficient solar stills

  18. Research cooperation promotion business for fiscal 1998. Research cooperation in the development of environmentally-friendly high-efficiency mineral resources extracting and processing technologies; 1998 nendo kenkyu kyoryoku suishin jigyo. Kankyo chowagata kokoritsu kobutsu shigen chushutsu shori gijutsu no kaihatsu ni kansuru kenkyu kyoryoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Research cooperation was conducted in the Republic of Kazakhstan for efficiently extracting and collecting valuable metals (gold, silver, copper, and rare metals) contained in volume in the slag generated by mining operation, with caution exercised not to disturb the environment. The research items taken up for development involved technologies of the leaching of the target elements using sulfuric acid, microbes, etc.; extraction using solvents; electroextraction; collection of gold and silver; and the treatment of waste water. In fiscal 1998, the wet process and the processing of gold and silver were studied, for which the specimens sampled at the research site in and after fiscal 1996 were used. As for the fabrication of pilot plant facilities, all were completed in fiscal 1998, and part of them was transported to the research site. Procurement and transportation necessary for the joint research were also carried out. Furthermore, to ensure effective execution of the project, scientists were invited from Vniitsvetmet, the Kazakhstan research institute for non-ferrous metals, for training, who included the institute director, deputy director, patent/liaison department chief, and two researchers. (NEDO)

  19. Research cooperation promoting project in fiscal 1998. Research cooperation related to developing mine resources extraction and treatment technologies of environment harmonizing and high efficiency type; 1998 nendo kenkyu kyoryoku suishin jigyo. Kankyo chowagata kokoritsu kobutsu shigen chushutsu shori gijutsu no kaihatsu ni kansuru kenkyu kyoryoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    In order to realize more effective utilization of non-ferrous metal resources, joint research cooperation is made with the Republic of Kazakhstan. It is intended that valuable metals (gold, silver, copper, rare metals, and others) contained at large quantity in ore scraps generated in association with mine operation be extracted and recovered efficiently paying considerations to the environment. The treatment process consists of the following conception: raw materials such as ore scraps are leached by sulfuric acid and microorganisms to separate and recover gold and silver; the leach liquor containing valuable metals is extracted by using solvent and recovered of copper and rare metals via an electrolytic process; and the waste water is treated and discharged. Fiscal 1998 has performed studies on the wet treatment system at the site and in Japan, the gold and silver treatment, and the waste water treatment by using samples collected from the site in fiscal 1996. Based on the results of these fundamental studies, a pilot plant was built, and all of the facility fabrication was completed in fiscal 1998. Part of the facilities has been transported to the site. To drive the project forward effectively, materials and items of equipment required for the joint research were procured and transported to the country, and at the same time Kazakhstanian researchers were received in Japan for training. (NEDO)

  20. Report on an investigational research on intensive arrangement of the resource recycling type/energy conservation type lifeline system which survives disaster; 1995 nendo shigen recycle gata shoshigengata no saigai ni tsuyoi life line no shuyaku seibi system no chosa kenkyu hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    With relation to the necessity of reducing waste construction materials and reutilizing as resource, the paper studied the issue on earthquake waste, in particular. Facilities of electric power/gas, water supply and sewerage system, roads, railroads, information, etc. are lifelines to support city life. Large earthquakes damage various lifelines and paralyze urban functions, and at the same time, produce a large quantity of waste due to the dismantlement of structures hit by earthquake, etc. It is important that the system is too tough to suffer damage, but more important that it is easily repaired. A large scale of underground multi-purpose duct has enough redundancy to absorb external force even if the duct itself is damaged. Such large-scaled and antiseismic ducts are so high-priced that they cannot be deliberately distributed all over the city. Therefore, the paper proposed simple ducts installed under the sidewalk. The duct is a U duct with a cover easy to remove, and is easily repaired. As duct materials, resin concrete using waste materials, etc. are considered. There still are a lot of problems to be solved such as expense sharing with the main body of business and legal restrictions. 25 figs., 36 tabs.

  1. FY1995 design of environment-friendly and generation-type conversion title of system for unused carbon resources by developing highly functional materials; 1995 nendo kokino zakryo kaihatsu ni yoru kankyo chowagata jisedai miriyo tanso shigen tenkan system no kochiku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Carbon resources such as coal, heavy oil, bitumen and so on are not suitable for the utilization as energy resources from the view-point of the global environment because those contain a great deal of heteroatoms, minerals and water. Therefore, the purpose of this project is to establish the environment-friendly and next generation-type conversion system for unused carbon resources by developing highly functional materials. This project aims at the following researches necessary to establish the conversion system for the unused carbon resources. (1) Development of technologies for pre-treating carbon resources (2) Development of recoverable hydrogenation catalysts capable of repeated use (3) Development of gasification catalysts active at low temperatures (4) Development of inorganic membranes for H{sub 2} or CO{sub 2} separation (5) Development of adsorption separation technologies in the supercritical phase (6) Development of highly active catalysts for CO hydrogenation Each development has been successfully completed and we have much prospect of establishing the conversion system for unused carbon resources. (NEDO)

  2. FY 1996 report on the cooperative research on the development of environmentally friendly high efficiency mineral resource extraction/treatment technology. Basic design of pilot plant and a part of the detailed design; 1996 nendo kankyo chowagata kokoritsu kobutsu shigen chushutsu shori gijutsu no kaihatsu ni kansuru kenkyu kyoryoku. Pilot plant no kihon sekkei oyobi ichibu shosai sekkei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This project is a cooperative research on the development of environmental harmony type high efficiency mineral resource extraction/treatment technology. It aims to study/develop a system to recover valuable metals from unused resources in the Republic of Kazakhstan using the environmental harmony type technology which is easy to operate/maintain and is environmentally friendly with no mine pollution caused. In the project, which started in FY 1994, a pilot plant is finally constructed in Kazakhstan, a recovery system to be applied is demonstrated, and the comprehensive assessment of the system is made. Concretely, the recovery of Cu, Au, Ag, etc. is tried from the Nikolayevska low grade ore and Zhezkent tailings. This is a system into which the following techniques are integrated: treatment before dressing such as flotation, leaching of Cu, etc. by acid including bacteria, solvent leaching, electrowinning, cyanogen leaching activated carbon treatment and wastewater treatment of Au and Ag. As to the design/fabrication of pilot plant, conducted was the conceptual design in FY 1995, and the basic design, a part of the detailed design (crushing/grinding/leaching/dewatering facilities of the process of the acid (bacteria) leaching of Cu, etc.), and the fabrication in FY 1996. (NEDO).

  3. FY 1999 research cooperation project. Research cooperation in development of technology to extract/treat mineral resources in environmental harmony and high-efficiently; 1999 nendo kankyo chowagata kokoritsu kobutsu shigen chushutsu shori gijutsu no kaihatsu ni kansuru kenkyu kyoryoku jigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This project is aimed at effectively using non-ferrous metal resource in Kazakhstan Republic and at conducting a joint development of the environment-friendly and efficient technology to extract/collect valuable metals (copper, gold, silver, rare metal, etc.) including in quantity in the slag generated with the mine operation in Kazakhstan. For the purpose of collecting valuable metals from slag, etc., the project is to develop the technology to collect valuable metals in saving energy and in low environmental loads by adopting the wet treatment process and to carry out the field survey on the existence of slag, etc. and the research on minerals. As the field research/domestic research, various element technologies are also to be carried out such as leaching, solvent extraction, electrolyte sampling, and waste water treatment. Based on the R and D of the element technology, a pilot plant is designed/fabricated and installed at the site in Kazakhstan. Then, the operation is studied and analyzed to make a technically/economically comprehensive evaluation. In this fiscal year, the field survey, research on the wet treatment, and test on the waste water treatment are conducted. Facilities of a pilot plant were transported to the site. (NEDO)

  4. Fiscal 2000 information collection/analysis project on basic research for coal resource exploitation. Research on technology of low-concentration methane gas recovery from underground coal mine; 2000 nendo sekitan shigen kaihatsu kiso chosa joho shushu kaiseki jigyo. Konaikutsu tanko ni okeru teinodo methane kaishu gijutsu chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Technical trends were surveyed concerning the recovery and the use as fuel of low-concentration methane gas or the like contained in the air ventilated out of coal mines. Methane gas recovery technologies include high-temperature incinerators and catalytic incinerators designed to collect heat, method of conversion of methane to CO2 using microbes named methanotrophs, and adsorption methods using activated charcoal, zeolite, or the like. Among technologies that have reached a practical level in the utilization of mine methane gas, there are the temperature regenerative flow-reversal reactor (TFRR) and the catalytic flow-reversal reactor (CFRR) utilizing high-temperature oxidation reaction. TFRR has been reported effective by MEGTEC System after a 6-month operational test of a 3.0m{sup 3}/s plant at a British coal mine. Test and research are over with CFRR, which is now ready for a commercial scale verification test. Recovery by adsorption, though worth further research efforts, is economically away from commercialization at the present stage, and wants more studies of adsorbents, etc. (NEDO)

  5. FY 1998 report on the results of R and D projects by local consortiums for immediate effects. Effective industrial utilization of livestock and fish waste containing keratin and collagen using bio-recycling technology; 1998 nendo Bio recycling gijutsu ni yoru shigen junkangata sangyo no sozo seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The R and D project has been implemented for the bio-recycling technology, in order to produce the extracts and enzymatically hydrolyzed products from unutilized protein-containing resources, e.g., pig skin and fish scale. This paper summarizes the FY 1998 results. This project uses fish scale and pig skin containing collagen protein, and feather meal containing keratin protein, as the major feedstocks. High-molecular-weight collagen is extracted from the pig skin, and applied to production of cosmetics. It is concluded that the extract is safe to the human skin, and can be commercialized as a stock for cosmetics. A low-molecular-weight oligopeptide is produced from fish scale by enzymatic hydrolysis. It is concluded that the oligopeptide can be commercialized as a stock for health foods, because of its anti-radical activity and function of decreasing blood pressure. The R and D efforts are also directed to development of calcium apatite, recovered from the de-ashed liquid, as the Ca source for health foods, and development of peptide, recovered from feather meal by enzymatic hydrolysis, as a stock for foaming agent. (NEDO)

  6. Report on survey project for demonstration of warm sea water bathing facilities using unutilized resources such as wastes in islands by carbonizing them into energy; 2001 nendo kankyo chowa gata energy community field test jigyo chosa hokokusho. Rito ni okeru haikibutsu tou mikatsuyo shigen no tanka energyka no kaisui on'yoku shisetsu heno jissho chosa jigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-05-01

    Surveys and discussions have been performed in Yuge Town in Ehime Prefecture for aiming at promotion of district development and zero emission in islands by carbonizing general wastes (household refuses and business operation wastes) and bamboos in the islands to utilize their energies as a substitute for the heat source of the warm sea water bathing facilities, as well as utilizing the produced carbides as soil improving materials or deodorants. The surveys were performed on bamboo carbonizing and gas carbonizing technologies, energy utilization feasibility, analysis of wastes composition, and identification of quantity of bamboos in existence. In discussing the energy utilization system by means of carbonization, it was revealed that the introduction of the bamboo carbonizing and gas carbonizing technologies can sufficiently satisfy the heat demand of the Yuge Town community facilities, although the amount of heat that can be supplied may vary because of difference in the technical processes. Also with regard to the problems of dioxins contained in the discharged gas and the problems of heavy metals contained in the carbides, it was discovered that different environmental criteria can be met as evidenced by the existing demonstration data. (NEDO)

  7. Microstructure and tribological properties of NiMo/Mo2Ni3Si intermetallic 'in-situ' composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gui Yongliang; Song Chunyan; Yang Li; Qin Xiaoling

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Wear resistant NiMo/Mo 2 Ni 3 Si intermetallic 'in-situ' composites was fabricated successfully with Mo-Ni-Si powder blends as the starting materials. Microstructure of the NiMo/Mo 2 Ni 3 Si composites consists of Mo 2 Ni 3 Si primary dendrites, binary intermetallic phase NiMo and small amount of Ni/NiMo eutectics structure. The NiMo/Mo 2 Ni 3 Si composites exhibited high hardness and outstanding tribological properties under room-temperature dry-sliding wear test conditions which were attributed to the covalent-dominant strong atomic bonds and excellent combination of strength and ductility and toughness. - Abstract: Wear resistant NiMo/Mo 2 Ni 3 Si intermetallic 'in-situ' composites with a microstructure of ternary metal silicide Mo 2 Ni 3 Si primary dendritic, the long strip-like NiMo intermetallic phase, and a small amount of Ni/NiMo eutectics structure were designed and fabricated using molybdenum, nickel and silicon elemental powders. Friction and wear properties of NiMo/Mo 2 Ni 3 Si composites were evaluated under different contact load at room-temperature dry-sliding wear test conditions. Microstructure, worn surface morphologies and subsurface microstructure were characterized by OM, XRD, SEM and EDS. Results indicate that NiMo/Mo 2 Ni 3 Si composites have low fiction coefficient, excellent wear resistance and sluggish wear-load dependence. The dominant wear mechanisms of NiMo/Mo 2 Ni 3 Si composites are soft abrasion and slightly superficial oxidative wear.

  8. Nonenzymatic Glucose Sensor Based on In Situ Reduction of Ni/NiO-Graphene Nanocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohui Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Ni/NiO nanoflower modified reduced graphene oxide (rGO nanocomposite (Ni/NiO-rGO was introduced to screen printed electrode (SPE for the construction of a nonenzymatic electrochemical glucose biosensor. The Ni/NiO-rGO nanocomposite was synthesized by an in situ reduction process. Graphene oxide (GO hybrid Nafion sheets first chemical adsorbed Ni ions and assembled on the SPE. Subsequently, GO and Ni ions were reduced by hydrazine hydrate. The electrochemical properties of such a Ni/NiO-rGO modified SPE were carefully investigated. It showed a high activity for electrocatalytic oxidation of glucose in alkaline medium. The proposed nonenzymatic sensor can be utilized for quantification of glucose with a wide linear range from 29.9 μM to 6.44 mM (R = 0.9937 with a low detection limit of 1.8 μM (S/N = 3 and a high sensitivity of 1997 μA/mM∙cm−2. It also exhibited good reproducibility as well as high selectivity.

  9. Enthalpy of mixing of liquid Ni-Zr and Cu-Ni-Zr alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witusiewicz, V.T.; Sommer, F.

    2000-01-01

    Since the Al-Cu-Ni-Zr system is a basis for the production of bulk amorphous materials by rapid solidification techniques from the liquid state, it is of great scientific interest to determine the partial and the integral thermodynamic functions of liquid and undercooled liquid alloys. Such data, as was pointed out previously, are important in order to understand their extremely good glass-forming ability in multicomponent metallic systems as well as for processing improvements. In order to measure the thermodynamic properties of the Al-Cu-Ni-Zr quaternary, it is necessary to have reliable thermochemical data for its constituent canaries and ternaries first. In a series of articles, the authors have reported in detail the thermodynamic properties of liquid Al-Cu, Al-Ni, Cu-Ni, Cu-Zr, Al-Zr, Al-Cu-Ni, and Al-Cu-Zr alloys. This article deals with the direct calorimetric measurements of the partial and the integral enthalpies of mixing of liquid Ni-Zr and Cu-Ni-Zr alloys and the heat capacity of liquid Ni 26 Zr 74 . In a subsequent article, the authors will present similar data for the liquid ternary Al-Ni-Zr and for the liquid quaternary Al-Cu-Ni-Zr alloys

  10. The Ni-YSZ interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karin Vels

    The anode/electrolyte interface in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) is known to cause electrical losses. Geometrically simple Ni/yttria-stabilised zirconia (YSZ) interfaces were examined to gain information on the structural and chemical changes occurring during experiments at 1000°C in an atmosphere...... of 97% H2/3% H2O. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy at open circuit voltage (OCV) and at anodic and cathodic polarisations (100 mV) was performed. A correlation of the electrical data with the structure development and the chemical composition was attempted. Nickel wires with different impurity...... between polarised and non-polarised samples. With pure nickel wires, however, the microstructures depended on the polarisation/non-polarisation conditions. At non-polarised conditions a hill and valley type structure was found. Anodic polarisation produced an up to 1 μm thick interface layer consisting...

  11. Report on the survey in fiscal 1998. Evaluation by Industry on the result of COP3 and the future activities (Britain); 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho. COP3 no kekka ni taisuru sangyokai no hyoka oyobi kongo no taio ni tsuite (Eikoku)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    A survey was carried out to identify the evaluation by British Industry on COP3 and the nation's future activities. In Britain, the gas emission level in 2000 is estimated to achieve sufficiently the initial target as the level is lower by 4 to 8% than that in 1990. This is largely attributable to substitution of coal by natural gas. At the Kyoto Conference, the European Union agreed with its target to reduce the emission of greenhouse effect gas over the period 2008-2012 to 8% below its 1990 level. Britain agreed to share its reduction rate at 12.5%. The Labour Party had set an election pledge since before the general election to reduce carbon oxide emission by 20% (against the 1990 level) by 2010, and the Prime Minister Tony Blair has also confirmed his commitment to this target. The policy making work to achieve the COP3 target has begun in 1998 when the UK Climate Change Program (consultation paper) was issued, and will continue until February 1999. The Advisory Committee of Business and Environment representing British Industry has already published their advice on how to achieve Britain's COP3 objective, which are considered by the government in the above mentioned paper. (NEDO)

  12. Report on the survey in fiscal 1998. Evaluation by the industry on the result of COP3 and the future activities (Germany); 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho. COP3 no kekka ni taisuru sangyokai no hyoka oyobi kongo no taio ni tsuite (Doitsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    A survey was carried out on activities taken in Germany. The industry has a strong opinion to take voluntary regulations rather than those by laws. The nation's activities are being moved forward centrally with the suppression policies that follow the declaration on the voluntary regulation by the German industry to prevent global warming, which had been submitted by the German Industry Federation to the federal government in 1996. The participation to the declaration, which is optional, covers 71% of the energy consumption by manufacturing industries and 99% of the public electric power consumption, but large-scale industrial departments such as machine and electric power sectors who have not participated can also been found. The plan calls for reduction of inherent CO2 and energy per added value production amount in the entire industry by as much as 20% of the result in 1990 by 2005. According to the third party monitoring system employed by the federal government, the industry submits results of periodical analyses to the government. According to the result, the industries participated in the voluntary regulation have achieved annual exhaust suppression of 42 million tons during the period of 1990 to 1996. The public electric power industrial department whose CO2 emission accounts for a little less than 30% of the nation's total emission amount has a great effect. The industry is making efforts to improve the power generation efficiency aiming at reduction of CO2 emission of 12% of the 1990 result by 2015. (NEDO)

  13. Report on the survey in fiscal 1998. Evaluation by the industry on the result of COP3 and the future activities in relation with the result of COP3 (Canada); 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho. COP3 no kekka ni taisuru sangyokai no hyoka oyobi kongo no taio ni tsuite (Canada)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    A survey was carried out on activities in Canada in relation with COP3. The Office of Energy Efficiency is promoting the energy efficiency improvement and substituting energy plan applicable to housings, commercial and manufacturing industries, public organizations and transportation department. It is also implementing a comprehensive plan incorporating consumer information, national energy utilization data base, and energy technology innovation initiative. The energy technology innovation plus plan strengthens coordination with industrial societies in each sector, and makes finances for improvement of energy efficiency. There is also an institution to promote energy efficiency improvement in newly built houses. The manufacturing industry energy technology innovation initiative is an institution to present means to transfer pledges in each department into a company-wide activity. In the energy conservation encouragement plan for commercial buildings, an annual federal fund of ten million dollars is allotted, and incentive money is paid. The automotive fuel consumption enhancement plan provides purchasers with fuel consumption information, and encourages production of energy saving cars. The substituting transportation fuel market developing initiative promotes development and utilization of methanol, ethanol, hydrogen, and electric power. (NEDO)

  14. Research report for fiscal 1998. Industrial circles' evaluation of the outcome of COP3 and their response thereto (France); 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho. COP3 no kekka ni taisuru sangyokai no hyoka oyobi kongo no taio ni tsuite (France)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Since the CO{sub 2} emission reduction cost is high under the COP3 (Third Session of the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change) rulings, they have made it clear that they will positively resort to the flexibility mechanism. This is to reserve a room for freely selecting power generation methods other than nuclear technologies with their nuclear power plants scheduled for renovation in the neighborhood of 2010. But the industrial circles are slow in responding, failing to accept the carbon fund concept. As for measures for greenhouse gas emissions reduction, since they depend on energy saving for their success, the response specially of the transportation division will be the key. In the industrial division, success depends on a voluntary consensus among industries that consume much energy. As steps to economize the trend of people's energy consumption, an energy tax and environmental tax are scheduled to be imposed. An overall program for greenhouse gas emission reduction is being drafted by a government committee, with the outline to be made known in May 1999 for finalization in autumn the same year. A power market liberalization bill has already been prepared, and a decision will soon be made on a plan for the second phase targets. France with take part in COP5, Bonn, Germany, with a general proposal carrying what are stated above. (NEDO)

  15. Study of the central collisions in the reactions Ni + Al and Ni + Ni at 28 A.MeV; Etude des collisions centrales dans les reactions Ni + Al et Ni + Ni a 28 A.MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebreton, L.

    1995-12-01

    The work is in characterisation of mechanisms in the energy range of onset of multifragmentation (excitation energy of composed nucleus around 4 - 5 AMeV). This work focused on an experiment performed at the SARA facility, in Grenoble, using the AMPHORA multi detection array. I have been particularly interested in central collisions in the Ni + Al and Ni + Ni systems. The possibility to detect complete events for Ni + Al, and quasi-complete events for the Ni + Ni case, is the reason of this choice. Furthermore Ni + Ni presents the interest of a symmetrical system, for which the excitation energy per nucleon is maximum. The study of these reactions has been focused on the quasi-complete events (events for which at least 80 % of the total charge has been detected). Heavy ions produced in peripheral collisions are very likely emitted along the beam line or stopped in the plastic detectors, energy thresholds are too high for the quasi-target products detection, consequently by requiring complete or quasi-complete measurement of the total charge, we are able to detect mostly central events. The knowledge of informations like charge, energy or detection angles allows to isolate the source(s) and to reconstruct the size and the excitation energy of the source(s). Comparisons with simulations like sequential emission (GEMINI code), very deep inelastic collision or instantaneous emission (Berliner code) allows to characterise the first stage of the collision (binary collisions or central collisions) and the type of deexcitation of the source(s). Some calculations was also performed with the statistical model code MODGAN. Indeed azimuthal correlations seem to be a good tool in getting more information about involved reaction mechanisms. Comparisons with MODGAN provide information about angular momentum of the source and time delay between emissions of the two particles (separation between sequential or instantaneous process). (author). 69 refs.

  16. Electrochemical preparation and characteristics of Ni-Co-LaNi{sub 5} composite coatings as electrode materials for hydrogen evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Gang; Li Ning; Dai Changsong; Zhou Derui

    2004-02-15

    Electrocatalytic activity for the hydrogen evolution reaction on Ni-Co-LaNi{sub 5} composite electrodes prepared by electrochemical codeposition technique was evaluated. The relationship between the current density for hydrogen evolution reaction and the amount of LaNi{sub 5} particles in Ni-Co baths is like the well-known 'volcano plot'. The Surface morphology and microstructure of Ni-Co-LaNi{sub 5} coatings were determined by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The kinetic parameters were determined from electrochemical steady-state Tafel polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy technology in 1 M NaOH solution. The values obtained for the apparent energies of activation are 32.48, 46.29 and 57.03 kJ mol{sup -1} for the Ni-Co-LaNi{sub 5}, Ni-Co and Ni electrodes, respectively. The hydrogen evolution reaction on Ni-Co-LaNi{sub 5} proceeds via Volmer-Tafel reaction route with the mixed rate determining characteristics. The composite coating Ni-Co-LaNi{sub 5} is catalytically more active than Ni and Ni-Co electrodes due to the increase in its real surface areas and the decrease in the apparent free energy of activation caused by the electrocatalytic synergistic effect of the Ni-Co alloys and the hydrogen storage intermetallic particles on the electrode surface.

  17. Electrochemical preparation and characteristics of Ni-Co-LaNi5 composite coatings as electrode materials for hydrogen evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Gang; Li Ning; Dai Changsong; Zhou Derui

    2004-01-01

    Electrocatalytic activity for the hydrogen evolution reaction on Ni-Co-LaNi 5 composite electrodes prepared by electrochemical codeposition technique was evaluated. The relationship between the current density for hydrogen evolution reaction and the amount of LaNi 5 particles in Ni-Co baths is like the well-known 'volcano plot'. The Surface morphology and microstructure of Ni-Co-LaNi 5 coatings were determined by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The kinetic parameters were determined from electrochemical steady-state Tafel polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy technology in 1 M NaOH solution. The values obtained for the apparent energies of activation are 32.48, 46.29 and 57.03 kJ mol -1 for the Ni-Co-LaNi 5 , Ni-Co and Ni electrodes, respectively. The hydrogen evolution reaction on Ni-Co-LaNi 5 proceeds via Volmer-Tafel reaction route with the mixed rate determining characteristics. The composite coating Ni-Co-LaNi 5 is catalytically more active than Ni and Ni-Co electrodes due to the increase in its real surface areas and the decrease in the apparent free energy of activation caused by the electrocatalytic synergistic effect of the Ni-Co alloys and the hydrogen storage intermetallic particles on the electrode surface

  18. Synthesis of Supported NiPt Bimetallic Nanoparticles, Methods for Controlling the Surface Coverage of Ni Nanoparticles With Pt, Methods Of Making NiPt Multilayer Core-Shell Structures and Application of the Supported Catalysts for CO2 Reforming

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Lidong; Anjum, Dalaver H.; Zhou, Lu; Laveille, Paco; Basset, Jean-Marie

    2015-01-01

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for supported Ni/Pt bimetallic nanoparticles, compositions including supported NiPt nanoparticles, methods of making supported NiPt nanoparticles, methods of using supported NiPt nanoparticles

  19. Synthesis of Supported NiPt Bimetallic Nanoparticles, Methods for Controlling the Surface Coverage of Ni Nanoparticles With Pt, Methods Of Making NiPt Multilayer Core-Shell Structures and Application of the Supported Catalysts for CO2 Reforming

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Lidong

    2015-06-25

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for supported Ni/Pt bimetallic nanoparticles, compositions including supported NiPt nanoparticles, methods of making supported NiPt nanoparticles, methods of using supported NiPt nanoparticles, and the like.

  20. Growth of single-crystal W whiskers during humid H2/N2 reduction of Ni, Fe-Ni, and Co-Ni doped tungsten oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shiliang; He Yuehui; Zou Jou; Wang Yong; Huang Han

    2009-01-01

    Numbers of W whiskers were obtained by reducing Ni, Ni-Fe, and Ni-Co doped tungsten oxide in a mixed atmosphere of humid H 2 and N 2 . The phases and morphologies of the reduction products were characterized by XRD and SEM. Intensive TEM and EDS analyses showed that the obtained whiskers were W single crystals which typical have alloyed particles (Ni-W, Fe-Ni, or Co-Ni-W) at the growth tips. The formed W whiskers were presumed to be induced by the alloyed particles. Our experimental results revealed that, during the reduction process of tungsten oxide, the pre-reduced Ni, Fe-Ni, or Co-Ni particles not only served as nucleation aids for the initial growth of W phase from W oxide but also played the roles of catalysts during the reductive decomposition of gaseous WO 2 (OH) 2 .

  1. Exchange bias variations of the seed and top NiFe layers in NiFe/FeMn/NiFe trilayer as a function of seed layer thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sankaranarayanan, V.K.; Yoon, S.M.; Kim, C.G.; Kim, C.O.

    2005-01-01

    Development of exchange bias at the seed and top NiFe layers in the NiFe (t nm)/FeMn(10 nm)/NiFe(5 nm) trilayer structure is investigated as a function of seed layer thickness, in the range of 2-20 nm. The seed NiFe layer shows maximum exchange bias at 4 nm seed layer thickness. The bias shows inverse thickness dependence with increasing thickness. The top NiFe layer on the other hand shows only half the bias of the seed layer which is retained even after the sharp fall in seed layer bias. The much smaller bias for the top NiFe layer is related to the difference in crystalline texture and spin orientations at the top FeMn/NiFe interface, in comparison to the bottom NiFe/FeMn interface which grows on a saturated NiFe layer with (1 1 1) orientation

  2. An Ultrastable and High-Performance Flexible Fiber-Shaped Ni-Zn Battery based on a Ni-NiO Heterostructured Nanosheet Cathode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yinxiang; Meng, Yue; Lai, Zhengzhe; Zhang, Xiyue; Yu, Minghao; Fang, Pingping; Wu, Mingmei; Tong, Yexiang; Lu, Xihong

    2017-11-01

    Currently, the main bottleneck for the widespread application of Ni-Zn batteries is their poor cycling stability as a result of the irreversibility of the Ni-based cathode and dendrite formation of the Zn anode during the charging-discharging processes. Herein, a highly rechargeable, flexible, fiber-shaped Ni-Zn battery with impressive electrochemical performance is rationally demonstrated by employing Ni-NiO heterostructured nanosheets as the cathode. Benefiting from the improved conductivity and enhanced electroactivity of the Ni-NiO heterojunction nanosheet cathode, the as-fabricated fiber-shaped Ni-NiO//Zn battery displays high capacity and admirable rate capability. More importantly, this Ni-NiO//Zn battery shows unprecedented cyclic durability both in aqueous (96.6% capacity retention after 10 000 cycles) and polymer (almost no capacity attenuation after 10 000 cycles at 22.2 A g -1 ) electrolytes. Moreover, a peak energy density of 6.6 µWh cm -2 , together with a remarkable power density of 20.2 mW cm -2 , is achieved by the flexible quasi-solid-state fiber-shaped Ni-NiO//Zn battery, outperforming most reported fiber-shaped energy-storage devices. Such a novel concept of a fiber-shaped Ni-Zn battery with impressive stability will greatly enrich the flexible energy-storage technologies for future portable/wearable electronic applications. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Synthesis of a novel Au nanoparticles decorated Ni-MOF/Ni/NiO nanocomposite and electrocatalytic performance for the detection of glucose in human serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jingyuan; Xu, Qin; Shu, Yun; Hu, Xiaoya

    2018-07-01

    A nonenzymatic glucose electrochemical sensor was constructed based on Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) decorated Ni metal-organic-framework (MOF)/Ni/NiO nanocomposite. Ni-MOF/Ni/NiO nanocomposite was synthesized by one-step calcination of Ni-MOF. Then AuNPs were loaded onto the Ni-based nanocomposites' surface through electrostatic adsorption. Through characterization by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution TEM (HRTEM) and energy disperse spectroscopy (EDS) mapping, it is found that the AuNPs were well distributed on the surface of Ni-based nanocomposite. Cyclic voltammetric (CV) study showed the electrocatalytic activity of Au-Ni nanocomposite was highly improved after loading AuNPs onto it. Amperometric study demonstrated that the Au-Ni nanocomposites modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) exhibited a high sensitivity of 2133.5 mA M -1 cm -2 and a wide linear range (0.4-900 μM) toward the oxidation of glucose with a detection limit as low as 0.1 μM. Moreover, the reproducibility, selectivity and stability of the sensor all exhibited outstanding performance. We applied the as-fabricated high performance sensor to measure the glucose levels in human serum and obtained satisfactory results. It is believed that AuNPs decorated Ni MOF/Ni/NiO nanocomposite provides a new platform for developing highly performance electrochemical sensors in practical applications. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Ni antagelser om Situationel Dialektisk Videnskabsteori

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dakwar, Julia Rytter; Lorentzen, Anne-Christine Rosfeldt; Smedegaard, Flemming

    2017-01-01

    I artiklen præsenteres et præliminært bud på en Situationel Dialektisk Videnskabsteori (SDV) i form af ni antagelser. Situationel, fordi antagelserne ikke er statiske, men alle overvejelser og valg under de enkelte antagelser er afhængige af situationen. Dialektisk, fordi alle ni antagelser...... opererer med dialektiske modsætninger, og alle videnskabsteoretiske valg ses som valg på kontinua. De ni antagelser, som bliver præsenteret og diskuteret i artiklen, er: Antagelse 1: Teori og praksis fordrer hinanden Antagelse 2: Del og helhed hænger sammen Antagelse 3: Forbundne sagsforhold påvirker...

  5. New developments in Ni/Ti multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, I; Hoghoj, P [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1997-04-01

    It is now 20 years since super-mirrors were first used as a neutron optical element. Since then the field of multilayer neutron-optics has matured with multilayers finding their way to application in many neutron scattering instruments. However, there is still room for progress in terms of multilayer quality, performance and application. Along with work on multilayers for neutron polarisation Ni/Ti super-mirrors have been optimised. The state-of-the-art Ni/Ti super-mirror performance and the results obtained in two neutron-optics applications of Ni/Ti multilayers are presented. (author).

  6. Site occupancy of Fe in ternary Ni 75-x

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The results of a detailed structural and magnetic study clearly indicate that regardless of the thermal history of the samples, Fe has a strong preference for the Ni sites in Ni-poor (non-stoichiometric) Ni75Al25 alloys. Fe substitution has a profound effect on the nature of magnetism in Ni75Al25.

  7. Reduction of a Ni/Spinel Catalyst for Methane Reforming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehres, Jan; Andreasen, Jens Wenzel; Fløystad, Jostein Bø

    2015-01-01

    microscopy (HRTEM) was performed on the fresh catalyst sample. The Ni particles in the fresh catalyst sample were observed to exhibit a Ni/NiO core/shell structure. A decrease of the Ni lattice parameter is observed during the reduction in a temperature interval from 413 – 453 K, which can be related...

  8. Influence of Ni Solute segregation on the intrinsic growth stresses in Cu(Ni) thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaub, T.M.; Felfer, P.; Cairney, J.M.; Thompson, G.B.

    2016-01-01

    Using intrinsic solute segregation in alloys, the compressive stress in a series of Cu(Ni) thin films has been studied. The highest compressive stress was noted in the 5 at.% Ni alloy, with increasing Ni concentration resulting in a subsequent reduction of stress. Atom probe tomography quantified Ni's Gibbsian interfacial excess in the grain boundaries and confirmed that once grain boundary saturation is achieved, the compressive stress was reduced. This letter provides experimental support in elucidating how interfacial segregation of excess adatoms contributes to the post-coalescence compressive stress generation mechanism in thin films. - Graphical abstract: Cu(Ni) film stress relationship with Ni additions. Atom probe characterization confirms solute enrichment in the boundaries, which was linked to stress response.

  9. NiCo-lead zirconium titanate-NiCo trilayered magnetoelectric composites prepared by electroless deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, M. H.; Wang, Y. G.; Bi, K.; Fan, H. P.; Zhao, Z. S.

    2015-01-01

    The NiCo layers with various Ni/Co atomic ratio have been successfully electroless deposited on PZT layers by varying the bath composition. As the cobalt atomic ratio in the deposited layer increases from 17.2 to 54.8 wt%, the magnetostrictive coefficient decreases. The magnetoelectric effect depends strongly on the magnetostrictive properties of magnetostrictive phase. The magnetoelectric coefficient of NiCo/PZT/NiCo trilayers increases with Ni/Co atomic ratio of the deposited NiCo layers increasing from 45:55 to 83:17. A maximum ME voltage coefficient of α E,31 = 2.8 V ⋅ cm −1 ⋅ Oe −1 is obtained at a frequency of about 88 kHz, which makes these trilayers suitable for applications in actuators, transducers and sensors

  10. NiCo-lead zirconium titanate-NiCo trilayered magnetoelectric composites prepared by electroless deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, M. H.; Wang, Y. G.; Bi, K., E-mail: bike@bupt.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Information Photonics and Optical Communications and School of Science, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China); Fan, H. P. [School of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Qingdao Technological University Qindao College, Qingdao 266106 (China); Zhao, Z. S. [Shandong Engineering Consulting Institute, Jinan 250013 (China)

    2015-04-15

    The NiCo layers with various Ni/Co atomic ratio have been successfully electroless deposited on PZT layers by varying the bath composition. As the cobalt atomic ratio in the deposited layer increases from 17.2 to 54.8 wt%, the magnetostrictive coefficient decreases. The magnetoelectric effect depends strongly on the magnetostrictive properties of magnetostrictive phase. The magnetoelectric coefficient of NiCo/PZT/NiCo trilayers increases with Ni/Co atomic ratio of the deposited NiCo layers increasing from 45:55 to 83:17. A maximum ME voltage coefficient of α{sub E,31} = 2.8 V ⋅ cm{sup −1} ⋅ Oe{sup −1} is obtained at a frequency of about 88 kHz, which makes these trilayers suitable for applications in actuators, transducers and sensors.

  11. Fe-solubility of Ni7S6 and Ni9S8: Thermodynamic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waldner, P.

    2011-01-01

    Experimental data on phase equilibria have been used for thermodynamic analysis of the iron solubility of the nickel sulfides Ni 7 S 6 and Ni 9 S 8 . For both compounds, a two-sublattice approach within the framework of the compound energy formalism has been applied to perform Gibbs free energy modelling at 0.1 MPa total pressure consistently embedded in recent thermodynamic assessment studies of other iron-nickel-sulfides. The predicted maxima of iron solubility around 3 at% of Ni 7 S 6 and 5.5 at% of Ni 9 S 8 are confirmed by experimental data. The calculations of complex ternary phase relations with Fe-bearing Ni 7 S 6 and Ni 9 S 8 gain further improvement. The first internally consistent description of all thermodynamically stable phases known in the literature for the iron-nickel-sulfur system is completed.

