WorldWideScience

Sample records for shifting cultivation systems

  1. Changes in shifting cultivation systems on small Pacific islands

    Mertz, Ole; Birch-Thomsen, Torben; Elberling, Bo

    2012-01-01

    The limited information on change in shifting cultivation systems of small islands of the Pacific stands in contrast to increasing evidence of this farming system's demise in other parts of the tropics. Here, we assess changes in agricultural activities during the past 40 years of Bellona Island......, Solomon Islands, where shifting cultivation is still maintained in the traditional way. Fallow length has increased despite population growth due to redistribution of the cultivated area, migration-induced extensification and changes in crops. Productivity of the farming system remains high although...

  2. Shorter Fallow Cycles Affect the Availability of Noncrop Plant Resources in a Shifting Cultivation System

    Sarah Paule. Dalle

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Shifting cultivation systems, one of the most widely distributed forms of agriculture in the tropics, provide not only crops of cultural significance, but also medicinal, edible, ritual, fuel, and forage resources, which contribute to the livelihoods, health, and cultural identity of local people. In many regions across the globe, shifting cultivation systems are undergoing important changes, one of the most pervasive being a shortening of the fallow cycle. Although there has been much attention drawn to declines in crop yields in conjunction with reductions in fallow times, little if any research has focused on the dynamics of noncrop plant resources. In this paper, we use a data set of 26 fields of the same age, i.e., ~1.5 yr, but differing in the length and frequency of past fallow cycles, to examine the impact of shorter fallow periods on the availability of noncrop plant resources. The resources examined are collected in shifting cultivation fields by the Yucatec Maya in Quintana Roo, Mexico. These included firewood, which is cut from remnant trees and stumps spared at the time of felling, and 17 forage species that form part of the weed vegetation. Firewood showed an overall decrease in basal area with shorter fallow cycles, which was mostly related to the smaller diameter of the spared stumps and trees in short-fallow milpas. In contrast, forage species showed a mixed response. Species increasing in abundance in short-fallow milpas tended to be short-lived herbs and shrubs often with weedy habits, whereas those declining in abundance were predominantly pioneer trees and animal-dispersed species. Coppicing tree species showed a neutral response to fallow intensity. Within the cultural and ecological context of our study area, we expect that declines in firewood availability will be most significant for livelihoods because of the high reliance on firewood for local fuel needs and the fact that the main alternative source of firewood, forest

  3. Variation in soil fertility influences cycle dynamics and crop diversity in shifting cultivation systems

    Braga Junqueira, A.; Stomph, T.J.; Clement, C.R.; Struik, P.C.

    2016-01-01

    Smallholder farming in Amazonia is practised mostly through shifting cultivation, which under low population pressure is well adapted to the low-fertility soils that predominate in uplands and to the lack of external inputs. In this paper we investigate the effects of soil heterogeneity (in terms of

  4. Shifting Cultivation : Promoting Innovative Policy and Development ...

    Shifting Cultivation : Promoting Innovative Policy and Development Options in the Eastern Himalayas. Shifting ... pressure and market forces. The idea is to share good policies and practices related to shifting cultivation and alternative options through regional exchange. ... Les chaînes de valeur comme leviers stratégiques.

  5. Improving Former Shifted Cultivation Land Using Wetland Cultivation in Kapuas District, Central Kalimantan

    Wahyudi Wahyudi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Degraded forest area in Kalimantan could be caused by shifted cultivation activity that be conducted by local peoples in the surrounding forest areas. Efforts to improve the former shifted cultivation area (non productive land is developing the settled cultivation by use of irrigation system, better paddy seed, land processing, fertilizing, spraying pesticide, weeding, and better acces to the market.  Local peoples, especially in Kalimantan, has been depended their food on the shifted cultivation pattern since the long time ago.  This tradition could cause forest damage, forest fire, forest degradation, deforestation, and lose out of children education because they were following shifted cultivation activity although itsspace is very far from their home.  This research was aimed to improve former shifted cultivation lands using wetland cultivation in order to improve land productivity and to support food securityin the local community. This research was administratively located in Tanjung Rendan Village, Kapuas Hulu Sub-Ddistrict, Kapuas District, Central Kalimantan Province, Indonesia.  Data of rice yield from settled cultivation and shifted cultivation were got from 15 households that was taking by random at 2010 to 2011. Homogeneity test, analysis of variants, and least significant different (LSD test using SPSS 15.0 for Windows. Result of this research showed that     paddy yield at settled cultivation was significantly differentand better than shifted cultivation at 0.05 level. LSD test also indicated that all paddy yields from settled cultivation were significantly different compare to shifted cultivation at the 0.05 level.  The community in Tanjung Rendan Villages preferred settled cultivation than shifted cultivation, especially due to higher paddy production. Profit for settled cultivation was IDR10.95 million ha-1, meanwhile profit for shifted cultivation was just IDR 2.81 million ha-1 only.  Settled cultivation pattern could

  6. The Third Perspective on Shifting Cultivation

    Sukanya Sharma

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT There are two perspectives in which the understanding of food sustainability in the world is entangled. The first perspective which believes that food sustainability can be achieved by technology presents shifting cultivation as a reflection of a lower state of cultural evolution in comparison with more sophisticated societies (O’Brien 2002.The second perspective which believes in culture, in the ‘way of life’ paradigm valorise shifting cultivation as a form of indigenous genius, representing the indigenous people as perhaps the original environmentalist (Bandy et al.1993; Conklin 1957; Grandstaff 1981; Hong 1987. The biasness of both the perspectives is well visible. The task now is to document and evaluate indigenous strategies of shifting cultivation through a process of research and development. This process involves identification of promising indigenous practices, characterization of the practices, validation of the utility of the practice for other communities, extrapolation to other locations, verification with key farmers, and wide-scale extension. This can be treated as the third perspective available to the policy makers. By this, the detrimental effects of shifting cultivation can be mitigated and productivity increased (Mali 2003.

  7. Indigenous systems of forest classification: understanding land use patterns and the role of NTFPs in shifting cultivators' subsistence economies.

    Delang, Claudio O

    2006-04-01

    This article discusses the system of classification of forest types used by the Pwo Karen in Thung Yai Naresuan Wildlife Sanctuary in western Thailand and the role of nontimber forest products (NTFPs), focusing on wild food plants, in Karen livelihoods. The article argues that the Pwo Karen have two methods of forest classification, closely related to their swidden farming practices. The first is used for forest land that has been, or can be, swiddened, and classifies forest types according to growth conditions. The second system is used for land that is not suitable for cultivation and looks at soil properties and slope. The article estimates the relative importance of each forest type in what concerns the collection of wild food plants. A total of 134 wild food plant species were recorded in December 2004. They account for some 80-90% of the amount of edible plants consumed by the Pwo Karen, and have a base value of Baht 11,505 per year, comparable to the cash incomes of many households. The article argues that the Pwo Karen reliance on NTFPs has influenced their land-use and forest management practices. However, by restricting the length of the fallow period, the Thai government has caused ecological changes that are challenging the ability of the Karen to remain subsistence oriented. By ignoring shifting cultivators' dependence on such products, the involvement of governments in forest management, especially through restrictions imposed on swidden farming practices, is likely to have a considerable impact on the livelihood strategies of these communities.

  8. Shifting Cultivation : Promoting Innovative Policy and Development ...

    ... if improved and rationalized as an agroforestry system, has high potential for poverty ... with the livelihood issues of the cultivators and the health of the ecosystem, and assess the ... International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development.

  9. Land-use poverty traps identified in shifting cultivation systems shape long-term tropical forest cover

    Coomes, Oliver T.; Takasaki, Yoshito; Rhemtulla, Jeanine M.

    2011-01-01

    In this article we illustrate how fine-grained longitudinal analyses of land holding and land use among forest peasant households in an Amazonian village can enrich our understanding of the poverty/land cover nexus. We examine the dynamic links in shifting cultivation systems among asset poverty, land use, and land cover in a community where poverty is persistent and primary forests have been replaced over time—with community enclosure—by secondary forests (i.e., fallows), orchards, and crop land. Land cover change is assessed using aerial photographs/satellite imagery from 1965 to 2007. Household and plot level data are used to track land holding, portfolios, and use as well as land cover over the past 30 y, with particular attention to forest status (type and age). Our analyses find evidence for two important types of “land-use” poverty traps—a “subsistence crop” trap and a “short fallow” trap—and indicate that the initial conditions of land holding by forest peasants have long-term effects on future forest cover and household welfare. These findings suggest a new mechanism driving poverty traps: insufficient initial land holdings induce land use patterns that trap households in low agricultural productivity. Path dependency in the evolution of household land portfolios and land use strategies strongly influences not only the wellbeing of forest people but also the dynamics of tropical deforestation and secondary forest regrowth. PMID:21873179

  10. Agent-based modelling of shifting cultivation field patterns, Vietnam

    Jepsen, Martin Rudbeck; Leisz, S.; Rasmussen, K.

    2006-01-01

    Shifting cultivation in the Nghe An Province of Vietnam's Northern Mountain Region produces a characteristic land-cover pattern of small and larger fields. The pattern is the result of farmers cultivating either individually or in spatially clustered groups. Using spatially explicit agent...

  11. Intensification of Shifting Cultivation in Tanzania: Degree, Drivers and Effects on Vegetation and Soils

    Kilawe, Charles Joseph

    The aim of the present study was to provide a better understanding of the degree and drivers of intensification of shifting cultivation and its effects on vegetation and soils. The study was conducted in uplands and low lands agro-ecological zones of Kilosa District, eastern central Tanzania. Data...... and intensive short fallow systems. They also adopted intensive land preparation methods that involved deep cultivation and burying of vegetation. Intensification in upland was driven by adoption and enforcement of land tenure policies which restrict shifting cultivation whereas in the lowlands, it was driven...... that sustainable intensification of shifting cultivation be sought to prevent further adverse effects on the environment. The present restrictive policy driven approach of intensification of shifting cultivation seems to cause more negative environmental consequences. I recommend development and promotion...

  12. A global view of shifting cultivation: Recent, current, and future extent.

    Andreas Heinimann

    Full Text Available Mosaic landscapes under shifting cultivation, with their dynamic mix of managed and natural land covers, often fall through the cracks in remote sensing-based land cover and land use classifications, as these are unable to adequately capture such landscapes' dynamic nature and complex spectral and spatial signatures. But information about such landscapes is urgently needed to improve the outcomes of global earth system modelling and large-scale carbon and greenhouse gas accounting. This study combines existing global Landsat-based deforestation data covering the years 2000 to 2014 with very high-resolution satellite imagery to visually detect the specific spatio-temporal pattern of shifting cultivation at a one-degree cell resolution worldwide. The accuracy levels of our classification were high with an overall accuracy above 87%. We estimate the current global extent of shifting cultivation and compare it to other current global mapping endeavors as well as results of literature searches. Based on an expert survey, we make a first attempt at estimating past trends as well as possible future trends in the global distribution of shifting cultivation until the end of the 21st century. With 62% of the investigated one-degree cells in the humid and sub-humid tropics currently showing signs of shifting cultivation-the majority in the Americas (41% and Africa (37%-this form of cultivation remains widespread, and it would be wrong to speak of its general global demise in the last decades. We estimate that shifting cultivation landscapes currently cover roughly 280 million hectares worldwide, including both cultivated fields and fallows. While only an approximation, this estimate is clearly smaller than the areas mentioned in the literature which range up to 1,000 million hectares. Based on our expert survey and historical trends we estimate a possible strong decrease in shifting cultivation over the next decades, raising issues of livelihood security

  13. Influence of shifting cultivation practices on soil-plant-beetle interactions.

    Ibrahim, Kalibulla Syed; Momin, Marcy D; Lalrotluanga, R; Rosangliana, David; Ghatak, Souvik; Zothansanga, R; Kumar, Nachimuthu Senthil; Gurusubramanian, Guruswami

    2016-08-01

    Shifting cultivation (jhum) is a major land use practice in Mizoram. It was considered as an eco-friendly and efficient method when the cycle duration was long (15-30 years), but it poses the problem of land degradation and threat to ecology when shortened (4-5 years) due to increased intensification of farming systems. Studying beetle community structure is very helpful in understanding how shifting cultivation affects the biodiversity features compared to natural forest system. The present study examines the beetle species diversity and estimates the effects of shifting cultivation practices on the beetle assemblages in relation to change in tree species composition and soil nutrients. Scarabaeidae and Carabidae were observed to be the dominant families in the land use systems studied. Shifting cultivation practice significantly (P PERMANOVA), permutational multivariate analysis of dispersion (PERMDISP)) statistical analyses. Besides changing the tree species composition and affecting the soil fertility, shifting cultivation provides less suitable habitat conditions for the beetle species. Bioindicator analysis categorized the beetle species into forest specialists, anthropogenic specialists (shifting cultivation habitat specialist), and habitat generalists. Molecular analysis of bioindicator beetle species was done using mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) marker to validate the beetle species and describe genetic variation among them in relation to heterogeneity, transition/transversion bias, codon usage bias, evolutionary distance, and substitution pattern. The present study revealed the fact that shifting cultivation practice significantly affects the beetle species in terms of biodiversity pattern as well as evolutionary features. Spatiotemporal assessment of soil-plant-beetle interactions in shifting cultivation system and their influence in land degradation and ecology will be helpful in making biodiversity conservation decisions in the

  14. Trends in shifting cultivation and the REDD mechanism

    Mertz, Ole

    2009-01-01

    of the transitions taking place. The proposed mechanism for reduced greenhouse gas emissions from deforestation and degradation (REDD) can be both a challenge and opportunity for shifting cultivators. Very limited literature is available on this dilemma, but a few sources point to benefits from ‘compensated...

  15. Spatial patterns and processes for shifting cultivation landscape in Garo Hills, India.

    Ashish Kumar; Bruce G. Marcot; P.S. Roy

    2006-01-01

    We analyzed a few spatial patterns and processes of a shifting cultivation landscape in the Garo Hills of Meghalaya state in North East India, where about 85% of land belongs to native community. The landscape comprised 2459 km2 of land with forest cover and shifting cultivation patches over 69% and 7% area of landscape, respectively. The mean...

  16. The role of Amazonian anthropogenic soils in shifting cultivation: learning from farmers' rationales

    André B. Junqueira

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated farmers' rationales to understand their decision making in relation to the use of fertile anthropogenic soils, i.e., Amazonian dark earths (ADE, and for dealing with changes in shifting cultivation in Central Amazonia. We analyzed qualitative information from 196 interviews with farmers in 21 riverine villages along the Madeira River. In order to decide about crop management options to attain their livelihood objectives, farmers rely on an integrated and dynamic understanding of their biophysical and social environment. Farmers associate fallow development with higher crop yields and lower weed pressure, but ADE is always associated with high yields and high weeding requirements. Amazonian dark earths are also seen as an opportunity to grow different crops and/or grow crops in more intensified management systems. However, farmers often maintain simultaneously intensive swiddens on ADE and extensive swiddens on nonanthropogenic soils. Farmers acknowledge numerous changes in their socioeconomic environment that affect their shifting cultivation systems, particularly their growing interaction with market economies and the incorporation of modern agricultural practices. Farmers considered that shifting cultivation systems on ADE tend to be more prone to changes leading to intensification, and we identified cases, e.g., swiddens used for watermelon cultivation, in which market demand led to overintensification and resulted in ADE degradation. This shows that increasing intensification can be a potential threat to ADE and can undermine the importance of these soils for agricultural production, for the conservation of agrobiodiversity, and for local livelihoods. Given that farmers have an integrated knowledge of their context and respond to socioeconomic and agro-ecological changes in their environment, we argue that understanding farmers' knowledge and rationales is crucial to identify sustainable pathways for the future of ADE and of

  17. Recovery of Biomass Following Shifting Cultivation in Dry Tropical Forests of the Yucatan

    Read, L; Lawrence, Deborah; Foster, David Russell

    2003-01-01

    Land-use change in the tropics is creating secondary forest at an unprecedented rate. In the tropical Americas, mature dry tropical forest is rapidly being converted to secondary forest during the fallow period of shifting cultivation. This study addresses changes in forest biomass during forest recovery following shifting cultivation of maize (corn) in the Southern Yucatan Peninsular Region (SYPR), Mexico. We sampled stems .1 cm diameter at breast height at 36 study sites in t...

  18. Chinantec shifting cultivation : InTERAcTIVE landuse : a case-study in the Chinantla, Mexico, on secondary vegetation, soils and crop performance under indigenous shifting cultivation

    Wal, van der H.

    1999-01-01

    The development of secondary vegetation, soils and crop performance was studied in local variants of shifting cultivation in two villages in the Chinantla, Mexico. In Chapter 1, the institutional, social and political context of the research are presented and the reader is advertised that

  19. Soilless cultivation system for functional food crops

    Ahamad Sahali Mardi; Shyful Azizi Abdul Rahman; Ahmad Nazrul Abd Wahid; Abdul Razak Ruslan; Hazlina Abdullah

    2007-01-01

    This soilless cultivation system is based on the fertigation system and cultivation technologies using Functional Plant Cultivation System (FPCS). EBARA Japan has been studying on the cultivation conditions in order to enhance the function of decease risk reduction in plants. Through the research and development activities, EBARA found the possibilities on the enhancement of functions. Quality and quantity of the products in term of bioactive compounds present in the plants may be affected by unforeseen environmental conditions, such as temperature, strong light and UV radiation. The main objective to develop this system is, to support? Functional Food Industry? as newly emerging field in agriculture business. To success the system, needs comprehensive applying agriculture biotechnologies, health biotechnologies and also information technologies, in agriculture. By this system, production of valuable bioactive compounds is an advantage, because the market size of functional food is increasing more and more in the future. (Author)

  20. Shifting cultivation effects on creek water quality around Barkal Upazila in Chittagong Hill Tracts, Bangladesh

    Shyamal Karmakar; S.M.Sirajul Haque; M.Mozaffar Hossain; Sohag Miah

    2012-01-01

    We report the effects of shifting cultivation on water quality in 16 creeks investigated once in 2007 and twice in 2008 in 16 apparently similar small neighboring watersheds,each of 3 to 5 ha,at four locations around Barkal sub-district under Rangamati District of Chittagong Hill Tracts in Bangladesh.Concentrations of SO42-and K+,and pH in creek water were lower,and NO3-N and Na+ concentrations were higher in shifting-cultivation land compared to land with either plantation or natural forest or a combination of these cover types.Shifting cultivation effects on some water quality parameters were not significant due to change in land cover of the watershed between two sampling periods either through introduction of planted tree species or naturally regenerated vegetation.Conductivity and concentrations of HCO3-.PO43-,Ca2+ and Mg2+ in creek water showed no definite trend between shifting cultivation and the other land cover types.At one area near the Forest Range Office of Barkal,creek water pH was 5.8 under land cover with a combination of shifting cultivation and plantation.At this area Na+ concentration in shifting-cultivation land ranged from 32.33 to 33.00 mg·L-1 and in vegetated area from 25.00 to 30.50 mg·L-1 in 2007.At another area,Chaliatali Chara,SO42-concentration in a shifting-cultivation watershed ranged from 4.46 to 10.51 mg·L-1,lower than in a vegetated watershed that ranged from 11.69 to 19.98 mg·L-1 in 2007.SO42-concentration in this shifting-cultivation area ranged from 1.28 to 1.37 mg·L-1 and in the vegetated area from 1.37 to 3.50 mg·L-1 in 2008.

  1. Soil erosion from shifting cultivation and other smallholder land use in Sarawak, Malaysia

    Neergaard, Andreas de; Magid, Jakob; Mertz, Ole

    2008-01-01

    to compare soil erosion from three land use types in a shifting cultivation system, namely upland rice, pepper gardens and native forest. We used two sample sites within the humid tropical lowland zone in Sarawak, Malaysia. Both areas had steep slopes between 25° and 50°, and were characterised by a mosaic...... land use of native forest, secondary re-growth, upland rice fields and pepper gardens. Soil samples were collected to 90 cm depth from all three land use types, and analysed for various chemical parameters, including texture, total organic matter and 137Cs content. 137Cs is a radioactive isotope...... in the upper soil layers, are unlikely to change the carbon inventory dramatically. 137Cs content in the soil profile indicated largest retention of original topsoil in the native forest plots, and a loss of 18 and 35% of topsoil from upland rice and pepper gardens, respectively, over the past 40 years. When...

  2. Socio-economic perspectives on shifting cultivation landscapes in Northern Laos

    Heinimann, Andreas; Hett, Cornelia; Hurni, Kaspar

    2013-01-01

    Despite the rapid agricultural transition that has occurred in the past decade, shifting cultivation remains a widespread agricultural practice in the northern uplands of Lao PDR. Little information is available on the basic socio-economic situation and respective possible patterns in shifting cu...... minorities, pointing to multi-dimensional marginality of these areas. We discuss whether economic growth and increased market accessibility are sufficient to lift these landscapes out of poverty....

  3. Tropical secondary forests regenerating after shifting cultivation in the Philippines uplands are important carbon sinks.

    Mukul, Sharif A; Herbohn, John; Firn, Jennifer

    2016-03-08

    In the tropics, shifting cultivation has long been attributed to large scale forest degradation, and remains a major source of uncertainty in forest carbon accounting. In the Philippines, shifting cultivation, locally known as kaingin, is a major land-use in upland areas. We measured the distribution and recovery of aboveground biomass carbon along a fallow gradient in post-kaingin secondary forests in an upland area in the Philippines. We found significantly higher carbon in the aboveground total biomass and living woody biomass in old-growth forest, while coarse dead wood biomass carbon was higher in the new fallow sites. For young through to the oldest fallow secondary forests, there was a progressive recovery of biomass carbon evident. Multivariate analysis indicates patch size as an influential factor in explaining the variation in biomass carbon recovery in secondary forests after shifting cultivation. Our study indicates secondary forests after shifting cultivation are substantial carbon sinks and that this capacity to store carbon increases with abandonment age. Large trees contribute most to aboveground biomass. A better understanding of the relative contribution of different biomass sources in aboveground total forest biomass, however, is necessary to fully capture the value of such landscapes from forest management, restoration and conservation perspectives.

  4. Carbon emissions from dryland shifting cultivation : a case study of Mexican tropical dry forest

    Salinas Melgoza, Miguel Angel; Skutsch, Margaret; Lovett, Jonathan Cranidge; Borrego, Armonia

    2017-01-01

    The article considers the relation of shifting cultivation to deforestation and degradation, and hence its impacts in terms of carbon emissions and sequestration potential. There is a need to understand these relationships better in the context of international policy on Reduced Emissions from

  5. The role of Amazonian anthropogenic soils in shifting cultivation: learning from farmers’ rationales

    Braga Junqueira, A.; Almekinders, C.J.M.; Stomph, T.J.; Clement, C.R.; Struik, P.C.

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated farmers’ rationales to understand their decision making in relation to the use of fertile anthropogenic soils, i.e., Amazonian dark earths (ADE), and for dealing with changes in shifting cultivation in Central Amazonia. We analyzed qualitative information from 196 interviews with

  6. Review: Biodiversity conservation strategy in a native perspective; case study of shifting cultivation at the Dayaks of Kalimantan

    AHMAD DWI SETYAWAN

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Setyawan AD. 2010. Biodiversity conservation strategy in a native perspective; case study of shifting cultivation at the Dayaks of Kalimantan. Nusantara Bioscience 2: 97-108. Native tribes generally are original conservationists; they build genuine conservation strategy of natural resources and environment for sustainable living. Dayak is a native tribe of Kalimantan that has been living for thousands of years; they use shifting cultivation to manage the communal forest lands due to Kalimantan’s poor soil of minerals and nutrients, where the presence of phosphorus becomes a limiting factor for crops cultivation. In tropical forests, phosphorus mostly stored in the trees, so to remove it, the forest burning is carried out. Nutrients released into the soil can be used for upland rice (gogo cultivation, until depleted; after that, cultivators need to open a forest, while the old land was abandoned (fallow until it becomes forest again (for 20-25 years. The consecutive land clearing causes the formation of mosaics land with different succession ages and diverse biodiversity. This process is often combined with agroforestry systems (multicultural forest gardens, where the will-be-abandoned fields are planted with a variety of useful trees that can be integrated in forest ecosystems, especially rubber and fruits. These systems of shifting cultivation are often blamed as the main factor of forest degradation and fires, but in the last 300 years, this system has little impact on forest degradation. But, this is relatively low in productivity and subsistent, so it is not suitable for the modern agriculture which demands high productivity and measurable, mass and continuous yield, as well as related to the market. The increased population and industrial development of forestry, plantation, mining, etc. make the communal forest become narrower, so the fallow periods are shortened (5-15 years and the lands are degraded into grasslands. In the future

  7. Agroforestry leads to shifts within the gammaproteobacterial microbiome of banana plants cultivated in Central America.

    Köberl, Martina; Dita, Miguel; Martinuz, Alfonso; Staver, Charles; Berg, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Bananas (Musa spp.) belong to the most important global food commodities, and their cultivation represents the world's largest monoculture. Although the plant-associated microbiome has substantial influence on plant growth and health, there is a lack of knowledge of the banana microbiome and its influencing factors. We studied the impact of (i) biogeography, and (ii) agroforestry on the banana-associated gammaproteobacterial microbiome analyzing plants grown in smallholder farms in Nicaragua and Costa Rica. Profiles of 16S rRNA genes revealed high abundances of Pseudomonadales, Enterobacteriales, Xanthomonadales, and Legionellales. An extraordinary high diversity of the gammaproteobacterial microbiota was observed within the endophytic microenvironments (endorhiza and pseudostem), which was similar in both countries. Enterobacteria were identified as dominant group of above-ground plant parts (pseudostem and leaves). Neither biogeography nor agroforestry showed a statistically significant impact on the gammaproteobacterial banana microbiome in general. However, indicator species for each microenvironment and country, as well as for plants grown in Coffea intercropping systems with and without agri-silvicultural production of different Fabaceae trees (Inga spp. in Nicaragua and Erythrina poeppigiana in Costa Rica) could be identified. For example, banana plants grown in agroforestry systems were characterized by an increase of potential plant-beneficial bacteria, like Pseudomonas and Stenotrophomonas, and on the other side by a decrease of Erwinia. Hence, this study could show that as a result of legume-based agroforestry the indigenous banana-associated gammaproteobacterial community noticeably shifted.

  8. Unintended cultivation, shifting baselines, and conflict between objectives for fisheries and conservation.

    Brown, Christopher J; Trebilco, Rowan

    2014-06-01

    The effects of fisheries on marine ecosystems, and their capacity to drive shifts in ecosystem states, have been widely documented. Less well appreciated is that some commercially valuable species respond positively to fishing-induced ecosystem change and can become important fisheries resources in modified ecosystems. Thus, the ecological effects of one fishery can unintentionally increase the abundance and productivity of other fished species (i.e., cultivate). We reviewed examples of this effect in the peer-reviewed literature. We found 2 underlying ecosystem drivers of the effect: trophic release of prey species when predators are overfished and habitat change. Key ecological, social, and economic conditions required for one fishery to unintentionally cultivate another include strong top-down control of prey by predators, the value of the new fishery, and the capacity of fishers to adapt to a new fishery. These unintended cultivation effects imply strong trade-offs between short-term fishery success and conservation efforts to restore ecosystems toward baseline conditions because goals for fisheries and conservation may be incompatible. Conflicts are likely to be exacerbated if fisheries baselines shift relative to conservation baselines and there is investment in the new fishery. However, in the long-term, restoration toward ecosystem baselines may often benefit both fishery and conservation goals. Unintended cultivation can be identified and predicted using a combination of time-series data, dietary studies, models of food webs, and socioeconomic data. Identifying unintended cultivation is necessary for management to set compatible goals for fisheries and conservation. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  9. Shift-Variant Multidimensional Systems.

    1985-05-29

    x,y;u,v) is the system response at (x,y) to an unit impulse applied at (u,v). The presence of additive noise in the preceding input-output model of a...space model developed works very effi- ciently to deblur images affected by 2-D linear shift- varying blurs, its use, in presence of noise needs to be...causal linear shift-variant (LSV) system, whose impulse res- ponse is a K-th order degenerate sequence, a K-th order state-space model was obtained

  10. Implications of changes in tropical shifting cultivation intensification on land productivity and GHG-related biogeochemistry

    Bustier, Bernard; Ngoy, Alfred; Pietsch, Stephan; Mosnier, Aline

    2017-04-01

    Traditional shifting cultivation used to be a sustainable type of land use for the subsistence of populations in tropical rainforests. The vast resource of moist tropical forests together with low population densities allowed for long fallow periods on sparsely distributed slash and burn parcels with large areas of untouched forest in between. Population growth and concomitant increase in land demand for subsistence as well as increasing infrastructure development for commercial forestry, cash crops and mining, however, altered the picture over recent decades. As a result, fallow periods were reduced due to lack of pristine land. In this study we use field data and modeling results from the Congo Basin to assess the impacts of reduced fallow periods on Carbon sequestration dynamics using a BGC model calibrated and validated with > 150 research plots distributed over the western Congo Basin and representing different management and land use histories. We find that the average carbon sequestration rate reduces over the number of cultivation cycles and that a reduction of the fallow from 10 years to 7 years reduce the average carbon sequestration between 13 and 21% and from 7 years to 4 years between 23 and 29% depending on soil fertility. Results will be discussed in the context of population growth and changes in environmetal conditions.

  11. Balancing shifting cultivation and forest conservation: lessons from a "sustainable landscape" in southeastern Mexico.

    Dalle, Sarah Paule; Pulido, María T; de Blois, Sylvie

    2011-07-01

    Shifting cultivation is often perceived to be a threat to forests, but it is also central to the culture and livelihoods of millions of people worldwide. Balancing agriculture and forest conservation requires knowledge of how agricultural land uses evolve in landscapes with forest conservation initiatives. Based on a case study from Quintana Roo, Mexico, and remote sensing data, we investigated land use and land cover change (LUCC) in relation to accessibility (from main settlement and road) in search of evidence for agricultural expansion and/or intensification after the initiation of a community forestry program in 1986. Intensification was through a shortening of the fallow period. Defining the sampling space as a function of human needs and accessibility to agricultural resources was critical to ensure a user-centered perspective of the landscape. The composition of the accessible landscape changed substantially between 1976 and 1997. Over the 21-year period studied, the local population saw the accessible landscape transformed from a heterogeneous array of different successional stages including mature forests to a landscape dominated by young fallows. We detected a dynamic characterized by intensification of shifting cultivation in the most accessible areas with milpas being felled more and more from young fallows in spite of a preference for felling secondary forests. We argue that the resulting landscape provides a poorer resource base for sustaining agricultural livelihoods and discuss ways in which agricultural change could be better addressed through participatory land use planning. Balancing agricultural production and forest conservation will become even more important in a context of intense negotiations for carbon credits, an emerging market that is likely to drive future land changes worldwide.

  12. Bacterial diversity and community structure in lettuce soil are shifted by cultivation time

    Liu, Yiqian; Chang, Qing; Guo, Xu; Yi, Xinxin

    2017-08-01

    Compared with cereal production, vegetable production usually requires a greater degree of management and larger input of nutrients and irrigation, but these systems are not sustainable in the long term. This study aimed to what extent lettuce determine the bacterial community composition in the soil, during lettuce cultivation, pesticides and fertilizers were not apply to soil. Soil samples were collected from depths of 0-20cm and 20-40cm. A highthroughput sequencing approach was employed to investigate bacterial communities in lettuce-cultivated soil samples in a time-dependent manner. The dominant bacteria in the lettuce soil samples were mainly Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Chloroflexi, Nitrospirae, Firmicutes, Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Verrucomicrobia, Planctomycetes, Gemmatimo nadetes, Cyanobacteria. Proteobacteria was the most abundant phylum in the 6 soil samples. The relative abundance of Acidobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Verrucomicrobia and Cyanobacteria decreased through time of lettuce cultivation, but the relative abundance of Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Gemmatimonadetes, Chloroflexi, Planctomycetes and Nitrospirae increased over time. In the 0-20cm depth group and the 20-40cm depth soil, a similar pattern was observed that the percentage number of only shared OTUs between the early and late stage was lower than that between the early and middle stage soil, the result showed that lettuce growth can affect structure of soil bacterial communities.

  13. Advanced continuous cultivation methods for systems microbiology.

    Adamberg, Kaarel; Valgepea, Kaspar; Vilu, Raivo

    2015-09-01

    Increasing the throughput of systems biology-based experimental characterization of in silico-designed strains has great potential for accelerating the development of cell factories. For this, analysis of metabolism in the steady state is essential as only this enables the unequivocal definition of the physiological state of cells, which is needed for the complete description and in silico reconstruction of their phenotypes. In this review, we show that for a systems microbiology approach, high-resolution characterization of metabolism in the steady state--growth space analysis (GSA)--can be achieved by using advanced continuous cultivation methods termed changestats. In changestats, an environmental parameter is continuously changed at a constant rate within one experiment whilst maintaining cells in the physiological steady state similar to chemostats. This increases the resolution and throughput of GSA compared with chemostats, and, moreover, enables following of the dynamics of metabolism and detection of metabolic switch-points and optimal growth conditions. We also describe the concept, challenge and necessary criteria of the systematic analysis of steady-state metabolism. Finally, we propose that such systematic characterization of the steady-state growth space of cells using changestats has value not only for fundamental studies of metabolism, but also for systems biology-based metabolic engineering of cell factories.

  14. Geospatial Modeling To Assess Geomorphological Risk For Relentless Shifting Cultivation In Garo Hills Of Meghalaya, North East India

    Pramod Kumar Yadav

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to shifting cultivation, the overall structure and composition of ecological condition is affected, hence landscape study becomes important for maintaining ecological diversity and appropriate scientific planning of any area. Garo hills region of northeast India is suffering from Geomorphological risk like sheet erosion, landslide etc. due to the age old tradition of shifting cultivation in the fragile hill slopes aided by other anthropogenic activities. The present study was conducted to examine the role of shifting cultivation for deforestation and degradation with variant of slope and elevation to relate vegetation cover with slope and elevation in the Garo Hills landscape of Meghalaya using temporal remote sensing data of 1991, 2001 and 2010. It revealed that there is decrease in dense forest and open forest during the 1st decade while areas under dense forest and non-forest increased in 2nd decade. This increased forest area is confined in the high slopes, which are inaccessible. The study shows increase in shifting cultivation near-about double fold in high slope and more than a double fold in the high altitudinal area in last decade, which is negative sign in terms of Geomorphological protection. International Journal of Environment, Volume-2, Issue-1, Sep-Nov 2013, Pages 91-104 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v2i1.9212

  15. Effects on watershed hydrology after rainforest conversion to shifting cultivation and agroforestry in Sabah, Malaysia

    Fagerberg, Nils

    1998-07-01

    A paired catchment study was conducted in Mendolong, Sabah, Malaysia, to monitor the hydrological effects from conversion of secondary rain forest to shifting cultivation and agroforestry land-uses. Four different treatments were investigated: (1.) Agroforestry with initial burning and planting of fast-growing trees (Acacia mangium) and one rotation of hill rice, (2.) Agroforestry treatment as in no. 1, but without burning, (3.) Shifting cultivation with burning and one rotation of hill rice and (4.) No burning and one rotation of hill rice. A fifth catchment was used as untreated control. Waterflow was continuously measured in the streams during 41 months, between May 1994 to November 1997. 11 months were used as a calibration period before clear-felling and treatments. The data were used to determine water budgets (precipitation, runoff and evapotranspiration), runoff increases after clear-felling and changes in streamflow regimes. Regression analyses on runoff from each catchment versus the control catchment during the calibration period were used to determine the increase in runoff after clear-felling. Some unexpected losses and gains of water across the borders of the divided catchments were detected in three of the five catchments. The estimated transferred water volumes under forest cover range between 10 % and 22 % of total runoff. After clear-felling the losses and gains of water across the borders increased. The water transfer did mainly occur as sub-surface flow, probably in more permeable parts in the lower soil profile like cracks in the bedrock. Generally, the risk of deep leakage seams to increase with distance from the ridge. Hydrological effects could still be calculated through amalgamation of two of the catchments, and since the third catchment had a stable level of water gain due to unchanged conditions in the surrounding catchments. The mean areal rainfall during the period was higher than earlier measurements in the area, 4061 mm. The mean

  16. Effects on watershed hydrology after rain forest conversion to shifting cultivation and agroforestry in Sabah, Malaysia

    Fagerberg, Nils

    1998-12-31

    A paired catchment study was conducted in Mendolong, Sabah, Malaysia, to monitor the hydrological effects from conversion of secondary rain forest to shifting cultivation and agroforestry land-uses. Four different treatments were investigated: (1.) Agroforestry with initial burning and planting of fast-growing trees (Acacia mangium) and one rotation of hill rice, (2.) Agroforestry treatment as in no. 1, but without burning, (3.) Shifting cultivation with burning and one rotation of hill rice and (4.) No burning and one rotation of hill rice. A fifth catchment was used as untreated control. Waterflow was continuously measured in the streams during 41 months, between May 1994 to November 1997. 11 months were used as a calibration period before clear-felling and treatments. The data were used to determine water budgets (precipitation, runoff and evapotranspiration), runoff increases after clear-felling and changes in streamflow regimes. Regression analyses on runoff from each catchment versus the control catchment during the calibration period were used to determine the increase in runoff after clear-felling. Some unexpected losses and gains of water across the borders of the divided catchments were detected in three of the five catchments. The estimated transferred water volumes under forest cover range between 10 % and 22 % of total runoff. After clear-felling the losses and gains of water across the borders increased. The water transfer did mainly occur as sub-surface flow, probably in more permeable parts in the lower soil profile like cracks in the bedrock. Generally, the risk of deep leakage seams to increase with distance from the ridge. Hydrological effects could still be calculated through amalgamation of two of the catchments, and since the third catchment had a stable level of water gain due to unchanged conditions in the surrounding catchments. The mean areal rainfall during the period was higher than earlier measurements in the area, 4061 mm. The mean

  17. Effects on watershed hydrology after rainforest conversion to shifting cultivation and agroforestry in Sabah, Malaysia

    Fagerberg, Nils

    1998-01-01

    A paired catchment study was conducted in Mendolong, Sabah, Malaysia, to monitor the hydrological effects from conversion of secondary rain forest to shifting cultivation and agroforestry land-uses. Four different treatments were investigated: (1.) Agroforestry with initial burning and planting of fast-growing trees (Acacia mangium) and one rotation of hill rice, (2.) Agroforestry treatment as in no. 1, but without burning, (3.) Shifting cultivation with burning and one rotation of hill rice and (4.) No burning and one rotation of hill rice. A fifth catchment was used as untreated control. Waterflow was continuously measured in the streams during 41 months, between May 1994 to November 1997. 11 months were used as a calibration period before clear-felling and treatments. The data were used to determine water budgets (precipitation, runoff and evapotranspiration), runoff increases after clear-felling and changes in streamflow regimes. Regression analyses on runoff from each catchment versus the control catchment during the calibration period were used to determine the increase in runoff after clear-felling. Some unexpected losses and gains of water across the borders of the divided catchments were detected in three of the five catchments. The estimated transferred water volumes under forest cover range between 10 % and 22 % of total runoff. After clear-felling the losses and gains of water across the borders increased. The water transfer did mainly occur as sub-surface flow, probably in more permeable parts in the lower soil profile like cracks in the bedrock. Generally, the risk of deep leakage seams to increase with distance from the ridge. Hydrological effects could still be calculated through amalgamation of two of the catchments, and since the third catchment had a stable level of water gain due to unchanged conditions in the surrounding catchments. The mean areal rainfall during the period was higher than earlier measurements in the area, 4061 mm. The mean

  18. Bacterial Diversity and Community Structure in Korean Ginseng Field Soil Are Shifted by Cultivation Time.

    Nguyen, Ngoc-Lan; Kim, Yeon-Ju; Hoang, Van-An; Subramaniyam, Sathiyamoorthy; Kang, Jong-Pyo; Kang, Chang Ho; Yang, Deok-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Traditional molecular methods have been used to examine bacterial communities in ginseng-cultivated soil samples in a time-dependent manner. Despite these efforts, our understanding of the bacterial community is still inadequate. Therefore, in this study, a high-throughput sequencing approach was employed to investigate bacterial diversity in various ginseng field soil samples over cultivation times of 2, 4, and 6 years in the first and second rounds of cultivation. We used non-cultivated soil samples to perform a comparative study. Moreover, this study assessed changes in the bacterial community associated with soil depth and the health state of the ginseng. Bacterial richness decreased through years of cultivation. This study detected differences in relative abundance of bacterial populations between the first and second rounds of cultivation, years of cultivation, and health states of ginseng. These bacterial populations were mainly distributed in the classes Acidobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Sphingobacteria. In addition, we found that pH, available phosphorus, and exchangeable Ca+ seemed to have high correlations with bacterial class in ginseng cultivated soil.

  19. Biomek Cell Workstation: A Variable System for Automated Cell Cultivation.

    Lehmann, R; Severitt, J C; Roddelkopf, T; Junginger, S; Thurow, K

    2016-06-01

    Automated cell cultivation is an important tool for simplifying routine laboratory work. Automated methods are independent of skill levels and daily constitution of laboratory staff in combination with a constant quality and performance of the methods. The Biomek Cell Workstation was configured as a flexible and compatible system. The modified Biomek Cell Workstation enables the cultivation of adherent and suspension cells. Until now, no commercially available systems enabled the automated handling of both types of cells in one system. In particular, the automated cultivation of suspension cells in this form has not been published. The cell counts and viabilities were nonsignificantly decreased for cells cultivated in AutoFlasks in automated handling. The proliferation of manual and automated bioscreening by the WST-1 assay showed a nonsignificant lower proliferation of automatically disseminated cells associated with a mostly lower standard error. The disseminated suspension cell lines showed different pronounced proliferations in descending order, starting with Jurkat cells followed by SEM, Molt4, and RS4 cells having the lowest proliferation. In this respect, we successfully disseminated and screened suspension cells in an automated way. The automated cultivation and dissemination of a variety of suspension cells can replace the manual method. © 2015 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  20. Closing the water and nutrient cycles in soilless cultivation systems

    Beerling, E.A.M.; Blok, C.; Maas, van der A.A.; Os, van E.A.

    2014-01-01

    Soilless cultivation systems are common in Dutch greenhouse horticulture, i.e., less than 20% of the greenhouse area is still soil grown. For long, it was assumed that in these so-called closed systems the emission of nutrients and plant protection products (PPPs) was close to zero. However, Water

  1. Transition of shifting cultivation and its impact on people’s livelihoods in the Miombo Woodlands of Northern Zambia and South-Western Tanzania

    Grogan, Kenneth Joseph; Birch-Thomsen, Torben; Lyimo, James

    2013-01-01

    population, government policies, and an increasing commercialization/market integration. Questionnaires, focus group meetings, and in-depth interviews reveal that despite the breakdown of the traditional shifting cultivation practices, a general improvement of livelihoods has taken place. This has happened...... through adaptation and diversification in both agricultural practices and livelihood activities. However, it is also seen that because of the often rapidly changing external factors (market conditions and policies), life in the shifting cultivation communities involves a continual shift of emphasis among...... a variety of livelihood strategies....

  2. Effects of Interannual Climate Variability on Water Availability and Productivity in Capoeira and Crops Under Traditional and Alternative Shifting Cultivation

    Guild, Liane S.; Sa, Tatiana D. A.; Carvalho, Claudio J. R.; Potter, Christopher S.; Wickel, Albert J.; Brienza, Silvio, Jr.; Kato, Maria doSocorro A.; Kato, Osvaldo; Brass, James (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Regenerating forests play an important role in long-term carbon sequestration and sustainable landuse as they act as potentially important carbon and nutrient sinks during the shifting agriculture fallow period. The long-term functioning of capoeira. is increasingly threatened by a shortening fallow period during shifting cultivation due to demographic pressures and associated increased vulnerability to severe climatic events. Declining productivity and functioning of fallow forests of shifting cultivation combined with progressive loss of nutrients by successive burning and cropping activities has resulted in declining agricultural productivity. In addition to the effects of intense land use practices, droughts associated with El Nino events are becoming more frequent and severe in moist tropical forests and negative effects on capoeira productivity could be considerable. In Igarape-Acu (near Belem, Para), we hypothesize that experimental alternative landuse/clearing practices (mulching and fallow vegetation improvement by planting with fast-growing leguminous tree species) may make capoeira and agriculture more resilient to the effects of agricultural pressures and drought through (1) increased biomass, soil organic matter and associated increase in soil water storage, and nutrient retention and (2) greater rooting depth of trees planted for fallow improvement. This experimental practice (moto mechanized chop-and-mulch with fallow improvement) has resulted increased soil moisture during the cropping phase, reduced loss of nutrients and organic matter, and higher rates of secondary-forest biomass accumulation. We present preliminary data on water relations during the dry season of 2001 in capoeira and crops for both traditional slash-and-burn and alternative chop-and-mulch practices. These data will be used to test IKONOS data for the detection of moisture status differences. The principal goal of the research is to determine the extent to which capoeira and

  3. Co-benefits of biodiversity and carbon from regenerating secondary forests after shifting cultivation in the upland Philippines: implications for forest landscape restoration

    Mukul, S. A.; Herbohn, J.; Firn, J.; Gregorio, N.

    2017-12-01

    Shifting cultivation is a widespread practice in tropical forest agriculture frontiers that policy makers often regard as the major driver of forest loss and degradation. Secondary forests regrowing after shifting cultivation are generally not viewed as suitable option for biodiversity conservation and carbon retention. Drawing upon our research in the Philippines and other relevant case studies, we compared the biodiversity and carbon sequestration benefits in recovering secondary forests after shifting cultivation to other land uses that commonly follow shifting cultivation. Regenerating secondary forests had higher biodiversity than fast growing timber plantations and other restoration options available in the area. Some old plantations, however, provided carbon benefits comparable the old growth forest, although their biodiversity was less than that of the regenerating forests. Our study demonstrates that secondary forests regrowing after shifting cultivation have a high potential for biodiversity and carbon sequestration co-benefits, representing an effective strategy for forest management and restoration in countries where they are common and where the forest is an integral part of rural people's livelihoods. We discuss the issues and potential mechanisms through which such dynamic land use can be incorporated into development projects that are currently financing the sustainable management, conservation, and restoration of tropical forests.

  4. Health effects of the shift work system

    Yüzügüllü, Didem Ata; Aytaç, Necdet; Akbaba, Muhsin

    2018-01-01

    Technological advances and the changes to methods ofproduction in many industrialized countries led to the introduction of shiftwork systems to ensure the continuity in operation of industries. Shift workhas long been known to disrupt circadian rhythm,sleep, and work-life balance.Alfredsson et al. carried out a study of 334 cases with myocardial infarctionand 882 controls, who were selected randomly from the general population in thesame region. The shift-work exposure was assessed from the o...

  5. Shifts of microbial communities of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivation in a closed artificial ecosystem.

    Qin, Youcai; Fu, Yuming; Dong, Chen; Jia, Nannan; Liu, Hong

    2016-05-01

    The microbial communities of plant ecosystems are in relation to plant growing environment, but the alteration in biodiversity of rhizosphere and phyllosphere microbial communities in closed and controlled environments is unknown. The purpose of this study is to analyze the change regularity of microbial communities with wheat plants dependent-cultivated in a closed artificial ecosystem. The microbial community structures in closed-environment treatment plants were investigated by a culture-dependent approach, polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE), and Illumina Miseq high-throughput sequencing. The results indicated that the number of microbes decreased along with time, and the magnitude of bacteria, fungi, and actinomycetes were 10(7)-10(8), 10(5), and 10(3)-10(4) CFU/g (dry weight), respectively. The analysis of PCR-DGGE and Illumina Miseq revealed that the wheat leaf surface and near-root substrate had different microbial communities at different periods of wheat ecosystem development and showed that the relative highest diversity of microbial communities appeared at late and middle periods of the plant ecosystem, respectively. The results also indicated that the wheat leaf and substrate had different microbial community compositions, and the wheat substrate had higher richness of microbial community than the leaf. Flavobacterium, Pseudomonas, Paenibacillus, Enterobacter, Penicillium, Rhodotorula, Acremonium, and Alternaria were dominant in the wheat leaf samples, and Pedobacter, Flavobacterium, Halomonas, Marinobacter, Salinimicrobium, Lysobacter, Pseudomonas, Halobacillus, Xanthomonas, Acremonium, Monographella, and Penicillium were dominant populations in the wheat near-root substrate samples.

  6. Forests as landscapes of social inequality: tropical forest cover and land distribution among shifting cultivators

    Oliver T. Coomes

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Can social inequality be seen imprinted in a forest landscape? We studied the relationship between land holding, land use, and inequality in a peasant community in the Peruvian Amazon where farmers practice swidden-fallow cultivation. Longitudinal data on land holding, land use, and land cover were gathered through field-level surveys (n = 316 and household interviews (n = 51 in 1994/1995 and 2007. Forest cover change between 1965 and 2007 was documented through interpretation of air photos and satellite imagery. We introduce the concept of "land use inequality" to capture differences across households in the distribution of forest fallowing and orchard raising as key land uses that affect household welfare and the sustainability of swidden-fallow agriculture. We find that land holding, land use, and forest cover distribution are correlated and that the forest today reflects social inequality a decade prior. Although initially land-poor households may catch up in terms of land holdings, their use and land cover remain impoverished. Differential land use investment through time links social inequality and forest cover. Implications are discussed for the study of forests as landscapes of inequality, the relationship between social inequality and forest composition, and the forest-poverty nexus.

  7. Weed infestation of onion in soil reduced cultivation system

    Marzena Błażej-Woźniak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Field experiment was conducted in the years 1998-2000 in GD Felin. The influence of no-tillage cultivation and conventional tillage with spring ploughing on weed infestation of onion was compared. In experiment four cover crop mulches (Sinapis alba L., Vicia sativa L., Phacelia tanacetifolia B., Avena sativa L. were applied. From annual weeds in weed infestation of onion in great number Matricaria chamomilla L., and Senecio vulgaris L. stepped out. and from perennial - Agropyron repens (L.P.B. Reduced soil cultivation system (no-tillage caused the significant growth of primary weed infestation of onion in comparison with conventional tillage. In all years of investigations the executed pre-sowing ploughing limited significantly the annual weeds' number in primary weed infestation. The applied mulches from cover plants limited in considerable degree the number of primary weed infestation. In all years of investigations the most weeds stepped out on control object. Among investigated cover crop mulches Vicia sativa L. and Avena sativa L. had a profitable effect on decrease of onion`s primary weed infestation. Soil cultivation system and cover crop mulches had no signi ficant residual influence on the secondary weed infestation of onion.

  8. Convergent Adaptations: Bitter Manioc Cultivation Systems in Fertile Anthropogenic Dark Earths and Floodplain Soils in Central Amazonia

    Fraser, James Angus; Alves-Pereira, Alessandro; Junqueira, André Braga; Peroni, Nivaldo; Clement, Charles Roland

    2012-01-01

    Shifting cultivation in the humid tropics is incredibly diverse, yet research tends to focus on one type: long-fallow shifting cultivation. While it is a typical adaptation to the highly-weathered nutrient-poor soils of the Amazonian terra firme, fertile environments in the region offer opportunities for agricultural intensification. We hypothesized that Amazonian people have developed divergent bitter manioc cultivation systems as adaptations to the properties of different soils. We compared bitter manioc cultivation in two nutrient-rich and two nutrient-poor soils, along the middle Madeira River in Central Amazonia. We interviewed 249 farmers in 6 localities, sampled their manioc fields, and carried out genetic analysis of bitter manioc landraces. While cultivation in the two richer soils at different localities was characterized by fast-maturing, low-starch manioc landraces, with shorter cropping periods and shorter fallows, the predominant manioc landraces in these soils were generally not genetically similar. Rather, predominant landraces in each of these two fertile soils have emerged from separate selective trajectories which produced landraces that converged for fast-maturing low-starch traits adapted to intensified swidden systems in fertile soils. This contrasts with the more extensive cultivation systems found in the two poorer soils at different localities, characterized by the prevalence of slow-maturing high-starch landraces, longer cropping periods and longer fallows, typical of previous studies. Farmers plant different assemblages of bitter manioc landraces in different soils and the most popular landraces were shown to exhibit significantly different yields when planted in different soils. Farmers have selected different sets of landraces with different perceived agronomic characteristics, along with different fallow lengths, as adaptations to the specific properties of each agroecological micro-environment. These findings open up new avenues for

  9. Convergent adaptations: bitter manioc cultivation systems in fertile anthropogenic dark earths and floodplain soils in Central Amazonia.

    James Angus Fraser

    Full Text Available Shifting cultivation in the humid tropics is incredibly diverse, yet research tends to focus on one type: long-fallow shifting cultivation. While it is a typical adaptation to the highly-weathered nutrient-poor soils of the Amazonian terra firme, fertile environments in the region offer opportunities for agricultural intensification. We hypothesized that Amazonian people have developed divergent bitter manioc cultivation systems as adaptations to the properties of different soils. We compared bitter manioc cultivation in two nutrient-rich and two nutrient-poor soils, along the middle Madeira River in Central Amazonia. We interviewed 249 farmers in 6 localities, sampled their manioc fields, and carried out genetic analysis of bitter manioc landraces. While cultivation in the two richer soils at different localities was characterized by fast-maturing, low-starch manioc landraces, with shorter cropping periods and shorter fallows, the predominant manioc landraces in these soils were generally not genetically similar. Rather, predominant landraces in each of these two fertile soils have emerged from separate selective trajectories which produced landraces that converged for fast-maturing low-starch traits adapted to intensified swidden systems in fertile soils. This contrasts with the more extensive cultivation systems found in the two poorer soils at different localities, characterized by the prevalence of slow-maturing high-starch landraces, longer cropping periods and longer fallows, typical of previous studies. Farmers plant different assemblages of bitter manioc landraces in different soils and the most popular landraces were shown to exhibit significantly different yields when planted in different soils. Farmers have selected different sets of landraces with different perceived agronomic characteristics, along with different fallow lengths, as adaptations to the specific properties of each agroecological micro-environment. These findings open

  10. Hydroponic cultivation of soybean for Bioregenerative Life Support Systems (BLSSs)

    De Pascale, Stefania; De Micco, Veronica; Aronne, Giovanna; Paradiso, Roberta

    For long time our research group has been involved in experiments aiming to evaluate the possibility to cultivate plants in Space to regenerate resources and produce food. Apart from investigating the response of specific growth processes (at morpho-functional levels) to space factors (namely microgravity and ionising radiation), wide attention has been dedicated to agro-technologies applied to ecologically closed systems. Based on technical and human dietary requirements, soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is studied as one of the candidate species for hydroponic (soilless) cultivation in the research program MELiSSA (Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative) of the European Space Agency (ESA). Soybean seeds show high nutritional value, due to the relevant content of protein, lipids, dietary fiber and biologically active substances such as isoflavones. They can produce fresh sprouts or be transformed in several edible products (soymilk and okara or soy pulp). Soybean is traditionally grown in open field where specific interactions with soil microrganisms occur. Most available information on plant growth, seed productivity and nutrient composition relate to cultivated varieties (cultivars) selected for soil cultivation. However, in a space outpost, plant cultivation would rely on soilless systems. Given that plant growth, seed yield and quality strictly depend on the environmental conditions, to make successful the cultivation of soybean in space, it was necessary to screen all agronomic information according to space constraints. Indeed, selected cultivars have to comply with the space growth environment while providing a suitable nutritional quality to fulfill the astronauts needs. We proposed an objective criterion for the preliminary theoretical selection of the most suitable cultivars for seed production, which were subsequently evaluated in bench tests in hydroponics. Several Space-oriented experiments were carried out in a closed growth chamber to

  11. The relationship between length of fallow and crop yields in shifting cultivation: A re-thinking

    Mertz, Ole

    2002-01-01

    farming systems modelling, government policies, land use intensification, local forest management, slash-and-burn, swidden productivity......farming systems modelling, government policies, land use intensification, local forest management, slash-and-burn, swidden productivity...

  12. Shift systems in nuclear power plants - aspects for planning, shift systems, utility practice

    Grauf, E.

    1986-01-01

    This lecture contains the most important aspects of shift structure and shift organisation. The criteria for shift planning involving essential tasks, duties, laws and regulations, medical aspects, social aspects, will be presented. In the Federal Republic of Germany some basic models were established, which will be shown and explained with special reference to the number of teams, size of shift crews and absence regulations. Moreover, the lecture will deal with rotation systems and provisions for the transfer of shift responsibilities. By example of a utility plant commissioning time scale (1300 MW PWR) the practice of shift installations will be shown as well as the most important points of education and training. Within this compass the criteria and requirements for training and education of operational personnel in the Federal Republic of Germany will also be touched. (orig.)

  13. Evolving technology, shifting expectations : cultivating pedagogy for a rapidly changing GIS landscape

    Ricker, Britta; Thatcher, Jim

    2017-01-01

    AbstractAs humans and natural processes continuously reshape the surface of the Earth, there is an unceasing need to document and analyze them through the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS). The public is gaining more access to spatial technologies that were once only available to highly

  14. Evolving Technology, Shifting Expectations: Cultivating Pedagogy for a Rapidly Changing GIS Landscape

    Ricker, Britta; Thatcher, Jim

    2017-01-01

    As humans and natural processes continuously reshape the surface of the Earth, there is an unceasing need to document and analyze them through the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS). The public is gaining more access to spatial technologies that were once only available to highly trained professionals. With technological evolution comes a…

  15. Do Relocated Villages Experience More Forest Cover Change? Resettlements, Shifting Cultivation and Forests in the Lao PDR

    Sébastien Boillat

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the relationships between forest cover change and the village resettlement and land planning policies implemented in Laos, which have led to the relocation of remote and dispersed populations into clustered villages with easier access to state services and market facilities. We used the Global Forest Cover Change (2000–2012 and the most recent Lao Agricultural Census (2011 datasets to assess forest cover change in resettled and non-resettled villages throughout the country. We also reviewed a set of six case studies and performed an original case study in two villages of Luang Prabang province with 55 households, inquiring about relocation, land losses and intensification options. Our results show that resettled villages have greater baseline forest cover and total forest loss than most villages in Laos but not significant forest loss relative to that baseline. Resettled villages are consistently associated with forested areas, minority groups, and intermediate accessibility. The case studies highlight that resettlement coupled with land use planning does not necessarily lead to the abandonment of shifting cultivation or affect forest loss but lead to a re-spatialization of land use. This includes clustering of forest clearings, which might lead to fallow shortening and land degradation while limited intensification options exist in the resettled villages. This study provides a contribution to studying relationships between migration, forest cover change, livelihood strategies, land governance and agricultural practices in tropical forest environments.

  16. Plant growth and gas balance in a plant and mushroom cultivation system

    Kitaya, Y.; Tani, A.; Kiyota, M.; Aiga, I.

    1994-11-01

    In order to obtain basic data for construction of a plant cultivation system incorporating a mushroom cultivation subsystem in the CELSS, plant growth and atmospheric CO2 balance in the system were investigated. The plant growth was promoted by a high level of CO2 which resulted from the respiration of the mushroom mycelium in the system. The atmospheric CO2 concentration inside the system changed significantly due to the slight change in the net photosynthetic rate of plants and/or the respiration rate of the mushroom when the plant cultivation system combined directly with the mushroom cultivation subsystem.

  17. Hydroponic cultivation techniques: good results with Eg system

    Mimiola, G; Sigliuzzo, C [Tecnagro, Valenzano (Italy)

    1988-12-01

    This report describes results obtained at the Tecnagro agronomic institute (Valenzano, Italy) in which research is being carried out on the use of the Eg hydroponic system developed in Israel. The research program examined the following: composition of nutritive solutions for ornamental plants and vegetables, methods of application of nutritive substances, breeding densities for ornamental plants and vegetables. Successful nutritive formulas were obtained which resulted, in the case of ornamental plants, in increases in plant height (from 30 to 50%), foliage area (50%), as well as, in shortened growth cycles. For vegetables, shortened growth cycles were developed along with a greater and more consistant production. From the economics point of view, tomatoes proved to be the best choice of vegetable for cultivation with the Eg technique.

  18. A northward colonisation of the Andes by the potato cyst nematode during geological times suggests multiple host-shifts from wild to cultivated potatoes.

    Picard, Damien; Sempere, Thierry; Plantard, Olivier

    2007-02-01

    The cyst nematode Globodera pallida is a major pest of potato in South America where this specialist parasite is native. To investigate its phylogeography, we have genotyped individuals from 42 Peruvian populations using mitochondrial and nuclear molecular markers. A clear south-to-north phylogeographical pattern was revealed with five well-supported clades. The clade containing the southern populations is genetically more diverse and forms the most basal branch. The large divergence among cytochrome b haplotypes suggests that they diverged before human domestication of potato. As the nematodes studied have been sampled on cultivated potato, multiple host-shifts from wild to cultivated potatoes must have occurred independently in each clade. We hypothesise that this south-to-north pattern took place during the uplift of the Andes beginning 20 My ago and following the same direction. To our knowledge, this is the first study of a plant parasite sampled on cultivated plants revealing an ancient phylogeographical pattern.