  12. Phase stability and magnetism in NiPt and NiPd alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paudyal, Durga; Mookerjee, Abhijit

    2004-01-01

    We show that the differences in stability of 3d-5d NiPt and 3d-4d NiPd alloys arise mainly due to relativistic corrections. The magnetic properties of disordered NiPd and NiPt alloys also differ due to these corrections, which lead to increase in the separation between the s-d bands of 5d elements in these alloys. For the magnetic case we also analyse the results in terms of splitting of majority and minority spin d band centres of the 3d elements. We further examine the effect of relativistic corrections to the pair energies and order-disorder transition temperatures in these alloys. The magnetic moments and Curie temperatures have also been studied along with the short range ordering/segregation effects in NiPt/NiPd alloys

  13. Precipitation of Ni4Ti3-variants in a polycrystalline Ni-rich NiTi shape memory alloy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bojda, Ondřej; Eggeler, G.; Dlouhý, Antonín

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 1 (2005), s. 99-104 ISSN 1359-6462 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA106/05/0918 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : NiTi shape memory alloys * Ni4Ti3 precipitation * Transmission electron microscopy Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.228, year: 2005

  14. Ni-Ni ion pair excitation transfer in D sub(3h) symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terrile, M.C.

    1990-01-01

    The mechanisms contributing to excitation transfer are examined for Ni-Ni ion pairs in order to explain the delocalized character of electronic excitations observed in CsNiF sub(3). Using both first-and second-order perturbation theory and from symmetry arguments, the kind of interactions giving matrix elements between states connecting different sites for the position of the excitation are discussed. (author)

  15. Electronic structure of graphene on Ni surfaces with different orientation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pudikov, D.A.; Zhizhin, E.V.; Rybkin, A.G.; Rybkina, A.A.; Zhukov, Y.M.; Vilkov, O. Yu.; Shikin, A.M.

    2016-01-01

    An experimental study of the graphene, synthesized by propylene cracking on Ni surfaces with different orientation: (100) and (111), using angle-resolved photoemission, has been performed. It has been shown that graphene on Ni(111) had a perfect lateral structure due to consistency of their lattices, whereas graphene/Ni(100) consisted of a lot of domains. For both systems electronic structure was quite similar and demonstrated a strong bonding of graphene to the underlying Ni surface. After Au intercalation the electronic structure of graphene in both systems was shifted to the Fermi level and became linear in the vicinity of the K point of the Brillouin zone. - Highlights: • Graphene on Ni(111) is well-ordered, whereas on Ni(100) – multi-domain. • Graphene on Ni(111) and Ni(100) is strongly bonded with substrate. • Intercalation of Au atoms restores the linearity in dispersion and makes graphene quasi-free on both Ni(100) and Ni(111).

  16. Polymer stabilized Ni-Ag and Ni-Fe alloy nanoclusters: Structural and magnetic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabir, L.; Mandal, A.R. [Department of Physics, Visva-Bharati, Santiniketan-731 235 (India); Mandal, S.K., E-mail: sk_mandal@hotmail.co [Department of Physics, Visva-Bharati, Santiniketan-731 235 (India)

    2010-04-15

    We report here the structural and magnetic behaviors of nickel-silver (Ni-Ag) and nickel-iron (Ni-Fe) nanoclusters stabilized with polymer (polypyrrole). High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) indicates Ni-Ag nanoclusters to stabilize in core-shell configuration while that of Ni-Fe nanoclusters in a mixed type of geometry. Structural characterizations by X-ray diffraction (XRD) reveal the possibility of alloying in such bimetallic nanoclusters to some extent even at temperatures much lower than that of bulk alloying. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra clearly reveal two different absorption behaviors: one is ascribed to non-isolated Ni{sup 2+} clusters surrounded by either silver or iron giving rise to a broad signal, other (very narrow signal) being due to the isolated superparamagnetic Ni{sup 2+} clusters or bimetallic alloy nanoclusters. Results obtained for Ni-Ag and Ni-Fe nanoclusters have been further compared with the behavior exhibited by pure Ni nanoclusters in polypyrrole host. Temperature dependent studies (at 300 and 77 K) of EPR parameters, e.g. linewidth, g-value, line shape and signal intensity indicating the significant influence of surrounding paramagnetic silver or ferromagnetic iron within polymer host on the EPR spectra have been presented.

  17. Polymer stabilized Ni-Ag and Ni-Fe alloy nanoclusters: Structural and magnetic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, L.; Mandal, A. R.; Mandal, S. K.

    2010-04-01

    We report here the structural and magnetic behaviors of nickel-silver (Ni-Ag) and nickel-iron (Ni-Fe) nanoclusters stabilized with polymer (polypyrrole). High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) indicates Ni-Ag nanoclusters to stabilize in core-shell configuration while that of Ni-Fe nanoclusters in a mixed type of geometry. Structural characterizations by X-ray diffraction (XRD) reveal the possibility of alloying in such bimetallic nanoclusters to some extent even at temperatures much lower than that of bulk alloying. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra clearly reveal two different absorption behaviors: one is ascribed to non-isolated Ni 2+ clusters surrounded by either silver or iron giving rise to a broad signal, other (very narrow signal) being due to the isolated superparamagnetic Ni 2+ clusters or bimetallic alloy nanoclusters. Results obtained for Ni-Ag and Ni-Fe nanoclusters have been further compared with the behavior exhibited by pure Ni nanoclusters in polypyrrole host. Temperature dependent studies (at 300 and 77 K) of EPR parameters, e.g. linewidth, g-value, line shape and signal intensity indicating the significant influence of surrounding paramagnetic silver or ferromagnetic iron within polymer host on the EPR spectra have been presented.

  18. Polymer stabilized Ni-Ag and Ni-Fe alloy nanoclusters: Structural and magnetic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabir, L.; Mandal, A.R.; Mandal, S.K.

    2010-01-01

    We report here the structural and magnetic behaviors of nickel-silver (Ni-Ag) and nickel-iron (Ni-Fe) nanoclusters stabilized with polymer (polypyrrole). High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) indicates Ni-Ag nanoclusters to stabilize in core-shell configuration while that of Ni-Fe nanoclusters in a mixed type of geometry. Structural characterizations by X-ray diffraction (XRD) reveal the possibility of alloying in such bimetallic nanoclusters to some extent even at temperatures much lower than that of bulk alloying. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra clearly reveal two different absorption behaviors: one is ascribed to non-isolated Ni 2+ clusters surrounded by either silver or iron giving rise to a broad signal, other (very narrow signal) being due to the isolated superparamagnetic Ni 2+ clusters or bimetallic alloy nanoclusters. Results obtained for Ni-Ag and Ni-Fe nanoclusters have been further compared with the behavior exhibited by pure Ni nanoclusters in polypyrrole host. Temperature dependent studies (at 300 and 77 K) of EPR parameters, e.g. linewidth, g-value, line shape and signal intensity indicating the significant influence of surrounding paramagnetic silver or ferromagnetic iron within polymer host on the EPR spectra have been presented.

  19. Modeling and simulation of NiO dissolution and Ni deposition in molten carbonate fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Suk Woo; Choi, Hyung-Joon; Lim, Tae Hoon [Korea Institute of Science & Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Dissolution of NiO cathode into the electrolyte matrix is an important phenomena limiting the lifetime of molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC). The dissolved nickel diffuses into the matrix and is reduced by dissolved hydrogen leading to the formation of metallic nickel films in the pores of the matrix. The growth of Ni films in the electrolyte matrix during the continuous cell operation results eventually in shorting between cathode and anode. Various mathematical and empirical models have been developed to describe the NiO dissolution and Ni deposition processes, and these models have some success in estimating the lifetime of MCFC by correlating the amount of Ni deposited in the matrix with shorting time. Since the exact mechanism of Ni deposition was not well understood, deposition reaction was assumed to be very fast in most of the models and the Ni deposition region was limited around a point in the matrix. In fact, formation of Ni films takes place in a rather broad region in the matrix, the location and thickness of the film depending on operating conditions as well as matrix properties. In this study, we assumed simple reaction kinetics for Ni deposition and developed a mathematical model to get the distribution of nickel in the matrix.

  20. Layering and temperature-dependent magnetization and anisotropy of naturally produced Ni/NiO multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pappas, S. D.; Trachylis, D.; Velgakis, M. J. [Laboratory of High-Tech Materials, School of Engineering, University of Patras, 26504 Patras (Greece); Kapaklis, V.; Joensson, P. E.; Papaioannou, E. Th. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, SE-751 20 Uppsala (Sweden); Delimitis, A. [Chemical Process Engineering Research Institute (CPERI), Centre for Research and Technology Hellas (CERTH), 57001 Thermi, Thessaloniki (Greece); Poulopoulos, P. [Laboratory of High-Tech Materials, School of Engineering, University of Patras, 26504 Patras (Greece); Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Freie Universitaet Berlin, Arnimallee 14, D-14195 Berlin-Dahlem (Germany); Materials Science Department, University of Patras, 26504 Patras (Greece); Fumagalli, P. [Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Freie Universitaet Berlin, Arnimallee 14, D-14195 Berlin-Dahlem (Germany); Politis, C. [Laboratory of High-Tech Materials, School of Engineering, University of Patras, 26504 Patras (Greece); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, Texas 76019 (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Ni/NiO multilayers were grown by magnetron sputtering at room temperature, with the aid of the natural oxidation procedure. That is, at the end of the deposition of each single Ni layer, air is let to flow into the vacuum chamber through a leak valve. Then, a very thin NiO layer ({approx}1.2 nm) is formed. Simulated x-ray reflectivity patterns reveal that layering is excellent for individual Ni-layer thickness larger than 2.5 nm, which is attributed to the intercalation of amorphous NiO between the polycrystalline Ni layers. The magnetization of the films, measured at temperatures 5-300 K, has almost bulk-like value, whereas the films exhibit a trend to perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) with an unusual significant positive interface anisotropy contribution, which presents a weak temperature dependence. The power-law behavior of the multilayers indicates a non-negligible contribution of higher order anisotropies in the uniaxial anisotropy. Bloch-law fittings for the temperature dependence of the magnetization in the spin-wave regime show that the magnetization in the multilayers decreases faster as a function of temperature than the one of bulk Ni. Finally, when the individual Ni-layer thickness decreases below 2 nm, the multilayer stacking vanishes, resulting in a dramatic decrease of the interface magnetic anisotropy and consequently in a decrease of the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy.

  1. XRD studies on solid state amorphisation in electroless Ni/P and Ni/B deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sampath Kumar, P.; Kesavan Nair, P.

    1996-01-01

    The decomposition of electroless Ni-P and Ni-B deposits on annealing at various temperature is studied using x-ray diffraction techniques employing profile deconvolution and line profile analysis. It appears that solid state amorphisation takes place in the Ni-B deposits in a narrow temperature range just prior to the onset of crystallization of amorphous phase. In the case of Ni-P deposits no evidence for solid state amorphisation could be obtained. Thermodynamic and kinetic considerations also support such a conclusion

  2. Ni adsorption and Ni-Al LDH precipitation in a sandy aquifer: An experimental and mechanistic modeling study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regelink, I.C.; Temminghoff, E.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Mining activities and industries have created nickel (Ni) contaminations in many parts of the world. The objective of this study is to increase our understanding of Ni adsorption and Nickel-Aluminium Layered Double Hydroxide (Ni-Al LDH) precipitation to reduce Ni mobility in a sandy soil aquifer. At

  3. Core/shell AgNi/PtAgNi nanoparticles as methanol-tolerant oxygen reduction electrocatalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Dengfeng; Cheng, Daojian

    2015-01-01

    A core/shell AgNi/PtAgNi nanoparticle (NP) was synthesized via a new seed-mediated growth method in organic solvent medium. The as-synthesized AgNi/PtAgNiNP exhibits an AgNi core coated with PtAgNi shell, which was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), ultraviolet–visible absorption spectroscopy and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). The AgNi/PtAgNiNPs/C catalyst possesses higher oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity and better durability compared with the commercial Pt/C catalyst. It is found that the ORR polarization curve of the AgNi/PtAgNiNPs/C catalyst shows an onset potential of 0.91 V vs. RHE, which is superior to the commercial Pt/C (0.88 V vs. RHE). In addition, the AgNi/PtAgNiNPs/C catalyst shows much better durability than the commercial Pt/C catalyst. More interestingly, the AgNi/PtAgNiNPs/C catalyst displays much higher methanol tolerance than the commercial Pt/C catalyst in 0.1 M KOH solution in the presence of 0.5 M methanol. Our results show that core/shell AgNi/PtAgNiNPs possess selective activity for ORR even in the presence of methanol, showing potential application as methanol-tolerant cathode catalysts in direct methanol fuel cells.

  4. Grain boundaries in Ni3Al. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kung, H.; Sass, S.L.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the dislocation structure of small angle tilt and twist boundaries in ordered Ni 3 Al, with and without boron, investigated using transmission electron microscopy. Dislocation with Burgers vectors that correspond to anti-phase boundary (APB)-coupled superpartials were found in small angle twist boundaries in both boron-free and boron-doped Ni 3 Al, and a small angle tilt boundary in boron-doped Ni 3 Al. The boundary structures are in agreement with theoretical models proposed by Marcinkowski and co-workers. The APB energy determined from the dissociation of the grain boundary dislocations was lower than values reported for isolated APBs in Ni 3 Al. For small angle twist boundaries the presence of boron reduced the APB energy at the interface until it approached zero. This is consistent with the structure of these boundaries containing small regions of increased compositional disorder in the first atomic plane next to the interface

  5. Ni-ZrB2 electrocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pushpavanam, M.; Natarajan, S.R.

    1992-01-01

    New generation materials require high temperature oxidation resistance besides many other tribological properties. Ni-ZrB 2 composites and their properties are dealt with in this paper. (author). 7 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

  6. Not in Traffic Surveillance (NiTS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Not-in-Traffic Surveillance (NiTS) system is a virtual data collection system designed to provide counts and details regarding fatalities and injuries that occur...

  7. Niños y Violencia

    OpenAIRE

    International Child Development Centre

    1997-01-01

    Este Innocenti Digest explora la violencia de los niños y hacia los niños, usando el marco de la Convención de los Derechos del Niño de las Naciones Unidas. Se centra en la violencia interpersonal, tanto intrafamiliar como extrafamiliar. Se incluye el abuso sexual y la explotación ya que a pesar de no implicar obligatoriamente violencia o coerción, la mayor parte de la evidencia demuestra su efectos dañinos tanto físicos como psicológicos. También se discute la implicación de los niños en los...

  8. Collision strengths for transitions in Ni XIX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    4l configurations of Ni XIX, for which flexible atomic code. (FAC) has been ... atomic data (namely energy levels, radiative rates, collision strengths, excitation rates, etc.) ... Zhang and Sampson, who adopted the Coulomb–Born-exchange.

  9. Root morphology of Ni-treated plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leskova, A.; Fargasova, A.; Giehl, R. F. H.; Wiren, N. von

    2015-01-01

    Plant roots are very important organs in terms of nutrient and water acquisition but they also serve as anchorages for the aboveground parts of the plants. The roots display extraordinary plasticity towards stress conditions as a result of integration of environmental cues into the developmental processes of the roots. Our aim was to investigate the root morphology of Arabidopsis thaliana plants exposed to a particular stress condition, excess Ni supply. We aimed to find out which cellular processes - cell division, elongation and differentiation are affected by Ni, thereby explaining the seen root phenotype. Our results reveal that a distinct sensitivity exists between roots of different order and interference with various cellular processes is responsible for the effects of Ni on roots. We also show that Ni-treated roots have several auxin-related phenotypes. (authors)

  10. Density and Structure Analysis of Molten Ni-W Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng XIAO; Liang FANG

    2004-01-01

    Density of molten Ni and Ni-W alloys was measured in the temperature range of 1773~1873 K with a sessile drop method.The density of molten Ni and Ni-W alloys trends to decrease with increasing temperature. The density and molar volume of the alloys trend to increase with increasing W concentration in the alloys. The calculation result shows an ideal mixing of Ni-W alloys.

  11. Fe-Cr-Ni system alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, F.L.

    1986-01-01

    Phase diagram of Fe-Cr-Ni system, which is the basic one for production of corrosion resistant alloys, is considered. Data on corrosion resistance of such alloys are correlated depending on a number of factors: quality and composition of modifying elements, corrosion medium, temperature, alloy structure, mechanical and thermal treatment. Grades of Fe-Ni-Cr alloys are presented, and fields of their application are pointed out

  12. Synthesis of Ni3Ta, Ni2Ta and NiTa by high-energy ball milling and subsequent heat treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benites, H.S.N.; Silva, B.P da; Ramos, A.S.; Silva, A.A.A.P.; Coelho, G.C.; Lima, B.B. de

    2014-01-01

    The tantalum has relevance for the development of multicomponent Ni-based superalloys which are hardened by solid solution and precipitation mechanisms. Master alloys are normally used in the production step in order to produce refractory metals and alloys. The present work reports on the synthesis of Ni_3Ta, Ni_2Ta and NiTa by high-energy ball milling and subsequent heat treatment. The elemental Ni-25Ta, Ni-33Ta and Ni-50Ta (at.-%) powder mixtures were ball milled under Ar atmosphere using stainless steel balls and vials, 300 rpm and a ball-to-powder weight ratio of 10:1. Following, the as-milled samples were uniaxially compacted and heat-treated at 1100 deg C for 4h under Ar atmosphere. The characterization of as-milled and heat-treated samples was conducted by means of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive spectrometry. A large amount of Ni_3Ta, Ni_2Ta and NiTa was formed in the mechanically alloyed heat-treated Ni-25Ta, Ni-33Ta and Ni-50Ta alloys. (author)

  13. Structural Investigation of Fe-Ni-S and Fe-Ni-Si Melts by High-temperature Fluorescence XAFS Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manghnani, Murli H.; Balogh, John; Hong Xinguo; Newville, Matthew; Amulele, G.

    2007-01-01

    Iron-nickel (Fe-Ni) alloy is regarded as the most abundant constituent of Earth's core, with an amount of 5.5 wt% Ni in the core based on geochemical and cosmochemical models. The structural role of nickel in liquid Fe-Ni alloys with light elements such as S or Si is poorly understood, largely because of the experimental difficulties of high-temperature melts. Recently, we have succeeded in acquiring Ni K-edge fluorescence x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectra of Fe-Ni-S and Fe-Ni-Si melts and alloys. Different structural environment of Ni atoms in Fe-Ni-S and Fe-Ni-Si melts is observed, supporting the effect of light elements in Fe-Ni melts

  14. The complex transfer reaction (14C, 15O) on Ni, Zn and Ge targets: existence and mass of 69Ni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dessagne, P.; Bernas, M.; Langevin, M.; Pougheon, F.; Roussel, P.; Morrison, G.C.

    1984-01-01

    The ( 14 C, 15 O) complex transfer reaction has been studied at 72 MeV incident energy on 58 Ni, 60 Ni, 62 Ni, 64 Ni, 68 Zn, 70 Zn and 74 Ge, 76 Ge targets. Spectra and differential cross sections have been measured in a 5 0 angular range centred around a laboratory angle of 6 0 . The nucleus 69 Ni has been observed and its mass determined for the first time

  15. Electroless Ni-P/Ni-B duplex coatings: preparation and evaluation of microhardness, wear and corrosion resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayanan, T.S.N. Sankara; Krishnaveni, K.; Seshadri, S.K.

    2003-01-01

    The present work deals with the formation of Ni-P/Ni-B duplex coatings by electroless plating process and evaluation of their hardness, wear resistance and corrosion resistance. The Ni-P/Ni-B duplex coatings were prepared using dual baths (acidic hypophosphite- and alkaline borohydride-reduced electroless nickel baths) with both Ni-P and Ni-B as inner layers and with varying single layer thickness. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to assess the duplex interface. The microhardness, wear resistance and corrosion resistance of electroless nickel duplex coatings were compared with electroless Ni-P and Ni-B coatings of similar thickness. The study reveals that the Ni-P and Ni-B coatings are amorphous in their as-plated condition and upon heat-treatment at 450 deg. C for 1 h, both Ni-P and Ni-B coatings crystallize and produce nickel, nickel phosphide and nickel borides in the respective coatings. All the three phases are formed when Ni-P/Ni-B and Ni-B/Ni-P duplex coatings are heat-treated at 450 deg. C for 1 h. The duplex coatings are uniform and the compatibility between the layers is good. The microhardness, wear resistance and corrosion resistance of the duplex coating is higher than Ni-P and Ni-B coatings of similar thickness. Among the two types of duplex coatings studied, hardness and wear resistance is higher for coatings having Ni-B coating as the outer layer whereas better corrosion resistance is offered by coatings having Ni-P coating as the outer layer

  16. Heavy metal environmental impact. Nickel (Ni); Impatto ambientale da metalli pesanti. Il Nichel (Ni)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bressa, G. [Padua Univ. Padua (Italy). Dipt. di Farmacologia, Lab. di Tossicologia

    2001-02-01

    Nickel (Ni) is a heavy metal in over 3.000 different alloys used to produce kitchen utensils, batteries, coins, etc.. Human extractive and industrial activities are therefore a cause for environmental dispersion of this metal into the biosphere. This shows how in urban areas car traffic and house-heating are the main sources of nickel pollution. Nickel is relatively non-toxic, such as iron, cobalt, copper and zinc; nevertheless prolonged inhalation of dust containing such compounds as Ni O or NiCl{sub 2} concurs in the outbreak of respiratory pathologies. The carcinogenic effect of such compounds as Ni S, Ni O and Ni(CO){sub 4} has been confirmed by experiments on laboratory animals. Ni potentially toxic concentrations, and as a consequence of potential environmental impact, are to be mainly found in populated areas where the main sources are represented by industries and landfills. [Italian] Il nichel (Ni) e' un metallo presente in oltre 3.000 differenti leghe che vengono utilizzate per la produzione di utensili da cucina, batterie, monete, ecc.. Le attivita' estrattive ed industriali dell'uomo sono quindi causa di una dispersione del metallo nella biosfera. Sono stati riscontrati elevati tassi di Ni nell'atmosfera di aree urbane. Cio' sta a dimostrare che nelle aree urbane il traffico automobilistico e il riscaldamento domestico sono le fonti principali di inquinamento da tale metallo. Il nichel e' relativamente atossico, analogamente a ferro, cobalto, rame e zinco, tuttavia l'inalazione protratta di polveri contenenti composti come il NiO o il NiCl{sub 2} contribuisce al manifestarsi di patologie dell'apparato respiratorio. E' stato confermato sperimentalmente su animali da laboratorio l'effetto cancerogeno di alcuni composti quali NiS, NiO e Ni(CO){sub 4}. Concentrazioni potenzialmente tossiche di Ni, e quindi di probabile impatto ambientale, sono maggiormente da ricercare nelle zone antropizzate dove le fonti

  17. Ultrathin NiO/NiFe2O4 Nanoplates Decorated Graphene Nanosheets with Enhanced Lithium Storage Properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Dejian; Yue, Wenbo; Fan, Xialu; Tang, Kun; Yang, Xiaojing

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Ultrathin NiO/NiFe 2 O 4 nanoplates derived from NiFe layered double hydroxides are fabricated on the graphene. • NiO/NiFe 2 O 4 nanoplates on the graphene show superior electrochemical performance compared to pure NiO/NiFe 2 O 4 aggregates. • The effects of the content and the particle size/component of NiO/NiFe 2 O 4 on the electrochemical performances are studied. • Graphene-encapsulated NiO/NiFe 2 O 4 is prepared and shows slightly decreased performance compared to graphene-based composite. - Abstract: As anode materials for lithium-ion batteries, bicomponent metal oxide composites show high reversible capacities; but the morphology and particle size of the composites are hardly controllable, which may reduce their electrochemical properties. In this work, ultrathin NiO/NiFe 2 O 4 nanoplates with a diameter of 5 ∼ 7 nm and a thickness of ∼2 nm are controllably fabricated on the graphene derived from NiFe layered double hydroxides (NiFe-LDHs), and exhibit superior electrochemical performance compared to pure NiO/NiFe 2 O 4 aggregates without graphene. The nanosized NiO and NiFe 2 O 4 plates are separated from each other and the graphene substrate can prevent the aggregation of NiO/NiFe 2 O 4 as well as enhance the electronic conductivity of the composite, which is beneficial to improving the electrochemical performance. Moreover, the effects of the content and the particle size/component of NiO/NiFe 2 O 4 on the electrochemical performances are also studied in order to achieve optimal performance. Ultrathin NiO/NiFe 2 O 4 nanoplates are further encapsulated by graphene nanosheets and show slightly decreased performance compared to those supported by graphene nanosheets. The different electrochemical behaviors of graphene-containing composites may be attributed to the different interactions between graphene nanosheets and NiO/NiFe 2 O 4 nanoplates.

  18. Investigation into the MgF2-NiF2, CaF2-NiF2, SrF2-NiF2 systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikrami, D.D.; Petrov, S.V.; Fedorov, P.P.; Ol'khovaya, L.A.; Luginina, A.A.; AN SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Fizicheskikh Problem; AN SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Kristallografii)

    1984-01-01

    Using the methods of differential thermal and X-ray phase analyses the systems MgF 2 -NiF 2 , CaF 2 -NiF 2 , SrF 2 -NiF 2 have been studied. In the system SrF 2 -NiF 2 the only orthorhombic compounds SrNiF 4 (a=14.43; b=3.93; c=5.66 (+-0.01 A)) is formed. SrNiF 4 density constitutes: dsub(X-ray)=4.60+-0.01 g/cm 3 , dsub(exp.)=4.60+-0.03 g/cm 3 . Refraction indices are as follows SrNiF 4 :Ng=1.500; Nsub(m)=1.497; Nsub(p)=1.479. SrNiF 4 magnetic ordering temperature Tsub(N) approximately 100 K

  19. Microstructure and mechanical properties of sputter deposited Ni/Ni{sub 3}Al multilayer films at elevated temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Chao [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Materials Laser Processing and Modification, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Ship and Deep-Sea Exploration, Shanghai 200240 (China); Feng, Kai, E-mail: fengkai@sjtu.edu.cn [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Materials Laser Processing and Modification, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Ship and Deep-Sea Exploration, Shanghai 200240 (China); Li, Zhuguo, E-mail: lizg@sjtu.edu.cn [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Materials Laser Processing and Modification, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Ship and Deep-Sea Exploration, Shanghai 200240 (China); Lu, Fenggui; Huang, Jian; Wu, Yixiong [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Materials Laser Processing and Modification, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Ship and Deep-Sea Exploration, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Ni/Ni{sub 3}Al multilayers are prepared by magnetron sputtering. • Both grain size and phase constitution of annealed Ni/Ni{sub 3}Al multilayers are dependent on individual layer thickness. • The hardness of annealed Ni/Ni{sub 3}Al multilayers varies with individual layer thickness and annealing temperature. • 40 nm Ni/Ni{sub 3}Al multilayer exhibits excellent hardness at elevated temperature. - Abstract: Nano-structured Ni/Ni{sub 3}Al multilayer was prepared by magnetron sputtering, with individual layer thicknesses h varying from 10 to 160 nm. The microstructure and hardness of Ni/Ni{sub 3}Al multilayer were investigated by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and nanoindentation. The results show that the hardness increases with decreasing h for as-deposited and 500 °C annealed multilayers. When annealed at 700 °C, the hardness approach a peak value at h = 40 nm with followed by softening at smaller h. The influence of individual layer thickness, grain size as well as formation of ordered Ni{sub 3}Al on strengthening mechanisms of Ni/Ni{sub 3}Al multilayers at elevated temperature are discussed.

  20. Enhanced Electrocatalytic Activity for Water Splitting on NiO/Ni/Carbon Fiber Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruoyu Zhang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale growth of low-cost, efficient, and durable non-noble metal-based electrocatalysts for water splitting is crucial for future renewable energy systems. Atomic layer deposition (ALD provides a promising route for depositing uniform thin coatings of electrocatalysts, which are useful in many technologies, including the splitting of water. In this communication, we report the growth of a NiO/Ni catalyst directly on carbon fiber paper by atomic layer deposition and report subsequent reduction and oxidation annealing treatments. The 10–20 nm NiO/Ni nanoparticle catalysts can reach a current density of 10 mA·cm−2 at an overpotential of 189 mV for hydrogen evolution reactions and 257 mV for oxygen evolution reactions with high stability. We further successfully achieved a water splitting current density of 10 mA·cm−2 at 1.78 V using a typical NiO/Ni coated carbon fiber paper two-electrode setup. The results suggest that nanoparticulate NiO/Ni is an active, stable, and noble-metal-free electrocatalyst, which facilitates a method for future water splitting applications.

  1. Ni(salen): a system that forms many solvates with interacting Ni atoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siegler, M.A.M.; Lutz, M.

    2009-01-01

    Recrystallization of [N,N’-Ethylene-bis(salicylideneiminato)]-nickel(II) [Ni(salen)] has been carried out from a large selection of solvents. Crystals can be either solvent free or solvates. This study is based on X-ray crystal structure determinations, which include the redetermination of Ni(salen)

  2. Thermal stability of electrodeposited Ni and Ni-Co layers; an EBSD-study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Anette Alsted; Gholinia, A.; Trimby, P.W.

    2004-01-01

    The influence of heat treatment on the microstructure and the microtexture of electrodeposited Ni and Ni-Co layers was investigated with Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD) with high resolution. Samples were annealed for 1 hour at 523 K and 673 K, the temperature region wherein...

  3. The role of Ni in sulfided carbon-supported Ni-Mo hydrodesulfurization catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwens, S.M.A.M.; Barthe-Zahir, N.; Beer, de V.H.J.; Prins, R.

    1991-01-01

    The thiophene hydrodesulfurization activities of Ni and Ni---Mo sulfide catalysts supported on activated carbon were measured at atmospheric pressure and the catalyst structures were studied by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, dynamic oxygen chemisorption, and chemical sulfur analysis. The

  4. Mechanical properties of NiO/Ni-YSZ composites depending on temperature, porosity and redox cycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihlatie, Mikko; Kaiser, Andreas; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2009-01-01

    The Impulse Excitation Technique (IET) was used to determine the elastic modulus and specific damping of different Ni/NiO-YSZ composites suitable for use in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). The porosity of the as-sintered samples varied from 9 to 38% and that of the reduced ones from 31 to 52%. For...

  5. Climate Prediction Center - El Niño/La Niña Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weather Service NWS logo - Click to go to the NWS home page Climate Prediction Center Site Map News Information CPC Web Team HOME > El Niño/La Niña Forecasts Current U.S. Climate Outlook SST Forecasts Temperature and Anomalies NOAA/ National Weather Service National Centers for Environmental Prediction Climate

  6. Synthesis and magnetic properties of multilayer Ni/Cu and NiFe/Cu ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The diameter of wires can be easily varied by pore size of alumina, ranging ... saturated HgCl2 solution to remove the remaining Al, and then dipped in 5 wt% ... for NiFe alloy it is 1.3 V, that is higher than for Ni/Cu nanowires to diminish Cu.

  7. Effect of solute atoms on swelling in Ni alloys and pure Ni under He + ion irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakai, E.; Ezawa, T.; Imamura, J.; Takenaka, T.; Tanabe, T.; Oshima, R.

    2002-12-01

    The effects of solute atoms on microstructural evolutions have been investigated using Ni alloys under 25 keV He + irradiation at 500 °C. The specimens used were pure Ni, Ni-Si, Ni-Co, Ni-Cu, Ni-Mn and Ni-Pd alloys with different volume size factors. The high number densities of dislocation loops about 1.5×10 22 m -3 were formed in the specimens irradiated to 1×10 19 ions/m 2, and they were approximately equivalent, except for Ni-Si. The mean size of loops tended to increase with the volume size factor of solute atoms. In a dose of 4×10 20 ions/m 2, the swelling was changed from 0.2% to 4.5%, depending on the volume size factors. The number densities of bubbles tended to increase with the absolute values of the volume size factor, and the swelling increased with the volume size factors. This suggests that the mobility of helium and vacancy atoms may be influenced by the interaction of solute atoms with them.

  8. Bonding Strength of Ni/Ni3Al Interface with Different Lattice Misfit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping PENG; Caixing ZHENG; Shaochang HAN; Zhaohui JIN; Rui YANG; Zhuangqi HU

    2003-01-01

    The interfacial binding covalent bond density (CBD) and the local environmental total bond order (LTBO) of the Ni/Ni3Alinterface with different lattice misfits (δ) were calculated by using first-principles discrete variation Xα method. It was foundthat

  9. Electrochemical Behaviour of Ni and Ni-PVC Electrodes for the Electroxidation of Ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Syafiq Hamdan; Norazzizi Nordin; Siti Fathrita Mohd Amir; Riyanto; Mohamed Rozali Othman

    2011-01-01

    In this study, two nickel based electrodes were prepared; nickel foil and nickel-polyvinylchloride (Ni-PVC), in order to study their electrochemical behavior using cyclic voltammetry, CV and chronocoulometry, CC. Ni electrode was prepared from Ni metal foil while Ni-PVC electrode was prepared by mixing a weighed portion of Ni powder and PVC in THF solvent, swirled until the suspension was homogeneous and drying the suspension in an oven at 50 degree Celsius for 3 h. The dry sample was then placed in a 1 cm diameter stainless steel mould and pressed at 10 ton/ cm 2 . From CV data, Ni-PVC electrode showed a better electrochemical behavior compared to Ni metal foil electrode. The use of Ni-PVC electrode at higher concentration of supporting electrolyte (1.0 M KOH) was better than at lower concentration of the same supporting electrolyte in electroxidation of ethanol. In addition to acetic acid, the oxidation of ethanol also produced ethyl acetate and acetaldehyde. (author)

  10. Room-temperature ferromagnetism in Dy films doped with Ni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edelman, I. [Kirensky Institute of Physics, Siberian Division, Russian Academy of Sciences, Akademgorodok, Krasnoyarsk 660036 (Russian Federation)], E-mail: ise@iph.krasn.ru; Ovchinnikov, S. [Kirensky Institute of Physics, Siberian Division, Russian Academy of Sciences, Akademgorodok, Krasnoyarsk 660036 (Russian Federation); Siberian Federal University, Av. Svobodnyi 71, Krasnoyarsk 660074 (Russian Federation); Markov, V.; Kosyrev, N.; Seredkin, V.; Khudjakov, A.; Bondarenko, G. [Kirensky Institute of Physics, Siberian Division, Russian Academy of Sciences, Akademgorodok, Krasnoyarsk 660036 (Russian Federation); Kesler, V. [Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Siberian Division, Russian Academy of Sciences, Av. Akademika Lavrent' eva 13, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation)

    2008-09-01

    Temperature, magnetic field and spectral dependences of magneto-optical effects (MOEs) in bi-layer films Dy{sub (1-x)}Ni{sub x}-Ni and Dy{sub (1-x)}(NiFe){sub x}-NiFe were investigated, x changes from 0 to 0.06. Peculiar behavior of the MOEs was revealed at temperatures essentially exceeding the Curie temperature of bulk Dy which is explained by the magnetic ordering of the Dy layer containing Ni under the action of two factors: Ni impurities distributed homogeneously over the whole Dy layer and atomic contact of this layer with continues Ni layer. The mechanism of the magnetic ordering is suggested to be associated with the change of the density of states of the alloy Dy{sub (1-x)}Ni{sub x} owing to hybridization with narrow peaks near the Fermi level character for Ni.

  11. Room-temperature ferromagnetism in Dy films doped with Ni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edelman, I.; Ovchinnikov, S.; Markov, V.; Kosyrev, N.; Seredkin, V.; Khudjakov, A.; Bondarenko, G.; Kesler, V.

    2008-01-01

    Temperature, magnetic field and spectral dependences of magneto-optical effects (MOEs) in bi-layer films Dy (1-x) Ni x -Ni and Dy (1-x) (NiFe) x -NiFe were investigated, x changes from 0 to 0.06. Peculiar behavior of the MOEs was revealed at temperatures essentially exceeding the Curie temperature of bulk Dy which is explained by the magnetic ordering of the Dy layer containing Ni under the action of two factors: Ni impurities distributed homogeneously over the whole Dy layer and atomic contact of this layer with continues Ni layer. The mechanism of the magnetic ordering is suggested to be associated with the change of the density of states of the alloy Dy (1-x) Ni x owing to hybridization with narrow peaks near the Fermi level character for Ni

  12. Elementary martensitic transformation processes in Ni-rich NiTi single crystals with Ni4Ti3 precipitates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michutta, J.; Somsen, Ch.; Yawny, A.; Dlouhy, A.; Eggeler, G.

    2006-01-01

    The present study shows that multiple-step martensitic transformations can be observed in aged Ni-rich NiTi single crystals. Ageing of solution-annealed and water-quenched Ni-rich NiTi single crystals results in a homogeneous precipitation of coherent Ni 4 Ti 3 particles. When the interparticle spacing reaches a critical value (order of magnitude: 200 nm), three distinct transformation processes are observed on cooling from the high-temperature phase using differential scanning calorimetry and in situ transmission electron microscopy. The transformation sequence begins with the formation of R-phase starting from all precipitate/matrix interfaces (first step). The transformation continues with the formation of B19' and its subsequent growth along all precipitate/matrix interfaces (second step). Finally, the matrix in between the precipitates transforms to B19' (third step). Elementary transformation mechanisms which account for two- and three-step transformations in a system with small-scale microstructural heterogeneities were identified

  13. Probing the semi-magicity of $^{68}$Ni via the $^{3}$H($^{66}$Ni,$^{68}$Ni)p two-neutron transfer reaction in inverse kinematics

    CERN Multimedia

    Reiter, P; Blazhev, A A; Kruecken, R; Franchoo, S; Mertzimekis, T; Darby, I G; Van de walle, J; Raabe, R; Elseviers, J; Gernhaeuser, R A; Sorlin, O H; Georgiev, G P; Bree, N C F; Habs, D; Chapman, R; Gaudefroy, L; Diriken, J V J; Jenkins, D G; Kroell, T; Axiotis, M; Huyse, M L; Patronis, N

    We propose to perform the two-neutron transfer reaction $^{3}$H($^{66}$Ni, $^{68}$Ni)$p$ using the ISOLDE radioactive ion beam at 2.7 $A$ MeV and the MINIBALL + T-REX setup to characterize the 0$^{+}$ and 2$^{+}$ states in $^{68}$Ni.

  14. Mechanical alloying of the FeNi-Ag system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, G.; Ibarra, D.; Ochoa, J.; Villalba, R.; Sagarzazu, A.

    2007-01-01

    The Fe-Ni-Ag system is of particular interest for its potential applications as soft magnetic granular material with small magnetic grains embedded in a non-magnetic metal matrix. Under equilibrium conditions: Fe-Ag and Ni-Ag are immiscible and Fe-Ni shows complete solubility. These materials are particularly important for magnetoresistivity properties. The properties of these alloys are closely related to their microstructure; therefore, a detailed study of the transformations occurring during milling was undertaken using pre-alloyed Fe x Ni 100-x (x = 30, 50 and 70) further milled with different Ag content to give the following alloys compositions (Fe x -Ni 100-x ) 100-y Ag y (y = 5, 20, 60). Consolidation of the mechanically alloyed powders by sintering at 950 o C was performed. Morphological and structural characterization of the sintered powders was carried out by scanning and transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Fe 30 Ni 70 and Fe 50 Ni 50 formed ordered FeNi 3 compound. Fe 70 Ni 30 showed the formation of a mixture of γ-(Fe,Ni) and α-Fe(Ni) solid solutions. The mixture of these systems with Ag showed the metal solid solutions surrounded by Ag islands of Fe x Ni y -Ag, There was also evidence of Ag diffusing into the γ-(Fe,Ni). High Ag content (60%) shows formation of islands of FeNi surrounded by Ag. Sintering is always improved with the Ag content

  15. Effect of amount of glycine as fuel in obtaining nanocomposite Ni/NiO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simoes, A.N.; Simoes, V.N.; Neiva, L.S.; Quirino, M.R.; Vieira, D.A.; Gama, L.

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes to investigate the effect of the amount of glycine in obtaining nanocomposite Ni/NiO synthesized by combustion reaction technique. The amount of glycine used was calculated on the stoichiometric composition of 50% and 100%. Characterizations by X-ray diffraction (XRD), N2 adsorption by the BET method and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were performed with powder of Ni/NiO result. The analysis of X-ray diffraction showed the presence of crystalline NiO phase in the presence of nickel as a secondary phase, whose amount increased with the amount of glycine. Increasing the concentration of glycine also caused an increase in surface area, which ranged from 1.1 to 1.4 m 2 /g. The micrographs revealed the formation of soft agglomerates with porous appearance and easy dispersions. It can be concluded that the synthesis is effective to obtain nanosized powders. (author)

  16. Neutron enrichment at midrapidity in 58Ni + 58Ni at 52 MeV/u

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theriault, D.; Vallee, A.; Gingras, L.; Larochelle, Y.; Roy, R.; April, A.; Beaulieu, L.; Grenier, F.; Lemieux, F.; Moisan, J.; Samri, M.; Saint-Pierre, C.; Turbide, S.; Yennello, S.J.; Martin, E.; Winchester, E.

    2003-01-01

    By combining data from a charged particle 58 Ni + 58 Ni experiment at 52 MeV/u with an 36 Ar + 58 Ni experiment at 50 MeV/u for which free neutrons have been detected, an increase in the neutron to proton ratio of the whole nuclear material at midrapidity has been experimentally observed in the reaction 58 Ni + 58 Ni at 52 MeV/u. The neutron to proton ratio is measured above the initial neutron to proton ratio of the system. Neutron to proton ratio of the quasi-projectile emission is analysed for the same reactions and is seen to decrease below the ratio of the initial system. (authors)

  17. Improvement of thermoelectric properties for half-Heusler TiNiSn by interstitial Ni defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazama, Hirofumi; Matsubara, Masato; Asahi, Ryoji; Takeuchi, Tsunehiro

    2011-01-01

    We have synthesized off-stoichiometric Ti-Ni-Sn half-Heusler thermoelectrics in order to investigate the relation between randomly distributed defects and thermoelectric properties. A small change in the composition of Ti-Ni-Sn causes a remarkable change in the thermal conductivity. An excess content of Ni realizes a low thermal conductivity of 2.93 W/mK at room temperature while keeping a high power factor. The low thermal conductivity originates in the defects generated by an excess content of Ni. To investigate the detailed defect structure, we have performed first-principles calculations and compared with x ray photoemission spectroscopy measurement. Based on these analyses, we conclude that the excess Ni atoms randomly occupy the vacant sites in the half-Heusler structure, which play as phonon scattering centers, resulting in significant improvement of the figure of merit without any substitutions of expensive heavy elements, such as Zr and Hf.

  18. Magnetoresistance of nanogranular Ni/NiO controlled by exchange anisotropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Bianco, L.; Spizzo, F.; Tamisari, M.; Allia, P.

    2013-01-01

    A link between exchange anisotropy and magnetoresistance has been found to occur in a Ni/NiO sample consisting of Ni nanocrystallites (mean size ∼13 nm, Ni content ∼33 vol%) dispersed in a NiO matrix. This material shows metallic-type electric conduction and isotropic spin-dependent magnetoresistance as well as exchange bias effect. The latter is the outcome of an exchange anisotropy arising from the contact interaction between the Ni phase and the NiO matrix. Combined analysis of magnetization M(H) and magnetoresistance MR(H) loops measured in the 5–250 K temperature range after zero-field-cooling (ZFC) and after field-cooling (FC) from 300 K reveals that the magnetoresistance is influenced by exchange anisotropy, which is triggered by the FC process and can be modified in strength by varying the temperature. Compared to the ZFC case, the exchange anisotropy produces a horizontal shift of the FC MR(H) loop along with a reduction of the MR response associated to the reorientation of the Ni moments. A strict connection between magnetoresistance and remanent magnetization of FC loops on one side and the exchange field on the other, ruled by exchange anisotropy, is indicated. - Highlights: • Nanogranular Ni/NiO with giant magnetoresistance (MR) and exchange bias effect. • Exchange anisotropy produces a shift of the field-cooled MR(H) loop and reduces MR. • MR, remanence of field-cooled loops and exchange field are three correlated quantities. • It is possible to control MR of nanogranular systems through the exchange anisotropy

  19. Ferromagnetic resonance study of sputtered NiFe/V/NiFe heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alayo, W., E-mail: willian.rodriguez@ufpel.edu.br [Departamento de Física – IFM, Universidade Federal de Pelotas, 96010-900 Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Pelegrini, F. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia, 74001-970 (Brazil); Baggio-Saitovitch, E. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, 22290-180 (Brazil)

    2015-03-01

    The Ni{sub 81}Fe{sub 19}/V/Ni{sub 81}Fe{sub 19} heterostructures has been produced by magnetron sputtering and analyzed by ferromagnetic resonance. Two systems were investigated: the non symmetrical NiFe(50 Å)/V(t)/NiFe(30 Å) trilayers and the symmetrical NiFe(80 Å)/V(t)/NiFe(80 Å) trilayers, with variable ultrathin V thickness t. Ferromagnetic exchange coupling was evidenced for t below 10 Å by the excitation of the optic mode, in the case of the non symmetrical samples, and by the observation of a single resonance mode for the symmetrical trilayers. For larger V thickness, all samples exhibited two modes, which were attributed to the resonance of the individual NiFe layers with different effective magnetizations. The analysis with the equilibrium and resonance conditions provided the exchange coupling constants and effective magnetizations. - Highlights: • We present a study of symmetrical and non symmetrical NiFe/V/NiFe trilayers deposited on Si single crystals by ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) at room temperature. • For the non symmetrical trilayers, the FMR spectra show the optic and acoustic modes for samples with very thin V layer thicknesses, evidencing ferromagnetic exchange coupling, whereas, for larger V thickness, the spectra exhibited two well resolved modes associated to each independent NiFe layer. For the symmetrical trilayers, strong ferromagnetic exchange coupling is evidenced by the observation of a single resonance mode. • The analysis with the equilibrium condition and dispersion relation provides the exchange coupling constants and effective magnetizations.

  20. Hydrogen absorption kinetics and structural properties of Mg85Ni10Ca5 and Mg90Ni10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Masakazu; Saito, Katsushi; Towata, Shin-ichi

    2005-01-01

    Mg 85 Ni 10 Ca 5 and Mg 90 Ni 10 were prepared by melting mixtures of the elements in mild steel crucibles and pouring them into copper molds. Hydrogen absorption kinetics and structural properties of the alloys were characterized by the volumetric method using a Sievert's apparatus, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The crystallite size of Mg in Mg 85 Ni 10 Ca 5 , which is evaluated by XRD peak broadening, is about 50% smaller than that in Mg 90 Ni 10 . In addition, the nanometer-scale structure composed of Mg, Mg 2 Ni, Mg 2 Ca was observed in Mg 85 Ni 10 Ca 5 . Mg 85 Ni 10 Ca 5 shows better hydrogen absorption kinetics than Mg 90 Ni 10 in the temperature range of room temperature to 573 K. The better absorption kinetics of Mg 85 Ni 10 Ca 5 is mainly attributed to the nanometer-scale structure

  1. Sputtering Yields of Si and Ni from the Ni1-xSix System Studied by Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su Chol; Yamaguchi, Satoru; Kataoka, Yoshihide; Iwami, Motohiro; Hiraki, Akio; Satou, Mamoru; Fujimoto, Fuminori

    1982-01-01

    Sputtering yields of Si and Ni from thin layer films of Ni-Si compounds (Ni1-xSix), including the pure materials (Ni and Si), caused by 5 keV Ar+ ion bombardment were investigated using backscattering spectrometry. The sputtering yield for Si from Ni1-xSix increased with increasing Si concentration. However, there is an abrupt decrease in the yield for Si concentrations above NiSi2 to pure Si. This is in clear contrast to the sputtering yield of Ni from Ni1-xSix which increased with increasing Ni concentration monotonously. These results are discussed on the basis of both the difference in the atomic density and the electronic state of the alloy.

  2. Phase Equilibria of the Sn-Ni-Si Ternary System and Interfacial Reactions in Sn-(Cu)/Ni-Si Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Gu; Chen, Chih-chi

    2015-07-01

    Interfacial reactions in Sn/Ni-4.5 wt.%Si and Sn-Cu/Ni-4.5 wt.%Si couples at 250°C, and Sn-Ni-Si ternary phase equilibria at 250°C were investigated in this study. Ni-Si alloys, which are nonmagnetic, can be regarded as a diffusion barrier layer material in flip chip packaging. Solder/Ni-4.5 wt.%Si interfacial reactions are crucial to the reliability of soldered joints. Phase equilibria information is essential for development of solder/Ni-Si materials. No ternary compound is present in the Sn-Ni-Si ternary system at 250°C. Extended solubility of Si in the phases Ni3Sn2 and Ni3Sn is 3.8 and 6.1 at.%, respectively. As more Si dissolves in these phases their lattice constants decrease. No noticeable ternary solubility is observed for the other intermetallics. Interfacial reactions in solder/Ni-4.5 wt.%Si are similar to those for solder/Ni. Si does not alter the reaction phases. No Si solubility in the reaction phases was detected, although rates of growth of the reaction phases were reduced. Because the alloy Ni-4.5 wt.%Si reacts more slowly with solders than pure Ni, the Ni-4.5 wt.%Si alloy could be a potential new diffusion barrier layer material for flip chip packaging.

  3. Ni/boride interfaces and environmental embrittlement in Ni-based superalloys: A first-principles study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanyal, Suchismita; Waghmare, Umesh V.; Hanlon, Timothy; Hall, Ernest L.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► Fracture strengths of Ni/boride interfaces through first-principles calculations. ► Fracture strengths of Ni/boride interfaces are higher than Ni/Ni 3 Al and NiΣ5 grain boundaries. ► Ni/boride interfaces have higher resistance to O-embrittlement than Ni/Ni 3 Al and NiΣ5 grain boundaries. ► CrMo-borides are more effective than Cr-borides in resisting O-embrittlement. ► Electronegativity differences between alloying elements correlate with fracture strengths. - Abstract: Motivated by the vital role played by boride precipitates in Ni-based superalloys in improving mechanical properties such as creep rupture strength, fatigue crack growth rates and improved resistance towards environmental embrittlement , we estimate fracture strength of Ni/boride interfaces through determination of their work of separation using first-principles simulations. We find that the fracture strength of Ni/boride interfaces is higher than that of other commonly occurring interfaces in Ni-alloys, such as Ni Σ-5 grain boundaries and coherent Ni/Ni 3 Al interfaces, and is less susceptible to oxygen-induced embrittlement. Our calculations show how the presence of Mo in Ni/M 5 B 3 (M = Cr, Mo) interfaces leads to additional reduction in oxygen-induced embrittlement. Through Electron-Localization-Function based analyses, we identify the electronic origins of effects of alloying elements on fracture strengths of these interfaces and observe that chemical interactions stemming from electronegativity differences between different atomic species are responsible for the trends in calculated strengths. Our findings should be useful towards designing Ni-based alloys with higher interfacial strengths and reduced oxygen-induced embrittlement.

  4. Nickel distribution and isotopic fractionation in a Brazilian lateritic regolith: Coupling Ni isotopes and Ni K-edge XANES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratié, G.; Garnier, J.; Calmels, D.; Vantelon, D.; Guimarães, E.; Monvoisin, G.; Nouet, J.; Ponzevera, E.; Quantin, C.

    2018-06-01

    Ultramafic (UM) rocks are known to be nickel (Ni) rich and to weather quickly, which makes them a good candidate to look at the Ni isotope systematics during weathering processes at the Earth's surface. The present study aims at identifying the Ni solid speciation and discussing the weathering processes that produce Ni isotope fractionation in two deep laterite profiles under tropical conditions (Barro Alto, Goiás State, Brazil). While phyllosilicates and to a lower extent goethite are the main Ni-bearing phases in the saprolitic part of the profile, iron (Fe) oxides dominate the Ni budget in the lateritic unit. Nickel isotopic composition (δ60Ni values) has been measured in each unit of the regolith, i.e., rock, saprock, saprolite and laterite (n = 52). δ60Ni varies widely within the two laterite profiles, from -0.10 ± 0.05‰ to 1.43 ± 0.05‰, showing that significant Ni isotope fractionation occurs during the weathering of UM rocks. Overall, our results show that during weathering, the solid phase is depleted in heavy Ni isotopes due to the preferential sorption and incorporation of light Ni isotopes into Fe oxides; the same mechanisms likely apply to the incorporation of Ni into phyllosilicates (type 2:1). However, an isotopically heavy Ni pool is observed in the solid phase at the bottom of the saprolitic unit. This feature can be explained by two hypotheses that are not mutually exclusive: (i) a depletion in light Ni isotopes during the first stage of weathering due to the preferential dissolution of light Ni-containing minerals, and (ii) the sorption or incorporation of isotopically heavy Ni carried by percolating waters (groundwater samples have δ60Ni of 2.20 and 2.27‰), that were enriched in heavy Ni isotopes due to successive weathering processes in the overlying soil and laterite units.

  5. The acceleration intermediate phase (NiS and Ni3S2) evolution by nanocrystallization in Li/NiS2 thermal batteries with high specific capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Chuanyu; Zhou, Lingping; Fu, Licai; Zhu, Jiajun; Li, Deyi; Yang, Wulin

    2017-06-01

    The intermediate phase of NiS2 is thought to be a bottleneck currently to improve the overall performance of Li/NiS2 thermal batteries because of its low conductivity and close formation enthalpy between NiS2 and the intermediate phase (NiS, Ni3S2, etc). For improving the discharge performances of Li/NiS2 thermal batteries, the nano NiS2 with an average size of 85 ± 5 nm is designated as a cathode material. The electrochemical measurements show that the specific capacity of nano NiS2 cathode is higher than micro NiS2. The nano NiS2 cathode exhibits excellent electrochemical performances with high specific capacities of 794 and 654 mAh g-1 at current density of 0.1 and 0.5 A cm-2 under a cut-off voltage of 0.5 V, respectively. These results show that the rapid intermediate phase evolution from the nanocrystallization can obviously enhance use efficiency of NiS2 and improve discharge performances of thermal batteries.

  6. Room temperature isotherms for Mo and Ni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masse, J.L.

    1986-11-01

    Isotherms at room temperature for Mo and Ni are proposed. They are of three types: BIRCH, KEANE and BORN-MIE. The adjustable constants appearing in these isotherms have been determined from experimental quantities at zero pressure. An evaluation of the limit of (δB T /δP) T as P #-> # ∞, where B T is the isothermal bulk modulus, has been also used. These three isotherms obtained for Mo and Ni are compared with isotherms derived from shock-wave data according to the PRIETO's model. There is a good agreement between these and these derived from shock-wave data. The three isotherms proposed for Mo and Ni can be considered as valid until pressures of several B To , where B To is the bulk modulus B T at P = o [fr

  7. Advances in developing TiNi nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, A. Torres; Cuellar, E. Lopez; Mendez, U. Ortiz; Yacaman, M. Jose

    2006-01-01

    The elaboration of nanoparticles has become a field of great interest for many scientists. Nanoparticles possess different properties than those ones shown in bulk materials. Shape memory alloys have the exceptional ability to recuperate its original shape by simple heating after being 'plastically' deformed. When this process is originated, important changes in properties, as mechanical and electrical, are developed in bulk material. If there is possible to obtain nanoparticles with shape memory effects, these nanoparticles could be used in the elaboration of nanofluids with the ability to change their electrical and thermal conductivity with temperature changes, i.e., smart nanofluids. In this work, some recent results and discussion of TiNi nanoparticles obtained by ion beam milling directly from a TiNi wire with shape memory are presented. The nanoparticles obtained by this process are about 2 nm of diameter with a composition of Ti-41.0 at.% Ni. Synthesized nanoparticles elaborated by this method have an ordered structure

  8. Cutting NiTi with Femtosecond Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Quintino

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Superelastic shape memory alloys are difficult to machine by thermal processes due to the facility for Ti oxidation and by mechanical processes due to their superelastic behavior. In this study, femtosecond lasers were tested to analyze the potential for machining NiTi since femtosecond lasers allow nonthermal processing of materials by ablation. The effect of processing parameters on machining depth was studied, and material removal rates were computed. Surfaces produced were analyzed under SEM which shows a resolidified thin layer with minimal heat affected zones. However, for high cutting speeds, that is, for short interaction times, this layer was not observed. A depletion of Ni was seen which may be beneficial in biomedical applications since Ni is known to produce human tissue reactions in biophysical environments.

  9. La niña proletaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cartabia, Sabrina A.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo se propone trazar un paralelo entre el cuento de Osvaldo Lamborghini “El niño proletario”, el cual, según la autora del ensayo, introduce al lector en la lucha de clases y el sometimiento de los/as proletarios/as, que sufren las mujeres, en particular a través de la violencia sexual. De esa forma la autora se pregunta si el poder que ciertas clases detentan sobre otras no influye también sobre el sometimiento de la mujer. El ensayo analiza además cómo la violencia sexual es una herramienta que constituye la base de la desigualdad, el sometimiento y la degradación de la mujer, al igual que constituye una herramienta de opresión de otros grupos vulnerables como los niños y niñas.

  10. Effects of phase transformation and interdiffusion on the exchange bias of NiFe/NiMn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, Chih-Huang; Lien, W. C.; Chen, F. R.; Kai, J. J.; Mao, S.

    2001-01-01

    The correlation between the exchange field of NiFe/NiMn and the phase transformation of NiMn was investigated. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) dark-field images, contributed by the order phase of NiMn, were used to identify the location and volume fraction of the order phase. TEM selected area diffraction patterns showed the (110) superlattice diffraction rings of NiMn, verifying the existence of the order phase in the annealed samples. The order volume fraction can be calculated by the dark field image contributed by the (110) diffraction. The exchange field increased almost linearly with increasing order volume fraction. Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy attached to TEM indicated that Mn diffused into NiFe for annealing at 280 degreeC, leading to a larger coercivity and small coercivity squareness. Part of the NiMn still maintains the paramagnetic phase even after annealing at 280 degreeC. [copyright] 2001 American Institute of Physics

  11. Ni3Si2 nanowires grown in situ on Ni foam for high-performance supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yizhe; Li, Zhihui; Li, Beibei; Zhang, Jinying; Niu, Chunming

    2016-07-01

    Ni3Si2 nanowires and nanoawls have grown in situ on the surface of Ni foams by a controlled low pressure chemical vapor deposition process. Structural characterization shows that the individual Ni3Si2 nanowire is single crystal covered with a thin layer (1-2 nm) of SiO2 with a diameter of ∼20-30 nm and length of ten's micrometers. Individual nanoawl with a circular cone shape is polycrystalline. Both Ni3Si2 nanowire and nanoawl samples are evaluated as potential electrode materials for supercapacitors. The nanowire electrode delivers a very high specific capacitance and excellent rate capability. A specific capacitance of 760 F g-1 is measured at current density of 0.5 A g-1, which decreases to 518 F g-1 when the current density increases to 10 A g-1. The capacitance is dominated by pseudocapacitance with a mechanism similar to that of NiO or Ni(OH)2 widely studied in the literature. An asymmetric supercapacitor fabricated by pairing Ni3Si2 nanowire electrode with an activated carbon electrode exhibits energy densities of 17.5 Wh kg-1 and 8.8 Wh kg-1 at power densites of 301 W kg-1 and 3000 W kg-1.

  12. Exchange bias in finite sized NiO nanoparticles with Ni clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gandhi, Ashish Chhaganlal; Lin, Jauyn Grace, E-mail: jglin@ntu.edu.tw

    2017-02-15

    Structural and magnetic properties of finite sized NiO nanoparticles are investigated with synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy, magnetometer and ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) spectroscopy. A minor Ni phase is detected with synchrotron XRD, attributed to the oxygen defects in the NiO core. A considerable exchange bias of ~100 Oe is observed at 50 K and it drops abruptly and vanishes above 150 K, in association with the reduction of frozen spins. FMR data indicate a strong interaction between ferromagnetic (FM) and antiferromagnetic (AFM) phases below 150 K, consistent with the picture of isolated FM clusters in AFM matrix. - Highlights: • Structural and magnetic properties of finite sized NiO nanoparticles are systematically investigated with several advanced techniques. • A strong interaction between ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic phases is found below 150 K. • Exchange bias field in finite sized NiO nanoparticles is due to anisotropy energy of Ni clusters over riding the domain wall energy of NiO.

  13. Radiation damage buildup and dislocation evolution in Ni and equiatomic multicomponent Ni-based alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levo, E. [Department of Physics, P.O. Box 43, FIN-00014, University of Helsinki (Finland); Granberg, F., E-mail: fredric.granberg@helsinki.fi [Department of Physics, P.O. Box 43, FIN-00014, University of Helsinki (Finland); Fridlund, C.; Nordlund, K. [Department of Physics, P.O. Box 43, FIN-00014, University of Helsinki (Finland); Djurabekova, F. [Department of Physics, P.O. Box 43, FIN-00014, University of Helsinki (Finland); Helsinki Institute of Physics, P.O. Box 43, FIN-00014, University of Helsinki (Finland)

    2017-07-15

    Single-phase multicomponent alloys of equal atomic concentrations (“equiatomic”) have proven to exhibit promising mechanical and corrosion resistance properties, that are sought after in materials intended for use in hazardous environments like next-generation nuclear reactors. In this article, we investigate the damage production and dislocation mobility by simulating irradiation of elemental Ni and the alloys NiCo, NiCoCr, NiCoFe and NiFe, to assess the effect of elemental composition. We compare the defect production and the evolution of dislocation networks in the simulation cells of two different sizes, for all five studied materials. We find that the trends in defect evolution are in good agreement between the different cell sizes. The damage is generally reduced with increased alloy complexity, and the dislocation evolution is specific to each material, depending on its complexity. We show that increasing complexity of the alloys does not always lead to decreased susceptibility to damage accumulation under irradiation. We show that, for instance, the NiCo alloy behaves very similarly to Ni, while presence of Fe or Cr in the alloy even as a third component reduces the saturated level of damage substantially. Moreover, we linked the defect evolution with the dislocation transformations in the alloys. Sudden drops in defect number and large defect fluctuations from the continuous irradiation can be explained from the dislocation activity.

  14. Corrosion Resistance Of Electroless Ni-P/Cu/Ni-P Multilayer Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao G.L.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ni-P/Cu/Ni-P multilayer coatings were prepared by deposition of Cu layer between two Ni–P layers. The Cu layer was deposited by metal displacement reaction between Cu2+ and Fe atoms. Corrosion behavior of single-layer Ni-P coatings, double-layer Ni-P/Cu coatings, and three-layer Ni-P/Cu/Ni-P coatings were investigated by electrochemical tests in 3.5% NaCl solution. The three-layer coatings exhibited more positive Ecorr and decreased Icorr compared with conventional single-layer Ni-P coatings, which indicated an improved corrosion resistance. The polarization curves of the three-layer coatings were characterized by two passive regions. The improved corrosion resistance was not only attributed to the function of the blocked pores of Cu. The Cu interlayer also acted as a sacrificial layer instead of a barrier in the coatings, which altered the corrosion mechanism and further improved the corrosion resistance of the coatings.

  15. PRECIPITATION HARDENING IN B2-ORDERED NiAl BY Ni2AlTiCOMPOUND

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    W.H. Tian; K. Ohishi; M. Nemoto

    2001-01-01

    Microstructural variations and correlated hardness changes in B2-ordered NiAl containing fine precipitation of Ni2AlTi have been investigated by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and hardness tests. The amount of age hardening is not large as compared to the large microstructural variations during aging. TEM observations have revealed that the L21-type Ni2AlTi precipitates keep a lattice coherency with the NiAl matrix at the beginning of aging. By longer periods of aging Ni2AlTi precipitates lose their coherency and change their morphology to the globular ones surrounded by misfit dislocations. The temperature dependence of the yield strength of precipitate-containing B2-ordered NiAl was investigated by compression tests over the temperature range of 873-1273K. The fine precipitation of Ni2AlTi was found to enhance greatly the yield strength and the high-temperature strength is comparison with that of superalloy Mar-M200.``

  16. Development of small-scale electroplating system for Ni-63 electroplating onto Ni foil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Joo; Choi, Sang Mu; Son, Kwang Jae; Hong, Jintae

    2016-01-01

    Betavoltaic battery is a device that converts the decay energy of beta-emitting radioisotopes into electric energy. Ni-63 is pure betaemitter with a low energy spectrum and significantly long half-life of 100.1 years and thus is widely used as the power source of betavoltaic battery. There are several methods for the formation of a Ni deposit onto a semiconductor such as electroplating, electroless plating, and chemical vapor deposition. In this study, small-scale radioisotope electroplating system was designed and fabricated to perform electroplating with a small amount of plating buffer and minimum exposure of radioactive materials. These procedures and the manufactured electroplating device can be applied to radioactive Ni-63 electroplating for the fabrication of a betavoltaic battery. In this study, an electroplating system for small-scale Ni electroplating was designed and manufactured. The process for the fabrication of a Ni-63 foil as the energy source of a betavoltaic battery was developed using the minimum concentration of Ni. These procedures and the manufactured electroplating device can be applied to radioactive Ni-63 electroplating for the fabrication of a betavoltaic battery

  17. Development of small-scale electroplating system for Ni-63 electroplating onto Ni foil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Joo; Choi, Sang Mu; Son, Kwang Jae; Hong, Jintae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Betavoltaic battery is a device that converts the decay energy of beta-emitting radioisotopes into electric energy. Ni-63 is pure betaemitter with a low energy spectrum and significantly long half-life of 100.1 years and thus is widely used as the power source of betavoltaic battery. There are several methods for the formation of a Ni deposit onto a semiconductor such as electroplating, electroless plating, and chemical vapor deposition. In this study, small-scale radioisotope electroplating system was designed and fabricated to perform electroplating with a small amount of plating buffer and minimum exposure of radioactive materials. These procedures and the manufactured electroplating device can be applied to radioactive Ni-63 electroplating for the fabrication of a betavoltaic battery. In this study, an electroplating system for small-scale Ni electroplating was designed and manufactured. The process for the fabrication of a Ni-63 foil as the energy source of a betavoltaic battery was developed using the minimum concentration of Ni. These procedures and the manufactured electroplating device can be applied to radioactive Ni-63 electroplating for the fabrication of a betavoltaic battery.

  18. Exchange bias in finite sized NiO nanoparticles with Ni clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gandhi, Ashish Chhaganlal; Lin, Jauyn Grace

    2017-01-01

    Structural and magnetic properties of finite sized NiO nanoparticles are investigated with synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy, magnetometer and ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) spectroscopy. A minor Ni phase is detected with synchrotron XRD, attributed to the oxygen defects in the NiO core. A considerable exchange bias of ~100 Oe is observed at 50 K and it drops abruptly and vanishes above 150 K, in association with the reduction of frozen spins. FMR data indicate a strong interaction between ferromagnetic (FM) and antiferromagnetic (AFM) phases below 150 K, consistent with the picture of isolated FM clusters in AFM matrix. - Highlights: • Structural and magnetic properties of finite sized NiO nanoparticles are systematically investigated with several advanced techniques. • A strong interaction between ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic phases is found below 150 K. • Exchange bias field in finite sized NiO nanoparticles is due to anisotropy energy of Ni clusters over riding the domain wall energy of NiO.

  19. Tipos especiales de niños

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Rodrigo Bellido

    1946-09-01

    Full Text Available En las tres últimas lecciones han sido expuestas algunas consideraciones referentes a niños y adolescentes desde el nacimiento hasta el dintel de la juventud. En todas ellas hemos procurado poner de relieve la necesidad de individualizar el conocimiento de cada niño para obtener mejores resultados en su adaptación a su futura vida de adultos, En todas ellas  nos hemos referido al llamado niño normal. Nos corresponde en la lección de hoy ocuparnos can la superficialidad característica de estas charlas tipo-muestrario, de otras categorías de niños muy dignos de interés.. quienes unas por exceso, otros por defecto, otros por dificultades de adaptación por diferentes causas, se desvían de la línea media de la normalidad. Consideramos que no está fuera del lugar, aquí, el tema de los niños excepcionales y por el contrario que es necesario intensificar el estudio de los trastornos de la vida mental y emocional de los niños en la preparación de los estudiantes de Medicina. Y no es nuestra solo esta opinión; no hace mucho tiempo en la Medical School de Ia Universidad de Minnessota hemos sabido que se ha hecho un intento de considerar y evaluar factores emocionales ambientales sobre las mismas bases que los descubrimientos fisiológicos.

  20. Ni Foam-Ni3 S2 @Ni(OH)2 -Graphene Sandwich Structure Electrode Materials: Facile Synthesis and High Supercapacitor Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaobing; Hu, Jiangjiang; Su, Yichang; Hao, Jin; Liu, Fanggang; Han, Shuang; An, Jian; Lian, Jianshe

    2017-03-23

    A novel Ni foam-Ni 3 S 2 @Ni(OH) 2 -graphene sandwich-structured electrode (NF-NN-G) with high areal mass loading (8.33 mg cm -2 ) has been developed by sulfidation and hydrolysis reactions. The conductivity of Ni 3 S 2 and Ni(OH) 2 were both improved. The upper layer of Ni(OH) 2 , covered with a thin graphene film, is formed in situ from the surface of the lower layer of Ni 3 S 2 , whereas the Ni 3 S 2 grown on Ni foam substrate mainly acts as a rough support bridging the Ni(OH) 2 and Ni foam. The graphene stabilized the Ni(OH) 2 and the electrochemical properties were effectively enhanced. The as-synthesized NF-NN-G-5mg electrode shows a high specific capacitance (2258 F g -1 at 1 A g -1 or 18.81 F cm -2 at 8.33 mA cm -2 ) and an outstanding rate property (1010 F g -1 at 20 Ag -1 or 8.413 F cm -2 at 166.6 mA cm -2 ). This result is around double the capacitance achieved in previous research on Ni 3 S 2 @Ni(OH) 2 /3DGN composites (3DGN=three-dimensional graphene network). In addition, the as-fabricated NF-NN-G-5mg composite electrode has an excellent cycle life with no capacitance loss after 3000 cycles, indicating a potential application as an efficient electrode. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Salud mental del niño

    OpenAIRE

    Ospina de González, Bernarda

    1987-01-01

    Es ya reconocida por todos las importancia de los primeros años de vida en la estructutración de la personalidad y, por consiguiente, en la salud mental del niño. En este artículo se hace una síntesis de los diferentes aspectos del desarrollo de la personalidad infanltil que seben ser conocidos por el personal de salud para estar en condiciones de brindar una atención integral a la madre y al niño. Con igual propósito se señalan algunos patrones de tipo psicosocial que influyen en la estabili...

  2. Magnetic anisotropy of Ni/Cr multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, S.; Xia, H.

    1997-01-01

    The magnetic anisotropy of Ni/Cr multilayers has been investigated by using vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and ferromagnetic resonance techniques (FMR). The FMR spectra are obtained as a function of the orientation of the applied magnetic field from in-plane to out-of-plane. The results are fitted theoretically to determine the magnetic anisotropy. From VSM and FMR, a positive value for Ni/Cr interface anisotropy is obtained, which favours a perpendicular easy axis. The possible mechanism for the perpendicular anisotropy has been discussed and it may be attributed to the magnetostriction, caused by intrinsic stress due to lattice mismatch. (orig.). With 005 figs., 001 tabs

  3. Ionizing Radiation Effects in Ni Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shlimas, D.; Kozlovsky, A.; Shumskaya, A.; Kaniukov, E.; Ibragimova, M.; Zdorovets, M.; Kadyrzhanov, K.

    2017-01-01

    Polycrystalline nickel nanotubes with diameter of 380 nm and wall thickness 95 nm were synthesized by electrochemical method using PET track-etched membranes with thickness of 12 μm. A comprehensive study of the structural, morphological and electrical characteristics of Ni nanotubes irradiated with C+13 ions with energy 1.75 MeV/nucleon and fluence ranging from 109 to 5 × 1011 cm-2 was carried out. The ability of modification of structural parameters such as lattice parameter and the average size of crystallites and conductivity of Ni nanotubes by irradiation was shown.

  4. Optimization of process parameters for synthesis of silica–Ni ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Optimization of process parameters for synthesis of silica–Ni nanocomposite by design of experiment ... Sol–gel; Ni; design of experiments; nanocomposites. ... Kolkata 700 032, India; Rustech Products Pvt. Ltd., Kolkata 700 045, India ...

  5. Ni hollow spheres as catalysts for methanol and ethanol electrooxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Changwei [Department of Chemistry and Institute of Nanochemistry, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Hu, Yonghong; Rong, Jianhua; Liu, Yingliang [Department of Chemistry and Institute of Nanochemistry, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Jiang, San Ping [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2007-08-15

    In this paper, we successfully synthesized Ni hollow spheres consisting of needle-like nickel particles by using silica spheres as template with gold nanoparticles seeding method. The Ni hollow spheres are applied to methanol and ethanol electrooxidation in alkaline media. The results show that the Ni hollow spheres give a very high activity for alcohol electrooxidation at a very low nickel loading of 0.10 mg cm{sup -2}. The current on Ni hollow spheres is much higher than that on Ni particles. The onset potential and peak potential on Ni hollow spheres are more negative than that on Ni particles for methanol and ethanol electrooxidation. The Ni hollow spheres may be of great potential in alcohol sensor and direct alcohol fuel cells. (author)

  6. Separation and preparation of "6"2Ni isotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Xiuyan; Mi Yajing; Zeng Ziqiang; Li Gongliang; Tu Rui

    2014-01-01

    Micro nuclear battery is the perfect power of space craft equipment. "6"3Ni is the core operation material of the "6"3Ni battery. It can produce radioisotope "6"3Ni while high abundance "6"2Ni is irradiated in the reactor. In order to meet the requirements of the abundance and the purity, research of the separation for "6"2Ni isotope was developed. The magnetic field and beam transmission status were simulated. The improvement designs of the ion source and the collector pocket were carried out. The process flow of high abundance "6"2Ni using electromagnetic separation method was established. The experiment of "6"2Ni isotope was developed by using electromagnetism isotope separator. The results show that the enrichment of "6"2Ni isotope is more than 90%. (authors)

  7. X-ray fluorescence analysis of Fe - Ni - Mo systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyaev, E.E.; Ershov, A.V.; Mashin, A.I.; Mashin, N.I.; Rudnevskij, N.K.

    1998-01-01

    Procedures for the X-ray fluorescence determination of the composition and thickness of Fe - Ni - Mo thin films and the concentration of elements in thick films of the Fe - Ni - Mo alloy are developed [ru

  8. Structure characterization of Ni/NiO and Ti/TiO2 interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamine, Brahim

    1983-01-01

    This research thesis reports the structure characterization of Ni-NiO and Ti-TiO 2 interfaces through an in-situ investigation of thin blade oxidation, of oxide germination and growth, and through a determination of mutual metal/oxide orientation relationships. Thin films of TiO 2 have also been characterized and the study of the influence of vacuum annealing on TiO 2 layer structure and morphology has been attempted. The examination of metal-oxide interface reveals a duplex structure of NiO and TiO 2 layers, and a preferential grain boundary oxidation of the underlying metal [fr

  9. Structure of Ni-rich Ni--Cr--B--Si coating alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knotek, O.; Lugscheider, E.; Reimann, H.

    1975-01-01

    The structures of quaternary, nickel-rich Ni--Cr--B--Si alloys were analyzed at a constant boron content of 10 at. percent and a temperature of 850 0 C. The composition range for silicide formation was determined. In these quaternary alloys, known binary nickel silicides, nickel and chromium borides, and the ternary silico-boride Ni 6 Si 2 B were confirmed. A new composition for the W 5 Si 3 -type phase in the Ni--B--Si system was proposed. (U.S.)

  10. The study of quasi-projectiles produced in Ni+Ni and Ni+Au collisions: excitation energy and spin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buta, A.