  19. Cultivation of shear stress sensitive microorganisms in disposable bag reactor systems.

    Jonczyk, Patrick; Takenberg, Meike; Hartwig, Steffen; Beutel, Sascha; Berger, Ralf G; Scheper, Thomas

    2013-09-20

    Technical scale (≥5l) cultivations of shear stress sensitive microorganisms are often difficult to perform, as common bioreactors are usually designed to maximize the oxygen input into the culture medium. This is achieved by mechanical stirrers, causing high shear stress. Examples for shear stress sensitive microorganisms, for which no specific cultivation systems exist, are many anaerobic bacteria and fungi, such as basidiomycetes. In this work a disposable bag bioreactor developed for cultivation of mammalian cells was investigated to evaluate its potential to cultivate shear stress sensitive anaerobic Eubacterium ramulus and shear stress sensitive basidiomycetes Flammulina velutipes and Pleurotus sapidus. All cultivations were compared with conventional stainless steel stirred tank reactors (STR) cultivations. Good growth of all investigated microorganisms cultivated in the bag reactor was found. E. ramulus showed growth rates of μ=0.56 h⁻¹ (bag) and μ=0.53 h⁻¹ (STR). Differences concerning morphology, enzymatic activities and growth in fungal cultivations were observed. In the bag reactor growth in form of small, independent pellets was observed while STR cultivations showed intense aggregation. F. velutipes reached higher biomass concentrations (21.2 g l⁻¹ DCW vs. 16.8 g l⁻¹ DCW) and up to 2-fold higher peptidolytic activities in comparison to cell cultivation in stirred tank reactors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Cannabis cultivation in Spain: A profile of plantations, growers and production systems.

    Alvarez, Arturo; Gamella, Juan F; Parra, Iván

    2016-11-01

    The European market for cannabis derivatives is being transformed. The cultivation of cannabis within the EU and the shift of demand from hashish to domestic marihuana are key aspects of this transformation. Spain, formerly central to the trade of Moroccan hashish, is becoming a marihuana-producing country. The emergence of "import-substitution" has been researched in other EU countries, but thus far the Spanish case remains undocumented. This paper is based on analysis of data of 748 cannabis plantations seized by Spanish police in 2013. The sample comprises reports of seizures identified through a survey of online news and police reports. "Event-analysis" methods were applied to these sources. The analysis offers a typology of plantations, a profile of participants and the different production systems, and a model of regional distribution. Half of the plantations were small (less than 42 plants) and half contained between 100 and 1000 plants, with an average size of 261 plants. About three-quarters of plants were cultivated indoors using stolen electricity. 86% of all plants seized were from large-scale plantations (more than 220 plants). Most plantations were located along the Mediterranean coast, where population and tourism are concentrated. Over three-quarters of those indicted by police were Spanish (85%). Among the foreign owners of big plantations, Dutch nationals predominated. The number of seized plants by province was directly associated with the number of grow shops (β=0.962, pcannabis plantations in the Spanish Mediterranean coast is increasingly replacing import of Moroccan hashish. Indoor cultivation supported by grow shops, that provide the technology and know-how, seem to be the dominant form of organization in this emerging industry. Large-scale plantations may have met most of the demand for marihuana in 2013. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Estimating the Consequences of Fire Exclusion for Food Crop Production, Soil Fertility, and Fallow Recovery in Shifting Cultivation Landscapes in the Humid Tropics

    Norgrove, Lindsey; Hauser, Stefan

    2015-03-01

    In the Congo Basin, smallholder farmers practice slash-and-burn shifting cultivation. Yet, deliberate burning might no longer be sustainable under reduced fallow scenarios. We synthesized data from the Forest Margins Benchmark Area (FMBA), comprising 1.54 million hectares (ha), in southern Cameroon and assessed the impact of fire exclusion on yield, labor inputs, soil fertility, ecosystem carbon stocks, and fallow recovery indicators in two common field types (plantain and maize) under both current and reduced fallow scenarios. While we could not distinguish between impacts of standard farmer burning practice and fire exclusion treatments for the current fallow scenario, we concluded that fire exclusion would lead to higher yields, higher ecosystem carbon stocks as well as potentially faster fallow recovery under the reduced fallow scenario. While its implementation would increase labor requirements, we estimated increased revenues of 421 and 388 US ha-1 for plantain and maize, respectively. Applied to the FMBA, and assuming a 6-year reduced fallow scenario, fire exclusion in plantain fields would potentially retain 240,464 Mg more ecosystem carbon, comprising topsoil carbon plus tree biomass carbon, than standard farmer practice. Results demonstrate a potential "win-win scenario" where yield benefits, albeit modest, and conservation benefits can be obtained simultaneously. This could be considered as a transitional phase towards higher input use and thus higher yielding systems.

  2. Research and Implementation of Tractor Power Shift Clutch Control System

    Li Chengjun; Ke Meicong; Wu Youyu

    2018-01-01

    Applying power shift control technology on tractor can improve the power, economy and driving comfort of tractor. The separation and engagement control of clutch in tractor power shift transmission system is the key factor to optimize the quality of shift. Through many experiments and tests, an electronic control unit based on MC9S12 was developed, and an effective clutch control strategy was put forward, which improved the jerk of power shift and shortened the gear shift time.

  3. An economic evaluation comparison of solar water pumping system with engine pumping system for rice cultivation

    Treephak, Kasem; Thongpron, Jutturit; Somsak, Dhirasak; Saelao, Jeerawan; Patcharaprakiti, Nopporn

    2015-08-01

    In this paper we propose the design and economic evaluation of the water pumping systems for rice cultivation using solar energy, gasoline fuel and compare both systems. The design of the water and gasoline engine pumping system were evaluated. The gasoline fuel cost used in rice cultivation in an area of 1.6 acres. Under same conditions of water pumping system is replaced by the photovoltaic system which is composed of a solar panel, a converter and an electric motor pump which is compose of a direct current (DC) motor or an alternating current (AC) motor with an inverter. In addition, the battery is installed to increase the efficiency and productivity of rice cultivation. In order to verify, the simulation and economic evaluation of the storage energy battery system with batteries and without batteries are carried out. Finally the cost of four solar pumping systems was evaluated and compared with that of the gasoline pump. The results showed that the solar pumping system can be used to replace the gasoline water pumping system and DC solar pump has a payback less than 10 years. The systems that can payback the fastest is the DC solar pumping system without batteries storage system. The system the can payback the slowest is AC solar pumping system with batteries storage system. However, VAC motor pump of 220 V can be more easily maintained than the motor pump of 24 VDC and batteries back up system can supply a more stable power to the pump system.

  4. Construction of the Classification and Grading Index System of Cultivated Land Based on the Viewpoint of Sustainable Development

    2010-01-01

    In order to objectively and reasonably evaluate the actual and potential value of cultivated land, both social and ecological values are introduced into the classification and grading index system of cultivated land based on the viewpoint of sustainable development, after considering the natural and economic values of cultivated land. Index system construction of the sustainable utilization of cultivated land should follow the principles of economic viability, social acceptability, and ecological protection. Classification of cultivated land should take into account the soil fertility of cultivated land. Then, grading of cultivated land is carried out from the practical productivity (or potential productivity) of cultivated land. According to the existing classification index system of cultivated land, the soil, natural and environmental factors in plains, mountains and hills are mainly modified in the classification index system of cultivated land. And index systems for the cultivated land classification in plains, mountains and hills are set up. The grading index system of cultivated land is established based on the economic viability (economic value), social acceptability (social value) and protection of cultivated land (ecological value). Quantitative expression of cultivated land grading index is also carried out.

  5. Expert system application for prioritizing preventive actions for shift work: shift expert.

    Esen, Hatice; Hatipoğlu, Tuğçen; Cihan, Ahmet; Fiğlali, Nilgün

    2017-09-19

    Shift patterns, work hours, work arrangements and worker motivations have increasingly become key factors for job performance. The main objective of this article is to design an expert system that identifies the negative effects of shift work and prioritizes mitigation efforts according to their importance in preventing these negative effects. The proposed expert system will be referred to as the shift expert. A thorough literature review is conducted to determine the effects of shift work on workers. Our work indicates that shift work is linked to demographic variables, sleepiness and fatigue, health and well-being, and social and domestic conditions. These parameters constitute the sections of a questionnaire designed to focus on 26 important issues related to shift work. The shift expert is then constructed to provide prevention advice at the individual and organizational levels, and it prioritizes this advice using a fuzzy analytic hierarchy process model, which considers comparison matrices provided by users during the prioritization process. An empirical study of 61 workers working on three rotating shifts is performed. After administering the questionnaires, the collected data are analyzed statistically, and then the shift expert produces individual and organizational recommendations for these workers.

  6. The Influence of Cultivation System on Distribution Profile Of 137cs and Erosion / Deposition Rate

    Nita Suhartini

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available 137Cs radiogenic content in the soil can be used to estimate the rate of erosion and deposition in an area occurring since 1950’s, by comparing the content of the 137Cs in observed site with those in a stable reference site. This experiment aimed to investigate the influence of cultivation type on distribution profile of 137Cs and distribution of erosion and deposition rate in cultivated area. A study site was small cultivated area with slope steepness <10o and length 2 km located in Bojong – Ciawi. For this purpose, the top of a slope was chosen for reference site and three plot sites were selected namely Land Use I that using simple cultivation, Land Use II that using simple cultivation with ridge and furrow, and Land Use III using machine cultivation. The results showed that cultivation could make a movement of 137Cs to the deeper layer and ridges and furrows cultivation system could minimized an erosion process. The net erosion and deposition for land Use I, II and III were -25 t/ha/yr , 24 t/ha/yr and -58 t/ha/yr, respectively.

  7. Forest cover dynamics of shifting cultivation in the Democratic Republic of Congo: a remote sensing-based assessment for 2000-2010

    Molinario, G.; Hansen, M. C.; Potapov, P. V.

    2015-09-01

    Shifting cultivation has traditionally been practiced in the Democratic Republic of Congo by carving agricultural fields out of primary and secondary forest, resulting in the rural complex: a characteristic land cover mosaic of roads, villages, active and fallow fields and secondary forest. Forest clearing has varying impacts depending on where it occurs relative to this area: whether inside it, along its primary forest interface, or in more isolated primary forest areas. The spatial contextualization of forest cover loss is therefore necessary to understand its impacts and plan its management. We characterized forest clearing using spatial models in a Geographical Information System, applying morphological image processing to the Forets d’Afrique Central Evaluee par Teledetection product. This process allowed us to create forest fragmentation maps for 2000, 2005 and 2010, classifying previously homogenous primary forest into separate patch, edge, perforated, fragmented and core forest subtypes. Subsequently we used spatial rules to map the established rural complex separately from isolated forest perforations, tracking the growth of these areas in time. Results confirm that the expansion of the rural complex and forest perforations has high variance throughout the country, with consequent differences in local impacts on forest ecology and habitat fragmentation. Between 2000 and 2010 the rural complex grew by 10.2% (46 182 ha), increasing from 11.9% to 13.1% of the total land area (1.2% change) while perforated forest grew by 74.4% (23 856 ha), from 0.8% to 1.5%. Core forest decreased by 3.8% (54 852 ha), from 38% to 36.6% of the 2010 land area. Of particular concern is the nearly doubling of perforated forest, a land dynamic that represents greater spatial intrusion of forest clearing within core forest areas and a move away from the established rural complex.

  8. Accurate conjugate gradient methods for families of shifted systems

    Eshof, J. van den; Sleijpen, G.L.G.

    2003-01-01

    We consider the solution of the linear system (ATA + σI)xσ = ATb, for various real values of σ. This family of shifted systems arises, for example, in Tikhonov regularization and computations in lattice quantum chromodynamics. For each single shift σ this system can be solved using the conjugate

  9. Work shift duration: a review comparing eight hour and 12 hour shift systems.

    Smith, L; Folkard, S; Tucker, P; Macdonald, I

    1998-04-01

    Shiftwork is now a major feature of working life across a broad range of industries. The features of the shift systems operated can impact on the wellbeing, performance, and sleep of shiftworkers. This paper reviews the current state of knowledge on one major characteristic of shift rotas-namely, shift duration. Evidence comparing the relative effects of eight hour and 12 hour shifts on fatigue and job performance, safety, sleep, and physical and psychological health are considered. At the organisational level, factors such as the mode of system implementation, attitudes towards shift rotas, sickness absence and turnover, overtime, and moonlighting are discussed. Manual and electronic searches of the shiftwork research literature were conducted to obtain information on comparisons between eight hour and 12 hour shifts. The research findings are largely equivocal. The bulk of the evidence suggests few differences between eight and 12 hour shifts in the way they affect people. There may even be advantages to 12 hour shifts in terms of lower stress levels, better physical and psychological wellbeing, improved durations and quality of off duty sleep as well as improvements in family relations. On the negative side, the main concerns are fatigue and safety. It is noted that a 12 hour shift does not equate with being active for only 12 hours. There can be considerable extension of the person's time awake either side of the shift. However, the effects of longer term exposure to extended work days have been relatively uncharted in any systematic way. Longitudinal comparative research into the chronic impact of the compressed working week is needed.

  10. Accurate conjugate gradient methods for families of shifted systems

    Eshof, J. van den; Sleijpen, G.L.G.

    We present an efficient and accurate variant of the conjugate gradient method for solving families of shifted systems. In particular we are interested in shifted systems that occur in Tikhonov regularization for inverse problems since these problems can be sensitive to roundoff errors. The

  11. Soybean cultivation for Bioregenerative Life Support Systems (BLSSs): The effect of hydroponic system and nitrogen source

    Paradiso, Roberta; Buonomo, Roberta; Dixon, Mike A.; Barbieri, Giancarlo; De Pascale, Stefania

    2014-02-01

    Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is one of the plant species selected within the European Space Agency (ESA) Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative (MELiSSA) project for hydroponic cultivation in Biological Life Support Systems (BLSSs), because of the high nutritional value of seeds. Root symbiosis of soybean with Bradirhizobium japonicum contributes to plant nutrition in soil, providing ammonium through the bacterial fixation of atmospheric nitrogen. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of two hydroponic systems, Nutrient Film Technique (NFT) and cultivation on rockwool, and two nitrogen sources in the nutrient solution, nitrate (as Ca(NO3)2 and KNO3) and urea (CO(NH2)2), on root symbiosis, plant growth and seeds production of soybean. Plants of cultivar 'OT8914', inoculated with B. japonicum strain BUS-2, were grown in a growth chamber, under controlled environmental conditions. Cultivation on rockwool positively influenced root nodulation and plant growth and yield, without affecting the proximate composition of seeds, compared to NFT. Urea as the sole source of N drastically reduced the seed production and the harvest index of soybean plants, presumably because of ammonium toxicity, even though it enhanced root nodulation and increased the N content of seeds. In the view of large-scale cultivation for space colony on planetary surfaces, the possibility to use porous media, prepared using in situ resources, should be investigated. Urea can be included in the nutrient formulation for soybean in order to promote bacterial activity, however a proper ammonium/nitrate ratio should be maintained.

  12. Microalgal Cultivation in Treating Liquid Digestate from Biogas Systems.

    Xia, Ao; Murphy, Jerry D

    2016-04-01

    Biogas production via anaerobic digestion (AD) has rapidly developed in recent years. In addition to biogas, digestate is an important byproduct. Liquid digestate is the major fraction of digestate and may contain high levels of ammonia nitrogen. Traditional processing technologies (such as land application) require significant energy inputs and raise environmental risks (such as eutrophication). Alternatively, microalgae can efficiently remove the nutrients from digestate while producing high-value biomass that can be used for the production of biochemicals and biofuels. Both inorganic and organic carbon sources derived from biogas production can significantly improve microalgal production. Land requirement for microalgal cultivation is estimated as 3% of traditional direct land application of digestate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Capacity-oriented curriculum system of optoelectronics in the context of large category cultivation

    Luo, Yuan; Hu, Zhangfang; Zhang, Yi

    2017-08-01

    In order to cultivate the innovative talents with the comprehensive development to meet the talents demand for development of economic society, Chongqing University of Posts and Telecommunications implements cultivation based on broadening basic education and enrolment in large category of general education. Optoelectronic information science and engineering major belongs to the electronic engineering category. The "2 +2" mode is utilized for personnel training, where students are without major in the first and second year and assigned to a major within the major categories in the end of the second year. In the context of the comprehensive cultivation, for the changes in the demand for professionals in the global competitive environment with the currently rapid development, especially the demand for the professional engineering technology personnel suitable to industry and development of local economic society, the concept of CDIO engineering ability cultivation is used for reference. Thus the curriculum system for the three-node structure optoelectronic information science and engineering major is proposed, which attaches great importance to engineering practice and innovation cultivation under the background of the comprehensive cultivation. The conformity between the curriculum system and the personnel training objectives is guaranteed effectively, and the consistency between the teaching philosophy and the teaching behavior is enhanced. Therefore, the idea of major construction is clear with specific characteristics.

  14. Optimized production planning model for a multi-plant cultivation system under uncertainty

    Ke, Shunkui; Guo, Doudou; Niu, Qingliang; Huang, Danfeng

    2015-02-01

    An inexact multi-constraint programming model under uncertainty was developed by incorporating a production plan algorithm into the crop production optimization framework under the multi-plant collaborative cultivation system. In the production plan, orders from the customers are assigned to a suitable plant under the constraints of plant capabilities and uncertainty parameters to maximize profit and achieve customer satisfaction. The developed model and solution method were applied to a case study of a multi-plant collaborative cultivation system to verify its applicability. As determined in the case analysis involving different orders from customers, the period of plant production planning and the interval between orders can significantly affect system benefits. Through the analysis of uncertain parameters, reliable and practical decisions can be generated using the suggested model of a multi-plant collaborative cultivation system.

  15. Solution of generalized shifted linear systems with complex symmetric matrices

    Sogabe, Tomohiro; Hoshi, Takeo; Zhang, Shao-Liang; Fujiwara, Takeo

    2012-01-01

    We develop the shifted COCG method [R. Takayama, T. Hoshi, T. Sogabe, S.-L. Zhang, T. Fujiwara, Linear algebraic calculation of Green’s function for large-scale electronic structure theory, Phys. Rev. B 73 (165108) (2006) 1–9] and the shifted WQMR method [T. Sogabe, T. Hoshi, S.-L. Zhang, T. Fujiwara, On a weighted quasi-residual minimization strategy of the QMR method for solving complex symmetric shifted linear systems, Electron. Trans. Numer. Anal. 31 (2008) 126–140] for solving generalized shifted linear systems with complex symmetric matrices that arise from the electronic structure theory. The complex symmetric Lanczos process with a suitable bilinear form plays an important role in the development of the methods. The numerical examples indicate that the methods are highly attractive when the inner linear systems can efficiently be solved.

  16. Information system for selection of conditions and equipment for the cultivation of mammalian cells

    D. R. Batyrgazieva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of mammals cells and their products wide application, so the actual problem is a creation of an information system in the field of their cultivation for the organizing and structuring of information on process experimental data. This work is devoted the analysis of mammalian cell cultivation. The main technologies of cell cultivation, necessary equipment and matrices are considered. The main stages of database design and information system is described. The justification of software products are provided and the results of the database and information system implementation are done. The detailed description of all modules of the system, as well as a comparative analysis of the results of the search are in the system to verify correct operation of the system. The scientific and practical significance of the work lies in the fact that the effective tool for presenting knowledge and data for search by specific parameters is required. The convenience of the system is that it is not necessary to address in various data sources to get and conditions of cultivation of mammalian cells, it has already been collected and structured according to parameters. With help of the system, it is possible to select conditions for the cultivation of mammalian cells at the stage of scientific researches that will significantly reduce the time and cost of work, also to rank of recommended technological and hardware solutions. The system has a functional completeness, i.e. in a specific subject area, it ensures the fulfillment of user's requirements, and allows to accumulate and process information.

  17. The ALICE Glance Shift Accounting Management System (SAMS)

    Martins Silva, H.; Abreu Da Silva, I.; Ronchetti, F.; Telesca, A.; Maidantchik, C.

    2015-12-01

    ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) is an experiment at the CERN LHC (Large Hadron Collider) studying the physics of strongly interacting matter and the quark-gluon plasma. The experiment operation requires a 24 hours a day and 7 days a week shift crew at the experimental site, composed by the ALICE collaboration members. Shift duties are calculated for each institute according to their correlated members. In order to ensure the full coverage of the experiment operation as well as its good quality, the ALICE Shift Accounting Management System (SAMS) is used to manage the shift bookings as well as the needed training. ALICE SAMS is the result of a joint effort between the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ) and the ALICE Collaboration. The Glance technology, developed by the UFRJ and the ATLAS experiment, sits at the basis of the system as an intermediate layer isolating the particularities of the databases. In this paper, we describe the ALICE SAMS development process and functionalities. The database has been modelled according to the collaboration needs and is fully integrated with the ALICE Collaboration repository to access members information and respectively roles and activities. Run, period and training coordinators can manage their subsystem operation and ensure an efficient personnel management. Members of the ALICE collaboration can book shifts and on-call according to pre-defined rights. ALICE SAMS features a user profile containing all the statistics and user contact information as well as the Institutes profile. Both the user and institute profiles are public (within the scope of the collaboration) and show the credit balance in real time. A shift calendar allows the Run Coordinator to plan data taking periods in terms of which subsystems shifts are enabled or disabled and on-call responsible people and slots. An overview display presents the shift crew present in the control room and allows the Run Coordination team to confirm the presence

  18. Design of a monitoring system for the cultivation of garden tomato in greenhouse

    Diana Elizabeth Minda Gilces

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper briefly discusses the design and implementation of a prototype that monitors temperature, humidity and ultraviolet solar radiation levels in a greenhouse set for the cultivation of garden tomato. The Scrum agile methodology was applied through the deployment of the prototype. The monitoring system is composed by low cost, commercially available sensors, a database and a computer program developed in JAVA. It provides charts, audible and visual alerts, as well as daily, monthly and yearly statistical reports of sensed data. Implementation in the greenhouse aids farmers in the decision- making process regarding crop exposure to the sun, water and ambient temperature, thus enhancing quality of the cultivation process.

  19. An autonomous robot for de-leafing cucumber plants in a high-wire cultivation system

    Henten, van E.J.; Tuijl, van B.A.J.; Hoogakker, G.J.; Weerd, van der M.J.; Hemming, J.; Kornet, J.G.; Bontsema, J.

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents an autonomous robot for removing the leaves from cucumber plants grown in a high-wire cultivation system. Leaves at the lower end of the plants are removed because of their reduced vitality, their negligible contribution to canopy photosynthesis and their increased sensitivity for

  20. Microbiota of radish plants, cultivated in closed and open ecological systems

    Tirranen, L. S.

    It is common knowledge that microorganisms respond to environmental changes faster than other representatives of the living world. The major aim of this work was to examine and analyze the characteristics of the microbiota of radish culture, cultivated in the closed ecological system of human life-support Bios-3 and in an open system in different experiments. Microbial community of near-root, root zone and phyllosphere of radish were studied at the phases of seedlings, root formation, technical ripeness—by washing-off method—like microbiota of the substrate (expanded clay aggregate) and of the seeds of radish culture. Inoculation on appropriate media was made to count total quantity of anaerobic and aerobic bacteria, bacteria of coliform group, spore-forming, Proteus group, fluorescent, phytopathogenic bacteria, growing on Fermi medium, yeasts, microscopic fungi, Actinomyces. It was revealed that formation of the microbiota of radish plants depends on the age, plant cultivation technology and the specific conditions of the closed system. Composition of microbial conveyor-cultivated in phytotrons varied in quality and in quantity with plant growth phases—in the same manner as cultivation of even-aged soil and hydroponics monocultures which was determined by different qualitative and quantitative composition of root emissions in the course of plant vegetation. The higher plant component formed its own microbial complex different from that formed prior to closure. The microbial complex of vegetable polyculture is more diverse and stable than the monoculture of radish. We registered the changes in the species composition and microorganism quantity during plant cultivation in the closed system on a long-used solution. It was demonstrated that during the short-term (7 days) use of the nutrient solution in the experiments without system closing, the species composition of the microbiota of radish plants was more diverse in a multiple-aged vegetable polyculture (61

  1. Co-cultivation of microalgae in aquaponic systems.

    Addy, Min M; Kabir, Faryal; Zhang, Renchuan; Lu, Qian; Deng, Xiangyuan; Current, Dean; Griffith, Richard; Ma, Yiwei; Zhou, Wenguang; Chen, Paul; Ruan, Roger

    2017-12-01

    Aquaponics is a sustainable system for the future farming. In aquaponic systems, the nutrient-rich wastewater generated by the fish provides nutrients needed for vegetable growth. In the present study, the role of microalgae of Chlorella sp. in the floating-raft aquaponic system was evaluated for ammonia control. The yields of algal biomass, vegetable, and removal of the key nutrients from the systems were monitored during the operation of the aquaponic systems. When the systems were in full operation, the algae production was about 4.15±0.19g/m 2 ·day (dry basis) which is considered low because the growth conditions are primarily tailored to fish and vegetable production. However, it was found that algae had a positive effect on balancing pH drop caused by nitrifying bacteria, and the ammonia could be controlled by algae since algae prefer for ammonia nitrogen over nitrate nitrogen. The algae are more efficient for overall nitrogen removal than vegetables. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Optimal pole shifting controller for interconnected power system

    Yousef, Ali M.; Kassem, Ahmed M.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Mathematical model represents a power system which consists of synchronous machine connected to infinite bus through transmission line. → Power system stabilizer was designed based on optimal pole shifting controller. → The system performances was tested through load disturbances at different operating conditions. → The system performance with the proposed optimal pole shifting controller is compared with the conventional pole placement controller. → The digital simulation results indicated that the proposed controller has a superior performance. -- Abstract: Power system stabilizer based on optimal pole shifting is proposed. An approach for shifting the real parts of the open-loop poles to any desired positions while preserving the imaginary parts is presented. In each step of this approach, it is required to solve a first-order or a second-order linear matrix Lyapunov equation for shifting one real pole or two complex conjugate poles, respectively. This presented method yields a solution, which is optimal with respect to a quadratic performance index. The attractive feature of this method is that it enables solutions of the complex problem to be easily found without solving any non-linear algebraic Riccati equation. The present power system stabilizer is based on Riccati equation approach. The control law depends on finding the feedback gain matrix, and then the control signal is synthesized by multiplying the state variables of the power system with determined gain matrix. The gain matrix is calculated one time only, and it works over wide range of operating conditions. To validate the power of the proposed PSS, a linearized model of a simple power system consisted of a single synchronous machine connected to infinite bus bar through transmission line is simulated. The studied power system is subjected to various operating points and power system parameters changes.

  3. Optimal pole shifting controller for interconnected power system

    Yousef, Ali M., E-mail: drali_yousef@yahoo.co [Electrical Eng. Dept., Faculty of Engineering, Assiut University (Egypt); Kassem, Ahmed M., E-mail: kassem_ahmed53@hotmail.co [Control Technology Dep., Industrial Education College, Beni-Suef University (Egypt)

    2011-05-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Mathematical model represents a power system which consists of synchronous machine connected to infinite bus through transmission line. {yields} Power system stabilizer was designed based on optimal pole shifting controller. {yields} The system performances was tested through load disturbances at different operating conditions. {yields} The system performance with the proposed optimal pole shifting controller is compared with the conventional pole placement controller. {yields} The digital simulation results indicated that the proposed controller has a superior performance. -- Abstract: Power system stabilizer based on optimal pole shifting is proposed. An approach for shifting the real parts of the open-loop poles to any desired positions while preserving the imaginary parts is presented. In each step of this approach, it is required to solve a first-order or a second-order linear matrix Lyapunov equation for shifting one real pole or two complex conjugate poles, respectively. This presented method yields a solution, which is optimal with respect to a quadratic performance index. The attractive feature of this method is that it enables solutions of the complex problem to be easily found without solving any non-linear algebraic Riccati equation. The present power system stabilizer is based on Riccati equation approach. The control law depends on finding the feedback gain matrix, and then the control signal is synthesized by multiplying the state variables of the power system with determined gain matrix. The gain matrix is calculated one time only, and it works over wide range of operating conditions. To validate the power of the proposed PSS, a linearized model of a simple power system consisted of a single synchronous machine connected to infinite bus bar through transmission line is simulated. The studied power system is subjected to various operating points and power system parameters changes.

  4. Sleep and satisfaction in 8- and 12-h forward-rotating shift systems: Industrial employees prefer 12-h shifts.

    Karhula, Kati; Härmä, Mikko; Ropponen, Annina; Hakola, Tarja; Sallinen, Mikael; Puttonen, Sampsa

    2016-01-01

    Twelve-hour shift systems have become more popular in industry. Survey data of shift length, shift rotation speed, self-rated sleep, satisfaction and perceived health were investigated for the associations among 599 predominantly male Finnish industrial employees. The studied forward-rotating shift systems were 12-h fast (12fast, DDNN------, n = 268), 8-h fast (8fast, MMEENN----, n = 161) and 8-h slow (8slow, MMMM-EEEE-NNNN, n = 170). Satisfaction with shift system differed between the groups (p effects on sleep and alertness were rare (8%) in the 12fast group (53% 8fast, 66% 8 slow, p effects of the current shift system on general health (12fast 4%, 8fast 30%, 8slow 41%, p work-life balance (12fast 8%, 8fast 52%, 8slow 63%, p effects of shift work were dependent on both shift length and shift rotation speed: employees in the 12-h rapidly forward-rotating shift system were most satisfied, perceived better work-life balance and slept better than the employees in the 8fast or especially the employees in the 8-h slowly rotating systems.

  5. Bloch-Siegert shift in Dirac-Weyl fermionic systems

    Kumar, Upendra; Kumar, Vipin; Enamullah, Setlur, Girish S.

    2018-04-01

    The Bloch-Siegert shift is a phenomenon in quantum optics, typically seen in two-level systems, when the driving field is sufficiently strong. The inclusion of frequency doubling effect (counter rotating term) in the conventional rotating wave approximation (RWA) changes the resonance condition thereby producing a rather small shift in the resonance condition, which is known as the Bloch-Siegert shift (BSS). Rabi oscillations in Dirac-Weyl fermionic systems exhibit anomalous behavior far from resonance, called anomalous Rabi oscillations. Therefore, in the present work, we study the phenomenon of the Bloch-Siegert shift in Weyl semimetal and topological insulator (TI) far from resonance, called anomalous Bloch-Siegert shift (ABSS). It is seen that the change in the resonance condition of anomalous Rabi oscillations is drastic in Weyl semimetal and TI. The ABSS in Weyl semimetals is highly anisotropic, whereas it is isotropic in TI. In case of TI, it is the Chern number which plays a crucial role to produce substantial change in the ABSS.

  6. AC system stabilization via phase shift transformer with thyristor commutation

    Oliveira, Jose Carlos de; Guimaraes, Geraldo Caixeta; Moraes, Adelio Jose [Uberlandia Univ., MG (Brazil); Abreu, Jose Policarpo G. de [Escola Federal de Engenharia de Itajuba, MG (Brazil); Oliveira, Edimar Jose de [Juiz de Fora Univ., MG (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    This article aims to present initially the constructive and operative forms of a phase-shift autotransformer which provides both magnitude and phase angle change through thyristor commutation, including a technic to reduce the number of thyristors. Following, it is proposed a control system to make such equipment an efficient AC system stabilizing tool. It is presented some simulation results to show the operation of this transformer in an electrical system. (author) 3 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Floristic evolution in an agroforestry system cultivation in Southern Brazil.

    Silva, Luís C R; Machado, Sebastião A; Galvão, Franklin; Figueiredo, Afonso

    2016-06-07

    Bracatinga (Mimosa scabrella Bentham) is an important pioneer tree species in Ombrophylous Mixed Forest of Brazil and is widely used as an energy source. In traditional agroforestry systems, regeneration is induced by fire, then pure and dense stands known as bracatinga stands (bracatingais) are formed. In the first year, annual crops are intercalated with the seedlings. At that time the seedlings are thinned, then the stands remain at a fallow period and cut at seven years old. The species is very important mainly for small landowners. We studied the understory species that occur naturally during the succession over several years in order to manage them rationally in the future and maintain the natural vegetation over time. Three to 20 year-old Bracatinga stands were sampled between 1998 and 2011. All tree species with diameter at breast height (DBH) ≥ 5 cm were measured.The floristic evolution was assessed with respect to Sociability Index, the Shannon Diversity Index and the Pielou Evenness Index. Graphs of rank/abundance over different age groups were evaluated using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. We identified 153 species dispersed throughout the understory and tend to become aggregated over time.

  8. A readout system for the wavelength-shifting optical module

    Foesig, Carl-Christian; Boeser, Sebastian [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet, Mainz (Germany); Collaboration: IceCube-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The success of IceCube and the plans for an IceCube-Gen2 stimulate the development of new photo sensors. The approach of the Wavelength-shifting Optical Module is to provide a device which has a low dark noise rate combined with a high detection efficiency. A small PMT is used to detect red shifted photons guided in a coated PMMA tube, originally emitted by a wavelength shifting coating that absorbs photons in the UV Region. We have studied several PMTs for their usability with the IceCube-Gen2 readout system. Relevant parameters are the pulse widths in relation to the bandwidth of the IceCube-Gen2 readout electronics and the dark noise rates.

  9. Soybean cultivar selection for Bioregenerative Life Support Systems (BLSSs) - Hydroponic cultivation

    Paradiso, R.; Buonomo, R.; De Micco, V.; Aronne, G.; Palermo, M.; Barbieri, G.; De Pascale, S.

    2012-12-01

    Four soybean cultivars ('Atlantic', 'Cresir', 'Pr91m10' and 'Regir'), selected through a theoretical procedure as suitable for cultivation in BLSS, were evaluated in terms of growth and production. Germination percentage and Mean Germination Time (MGT) were measured. Plants were cultivated in a growth chamber equipped with a recirculating hydroponic system (Nutrient Film Technique). Cultivation was performed under controlled environmental conditions (12 h photoperiod, light intensity 350 μmol m-2 s-1, temperature regime 26/20 °C light/dark, relative humidity 65-75%). Fertigation was performed with a standard Hoagland solution, modified for soybean specific requirements, and EC and pH were kept at 2.0 dS m-1 and 5.5 respectively. The percentage of germination was high (from 86.9% in 'Cresir' to 96.8% in 'Regir')and the MGT was similar for all the cultivars (4.3 days). The growing cycle lasted from 114 in 'Cresir' to 133 days on average in the other cultivars. Differences in plant size were recorded, with 'Pr91m10' plants being the shortest (58 vs 106 cm). Cultivars did not differ significantly in seed yield (12 g plant-1) and in non edible biomass (waste), water consumption and biomass conversion efficiency (water, radiation and acid use indexes). 'Pr91m10' showed the highest protein content in the seeds (35.6% vs 33.3% on average in the other cultivars). Results from the cultivation experiment showed good performances of the four cultivars in hydroponics. The overall analysis suggests that 'Pr91m10' could be the best candidate for the cultivation in a BLSS, coupling the small plant size and the good yield with high resource use efficiency and good seed quality.

  10. Comparison of Microalgae Cultivation in Photobioreactor, Open Raceway Pond, and a Two-Stage Hybrid System

    Narala, Rakesh R.; Garg, Sourabh; Sharma, Kalpesh K.; Thomas-Hall, Skye R.; Deme, Miklos; Li, Yan; Schenk, Peer M., E-mail: p.schenk@uq.edu.au [Algae Biotechnology Laboratory, School of Agriculture and Food Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD (Australia)

    2016-08-02

    In the wake of intensive fossil fuel usage and CO{sub 2} accumulation in the environment, research is targeted toward sustainable alternate bioenergy that can suffice the growing need for fuel and also that leaves a minimal carbon footprint. Oil production from microalgae can potentially be carried out more efficiently, leaving a smaller footprint and without competing for arable land or biodiverse landscapes. However, current algae cultivation systems and lipid induction processes must be significantly improved and are threatened by contamination with other algae or algal grazers. To address this issue, we have developed an efficient two-stage cultivation system using the marine microalga Tetraselmis sp. M8. This hybrid system combines exponential biomass production in positive pressure air lift-driven bioreactors with a separate synchronized high-lipid induction phase in nutrient deplete open raceway ponds. A comparison to either bioreactor or open raceway pond cultivation system suggests that this process potentially leads to significantly higher productivity of algal lipids. Nutrients are only added to the closed bioreactors, while open raceway ponds have turnovers of only a few days, thus reducing the issue of microalgal grazers.

  11. Comparison of microalgae cultivation in photobioreactor, open raceway pond, and a two-stage hybrid system

    Rakesh R Narala

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In the wake of intensive fossil fuel usage and CO2 accumulation in the environment, research is targeted towards sustainable alternate bioenergy that can suffice the growing need for fuel and also that leaves a minimal carbon footprint. Oil production from microalgae can potentially be carried out more efficiently, leaving a smaller footprint and without competing for arable land or biodiverse landscapes. However, current algae cultivation systems and lipid induction processes must be significantly improved and are threatened by contamination with other algae or algal grazers. To address this issue, we have developed an efficient two-stage cultivation system using the marine microalga Tetraselmis sp. M8. This hybrid system combines exponential biomass production in positive pressure air lift-driven bioreactors with a separate synchronized high-lipid induction phase in nutrient deplete open raceway ponds. A comparison to either bioreactor or open raceway pond cultivation system suggests that this process potentially leads to significantly higher productivity of algal lipids. Nutrients are only added to the closed bioreactors while open raceway ponds have turnovers of only a few days, thus reducing the issue of microalgal grazers.

  12. Comparison of Microalgae Cultivation in Photobioreactor, Open Raceway Pond, and a Two-Stage Hybrid System

    Narala, Rakesh R.; Garg, Sourabh; Sharma, Kalpesh K.; Thomas-Hall, Skye R.; Deme, Miklos; Li, Yan; Schenk, Peer M.

    2016-01-01

    In the wake of intensive fossil fuel usage and CO 2 accumulation in the environment, research is targeted toward sustainable alternate bioenergy that can suffice the growing need for fuel and also that leaves a minimal carbon footprint. Oil production from microalgae can potentially be carried out more efficiently, leaving a smaller footprint and without competing for arable land or biodiverse landscapes. However, current algae cultivation systems and lipid induction processes must be significantly improved and are threatened by contamination with other algae or algal grazers. To address this issue, we have developed an efficient two-stage cultivation system using the marine microalga Tetraselmis sp. M8. This hybrid system combines exponential biomass production in positive pressure air lift-driven bioreactors with a separate synchronized high-lipid induction phase in nutrient deplete open raceway ponds. A comparison to either bioreactor or open raceway pond cultivation system suggests that this process potentially leads to significantly higher productivity of algal lipids. Nutrients are only added to the closed bioreactors, while open raceway ponds have turnovers of only a few days, thus reducing the issue of microalgal grazers.

  13. Soil carbon and nitrogen mineralization under different tillage systems and Permanent Groundcover cultivation between Orange trees

    Elcio Liborio Balota

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the alterations in carbon and nitrogen mineralization due to different soil tillage systems and groundcover species for intercropped orange trees. The experiment was established in an Ultisol soil (Typic Paleudults originated from Caiuá sandstone in northwestern of the state of Paraná, Brazil, in an area previously cultivated with pasture (Brachiaria humidicola. Two soil tillage systems were evaluated: conventional tillage (CT in the entire area and strip tillage (ST with a 2-m width, each with different groundcover vegetation management systems. The citrus cultivar utilized was the 'Pera' orange (Citrus sinensis grafted onto a 'Rangpur' lime rootstock. The soil samples were collected at a 0-15-cm depth after five years of experiment development. Samples were collected from under the tree canopy and from the inter-row space after the following treatments: (1 CT and annual cover crop with the leguminous Calopogonium mucunoides; (2 CT and perennial cover crop with the leguminous peanut Arachis pintoi; (3 CT and evergreen cover crop with Bahiagrass Paspalum notatum; (4 CT and cover crop with spontaneous B. humidicola grass vegetation; and (5 ST and maintenance of the remaining grass (pasture of B. humidicola. The soil tillage systems and different groundcover vegetation influenced the C and N mineralization, both under the tree canopy and in the inter-row space. The cultivation of B. humidicola under strip tillage provided higher potential mineralization than the other treatments in the inter-row space. Strip tillage increased the C and N mineralization compared to conventional tillage. The grass cultivation increased the C and N mineralization when compared to the others treatments cultivated in the inter-row space.

  14. A Web-Based Decision Support System for Evaluating Soil Suitability for Cassava Cultivation

    Adewale Opeoluwa Ogunde

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Precision agriculture in recent times had assumed a different dimension in order to improve on the poor standard of agriculture. Similarly, the upsurge in technological advancement, most especially in the aspect of machine learning and artificial intelligence, is a promising trend towards a positive solution to this problem. Therefore, this research work presents a decision support system for analyzing and mining knowledge from soil data with respect to its suitability for cassava cultivation. Past data consisting of some major soil attributes were obtained from relevant literature sources. This data was preprocessed using the ARFF Converter, available in WEKA. 70% of the data were used as training data set while remaining 30% were used for testing. Classification rule mining was carried out using J48 decision tree algorithm for the data training. ‘If-then’ construct models were then generated from the decision tree, which was used to develop a system for predicting the suitability status of soil for cassava cultivation. The percentage accuracy of the data classification was 76.5% and 23.5% for correctly classified and incorrectly classified instances respectively. Practically, the developed system was esteemed a prospective tool for farmers, soil laboratories and other users in predicting soil suitability for cassava cultivation.

  15. Role of Pigeonpea Cultivation on Soil Fertility and Farming System Sustainability in Ghana

    S. Adjei-Nsiah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The productivity of the smallholder farming system in Ghana is under threat due to soil fertility decline. Mineral fertilizer is sparingly being used by smallholder farmers because of prohibitive cost. Grain legumes such as pigeonpea can play a complementary or alternative role as a source of organic fertilizer due to its ability to enhance soil fertility. Despite its importance, the potential of pigeonpea as a soil fertility improvement crop has not been exploited to any appreciable extent and the amount of land cultivated to pigeonpea in Ghana is vey negligible. This paper synthesizes recent studies that have been carried out on pigeonpea in Ghana and discusses the role of pigeonpea cultivation in soil fertility management and its implication for farming system sustainability. The paper shows that recent field studies conducted in both the semi-deciduous forest and the forest/savanna transitional agro-ecological zones of Ghana indicate that pigeonpea/maize rotations can increase maize yield by 75–200%. Barrier to widespread adoption of pigeonpea include land tenure, market, and accessibility to early maturing and high yielding varieties. The paper concludes among other things that in order to promote the cultivation of pigeonpea in Ghana, there is the need to introduce varieties that combine early maturity with high yields and other desirable traits based on farmers preferences.

  16. Development of everlasting flowers (Comanthera elegans (Bong. L.R. Parra & Giul. in three cultivation systems

    Fernanda da Conceição Moreira

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Marketing the inflorescences of Comanthera elegans (Bong. L.R. Parra & Giul. represents a source of income to many families from extractives communities in the portion of the Espinhaço Range located in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Cultivating this species stands out by allying income generation with conservation since the species is currently endangered. This study aimed to assess aspects of the development of C. elegans in three cultivation systems: beds, rows, and whole area. Sowing took place in January 2009 and the inflorescences were harvested in May 2010, which characterized the experimental period. Emergence; plant density; rates of flowering, mortality, resprouting, and recruiting of new individuals; and production of inflorescences per plant and per area were assessed. Emergence began approximately 50 days after sowing. Plant density ranged from 130 to 350 plants.m-2 among the three cultivation systems. The highest mortality rate (18% was observed at the peak of the dry season (August and the overall mortality rate over one reproductive cycle was 49%. Of the plants that lost the aerial part, 36% resprouted. Sprouting and seed germination accounted for 30 and 3% of the recruiting of new individuals, respectively. C. elegans had two bloom (AprilMay 2009 and April-May 2010: 5.4% of the plants bloomed in the first season and 78%, in the second. Each plant produced between three and 178 inflorescences and the highest inflorescence production in terms of weight (232 g.m-2 and number (2,910 inflorescences.m-2 was observed in the cultivation in beds at 1,624 kg.ha-1.

  17. Cassava in shifting cultivation : a systems approach to agricultural technology development in Africa

    Fresco, L.O.

    1986-01-01

    The background of this study forms the debate about the nature and causes of the 'African crisis', the declining food availability per head of the African population. Generalized statements on African agriculture, based on aggregated production figures, however, do not adequately reflect

  18. MENTAL SHIFT TOWARDS SYSTEMS THINKING SKILLS IN COMPUTER SCIENCE

    MILDEOVÁ, Stanislava

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available When seeking solutions to current problems in the field of computer science – and other fields – we encounter situations where traditional approaches no longer bring the desired results. Our cognitive skills also limit the implementation of reliable mental simulation within the basic set of relations. The world around us is becoming more complex and mutually interdependent, and this is reflected in the demands on computer support. Thus, in today’s education and science in the field of computer science and all other disciplines and areas of life need to address the issue of the paradigm shift, which is generally accepted by experts. The goal of the paper is to present the systems thinking that facilitates and extends the understanding of the world through relations and linkages. Moreover, the paper introduces the essence of systems thinking and the possibilities to achieve mental a shift toward systems thinking skills. At the same time, the link between systems thinking and functional literacy is presented. We adopted the “Bathtub Test” from the variety of systems thinking tests that allow people to assess the understanding of basic systemic concepts, in order to assess the level of systems thinking. University students (potential information managers were the examined subjects of the examination of systems thinking that was conducted over a longer time period and whose aim was to determine the status of systems thinking. . The paper demonstrates that some pedagogical concepts and activities, in our case the subject of System Dynamics that leads to the appropriate integration of systems thinking in education. There is some evidence that basic knowledge of system dynamics and systems thinking principles will affect students, and their thinking will contribute to an improved approach to solving problems of computer science both in theory and practice.

  19. Generalized shift-invariant systems and approximately dual frames

    Benavente, Ana; Christensen, Ole; Zakowicz, Maria I.

    2017-01-01

    Dual pairs of frames yield a procedure for obtaining perfect reconstruction of elements in the underlying Hilbert space in terms of superpositions of the frame elements. However, practical constraints often force us to apply sequences that do not exactly form dual frames. In this article, we...... consider the important case of generalized shift-invariant systems and provide various ways of estimating the deviation from perfect reconstruction that occur when the systems do not form dual frames. The deviation from being dual frames will be measured either in terms of a perturbation condition...

  20. Dynamic cultivation of human mesenchymal stem cells in a rotating bed bioreactor system based on the Z RP platform.

    Diederichs, Solvig; Röker, Stefanie; Marten, Dana; Peterbauer, Anja; Scheper, Thomas; van Griensven, Martijn; Kasper, Cornelia

    2009-01-01

    Because the regeneration of large bone defects is limited by quantitative restrictions and risks of infections, the development of bioartificial bone substitutes is of great importance. To obtain a three-dimensional functional tissue-like graft, static cultivation is inexpedient due to limitations in cell density, nutrition and oxygen support. Dynamic cultivation in a bioreactor system can overcome these restrictions and furthermore provide the possibility to control the environment with regard to pH, oxygen content, and temperature. In this study, a three-dimensional bone construct was engineered by the use of dynamic bioreactor technology. Human adipose tissue derived mesenchymal stem cells were cultivated on a macroporous zirconium dioxide based ceramic disc called Sponceram. Furthermore, hydroxyapatite coated Sponceram was used. The cells were cultivated under dynamic conditions and compared with statically cultivated cells. The differentiation into osteoblasts was initiated by osteogenic supplements. Cellular proliferation during static and dynamic cultivation was compared measuring glucose and lactate concentration. The differentiation process was analysed determining AP-expression and using different specific staining methods. Our results demonstrate much higher proliferation rates during dynamic conditions in the bioreactor system compared to static cultivation measured by glucose consumption and lactate production. Cell densities on the scaffolds indicated higher proliferation on native Sponceram compared to hydroxyapatite coated Sponceram. With this study, we present an excellent method to enhance cellular proliferation and bone lineage specific growth of tissue like structures comprising fibrous (collagen) and globular (mineral) extracellular components. (c) 2009 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 2009.

  1. Agroforestry systems with fine aroma cocoa cultivation: socio-economic and productive environment

    Deyanira Mata Anchundia

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The agroforestry systems with cocoa are good for many purposes and they give many products to a diversity of soil users, among them, to the families of the producers in their environment. The objective of the research was to evaluate the socioeconomic and productive factors in agroforestry systems with fine aroma cocoa of export, in the El Vergel parish of the Valencia canton, county of Los Ríos, Ecuador. A survey to a random sample of 35 farmers of El Vergel parish was carried out, to evaluate socioeconomic and productivevariables. A descriptive analysis was applied to the data of the surveys. Most of the interviewed producers (71,4 % ignore on agroforestry systems. The farmers possess among 0,63 up to 10 hectares. 100 % of them cultivates the fine aroma cocoa, like main cultivation and other secondary cultivations where they stand out the forest species (48,6 %. The families are conformed by 49,5 % males and 50,5 % women. Most of the farmers (males and women are home bosses, with an age that fluctuates among 45 to 54 years. Alone 37 % of the members of the home is devoted to the work in the agriculture. 51 % of the farmers cohabits in free union and 38,3 % are single. The main monthly entrance oscillates from zero to $488. The monthly expenses of the farmers fluctuate among $101,00 up to $500,00. The analyzed social and productive indicators are not in the level required to achieve the sustainable development of these agroforestry systems.

  2. SeaQuest/E906 Shift Alarm System

    Kitts, Noah

    2014-09-01

    SeaQuest, Fermilab E906, is a fixed target experiment that measures the Drell-Yan cross-section ratio of proton-proton to proton-deuterium collisions in order to extract the sea anti-quark structure of the proton. SeaQuest will extend the measurements made by E866/NuSea with greater precision at higher Bjorken-x. The continuously running experiment is always being monitored. Those on shift must keep track of all of the detector readouts in order to make sure the experiment is running correctly. As an experiment that is still in its early stages of running, an alarm system for people on shift is being created to provide warnings, such as a plot showing a detector's performance is sufficiently different to need attention. This plan involves python scripts that track live data. When the data shows a problem within the experiment, a corresponding alarm ID is sent to the MySQL database which then sets off an alarm. These alarms, which will alert the person on shift through both an audible and visual response, are important for ensuring that issues do not go unnoticed, and to help make sure the experiment is recording good data.

  3. Soil water erosion under different cultivation systems and different fertilization rates and forms over 10 years

    Ildegardis Bertol

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The action of rain and surface runoff together are the active agents of water erosion, and further influences are the soil type, terrain, soil cover, soil management, and conservation practices. Soil water erosion is low in the no-tillage management system, being influenced by the amount and form of lime and fertilizer application to the soil, among other factors. The aim was to evaluate the effect of the form of liming, the quantity and management of fertilizer application on the soil and water losses by erosion under natural rainfall. The study was carried out between 2003 and 2013 on a Humic Dystrupept soil, with the following treatments: T1 - cultivation with liming and corrective fertilizer incorporated into the soil in the first year, and with 100 % annual maintenance fertilization of P and K; T2 - surface liming and corrective fertilization distributed over five years, and with 75 % annual maintenance fertilization of P and K; T3 - surface liming and corrective fertilization distributed over three years, and with 50 % annual maintenance fertilization of P and K; T4 - surface liming and corrective fertilization distributed over two years, and with 25 % annual maintenance fertilization of P and K; T5 - fallow soil, without liming or fertilization. In the rotation the crops black oat (Avena strigosa , soybean (Glycine max , common vetch (Vicia sativa , maize (Zea mays , fodder radish (Raphanus sativus , and black beans (Phaseolus vulgaris . The split application of lime and mineral fertilizer to the soil surface in a no-tillage system over three and five years, results in better control of soil losses than when split in two years. The increase in the amount of fertilizer applied to the soil surface under no-tillage cultivation increases phytomass production and reduces soil loss by water erosion. Water losses in treatments under no-tillage cultivation were low in all crop cycles, with a similar behavior as soil losses.

  4. Socio-economic comparison between traditional and improved cultivation methods in agroforestry systems, East Usambara Mountains, Tanzania.

    Reyes, Teija; Quiroz, Roberto; Msikula, Shija

    2005-11-01

    The East Usambara Mountains, recognized as one of the 25 most important biodiversity hot spots in the world, have a high degree of species diversity and endemism that is threatened by increasing human pressure on resources. Traditional slash and burn cultivation in the area is no longer sustainable. However, it is possible to maintain land productivity, decrease land degradation, and improve rural people's livelihood by ameliorating cultivation methods. Improved agroforestry seems to be a very convincing and suitable method for buffer zones of conservation areas. Farmers could receive a reasonable net income from their farm with little investment in terms of time, capital, and labor. By increasing the diversity and production of already existing cultivations, the pressure on natural forests can be diminished. The present study shows a significant gap between traditional cultivation methods and improved agroforestry systems in socio-economic terms. Improved agroforestry systems provide approximately double income per capita in comparison to traditional methods. More intensified cash crop cultivation in the highlands of the East Usambara also results in double income compared to that in the lowlands. However, people are sensitive to risks of changing farming practices. Encouraging farmers to apply better land management and practice sustainable cultivation of cash crops in combination with multipurpose trees would be relevant in improving their economic situation in the relatively short term. The markets of most cash crops are already available. Improved agroforestry methods could ameliorate the living conditions of the local population and protect the natural reserves from human disturbance.

  5. Intelligent e-Learning Systems: An Educational Paradigm Shift

    Suman Bhattacharya

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Learning is the long process of transforming information as well as experience into knowledge, skills, attitude and behaviors. To make up the wide gap between the demand of increasing higher education and comparatively limited resources, more and more educational institutes are looking into instructional technology. Use of online resources not only reduces the cost of education but also meet the needs of society. Intelligent e-learning has become one of the important channels to reach out to students exceeding geographic boundaries. Besides this, the characteristics of e-learning have complicated the process of education, and have brought challenges to both instructors and students. This paper will focus on the discussion of different discipline of intelligent e-learning like scaffolding based e-learning, personalized e-learning, confidence based e-learning, intelligent tutoring system, etc. to illuminate the educational paradigm shift in intelligent e-learning system.

  6. Cultivation-Independent and Cultivation-Dependent Analysis of Microbes in the Shallow-Sea Hydrothermal System Off Kueishantao Island, Taiwan: Unmasking Heterotrophic Bacterial Diversity and Functional Capacity.

    Tang, Kai; Zhang, Yao; Lin, Dan; Han, Yu; Chen, Chen-Tung A; Wang, Deli; Lin, Yu-Shih; Sun, Jia; Zheng, Qiang; Jiao, Nianzhi

    2018-01-01

    Shallow-sea hydrothermal systems experience continuous fluctuations of physicochemical conditions due to seawater influx which generates variable habitats, affecting the phylogenetic composition and metabolic potential of microbial communities. Until recently, studies of submarine hydrothermal communities have focused primarily on chemolithoautotrophic organisms, however, there have been limited studies on heterotrophic bacteria. Here, fluorescence in situ hybridization, high throughput 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing, and functional metagenomes were used to assess microbial communities from the shallow-sea hydrothermal system off Kueishantao Island, Taiwan. The results showed that the shallow-sea hydrothermal system harbored not only autotrophic bacteria but abundant heterotrophic bacteria. The potential for marker genes sulfur oxidation and carbon fixation were detected in the metagenome datasets, suggesting a role for sulfur and carbon cycling in the shallow-sea hydrothermal system. Furthermore, the presence of diverse genes that encode transporters, glycoside hydrolases, and peptidase indicates the genetic potential for heterotrophic utilization of organic substrates. A total of 408 cultivable heterotrophic bacteria were isolated, in which the taxonomic families typically associated with oligotrophy, copiotrophy, and phototrophy were frequently found. The cultivation-independent and -dependent analyses performed herein show that Alphaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria represent the dominant heterotrophs in the investigated shallow-sea hydrothermal system. Genomic and physiological characterization of a novel strain P5 obtained in this study, belonging to the genus Rhodovulum within Alphaproteobacteria, provides an example of heterotrophic bacteria with major functional capacity presented in the metagenome datasets. Collectively, in addition to autotrophic bacteria, the shallow-sea hydrothermal system also harbors many heterotrophic bacteria with versatile

  7. Dynamic cell culture system: a new cell cultivation instrument for biological experiments in space

    Gmunder, F. K.; Nordau, C. G.; Tschopp, A.; Huber, B.; Cogoli, A.

    1988-01-01

    The prototype of a miniaturized cell cultivation instrument for animal cell culture experiments aboard Spacelab is presented (Dynamic cell culture system: DCCS). The cell chamber is completely filled and has a working volume of 200 microliters. Medium exchange is achieved with a self-powered osmotic pump (flowrate 1 microliter h-1). The reservoir volume of culture medium is 230 microliters. The system is neither mechanically stirred nor equipped with sensors. Hamster kidney (Hak) cells growing on Cytodex 3 microcarriers were used to test the biological performance of the DCCS. Growth characteristics in the DCCS, as judged by maximal cell density, glucose consumption, lactic acid secretion and pH, were similar to those in cell culture tubes.

  8. Gravitational frequency shift effect in the solar system

    Sarmiento G, A.

    1983-01-01

    An extension of the Parameterized Post-Newtonian (PPN) formalism to third order in the expansion parameter m/r (where m = GM/c 2 denotes the mass of the source of the field and r the distance to its center) is used to derive analytical expressions accurate to the same order for the prediction of the experimental measurments of the frequency shift effect on electromagnetic signals travelling within the solar system. An experimental situation is considered for which it is seen that the consequences of including higher order terms are undetectable by present-day observations or experiments. Some deliberations on issues in the historic context in which the development of the relevant ideas took place is considered necessary to round this work out and is presented in an introductory section. (author)

  9. Analysing the Influence of the Spontaneous Aneuploidy Frequency on the Cell Population System Cultivation

    G. A. Nefedov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides a qualitative analysis of M.S. Vinogradova's nonlinear model for dynamics of the cell population system. This system describes the stem cells cultivation in vitro under resource constraints. The system consists of two populations, namely: population of normal cells and population of abnormal cells. Resource constraints are considered as linear dependences of mitosis parameters on the normalized densities of each population.One of the key parameters that effects on the realization of the system evolution scenarios is a parameter that determines a share of the normal cells, which pass, when dividing, into population of the abnormal cells. The paper analyses both the existence conditions of the rest points and the changes of the evolution scenarios of population system with changing abovementioned parameter and other system parameters held fixed. It is shown that there is a saddle-node bifurcation in the system; the bifurcation value of the parameter is found. The paper shows the interval of parameter values in which the favorable scenarios of population system evolution are implemented. It also presents results of mathematical modeling.

  10. Experimental shift work studies of permanent night, and rapidly rotating, shift systems. Pt. 1. Behaviour of various characteristics of sleep

    Knauth, P.; Rutenfranz, J.; Romberg, H.P.; Decoster, F.; Kiesswetter, E. (Dortmund Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Arbeitsphysiologie); Schulz, H. (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Psychiatrie, Muenchen (Germany, F.R.). Klinisches Inst.)

    1980-06-01

    In connection with experimental shift work 20 volunteers were examined while working on different rapidly or slowly rotating shift systems. Sleep was analyzed over a total of 112 days. Sleep was disturbed by children's noise or traffic noise. Sleep duration and sleep quality were particularly badly affected by noise with a high information value (children's noise). The ultradian rhythmicity of sleep did not appear to be disrupted by the change from day to night work. There were no significant differences between morning sleep and afternoon sleep after night work. In the laboratory experiments with fixed sleep durations, no separate effects on sleep quality could be established for different shift systems.

  11. Aboriginal health learning in the forest and cultivated gardens: building a nutritious and sustainable food system.

    Stroink, Mirella L; Nelson, Connie H

    2009-01-01

    Sustainable food systems are those in which diverse foods are produced in close proximity to a market. A dynamic, adaptive knowledge base that is grounded in local culture and geography and connected to outside knowledge resources is essential for such food systems to thrive. Sustainable food systems are particularly important to remote and Aboriginal communities, where extensive transportation makes food expensive and of poorer nutritional value. The Learning Garden program was developed and run with two First Nation communities in northwestern Ontario. With this program, the team adopted a holistic and experiential model of learning to begin rebuilding a knowledge base that would support a sustainable local food system. The program involved a series of workshops held in each community and facilitated by a community-based coordinator. Topics included cultivated gardening and forest foods. Results of survey data collected from 20 Aboriginal workshop participants are presented, revealing a moderate to low level of baseline knowledge of the traditional food system, and a reliance on the mainstream food system that is supported by food values that place convenience, ease, and price above the localness or cultural connectedness of the food. Preliminary findings from qualitative data are also presented on the process of learning that occurred in the program and some of the insights we have gained that are relevant to future adaptations of this program.