    2003-02-01

    During the collision between the projectile and the target nuclei in the intermediate energy regime (E < 100 MeV/nucleon) two excited nuclei are mainly observed in the exit channel, the quasi projectile (QP) and the quasi target. They disintegrate by particle emission. However, this binary picture is perturbed by the emission of particles and light fragments with velocities intermediate between the projectile velocity and the target one, all along the interaction (midrapidity component). This work aim to determine the excitation energy and the intrinsic angular momentum (or spin) of quasi-projectiles produced in the Ni+Ni and Ni+Au collisions at 52 and 90 MeV/nucleon. The excitation energy is deduced from the kinematical characteristics of particles emitted by the quasi-projectile. They have to be separated from midrapidity particles. Three different scenarios have been used for this purpose. The spin of the quasi-projectile has been extracted from the experimental data by mean of proton and alpha particles multiplicities emitted by the QP in the Ni+Au at 52 MeV/nucleon reaction. The results have been compared to the predictions of a theoretical model based on nucleon transfers. Their evolution is qualitatively reproduced as a function of the violence of the collision. (author)

  11. Low temperature gaseous nitriding of Ni based superalloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eliasen, K. M.; Christiansen, Thomas Lundin; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2010-01-01

    In the present work the nitriding response of selected Ni based superalloys at low temperatures is addressed. The alloys investigated are nimonic series nos. 80, 90, 95 and 100 and nichrome (Ni/Cr......In the present work the nitriding response of selected Ni based superalloys at low temperatures is addressed. The alloys investigated are nimonic series nos. 80, 90, 95 and 100 and nichrome (Ni/Cr...

  12. FY 2001 report on the integrated evaluation of the research cooperation project. Research cooperation program on the development of environmental measurement use laser radar/research cooperation project on the mining waste water treatment technology using biology; 2001 nendo kenkyu kyoryoku jigyo sogo hyoka hokokusho. Kankyo kesokuyo reza reda no kaihatsu ni kansuru kenkyu kyoryoku - Baio riyo ni yoru kohaisui shori gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu kyoryoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-03-01

    By research groups having been sent, the integrated evaluation was made of the projects on the research cooperation with Indonesia in the development of environmental measurement use laser radar and the research cooperation with China in the mining waste water treatment technology using biology. As to the research cooperation with Indonesia, the purpose/target proposed were almost achieved, and all were favorably carried out. Especially, after finishing the project, the design/manufacture of an on-vehicle type Mie-scattering laser radar were made using the acquired laser technology. And, it was reported that an observation study of the state of air pollution in Bandung city was made using the laser radar. It can be said that generally the research cooperation with China was smoothly proceeded with. However, the Wushan mine is small in scale of management, and therefore, there might have been some points to be reviewed in selection of the mine for research. The pilot plant installed at the Wushan mine is not now operated. If the mine has strong management force, the effective use of the pilot plant after finishing the project might have been studied. (NEDO)

  13. Giant magnetocaloric effect in isostructural MnNiGe-CoNiGe system by establishing a Curie-temperature window

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, E. K.; Zhang, H. G.; Xu, G. Z.; Zhang, X. M.; Ma, R. S.; Wang, W. H.; Chen, J. L.; Zhang, H. W.; Wu, G. H.; Feng, L.; Zhang, Xixiang

    2013-01-01

    An effective scheme of isostructural alloying was applied to establish a Curie-temperature window in isostructural MnNiGe-CoNiGe system. With the simultaneous accomplishment of decreasing structural-transition temperature and converting

  14. The large magnetoelectric effect in Ni-lead zirconium titanate-Ni trilayers derived by electroless deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bi, K; Wang, Y G; Wu, W; Pan, D A

    2010-01-01

    Magnetoelectric (ME) Ni-lead zirconium titanate-Ni trilayers with neither electrodes nor bonding layers have been derived by electroless deposition. The structure and magnetic properties of the electroless deposited Ni layers with different pH values are characterized by x-ray diffraction and vibrating sample magnetometer. The influence of the bias magnetic field and the magnetic field frequency (f) on ME coupling is discussed. It is seen that α E,31 depends strongly on H dc and f. The value of the ME coefficient increases as the thickness of the Ni layer and the pH of the bath increase. A maximum of the ME voltage coefficient α E,31 = 5.77 V cm -1 Oe -1 at resonance frequency with a deposited Ni layer thickness t Ni = 302 μm is obtained. The large ME coefficient makes these Ni-PZT-Ni trilayers suitable for applications in sensors, actuators and transducers. (fast track communication)

  15. Development of the dentistry alloy Ni-Cr-Nb; Desenvolvimento de ligas odontologicas Ni-Cr-Nb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, M.A.; Ramos, A.S.; Hashimoto, T.M., E-mail: mari_sou@hotmail.co [UNESP/FEG, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia. Dept. de Materiais e Tecnologia

    2010-07-01

    This work reports on the structural characterization of Ni-Cr-Mo and Ni-Cr-Nb alloys produced by arc melting. Samples were characterized by means of optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and EDS analysis. Results indicated that the arc melting process was efficient to produce homogeneous structures in Ni-Cr-Mo and Ni-Cr-Nb alloys. The nickel dissolved large amounts of Cr, Mo and Nb, which was detected by EDS analysis and X-ray diffraction. The alloy containing molybdenum indicated the presence of structure based on Ni{sub SS}, while that the alloys containing niobium presented primary grains of Ni{sub SS} and precipitates formed by the simultaneous transformation of the Ni and Ni{sub 3}Nb phases. (author)

  16. Microstructure and electrochemical characterization of laser melt-deposited Ti2Ni3Si/NiTi intermetallic alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Lixin; Wang Huaming

    2008-01-01

    Corrosion and wear resistant Ti 2 Ni 3 Si/NiTi intermetallic alloys with Ti 2 Ni 3 Si as the reinforcing phase and the ductile NiTi as the toughening phase were designed and fabricated by the laser melt-deposition manufacturing process. Electrochemical behavior of the alloys was investigated using potentiodynamic polarization testing and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in an NaOH solution. The results showed that the alloys have outstanding corrosion resistance due to the formation of a protective passive surface film of Ni(OH) 2 as well as the high chemical stability and strong inter-atomic bonds inherent to Ti 2 Ni 3 Si and NiTi intermetallics. The Ti 2 Ni 3 Si content has a significant influence on the microstructure of the alloys but only a slight effect on electrochemical corrosion properties

  17. Homotopic mapping solution of an oscillator for the El Niño/La Niña-southern oscillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xian-Chun, Zhou; Yi-Hua, Lin; Wan-Tao, Lin; Jia-Qi, Mo

    2009-01-01

    This paper considers a class of oscillator for the El Niño/La Niña-southern oscillation (ENSO) model. By using the homotopic mapping method, it obtains approximations of the solution for the ENSO model. (general)

  18. Electrochemical reduction of NiO in a composite electrode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Qiang; Jacobsen, Torben; Hansen, Karin Vels

    2013-01-01

    a lower overpotential. Microstructures of NiO with different reduction degrees are shown. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy is carried out during the reduction process. Electrochemical reduction of NiO may need an induction period. When NiO is reduced at a constant voltage the current initially...

  19. Morphological and compositional engineering of Ni/carbon ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ni/multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) composite films were deposited on the glassy carbon electrode (GCE) by a Ni plating bath containing homogeneously dispersed MWCNTs using polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as dispersion additive. Incorporation of MWCNTs into Ni matrix was greatly enhanced by the application ...

  20. CLASSICAL AREAS OF PHENOMENOLOGY: First-principles calculations for the elastic properties of Ni-base model superalloys: Ni/Ni3Al multilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yun-Jiang; Wang, Chong-Yu

    2009-10-01

    A model system consisting of Ni[001](100)/Ni3Al[001](100) multi-layers are studied using the density functional theory in order to explore the elastic properties of single crystal Ni-based superalloys. Simulation results are consistent with the experimental observation that rafted Ni-base superalloys virtually possess a cubic symmetry. The convergence of the elastic properties with respect to the thickness of the multilayers are tested by a series of multilayers from 2γ'+2γ to 10γ'+10γ atomic layers. The elastic properties are found to vary little with the increase of the multilayer's thickness. A Ni/Ni3Al multilayer with 10γ'+10γ atomic layers (3.54 nm) can be used to simulate the mechanical properties of Ni-base model superalloys. Our calculated elastic constants, bulk modulus, orientation-dependent shear modulus and Young's modulus, as well as the Zener anisotropy factor are all compatible with the measured results of Ni-base model superalloys R1 and the advanced commercial superalloys TMS-26, CMSX-4 at a low temperature. The mechanical properties as a function of the γ' phase volume fraction are calculated by varying the proportion of the γ and γ' phase in the multilayers. Besides, the mechanical properties of two-phase Ni/Ni3Al multilayer can be well predicted by the Voigt-Reuss-Hill rule of mixtures.

  1. Low-field spin dynamics of Cr7Ni and Cr7Ni-Cu -Cr 7Ni molecular rings as detected by μ SR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanna, S.; Arosio, P.; Bordonali, L.; Adelnia, F.; Mariani, M.; Garlatti, E.; Baines, C.; Amato, A.; Sabareesh, K. P. V.; Timco, G.; Winpenny, R. E. P.; Blundell, S. J.; Lascialfari, A.

    2017-11-01

    Muon spin rotation measurements were used to investigate the spin dynamics of heterometallic Cr7Ni and Cr7Ni -Cu-Cr7Ni molecular clusters. In Cr7Ni the magnetic ions are arranged in a quasiplanar ring and interact via an antiferromagnetic exchange coupling constant J , while Cr7Ni -Cu-Cr7Ni is composed of two Cr7Ni linked by a bridging moiety containing one Cu ion, that induces an inter-ring ferromagnetic interaction J'≪J . The longitudinal muon relaxation rate λ collected at low magnetic fields μ0H BPP)-like heuristic fitting model that takes into account of a distribution of electronic spin characteristic times for T >5 K, while the shoulder presented by Cr7Ni can be reproduced by a BPP function that incorporates a single electronic characteristic time theoretically predicted to dominate for T <5 K. The flattening of λ (T ) in Cr7Ni -Cu-Cr7Ni occurring at very low temperature can be tentatively attributed to field-dependent quantum effects and/or to an inelastic term in the spectral density of the electronic spin fluctuations.

  2. Microporous Ni@NiO nanoparticles prepared by chemically dealloying Al_3Ni_2@Al nanoparticles as a high microwave absorption material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pang, Yu; Xie, Xiubo; Li, Da; Chou, Wusheng; Liu, Tong

    2017-01-01

    The Al_3Ni_2@Al nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared from Ni_4_5Al_5_5 master alloy by hydrogen plasma-metal reaction method, and were subsequently dealloyed to produce porous Ni@NiO NPs of 36 nm. The pore size ranges from 0.7 to 1.6 nm, leading to large specific surface area of 69.5 m"2/g and big pore volume of 0.507 cc/g. The saturation magnetization (M_S) and coercivity (H_C) of the microporous Ni@NiO NPs are 11.5 emu/g and 5.2 Oe. They exhibit high microwave absorption performance with a minimum reflection coefficient (RC) of −86.9 dB and an absorption bandwidth of 2.6 GHz (RC≤−10 dB) at thickness of 4.5 mm. The enhanced microwave absorption properties are attributed to the synergistic effect of the magnetic Ni core and dielectric NiO shell, and the micropore architecture. The NPs with micropore morphology and core/shell structure open a new way to modify the microwave absorption performance. - Graphical abstract: The microporous Ni/NiO nanoparticles prepared by chemically dealloying Al_3Ni_2@Al NPs exhibit high microwave absorption intensity (−86.9 dB) and wide absorption bandwidth (2.6 GHz for RC≤−10 dB). - Highlights: • Microporous Ni/NiO nanoparticals were prepared by chemically dealloying method. • They possessed micropores of 0.7–1.6 nm with a surface area of 69.5 m"2/g. • They showed high microwave absorption intensity and wide absorption bandwidth. • Microwave absorption mechanism was explained by micropore and core/shell structures.

  3. Microporous Ni@NiO nanoparticles prepared by chemically dealloying Al{sub 3}Ni{sub 2}@Al nanoparticles as a high microwave absorption material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pang, Yu; Xie, Xiubo; Li, Da [Key Laboratory of Aerospace Materials and Performance (Ministry of Education), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, No.37 Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100191 (China); Chou, Wusheng [School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Liu, Tong, E-mail: tongliu@buaa.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Aerospace Materials and Performance (Ministry of Education), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, No.37 Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2017-03-15

    The Al{sub 3}Ni{sub 2}@Al nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared from Ni{sub 45}Al{sub 55} master alloy by hydrogen plasma-metal reaction method, and were subsequently dealloyed to produce porous Ni@NiO NPs of 36 nm. The pore size ranges from 0.7 to 1.6 nm, leading to large specific surface area of 69.5 m{sup 2}/g and big pore volume of 0.507 cc/g. The saturation magnetization (M{sub S}) and coercivity (H{sub C}) of the microporous Ni@NiO NPs are 11.5 emu/g and 5.2 Oe. They exhibit high microwave absorption performance with a minimum reflection coefficient (RC) of −86.9 dB and an absorption bandwidth of 2.6 GHz (RC≤−10 dB) at thickness of 4.5 mm. The enhanced microwave absorption properties are attributed to the synergistic effect of the magnetic Ni core and dielectric NiO shell, and the micropore architecture. The NPs with micropore morphology and core/shell structure open a new way to modify the microwave absorption performance. - Graphical abstract: The microporous Ni/NiO nanoparticles prepared by chemically dealloying Al{sub 3}Ni{sub 2}@Al NPs exhibit high microwave absorption intensity (−86.9 dB) and wide absorption bandwidth (2.6 GHz for RC≤−10 dB). - Highlights: • Microporous Ni/NiO nanoparticals were prepared by chemically dealloying method. • They possessed micropores of 0.7–1.6 nm with a surface area of 69.5 m{sup 2}/g. • They showed high microwave absorption intensity and wide absorption bandwidth. • Microwave absorption mechanism was explained by micropore and core/shell structures.

  4. Tracer diffusion of 60Co and 63Ni in amorphous NiZr alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshino, K.; Averback, R.S.; Hahn, H.; Rothman, S.J.

    1987-01-01

    Tracer diffusion of 60 Co and 63 Ni in equiatomic amorphous NiZr alloy in the temperature range between 486 and 641 0 K can be described by: D/sub Co/sup */ = 3.7 x 10 -7 exp[-(135 +- 14) kJ mole -1 /RT] m 2 /sec and D/sub Ni//sup */ = 1.7 x 10 -7 exp[-(140 +- 9) kJ mole -1 /RT] m 2 /sec. The values of D/sub Ni//sup */ are in reasonable agreement with those measured by the Rutherford backscattering technique. The measured diffusivities were independent of time, indicating that no relaxation took place during diffusion. 27 refs., 2 tabs

  5. Precipitation-induced of partial annealing of Ni-rich NiTi shape memory alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nashrudin, Muhammad Naqib; Mahmud, Abdus Samad; Mohamad, Hishamiakim

    2018-05-01

    NiTi shape memory alloy behavior is very sensitive to alloy composition and heat treatment processes. Thermomechanical behavior of near-equiatomic alloy is normally enhanced by partial anneal of a cold-worked specimen. The shape memory behavior of Ni-rich alloy can be enhanced by ageing precipitation. This work studied the effect of simultaneous partial annealing and ageing precipitation of a Ni-rich cold drawn Ti-50.9at%Ni wire towards martensite phase transformation behavior. Ageing treatment of a non-cold worked specimen was also done for comparison. It was found that the increase of heat treatment temperature caused the forward transformation stress to decrease for the cold worked and non-cold worked specimens. Strain recovery on the reverse transformation of the cold worked wire improved compared to the non-cold worked wire as the temperature increased.

  6. Corrosion behaviour of electrodeposited nanocrystalline Ni-W and Ni-Fe-W alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sriraman, K.R.; Ganesh Sundara Raman, S.; Seshadri, S.K.

    2007-01-01

    The present work deals with evaluation of corrosion behaviour of electrodeposited nanocrystalline Ni-W and Ni-Fe-W alloys. Corrosion behaviour of the coatings deposited on steel substrates was studied using polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques in 3.5% NaCl solution while their passivation behaviour was studied in 1N sulphuric acid solution. The corrosion resistance of Ni-W alloys increased with tungsten content up to 7.54 at.% and then decreased. In case of Ni-Fe-W alloys it increased with tungsten content up to 9.20 at.% and then decreased. The ternary alloy coatings exhibited poor corrosion resistance compared to binary alloy coatings due to preferential dissolution of iron from the matrix. Regardless of composition all the alloys exhibited passivation behaviour over a wide range of potentials due to the formation of tungsten rich film on the surface

  7. Evolution of collectivity in the 78Ni region: Coulomb excitation of 74Ni at intermediate energies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marchi T.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The study of the collective properties of nuclear excitations far from stability provides information about the shell structure at extreme conditions. Spectroscopic observables such as the energy or the transition probabilities of the lowest states, in nuclei with large neutron excess, allow to probe the density and isospin dependence of the effective interaction. Indeed, it was recently shown that tensor and three-body forces play an important role in breaking and creating magic numbers. Emblematic is the case of the evolution of the Ni isotopic chain where several features showed up moving from the most neutron rich stable isotope (64Ni towards the 78Ni nucleus where the large neutron excess coincides with a double shell closure. In this framework, we have recently performed an experiment with the goal to extract the B(E2; 0+ → 2+ value for the 74Ni nucleus in an intermediate-energy Coulomb excitation experiment: preliminary results are discussed.

  8. Rate of hydrogen motion in Ni-substituted LaNi5Hx from NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendenhall, Michael P.; Bowman, Robert C.; Ivancic, Timothy M.; Conradi, Mark S.

    2007-01-01

    Partial substitution of Sn, Ge, or Si for Ni in LaNi 5 H x greatly enhances the stability under repeated hydrogen-cycling. Proton NMR relaxation measurements are reported here to determine the rates of H hopping in the substituted metals LaNi 4.6 M 0.4 H x with M = Sn, Ge, and Si, for comparison to bare LaNi 5 H x . The relaxation times T 2 * (FID), T 2 (Hahn echo), T 2 -CPMG, T 1 , and T 1ρ were determined from 130 to 375 K. The three substituents result in only small increases in the average rate of motion at a given temperature but with a broader distribution of rates over the many inequivalent H sites and hopping paths. Evidently, the average energy barriers along the paths for H motion are only little affected by these substituents. Changes of H content x produce only minor changes in the relaxation times

  9. Moessbauer effect measurements on the intermetallic compounds Ni3Al and Ni3Ge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drijver, J.W.; Woude, F. van der

    1975-01-01

    Moessbauer parameters obtained from room temperature emission and absorption spectra of Ni 3 Al and Ni 3 Ga processed by a computer assuming a singlet and a doublet are given. The doublet is due to iron or cobalt atoms at the nickel site. Quadrupole splitting at 57 Fe nuclei in Ni 3 Ga is larger than in Ni 3 Al, viz. 0.52 and 0.37 mm/sec, respectively. Isomer shift at the Al/Ga position is very close to -0.02 mm/sec found in metallic nickel. Also given are the hyperfine magnetic fields at 4.2 K. Considering the preference of 57 Co and 57 Fe atoms in the lattice, the field intensities at the nickel and aluminium sites are found to be 227 +- 1 and 238 +- 1 kOe, respectively. (Z.S.)

  10. Low energy structure of even-even Ni isotopes close to 78Ni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rykaczewski, Krzysztof Piotr; Mazzocchi, C.; Grzywacz, Robert Kazimierz; Batchelder, J.C.; Bingham, Carrol R.; Fong, D.; Hamilton, J.H.; Hwang, J.K.; Karny, M.; Krolas, W.; Liddick, S.N.; Lisetskiy, A. F.; Morton, N.H.; Mantica, P.F.; Mueller, W.F.; Steiner, M.; Stolz, A.; Winger, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    The structure of magic neutron-rich nickel isotopes produced in the fragmentation of a 140 A MeV 86 Kr beam was investigated. For the first time four gamma transitions were assigned to the decay of the I π =8 + , T 1/2 = 590 +180 -110 isomer, thus establishing the 0 + -2 + -4 + -6 + -8 + ground-state band in 76 Ni. The previously unknown 2 + and 4 + levels belonging to the ground-state band in 74 Ni were identified in the β decay of 74 Co (T 1/2 =30(3) ms). The decay properties of 72 Co → 72 Ni were verified and confirmed on the basis of γ-γ coincidence data. The relevance of the measured level properties for the magicity of 78 Ni is analyzed with the help of advanced shell-model predictions

  11. The process of Ni-63 production and measurement of beta radiation of irradiated Ni-63

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Joo; Uhma, Young Rang; Kim, Jong Bum; Choi, Sang Mu; Son, Kwang Jae; Hong, Jin Tae; Park, Jong Han

    2016-01-01

    It has the following characteristics: long service lifetime, high energy density, easy small-scale fabrication, and minimum maintenance. For this reasons, betavoltaic batteries are widely used in many low-power applications such as medical applications and power sources for micro electro-mechanical system (MEMS) because they can operate effectively at extreme environments. Proper selection of radioisotope is a critical factor in the design of a betavoltaic battery. The important factors affecting the performance of a betavoltaic battery are specific activity, half-life, and toxicity. In this study, a target for irradiation was produced using 99% Ni-62 metal power concentrate. Ni-62 target of 1 g was irradiated in MARIA reactor operated in Poland for 470 hours, and estimated production of Ni- 63 was calculated. Irradiated Ni-63 pellets were dissolved in HCl solution, and its beta radiation was measured by Liquid Scintillation Counter (LSC).

  12. Synthetic Ni3S2/Ni hybrid architectures as potential contrast agents in MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, J; Chen, K

    2016-01-01

    Traditional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents mainly include superparamagnetic (SPM) iron oxide nanoparticle as T 2 contrast agent for liver and paramagnetic Gd (III)-chelate as T 1 contrast agent for all organs. In this work, weak ferromagnetic kale-like and SPM cabbage-like Ni 3 S 2 @Ni hybrid architectures were synthesized and evaluated as potential T 1 MRI contrast agents. Their relatively small r 2 /r 1 ratios of 2.59 and 2.38, and high r 1 values of 11.27 and 4.89 mmol −1 L s −1 (for the kale-like and cabbage-like Ni 3 S 2 @Ni, respectively) will shed some light on the development of new-type MRI contrast agents. (paper)

  13. Hierarchical NiCo2 O4 nanosheets grown on Ni nanofoam as high-performance electrodes for supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Guoxin; Wu, Hao Bin; Ding, Shujiang; Liu, Li-Min; Lou, Xiong Wen David

    2015-02-18

    A high-performance electrode for supercapacitors is designed and synthesized by growing electroactive NiCo2 O4 nanosheets on conductive Ni nanofoam. Because of the structural advantages, the as-prepared Ni@NiCo2 O4 hybrid nanostructure exhibits significantly improved electrochemical performance with high capacitance, excellent rate capability, and good cycling stability. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Ni(II) complexes of dithiophosphonic acids

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    aDepartment of Chemistry, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad ... The compounds were characterized by 1H, 13C and 31P NMR, IR spectroscopy and elemental analysis. The ... design and synthesize Ni(II) complexes with new ..... Yield: 86%. ..... 28 65. 18. Greenwood D 1989 Antimicrobial chemotherapy (New.

  15. Ni MINERALIZATION AND PGE CHARACTERIZATION IN THE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    fractionation, (2) the IPGEs are often associated with chromites as alloys or sulfides in ... Key words: Tanzania, Kabanga, Luhuma, PGE, Ni-Cu sulfides .... massive sulfide based on size of ore zone ... to ≤ 0.1 wt% and Fe2O3T = 80- ≈ 87 wt%.

  16. Modelling of rechargeable NiMH batteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ledovskikh, A.; Verbitskiy, E.; Ayeb, A.; Notten, P.H.L.

    2003-01-01

    A new mathematical model has been developed for rechargeable NiMH batteries, which is based on the occurring physical–chemical processes inside. This model enables one to simultaneously simulate the battery voltage, internal gas pressures (both PO2 and PH2) and temperature during battery operation.

  17. Characterisation of a Zn / Ni Plating Bath

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-03

    accelerated corrosion in the first stages which is then slowed down by its own product of corrosion, Zn(OH)212. Zinc hydroxide dehydrates in time to form ZnO ... Electrochemistry , 1991, 21, 642 [5] – Alfantasi, A.M., A study on the synthesis, characterization ans properties of pulse-plated ultrafine- grained Zn-Ni alloy

  18. Evidence for an isomer in 76Ni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawicka, M.; Pfuetzner, M.; Grzywacz, R.; Daugas, J.M.; Belier, G.; Sauvestre, J.E.; Matea, I.; Lewitowicz, M.; Georgiev, G.; Grawe, H.; Mayet, P.; Becker, F.; Bingham, C.; Borcea, R.; Hammache, F.; Ibrahim, F.; Bouchez, E.; Buta, A.; Dragulescu, E.; Giovinazzo, J.; Meot, V.; Negoita, F.; De Oliveira Santos, F.; Perru, O.; Roig, O.; Rykaczewski, K.P.; Saint-Laurent, M.G.; Sorlin, O.; Stanoiu, M.; Stefan, I.; Stodel, C.; Theisen, C.; Verney, D.

    2004-01-01

    In the experiment performed at the LISE2000 spectrometer at GANIL neutron-rich nickel isotopes were studied by microsecond isomer spectroscopy. Evidence for an isomer in 76 Ni is found, consistently with the shell model prediction of an 8 + state of ν(g 9/2 ) 2 structure. (orig.)

  19. Electroplating condition for Ni nanocrystalline on metal (Ni and Cu) plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Keun Yung; Uhm, Young Rang; Son, Kwang Jae; Shim, Young Ho; Choi, Sun Ju [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    Ni 63, a beta radiation source, is prepared by the electrical deposition of radioactive Ni 63 ions on a thin non radioactive nickel foil or Cu plate. Given a half life of 100 years, a nuclear battery will still produce half of its initial starting power after 100 years. A speck of a radioisotope like nickel 63, for example, contains enough energy to power a nano nuclear battery for decades, and to do so safely. Ni 63 plating is similar to other electroplating processes that employ soluble metal anodes. It requires the passage of a direct current between two electrodes that are immersed in a conductive, aqueous solution of nickel salts. The charged Ni ions are formed by sulfate, sulfamate, chloride, and a Watts bath. However, the charged Ni 63 ions are formed by dissolving metal Ni 63. To established the coating condition of Ni 63, non radioactive metal Ni particles are dissolved an acid solution and electroplated on a Ni sheet. The nickel plating process is used extensively for decorative, engineering and electro forming purposes because the appearance and other properties of electrodeposited nickel can be varied over a wide range by controlling the composition and operating parameters of the plating solution. A continuous increase in the grain size versus current density has also been recognized in the direct current electrodeposition of nickel coating. On the other hand, A runa et al. reported that the current density has no significant effect on the grain size of nickel electro deposits. A review of the literature shows that saccharin has often been added to a nickel plating bath since the 1980s to improve the ductility and brightness, and in later periods as a grain refiner agent. In the present paper, not only the preparation of a Ni plating solution prepared by dissolving metal particles, but also an optimization of the deposition conditions, such as the current density, saccharin concentration in the bath, and different metal substrates were investigated

  20. Electroplating condition for Ni nanocrystalline on metal (Ni and Cu) plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Keun Yung; Uhm, Young Rang; Son, Kwang Jae; Shim, Young Ho; Choi, Sun Ju

    2012-01-01

    Ni 63, a beta radiation source, is prepared by the electrical deposition of radioactive Ni 63 ions on a thin non radioactive nickel foil or Cu plate. Given a half life of 100 years, a nuclear battery will still produce half of its initial starting power after 100 years. A speck of a radioisotope like nickel 63, for example, contains enough energy to power a nano nuclear battery for decades, and to do so safely. Ni 63 plating is similar to other electroplating processes that employ soluble metal anodes. It requires the passage of a direct current between two electrodes that are immersed in a conductive, aqueous solution of nickel salts. The charged Ni ions are formed by sulfate, sulfamate, chloride, and a Watts bath. However, the charged Ni 63 ions are formed by dissolving metal Ni 63. To established the coating condition of Ni 63, non radioactive metal Ni particles are dissolved an acid solution and electroplated on a Ni sheet. The nickel plating process is used extensively for decorative, engineering and electro forming purposes because the appearance and other properties of electrodeposited nickel can be varied over a wide range by controlling the composition and operating parameters of the plating solution. A continuous increase in the grain size versus current density has also been recognized in the direct current electrodeposition of nickel coating. On the other hand, A runa et al. reported that the current density has no significant effect on the grain size of nickel electro deposits. A review of the literature shows that saccharin has often been added to a nickel plating bath since the 1980s to improve the ductility and brightness, and in later periods as a grain refiner agent. In the present paper, not only the preparation of a Ni plating solution prepared by dissolving metal particles, but also an optimization of the deposition conditions, such as the current density, saccharin concentration in the bath, and different metal substrates were investigated

  1. Synthesis of microporous Ni/NiO nanoparticles with enhanced microwave absorption properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Tong; Pang, Yu; Xie, Xiubo; Qi, Wen; Wu, Ying; Kobayashi, Satoru; Zheng, Jie; Li, Xingguo

    2016-01-01

    The fabrication of microporous metal materials with many potential applications is challenging due to their high chemical activities and the difficulty in controlling the pore size. By adjusting the reaction condition and the composition of the Ni–Al nanoparticle precursor, we have successfully produced the microporous Ni nanoparticles (NPs) of 22 nm by chemical dealloying method. During the passivation process, the microporous Ni NPs covered with NiO shell are generated as the result of surface oxidation. The micropores range from 0.6 to 1.2 nm in diameter with a large surface area of 68.9 m"2/g. Due to the elimination of Al atoms during dealloying process, the crystalline size of the microporous Ni NPs is sharply decreased to 2–5 nm. The specific architecture offers the microporous Ni/NiO NPs a small microwave reflection coefficient (RC) and a wide absorption bandwidth (RC ≤ −10 dB) of −49.1 dB and 5.8 GHz, much better than the nonporous counterpart of −24.1 dB and 3.7 GHz. The enhanced microwave absorption performance has been interpreted in terms of the micropore structure, core/shell structure and nanostructure effects. - Highlights: • Microporous Ni/NiO nanoparticles are prepared by chemical dealloying method. • They possess micropores of 0.6–1.2 nm with a surface area of 68.9 m"2/g. • They show minimum microwave reflection coefficient of −49.1 dB and bandwidth of 5.8 GHz. • Microwave absorption mechanism is explained by micropore and core/shell structures.

  2. Synthesis of microporous Ni/NiO nanoparticles with enhanced microwave absorption properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Tong, E-mail: tongliu@buaa.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Aerospace Materials and Performance (Ministry of Education), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, No.37 Xueyuan Road, Beijing, 100191 (China); Pang, Yu; Xie, Xiubo [Key Laboratory of Aerospace Materials and Performance (Ministry of Education), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, No.37 Xueyuan Road, Beijing, 100191 (China); Qi, Wen; Wu, Ying [China Iron & Steel Research Institute Group, Advanced Technology & Materials Co., Ltd, No.76 Xueyuannanlu, Haidian District, Beijing, 100081 (China); Kobayashi, Satoru [Faculty of Engineering, Iwate University, Ueda, Morioka, 020-8551 (Japan); Zheng, Jie; Li, Xingguo [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences (BNLMS), The State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Materials Chemistry and Applications, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing, 100871 (China)

    2016-05-15

    The fabrication of microporous metal materials with many potential applications is challenging due to their high chemical activities and the difficulty in controlling the pore size. By adjusting the reaction condition and the composition of the Ni–Al nanoparticle precursor, we have successfully produced the microporous Ni nanoparticles (NPs) of 22 nm by chemical dealloying method. During the passivation process, the microporous Ni NPs covered with NiO shell are generated as the result of surface oxidation. The micropores range from 0.6 to 1.2 nm in diameter with a large surface area of 68.9 m{sup 2}/g. Due to the elimination of Al atoms during dealloying process, the crystalline size of the microporous Ni NPs is sharply decreased to 2–5 nm. The specific architecture offers the microporous Ni/NiO NPs a small microwave reflection coefficient (RC) and a wide absorption bandwidth (RC ≤ −10 dB) of −49.1 dB and 5.8 GHz, much better than the nonporous counterpart of −24.1 dB and 3.7 GHz. The enhanced microwave absorption performance has been interpreted in terms of the micropore structure, core/shell structure and nanostructure effects. - Highlights: • Microporous Ni/NiO nanoparticles are prepared by chemical dealloying method. • They possess micropores of 0.6–1.2 nm with a surface area of 68.9 m{sup 2}/g. • They show minimum microwave reflection coefficient of −49.1 dB and bandwidth of 5.8 GHz. • Microwave absorption mechanism is explained by micropore and core/shell structures.

  3. Geometric structures of thin film: Pt on Pd(110) and NiO on Ni(100)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, Oden L. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1993-07-01

    This thesis is divided into 3 papers: dynamical low-energy electron- diffraction investigation of lateral displacements in topmost layer of Pd(110); determination of (1x1) and (1x2) structures of Pt thin films on Pd(110) by dynamical low-energy electron-diffraction analysis; and structural determination of a NiO(111) film on Ni(100) by dynamical low-energy electron-diffraction analysis.

  4. Fabrication and tensile properties of rapidly solidified Cu-10wt. %Ni alloy. [Cu-10Ni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baril, D; Angers, R; Baril, J [Dept. of Mining and Metallurgy, Laval Univ., Ste-Foy, Quebec (Canada)

    1992-10-15

    Cu-10wt.%Ni ribbons were produced by melt spinning and cut into small particles with a blade cutter mill. The powders were then hot consolidated to full density by hot pressing followed by hot extrusion. Tensile properties of the resulting pieces were measured. Cu-10wt.%Ni cast ingots were also hot extruded and mechanically tested to compare with the rapidly solidified alloy and to evaluate the possible benefits brought by the rapid solidification process.

  5. 59Ni and 63Ni separation from boric acid concentrates produced at NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisera, O.

    2010-01-01

    Procedure for direct separation of radionickel from boric acid concentrate was developed. Quantitative separation from 100 mL of real concentrate on the column filled with 3 mL of PAN-DMG composite material was achieved. PAN-DMG material (dimethylglyoxime in porous beads of polyacrylonitrile) was compared with Ni Resin and DMG-PAN material exhibited higher sorption capacity for nickel than Ni Resin. (author)

  6. Valence electronic structure of Ni in Ni Si alloys from relative K X-ray intensity studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalayci, Y.; Aydinuraz, A.; Tugluoglu, B.; Mutlu, R. H.

    2007-02-01

    The Kβ-to-Kα X-ray intensity ratio of Ni in Ni 3Si, Ni 2Si and NiSi has been determined by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence technique. It is found that the intensity ratio of Ni decreases from pure Ni to Ni 2Si and then increases from Ni 2Si to NiSi, in good agreement with the electronic structure calculations cited in the literature. We have also performed band structure calculations for pure Ni in various atomic configurations by means of linear muffin-tin orbital method and used this data with the normalized theoretical intensity ratios cited in the literature to estimate the 3d-occupation numbers of Ni in Ni-Si alloys. It is emphasized that investigation of alloying effect in terms of X-ray intensity ratios should be carried out for the stoichiometric alloys in order to make reliable and quantitative comparisons between theory and experiment in transition metal alloys.

  7. La Niña, El Niño, and Atlantic Hurricane Damages in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    data discussed below), this definition results in 22 El Niño years, 29 neutral years, and 22 La Niña accounting for the most significant societal changes. To normalize past impacts data to 1997 values, losses , 169 and 186. Trenberth, K. E., 1997: The definition of El Niño. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 78, 2771

  8. Observations of defect structure evolution in proton and Ni ion irradiated Ni-Cr binary alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briggs, Samuel A., E-mail: sabriggs2@wisc.edu [University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1415 Engineering Drive, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Barr, Christopher M. [Drexel University, 3141 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Pakarinen, Janne [University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1415 Engineering Drive, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); SKC-CEN Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Mamivand, Mahmood [University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1415 Engineering Drive, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Hattar, Khalid [Sandia National Laboratories, PO Box 5800, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States); Morgan, Dane D. [University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1415 Engineering Drive, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Taheri, Mitra [Drexel University, 3141 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Sridharan, Kumar [University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1415 Engineering Drive, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2016-10-15

    Two binary Ni-Cr model alloys with 5 wt% Cr and 18 wt% Cr were irradiated using 2 MeV protons at 400 and 500 °C and 20 MeV Ni{sup 4+} ions at 500 °C to investigate microstructural evolution as a function of composition, irradiation temperature, and irradiating ion species. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was applied to study irradiation-induced void and faulted Frank loops microstructures. Irradiations at 500 °C were shown to generate decreased densities of larger defects, likely due to increased barriers to defect nucleation as compared to 400 °C irradiations. Heavy ion irradiation resulted in a larger density of smaller voids when compared to proton irradiations, indicating in-cascade clustering of point defects. Cluster dynamics simulations were in good agreement with the experimental findings, suggesting that increases in Cr content lead to an increase in interstitial binding energy, leading to higher densities of smaller dislocation loops in the Ni-18Cr alloy as compared to the Ni-5Cr alloy. - Highlights: • Binary Ni-Cr alloys were irradiated with protons or Ni ions at 400 and 500 °C. • Higher irradiation temperatures yield increased size, decreased density of defects. • Hypothesize that varying Cr content affects interstitial binding energy. • Fitting CD models for loop nucleation to data supports this hypothesis.

  9. Study of the magnetic anisotropy in Ni/Cu and Ni/glass thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherif, S.-M. [Laboratoire PMTM, Institut Galilee, Univeriste Paris 13, Villetaneuse, 93340 (France); Layadi, A. [Departement de Physique, Universite Ferhat Abbas, Setif 19000 (Algeria)]. E-mail: a_layadi@yahoo.fr; Ben Youssef, J. [Laboratoire de Magnetisme de Bretagne, U.B.O., Brest 29238 (France); Nacereddine, C. [Departement de Physique, Universite Ferhat Abbas, Setif 19000 (Algeria); Roussigne, Y. [Laboratoire PMTM, Institut Galilee, Univeriste Paris 13, Villetaneuse, 93340 (France)

    2007-01-01

    The magnetic properties of evaporated Ni/Cu and Ni/glass thin films have been investigated by means of the vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), the Brillouin light scattering (BLS) and magnetic force microscopy (MFM). The Ni thickness, t, ranges from 31 to 165 nm. The second- and fourth-order magnetic anisotropy constants, K {sub 1} and K {sub 2}, have been included; for the Ni/Cu series, K {sub 1} was found to decrease from 1.0x10{sup 6} to 0.18x10{sup 6} erg/cm{sup 3} as t increases from 31 to 165 nm, while K {sub 2} increased from 0.24x10{sup 6} to 0.8x10{sup 6} erg/cm{sup 3}. Over all the thickness range, the magnetization easy axis is in plane. For thinner films, there is a good agreement between anisotropy constant values inferred from VSM and BLS. Stripe domains were observed for t{>=}165 nm in Ni/glass and t{>=}90 nm in Ni/Cu.