  12. First steps towards the successful surface-based cultivation of human embryonic stem cells in hanging drop systems.

    Schulz, Julia C; Stumpf, Patrick S; Katsen-Globa, Alisa; Sachinidis, Agapios; Hescheler, Jürgen; Zimmermann, Heiko

    2012-11-01

    Miniaturization and parallelization of cell culture procedures are in focus of research in order to develop test platforms with low material consumption and increased standardization for toxicity and drug screenings. The cultivation in hanging drops (HDs) is a convenient and versatile tool for biological applications and represents an interesting model system for the screening applications due to its uniform shape, the advantageous gas supply, and the small volume. However, its application has so far been limited to non-adherent and aggregate forming cells. Here, we describe for the first time the proof-of-principle regarding the adherent cultivation of human embryonic stem cells in HD. For this microcarriers were added to the droplet as dynamic cultivation surfaces resulting in a maintained pluripotency and proliferation capacity for 10 days. This enables the HD technique to be extended to the cultivation of adherence-dependent stem cells. Also, the possible automation of this method by implementation of liquid handling systems opens new possibilities for miniaturized screenings, the improvement of cultivation and differentiation conditions, and toxicity and drug development.

  13. Paris in the spring: A review of the trade, conservation and opportunities in the shift from wild harvest to cultivation of Paris polyphylla (Trilliaceae).

    Cunningham, A B; Brinckmann, J A; Bi, Y-F; Pei, S-J; Schippmann, U; Luo, P

    2018-08-10

    P. polyphylla Smith is used in traditional medicine in China, India and Nepal and is likely to be similarly used through most of its geographic range. China is at the centre of demand for P. polyphylla where it is used as an ingredient in several very successful Chinese medicinal herbal formulations. The Chinese e-commerce platform 'alibaba.com', for example, lists 97 P. polyphylla items offered by 46 Asian suppliers, of which 21 are situated in the Chinese mainland, 12 in Nepal, 7 in India, 2 in Pakistan, and 1 each in Bhutan, Hong Kong, Thailand, and Vietnam. Products offered include the crude drug (dried whole or cut rhizomes), extracts and formulations containing this herbal drug. The aims of this review were to assess the scale of the P. polyphylla trade, reviewing evidence on the impacts of wild harvest on P. polyphylla populations and on the role of cultivation as an alternative to wild harvest. Firstly, we reviewed published information on Paris population biology and studies on impacts of wild P. polyphylla harvest from across the geographic range of this species. Secondly, global trade data for P. polyphylla were analysed. Thirdly, we reviewed published information on P. polyphylla cultivation and made field visits to P. polyphylla cultivation areas in Yunnan and Sichuan. Since the 1980s, there has been a 400-fold increase in the market price paid in China for P. polyphylla rhizomes, from 2.7 Chinese Yuan (CNY) per kg in the 1980s to market prices up to 1100 CNY per kg in 2017. Cross-border trade in dried P. polyphylla rhizomes occurs at three different scales. Firstly, an internal, national trade of P. polyphylla rhizomes within countries (such as India, Nepal and China). Secondly, trade in P. polyphylla rhizomes from Nepal (and possibly from Bhutan) to the two range states that have the largest traditional medicine trade in the world: China and India. Thirdly, trade in processed herbal products. In China, for example, P. polyphylla is widely used as

  14. Food and nutrient intake among workers with different shift systems.

    Hemiö, Katri; Puttonen, Sampsa; Viitasalo, Katriina; Härmä, Mikko; Peltonen, Markku; Lindström, Jaana

    2015-07-01

    Over 20% of employees in Europe work in shifts. Shift work increases the risk for chronic diseases, but a healthy lifestyle may attenuate the adverse effect of shift work. The aim of this study was to explore food and nutrient intake differences between working time groups. The participants were 1478 employees (55% of men) of an airline divided into three working time groups: day work (n=608), shift work without in-flight work (n=541) and in-flight work (n=329). Measures included laboratory tests, physical measurements, a questionnaire, and food and nutrient intake estimations by a validated 16-item food intake questionnaire. Shift working men were less likely to consume vegetables (p<0.001) and fruits (p=0.049) daily than male day and in-flight workers. In women, energy intake from saturated fat was higher among shift workers compared with day workers (12.6 vs 12.2 E%, p=0.023). In older female participants, energy intake from fat and saturated fat was higher in the shift work and in-flight work groups than in the day work group (p<0.001). In this study, shift work and working environment were associated with dietary habits, and this association was not explained by other characteristics such as workers' educational level. Shift workers' increased risk for chronic diseases should be taken into account and lifestyle counselling including advice in nutrition should be incorporated in routine occupational healthcare of shift workers. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  15. Dark Earths and manioc cultivation in Central Amazonia: a window on pre-Columbian agricultural systems?

    James A. Fraser

    Full Text Available Many commentators highlight the fertility of Anthropogenic Dark Earths (ADE, emphasizing their potential for sustainable agriculture. Some scholars believe that terra mulata (the less fertile, more extensive form of ADE was created by means of agricultural practices used by large settled populations of pre-Columbian farmers. But what was it that these Amerindian farmers were growing? Until recently, scholarly consensus held that manioc does not perform well on ADE. New research on the middle Madeira River is showing, however, that this consensus was premature. In this region, the most common crop in ADE fields is bitter manioc. Farmers there have various landraces of manioc that they believe yield particularly well on ADE, and logically plant more of these varieties on ADE. Aspects of the behaviour and perception of manioc cultivation among 52 farmers at the community of Barro Alto were measured quantitatively on four terra firme soil types (Terra Preta, Terra Mulata, Oxisols and Ultisols. These farmers plant different configurations of landraces in different soils, according to their perception of the suitability of particular landraces and their characteristics to certain soil types and successional processes. This, in turn, shapes selective pressures on these varieties, as new genetic material incorporated from volunteer seedlings is more likely to contain traits present in the most prevalent landrace(s in each soil type. Owing to localized population pressure at Barro Alto, manioc is under more intensive cultivation systems, with shorter cropping periods (5-10 months and shorter fallow periods (1-2 years. The outcome of these processes is different co-evolutionary dynamics on ADE as opposed to non-anthropogenic soils. Further anthropological study of manioc swiddening in one of the richest agricultural environments in Amazonia can fill a gap in the literature, thus opening an additional window on the pre-Columbian period.

  16. Dark Earths and manioc cultivation in Central Amazonia: a window on pre-Columbian agricultural systems?

    James A. Fraser

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Many commentators highlight the fertility of Anthropogenic Dark Earths (ADE, emphasizing their potential for sustainable agriculture. Some scholars believe that terra mulata (the less fertile, more extensive form of ADE was created by means of agricultural practices used by large settled populations of pre-Columbian farmers. But what was it that these Amerindian farmers were growing? Until recently, scholarly consensus held that manioc does not perform well on ADE. New research on the middle Madeira River is showing, however, that this consensus was premature. In this region, the most common crop in ADE fields is bitter manioc. Farmers there have various landraces of manioc that they believe yield particularly well on ADE, and logically plant more of these varieties on ADE. Aspects of the behaviour and perception of manioc cultivation among 52 farmers at the community of Barro Alto were measured quantitatively on four terra firme soil types (Terra Preta, Terra Mulata, Oxisols and Ultisols. These farmers plant different configurations of landraces in different soils, according to their perception of the suitability of particular landraces and their characteristics to certain soil types and successional processes.This, in turn, shapes selective pressures on these varieties, as new genetic material incorporated from volunteer seedlings is more likely to contain traits present in the most prevalent landrace(s in each soil type. Owing to localized population pressure at Barro Alto, manioc is under more intensive cultivation systems, with shorter cropping periods (5-10 months and shorter fallow periods (1-2 years. The outcome of these processes is different co-evolutionary dynamics on ADE as opposed to non-anthropogenic soils. Further anthropological study of manioc swiddening in one of the richest agricultural environments in Amazonia can fill a gap in the literature, thus opening an additional window on the pre-Columbian period.

  17. Early signatures of regime shifts in complex dynamical systems

    2015-02-05

    Feb 5, 2015 ... journal of. February 2015 ... populations, financial markets, complex diseases and gene circuits. ... A recent exhaustive analysis of recorded ecosystem shifts points to an approach- .... The quantitative estimation of these.

  18. Coupled catastrophes: sudden shifts cascade and hop among interdependent systems

    Barnett, George; D'Souza, Raissa M.

    2015-01-01

    An important challenge in several disciplines is to understand how sudden changes can propagate among coupled systems. Examples include the synchronization of business cycles, population collapse in patchy ecosystems, markets shifting to a new technology platform, collapses in prices and in confidence in financial markets, and protests erupting in multiple countries. A number of mathematical models of these phenomena have multiple equilibria separated by saddle-node bifurcations. We study this behaviour in its normal form as fast–slow ordinary differential equations. In our model, a system consists of multiple subsystems, such as countries in the global economy or patches of an ecosystem. Each subsystem is described by a scalar quantity, such as economic output or population, that undergoes sudden changes via saddle-node bifurcations. The subsystems are coupled via their scalar quantity (e.g. trade couples economic output; diffusion couples populations); that coupling moves the locations of their bifurcations. The model demonstrates two ways in which sudden changes can propagate: they can cascade (one causing the next), or they can hop over subsystems. The latter is absent from classic models of cascades. For an application, we study the Arab Spring protests. After connecting the model to sociological theories that have bistability, we use socioeconomic data to estimate relative proximities to tipping points and Facebook data to estimate couplings among countries. We find that although protests tend to spread locally, they also seem to ‘hop' over countries, like in the stylized model; this result highlights a new class of temporal motifs in longitudinal network datasets. PMID:26559684

  19. Degeneration of penicillin production in ethanol-limited chemostat cultivations of Penicillium chrysogenum : A systems biology approach

    Douma, Rutger D.; Batista, Joana M.; Touw, Kai M.; Kiel, Jan A. K. W.; Zhao, Zheng; Veiga, Tania; Klaassen, Paul; Bovenberg, Roel A. L.; Daran, Jean-Marc; van Gulik, Walter M.; Heijnen, J.J.; Krikken, Arjen

    2011-01-01

    Background: In microbial production of non-catabolic products such as antibiotics a loss of production capacity upon long-term cultivation (for example chemostat), a phenomenon called strain degeneration, is often observed. In this study a systems biology approach, monitoring changes from gene to

  20. An Autonomous Robot for De-leafing Cumcumber Plants grown in a High-wire Cultivation System

    Henten, van E.J.; Tuijl, van B.A.J.; Hoogakker, G.J.; Weerd, van der M.J.; Hemming, J.; Kornet, J.G.; Bontsema, J.

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents an autonomous robot for removing the leaves from cucumber plants grown in a high-wire cultivation system. Leaves at the lower end of the plants are removed because of their reduced vitality, their negligible contribution to canopy photosynthesis and their increased sensitivity to

  1. Study of Acari and Collembola Populations in Four Cultivation Systems in Dourados - MS

    Rosilda Mara Mussury

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The impact four cultivation systems on the soil fauna was studied, using Oribatida and Gamasida acarids as bioindicators and collembolan. The research was carried out in experimental fields, located in EMBRAPA - CPAO in Dourados, Centerwest of Brazil from July 1997 to December 1999. The constant pasture system presented smaller impact on the soil fauna followed by agricultural cattle rotation and a direct plantation system. In the conventional plantation series, the populational density of the mesofauna organisms was low, especially collembolan families.O impacto de quatro sistemas de cultivo sobre a fauna de solo foram estudados, utilizando-se como bioindicadores os acari Oribatida e Gamasida e os Collembola. A pesquisa foi conduzida em campos experimentais, localizados na EMBRAPA - CPAO no município de Dourados, MS, no período de julho de 1997 à dezembro de 1999. O sistema de pastagem contínua apresentou menor impacto sobre a fauna de solo seguido da rotação agricultura pecuária e do sistema de plantio direto. Nas sucessões do plantio convencional, a densidade populacional dos organismos da mesofauna foi baixa, em especial as famílias de colembolos.

  2. [A hydroponic cultivation system for rapid high-yield transient protein expression in Nicotiana plants under laboratory conditions].

    Mo, Qianzhen; Mai, Rongjia; Yang, Zhixiao; Chen, Minfang; Yang, Tiezhao; Lai, Huafang; Yang, Peiliang; Chen, Qiang; Zhou, Xiaohong

    2012-06-01

    To develop a hydroponic Nicotiana cultivation system for rapid and high-yield transient expression of recombinant proteins under laboratory conditions. To establish the hydroponic cultivation system, several parameters were examined to define the optimal conditions for the expression of recombinant proteins in plants. We used the green fluorescent protein (GFP) and the geminiviral plant transient expression vector as the model protein/expression vector. We examined the impact of Nicotiana species, the density and time of Agrobacterium infiltration, and the post-infiltration growth period on the accumulation of GFP. The expression levels of GFP in Nicotiana leaves were then examined by Western blotting and ELISA. Our data indicated that a hydroponic Nicotiana cultivation system with a light intensity of 9000 LX/layer, a light cycle of 16 h day/8 h night, a temperature regime of 28 degrees celsius; day/21 degrees celsius; night, and a relative humidity of 80% could support the optimal plant growth and protein expression. After agroinfiltration with pBYGFPDsRed.R/LBA4404, high levels of GFP expression were observed in both N. benthamiana and N. tobaccum (cv. Yuyan No.5) plants cultured with this hydroponic cultivation system. An optimal GFP expression was achieved in both Nicotiana species leaves 4 days after infiltration by Agrobacterium with an OD(600) of 0.8. At a given time point, the average biomass of N. tobaccum (cv. Yuyan No.5) was significantly higher than that of N. benthamiana. The leaves from 6-week-old N. benthamiana plants and 5-week-old N. tobaccum (cv. Yuyan No.5) plants could be the optimal material for agroinfiltration. We have established a hydroponic cultivation system that allows robust growth of N. benthamiana and N. tobaccum (cv. Yuyan No.5) plants and the optimal GFP expression in the artificial climate box.

  3. Application of the system of water erosion control measures in growths of special cultivations

    Vítězslav Hálek

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to select an optimal variant of the system of water erosion control measures. The water erosion issue was observed and evaluated in 15 blocks of special cultivations-vineyards and orchards. These blocks are situated in the managed area of the join-stock company PATRIA Kobylí. At first the average long-term loss of soil with the influence of water erosion is calculated. The universal Wischmeier-Smith equation is used for this purpose. If the calculated loss of soil exceeds the permissible value, the erosion control measures have to be suggested. The optimal variant has been selected on the bases of the evaluation of several kinds of measures in each block. This variant follows first of all the erosion control efficiency, but also demands on production as well as slope accessibility for mechanization, expensiveness and some negative sides of suggested measures. The suggested system of water erosion control measures contributes to increasing of soil fertility and production ability with the respect to landscape management and environmental protection.

  4. Reducing hours of work of preregistration house officers: report on a shift system.

    Nasmyth, D G; Pickersgill, A; Hogarth, M

    1991-01-12

    To determine the advantages and disadvantages of a shift system of working compared with the conventional on call system for preregistration house officers. A shift system of working was employed in the unit from 1 August 1989 to 31 July 1990. During attachments of three or six months four house officers rotated at intervals of one month among three daytime shifts and one night shift (Mondays to Fridays only). Weekends (48 hours) were worked on a one in three rota by the doctors working a day shift. The views of the house officers working this shift system were sought in writing and by direct interview. Professorial surgical unit, Royal Liverpool Hospital. The 14 house officers who were attached to the unit for three or six months during their preregistration year. The shift system was preferred to conventional on call without exception. The incidence of chronic tiredness was reduced and formal hand-over between shifts resulted in more informed decision making by doctors while on call. During annual leave it was sometimes necessary to revert to the conventional one in three on call system to ensure that daytime work was completed. Other disadvantages were the long weekend shift and an inequitable distribution of the night shift. The house officers recommended extending the shifts to weekends and working the night shift one week in four. A shift system of working was effective in reducing chronic tiredness among house officers, who found it preferable to conventional on call arrangements. Shift working is feasible only if the daytime duties of the doctor working at night can be completed by the other doctors on the rota.

  5. Optimum community energy storage system for demand load shifting

    Parra, David; Norman, Stuart A.; Walker, Gavin S.; Gillott, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • PbA-acid and lithium-ion batteries are optimised up to a 100-home community. • A 4-period real-time pricing and Economy 7 (2-period time-of-use) are compared. • Li-ion batteries perform worse with Economy 7 for small communities and vice versa. • The community approach reduced the levelised cost by 56% compared to a single home. • Heat pumps reduced the levelised cost and increased the profitability of batteries. - Abstract: Community energy storage (CES) is becoming an attractive technological option to facilitate the use of distributed renewable energy generation, manage demand loads and decarbonise the residential sector. There is strong interest in understanding the techno-economic benefits of using CES systems, which energy storage technology is more suitable and the optimum CES size. In this study, the performance including equivalent full cycles and round trip efficiency of lead-acid (PbA) and lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries performing demand load shifting are quantified as a function of the size of the community using simulation-based optimisation. Two different retail tariffs are compared: a time-of-use tariff (Economy 7) and a real-time-pricing tariff including four periods based on the electricity prices on the wholesale market. Additionally, the economic benefits are quantified when projected to two different years: 2020 and a hypothetical zero carbon year. The findings indicate that the optimum PbA capacity was approximately twice the optimum Li-ion capacity in the case of the real-time-pricing tariff and around 1.6 times for Economy 7 for any community size except a single home. The levelised cost followed a negative logarithmic trend while the internal rate of return followed a positive logarithmic trend as a function of the size of the community. PbA technology reduced the levelised cost down to 0.14 £/kW h when projected to the year 2020 for the retail tariff Economy 7. CES systems were sized according to the demand load and

  6. Effect of reversal of the flow direction on hydrodynamic characteristics and plants cultivated in constructed wetland systems

    Gheila Corrêa Ferres Baptestini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of reversal of the flow direction, when used the surface flow as an operating criteria, on hydrodynamic characteristics and plants grown in horizontal subsurface-flow constructed wetland systems (HSF-CWs. For this purpose, six HSF-CWs were used: two non-cultivated (HSF-CWs 1 and 4, two cultivated with Tifton 85 grass (Cynodon spp. (HSF-CWs 2 and 5 and two cultivated with Alternanthera (Alternanthera philoxeroides (HSF-CWs 3 and 6. It was made a reversal in the flow direction of the HSF-CWs 1, 2 and 3. The reversal of the wastewater flow direction was performed when the superficial flow of the wastewater applied (SF reached 50% of the length of the HSF-CWs. There was a single reversal for each system, on different dates. Reversing the flow direction promoted distinction on the dry matter yield of Tifton 85 grass. This was not observed in HSF-CWs cultivated with Alternanthera. The reversal of the wastewater flow direction promoted, in principle, the extinction of the SF advance in the HSF-CWs, but did not prevent its return. Waiting for the SF to reach 50% of the length was not the best criterion for reversing the flow direction.

  7. Growth and biomass productivity of Scenedesmus vacuolatus on a twin layer system and a comparison with other types of cultivations.

    Carbone, Dora Allegra; Olivieri, Giuseppe; Pollio, Antonino; Gabriele; Melkonian, Michael

    2017-12-01

    Scenedesmus is a genus of microalgae employed for several industrial uses. Industrial cultivations are performed in open ponds or in closed photobioreactors (PBRs). In the last years, a novel type of PBR based on immobilized microalgae has been developed termed porous substrate photobioreactors (PSBR) to achieve significant higher biomass density during cultivation in comparison to classical PBRs. This work presents a study of the growth of Scenedesmus vacuolatus in a Twin Layer System PSBR at different light intensities (600 μmol photons m -2  s -1 or 1000 μmol photons m -2  s -1 ), different types and concentrations of the nitrogen sources (nitrate or urea), and at two CO 2 levels in the gas phase (2% or 0.04% v/v). The microalgal growth was followed by monitoring the attached biomass density as dry weight, the specific growth rate and pigment accumulation. The highest productivity (29 g m -2 d -1 ) was observed at a light intensity of 600 μmol photons m -2  s -1 and 2% CO 2 . The types and concentrations of nitrogen sources did not influence the biomass productivity. Instead, the higher light intensity of 1000 μmol photons m -2  s -1 and an ambient CO 2 concentration (0.04%) resulted in a significant decrease of productivity to 18 and 10-12 g m -2 d -1 , respectively. When compared to the performance of similar cultivation systems (15-30 g m -2 d -1 ), these results indicate that the Twin Layer cultivation System is a competitive technique for intensified microalgal cultivation in terms of productivity and, at the same time, biomass density.

  8. Socioeconomic aspects of agroforesty systems: the case of gum-cultivation cycle

    Sharawi, H. A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to attempt to understand the nature of the problems related to production and local marketing of gum arabic as been by producers and local traders. Using structural questionnaires and multistage stratified sampling, data were collected on economic activities, production and productivity, price and pricing policy and marketing and trade as well as services provided to producers. Statistical analysis was carried out using various descriptive methods including means and means comparisons. The results indicated a general declining trend of the areas trapped by households. Productivity per unit area, prices received by producers and different from of services during the period covered by the study. The level of the producer's price seems to be the most important socioeconomic factor affecting the decision to produce. The need for institutions that are more effective and of services that promote production and marketing were seen as essential. The results have important implications on pricing policies and sustain ability of the gum-cultivation cycle as an integrated management system in the gum belt of the Sudan.(Author)

  9. WATER RETENTION OPTION OF DRAINAGE SYSTEM FOR DRY SEASON CORN CULTIVATION AT TIDAL LOWLAND AREA

    Bakri

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Farming constraint at tidal lowland area is about water management related to the nature of excessive water during wet season and insufficient water during dry season. This field research objectives was to find out the corn crop cultivation in August 2014 which entered dry season. The installation of subsurface drainage that previously had functioned as water discharge was converted into water retention. The research results showed that corn had grown well during peak dry season period (October in which water table was at –50 cm below soil surface, whereas water table depth was dropped to –70 cm below soil surface in land without subsurface drainage. This condition implied that installation of subsurface drainage at dry season had function as water retention, not as water discharge. Therefore, network function was inverted from water discharge into water retention. It had impact on the development of optimum water surface that flow in capillary mode to fulfill the crop’s water requirement. Corn production obtained was 6.4 t ha-1. This condition was very promising though still below the maximum national production. The applications of subsurface drainage was still not optimum due to the supply of water from the main system was not the same because of the soil physical properties diversity and topography differences.

  10. Interplay between spontaneous decay rates and Lamb shifts in open photonic systems

    Lassalle, Emmanuel; Bonod, Nicolas; Durt, Thomas; Stout, Brian

    2018-05-01

    In this letter, we describe the modified decay rate and photonic Lamb (frequency) shift of quantum emitters in terms of the resonant states of a neighboring photonic resonator. This description illustrates a fundamental distinction in the behaviors of closed (conservative) and open (dissipative) systems: the Lamb shift is bounded by the emission linewidth in closed systems while it overcomes this limit in open systems.

  11. TOXIC LEADERSHIP: A SYSTEMIC APPROACH TO SHIFT FROM REACTIVE TO PROACTIVE SOLUTIONS

    2017-03-01

    AIR COMMAND AND STAFF COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY TOXIC LEADERSHIP: A SYSTEMIC APPROACH TO SHIFT FROM REACTIVE TO PROACTIVE SOLUTIONS...DISTRIBUTION A. Approved for public release: distribution unlimited. Toxic Leadership: A Systemic Approach to Shift From Reactive to Proactive Solutions 1...US military loses valuable personnel when it is too late to implement corrective action and after those toxic Toxic Leadership: A Systemic Approach

  12. Comparison of two possible routes of pathogen contamination of spinach leaves in a hydroponic cultivation system.

    Koseki, Shigenobu; Mizuno, Yasuko; Yamamoto, Kazutaka

    2011-09-01

    The route of pathogen contamination (from roots versus from leaves) of spinach leaves was investigated with a hydroponic cultivation system. Three major bacterial pathogens, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella, and Listeria monocytogenes, were inoculated into the hydroponic solution, in which the spinach was grown to give concentrations of 10⁶ and 10³ CFU/ml. In parallel, the pathogens were inoculated onto the growing leaf surface by pipetting, to give concentrations of 10⁶ and 10³ CFU per leaf. Although contamination was observed at a high rate through the root system by the higher inoculum (10⁶ CFU) for all the pathogens tested, the contamination was rare when the lower inoculum (10³ CFU) was applied. In contrast, contamination through the leaf occurred at a very low rate, even when the inoculum level was high. For all the pathogens tested in the present study, the probability of contamination was promoted through the roots and with higher inoculum levels. The probability of contamination was analyzed with logistic regression. The logistic regression model showed that the odds ratio of contamination from the roots versus from the leaves was 6.93, which suggested that the risk of contamination from the roots was 6.93 times higher than the risk of contamination from the leaves. In addition, the risk of contamination by L. monocytogenes was about 0.3 times that of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovars Typhimurium and Enteritidis and E. coli O157:H7. The results of the present study indicate that the principal route of pathogen contamination of growing spinach leaves in a hydroponic system is from the plant's roots, rather than from leaf contamination itself.

  13. Improving farming practices using multi-criteria decision analysis in geographic information system for Damask Rose cultivating

    B. Shokati

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Lack of awareness of the critical factors involved in production of plants and sometimes, the cultivation of plants in areas unsusceptible to plant, can increase the amount of chemical fertilizer consumption in order to compensate the subsequent reduction of plant yield. This would increase environmental pollution. Thus, identifying of suitable areas where could supply plants initial needs of the environment is critical. For this goal, several criteria including soil conditions, climatologically indicators, topography situation and agro-climatology criteria were taken into account of modeling processing. Doing so, standardization process was performed on criteria and weighting process was performed by using of analytic hierarchy process approach. Geographical information system based on multi-criteria decision analysis was employed for weighted overlapping of indicators. Initial results indicated that East-Azerbaijan Province in the northern part of Iran has high potential for cultivating of Damask Rose. Results indicate that about 34.4% of East Azerbaijan Province has classified to be high suitability for cultivating this plant, while about 65.5 and 0.1 % of this area classified to be in the moderate and low suitability category respectively. In comparison of Damask Rose production during the 2014 and resulted analytic hierarchy process map results showed that areas with high suitability are not more under cultivation of this plant. Then, the findings of this study are great of importance for the purpose of regional planning in East-Azerbaijan Province.

  14. Morphology and muscle gene expression in GIFT and Supreme Nile tilapia varieties reared in two cultivation systems.

    Lima, E C S; Povh, J A; Otonel, R A A; Leonhardt, J H; Alfieri, A A; Headley, S A; Souza, F P; Poveda-Parra, A R; Furlan-Murari, P J; Lopera-Barrero, N M

    2017-03-16

    Tissue growth in most fishes occurs by muscular hyperplasia and hypertrophy, which are influenced by different regulatory factors, such as myostatin. The current study evaluated the influence of cultivation in hapas and earthen ponds on the diameter of white muscle fibers and on the myostatin (MSTN-1) gene in GIFT and Supreme varieties of tilapia. Fish of both varieties were reared for 204 days and then divided into four developmental stages. White muscle samples, corresponding to 100 fibers per slide, were collected from the middle region of fish of each variety and cultivation system, and were measured and divided into two classes representing hyperplasia and hypertrophy. Samples were subjected to real-time PCR to analyze gene expression. Hyperplasia decreased during the developing stages, coupled with increased hypertrophy. There was a higher rate of hypertrophy in fish raised in earthen ponds when compared to those raised in hapas, during juvenile and developing phases, and greater hypertrophic growth was observed in GIFT specimens when compared to Supreme specimens in earthen ponds. Since increased MSTN-1 gene expression was observed in GIFT specimens during the developing phase in pond cultivations, and in Supreme tilapia in hapas, MSTN-1 expression is related to greater hypertrophy. These results demonstrate the capacity for increased muscle growth in earthen pond cultivation in which the GIFT variety developed best. How the environment affects the growth of different tilapia varieties may be employed to optimize culture management and genetic improvement programs. Further investigations should aim to describe mechanisms affecting muscle growth and development.

  15. Reducing hours of work of preregistration house officers: report on a shift system.

    Nasmyth, D. G.; Pickersgill, A.; Hogarth, M.

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine the advantages and disadvantages of a shift system of working compared with the conventional on call system for preregistration house officers. DESIGN--A shift system of working was employed in the unit from 1 August 1989 to 31 July 1990. During attachments of three or six months four house officers rotated at intervals of one month among three daytime shifts and one night shift (Mondays to Fridays only). Weekends (48 hours) were worked on a one in three rota by the do...

  16. A dual-species co-cultivation system to study the interactions between Roseobacters and Dinoflagellates

    Hui eWang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Some microalgae in nature live in symbiosis with microorganisms that can enhance or inhibit growth, thus influencing the dynamics of phytoplankton blooms. In spite of the great ecological importance of these interactions, very few defined laboratory systems are available to study them in detail. Here we present a co-cultivation system consisting of the toxic phototrophic dinoflagellate Prorocentrum minimum and the photoheterotrophic alphaproteobacterium Dinoroseobacter shibae. In a mineral medium lacking a carbon source, vitamins for the bacterium and the essential vitamin B12 for the dinoflagellate, growth dynamics reproducibly went from a mutualistic phase, where both algae and bacteria grow, to a pathogenic phase, where the algae are killed by the bacteria. The data show a Jekyll and Hyde lifestyle that had been proposed but not previously demonstrated. We used RNAseq and microarray analysis to determine which genes of D. shibae are transcribed and differentially expressed in a light dependent way at an early time-point of the co-culture when the bacterium grows very slowly. Enrichment of bacterial mRNA for transcriptome analysis was optimized, but none of the available methods proved capable of removing dinoflagellate ribosomal RNA completely. RNAseq showed that a phasin encoding gene (phaP1 which is part of the polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA metabolism operon represented approximately 10 % of all transcripts. Five genes for aerobic anoxygenic photosynthesis were down-regulated in the light, indicating that the photosynthesis apparatus was functional. A betaine-choline-carnitine-transporter (BCCT that may be used for dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP uptake was the highest up-regulated gene in the light. The data suggest that at this early mutualistic phase of the symbiosis, PHA degradation might be the main carbon and energy source of D. shibae, supplemented in the light by degradation of DMSP and aerobic anoxygenic photosynthesis.

  17. A novel customizable modular bioreactor system for whole-heart cultivation under controlled 3D biomechanical stimulation.

    Hülsmann, Jörn; Aubin, Hug; Kranz, Alexander; Godehardt, Erhardt; Munakata, Hiroshi; Kamiya, Hiroyuki; Barth, Mareike; Lichtenberg, Artur; Akhyari, Payam

    2013-09-01

    In the last decade, cardiovascular tissue engineering has made great progress developing new strategies for regenerative medicine applications. However, while tissue engineered heart valves are already entering the clinical routine, tissue engineered myocardial substitutes are still restrained to experimental approaches. In contrast to the heart valves, tissue engineered myocardium cannot be repopulated in vivo because of its biological complexity, requiring elaborate cultivation conditions ex vivo. Although new promising approaches-like the whole-heart decellularization concept-have entered the myocardial tissue engineering field, bioreactor technology needed for the generation of functional myocardial tissue still lags behind in the sense of user-friendly, flexible and low cost systems. Here, we present a novel customizable modular bioreactor system that can be used for whole-heart cultivation. Out of a commercially obtainable original equipment manufacturer platform we constructed a modular bioreactor system specifically aimed at the cultivation of decellularized whole-hearts through perfusion and controlled 3D biomechanical stimulation with a simple but highly flexible operation platform based on LabVIEW. The modular setup not only allows a wide range of variance regarding medium conditioning under controlled 3D myocardial stretching but can also easily be upgraded for e.g. electrophysiological monitoring or stimulation, allowing for a tailor-made low-cost myocardial bioreactor system.

  18. Determination of volumetric gas-liquid mass transfer coefficient of carbon monoxide in a batch cultivation system using kinetic simulations.

    Jang, Nulee; Yasin, Muhammad; Park, Shinyoung; Lovitt, Robert W; Chang, In Seop

    2017-09-01

    A mathematical model of microbial kinetics was introduced to predict the overall volumetric gas-liquid mass transfer coefficient (k L a) of carbon monoxide (CO) in a batch cultivation system. The cell concentration (X), acetate concentration (C ace ), headspace gas (N co and [Formula: see text] ), dissolved CO concentration in the fermentation medium (C co ), and mass transfer rate (R) were simulated using a variety of k L a values. The simulated results showed excellent agreement with the experimental data for a k L a of 13/hr. The C co values decreased with increase in cultivation times, whereas the maximum mass transfer rate was achieved at the mid-log phase due to vigorous microbial CO consumption rate higher than R. The model suggested in this study may be applied to a variety of microbial systems involving gaseous substrates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Rice cultivation in the farming systems of Sukumaland, Tanzania : a quest for sustainable production under structural adjustment programmes

    Meertens, H.C.C.

    1999-01-01

    This thesis investigates options for sustainable rice cultivation and general agricultural development in the Mwanza and Shinyanga regions in northwestern Tanzania, often called Sukumaland due to the predominance of Wasukuma people. Generally Sukumaland has a semi-arid climate; agriculture is constrained by unreliable and low rainfall. In the past fifty years the population density has doubled in most parts. This has triggered several changes in farming systems. One important change ...

  20. [Cultivated keratinocytes on micro-carriers: in vitro studies of a new carrier system].

    Hecht, J; Hoefter, E A; Hecht, J; Haraida, S; Nerlich, A; Hartinger, A; Mühlbauer, W; Dimoudis, N

    1997-03-01

    Epidermal grafts from confluently cultivated keratinocytes have been used since the early eighties for the treatment of severe burns, where the shortage of donor sites for split-thickness skin grafts did not allow for adequate wound coverage. The difficult handling of these grafts as well as the advanced differentiation of their epithelial cells into a multilayer sheet poses a problem for their clinical application. The aim of the study was to characterize cultivated keratinocytes, as well as to observe their migration and proliferation from the MC onto a surface. Keratinocytes were isolated from human foreskin and cultivated in serum-free and serum-containing medium according to a modified method by Rheinwald and Green. Collagen-coated Dextran beads were used as MC. The MC were colonized with keratinocytes using the Spinner culture technique. After seeding the colonized MC into culture flasks, their migration and proliferation was monitored regularly through immunohistochemical studies and measurement of the metabolic cell activity. Immunohistological staining proved that the cells isolated from human foreskin represent keratinocytes of the basal type. Keratinocytes, cultivated with serum-containing and serum free medium, both adhered to the surface of the MC, then migrated onto the surface of the flasks and proliferated to form a multilayer of epithelial cells. In the long-term, a flexible epithelial graft consisting of poorly differentiated keratinocytes should be available, which is simple to produce and easy to handle. This would be an alternative method for treating wounds, where the conventional multilayer epithelial graft (ET) is insufficient.

  1. Study of the evolution of nitrogen compounds during grape ripening. application to differentiate grape varieties and cultivated systems.

    Garde-Cerdán, Teresa; Lorenzo, Cándida; Lara, José Félix; Pardo, Francisco; Ancín-Azpilicueta, Carmen; Salinas, M Rosario

    2009-03-25

    The aim of this work was to study the evolution of amino acids and ammonium during grape ripening and to evaluate its application to differentiate grape varieties and cultivated systems (organic and nonorganic). For this purpose, Monastrell, Syrah, Merlot, and Petit Verdot grapes produced using conventional agriculture and Monastrell grape cultivated using organic agriculture, collected during two consecutive harvests at different stages of ripening, were studied. These years of harvest were very different climatic years; even so, the grape varieties presented similar qualitative compositions. Therefore, the percentage of amino acids at harvest moment allowed differentiation of grapes according to variety and cultivated system, regardless of the year. The nitrogen composition could allow estimation of the fermentative aroma potential of grapes. Thus, Syrah was the grape with the greatest aroma potential at harvest. Monastrell nonorganic grape had a concentration of nitrogen compounds superior to that of Monastrell organic grape. In Monastrell, Syrah, and Merlot, traditional varieties in the area, the highest concentration of nitrogen compounds coincided with the highest degrees Baume/total acidity ratio and color index during 2007. Consequently, technological and phenolic maturity of these grape varieties coincided with the maximum composition of nitrogen compounds. However, in 2008, this did not happen because grape ripening was irregular as a consequence of different climatological conditions.

  2. Systems and methods for distributing power using photovoltaic resources and a shifting battery system

    Mammoli, Andrea A.; Lavrova, Olga; Arellano, Brian; Cheng, Feng; Greenwood, Wesley; Hawkins, Jonathan; Willard, Steve

    2017-06-27

    The present invention is an apparatus and method for delivering energy using a renewable resource. The method includes providing a photovoltaic energy source and applying energy storage to the photovoltaic energy source via a battery storage unit. The energy output from the photovoltaic energy source and the battery system is controlled using a battery control system. The battery control system predicts peak load, develops a schedule that includes when to begin discharging power and when to stop discharging power, shifts power to the battery storage unit when excess power is available, and prioritizes the functionality of the battery storage unit and the photovoltaic energy source.

  3. Study of nanometer-level precise phase-shift system used in electronic speckle shearography and phase-shift pattern interferometry

    Jing, Chao; Liu, Zhongling; Zhou, Ge; Zhang, Yimo

    2011-11-01

    The nanometer-level precise phase-shift system is designed to realize the phase-shift interferometry in electronic speckle shearography pattern interferometry. The PZT is used as driving component of phase-shift system and translation component of flexure hinge is developed to realize micro displacement of non-friction and non-clearance. Closed-loop control system is designed for high-precision micro displacement, in which embedded digital control system is developed for completing control algorithm and capacitive sensor is used as feedback part for measuring micro displacement in real time. Dynamic model and control model of the nanometer-level precise phase-shift system is analyzed, and high-precision micro displacement is realized with digital PID control algorithm on this basis. It is proved with experiments that the location precision of the precise phase-shift system to step signal of displacement is less than 2nm and the location precision to continuous signal of displacement is less than 5nm, which is satisfied with the request of the electronic speckle shearography and phase-shift pattern interferometry. The stripe images of four-step phase-shift interferometry and the final phase distributed image correlated with distortion of objects are listed in this paper to prove the validity of nanometer-level precise phase-shift system.

  4. Pressure-induced shift of the plasma in a helical system with ideally conducting wall

    Pustovitov, V.D.

    2004-01-01

    The global plasma shift is calculated analytically for a helical system with an ideal wall. The derived expression for the plasma shift, incorporating both the finite-β plasma expansion and the opposing reaction of the nearby ideal wall, can be used for interpreting the observable high-β equilibrium effects in LHD and other helical devices. (author)

  5. Crustacean fauna of a mussel cultivated raft system in the Black Sea

    Murat Sezgin

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study was to make a faunistic analysis of the crustaceans associated with cultivated mussels grown on ropes. Mussel samples from 30 cm ropes were collected from rope-grown mussel beds by hand. The crustacean fauna associated with mussel population were quantified. The density of crustacean fauna associated with mussels was significantly greater within rope-grown mussel assemblages than on other biotopes around.

  6. A system dynamics approach to the study of Colombian coca cultivation and the counter-intuitive consequence of law enforcement.

    Jaén, Sebastian; Dyner, Isaac

    2014-03-01

    A large-scale expansion of the Colombian coca cultivation is one of the most revealing signs of a structural change in the illegal cocaine market in the Andean region. From being a modest and domestic production, in the space of five years Colombian coca cultivation supplied a competitive market, capable of substituting almost completely the foreign sources of supply. The purpose of this work is to explore the role and potential of system dynamics (SD) as a modeling methodology to better understand the consequences of drug policy. As a case study, this work tests the hypothesis that the outbreak of Colombian coca cultivations is a consequence of the take down of large cartels, leading to the surge of small drug-trafficking firms called "cartelitos." Using an SD model, and elements from the economic theory of the criminal firm, our work shows how the formation of these small firms might significantly contribute to the configuring of a more competitive domestic coca industry (and hence to a more efficient crime industry). We conclude that SD seems an appropriate dynamic modeling-based approach to address policy issues regarding drug markets. The methodology takes into account the dynamic nature of drug markets and their multi-dimensional responses to policy interventions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Analysis of Selected Environmental Indicators in the Cultivation System of Energy Crops

    Šoltysová Božena Š

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The changes of selected chemical parameters were observed in Gleyic Fluvisols. The field experiment was established as a twofactor experiment with four energy crops (Arundo donax L., Miscanthus × giganteus, Elymus elongatus Gaertner, Sida hermafrodita and two variants of fertilization (nitrogen fertilization in rate 60 kg ha-1, without nitrogen fertilization. Soil samples were taken from the depth of 0 to 0.3 m at the beginning of the experiment in the autumn 2012 and at the end of reference period in the autumn 2015. Land management conversion from market crops to perennial energy crops cultivation has influenced changes of selected soil chemical parameters. The contents of soil organic carbon were affected by cultivated energy crops differently. It was found out that Arundo increased the organic carbon content and Miscanthus, Elymus and Sida decreased its content. At the same time, the same impact of the crops on content of available phosphorus and potassium and soil reaction was found. It was recorded that each cultivated crop decreased the soil reaction and available phosphorus content and increased the content of available potassium.

  8. Changes in the Diversity of Soil Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi after Cultivation for Biofuel Production in a Guantanamo (Cuba) Tropical System

    Alguacil, Maria del Mar; Torrecillas, Emma; Hernández, Guillermina; Roldán, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    The arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are a key, integral component of the stability, sustainability and functioning of ecosystems. In this study, we characterised the AMF biodiversity in a native vegetation soil and in a soil cultivated with Jatropha curcas or Ricinus communis, in a tropical system in Guantanamo (Cuba), in order to verify if a change of land use to biofuel plant production had any effect on the AMF communities. We also asses whether some soil properties related with the soil fertility (total N, Organic C, microbial biomass C, aggregate stability percentage, pH and electrical conductivity) were changed with the cultivation of both crop species. The AM fungal small sub-unit (SSU) rRNA genes were subjected to PCR, cloning, sequencing and phylogenetic analyses. Twenty AM fungal sequence types were identified: 19 belong to the Glomeraceae and one to the Paraglomeraceae. Two AMF sequence types related to cultured AMF species (Glo G3 for Glomus sinuosum and Glo G6 for Glomus intraradices-G. fasciculatum-G. irregulare) did not occur in the soil cultivated with J. curcas and R. communis. The soil properties (total N, Organic C and microbial biomass C) were higher in the soil cultivated with the two plant species. The diversity of the AMF community decreased in the soil of both crops, with respect to the native vegetation soil, and varied significantly depending on the crop species planted. Thus, R. communis soil showed higher AMF diversity than J. curcas soil. In conclusion, R. communis could be more suitable for the long-term conservation and sustainable management of these tropical ecosytems. PMID:22536339

  9. Changes in the diversity of soil arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi after cultivation for biofuel production in a Guantanamo (Cuba tropical system.

    Maria del Mar Alguacil

    Full Text Available The arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF are a key, integral component of the stability, sustainability and functioning of ecosystems. In this study, we characterised the AMF biodiversity in a native vegetation soil and in a soil cultivated with Jatropha curcas or Ricinus communis, in a tropical system in Guantanamo (Cuba, in order to verify if a change of land use to biofuel plant production had any effect on the AMF communities. We also asses whether some soil properties related with the soil fertility (total N, Organic C, microbial biomass C, aggregate stability percentage, pH and electrical conductivity were changed with the cultivation of both crop species. The AM fungal small sub-unit (SSU rRNA genes were subjected to PCR, cloning, sequencing and phylogenetic analyses. Twenty AM fungal sequence types were identified: 19 belong to the Glomeraceae and one to the Paraglomeraceae. Two AMF sequence types related to cultured AMF species (Glo G3 for Glomus sinuosum and Glo G6 for Glomus intraradices-G. fasciculatum-G. irregulare did not occur in the soil cultivated with J. curcas and R. communis. The soil properties (total N, Organic C and microbial biomass C were higher in the soil cultivated with the two plant species. The diversity of the AMF community decreased in the soil of both crops, with respect to the native vegetation soil, and varied significantly depending on the crop species planted. Thus, R. communis soil showed higher AMF diversity than J. curcas soil. In conclusion, R. communis could be more suitable for the long-term conservation and sustainable management of these tropical ecosytems.

  10. Optimisation of Transmission Systems by use of Phase Shifting Transformers

    Verboomen, J

    2008-10-13

    In this thesis, transmission grids with PSTs (Phase Shifting Transformers) are investigated. In particular, the following goals are put forward: (a) The analysis and quantification of the impact of a PST on a meshed grid. This includes the development of models for the device; (b) The development of methods to obtain optimal coordination of several PSTs in a meshed grid. An objective function should be formulated, and an optimisation method must be adopted to solve the problem; and (c) The investigation of different strategies to use a PST. Chapter 2 gives a short overview of active power flow controlling devices. In chapter 3, a first step towards optimal PST coordination is taken. In chapter 4, metaheuristic optimisation methods are discussed. Chapter 5 introduces DC load flow approximations, leading to analytically closed equations that describe the relation between PST settings and active power flows. In chapter 6, some applications of the methods that are developed in earlier chapters are presented. Chapter 7 contains the conclusions of this thesis, as well as recommendations for future work.

  11. Wavelet crosstalk matrix and its application to assessment of shift-variant imaging systems

    Qi, Jinyi; Huesman, Ronald H.

    2002-11-01

    The objective assessment of image quality is essential for design of imaging systems. Barrett and Gifford [1] introduced the Fourier cross talk matrix. Because it is diagonal for continuous linear shift-invariant imaging systems, the Fourier cross talk matrix is a powerful technique for discrete imaging systems that are close to shift invariant. However, for a system that is intrinsically shift variant, Fourier techniques are not particularly effective. Because Fourier bases have no localization property, the shift-variance of the imaging system cannot be shown by the response of individual Fourier bases; rather, it is shown in the correlation between the Fourier coefficients. This makes the analysis and optimization quite difficult. In this paper, we introduce a wavelet cross talk matrix based on wavelet series expansions. The wavelet cross talk matrix allows simultaneous study of the imaging system in both the frequency and spatial domains. Hence it is well suited for shift variant systems. We compared the wavelet cross talk matrix with the Fourier cross talk matrix for several simulated imaging systems, namely the interior and exterior tomography problems, limited angle tomography, and a rectangular geometry positron emission tomograph. The results demonstrate the advantages of the wavelet cross talk matrix in analyzing shift-variant imaging systems.

  12. Wavelet crosstalk matrix and its application to assessment of shift-variant imaging systems

    Qi, Jinyi; Huesman, Ronald H.

    2002-01-01

    The objective assessment of image quality is essential for design of imaging systems. Barrett and Gifford [1] introduced the Fourier cross talk matrix. Because it is diagonal for continuous linear shift-invariant imaging systems, the Fourier cross talk matrix is a powerful technique for discrete imaging systems that are close to shift invariant. However, for a system that is intrinsically shift variant, Fourier techniques are not particularly effective. Because Fourier bases have no localization property, the shift-variance of the imaging system cannot be shown by the response of individual Fourier bases; rather, it is shown in the correlation between the Fourier coefficients. This makes the analysis and optimization quite difficult. In this paper, we introduce a wavelet cross talk matrix based on wavelet series expansions. The wavelet cross talk matrix allows simultaneous study of the imaging system in both the frequency and spatial domains. Hence it is well suited for shift variant systems. We compared the wavelet cross talk matrix with the Fourier cross talk matrix for several simulated imaging systems, namely the interior and exterior tomography problems, limited angle tomography, and a rectangular geometry positron emission tomograph. The results demonstrate the advantages of the wavelet cross talk matrix in analyzing shift-variant imaging systems

  13. EBP2R – An innovative enhanced biological nutrient recovery activated sludge system to produce growth medium for green microalgae cultivation

    Valverde Perez, Borja; Ramin, Elham; Smets, Barth F.

    2015-01-01

    system to produce nutrient rich organic-carbon depleted algal cultivation media of target composition. Via SRT control, the quality of the constructed cultivation media can be optimized to support a wide range of green micro-algal growth requirements. Up to 75% of the influent phosphorus can be recovered...... that the system performance predicted through the model-based design can be achieved in reality....

  14. On stabilisability of 2-D MIMO shift-invariant systems

    Augusta, Petr; Augustová, Petra

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 350, č. 10 (2013), s. 2949-2966 ISSN 0016-0032 R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP103/12/P494 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : spatially invariant system * stabilisation * multiple-input-multiple-output system, * positive polynomial Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory Impact factor: 2.260, year: 2013 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/TR/augusta-0398772.pdf

  15. An overview of the changing role of the systems librarian systemic shifts

    Iglesias, Edward

    2010-01-01

    This book presents a series of case studies from systems librarians all over the world. It documents how the profession has changed in recent years with the introduction of new web technologies services such as hosted databases that are supported by vendors rather than in-house, as well as shifts in technology management. New skill sets are constantly being added as systems librarians become much more versed in dealing with service providers outside the library as well as training and supporting their traditional constituencies.Written by practitioners in the field who have rea

  16. Development of air conditioning system and labor saving technology for efficient hydroponic cultivation; Konoritsuna suiko saibai no tame no kucho to shoryokuka gijutsu no kaihatsu

    Okano, T.; Terazoe, H.; Shoji, K. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan); Yonezawa, K.; Otani, F. [Chugoku Electric Power Co. Inc., Hiroshima (Japan); Sekiyama, T.; Kosakai, K.; Sato, H.

    1997-06-01

    Equipment which made experiments on air conditioning and hydroponic cultivation possible was set up at the technical research center of the Chugoku Electric Power Co., to study an air conditioning system using night power and energy saving technology for the cultivation. Vegetables suitable to the cultivation were selected. For air conditioning, adopted was a water heat storage air conditioning system using night power. The space between the shade curtain and the greenhouse roof was ventilated to prevent increase in cooling load caused by rise in curtain temperature. Moreover, the cultivation equipment was covered with transparent vinyl film to cool the inside of the equipment. The hydroponic cultivation equipment was trially manufactured which makes the continued production by one worker possible. The cultivation of spinach, leaf lettuce and chingensai throughout the year became possible. The yield of chingensai reached the target, but those of spinach and leaf lettuce were approximately 70% of the targets. Vegetables to be produced in the air-conditioned greenhouse by hydroponic cultivation are thought to be those that can have added values such non-pesticides and ingredients, young plants which were increased by cutting or tissue culturing, etc. 5 refs., 19 figs., 8 tabs.

  17. Quantum ergonomics: shifting the paradigm of the systems agenda.

    Walker, Guy H; Salmon, Paul M; Bedinger, Melissa; Stanton, Neville A

    2017-02-01

    A paradigm is an accepted world view. If we do not continually question our paradigm then wider trends and movements will overtake the discipline leaving it ill adapted to future challenges. This Special Issue is an opportunity to keep systems thinking at the forefront of ergonomics theory and practice. Systems thinking prompts us to ask whether ergonomics, as a discipline, has been too timid? Too preoccupied with the resolution of immediate problems with industrial-age methods when, approaching fast, are developments which could render these operating assumptions an irrelevance. Practical case studies are presented to show how abstract systems problems can be tackled head-on to deliver highly innovative and cost-effective insights. The strategic direction of the discipline foregrounds high-quality systems problems. These are something the discipline is well able to respond to provided that the appropriate operating paradigms are selected. Practitioner Summary: High-quality systems problems are the future of the discipline. How do we convert obtuse sounding systems concepts into practical interventions? In this paper, the essence of systems thinking is distilled and practical case studies used to demonstrate the benefits of this new paradigm.

  18. Research on cultivating medical students' self-learning ability using teaching system integrated with learning analysis technology.

    Luo, Hong; Wu, Cheng; He, Qian; Wang, Shi-Yong; Ma, Xiu-Qiang; Wang, Ri; Li, Bing; He, Jia

    2015-01-01

    Along with the advancement of information technology and the era of big data education, using learning process data to provide strategic decision-making in cultivating and improving medical students' self-learning ability has become a trend in educational research. Educator Abuwen Toffler said once, the illiterates in the future may not be the people not able to read and write, but not capable to know how to learn. Serving as educational institutions cultivating medical students' learning ability, colleges and universities should not only instruct specific professional knowledge and skills, but also develop medical students' self-learning ability. In this research, we built a teaching system which can help to restore medical students' self-learning processes and analyze their learning outcomes and behaviors. To evaluate the effectiveness of the system in supporting medical students' self-learning, an experiment was conducted in 116 medical students from two grades. The results indicated that problems in self-learning process through this system was consistent with problems raised from traditional classroom teaching. Moreover, the experimental group (using this system) acted better than control group (using traditional classroom teaching) to some extent. Thus, this system can not only help medical students to develop their self-learning ability, but also enhances the ability of teachers to target medical students' questions quickly, improving the efficiency of answering questions in class.

  19. Constraint-based workflow management systems : shifting control to users

    Pesic, M.

    2008-01-01

    Many organizations use information technology to support various aspects of their business processes: the operational aspect, collaboration between employees, etc. Workow management systems aim at supporting the operational aspect of complex business processes by using process models to automate the

  20. Renewing the Future: Social Innovation Systems, Sector Shift, and Innoweave

    Stephen Huddart

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Against a backdrop of various “occupy” movements signifying civic dissatisfaction with the social contract, and in an era of fiscal restraint affecting governments and communities in many parts of the world, we need new and more effective ways to address complex social challenges. While continuous innovation is commonly understood to be a source of growth, productivity improvement, and competitive advantage in the technology and manufacturing sectors, the author’s focus is on social innovation systems, designed to replace maladaptive institutions and obsolete policy frameworks with novel and disruptive means for improving outcomes on issues such as population health and climate change. This article proposes a definition of such systems, and examines how system-level tools including impact investing, open data platforms, and “change labs” are fostering collaboration among the private, public, and community sectors. We argue that a key priority at this time is to make these and other tools and processes for social innovation available to community organizations and their government and business partners everywhere, in a manner that allows for continuous cycles of implementation and learning. The author describes one such project currently being developed in Canada by Social Innovation Generation and other partners, called Innoweave. Innoweave is a technology-enabled social innovation system for sharing the tools and processes of social innovation with the community sector. The article concludes with a call for multi-sectoral participation in social innovation systems as an investment in society’s adaptive capacity and future wellbeing.

  1. Regime shifts limit the predictability of land-system change

    Müller, Daniel; Sun, Zhanli; Vongvisouk, Thoumthone

    2014-01-01

    Payment schemes for ecosystem services such as Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD) rely on the prediction of ‘business-as-usual’ scenarios to ensure that emission reductions from carbon credits are additional. However, land systems often undergo periods of nonlinear...... and abrupt change that invalidate predictions calibrated on past trends. Rapid land-system change can occur when critical thresholds in broad-scale underlying drivers such as commodity prices and climate conditions are crossed or when sudden events such as political change or natural disasters punctuate long...

  2. Dynamic Shift Coordinated Control Based on Motor Active Speed Synchronization with the New Hybrid System

    Ting Yan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the inherent disadvantages that severely affect driving comfortability during the shift process in HEVs, a dynamic shift coordinated control based on motor active speed synchronization is proposed to improve shift quality by reduction of shift vibration. The whole control scheme is comprised of three phases, preparatory phase, speed regulation phase, and synchronization phase, which are implemented consecutively in order. The key to inhibiting impact and jerk depends on the speed regulation phase, where motor active speed synchronization is utilized to reach the minimum speed difference between the two ends of synchronizer. A new hybrid system with superior performances is applied to present the validity of the adopted control algorithm during upshift or downshift, which can represent planetary gear system and conventional AMT shift procedure, respectively. Bench test, simulation, and road test results show that, compared with other methods, the proposed dynamic coordinated control can achieve shifting control in real time to effectively improve gear-shift comfort and shorten power interruption transients, with robustness in both conventional AMT and planetary gear train.

  3. Predominant natural red-shift of quasi-conservative nonlinear systems

    Pugno, Nicola Maria; Carpinteri, Alberto; Delsanto, Pier Paolo

    2009-01-01

    Recent discoveries of nonclassical nonlinear phenomena are attracting a large interest in the scientific community, especially in material science. In spite of this, the natural frequency shift related to the appearance of such phenomena remains partially unclear. In this paper, we apply the general and only recently developed Interaction Box Formalism for investigating if a universality in the natural frequency shift of quasi-conservative nonlinear systems exists. Such universality clearly emerges as a rupture in the symmetry, usually leading to a red-shift, quantifiable as a function of the higher- and sub-harmonic generation.

  4. Invasion of Piper aduncum in the shifting cultivation systems of Papua New Guinea: Foreword by David Pimentel

    Hartemink, A.E.

    2006-01-01

    Piper aduncum, a shrub native to Central America, arrived in Papua New Guinea before the mid-1930s possibly from West Papua. From the 1970s it started to dominate the secondary fallow vegetation in many parts of the humid lowlands. It invaded grassland areas and it also appeared in the highlands up

  5. Use of geographic information systems (GIS to identify adequate sites for cultivation of the seaweed Gracilaria birdiae in Rio Grande do Norte, Northeastern Brazil

    Flavo E. S. de Sousa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to select potential areas for cultivation of the seaweed Gracilaria birdiae Plastino & E.C. Oliveira (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta on the coast of Rio Grande do Norte state, Brazil. The Geographic Information System (GIS and multi-criteria evaluation (MCE were used to identify the most suitable areas. The Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP was applied to establish MCE weights, thereby generating viable areas for species cultivation. From a total of 3316.82 ha, around 53.67% (1780.06 ha were indicated as highly suitable areas, 40.93% (1357.58 ha as moderately suitable and 5.40% (179.18 ha as scarcely suitable for seaweed cultivation. Seven areas (1084.62 ha are located on the northern coast and 20 (2232.20 ha on the eastern coast. The results show that GIS can be used as an effective instrument for selecting seaweed cultivation areas.

  6. Beneficial effect of compost utilization on reducing greenhouse gas emissions in a rice cultivation system through the overall management chain.

    Jeong, Seung Tak; Kim, Gil Won; Hwang, Hyun Young; Kim, Pil Joo; Kim, Sang Yoon

    2018-02-01

    Livestock manure application can stimulate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, especially methane (CH 4 ) in rice paddy. The stabilized organic matter (OM) is recommended to suppress CH 4 emission without counting the additional GHG emission during the composting process. To evaluate the effect of compost utilization on the net global warming potential (GWP) of a rice cropping system, the fluxes of GHGs from composting to land application were calculated by a life cycle assessment (LCA) method. The model framework was composed of GHG fluxes from industrial activities and biogenic GHG fluxes from the composting and rice cultivation processes. Fresh manure emitted 30MgCO 2 -eq.ha -1 , 90% and 10% of which were contributed by CH 4 and nitrous oxide (N 2 O) fluxes, respectively, during rice cultivation. Compost utilization decreased net GWP by 25% over that of the fresh manure during the whole process. The composting process increased the GWP of the industrial processes by 35%, but the 60% reduction in CH 4 emissions from the rice paddy mainly influenced the reduction of GWP during the overall process. Therefore, compost application could be a good management strategy to reduce GHG emissions from rice paddy systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of the cultivation of the lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. under organoponico and semi-protected systems

    Dania Bárbara Núñez Sosa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The research was done in the organoponico at the Soil Laboratory in Matanzas. The objective was to evaluate the response of the of the lettuce (Lactuca sativa, L. cultivation under conditions of organoponic and Semi-protected cultivation systems. Two varieties were studied: Fomento 95 and Black Seeded Simpson (BSS. The random block design was used. The data were processed using the Statgraphic plus 5.1 package for WINDOWS. The total number of leaves, number of commercial leaves, diameter of bush, yield in kg/m2, total content of soluble proteins and carbohydrates were evaluated. In conclusion, the variety Fomento 95 showed a significant increment of the total number of leaves in the organoponico system and commercial leaves with respect to the semi-protected conditions; the BSS variety showed only significant differences in commercial leaves; no significant differences in yield for both varieties were reported under the studied conditions. The analysis showed that the total soluble carbohydrates and proteins content decreased significantly in both varieties under semi-protected conditions.

  8. Using single cell cultivation system for on-chip monitoring of the interdivision timer in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cell cycle

    Soloviev Mikhail

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Regulation of cell cycle progression in changing environments is vital for cell survival and maintenance, and different regulation mechanisms based on cell size and cell cycle time have been proposed. To determine the mechanism of cell cycle regulation in the unicellular green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, we developed an on-chip single-cell cultivation system that allows for the strict control of the extracellular environment. We divided the Chlamydomonas cell cycle into interdivision and division phases on the basis of changes in cell size and found that, regardless of the amount of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR and the extent of illumination, the length of the interdivision phase was inversely proportional to the rate of increase of cell volume. Their product remains constant indicating the existence of an 'interdivision timer'. The length of the division phase, in contrast, remained nearly constant. Cells cultivated under light-dark-light conditions did not divide unless they had grown to twice their initial volume during the first light period. This indicates the existence of a 'commitment sizer'. The ratio of the cell volume at the beginning of the division phase to the initial cell volume determined the number of daughter cells, indicating the existence of a 'mitotic sizer'.

  9. Removal of eutrophication factors and heavy metal from a closed cultivation system using the macroalgae, Gracilaria sp. (Rhodophyta)

    Kang, Kyoung Ho; Sui, Zhenghong

    2010-11-01

    In this study, the ability of macroalgae Gracilaria sp. of removing eutrophication factors and toxic heavy metals Al, Cr, and Zn in a closed cultivation system is reported. The results show that the concentration of the three heavy metals decreased significantly during the experimental period in an algal biomass dependent manner. The biofiltration capacity of the alga for Al, Cr, and Zn is 10.1%-72.6%, 52.5%-83.4% and 36.5%-91.7%, respectively. Using more materials resulted in stronger heavy metal removal. Additionally, the concentration of chl- a, TN, TP and DIN of water samples from aquariums involving large, medium, and small algal biomass cultivation increased first and then decreased during the experiment. COD value of all three groups decreased with time and displayed algal biomass dependency: more algae resulting in a greater COD value than those of less biomass. Furthermore, changes in COD reflect an obvious organic particles deprivation process of algae. This is the first report on heavy metal removal effect by Gracilaria species. The results suggest that macroalgae can be used as a biofilter for the treatment of nutrient-enriched or heavy-metal polluted water, to which an appropriate time range should be carefully determined.

  10. Numerical analysis of the shifting slabs applied in a wireless power transfer system to enhance magnetic coupling

    Yayun Dong

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Shifting medium is a kind of metamaterial, which can optically shift a space or an object a certain distance away from its original position. Based on the shifting medium, we propose a concise pair of shifting slabs covering the transmitting or receiving coil in a two-coil wireless power transfer system to decrease the equivalent distance between the coils. The electromagnetic parameters of the shifting slabs are calculated by transformation optics. Numerical simulations validate that the shifting slabs can approximately shift the electromagnetic fields generated by the covered coil; thus, the magnetic coupling and the efficiency of the system are enhanced while remaining the physical transmission distance unchanged. We also verify the advantages of the shifting slabs over the magnetic superlens. Finally, we provide two methods to fabricate shifting slabs based on split-ring resonators.

  11. Numerical analysis of the shifting slabs applied in a wireless power transfer system to enhance magnetic coupling

    Dong, Yayun; Yang, Xijun; Jin, Nan; Li, Wenwen; Yao, Chen; Tang, Houjun

    2017-05-01

    Shifting medium is a kind of metamaterial, which can optically shift a space or an object a certain distance away from its original position. Based on the shifting medium, we propose a concise pair of shifting slabs covering the transmitting or receiving coil in a two-coil wireless power transfer system to decrease the equivalent distance between the coils. The electromagnetic parameters of the shifting slabs are calculated by transformation optics. Numerical simulations validate that the shifting slabs can approximately shift the electromagnetic fields generated by the covered coil; thus, the magnetic coupling and the efficiency of the system are enhanced while remaining the physical transmission distance unchanged. We also verify the advantages of the shifting slabs over the magnetic superlens. Finally, we provide two methods to fabricate shifting slabs based on split-ring resonators.

  12. Macroevolutionary data suggest a role for reinforcement in pollination system shifts

    Niet, van der T.; Johnson, S.D.; Linder, H.P.

    2006-01-01

    Reproductive isolation can evolve either as a by-product of divergent selection or through reinforcement. We used the Cape flora of South Africa, known for its high level of pollination specialization, as a model system to test the potential role of shifts in pollination system in the speciation

  13. Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of Glycyrrhiza uralensis root extracts produced using artificial hydroponic and artificial hydroponic-field hybrid cultivation systems.

    Akiyama, H; Nose, M; Ohtsuki, N; Hisaka, S; Takiguchi, H; Tada, A; Sugimoto, N; Fuchino, H; Inui, T; Kawano, N; Hayashi, S; Hishida, A; Kudo, T; Sugiyama, K; Abe, Y; Mutsuga, M; Kawahara, N; Yoshimatsu, K

    2017-01-01

    Glycyrrhiza uralensis roots used in this study were produced using novel cultivation systems, including artificial hydroponics and artificial hydroponic-field hybrid cultivation. The equivalency between G. uralensis root extracts produced by hydroponics and/or hybrid cultivation and a commercial Glycyrrhiza crude drug were evaluated for both safety and efficacy, and there were no significant differences in terms of mutagenicity on the Ames tests. The levels of cadmium and mercury in both hydroponic roots and crude drugs were less than the limit of quantitation. Arsenic levels were lower in all hydroponic roots than in the crude drug, whereas mean lead levels in the crude drug were not significantly different from those in the hydroponically cultivated G. uralensis roots. Both hydroponic and hybrid-cultivated root extracts showed antiallergic activities against contact hypersensitivity that were similar to those of the crude drug extracts. These study results suggest that hydroponic and hybrid-cultivated roots are equivalent in safety and efficacy to those of commercial crude drugs. Further studies are necessary before the roots are applicable as replacements for the currently available commercial crude drugs produced from wild plant resources.

  14. NGT-3D: a simple nematode cultivation system to study Caenorhabditis elegans biology in 3D

    Tong Young Lee

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is one of the premier experimental model organisms today. In the laboratory, they display characteristic development, fertility, and behaviors in a two dimensional habitat. In nature, however, C. elegans is found in three dimensional environments such as rotting fruit. To investigate the biology of C. elegans in a 3D controlled environment we designed a nematode cultivation habitat which we term the nematode growth tube or NGT-3D. NGT-3D allows for the growth of both nematodes and the bacteria they consume. Worms show comparable rates of growth, reproduction and lifespan when bacterial colonies in the 3D matrix are abundant. However, when bacteria are sparse, growth and brood size fail to reach levels observed in standard 2D plates. Using NGT-3D we observe drastic deficits in fertility in a sensory mutant in 3D compared to 2D, and this defect was likely due to an inability to locate bacteria. Overall, NGT-3D will sharpen our understanding of nematode biology and allow scientists to investigate questions of nematode ecology and evolutionary fitness in the laboratory.

  15. A simple method for decomposition of peracetic acid in a microalgal cultivation system.

    Sung, Min-Gyu; Lee, Hansol; Nam, Kibok; Rexroth, Sascha; Rögner, Matthias; Kwon, Jong-Hee; Yang, Ji-Won

    2015-03-01

    A cost-efficient process devoid of several washing steps was developed, which is related to direct cultivation following the decomposition of the sterilizer. Peracetic acid (PAA) is known to be an efficient antimicrobial agent due to its high oxidizing potential. Sterilization by 2 mM PAA demands at least 1 h incubation time for an effective disinfection. Direct degradation of PAA was demonstrated by utilizing components in conventional algal medium. Consequently, ferric ion and pH buffer (HEPES) showed a synergetic effect for the decomposition of PAA within 6 h. On the contrary, NaNO3, one of the main components in algal media, inhibits the decomposition of PAA. The improved growth of Chlorella vulgaris and Synechocystis PCC6803 was observed in the prepared BG11 by decomposition of PAA. This process involving sterilization and decomposition of PAA should help cost-efficient management of photobioreactors in a large scale for the production of value-added products and biofuels from microalgal biomass.

  16. EBP2R - an innovative enhanced biological nutrient recovery activated sludge system to produce growth medium for green microalgae cultivation.

    Valverde-Pérez, Borja; Ramin, Elham; Smets, Barth F; Plósz, Benedek Gy

    2015-01-01

    Current research considers wastewater as a source of energy, nutrients and water and not just a source of pollution. So far, mainly energy intensive physical and chemical unit processes have been developed to recover some of these resources, and less energy and resource demanding alternatives are needed. Here, we present a modified enhanced biological phosphorus removal and recovery system (referred to as EBP2R) that can produce optimal culture media for downstream micro-algal growth in terms of N and P content. Phosphorus is recovered as a P-stream by diversion of some of the effluent from the upstream anaerobic reactor. By operating the process at comparably low solids retention times (SRT), the nitrogen content of wastewater is retained as free and saline ammonia, the preferred form of nitrogen for most micro-algae. Scenario simulations were carried out to assess the capacity of the EBP2R system to produce nutrient rich organic-carbon depleted algal cultivation media of target composition. Via SRT control, the quality of the constructed cultivation media can be optimized to support a wide range of green micro-algal growth requirements. Up to 75% of the influent phosphorus can be recovered, by diverting 30% of the influent flow as a P-stream at an SRT of 5 days. Through global sensitivity analysis we find that the effluent N-to-P ratio and the P recovered are mainly dependent on the influent quality rather than on biokinetics or stoichiometry. Further research is needed to demonstrate that the system performance predicted through the model-based design can be achieved in reality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Bulk density of an alfisol under cultivation systems in a long-term experiment evaluated with gamma ray computed tomography

    Bamberg, Adilson Luis; Silva, Thiago Rech da; Pauletto, Eloy Antonio; Pinto, Luiz Fernando Spinelli; Lima, Ana Claudia Rodrigues de; Timm, Luis Carlos

    2009-01-01

    The sustainability of irrigated rice (Oryza sativa L.) in lowland soils is based on the use of crop rotation and succession, which are essential for the control of red and black rice. The effects on the soil properties deserve studies, particularly on soil compaction. The objective of this study was to identify compacted layers in an albaqualf under different cultivation and tillage systems, by evaluating the soil bulk density (Ds) with Gamma Ray Computed Tomography (TC). The analysis was carried out in a long-term experiment, from 1985 to 2004, at an experimental station of EMBRAPA Clima Temperado, Capao do Leao, RS, Brazil, in a random block design with seven treatments, with four replications (T1 - one year rice with conventional tillage followed by two years fallow; T2 - continuous rice under conventional tillage; T4 - rice and soybean (Glycine Max L.) rotation under conventional tillage; T5 - rice, soybean and corn (Zea maize L.) rotation under conventional tillage; T6 - rice under no-tillage in the summer in succession to rye-grass (Lolium multiflorum L.) in the winter; T7 - rice under no-tillage and soybean under conventional tillage rotation; T8 - control: uncultivated soil). The Gamma Ray Computed Tomography method did not identify compacted soil layers under no tillage rice in succession to rye-grass; two fallow years in the irrigated rice production system did not prevent the formation of a compacted layer at the soil surface; and in the rice, soybean and corn rotation under conventional tillage two compacted layers were identified (0.0 to 1.5 cm and 11 to 14 cm), indicating that they may restrict the agricultural production in this cultivation system on Albaqualf soils. (author)

  18. An integrated ecosystem approach for assessing the potential role of cultivated bivalve shells as part of the carbon trading system

    Filgueira, Ramón; Byron, C.J.; Comeau, L.A.

    2015-01-01

    , is needed to provide a rigorous assessment of the role of bivalve mariculture in the CO2 cycle. On the other hand, the discussion about the inclusion of shells of cultured bivalves into the carbon trading system should be framed in the context of ecosystem goods and services. Humans culture bivalves......The role of bivalve mariculture in the CO2 cycle has been commonly evaluated as the balance between respiration, shell calcium carbonate sequestration and CO2 release during biogenic calcification. However, this approach neglects the ecosystem implications of cultivating bivalves at high densities...... with the aim of producing food, not sequestering CO2 in their shells, therefore the main ecosystem good provided by bivalve aquaculture is meat production, and shells should be considered as by-products of this human activity. This reasoning is key to split the CO2 released due to respiration between meat...

  19. Microbial quality and molecular identification of cultivable microorganisms isolated from an urban drinking water distribution system (Limassol, Cyprus).

    Botsaris, George; Kanetis, Loukas; Slaný, Michal; Parpouna, Christiana; Makris, Konstantinos C

    2015-12-01

    Microorganisms can survive and multiply in aged urban drinking water distribution systems, leading to potential health risks. The objective of this work was to investigate the microbial quality of tap water and molecularly identify its predominant cultivable microorganisms. Tap water samples collected from 24 different households scattered in the urban area of Limassol, Cyprus, were microbiologically tested following standard protocols for coliforms, E. coli, Pseudomonas spp., Enterococcus spp., and total viable count at 22 and 37 °C. Molecular identification was performed on isolated predominant single colonies using 16SrRNA sequencing. Approximately 85% of the household water samples were contaminated with one or more microorganisms belonging to the genera of Pseudomonas, Corynebacterium, Agrobacterium, Staphylococcus, Bacillus, Delftia, Acinetobacter, Enterococcus, Enterobacter, and Aeromonas. However, all samples tested were free from E. coli. This is the first report in Cyprus molecularly confirming specific genera of relevant microbial communities in tap water.

  20. Balancing the dynamic Stark shift in a driven Jaynes-Cummings system

    Mogilevtsev, D; Kilin, S

    2004-01-01

    In this work we discuss the possibility of balancing a dynamic Shark shift in a Jaynes-Cummings system by simultaneously driving the cavity and the atom with classical fields, of the same frequency. For a lossless Jaynes-Cummings system this can lead to unusual atomic population dynamics. For a lossy Jaynes-Cummings system such balancing can lead to complete suppression of resonance fluorescence even for leaky cavities

  1. An algorithm for engineering regime shifts in one-dimensional dynamical systems

    Tan, James P. L.

    2018-01-01

    Regime shifts are discontinuous transitions between stable attractors hosting a system. They can occur as a result of a loss of stability in an attractor as a bifurcation is approached. In this work, we consider one-dimensional dynamical systems where attractors are stable equilibrium points. Relying on critical slowing down signals related to the stability of an equilibrium point, we present an algorithm for engineering regime shifts such that a system may escape an undesirable attractor into a desirable one. We test the algorithm on synthetic data from a one-dimensional dynamical system with a multitude of stable equilibrium points and also on a model of the population dynamics of spruce budworms in a forest. The algorithm and other ideas discussed here contribute to an important part of the literature on exercising greater control over the sometimes unpredictable nature of nonlinear systems.

  2. 16-level differential phase shift keying (D16PSK) in direct detection optical communication systems

    Sambaraju, R.; Tokle, Torger; Jensen, J.B.

    2006-01-01

    Optical 16-level differential phase shift keying (D16PSK) carrying four bits for every symbol is proposed for direct detection optical communication systems. Transmitter and receiver schematics are presented, and the receiver sensitivity is discussed. We numerically investigate the impact...

  3. Deepen the Teaching Reform of Operating System, Cultivate the Comprehensive Quality of Students

    Liu, Jianjun

    2010-01-01

    Operating system is the core course of the specialty of computer science and technology. To understand and master the operating system will directly affect students' further study on other courses. The course of operating system focuses more on theories. Its contents are more abstract and the knowledge system is more complicated. Therefore,…

  4. Extension of shift-invariant systems in L2(ℝ) to frames

    Bownik, Marcin; Christensen, Ole; Huang, Xinli

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we show that any shift-invariant Bessel sequence with an at most countable number of generators can be extended to a tight frame for its closed linear span by adding another shift-invariant system with at most the same number of generators. We show that in general this result...... is optimal, by providing examples where it is impossible to obtain a tight frame by adding a smaller number of generators. An alternative construction (which avoids the technical complication of extracting the square root of a positive operator) yields an extension of the given Bessel sequence to a pair...

  5. Constraints on dephasing widths and shifts in three-level quantum systems

    Berman, P.R.; O'Connell, Ross C.

    2005-01-01

    It is shown that the density matrix equations for a three-level quantum system interacting with external radiation fields can lead to negative populations if arbitrary dephasing rates and shifts are included in these equations. To guarantee non-negative populations, the equations themselves impose certain restrictions on the dephasing widths and shifts. The constraints on the widths are shown to be identical to those that can be derived from a model of Markovian dephasing events, independent of any atom-field interaction

  6. Scale-down of continuous protein producing Saccharomyces cerevisiae cultivations using a two compartment system

    Wright, Naia Risager; Rønnest, Nanna Petersen; Thykær, Jette

    2016-01-01

    ml standard continuous cultivations. It was found that substrate gradients within a limited range result in increased productivity of the heterologous protein under regulation of the glycolytic TPI promoter and delay the decrease of protein and trehalose production during continuous cultivation...

  7. /sup 1/H-NMR chemical shift imaging suitable for low field systems

    Yamamoto, Etsuji; Onodera, Takashi; Shiono, Hidemi; Kohno, Hideki

    1986-12-01

    An echo-time encoding proton NMR chemical shift imaging proposed by Dixon is extended to be applicable to low filed systems. The method utilizes the small phase angle between magnetic vectors of water and lipid protons to decrease the signal decays with spin-spin relaxation. The inevitable phase error caused by the static field inhomogeneity is corrected by using phase images of phantom measured under the same conditions as the actual measurements. The experiments were carried out using CuSO/sub 4/ doped water and vegetable oil at 0.5 T. Two chemical shift images could be clearly resolved with only one scan when the field inhomogeneity was larger than the chemical shift difference.

  8. Computational derivation of quantum relativist electromagnetic systems with forward-backward space-time shifts

    Dubois, Daniel M.

    2000-01-01

    This paper is a continuation of our preceding paper dealing with computational derivation of the Klein-Gordon quantum relativist equation and the Schroedinger quantum equation with forward and backward space-time shifts. The first part introduces forward and backward derivatives for discrete and continuous systems. Generalized complex discrete and continuous derivatives are deduced. The second part deduces the Klein-Gordon equation from the space-time complex continuous derivatives. These derivatives take into account forward-backward space-time shifts related to an internal phase velocity u. The internal group velocity v is related to the speed of light u.v=c 2 and to the external group and phase velocities u.v=v g .v p . Without time shift, the Schroedinger equation is deduced, with a supplementary term, which could represent a reference potential. The third part deduces the Quantum Relativist Klein-Gordon equation for a particle in an electromagnetic field

  9. Systemic range shift lags among a pollinator species assemblage following rapid climate change

    Bedford, Felicity E.; Whittaker, Robert J.; Kerr, Jeremy T.

    2012-01-01

    Contemporary climate change is driving widespread geographical range shifts among many species. If species are tracking changing climate successfully, then leading populations should experience similar climatic conditions through time as new populations establish beyond historical range margins....... Here, we investigate geographical range shifts relative to changing climatic conditions among a particularly well-sampled assemblage of butterflies in Canada. We assembled observations of 81 species and measured their latitudinal displacement between two periods: 1960–1975 (a period of little climate...... change) and 1990–2005 (a period with large climate change). We find an unexpected trend for species’ northern borders to shift progressively less relative to increasing minimum winter temperatures in northern Canada. This study demonstrates a novel, systemic latitudinal gradient in lags among a large...

  10. Air-mass flux measurement system using Doppler-shifted filtered Rayleigh scattering

    Shirley, John A.; Winter, Michael

    1993-01-01

    An optical system has been investigated to measure mass flux distributions in the inlet of a high speed air-breathing propulsion system. Rayleigh scattered light from air is proportional to the number density of molecules and hence can be used to ascertain the gas density in a calibrated system. Velocity field measurements are achieved by spectrally filtering the elastically-scattered Doppler-shifted light with an absorbing molecular filter. A novel anamorphic optical collection system is used which allows optical rays from different scattering angles, that have different Doppler shifts, to be recorded separately. This is shown to obviate the need to tune the laser through the absorption to determine velocities, while retaining the ability to make spatially-resolved measurements along a line. By properly selecting the laser tuning and filter parameters, simultaneous density measurements can be made. These properties are discussed in the paper and experiments demonstrating the velocimetry capability are described.

  11. Climate Management System for mushroom cultivation (CMMC). First phase. Inventory and functional design; Klimaat Managementsysteem Champignonteelt (KMC). 1e fase. Inventarisatie en functioneel ontwerp

    Gielen, J.H. [DLV Plant, Horst (Netherlands)

    2011-03-15

    This report describes the feasibility and the opportunities of developing a Climate Management System for Mushroom Cultivation (CMMC) software package, based on which a decision can be made to proceed with the realization of phase 2 of the project, i.e. the actual construction of the CMMC for mushroom cultivation [Dutch] Deze rapportage beschrijft de haalbaarheid en de mogelijkheden van de ontwikkeling van een KMC software pakket, op basis waarvan besloten kan worden tot de realisatie van fase 2 van het project, de daadwerkelijke bouw van de KMC voor de champignonteelt.

  12. Cultivating User-ship? Developing a Circular System for the Acquisition and Use of Baby Clothing

    Petersen, Trine Brun; Riisberg, Vibeke

    2017-01-01

    This paper sets out to explore the significance of the production, sale and consumption of clothing as a product service system rather than as the more familiar “shop-window” product offered for individual sale. While there are a number of studies of occupational clothing systems, relatively little...... is known about clothing systems tailored for the private market. This article presents a case study of a recently launched subscription service for baby clothing, which offered a range of eco-certified garments for rent as more or less complete wardrobes. Drawing on fashion scholar Kate Fletcher’s concept...... features are mutually constitutive and to how the system interconnects with practices of use and maintenance among subscribers with a special interest in laundry regimes and durability. Taking this empirical example as its point of departure, the article concludes with a discussion of how product qualities...

  13. Vegetable Cultivation Hydroponics System In Community Economic Zone KEM Kanagarian Tikalak Subdistrict X Koto Singkarak Districts Solok

    I Ketut Budaraga

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Current conditions especially in urban agricultural land is getting narrower due to the rapid development. If left untreated it can lead to food security and environmental problems. One solution to allow the fulfillment of foodstuffs such as vegetables can be fulfilled for the people to exploit the potential of the narrow yard with continuous production of hydroponic systems. Interest dedication to the community to find ways to introduce a hydroponic vegetable crops that can supplement the family income of farmers. Benefits of the service is expected to increase peoples income and the public generally in Community Economic Zone KEM Kanagarian Tikalak in particular and can provide lucrative benefits for the environment. Devotion execution method implemented by a lecture and demonstration. The materials used such as husks seeds of vegetables kale collards caisin hydroponic media such as slug biogas rope bamboo to place the plants grow. The results of this activity the community has been able to make a hydroponic vegetable cultivation system and has been applied to plant vegetables such as kale collards and caisin.

  14. Influence of genotype, cultivation system and irrigation regime on antioxidant capacity and selected phenolics of blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L.).

    Cardeñosa, Vanessa; Girones-Vilaplana, Amadeo; Muriel, José Luis; Moreno, Diego A; Moreno-Rojas, José M

    2016-07-01

    Demand for and availability of blueberries has increased substantially over recent years, driven in part by their health-promoting properties. Three blueberry varieties ('Rocío', V2, and V3) were grown under two cultivation systems (open-field and plastic tunnels) and subjected to two irrigations regimes (100% and 80% of crop evapotranspiration) in two consecutive years (2011-2012). They were evaluated for their phytochemical composition and antioxidant capacity. Genotype influenced the antioxidant capacity and the content of the three groups of phenolics in the blueberries. The antioxidant activity and total flavonols content increased when the blueberries were grown under open-field conditions. Deficit irrigation conditions led to additional positive effects on their phenolics (delphinidn-3-acetilhexoside content was increased under plastic tunnel with deficit irrigation). In conclusion, the amount of phenolic compounds and the antioxidant capacity of blueberries were not negatively affected by water restriction; Moreover, several changes were recorded due to growing system and genotype. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Elimination of root-infecting pathogens in recirculation water from closed cultivation systems by ultra-violet radiation

    Runia, W.T.

    1994-01-01

    The development from growing in border soil to soilless cultures has not resulted in the disappearance of soil-borne diseases. Most root-infecting pathogens also occur in these new cultivation systems. Some pathogens such as Pythium, Phytophthora, cucumber green mottle mosaic virus and tomato mosaic virus are easily transmitted in recirculation water as is Olpidium, the vector of several viruses. To exclude any risk of dispersal of plant pathogens the water has to be sterilised before re-use. Rainwater collected from the glasshouse roof can also be contaminated with pathogens. When this rainwater is used for irrigation water it should be disinfected first. Currently water disinfection by heating or ozonisation is applied on some 450 nurseries. Initially ultra-violet(UV) radiation was not effective against plant pathogens. Only at a low capacity of 18 l h -1 and a high UV-dose of 430 mJ cm -2 could fungal spores be eliminated in nutrient solution. A low capacity however implies a poor turbulence in the water, resulting in varying UV-doses in the different water layers. Two new UV-installations with high capacities were tested for their efficacy against fungal and viral plant pathogens. One installation was equipped with a high-pressure and the other with a low-pressure mercury vapour lamp. In both installations a sandfilter first removed organic particles from the water. A UV-dose from the high-pressure lamp of 28 mJ cm -2 reduced the infectivity of conidia of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp lycopersici by 90 % resulting in a 99.9 % reduction at 84 mJ cm -2 . The low-pressure lamp completely eliminated conidia of Fusarium at a UV-dose of 70 mJ cm -2 . Tomato mosaic virus was reduced by 99 % using a UV-dose of 100 mJ cm -2 in both installations. Ultra-violet radiation can be effective against plant pathogens providing the dose under controlled conditions is sufficient. Numerous growers use UV-radiation for the disinfection of water in closed cultivation systems. (author)

  16. Assessment of multifunctional bio fertilizers on tomato plants cultivated under a fertigation system

    Phua Choo Kwai Hoe; Ahmad Nazrul Abdul Wahid; Khairuddin Abdul Rahim

    2012-01-01

    Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia) has developed a series of multifunctional bio organic fertilizers, namely, MULTIFUNCTIONAL BIOFERT PG and PA and MF-BIOPELLET, in an effort to reduce dependency on chemical fertilizer for crop production. These products contain indigenous microorganisms that have desired characteristics, which include plant growth promoting, phosphate solubilising, antagonistic towards bacterial wilt disease and enhancing N 2 -fixing activity. These products were formulated as liquid inoculants, and introduced into a fertigation system in an effort to reduce usage of chemical fertilizers. A greenhouse trial was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of multifunctional bio fertilizers on tomato plants grown under a fertigation system. Multifunctional bio fertilizer products were applied singly and in combination with different rates of NPK in the fertigation system. Fresh and dry weights of tomato plants were determined. Application of multifunctional bio fertilizer combined with 20 g NPK resulted in significantly higher fresh and dry weights as compared to other treatments. (author)

  17. Agroforestry systems, nutrients in litter and microbial activity in soils cultivated with coffee at high altitude

    Krystal de Alcantara Notaro

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Agroforestry systems are an alternative option for sustainable production management. These systems contain trees that absorb nutrients from deeper layers of the soil and leaf litter that help improve the soil quality of the rough terrain in high altitude areas, which are areas extremely susceptible to environmental degradation. The aim of this study was to characterize the stock and nutrients in litter, soil activity and the population of microorganisms in coffee (Coffea arabica L. plantations under high altitude agroforestry systems in the semi-arid region of the state of Pernambuco, Brazil. Samples were collected from the surface litter together with soil samples taken at two depths (0-10 and 10-20 cm from areas each subject to one of the following four treatments: agroforestry system (AS, native forest (NF, biodynamic system (BS and coffee control (CT.The coffee plantation had been abandoned for nearly 15 years and, although there had been no management or harvesting, still contained productive coffee plants. The accumulation of litter and mean nutrient content of the litter, the soil nutrient content, microbial biomass carbon, total carbon, total nitrogen, C/N ratio, basal respiration, microbial quotient, metabolic quotient and microbial populations (total bacteria, fluorescent bacteria group, total fungi and Trichoderma spp. were all analyzed. The systems thatwere exposed to human intervention (A and BS differed in their chemical attributes and contained higher levels of nutrients when compared to NF and CT. BS for coffee production at high altitude can be used as a sustainable alternative in the high altitude zones of the semi-arid region in Brazil, which is an area that is highly susceptible to environmental degradation.

  18. Microbiological and faunal soil attributes of coffee cultivation under different management systems in Brazil

    D. R. Lammel

    Full Text Available Abstract Brazil is the biggest coffee producer in the world and different plantation management systems have been applied to improve sustainability and soil quality. Little is known about the environmental effects of these different management systems, therefore, the goal of this study was to use soil biological parameters as indicators of changes. Soils from plantations in Southeastern Brazil with conventional (CC, organic (OC and integrated management systems containing intercropping of Brachiaria decumbens (IB or Arachis pintoi (IA were sampled. Total organic carbon (TOC, microbial biomass carbon (MBC and nitrogen (MBN, microbial activity (C-CO2, metabolic quotient (qCO2, the enzymes dehydrogenase, urease, acid phosphatase and arylsulphatase, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF colonization and number of spores and soil fauna were evaluated. The greatest difference between the management systems was seen in soil organic matter content. The largest quantity of TOC was found in the OC, and the smallest was found in IA. TOC content influenced soil biological parameters. The use of all combined attributes was necessary to distinguish the four systems. Each management presented distinct faunal structure, and the data obtained with the trap method was more reliable than the TSBF (Tropical Soils method. A canonic correlation analysis showed that Isopoda was correlated with TOC and the most abundant order with OC. Isoptera was the most abundant faunal order in IA and correlated with MBC. Overall, OC had higher values for most of the biological measurements and higher populations of Oligochaeta and Isopoda, corroborating with the concept that the OC is a more sustainable system.

  19. Microbiological and faunal soil attributes of coffee cultivation under different management systems in Brazil.

    Lammel, D R; Azevedo, L C B; Paula, A M; Armas, R D; Baretta, D; Cardoso, E J B N

    2015-11-01

    Brazil is the biggest coffee producer in the world and different plantation management systems have been applied to improve sustainability and soil quality. Little is known about the environmental effects of these different management systems, therefore, the goal of this study was to use soil biological parameters as indicators of changes. Soils from plantations in Southeastern Brazil with conventional (CC), organic (OC) and integrated management systems containing intercropping of Brachiaria decumbens (IB) or Arachis pintoi (IA) were sampled. Total organic carbon (TOC), microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and nitrogen (MBN), microbial activity (C-CO2), metabolic quotient (qCO2), the enzymes dehydrogenase, urease, acid phosphatase and arylsulphatase, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) colonization and number of spores and soil fauna were evaluated. The greatest difference between the management systems was seen in soil organic matter content. The largest quantity of TOC was found in the OC, and the smallest was found in IA. TOC content influenced soil biological parameters. The use of all combined attributes was necessary to distinguish the four systems. Each management presented distinct faunal structure, and the data obtained with the trap method was more reliable than the TSBF (Tropical Soils) method. A canonic correlation analysis showed that Isopoda was correlated with TOC and the most abundant order with OC. Isoptera was the most abundant faunal order in IA and correlated with MBC. Overall, OC had higher values for most of the biological measurements and higher populations of Oligochaeta and Isopoda, corroborating with the concept that the OC is a more sustainable system.

  20. Cultivating Undergraduates' Plagiarism Avoidance Knowledge and Skills with an Online Tutorial System

    Liu, Gi-Zen; Lu, Hui-Ching; Lin, Vivien; Hsu, Wei-Chen

    2018-01-01

    With the increased use of digital materials, undergraduate writers in English as a foreign language (EFL) contexts have become more susceptible to plagiarism. In this study, the researchers designed a blended English writing course with an online writing tutorial system entitled "DWright." The study examined the effectiveness of the…

  1. Phase-Shift Cyclic-Delay Diversity for MIMO OFDM Systems

    Young-Han Nam

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Phase-shift cyclic-delay diversity (PS CDD scheme and space-frequency-block-code (SFBC PS CDD are developed for multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM systems. The proposed PS CDD scheme preserves the diversity advantage of traditional CDD in uncorrelated multiantenna channels, and furthermore removes frequency-selective nulling problem of the traditional CDD in correlated multiantenna channels.

  2. Blind phase retrieval for aberrated linear shift-invariant imaging systems

    Yu, Rotha P; Paganin, David M

    2010-01-01

    We develop a means to reconstruct an input complex coherent scalar wavefield, given a through focal series (TFS) of three intensity images output from a two-dimensional (2D) linear shift-invariant optical imaging system with unknown aberrations. This blind phase retrieval technique unites two methods, namely (i) TFS phase retrieval and (ii) iterative blind deconvolution. The efficacy of our blind phase retrieval procedure has been demonstrated using simulated data, for a variety of Poisson noise levels.

  3. Cs phytoremediation by Sorghum bicolor cultivated in soil and in hydroponic system.

    Wang, Xu; Chen, Can; Wang, Jianlong

    2017-04-03

    Cs accumulation characteristics by Sorghum bicolor were investigated in hydroponic system (Cs level at 50-1000 μmol/L) and in soil (Cs-spiked concentration was 100 and 400 mg/kg soil). Two varieties of S. bicolor Cowly and Nengsi 2# grown on pot soil during the entire growth period (100 days) did not show significant differences on the height, dry weight (DW), and Cs accumulation. S. bicolor showed the potential phytoextraction ability for Cs-contaminated soil with the bioaccumulation factor (BCF) and the translocation factor (TF) values usually higher than 1 in soil system and in hydroponic system. The aerial parts of S. bicolor contributed to 86-92% of the total removed amounts of Cs from soil. Cs level in solution at 100 μmol/L gave the highest BCF and TF values of S. bicolor. Cs at low level tended to transfer to the aerial parts, whereas Cs at high level decreased the transfer ratio from root to shoot. In soil, the plant grew well when Cs spiked level was 100 mg/kg soil, but was inhibited by Cs at 400 mg/kg soil with Cs content in sorghum reaching 1147 mg/kg (roots), 2473 mg/kg (stems), and 2939 mg/kg (leaves). In hydroponic system, average Cs level in sorghum reached 5270 mg/kg (roots) and 4513 mg/kg (aerial parts), without significant damages to its biomass at 30 days after starting Cs treatment. Cs accumulation in sorghum tissues was positively correlated with the metal concentration in medium.

  4. Soil physical and microbiological attributes cultivated with the common bean under two management systems

    Lorena Adriana De Gennaro

    Full Text Available Agricultural management systems can alter the physical and biological soil quality, interfering with crop development. The objective of this study was to evaluate the physical and microbiological attributes of a Red Latosol, and its relationship to the biometric parameters of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, irrigated and grown under two management systems (conventional tillage and direct seeding, in Campinas in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The experimental design was of randomised blocks, with a split-plot arrangement for the management system and soil depth, analysed during the 2006/7 and 2007/8 harvest seasons, with 4 replications. The soil physical and microbiological attributes were evaluated at depths of 0.00-0.05, 0.05-0.10, 0.10-0.20 and 0.20-0.40 m. The following were determined for the crop: density, number of pods per plant, number of beans per pod, thousand seed weight, total weight of the shoots and harvest index. Direct seeding resulted in a lower soil physical quality at a depth of 0.00-0.05 m compared to conventional tillage, while the opposite occurred at a depth of 0.05-0.10 m. The direct seeding showed higher soil biological quality, mainly indicated by the microbial biomass nitrogen, basal respiration and metabolic quotient. The biometric parameters in the bean were higher under the direct seeding compared to conventional tillage.

  5. Exploration of plant growth and development using the European Modular Cultivation System facility on the International Space Station.

    Kittang, A-I; Iversen, T-H; Fossum, K R; Mazars, C; Carnero-Diaz, E; Boucheron-Dubuisson, E; Le Disquet, I; Legué, V; Herranz, R; Pereda-Loth, V; Medina, F J

    2014-05-01

    Space experiments provide a unique opportunity to advance our knowledge of how plants respond to the space environment, and specifically to the absence of gravity. The European Modular Cultivation System (EMCS) has been designed as a dedicated facility to improve and standardise plant growth in the International Space Station (ISS). The EMCS is equipped with two centrifuges to perform experiments in microgravity and with variable gravity levels up to 2.0 g. Seven experiments have been performed since the EMCS was operational on the ISS. The objectives of these experiments aimed to elucidate phototropic responses (experiments TROPI-1 and -2), root gravitropic sensing (GRAVI-1), circumnutation (MULTIGEN-1), cell wall dynamics and gravity resistance (Cell wall/Resist wall), proteomic identification of signalling players (GENARA-A) and mechanism of InsP3 signalling (Plant signalling). The role of light in cell proliferation and plant development in the absence of gravity is being analysed in an on-going experiment (Seedling growth). Based on the lessons learned from the acquired experience, three preselected ISS experiments have been merged and implemented as a single project (Plant development) to study early phases of seedling development. A Topical Team initiated by European Space Agency (ESA), involving experienced scientists on Arabidopsis space research experiments, aims at establishing a coordinated, long-term scientific strategy to understand the role of gravity in Arabidopsis growth and development using already existing or planned new hardware. © 2014 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  6. Cut and carry vs. grazing of cultivated pastures in small-scale dairy systems in the central highlands of Mexico

    Paola Estefania Pincay-Figueroa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Small-scale dairy systems are an option to alleviate poverty and contribute up to 37% of milk production in Mexico; however high costs affect their economic sustainability. Since grazing may reduce feeding costs, a participatory on farm experiment was undertaken to compare animal performance and feeding costs of the traditional cut-and-carry strategy or grazing cultivated pastures, during the dry season in the highlands of Mexico. Pastures of perennial and annual ryegrasses with white clover were utilised, complemented with maize silage and commercial concentrate. Five dairy cows were assigned to each strategy. The experiment ran for 12 weeks, recording weekly milk yields and fat and milk protein content; live-weight and body condition score every 14 days. Analysis was as a split-plot design. The adjusted (covariance mean milk yield was 18.78 kg/cow/day with no significant differences (P>0.05 between treatments, and no significant differences for live-weight or body condition score. There were no significant differences for milk fat (P>0.05, but there were for protein in milk (P

  7. SYSTEM DYNAMIC MODELLING AND SIMULATION FOR CULTIVATION OF FOREST LAND: CASE STUDY PERUM PERHUTANI, CENTRAL JAVA, INDONESIA

    Candra Musi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The deforestation and forest degradation rates have a propensity to rise every year. The problems in pertaining with the issue is not solely preoccupied on the ecological concern but also to the socio-economic impacts. The complexity of forest management is a serious barrier in determining a better management policy. Modeling system is a simple method to describe the real situation in nature. A qualitative approach is used to identify the relationship between the dynamics of important behaviors. The causal relationships among the factors were investigated by using causal loop diagram. The model conceptualization was constructed by using a stock-flow diagram. The result of the simulation model was used to determine the alternative policies for better forest management. The results indicated that the tenant welfare would be enhanced through the provision of production-sharing by 25% and the Corporate Social Responsibility by 2%, which yields a reduction in cultivated area of ​​916.61 ha within a period of 67 years or a decline of land area by an average of 13.68 ha per year.

  8. Heavy metal dynamics in the soil-leaf-fruit system under intensive apple cultivation

    Murtić Senad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the major problems confronting agricultural production is heavy metal contamination of agricultural soils, which imposes considerable limitations on productivity and leads to great consumer health and safety concerns about the products obtained on these soils. The objective of this study was to evaluate heavy metal dynamics in the soil-leaf-fruit system in an intensive apple cv. 'Idared' planting located in the Municipality of Goražde. Heavy metal contents in the soil samples and plant material were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry using a Shimadzu 7000 AA device, according to the instructions specified in the ISO 11047 method. The dynamics of the heavy metals analyzed, excepting zinc, in the soil-leaf-fruit system was characterized by relatively high total levels of heavy metals in the soil and a very low degree of their accumulation in the leaves and in particular the fruits. No fruit sample was found to have toxic levels of any of the heavy metals analyzed. In terms of soil contamination, this suggests the suitability of the study location for safe apple fruit production.

  9. Reducing Fatigue Loading Due to Pressure Shift in Discrete Fluid Power Force Systems

    Hansen, Anders Hedegaard; Pedersen, Henrik Clemmensen

    2016-01-01

    power force system. The current paper investigates the correlation between pressure oscillations in the cylinder chambers and valve flow in the manifold. Furthermore, the correlation between the pressure shifting time and the pressure overshoot is investigated. The study therefore focus on how to shape......Discrete Fluid Power Force Systems is one of the topologies gaining focus in the pursuit of lowering energy losses in fluid power transmission systems. The cylinder based Fluid Power Force System considered in this article is constructed with a multi-chamber cylinder, a number of constant pressure...... oscillations in the cylinder chamber, especially for systems with long connections between the cylinder and the valve manifold. Hose pressure oscillations will induce oscillations in the produced piston force. Hence, pressure oscillations may increase the fatigue loading on systems employing a discrete fluid...

  10. Reduction of soil erosion and mercury losses in agroforestry systems compared to forests and cultivated fields in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Béliveau, Annie; Lucotte, Marc; Davidson, Robert; Paquet, Serge; Mertens, Frédéric; Passos, Carlos J; Romana, Christine A

    2017-12-01

    In addition to causing physical degradation and nutrient depletion, erosion of cultivated soils in the Amazon affects aquatic ecosystems through the release of natural soil mercury (Hg) towards lakes and rivers. While traditional agriculture is generally cited as being among the main causes of soil erosion, agroforestry practices are increasingly appreciated for soil conservation. This study was carried out in family farms of the rural Tapajós region (Brazil) and aimed at evaluating soil erosion and associated Hg release for three land uses. Soils, runoff water and eroded sediments were collected at three sites representing a land cover gradient: a recently burnt short-cycle cropping system (SCC), a 2-year-old agroforestry system (AFS) and a mature forest (F). At each site, two PVC soil erosion plots (each composed of three 2 × 5 m isolated subplots) were implemented on steep and moderate slopes respectively. Sampling was done after each of the 20 rain events that occurred during a 1-month study period, in the peak of the 2011 rain season. Runoff volume and rate, as well as eroded soil particles with their Hg and cation concentrations were determined. Total Hg and cation losses were then calculated for each subplot. Erosion processes were dominated by land use type over rainfall or soil slope. Eroded soil particles, as well as the amount of Hg and cations (CaMgK) mobilized at the AFS site were similar to those at the F site, but significantly lower than those at the SCC site (p agroforestry systems, even in their early stages of implementation, are characterized by low erosion levels resembling those of local forest environments, thus contributing to the maintenance of soil integrity and to the reduction of Hg and nutrient mobility. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Adaptive Shape Kernel-Based Mean Shift Tracker in Robot Vision System

    Chunmei Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an adaptive shape kernel-based mean shift tracker using a single static camera for the robot vision system. The question that we address in this paper is how to construct such a kernel shape that is adaptive to the object shape. We perform nonlinear manifold learning technique to obtain the low-dimensional shape space which is trained by training data with the same view as the tracking video. The proposed kernel searches the shape in the low-dimensional shape space obtained by nonlinear manifold learning technique and constructs the adaptive kernel shape in the high-dimensional shape space. It can improve mean shift tracker performance to track object position and object contour and avoid the background clutter. In the experimental part, we take the walking human as example to validate that our method is accurate and robust to track human position and describe human contour.

  12. PACSY, a relational database management system for protein structure and chemical shift analysis.

    Lee, Woonghee; Yu, Wookyung; Kim, Suhkmann; Chang, Iksoo; Lee, Weontae; Markley, John L

    2012-10-01

    PACSY (Protein structure And Chemical Shift NMR spectroscopY) is a relational database management system that integrates information from the Protein Data Bank, the Biological Magnetic Resonance Data Bank, and the Structural Classification of Proteins database. PACSY provides three-dimensional coordinates and chemical shifts of atoms along with derived information such as torsion angles, solvent accessible surface areas, and hydrophobicity scales. PACSY consists of six relational table types linked to one another for coherence by key identification numbers. Database queries are enabled by advanced search functions supported by an RDBMS server such as MySQL or PostgreSQL. PACSY enables users to search for combinations of information from different database sources in support of their research. Two software packages, PACSY Maker for database creation and PACSY Analyzer for database analysis, are available from http://pacsy.nmrfam.wisc.edu.

  13. PACSY, a relational database management system for protein structure and chemical shift analysis

    Lee, Woonghee, E-mail: whlee@nmrfam.wisc.edu [University of Wisconsin-Madison, National Magnetic Resonance Facility at Madison, and Biochemistry Department (United States); Yu, Wookyung [Center for Proteome Biophysics, Pusan National University, Department of Physics (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Suhkmann [Pusan National University, Department of Chemistry and Chemistry Institute for Functional Materials (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Iksoo [Center for Proteome Biophysics, Pusan National University, Department of Physics (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Weontae, E-mail: wlee@spin.yonsei.ac.kr [Yonsei University, Structural Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics Laboratory, Department of Biochemistry (Korea, Republic of); Markley, John L., E-mail: markley@nmrfam.wisc.edu [University of Wisconsin-Madison, National Magnetic Resonance Facility at Madison, and Biochemistry Department (United States)

    2012-10-15

    PACSY (Protein structure And Chemical Shift NMR spectroscopY) is a relational database management system that integrates information from the Protein Data Bank, the Biological Magnetic Resonance Data Bank, and the Structural Classification of Proteins database. PACSY provides three-dimensional coordinates and chemical shifts of atoms along with derived information such as torsion angles, solvent accessible surface areas, and hydrophobicity scales. PACSY consists of six relational table types linked to one another for coherence by key identification numbers. Database queries are enabled by advanced search functions supported by an RDBMS server such as MySQL or PostgreSQL. PACSY enables users to search for combinations of information from different database sources in support of their research. Two software packages, PACSY Maker for database creation and PACSY Analyzer for database analysis, are available from http://pacsy.nmrfam.wisc.eduhttp://pacsy.nmrfam.wisc.edu.

  14. PACSY, a relational database management system for protein structure and chemical shift analysis

    Lee, Woonghee; Yu, Wookyung; Kim, Suhkmann; Chang, Iksoo

    2012-01-01

    PACSY (Protein structure And Chemical Shift NMR spectroscopY) is a relational database management system that integrates information from the Protein Data Bank, the Biological Magnetic Resonance Data Bank, and the Structural Classification of Proteins database. PACSY provides three-dimensional coordinates and chemical shifts of atoms along with derived information such as torsion angles, solvent accessible surface areas, and hydrophobicity scales. PACSY consists of six relational table types linked to one another for coherence by key identification numbers. Database queries are enabled by advanced search functions supported by an RDBMS server such as MySQL or PostgreSQL. PACSY enables users to search for combinations of information from different database sources in support of their research. Two software packages, PACSY Maker for database creation and PACSY Analyzer for database analysis, are available from http://pacsy.nmrfam.wisc.edu. PMID:22903636

  15. PACSY, a relational database management system for protein structure and chemical shift analysis

    Lee, Woonghee; Yu, Wookyung; Kim, Suhkmann; Chang, Iksoo; Lee, Weontae; Markley, John L.

    2012-01-01

    PACSY (Protein structure And Chemical Shift NMR spectroscopY) is a relational database management system that integrates information from the Protein Data Bank, the Biological Magnetic Resonance Data Bank, and the Structural Classification of Proteins database. PACSY provides three-dimensional coordinates and chemical shifts of atoms along with derived information such as torsion angles, solvent accessible surface areas, and hydrophobicity scales. PACSY consists of six relational table types linked to one another for coherence by key identification numbers. Database queries are enabled by advanced search functions supported by an RDBMS server such as MySQL or PostgreSQL. PACSY enables users to search for combinations of information from different database sources in support of their research. Two software packages, PACSY Maker for database creation and PACSY Analyzer for database analysis, are available from http://pacsy.nmrfam.wisc.eduhttp://pacsy.nmrfam.wisc.edu.

  16. Adaptive Shape Kernel-Based Mean Shift Tracker in Robot Vision System

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes an adaptive shape kernel-based mean shift tracker using a single static camera for the robot vision system. The question that we address in this paper is how to construct such a kernel shape that is adaptive to the object shape. We perform nonlinear manifold learning technique to obtain the low-dimensional shape space which is trained by training data with the same view as the tracking video. The proposed kernel searches the shape in the low-dimensional shape space obtained by nonlinear manifold learning technique and constructs the adaptive kernel shape in the high-dimensional shape space. It can improve mean shift tracker performance to track object position and object contour and avoid the background clutter. In the experimental part, we take the walking human as example to validate that our method is accurate and robust to track human position and describe human contour. PMID:27379165

  17. The response of wavelength shifting panels in large water Cherenkov systems

    Bakich, A.M.; Peak, L.S.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes a series of tests performed with a panel Bicron wavelength shifting acrylic plastic (BC-480) coupled to an EMI 9623B photomultiplier tube. The aim was to effectively increase the cathode coverage and its sensitivity to incident Cherenkov radiation, so that such a system could be employed in a solar neutrino detector. Measurements of the uniformity and effective efficiency of the system have been made and compared with the results of various simulation runs. The effects of side mirrors, back reflector, water interface and possible shaping of the panel to enhance its response are also assessed. (orig.)

  18. An Interactive Tool for Outdoor Computer Controlled Cultivation of Microalgae in a Tubular Photobioreactor System

    Raquel Dormido

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an interactive virtual laboratory for experimenting with an outdoor tubular photobioreactor (henceforth PBR for short. This virtual laboratory it makes possible to: (a accurately reproduce the structure of a real plant (the PBR designed and built by the Department of Chemical Engineering of the University of Almería, Spain; (b simulate a generic tubular PBR by changing the PBR geometry; (c simulate the effects of changing different operating parameters such as the conditions of the culture (pH, biomass concentration, dissolved O2, inyected CO2, etc.; (d simulate the PBR in its environmental context; it is possible to change the geographic location of the system or the solar irradiation profile; (e apply different control strategies to adjust different variables such as the CO2 injection, culture circulation rate or culture temperature in order to maximize the biomass production; (f simulate the harvesting. In this way, users can learn in an intuitive way how productivity is affected by any change in the design. It facilitates the learning of how to manipulate essential variables for microalgae growth to design an optimal PBR. The simulator has been developed with Easy Java Simulations, a freeware open-source tool developed in Java, specifically designed for the creation of interactive dynamic simulations.

  19. Tillage systems and cover crops on soil physical properties after soybean cultivation

    Rafael B. Teixeira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Soil management alters soil physical attributes and may affect crop yield. In order to evaluate soil physical attributes in layers from 0 to 0.40 m and soybean grain yield, in the 2012/2013 agricultural year, an essay was installed in the experimental area of the Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS/CPCS. Soil tillage systems were: conventional tillage (CT, minimum tillage (MT and no tillage (DS, the cover crops used were millet, sunn hemp and fallow. The experimental design was randomized blocks with split plots. For the layer of 0.20-0.30 m, millet provided the best results for soil bulk density, macro and microporosity. The resistance to penetration (RP was influenced in the layer of 0-0.10 m, and millet provided lower RP. The DS provided the lowest RP values for the layer of 0.10-0.20 m. The treatments did not influence yield or thousand-seed weight.

  20. Cultivation of students' engineering designing ability based on optoelectronic system course project

    Cao, Danhua; Wu, Yubin; Li, Jingping

    2017-08-01

    We carry out teaching based on optoelectronic related course group, aiming at junior students majored in Optoelectronic Information Science and Engineering. " Optoelectronic System Course Project " is product-designing-oriented and lasts for a whole semester. It provides a chance for students to experience the whole process of product designing, and improve their abilities to search literature, proof schemes, design and implement their schemes. In teaching process, each project topic is carefully selected and repeatedly refined to guarantee the projects with the knowledge integrity, engineering meanings and enjoyment. Moreover, we set up a top team with professional and experienced teachers, and build up learning community. Meanwhile, the communication between students and teachers as well as the interaction among students are taken seriously in order to improve their team-work ability and communicational skills. Therefore, students are not only able to have a chance to review the knowledge hierarchy of optics, electronics, and computer sciences, but also are able to improve their engineering mindset and innovation consciousness.

  1. Experimentation of grapevine cultivation in organic system, on five different Romanian vineyards

    Aurora Maria Ranca

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In five Romanian vineyards, in 2013-2014 period was experimented organic system growing on  grape varieties for wine representative for each area, here are applied organic growing technology in parallel with the conventional (control. White varieties studied are: Chardonnay (Murfatlar and Valea Calugareasca, Sauvignon blanc and Muscat Ottonel(Tarnave, Feteasca regala (Tarnave, Bujoru and Copou-Iasi. Red varieties are Cabernet Sauvignon (Murfatlar and Valea Calugareasca and Merlot (Bujoru. Concerning evolution of main climatic factors for the years 2013-2014 it is show that the annual average air temperature increase compared with the average of the years 1991-2010; is observed an increasing in mean annual temperature, mean temperature during the growing season and the value of sum of sunshine hours. The water regime was kept constant, registering values close to the annual average, both during the growing season and at entire year. The weeds spectrum is represented both by dicotyledonous as knotweed (Polygonum aviculare, Veronica (Stellaria media, news (Amaranthus retroflexus, bindweed (Convolvurus arvensis and monocotyledonous as grass thick (Cynodon dactylon. Concerning the phytosanitary status, at Murfatlar were registered problems with oidium attack, with all main disease at Dealu Mare and with downy mildew at Bujoru. In all areas the pest has been found are: grape mouth (Lobesia botrana and spiders (Tetranichus sp.. Schemes of treatments focused generally on substances bassed on copper and sulfur to combat diseases and for pests have been used pheromonal traps or other certified organic products. The grapes harvest was lower in organic plots with till 25%; their quality being close at both growing variants.

  2. The use of PCR assay for quality testing of grain of winter wheat cultivated in organic, integrated, conventional system and monoculture in phytopathological aspect

    Aleksander Łukanowski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of experiments was to evaluate the occurrence of fungi on grain of winter wheat cv. Roma cultivated in four systems on the experimental fields owned by the Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation. Among pathogenic species, fungi from genus Fusarium dominated. Their number was the lowest on grain harvested in organic system and the highest in integrated one. Saprotrophic species were represented mainly by Alternaria alternata, which occurred the most often in organic system. Determination of F. avenaceum, F. culmorum and F. poae with microscope was confirmed with a PCR assay. All isolates of F. culmorum and F. poae gave an amplification product of Tri 5 gene coding the possibility of trichocene production, while none of isolates of F. avenaceum.

  3. Cultivating usership?

    Petersen, Trine Brun; Riisberg, Vibeke

    2017-01-01

    , relatively little is known about clothing systems tailored for the private market. This article presents a case study of a recently launched subscription service for children’s clothing, which offered a range of eco-certified garments for rent as more or less complete wardrobes. Drawing on fashion scholar...

  4. Optimization of stocking density in intensification of mud crab Scylla serrata cultivation in the resirculation system

    Yuni Puji Hastuti

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to determine optimum stocking density of mud crab Scylla serrata through the applied of different stocking density in every treatment in recirculation system. Experimental design used was complete randomized design (CRD with three density treatments which were 5 (P1, 10 (P2, and 15 ind/container (P3. All treatments replicated three times. The crab with the average of body weight 150 g/ind cultured in a plastic box (40×30×30 cm. Crab was cultured within 60 days and were fed two times a day by at satiation method. The result showed that P2 treatment gave the best result of mangrove crabs production performance among all treatments with 73.33±5.77% survival rate, 0.68±0.01 g/ind/day absolute growth rate and food conversion ratio 10.11±0.01. Treatment P1 gave the good response of stress, it indicated by the lowest glucose of all tretamnets at the level of 31.91 mg/dL in the end of treatment periods. The water quality during study period was fluctuative as affected by different stocking density in the treatments. Keywords: mud crab, stocking density, production performance  ABSTRAK Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menentukan padat tebar optimal kepiting bakau Scylla serrata melalui penerapan kepadatan tebar yang berbeda pada setiap perlakuan dalam sistem resirkulasi. Rancangan penelitian yang digunakan adalah rancangan acak lengkap dengan tiga perlakuan yaitu 5 (P1, 10 (P2, dan 15 ekor/wadah pemeliharaan (P3 dengan tiga ulangan. Kepiting bakau yang digunakan memiliki berat rata-rata 150 g/ekor. Wadah pemeliharaan yang digunakan selama pemeliharaan adalah kontainer plastik yang berukuran 40×30×30 cm. Pemeliharaan kepiting bakau dilaksanakan selama 60 hari dan diberikan pakan berupa ikan rucah dua kali sehari secara at satiation. Penelitian menunjukkan bahwa perlakuan P2 memberikan hasil kinerja produksi terbaik dibandingkan perlakuan lainnya dengan nilai kelangsungan hidup 73,33±5,77%, laju pertumbuhan mutlak 0,68

  5. Investigations of the Lamb shift in heavy one and two electron systems

    Reuschl, Regina

    2008-01-01

    Experiments on the 1s Lamb-shift in heavy H-like ions and on the intra-shell transitions in heavy He-like systems have been performed. These investigations are of particular interest to verify the validity of quantum electrodynamics (QED) in extremely strong Coulomb fields. In addition, in heavy systems not only QED but also relativistic effects start to play a key role. The experiments have been performed at the gas-jet target of the experimental storage ring (ESR) at GSI. In an experiment with He-like uranium we were able to directly measure the intra-shell transition 2 3 P 2 →2 3 S 1 , in a high-Z system for the very first time. This has been achieved by combining the results from a high-resolution Bragg crystal-spectrometer and a standard planar Germanium detector. A fit of the experimental spectrum with data obtained from a simulation shows, the theoretical predictions describe the transition dynamics very well in this two-electron system. Another experiment has been performed on H-like lead to investigate the 1s Lamb-shift in heavy H-like systems. Here, a high-resolution Laue crystal-spectrometer has been commissioned together with novel high-resolution two dimensional micro-strip Ge-detectors. The combination of both instruments is a very promising tool for future high-precision X-ray experiments. (orig.)

  6. Fungal communities in mycorrhizal roots of conifer seedlings in forest nurseries under different cultivation systems, assessed by morphotyping, direct sequencing and mycelial isolation.

    Menkis, Audrius; Vasiliauskas, Rimvydas; Taylor, Andrew F S; Stenlid, Jan; Finlay, Roger

    2005-12-01

    Fungi colonising root tips of Pinus sylvestris and Picea abies grown under four different seedling cultivation systems were assessed by morphotyping, direct sequencing and isolation methods. Roots were morphotyped using two approaches: (1) 10% of the whole root system from 30 seedlings of each species and (2) 20 randomly selected tips per plant from 300 seedlings of each species. The first approach yielded 15 morphotypes, the second yielded 27, including 18 new morphotypes. The overall community consisted of 33 morphotypes. The level of mycorrhizal colonisation of roots determined by each approach was about 50%. The cultivation system had a marked effect on the level of mycorrhizal colonisation. In pine, the highest level of colonisation (48%) was observed in bare-root systems, while in spruce, colonisation was highest in polyethylene rolls (71%). Direct internal transcribed spacer ribosomal DNA sequencing and isolation detected a total of 93 fungal taxa, including 27 mycorrhizal. A total of 71 (76.3%) fungi were identified at least to a genus level. The overlap between the two methods was low. Only 13 (13.9%) of taxa were both sequenced and isolated, 47 (50.5%) were detected exclusively by sequencing and 33 (35.5%) exclusively by isolation. All isolated mycorrhizal fungi were also detected by direct sequencing. Characteristic mycorrhizas were Phialophora finlandia, Amphinema byssoides, Rhizopogon rubescens, Suillus luteus and Thelephora terrestris. There was a moderate similarity in mycorrhizal communities between pine and spruce and among different cultivation systems.

  7. Report on achievements in fiscal 1998. Venture business growing type consortium - small business creating infrastructure (Development of ultra-high efficiency cultivation system for Hyphomycetes, and application of the system to plant device to manufacture fermentative foods); 1998 nendo itojokin no chokoritsu tairyo baiyo system no kaihatsu to kinosei hakko sho0kuhin seizo plant kiki eno tekiyo seika hokokusho

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This project has noticed the membrane surface liquid culture method, and researched and developed the following themes with an objective to commercialize the membrane surface liquid culture system and develop novel fermentative foods using this system. Cultivation of Beni-koji bacteria (solid culture of M. pilosus k) is taken up in the model cultivation system. (1) establishment of the membrane surface liquid culture system and development of devices, (2) elucidation of cultivation characteristics of the membrane surface liquid culture system and optimization of the cultivating conditions, and (3) development of fermentative foods. In Item (1), such problems were solved as automation of bacteria planting, long-term pasteurized cultivation, and assurance of clean cultivation broth. In Item (2), it was discovered most suitable that maltose concentration is about 5%, glutamic acid concentration is about 50 mM, the initial culture medium pH is about six, and the cultivation temperature is 30 degree C. In item (3), as a result of mixing this red coloring matter containing cultivation broth into preparation of Miso (bean paste) and soy sauce, products having high {gamma}-Aminobutyric acid and monacholin k content were developed. In addition, while Beni-koji made by solid cultivation had peculiar taste and odor, this drawback was eliminated by using this coloring matter containing cultivation broth. This has made differentiation from conventional products possible. (NEDO)

  8. Equivalence principle for quantum systems: dephasing and phase shift of free-falling particles

    Anastopoulos, C.; Hu, B. L.