  10. Study of the magnetic anisotropy in Ni/Cu and Ni/glass thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherif, S.-M.; Layadi, A.; Ben Youssef, J.; Nacereddine, C.; Roussigne, Y.

    2007-01-01

    The magnetic properties of evaporated Ni/Cu and Ni/glass thin films have been investigated by means of the vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), the Brillouin light scattering (BLS) and magnetic force microscopy (MFM). The Ni thickness, t, ranges from 31 to 165 nm. The second- and fourth-order magnetic anisotropy constants, K 1 and K 2 , have been included; for the Ni/Cu series, K 1 was found to decrease from 1.0x10 6 to 0.18x10 6 erg/cm 3 as t increases from 31 to 165 nm, while K 2 increased from 0.24x10 6 to 0.8x10 6 erg/cm 3 . Over all the thickness range, the magnetization easy axis is in plane. For thinner films, there is a good agreement between anisotropy constant values inferred from VSM and BLS. Stripe domains were observed for t≥165 nm in Ni/glass and t≥90 nm in Ni/Cu

  11. Effect of Ni4Ti3 precipitation on martensitic transformation in Ti-Ni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, N.; Shen, C.; Wagner, M.F.-X.; Eggeler, G.; Mills, M.J.; Wang, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Precipitation of Ni 4 Ti 3 plays a critical role in determining the martensitic transformation path and temperature in Ni-Ti shape memory alloys. In this study, the equilibrium shape of a coherent Ni 4 Ti 3 precipitate and the concentration and stress fields around it are determined quantitatively using the phase field method. Most recent experimental data on lattice parameters, elastic constants, precipitate-matrix orientation relationship and thermodynamic database are used as model inputs. The effects of the concentration and stress fields on subsequent martensitic transformations are analyzed through interaction energy between a nucleating martensitic particle and the existing microstructure. Results indicate that R-phase formation prior to B19' phase could be attributed to both direct elastic interaction and stress-induced spatial variation in concentration near Ni 4 Ti 3 precipitates. The preferred nucleation sites for the R-phase are close to the broad side of the lenticular-shaped Ni 4 Ti 3 precipitates, where tension normal to the habit plane is highest, and Ni concentration is lowest.

  12. Fabrication of metallic alloy powder (Ni{sub 3}Fe) from Fe–77Ni scrap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Inseok [ES Materials Research Center, Research Institute of Industrial Science and Technology, Incheon 406-840 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Shun-Myung [Extractive Metallurgy Department, Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, Deajeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Sang-An [Department of Environmental Engineering, Silla University, Busan 46958 (Korea, Republic of); Wang, Jei-Pil, E-mail: jpwang@pknu.ac.kr [Department of Metallurgical Engineering, Pukyong National University, Busan 608-739 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    The oxidation behavior of Fe–77Ni alloy scrap was investigated at an oxygen partial pressure of 0.2 atm and temperatures ranging from 400 °C to 900 °C. The corresponding oxidation rate increased with increasing temperature and obeyed the parabolic rate law, as evidenced by its linear proportionality to the temperature. In addition, surface morphologies, cross-sectional views, compositions, structural properties were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Diffusion through either the spinel structure or the NiO layer, which were both present in the alloy during oxidation at elevated temperatures, was deemed the rate-limiting step of the reaction. The oxide powder less than 10 μm was obtained from Fe–77Ni alloy scrap was obtained using ball-milling and sieving processes. In fact, 15 h of milling yielded a recovery ratio of 97%. Using hydrogen gas, the oxide powder was successfully reduced to an alloy powder of Ni{sub 3}Fe and reduction rates of ∼97% were achieved after 3 h at 1000 °C. - Highlights: • The oxidation behavior of Fe–77Ni alloy scrap was investigated. • The oxide powder less than 10 μm was obtained from Fe–77Ni alloy scrap. • Using hydrogen gas, the oxide powder was successfully reclaimed. • Reduction rates of ∼97% were achieved after 3 h at 1000 °C.

  13. Positron annihilation studies in CeNiIn and LaNiIn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, R.; Giri, S.; Sen, M.; Nambissan, P.M.G.; Ghoshray, K.; Ghoshray, A.; Sen, P.

    1997-01-01

    Doppler broadened positron annihilation spectral lineshape (DBPAS) and positron lifetime measurements in the temperature range 18-280 K have been performed in CeNiIn and LaNiIn systems. The nature of the temperature variations of the lifetime in both systems is almost similar in the whole temperature range studied, whereas the nature of the temperature variation of the S parameter in CeNiIn is similar to that in LaNiIn except in the temperature region 18-40 K. For the former system there is a dip around 20 K in the S parameter versus temperature curve. The lifetime versus T curve in both systems could be explained by the thermal expansion of the lattice. The S parameter versus T curve in LaNiIn could also be attributed to the thermal expansion of the lattice, whereas in CeNiIn the above mentioned dip seems an extra feature of the thermal expansion of the lattice. To understand this low temperature behaviour other results on the same system have been discussed. (orig.)

  14. Interfacial reaction of Ni{sub 3}Sn{sub 4} intermetallic compound in Ni/SnAg solder/Ni system under thermomigration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yi-Shan; Yang, Chia-Jung; Ouyang, Fan-Yi, E-mail: fyouyang@ess.nthu.edu.tw

    2016-07-25

    The growth of Ni{sub 3}Sn{sub 4} intermetallic compound (IMC) between liquid–solid interface in micro-scale Ni/SnAg/Ni system was investigated under a temperature gradient of 160 °C/cm at 260 °C on a hot plate. In contrast to a symmetrical growth of Ni{sub 3}Sn{sub 4} on both interfaces under isothermally annealed at 260 °C, the interfacial Ni{sub 3}Sn{sub 4} IMC exhibited asymmetric growth under a temperature gradient; the growth of Ni{sub 3}Sn{sub 4} at cold interface was faster than that at hot side because of temperature gradient induced mass migration of Ni atoms from the hot end toward the cold end. It was found that two-stage growth behavior of Ni{sub 3}Sn{sub 4} IMC under a temperature gradient. A growth model was established and growth kinetic analysis suggested that the chemical potential gradient controlled the growth of Ni{sub 3}Sn{sub 4} at stage I (0–120 min) whereas the dynamic equilibrium between chemical potential gradient and temperature gradient forces was attained at the hot end at stage II (120–210 min). When dynamic equilibrium was achieved at 260 °C, the critical length-temperature gradient product at the hot end was experimentally estimated to be 489.18 μm × °C/cm and the moving velocity of Ni{sub 3}Sn{sub 4} interface due to Ni consumption was calculated to be 0.134 μm/h. The molar heat of transport (Q*) of Ni atoms in molten SnAg solder was calculated to be +0.76 kJ/mol. - Highlights: • Interfacial reaction in Ni/SnAg solder/Ni system under thermal gradient. • Growth rate of Ni{sub 3}Sn{sub 4} at cold end is faster than that at hot end. • Critical length-temperature gradient product at hot end is 489.2 μm°C/cm at 260 °C. • Velocity of Ni{sub 3}Sn{sub 4} moving interface is 0.134 μm/h during dynamic equilibrium. • Molar heat of transport (Q*) of Ni in molten SnAg was +0.76 kJ/mol.

  15. Evaluation of the Antitumor Activity by Ni Nanoparticles with Verbascoside

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingyue Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Verbascoside (VB has attracted a great deal of attention due to ITS pharmacological properties. In our study, we synthesized a multifunctional verbascoside coated Ni nanoparticles (VB-Ni. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC display the characteristics of VB-Ni nanoparticles. Compared with VB, VB-Ni has been proven to induce apoptosis and resist the growth of doxorubicin-resistant K562 cells in vitro and in vivo. Thus, VB-Ni nanoparticles can be thought of as an ideal mode of cancer treatment.

  16. A Study on Production of Carbon Nanotubes by CH4 Decomposition over LaNiO3, La4Ni3O10, La3Ni2O7 and La2NiO4

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) of narrow size distribution can be abundantly produced in the catalytic decomposition of CH4 over pre-reduced LaNiO3, La4Ni3O10, La3Ni2O7 and La2NiO4.The CNTs obtained were characterized by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM).Thermal oxidation of CNTs in air was monitored thermogravimetrically (TG). The resultsrevealed that a lower La/Ni ratio of the catalysts would lead to a wider diameter distribution and a higher degree of graphitic nature.

  17. Thin NiTi Films Deposited on Graphene Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, S.; Schulze, A.; Böhme, M.; Hahn, T.; Wagner, M. F.-X.

    2017-03-01

    We present experimental results on the deposition of Nickel Titanium (NiTi) films on graphene substrates using a PVD magnetron sputter process. Characterization of the 2-4 micron thick NiTi films by electron microscopy, electron backscatter diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy shows that grain size and orientation of the thin NiTi films strongly depend on the type of combination of graphene and copper layers below. Our experimental findings are supported by density functional theory calculations: a theoretical estimation of the binding energies of different NiTi-graphene interfaces is in line with the experimentally determined microstructural features of the functional NiTi top layer.

  18. Properties of mechanically alloyed Mg-Ni-Ti ternary hydrogen storage alloys for Ni-MH batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggeri, Stéphane; Roué, Lionel; Huot, Jacques; Schulz, Robert; Aymard, Luc; Tarascon, Jean-Marie

    MgNiTi x, Mg 1- xTi xNi and MgNi 1- xTi x (with x varying from 0 to 0.5) alloys have been prepared by high energy ball milling and tested as hydrogen storage electrodes. The initial discharge capacities of the Mg-Ni-Ti ternary alloys are inferior to the MgNi electrode capacity. However, an exception is observed with MgNi 0.95Ti 0.05, which has an initial discharge capacity of 575 mAh/g compared to 522 mAh/g for the MgNi electrode. The Mg-Ni-Ti ternary alloys show improved cycle life compared to Mg-Ni binary alloys with the same Mg/Ni atomic ratio. The best cycle life is observed with Mg 0.5Ti 0.5Ni electrode which retains 75% of initial capacity after 10 cycles in comparison to 39% for MgNi electrodes, in addition to improved high-rate dischargeability (HRD). According to the XPS analysis, the cycle life improvement of the Mg 0.5Ti 0.5Ni electrode can be related to the formation of TiO 2 which limits Mg(OH) 2 formation. The anodic polarization curve of Mg 0.5Ti 0.5Ni electrode shows that the current related to the active/passive transition is much less important and that the passive region is more extended than for the MgNi electrode but the corrosion of the electrode is still significant. This suggests that the cycle life improvement would be also associated with a decrease of the particle pulverization upon cycling.

  19. Densities of molten Ni-(Cr, Co, W) superalloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Feng; YANG Ren-hui; FANG Liang; LIU Lan-xiao; ZHAO Hong-kai

    2008-01-01

    In order to obtain more accurate density for molten Ni-(Cr, Co, W) binary alloy, the densities of molten pure Ni and Ni-Cr, Ni-Co, Ni-W alloys were measured with a sessile drop method. It is found that the measured densities of molten pure Ni and Ni-Cr, Ni-Co, Ni-W alloys decrease with increasing temperature in the experimental temperature range. The density of alloys increases with increasing W and Co concentrations while it decreases with increasing Cr concentration in the alloy at 1 773-1 873 K. The molar volume of Ni-based alloys increases with increasing W concentration while it decreases with increasing Co concentration. The effect of Cr concentration on the molar volume of the alloy is little in the studied concentration range. The accommodation among atomic species was analyzed. The deviation of molar volume from ideal mixing shows an ideal mixing of Ni-(Cr, Co, W) binary alloys.

  20. Spectroscopic investigation of Ni speciation in hardened cement paste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vespa, M; Dähn, R; Grolimund, D; Wieland, E; Scheidegger, A M

    2006-04-01

    Cement-based materials play an important role in multi-barrier concepts developed worldwide for the safe disposal of hazardous and radioactive wastes. Cement is used to condition and stabilize the waste materials and to construct the engineered barrier systems (container, backfill, and liner materials) of repositories for radioactive waste. In this study, Ni uptake by hardened cement paste has been investigated with the aim of improving our understanding of the immobilization process of heavy metals in cement on the molecular level. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) coupled with diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) techniques were used to determine the local environment of Ni in cement systems. The Ni-doped samples were prepared at two different water/cement ratios (0.4, 1.3) and different hydration times (1 hour to 1 year) using a sulfate-resisting Portland cement. The metal loadings and the metal salts added to the system were varied (50 up to 5000 mg/kg; NO3(-), SO4(2-), Cl-). The XAS study showed that for all investigated systems Ni(ll) is predominantly immobilized in a layered double hydroxide (LDH) phase, which was corroborated by DRS measurements. Only a minor extent of Ni(ll) precipitates as Ni-hydroxides (alpha-Ni(OH)2 and beta-Ni(OH)2). This finding suggests that Ni-Al LDH, rather than Ni-hydroxides, is the solubility-limiting phase in the Ni-doped cement system.

  1. Design and fabrication of Ni nanowires having periodically hollow nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sada, Takao; Fujigaya, Tsuyohiko; Nakashima, Naotoshi

    2014-10-07

    We propose a concept for the design and fabrication of metal nanowires having periodically hollow nanostructures inside the pores of an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane using a sacrificial metal. In this study, nickel (Ni) and silver (Ag) were used as the base metal and the sacrificial metal, respectively. Alternating an applied potential between -0.4 and -1.0 V provided alternatively deposited Ni and Ag segments in a Ni-Ag 'barcode' nanowire with a diameter of 18 or 35 nm. After etching away the Ag segments, we fabricated Ni nanowires with nanopores of 12 ± 5.3 nm. Such nanostructure formation is explained by the formation of a Ni shell layer over the surface of the Ag segments due to the strong affinity of Ni(2+) for the interior surfaces of AAO. The Ni shell layer allows the Ni segments to remain even after dissolution of the Ag segments. Because the electroplating conditions can be easily controlled, we could carefully adjust the size and pitch of the periodically hollow nanospaces. We also describe a method for the fabrication of Ni nanorods by forming an Ag shell instead of a Ni shell on the Ni-Ag barcode nanowire, in which the interior of the AAO surfaces was modified with a compound bearing a thiol group prior to electroplating.

  2. Ductility of Ni3Al doped with substitutional elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanada, S.; Chiba, A.; Guo, H.Z.; Watanabe, S.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reports on ductility of B-free Ni 3 Al alloys. Recrystallized Ni 3 Al binary alloys with Ni-rich compositions show appreciable ductility when an environmental effect is eliminated, while the alloys with stoichiometric and Al-rich compositions remain brittle. The ductility in the Ni-rich Ni 3 Al alloys is associated with low ordering energy. The additions of ternary elements, which are classified as γ formers, ductilize ternary Ni 3 Al alloys(Ni-23 at% Al-2 at% X, X = Pd, Pt, Cu and Co), whereas the additions of γ' formers embrittle ternary Ni 3 Al alloys(Ni-23 at% Al-2 at% X, X = Ta, Mo, Nb, Zr, Hf, V, Ti and Si). The additions of small amounts (less than 1 at%) of γ' formers such as Zr and Hf also ductilize as-cast ternary Ni 3 Al alloys. Ductility of Ni 3 Al alloys doped with substitutional elements is discussed in terms of ordering energy and microstructure

  3. CO2 activation on bimetallic CuNi nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Austin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Density functional theory calculations have been performed to investigate the structural, electronic, and CO2 adsorption properties of 55-atom bimetallic CuNi nanoparticles (NPs in core-shell and decorated architectures, as well as of their monometallic counterparts. Our results revealed that with respect to the monometallic Cu55 and Ni55 parents, the formation of decorated Cu12Ni43 and core-shell Cu42Ni13 are energetically favorable. We found that CO2 chemisorbs on monometallic Ni55, core-shell Cu13Ni42, and decorated Cu12Ni43 and Cu43Ni12, whereas, it physisorbs on monometallic Cu55 and core-shell Cu42Ni13. The presence of surface Ni on the NPs is key in strongly adsorbing and activating the CO2 molecule (linear to bent transition and elongation of C˭O bonds. This activation occurs through a charge transfer from the NPs to the CO2 molecule, where the local metal d-orbital density localization on surface Ni plays a pivotal role. This work identifies insightful structure-property relationships for CO2 activation and highlights the importance of keeping a balance between NP stability and CO2 adsorption behavior in designing catalytic bimetallic NPs that activate CO2.

  4. NiCo2S4 nanosheet-decorated 3D, porous Ni film@Ni wire electrode materials for all solid-state asymmetric supercapacitor applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanakumar, Balasubramaniam; Jayaseelan, Santhana Sivabalan; Seo, Min-Kang; Kim, Hak-Yong; Kim, Byoung-Suhk

    2017-12-07

    Wire type supercapacitors with high energy and power densities have generated considerable interest in wearable applications. Herein, we report a novel NiCo 2 S 4 -decorated 3D, porous Ni film@Ni wire electrode for high performance supercapacitor application. In this work, a facile method is introduced to fabricate a 3D, porous Ni film deposited on a Ni wire as a flexible electrode, followed by decoration with NiCo 2 S 4 as an electroactive material. The fabricated NiCo 2 S 4 -decorated 3D, porous Ni film@Ni wire electrode displays a superior performance with an areal and volumetric capacitance of 1.228 F cm -2 and 199.74 F cm -3 , respectively, at a current density of 0.2 mA cm -1 with a maximum volumetric energy and power density (E V : 6.935 mW h cm -3 ; P V : 1.019 W cm -3 ). Finally, the solid state asymmetric wire type supercapacitor is fabricated using the fabricated NiCo 2 S 4 -decorated 3D, porous Ni film@Ni wire as a positive electrode and N-doped reduced graphene oxide (N-rGO) as a negative electrode and this exhibits good areal and volumetric capacitances of C A : 0.12 F cm -2 and C V : 19.57 F cm -2 with a higher rate capability (92%). This asymmetric wire type supercapacitor demonstrates a low leakage current and self-discharge with a maximum volumetric energy (E V : 5.33 mW h cm -3 ) and power (P V : 855.69 mW cm -3 ) density.

  5. Surface morphology and electronic structure of Ni/Ag(100)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hite, D. A.; Kizilkaya, O.; Sprunger, P. T.; Howard, M. M.; Ventrice, C. A. Jr.; Geisler, H.; Zehner, D. M.

    2000-01-01

    The growth morphology and electronic structure of Ni on Ag(100) has been studied with scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and synchrotron based angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy. At deposition temperatures at or below 300 K, STM reveals Ni cluster growth on the surface along with some subsurface growth. Upon annealing to 420 K, virtually all Ni segregates into the subsurface region forming embedded nanoclusters. The electronic structure of Ni d bands in the unannealed surface shows dispersion only perpendicular to the surface whereas the annealed surface has Ni d bands that exhibit a three-dimensional-like structure. This is a result of the increased Ni d-Ag sp hybridization bonding and increased coordination of the embedded Ni nanoclusters. (c) 2000 American Vacuum Society

  6. Measurement and analyses of molten Ni-Co alloy density

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Feng; K. MUKAI; FANG Liang; FU Ya; YANG Ren-hui

    2006-01-01

    With the advent of powerful mathematical modeling techniques for material phenomena, there is renewed interest in reliable data for the density of the Ni-based superalloys. Up to now, there has been few report on the density of molten Ni-Co alloy.In order to obtain more accurate density data for molten Ni-Co alloy, the density of molten Ni-Co alloy was measured with a modified sessile drop method, and the accommodation of different atoms in molten Ni-Co alloy was analyzed. The density of alloy is found to decrease with increasing temperature and Co concentration in the alloy. The molar volume of molten Ni-Co alloy increases with increasing Co concentration. The molar volume of Ni-Co alloy determined shows a positive deviation from the linear molar volume, and the deviation of molar volume from ideal mixing increases with increasing Co concentration over the experimental concentration range.

  7. In situ NiTi/Nb(Ti) composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Daqiang; Cui, Lishan; Jiang, Jiang; Zheng, Yanjun

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • In situ NiTi/Nb(Ti) composites were fabricated. • The transformation temperature was affected by the mixing Ti:Ni atomic ratios. • The NiTi component became micron-scale lamella after forging and rolling. • The composite exhibited high strength and high damping capacity. - Abstract: This paper reports on the creation of a series of in situ NiTi/Nb(Ti) composites with controllable transformation temperatures based on the pseudo-binary hypereutectic transformation of NiTi–Nb system. The composite constituent morphology was controlled by forging and rolling. It is found that the thickness of the NiTi lamella in the composite reached micron level after the hot-forging and cold-rolling. The NiTi/Nb(Ti) composite exhibited high damping capacity as well as high yield strength

  8. Ni3d-Gd4f correlation effects on the magnetic behaviour of GdNi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulose, P L [Tata Inst. of Fundamental Research, Bombay (India); Patil, Sujata [Tata Inst. of Fundamental Research, Bombay (India); Mallik, R [Tata Inst. of Fundamental Research, Bombay (India); Sampathkumaran, E V [Tata Inst. of Fundamental Research, Bombay (India); Nagarajan, V [Tata Inst. of Fundamental Research, Bombay (India)

    1996-07-01

    The results of magnetization and heat-capacity measurements on the alloys, Gd{sub 1-x}Y{sub x}Ni (x=0.0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 0.9) are reported. The data suggest that there is a Gd induced magnetic moment on Ni, which may in turn enhance Gd-Gd exchange interaction strength in GdNi. The induced moment (on Ni) apparently exhibits itinerant ferromagnetism in the magnetically ordered state of GdNi. (orig.).

  9. Effects of Bond Coating on NiCrBSi-Mo Composite Functional Coating Properties in Plasma Spraying NiCrBSi-Mo/Ni Coating

    OpenAIRE

    DU Ji-yu; LI Fang-yi; LU Hai-yang; SHANG Jian-tong; LI Zhen

    2017-01-01

    Nickel-based bond coating and composite functional coating were sprayed on leaf blade steel material FV520B successively by using air plasma spraying system. NiCrBSi-Mo powder deposition rate, coating porosity, bonding strength and surface hardness were tested. The results indicate that, for the NiCrBSi-Mo/Ni coating, bond coating with 180-220μm thickness can improve NiCrBSi-Mo powder deposition rate while the surface coating with lower porosity, higher bonding strength and high hardness is p...

  10. Thermodynamic characterization of Ni3TeO6, Ni2Te3O8 and NiTe2O5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawar, Rimpi; Babu, R.; Ananthasivan, K.; Anthonysamy, S.

    2017-09-01

    Measurement of vapour pressure of TeO2(g) over the biphasic mixture Ni3TeO6 (s) + NiO(s) in the temperature range 1143-1272 K was carried out using transpiration-thermogravimetric technique (TTG). Gibbs energy of formation of Ni3TeO6 was obtained from the temperature dependence of vapour pressure of TeO2 (g) generated by the incongruent vapourisation reaction, Ni3TeO6 (s) → NiO(s) + TeO2 (g) + 1/2 O2 in the temperature range 1143-1272 K. An isoperibol type drop calorimeter was used to measure the enthalpy increments of Ni3TeO6, Ni2Te3O8 and NiTe2O5. Thermodynamic functions viz., heat capacity, entropy and Gibbs energy functions of these compounds were derived from the experimentally measured enthalpy increment values. Third-law analysis was carried out to ascertain absence of temperature dependent systematic errors in the measurement of vapour pressure of TeO2 (g). A value of -1265.1 ± 1.5 kJ mol-1 was obtained for Δ Hf,298K o (Ni3TeO6) using third-law analysis.

  11. Structural and magnetic properties of Ni-Zn and Ni-Zn-Co ferrites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knyazev, A.V., E-mail: knyazevav@gmail.com [N.I. Lobachevsky State University of Nizhni Novgorod, Gagarin Prospekt 23/2, 603950 Nizhni Novgorod (Russian Federation); Zakharchuk, I.; Lähderanta, E. [Lappeenranta University of Technology, P.O. Box 20, FI-53851 Lappeenranta (Finland); Baidakov, K.V.; Knyazeva, S.S. [N.I. Lobachevsky State University of Nizhni Novgorod, Gagarin Prospekt 23/2, 603950 Nizhni Novgorod (Russian Federation); Ladenkov, I.V. [Joint-stock Company “Research and Production Company “Salut”, Nizhni Novgorod (Russian Federation)

    2017-08-01

    Highlights: • Ni-Zn and Ni-Zn-Co ferrite powders were prepared by the solid-state reaction at 1073 K. • The room temperature saturation magnetizations are 59.7 emu/g for Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and 57.1 emu/g for Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.3}Co{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4}. • The coercivity of the samples is found to be much larger than that of bulk ferrites and increases with Co introduction. • The temperature dependences of magnetization exhibit large spin frustration and spin-glass-like behavior. - Abstract: Ni-Zn and Ni-Zn-Co ferrite powders with nominal compositions Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.3}Co{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} were prepared by the solid-state reaction synthesis with periodic regrinding during the calcination at 1073 K. The structure of Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.3}Co{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} was refined assuming space group F d-3m. Scanning electron microscopy revealed the average sizes of the crystalline ferrite particles are 130–630 nm for Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and 140–350 nm for Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.3}Co{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4}. The room temperature saturation magnetizations are 59.7 emu/g for Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and 57.1 emu/g for Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.3}Co{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4}. The coercivity of the samples is found to be much larger than that of bulk ferrites and increases with Co introduction. The Curie temperature tends to increase upon Zn substitution by Co, as well. The temperature dependences of magnetization measured using zero-field cooled and field cooled protocols exhibit large spin frustration and spin-glass-like behavior.

  12. Anti-corrosive and anti-microbial properties of nanocrystalline Ni-Ag coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raghupathy, Y.; Natarajan, K.A.; Srivastava, Chandan, E-mail: csrivastava@materials.iisc.ernet.in

    2016-04-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Electrodeposition yielded phase-segregated, nanocrystalline Ni-Ag coatings. • Ni-Ag alloys exhibited smaller Ni crystals compared to pure Ni. • Ultra fine Ni grains of size 12–14 nm favoured Ni-Ag solid solution. • Nanocrystalline Ag resisted bio-fouling by Sulphate Reducing bacteria. • Ni-Ag outperformed pure Ni in corrosion and bio-corrosion tests. - Abstract: Anti-corrosive and anti-bacterial properties of electrodeposited nanocrystalline Ni-Ag coatings are illustrated. Pure Ni, Ni-7 at.% Ag, & Ni-14 at.% Ag coatings were electrodeposited on Cu substrate. Coating consisted of Ni-rich and Ag-rich solid solution phases. With increase in the Ag content, the corrosion resistance of the Ni-Ag coating initially increased and then decreased. The initial increase was due to the Ni-Ag solid solution. The subsequent decrease was due to the increased galvanic coupling between the Ag-rich and Ni-rich phases. For all Ag contents, the corrosion resistance of the Ni-Ag coating was higher than the pure Ni coating. Exposure to Sulphate Reducing Bacteria (SRB) revealed that the extent of bio-fouling decreased with increase in the Ag content. After 2 month exposure to SRB, the Ni-Ag coatings demonstrated less loss in corrosion resistance (58% for Ni-7 at.% Ag and 20% for Ni-14 at.% Ag) when compared pure Ni coating (115%).

  13. Niños y niñas como cuidadores familiares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Rosa Estupiñán Aponte

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En el contexto familiar, el cuidado de otra persona por parte de niños y niñas constituye un terreno inexplorado tanto en su significado como en las implicaciones que podrían darse en el proceso. Aunque históricamente se ha asignado el cuidado familiar a las mujeres generando condiciones de inequidad, incrementada con los cambios sociales de los últimos tiempos, es necesario reconocer que en muchos hogares niños y niñas se han visto obligados a desempeñar esta labor sin la preparación ni las destrezas necesarias. Desde una perspectiva de género, el artículo busca evidenciar esta situación mediante la revisión de los abordajes que sobre el tema se han hecho en países de Europa y Norteamérica, así como el análisis de información obtenida a partir de las Encuestas de Hogares y Uso del Tiempo (EUT en algunos países de Latinoamérica. Se establece la forma como las problemáticas sociales inciden en las dinámicas, tipo de tareas y responsabilidades que deben asumir niños y niñas en los hogares, mostrando delgados límites entre la colaboración al interior de las familias, la transmisión cultural de roles y funciones y las actividades que podrían incidir negativamente en su crecimiento y el ejercicio de sus derechos.

  14. Estilos de vida saludables de niños, niñas y adolescentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilia Campo-Ternera

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Describir los estilos de vida saludables de niños, niñas y adolescentes de Barranquilla. Materiales y métodos: Estudio descriptivo de corte transversal en 991 niños, niñas y ado - lescentes. Se evaluó la actividad física mediante los cuestionarios de Actividad Física para Adolescentes y para niños escolares; se aplicó una encuesta que midió los conocimientos y prácticas de los escolares sobre salud bucal, lavado de manos, consumo de frutas y verduras y cuidado postural; la Lista de Chequeo “Mi Vida en la Escuela”, la cual evalúa los índices de “bullying” y agresión; y la inteligencia emocional a través dela escala TMMS -24. Resultados: El 65,4 % se categoriza como inactivos físicamente. Solo el 14,7% de los estudiantes reconoce que el peso máximo del bolso es el 10 % de su peso corporal; el 34,1 % cambia el cepillo de dientes cada 3 meses, como lo recomiendan los expertos, y 48,4 % se cepilla los dientes entre 2 y 3 veces al día. El 16,6 % no se lava las manos antes y después de ir al baño y 9,4 % no lo hace antes y después de las comidas; el 17,5 % no tiene un buen consumo de verduras y frutas; y se encontró un Índice de “bullying” en el 55,6 % de los participantes. Conclusión: Los anteriores resultados obligan a plantear intervenciones que incrementen las prácticas saludables en niños, niñas y adolescentes.

  15. Electrochemical properties of the ball-milled LaMg10NiMn alloy with Ni powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yi; Wang Xin; Gao Xueping; Shen Panwen

    2008-01-01

    The electrochemical characteristics of the ball-milled LaMg 10 NiMn alloys with Ni powders were investigated. It was found that the ball-milled LaMg 10 NiMn + 150 wt.% Ni composite exhibited higher first discharge capacity and better cycle performance. By means of the analysis of electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS), it was shown that the existence of manganese in LaMg 10 NiMn alloy increased the electrocatalytic activity due to its catalytic effect, and destabilized metal hydrides, and so reduced the hydrogen diffusion resistance. These contributed to the higher discharge capacity of the ball-milled LaMg 10 NiMn-Ni composite. According to the analytical results of X-ray diffraction (XRD), EIS and steady-state polarization (SSP) experiments, the inhibition of metal corrosion is not the main reason for the better cycle performance. The main reason is that the electrochemical reaction resistance of the ball-milled LaMg 10 NiMn-Ni composite is always lower than that of the ball-milled LaMg 10 Ni 2 -Ni composite because the former one contains manganese, which is a catalyst for the electrode reaction

  16. High-frequency permeability of electroplated CoNiFe and CoNiFe-C alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhen, Fernando M.F.; McCloskey, Paul; O'Donnell, Terence; Roy, Saibal

    2008-01-01

    We have investigated CoNiFe and CoNiFe-C electrodeposited by pulse reverse plating (PRP) and direct current (DC) techniques. CoNiFe(PRP) films with composition Co 59.4 Fe 27.7 Ni 12.8 show coercivity of 95 A m -1 (1.2 Oe) and magnetization saturation flux (μ 0 M s ) of 1.8 T. Resistivity of CoNiFe (PRP) is about 24 μΩ cm and permeability remains almost constant μ r ' ∼475 up to 30 MHz with a quality factor (Q) larger than 10. Additionally, the permeability spectra analysis shows that CoNiFe exhibits a classical eddy current loss at zero bias field and ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) when biased with 0.05 T. Furthermore, a crossover between eddy current and FMR loss is observed for CoNiFe-PRP when baised with 0.05 T. DC and PRP plated CoNiFe-C, which have resistivity and permeability of 85, 38 μΩ cm, μ r '=165 and 35 with Q>10 up to 320 MHz, respectively, showed only ferromagnetic resonance losses. The ferromagnetic resonance peaks in CoNiFe and CoNiFe-C are broad and resembles a Gaussian distribution of FMR frequencies. The incorporation of C to CoNiFe reduces eddy current loss, but also reduces the FMR frequency

  17. Corrosive sliding wear behavior of laser clad Mo2Ni3Si/NiSi intermetallic coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, X.D.; Wang, H.M.

    2005-01-01

    Many ternary metal silicides such as W 2 Ni 3 Si, Ti 2 Ni 3 Si and Mo 2 Ni 3 Si with the topologically closed-packed (TCP) hP12 MgZn 2 type Laves phase crystal structure are expected to have outstanding wear and corrosion resistance due to their inherent high hardness and sluggish temperature dependence and strong atomic bonds. In this paper, Mo 2 Ni 3 Si/NiSi intermetallic coating was fabricated on substrate of an austenitic stainless steel AISI321 by laser cladding using Ni-Mo-Si elemental alloy powders. Microstructure of the coating was characterized by optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDS). Wear resistance of the coating is evaluated under corrosive sliding wear test condition. Influence of corrosion solutions on the wear resistance of the coating was studied and the wear mechanism was discussed based on observations of worn surface morphology. Results showed that the laser clad Mo 2 Ni 3 Si/NiSi composite coating have a fine microstructure of Mo 2 Ni 3 Si primary dendrites and the interdendritic Mo 2 Ni 3 Si/NiSi eutectics. The coating has excellent corrosive wear resistance compared with austenitic stainless steel AISI321 under acid, alkaline and saline corrosive environments

  18. Magnetic properties of two new compounds: Pr2Ni3Si5 and Ho2Ni3Si5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazumdar, C.; Padalia, B.D.; Godart, C.

    1994-01-01

    Formation of two more new materials, Pr 2 Ni 3 Si 5 and Ho 2 Ni 3 Si 5 , of the series, R 2 Ni 3 Si 5 (R = rare earth and Y) and their magnetic properties are reported here. These materials crystallize in the orthorhombic U 2 Co 3 Si 5 -type structure (space group Ibam). Magnetic susceptibility measurement in the temperature range 5 K--300 K show that the compound Pr 2 Ni 3 Si 5 order antiferromagnetically at T N ∼ 8.5 K and Ho 2 Ni 3 Si 5 at ∼ 6 K. Considering T N (Gd 2 Ni 3 Si 5 ) ∼ 15 K, T N (Pr 2 Ni 3 Si 5 ) ∼ 8.5 K is rather high. The magnetic susceptibility of both of the materials, in the paramagnetic state, follows a Curie-Weiss law with effective moment close to that of the corresponding free trivalent rare earth ion

  19. Effect of Ni Core Structure on the Electrocatalytic Activity of Pt-Ni/C in Methanol Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Linkov

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Methanol oxidation catalysts comprising an outer Pt-shell with an inner Ni-core supported on carbon, (Pt-Ni/C, were prepared with either crystalline or amorphous Ni core structures. Structural comparisons of the two forms of catalyst were made using transmission electron microscopy (TEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, and methanol oxidation activity compared using CV and chronoamperometry (CA. While both the amorphous Ni core and crystalline Ni core structures were covered by similar Pt shell thickness and structure, the Pt-Ni(amorphous/C catalyst had higher methanol oxidation activity. The amorphous Ni core thus offers improved Pt usage efficiency in direct methanol fuel cells.

  20. Hard X-ray MCD in GdNi/sub 5/ and TbNi/sub 5/ single crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Galera, R M

    1999-01-01

    XMCD experiments have been performed at the R L/sub 2,3/ and Ni K- edges on magnetically saturated single crystals of GdNi/sub 5/ and Tb Ni/sub 5/ ferromagnetic compounds. The spectra present huge and well structured dichroic $9 signals at both the R L/sub 2,3/ and the Ni K- edges. Structures from the quadrupolar (2p to 4f) transitions are clearly observed at the R L/sub 2,3/-edges. Though Ni is not magnetic, large intensities, up to 0.4, are measured at the $9 Ni K- edge. The Ni K-edge XMCD shows a three-peak structure which intensities dependent on the rare earth. (7 refs).

  1. Electrochemically induced transformation of NiS nanoparticles into Ni(OH)2 in KOH aqueous solution toward electrochemical capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou Linrui; Yuan Changzhou; Li Diankai; Yang Long; Shen Laifa; Zhang Fang; Zhang Xiaogang

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → NiS is synthesized by means of the H 2 O/CS 2 interface under hydrothermal treatment. → NiS itself owns poor electrochemical capacitance in 2 M KOH solution. → NiS is electrochemically induced and transformed into electroactive Ni(OH) 2 . → Ni(OH) 2 is responsible for good energy storage of the NiS in the KOH solution. → The new formed Ni(OH) 2 delivers large energy density at high rates. - Abstract: Nickel sulfide nanoparticles (NPs) are first synthesized by virtue of a unique H 2 O/CS 2 interface under mild hydrothermal treatment. Electrochemical data reveals that the as-synthesized NiS NPs themselves own poor supercapacitive behavior at initial cyclic voltammetry (CV) cycles in 2 M KOH solution, while a specific capacitance of 893 F g -1 can be surprisingly obtained at a current density of 5 A g -1 just after continuous 320 CV cycles. X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared techniques demonstrate that what is really responsible for the good electrochemical capacitance in the KOH aqueous solution is the new electrochemically formed Ni(OH) 2 phase, rather than NiS NPs themselves. The Ni(OH) 2 is slowly formed during the continuous CV cycling process, in which the electrochemically induced phase transformation from NiS to Ni(OH) 2 phase takes place. Furthermore, the new Ni(OH) 2 phase demonstrates the great ability of delivering large specific capacitance at high rates.