    2018-02-01

    We ask the question of how the (weak) equivalence principle established in classical gravitational physics should be reformulated and interpreted for massive quantum objects that may also have internal degrees of freedom (dof). This inquiry is necessary because even elementary concepts like a classical trajectory are not well defined in quantum physics—trajectories originating from quantum histories become viable entities only under stringent decoherence conditions. From this investigation we posit two logically and operationally distinct statements of the equivalence principle for quantum systems. Version A: the probability distribution of position for a free-falling particle is the same as the probability distribution of a free particle, modulo a mass-independent shift of its mean. Version B: any two particles with the same velocity wave-function behave identically in free fall, irrespective of their masses. Both statements apply to all quantum states, including those without a classical correspondence, and also for composite particles with quantum internal dof. We also investigate the consequences of the interaction between internal and external dof induced by free fall. For a class of initial states, we find dephasing occurs for the translational dof, namely, the suppression of the off-diagonal terms of the density matrix, in the position basis. We also find a gravitational phase shift in the reduced density matrix of the internal dof that does not depend on the particle’s mass. For classical states, the phase shift has a natural classical interpretation in terms of gravitational red-shift and special relativistic time-dilation.

  9. Cultivated Sea Lettuce is a Multiorgan Protector from Oxidative and Inflammatory Stress by Enhancing the Endogenous Antioxidant Defense System

    Ratnayake, Ranjala; Liu, Yanxia; Paul, Valerie J.; Luesch, Hendrik

    2013-01-01

    The health-promoting effects of seaweeds have been linked to antioxidant activity that may counteract cancer-causing oxidative stress-induced damage and inflammation. While antioxidant activity is commonly associated with direct radical scavenging activity, an alternative way to increase the antioxidant status of a cell is to enhance the endogenous (phase II) defense system consisting of cytoprotective antioxidant enzymes, including NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1). These enzymes are transcriptionally regulated by the antioxidant response element (ARE) via the transcription factor Nrf2. Extracts derived from cultivated Ulva sp., a green alga regarded as a marine vegetable (sea lettuce), potently activated the Nrf2-ARE pathway in IMR-32 neuroblastoma and LNCaP prostate cancer cells. RNA interference studies demonstrated that Nrf2 and PI3 kinase are essential for the phase II response in IMR-32 cells. Activity-enriched fractions induced Nrf2 nuclear translocation and target gene transcription, and boosted the cellular glutathione level and therefore antioxidant status. A single-dose gavage feeding of Ulva-derived fractions increased Nqo1 transcript levels in various organs. Nqo1 induction spiked in different tissues, depending on the specific chemical composition of each administered fraction. We purified and characterized four ARE inducers in this extract, including loliolide (1), isololiolide (2), a megastigmen (3), and a novel chlorinated unsaturated aldehyde (4). The ARE-active fractions attenuated lipopolysaccharide-induced iNOS and Cox2 gene expression in macrophagic RAW264.7 cells, decreasing nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production, respectively. Nqo1 activity and NO production were abrogated in nrf2−/− mouse embryonic fibroblasts, providing a direct link between the induction of phase II response and anti-inflammatory activity. PMID:24005795

  10. Optical code division multiple access secure communications systems with rapid reconfigurable polarization shift key user code

    Gao, Kaiqiang; Wu, Chongqing; Sheng, Xinzhi; Shang, Chao; Liu, Lanlan; Wang, Jian

    2015-09-01

    An optical code division multiple access (OCDMA) secure communications system scheme with rapid reconfigurable polarization shift key (Pol-SK) bipolar user code is proposed and demonstrated. Compared to fix code OCDMA, by constantly changing the user code, the performance of anti-eavesdropping is greatly improved. The Pol-SK OCDMA experiment with a 10 Gchip/s user code and a 1.25 Gb/s user data of payload has been realized, which means this scheme has better tolerance and could be easily realized.

  11. Real - time Optimization of Distributed Energy Storage System Operation Strategy Based on Peak Load Shifting

    Wang, Qian; Lu, Guangqi; Li, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Yichi; Yun, Zejian; Bian, Di

    2018-01-01

    To take advantage of the energy storage system (ESS) sufficiently, the factors that the service life of the distributed energy storage system (DESS) and the load should be considered when establishing optimization model. To reduce the complexity of the load shifting of DESS in the solution procedure, the loss coefficient and the equal capacity ratio distribution principle were adopted in this paper. Firstly, the model was established considering the constraint conditions of the cycles, depth, power of the charge-discharge of the ESS, the typical daily load curves, as well. Then, dynamic programming method was used to real-time solve the model in which the difference of power Δs, the real-time revised energy storage capacity Sk and the permission error of depth of charge-discharge were introduced to optimize the solution process. The simulation results show that the optimized results was achieved when the load shifting in the load variance was not considered which means the charge-discharge of the energy storage system was not executed. In the meantime, the service life of the ESS would increase.

  12. Ecological shift and resilience in China's lake systems during the last two centuries

    Zhang, Ke; Dong, Xuhui; Yang, Xiangdong; Kattel, Giri; Zhao, Yanjie; Wang, Rong

    2018-06-01

    The worldwide decline of wetland ecosystems calls for an urgent reassessment of their current status from a resilience perspective. Understanding the trajectories of changes that have produced the current situation is fundamental for assessing system resilience. Here, we examine long-term dynamics of wetland ecosystem change by reviewing paleoecological records from 11 representative lakes in China. We identify unprecedented change in alga communities in the context of last two centuries. Striking ecological shifts have occurred in all lakes, yet with spatial and temporal differences. The long-term trajectories of change in diatom species composition and structure indicate gradually eroded system resilience. These ecological shifts were shaped by socio-economic activities as China transformed from a rural agricultural to an industrialized society within the last several decades, during which multiple drivers have accumulated and acted synergistically. The balance between ecosystem and society, which appeared to exist for thousands of years, was broken by increasing population, new technology, and urbanization since the 1980s. The consequences are the emergence of new positive feedbacks with the potential to drive the coupled systems into undesirable states. By linking long-term social and ecological change at a regional scale, our study provides a novel contribution to the understanding of lake ecosystems resilience in present-day China. We argue that sustaining wetland ecosystems requires integrated approaches that incorporate a deeper understanding of social-ecological dynamics over decadal-centennial timescales to address the complex underlying mechanisms leading to the current degradation.

  13. Fast Lamb wave energy shift approach using fully contactless ultrasonic system to characterize concrete structures

    Ham, Suyun; Popovics, John S.

    2015-03-01

    Ultrasonic techniques provide an effective non-destructive evaluation (NDE) method to monitor concrete structures, but the need to perform rapid and accurate structural assessment requires evaluation of hundreds, or even thousands, of measurement datasets. Use of a fully contactless ultrasonic system can save time and labor through rapid implementation, and can enable automated and controlled data acquisition, for example through robotic scanning. Here we present results using a fully contactless ultrasonic system. This paper describes our efforts to develop a contactless ultrasonic guided wave NDE approach to detect and characterize delamination defects in concrete structures. The developed contactless sensors, controlled scanning system, and employed Multi-channel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) signal processing scheme are reviewed. Then a guided wave interpretation approach for MASW data is described. The presence of delamination is interpreted by guided plate wave (Lamb wave) behavior, where a shift in excited Lamb mode phase velocity, is monitored. Numerically simulated and experimental ultrasonic data collected from a concrete sample with simulated delamination defects are presented, where the occurrence of delamination is shown to be associated with a mode shift in Lamb wave energy.

  14. Proposed Sandia frequency shift for anti-islanding detection method based on artificial immune system

    A.Y. Hatata

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Sandia frequency shift (SFS is one of the active anti-islanding detection methods that depend on frequency drift to detect an islanding condition for inverter-based distributed generation. The non-detection zone (NDZ of the SFS method depends to a great extent on its parameters. Improper adjusting of these parameters may result in failure of the method. This paper presents a proposed artificial immune system (AIS-based technique to obtain optimal parameters of SFS anti-islanding detection method. The immune system is highly distributed, highly adaptive, and self-organizing in nature, maintains a memory of past encounters, and has the ability to continually learn about new encounters. The proposed method generates less total harmonic distortion (THD than the conventional SFS, which results in faster island detection and better non-detection zone. The performance of the proposed method is derived analytically and simulated using Matlab/Simulink. Two case studies are used to verify the proposed method. The first case includes a photovoltaic (PV connected to grid and the second includes a wind turbine connected to grid. The deduced optimized parameter setting helps to achieve the “non-islanding inverter” as well as least potential adverse impact on power quality. Keywords: Anti-islanding detection, Sandia frequency shift (SFS, Non-detection zone (NDZ, Total harmonic distortion (THD, Artificial immune system (AIS, Clonal selection algorithm

  15. Influence of Crop Nutrition on Grain Yield, Seed Quality and Water Productivity under Two Rice Cultivation Systems

    Y.V. SINGH

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The system of rice intensification (SRI is reported to have advantages like lower seed requirement, less pest attack, shorter crop duration, higher water use efficiency and the ability to withstand higher degree of moisture stress than traditional method of rice cultivation. With this background, SRI was compared with traditional transplanting technique at Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, India during two wet seasons (2009–2011. In the experiment laid out in a factorial randomized block design, two methods of rice cultivation [conventional transplanting (CT and SRI] and two rice varieties (Pusa Basmati 1 and Pusa 44 were used under seven crop nutrition treatments, viz. T1, 120 kg/hm2 N, 26.2 kg/hm2 P and 33 kg/hm2 K; T2, 20 t/hm2 farmyard manure (FYM; T3, 10 t/hm2 FYM + 60 kg/hm2 N; T4, 5 t/hm2 FYM + 90 kg/hm2 N; T5, 5 t/hm2 FYM + 60 kg/hm2 N + 1.5 kg/hm2 blue green algae (BGA; T6, 5 t/hm2 FYM + 60 kg/hm2 N + 1.0 t/hm2 Azolla, and T7, N0P0K0 (control, no NPK application to study the effect on seed quality, yield and water use. In SRI, soil was kept at saturated moisture condition throughout vegetative phase and thin layer of water (2–3 cm was maintained during the reproductive phase of rice, however, in CT, standing water was maintained in crop growing season. Results revealed that CT and SRI gave statistically at par grain yield but straw yield was significantly higher in CT as compared to SRI. Seed quality was superior in SRI as compared to CT. Integrated nutrient management (INM resulted in higher plant height with longer leaves than chemical fertilizer alone in both the rice varieties. Grain yield attributes such as number of effective tillers per hill, panicle length and panicle weight of rice in both the varieties were significantly higher in INM as compared to chemical fertilizer alone. Grain yields of both the varieties were the highest in INM followed by the recommended doses of chemical fertilizer. The grain yield

  16. Characterising rice-based farming systems to identify opportunities for adopting water efficient cultivation methods in Tamil Nadu, India

    Senthilkumar, K.; Bindraban, P.S.; Boer, de W.J.; Ridder, de N.; Thiyagarajan, T.M.; Giller, K.E.

    2009-01-01

    Efficient water use in rice cultivation is a prerequisite for sustaining food security for the rice consuming population of India. Novel rice production practices, including water-saving techniques, modifications in transplanting, spacing, weeding and nutrient management, have been developed and

  17. Rice cultivation in the farming systems of Sukumaland, Tanzania : a quest for sustainable production under structural adjustment programmes

    Meertens, H.C.C.

    1999-01-01

    This thesis investigates options for sustainable rice cultivation and general agricultural development in the Mwanza and Shinyanga regions in northwestern Tanzania, often called Sukumaland due to the predominance of Wasukuma people. Generally Sukumaland has a semi-arid climate; agriculture

  18. An integrated ecosystem approach for assessing the potential role of cultivated bivalve shells as part of the carbon trading system

    Filgueira, R.; Byron, C.J.; Comeau, L.A.; Jansen, H.M.; Smaal, A.C.

    2015-01-01

    The role of bivalve mariculture in the CO2 cycle has been commonly evaluated as the balance between respiration, shell calcium carbonate sequestration and CO2 release during biogenic calcification. However, this approach neglects the ecosystem implications of cultivating bivalves at high densities,

  19. Strategic vectors of transformational shifts in the national tourism system of Ukraine

    Alla OKHRIMENKO

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The article determines transformational factors, which influence a national tourism system (NTS of Ukraine and proposes strategical vectors of its development. Research of the NTS as an economic system is a pre-condition for formation of strategic vectors of development. Transformational driving forces principally change scales, components, and proportions between external and internal factors of development of the NTS. Correspondingly, the mentioned processes objectively encourage modernization of the national tourism system and application of innovative managerial methods. The following Strategical vectors of transformational shifts in the NTS were grounded: 1 Safety of tourists and investors; 2 The normative and legislative framework of the NTS development; 3 Development of infrastructure of the NTS component; 4 Human resources development; 5 A marketing policy of the NTS promotion; 6 Ecological and cultural policies. Their implementation will improve efficiency and competitiveness of the NTS and the national economy.

  20. Stereovision-based integrated system for point cloud reconstruction and simulated brain shift validation.

    Yang, Xiaochen; Clements, Logan W; Luo, Ma; Narasimhan, Saramati; Thompson, Reid C; Dawant, Benoit M; Miga, Michael I

    2017-07-01

    Intraoperative soft tissue deformation, referred to as brain shift, compromises the application of current image-guided surgery navigation systems in neurosurgery. A computational model driven by sparse data has been proposed as a cost-effective method to compensate for cortical surface and volumetric displacements. We present a mock environment developed to acquire stereoimages from a tracked operating microscope and to reconstruct three-dimensional point clouds from these images. A reconstruction error of 1 mm is estimated by using a phantom with a known geometry and independently measured deformation extent. The microscope is tracked via an attached tracking rigid body that facilitates the recording of the position of the microscope via a commercial optical tracking system as it moves during the procedure. Point clouds, reconstructed under different microscope positions, are registered into the same space to compute the feature displacements. Using our mock craniotomy device, realistic cortical deformations are generated. When comparing our tracked microscope stereo-pair measure of mock vessel displacements to that of the measurement determined by the independent optically tracked stylus marking, the displacement error was [Formula: see text] on average. These results demonstrate the practicality of using tracked stereoscopic microscope as an alternative to laser range scanners to collect sufficient intraoperative information for brain shift correction.

  1. Use of Circadian Lighting System to improve night shift alertness and performance of NRC Headquarters Operations Officers

    Baker, T.L.; Morisseau, D.; Murphy, N.M. [ShiftWork Systems, Cambridge, MA (United States)] [and others

    1995-04-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (NRC) Headquarters Operations Officers (HOOs) receive and respond to events reported in the nuclear industry on a 24-hour basis. The HOOs have reported reduced alertness on the night shift, leading to a potential deterioration in their on-shift cognitive performance during the early morning hours. For some HOOs, maladaptation to the night shift was also reported to be the principal cause of: (a) reduced alertness during the commute to and from work, (b) poor sleep quality, and (c) personal lifestyle problems. ShiftWork Systems, Inc. (SWS) designed and installed a Circadian Lighting System (CLS) at both the Bethesda and Rockville HOO stations with the goal of facilitating the HOOs physiological adjustment to their night shift schedules. The data indicate the following findings: less subjective fatigue on night shifts; improved night shift alertness and mental performance; higher HOO confidence in their ability to assess event reports; longer, deeper and more restorative day sleep after night duty shifts; swifter adaptation to night work; and a safer commute, particularly for those with extensive drives.

  2. Use of Circadian Lighting System to improve night shift alertness and performance of NRC Headquarters Operations Officers

    Baker, T.L.; Morisseau, D.; Murphy, N.M.

    1995-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) Headquarters Operations Officers (HOOs) receive and respond to events reported in the nuclear industry on a 24-hour basis. The HOOs have reported reduced alertness on the night shift, leading to a potential deterioration in their on-shift cognitive performance during the early morning hours. For some HOOs, maladaptation to the night shift was also reported to be the principal cause of: (a) reduced alertness during the commute to and from work, (b) poor sleep quality, and (c) personal lifestyle problems. ShiftWork Systems, Inc. (SWS) designed and installed a Circadian Lighting System (CLS) at both the Bethesda and Rockville HOO stations with the goal of facilitating the HOOs physiological adjustment to their night shift schedules. The data indicate the following findings: less subjective fatigue on night shifts; improved night shift alertness and mental performance; higher HOO confidence in their ability to assess event reports; longer, deeper and more restorative day sleep after night duty shifts; swifter adaptation to night work; and a safer commute, particularly for those with extensive drives

  3. Asynchronous error-correcting secure communication scheme based on fractional-order shifting chaotic system

    Chao, Luo

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, a novel digital secure communication scheme is firstly proposed. Different from the usual secure communication schemes based on chaotic synchronization, the proposed scheme employs asynchronous communication which avoids the weakness of synchronous systems and is susceptible to environmental interference. Moreover, as to the transmission errors and data loss in the process of communication, the proposed scheme has the ability to be error-checking and error-correcting in real time. In order to guarantee security, the fractional-order complex chaotic system with the shifting of order is utilized to modulate the transmitted signal, which has high nonlinearity and complexity in both frequency and time domains. The corresponding numerical simulations demonstrate the effectiveness and feasibility of the scheme.

  4. Hysteresis, regime shifts, and non-stationarity in aquifer recharge-storage-discharge systems

    Klammler, Harald; Jawitz, James; Annable, Michael; Hatfield, Kirk; Rao, Suresh

    2016-04-01

    Based on physical principles and geological information we develop a parsimonious aquifer model for Silver Springs, one of the largest karst springs in Florida. The model structure is linear and time-invariant with recharge, aquifer head (storage) and spring discharge as dynamic variables at the springshed (landscape) scale. Aquifer recharge is the hydrological driver with trends over a range of time scales from seasonal to multi-decadal. The freshwater-saltwater interaction is considered as a dynamic storage mechanism. Model results and observed time series show that aquifer storage causes significant rate-dependent hysteretic behavior between aquifer recharge and discharge. This leads to variable discharge per unit recharge over time scales up to decades, which may be interpreted as a gradual and cyclic regime shift in the aquifer drainage behavior. Based on field observations, we further amend the aquifer model by assuming vegetation growth in the spring run to be inversely proportional to stream velocity and to hinder stream flow. This simple modification introduces non-linearity into the dynamic system, for which we investigate the occurrence of rate-independent hysteresis and of different possible steady states with respective regime shifts between them. Results may contribute towards explaining observed non-stationary behavior potentially due to hydrological regime shifts (e.g., triggered by gradual, long-term changes in recharge or single extreme events) or long-term hysteresis (e.g., caused by aquifer storage). This improved understanding of the springshed hydrologic response dynamics is fundamental for managing the ecological, economic and social aspects at the landscape scale.

  5. Effectiveness of a simple and real-time baseline shift monitoring system during stereotactic body radiation therapy of lung tumors.

    Uchida, Yukihiro; Tachibana, Hidenobu; Kamei, Yoshiyuki; Kashihara, Kenichi

    2017-11-01

    This study aimed to clinically validate a simple real-time baseline shift monitoring system in a prospective study of consecutive patients undergoing stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) of lung tumors, and to investigate baseline shift due to intrafraction motion of the patient's body during lung SBRT. Ten consecutive patients with peripheral lung tumors were treated by SBRT consisting of four fractions of 12 Gy each, with a total dose of 48 Gy. During treatment, each patient's geometric displacement in the anterior-posterior and left-right directions (the baseline shift) was measured using a real-time monitoring webcam system. Displacement between the start and end of treatment was measured using an X-ray fluoroscopic imaging system. The displacement measurements of the two systems were compared, and the measurements of baseline shift acquired by the monitoring system during treatment were analyzed for all patients. There was no significant deviation between the monitoring system and the X-ray imaging system, with the accuracy of measurement being within 1 mm. Measurements using the monitoring system showed that 7 min of treatment generated displacements of more than 1 mm in 50% of the patients. Baseline shift of a patient's body may be measured accurately in real time, using a monitoring system without X-ray exposure. The manubrium of the sternum is a good location for measuring the baseline shift of a patient's body at all times. The real-time monitoring system may be useful for measuring the baseline shift of a patient's body independently of a gating system. Copyright © 2017 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Regime shifts under forcing of non-stationary attractors: Conceptual model and case studies in hydrologic systems.

    Park, Jeryang; Rao, P Suresh C

    2014-11-15

    We present here a conceptual model and analysis of complex systems using hypothetical cases of regime shifts resulting from temporal non-stationarity in attractor strengths, and then present selected published cases to illustrate such regime shifts in hydrologic systems (shallow aquatic ecosystems; water table shifts; soil salinization). Complex systems are dynamic and can exist in two or more stable states (or regimes). Temporal variations in state variables occur in response to fluctuations in external forcing, which are modulated by interactions among internal processes. Combined effects of external forcing and non-stationary strengths of alternative attractors can lead to shifts from original to alternate regimes. In systems with bi-stable states, when the strengths of two competing attractors are constant in time, or are non-stationary but change in a linear fashion, regime shifts are found to be temporally stationary and only controlled by the characteristics of the external forcing. However, when attractor strengths change in time non-linearly or vary stochastically, regime shifts in complex systems are characterized by non-stationary probability density functions (pdfs). We briefly discuss implications and challenges to prediction and management of hydrologic complex systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. On the theory of frequency-shifted secondary emission of light-harvesting molecular systems

    Morozov, V.A.

    2001-01-01

    The expressions are obtained for the intensity of the frequency-shifted secondary emission of a chromophore playing the role of a reaction center in the simplest model three-chromophore molecular 'light-harvesting' antenna, which is constructed and oriented in space so that the incident photons coherently excite two of its chromophore pigments. The quantum-field formalism was used, which takes into account the generalized (quantum-electrodynamic) dipole-dipole, as well as radiative and nonradiative dissipative interactions between pigments and the reaction center of the antenna. The special features of the excitation spectrum of the Raman scattering line and the frequency-shifted fluorescence spectrum of the reaction center of the molecular antenna under study are discussed. A comparison of the expressions obtained for the excitation and fluorescence spectra and with the corresponding expressions obtained for a bichromophore molecular system, which differs from a three-chromophore antenna by the absence of one of the pigments, revealed the properties of the mechanism of action of light-harvesting molecular antennas that have not been found earlier. In particular, it is shown that 'the light-harvesting' caused by the collective dissipative interactions of pigments with the reaction center of the antenna can substantially exceed a sum of contributions from separate pigments

  8. Cultivating Discontinuity: Pentecostal Pedagogies of Yielding and Control

    Brahinsky, Josh

    2013-01-01

    Exploring missionary study at an Assemblies of God Bible college through ethnography and training manuals demonstrates systematic pedagogies that cultivate sensory capabilities encouraging yielding, opening to rupture, and constraint. Ritual theory and the Anthropology of Christianity shift analytic scales to include "cultivation," a…

  9. Nurses' sleep quality, work environment and quality of care in the Spanish National Health System: observational study among different shifts

    Gómez-García, Teresa; Ruzafa-Martínez, María; Fuentelsaz-Gallego, Carmen; Madrid, Juan Antonio; Rol, Maria Angeles; Martínez-Madrid, María José; Moreno-Casbas, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Objective The main objective of this study was to determine the relationship between the characteristics of nurses' work environments in hospitals in the Spanish National Health System (SNHS) with nurse reported quality of care, and how care was provided by using different shifts schemes. The study also examined the relationship between job satisfaction, burnout, sleep quality and daytime drowsiness of nurses and shift work. Methods This was a multicentre, observational, descriptive, cross-sectional study, centred on a self-administered questionnaire. The study was conducted in seven SNHS hospitals of different sizes. We recruited 635 registered nurses who worked on day, night and rotational shifts on surgical, medical and critical care units. Their average age was 41.1 years, their average work experience was 16.4 years and 90% worked full time. A descriptive and bivariate analysis was carried out to study the relationship between work environment, quality and safety care, and sleep quality of nurses working different shift patterns. Results 65.4% (410) of nurses worked on a rotating shift. The Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index classification ranked 20% (95) as favourable, showing differences in nurse manager ability, leadership and support between shifts (p=0.003). 46.6% (286) were sure that patients could manage their self-care after discharge, but there were differences between shifts (p=0.035). 33.1% (201) agreed with information being lost in the shift change, showing differences between shifts (p=0.002). The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index reflected an average of 6.8 (SD 3.39), with differences between shifts (p=0.017). Conclusions Nursing requires shift work, and the results showed that the rotating shift was the most common. Rotating shift nurses reported worse perception in organisational and work environmental factors. Rotating and night shift nurses were less confident about patients' competence of self-care after discharge. The

  10. A Novel Multi-Digital Camera System Based on Tilt-Shift Photography Technology

    Sun, Tao; Fang, Jun-yong; Zhao, Dong; Liu, Xue; Tong, Qing-xi

    2015-01-01

    Multi-digital camera systems (MDCS) are constantly being improved to meet the increasing requirement of high-resolution spatial data. This study identifies the insufficiencies of traditional MDCSs and proposes a new category MDCS based on tilt-shift photography to improve ability of the MDCS to acquire high-accuracy spatial data. A prototype system, including two or four tilt-shift cameras (TSC, camera model: Nikon D90), is developed to validate the feasibility and correctness of proposed MDCS. Similar to the cameras of traditional MDCSs, calibration is also essential for TSC of new MDCS. The study constructs indoor control fields and proposes appropriate calibration methods for TSC, including digital distortion model (DDM) approach and two-step calibrated strategy. The characteristics of TSC are analyzed in detail via a calibration experiment; for example, the edge distortion of TSC. Finally, the ability of the new MDCS to acquire high-accuracy spatial data is verified through flight experiments. The results of flight experiments illustrate that geo-position accuracy of prototype system achieves 0.3 m at a flight height of 800 m, and spatial resolution of 0.15 m. In addition, results of the comparison between the traditional (MADC II) and proposed MDCS demonstrate that the latter (0.3 m) provides spatial data with higher accuracy than the former (only 0.6 m) under the same conditions. We also take the attitude that using higher accuracy TSC in the new MDCS should further improve the accuracy of the photogrammetry senior product. PMID:25835187

  11. Biofilm Attached Cultivation of Chlorella pyrenoidosa Is a Developed System for Swine Wastewater Treatment and Lipid Production

    Pengfei Cheng

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study showed the new potential of using soluble contents and heavy metals in swine wastewater as nutrient supplements for the algae Chlorella pyrenoidosa with biofilm attached method. Algae with biofilm attached cultivation grew well in unpasteurized wastewater reaching a biomass productivity of 5.03 g m−2 d−1, lipid content of 35.9% and lipid productivity of 1.80 g m−2 d−1. Chlorella grew in BG11 medium delivered lower values for each of the aforementioned parameters. The FAMEs compositions in the algae paste were mainly consisted of C16:0, C18:2, and C18:3. Algae removed NH4+–N, total phosphorus (TP, and COD by 75.9, 68.4, and 74.8%, respectively. Notably, Zn2+, Cu+, and Fe2+ were removed from wastewater with a ratio of 65.71, 53.64, and 58.89%, respectively. Biofilm attached cultivation of C. pyrenoidosa in swine wastewater containing heavy metals could accumulate considerable biomass and lipid, and the removal ratio of NH4+–N, TP, COD, and as well as heavy metal were high. Treatment of wastewater with biofilm attached cultivation showed an increasingly popular for the concentration of microalgae and environmental sustainability.

  12. Biofilm Attached Cultivation of Chlorella pyrenoidosa Is a Developed System for Swine Wastewater Treatment and Lipid Production

    Cheng, Pengfei; Wang, Yuanzhu; Liu, Tianzhong; Liu, Defu

    2017-01-01

    This study showed the new potential of using soluble contents and heavy metals in swine wastewater as nutrient supplements for the algae Chlorella pyrenoidosa with biofilm attached method. Algae with biofilm attached cultivation grew well in unpasteurized wastewater reaching a biomass productivity of 5.03 g m−2 d−1, lipid content of 35.9% and lipid productivity of 1.80 g m−2 d−1. Chlorella grew in BG11 medium delivered lower values for each of the aforementioned parameters. The FAMEs compositions in the algae paste were mainly consisted of C16:0, C18:2, and C18:3. Algae removed NH4+–N, total phosphorus (TP), and COD by 75.9, 68.4, and 74.8%, respectively. Notably, Zn2+, Cu+, and Fe2+ were removed from wastewater with a ratio of 65.71, 53.64, and 58.89%, respectively. Biofilm attached cultivation of C. pyrenoidosa in swine wastewater containing heavy metals could accumulate considerable biomass and lipid, and the removal ratio of NH4+–N, TP, COD, and as well as heavy metal were high. Treatment of wastewater with biofilm attached cultivation showed an increasingly popular for the concentration of microalgae and environmental sustainability. PMID:28983302

  13. Jatropha curcas and Ricinus communis differentially affect arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi diversity in soil when cultivated for biofuel production in a Guantanamo (Cuba) tropical system.

    Alguacil, M. M.; Torrecillas, E.; Hernández, G.; Torres, P.; Roldán, A.

    2012-04-01

    The arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are a key, integral component of the stability, sustainability and functioning of ecosystems. In this study, we characterised the AMF biodiversity in a control soil and in a soil cultivated with Jatropha curcas or Ricinus communis, in a tropical system in Guantanamo (Cuba), in order to verify if a change of land use to biofuel plant production had any effect on the AMF communities. We also asses whether some soil properties related with the soil fertility (total N, Organic C, microbial biomass C, aggregate stability percentage, pH and electrical conductivity) were changed with the cultivation of both crop species. The AM fungal small sub-unit (SSU) rRNA genes were subjected to PCR, cloning, sequencing and phylogenetic analyses. Twenty AM fungal sequence types were identified: 19 belong to the Glomeraceae and one to the Paraglomeraceae. Two AMF sequence types related to cultured AMF species (Glo G3 for Glomus sinuosum and Glo G6 for Glomus intraradices-G. fasciculatum-G. irregulare) disappeared in the soil cultivated with J. curcas and R. communis. The soil properties (total N, Organic C and microbial biomass C) were improved by the cultivation of the two plant species. The diversity of the AMF community decreased in the soil of both crops, with respect to the control soil, and varied significantly depending on the crop species planted. Thus, R. communis soil showed higher AMF diversity than J. curcas soil. In conclusion, R. communis could be more suitable in long-term conservation and sustainable management of these tropical ecosystems.

  14. Differential phase-shift keying and channel equalization in free space optical communication system

    Zhang, Dai; Hao, Shiqi; Zhao, Qingsong; Wan, Xiongfeng; Xu, Chenlu

    2018-01-01

    We present the performance benefits of differential phase-shift keying (DPSK) modulation in eliminating influence from atmospheric turbulence, especially for coherent free space optical (FSO) communication with a high communication rate. Analytic expression of detected signal is derived, based on which, homodyne detection efficiency is calculated to indicate the performance of wavefront compensation. Considered laser pulses always suffer from atmospheric scattering effect by clouds, intersymbol interference (ISI) in high-speed FSO communication link is analyzed. Correspondingly, the channel equalization method of a binormalized modified constant modulus algorithm based on set-membership filtering (SM-BNMCMA) is proposed to solve the ISI problem. Finally, through the comparison with existing channel equalization methods, its performance benefits of both ISI elimination and convergence speed are verified. The research findings have theoretical significance in a high-speed FSO communication system.

  15. The effect of irrigation, soil cultivation system and nitrogen fertilizer on the vitality and content of selected sugars in Vicia faba seed

    Kurasiak-Popowska, D.; Szukala, J.; Gulewicz, K.

    2009-07-01

    In this study the influence of sprinkler irrigation, various soil cultivation systems (conventional, reduced tillage, zero tillage system) and the level (0, 30, 60, 90 kg N ha{sup -}1) of nitrogen (N) fertilization on the vitality and content of selected sugars in faba bean seeds (Vicia faba L.) of the cultivar Nadwislanski was examined. Sprinkler irrigation of faba bean improved seed energy and germination in all three years of the study (1999-2001) - on average germination energy by 8.8% and total germination by 3.2%-. Germination of faba bean seed under conventional tillage in the drier years was significantly higher than in the zero tillage system. In the wetter year, seed from both simplified systems produced seeds with higher germination than in traditional conventional tillage. Nitrogen (N) fertilizer affected germination energy, but had no effect on faba bean germination. Sprinkler irrigation and N fertilization had no effect on the content of the sugars studied in the faba bean seed. However, the stachyose content of faba bean seeds from conventional tilled plants was significantly higher than in seed of zero tilled plants (0.78 mg g{sup -}1 seed dm), and the galactose content of seed from zero tilled plants was significantly higher than in the other two cultivation systems - 0.34 and 0.28 mg g{sup -}1 seed dm in seeds from conventional and reduced tillage system, respectively. Additional key words: agronomic treatment, faba bean seeds, RFOs sugars. (Author) 24 refs.

  16. Demodulation of acoustic telemetry binary phase shift keying signal based on high-order Duffing system

    Yan Bing-Nan; Liu Chong-Xin; Ni Jun-Kang; Zhao Liang

    2016-01-01

    In order to grasp the downhole situation immediately, logging while drilling (LWD) technology is adopted. One of the LWD technologies, called acoustic telemetry, can be successfully applied to modern drilling. It is critical for acoustic telemetry technology that the signal is successfully transmitted to the ground. In this paper, binary phase shift keying (BPSK) is used to modulate carrier waves for the transmission and a new BPSK demodulation scheme based on Duffing chaos is investigated. Firstly, a high-order system is given in order to enhance the signal detection capability and it is realized through building a virtual circuit using an electronic workbench (EWB). Secondly, a new BPSK demodulation scheme is proposed based on the intermittent chaos phenomena of the new Duffing system. Finally, a system variable crossing zero-point equidistance method is proposed to obtain the phase difference between the system and the BPSK signal. Then it is determined that the digital signal transmitted from the bottom of the well is ‘0’ or ‘1’. The simulation results show that the demodulation method is feasible. (paper)

  17. Multiple track Doppler-shift spectroscopy system for TFTR neutral beam injectors

    Kamperschroer, J.H.; Kugel, H.W.; Reale, M.A.

    1986-09-01

    A Doppler-shift spectroscopy system has been installed on the TFTR neutral beam injection system to measure species composition during both conditioning and injection pulses. Two intensified vidicon detectors and two spectrometers are utilized in a system capable of resolving data from up to twelve ion sources simultaneously. By imaging the light from six ion sources onto one detector, a cost-effective system has been achieved. Fiber optics are used to locate the diagnostic in an area remote from the hazards of the tokamak test cell allowing continuous access, and eliminating the need for radiation shielding of electronic components. Automatic hardware arming and interactive data analysis allow beam composition to be computed between tokamak shots for use in analyzing plasma heating experiments. Measurements have been made using lines of sight into both the neutralizer and the drift duct. Analysis of the data from the drift duct is both simpler and more accurate since only neutral particles are present in the beam at this location. Comparison of the data taken at these two locations reveals the presence of partially accelerated particles possessing an estimated 1/e half-angle divergence of 15 0 and accounting for up to 30% of the extracted power

  18. A common-path phase-shift interferometry surface plasmon imaging system

    Su, Y.-T.; Chen, Shean-Jen; Yeh, T.-L.

    2005-03-01

    A biosensing imaging system is proposed based on the integration of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and common-path phase-shift interferometry (PSI) techniques to measure the two-dimensional spatial phase variation caused by biomolecular interactions upon a sensing chip. The SPR phase imaging system can offer high resolution and high-throughout screening capabilities to analyze microarray biomolecular interaction without the need for additional labeling. With the long-term stability advantage of the common-path PSI technique even with external disturbances such as mechanical vibration, buffer flow noise, and laser unstable issue, the system can match the demand of real-time kinetic study for biomolecular interaction analysis (BIA). The SPR-PSI imaging system has achieved a detection limit of 2×10-7 refraction index change, a long-term phase stability of 2.5x10-4π rms over four hours, and a spatial phase resolution of 10-3 π with a lateral resolution of 100μm.

  19. Paradigm shift in urban energy systems through distributed generation: Methods and models

    Manfren, Massimiliano; Caputo, Paola; Costa, Gaia

    2011-01-01

    The path towards energy sustainability is commonly referred to the incremental adoption of available technologies, practices and policies that may help to decrease the environmental impact of energy sector, while providing an adequate standard of energy services. The evaluation of trade-offs among technologies, practices and policies for the mitigation of environmental problems related to energy resources depletion requires a deep knowledge of the local and global effects of the proposed solutions. While attempting to calculate such effects for a large complex system like a city, an advanced multidisciplinary approach is needed to overcome difficulties in modeling correctly real phenomena while maintaining computational transparency, reliability, interoperability and efficiency across different levels of analysis. Further, a methodology that rationally integrates different computational models and techniques is necessary to enable collaborative research in the field of optimization of energy efficiency strategies and integration of renewable energy systems in urban areas. For these reasons, a selection of currently available models for distributed generation planning and design is presented and analyzed in the perspective of gathering their capabilities in an optimization framework to support a paradigm shift in urban energy systems. This framework embodies the main concepts of a local energy management system and adopts a multicriteria perspective to determine optimal solutions for providing energy services through distributed generation.

  20. KAJIAN INPUT ENERGI PADA BUDIDAYA PADI METODE SYSTEM OF RICE INTENSIFICATION Studies on Energy Input in System of Rice Intensification Method of Rice Cultivation

    Bambang Purwantana

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available System of Rice Intensification (SRI is a rice cultivation method that intensively control and manage macro and micro nutrients as well as irrigation. This paper quantifies and compares the energy uses of SRI and conventional rice cultiva- tion systems. The study was conducted at some SRI’s experimental plots in the districts of Sleman, Kulonprogo, and Bantul, the province of Yogyakarta. The calculation of the energy was based on the farmers’ work schedule, the time required for each operation, the number of laborers, machines, tools, fuel, and all materials and inputs used. The result shows that SRI method consumed 35% less energy to conventional rice cultivation. Energy inputs from seed, water, fertilizer and pesticide were significantly reduces. However, there was higher input of human energy due to compost- ing, land preparation and weeding operations. The specific energy of SRI method was 1.96 MJ ha-1 lower than conven- tional method of 4.43 MJ ha-1. In the SRI method, 56.2 % of energy consumed was classified as direct energy and 43.8% was indirect energy. The SRI method used 61.9 % of renewable energy and 38.1 % of non-renewable energy. The working efficiency in composting and weeding operations should be improved in perspective of machine and tools to reduce the use of human energy. ABSTRAK System of Rice Intensification (SRI, merupakan suatu metode budidaya padi secara intensif dengan pengendalian unsur-unsur hara makro dan mikro disertai pengendalian dan pengaturan kebutuhan air. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis penggunaan energi dan mengidentifikasi kemungkinan penghematan energi pada budidaya padi SRI. Pe- nelitian dilakukan di Kabupaten Sleman, Kulonprogo, dan Bantul, Propinsi Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta. Pengamatan dilakukan pada plot-plot percobaan budidaya padi SRI dengan melakukan audit seluruh input energi selama proses budidaya dan dikomparasikan dengan input energi pada budidaya padi cara konvensional. Hasil

  1. Associations between shift schedule characteristics with sleep, need for recovery, health and performance measures for regular (semi-)continuous 3-shift systems.

    van de Ven, Hardy A; Brouwer, Sandra; Koolhaas, Wendy; Goudswaard, Anneke; de Looze, Michiel P; Kecklund, Göran; Almansa, Josue; Bültmann, Ute; van der Klink, Jac J L

    2016-09-01

    In this cross-sectional study associations were examined between eight shift schedule characteristics with shift-specific sleep complaints and need for recovery and generic health and performance measures. It was hypothesized that shift schedule characteristics meeting ergonomic recommendations are associated with better sleep, need for recovery, health and performance. Questionnaire data were collected from 491 shift workers of 18 companies with 9 regular (semi)-continuous shift schedules. The shift schedule characteristics were analyzed separately and combined using multilevel linear regression models. The hypothesis was largely not confirmed. Relatively few associations were found, of which the majority was in the direction as expected. In particular early starts of morning shifts and many consecutive shifts seem to be avoided. The healthy worker effect, limited variation between included schedules and the cross-sectional design might explain the paucity of significant results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Shift Colors

    Publications & News Shift Colors Pages default Sign In NPC Logo Banner : Shift Colors Search Navy Personnel Command > Reference Library > Publications & News > Shift Colors Top Link Bar Navy Personnel Library Expand Reference Library Quick Launch Shift Colors Shift Colors Archives Mailing Address How to

  3. Associations between shift schedule characteristics with sleep, need for recovery, health and performance measures for regular (semi-) continuous 3-shift systems

    van de Ven, Hardy A.; Brouwer, Sandra; Koolhaas, Wendy; Goudswaard, Anneke; de Looze, Michiel P.; Kecklund, Goran; Almansa, Josue; Bultmann, Ute; van der Klink, Jac J. L.

    In this cross-sectional study associations were examined between eight shift schedule characteristics with shift-specific sleep complaints and need for recovery and generic health and performance measures. It was hypothesized that shift schedule characteristics meeting ergonomic recommendations are

  4. Associations between shift schedule characteristics with sleep, need for recovery, health and performance measures for regular (semi-)continuous 3-shift systems

    van de Ven, Hardy A.; Brouwer, Sandra; Koolhaas, Wendy; Goudswaard, Anneke; de Looze, Michiel P.; Kecklund, Göran; Almansa, Josue; Bültmann, Ute; van der Klink, Jac J L

    2016-01-01

    In this cross-sectional study associations were examined between eight shift schedule characteristics with shift-specific sleep complaints and need for recovery and generic health and performance measures. It was hypothesized that shift schedule characteristics meeting ergonomic recommendations are

  5. Load shifting with the use of home energy management system implemented in FPGA

    Bazydło, Grzegorz; Wermiński, Szymon

    2017-08-01

    The increases for power demand in the Electrical Power System (EPS) causes a significant increase of power in daily load curve and transmission line overload. The large variability in energy consumption in EPS combined with unpredictable weather events can lead to a situation in which to save the stability of the EPS, the power limits must be introduced or even industrial customers in a given area have to be disconnected, which causes financial losses. Nowadays, a Transmission System Operator is looking for additional solutions to reduce peak power, because existing approaches (mainly building new intervention power unit or tariff programs) are not satisfactory due to the high cost of services in combination with insufficient power reduction effect. The paper presents an approach to load shifting with the use of home Energy Management System (EMS) installed at small end-users. The home energy management algorithm, executed by EMS controller, is modeled using Unified Modeling Language (UML). Then, the UML model is translated into Verilog description, and is finally implemented in the Field Programmable Gate Arrays. The advantages of the proposed approach are the relatively low cost of reduction service, small loss of end-users' comfort, and the convenient maintenance of EMS. A practical example illustrating the proposed approach and calculation of potential gains from its implementation are also presented.

  6. Applying systems thinking to task shifting for mental health using lay providers: a review of the evidence.

    Javadi, D; Feldhaus, I; Mancuso, A; Ghaffar, A

    2017-01-01

    This paper seeks to review the available evidence to determine whether a systems approach is employed in the implementation and evaluation of task shifting for mental health using lay providers in low- and middle-income countries, and to highlight system-wide effects of task-shifting strategies in order to better inform efforts to strength community mental health systems. Pubmed, CINAHL, and Cochrane Library databases were searched. Articles were screened by two independent reviewers with a third reviewer resolving discrepancies. Two stages of screens were done to ensure sensitivity. Studies were analysed using the World Health Organization's building blocks framework with the addition of a community building block, and systems thinking characteristics to determine the extent to which system-wide effects had been considered. Thirty studies were included. Almost all studies displayed positive findings on mental health using task shifting. One study showed no effect. No studies explicitly employed systems thinking tools, but some demonstrated systems thinking characteristics, such as exploring various stakeholder perspectives, capturing unintended consequences, and looking across sectors for system-wide impact. Twenty-five of the 30 studies captured elements other than the most directly relevant building blocks of service delivery and health workforce. There is a lack of systematic approaches to exploring complexity in the evaluation of task-shifting interventions. Systems thinking tools should support evidence-informed decision making for a more complete understanding of community-based systems strengthening interventions for mental health.

  7. A paradigm shift towards low-nitrifying production systems: the role of biological nitrification inhibition (BNI)

    Subbarao, G. V.; Sahrawat, K. L.; Nakahara, K.; Rao, I. M.; Ishitani, M.; Hash, C. T.; Kishii, M.; Bonnett, D. G.; Berry, W. L.; Lata, J. C.

    2013-01-01

    Background Agriculture is the single largest geo-engineering initiative that humans have initiated on planet Earth, largely through the introduction of unprecedented amounts of reactive nitrogen (N) into ecosystems. A major portion of this reactive N applied as fertilizer leaks into the environment in massive amounts, with cascading negative effects on ecosystem health and function. Natural ecosystems utilize many of the multiple pathways in the N cycle to regulate N flow. In contrast, the massive amounts of N currently applied to agricultural systems cycle primarily through the nitrification pathway, a single inefficient route that channels much of this reactive N into the environment. This is largely due to the rapid nitrifying soil environment of present-day agricultural systems. Scope In this Viewpoint paper, the importance of regulating nitrification as a strategy to minimize N leakage and to improve N-use efficiency (NUE) in agricultural systems is highlighted. The ability to suppress soil nitrification by the release of nitrification inhibitors from plant roots is termed ‘biological nitrification inhibition’ (BNI), an active plant-mediated natural function that can limit the amount of N cycling via the nitrification pathway. The development of a bioassay using luminescent Nitrosomonas to quantify nitrification inhibitory activity from roots has facilitated the characterization of BNI function. Release of BNIs from roots is a tightly regulated physiological process, with extensive genetic variability found in selected crops and pasture grasses. Here, the current status of understanding of the BNI function is reviewed using Brachiaria forage grasses, wheat and sorghum to illustrate how BNI function can be utilized for achieving low-nitrifying agricultural systems. A fundamental shift towards ammonium (NH4+)-dominated agricultural systems could be achieved by using crops and pastures with high BNI capacities. When viewed from an agricultural and

  8. A paradigm shift towards low-nitrifying production systems: the role of biological nitrification inhibition (BNI).

    Subbarao, G V; Sahrawat, K L; Nakahara, K; Rao, I M; Ishitani, M; Hash, C T; Kishii, M; Bonnett, D G; Berry, W L; Lata, J C

    2013-07-01

    Agriculture is the single largest geo-engineering initiative that humans have initiated on planet Earth, largely through the introduction of unprecedented amounts of reactive nitrogen (N) into ecosystems. A major portion of this reactive N applied as fertilizer leaks into the environment in massive amounts, with cascading negative effects on ecosystem health and function. Natural ecosystems utilize many of the multiple pathways in the N cycle to regulate N flow. In contrast, the massive amounts of N currently applied to agricultural systems cycle primarily through the nitrification pathway, a single inefficient route that channels much of this reactive N into the environment. This is largely due to the rapid nitrifying soil environment of present-day agricultural systems. In this Viewpoint paper, the importance of regulating nitrification as a strategy to minimize N leakage and to improve N-use efficiency (NUE) in agricultural systems is highlighted. The ability to suppress soil nitrification by the release of nitrification inhibitors from plant roots is termed 'biological nitrification inhibition' (BNI), an active plant-mediated natural function that can limit the amount of N cycling via the nitrification pathway. The development of a bioassay using luminescent Nitrosomonas to quantify nitrification inhibitory activity from roots has facilitated the characterization of BNI function. Release of BNIs from roots is a tightly regulated physiological process, with extensive genetic variability found in selected crops and pasture grasses. Here, the current status of understanding of the BNI function is reviewed using Brachiaria forage grasses, wheat and sorghum to illustrate how BNI function can be utilized for achieving low-nitrifying agricultural systems. A fundamental shift towards ammonium (NH4(+))-dominated agricultural systems could be achieved by using crops and pastures with high BNI capacities. When viewed from an agricultural and environmental perspective, the

  9. Conflict between work and family roles and satisfaction among nurses in different shift systems in Croatia: a questionnaire survey.

    Simunić, Ana; Gregov, Ljiljana

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the perception of conflict between work and family roles and job, family, and life satisfaction among nurses in Croatia. One hundred and twenty-nine nurses (married mothers) working in hospitals in Zadar, Šibenik, and Split were divided in four groups according to their worktime schedule. The participants completed a survey, which included a set of sociodemographic-type questions, questions about the level and allocation of family responsibilities between spouses, and scales measuring the perceived negative effects of worktime, psychological demands of the work, work-family conflict, and semantic differential scales for measuring the affective and cognitive-evaluative component of job, family, and life satisfaction. This was the first study in Croatia to deal with work-family conflict among nurses or workers with different shift systems.The results of this study indicate that nurses working morning shifts only experienced less conflict between work and family than other groups of nurses, who worked the morning, afternoon, and the night shift. The cognitive-evaluative component of job satisfaction was the highest among morning shift nurses and the lowest in nurses who worked 12-hour shifts, while the affective component of life satisfaction was the lowest in nurses working irregular and backward rotated shifts. These results confirm that shiftwork makes the work-family role conflict even worse. They also support the view that the type of shift rotation matters.

  10. Energy and economic analysis of traditional versus introduced crops cultivation in the mountains of the Indian Himalayas: A case study

    Nautiyal, Sunil; Kaechele, H. [Leibniz-Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research (ZALF), Institute of Socioeconomics, Eberswalder Str. 84, 15374 Muencheberg (Germany); Rao, K.S. [Centre for Inter-disciplinary Studies of Mountain and Hill Environment, Academic Research Center, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Maikhuri, R.K. [G.B. Pant Institute of Himalayan Environment and Development, Garhwal Unit, P.O. Box 92, Srinagar (Garhwal) 246174 (India); Saxena, K.G. [School of Environmental Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110067 (India)

    2007-12-15

    This study analyzed the energy and economics associated with cultivation of traditional and introduced crops in the mountains of the Central Himalaya, India. The production cost in terms of energy for introduced crops such as tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) and bell pepper (Capsicum annuum) cultivation was 90,358-320,516 MJ ha{sup -1} as compared to between 19,814 and 42,380 MJ ha{sup -1} for traditional crops within Himalayan agroecosystems. For the introduced crops, high energy and monetary input was associated with human labor, forest resources, chemical fertilizer and pesticides. However, energy threshold/projection for farmyard manure in traditional crop cultivation was 80-90% of the total energy cost, thus traditional crop cultivation was more efficient in energy and economics. During the study, the farm productivity of introduced crops cultivation declined with increasing years of cultivation. Consequently, the energy output from the system has been declining at the rate of -y20,598 to y20,748 MJ ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} for tomato and y12,072 to y15,056 MJ ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} for bell pepper under irrigated and rain-fed land use in the mountains, respectively. The comparative analysis on this paradigm shift indicates that more research is needed to support sustainable crop cultivation in the fragile Himalayan environment. (author)

  11. Characterization and Suppression of the Electromagnetic Interference Induced Phase Shift in the JLab FEL Photo - Injector Advanced Drive Laser System

    F. G. Wilson, D. Sexton, S. Zhang

    2011-09-01

    The drive laser for the photo-cathode gun used in the JLab Free Electron Laser (FEL) facility had been experiencing various phase shifts on the order of tens of degrees (>20{sup o} at 1497 MHz or >40ps) when changing the Advanced Drive Laser (ADL) [2][3][4] micro-pulse frequencies. These phase shifts introduced multiple complications when trying to setup the accelerator for operation, ultimately inhibiting the robustness and overall performance of the FEL. Through rigorous phase measurements and systematic characterizations, we determined that the phase shifts could be attributed to electromagnetic interference (EMI) coupling into the ADL phase control loop, and subsequently resolved the issue of phase shift to within tenths of a degree (<0.5{sup o} at 1497 MHz or <1ps). The diagnostic method developed and the knowledge gained through the entire process will prove to be invaluable for future designs of similar systems.

  12. Transverse magnetic field effect on the giant Goos–Hänchen shifts based on a degenerate two-level system

    Nasehi, R.

    2018-06-01

    We study the effect of the Goos–Hänchen (GH) shifts through a cavity with degenerate two-level systems in the line of . For this purpose, we focus on the transverse magnetic field (TMF) in a Floquet frame to obtain the giant GH shifts. Physically, the collisional effects of TMF lead to increasing the population trapping in the ground state. However, we demonstrate that the population trapping generates the large negative or positive GH shifts and simultaneously switches from superluminal to subluminal (or vice versa). Also, we investigate the other optical properties such as the longitudinal magnetic field (LMF), which plays an important role in the control of the GH shifts and leads to the generation of new subsystems. In the next step, we evaluate the GH shifts beyond the multi-photon resonance condition by the control of TMF. Moreover, we compute the appearance of negative and positive GH shifts by setting the width of the incident Gaussian beams in the presence of a multi-photon resonance condition. Our results show that superluminal or subluminal light propagation can be simultaneously controlled by adjusting the rates of the TMF and LMF. The significant effects of these factors on the degenerate two-level systems provide different applications such as slow light, optical switches and quantum information storage.

  13. Multi-trait evolution of farmer varieties of bread wheat after cultivation in contrasting organic farming systems in Europe.

    Dawson, J C; Serpolay, E; Giuliano, S; Schermann, N; Galic, N; Chable, V; Goldringer, I

    2012-03-01

    Because of the lack of varieties for organic agriculture, associations of organic farmers in several European countries have begun cultivating landraces and historic varieties, effectively practicing in situ conservation of agricultural biodiversity. To promote agrobiodiversity conservation, a special list for "conservation varieties" was implemented in 2008 by the EU because for any exchange and marketing of seeds in the EU, a variety must be registered in an official catalog. Our study aimed at improving knowledge on the phenotypic diversity and evolution of such varieties when cultivated on organic farms in Europe, in order to better define their specific characteristics and the implications for the registration process. We assessed multi-trait phenotypic evolution in eight European landraces and historic varieties of bread wheat and in two pureline variety checks, each grown by eight organic farmers over 2 years and then evaluated in a common garden experiment at an organic research farm. Measurements on each farmer's version of each variety included several standard evaluation criteria for assessing distinctness, uniformity and stability for variety registration. Significant phenotypic differentiation was found among farmers' versions of each variety. Some varieties showed considerable variation among versions while others showed fewer phenotypic changes, even in comparison to the two checks. Although farmers' variety would not satisfy uniformity or stability criteria as defined in the catalog evaluation requirements, each variety remained distinct when assessed using multivariate analysis. The amount of differentiation may be related to the initial genetic diversity within landraces and historic varieties.

  14. Assessment of long-term cultivated human precision-cut lung slices as an ex vivo system for evaluation of chronic cytotoxicity and functionality.

    Neuhaus, Vanessa; Schaudien, Dirk; Golovina, Tatiana; Temann, Ulla-Angela; Thompson, Carolann; Lippmann, Torsten; Bersch, Claus; Pfennig, Olaf; Jonigk, Danny; Braubach, Peter; Fieguth, Hans-Gerd; Warnecke, Gregor; Yusibov, Vidadi; Sewald, Katherina; Braun, Armin

    2017-01-01

    Investigation of basic chronic inflammatory mechanisms and development of new therapeutics targeting the respiratory tract requires appropriate testing systems, including those to monitor long- persistence. Human precision-cut lung slices (PCLS) have been demonstrated to mimic the human respiratory tract and have potential of an alternative, ex-vivo system to replace or augment in-vitro testing and animal models. So far, most research on PCLS has been conducted for short cultivation periods (≤72 h), while analyses of slowly metabolized therapeutics require long-term survival of PCLS in culture. In the present study, we evaluated viability, physiology and structural integrity of PCLS cultured for up to 15 days. PCLS were cultured for 15 days and various parameters were assessed at different time points. Structural integrity and viability of cultured PCLS remained constant for 15 days. Moreover, bronchoconstriction was inducible over the whole period of cultivation, though with decreased sensitivity (EC 50 1d = 4 × 10 -8  M vs. EC 50 15d = 4 × 10 -6  M) and reduced maximum of initial airway area (1d = 0.5% vs. 15d = 18.7%). In contrast, even though still clearly inducible compared to medium control, LPS-induced TNF-α secretion decreased significantly from day 1 to day 15 of culture. Overall, though long-term cultivation of PCLS need further investigation for cytokine secretion, possibly on a cellular level, PCLS are feasible for bronchoconstriction studies and toxicity assays.

  15. Water-saving analysis on an effective water reuse system in biodiesel feedstock production based on Chlorella zofingiensis fed-batch cultivation.

    Yang, Kang; Qin, Lei; Wang, Zhongming; Feng, Wei; Feng, Pingzhong; Zhu, Shunni; Xu, Jingliang; Yuan, Zhenhong

    2015-01-01

    The micralgae-based biofuel obtained from dairy wastewater (DWW) is considered a promising source of energy. However, this process consumes water due to the concentration of wastewater being normally too high for some micoralgae cultivation, and dilution is always needed. In this work, the cultivation of microalgae has been examined in non-recirculated water (NR) and recirculated water systems (R). The growth of Chlorella zofingiensis and the nutrient removal of DWW have been recorded. The comparison indicates the R had a little more advantage in biomass and lipid output (1.55, 0.22 g, respectively) than the NR (1.51, 0.20 g, respectively). However, the total chemical oxygen demand (COD), total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), and total phosphorus (TP) removals of the R were lower than those of the NR system during the culture. The highest removal of total COD, TKN, and TP were 85.05%, 93.64%, and 98.45%, respectively. Furthermore, no significant difference has been observed in the higher heating value and lipid content of the biomass of the R and NR. The results show the R can save 30% of the total water input during the culture. All above results indicate the R system has great potential in industry.

  16. Exploring the effects of task shifting for HIV through a systems thinking lens: the case of Burkina Faso.

    Yaya Bocoum, Fadima; Kouanda, Seni; Kouyaté, Bocar; Hounton, Sennen; Adam, Taghreed

    2013-10-22

    While the impact of task shifting on quality of care and clinical outcomes has been demonstrated in several studies, evidence on its impact on the health system as a whole is limited. This study has two main objectives. The first is to conceptualize the wider range of effects of task shifting through a systems thinking lens. The second is to explore these effects using task shifting for HIV in Burkina Faso as a case study. We used a case study approach, using qualitative research methods. Data sources included document reviews, reviews of available data and records, as well as interviews with key informants and health workers. In addition to the traditional measures of impact of task shifting on health outcomes, our study identified 20 possible effects of the strategy on the system as a whole. Moreover, our analysis highlighted the importance of differentiating between two types of health systems effects. The first are effects inherent to the task shifting strategy itself, such as job satisfaction or better access to health services. The second are effects due to health system barriers, for example the unavailability of medicines and supplies, generating a series of effects on the various components of the health system, e.g., staff frustration.Among the health systems effects that we found are positive, mostly unintended, effects and synergies such as increased health workers' sense of responsibility and worthiness, increased satisfaction due to using the newly acquired skills in other non-HIV tasks, as well as improved patient-provider relationships. Among the negative unintended effects are staff frustration due to lack of medicines and supplies or lack of the necessary infrastructure to be able to perform the new tasks. Our analysis highlights the importance of adopting a systems thinking approach in designing, implementing and evaluating health policies to mitigate some of the design issues or system bottle-necks that may impede their successful implementation

  17. Modeling the spatial distribution of crop cultivated areas at a large regional scale combining system dynamics and a modified Dyna-CLUE: A case from Iran

    Mesgari, I.; Saeed Jabalameli, M.

    2017-07-01

    Agricultural land use pattern is affected by many factors at different scales and effects that are separated by time and space. This will lead to simulation models that optimize or project the cropping pattern changes and incorporate complexities in terms of details and dynamics. Combining System Dynamics (SD) and a modified Conversion of Land Use and its Effects (CLUE) modelling framework, this paper suggests a new dynamic approach for assessing the demand of different crops at country-level and for predicting the spatial distribution of cultivated areas at provincial scale. As example, a case study is presented for Iran, where we have simulated a scenario of future cropping pattern changes during 2015–2040.The results indicated a change in the spatial distribution of cultivated areas during the next years. An increase in the proportion of rice is expected in northern Iran, whereas the proportion of wheat is increasing in the mountainous western areas. Wheat and barley crops are expected to become dominant within the cropping system throughout the country regions.

  18. The influence of ripening stage and cultivation system on the total antioxidant activity and total phenolic compounds of yellow passion fruit pulp.