  2. Fe-Ni-bearing serpentines from the saprolite horizon of Caribbean Ni-laterite deposits: new insights from thermodynamic calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanova-de-Benavent, Cristina; Domènech, Cristina; Tauler, Esperança; Galí, Salvador; Tassara, Santiago; Proenza, Joaquín A.

    2017-10-01

    Fe-Ni-bearing serpentine from the saprolite horizon is the main Ni ores in hydrous silicate-type Ni laterites and formed by chemical weathering of partially serpentinized ultramafic rocks under tropical conditions. During lateritization, Mg, Si, and Ni are leached from the surface and transported downwards. Fe2+ is oxidized to Fe3+ and fixed as insoluble Fe-oxyhydroxides (mostly goethite) that incorporate Ni. This Ni is later leached from goethite and incorporated in secondary serpentine and garnierite. As a result, a serpentine-dominated saprolite horizon forms over the ultramafic protolith, overlapped by a Fe-oxyhydroxide-dominated limonite horizon. The serpentine from the protolith (serpentine I) is of hydrothermal origin and yields similar Ni (0.10-0.62 wt.% NiO) and lower Fe (mostly 1.37-5.81 wt.% FeO) concentrations than the primary olivine. In contrast, Fe-Ni-bearing serpentine from the saprolite (serpentine II) shows significantly higher and variable Fe and Ni contents, typically ranging from 2.23 to 15.59 wt.% Fe2O3 and from 1.30 to 7.67 wt.% NiO, suggesting that serpentine get enriched in Fe and Ni under supergene conditions. This study presents detailed mineralogical, textural, and chemical data on this serpentine II, as well as new insights by thermodynamic calculations assuming ideal solution between Fe-, Ni- and Mg-pure serpentines. The aim is to assess if at atmospheric pressure and temperature Fe-Ni-bearing serpentine can be formed by precipitation. Results indicate that the formation of serpentine II under atmospheric pressure and temperature is thermodynamically supported, and pH, Eh, and the equilibrium constant of the reaction are the parameters that affect the results more significantly.

  3. Ni{sub 3}Al technology transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikka, V.K.; Santella, M.L.; Alexander, D.J. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States)] [and others

    1995-05-01

    Ductile Ni{sub 3}Al and Ni{sub 3}Al-based alloys have been identified for a range of applications. These applications require the use of material in a variety of product forms such as sheet, plate, bar, tubing, piping, and castings. Although significant progress has been made in the melting, casting, and near-net-shape forming of nickel aluminides, some issues still remain. These include the need for (1)high-strength castable composition for turbochargers, furnace furniture, and hot-die applications; (2) castability (fluidity, hot-shortness, porosity, etc.); (3) weld reparability of castings; and (4) hot fabricability of cast ingots. All of the issues listed above can be {open_quotes}show stoppers{close_quotes} for the commercial application of nickel aluminides. This report describes work completed to address some of these issues during the fourth quarter of FY 1994.

  4. Ni{sub 3}Al technology transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikka, V.K.; Viswanathan, S.; Santella, M.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Ductile Ni{sub 3}Al and Ni{sub 3}Al-based alloys have been identified for a range of applications. These applications require the use of material in a variety of product forms such as sheet, plate, bar, wire, tubing, piping, and castings. Although significant progress has been made in the melting, casting, and near-net-shape forming of nickel aluminides, some issues still remain. These include the need for: (1) high-strength castable composition for many applications that have been identified; (2) castability (mold type, fluidity, hot-shortness, porosity, etc.); (3) weld reparability of castings; and (4) workability of cast or powder metallurgy product to sheet, bar, and wire. The four issues listed above can be {open_quotes}show stoppers{close_quotes} for the commercial application of nickel aluminides. This report describes the work completed to address some of these issues during FY 1996.

  5. Internal chlorination of Ni-Cr alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berztiss, D.; Hennesen, K.; Grabke, H.J. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Eisenforschung GmbH, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    In contrast to internal oxidation, sulfidation and carburization, very little information is available regarding internal chlorination, especially diffusion of chlorine in metallic alloys. This paper describes results of experiments on Ni-Cr alloys (<10 wt% Cr) exposed in an atmosphere containing radioactive HCl. The diffusion of chlorine in the alloy can be determined by measurement of residual {beta}-activity from the sample surface. Successively thin layers (0.5-10 {mu}m) of the alloy were removed by lapping and the surface activity was measured to obtain a depth profile. Both single and polycrystalline materials were tested. Through this work it should be determined if there is in fact solubility and diffusion of chlorine in Ni-based alloys as some authors have proposed or if the ingress of chlorine is mainly a grain boundary phenomenon. (orig.)

  6. Resonant Ni and Fe KLL Auger spectra photoexcited from NiFe alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koever, L.; Cserny, I.; Berenyi, Z.; Egri, S.; Novak, M.

    2005-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. KLL Auger spectra of 3d transition metal atoms in solid environment, measured using high energy resolution, give an insight into the details of the local electronic structure surrounding the particular atoms emitting the signal Auger electrons. Fine tuning the energy of the exciting monochromatic photons across the K-absorption edge, features characteristic to resonant phenomena can be identified in the spectra. The shapes of the resonantly photoexcited KLL Auger spectra induced from 3d transition metals and alloys are well interpreted by the single step model of the Auger process, based on the resonant scattering theory. The peak shapes are strongly influenced by the 4p partial density of unoccupied electronic states around the excited atom. High energy resolution studies of KLL Auger spectra of 3d transition metals using laboratory X-ray sources, however, request very demanding experiments and yield spectra of limited statistical quality making the evaluation of the fine details in the spectra difficult. The Tunable High Energy XPS (THE- XPS) instrument at BW2 offers optimum photon x and energy resolution for spectroscopy of deep core Auger transitions. For the present measurements high purity polycrystalline Ni and Fe sheets as well as NiFe alloy samples of different compositions (Ni 80 Fe 20 , Ni 50 Fe 50 , Ni 20 Fe 80 ) were used. The surfaces of the samples were cleaned by in-situ argon ion sputtering. The measurements of the Ni and Fe KL 23 L 23 Auger spectra of the metal and alloy samples were performed with the THE-XPS instrument using high electron energy resolution (0.2 eV). In Fig.1, the measured Fe KL 23 L 23 spectrum, photoexcited at the Fe K absorption edge from Fe metal, is compared with the respective spectrum excited from a Ni 50 Fe 50 alloy. A significant broadening of the 1 D 2 peak and an enhancement of the spectral intensity at the low energy loss part of this peak observed in the alloy sample, while the

  7. Phase transitions in alloys of the Ni-Mo system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ustinovshikov, Y.; Shabanova, I.

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The structure of Ni-20 at.% Mo and Ni-25 at.% Mo alloys was studied by methods of TEM and XPS. It is shown that at high temperatures the tendency toward phase separation takes place in the alloys and crystalline bcc Mo particles precipitate in the liquid solution. At 900 deg. C and below, the tendency toward ordering leads to the dissolution of Mo particles and precipitation of the particles of Ni 3 Mo, Ni 2 Mo or Ni 4 Mo chemical compounds. Highlights: → 'Chemical' phase transition 'ordering-phase separation' is first discovered in alloys of the Ni-Mo system. → It is first shown that the phase separation in the alloys studied begins at temperatures above the liquidus one. → The formation of Ni 3 Mo from A1 has gone through the intervening stage of the Ni 4 Mo and Ni 2 Mo coexistence. - Abstract: The structure of Ni-20 at.% Mo and Ni-25 at.% Mo alloys heat treated at different temperatures was studied by the method of transmission electron microscopy. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to detect the sign of the chemical interaction between Ni and Mo atoms at different temperatures. It is shown that at high temperatures the tendency toward phase separation takes place. The system of additional reflections at positions {1 1/2 0} on the electron diffraction patterns testifies that the precipitation of crystalline bcc Mo particles begins in the liquid solution. At 900 deg. C and below, the tendency toward ordering leads to the precipitation of the particles of the chemical compounds. A body-centered tetragonal phase Ni 4 Mo (D1 a ) is formed in the Ni-20 at.% Mo alloy. In the Ni-25 at.% Mo alloy, the formation of the Ni 3 Mo (D0 22 ) chemical compound from the A1 solid solution has gone through the intervening stage of the Ni 4 Mo (D1 a ) and Ni 2 Mo (Pt 2 Mo) formation.

  8. Combining Ru, Ni and Ni(OH){sub 2} active sites for improving catalytic performance in benzene hydrogenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Lihua, E-mail: lihuazhu@stu.xmu.edu.cn [School of Metallurgy and Chemical Engineering, Jiangxi University of Science and Technology, Ganzhou 341000, Jiang Xi (China); Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, National Engineering Laboratory for Green Productions of Alcohols-Ethers-Esters, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Sun, Hanlei; Zheng, Jinbao [Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, National Engineering Laboratory for Green Productions of Alcohols-Ethers-Esters, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Yu, Changlin, E-mail: yuchanglinjx@163.com [School of Metallurgy and Chemical Engineering, Jiangxi University of Science and Technology, Ganzhou 341000, Jiang Xi (China); Zhang, Nuowei [Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, National Engineering Laboratory for Green Productions of Alcohols-Ethers-Esters, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Shu, Qing [School of Metallurgy and Chemical Engineering, Jiangxi University of Science and Technology, Ganzhou 341000, Jiang Xi (China); Chen, Bing H., E-mail: chenbh@xmu.edu.cn [Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, National Engineering Laboratory for Green Productions of Alcohols-Ethers-Esters, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China)

    2017-05-01

    In this study, the Ru{sub 0.04}Ni{sub 0.96}/C(T) catalysts were successfully prepared by the simple methods of hydrazine-reduction and galvanic replacement, where 0.04/0.96 and T represented the Ru/Ni atomic ratio and reducing temperature of the catalyst in N{sub 2}+10%H{sub 2}, respectively. The nanostructures of the Ru{sub 0.04}Ni{sub 0.96} nanoparticles in the Ru{sub 0.04}Ni{sub 0.96}/C(T) catalysts were controlled by modulating their annealing temperature in N{sub 2}+10%H{sub 2} and characterized by an array of techniques, including X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), scanning transmission electron microscopy energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (STEM-EDS) mapping and high-sensitivity low-energy ion scattering (HS-LEIS). The Ru{sub 0.04}Ni{sub 0.96}/C(30) catalyst, which was composed of Ru clusters or single atoms supported on Ni/Ni(OH){sub 2} nanoparticles, exhibited much better catalytic performance for benzene hydrogenation than the Ru{sub 0.04}Ni{sub 0.96}/C(T) catalysts reduced at above 30 °C, such as Ru{sub 0.04}Ni{sub 0.96}/C(160) with the nanostructure of partial Ru{sub 0.04}Ni{sub 0.9} alloy and Ru{sub 0.04}Ni{sub 0.96}/C(280) with the nanostructure of complete Ru{sub 0.04}Ni{sub 0.9} alloy. The reason was that the synergistic effect of multiple active sites – Ru, Ni and Ni(OH){sub 2} sites was present in the Ru{sub 0.04}Ni{sub 0.96}/C(30) catalyst, where hydrogen was preferentially activated at Ru sites, benzene was probably activated at Ni(OH){sub 2} surface and Ni acted as a “bridge” for transferring activated H{sup ∗} species to activated benzene by hydrogen spillover effect, hydrogenating and forming product – cyclohexane. This study also provided a typical example to illustrate that the synergy effect of multiple active sites can largely improve the catalytic hydrogenation performance. - Highlights: • The Ru

  9. Imaging magnetic domains in Ni nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asenjo, A.; Jaafar, M.; Gonzalez, E.M.; Martin, J.I.; Vazquez, M.; Vicent, J.L.

    2007-01-01

    The study of nanomagnets is the subject of increasing scientific effort. The size, the thickness and the geometric shape of the elements determine the magnetic properties and then the domain configuration. In this work, we fabricated by electron-beam lithography the three different arrays of Ni nanostructures keeping the size, the thickness and also the distance constant between the elements but varying the geometry: square, triangular and circular. The domain structure of the nanomagnets is studied by magnetic force microscopy

  10. Determination of 59Ni in radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisera, O.; Sebesta, F.

    2010-01-01

    Composite material PAN-DMG, containing chelating agent dimethylglyoxime (DMG) immobilized in porous matrix of binding polymer polyacrylonitrile (PAN), was used for nickel separation and concentration. Method for preparation of 59 Ni source for low energy photon spectrometry was developed using homogeneous precipitation of nickel with DMG. The proposed method was tested with two types of real radioactive waste (boric acid concentrate from nuclear power plant (NPP) evaporator and spent ion exchanger from NPP). (author)

  11. Structural, electrical and magnetic properties of evaporated Ni/Cu and Ni/glass thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nacereddine, C. [Departement de Physique, Universite Ferhat Abbas, Setif 19000 (Algeria); Layadi, A. [Departement de Physique, Universite Ferhat Abbas, Setif 19000 (Algeria)]. E-mail: A_Layadi@yahoo.fr; Guittoum, A. [Centre de Recherche Nucleaire d' Alger (CRNA), Alger 16000 (Algeria); Cherif, S.-M. [Laboratoire PMTM, Institut Galilee, Univeriste Paris 13, Villetaneuse 93340 (France); Chauveau, T. [Laboratoire PMTM, Institut Galilee, Univeriste Paris 13, Villetaneuse 93340 (France); Billet, D. [Laboratoire PMTM, Institut Galilee, Univeriste Paris 13, Villetaneuse 93340 (France); Youssef, J. Ben [Laboratoire de Magnetisme de Bretagne, U.B.O., Brest 29238 (France); Bourzami, A. [Departement de Physique, Universite Ferhat Abbas, Setif 19000 (Algeria); Bourahli, M.-H. [Departement d' O. M. P., Universite Ferhat Abbas, Setif 19000 (Algeria)

    2007-01-25

    The structural, electrical and magnetic properties of Ni thin films evaporated onto glass and polycrystalline Cu substrates have been investigated. The Ni thickness ranges from 31 to 165 nm. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) have been used to study the structure and morphology of these systems. The Ni/Cu and Ni/glass thin films are found to be polycrystalline with a (1 1 1) texture. There is an overall increase of the grain size with increasing thickness. A negative strain was noted indicating that all the samples are under a compressive stress. Diffusion at the grain boundaries seems to be a major contribution to the electrical resistivity in this thickness range. Study of the hysteresis curves, obtained by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), indicates that all samples are characterized by an in-plane magnetization easy axis. Higher in-plane coercive fields seem to be associated with higher grain size, indicating that coercivity may be due to nucleation of reverse domains rather than pinning of domain walls. The saturation field and the squareness have been studied as a function of the Ni thickness.

  12. Participar como niña o niño en el mundo social

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Paulina Díaz

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo presento la participación como resultado de un trabajo investigativo realizado durante el año 2007, con niños y niñas escolarizados habitantes de la ciudad de Medellín, Colombia, cuyo objetivo fue analizar las representaciones sociales que ellos y ellas comparten sobre el ejercicio ciudadano. El análisis de la información tiene como ejes fundamentales, la salud colectiva, la sociología de la infancia y la participación en la niñez, en una aproximación que se realiza desde un enfoque cualitativo y etnográfico. En los hallazgos, sobresale cómo las niñas y niños se muestran preparados para ejercer su derecho a la participación como aspecto de sus vidas que se haría posible dentro del marco normativo existente, pero que aún no es asumido en prácticas sociales que los incluyan.

  13. HDO of Methyl Palmitate over Silica-Supported Ni Phosphides: Insight into Ni/P Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina V. Deliy

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Two sets of silica-supported nickel phosphide catalysts with a nickel content of about 2.5 and 10 wt % and Ni/P molar ratio 2/1, 1/1 and 1/2 in each set, were prepared by way of a temperature-programmed reduction method using (Ni(CH3COO2 and ((NH42HPO4 as a precursor. The NixPy/SiO2 catalysts were characterized using chemical analysis N2 physisorption, XRD, TEM, 31P MAS NMR. Methyl palmitate hydrodeoxygenation (HDO was performed in a trickle-bed reactor at 3 MPa and 290 °C with LHSV ranging from 0.3 to 16 h−1. The Ni/P ratio was found to affect the nickel phosphide phase composition, POx groups content and catalytic properties in methyl palmitate HDO with the TOF increased along with a decline of Ni/P ratio and a growth of POx groups’ content. Taking into account the possible routes of methyl palmitate conversion (metal-catalyzed hydrogenolysis or acid-catalyzed hydrolysis, we proposed that the enhancement of acid POx groups’ content with the Ni/P ratio decrease provides an enhancement of the rate of methyl palmitate conversion through the acceleration of acid-catalyzed hydrolysis.

  14. Participar como niña o niño en el mundo social

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Paulina Díaz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo presento la participación como resultado de un trabajo investigativo realizado durante el año 2007, con niños y niñas escolarizados habitantes de la ciudad de Medellín, Colombia, cuyo objetivo fue analizar las representaciones sociales que ellos y ellas comparten sobre el ejercicio ciudadano. El análisis de la información tiene como ejes fundamentales, la salud colectiva, la sociología de la infancia y la participación en la niñez, en una aproximación que se realiza desde un enfoque cualitativo y etnográfico. En los hallazgos, sobresale cómo las niñas y niños se muestran preparados para ejercer su derecho a la participación como aspecto de sus vidas que se haría posible dentro del marco normativo existente, pero que aún no es asumido en prácticas sociales que los incluyan.

  15. Tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding of Ni-rich NiTi plates: functional behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, J. P.; Barbosa, D.; Braz Fernandes, F. M.; Miranda, R. M.

    2016-03-01

    It is often reported that, to successfully join NiTi shape memory alloys, fusion-based processes with reduced thermal affected regions (as in laser welding) are required. This paper describes an experimental study performed on the tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding of 1.5 mm thick plates of Ni-rich NiTi. The functional behavior of the joints was assessed. The superelasticity was analyzed by cycling tests at maximum imposed strains of 4, 8 and 12% and for a total of 600 cycles, without rupture. The superelastic plateau was observed, in the stress-strain curves, 30 MPa below that of the base material. Shape-memory effect was evidenced by bending tests with full recovery of the initial shape of the welded joints. In parallel, uniaxial tensile tests of the joints showed a tensile strength of 700 MPa and an elongation to rupture of 20%. The elongation is the highest reported for fusion-welding of NiTi, including laser welding. These results can be of great interest for the wide-spread inclusion of NiTi in complex shaped components requiring welding, since TIG is not an expensive process and is simple to operate and implement in industrial environments.

  16. High resolution TEM study of Ni4Ti3 precipitates in austenitic Ni51Ti49

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tirry, Wim; Schryvers, Dominique

    2003-01-01

    Binary NiTi with a composition of 51 at.% Ni was heat treated to form lens-shaped Ni 4 Ti 3 precipitates that are coherent or semi-coherent with the B2 matrix. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) was used to study the internal structure of the precipitates, precipitate-precipitate and matrix-precipitate interfaces and the deformation of the B2 matrix near a precipitate. Observations were made in the B2 and B2 zones and compared with computer simulated high resolution images. The B2 observations made it possible to study the [0 0 1] H zone orientation of Ni 4 Ti 3 (direction defined according to the hexagonal unit cell of Ni 4 Ti 3 ) which corresponds to the normal of the central plane of the discs. In these images the superperiodicity of the 4:3 ordering is clearly visible confirming the known atomic structure. Close to the precipitate the B2 matrix is deformed, as determined by measuring the interplanar spacing from the HRTEM images. The observed deformations are compared with theoretical models for the stress field

  17. Breakdown of antiferromagnet order in polycrystalline NiFe/NiO bilayers probed with acoustic emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebyodkin, M. A.; Lebedkina, T. A.; Shashkov, I. V.; Gornakov, V. S.

    2017-07-01

    Magnetization reversal of polycrystalline NiFe/NiO bilayers was investigated using magneto-optical indicator film imaging and acoustic emission techniques. Sporadic acoustic signals were detected in a constant magnetic field after the magnetization reversal. It is suggested that they are related to elastic waves excited by sharp shocks in the NiO layer with strong magnetostriction. Their probability depends on the history and number of repetitions of the field cycling, thus testifying the thermal-activation nature of the long-time relaxation of an antiferromagnetic order. These results provide evidence of spontaneous thermally activated switching of the antiferromagnetic order in NiO grains during magnetization reversal in ferromagnet/antiferromagnet (FM/AFM) heterostructures. The respective deformation modes are discussed in terms of the thermal fluctuation aftereffect in the Fulcomer and Charap model which predicts that irreversible breakdown of the original spin orientation can take place in some antiferromagnetic grains with disordered anisotropy axes during magnetization reversal of exchange-coupled FM/AFM structures. The spin reorientation in the saturated state may induce abrupt distortion of isolated metastable grains because of the NiO magnetostriction, leading to excitation of shock waves and formation of plate (or Lamb) waves.

  18. Electric Monopole Transition Strengths in 62Ni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evitts L. J.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Excited states in 62Ni were populated with a (p, p’ reaction using the 14UD Pelletron accelerator at the Australian National University. Electric monopole transition strengths, ρ2(E0, were measured through simultaneous detection of the internal conversion electrons and γ rays emitted from the de-excitation of populated states, using the Super-e spectrometer coupled with a germanium detector. The strength of the 02+ to 01+ transition has been measured to be 77−34+23 × 10−3 and agrees with previously reported values. Upper limits have been placed on the 03+ to 01+ and 03+ to 02+ transitions. The measured ρ2(E0 value of the 22+ to 21+ transition in 62Ni has been measured for the first time and found to be one of the largest ρ2(E0 values measured to date in nuclei heavier than Ca. The low-lying states of 62Ni have previously been classified as one- and two-phonon vibrational states based on level energies. The measured electric quadrupole transition strengths are consistent with this interpretation. However as electric monopole transitions are forbidden between states which differ by one phonon number, the simple harmonic quadrupole vibrational picture is not suffcient to explain the large ρ2(E0 value for the 22+ to 21+ transition.

  19. Electric Monopole Transition Strengths in 62Ni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evitts, L. J.; Garnsworthy, A. B.; Kibédi, T.; Moukaddam, M.; Alshahrani, B.; Eriksen, T. K.; Holt, J. D.; Hota, S. S.; Lane, G. J.; Lee, B. Q.; McCormick, B. P.; Palalani, N.; Reed, M. W.; Stroberg, S. R.; Stuchbery, A. E.

    2016-09-01

    Excited states in 62Ni were populated with a (p, p') reaction using the 14UD Pelletron accelerator at the Australian National University. Electric monopole transition strengths, ρ2(E0), were measured through simultaneous detection of the internal conversion electrons and γ rays emitted from the de-excitation of populated states, using the Super-e spectrometer coupled with a germanium detector. The strength of the 02+ to 01+ transition has been measured to be 77-34+23 × 10-3 and agrees with previously reported values. Upper limits have been placed on the 03+ to 01+ and 03+ to 02+ transitions. The measured ρ2(E0) value of the 22+ to 21+ transition in 62Ni has been measured for the first time and found to be one of the largest ρ2(E0) values measured to date in nuclei heavier than Ca. The low-lying states of 62Ni have previously been classified as one- and two-phonon vibrational states based on level energies. The measured electric quadrupole transition strengths are consistent with this interpretation. However as electric monopole transitions are forbidden between states which differ by one phonon number, the simple harmonic quadrupole vibrational picture is not suffcient to explain the large ρ2(E0) value for the 22+ to 21+ transition.

  20. Length-dependent corrosion behavior, Ni2+ release, cytocompatibility, and antibacterial ability of Ni-Ti-O nanopores anodically grown on biomedical NiTi alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hang, Ruiqiang; Liu, Yanlian; Bai, Long; Zhang, Xiangyu; Huang, Xiaobo; Jia, Husheng; Tang, Bin

    2018-08-01

    In the present work, nickel-titanium-oxygen nanopores with different length (0.55-114 μm) were anodically grown on nearly equiatomic nickel-titanium (NiTi) alloy. Length-dependent corrosion behavior, nickel ion (Ni 2+ ) release, cytocompatibility, and antibacterial ability were investigated by electrochemical, analytical chemistry, and biological methods. The results show constructing nanoporous structure on the NiTi alloy improve its corrosion resistance. However, the anodized samples release more Ni 2+ than that of the bare NiTi alloy, suggesting chemical dissolution of the nanopores rather than electrochemical corrosion governs the Ni 2+ release. In addition, the Ni 2+ release amount increases with nanopore length. The anodized samples show good cytocompatibility when the nanopore length is covers the one (1-11 μm) that the nanopores showing favorable antibacterial ability. Consequently, the nanopores with length in the range of 1-11 μm are promising as coatings of biomedical NiTi alloy for anti-infection, drug delivery, and other desirable applications. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of P/Ni ratio and Ni content on performance of γ-Al_2O_3-supported nickel phosphides for deoxygenation of methyl laurate to hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zhena; Tang, Mingxiao; Chen, Jixiang

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The formation of AlPO_4 was unfavorable for that of nickel phosphides. • The phase compositions of nickel phosphide depended on the amount of reduced P. • Catalytic activity was determined by surface Ni site density and catalyst acidity. • HDO pathway was promoted by increasing P/Ni ratio and Ni content. • Nickel phosphide gave much higher carbon yield and lower H_2 consumption than Ni. - Abstract: γ-Al_2O_3-supported nickel phosphides (mNi-Pn) were prepared by the TPR method and tested for the deoxygenation of methyl laurate to hydrocarbons. The effects of the P/Ni ratio (n = 1.0–2.5) and Ni content (m = 5–15 wt.%) in the precursors on their structure and performance were investigated. Ni/γ-Al_2O_3 was also studied for comparison. It was found that the formation of AlPO_4 in the precursor inhibited the reduction of phosphate and so the formation of nickel phosphides. With increasing the P/Ni ratio and Ni content, the Ni, Ni_3P, Ni_1_2P_5 and Ni_2P phases orderly formed, accompanying with the increases of their particle size and the amount of weak acid sites (mainly due to P-OH group), while the CO uptake and the amount of medium strong acid sites (mainly related to Ni sites) reached maximum on 10%Ni-P1.5. In the deoxygenation reaction, compared with Ni/γ-Al_2O_3, the mNi-Pn catalysts showed much lower activities for decarbonylation, C−C hydrogenolysis and methanation due to the ligand and ensemble effects of P. The conversion and the selectivity to n-C11 and n-C12 hydrocarbons achieved maximum on 10%Ni-P 2.0 for the 10%Ni-Pn catalysts and on 8%Ni-P2.0 for the mNi-P2.0 catalysts, while the turnover frequency (TOF) of methyl laurate mainly increased with the P/Ni ratio and Ni content. We propose that TOF was influenced by the nickel phosphide phases, the catalyst acidity and the particle size as well as the synergetic effect between the Ni site and acid site. Again, the hydrodeoxygenation pathway of methyl

  2. Level structure of 60Ni from the 58Ni(α,2p#betta#) reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, T.U.; Morand, C.; Azgui, F.

    1982-03-01

    The 60 Ni nucleus has been studied via the 58 Ni (α, 2p#betta#) reaction at Esub(α)=32 MeV using in-beam #betta# spectroscopy techniques. High-spin states up to 10 MeV excitation have been established. Among the 5 branches depopulating the Yrast Jsup(π)=7 - state, has been found an E3 transition down to the 4 + state. Comparison with direct reaction results leads to assign very probably the [#betta#fsub(5/2),#betta#gsub(9/2)] 7 - configuration to the Jsup(π)=7 - Yrast state at 5349 keV. Other high-spin states might be accounted for by the breaking of the 56 Ni core

  3. Atomistic simulation of the pinning of edge dislocations in Ni by Ni3Al precipitates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohler, Christopher; Kizler, Peter; Schmauder, Siegfried

    2005-01-01

    Classical molecular dynamics simulations of the interaction of edge dislocations in Ni with chains of spherical Ni 3 Al precipitates are performed using EAM potentials. The order hardening is investigated at temperature T=0 -bar K by determining the critical resolved shear stresses (CRSSs) for a superdislocation that is dissociated into four partial dislocations. The CRSS is computed as a function of the radius and the distance of the precipitates. It is found that for precipitates with a diameter smaller than the dissociation width of perfect edge dislocation in Ni, the CRSS of the trailing dislocation of the superdislocation is a fraction of about 0.4 of the CRSS of the leading dislocation

  4. Sorption properties of new composite materials suitable for radioanalytical determination of 59-Ni and 63-Ni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisera, O.; Sebesta, F.

    2006-01-01

    New composite materials for separation and radioanalytical determination of radionickel ( 59, 63 Ni) were prepared and their sorption properties were examined. Chelating agents dimethylglyoxime (DMG) and diphenylglyoxime (DFG) as active components were immobilized in porous matrix of binding polymer polyacrylonitrile (PAN). Sorption properties of these materials were compared with commercial Ni Resin (Eichrom Technologies, USA). Weight distribution ratios, sorption kinetics and operating capacities were investigated during experiments performed. The highest weight distribution ratios were found for the material DFG-PAN. The sorbent DMG-PAN has the highest operating capacity. The fastest kinetics of nickel sorption was determined for the commercial Ni Resin. Elution of nickel with nitric acid solution allows subsequent and direct determination of radionickel by liquid scintillation counting. (author)

  5. Effect of amorphous Mg50Ni50 on hydriding and dehydriding behavior of Mg2Ni alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzman, D.; Ordonez, S.; Fernandez, J.F.; Sanchez, C.; Serafini, D.; Rojas, P.A.; Aguilar, C.; Tapia, P.

    2011-01-01

    Composite Mg 2 Ni (25 wt.%) amorphous Mg 50 Ni 50 was prepared by mechanical milling starting with nanocrystalline Mg 2 Ni and amorphous Mg 50 Ni 50 powders, by using a SPEX 8000 D mill. The morphological and microstructural characterization of the powders was performed via scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The hydriding characterization of the composite was performed via a solid gas reaction method in a Sievert's-type apparatus at 363 K under an initial hydrogen pressure of 2 MPa. The dehydriding behavior was studied by differential thermogravimetry. On the basis of the results, it is possible to conclude that amorphous Mg 50 Ni 50 improved the hydriding and dehydriding kinetics of Mg 2 Ni alloy upon cycling. A tentative rationalization of experimental observations is proposed. - Research Highlights: → First study of the hydriding behavior of composite Mg 2 Ni (25 wt.%) amorphous Mg 50 Ni 50 . → Microstructural characterization of composite material using XRD and SEM was obtained. → An improved effect of Mg 50 Ni 50 on the Mg 2 Ni hydriding behavior was verified. → The apparent activation energy for the hydrogen desorption of composite was obtained.

  6. When NiO@Ni Meets WS2 Nanosheet Array: A Highly Efficient and Ultrastable Electrocatalyst for Overall Water Splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dewen; Li, Qun; Han, Ce; Xing, Zhicai; Yang, Xiurong

    2018-01-24

    The development of low-cost, high-efficiency, and stable bifunctional electrocatalysts toward the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is of paramount importance for large-scale water splitting. Here, we develop a new strategy for the first design and synthesis of a NiO@Ni decorated WS 2 nanosheet array on carbon cloth (NiO@Ni/WS 2 /CC) composite. This composite serves as a unique three-dimensional (3D) synergistic electrocatalyst that not only combines the intrinsic properties of individual NiO@Ni and WS 2 , but also exhibits significantly improved HER and OER activities when compared to that of pure NiO@Ni and WS 2 . This electrocatalyst possesses Pt-like activity for HER and exhibits better OER performance than that for commercial RuO 2 , as well as demonstrating superior long-term durability in alkaline media. Furthermore, it enables an alkaline electrolyzer with a current density of 10 mA cm -2 at a cell voltage as 1.42 V, which is the lowest one among all reported values to date. The excellent performance is mainly attributed to the unique 3D configuration and multicomponent synergies among NiO, Ni, and WS 2 . Our findings provide a new idea to design advanced bifunctional catalysts for water splitting.

  7. Impact of Interstitial Ni on the Thermoelectric Properties of the Half-Heusler TiNiSn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia A. Barczak

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available TiNiSn is an intensively studied half-Heusler alloy that shows great potential for waste heat recovery. Here, we report on the structures and thermoelectric properties of a series of metal-rich TiNi1+ySn compositions prepared via solid-state reactions and hot pressing. A general relation between the amount of interstitial Ni and lattice parameter is determined from neutron powder diffraction. High-resolution synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction reveals the occurrence of strain broadening upon hot pressing, which is attributed to the metastable arrangement of interstitial Ni. Hall measurements confirm that interstitial Ni causes weak n-type doping and a reduction in carrier mobility, which limits the power factor to 2.5–3 mW m−1 K−2 for these samples. The thermal conductivity was modelled within the Callaway approximation and is quantitively linked to the amount of interstitial Ni, resulting in a predicted value of 12.7 W m−1 K−1 at 323 K for stoichiometric TiNiSn. Interstitial Ni leads to a reduction of the thermal band gap and moves the peak ZT = 0.4 to lower temperatures, thus offering the possibility to engineer a broad ZT plateau. This work adds further insight into the impact of small amounts of interstitial Ni on the thermal and electrical transport of TiNiSn.

  8. Controlled growth of Ni/NiO core–shell nanoparticles: Structure, morphology and tuning of magnetic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D’Addato, S., E-mail: sergio.daddato@unimore.it [CNR-NANO, S3, via G. Campi 213/a, Modena (Italy); Dipartimento FIM, Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, via G. Campi 213/a, Modena (Italy); Spadaro, M.C. [CNR-NANO, S3, via G. Campi 213/a, Modena (Italy); Dipartimento FIM, Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, via G. Campi 213/a, Modena (Italy); Luches, P. [CNR-NANO, S3, via G. Campi 213/a, Modena (Italy); Grillo, V. [CNR-NANO, S3, via G. Campi 213/a, Modena (Italy); CNR-IMEM, Parco Area delle Scienze 37/A, 43100 Parma (Italy); Frabboni, S.; Valeri, S. [CNR-NANO, S3, via G. Campi 213/a, Modena (Italy); Dipartimento FIM, Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, via G. Campi 213/a, Modena (Italy); Ferretti, A.M.; Capetti, E.; Ponti, A. [CNR-ISTM, Laboratorio di Nanotecnologie, via G. Fantoli 16/15, 20138 Milano (Italy)

    2014-07-01

    We performed a detailed study of Ni/NiO core–shell nanoparticles (NP) obtained with a gas aggregation source. The NP oxide shells were produced by oxidizing the NP with different procedures: deposition in oxygen atmosphere, post-annealing in air, sequential deposition of (a) first NiO layer, (b) Ni NP and (c) third NiO Layer. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy from Ni 2p core-level gave information about the chemical state of Ni in the core and in the oxide shell, while scanning electron microscopy was used for investigation of the NP morphology. High quality scanning transmission electron microscopy in high angle annular dark field mode data demonstrated core–shell structure also for NiO/Ni NP/NiO samples. Field-cooled/zero-field-cooled magnetization curves and field-cooled isothermal hysteresis cycles at T = 5 K were recorded by a SQUID magnetometer. In this way, the relation between magnetic properties and oxide shell structure was assessed, showing the role played by the control of the formation of oxide on the exchange bias and interparticle magnetic interaction.

  9. When NiO@Ni Meets WS2 Nanosheet Array: A Highly Efficient and Ultrastable Electrocatalyst for Overall Water Splitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewen Wang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of low-cost, high-efficiency, and stable bifunctional electrocatalysts toward the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER and oxygen evolution reaction (OER is of paramount importance for large-scale water splitting. Here, we develop a new strategy for the first design and synthesis of a NiO@Ni decorated WS2 nanosheet array on carbon cloth (NiO@Ni/WS2/CC composite. This composite serves as a unique three-dimensional (3D synergistic electrocatalyst that not only combines the intrinsic properties of individual NiO@Ni and WS2, but also exhibits significantly improved HER and OER activities when compared to that of pure NiO@Ni and WS2. This electrocatalyst possesses Pt-like activity for HER and exhibits better OER performance than that for commercial RuO2, as well as demonstrating superior long-term durability in alkaline media. Furthermore, it enables an alkaline electrolyzer with a current density of 10 mA cm–2 at a cell voltage as 1.42 V, which is the lowest one among all reported values to date. The excellent performance is mainly attributed to the unique 3D configuration and multicomponent synergies among NiO, Ni, and WS2. Our findings provide a new idea to design advanced bifunctional catalysts for water splitting.

  10. Enhanced optical and electrical properties of Ni inserted ITO/Ni/AZO tri-layer structure for photoelectric applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, M. Melvin David; Kim, Hyunki [Department of Electrical Engineering, Incheon National University, Incheon 406772 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Yun Chang [Measurement and Analysis Division, National Nanofab Center (NNFC), Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Joondong, E-mail: joonkim@incheon.ac.kr [Department of Electrical Engineering, Incheon National University, Incheon 406772 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Ni-embedding transparent conductor effectively reduces the resistivity. • Ni insertion improves the carrier mobility and collection efficiencies. • ITO/Ni/AZO is effective to improve photo-responses compared to ITO/AZO. - Abstract: A thin Ni layer of 5 nm thickness was deposited in between indium-tin-oxide (ITO) and aluminum-doped-zinc oxide (AZO) layers of 50 nm thickness each. The Ni inserting tri-layer structure (ITO/Ni/AZO) showed lower resistivity of 5.51 × 10{sup −4} Ωcm which is nearly 20 times lesser than 97.9 × 10{sup −4} Ωcm of bilayer structure (ITO/AZO). A thin Ni layer in between ITO and AZO enhanced the carrier concentration, mobility and photoresponse behaviors so that figure of merit (FOM) value of ITO/Ni/AZO device was greater than that of ITO/AZO device. ITO/Ni/AZO structure showed improved quantum efficiencies over a broad range of wavelengths (∼350–950 nm) compared to that of ITO/AZO bilayer structure, resulting in enhanced photoresponses. These results show that the optical, electrical and photoresponse properties of ITO/AZO structure could be enhanced by inserting Ni layer of 5 nm thickness in between ITO and AZO layers.