    Macoris, Mariana S; De Marchi, Renata; Janzantti, Natália S; Monteiro, Magali

    2012-07-01

    This work aimed to investigate the influence of both ripening stage and cultivation system on the total phenolic compounds (TPC) and total antioxidant activity (TAA) of passion fruit pulp. TPC extraction was optimized using a 2³ central composed design. The variables were fruit pulp volume, methanol volume and extraction solution volume. TPC was determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu reaction, and TAA using the ABTS radical reaction. The conditions to extract TPC were 2 mL passion fruit pulp and 9 mL extraction solution containing 40% methanol:water (v/v). TPC values increased in the passion fruit pulp during ripening for both cultivation systems, ranging from 281.8 to 361.9 mg gallic acid L⁻¹ (P ≤ 0.05) for the organic pulp and from 291.0 to 338.6 mg gallic acid L⁻¹ (P ≤ 0.05) for the conventional pulp. TPC values increased during ripening for both organic and conventional passion fruit. The same was true for TAA values for conventional passion fruit. For organic passion fruit, however, TAA values were highest at the initial ripening stages. These results suggest that antioxidant compounds exert strong influence on the initial ripening stages for organic passion fruit, when TPC still did not reach its maximum level. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Non-IID Recommender Systems: A Review and Framework of Recommendation Paradigm Shifting

    Longbing Cao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available While recommendation plays an increasingly critical role in our living, study, work, and entertainment, the recommendations we receive are often for irrelevant, duplicate, or uninteresting products and services. A critical reason for such bad recommendations lies in the intrinsic assumption that recommended users and items are independent and identically distributed (IID in existing theories and systems. Another phenomenon is that, while tremendous efforts have been made to model specific aspects of users or items, the overall user and item characteristics and their non-IIDness have been overlooked. In this paper, the non-IID nature and characteristics of recommendation are discussed, followed by the non-IID theoretical framework in order to build a deep and comprehensive understanding of the intrinsic nature of recommendation problems, from the perspective of both couplings and heterogeneity. This non-IID recommendation research triggers the paradigm shift from IID to non-IID recommendation research and can hopefully deliver informed, relevant, personalized, and actionable recommendations. It creates exciting new directions and fundamental solutions to address various complexities including cold-start, sparse data-based, cross-domain, group-based, and shilling attack-related issues.

  20. Nonlinear detection for a high rate extended binary phase shift keying system.

    Chen, Xian-Qing; Wu, Le-Nan

    2013-03-28

    The algorithm and the results of a nonlinear detector using a machine learning technique called support vector machine (SVM) on an efficient modulation system with high data rate and low energy consumption is presented in this paper. Simulation results showed that the performance achieved by the SVM detector is comparable to that of a conventional threshold decision (TD) detector. The two detectors detect the received signals together with the special impacting filter (SIF) that can improve the energy utilization efficiency. However, unlike the TD detector, the SVM detector concentrates not only on reducing the BER of the detector, but also on providing accurate posterior probability estimates (PPEs), which can be used as soft-inputs of the LDPC decoder. The complexity of this detector is considered in this paper by using four features and simplifying the decision function. In addition, a bandwidth efficient transmission is analyzed with both SVM and TD detector. The SVM detector is more robust to sampling rate than TD detector. We find that the SVM is suitable for extended binary phase shift keying (EBPSK) signal detection and can provide accurate posterior probability for LDPC decoding.

  1. Nonlinear Detection for a High Rate Extended Binary Phase Shift Keying System

    Le-Nan Wu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The algorithm and the results of a nonlinear detector using a machine learning technique called support vector machine (SVM on an efficient modulation system with high data rate and low energy consumption is presented in this paper. Simulation results showed that the performance achieved by the SVM detector is comparable to that of a conventional threshold decision (TD detector. The two detectors detect the received signals together with the special impacting filter (SIF that can improve the energy utilization efficiency. However, unlike the TD detector, the SVM detector concentrates not only on reducing the BER of the detector, but also on providing accurate posterior probability estimates (PPEs, which can be used as soft-inputs of the LDPC decoder. The complexity of this detector is considered in this paper by using four features and simplifying the decision function. In addition, a bandwidth efficient transmission is analyzed with both SVM and TD detector. The SVM detector is more robust to sampling rate than TD detector. We find that the SVM is suitable for extended binary phase shift keying (EBPSK signal detection and can provide accurate posterior probability for LDPC decoding.

  2. Enhanced Phase-Shifted Current Control for Harmonic Cancellation in Three-Phase Multiple Adjustable Speed Drive Systems

    Yang, Yongheng; Davari, Pooya; Zare, Firuz

    2017-01-01

    A phase-shifted current control can be employed to mitigate certain harmonics induced by the Diode Rectifiers (DR) and Silicon-Controlled Rectifiers (SCR) as the front-ends of multiple parallel Adjustable Speed Drive (ASD) systems. However, the effectiveness of the phase-shifted control relies...... on the loading condition of each drive unit as well as the number of drives in parallel. In order to enhance the harmonic cancellation by means of the phase-shifted current control, the currents drawn by the rectifiers should be maintained almost at the same level. Thus, this paper firstly analyzes the impact...... of unequal loading among the parallel drives, and a scheme to enhance the performance is introduced to improve the quality of the total grid current, where partial loading operation should be enabled. Simulation and experimental case studies on multidrive systems have demonstrated that the enhanced phase...

  3. Optimum community energy storage system for PV energy time-shift

    Parra, David; Gillott, Mark; Norman, Stuart A.; Walker, Gavin S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The performance and economic benefits of Pb-acid and Li-ion batteries are compared. • The business case during the decarbonisation pathway is assessed. • The aggregation from a community approach reduced the levelised cost by 37% by 2020. • For a forecast price of 16.3 p/kW h Li-ion battery cost must be less than 275 £/kW h. • A 10% subsidy will be needed for Li-ion batteries to achieve the 2020 forecast. - Abstract: A novel method has been designed to obtain the optimum community energy storage (CES) systems for end user applications. The method evaluates the optimum performance (including the round trip efficiency and annual discharge), levelised cost (LCOES), the internal rate of return and the levelised value of suitable energy storage technologies. A complimentary methodology was developed including three reference years (2012, 2020 and zero carbon year) to show the evolution of the business case during the low carbon transition. The method follows a community approach and the optimum CES system was calculated as a function of the size of the community. In this work, this method was put in practice with lead-acid (PbA) and lithium-ion battery (Li-ion) technologies when performing PV energy time-shift using real demand data from a single home to a 100-home community. The community approach reduced the LCOES down to 0.30 £/kW h and 0.11 £/kW h in 2020 and the zero carbon year respectively. These values meant a cost reduction by 37% and 66% regarding a single home. Results demonstrated that PbA batteries needs from 1.5 to 2.5 times more capacity than Li-ion chemistry to reduce the LCOES, the worst case scenario being for the smallest communities, because the more spiky demand profile required proportionately larger PbA battery capacities

  4. The Development of a Patient-Identification-Oriented Nursing Shift Exchange Support System Using Wireless RFID PDA Techniques

    Huang, Pin-Jen; She, Chien-Cheng; Chang, Polun

    2005-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to technically testing the feasibility of combining RFID and PDA technologies in nursing care and to develop a support system for the nursing shift exchange, which featured with “Positive Patient Identification” and “Point of Care” for patient’s safety and security. The most challenging part for the future work would be to embed the system into the real workflow. Future study would be to examine the practical effectiveness of the system....

  5. Ice Thermal Storage Systems for LWR Supplemental Cooling and Peak Power Shifting

    Haihua Zhao; Hongbin Zhang; Phil Sharpe; Blaise Hamanaka; Wei Yan; WoonSeong Jeong

    2010-06-01

    Availability of enough cooling water has been one of the major issues for the nuclear power plant site selection. Cooling water issues have frequently disrupted the normal operation at some nuclear power plants during heat waves and long draught. The issues become more severe due to the new round of nuclear power expansion and global warming. During hot summer days, cooling water leaving a power plant may become too hot to threaten aquatic life so that environmental regulations may force the plant to reduce power output or even temporarily to be shutdown. For new nuclear power plants to be built at areas without enough cooling water, dry cooling can be used to remove waste heat directly into the atmosphere. However, dry cooling will result in much lower thermal efficiency when the weather is hot. One potential solution for the above mentioned issues is to use ice thermal storage systems (ITS) that reduce cooling water requirements and boost the plant’s thermal efficiency in hot hours. ITS uses cheap off-peak electricity to make ice and uses those ice for supplemental cooling during peak demand time. ITS is suitable for supplemental cooling storage due to its very high energy storage density. ITS also provides a way to shift large amount of electricity from off peak time to peak time. Some gas turbine plants already use ITS to increase thermal efficiency during peak hours in summer. ITSs have also been widely used for building cooling to save energy cost. Among three cooling methods for LWR applications: once-through, wet cooling tower, and dry cooling tower, once-through cooling plants near a large water body like an ocean or a large lake and wet cooling plants can maintain the designed turbine backpressure (or condensation temperature) during 99% of the time; therefore, adding ITS to those plants will not generate large benefits. For once-through cooling plants near a limited water body like a river or a small lake, adding ITS can bring significant economic

  6. Hydroponic cultivation of Oncidium baueri

    Daniele Brandstetter Rodrigues

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, orchid cultivation has been increasing steadily over the last few years and contributing significantly to the economy. It has been reported that several vegetable crops and ornamentals have been successfully grown by soilless cultivation. The orchid Oncidium baueri Lindl. is grown on pot substrates. Nevertheless, hydroponics is an excellent alternative, especially for the production of cut flowers and bare root plants. The objective of this study was to evaluate the development of Oncidium baueri on two soilless systems: (a pots containing Amafibra® coconut fiber, carbonized rice husk, and pine bark (1:1:1 irrigated with nutrient solution every 15 d; and (b a nutrient film technique (NFT hydroponic system irrigated with nutrient solution daily. Shoot height, pseudobulb diameter, and number of sprouts were evaluated monthly. The number of flowering plants, number of flowers, dry mass of shoots, and dry mass of roots were evaluated 11 months after onset of experiment. The pot cultivation system yielded more flowers and higher values for all vegetative parameters than the NFT hydroponic system.

  7. Investigation on the combined operation of water gas shift and preferential oxidation reactor system on the kW scale

    O'Connell, M.; Kolb, G.A.; Schelhaas, K.P.; Schuerer, J.; Tiemann, D.; Keller, S.; Reinhard, D.; Hessel, V.

    2010-01-01

    A 5 kWel water gas shift reactor was integrated with a 5 kWel preferential oxidation reactor for the purposes of reducing the carbon monoxide levels in a reformate exit stream to levels below 100 ppm. The integrated system worked best at partial load with CO concentrations being reduced to 40 ppm at

  8. SU-F-J-47: Inherent Uncertainty in the Positional Shifts Determined by a Volumetric Cone Beam Imaging System

    Giri, U; Ganesh, T; Saini, V; Munshi, A; Sarkar, B; Mohanti, B

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify inherent uncertainty associated with a volumetric imaging system in its determination of positional shifts. Methods: The study was performed on an Elekta Axesse™ linac’s XVI cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) system. A CT image data set of a Penta- Guide phantom was used as reference image by placing isocenter at the center of the phantom.The phantom was placed arbitrarily on the couch close to isocenter and CBCT images were obtained. The CBCT dataset was matched with the reference image using XVI software and the shifts were determined in 6-dimensions. Without moving the phantom, this process was repeated 20 times consecutively within 30 minutes on a single day. Mean shifts and their standard deviations in all 6-dimensions were determined for all the 20 instances of imaging. For any given day, the first set of shifts obtained was kept as reference and the deviations of the subsequent 19 sets from the reference set were scored. Mean differences and their standard deviations were determined. In this way, data were obtained for 30 consecutive working days. Results: Tabulating the mean deviations and their standard deviations observed on each day for the 30 measurement days, systematic and random errors in the determination of shifts by XVI software were calculated. The systematic errors were found to be 0.03, 0.04 and 0.03 mm while random errors were 0.05, 0.06 and 0.06 mm in lateral, craniocaudal and anterio-posterior directions respectively. For rotational shifts, the systematic errors were 0.02°, 0.03° and 0.03° and random errors were 0.06°, 0.05° and 0.05° in pitch, roll and yaw directions respectively. Conclusion: The inherent uncertainties in every image guidance system should be assessed and baseline values established at the time of its commissioning. These shall be periodically tested as part of the QA protocol.

  9. Dynamics of Short-Term Phosphorus Uptake by Intact Mycorrhizal and Non-mycorrhizal Maize Plants Grown in a Circulatory Semi-Hydroponic Cultivation System.

    Garcés-Ruiz, Mónica; Calonne-Salmon, Maryline; Plouznikoff, Katia; Misson, Coralie; Navarrete-Mier, Micaela; Cranenbrouck, Sylvie; Declerck, Stéphane

    2017-01-01

    A non-destructive cultivation system was developed to study the dynamics of phosphorus (Pi) uptake by mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal maize plantlets. The system consisted of a plant container connected via silicon tubes to a glass bottle containing a nutrient solution supplemented with Pi. The nutrient solution is pumped with a peristaltic pump to the upper part of the container via the silicon tubes and the solution percolate through the plantlet container back into the glass bottle. Pi is sampled from the glass bottle at regular intervals and concentration evaluated. Maize plantlets were colonized by the AMF Rhizophagus irregularis MUCL 41833 and Pi uptake quantified at fixed intervals (9, 21, and 42 h) from the depletion of the Pi in the nutrient solution flowing through the plantlets containers. Plants and fungus grew well in the perlite substrate. The concentration of Pi in the bottles followed an almost linear decrease over time, demonstrating a depletion of Pi in the circulating solution and a concomitant uptake/immobilization by the plantlet-AMF associates in the containers. The Pi uptake rate was significantly increased in the AMF-colonized plantlets (at 9 and 21 h) as compared to non-colonized plantlets, although no correlation was noticed with plant growth or P accumulation in shoots. The circulatory semi-hydroponic cultivation system developed was adequate for measuring Pi depletion in a nutrient solution and by corollary Pi uptake/immobilization by the plant-AMF associates. The measurements were non-destructive so that the time course of Pi uptake could be monitored without disturbing the growth of the plant and its fungal associate. The system further opens the door to study the dynamics of other micro and macro-nutrients as well as their uptake under stressed growth conditions such as salinity, pollution by hydrocarbon contaminants or potential toxic elements.

  10. Dynamics of Short-Term Phosphorus Uptake by Intact Mycorrhizal and Non-mycorrhizal Maize Plants Grown in a Circulatory Semi-Hydroponic Cultivation System

    Mónica Garcés-Ruiz

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A non-destructive cultivation system was developed to study the dynamics of phosphorus (Pi uptake by mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal maize plantlets. The system consisted of a plant container connected via silicon tubes to a glass bottle containing a nutrient solution supplemented with Pi. The nutrient solution is pumped with a peristaltic pump to the upper part of the container via the silicon tubes and the solution percolate through the plantlet container back into the glass bottle. Pi is sampled from the glass bottle at regular intervals and concentration evaluated. Maize plantlets were colonized by the AMF Rhizophagus irregularis MUCL 41833 and Pi uptake quantified at fixed intervals (9, 21, and 42 h from the depletion of the Pi in the nutrient solution flowing through the plantlets containers. Plants and fungus grew well in the perlite substrate. The concentration of Pi in the bottles followed an almost linear decrease over time, demonstrating a depletion of Pi in the circulating solution and a concomitant uptake/immobilization by the plantlet-AMF associates in the containers. The Pi uptake rate was significantly increased in the AMF-colonized plantlets (at 9 and 21 h as compared to non-colonized plantlets, although no correlation was noticed with plant growth or P accumulation in shoots. The circulatory semi-hydroponic cultivation system developed was adequate for measuring Pi depletion in a nutrient solution and by corollary Pi uptake/immobilization by the plant-AMF associates. The measurements were non-destructive so that the time course of Pi uptake could be monitored without disturbing the growth of the plant and its fungal associate. The system further opens the door to study the dynamics of other micro and macro-nutrients as well as their uptake under stressed growth conditions such as salinity, pollution by hydrocarbon contaminants or potential toxic elements.

  11. Isotope effects on chemical shifts in tautomeric systems with double proton transfer. Citronin

    Hansen, P.E.; Langgard, M.; Bolvig, S.

    1998-01-01

    Primary and secondary deuterium isotope effects on 1 H and 13 C chemical shifts are measured in citrinin, a tautomeric compound with an unusual doubly intramolecularly hydrogen bonded structure. The isotope effects are to a large extent dominated by equilibrium contributions and deuteration leads to more of the deuterated enol forms rather than the deuterated acid form. 1 H 13 C and 17 O nuclear shieldings are calculated using density functional ab initio methods. A very good correlation between calculated nuclear shieldings and experimental 1 H and 13 C chemical shifts is obtained. The tautomeric equilibrium can be analyzed based on the isotope effects on B-6 and C-8 carbons and shows an increase in the o-quinone form on lowering the temperature. Furthermore, upon deuteration the largest equilibrium shift is found for deuteration at OH-8 and the shift in the tautomeric equilibrium upon deuteration at OH-8 and the shift in the tautomeric equilibrium upon deuteration is increasing at lower temperature. (author)

  12. Shift of the eutectoid point in the Fe-C binary system by a high magnetic field

    Zhang, Y D; Esling, C; Calcagnotto, M; Gong, M L; Zhao, X; Zuo, L

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate experimentally the shift of the eutectoid point in the Fe-C binary system when applying a high magnetic field. The eutectoid carbon content is observed to shift from 0.77 wt% to 0.83 wt% under a 12 T magnetic field. A practical and complete calculation method is proposed-on the basis of the statistical thermodynamic model-to calculate the Gibbs free energy of the related phases and predict the shift of the eutectoid point due to a magnetic field in both composition and temperature coordinates. The composition values are seen to be in fair agreement with the experimental data. The calculation of both shifts shows that the rise in eutectoid temperature because of the 12 T field is 28.97 deg. C. The impact of the magnetic field on both eutectoid carbon content and eutectoid temperature is not linear. The rate of the shift of both carbon content and temperature decreases as the magnetic field rises

  13. [Growth and biochemical composition of thalassiosira pseudonana (Thalassiosirales: Thalassiosiraceae) cultivated in semicontinuous system at different culture media and irradiances].

    Vásquez-Suárez, Aleikar; Guevara, Miguel; González, Mayelys; Cortez, Roraysi; Arredondo-Vega, Bertha

    2013-09-01

    Thalassiosira pseudonana is a marine Bacillariophyta commonly used as live feed in mariculture. The growth rate and biochemical composition of microalgae are highly influenced by environmental factors such as, irradiance and nutrient availability. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of three irradiances (60, 120 and 180 microE/m2.s) and two culture media (Algal and Humus) on growth and biochemical composition of this diatom. The microalga was grown semicontinuously at a daily renewal rate of fresh media of 30%, 37 per thousand salinity, 25 +/- 1 degree C and constant aeration (200 mL/min). The cell densities (cel/mL) and contents of protein, lipid, carbohydrate, chlorophyll a, total carotenoids, and fatty acids, showed significant differences (p media, the fatty acids unsaturation degree was lower with increasing irradiance, being eicosapentaenoic acid, 20:5 n-3 (EPA) most represented (6.20%) in Algal medium at 60 microE/m2.s. This strain of T. pseudonana showed multiple physiological responses to changes in culture conditions, and may be cultivated with an alternative medium, which reduced the operating costs and allowed a high nutritional biomass production value for animals under culture.

  14. Analysis of the differential-phase-shift-keying protocol in the quantum-key-distribution system

    Rong-Zhen, Jiao; Chen-Xu, Feng; Hai-Qiang, Ma

    2009-01-01

    The analysis is based on the error rate and the secure communication rate as functions of distance for three quantum-key-distribution (QKD) protocols: the Bennett–Brassard 1984, the Bennett–Brassard–Mermin 1992, and the coherent differential-phase-shift keying (DPSK) protocols. We consider the secure communication rate of the DPSK protocol against an arbitrary individual attack, including the most commonly considered intercept-resend and photon-number splitting attacks, and concluded that the simple and efficient differential-phase-shift-keying protocol allows for more than 200 km of secure communication distance with high communication rates. (general)

  15. Life cycle assessment of coupling household biogas production to agricultural industry: A case study of biogas-linked persimmon cultivation and processing system

    Chen, Bin; Chen, Shaoqing

    2013-01-01

    Biogas plant construction has been boosted in rural China not only due to the immediate merit from biogas production but also the succeeding benefit from by-product utilization in agro-industry, both of which are significant strategies to address energy shortage and global warming issues. However, little work has been done to evaluate the coupling of biogas projects to traditional agrosystems from a life-cycle perspective, which is most important in process and system optimization in different senses. By taking persimmon cultivation and processing with supports from a household biogas plant as a case study, this study conducts a life cycle assessment of coupling biogas production to agro-industry in terms of energy, environmental and economic performance. The results suggest that each production stage following the biogas/digestate utilization chain (biogas operation-persimmon cultivation-product processing) is beneficial across all three aspects. However, a tradeoff only exists in utilizing digestate as top-dressing and employing biogas utilization as engine fuel, while biogas application in fresh-keeping and digestate reuse as base fertilizer fails to increase either energy production or greenhouse gas mitigation. The coupled system can be hopefully optimized through increasing fermentation efficiency and joint operation of biogas digesters. -- Highlights: •Biogas/digestate utilization is overall beneficial in all production stages. •Each bioresource application may not be profitable in all respects. •Tradeoffs in using biogas and digestate vary among different utilization ways. •Multi-user operation and fermentation efficiency elevation optimize system

  16. Cultivation and characterization of Candidatus Nitrosocosmicus exaquare, an ammonia-oxidizing archaeon from a municipal wastewater treatment system.

    Sauder, Laura A; Albertsen, Mads; Engel, Katja; Schwarz, Jasmin; Nielsen, Per H; Wagner, Michael; Neufeld, Josh D

    2017-05-01

    Thaumarchaeota have been detected in several industrial and municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), despite the fact that ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) are thought to be adapted to low ammonia environments. However, the activity, physiology and metabolism of WWTP-associated AOA remain poorly understood. We report the cultivation and complete genome sequence of Candidatus Nitrosocosmicus exaquare, a novel AOA representative from a municipal WWTP in Guelph, Ontario (Canada). In enrichment culture, Ca. N. exaquare oxidizes ammonia to nitrite stoichiometrically, is mesophilic, and tolerates at least 15 mm of ammonium chloride or sodium nitrite. Microautoradiography (MAR) for enrichment cultures demonstrates that Ca. N. exaquare assimilates bicarbonate in association with ammonia oxidation. However, despite using inorganic carbon, the ammonia-oxidizing activity of Ca. N. exaquare is greatly stimulated in enrichment culture by the addition of organic compounds, especially malate and succinate. Ca. N. exaquare cells are coccoid with a diameter of ~1-2 μm. Phylogenetically, Ca. N. exaquare belongs to the Nitrososphaera sister cluster within the Group I.1b Thaumarchaeota, a lineage which includes most other reported AOA sequences from municipal and industrial WWTPs. The 2.99 Mbp genome of Ca. N. exaquare encodes pathways for ammonia oxidation, bicarbonate fixation, and urea transport and breakdown. In addition, this genome encodes several key genes for dealing with oxidative stress, including peroxidase and catalase. Incubations of WWTP biofilm demonstrate partial inhibition of ammonia-oxidizing activity by 2-phenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl 3-oxide (PTIO), suggesting that Ca. N. exaquare-like AOA may contribute to nitrification in situ. However, CARD-FISH-MAR showed no incorporation of bicarbonate by detected Thaumarchaeaota, suggesting that detected AOA may incorporate non-bicarbonate carbon sources or rely on an alternative and yet unknown

  17. Skeletal and chlorine effects on 13C-NMR chemical shifts of chlorinated polycyclic systems

    Costa V.E.U.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to establish a comparative analysis of chemical shifts caused by ring compression effects or by the presence of a chlorine atom on strained chlorinated carbons, a series of the chlorinated and dechlorinated polycyclic structures derived from "aldrin" (5 and "isodrin" (14 was studied. Compounds were classified in four different groups, according to their conformation and number of ring such as: endo-exo and endo-endo tetracyclics, pentacyclics and hexacyclics. The 13C chemical shift comparison between the chlorinated and dechlorinated compounds showed that when C-9 and C-10 are olefinic carbons, it occurs a shielding of 0.5-2.4 ppm for endo-endo tetracyclics and of 4.7-7.6 ppm for endo-exo tetracyclic. The chemical shift variation for C-11 reaches 49-53 ppm for endo-exo and endo-endo tetracyclics, 54 ppm for pentacyclic and 56-59 ppm for hexacyclic compounds. From these data, it was possible to observe the influence of ring compression on the chemical shifts.

  18. Quality of Life, Health, and Sleep of Air Traffic Controllers with Different Shift Systems.

    Sonati, Jaqueline; De Martino, Milva; Vilarta, Roberto; Maciel, Érika; Moreira, Edméia; Sanchez, Fernando; De Martino, Gustavo; Sonati, Renato

    2015-10-01

    Air traffic controllers (ATC) work shifts and their work schedules vary according to the characteristics of each airport. The human body adapts to shiftwork differently. These adjustments affect the health-disease process, predisposing ATC to risk conditions associated with sleep deprivation and lack of night sleep, which can lead to conditions such as cardiovascular diseases, mood disorders, anxiety, and obesity. This study investigated the characteristics of health, sleep, and quality of life of ATC exposed to 8-h alternate work shifts and 6-h rotational work shifts. The study was cross-sectional with convenience samples consisting of 84 ATC from two international airports in Brazil. We applied questionnaires to collect data about socioeconomic conditions, quality of life, sleep, and physical activity levels. We also collected health data regarding nutritional status, body composition, and blood pressure. We analyzed the differences between ATC from the two airports considering the variables of sleep, quality of life, and health. Differences were found between the groups in terms of body fat percentage (30.7% and 27.8%), scores of overall quality of life (56.2 and 68), concentration (3.37 and 3.96), energy (3.12 and 3.62), and sleep time on working days (5:20 h and 6:15 h). ATC under 8-h alternate shifts showed lower scores for quality of life, higher body fat, and less sleep time on working days, which characterizes inadequate shiftwork for this population.

  19. Exploring the Cultivable Ectocarpus Microbiome.

    KleinJan, Hetty; Jeanthon, Christian; Boyen, Catherine; Dittami, Simon M

    2017-01-01

    Coastal areas form the major habitat of brown macroalgae, photosynthetic multicellular eukaryotes that have great ecological value and industrial potential. Macroalgal growth, development, and physiology are influenced by the microbial community they accommodate. Studying the algal microbiome should thus increase our fundamental understanding of algal biology and may help to improve culturing efforts. Currently, a freshwater strain of the brown macroalga Ectocarpus subulatus is being developed as a model organism for brown macroalgal physiology and algal microbiome studies. It can grow in high and low salinities depending on which microbes it hosts. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in this process are still unclear. Cultivation of Ectocarpus -associated bacteria is the first step toward the development of a model system for in vitro functional studies of brown macroalgal-bacterial interactions during abiotic stress. The main aim of the present study is thus to provide an extensive collection of cultivable E . subulatus -associated bacteria. To meet the variety of metabolic demands of Ectocarpus -associated bacteria, several isolation techniques were applied, i.e., direct plating and dilution-to-extinction cultivation techniques, each with chemically defined and undefined bacterial growth media. Algal tissue and algal growth media were directly used as inoculum, or they were pretreated with antibiotics, by filtration, or by digestion of algal cell walls. In total, 388 isolates were identified falling into 33 genera (46 distinct strains), of which Halomonas ( Gammaproteobacteria ), Bosea ( Alphaproteobacteria ), and Limnobacter ( Betaproteobacteria ) were the most abundant. Comparisons with 16S rRNA gene metabarcoding data showed that culturability in this study was remarkably high (∼50%), although several cultivable strains were not detected or only present in extremely low abundance in the libraries. These undetected bacteria could be considered as part

  20. Exploring the Cultivable Ectocarpus Microbiome

    Hetty KleinJan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Coastal areas form the major habitat of brown macroalgae, photosynthetic multicellular eukaryotes that have great ecological value and industrial potential. Macroalgal growth, development, and physiology are influenced by the microbial community they accommodate. Studying the algal microbiome should thus increase our fundamental understanding of algal biology and may help to improve culturing efforts. Currently, a freshwater strain of the brown macroalga Ectocarpus subulatus is being developed as a model organism for brown macroalgal physiology and algal microbiome studies. It can grow in high and low salinities depending on which microbes it hosts. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in this process are still unclear. Cultivation of Ectocarpus-associated bacteria is the first step toward the development of a model system for in vitro functional studies of brown macroalgal–bacterial interactions during abiotic stress. The main aim of the present study is thus to provide an extensive collection of cultivable E. subulatus-associated bacteria. To meet the variety of metabolic demands of Ectocarpus-associated bacteria, several isolation techniques were applied, i.e., direct plating and dilution-to-extinction cultivation techniques, each with chemically defined and undefined bacterial growth media. Algal tissue and algal growth media were directly used as inoculum, or they were pretreated with antibiotics, by filtration, or by digestion of algal cell walls. In total, 388 isolates were identified falling into 33 genera (46 distinct strains, of which Halomonas (Gammaproteobacteria, Bosea (Alphaproteobacteria, and Limnobacter (Betaproteobacteria were the most abundant. Comparisons with 16S rRNA gene metabarcoding data showed that culturability in this study was remarkably high (∼50%, although several cultivable strains were not detected or only present in extremely low abundance in the libraries. These undetected bacteria could be considered

  1. Evolution of Management Theory within 20 Century: A Systemic Overview of Paradigm Shifts in Management

    Khorasani, Sasan Torabzadeh; Almasifard, Maryam

    2017-01-01

    Significant progress in civilization of human being has been made over 20century. Advance technology; globalization and revolution of communication are the main outcomes of this development. However, it is obvious that these achievements have been significantly influenced by evolution of management theories. The paradigm shift from classical management to modern management can be clustered into several phases. This paper presents an overview of evolution of management theory within 20 century...

  2. Error Analysis in a Device to Test Optical Systems by Using Ronchi Test and Phase Shifting

    Cabrera-Perez, Brasilia; Castro-Ramos, Jorge; Gordiano-Alvarado, Gabriel; Vazquez y Montiel, Sergio

    2008-01-01

    In optical workshops, Ronchi test is used to determine the optical quality of any concave surface, while it is in the polishing process its quality is verified. The Ronchi test is one of the simplest and most effective methods used for evaluating and measuring aberrations. In this work, we describe a device to test converging mirrors and lenses either with small F/numbers or large F/numbers, using LED (Light-Emitting Diode) that has been adapted in the Ronchi testing as source of illumination. With LED used the radiation angle is bigger than common LED. It uses external power supplies to have well stability intensity to avoid error during the phase shift. The setup also has the advantage to receive automatic input and output data, this is possible because phase shifting interferometry and a square Ronchi ruling with a variable intensity LED were used. Error analysis of the different parameters involved in the test of Ronchi was made. For example, we analyze the error in the shifting of phase, the error introduced by the movement of the motor, misalignments of x-axis, y-axis and z-axis of the surface under test, error in the period of the grid used

  3. Vacuum-induced Stark shifts for quantum logic using a collective system in a high-quality dispersive cavity

    Gabris, A.; Agarwal, G.S.

    2005-01-01

    A collective system of atoms in a high-quality cavity can be described by a nonlinear interaction which arises due to the Lamb shift of the energy levels due to the cavity vacuum [Agarwal et al., Phys. Rev. A 56, 2249 (1997)]. We show how this collective interaction can be used to perform quantum logic. In particular we produce schemes to realize controlled-NOT gates not only for two-qubit but also for three-qubit systems. We also discuss realizations of Toffoli gates. Our effective Hamiltonian is also realized in other systems such as trapped ions or magnetic molecules

  4. Numerical analysis for trajectory controllability of a coupled multi-order fractional delay differential system via the shifted Jacobi method

    Priya, B. Ganesh; Muthukumar, P.

    2018-02-01

    This paper deals with the trajectory controllability for a class of multi-order fractional linear systems subject to a constant delay in state vector. The solution for the coupled fractional delay differential equation is established by the Mittag-Leffler function. The necessary and sufficient condition for the trajectory controllability is formulated and proved by the generalized Gronwall's inequality. The approximate trajectory for the proposed system is obtained through the shifted Jacobi operational matrix method. The numerical simulation of the approximate solution shows the theoretical results. Finally, some remarks and comments on the existing results of constrained controllability for the fractional dynamical system are also presented.

  5. Hardware system of parallel processing for fast CT image reconstruction based on circular shifting float memory architecture

    Wang Shi; Kang Kejun; Wang Jingjin

    1995-01-01

    Computerized Tomography (CT) is expected to become an inevitable diagnostic technique in the future. However, the long time required to reconstruct an image has been one of the major drawbacks associated with this technique. Parallel process is one of the best way to solve this problem. This paper gives the architecture and hardware design of PIRS-4 (4-processor Parallel Image Reconstruction System) which is a parallel processing system for fast 3D-CT image reconstruction by circular shifting float memory architecture. It includes structure and component of the system, the design of cross bar switch and details of control model. The test results are described

  6. Modelling and analysis of a novel compressed air energy storage system for trigeneration based on electrical energy peak load shifting

    Lv, Song; He, Wei; Zhang, Aifeng; Li, Guiqiang; Luo, Bingqing; Liu, Xianghua

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A new CAES system for trigeneration based on electrical peak load shifting is proposed. • The theoretical models and the thermodynamics process are established and analyzed. • The relevant parameters influencing its performance have been discussed and optimized. • A novel energy and economic evaluation methods is proposed to evaluate the performance of the system. - Abstract: The compressed air energy storage (CAES) has made great contribution to both electricity and renewable energy. In the pursuit of reduced energy consumption and relieving power utility pressure effectively, a novel trigeneration system based on CAES for cooling, heating and electricity generation by electrical energy peak load shifting is proposed in this paper. The cooling power is generated by the direct expansion of compressed air, and the heating power is recovered in the process of compression and storage. Based on the working principle of the typical CAES, the theoretical analysis of the thermodynamic system models are established and the characteristics of the system are analyzed. A novel method used to evaluate energy and economic performance is proposed. A case study is conducted, and the economic-social and technical feasibility of the proposed system are discussed. The results show that the trigeneration system works efficiently at relatively low pressure, and the efficiency is expected to reach about 76.3% when air is compressed and released by 15 bar. The annual monetary cost saving annually is about 53.9%. Moreover, general considerations about the proposed system are also presented.

  7. Conveyor Cultivation of the Halophytic Plant Salicornia europaea for the Recycling of NaCl from Human Liquid Waste in a Biological Life Support System.

    Balnokin, Yurii; Myasoedov, Nikolay; Popova, Larissa; Tikhomirov, Alexander A.; Ushakova, Sofya; Tikhomirova, Natalia; Lasseur, Christophe; Gros, Jean-Bernard

    One problem in designing bioregenerative life support systems (BLSS) is developing technolo-gies to include human liquid and solid waste in intrasystem recycling. A specific task is recycling of NaCl excreted in urine by humans. We showed recently that this could be achieved through inclusion of the salt accumulating halophyte Salicornia europaea in the autotrophic compart-ment of the BLSS (Balnokin et al., ASR, 2010, in press). A model of NaCl circulation in BLSS with inclusion of S. europaea was based on the NaCl turnover in the human -urine -nutrient solution -S. europaea -human cycle. Mineralized urine was used as a basis for preparation of a nutrient solution for the halophyte cultivation. The shoots of the halophyte cultivated in the mineralized urine and containing NaCl could to be used by the BLSS inhabitants in their diets. In this report we describe cultivation of S. europaea which allows turnover of NaCl and produces daily shoot biomass containing Na+ and Cl- in quantities approximately equal to those excreted in daily human urine. The plants were grown in water culture in a climatic chamber under controlled conditions. A solution simulating mineralized urine (SSMU) was used as a basis for preparation of a nutri-ent solution for S. europaea cultivation. For continuous biomass production, seedlings of S. europaea, germinated preliminary in moist sand, were being transferred to the nutrient solu-tion at regular intervals (every two days). Duration of the conveyor operation was 112 days. During the first 56 days, the seedlings were being planted in SSMU diluted by a factor of 1.5 (2/3 SSMU). The same solution was introduced into the growth vessels as volumes of growth medium decreased due to plant transpiration. Starting from the 56th day as conveyor operation was initiated, the plants were being harvested every two days; the solutions from the discharged vessels were mixed with the fresh SSMU and the mixture was introduced into all other growth vessels of

  8. Chemical shift-based identification of monosaccharide spin-systems with NMR spectroscopy to complement untargeted glycomics.

    Klukowski, Piotr; Schubert, Mario

    2018-06-15

    A better understanding of oligosaccharides and their wide-ranging functions in almost every aspect of biology and medicine promises to uncover hidden layers of biology and will support the development of better therapies. Elucidating the chemical structure of an unknown oligosaccharide is still a challenge. Efficient tools are required for non-targeted glycomics. Chemical shifts are a rich source of information about the topology and configuration of biomolecules, whose potential is however not fully explored for oligosaccharides. We hypothesize that the chemical shifts of each monosaccharide are unique for each saccharide type with a certain linkage pattern, so that correlated data measured by NMR spectroscopy can be used to identify the chemical nature of a carbohydrate. We present here an efficient search algorithm, GlycoNMRSearch, that matches either a subset or the entire set of chemical shifts of an unidentified monosaccharide spin system to all spin systems in an NMR database. The search output is much more precise than earlier search functions and highly similar matches suggest the chemical structure of the spin system within the oligosaccharide. Thus searching for connected chemical shift correlations within all electronically available NMR data of oligosaccharides is a very efficient way of identifying the chemical structure of unknown oligosaccharides. With an improved database in the future, GlycoNMRSearch will be even more efficient deducing chemical structures of oligosaccharides and there is a high chance that it becomes an indispensable technique for glycomics. The search algorithm presented here, together with a graphical user interface, is available at http://glyconmrsearch.santos.pwr.edu.pl. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  9. Shifting Attention

    Ingram, Jenni

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the shifts in attention and focus as one teacher introduces and explains an image that represents the processes involved in a numeric problem that his students have been working on. This paper takes a micro-analytic approach to examine how the focus of attention shifts through what the teacher and students do and say in the…

  10. Cultivating the Deep Subsurface Microbiome

    Casar, C. P.; Osburn, M. R.; Flynn, T. M.; Masterson, A.; Kruger, B.

    2017-12-01

    Subterranean ecosystems are poorly understood because many microbes detected in metagenomic surveys are only distantly related to characterized isolates. Cultivating microorganisms from the deep subsurface is challenging due to its inaccessibility and potential for contamination. The Deep Mine Microbial Observatory (DeMMO) in Lead, SD however, offers access to deep microbial life via pristine fracture fluids in bedrock to a depth of 1478 m. The metabolic landscape of DeMMO was previously characterized via thermodynamic modeling coupled with genomic data, illustrating the potential for microbial inhabitants of DeMMO to utilize mineral substrates as energy sources. Here, we employ field and lab based cultivation approaches with pure minerals to link phylogeny to metabolism at DeMMO. Fracture fluids were directed through reactors filled with Fe3O4, Fe2O3, FeS2, MnO2, and FeCO3 at two sites (610 m and 1478 m) for 2 months prior to harvesting for subsequent analyses. We examined mineralogical, geochemical, and microbiological composition of the reactors via DNA sequencing, microscopy, lipid biomarker characterization, and bulk C and N isotope ratios to determine the influence of mineralogy on biofilm community development. Pre-characterized mineral chips were imaged via SEM to assay microbial growth; preliminary results suggest MnO2, Fe3O4, and Fe2O3 were most conducive to colonization. Solid materials from reactors were used as inoculum for batch cultivation experiments. Media designed to mimic fracture fluid chemistry was supplemented with mineral substrates targeting metal reducers. DNA sequences and microscopy of iron oxide-rich biofilms and fracture fluids suggest iron oxidation is a major energy source at redox transition zones where anaerobic fluids meet more oxidizing conditions. We utilized these biofilms and fluids as inoculum in gradient cultivation experiments targeting microaerophilic iron oxidizers. Cultivation of microbes endemic to DeMMO, a system

  11. A Spiral Step-by-Step Educational Method for Cultivating Competent Embedded System Engineers to Meet Industry Demands

    Jing,Lei; Cheng, Zixue; Wang, Junbo; Zhou, Yinghui

    2011-01-01

    Embedded system technologies are undergoing dramatic change. Competent embedded system engineers are becoming a scarce resource in the industry. Given this, universities should revise their specialist education to meet industry demands. In this paper, a spirally tight-coupled step-by-step educational method, based on an analysis of industry…

  12. A stochastic method for battery sizing with uninterruptible-power and demand shift capabilities in PV (photovoltaic) systems

    Tan, Chee Wei; Green, Tim C.; Hernandez-Aramburo, Carlos A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a stochastic simulation using Monte Carlo technique to size a battery to meet dual objectives of demand shift at peak electricity cost times and outage protection in BIPV (building integrated photovoltaic) systems. Both functions require battery storage and the sizing of battery using numerical optimization is popularly used. However, the weather conditions, outage events and demand peaks are not deterministic in nature. Therefore, the sizing of battery storage capacity should also be based on a probabilistic approach. The Monte Carlo simulation is a rigorous method to sizing BIPV system as it takes into account a real building load profiles, the weather information and the local historical outage distribution. The simulation is split into seasonal basis for the analysis of demand shifting and outage events in order to match the seasonal weather conditions and load profiles. Five configurations of PV (photovoltaic) are assessed that cover different areas and orientations. The simulation output includes the predicted PV energy yield, the amount of energy required for demand management and outage event. Therefore, consumers can base sizing decisions on the historical data and local risk of outage statistics and the success rate of meeting the demand shift required. Finally, the economic evaluations together with the sensitivity analysis and the assessment of customers' outage cost are discussed.

  13. Resilience, Regime Shifts, and Guided Transition under Climate Change: Examining the Practical Difficulties of Managing Continually Changing Systems

    Brenda B. Lin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Managing terrestrial systems has become increasingly difficult under climate change as unidirectional shifts in climate conditions challenge the resilience of ecosystems to maintain their compositional structure and function. Despite the increased attention of resilience management to guide transformational change, questions remain as to how to apply resilience to manage transitions. Rather than pushing systems across thresholds into alternative states, climate change may create a stepwise progression of unknown transitional states that track changing climate conditions. Because of this uncertainty, we must find ways to guide transitioning systems across climate boundaries towards states that are socially and environmentally desirable. We propose to ease the uncertainty of managing shifting systems by providing an approach to adaptive management that we call guided transition, where socially and environmentally important ecosystem functions are preserved through transitions by considering and maintaining the species and structures needed for the desired functions. Scientifically, it will require a better understanding of the relationships between structure, species composition, and function for specific systems. Managers will also need to identify important functions at the local, regional, and national scale, and to determine how best to transition systems to a desired state based on existing scientific knowledge. Guided transition, therefore, helps guide the process of adaptive management by specifying a function-based management pathway that guides transitions through climatic changes.

  14. Maximum Plant Uptakes for Water, Nutrients, and Oxygen Are Not Always Met by Irrigation Rate and Distribution in Water-based Cultivation Systems.

    Blok, Chris; Jackson, Brian E; Guo, Xianfeng; de Visser, Pieter H B; Marcelis, Leo F M

    2017-01-01

    cultivation in the DeepFlow negatively compared to substrate-based propagation. Water-based propagation resulted in frequent transient discolorations after transplanting in all cultivation systems, indicating a factor, other than irrigation supply of water, nutrients, and oxygen, influencing plant uptake. Plant uptake rates for water, nutrients, and oxygen are offered as a more fundamental way to compare and improve growing systems.

  15. Cultivated Land Changes and Agricultural Potential Productivity in Mainland China

    Linlin Xiao

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available With rapid and continuous population growth and the associated declining quality of cultivated land, food security in China has been attracting the attention of scholars both domestically and internationally. In recent decades, the implications of the cultivated land balance policy have promoted spatial changes of cultivated land. Estimating the agricultural potential productivity and assessing its response to cultivated land changes could provide a scientific basis for strategic decision-making concerning grain production and thus guarantee food security. In the present study, the Agro-Ecological Zone (AEZ model was applied to estimate the agricultural potential productivity. Data from the second national land survey were first applied to characterize the changes of cultivated land (by comparing the cultivated land in 2009 with that in 2012 and their influence on potential productivity in Mainland China. We propose a utilization degree of total potential productivity (UTP and its ratio coefficient (RUTP to reveal the utilization status of potential productivity and its change characteristics at the provincial level. It was found that there was a trend for cultivated land to be shifted away from cities, and the average productive capability per hectare of cultivated land declined from 7386.5 kg/ha to 6955.2 kg/ha by occupying highly productive cultivated land generally near the cities and compensating less productive cultivated land in remote areas. UTPs and RUTPs indicate a significant difference in the utilization status of potential productivity among the 31 provinces of Mainland China. Grain production with the aim of sustainable development should be strategized according to the particular facts of each province. The methods we applied can mine the impacts of cultivated land changes on potential productivity and the utilization of potential productivity effectively.

  16. Power generation efficiency of an SOFC-PEFC combined system with time shift utilization of SOFC exhaust heat

    Obara, Shin' ya [Power Engineering Lab., Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Kitami Institute of Technology, 165 Kouen-cho, Kitami, Hokkaido 0908507 (Japan)

    2010-01-15

    A microgrid, with little environmental impact, is developed by introducing a combined SOFC (solid oxide fuel cell) and PEFC (proton exchange membrane fuel cell) system. Although the SOFC requires a higher operation temperature compared to the PEFC, the power generation efficiency of the SOFC is higher. However, if high temperature exhaust heat may be used effectively, a system with higher total power generation efficiency can be built. Therefore, this paper investigates the operation of a SOFC-PEFC combined system, with time shift operation of reformed gas, into a microgrid with 30 houses in Sapporo, Japan. The SOFC is designed to correspond to base load operation, and the exhaust heat of the SOFC is used for production of reformed gas. This reformed gas is used for the production of electricity for the PEFC, corresponding to fluctuation load of the next day. Accordingly, the reformed gas is used with a time shift operation. In this paper, the relation between operation method, power generation efficiency, and amount of heat storage of the SOFC-PEFC combined system to the difference in power load pattern was investigated. The average power generation efficiency of the system can be maintained at nearly 48% on a representative day in February (winter season) and August (summer season). (author)

  17. Shifting chronic disease management from hospitals to primary care in Estonian health system: analysis of national panel data.

    Atun, Rifat; Gurol-Urganci, Ipek; Hone, Thomas; Pell, Lisa; Stokes, Jonathan; Habicht, Triin; Lukka, Kaija; Raaper, Elin; Habicht, Jarno

    2016-12-01

    Following independence from the Soviet Union in 1991, Estonia introduced a national insurance system, consolidated the number of health care providers, and introduced family medicine centred primary health care (PHC) to strengthen the health system. Using routinely collected health billing records for 2005-2012, we examine health system utilisation for seven ambulatory care sensitive conditions (ACSCs) (asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease [COPD], depression, Type 2 diabetes, heart failure, hypertension, and ischemic heart disease [IHD]), and by patient characteristics (gender, age, and number of co-morbidities). The data set contained 552 822 individuals. We use patient level data to test the significance of trends, and employ multivariate regression analysis to evaluate the probability of inpatient admission while controlling for patient characteristics, health system supply-side variables, and PHC use. Over the study period, utilisation of PHC increased, whilst inpatient admissions fell. Service mix in PHC changed with increases in phone, email, nurse, and follow-up (vs initial) consultations. Healthcare utilisation for diabetes, depression, IHD and hypertension shifted to PHC, whilst for COPD, heart failure and asthma utilisation in outpatient and inpatient settings increased. Multivariate regression indicates higher probability of inpatient admission for males, older patient and especially those with multimorbidity, but protective effect for PHC, with significantly lower hospital admission for those utilising PHC services. Our findings suggest health system reforms in Estonia have influenced the shift of ACSCs from secondary to primary care, with PHC having a protective effect in reducing hospital admissions.

  18. Isolation and Cultivation of Anaerobes

    Aragao Börner, Rosa

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobic microorganisms play important roles in different biotechnological processes. Their complex metabolism and special cultivation requirements have led to less isolated representatives in comparison to their aerobic counterparts.In view of that, the isolation and cultivation of anaerobic...

  19. A Hydroponic Co-cultivation System for Simultaneous and Systematic Analysis of Plant/Microbe Molecular Interactions and Signaling.

    Nathoo, Naeem; Bernards, Mark A; MacDonald, Jacqueline; Yuan, Ze-Chun

    2017-07-22

    An experimental design mimicking natural plant-microbe interactions is very important to delineate the complex plant-microbe signaling processes. Arabidopsis thaliana-Agrobacterium tumefaciens provides an excellent model system to study bacterial pathogenesis and plant interactions. Previous studies of plant-Agrobacterium interactions have largely relied on plant cell suspension cultures, the artificial wounding of plants, or the artificial induction of microbial virulence factors or plant defenses by synthetic chemicals. However, these methods are distinct from the natural signaling in planta, where plants and microbes recognize and respond in spatial and temporal manners. This work presents a hydroponic cocultivation system where intact plants are supported by metal mesh screens and cocultivated with Agrobacterium. In this cocultivation system, no synthetic phytohormone or chemical that induces microbial virulence or plant defense is supplemented. The hydroponic cocultivation system closely resembles natural plant-microbe interactions and signaling homeostasis in planta. Plant roots can be separated from the medium containing Agrobacterium, and the signaling and responses of both the plant hosts and the interacting microbes can be investigated simultaneously and systematically. At any given timepoint/interval, plant tissues or bacteria can be harvested separately for various "omics" analyses, demonstrating the power and efficacy of this system. The hydroponic cocultivation system can be easily adapted to study: 1) the reciprocal signaling of diverse plant-microbe systems, 2) signaling between a plant host and multiple microbial species (i.e. microbial consortia or microbiomes), 3) how nutrients and chemicals are implicated in plant-microbe signaling, and 4) how microbes interact with plant hosts and contribute to plant tolerance to biotic or abiotic stresses.

  20. Fully Automated On-Chip Imaging Flow Cytometry System with Disposable Contamination-Free Plastic Re-Cultivation Chip

    Tomoyuki Kaneko

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a novel imaging cytometry system using a poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA based microfluidic chip. The system was contamination-free, because sample suspensions contacted only with a flammable PMMA chip and no other component of the system. The transparency and low-fluorescence of PMMA was suitable for microscopic imaging of cells flowing through microchannels on the chip. Sample particles flowing through microchannels on the chip were discriminated by an image-recognition unit with a high-speed camera in real time at the rate of 200 event/s, e.g., microparticles 2.5 μm and 3.0 μm in diameter were differentiated with an error rate of less than 2%. Desired cells were separated automatically from other cells by electrophoretic or dielectrophoretic force one by one with a separation efficiency of 90%. Cells in suspension with fluorescent dye were separated using the same kind of microfluidic chip. Sample of 5 μL with 1 × 106 particle/mL was processed within 40 min. Separated cells could be cultured on the microfluidic chip without contamination. The whole operation of sample handling was automated using 3D micropipetting system. These results showed that the novel imaging flow cytometry system is practically applicable for biological research and clinical diagnostics.

  1. Analyzing a self-managed CHP system for greenhouse cultivation as a profitable way to reduce CO2-emissions

    Compernolle, Tine; Witters, Nele; Van Passel, Steven; Thewys, Theo

    2011-01-01

    To counter global warming, a transition to a low-carbon economy is needed. The greenhouse sector can contribute by installing Combined Heat and Power (CHP) systems, known for their excellent energy efficiency. Due to the recent European liberalization of the energy market, glass horticulturists have the opportunity to sell excess electricity to the market and by tailored policy and support measures, regional governments can fill the lack of technical and economic knowledge, causing initial resistance. This research investigates the economic and environmental opportunities using two detailed cases applying a self managed cogeneration system. The Net Present Value is calculated to investigate the economic feasibility. The Primary Energy Saving, the CO 2 Emission Reduction indicator and an Emission Balance are applied to quantify the environmental impact. The results demonstrate that a self-managed CHP system is economic viable and that CO 2 emissions are reduced.

  2. Cognitive regulation during decision making shifts behavioral control between ventromedial and dorsolateral prefrontal value systems.

    Hutcherson, Cendri A; Plassmann, Hilke; Gross, James J; Rangel, Antonio

    2012-09-26

    Cognitive regulation is often used to influence behavioral outcomes. However, the computational and neurobiological mechanisms by which it affects behavior remain unknown. We studied this issue using an fMRI task in which human participants used cognitive regulation to upregulate and downregulate their cravings for foods at the time of choice. We found that activity in both ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) correlated with value. We also found evidence that two distinct regulatory mechanisms were at work: value modulation, which operates by changing the values assigned to foods in vmPFC and dlPFC at the time of choice, and behavioral control modulation, which operates by changing the relative influence of the vmPFC and dlPFC value signals on the action selection process used to make choices. In particular, during downregulation, activation decreased in the value-sensitive region of dlPFC (indicating value modulation) but not in vmPFC, and the relative contribution of the two value signals to behavior shifted toward the dlPFC (indicating behavioral control modulation). The opposite pattern was observed during upregulation: activation increased in vmPFC but not dlPFC, and the relative contribution to behavior shifted toward the vmPFC. Finally, ventrolateral PFC and posterior parietal cortex were more active during both upregulation and downregulation, and were functionally connected with vmPFC and dlPFC during cognitive regulation, which suggests that they help to implement the changes to the decision-making circuitry generated by cognitive regulation.

  3. A Photobioreactor System for Precision Cultivation of Photoautotrophic Microorganisms and for High-Content Analysis of Suspension Dynamics

    Nedbal, Ladislav; Trtílek, M.; Červený, Jan; Komárek, Ondřej; Pakrasi, Himadri B.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 100, č. 5 (2008), s. 902-910 ISSN 0006-3592 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/05/0894 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : algae * cyanobacteria * high-content monitoring * microbial growth * photosynthesis * systems biology Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 2.936, year: 2008

  4. Pd based ultrathin membranes for the tritiated water gas shift reaction in the ITER breeder recovery system

    Tosti, S.; Bettinali, L.; Violante, V.; Basile, A.; Chiappetta, M.; Criscuoli, A.; Drioli, E.; Rizzelo, C.

    1998-01-01

    A mathematical model of a catalytic membrane reactor (CMR) for the water gas shift reaction has been carried out. Based on the model, a new closed loop process for the tritium removal system for the ITER test module of helium cooled pebble bed blanket concept has been studied. A CMR is the main equipment of the proposed process. The main advantages of the closed loop process are related to the absence of secondary wastes, low tritium inventories, moderate operating temperatures and pressures, low dilution of the stream to be processed by isotopic separation. As permeating membranes in the CMR ultra-thin metallic membranes of Pd and PdAg (50-70 μm thick) have been studied. A ceramic porous tube, containing the catalyst in the lumen, has been put in the metallic tube to obtain the CMR for the water gas shifting. Experimental tests, carried out both on ultra-thin membranes and CMRs for the water gas shift reaction, confirmed the behavior studied by the theoretical model and showed a long live of the membrane. (authors)

  5. Experimental research on the influence of system parameters on the composition shift for zeotropic mixture (isobutane/pentane) in a system occurring phase change

    Bao, Junjiang; Zhao, Li

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The influence of system parameters on the composition shift for zeotropic mixture is studied. • Zeotropic mixture isobutane/pentane is selected as the working fluids. • Circulating composition and charge have the inverse proportion relationship. • The relationship between circulating composition and charge composition is linear. - Abstract: Zeotropic mixture can improve the performance of the thermodynamic cycle ascribed to the better temperature match during the heat transfer process with the characteristics of temperature glide during evaporation and condensing processes. Another characteristic of zeotropic mixture is composition shift. Composition shift means that the circulating composition and charge composition is different and is mainly caused by the two-phase hold-up and different solubility in lubricating oil. The existence of composition shift will affect the design and operation of thermodynamic system. The previous study gave little information about the influence of system parameters on the composition shift in a system occurring phase change. This paper mainly discuss the influence of system parameters on the composition shift for zeotropic mixture in a system occurring phase change as well as the validation of the linear relationship between the circulating composition and the charge composition and the inverse proportion relationship between the circulating composition and the charge mass found based on our previous theory study (Zhao and Bao, 2014). With isobutane and pentane as the research object, the impact of the key system parameters (hot water temperature, mass flow rate of hot water, feed pump frequency, cold water temperature and evaporator length) on composition shift are experimentally carried out. The results show that when the hot water temperature, mass flow rate of hot water and evaporator length increase and cold water temperature decreases, circulating composition will increase. For feed pump frequency, when

  6. [Dendrobium officinale stereoscopic cultivation method].

    Si, Jin-Ping; Dong, Hong-Xiu; Liao, Xin-Yan; Zhu, Yu-Qiu; Li, Hui

    2014-12-01

    The study is aimed to make the most of available space of Dendrobium officinale cultivation facility, reveal the yield and functional components variation of stereoscopic cultivated D. officinale, and improve quality, yield and efficiency. The agronomic traits and yield variation of stereoscopic cultivated D. officinale were studied by operating field experiment. The content of polysaccharide and extractum were determined by using phenol-sulfuric acid method and 2010 edition of "Chinese Pharmacopoeia" Appendix X A. The results showed that the land utilization of stereoscopic cultivated D. officinale increased 2.74 times, the stems, leaves and their total fresh or dry weight in unit area of stereoscopic cultivated D. officinale were all heavier than those of the ground cultivated ones. There was no significant difference in polysaccharide content between stereoscopic cultivation and ground cultivation. But the extractum content and total content of polysaccharide and extractum were significantly higher than those of the ground cultivated ones. In additional, the polysaccharide content and total content of polysaccharide and extractum from the top two levels of stereoscopic culture matrix were significantly higher than that of the ones from the other levels and ground cultivation. Steroscopic cultivation can effectively improves the utilization of space and yield, while the total content of polysaccharides and extractum were significantly higher than that of the ground cultivated ones. The significant difference in Dendrobium polysaccharides among the plants from different height of stereo- scopic culture matrix may be associated with light factor.

  7. 3D phase-shifting fringe projection system on the basis of a tailored free-form mirror.

    Zwick, Susanne; Heist, Stefan; Steinkopf, Ralf; Huber, Sandra; Krause, Sylvio; Bräuer-Burchardt, Christian; Kühmstedt, Peter; Notni, Gunther

    2013-05-10

    Phase-shifting fringe projection is an effective method to perform 3D shape measurements. Conventionally, fringe projection systems utilize a digital projector that images fringes into the measurement plane. The performance of such systems is limited to the visible spectral range, as most projectors experience technical limitations in UV or IR spectral ranges. However, for certain applications these spectral ranges are of special interest. We present a wideband fringe projector that has been developed on the basis of a picture generating beamshaping mirror. This mirror generates a sinusoidal fringe pattern in the measurement plane without any additional optical elements. Phase shifting is realized without any mechanical movement by a multichip LED. As the system is based on a single mirror, it is wavelength-independent in a wide spectral range and therefore applicable in UV and IR spectral ranges. We present the design and a realized setup of this fringe projection system and the characterization of the generated intensity distribution. Experimental results of 3D shape measurements are presented.

  8. The parallel processing system for fast 3D-CT image reconstruction by circular shifting float memory architecture

    Wang Shi; Kang Kejun; Wang Jingjin

    1996-01-01

    Computerized Tomography (CT) is expected to become an inevitable diagnostic technique in the future. However, the long time required to reconstruct an image has been one of the major drawbacks associated with this technique. Parallel process is one of the best way to solve this problem. This paper gives the architecture, hardware and software design of PIRS-4 (4-processor Parallel Image Reconstruction System), which is a parallel processing system for fast 3D-CT image reconstruction by circular shifting float memory architecture. It includes the structure and components of the system, the design of crossbar switch and details of control model, the description of RPBP image reconstruction, the choice of OS (Operate System) and language, the principle of imitating EMS, direct memory R/W of float and programming in the protect model. Finally, the test results are given

  9. A modified closed flow through siphon system for the cultivation of marine or estuarine organisms under simulated conditions

    Nair, K.K.C.; Gopalakrishnan, T.C.; Sankaranarayanan, V.N.; Desai, B.N.

    . Some of the principles used in the present modified design have come from the design of Nair et al., (1978) and Nair and Anger (1980) with lot of innovations to improve the working efficiency. The systems designed is protected under Government..., employing the same principles, in place of diarom/algal culture for water treatment, mangrove plants such as Rhizophora apiculata and Kandelia kandal were found very effective for removal of dissolved nutrients and other end products in the culture media...

  10. Vegetable Cultivation Hydroponics System In Community Economic Zone KEM Kanagarian Tikalak Subdistrict X Koto Singkarak Districts Solok

    I Ketut Budaraga; Ramaiyulis; Ellyza nurdin

    2017-01-01

    Current conditions especially in urban agricultural land is getting narrower due to the rapid development. If left untreated it can lead to food security and environmental problems. One solution to allow the fulfillment of foodstuffs such as vegetables can be fulfilled for the people to exploit the potential of the narrow yard with continuous production of hydroponic systems. Interest dedication to the community to find ways to introduce a hydroponic vegetable crops that can supplement the fa...