  11. On the Ni-Ion release rate from surfaces of binary NiTi shape memory alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ševčíková, Jana; Bártková, Denisa; Goldbergová, Monika; Kuběnová, Monika; Čermák, Jiří; Frenzel, Jan; Weiser, Adam; Dlouhý, Antonín

    2018-01-01

    The study is focused on Ni-ion release rates from NiTi surfaces exposed in the cell culture media and human vascular endothelial cell (HUVEC) culture environments. The NiTi surface layers situated in the depth of 70 μm below a NiTi oxide scale are affected by interactions between the NiTi alloys and the bio-environments. The finding was proved with use of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and electron microscopy experiments. As the exclusive factor controlling the Ni-ion release rates was not only thicknesses of the oxide scale, but also the passivation depth, which was two-fold larger. Our experimental data strongly suggested that some other factors, in addition to the Ni concentration in the oxide scale, admittedly hydrogen soaking deep below the oxide scale, must be taken into account in order to rationalize the concentrations of Ni-ions released into the bio-environments. The suggested role of hydrogen as the surface passivation agent is also in line with the fact that the Ni-ion release rates considerably decrease in NiTi samples that were annealed in controlled hydrogen atmospheres prior to bio-environmental exposures.

  12. Controlled growth of Ni/NiO core–shell nanoparticles: Structure, morphology and tuning of magnetic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D’Addato, S.; Spadaro, M.C.; Luches, P.; Grillo, V.; Frabboni, S.; Valeri, S.; Ferretti, A.M.; Capetti, E.; Ponti, A.

    2014-01-01

    We performed a detailed study of Ni/NiO core–shell nanoparticles (NP) obtained with a gas aggregation source. The NP oxide shells were produced by oxidizing the NP with different procedures: deposition in oxygen atmosphere, post-annealing in air, sequential deposition of (a) first NiO layer, (b) Ni NP and (c) third NiO Layer. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy from Ni 2p core-level gave information about the chemical state of Ni in the core and in the oxide shell, while scanning electron microscopy was used for investigation of the NP morphology. High quality scanning transmission electron microscopy in high angle annular dark field mode data demonstrated core–shell structure also for NiO/Ni NP/NiO samples. Field-cooled/zero-field-cooled magnetization curves and field-cooled isothermal hysteresis cycles at T = 5 K were recorded by a SQUID magnetometer. In this way, the relation between magnetic properties and oxide shell structure was assessed, showing the role played by the control of the formation of oxide on the exchange bias and interparticle magnetic interaction.

  13. Distorted-wave calculations of electron impact ionisation in the Ni isonuclear sequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, D C; Pindzola, M S

    1988-10-14

    Electron impact ionisation cross sections for Ni/sup +/, Ni/sup 3+/, Ni/sup 5+/, Ni/sup 6+/, Ni/sup 7+/, Ni/sup 8+/, Ni/sup 12+/, Ni/sup 14+/, and Ni/sup 16+/ are calculated in the distorted-wave approximation. These calculations include contributions from direct ionisation and inner-shell excitation followed by autoionisation. For Ni/sup 12+/, Ni/sup 14+/, and Ni/sup 16+/ we report not only on ionisation cross sections from the ground states but also from the metastable states of these ions. Experimental cross section measurements exist for all ions reported here, except Ni/sup 16+/. The agreement between experiment and theory is reasonably good and improves with ionisation stage.

  14. NiTiCu/AlN/NiTiCu shape memory thin film heterostructures for vibration damping in MEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, Navjot; Kaur, Davinder, E-mail: dkaurfph@iitr.ernet.in

    2014-03-25

    Highlights: • Fabrication of NiTiCu/AlN/NiTiCu heterostructure using dc/rf magnetron sputtering. • Exhibits highest hardness (38 GPa) and elastic modulus (187 GPa). • Enhanced dissipation of mechanical energy (E{sub d} = 5.7 N J). • High damping capacity (0.052) and figure of merit (∼0.62). • Can be applied for vibration damping in MEMS. -- Abstract: Shape memory alloy (NiTiCu) thin films coupled with piezoelectric AlN layer produce an intelligent material for vibration damping. In the present study pure NiTiCu, NiTiCu/AlN and NiTiCu/AlN/NiTiCu heterostructures have been deposited on Si substrate using magnetron sputtering technique. By the use of the interfaces and shape memory effect provided by NiTiCu layers, the damping capacity can be increased along with increase in stiffness and mechanical hardness. The heterostructures were characterized in terms of structural, electrical, morphological and mechanical properties by X-ray diffraction (XRD), four probe resistivity method, atomic force microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and nanoindentation. The NiTiCu/AlN/NiTiCu heterostructure exhibit enhanced mechanical and damping properties as compared to NiTiCu/AlN and pure NiTiCu. This enhancement in hardness and damping of the heterostructure could be attributed to the shape memory effect of NiTiCu, intrinsic piezoelectricity of AlN and increased number of interfaces in heterostructure that help in dissipation of mechanical vibrations. The findings of this work provide additional impetus for the application of these heterostructures in emerging fields of nanotechnology and microelectro mechanical (MEMS) devices.

  15. NiTiCu/AlN/NiTiCu shape memory thin film heterostructures for vibration damping in MEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaur, Navjot; Kaur, Davinder

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Fabrication of NiTiCu/AlN/NiTiCu heterostructure using dc/rf magnetron sputtering. • Exhibits highest hardness (38 GPa) and elastic modulus (187 GPa). • Enhanced dissipation of mechanical energy (E d = 5.7 N J). • High damping capacity (0.052) and figure of merit (∼0.62). • Can be applied for vibration damping in MEMS. -- Abstract: Shape memory alloy (NiTiCu) thin films coupled with piezoelectric AlN layer produce an intelligent material for vibration damping. In the present study pure NiTiCu, NiTiCu/AlN and NiTiCu/AlN/NiTiCu heterostructures have been deposited on Si substrate using magnetron sputtering technique. By the use of the interfaces and shape memory effect provided by NiTiCu layers, the damping capacity can be increased along with increase in stiffness and mechanical hardness. The heterostructures were characterized in terms of structural, electrical, morphological and mechanical properties by X-ray diffraction (XRD), four probe resistivity method, atomic force microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and nanoindentation. The NiTiCu/AlN/NiTiCu heterostructure exhibit enhanced mechanical and damping properties as compared to NiTiCu/AlN and pure NiTiCu. This enhancement in hardness and damping of the heterostructure could be attributed to the shape memory effect of NiTiCu, intrinsic piezoelectricity of AlN and increased number of interfaces in heterostructure that help in dissipation of mechanical vibrations. The findings of this work provide additional impetus for the application of these heterostructures in emerging fields of nanotechnology and microelectro mechanical (MEMS) devices

  16. Research and development of basic technologies for next generation industries, 'high-performance crystalline controlled alloy'. Evaluation on final research and development (final report); Jisedai sangyo kiban gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu. Koseino kessho seigyo gokin (saishu kenkyu kaihatsu hyoka 2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-05-01

    A proposal was given on a new processing process to use Ni-group super alloy, and elucidation was given on super plasticity phenomenon by using non-destructive tests. The Ni-group super heat-resistant alloy Mod. IN-100 subjected to different preforms by means of extrusion was given a super plasticity test at 1,050 degrees C to derive total elongation and 'm' value. As a result, it was disclosed that a material annealed for one hour at 1,070 degrees C after extrusion of 70% at 1,100 degrees C possesses the maximum 'm' value in the vicinity of 2.0 times 10{sup -2}s{sup -1}. The largest key to the new processing method is to improve the nature of the material, in which the plasticity manifestation velocity is accelerated by ten times to the order of 10{sup -2}s{sup -1} as described above. In addition, forging of IN-100 was made possible by using the ordinary forging equipment with the use of two-fold measures. The measures consist of maintaining temperature of IN-100 during casting by heating the die material to about 600 degrees C, rather than keeping it at a constant temperature, and then packing IN-100 in S35C steel material to accommodate the temperature decrease during casting inside the S35C pack. Thus, a processing method was made practical, eliminating need of the forging process to compress and solidify powder itself, that is the extrusion process. (NEDO)

  17. Three-dimensional electrode of Ni/Co layered double hydroxides@NiCo2S4@graphene@Ni foam for supercapacitors with outstanding electrochemical performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao, Yan; Ruiyi, Li; Lin, Zhou; Chenyang, Ma; Zaijun, Li

    2015-01-01

    We reported a new strategy for fabricating three-dimensiona electrode of Ni/Co layered double hydroxide@NiCo 2 S 4 @graphene@Ni foam for supercapacitors. The resulting 3D electrode offers a jungle-like architecture. The unique structure creates ultra fast electron transfer and electrolyte transport as well as the maximum utilization rate of the space and the surface. The electrode exhibits a prominent advantage of high specific capacitance, high-current capacitive behaviour and cycle stability. - Highlights: • The study developed a new strategy for fabricating 3D electrode of Ni/Co-LDH@NiCo 2 S 4 @G. • The as-prepared 3D electrode offers a jungle-like architecture. • The unique structure creates an efficient conduction network and high mass loading. • The electrode achieves significantly synergetic effect among different materials. • The electrode exhibits an excellent electrochemical performance for supercapacitors. - ABSTRACT: Great challenge for the fabrication of free-standing three-dimensional electrode still remains to simultaneously achieve high specific capacitance, rate performance and cycle stability. The paper reprted a new three-dimensional (3D) electrode of Ni/Co layered double hydroxide@NiCo 2 S 4 @graphene@Ni foam (Ni/Co-LDH@NiCo 2 S 4 @G) for supercapacitors. The as-prepared 3D electrode offers an unique architecture, which create an efficient conduction network and maximum utilization of space and interface. The graphene acts as well-knit and conductive skin coated on the skeleton of Ni foam for growing NiCo 2 S 4 . The conductive NiCo 2 S 4 array serves as bridge between Ni/Co-LDH and graphene, leading to ultrafast electron transfer and electrolyte transport. A slew of splits and holes existing in the NiCo 2 S 4 array play one role as the ion-reservoir to contain host of electrolyte ions. To evaluate the feasibility of 3D electrode’s application in supercapacitors, the electrochemical performance was investigated by using the three

  18. Energetic Mapping of Ni Catalysts by Detailed Kinetic Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørgum, Erlend; Chen, De; Bakken, Mari G.

    2005-01-01

    Temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) of CO has been performed on supported and unsupported nickel catalysts. The unsupported Ni catalyst consists of a Ni(14 13 13) single crystal which has been studied under ultrahigh vacuum conditions. The desorption energy for CO at low CO surface coverage...... was found to be 119 kJ/mol, and the binding energy of C to the Ni(111) surface of the crystal was 703 kJ/mol. The supported catalysts consist of nickel supported on hydrotalcite-like compounds with three different Mg2+/Al3+ ratios. The experimental results show that for the supported Ni catalysts TPD of CO...... precursor seems to result in more steplike sites, kinks, and defects for carbon monoxide dissociation. A detailed kinetic modeling of the TPO results based on elementary reaction steps has been conducted to give an energetic map of supported Ni catalysts. Experimental results from the ideal Ni surface fit...

  19. Synthesis of electroplated {sup 63}Ni source and betavoltaic battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uhm, Young Rang; Yoo, Kwon Mo; Choi, Sang Mu; Kim, Jin Joo; Son, Kwang Jae [Radioisotope Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    Radioisotope (Nuclear) battery using {sup 63}Ni was prepared as beta cell. The electroplated {sup 63}Ni on Ni foil is fabricated, and beta cell and photovoltaic hybrid battery was designed to use at both day and night in space project. A Ni-plating solution is prepared by dissolving metal particles including {sup 62}Ni and {sup 63}Ni from neutron irradiation of (n,γ). Electroplating solution of a chloride bath consists on nickel ions in HCl, H{sub 3}BO{sub 3}, and KOH. The deposition was carried out at current density of 10 mA cm{sup -2}. The prepared beta source was attached on a PN junction and measured I-V properties. The power output at activity of 0.07 mCi and 0.45 mCi were 0.55 pW and 2.69 nW, respectively.

  20. Microstructure and martensitic transformation of Ni-Ti-Pr alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Chunwang [Inner Mongolia University of Technology, College of Science, Hohhot (China); Shanghai Maritime University, College of Arts and Sciences, Shanghai (China); Zhao, Shilei; Jin, Yongjun; Hou, Qingyu [Inner Mongolia University of Technology, College of Science, Hohhot (China); Guo, Shaoqiang [Beihang University, Key Laboratory of Micro-nano Measurement, Manipulation and Physics (Ministry of Education), Department of Physics, Beijing (China)

    2017-09-15

    The effect of Pr addition on the microstructure and martensitic transformation behavior of Ni{sub 50}Ti{sub 50-x}Pr{sub x} (x = 0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7, 0.9) alloys were investigated experimentally. Results show that the microstructures of Ni-Ti-Pr alloys consist of the NiTi matrix and the NiPr precipitate with the Ti solute. The martensitic transformation start temperature decreases gradually with the increase in Pr fraction. The stress around NiPr precipitates is responsible for the decrease in martensitic transformation temperature with the increase in Pr fraction in Ni-Ti-Pr alloys. (orig.)

  1. Near-surface segregation in irradiated Ni3Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, W.; Rehn, L.E.; Wiedersich, H.

    1982-01-01

    The radiation-induced growth of Ni 3 Si films on the surfaces of Ni(Si) alloys containing = 3 Si phase has been observed. Post-irradiation depth profiling by Auger electron spectroscopy, as well as in situ analysis by high-resolution Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, reveals Si-enrichment at the surfaces of Ni(Si) alloys in excess of stoichiometric Ni 3 Si during irradiation. Thin, near-surface layers with silicon concentrations of 28 to 30 at.% are observed, and even higher Si enrichment is found in the first few atom layers. Transmission electron microscopy and selected area-electron diffraction were employed to characterize these Si-enriched layers. A complex, multiple-spot diffraction pattern is observed superposed on the diffraction pattern of ordered Ni 3 Si. The d-spacings obtained from the extra spots are consistent with those of the orthohexagonal intermetallic compound Ni 5 Si 2 . (author)

  2. Crystal growth velocity in deeply undercooled Ni-Si alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Y. J.

    2012-02-01

    The crystal growth velocity of Ni95Si5 and Ni90Si10 alloys as a function of undercooling is investigated using molecular dynamics simulations. The modified imbedded atom method potential yields the equilibrium liquidus temperatures T L ≈ 1505 and 1387 K for Ni95Si5 and Ni90Si10 alloys, respectively. From the liquidus temperatures down to the deeply undercooled region, the crystal growth velocities of both the alloys rise to the maximum with increasing undercooling and then drop slowly, whereas the athermal growth process presented in elemental Ni is not observed in Ni-Si alloys. Instead, the undercooling dependence of the growth velocity can be well-described by the diffusion-limited model, furthermore, the activation energy associated with the diffusion from melt to interface increases as the concentration increases from 5 to 10 at.% Si, resulting in the remarkable decrease of growth velocity.

  3. Diffusion studies in amorphous NiZr alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, H.; Averback, R.S.; Hoshino, K.; Rothman, S.J.

    1987-06-01

    Tracer impurity and self diffusion measurements have been made on amorphous (a-) NiZr alloys using radioactive tracer, Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry and Rutherford backscattering techniques. The temperature dependence of diffusion in a-NiZr can be represented in the form D = D 0 exp(-Q/kT), with no structural relaxation effects being observed. The mobility of an atom in a-NiZr increased dramatically with decreasing atomic radius of the diffusing atom and also with decreasing Ni content for Ni concentrations below ≅40 at. %. These diffusion characteristics in a-NiZr are remarkably similar to those in α-Zr and α-Ti. These mechanisms assume that Zr and Ti provide a close packed structure, either crystalline or amorphous, through which small atoms diffuse by an interstitial mechanism and large atoms diffuse by a vacancy mechanism. 12 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  4. Thermal variation of magnetization in Ni/V multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benkirane, K.; Elkabil, R.; Hamdoun, A.; Lassri, M.; Abid, M.; Lassri, H.; Krishnan, R.

    2004-01-01

    The magnetic properties of Ni/V multilayers, prepared by the RF sputtering method, have been systematically studied by magnetic measurements. The magnetization decreases with a decrease in Ni layer thickness tNi and the analysis of the results at 5K indicates the presence of a dead Ni layer about 12A thick. The effective anisotropy Keff of Ni/V multilayers is obtained using a torque magnetometer. The interface contribution to the magnetic anisotropy is practically negligible. A spin-wave theory has been used to explain the temperature dependence of the magnetization and the approximate values for the bulk exchange interaction Jb, surface exchange interaction JS, and the interlayer coupling strength JI for various Ni layer thicknesses have been obtained

  5. Synthesis of electroplated 63Ni source and betavoltaic battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhm, Young Rang; Yoo, Kwon Mo; Choi, Sang Mu; Kim, Jin Joo; Son, Kwang Jae

    2015-01-01

    Radioisotope (Nuclear) battery using 63 Ni was prepared as beta cell. The electroplated 63 Ni on Ni foil is fabricated, and beta cell and photovoltaic hybrid battery was designed to use at both day and night in space project. A Ni-plating solution is prepared by dissolving metal particles including 62 Ni and 63 Ni from neutron irradiation of (n,γ). Electroplating solution of a chloride bath consists on nickel ions in HCl, H 3 BO 3 , and KOH. The deposition was carried out at current density of 10 mA cm -2 . The prepared beta source was attached on a PN junction and measured I-V properties. The power output at activity of 0.07 mCi and 0.45 mCi were 0.55 pW and 2.69 nW, respectively

  6. Equilibrium relationships in the system Ni-U-O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansour, N.A.L.

    1980-01-01

    Phase relationships were established in air and in oxygen. Mixtures of NiO and U 3 O 8 oxidize to NiUO 4 . The results of analysis of NiUO 4 were identical to those previously published for NiU 3 O 10 . The uranate dissociates to NiO and U 3 O 8 at a temperature higher than that of their oxidation back to the uranate on cooling because of the difficulty of oxygen diffusion and uranate nucleation. Accordingly, dissociation temperature was taken to represent equilibrium and was used to calculate roughly ΔH and ΔS for the reaction of dissociation. In presence of NiO, U 3 O 8 melts partially and does not dissociate to the lower oxide. (orig.) [de

  7. Coercivity scaling in antidot lattices in Fe, Ni, and NiFe thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gräfe, Joachim, E-mail: graefe@is.mpg.de; Schütz, Gisela; Goering, Eberhard J., E-mail: goering@is.mpg.de

    2016-12-01

    Antidot lattices can be used to artificially engineer magnetic properties in thin films, however, a conclusive model that describes the coercivity enhancement in this class of magnetic nano-structures has so far not been found. We prepared Fe, Ni, and NiFe thin films and patterned each with 21 square antidot lattices with different geometric parameters and measured their hysteretic behavior. On the basis of this extensive dataset we are able to provide a model that can describe both the coercivity scaling over a wide range of geometric lattice parameters and the influence of different materials.

  8. Sideward flow of K+ in Ru+Ru and Ni+Ni reactions sat SIS energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crochet, P.; Herrmann, N.; Wisniewski, K.

    2000-01-01

    Experimental data on K + and proton sideward flow measured with the FOPI detector at SIS/GSI in the reactions Ru+Ru at 1.69 A GeV and Ni+Ni at 1.93 A GeV are presented. The K + sideward flow is found to be anti-correlated (correlated) with the one of protons at low (high) transverse momenta. When compared to the predictions of a transport model, the data favour the existence of an in-medium repulsive K + -nucleon potential. (author)

  9. Shape and size effects on layered Ni/PZT/Ni composites magnetoelectric performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, D A; Zhang, S G; Qiao, L J [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Volinsky, Alex A [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of South Florida, Tampa FL 33620 (United States)], E-mail: lqiao@ustb.edu.cn

    2008-09-07

    This paper presents the magnetoelectric (ME) effect in trilayered Ni/PZT/Ni composites which is related to their size and shape. The ME composites with the same interfacial areas but different geometrical shapes have different ME voltage coefficients. Longitudinal resonant modes in the rectangular and triangular trilayered ME composites were studied. One should choose optimized size, shape and working frequency of the ME composites in order to gain the maximum ME effect. This study plays a guiding role for trilayered ME composites design for real applications. (fast track communication)

  10. Microstructural evolution of neutron-irradiated Ni-Si and Ni-Al alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, H.; Garner, F. A.

    1992-10-01

    Additions of silicon and aluminum suppress the neutron-induced swelling of pure nickel but to different degrees. Silicon is much more effective initially when compared to aluminum on a per atom basis but silicon exhibits a nonmonotonic influence on swelling with increasing concentration. Silicon tends to segregate toward grain boundaries while aluminum segregates away from these boundaries. Whereas the formation of the Ni 3Si phase is frequently observed in charged particle irradiation experiments conducted at much higher displacement rates, it did not occur during neutron irradiation in this study. Precipitation also did not occur in Ni-5Al during neutron irradiation, nor has it been reported to occur during ion irradiation.

  11. Strengthening by ordered precipitates in a Ni--Ni4Mo system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodrum, J.W.; LeFevre, B.G.

    1977-01-01

    The strength characteristics and microstructures of aged Ni-Mo alloys containing ordered (Ni 4 Mo) precipitates were studied as a function of aging time and temperature. It was found that 17 at. percent Mo alloy aged at 750 0 C produced a uniform dispersion of cuboidal β precipitates which coarsened with time producing a gradual increase in flow stress. The flow stress increment was found to vary in qualitative agreement with both order strengthening and coherency strain models. Both these models give over-estimates of the strengthening increment. A negative dependence of flow stress on temperature is attributed to coherency strain contributions

  12. The nature of strong Brønsted acidity of Ni-SMM clay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yue, C.; Liu, C.; Mezari, B.; Brückner, A.; Pidko, E.A.; Rigutto, M.S.; Hensen, E.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    The origin of the high Brønsted acidity of Ni-SMM (Ni-substituted synthetic mica-montmorillonite; beidellite structure) clays was investigated. Ni-SMM clays with varying F content, SMM with F and Ni-SMM without F in the structure were synthesized under hydrothermal conditions. Ni-SMM clays with

  13. Los niños y los videojuegos

    OpenAIRE

    Orrego Gaviria, Jaime; Fundación Valle de Lili

    2007-01-01

    Los niños y los videojuegos / Efectos perjudiciales de la utilización de los videojuegos por los niños y adolescentes/ Efectos benéficos de la de la utilización de los videojuegos por los niños y adolescentes/ Recomendaciones para favorecer el uso adecuado/ Sistema de clasificación de los videojuegos

  14. Electrochemical Characterization of Ni/(Sc)YSZ Electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramos, Tania; Thydén, Karl Tor Sune; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2010-01-01

    Investigations of Ni/(Sc)YSZ cermets for solid oxide cells (SOCs) were performed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), under varying experimental conditions and upon redox cycling, using three different designs of symmetric cells. The deconvolution and fitting of the obtained impedance...... parameters. Initial degradation results for both Ni/ScYSZ and Ni/YSZ based anodes under very high steam content are also reported. ©2010 COPYRIGHT ECS - The Electrochemical Society...

  15. Irradiation-induced precipitation in Ni--Si alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbu, A.; Ardell, A.J.

    1975-07-01

    The microstructures of Ni + ion-irradiated Ni--Si solid-solution alloys, containing 2, 4, 6 and 8 at. percent Si were investigated as a function of dose, dose-rate, and temperature. Results of transmission electron microscopy and other data show the precipitation of γ' (Ni 3 Si) in all samples irradiated at 500 0 C. Characteristics of the precipitates are described and a mechanism for their formation is suggested. (U.S.)

  16. Ni-YSZ graded coatings produced by dipping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrari, B.; Moreno, R.

    2004-01-01

    A new colloidal processing route for the shaping of a graded Ni-YSZ composite for applications in SOFC devices is described. A Ni foil is coated by Ni/YSZ layers by dipping in aqueous suspensions with an organic binder. Behind the metal-ceramic layers introduced to improve adhesion, an outer thin layer of nanosized YSZ is formed by electrophoretic deposition. (Abstract Copyright [2004], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  17. Low-field spin dynamics of Cr7Ni and Cr7Ni-Cu-Cr7Ni molecular rings as detected by μsR

    OpenAIRE

    Sanna, S.; Arosio, P.; Bordonali, L.; Adelnia, F.; Mariani, M.; Garlatti, E.; Baines, C.; Amato, A.; Sabareesh, K. P.V.; Timco, G.; Winpenny, R. E.P.; Blundell, S. J.; Lascialfari, A.

    2017-01-01

    Muon spin rotation measurements were used to investigate the spin dynamics of heterometallic Cr7Ni and Cr7Ni-Cu-Cr7Ni molecular clusters. In Cr7Ni the magnetic ions are arranged in a quasiplanar ring and interact via an antiferromagnetic exchange coupling constant J, while Cr7Ni-Cu-Cr7Ni is composed of two Cr7Ni linked by a bridging moiety containing one Cu ion, that induces an inter-ring ferromagnetic interaction J ≪ J. The longitudinal muon relaxation rate λ collected at low magnetic fields...

  18. Comparison of three Ni-Hard I alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dogan, Omer N.; Hawk, Jeffrey A.; Rice, J. (Texaloy Foundry Co., Inc., Floresville, Texas)

    2004-09-01

    This report documents the results of an investigation which was undertaken to reveal the similarities and differences in the mechanical properties and microstructural characteristics of three Ni-Hard I alloys. One alloy (B1) is ASTM A532 class IA Ni-Hard containing 4.2 wt. pct. Ni. The second alloy (B2) is similar to B1 but higher in Cr, Si, and Mo. The third alloy (T1) also falls in the same ASTM specification, but it contains 3.3 wt. pct. Ni. The alloys were evaluated in both as-cast and stress-relieved conditions except for B2, which was evaluated in the stress-relieved condition only. While the matrix of the high Ni alloys is composed of austenite and martensite in both conditions, the matrix of the low Ni alloy consists of a considerable amount of bainite, in addition to the martensite and the retained austenite in as cast condition, and primarily bainite, with some retained austenite, in the stress relieved condition. It was found that the stress relieving treatment does not change the tensile strength of the high Ni alloy. Both the as cast and stress relieved high Ni alloys had a tensile strength of about 350 MPa. On the other hand, the tensile strength of the low Ni alloy increased from 340 MPa to 452 MPa with the stress relieving treatment. There was no significant difference in the wear resistance of these alloys in both as-cast and stressrelieved conditions.

  19. An investigation of the oxidized Ni/InAs interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venter, A.; Botha, J.R.; Swart, H.C.; Naidoo, S.; Olivier, E.J.

    2009-01-01

    Ni was resistively deposited onto bulk InAs and subsequently oxidized in an O 2 atmosphere. The anneal temperature and time were 450 deg. C and 2.5 h, respectively. X-ray diffraction of the oxidized Ni/InAs sample revealed the formation of In 3 Ni 2 and In 2 O 3 on the front suggesting inter diffusion of In, Ni and O. NiO was not detected by X-ray diffraction. In a preliminary study, using glass as a substrate, NiO readily formed when using these oxidation parameters. Conductivity measurements of the oxidized Ni/InAs surface revealed a conducting front and insulating rear surface while TEM of the Ni/InAs interface revealed an intermediate amorphous diffusion zone between the 'oxidized' Ni layer and the bulk InAs. A closer investigation of the intermediate layer supports the X-ray diffraction results, suggesting compound formation due to diffusion of oxygen and nickel into the substrate, and out-diffusion of In and As from the bulk of the sample. AES was used to further elucidate these results.

  20. An investigation of the oxidized Ni/InAs interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venter, A., E-mail: andre.venter@nmmu.ac.z [Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, PO Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Botha, J.R. [Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, PO Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Swart, H.C. [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, PO Box 339, Bloemfontein 9300 (South Africa); Naidoo, S.; Olivier, E.J. [Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, PO Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa)

    2009-12-01

    Ni was resistively deposited onto bulk InAs and subsequently oxidized in an O{sub 2} atmosphere. The anneal temperature and time were 450 deg. C and 2.5 h, respectively. X-ray diffraction of the oxidized Ni/InAs sample revealed the formation of In{sub 3}Ni{sub 2} and In{sub 2}O{sub 3} on the front suggesting inter diffusion of In, Ni and O. NiO was not detected by X-ray diffraction. In a preliminary study, using glass as a substrate, NiO readily formed when using these oxidation parameters. Conductivity measurements of the oxidized Ni/InAs surface revealed a conducting front and insulating rear surface while TEM of the Ni/InAs interface revealed an intermediate amorphous diffusion zone between the 'oxidized' Ni layer and the bulk InAs. A closer investigation of the intermediate layer supports the X-ray diffraction results, suggesting compound formation due to diffusion of oxygen and nickel into the substrate, and out-diffusion of In and As from the bulk of the sample. AES was used to further elucidate these results.

  1. Oxidation of hydrogen peroxide by [Ni III (cyclam)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The kinetics of oxidation of H2O2 by [NiIII(cyclam)]3+, [NiIIIL1], was studied in aqueous acidic media at 25°C and I = 0.5M (NaClO4). The [NiIIIL1] to [NiIIL1] reduction was found to be fast in the presence of Cu(II) ion than the oxidation of the cyclam ligand by ·OH. The rate constant showed an inverse acid dependence on H+ ...

  2. Level density of radioactive doubly-magic nucleus 56Ni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santhosh Kumar, S.; Rengaiyan, R.; Victor Babu, A.; Preetha, P.

    2012-01-01

    In this work the single particle energies are obtained by diagonalising the Nilsson Hamiltonian in the cylindrical basis and are generated up to N =11 shells for the isotopes of Ni from A = 48-70, emphasizing the three magic nuclei viz, 48 Ni, 56 Ni and 68 Ni. The statistical quantities like excitation energy, level density parameter and nuclear level density which play the important roles in the nuclear structure and nuclear reactions can be calculated theoretically by means of the Statistical or Partition function method. Hence the statistical model approach is followed to probe the dynamical properties of the nucleus in the microscopic level

  3. CVD Graphene/Ni Interface Evolution in Sulfuric Electrolyte

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yivlialin, Rossella; Bussetti, Gianlorenzo; Duò, Lamberto

    2018-01-01

    Systems comprising single and multilayer graphene deposited on metals and immersed in acid environments have been investigated, with the aim of elucidating the mechanisms involved, for instance, in hydrogen production or metal protection from corrosion. In this work, a relevant system, namely...... chemical vapor deposited (CVD) multilayer graphene/Ni (MLGr/Ni), is studied when immersed in a diluted sulfuric electrolyte. The MLGr/Ni electrochemical and morphological properties are studied in situ and interpreted in light of the highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) electrode behavior, when...... immersed in the same electrolyte. Following this interpretative framework, the dominant role of the Ni substrate in hydrogen production is clarified....

  4. Design and fabrication of Ni nanowires having periodically hollow nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sada, Takao; Fujigaya, Tsuyohiko; Nakashima, Naotoshi

    2014-09-01

    We propose a concept for the design and fabrication of metal nanowires having periodically hollow nanostructures inside the pores of an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane using a sacrificial metal. In this study, nickel (Ni) and silver (Ag) were used as the base metal and the sacrificial metal, respectively. Alternating an applied potential between -0.4 and -1.0 V provided alternatively deposited Ni and Ag segments in a Ni-Ag `barcode' nanowire with a diameter of 18 or 35 nm. After etching away the Ag segments, we fabricated Ni nanowires with nanopores of 12 +/- 5.3 nm. Such nanostructure formation is explained by the formation of a Ni shell layer over the surface of the Ag segments due to the strong affinity of Ni2+ for the interior surfaces of AAO. The Ni shell layer allows the Ni segments to remain even after dissolution of the Ag segments. Because the electroplating conditions can be easily controlled, we could carefully adjust the size and pitch of the periodically hollow nanospaces. We also describe a method for the fabrication of Ni nanorods by forming an Ag shell instead of a Ni shell on the Ni-Ag barcode nanowire, in which the interior of the AAO surfaces was modified with a compound bearing a thiol group prior to electroplating.We propose a concept for the design and fabrication of metal nanowires having periodically hollow nanostructures inside the pores of an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane using a sacrificial metal. In this study, nickel (Ni) and silver (Ag) were used as the base metal and the sacrificial metal, respectively. Alternating an applied potential between -0.4 and -1.0 V provided alternatively deposited Ni and Ag segments in a Ni-Ag `barcode' nanowire with a diameter of 18 or 35 nm. After etching away the Ag segments, we fabricated Ni nanowires with nanopores of 12 +/- 5.3 nm. Such nanostructure formation is explained by the formation of a Ni shell layer over the surface of the Ag segments due to the strong affinity of Ni2+ for the

  5. Comparative study of NiW, NiMo and MoW prepared by mechanical alloying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, G.; Sagarzazu, A.; Villalba, R.; Ochoa, J.

    2007-01-01

    The present work concern the amorphisation process induced by mechanical alloying in the NiW, NiMo and MoW systems. The alloys chosen combine a group of transition elements varying from very similar atomic radius and electronic valences (MoW) to different ones (NiW and NiMo). The three systems achieved an amorphous state after 50 h of milling. The mechanism of amorphisation proposed for NiW and NiMo was the combined effect of an excess concentration of the solute atoms entering into the structure of one of the elements and a critical concentration of defects. Continuous formation of an amorphous phase at the interface of the crystalline phase was observed during the process. MoW seems to amorphize by continuous reduction of grain size down to a critical value where the amorphisation takes place

  6. The irradiation hardening of Ni-Mo-Cr and Ni-W-Cr alloy under Xe26+ ion irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huaican; Hai, Yang; Liu, Renduo; Jiang, Li; Ye, Xiang-xi; Li, Jianjian; Xue, Wandong; Wang, Wanxia; Tang, Ming; Yan, Long; Yin, Wen; Zhou, Xingtai

    2018-04-01

    The irradiation hardening of Ni-Mo-Cr and Ni-W-Cr alloy was investigated. 7 MeV Xe26+ ion irradiation was performed at room temperature and 650 °C with peak damage dose from 0.05 to 10 dpa. With the increase of damage dose, the hardness of Ni-Mo-Cr and Ni-W-Cr alloy increases, and reaches saturation at damage dose ≥1 dpa. Moreover, the damage dose dependence of hardness in both alloys can be described by the Makin and Minter's equation, where the effective critical volume of obstacles can be used to represent irradiation hardening resistance of the alloys. Our results also show that Ni-W-Cr alloy has better irradiation hardening resistance than Ni-Mo-Cr alloy. This is ascribed to the fact that the W, instead of Mo in the alloy, can suppress the formation of defects under ion irradiation.

  7. Flexible bottom-emitting white organic light-emitting diodes with semitransparent Ni/Ag/Ni anode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Ja-Ryong; Lee, Seok Jae; Lee, Ho Won; Lee, Dong Hyung; Yang, Hyung Jin; Kim, Woo Young; Kim, Young Kwan

    2013-05-06

    We fabricated a flexible bottom-emitting white organic light-emitting diode (BEWOLED) with a structure of PET/Ni/Ag/Ni (3/6/3 nm)/ NPB (50 nm)/mCP (10 nm)/7% FIrpic:mCP (10 nm)/3% Ir(pq)(2) acac:TPBi (5 nm)/7% FIrpic:TPBi (5 nm)/TPBi (10 nm)/Liq (2 nm)/ Al (100 nm). To improve the performance of the BEWOLED, a multilayered metal stack anode of Ni/Ag/Ni treated with oxygen plasma for 60 sec was introduced into the OLED devices. The Ni/Ag/Ni anode effectively enhanced the probability of hole-electron recombination due to an efficient hole injection into and charge balance in an emitting layer. By comparing with a reference WOLED using ITO on glass, it is verified that the flexible BEWOLED showed a similar or better electroluminescence (EL) performance.

  8. Hydride Reactivity of Ni-II-X-Ni-II Entities : Mixed-Valent Hydrido Complexes and Reversible Metal Reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gehring, Henrike; Metzinger, Ramona; Herwig, Christian; Intemann, Julia; Harder, Sjoerd; Limberg, Christian

    After the lithiation of PYR-H2 (PYR2-=[{NC(Me)C(H)C(Me)NC6H3(iPr)2}2(C5H3N)]2-), which is the precursor of an expanded beta-diketiminato ligand system with two binding pockets, its reaction with [NiBr2(dme)] led to a dinuclear nickel(II)bromide complex, [(PYR)Ni(mu-Br)NiBr] (1). The bridging bromide

  9. Studies on the valence electronic structure of Fe and Ni in FexNi1−x ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    structure of Fe and Ni in various Fex Ni1−x alloys. Since Kβ-to-Kα X-ray intensity ratio has been reported [2–7] to be a sensitive physical parameter to investigate the changes in the valence electronic structure of 3d-transition metals [2], we have undertaken the study of the valence electronic structure of Fe and Ni in the Fex ...

  10. Effects of Ni content on nanocrystalline Fe–Co–Ni ternary alloys synthesized by a chemical reduction method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chokprasombat, Komkrich, E-mail: komkrich28@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Thaksin University, Phatthalung 93210 Thailand (Thailand); Pinitsoontorn, Supree [Integrated Nanotechnology Research Center, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 Thailand (Thailand); Maensiri, Santi [School of Physics, Institute of Science, Suranaree University of Technology, Nakhon Ratchasima 30000 Thailand (Thailand)

    2016-05-01

    Magnetic properties of Fe–Co–Ni ternary alloys could be altered by changing of the particle size, elemental compositions, and crystalline structures. In this work, Fe{sub 50}Co{sub 50−x}Ni{sub x} nanoparticles (x=10, 20, 40, and 50) were prepared by the novel chemical reduction process. Hydrazine monohydrate was used as a reducing agent under the concentrated basic condition with the presence of poly(vinylpyrrolidone). We found that the nanoparticles were composed of Fe, Co and Ni with compositions according to the molar ratio of the metal sources. Interestingly, the particles were well-crystalline at the as-prepared state without post-annealing at high temperature. Increasing Ni content resulted in phase transformation from body centered cubic (bcc) to face centered cubic (fcc). For the fcc phase, the average particle size decreased when increased the Ni content; the Fe{sub 50}Ni{sub 50} nanoparticles had the smallest average size with the narrowest size distribution. In additions, the particles exhibited ferromagnetic properties at room temperature with the coercivities higher than 300 Oe, and the saturation magnetiation decreased with increasing Ni content. These results suggest that the structural and magnetic properties of Fe–Co–Ni alloys could be adjusted by varying the Ni content. - Highlights: • We prepared nanocrystalline Fe–Co–Ni alloys by a novel chemical reduction process. • Elemental compositions could be well controlled by the molar ratio of metal sources. • Particle size and magnetic properties clearly depended on the Ni contents. • Fe{sub 50}Co{sub 10}Ni{sub 40} exhibited high saturation magnetization of 126.3 emu/g.

  11. Effect of Ni content on the morphological evolution of Ni-YSZ solid oxide fuel cell electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen-Wiegart, Yu-chen Karen; Kennouche, David; Scott Cronin, J.; Barnett, Scott A.; Wang, Jun

    2016-02-01

    The coarsening of Ni in Ni-yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) anodes is a potential cause of long term solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) performance degradation. The specifics of the Ni-YSZ structure—including Ni/YSZ ratio, porosity, and particle size distributions—are normally selected to minimize anode polarization resistance, but they also impact long-term stability. A better understanding of how these factors influence long-term stability is important for designing more durable anodes. The effect of structural details, e.g., Ni-YSZ ratio, on Ni coarsening has not been quantified. Furthermore, prior measurements have been done by comparing evolved structures with control samples, such that sample-to-sample variations introduce errors. Here, we report a four dimensional (three spatial dimensions and time) study of Ni coarsening in Ni-YSZ anode functional layers with different Ni/YSZ ratios, using synchrotron x-ray nano-tomography. The continuous structural evolution was observed and analyzed at sub-100 nm resolution. It is shown quantitatively that increasing the Ni/YSZ ratio increases the Ni coarsening rate. This is due to both increased pore volume and a decrease in the YSZ volume fraction, such that there is more free volume and a less obtrusive YSZ network, both of which allow greater Ni coarsening. The results are shown to be in good agreement with a power-law coarsening model. The finding is critical for informing the design of SOFC electrode microstructures that limit coarsening and performance degradation.

  12. Formation of nickel germanides from Ni layers with thickness below 10 nm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jablonka, Lukas; Kubart, Tomas; Primetzhofer, Daniel; Abedin, Ahmad; Hellström, Per-Erik; Östling, Mikael; Jordan-Sweet, Jean; Lavoie, Christian; Zhang, Shi-Li; Zhang, Zhen

    2017-03-01

    The authors have studied the reaction between a Ge (100) substrate and thin layers of Ni ranging from 2 to 10 nm in thickness. The formation of metal-rich Ni5Ge3Ni5Ge3 was found to precede that of the monogermanide NiGe by means of real-time in situ x-ray diffraction during ramp-annealing and ex situ x-ray pole figure analyses for phase identification. The observed sequential growth of Ni5Ge3Ni5Ge3 and NiGe with such thin Ni layers is different from the previously reported simultaneous growth with thicker Ni layers. The phase transformation from Ni5Ge3Ni5Ge3 to NiGe was found to be nucleation-controlled for Ni thicknesses <5 nm<5 nm, which is well supported by thermodynamic considerations. Specifically, the temperature for the NiGe formation increased with decreasing Ni (rather Ni5Ge3Ni5Ge3) thickness below 5 nm. In combination with sheet resistance measurement and microscopic surface inspection of samples annealed with a standard rapid thermal processing, the temperature range for achieving morphologically stable NiGe layers was identified for this standard annealing process. As expected, it was found to be strongly dependent on the initial Ni thickness

  13. The Ni-rich Part of the Ni-P-Sn System: Isothermal Sections

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schmetterer, C.; Vízdal, J.; Kroupa, Aleš; Kodentsov, A.; Ipser, H.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 11 (2009), s. 2275-2300 ISSN 0361-5235 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) OC08053 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : lead free solder * phase diagram * Ni-P-Sn Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 1.428, year: 2009

  14. Fabrication of TiNi/CFRP smart composite using cold drawn TiNi wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ya; Otsuka, Kazuhiro; Toyama, Nobuyuki; Yoshida, Hitoshi; Jang, Byung-Koog; Nagai, Hideki; Oishi, Ryutaro; Kishi, Teruo

    2002-07-01

    In recent years, pre-strained TiNi shape memory alloys (SMA) have been used for fabricating smart structure with carbon fibers reinforced plastics (CFRP) in order to suppress microscopic mechanical damages. However, since the cure temperature of CFRP is higher than the reverse transformation temperatures of TiNi SMA, special fixture jigs have to be used for keeping the pre-strain during fabrication, which restricted its practical application. In order to overcome this difficulty, we developed a new method to fabricate SMA/CFRP smart composites without using special fixture jigs by controlling the transformation temperatures of SMA during fabrication. This method consists of using heavily cold-worked wires to increase the reverse transformation temperatures, and of using flash electrical heating of the wires after fabrication in order to decrease the reverse transformation temperatures to a lower temperature range again without damaging the epoxy resin around SMA wires. By choosing proper cold-working rate and composition of TiNi alloys, the reverse transformation temperatures were well controlled, and the TiNi/CFRP hybrid smart composite was fabricated without using special fixture jigs. The damage suppressing effect of cold drawn wires embedded in CFRP was confirmed.

  15. Transformation dynamics of Ni clusters into NiO rings under electron beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knez, Daniel, E-mail: daniel.knez@felmi-zfe.at [Institute of Electron Microscopy and Nanoanalysis, Graz University of Technology, Steyrergasse 17, 8010 Graz (Austria); Graz Centre for Electron Microscopy, Steyrergasse 17, 8010 Graz (Austria); Thaler, Philipp; Volk, Alexander [Institute of Experimental Physics, Graz University of Technology, Petersgasse 16, 8010 Graz (Austria); Kothleitner, Gerald [Institute of Electron Microscopy and Nanoanalysis, Graz University of Technology, Steyrergasse 17, 8010 Graz (Austria); Graz Centre for Electron Microscopy, Steyrergasse 17, 8010 Graz (Austria); Ernst, Wolfgang E. [Institute of Experimental Physics, Graz University of Technology, Petersgasse 16, 8010 Graz (Austria); Hofer, Ferdinand [Institute of Electron Microscopy and Nanoanalysis, Graz University of Technology, Steyrergasse 17, 8010 Graz (Austria); Graz Centre for Electron Microscopy, Steyrergasse 17, 8010 Graz (Austria)

    2017-05-15

    We report the transformation of nickel clusters into NiO rings by an electron beam induced nanoscale Kirkendall effect. High-purity nickel clusters consisting of a few thousand atoms have been used as precursors and were synthesized with the superfluid helium droplet technique. Aberration-corrected, analytical scanning transmission electron microscopy was applied to oxidise and simultaneously analyse the nanostructures. The transient dynamics of the oxidation could be documented by time lapse series using high-angle annular dark-field imaging and electron energy-loss spectroscopy. A two-step Cabrera-Mott oxidation mechanism was identified. It was found that water adsorbed adjacent to the clusters acts as oxygen source for the electron beam induced oxidation. The size-dependent oxidation rate was estimated by quantitative EELS measurements combined with molecular dynamics simulations. Our findings could serve to better control sample changes during examination in an electron microscope, and might provide a methodology to generate other metal oxide nanostructures. - Highlights: • Beam induced conversion of Ni clusters into crystalline NiO rings has been observed. • Ni clusters were grown with the superfluid He-droplet technique. • oxidizeSTEM was utilized to investigate and simultaneously oxidize these clusters. • Oxidation dynamics was captured in real-time. • Cluster sizes and the oxidation rate were estimated via EELS and molecular dynamics.

  16. Structural conditions of achieving maximum ductility of two-phase Ni-NiO alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabin, V.V.; Dabizha, E.V.; Movchan, B.A.

    1984-01-01

    A study was made on possibility of increasing ductility of two-phase Ni-NiO alloys, proJuced by traditional technology: ingot smelting, rolling and corresponding annealing for production of grain with certain size. The correlation of mechanical properties of Ni-NiO alloys and pure nickel shows that completion of the structural conJition D--lambda (where D - the average grain diameter, lambda - the value of free path between particles) in two-phase alloys enables: to increase the ultimate strength 1.5 times and preserve the basic level of pure nickel plasticity - at 20 deg C; to increase plasticity 1.4-1.5 times with preserved basic level of pure nickel plasticity - at 800 deg C. The conclusions testify to possibility of controlling mechanical properties of two-phase alloys using structural D and lambda parameters It is proposed that creation of structures with more unifor m particle distribution with respect to sizes will the accompanied by further increase of plasticity under D=lambda condition

  17. Experimental study of the $^{66}$Ni$(d,p)^{67}$Ni one-neutron transfer reaction

    CERN Document Server

    Diriken, J.; Andreyev, A.N.; Antalic, S.; Bildstein, V.; Blazhev, A.; Darby, I.G.; De Witte, H.; Eberth, J.; Elseviers, J.; Fedosseev, V.N.; Flavigny, F.; Fransen, Ch.; Georgiev, G.; Gernhauser, R.; Hess, H.; Huyse, M.; Jolie, J.; Kröll, Th.; Krücken, R.; Lutter, R.; Marsh, B.A.; Mertzimekis, T.; Muecher, D.; Orlandi, R.; Pakou, A.; Raabe, R.; Randisi, G.; Reiter, P.; Roger, T.; Seidlitz, M.; Seliverstov, M.; Sotty, C.; Tornqvist, H.; Van De Walle, J.; Van Duppen, P.; Voulot, D.; Warr, N.; Wenander, F.; Wimmer, K.

    2015-01-01

    The quasi-SU(3) sequence of the positive parity $νg_{9/2}, d_{5/2}, s_{1/2}$ orbitals above the N=40 shell gap are assumed to induce strong quadrupole collectivity in the neutron-rich Fe (Z=26) and Cr (Z=24) isotopes below the nickel region. In this paper the position and strength of these single-particle orbitals are characterized in the neighborhood of $^{68}$Ni (Z=28,N=40) through the $^{66}$Ni($d,p$)$^{67}$Ni one-neutron transfer reaction at 2.95 MeV/nucleon in inverse kinematics, performed at the REX-ISOLDE facility in CERN. A combination of the Miniball $\\gamma$-array and T-REX particle-detection setup was used and a delayed coincidence technique was employed to investigate the 13.3-$\\mu$s isomer at 1007 keV in $^{67}$Ni. Excited states up to an excitation energy of 5.8 MeV have been populated. Feeding of the $νg_{9/2}$ (1007 keV) and $νd_{5/2}$ (2207 keV and 3277 keV) positive-parity neutron states and negative parity ($νpf$) states have been observed at low excitation energy. The extracted relativ...

  18. Energies of Electronic States of Ni (II) Ion in NiO-Al2O3 Catalyst Prepared by Impregnation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obadovic, D. Z.; Kiurski, J.; Marinkovic-Neducin, R. P.

    2007-01-01

    The behavior of NiO-Al2O3 catalysts is strongly dependent on the preparation method, as well as on pretreatment conditions. In the present work we investigated the influences of Ni(II) ion on NiO-Al2O3 catalysts properties due to the preparation by impregnation method. Based on experimental diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) data of electronic d-d transitions of Ni (II) promoter ion the energies of electronic states in spinel-like structure were calculated, and the most probable scheme of molecular orbital have been proposed

  19. Interacción familiar y desarrollo emocional en niños y niñas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Cecilia Henao López

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En la presente investigación se tuvo como objetivo principal abordar los estilos de interacción de padres y madres de niños y niñas preescolares y su relación con el desarrollo emocional de sus hijos e hijas (235 niños y 169 niñas entre cinco y seis años de edad. Las dimensiones que se consideraron para evaluar el nivel emocional de los niños y niñas fueron: autorregulación, comprensión emocional, y empatía. Como primer aspecto describimos los tipos de interacción con sus hijos e hijas y el desarrollo emocional de los niños y niñas evaluados. Un segundo aspecto que se abordó, es el de explorar las asociaciones entre el estilo de interacción familiar y el desarrollo emocional infantil. El instrumento utilizado dirigido a los padres y madres fue la Escala de Identificación de Prácticas Educativas Familiares (PEF, versión española realizada por Alonso y Román; a los niños y niñas les aplicamos la evaluación del desempeño emocional (EDEI, que se construye como parte de esta investigación. Se trabajó con una muestra de 404 niños y niñas, y sus respectivos padres y madres. Los resultados obtenidos en esta investigación resaltan el estilo equilibrado como generador de conductas adecuadas y adaptativas en el niño o niña, al igual que rescata este estilo como el que más posibilita el nivel de comprensión emocional en los niños y niñas de nuestro estudio.

  20. Enhanced photocatalytic efficiency in zirconia buffered n-NiO/p-NiO single crystalline heterostructures by nanosecond laser treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molaei, R.; Bayati, M. R.; Alipour, H. M.; Nori, S.; Narayan, J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, NC State University, EB-1, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695-7907 (United States)

    2013-06-21

    We report the formation of NiO based single crystalline p-n junctions with enhanced photocatalytic activity induced by pulsed laser irradiation. The NiO epilayers were grown on Si(001) substrates buffered with cubic yttria-stabilized zirconia (c-YSZ) by using pulsed laser deposition. The NiO/c-YSZ/Si heterostructures were subsequently laser treated by 5 pulses of KrF excimer laser (pulse duration = 25 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -9} s) at lower energies. Microstructural studies, conducted by X-ray diffraction ({theta}-2{theta} and {phi} techniques) and high resolution transmission electron microscope, showed a cube-on-cube epitaxial relationship at the c-YSZ/Si interface; the epitaxial relationship across the NiO/c-YSZ interface was established as NiO<111 > Double-Vertical-Line Double-Vertical-Line c-YSZ<001> and in-plane NiO<110> Double-Vertical-Line Double-Vertical-Line c-YSZ<100>. Electron microscopy studies showed that the interface between the laser annealed and the pristine region as well as the NiO/c-YSZ interface was atomically sharp and crystallographically continuous. The formation of point defects, namely oxygen vacancies and NiO, due to the coupling of the laser photons with the NiO epilayers was confirmed by XPS. The p-type electrical characteristics of the pristine NiO epilayers turned to an n-type behavior and the electrical conductivity was increased by one order of magnitude after laser treatment. Photocatalytic activity of the pristine (p-NiO/c-YSZ/Si) and the laser-annealed (n-NiO/p-NiO/c-YSZ/Si) heterostructures were assessed by measuring the decomposition rate of 4-chlorophenol under UV light. The photocatalytic reaction rate constants were determined to be 0.0059 and 0.0092 min{sup -1} for the as-deposited and the laser-treated samples, respectively. The enhanced photocatalytic efficiency was attributed to the suppressed charge carrier recombination in the NiO based p-n junctions and higher electrical conductivity. Besides, the oxygen vacancies

  1. Tritium-tracer study of catalytic hydrogenation reaction of ethylene on Ni, Pt and Ni-Pt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuyama, M.; Yasuda, Y.; Takeuchi, T.

    1978-01-01

    The influence of the pressure of tritiated hydrogen on the rate of the formation of tritiated ethylene, X, and that of tritiated ethane, Z, in the hydrogenation reaction of ethylene on Ni, Pt and Ni-Pt (1:1) alloy catalysts was investigated. The ratio of the rate of the exchange to that of the hydrogenation, selectivity X/Z, decreased markedly with the increase in the pressure of the tritiated hydrogen and the order of X/Z was Ni>Ni-Pt>Pt. These results were interpreted in terms of the difference in the amount of chemisorbed tritium on each metal catalyst. (orig.) [de

  2. Lamellar-crossing-structured Ni(OH){sub 2}/CNTs/Ni(OH){sub 2} nanocomposite for electrochemical supercapacitor materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Qingnan [Department of Chemistry, State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Wen, Ming, E-mail: m_wen@tongji.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Shanghai Key Lab of Chemical Assessment and Sustainability, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Chen, Shipei [Department of Chemistry, State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Wu, Qingsheng [Department of Chemistry, State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Shanghai Key Lab of Chemical Assessment and Sustainability, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2015-10-15

    Ni(OH){sub 2}/CNTs/Ni(OH){sub 2} lamellar-crossing-nanostructure with a single lamellar spacing of ∼5 nm was effectively constructed through two-phase-interface reaction process followed by the CNTs crossed among the lamellar-nanostructured Ni(OH){sub 2}. The resultant nanocomposite can offer large active surface areas and short diffusion paths for electrons and ions, and is investigated as a potential pseudocapacitor electrode material for electrochemical energy storage applications. Electrochemical data demonstrate that the as-prepared nanocomposite exhibits a high specific capacitance of ∼1600 F g{sup −1} at the scan rate of 1 mV s{sup −1} in 6 M KOH solution at normal pressure and temperature, which is great higher than Ni(OH){sub 2} (∼1200 F g{sup −1}). Furthermore, Ni(OH){sub 2}/CNTs/Ni(OH){sub 2} nanocomposite shows a higher energy density (∼125 Wh kg{sup −1}, 2 A g{sup −1}) and has a slightly decrease of 5% in specific capacitance after 1000 continuous charge/discharge cycles. - Graphical abstract: As-constructed Ni(OH){sub 2}/CNTs/Ni(OH){sub 2} lamellar-crossing-nanostructure exhibits remarkable enhancement in electrochemical stability and high specific capacity of ∼1600 F g{sup −1} at a scan rate of 1 mV s{sup −1}, suggesting promising potential for supercapacitor applications. - Highlights: • New designed lamellar-crossing-structured Ni(OH){sub 2}/CNTs/Ni(OH){sub 2} nanocomposites have been firstly reported in this work. • Ni(OH){sub 2}/CNTs/Ni(OH){sub 2} lamellar-crossing-nanostructures show firm nanostructure and excellent electrochemical stability. • Ni(OH){sub 2}/CNTs/Ni(OH){sub 2} nanocomposites exhibit excellent specific capacitance. • Ni(OH){sub 2}/CNTs/Ni(OH){sub 2} nanocomposites have the potential application in electrochemical energy storage applications.

  3. Amorphous NiFe-OH/NiFeP Electrocatalyst Fabricated at Low Temperature for Water Oxidation Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Liang, Hanfeng

    2017-04-11

    Water splitting driven by electricity or sunlight is one of the most promising ways to address the global terawatt energy needs of future societies; however, its large-scale application is limited by the sluggish kinetics of the oxygen evolution reaction (OER). NiFe-based compounds, mainly oxides and hydroxides, are well-known OER catalysts and have been intensively studied; however, the utilization of the synergistic effect between two different NiFe-based materials to further boost the OER performance has not been achieved to date. Here, we report the rapid conversion of NiFe double hydroxide into metallic NiFeP using PH3 plasma treatment and further construction of amorphous NiFe hydroxide/NiFeP/Ni foam as efficient and stable oxygen-evolving anodes. The strong electronic interactions between NiFe hydroxide and NiFeP significantly lower the adsorption energy of H2O on the hybrid and thus lead to enhanced OER performance. As a result, the hybrid catalyst can deliver a geometrical current density of 300 mA cm–2 at an extremely low overpotential (258 mV, after ohmic-drop correction), along with a small Tafel slope of 39 mV decade–1 and outstanding long-term durability in alkaline media.

  4. Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting Properties of Ti-Ni-Si-O Nanostructures on Ti-Ni-Si Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Li

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Ti-Ni-Si-O nanostructures were successfully prepared on Ti-1Ni-5Si alloy foils via electrochemical anodization in ethylene glycol/glycerol solutions containing a small amount of water. The Ti-Ni-Si-O nanostructures were characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS, X-ray diffraction (XRD, and diffuse reflectance absorption spectra. Furthermore, the photoelectrochemical water splitting properties of the Ti-Ni-Si-O nanostructure films were investigated. It was found that, after anodization, three different kinds of Ti-Ni-Si-O nanostructures formed in the α-Ti phase region, Ti2Ni phase region, and Ti5Si3 phase region of the alloy surface. Both the anatase and rutile phases of Ti-Ni-Si-O oxide appeared after annealing at 500 °C for 2 h. The photocurrent density obtained from the Ti-Ni-Si-O nanostructure photoanodes was 0.45 mA/cm2 at 0 V (vs. Ag/AgCl in 1 M KOH solution. The above findings make it feasible to further explore excellent photoelectrochemical properties of the nanostructure-modified surface of Ti-Ni-Si ternary alloys.

  5. Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting Properties of Ti-Ni-Si-O Nanostructures on Ti-Ni-Si Alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ting; Ding, Dongyan; Dong, Zhenbiao; Ning, Congqin

    2017-10-31

    Ti-Ni-Si-O nanostructures were successfully prepared on Ti-1Ni-5Si alloy foils via electrochemical anodization in ethylene glycol/glycerol solutions containing a small amount of water. The Ti-Ni-Si-O nanostructures were characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and diffuse reflectance absorption spectra. Furthermore, the photoelectrochemical water splitting properties of the Ti-Ni-Si-O nanostructure films were investigated. It was found that, after anodization, three different kinds of Ti-Ni-Si-O nanostructures formed in the α-Ti phase region, Ti₂Ni phase region, and Ti₅Si₃ phase region of the alloy surface. Both the anatase and rutile phases of Ti-Ni-Si-O oxide appeared after annealing at 500 °C for 2 h. The photocurrent density obtained from the Ti-Ni-Si-O nanostructure photoanodes was 0.45 mA/cm² at 0 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) in 1 M KOH solution. The above findings make it feasible to further explore excellent photoelectrochemical properties of the nanostructure-modified surface of Ti-Ni-Si ternary alloys.

  6. Characterization and electrochemical properties of Ni(Si)/Ni5Si2 multiphase coatings prepared by HVOF spraying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdian, M. M.; Raeissi, K.; Salehi, M.

    2012-11-01

    Ni(Si)/Ni5Si2 powders were produced by mechanical alloying (MA) of Ni-25 at.% Si powder mixture. Then, the as-milled powders were sprayed onto copper substrate using high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) process. The phase composition and microstructure of the coatings were examined by X-ray diffractometry and scanning electron microscopy. Polarization tests and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements were also employed to study corrosion performance of the coatings in 3.5% NaCl solution. The results showed that although single phase Ni3Si was formed during annealing of Ni(Si)/Ni5Si2 powders, but, only Ni(Si) and Ni5Si2 are present in HVOF coatings and no new phase has been formed during spraying. The coatings had microhardness up to 746 HV0.05. Further investigations showed the corrosion performance of multiphase coatings in 3.5% NaCl solution was better than that of copper substrate. The phase transitions during MA, HVOF and annealing processes were discussed in association with Ni-Si phase diagram and nature of each process.

  7. Viviendo con VIH/SIDA: Las voces ocultas de los niños y niñas afectados

    OpenAIRE

    Luz Adriana Aristizábal Becerra

    2015-01-01

    El VIH/SIDA no es solamente un problema de salud, sino también un problema social. Los primeros casos de VIH/SIDA en niños se describen en 1982 en Estados Unidos, y desde entonces el número de niños infectados y afectados continúa incrementándose, hasta convertirse en lo que en la actualidad se denota como una pandemia. Objetivo. Posibilitar un espacio para que los niños y niñas afectados por el VIH/SIDA, puedan expresar sus vivencias en torno al padecimiento propio y/o de sus padres. Metodol...

  8. Influence of Ni/Co molar ratio on electromagnetic properties and microwave absorption performances for Ni/Co paraffin composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, S.J., E-mail: shaojiuyan@126.com [Department of Structural Steel, Functional Materials and Heat Treatment Processing, AVIC Beijing Institute of Aeronautical Materials, Beijing 100095 (China); Aviation Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Stealth Materials, Beijing 100095 (China); Dai, S.L. [The Office of AVIC Beijing Institute of Aeronautical Materials, Beijing 100095 (China); Ding, H.Y.; Wang, Z.Y. [Aviation Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Stealth Materials, Beijing 100095 (China); Liu, D.B [Department of Structural Steel, Functional Materials and Heat Treatment Processing, AVIC Beijing Institute of Aeronautical Materials, Beijing 100095 (China)

    2014-05-01

    Ni and Co metallic microparticles with submicron size were synthesized with a simple wet chemical reduction method at a relatively low temperature. Then their morphologies and structures were characterized by SEM and XRD. Ni metallic microparticles have spherical-shape morphology with fcc crystalline structure, however, Co has a distinct leaf-like morphology with the fcc and hcp mixed phases crystalline structures. For the characterization of their electromagnetic properties, paraffin matrix composites containing different molar ratio Ni and Co mixture powder as fillers were prepared. It was found that both the electromagnetic properties and electromagnetic microwave absorption performances of absorber layer were remarkably influenced by Ni/Co molar ratio. The electromagnetic microwave absorption performances were significantly improved by blending Ni and Co metallic microparticles into paraffin matrix with changing Ni/Co molar ratio, and enhanced mechanism were discussed. - Highlights: • Ni and Co microparticles were synthesized by a wet chemical reduction method. • EM properties of absorber were remarkably influenced by Ni/Co molar ratio. • EMA performances can be adjusted by artificially changing Co/Ni molar ratio. • Enhanced EMA performances result from multiple EM attenuation mechanisms.

  9. Synergetic interface between NiO/Ni3S2 nanosheets and carbon nanofiber as binder-free anode for highly reversible lithium storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jialin; Ma, Chao; Yang, Yinbo; Ding, Jingjing; Ji, Hongmei; Shi, Shaojun; Yang, Gang

    2018-05-01

    A novel heterostructure of NiO/Ni3S2 nanoflake is synthesized and composited with carbon nanofibers (CNF) membrane. NiO/Ni3S2 nanoflakes are homogeneously dispersed in CNF network, herein, NiO/Ni3S2 like leaf and CNF like branch. Carbon nanofibers network efficiently prevents the pulverization and buffers the volume changes of NiO/Ni3S2, meanwhile, NiO/Ni3S2 nanoflakes through the conductive channels of carbon nanofibers own improved Li+ diffusion ability and structural stability. The capacity of NiO/Ni3S2/CNF reaches to 519.2 mA g-1 after 200 cycles at the current density of 0.5 A g-1 while NiO/Ni3S2 fades to 71 mAh g-1 after 40 cycles. Owing to the synergetic structure, the resultant binder-free electrode NiO/Ni3S2/carbon nanofibers shows an excellent reversible lithium storage capability.

  10. Vacuum-Free, Maskless Patterning of Ni Electrodes by Laser Reductive Sintering of NiO Nanoparticle Ink and Its Application to Transparent Conductors

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Daeho; Paeng, Dongwoo; Park, Hee K.; Grigoropoulos, Costas P.

    2014-01-01

    © 2014 American Chemical Society. We introduce a method for direct patterning of Ni electrodes through selective laser direct writing (LDW) of NiO nanoparticle (NP) ink. High-resolution Ni patterns are generated from NiO NP thin films by a vacuum

  11. Residual stress in Ni-W electrodeposits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mizushima, Io; Tang, Peter Torben; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2006-01-01

    In the present work, the residual stress in Ni–W layers electrodeposited from electrolytes based on NiSO4 and Na2WO4, is investigated. Citrate, glycine and triethanolamine were used as complexing agents, enabling complex formation between the nickel ion and tungstate. The results show that the type...... of complexing agent and the current efficiency have an influence on the residual stress. In all cases, an increase in tensile stress in the deposit with time after deposition was observed. Pulse plating could improve the stress level for the electrolyte containing equal amounts of citrate...

  12. Anomalous Hall effect in polycrystalline Ni films

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Zaibing

    2012-02-01

    We systematically studied the anomalous Hall effect in a series of polycrystalline Ni films with thickness ranging from 4 to 200 nm. It is found that both the longitudinal and anomalous Hall resistivity increased greatly as film thickness decreased. This enhancement should be related to the surface scattering. In the ultrathin films (46 nm thick), weak localization corrections to anomalous Hall conductivity were studied. The granular model, taking into account the dominated intergranular tunneling, has been employed to explain this phenomenon, which can explain the weak dependence of anomalous Hall resistivity on longitudinal resistivity as well. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparison of Corrosion Behavior of Electrochemically Deposited Nano-Cobalt-Coated Ni Sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser Al-Aqeeli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Corrosion behavior of nano-coblat-coated Ni sheet was compared with pure Ni and 20% Fe-Ni alloy sheet using potentiodynamic polarization and linear polarization technique in 0.1 M NaCl solution at room temperature. Results showed that corrosion resistance properties of nano-Co-coated Ni sheet were almost same as that of pure Ni sheet, however corrosion resistance of 20% Fe-Ni sheet was decreased significantly. Pitting potential of 20% Fe-Ni sheet was subsequently decreased as compared to pure Ni sheet as well as nano-cobalt-coated Ni sheet. SEM/EDS analysis of the corroded surfaces showed that both pure Ni and nano-coblat-coated Ni sheet did not show any appreciable corrosion however significant corrosion was observed in the case of 20% Fe-Ni sheet.

  14. Research report for fiscal 1995 on analysis and evaluation of demonstration tests for establishment of residential photovoltaic power generation load leveling technology (putting of related data into order); 1995 nendo kenkyu hokokusho. Jutaku you taiyoko hatsuden fuka heijunka gijutsu tou kakuritsu jissho shiken ni kansuru kaiseki hyoka (Kanren data no seibi)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Research and development has been performed with the objectives to establish an evaluation technology for load leveling effect by using a small photovoltaic power generation system for residential use, to clarify the effectiveness of the system as a discrete power supply source through demonstration operation, and furthermore to achieve optimization of the small photovoltaic power generation system for residential use. This paper describes the actual state survey data related to grid connection systems for the small photovoltaic power generation system for residential use. The survey has been performed mainly on the system for individuals' use inside and outside Japan with regard to the small grid connection systems of 1-10 kW scale. The number of survey has reached 216 cases for 46 prefectures in Japan (1,004.02 kW in total), and 47 cases for 13 other countries (205.60 kW in total), or 263 cases in grand total (1,209.63 kW). These 263 cases were tabulated with items of owners (or the facility names and installation locations) as seen by territories (prefectures or countries), facility operators (or executing organizations), connection modes, and power generation scales. These data will serve for discussions on the load leveling effect and the optimized system forms. (NEDO)

  15. Research report for fiscal 1997 on analysis and evaluation of demonstration tests for establishment of residential photovoltaic power generation load leveling technology; 1997 nendo kenkyu hokokusho. Jutaku you taiyoko hatsuden fuka heijunka gijutsu tou kakuritsu jissho shiken ni kansuru kaiseki hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Tests and researches have been performed with the objectives to establish an evaluation technology for load leveling effect by using a small photovoltaic power generation system for residential use, to clarify the effectiveness of the system as a discrete power supply source through demonstration operation, and furthermore to achieve optimization of designs of the small photovoltaic power generation system for residential use. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 1997. The current fiscal year has performed the continued collection of data of the demonstration operation, and analysis and evaluation on the photovoltaic power generation characteristics and the house load characteristics. According to the data analysis result for fiscals 1995 through 1997, it was shown that, although the photovoltaic power generation system for residential use does not contribute much to load leveling in a house, it contributes to load leveling in the distribution line on the whole or a case as large as a grid. In addition, according to the survey on users who have installed the photovoltaic power generation system, it was indicated that the consciousness of electric power and energy conservation has heightened. The capacity of a photovoltaic power generation system for residential use is 3 kW for a standard type of home, which can take care of more than 60% of the house load. It was concluded that, if a storage battery of small capacity is accommodated, the system is effective for reduction of momentary peak load, enhancement of the power quality, and supply of power at a disaster. (NEDO)

  16. Fiscal 1996 research report on the PV power generation field test project for public facilities. Evaluation and analysis of collected data for every site (1/2); 1996 nendo kokyo shisetsu nadoyo taiyoko hatsuden field test jigyo ni okeru shushu data hyoka kaiseki. Kaku site betsu (1/2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    As a part of the PV power generation field test project, this report summarizes the monthly collected data for every site in fiscal 1996. The test sites include various public facilities such as park, school, university, museum, Shinkansen platform, laboratory, technical center, training building, local governmental hotel, health athletic center, community center, joint purchase center, consumers' cooperative (CO-OP), school meals provision center, prefectural office building, police station garage, water purification plant, general disaster prevention center, and health center. Collected data items are as follows: total solar irradiation (kWh/m{sup 2}), average air temperature, array power, system power, load power, power system supply load, reverse power flow, self supply load (kWh for every item), system disinterconnection time (min), system operation time (min), equivalent array/system operation time, array/system performance ratio, system use factor, system generation efficiency, effective inverter efficiency, and inverter load factor. (NEDO)

  17. Fiscal 1999 research result report on energy and environment technology demonstration research support project (International joint demonstration research project). Improvement of long-distant power transmission efficiency and reliability, and its environmental impact assessment; 1999 nendo chokyori soden hoshiki ni kansuru soden koritsu to soden shinraido no kojo oyobi kankyo eno eikyo hyoka seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Japan-Russia international joint research was made on overhead ultrahigh-voltage DC power transmission lines for transmission loss reduction and reliability improvement, and an optimum international power supply cable system, considering energy saving and environment conservation. Using the European-Russian DC power transmission line of {+-}500kV and 4GW as a model, comparison was made between a model using Russian round strands and glass insulators and a model using Japanese low-loss wires and insulators. As for improvement of the reliability in cold districts, Russian design techniques for tower structure and ice loading were reasonable to counteract galloping oscillation and ice load. In evaluation and selection of optimum underground and marine cables, study was made on cable specifications using the Turkey-Russia power transmission route as a model. The environmental assessment result of these cables showed that XLPE cable under development is optimum. (NEDO)

  18. New stimulation method with the function of narrowing and moving the stimulated region for cochlear implants. Its evaluation by the animal experiment and the numerical analysis; Jinko naiji no tame no shigeki bui no seneika to ido kino wo motta shigeki hoshiki. Suchi kaiseki to dobutsu jikken ni yoru hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyoshi, S.; Sakajiri, M.; Ifukube, T.; Matsushima, J. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)

    1998-02-01

    The electrical stimulation of the auditory nerve can elicit auditory sensations in the subjects with sensorineural deafness. Each stimulating electrode of an electrode array of the multi-channel cochlear implants may stimulate a distinct neural population. However, a great deal of current spreads from each electrode throughout a lymph because of the high electrical conductivity of the lymph liquid. This phenomenon causes the transmitted information to be reduce due to channel interactions. Even if the number of electrodes is increased, the transmitted information will be limited because of current spread. We have proposed the Tripolar Electrode Stimulation Method (TESM) which may succeed in narrowing the stimulation region and continuously moving the stimulation site for the cochlear implants. We evaluate whether or not TESM works according to a theory which is based on the numerical analysis using the auditory nerve fiber model consisted of unmyelinated and myelinated segments. In this simulation, the neural site and the am of the excited fibers are compared with the compound action potentials which we obtained through animal experiments. As a result, based on the numerical analysis using this model, it is also proved that the anodal/cathodal threshold stimulation current ratio increases by decreasing unmyelinated segment between the inner hair cell and the habenula perforate. Also by comparing the result of the numerical analysis with that of the animal experiment, It is suggested that an effect of the unmyelinated segment is not significant. Based on their results mentioned above, we succeed in narrowing a Stimulation region by controlling the am of the currents emitted from the electrodes on both sides. Also we succeed in continuously moving a stimulation site by changing the ratio of the currents emitted from the electrodes on both sides. 11 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab.

  19. FY 2000 Development of international standard supporting new industries. Standardization of the test method for performance evaluation for polymer products under critical environment; 2000 nendo shinki sangyo shiengata kokusai hyojun kaihatsu jigyo seika hokokusho. Kakoku kankyoka ni okeru kobunshi seihin no seino hyoka shiken hoho no hyojunka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    This project is aimed at development of the testing methods which can adequately predict resistance of polymer products to weather in various areas of largely different environmental conditions. Described herein are the FY 2000 results of the outdoor exposure tests, and the tests in which the samples are exposed to light from a laboratory source and to a solar light-concentrating test unit. The FY 2000 project include the exposure of the samples directly to the outdoor conditions and glass-filtered light, which are continued from the previous year; solar light-concentrating type exposure tests conducted in Arizona, USA, started in this year; and reproduction tests for the exposure to a xenon lamp light, review of short exposure time areas and spectral degradation tests, among others. The program for evaluating the reference materials includes measurement of cumulative property changes of 4 types of plastic and 10 types of rubber materials by the exposure tests. The tests of resistance of plastics to weather have been exposing the samples, stabilized and not stabilized, for 16 months. For the reference candidate samples, the data of exposure for 1 month are collected 16 times. The tests of resistance of the rubber materials to weather reveal that each sample is deteriorated by hardening and deterioration proceeds with time. (NEDO)

  20. FY 2000 report on the research cooperation project - Research cooperation in developmental support for oil producing countries. Production of catalyst and development of the evaluation technology in Kuwait; 2000 nendo san'yukoku kaihatsu shien kenkyu kyoryoku jigyo seika hokokusho. Kuuweto ni okeru shokubai seizo oyobi hyoka gijutsu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-09-01

    For the purpose of strengthening the economic infrastructure of Kuwait and also strengthening the relation between Japan and Kuwait by bringing up the catalyst production industry in Kuwait as one of the key industries, the research cooperation was made with Kuwait Catalyst Co. (KCC). In this research cooperation project, the following were conducted: survey of the catalyst production environment in Kuwait, survey of the actual condition of oil factories in Kuwait and the Middle East, trial production of the catalyst to meet the needs of Kuwait, evaluation of the catalyst suitable for oil factories in Kuwait and the Middle East and evaluation of the application conditions, development of technology for production/evaluation/application of the catalyst to meet the needs of Kuwait, etc. As to the trial catalyst production at KCC, the trial products for heavy oil desulfurization and light oil desulfurization stood comparison with the catalysts produced in Japan. KCC started trial operation in fall 2000, and the commercial production is smoothly continuing. In September 2001, the catalyst for heavy oil desulfurizer of KNPC, user, was delivered. The delivery to other users was also planned to be made. (NEDO)