  11. The use of nile tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus) cultivation wastewater for the production of romaine lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L. var. longifolia) in water recirculation system

    Effendi, Hefni; Wahyuningsih, Sri; Wardiatno, Yusli

    2017-10-01

    In the recirculation aquaponic system (RAS), fish farming waste was utilized as a nutrient for plant, minimizing the water need, reducing the waste disposal into the environment, and producing the fish and plant as well. The study aimed to examine the growth of romaine lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L. var. Longifolia) in aquaponic system without the addition of artificial nutrient. The nutrient relies solely on wastewater of nile tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus) cultivation circulated continuously on the aquaponic system. The results showed that tilapia weight reached 48.49 ± 3.92 g of T3 (tilapia, romaine lettuce, and inoculated bacteria), followed by T2 (tilapia and romaine lettuce) and T1 (tilapia) of 47.80 ± 1.97 and 45.89 ± 1.10 g after 35 days of experiment. Tilapia best performance in terms of growth and production occurred at T3 of 3.96 ± 0.44 g/day, 12.10 ± 0.63 %/day, 96.11 ± 1.44 % and 1.60 ± 0.07 for GR, SGR, SR, and FCR, respectively. It is also indicated by better water quality characteristic in this treatment. Romaine lettuce harvests of T2 and T3 showed no significant difference, with the final weight of 61.87 ± 5.59 and 57.74 ± 4.35 g. Overall, the integration of tilapia fish farming and romaine lettuce is potentially a promising aquaponic system for sustainable fish and horticulture plant production.

  12. Cultivating an entrepreneurial mindset.

    Matheson, Sandra A

    2013-01-01

    Now as never before, familiar challenges require bold, novel approaches. Registered dietitians will benefit by cultivating an entrepreneurial mindset that involves being comfortable with uncertainty, learning to take calculated risks, and daring to just try it. An entrepreneur is someone who takes risks to create something new, usually in business. But the entrepreneurial mindset is available to anyone prepared to rely only on their own abilities for their economic security and expect no opportunity without first creating value for others.

  13. Cultivating strategic thinking skills.

    Shirey, Maria R

    2012-06-01

    This department highlights change management strategies that may be successful in strategically planning and executing organizational change initiatives. With the goal of presenting practical approaches helpful to nurse leaders advancing organizational change, content includes evidence-based projects, tools, and resources that mobilize and sustain organizational change initiatives. In this article, the author presents an overview of strategic leadership and offers approaches for cultivating strategic thinking skills.

  14. Transfer mechanisms in cultivated soils of waste radionuclides from electronuclear power plants in the system river--irrigated soil--underground water level

    Saas, A; Grauby, A

    1974-12-31

    From symposinm on environmentl behavior of radionuclides released in the nuclear industry; Aix-en-Provence, France (14 May 1973). The location of nuclear power plants by rivers whose waters are used for irrigation and industrial and domestic consumption necessities a profound study of the river-irrigated soil- ground water system. Mechanisms of radionuclide transport in cultivated soil are considered under three principal aspects: the effect of the quality of the river water, of the irrigation channels, and of the ground water level on the mobility of the radionuclides in the soil; the influence of the type of soil (the four types of soils considered are acid brown soil, calcic brown soil, chalky brown soil, and chalky alluvial soil); and the distribution of radionuclides in the soil (hydrosoluble forms can contminate the ground water level and these are the forms in which they are taken up by plants. A study was made on the following nuclides: /sup 22/Na, /sup 137/Cs, /sup 85/Sr, /Sup 54/Mn, /Sup 59/Fe, /Sup 60/ Co, /sup 65/Zn, /sup 124/Sb, /sup 141 in the cultivated soils permit the evaluation of the risks of contmination of the food chain and of the underground water. This study also showed new perspectives of the behavior of radionuclides as a function of their contmination of the organo-mineral wastes of industrial and domestic origin. This pollution interfers largely with the formation of stble complexes carried by the river to irrigated soils. The quality of the water determines the distribution of the radionuclides in the profile. The hydrosoluble complex persists in the soil and migrates toward the underground water level if they are not biodegradable. The stability of these forms as a function of the soil pH and of its physicochemical characteristics, as well as that of the radionuclides considered, permit the formulation of a new balance of the radionuclides in soils. The formulation of new proposals for the contml of nuclear sites is discussed. (tr-auth)

  15. Microbe observation and cultivation array (MOCA) for cultivating and analyzing environmental microbiota.

    Gao, Weimin; Navarroli, Dena; Naimark, Jared; Zhang, Weiwen; Chao, Shih-Hui; Meldrum, Deirdre R

    2013-01-09

    The use of culture-independent nucleic acid techniques, such as ribosomal RNA gene cloning library analysis, has unveiled the tremendous microbial diversity that exists in natural environments. In sharp contrast to this great achievement is the current difficulty in cultivating the majority of bacterial species or phylotypes revealed by molecular approaches. Although recent new technologies such as metagenomics and metatranscriptomics can provide more functionality information about the microbial communities, it is still important to develop the capacity to isolate and cultivate individual microbial species or strains in order to gain a better understanding of microbial physiology and to apply isolates for various biotechnological applications. We have developed a new system to cultivate bacteria in an array of droplets. The key component of the system is the microbe observation and cultivation array (MOCA), which consists of a Petri dish that contains an array of droplets as cultivation chambers. MOCA exploits the dominance of surface tension in small amounts of liquid to spontaneously trap cells in well-defined droplets on hydrophilic patterns. During cultivation, the growth of the bacterial cells across the droplet array can be monitored using an automated microscope, which can produce a real-time record of the growth. When bacterial cells grow to a visible microcolony level in the system, they can be transferred using a micropipette for further cultivation or analysis. MOCA is a flexible system that is easy to set up, and provides the sensitivity to monitor growth of single bacterial cells. It is a cost-efficient technical platform for bioassay screening and for cultivation and isolation of bacteria from natural environments.

  16. Quantitative measurement of damage caused by 1064-nm wavelength optical trapping of Escherichia coli cells using on-chip single cell cultivation system

    Ayano, Satoru; Wakamoto, Yuichi; Yamashita, Shinobu; Yasuda, Kenji

    2006-01-01

    We quantitatively examined the possible damage to the growth and cell division ability of Escherichia coli caused by 1064-nm optical trapping. Using the synchronous behavior of two sister E. coli cells, the growth and interdivision times between those two cells, one of which was trapped by optical tweezers, the other was not irradiated, were compared using an on-chip single cell cultivation system. Cell growth stopped during the optical trapping period, even with the smallest irradiated power on the trapped cells. Moreover, the damage to the cell's growth and interdivision period was proportional to the total irradiated energy (work) on the cell, i.e., irradiation time multiplied by irradiation power. The division ability was more easily affected by a smaller energy, 0.36 J, which was 30% smaller than the energy that adversely affected growth, 0.54 J. The results indicate that the damage caused by optical trapping can be estimated from the total energy applied to cells, and furthermore, that the use of optical trapping for manipulating cells might cause damage to cell division and growth mechanisms, even at wavelengths under 1064 nm, if the total irradiation energy is excessive

  17. Process Integration for the Disruption of Candida guilliermondii Cultivated in Rice Straw Hydrolysate and Recovery of Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase by Aqueous Two-Phase Systems.

    Gurpilhares, Daniela B; Pessoa, Adalberto; Roberto, Inês C

    2015-07-01

    Remaining cells of Candida guilliermondii cultivated in hemicellulose-based fermentation medium were used as intracellular protein source. Recovery of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) was attained in conventional aqueous two-phase systems (ATPS) was compared with integrated process involving mechanical disruption of cells followed by ATPS. Influences of polyethylene glycol molar mass (M PEG) and tie line lengths (TLL) on purification factor (PF), yields in top (Y T ) and bottom (Y B ) phases and partition coefficient (K) were evaluated. First scheme resulted in 65.9 % enzyme yield and PF of 2.16 in salt-enriched phase with clarified homogenate (M PEG 1500 g mol(-1), TLL 40 %); Y B of 75.2 % and PF B of 2.9 with unclarified homogenate (M PEG 1000 g mol(-1), TLL 35 %). The highest PF value of integrated process was 2.26 in bottom phase (M PEG 1500 g mol(-1), TLL 40 %). In order to optimize this response, a quadratic model was predicted for the response PFB for process integration. Maximum response achieved was PFB = 3.3 (M PEG 1500 g mol(-1), TLL 40 %). Enzyme characterization showed G6P Michaelis-Menten constant (K M ) equal 0.07-0.05, NADP(+) K M 0.02-1.98 and optimum temperature 70 °C, before and after recovery. Overall, our data confirmed feasibility of disruption/extraction integration for single-step purification of intracellular proteins from remaining yeast cells.

  18. Whole genome sequence analysis of Geitlerinema sp. FC II unveils competitive edge of the strain in marine cultivation system for biofuel production.

    Batchu, Navish Kumar; Khater, Shradha; Patil, Sonal; Nagle, Vinod; Das, Gautam; Bhadra, Bhaskar; Sapre, Ajit; Dasgupta, Santanu

    2018-03-05

    A filamentous cyanobacteria, Geitlerinema sp. FC II, was isolated from marine algae culture pond at Reliance Industries Limited (RIL), India. The 6.7 Mb draft genome of FC II encodes for 6697 protein coding genes. Analysis of the whole genome sequence revealed presence of nif gene cluster, supporting its capability to fix atmospheric nitrogen. FC II genome contains two variants of sulfide:quinone oxidoreductases (SQR), which is a crucial elector donor in cyanobacterial metabolic processes. FC II is characterized by the presence of multiple CRISPR- Cas (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindrome Repeats - CRISPR associated proteins) clusters, multiple variants of genes encoding photosystem reaction centres, biosynthetic gene clusters of alkane, polyketides and non-ribosomal peptides. Presence of these pathways will help FC II in gaining an ecological advantage over other strains for biomass production in large scale cultivation system. Hence, FC II may be used for production of biofuel and other industrially important metabolites. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. PV Power-Generation System with a Phase-Shift PWM Technique for High Step-Up Voltage Applications

    Cheng-Tao Tsai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A PV power-generation system with a phase-shift pulse-width modulation (PWM technique for high step-up voltage applications is proposed. The proposed power-generation system consists of two stages. In the input stage, all power switches of the full-bridge converter with phase-shift technique can be operated with zero-current switching (ZCS at turn-on or turn-off transition. Hence, the switching losses of the power switches can be reduced. Then, in the DC output stage, a voltage-doubler circuit is used to boost a high dc-link bus voltage. To supply a utility power, a dc/ac inverter is connected to induce a sinusoidal source. In order to draw a maximum power from PV arrays source, a microcontroller is incorporated with the perturbation and observation method to implement maximum power point tracking (MPPT algorithm and power regulating scheme. In this study, a full load power of 300 W prototype has been built. Experimental results are presented to verify the performance and feasibility of the proposed PV power-generation system.

  20. Coupling auto trophic in vitro plant cultivation system to scanning electron microscope to study plant-fungal interactions

    Jaeger, N. de; Decock, C.; Declereck, S.; Providencia, I. E. de la

    2010-07-01

    The interactions of plants with pathogens and beneficial micro-organisms have been seldom compared on the same host and under strict controlled auto trophic in vitro culture conditions. Here, the life cycle of two plant beneficial (Glomus sp. MUCL 41833 and Trichoderma harzianum) and one plant pathogen (Rhizoctonia solani) fungi were described on potato (Solanum tuberosum) plantlets under auto trophic in vitro culture conditions using video camera imaging and the scanning electron microscope (SEM). (i) The colony developmental pattern of the extraradical mycelium within the substrate, (ii) the reproduction structures and (iii) the three-dimensional spatial arrangements of the fungal hyphae within the potato root cells were successfully visualized, monitored and described. The combination of the autotrophic in vitro culture system and SEM represent a powerful tool for improving our knowledge on the dynamics of plant-fungal interactions. (Author) 41 refs.

  1. Does task shifting yield cost savings and improve efficiency for health systems? A systematic review of evidence from low-income and middle-income countries.

    Seidman, Gabriel; Atun, Rifat

    2017-04-13

    Task shifting has become an increasingly popular way to increase access to health services, especially in low-resource settings. Research has demonstrated that task shifting, including the use of community health workers (CHWs) to deliver care, can improve population health. This systematic review investigates whether task shifting in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) results in efficiency improvements by achieving cost savings. Using the PRISMA guidelines for systematic reviews, we searched PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, and the Health Economic Evaluation Database on March 22, 2016. We included any original peer-review articles that demonstrated cost impact of a task shifting program in an LMIC. We identified 794 articles, of which 34 were included in our study. We found that substantial evidence exists for achieving cost savings and efficiency improvements from task shifting activities related to tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS, and additional evidence exists for the potential to achieve cost savings from activities related to malaria, NCDs, NTDs, childhood illness, and other disease areas, especially at the primary health care and community levels. Task shifting presents a viable option for health system cost savings in LMICs. Going forward, program planners should carefully consider whether task shifting can improve population health and health systems efficiency in their countries, and researchers should investigate whether task shifting can also achieve cost savings for activities related to emerging global health priorities and health systems strengthening activities such as supply chain management or monitoring and evaluation.

  2. In Vitro Model for Hepatotoxicity Studies Based on Primary Human Hepatocyte Cultivation in a Perfused 3D Bioreactor System.

    Knöspel, Fanny; Jacobs, Frank; Freyer, Nora; Damm, Georg; De Bondt, An; van den Wyngaert, Ilse; Snoeys, Jan; Monshouwer, Mario; Richter, Marco; Strahl, Nadja; Seehofer, Daniel; Zeilinger, Katrin

    2016-04-16

    Accurate prediction of the potential hepatotoxic nature of new pharmaceuticals remains highly challenging. Therefore, novel in vitro models with improved external validity are needed to investigate hepatic metabolism and timely identify any toxicity of drugs in humans. In this study, we examined the effects of diclofenac, as a model substance with a known risk of hepatotoxicity in vivo, in a dynamic multi-compartment bioreactor using primary human liver cells. Biotransformation pathways of the drug and possible effects on metabolic activities, morphology and cell transcriptome were evaluated. Formation rates of diclofenac metabolites were relatively stable over the application period of seven days in bioreactors exposed to 300 µM diclofenac (300 µM bioreactors (300 µM BR)), while in bioreactors exposed to 1000 µM diclofenac (1000 µM BR) metabolite concentrations declined drastically. The biochemical data showed a significant decrease in lactate production and for the higher dose a significant increase in ammonia secretion, indicating a dose-dependent effect of diclofenac application. The microarray analyses performed revealed a stable hepatic phenotype of the cells over time and the observed transcriptional changes were in line with functional readouts of the system. In conclusion, the data highlight the suitability of the bioreactor technology for studying the hepatotoxicity of drugs in vitro.

  3. In Vitro Model for Hepatotoxicity Studies Based on Primary Human Hepatocyte Cultivation in a Perfused 3D Bioreactor System

    Fanny Knöspel

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Accurate prediction of the potential hepatotoxic nature of new pharmaceuticals remains highly challenging. Therefore, novel in vitro models with improved external validity are needed to investigate hepatic metabolism and timely identify any toxicity of drugs in humans. In this study, we examined the effects of diclofenac, as a model substance with a known risk of hepatotoxicity in vivo, in a dynamic multi-compartment bioreactor using primary human liver cells. Biotransformation pathways of the drug and possible effects on metabolic activities, morphology and cell transcriptome were evaluated. Formation rates of diclofenac metabolites were relatively stable over the application period of seven days in bioreactors exposed to 300 µM diclofenac (300 µM bioreactors (300 µM BR, while in bioreactors exposed to 1000 µM diclofenac (1000 µM BR metabolite concentrations declined drastically. The biochemical data showed a significant decrease in lactate production and for the higher dose a significant increase in ammonia secretion, indicating a dose-dependent effect of diclofenac application. The microarray analyses performed revealed a stable hepatic phenotype of the cells over time and the observed transcriptional changes were in line with functional readouts of the system. In conclusion, the data highlight the suitability of the bioreactor technology for studying the hepatotoxicity of drugs in vitro.

  4. Management of the baseline shift using a new and simple method for respiratory-gated radiation therapy: Detectability and effectiveness of a flexible monitoring system

    Tachibana, Hidenobu; Kitamura, Nozomi; Ito, Yasushi; Kawai, Daisuke; Nakajima, Masaru; Tsuda, Akihisa; Shiizuka, Hisao

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: In respiratory-gated radiation therapy, a baseline shift decreases the accuracy of target coverage and organs at risk (OAR) sparing. The effectiveness of audio-feedback and audio-visual feedback in correcting the baseline shift in the breathing pattern of the patient has been demonstrated previously. However, the baseline shift derived from the intrafraction motion of the patient's body cannot be corrected by these methods. In the present study, the authors designed and developed a simple and flexible system. Methods: The system consisted of a web camera and a computer running our in-house software. The in-house software was adapted to template matching and also to no preimage processing. The system was capable of monitoring the baseline shift in the intrafraction motion of the patient's body. Another marker box was used to monitor the baseline shift due to the flexible setups required of a marker box for gated signals. The system accuracy was evaluated by employing a respiratory motion phantom and was found to be within AAPM Task Group 142 tolerance (positional accuracy <2 mm and temporal accuracy <100 ms) for respiratory-gated radiation therapy. Additionally, the effectiveness of this flexible and independent system in gated treatment was investigated in healthy volunteers, in terms of the results from the differences in the baseline shift detectable between the marker positions, which the authors evaluated statistically. Results: The movement of the marker on the sternum [1.599 ± 0.622 mm (1 SD)] was substantially decreased as compared with the abdomen [6.547 ± 0.962 mm (1 SD)]. Additionally, in all of the volunteers, the baseline shifts for the sternum [-0.136 ± 0.868 (2 SD)] were in better agreement with the nominal baseline shifts than was the case for the abdomen [-0.722 ± 1.56 mm (2 SD)]. The baseline shifts could be accurately measured and detected using the monitoring system, which could acquire the movement of the marker on the sternum. The

  5. Effects of pH control and concentration on microbial oil production from Chlorella vulgaris cultivated in the effluent of a low-cost organic waste fermentation system producing volatile fatty acids.

    Cho, Hyun Uk; Kim, Young Mo; Choi, Yun-Nam; Xu, Xu; Shin, Dong Yun; Park, Jong Moon

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of applying volatile fatty acids (VFAs) produced from low-cost organic waste to the major carbon sources of microalgae cultivation for highly efficient biofuel production. An integrated process that consists of a sewage sludge fermentation system producing VFAs (SSFV) and mixotrophic cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris (C. vulgaris) was operated to produce microbial lipids economically. The effluents from the SSFV diluted to different concentrations at the level of 100%, 50%, and 15% were prepared for the C. vulgaris cultivation and the highest biomass productivity (433±11.9 mg/L/d) was achieved in the 100% culture controlling pH at 7.0. The harvested biomass included lipid contents ranging from 12.87% to 20.01% under the three different effluent concentrations with and without pH control. The composition of fatty acids from C. vulgaris grown on the effluents from the SSFV complied with the requirements of high-quality biodiesel. These results demonstrated that VFAs produced from the SSFV are favorable carbon sources for cultivating C. vulgaris. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Reduced-Rank Shift-Invariant Technique and Its Application for Synchronization and Channel Identification in UWB Systems

    Kennedy RodneyA

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We investigate reduced-rank shift-invariant technique and its application for synchronization and channel identification in UWB systems. Shift-invariant techniques, such as ESPRIT and the matrix pencil method, have high resolution ability, but the associated high complexity makes them less attractive in real-time implementations. Aiming at reducing the complexity, we developed novel reduced-rank identification of principal components (RIPC algorithms. These RIPC algorithms can automatically track the principal components and reduce the computational complexity significantly by transforming the generalized eigen-problem in an original high-dimensional space to a lower-dimensional space depending on the number of desired principal signals. We then investigate the application of the proposed RIPC algorithms for joint synchronization and channel estimation in UWB systems, where general correlator-based algorithms confront many limitations. Technical details, including sampling and the capture of synchronization delay, are provided. Experimental results show that the performance of the RIPC algorithms is only slightly inferior to the general full-rank algorithms.

  7. Development of new two-dimensional spectral/spatial code based on dynamic cyclic shift code for OCDMA system

    Jellali, Nabiha; Najjar, Monia; Ferchichi, Moez; Rezig, Houria

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, a new two-dimensional spectral/spatial codes family, named two dimensional dynamic cyclic shift codes (2D-DCS) is introduced. The 2D-DCS codes are derived from the dynamic cyclic shift code for the spectral and spatial coding. The proposed system can fully eliminate the multiple access interference (MAI) by using the MAI cancellation property. The effect of shot noise, phase-induced intensity noise and thermal noise are used to analyze the code performance. In comparison with existing two dimensional (2D) codes, such as 2D perfect difference (2D-PD), 2D Extended Enhanced Double Weight (2D-Extended-EDW) and 2D hybrid (2D-FCC/MDW) codes, the numerical results show that our proposed codes have the best performance. By keeping the same code length and increasing the spatial code, the performance of our 2D-DCS system is enhanced: it provides higher data rates while using lower transmitted power and a smaller spectral width.

  8. Do Specialized MBA Programs Cultivate Alumni Relationships and Donations?

    Johnson, Jennifer Wiggins; Thomas, Veronica; Peck, Joann

    2010-01-01

    A recent trend among universities shifts from traditional MBA programs to specialized MBA offerings. Specialized programs are believed to cultivate stronger relationships with students, which lead to stronger alumni relationships and increased donations. This research tests this empirically by examining relationship perceptions and donation…

  9. Shifting Diagnostic Systems for Defining Intellectual Disability in Death Penalty Cases: Hall vs. Florida

    Mukherjee, Mina; Westphal, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The case of Hall vs. Florida tested Florida's so called "bright line rule" in determining intellectual disability in capital cases. The Supreme Court Decision reflects a more general trend from categorical to dimensional approaches in psychiatric diagnostic systems.

  10. Methane Exchange in a Coastal Fen in the First Year after Flooding - A Systems Shift

    Hahn, Juliane; Köhler, Stefan; Glatzel, Stephan; Jurasinski, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    Background Peatland restoration can have several objectives, for example re-establishing the natural habitat, supporting unique biodiversity attributes or re-initiating key biogeochemical processes, which can ultimately lead to a reduction in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Every restoration measure, however, is itself a disturbance to the ecosystem. Methods Here, we examine an ecosystem shift in a coastal fen at the southern Baltic Sea which was rewetted by flooding. The analyses are based on one year of bi-weekly closed chamber measurements of methane fluxes gathered at spots located in different vegetation stands. During measurement campaigns, we recorded data on water levels, peat temperatures, and chemical properties of peat water. In addition we analyzed the first 20 cm of peat before and after flooding for dry bulk density (DBD), content of organic matter and total amounts of carbon (C), nitrogen (N), sulfur (S), and other nutrients. Results Rewetting turned the site from a summer dry fen into a shallow lake with water levels up to 0.60 m. We observed a substantial die-back of vegetation, especially in stands of sedges (Carex acutiformis Ehrh). Concentrations of total organic carbon and nitrogen in the peat water, as well as dry bulk density and concentrations of C, N and S in the peat increased. In the first year after rewetting, the average annual exchange of methane amounted to 0.26 ± 0.06 kg m-2. This is equivalent to a 190-times increase in methane compared to pre-flooding conditions. Highest methane fluxes occurred in sedge stands which suffered from the heaviest die-back. None of the recorded environmental variables showed consistent relationships with the amounts of methane exchanged. Conclusions Our results suggest that rewetting projects should be monitored not only with regard to vegetation development but also with respect to biogeochemical conditions. Further, high methane emissions that likely occur directly after rewetting by flooding should

  11. A 16-channel reconfigurable OCDMA/DWDM system using continuous phase-shift SSFBGs

    Chun, Tian; Zhang, Zhaowei; Ibsen, M.; Petropoulos, P.; Richardson, D.J.

    2007-01-01

    We demonstrate a reconfigurable 16-channel optical code-division multiple access (OCDMA)/dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) system (4 OCDMA times 4 DWDM times 625 Mb/s) based on novel 31-chip, 40 Gchip/s quaternary phase coding gratings operating at a channel spacing of just 50 GHz. The system performance is studied for cases of both fixed and code-reconfigurable decoders. Error-free performance is achieved in both cases and for all 16 channels.

  12. A systems approach to accepted standards of care: Shifting the blame

    David G. Glance

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In healthcare, from a legal perspective, the standard ofacceptable practice has been generally set by the courts anddefined as healthcare professionals acting in a manner thatis widely accepted by their peers as meeting an acceptablestandard of care. This view, however, reflects the state ofhow practice “is” rather than what it “ought to be”. What isought to be depends on whether you take a “person” or“system” oriented approach to practice.The increasing pressures of lack of money and resources,and an ever-increasing need for care are bringing pressureon the health services to move to a system approach andthis is gaining acceptance both with clinicians and thuseventually the courts.A systems-type approach to healthcare will, by necessity,embrace clinical protocols and guidelines supported byclinical information systems. It will also see blame for errorsshifting from clinicians to the organisations that employthem.This paper argues that a continued use of a person-basedapproach to healthcare, developed through an historicalrecord of practice by individual clinicians, is no longeradequate defence in a case of supposed negligence.When the healthcare system has codified clinical guidelinesand digital data gathered across thousands of clinicians andtheir patients, it is possible to compute adequate levels ofcare and expect clinicians and the healthcare system ingeneral to meet these minimum standards.Future negligence decisions will rely on a systems-basedbest practice standard of care determined through evidencerather than opinion

  13. Paradigm shifts: using a participatory leadership process to redesign health systems.

    Saleeby, Erin; Holschneider, Christine H; Singhal, Rita

    2014-12-01

    Physicians have increasingly given up private practices to become members of, and key stakeholders in, large healthcare systems. These systems are currently transforming to meet the Triple Aim: guaranteeing the equitable provision of high-quality, evidence-based care at a reasonable cost. Participatory leadership is an organizational change theory that engages key stakeholders as architects in the transformation process. This review highlights the utility of this leadership strategy in designing care for women's health. Our blueprint describing participatory leadership theory in women's health systems change is discussed in three case studies, highlighting what we call the six Ps of participatory leadership: participants, principles, purpose, process, and power. The 'sixth P', product, can then be substantially influential in changing the paradigm of care. Obstetrics and gynecology is increasingly practiced in large health systems responsible for the health of populations. Innovations in clinical practice impact care at the level of the individual. In order for advances in clinical practice to reach broad populations of women, they must be integrated into a delivery system. Physician engagement in leadership during this time of system transformation is of critical importance.

  14. Transition in nori cultivation

    Delaney, Alyne

    2011-01-01

    . Technological change has had a profound impact on both the manner of nori production as well as the household division of labor and work and gender roles. Women play a key role in nori production today. With better understanding of such outward manifestations of culture and society we can bring the human...... of social and environmental sustainability, we must understand both society and cultural institutions. With this in mind, this article focuses on the division of labor among cultivators, particularly along gender lines and the impacts, on a cultural level, of technological change on nori production...

  15. Seasonal shifting of surplus renewable energy in a power system located in a cold region

    Jorge Morel

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Fukushima nuclear disaster in 2011 changed Japan's strategy for reducing CO2 emissions. The government is now placing more emphasis on the development of nonCO2-emitting distributed generation systems such as wind, solar, and tidal power to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and guarantee electricity supply in the case of a natural disaster. This paper proposes a strategy for the exploitation of wind, solar, and tidal resources in a cold region in Japan by utilizing surplus energy from the summer and spring during winter. It also aims to determine the most favorable energy mix of these renewable sources and storage system types. The study is performed by calculating hourly demand and renewable energy supply for the city in one year, which is based on actual data of demand, solar irradiation, wind speeds, and tidal current speeds. The costs of the components of the renewable power plants and storage systems are considered, and different proportions of generation outputs are evaluated with different types of storage systems. According to results, the configuration containing the hydrogen storage system using organic chemical hydride methylcyclohexane (OCHM is the most economical but is still more expensive than one using a conventional generation system. Moreover, we confirm that the cost of CO2 emissions is the key element for leveling the playing field between conventional and renewable generation from an economic perspective. The cost of CO2 emissions to public health as well as those costs related to the interruption of services during a catastrophe must be carefully calculated with other issues from conventional power projects to perform a precise comparative evaluation between both types of generation systems.

  16. Microgravity cultivation of cells and tissues

    Freed, L. E.; Pellis, N.; Searby, N.; de Luis, J.; Preda, C.; Bordonaro, J.; Vunjak-Novakovic, G.

    1999-01-01

    In vitro studies of cells and tissues in microgravity, either simulated by cultivation conditions on earth or actual, during spaceflight, are expected to help identify mechanisms underlying gravity sensing and transduction in biological organisms. In this paper, we review rotating bioreactor studies of engineered skeletal and cardiovascular tissues carried out in unit gravity, a four month long cartilage tissue engineering study carried out aboard the Mir Space Station, and the ongoing laboratory development and testing of a system for cell and tissue cultivation aboard the International Space Station.

  17. Josephson shift registers

    Przybysz, J.X.

    1989-01-01

    This paper gives a review of Josephson shift register circuits that were designed, fabricated, or tested, with emphasis on work in the 1980s. Operating speed is most important, since it often limits system performance. Older designs used square-wave clocks, but most modern designs use offset sine waves, with either two or three phases. Operating margins and gate bias uniformity are key concerns. The fastest measured Josephson shift register operated at 2.3 GHz, which compares well with a GaAs shift register that consumes 250 times more power. The difficulties of high-speed testing have prevented many Josephson shift registers from being operated at their highest speeds. Computer simulations suggest that 30-GHz operation is possible with current Nb/Al 2 O 3 /Nb technology. Junctions with critical current densities near 10 kA/cm 2 would make 100-GHz shift registers feasible

  18. Les 2x12h : une solution au conflit de temporalités du travail posté ? The 12-hour shifts system: A way to settle conflicting temporalities in shift work

    Béatrice Barthe

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Les horaires de travail en 2x12h semblent faciliter l’articulation des temporalités mise à mal par le travail posté, articulation avec les dimensions temporelles du fonctionnement humain : les rythmicités biologiques, l’organisation de la vie socio-familiale et la fatigue notamment. Dans un contexte social et économique favorable à la diffusion des 2x12h, cet article propose une synthèse des effets de ces horaires de travail posté sur la santé, sur la vie personnelle des opérateurs concernés et sur le travail. Même si, comparés aux autres systèmes d’horaires, les 2x12h semblent avoir des conséquences moindres sur la santé et la vie personnelle, cette synthèse montre l’importance d’autres facteurs (caractéristiques des personnes, temps d’exposition aux horaires, propriétés du système d’horaires, par exemple sur ces effets et la nécessité d’intégrer l’analyse du contenu du travail et des exigences du travail dans l’analyse de ces effets. Avant de penser le 2x12h comme une solution au conflit de temporalités du travail posté, la réflexion d’aménagement des horaires de travail se doit d’intégrer une analyse systémique et détaillée du travail, prenant en compte le contenu du travail, les exigences des tâches et les stratégies d’accord des temporalités mises en place par les opérateurs concernés au niveau de leur activité de travail.Twelve-hour shifts appear to facilitate the flow of temporalities involved in shift work schedules and the different temporal dimensions of human functioning: particularly biological rhythms, private life, and fatigue. In a social and economic context that favors the increase of 12-h shifts, this paper sums up the effects of 12-h shifts on health, personal life, and work. 12-h shifts seem to have less impact on health and personal life, when compared with other shift-work systems. This synthesis shows the importance of other factors (characteristics of the

  19. Design of a muon tomography system with a plastic scintillator and wavelength-shifting fiber arrays

    Jo, Woo Jin; Kim, Hyun-Il; An, Su Jung; Lee, Chae Young [Department of Radiological Science, College of Health Science, Yonsei University, Wonju 220-710 (Korea, Republic of); Baek, Cheol-Ha [Department of Radiological Science, Dongseo University, Busan 617-716 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Yong Hyun, E-mail: ychung@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Radiological Science, College of Health Science, Yonsei University, Wonju 220-710 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-21

    Recently, monitoring nuclear materials to avoid nuclear terrorism has become an important area of national security. It can be difficult to detect gamma rays from nuclear material because they are easily shielded by shielding material. Muon tomography using multiple -Coulomb scattering derived from muons can be utilized to detect special nuclear materials (SNMs) such as uranium-235 and plutonium-239. We designed a muon tomography system composed of four detector modules. The incident and scattered muon tracks can be calculated by two top and two bottom detectors, respectively. 3D tomographic images are obtained by extracting the crossing points of muon tracks with a point-of-closest-approach algorithm. The purpose of this study was to optimize the muon tomography system using Monte Carlo simulation code. The effects of the geometric parameters of the muon tomography system on material Z-discrimination capability were simulated and evaluated.

  20. Analysis of Power System Low Frequency Oscillation Based on Energy Shift Theory

    Zhang, Junfeng; Zhang, Chunwang; Ma, Daqing

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, a new method for analyzing low-frequency oscillation between analytic areas based on energy coefficient is proposed. The concept of energy coefficient is proposed by constructing the energy function, and the low-frequency oscillation is analyzed according to the energy coefficient under the current operating conditions; meanwhile, the concept of model energy is proposed to analyze the energy exchange behavior between two generators. Not only does this method provide an explanation of low-frequency oscillation from the energy point of view, but also it helps further reveal the dynamic behavior of complex power systems. The case analysis of four-machine two-area and the power system of Jilin Power Grid proves the correctness and effectiveness of the proposed method in low-frequency oscillation analysis of power system.

  1. Regime shifts and panarchies in regional scale social-ecological water systems

    Lance Gunderson

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article we summarize histories of nonlinear, complex interactions among societal, legal, and ecosystem dynamics in six North American water basins, as they respond to changing climate. These case studies were chosen to explore the conditions for emergence of adaptive governance in heavily regulated and developed social-ecological systems nested within a hierarchical governmental system. We summarize resilience assessments conducted in each system to provide a synthesis and reference by the other articles in this special feature. We also present a general framework used to evaluate the interactions between society and ecosystem regimes and the governance regimes chosen to mediate those interactions. The case studies show different ways that adaptive governance may be triggered, facilitated, or constrained by ecological and/or legal processes. The resilience assessments indicate that complex interactions among the governance and ecosystem components of these systems can produce different trajectories, which include patterns of (a development and stabilization, (b cycles of crisis and recovery, which includes lurches in adaptation and learning, and (3 periods of innovation, novelty, and transformation. Exploration of cross scale (Panarchy interactions among levels and sectors of government and society illustrate that they may constrain development trajectories, but may also provide stability during crisis or innovation at smaller scales; create crises, but may also facilitate recovery; and constrain system transformation, but may also provide windows of opportunity in which transformation, and the resources to accomplish it, may occur. The framework is the starting point for our exploration of how law might play a role in enhancing the capacity of social-ecological systems to adapt to climate change.

  2. Regime shifts and panarchies in regional scale social-ecological water systems

    Gunderson, Lance; Cosens, Barbara; Chaffin, Brian C.; Arnold, Craig Anthony (Tony); Fremier, Alexander K.; Garmestani, Ahjond S.; Kundis Craig, Robin; Gosnell, Hannah; Birge, Hannah E.; Allen, Craig R.; Benson, Melinda H.; Morrison, Ryan R.; Stone, Mark; Hamm, Joseph A.; Nemec, Kristine T.; Schlager, Edella; Llewellyn, Dagmar

    2017-01-01

    In this article we summarize histories of nonlinear, complex interactions among societal, legal, and ecosystem dynamics in six North American water basins, as they respond to changing climate. These case studies were chosen to explore the conditions for emergence of adaptive governance in heavily regulated and developed social-ecological systems nested within a hierarchical governmental system. We summarize resilience assessments conducted in each system to provide a synthesis and reference by the other articles in this special feature. We also present a general framework used to evaluate the interactions between society and ecosystem regimes and the governance regimes chosen to mediate those interactions. The case studies show different ways that adaptive governance may be triggered, facilitated, or constrained by ecological and/or legal processes. The resilience assessments indicate that complex interactions among the governance and ecosystem components of these systems can produce different trajectories, which include patterns of (a) development and stabilization, (b) cycles of crisis and recovery, which includes lurches in adaptation and learning, and (3) periods of innovation, novelty, and transformation. Exploration of cross scale (Panarchy) interactions among levels and sectors of government and society illustrate that they may constrain development trajectories, but may also provide stability during crisis or innovation at smaller scales; create crises, but may also facilitate recovery; and constrain system transformation, but may also provide windows of opportunity in which transformation, and the resources to accomplish it, may occur. The framework is the starting point for our exploration of how law might play a role in enhancing the capacity of social-ecological systems to adapt to climate change.

  3. Market shifting

    Forst, Michael

    2013-11-01

    After years of oversupply and artificially low module pricing, market analysts believe that the solar industry will begin to stabilize by 2017. While the market activities are shifting from Europe to the Asia Pacific region and the United States, the solar shakeout continues to be in full swing including solar cell and module manufacturing. (orig.)

  4. Tough Shift

    Brewer, Robert S.; Verdezoto, Nervo; Holst, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    people to change their behavior at home. Leveraging prior research on encouraging reductions in residential energy use through game play, we introduce ShareBuddy: a casual mobile game intended to encourage players not only to reduce, but also to shift their electricity use. We conducted two field studies...... real-world resource use into a game....

  5. Radiological aspects of choice of a system of cultivation of sod-podzolic sandy loam soils with different degree of humidity on lands of Mogilev region contaminated with 137Cs

    Lazarevich, S.S.; Ermolenko, A.V.; Shapsheeva, T.P.

    2010-01-01

    In the conditions of the Republic of Belarus there were presented data about the influence of technological factors on entry of 137Cs into plant products (grain and green mass). In course of the study there were analyzed the following variants of soil cultivation: moldboard plowing; subsurface chisel soil tillage; subsurface surface soil tillage; minimal tillage. There were presented data on specific activity of 137Cs in plant product samples of oat (Avena sativa) grain; field pea (Pisum arvense L.) and oat mixture grain and green mass; wheat (Triticum aestivum) grain. There were determined the main principles of influence of cultivation systems of sod-podzolic sandy loam soil with different degree of humidity on transition of 137Cs into plants depending on the degree of soil and crop humidity. On the automorphic soil there was revealed a tendency of increased transition of 137Cs into grain and green mass after application of subsurface surface soil tillage system

  6. On the Computational Complexity of the Languages of General Symbolic Dynamical Systems and Beta-Shifts

    Simonsen, Jakob Grue

    2009-01-01

    We consider the computational complexity of languages of symbolic dynamical systems. In particular, we study complexity hierarchies and membership of the non-uniform class P/poly. We prove: 1.For every time-constructible, non-decreasing function t(n)=@w(n), there is a symbolic dynamical system...... with language decidable in deterministic time O(n^2t(n)), but not in deterministic time o(t(n)). 2.For every space-constructible, non-decreasing function s(n)=@w(n), there is a symbolic dynamical system with language decidable in deterministic space O(s(n)), but not in deterministic space o(s(n)). 3.There...... are symbolic dynamical systems having hard and complete languages under @?"m^l^o^g^s- and @?"m^p-reduction for every complexity class above LOGSPACE in the backbone hierarchy (hence, P-complete, NP-complete, coNP-complete, PSPACE-complete, and EXPTIME-complete sets). 4.There are decidable languages of symbolic...

  7. Transnational System Building Across Geopolitical Shifts. The Danube-Oder-Elbe Canal, 1901-2015

    Janáč, Jiří; van der Vleuten, E.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 2 (2016), s. 272-291 ISSN 1965-0175 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-04902S Institutional support: RVO:68378114 Keywords : large technical systems * water politics * environmental history Subject RIV: AB - History Impact factor: 2.500, year: 2016

  8. Shift in performance of food safety management systems in supply chains

    Nanyunja, Jessica; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Kirezieva, Klementina; Kaaya, A.N.; Uyttendaele, Mieke; Luning, P.A.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study investigates the level of design and operation of food safety management systems (FSMS) of farmers and export traders in Kenya and Uganda. FSMS diagnostic tools developed for the fresh produce chain were used to assess the levels of context riskiness, FSMS activities and

  9. Load Shifting Control and Management of Domestic Microgeneration Systems for Improved Energy Efficiency and Comfort

    Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, an intelligent energy management system based on energy saving and user’s comfort is introduced and applied to a residential smart home as a case study. The proposed multi-objective mixed-integer nonlinear programming (MINLP)-based architecture takes the advantages of several key...

  10. Interacting noradrenergic and corticosteroid systems shift human brain activation patterns during encoding

    van Stegeren, Anda H.; Roozendaal, Benno; Kindt, Merel; Wolf, Oliver T.; Joëls, Marian

    Emotionally arousing experiences are usually well retained, an effect that depends on the release of adrenal stress hormones. Animal studies have shown that corticosterone and noradrenaline - representing the two main stress hormone systems - act in concert to enhance memory formation by actions

  11. Interacting noradrenergic and corticosteroid systems shift human brain activation patterns during encoding

    van Stegeren, A.H.; Roozendaal, B.; Kindt, M.; Wolf, O.T.; Joëls, M.

    2010-01-01

    Emotionally arousing experiences are usually well retained, an effect that depends on the release of adrenal stress hormones. Animal studies have shown that corticosterone and noradrenaline - representing the two main stress hormone systems - act in concert to enhance memory formation by actions

  12. Heat Integration of the Water-Gas Shift Reaction System for Carbon Sequestration Ready IGCC Process with Chemical Looping

    Juan M. Salazara; Stephen E. Zitney; Urmila M. Diwekara

    2010-01-01

    Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) technology has been considered as an important alternative for efficient power systems that can reduce fuel consumption and CO2 emissions. One of the technological schemes combines water-gas shift reaction and chemical-looping combustion as post gasification techniques in order to produce sequestration-ready CO2 and potentially reduce the size of the gas turbine. However, these schemes have not been energetically integrated and process synthesis techniques can be applied to obtain an optimal flowsheet. This work studies the heat exchange network synthesis (HENS) for the water-gas shift reaction train employing a set of alternative designs provided by Aspen energy analyzer (AEA) and combined in a process superstructure that was simulated in Aspen Plus (AP). This approach allows a rigorous evaluation of the alternative designs and their combinations avoiding all the AEA simplifications (linearized models of heat exchangers). A CAPE-OPEN compliant capability which makes use of a MINLP algorithm for sequential modular simulators was employed to obtain a heat exchange network that provided a cost of energy that was 27% lower than the base case. Highly influential parameters for the pos gasification technologies (i.e. CO/steam ratio, gasifier temperature and pressure) were calculated to obtain the minimum cost of energy while chemical looping parameters (oxidation and reduction temperature) were ensured to be satisfied.

  13. Calculation of the NMR chemical shift for a 4d1 system in a strong crystal field environment of trigonal symmetry with a threefold axis of quantization

    Ahn, Sang Woon; Oh, Se Woung; Ro, Seung Woo

    1986-01-01

    The NMR chemical shift arising from 4d electron angular momentum and 4d electron angular momentum and 4d electron spin dipolar-nuclear spin angular momentum interactions for a 4d 1 system in a strong crystal field environment of trigonal symmetry, where the threefold axis is chosen to be the axis of quantization axis, has been examined. A general expression using the nonmultipole expansion method (exact method) is derived for the NMR chemical shift. From this expression all the multipolar terms are determined. we observe that along the (100), (010), (110), and (111) axes the NMR chemical shifts are positive while along the (001) axis, it is negative. We observe that the dipolar term (1/R 3 ) is the dominant contribution to the NMR chemical shift except for along the (111) axis. A comparison of the multipolar terms with the exact values shows also that the multipolar results are exactly in agreement with the exact values around R≥0.2 nm. The temperature dependence analysis on the NMR chemical shifts may imply that along the (111) axis the contribution to the NMR chemical shift is dominantly pseudo contact interaction. Separation of the contributions of the Fermi and the pseudo contact interactions would correctly imply that the dipolar interaction is the dominant contribution to the NMR chemical shifts along the (100), (010), (001), and (110) axes, but along the (111) axis the Fermi contact interaction is incorrectly the dominant contribution to the NMR chemical shift. (Author)

  14. Electrical system using phase-shifted carrier signals and related operating methods

    Welchko, Brian A; Campbell, Jeremy B

    2012-09-18

    An automotive drive system and methods for making the same are provided. The system includes a three-phase motor and an inverter module. The three-phase motor includes a first set of windings each having a first magnetic polarity; and a second set of windings each having a second magnetic polarity that is opposite the first magnetic polarity. The first set of windings being electrically isolated from the second set of windings. The inverter module includes a first set of phase legs and a second set of phase legs. Each one of the first set of phase legs is coupled to a corresponding phase of the first set of windings, and each one of the second set of phase legs is coupled to a corresponding phase of the second set of windings.

  15. From frequency to time-average-frequency a paradigm shift in the design of electronic system

    Xiu, Liming

    2015-01-01

    Written in a simple, easy to understand style, this book will teach PLL users how to use new clock technology in their work in order to create innovative applications.       Investigates the clock frequency concept from a different perspective--at an application level       Teaches engineers to use this new clocking technology to create innovations in chip/system level, through real examples extracted from commercial products  

  16. Shift-, rotation-, and scale-invariant shape recognition system using an optical Hough transform

    Schmid, Volker R.; Bader, Gerhard; Lueder, Ernst H.

    1998-02-01

    We present a hybrid shape recognition system with an optical Hough transform processor. The features of the Hough space offer a separate cancellation of distortions caused by translations and rotations. Scale invariance is also provided by suitable normalization. The proposed system extends the capabilities of Hough transform based detection from only straight lines to areas bounded by edges. A very compact optical design is achieved by a microlens array processor accepting incoherent light as direct optical input and realizing the computationally expensive connections massively parallel. Our newly developed algorithm extracts rotation and translation invariant normalized patterns of bright spots on a 2D grid. A neural network classifier maps the 2D features via a nonlinear hidden layer onto the classification output vector. We propose initialization of the connection weights according to regions of activity specifically assigned to each neuron in the hidden layer using a competitive network. The presented system is designed for industry inspection applications. Presently we have demonstrated detection of six different machined parts in real-time. Our method yields very promising detection results of more than 96% correctly classified parts.

  17. Bacterial Community Structure Shifted by Geosmin in Granular Activated Carbon System of Water Treatment Plants.

    Pham, Ngoc Dung; Lee, Eun-Hee; Chae, Seon-Ha; Cho, Yongdeok; Shin, Hyejin; Son, Ahjeong

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the relation between the presence of geosmin in water and the bacterial community structure within the granular activated carbon (GAC) system of water treatment plants in South Korea. GAC samples were collected in May and August of 2014 at three water treatment plants (Sungnam, Koyang, and Yeoncho in Korea). Dissolved organic carbon and geosmin were analyzed before and after GAC treatment. Geosmin was found in raw water from Sungnam and Koyang water treatment plants but not in that from Yeoncho water treatment plant. Interestingly, but not surprisingly, the 16S rRNA clone library indicated that the bacterial communities from the Sungnam and Koyang GAC systems were closely related to geosmin-degrading bacteria. Based on the phylogenetic tree and multidimensional scaling plot, bacterial clones from GAC under the influence of geosmin were clustered with Variovorax paradoxus strain DB 9b and Comamonas sp. DB mg. In other words, the presence of geosmin in water might have inevitably contributed to the growth of geosmin degraders within the respective GAC system.

  18. Phase shift analysis of K anti Kπ system in the D and E/IOTA regions

    Chung, S.U.; Fernow, R.; Kirk, H.

    1985-01-01

    We have performed a high-statistics experiment on the reaction π - p → K + anti K 0 π - n at 8.0 GeV/c. A partial-wave analysis of the K + anti K 0 π - system finds that the D(1285) is mostly a J/sup PG/ = 1 ++ state coupling predominantly to a deltaπ decay channel, while the E(1420) peak consists mostly of a J/sup PG/ = 0 -+ wave with a substantial deltaπ decay mode. There is little evidence of a 1 ++ resonance at the E mass. 10 refs., 3 figs

  19. From molecular imaging to systems diagnostics: Time for another paradigm shift?

    Li, King C.P.

    2009-01-01

    The term 'Molecular Imaging' has hit the consciousness of radiologists only in the past decade although many of the concepts that molecular imaging encompasses has been practiced in biomedical imaging, especially in nuclear medicine, for many decades. Many new imaging techniques have allowed us to interrogate biologic events at the cellular and molecular level in vivo in four dimensions but the challenge now is to translate these techniques into clinical practice in a way that will enable us to revolutionize healthcare delivery. The purpose of this article is to introduce the term 'Systems Diagnostics' and examine how radiologists can become translators of disparate sources of information into medical decisions and therapeutic actions.

  20. Fruit sphere microenvironments and berry phenolic content of Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L. cultivated under rain-shelter systems with coloured plastic film

    Jiang-Fei MENG

    Full Text Available Abstract Rain-shelter cultivation has been proven an important cultivation method for grape-plantings in continental monsoon climate zones, of which white plastic films are the most common shelter material. However, while this method and material reduces the occurrence of the disease, it can also decrease the grape berry quality. Five colours (including red, yellow, blue, purple, and white of plastic films were covered above Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L. grapevine rows before veraison. Rain-shelter cultivation reduced air temperature, wind speed, and total solar radiation and enhanced relative humidity in the fruit sphere of grapevines. For each particular colour plastic film, the irradiance of its corresponding spectrum band in the canopy of vines was higher than with other colour plastic films. Meanwhile, the blue plastic film treatment significantly promoted the accumulation of total phenolics, anthocyanins, flavonoids, tannins, and phenolic acids more than the other colours of plastic films. Blue plastic films are more beneficial for berry quality promotion of wine grapes, especially Cabernet Sauvignon, under rain-shelter cultivation in continental monsoon climate zones.

  1. Glass bead cultivation of fungi

    Droce, Aida; Sørensen, Jens Laurids; Giese, H.

    2013-01-01

    Production of bioactive compounds and enzymes from filamentous fungi is highly dependent on cultivation conditions. Here we present an easy way to cultivate filamentous fungi on glass beads that allow complete control of nutrient supply. Secondary metabolite production in Fusarium graminearum...... and Fusarium solani cultivated on agar plates, in shaking liquid culture or on glass beads was compared. Agar plate culture and glass bead cultivation yielded comparable results while liquid culture had lower production of secondary metabolites. RNA extraction from glass beads and liquid cultures was easier...... to specific nutrient factors. •Fungal growth on glass beads eases and improves fungal RNA extraction....

  2. Towards a paradigm shift in the modeling of soil organic carbon decomposition for earth system models

    He, Yujie

    Soils are the largest terrestrial carbon pools and contain approximately 2200 Pg of carbon. Thus, the dynamics of soil carbon plays an important role in the global carbon cycle and climate system. Earth System Models are used to project future interactions between terrestrial ecosystem carbon dynamics and climate. However, these models often predict a wide range of soil carbon responses and their formulations have lagged behind recent soil science advances, omitting key biogeochemical mechanisms. In contrast, recent mechanistically-based biogeochemical models that explicitly account for microbial biomass pools and enzyme kinetics that catalyze soil carbon decomposition produce notably different results and provide a closer match to recent observations. However, a systematic evaluation of the advantages and disadvantages of the microbial models and how they differ from empirical, first-order formulations in soil decomposition models for soil organic carbon is still needed. This dissertation consists of a series of model sensitivity and uncertainty analyses and identifies dominant decomposition processes in determining soil organic carbon dynamics. Poorly constrained processes or parameters that require more experimental data integration are also identified. This dissertation also demonstrates the critical role of microbial life-history traits (e.g. microbial dormancy) in the modeling of microbial activity in soil organic matter decomposition models. Finally, this study surveys and synthesizes a number of recently published microbial models and provides suggestions for future microbial model developments.

  3. No Variation in Patient Care Outcomes After Implementation of Resident Shift Work Duty Hour Limitations and a Hospitalist Model System.

    Hollier, John M; Wilson, Stephen D

    This study examines whether implementing a resident shift work schedule (RSWS) alone or combined with a hospitalist-led model system (HMS/RSWS) affects patient care outcomes or costs at a pediatric tertiary care teaching hospital. A retrospective sample compared pre- and postintervention groups for the most common primary discharge diagnoses, including asthma and cellulitis (RSWS intervention) and inflammatory bowel disease and diabetic ketoacidosis (HMS/RSWS intervention). Outcome variables included length of stay, number of subspecialty consultations, and hospitalization charges. For the RSWS intervention, the preintervention (n = 107) and postintervention (n = 92) groups showed no difference in any of the outcome variables. For the HMS/RSWS intervention, the preintervention (n = 98) and postintervention (n = 69) groups did not differ in demographics or length of stay. However, subspecialty consultations increased significantly during postintervention from 0.83 to 1.52 consults/hospitalization ( P care outcomes at a pediatric tertiary care teaching hospital.

  4. From molecular imaging to systems diagnostics: Time for another paradigm shift?

    Li, King C.P. [Department of Radiology, Methodist Hospital, Weill Cornell Medical College, 6565 Fannin Street, D280 Houston, TX 77030 (United States)], E-mail: kli@tmhs.org

    2009-05-15

    The term 'Molecular Imaging' has hit the consciousness of radiologists only in the past decade although many of the concepts that molecular imaging encompasses has been practiced in biomedical imaging, especially in nuclear medicine, for many decades. Many new imaging techniques have allowed us to interrogate biologic events at the cellular and molecular level in vivo in four dimensions but the challenge now is to translate these techniques into clinical practice in a way that will enable us to revolutionize healthcare delivery. The purpose of this article is to introduce the term 'Systems Diagnostics' and examine how radiologists can become translators of disparate sources of information into medical decisions and therapeutic actions.

  5. The British Columbia Emergency Medicine Network: A Paradigm Shift in a Provincial System of Emergency Care.

    Abu-Laban, Riyad B; Drebit, Sharla; Lindstrom, Ronald R; Archibald, Chantel; Eggers, Kim; Ho, Kendall; Khazei, Afshin; Lund, Adam; MacKinnon, Carolyn; Markham, Ray; Marsden, Julian; Martin, Ed; Christenson, Jim

    2018-01-04

    As generalists, emergency practitioners face challenges in providing state-of-the-art care owing to the broad spectrum of practice and the rapid rate of new knowledge generation. Networks have become increasingly prevalent in health care, and it was in this backdrop, and the resulting opportunity to advance evidence-informed emergency care in the Canadian province of British Columbia (BC), that a new "Emergency Medicine Network" (EM Network) was launched in 2017. The EM Network consists of four programs, each led by a physician with expertise and a track record in the domain: (1) Clinical Resources; (2) Innovation; (3) Continuing Professional Development; and (4) Real-time Support. This paper provides an overview of the EM Network, including its background, purpose, programs, anticipated evolution, and impact on the BC health care system.

  6. Policy shifts influence the functional changes of the CNH systems on the Mongolian plateau

    Chen, Jiquan; John, Ranjeet; Shao, Changliang; Fan, Yi; Zhang, Yaoqi; Amarjargal, Amartuvshin; Brown, Daniel G.; Qi, Jiaguo; Han, Juanjuan; Lafortezza, Raffaele; Dong, Gang

    2015-08-01

    By applying the concept of the coupled natural and human system (CNH), we compared spatiotemporal changes in livestock (LSK), land cover, and ecosystem production to understand the relative roles that natural and social driving forces have on CNH dynamics on the Mongolia plateau. We used socioeconomic and physical data at prefecture level for Inner Mongolia and Mongolia from 1981 through 2010 to represent changes in net primary productivity (NPP), enhanced vegetation index (EVI), precipitation, annual average temperature, LSK, livestock density (LSKD), land cover change (LCC), gross domestic production (GDP), and population (POP). The ratios such as LSK:NPP, LSKD: EVI, LSKD:albedo, LSK:POP, and LSK:GDP were examined and compared between Inner Mongolia and Mongolia, and structural equation modeling (SEM) was applied to quantify the complex interactions. Substantial differences in LSK, POP, and economic development were found among the biomes and between Inner Mongolia and Mongolia. When various indicators for policy shifts—such as the World Trade Organization (WTO) for China, the Third Campaign to Reclaim Abandoned Agriculture Lands (ATAR-3), and the Grain for Green Program for China (GFG)—were added into our SEM, the results showed significant change in the strength of the above relationships. After China joined the WTO, the relationships in Inner Mongolia between LSKD:LCC and LSKD:NPP were immensely strengthened, whereas relationships in NPP:LCC were weakened. In Mongolia, the ATAR-3 program first appeared to be an insignificant policy, but the Collapse of the Soviet Union enhanced the correlation between LSKD:LCC, weakened the connection of LCC:NPP, and did not affect LSKD:NPP. We conclude that human influences on the Mongolian CNH system exceeded those of the biophysical changes, but that the significance varies in time and per biome, as well as between Inner Mongolia and Mongolia.

  7. The shift of microbial communities and their roles in sulfur and iron cycling in a copper ore bioleaching system

    Niu, Jiaojiao; Deng, Jie; Xiao, Yunhua; He, Zhili; Zhang, Xian; van Nostrand, J. D.; Liang, Yili; Deng, Ye; Liu, Xueduan; Yin, Huaqun

    2016-10-01

    Bioleaching has been employed commercially to recover metals from low grade ores, but the production efficiency remains to be improved due to limited understanding of the system. This study examined the shift of microbial communities and S&Fe cycling in three subsystems within a copper ore bioleaching system: leaching heap (LH), leaching solution (LS) and sediment under LS. Results showed that both LH and LS had higher relative abundance of S and Fe oxidizing bacteria, while S and Fe reducing bacteria were more abundant in the Sediment. GeoChip analysis showed a stronger functional potential for S0 oxidation in LH microbial communities. These findings were consistent with measured oxidation activities to S0 and Fe2+, which were highest by microbial communities from LH, lower by those from LS and lowest form Sediment. Moreover, phylogenetic molecular ecological network analysis indicated that these differences might be related to interactions among microbial taxa. Last but not the least, a conceptual model was proposed, linking the S&Fe cycling with responsible microbial populations in the bioleaching systems. Collectively, this study revealed the microbial community and functional structures in all three subsystems of the copper ore, and advanced a holistic understanding of the whole bioleaching system.

  8. Performance analysis of multiple interference suppression over asynchronous/synchronous optical code-division multiple-access system based on complementary/prime/shifted coding scheme

    Nieh, Ta-Chun; Yang, Chao-Chin; Huang, Jen-Fa

    2011-08-01

    A complete complementary/prime/shifted prime (CPS) code family for the optical code-division multiple-access (OCDMA) system is proposed. Based on the ability of complete complementary (CC) code, the multiple-access interference (MAI) can be suppressed and eliminated via spectral amplitude coding (SAC) OCDMA system under asynchronous/synchronous transmission. By utilizing the shifted prime (SP) code in the SAC scheme, the hardware implementation of encoder/decoder can be simplified with a reduced number of optical components, such as arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) and fiber Bragg grating (FBG). This system has a superior performance as compared to previous bipolar-bipolar coding OCDMA systems.

  9. ADAPTIVE ENERGY-SAVING CULTIVATOR FOR STONY SOILS CULTIVATING

    A. B. Kudzaev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Practice of cultivators operation on stony soils in RNO-Alania with high hardness and humidity indicates that traction resistance during the work varies widely, with deviation from the mean value by more than 2 times. Optimally adjust the machine to the soil background when using most modern mechanisms of regulation is not always possible. Customizing the data machine boils down to the choice of priority between the vibration of the working bodies in the soil, the maintenance of the given depth and power reserve stands required to crawl the working body of the big stones. It is very difficult to get in practice the best combination of these three factors, especially on stony soils. Therefore, the machine must be designed with the ability to quickly adjust to changing operating conditions and modes to ensure energy-saving effects and not violations of the specified soil depth of various hardness with the possibility of equipping the machine racks with different working bodies. The interrow cultivator with the possibility of the quick adjustment (including automated to varying conditions was developed. In the process of studied basic parameters of elastic composite racks and parameters of pneumatic mechanism drive to adjust the proposed section of the machine were established. The system hardiness in layouts by elastic bars with air pressure up to 0.6 MPa varies from 17.7 to 45.3 N/mm. It was received effective values of pressures 0.4-0.5 MPa in the pneumatic drive partitions of the machine when operating with universal blade and ridger body OK-3 on stony soil. As a result, traction resistance decreases by 30-35 percent.

  10. Isotope shifting capacity of rock

    Blattner, P.; Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, Lower Hutt

    1980-01-01

    Any oxygen isotope shifted rock volume exactly defines a past throughput of water. An expression is derived that relates the throughput of an open system to the isotope shift of reservoir rock and present-day output. The small isotope shift of Ngawha reservoir rock and the small, high delta oxygen-18 output are best accounted for by a magmatic water source

  11. The evaluation of the growth and nutrition conditions of the garden nursery material Prunus and Thuja according to the use of various cultivating substrates and systems of fertilization

    Tomáš Meisl

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of different peat-based cultivating substrates and the system of fertilization on the nutrition conditions and growth characteristics of garden nursery material Prunus kurilensis ‘Brillant’ and Thuja occidentalis ‘Smaragd’ were observed during a three-year experiment. Three kinds of substrates were tested: peat + pumice (pemza proportioned 8:2, fermented bark + peat + clay proportioned 4:4:2, fermented bark + peat + clay proportioned 4:4:2. Two fertilizers were used: granular controlled-release fertilizer – Osmocote, and watersoluble with irrigation – Kristalon.A higher content of macroelements was observed in the leaves of Prunus. The only exception was potassium, the quantity of which was demonstrably higher in the assimilative organs of Thuja. On the contrary, Thuja had a higher content of trace elements except for copper and iron. The highest contents of nitrogen, potassium, and iron were statistically proved in leaves of woods grown in the substrate of peat and pumice due to its higher sorption capability. A better nutrition conditions in almost all nutrients were observed at plants where the gradually effective Osmocote was applied. The exceptions were calcium, molybdenum and iron, the content of which was, on the contrary, higher where Kristalon with irrigation were used. Physical characteristics of the growing substrates that contained bark were significantly worse at the end of the experiment. This was even intensified by clay. The substrate containing peat and pumice were less stable. The best growth was observed in woods grown in the substrate of peat and pumice, ie where peat was not substituted by bark, and, at the same time, expanded clay was used instead of classic clay. Higher values of growth characteristics were demonstratively observed after the Osmocote fertilizer was applied.The results of the experiment reveal that pumice should be recommended, pemza with a high sorption capability and the

  12. Starting from grape cultivation.

    Yoshida, A

    1992-06-01

    Rapid population growth can only be stopped by lowering the fertility rate. The UNFPA recommends improving the employment opportunities for women as the single best way of achieving this reduction. An example of this phenomenon is the grape cultivation in the Nordeste (Northeastern) region of Brazil. This area is the poorest part of Brazil and has the highest proportion of indigent people. These people have been deforesting the Amazon in search of a better life. What they have done is sterilize the land and turned a tropical rain forest into a desert. In an effort to reverse this trend, grape cultivation has been introduced in an area called Petrolina. The area is very dry with less than 500 mm of precipitation annually. They do have access to a 5000 square kilometer artificial lake (the largest in the world) and the 3rd largest river in Brazil (the Sao Francisco). In an effort to avoid using agricultural medicines, the vines are fertilized with organic matter created on the farm and little or no pesticides are used since pests do not live in such an arid region. It has taken 20 years of trial and error, but the quality of the grapes is now very high and is competitive on the world market. Because of climate and location, harvesting is done year round which increases the productivity of the land. The farm managers have found that married women make the best workers and have the highest level of productivity. Age at 1st marriage averages 24-25, compared with 15-16 for unemployed women in the same area. The fertility rate averages 50% of that for unemployed women in the same area. Agricultural development offers the best opportunity for the women of developing countries. It can pay a high wage, reduce fertility, and replant desert areas.

  13. Desempenho de cultivares de melão rendilhado em função do sistema de cultivo Performance of net melon cultivars depending on the cultivation system

    Pablo F Vargas

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar cinco cultivares de melão rendilhado em dois sistemas de cultivo quanto às características produtivas. O experimento foi instalado em casa de vegetação na UNESP-FCAV, em Jaboticabal-SP, de novembro/05 a fevereiro/06. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi de blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 5 x 2, com quatro repetições. Os fatores avaliados foram cinco híbridos de melão rendilhado (Maxim, Bônus nº2, Shinju 200, Fantasy e Louis e dois sistemas de cultivo (no solo e em substrato a base de fibra da casca de coco. Após a colheita, foram avaliados a produção por planta (kg planta-1; diâmetro transversal (DTF e longitudinal (DLF do fruto, em mm; índice de formato do fruto (IFF; diâmetro transversal (DTL e longitudinal (DLL do lóculo, em mm; índice de formato do lóculo (IFL; diâmetro de inserção do pedúnculo (DIP, em mm; e espessura do mesocarpo (EM, em mm. Não se verificou interação significativa entre os fatores avaliados. O cultivo em substrato proporcionou maior produtividade por planta em relação ao cultivo no solo (2,51 e 1,52 kg planta-1, respectivamente, tendo a cultivar Fantasy (2,44 kg planta-1 o melhor desempenho entre as cultivares, não diferindo de Louis e Maxim. Para as características DIP, DTL e EM, foram verificados melhores desempenhos em plantas cultivadas em substrato. Para as características DTF, DLF, IFF e DLL não foram encontradas diferenças entre os sistemas de cultivo. Assim, o cultivo em substrato se destacou em relação ao cultivo no solo, tendo a cultivar Fantasy apresentado melhor desempenho comparada a Shinju 200 e Bônus nº2.In this study the productive characteristics of five net melon cultivars, using two different cultivation systems were evaluated. The study was conducted in a greenhouse from November/05 to February/06. The experiments were carried out using randomized complete block design with a 5 x 2 factorial scheme and four

  14. Micrometeorological principles of protected cultivation

    Protected cultivation is a broad term commonly used among producers of specialty crops. Techniques can range from complex fixed structures to field site selection, to straightforward cultural practices in the field. This introduction to the ASHS workshop "Protected cultivation for fruit crops" consi...

  15. Fluid Shifts

    Stenger, M. B.; Hargens, A. R.; Dulchavsky, S. A.; Arbeille, P.; Danielson, R. W.; Ebert, D. J.; Garcia, K. M.; Johnston, S. L.; Laurie, S. S.; Lee, S. M. C.; hide

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. NASA's Human Research Program is focused on addressing health risks associated with long-duration missions on the International Space Station (ISS) and future exploration-class missions beyond low Earth orbit. Visual acuity changes observed after short-duration missions were largely transient, but now more than 50 percent of ISS astronauts have experienced more profound, chronic changes with objective structural findings such as optic disc edema, globe flattening and choroidal folds. These structural and functional changes are referred to as the visual impairment and intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome. Development of VIIP symptoms may be related to elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) secondary to spaceflight-induced cephalad fluid shifts, but this hypothesis has not been tested. The purpose of this study is to characterize fluid distribution and compartmentalization associated with long-duration spaceflight and to determine if a relation exists with vision changes and other elements of the VIIP syndrome. We also seek to determine whether the magnitude of fluid shifts during spaceflight, as well as any VIIP-related effects of those shifts, are predicted by the crewmember's pre-flight status and responses to acute hemodynamic manipulations, specifically posture changes and lower body negative pressure. Methods. We will examine a variety of physiologic variables in 10 long-duration ISS crewmembers using the test conditions and timeline presented in the figure below. Measures include: (1) fluid compartmentalization (total body water by D2O, extracellular fluid by NaBr, intracellular fluid by calculation, plasma volume by CO rebreathe, interstitial fluid by calculation); (2) forehead/eyelids, tibia, and calcaneus tissue thickness (by ultrasound); (3) vascular dimensions by ultrasound (jugular veins, cerebral and carotid arteries, vertebral arteries and veins, portal vein); (4) vascular dynamics by MRI (head/neck blood flow, cerebrospinal fluid

  16. Adubação complementar para a mexeriqueira 'Rio' em sistema de cultivo orgânico Complementary fertilization to willowleaf mandarim in organic cultivation system

    Fillipe S. Marini

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar os efeitos da adubação complementar com o biofertilizante Supermagro, a urina de vaca e a manipueira na produção e nos teores de nutrientes nas folhas da mexeriqueira (Citrus deliciosa Tenore cv. Rio em sistema de cultivo orgânico. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o de blocos casualizados, com cinco repetições. Todas as plantas foram adubadas com esterco bovino e os tratamentos aplicados foram complementares a essa adubação. Foram constituídos dez tratamentos obtidos pelos tipos de adubo e por seu modo de aplicação (via solo, via pulverizações foliares ou ambos e uma testemunha. A produção foi avaliada nas safras de 2006 e 2007 e os teores de nutrientes nas folhas, em 2005, 2006 e 2007. A adubação complementar não influenciou a produção de frutos. As aplicações de urina de vaca via solo, com ou sem aplicação foliar, e da manipueira, independentemente do modo de aplicação, contribuíram para elevar os teores de S nas folhas. O Supermagro aplicado via solo aumentou os teores de B nas folhas e, quando aplicado via foliar, aumentou os teores de Zn.The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of complementary fertilization with the biofertilizer Supermagro, cow urine and cassava wastewater in the production and levels of nutrients in the leaves of willowleaf mandarim 'Rio' (Citrus deliciosa Tenore in organic cultivation system. The experimental design used was the randomized blocks, with five replications. All plants were fertilized with cow manure and the applied treatments were complementary to this fertilization. Ten treatments were constituted, by fertilizer types and by modes of application (soil, foliar spray or both plus a control. The fruits were harvested in 2006 and 2007. The nutrient content in leaves was determined in 2005, 2006 and 2007. The complementary fertilization did not affect the fruit production. However, the cow urine applied on soil, with or without

  17. Soil protection through almond tree cultivation

    Garcia, C.; Hernandez, T.; Moreno, J. L.; Bastida, F.; Masciandaro, G.; Mennone, C.; Ceccanti, B.

    2009-01-01

    Most threat to soil are particularly severe in areas with steps slopes and suffering dry periods followed by heavy rain such as the Mediterranean regions. Severity is aggravated by lacking or inappropriate farming systems. Therefore the objective of this work was to demonstrate that land management based on cultivation of new varieties of local crops (almond trees) suited to these conditions may result in a sustainable system to prevent soil degradation. (Author)

  18. Catastrophic shifts in vegetation-soil systems may unfold rapidly or slowly independent of the rate of change in the system driver

    Karssenberg, Derek; Bierkens, Marc

    2014-05-01

    Complex systems may switch between contrasting stable states under gradual change of a driver. Such critical transitions often result in considerable long-term damage because strong hysteresis impedes reversion, and the transition becomes catastrophic. Critical transitions largely reduce our capability of forecasting future system states because it is hard to predict the timing of their occurrence [2]. Moreover, for many systems it is unknown how rapidly the critical transition unfolds when the tipping point has been reached. The rate of change during collapse, however, is important information because it determines the time available to take action to reverse a shift [1]. In this study we explore the rate of change during the degradation of a vegetation-soil system on a hillslope from a state with considerable vegetation cover and large soil depths, to a state with sparse vegetation and a bare rock or negligible soil depths. Using a distributed, stochastic model coupling hydrology, vegetation, weathering and water erosion, we derive two differential equations describing the vegetation and the soil system, and their interaction. Two stable states - vegetated and bare - are identified by means of analytical investigation, and it is shown that the change between these two states is a critical transition as indicated by hysteresis. Surprisingly, when the tipping point is reached under a very slow increase of grazing pressure, the transition between the vegetated and the bare state can either unfold rapidly, over a few years, or gradually, occurring over decennia up to millennia. These differences in the rate of change during the transient state are explained by differences in bedrock weathering rates. This finding emphasizes the considerable uncertainty associated with forecasting catastrophic shifts in ecosystems, which is due to both difficulties in forecasting the timing of the tipping point and the rate of change when the transition unfolds. References [1] Hughes

  19. Co-cultivation of fungal and microalgal cells as an efficient system for harvesting microalgal cells, lipid production and wastewater treatment.

    Digby Wrede

    Full Text Available The challenges which the large scale microalgal industry is facing are associated with the high cost of key operations such as harvesting, nutrient supply and oil extraction. The high-energy input for harvesting makes current commercial microalgal biodiesel production economically unfeasible and can account for up to 50% of the total cost of biofuel production. Co-cultivation of fungal and microalgal cells is getting increasing attention because of high efficiency of bio-flocculation of microalgal cells with no requirement for added chemicals and low energy inputs. Moreover, some fungal and microalgal strains are well known for their exceptional ability to purify wastewater, generating biomass that represents a renewable and sustainable feedstock for biofuel production. We have screened the flocculation efficiency of the filamentous fungus A. fumigatus against 11 microalgae representing freshwater, marine, small (5 µm, large (over 300 µm, heterotrophic, photoautotrophic, motile and non-motile strains. Some of the strains are commercially used for biofuel production. Lipid production and composition were analysed in fungal-algal pellets grown on media containing alternative carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus sources contained in wheat straw and swine wastewater, respectively. Co-cultivation of algae and A. fumigatus cells showed additive and synergistic effects on biomass production, lipid yield and wastewater bioremediation efficiency. Analysis of fungal-algal pellet's fatty acids composition suggested that it can be tailored and optimised through co-cultivating different algae and fungi without the need for genetic modification.

  20. Co-cultivation of fungal and microalgal cells as an efficient system for harvesting microalgal cells, lipid production and wastewater treatment.

    Wrede, Digby; Taha, Mohamed; Miranda, Ana F; Kadali, Krishna; Stevenson, Trevor; Ball, Andrew S; Mouradov, Aidyn

    2014-01-01

    The challenges which the large scale microalgal industry is facing are associated with the high cost of key operations such as harvesting, nutrient supply and oil extraction. The high-energy input for harvesting makes current commercial microalgal biodiesel production economically unfeasible and can account for up to 50% of the total cost of biofuel production. Co-cultivation of fungal and microalgal cells is getting increasing attention because of high efficiency of bio-flocculation of microalgal cells with no requirement for added chemicals and low energy inputs. Moreover, some fungal and microalgal strains are well known for their exceptional ability to purify wastewater, generating biomass that represents a renewable and sustainable feedstock for biofuel production. We have screened the flocculation efficiency of the filamentous fungus A. fumigatus against 11 microalgae representing freshwater, marine, small (5 µm), large (over 300 µm), heterotrophic, photoautotrophic, motile and non-motile strains. Some of the strains are commercially used for biofuel production. Lipid production and composition were analysed in fungal-algal pellets grown on media containing alternative carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus sources contained in wheat straw and swine wastewater, respectively. Co-cultivation of algae and A. fumigatus cells showed additive and synergistic effects on biomass production, lipid yield and wastewater bioremediation efficiency. Analysis of fungal-algal pellet's fatty acids composition suggested that it can be tailored and optimised through co-cultivating different algae and fungi without the need for genetic modification.

  1. Shift of large-scale atmospheric systems over Europe during late MIS 3 and implications for Modern Human dispersal.

    Obreht, Igor; Hambach, Ulrich; Veres, Daniel; Zeeden, Christian; Bösken, Janina; Stevens, Thomas; Marković, Slobodan B; Klasen, Nicole; Brill, Dominik; Burow, Christoph; Lehmkuhl, Frank

    2017-07-19

    Understanding the past dynamics of large-scale atmospheric systems is crucial for our knowledge of the palaeoclimate conditions in Europe. Southeastern Europe currently lies at the border between Atlantic, Mediterranean, and continental climate zones. Past changes in the relative influence of associated atmospheric systems must have been recorded in the region's palaeoarchives. By comparing high-resolution grain-size, environmental magnetic and geochemical data from two loess-palaeosol sequences in the Lower Danube Basin with other Eurasian palaeorecords, we reconstructed past climatic patterns over Southeastern Europe and the related interaction of the prevailing large-scale circulation modes over Europe, especially during late Marine Isotope Stage 3 (40,000-27,000 years ago). We demonstrate that during this time interval, the intensification of the Siberian High had a crucial influence on European climate causing the more continental conditions over major parts of Europe, and a southwards shift of the Westerlies. Such a climatic and environmental change, combined with the Campanian Ignimbrite/Y-5 volcanic eruption, may have driven the Anatomically Modern Human dispersal towards Central and Western Europe, pointing to a corridor over the Eastern European Plain as an important pathway in their dispersal.

  2. A Bottom-up Vulnerability Analysis of Water Systems with Decentralized Decision Making and Demographic Shifts- the Case of Jordan.

    Lachaut, T.; Yoon, J.; Klassert, C. J. A.; Talozi, S.; Mustafa, D.; Knox, S.; Selby, P. D.; Haddad, Y.; Gorelick, S.; Tilmant, A.

    2016-12-01

    Probabilistic approaches to uncertainty in water systems management can face challenges of several types: non stationary climate, sudden shocks such as conflict-driven migrations, or the internal complexity and dynamics of large systems. There has been a rising trend in the development of bottom-up methods that place focus on the decision side instead of probability distributions and climate scenarios. These approaches are based on defining acceptability thresholds for the decision makers and considering the entire range of possibilities over which such thresholds are crossed. We aim at improving the knowledge on the applicability and relevance of this approach by enlarging its scope beyond climate uncertainty and single decision makers; thus including demographic shifts, internal system dynamics, and multiple stakeholders at different scales. This vulnerability analysis is part of the Jordan Water Project and makes use of an ambitious multi-agent model developed by its teams with the extensive cooperation of the Ministry of Water and Irrigation of Jordan. The case of Jordan is a relevant example for migration spikes, rapid social changes, resource depletion and climate change impacts. The multi-agent modeling framework used provides a consistent structure to assess the vulnerability of complex water resources systems with distributed acceptability thresholds and stakeholder interaction. A proof of concept and preliminary results are presented for a non-probabilistic vulnerability analysis that involves different types of stakeholders, uncertainties other than climatic and the integration of threshold-based indicators. For each stakeholder (agent) a vulnerability matrix is constructed over a multi-dimensional domain, which includes various hydrologic and/or demographic variables.

  3. Cultivating Peace: Conflict and Collaboration in Natural Resource ...

    Cultivating Peace presents original case studies from Africa, Asia, and Latin America, ... experience on moving from conflict to collaborative modes of management. ... public health, and health systems research relevant to the emerging crisis.

  4. Improvement of the chromatic dispersion tolerance in coherent optical OFDM systems using shifted DFT windows for ultra-long-haul optical transmission systems.

    Sung, Minkyu; Kim, Hoon; Lee, Jaehoon; Jeong, Jichai

    2014-09-22

    In a high-capacity ultra-long-haul optical coherent orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (CO-OFDM) system, the dispersion tolerance is determined by the length of cyclic extension (CE). In this paper, we propose a novel scheme to substantially improve the dispersion tolerance of CO-OFDM systems without increasing the CE length. Multiple time-shifted discrete Fourier transform (DFT) windows are exploited at the receiver, each demodulating only a part of the subcarriers. Effectively, the proposed scheme reduces the bandwidth of the OFDM signals under demodulation. Numerical simulations are performed to show the improved dispersion tolerance of the proposed scheme in comparison with the conventional CO-OFDM system. We show that the dispersion tolerance improves by a factor equal to the number of DFT windows. The tradeoff between the improved dispersion tolerance and increased receiver complexity is also presented.

  5. Long term energy and emission implications of a global shift to electricity-based public rail transportation system

    Chaturvedi, Vaibhav; Kim, Son H.

    2015-01-01

    With high reliance on light-duty vehicles in the present, the future of global transportation system is also geared towards private modes, which has significant energy and emission implications. Public transportation has been argued as an alternative strategy for meeting the rising transportation demands of the growing world, especially the poor, in a sustainable and energy efficient way. The present study analyzes an important yet under-researched question – what are the long-term energy and emission implications of an electric rail based passenger transportation system for meeting both long and short distance passenter transportation needs? We analyze a suite of electric rail share scenarios with and without climate policy. In the reference scenario, the transportation system will evolve towards dominance of fossil based light-duty vehicles. We find that an electric rail policy is more successful than an economy wide climate policy in reducing transport sector energy demand and emissions. Economy wide emissions however can only be reduced through a broader climate policy, the cost of which can be reduced by hundreds of billions of dollars across the century when implemented in combination with the transport sector focused electric rail policy. Moreover, higher share of electric rail enhances energy security for oil importing nations and reduces vehicular congestion and road infrastructure requirement as well. -- Highlights: •Economy wide carbon price policy will have little impact on transportation emissions. •Focused energy and emission mitigation policies required for transportation sector. •Large global shift towards electric rail based public transport is one possible option. •Transport sector focused policy will have marginal impact on total global emissions. •A combined transport sector and economy wide policy can reduce costs significantly

  6. Performance Improvement of Space Shift Keying MIMO Systems with Orthogonal Codebook-Based Phase-Rotation Precoding

    Mohammed Al-Ansi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers codebook-based precoding for Space Shift Keying (SSK modulation MIMO system. Codebook-based precoding avoids the necessity for full knowledge of Channel State Information (CSI at the transmitter and alleviates the complexity of generating a CSI-optimized precoder. The receiver selects the codeword that maximizes the Minimum Euclidean Distance (MED of the received constellation and feeds back its index to the transmitter. In this paper, we first develop a new accurate closed-form Bit Error Rate (BER for SSK without precoding. Then, we investigate several phase-rotation codebooks with quantized set of phases and systematic structure. Namely, we investigate the Full-Combination, Walsh-Hadamard, Quasi-Orthogonal Sequences, and Orthogonal Array Testing codebooks. In addition, since the size of the Full-Combination codebook may be large, we develop an iterative search method for fast selection of its best codeword. The proposed codebooks significantly improve the BER performance in Rayleigh and Nakagami fading channels, even at high spatial correlation among transmit antennas and CSI estimation error. Moreover, we show that only four phases {+1,+j,-1,-j} are sufficient and further phase granularity does yield significant gain. This avoids hardware multiplication during searching the codebook and applying the codeword.

  7. Isotopic shifts in chemical exchange systems. 1. Large isotope effects in the complexation of Na+ isotopes by macrocyclic polyethers

    Knoechel, A.; Wilken, R.D.

    1981-01-01

    The complexation of 24 Na + and 22 Na + by 18 of the most widely used macrocyclic polyethers (crown ethers and monocyclic and bicyclic aminopolyethers) has been investigated in view of possible equilibrium isotope shifts. Solvated salts and polyether complexes were distributed differently into two phases and isotope ratios determined in both phases. Chloroform/water systems were shown to be particularly suitable to the investigations allowing favorable distribution for Na + and 13 of the 18 polyethers employed. With crown ethers 24 Na + enrichment varied from nonsignficant values (for large crown ethers) up to 3.1 +- 0.4% (18-crown-6). In the case of bicyclic aminopolyethers, ligands with cages of optimum size to accommodate Na + showed 24 Na + enrichment between O (nonsignificant) (2.2/sub B/2./sub B/) and 5.2 +- 1.8% (2.2.1). In contrast, for 2.2.2. and its derivatives, being too large for Na + , 22 Na + enrichment varying from O (nonsignificant) (2.2.2.p) up to 5.4 +- 0.5% (2.2.2.) has been observed. These values are remarkably high. They are explained by different bonding in solvate structure and polyether complex by using the theoretical approach of Bigeleisen

  8. Community shift of biofilms developed in a full-scale drinking water distribution system switching from different water sources.

    Li, Weiying; Wang, Feng; Zhang, Junpeng; Qiao, Yu; Xu, Chen; Liu, Yao; Qian, Lin; Li, Wenming; Dong, Bingzhi

    2016-02-15

    The bacterial community of biofilms in drinking water distribution systems (DWDS) with various water sources has been rarely reported. In this research, biofilms were sampled at three points (A, B, and C) during the river water source phase (phase I), the interim period (phase II) and the reservoir water source phase (phase III), and the biofilm community was determined using the 454-pyrosequencing method. Results showed that microbial diversity declined in phase II but increased in phase III. The primary phylum was Proteobacteria during three phases, while the dominant class at points A and B was Betaproteobacteria (>49%) during all phases, but that changed to Holophagae in phase II (62.7%) and Actinobacteria in phase III (35.6%) for point C, which was closely related to its water quality. More remarkable community shift was found at the genus level. In addition, analysis results showed that water quality could significantly affect microbial diversity together, while the nutrient composition (e.g. C/N ration) of the water environment might determine the microbial community. Furthermore, Mycobacterium spp. and Pseudomonas spp. were detected in the biofilm, which should give rise to attention. This study revealed that water source switching produced substantial impact on the biofilm community. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. SU-F-J-126: Influence of Six Dimensional Motions in Frameless Stereotactic Dosimetry Incorporating Rotational Shifts as Equivalent Translational Shifts: A Feasibility Study for Elekta-BrainLAB Stereotactic System

    Sarkar, B [Fortis Memorial Research Institute, Gurgaon (India); GLA University, Mathura, UP (India); Manikandan, A [NRI medical college, Gunbtur, Andra pradesh (India); Jassal, K; Ganesh, T [King Fahad Specialist Hospital, New Delhi (India); Munshi, A; Mohanti, B [Fortis Memorial Research Institute, Gurgaon, Haryana (India); Pradhan, A [GLA University, Mathura, UP (India)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Six dimensional positional shifts (translational and rotational) determined by a volumetric imaging system were mathematically combined and incorporated as simple translational shifts and the resultant impact on dose characteristics was studied. Methods: Thirty patients who underwent either single fraction (12 Gy) or five fractions (5 Gy per fraction) stereotactic treatments were included in this study. They were immobilized using a double layered thermoplastic mask from BrainLAB. Isocenter matching was done using infrared marker of ExacTrac. An initial cone beam CT (CBCT) gave positional shifts in 6-dimensions that were applied through 6-D motion enabled couch. A verification CBCT was done following corrections before treatment. These 6-D positional shifts determined at each imaging session from the first CBCT were mathematically combined to give three simple translational shifts. Doses were recalculated in the patient matrix with these positional errors present by moving the whole image dataset. Doses were also recalculated after second CBCT with only residual errors present. PTV dose statistics were compared. Results: For the approved plans V100%(PTV), V100%(GTV), D95%(PTV), D95%(GTV), D1%(PTV) and D1%(GTV) were 96.2±3.0%, 98.2±1.4%, 102%±1.7%, 103±1.2%, 107.9±8.9% and 109.3±7.5% of prescription dose respectively. With the positional errors present (after 1st CBCT) the corresponding values were 86.7±4.9%, 91.3±2.9%, 89.6±4.2%, 95.9±3.7%, 108.3±9.9% and 108.6±4.5%. Post-correction (after 2nd CBCT) with only residual errors present, values were 94.5±5.7%, 97.3±2.9%, 99.3%±3.2%, 102%±2.1%, 107.6±8.5% and 109.0±7.6% respectively. Significant and nominal OAR dose variation was observed between pre- and post-table corrections. Conclusion: Positional errors significantly affect PTV dose statistics. They need to be corrected before delivery of stereotactic treatments although the magnitude of dose changes can vary from patient

  10. Shifting Sugars and Shifting Paradigms

    Siegal, Mark L.

    2015-01-01

    No organism lives in a constant environment. Based on classical studies in molecular biology, many have viewed microbes as following strict rules for shifting their metabolic activities when prevailing conditions change. For example, students learn that the bacterium Escherichia coli makes proteins for digesting lactose only when lactose is available and glucose, a better sugar, is not. However, recent studies, including three PLOS Biology papers examining sugar utilization in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, show that considerable heterogeneity in response to complex environments exists within and between populations. These results join similar recent results in other organisms that suggest that microbial populations anticipate predictable environmental changes and hedge their bets against unpredictable ones. The classical view therefore represents but one special case in a range of evolutionary adaptations to environmental changes that all organisms face. PMID:25688600

  11. Shifting sugars and shifting paradigms.

    Mark L Siegal

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available No organism lives in a constant environment. Based on classical studies in molecular biology, many have viewed microbes as following strict rules for shifting their metabolic activities when prevailing conditions change. For example, students learn that the bacterium Escherichia coli makes proteins for digesting lactose only when lactose is available and glucose, a better sugar, is not. However, recent studies, including three PLOS Biology papers examining sugar utilization in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, show that considerable heterogeneity in response to complex environments exists within and between populations. These results join similar recent results in other organisms that suggest that microbial populations anticipate predictable environmental changes and hedge their bets against unpredictable ones. The classical view therefore represents but one special case in a range of evolutionary adaptations to environmental changes that all organisms face.

  12. Building a house on shifting sand: methodological considerations when evaluating the implementation and adoption of national electronic health record systems

    Takian Amirhossein

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A commitment to Electronic Health Record (EHR systems now constitutes a core part of many governments’ healthcare reform strategies. The resulting politically-initiated large-scale or national EHR endeavors are challenging because of their ambitious agendas of change, the scale of resources needed to make them work, the (relatively short timescales set, and the large number of stakeholders involved, all of whom pursue somewhat different interests. These initiatives need to be evaluated to establish if they improve care and represent value for money. Methods Critical reflections on these complexities in the light of experience of undertaking the first national, longitudinal, and sociotechnical evaluation of the implementation and adoption of England’s National Health Service’s Care Records Service (NHS CRS. Results/discussion We advance two key arguments. First, national programs for EHR implementations are likely to take place in the shifting sands of evolving sociopolitical and sociotechnical and contexts, which are likely to shape them in significant ways. This poses challenges to conventional evaluation approaches which draw on a model of baseline operations → intervention → changed operations (outcome. Second, evaluation of such programs must account for this changing context by adapting to it. This requires careful and creative choice of ontological, epistemological and methodological assumptions. Summary New and significant challenges are faced in evaluating national EHR implementation endeavors. Based on experiences from this national evaluation of the implementation and adoption of the NHS CRS in England, we argue for an approach to these evaluations which moves away from seeing EHR systems as Information and Communication Technologies (ICT projects requiring an essentially outcome-centred assessment towards a more interpretive approach that reflects the situated and evolving nature of EHR seen within

  13. Building a house on shifting sand: methodological considerations when evaluating the implementation and adoption of national electronic health record systems.

    Takian, Amirhossein; Petrakaki, Dimitra; Cornford, Tony; Sheikh, Aziz; Barber, Nicholas

    2012-04-30

    A commitment to Electronic Health Record (EHR) systems now constitutes a core part of many governments' healthcare reform strategies. The resulting politically-initiated large-scale or national EHR endeavors are challenging because of their ambitious agendas of change, the scale of resources needed to make them work, the (relatively) short timescales set, and the large number of stakeholders involved, all of whom pursue somewhat different interests. These initiatives need to be evaluated to establish if they improve care and represent value for money. Critical reflections on these complexities in the light of experience of undertaking the first national, longitudinal, and sociotechnical evaluation of the implementation and adoption of England's National Health Service's Care Records Service (NHS CRS). We advance two key arguments. First, national programs for EHR implementations are likely to take place in the shifting sands of evolving sociopolitical and sociotechnical and contexts, which are likely to shape them in significant ways. This poses challenges to conventional evaluation approaches which draw on a model of baseline operations → intervention → changed operations (outcome). Second, evaluation of such programs must account for this changing context by adapting to it. This requires careful and creative choice of ontological, epistemological and methodological assumptions. New and significant challenges are faced in evaluating national EHR implementation endeavors. Based on experiences from this national evaluation of the implementation and adoption of the NHS CRS in England, we argue for an approach to these evaluations which moves away from seeing EHR systems as Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) projects requiring an essentially outcome-centred assessment towards a more interpretive approach that reflects the situated and evolving nature of EHR seen within multiple specific settings and reflecting a constantly changing milieu of policies

  14. Assessing Resistance to Change During Shifting from Legacy to Open Web-Based Systems in the Air Transport Industry

    Brewer, Denise

    The air transport industry (ATI) is a dynamic, communal, international, and intercultural environment in which the daily operations of airlines, airports, and service providers are dependent on information technology (IT). Many of the IT legacy systems are more than 30 years old, and current regulations and the globally distributed workplace have brought profound changes to the way the ATI community interacts. The purpose of the study was to identify the areas of resistance to change in the ATI community and the corresponding factors in change management requirements that minimize product development delays and lead to a successful and timely shift from legacy to open web-based systems in upgrading ATI operations. The research questions centered on product development team processes as well as the members' perceived need for acceptance of change. A qualitative case study approach rooted in complexity theory was employed using a single case of an intercultural product development team dispersed globally. Qualitative data gathered from questionnaires were organized using Nvivo software, which coded the words and themes. Once coded, themes emerged identifying the areas of resistance within the product development team. Results of follow-up interviews with team members suggests that intercultural relationship building prior to and during project execution; focus on common team goals; and, development of relationships to enhance interpersonal respect, understanding and overall communication help overcome resistance to change. Positive social change in the form of intercultural group effectiveness evidenced in increased team functioning during major project transitions is likely to result when global managers devote time to cultural understanding.

  15. Shift in the microbial ecology of a hospital hot water system following the introduction of an on-site monochloramine disinfection system.

    Baron, Julianne L; Vikram, Amit; Duda, Scott; Stout, Janet E; Bibby, Kyle

    2014-01-01

    Drinking water distribution systems, including premise plumbing, contain a diverse microbiological community that may include opportunistic pathogens. On-site supplemental disinfection systems have been proposed as a control method for opportunistic pathogens in premise plumbing. The majority of on-site disinfection systems to date have been installed in hospitals due to the high concentration of opportunistic pathogen susceptible occupants. The installation of on-site supplemental disinfection systems in hospitals allows for evaluation of the impact of on-site disinfection systems on drinking water system microbial ecology prior to widespread application. This study evaluated the impact of supplemental monochloramine on the microbial ecology of a hospital's hot water system. Samples were taken three months and immediately prior to monochloramine treatment and monthly for the first six months of treatment, and all samples were subjected to high throughput Illumina 16S rRNA region sequencing. The microbial community composition of monochloramine treated samples was dramatically different than the baseline months. There was an immediate shift towards decreased relative abundance of Betaproteobacteria, and increased relative abundance of Firmicutes, Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Cyanobacteria and Actinobacteria. Following treatment, microbial populations grouped by sampling location rather than sampling time. Over the course of treatment the relative abundance of certain genera containing opportunistic pathogens and genera containing denitrifying bacteria increased. The results demonstrate the driving influence of supplemental disinfection on premise plumbing microbial ecology and suggest the value of further investigation into the overall effects of premise plumbing disinfection strategies on microbial ecology and not solely specific target microorganisms.

  16. Qualidade do tomate de mesa cultivado nos sistemas convencional e orgânico Quality of tomatoes cultivated in the organic and conventional cropping systems

    Sila Mary Rodrigues Ferreira

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A presença dos produtos orgânicos nas gôndolas das grandes redes de supermercados indica que existe um potencial de mercado para esses produtos, no entanto poucas são as informações técnico-científicas sobre eles. Em razão disso, o presente trabalho teve como objetivo determinar a qualidade do tomate de mesa cultivado nos sistemas convencional (SC e orgânico (SO comercializado na Região Metropolitana de Curitiba. As amostras foram avaliadas pela massa, peso específico, cinzas, sólidos totais, sólidos solúveis totais, acidez titulável total, relação sólidos solúveis totais/acidez titulável total, pH, vitamina C, nitratos, nitritos, multirresíduos, benzimidazóis e ditiocarbamatos. Os resultados da análise físico-química mostraram que somente na umidade os tomates não apresentaram diferença significativa ao nível de 5% quando comparados pelo Teste de Tukey. Em relação à análise toxicológica, não foram detectados multirresíduos e benzimidazóis até os limites de 0,04 mg.kg-1 e 0,1 mg.kg-1 de carbendazim, respectivamente. Nos resíduos de pesticidas do grupo químico ditiocarbamatos, foi identificado 0,01 mg.kg-1 (CS2 nas amostras de SC3 e SC4 do tomate de mesa cultivado no sistema convencional, abaixo do limite máximo recomendado (LMR de 2,0 mg.kg-1 (CS2 de mancozebe.The presence of organic products in the aisles of big supermarket chains indicates a market potential for these products. However, there is little technical and scientific information. Thus, the objective of this work was to determine the quality of tomatoes grown under conventional (CS and organic (OS systems, on sale in the metropolitan area of Curitiba, Brazil. Samples were evaluated in terms of mass, specific weight, ash, total solids, total soluble solids, total titratable acidity, total soluble solids/total titratable acidity ratio, pH, vitamin C, nitrates, nitrites, multiresidues. There were no significant differences between conventional and

  17. Lanthanide shift reagents, binding, shift mechanisms and exchange

    Boer, J.W.M. de

    1977-01-01

    Paramagnetic lanthanide shift reagents, when added to a solution of a substrate, induce shifts in the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrum of the substrate molecules. The induced shifts contain information about the structure of the shift reagent substrate complex. The structural information, however, may be difficult to extract because of the following effects: (1) different complexes between shift reagent and substrate may be present in solution, e.g. 1:1 and 1:2 complexes, and the shift observed is a weighed average of the shifts of the substrate nuclei in the different complexes; (2) the Fermi contact interaction, arising from the spin density at the nucleus, contributes to the induced shift; (3) chemical exchange effects may complicate the NMR spectrum. In this thesis, the results of an investigation into the influence of these effects on the NMR spectra of solutions containing a substrate and LSR are presented. The equations describing the pseudo contact and the Fermi contact shift are derived. In addition, it is shown how the modified Bloch equations describing the effect of the chemical exchange processes occurring in the systems studied can be reduced to the familiar equations for a two-site exchange case. The binding of mono- and bifunctional ethers to the shift reagent are reported. An analysis of the induced shifts is given. Finally, the results of the experiments performed to study the exchange behavior of dimethoxyethane and heptafluorodimethyloctanedionato ligands are presented

  18. [ACID-BASE MODULATION OF LYSOZYME ACTIVITY IN MEDIUM FOR CULTIVATION OF ENTEROBACTERIA].

    Andryuschenko, S V; Perunova, N B

    2015-01-01

    Determination of modulating effect of acid-base state of medium for cultivation of enterobacteria on activity of C-type lysozyme. Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) strain for protein expression, Escherichia coli K12 MG1655 model strain, Escherichia coli No. 242 strain, isolated from intestine biotope; 2 Klebsiella pneumoniae strains, one of those contained plasmid homologue of periplasmatic lysozyme inhibitor gene pliC; 1 typical Salmonella enterica ATCC 14028 strain and a Micrococcus luteus ATCC 15307 strain as a control--served as material for the study. The bacteria were cultivated for 24 hours in 2 ml of liquid medium LB at 37 degrees C, 250 rpm. Determination of antilysozyme activity (ALA) was carried out by a photonepehlometrical method according to O.V. Bukharin et al. (1999) with alterations. All the studied microorganisms, including Micrococcus luteus, at the specified conditions 24 hours after cultivation were established to change the pH of the liquid nutrient medium LB from the initial value of 6.6 ± 0.1 to 8.2 ± 0.2 units. ALA determination in the cultivation medium without buffer correction was accompanied by a decline of lysozyme activity at an order of magnitude. The effect was absent during ALA measurement by a standard technique. The local shift of acid-base state of biotope under the conditions of buffer system insufficiency results in a reversible alteration of antimicrobial activity of muramidase, that among other non-specific factors of the environment determines the background of interactions on the level of associative symbiosis. This aspect should be taken into consideration during development of models, that are close to real conditions of microsymbiocenotical interactions.

  19. Cultivo da levedura Phaffia rhodozyma (Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous em processo descontínuo alimentado para produção de astaxantina Cultivation of Phaffia rhodozyma (Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous yeast in discontinuous system to obtain astaxanthin

    Miriam Blümel Chociai

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available A levedura Phaffia rhodozyma, produtora de astaxantina, pigmento carotenóide largamente empregado na aqüicultura de peixes e crustáceos, pode ser eficientemente cultivada num meio de cultura de baixo custo, à base de caldo de cana diluído 1:10 e uréia a 1 g/L. No entanto, a produção de biomassa e a formação do carotenóide sofrem a inibição pelo substrato (efeito "Crabtree", limitando desta forma a utilização do caldo de cana com concentrações da fonte de carbono superiores a 20 g/L, importante consideração na produção industrial de astaxantina. No presente trabalho, o cultivo da levedura P. rhodozyma foi realizado em processo descontínuo alimentado, no qual se obteve produtividade volumétrica de 0,024 mg astaxantina/L.h. em relação aos 0,013 mg astaxantina/L.h. obtidos no cultivo controle, que não sofreu alimentação da fonte de carbono.The yeast Phaffia rhodozyma produces astaxanthin, a carotenoid pigment widely applied in fish and crustaceous cultivation. This yeast can be efficiently cultured in a low cost medium, sugar cane broth diluted 1:10 and supplemented with 1 g/L urea. However, the biomass and astaxanthin production undergo inhibition by the substrate (Crabtree effect, limiting the utilization of sugar cane broth up to 20 g/L total sugar concentration. Therefore, this effect must be considered during the industrial production of astaxanthin. In the present work, using fed batch system to cultivate P. rhodozyma we were able to obtain 0.024 mg astaxanthin/l.h compared to 0.013 mg astaxanthin/l.h obtained by the discontinuous cultivation system.

  20. A Multi-Pulse Front-End Rectifier System with Electronic Phase-Shifting for Harmonic Mitigation in Motor Drive Applications

    Zare, Firuz; Davari, Pooya; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, an electronic phase-shifting strategy has been optimized for a multi-parallel configuration of line-commutated rectifiers with a common dc-bus voltage used in motor drive application. This feature makes the performance of the system independent of the load profile and maximizes its...

  1. Intrafractional Baseline Shift or Drift of Lung Tumor Motion During Gated Radiation Therapy With a Real-Time Tumor-Tracking System

    Takao, Seishin; Miyamoto, Naoki; Matsuura, Taeko; Onimaru, Rikiya; Katoh, Norio; Inoue, Tetsuya; Sutherland, Kenneth Lee; Suzuki, Ryusuke; Shirato, Hiroki; Shimizu, Shinichi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the frequency and amplitude of baseline shift or drift (shift/drift) of lung tumors in stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT), using a real-time tumor-tracking radiation therapy (RTRT) system. Methods and Materials: Sixty-eight patients with peripheral lung tumors were treated with SBRT using the RTRT system. One of the fiducial markers implanted near the tumor was used for the real-time monitoring of the intrafractional tumor motion every 0.033 seconds by the RTRT system. When baseline shift/drift is determined by the system, the position of the treatment couch is adjusted to compensate for the shift/drift. Therefore, the changes in the couch position correspond to the baseline shift/drift in the tumor motion. The frequency and amount of adjustment to the couch positions in the left-right (LR), cranio-caudal (CC), and antero-posterior (AP) directions have been analyzed for 335 fractions administered to 68 patients. Results: The average change in position of the treatment couch during the treatment time was 0.45 ± 2.23 mm (mean ± standard deviation), −1.65 ± 5.95 mm, and 1.50 ± 2.54 mm in the LR, CC, and AP directions, respectively. Overall the baseline shift/drift occurs toward the cranial and posterior directions. The incidence of baseline shift/drift exceeding 3 mm was 6.0%, 15.5%, 14.0%, and 42.1% for the LR, CC, AP, and for the square-root of sum of 3 directions, respectively, within 10 minutes of the start of treatment, and 23.0%, 37.6%, 32.5%, and 71.6% within 30 minutes. Conclusions: Real-time monitoring and frequent adjustments of the couch position and/or adding appropriate margins are suggested to be essential to compensate for possible underdosages due to baseline shift/drift in SBRT for lung cancers.

  2. Temperature mapping using proton phase shift on a 0.3 T permanent magnet open MRI system

    Komura, Kazumi; Takahashi, Tetsuhiko; Dohi, Michiko; Harada, Junta

    2000-01-01

    Temperature mapping using proton phase shift (PPS) was evaluated for ex vivo objects. The evaluation was done on a 0.3 T permanent magnet open magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) machine, like those widely used for clinical diagnosis. Temperature maps were acquired using a gradient echo sequence (TR/TE =80/30 ms, flip angle =60 degrees, field of view =200 x 200 mm, slice thickness =8 mm, matrix size =128 x 128, data acquisition number =1, and imaging time =10.2 s). Specific first order data correction was performed to eliminate calculated temperature fluctuation due to magnetic field instability. A ham, 10 cm in diameter, was heated with a Nd: YAG laser with a wavelength of 1064 nm. The laser fiber was inserted into the ham to a depth of 3 cm. The laser power was 5, 8, or 10 W. Magnetic resonance images were taken continually during and after irradiation. Temperature maps were taken every 15 s. The maps taken during laser ablation showed color changes for the heated areas. Temperatures measured by the MRI and thermocouple had a linear relationship of r 2 =0.80. The inter-image standard deviation of the temperature maps of a non-heated object was 2.07 degrees for a 4.68 x 4.68 x 8 mm volume. This value is negligible for a monitored laser heating process since temperature rise is typically larger than 30 degrees. These results show that temperature mapping based on PPS is feasible for a 0.3 T permanent magnet open MRI system. (author)

  3. Biodiversity, evolution and adaptation of cultivated crops.

    Vigouroux, Yves; Barnaud, Adeline; Scarcelli, Nora; Thuillet, Anne-Céline

    2011-05-01

    The human diet depends on very few crops. Current diversity in these crops is the result of a long interaction between farmers and cultivated plants, and their environment. Man largely shaped crop biodiversity from the domestication period 12,000 B.P. to the development of improved varieties during the last century. We illustrate this process through a detailed analysis of the domestication and early diffusion of maize. In smallholder agricultural systems, farmers still have a major impact on crop diversity today. We review several examples of the major impact of man on current diversity. Finally, biodiversity is considered to be an asset for adaptation to current environmental changes. We describe the evolution of pearl millet in West Africa, where average rainfall has decreased over the last forty years. Diversity in cultivated varieties has certainly helped this crop to adapt to climate variation. Copyright © 2011 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Fungal cultivation on glass-beads

    Droce, Aida; Sørensen, Jens Laurids; Giese, Henriette

    Transcription of various bioactive compounds and enzymes are dependent on fungal cultivation method. In this study we cultivate Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium solani on glass-beads with liquid media in petri dishes as an easy and inexpensive cultivation method, that resembles in secondary...... metabolite production to agar-cultivation but with an easier and more pure RNA-extraction of total fungal mycelia....

  5. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Global Warming Potential of Traditional and Diversified Tropical Rice Rotation Systems including Impacts of Upland Crop Management Practices i.e. Mulching and Inter-crop Cultivation

    Janz, Baldur; Weller, Sebastian; Kraus, David; Wassmann, Reiner; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus; Kiese, Ralf

    2016-04-01

    Paddy rice cultivation is increasingly challenged by irrigation water scarcity, while at the same time changes in demand (e.g. changes in diets or increasing demand for biofuels) will feed back on agricultural practices. These factors are changing traditional cropping patterns from flooded double-rice systems to the introduction of well-aerated upland crop systems in the dry season. Emissions of methane (CH4) are expected to decrease, while emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O) will increase and soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks will most likely be volatilized in the form of carbon dioxide (CO2). We measured greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions at the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) in the Philippines to provide a comparative assessment of the global warming potentials (GWP) as well as yield scaled GWPs of different crop rotations and to evaluate mitigation potentials or risks of new management practices i.e. mulching and inter-crop cultivation. New management practices of mulching and intercrop cultivation will also have the potential to change SOC dynamics, thus can play the key role in contributing to the GWP of upland cropping systems. To present, more than three years of continuous measurement data of CH4 and N2O emissions in double-rice cropping (R-R) and paddy rice rotations diversified with either maize (R-M) or aerobic rice (R-A) in upland cultivation have been collected. Introduction of upland crops in the dry season reduced irrigation water use and CH4 emissions by 66-81% and 95-99%, respectively. Moreover, for practices including upland crops, CH4 emissions in the subsequent wet season with paddy rice were reduced by 54-60%. Although annual N2O emissions increased twice- to threefold in the diversified systems, the strong reduction of CH4 led to a significantly lower (pbalance but also with regard to soil fertility. New upland crop management practices where first implemented during land-preparation for dry season (July) 2015 where i) 6t/ha rice straw

  6. The effect of real-time pricing on load shifting in a highly renewable power system dominated by generation from the renewable sources of wind and photovoltaics

    Kies, Alexander; Brown, Tom; Schlachtberger, David; Schramm, Stefan

    2017-04-01

    The supply-demand imbalance is a major concern in the presence of large shares of highly variable renewable generation from sources like wind and photovoltaics (PV) in power systems. Other than the measures on the generation side, such as flexible backup generation or energy storage, sector coupling or demand side management are the most likely option to counter imbalances, therefore to ease the integration of renewable generation. Demand side management usually refers to load shifting, which comprises the reaction of electricity consumers to price fluctuations. In this work, we derive a novel methodology to model the interplay of load shifting and provided incentives via real-time pricing in highly renewable power systems. We use weather data to simulate generation from the renewable sources of wind and photovoltaics, as well as historical load data, split into different consumption categories, such as, heating, cooling, domestic, etc., to model a simplified power system. Together with renewable power forecast data, a simple market model and approaches to incorporate sector coupling [1] and load shifting [2,3], we model the interplay of incentives and load shifting for different scenarios (e.g., in dependency of the risk-aversion of consumers or the forecast horizon) and demonstrate the practical benefits of load shifting. First, we introduce the novel methodology and compare it with existing approaches. Secondly, we show results of numerical simulations on the effects of load shifting: It supports the integration of PV power by providing a storage, which characteristics can be described as "daily" and provides a significant amount of balancing potential. Lastly, we propose an experimental setup to obtain empirical data on end-consumer load-shifting behaviour in response to price incentives. References [1] Brown, T., Schlachtberger, D., Kies. A., Greiner, M., Sector coupling in a highly renewable European energy system, Proc. of the 15th International Workshop on

  7. Discovery of the double Doppler-shifted emission-line systems in the X-ray spectrum of SS 433

    Kotani, Taro; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Aoki, Takashi; Doty, John; Matsuoka, Masaru; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa; Nagase, Fumiaki; Ricker, George; White, Nick E.

    1994-01-01

    We have used the CCD X-ray spectrometers on ASCA and resolved the X-ray emission line from the jet of SS 433 both into Doppler-shifted components with two distinct velocities, and into emission from different ionization states of iron, i.e., Fe XXV and Fe XXVI. This is the first direct detection of the two Doppler shifted beams in the X-ray spectra of SS 433 and allows the radial velocity of the jet along the line of sight to be determined with an accuracy comparable to the optical spectroscopy. We also found pairs of emission lines from other atomic species, such as ionized silicon and sulfur, with the Doppler shifts consistent with each other. This confirms the origin of the X-ray emission in the high temperature plasma in the jets.

  8. Low-cost automated system for phase-shifting and phase retrieval based on the tunability of a laser diode

    Rivera-Ortega, Uriel; Dirckx, Joris

    2016-09-01

    A low-cost and fully automated process for phase-shifting interferometry by continuously changing and turning on-off the input voltage of a laser diode under the scheme of an unbalanced Twyman-Green interferometer setup is presented. The input signal of a laser diode is controlled by a Data Acquisition (NI-DAQ) device which permits to change its wavelength according to its tunability features. The automation and data analysis will be done using LabVIEW in combination with MATLAB. By using Carré algorithm the phase map is obtained. Measurements of visibility and phase-shift to verify the PSI requirements are also shown.

  9. Investigation of the photochemical changes of chlorogenic acids induced by ultraviolet light in model systems and in agricultural practice with Stevia rebaudiana cultivation as an example.

    Karaköse, Hande; Jaiswal, Rakesh; Deshpande, Sagar; Kuhnert, Nikolai

    2015-04-08

    Mono- and diacyl chlorogenic acids undergo photochemical trans-cis isomerization under ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. The photochemical equilibrium composition was established for eight selected derivatives. In contrast to all other dicaffeoylquinic acid derivatives, cynarin (1,3-dicaffeoylquinic acid) undergoes a [2 + 2] photochemical cycloaddition reaction, constituting a first example of Schmidt's law in a natural product family. The relevance of photochemical isomerization in agricultural practice was investigated using 120 samples of Stevia rebaudiana leave samples grown under defined cultivation conditions. Ratios of cis to trans chlorogenic acids were determined in leaf samples and correlated with climatic and harvesting conditions. The data indicate a clear correlation between the formation of cis-caffeoyl derivatives and sunshine hours prior to harvesting and illustrate the relevance of UV exposure to plant material affecting its phytochemical composition.

  10. Shift in the microbial ecology of a hospital hot water system following the introduction of an on-site monochloramine disinfection system.

    Julianne L Baron

    Full Text Available Drinking water distribution systems, including premise plumbing, contain a diverse microbiological community that may include opportunistic pathogens. On-site supplemental disinfection systems have been proposed as a control method for opportunistic pathogens in premise plumbing. The majority of on-site disinfection systems to date have been installed in hospitals due to the high concentration of opportunistic pathogen susceptible occupants. The installation of on-site supplemental disinfection systems in hospitals allows for evaluation of the impact of on-site disinfection systems on drinking water system microbial ecology prior to widespread application. This study evaluated the impact of supplemental monochloramine on the microbial ecology of a hospital's hot water system. Samples were taken three months and immediately prior to monochloramine treatment and monthly for the first six months of treatment, and all samples were subjected to high throughput Illumina 16S rRNA region sequencing. The microbial community composition of monochloramine treated samples was dramatically different than the baseline months. There was an immediate shift towards decreased relative abundance of Betaproteobacteria, and increased relative abundance of Firmicutes, Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Cyanobacteria and Actinobacteria. Following treatment, microbial populations grouped by sampling location rather than sampling time. Over the course of treatment the relative abundance of certain genera containing opportunistic pathogens and genera containing denitrifying bacteria increased. The results demonstrate the driving influence of supplemental disinfection on premise plumbing microbial ecology and suggest the value of further investigation into the overall effects of premise plumbing disinfection strategies on microbial ecology and not solely specific target microorganisms.

  11. Use of waste material in cultivation substrates

    Petr Salaš

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Gardeners' practical experience and experimental work prove the affirmation that the used substrate is a very important base for the production of quality nursery products. It is important to emphasis the complexity and synergy of all factors influencing the ecosystem and there mutual relations. Physical, chemical and biological properties do not separately affect the growth and development of plants. In addition, the relations are not statical but differ in relation with other factors changes. This article is dealing with the possibility to use waste material from timber processing in cultivation substrates. The large scale use of such substrates would enable people to reach a relative independence from peat substrates, of which the global reserve is gradually decreasing.Our research activities focus on the use of bark. The basic problems of a bark substrate are easy dehydration and unbalanced nutrition of trees and shrubs. The suggested and experimented cultivation technology solves these problems. It is based on the cultivation of woody species in bark substrates, using modern irrigation systems, slow release fertilisers (Silvamix Forte and special soil conditioners (TerraCottem. This technology was tested on the following species of trees and shrubs: Malus and Buxus.

  12. The application of spatial shifting for peak-to-average power ratio reduction in MIMO OFDM systems

    Schenk, T.C.W.; Smulders, P.F.M.; Fledderus, E.

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates the application of spatial shifting (SS) of partial transmit sequences (PTSs) in multiple-input multiple-output OFDM. The technique rearranges the transmit (TX) vector in such a way that subparts are transmitted on those TX branches that result in the lowest overall

  13. Cultivation Of Deep Subsurface Microbial Communities

    Obrzut, Natalia; Casar, Caitlin; Osburn, Magdalena R.

    2018-01-01

    The potential habitability of surface environments on other planets in our solar system is limited by exposure to extreme radiation and desiccation. In contrast, subsurface environments may offer protection from these stressors and are potential reservoirs for liquid water and energy that support microbial life (Michalski et al., 2013) and are thus of interest to the astrobiology community. The samples used in this project were extracted from the Deep Mine Microbial Observatory (DeMMO) in the former Homestake Mine at depths of 800 to 2000 feet underground (Osburn et al., 2014). Phylogenetic data from these sites indicates the lack of cultured representatives within the community. We used geochemical data to guide media design to cultivate and isolate organisms from the DeMMO communities. Media used for cultivation varied from heterotrophic with oxygen, nitrate or sulfate to autotrophic media with ammonia or ferrous iron. Environmental fluid was used as inoculum in batch cultivation and strains were isolated via serial transfers or dilution to extinction. These methods resulted in isolating aerobic heterotrophs, nitrate reducers, sulfate reducers, ammonia oxidizers, and ferric iron reducers. DNA sequencing of these strains is underway to confirm which species they belong to. This project is part of the NASA Astrobiology Institute Life Underground initiative to detect and characterize subsurface microbial life; by characterizing the intraterrestrials, the life living deep within Earth’s crust, we aim to understand the controls on how and where life survives in subsurface settings. Cultivation of terrestrial deep subsurface microbes will provide insight into the survival mechanisms of intraterrestrials guiding the search for these life forms on other planets.

  14. A CT-ultrasound-coregistered augmented reality enhanced image-guided surgery system and its preliminary study on brain-shift estimation

    Huang, C H; Hsieh, C H; Lee, J D; Huang, W C; Lee, S T; Wu, C T; Sun, Y N; Wu, Y T

    2012-01-01

    With the combined view on the physical space and the medical imaging data, augmented reality (AR) visualization can provide perceptive advantages during image-guided surgery (IGS). However, the imaging data are usually captured before surgery and might be different from the up-to-date one due to natural shift of soft tissues. This study presents an AR-enhanced IGS system which is capable to correct the movement of soft tissues from the pre-operative CT images by using intra-operative ultrasound images. First, with reconstructing 2-D free-hand ultrasound images to 3-D volume data, the system applies a Mutual-Information based registration algorithm to estimate the deformation between pre-operative and intra-operative ultrasound images. The estimated deformation transform describes the movement of soft tissues and is then applied to the pre-operative CT images which provide high-resolution anatomical information. As a result, the system thus displays the fusion of the corrected CT images or the real-time 2-D ultrasound images with the patient in the physical space through a head mounted display device, providing an immersive augmented-reality environment. For the performance validation of the proposed system, a brain phantom was utilized to simulate brain-shift scenario. Experimental results reveal that when the shift of an artificial tumor is from 5mm ∼ 12mm, the correction rates can be improved from 32% ∼ 45% to 87% ∼ 95% by using the proposed system.

  15. Quantized beam shifts in graphene

    de Melo Kort-Kamp, Wilton Junior [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Sinitsyn, Nikolai [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dalvit, Diego Alejandro Roberto [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-10-08

    We predict the existence of quantized Imbert-Fedorov, Goos-Hanchen, and photonic spin Hall shifts for light beams impinging on a graphene-on-substrate system in an external magnetic field. In the quantum Hall regime the Imbert-Fedorov and photonic spin Hall shifts are quantized in integer multiples of the fine structure constant α, while the Goos-Hanchen ones in multiples of α2. We investigate the influence on these shifts of magnetic field, temperature, and material dispersion and dissipation. An experimental demonstration of quantized beam shifts could be achieved at terahertz frequencies for moderate values of the magnetic field.

  16. cultivated Curcuma longa seedlings

    Ufuoma Uwerhiavwo

    2016-08-10

    Aug 10, 2016 ... content through flow cytometry, utilizing two reference standards, green ... Key words: Turmeric, micropropagation, flow cytometry, vegetal anatomy. ...... A computer statistical analysis system. ... Science 220(4601):1049-1051.

  17. Observation of the widening and shifting of EIT windows in a quasi-degenerate two-level atomic system

    Dong Yabin; Zhang Junxiang; Wang Haihong; Gao Jiangrui

    2006-01-01

    Widening and shifting the EIT windows in a closed transition F e = 2 ↔ F g = 3 driven by linearly polarized coupling lights and probed by circularly polarized lights are observed in Cs vapour. It is shown that by increasing the strength of magnetic field i.e. Zeeman splitting in the upper and lower levels, the electromagnetically induced transparency window is divided into two windows and the EIT maxima are shifted away from the zero detuning. In the contrast, if the strength of the magnetic field is fixed and the Rabi frequency of coupling beam is increased, the two EIT windows become wider, and the gap between the two EIT windows becomes smaller and smaller. These effects are also theoretically discussed and they are qualitatively in agreement with the theoretical results

  18. Electrical system for pulse-width modulated control of a power inverter using phase-shifted carrier signals and related operating methods

    Welchko, Brian A [Torrance, CA

    2012-02-14

    Systems and methods are provided for pulse-width modulated control of power inverter using phase-shifted carrier signals. An electrical system comprises an energy source and a motor. The motor has a first set of windings and a second set of windings, which are electrically isolated from each other. An inverter module is coupled between the energy source and the motor and comprises a first set of phase legs coupled to the first set of windings and a second set of phase legs coupled to the second set of windings. A controller is coupled to the inverter module and is configured to achieve a desired power flow between the energy source and the motor by modulating the first set of phase legs using a first carrier signal and modulating the second set of phase legs using a second carrier signal. The second carrier signal is phase-shifted relative to the first carrier signal.

  19. Cooperative dialogues during the shift change-over. Importance for the safety and reliability of production systems

    Grusenmeyer, C.

    1997-01-01

    During shift changeover, verbal communications between operators constitute a means of cooperating in order to continue actions and to carry out the process. The present study was aimed at analyzing verbal exchanges and consequently the role of this work phase. The paper proposes a method of analyzing verbal exchanges This method allows to follow the development of dialogues step by step and enables the operators' representation to be described as the dialogues unfolds. Dialogues observed in two industrial settings (paper manufacturing and nuclear power plant) are analyzed in two complementary ways. The analysis of the content of verbal exchanges (categorization) shows that these exchanges can be very different depending on the work situation (process state, work organization, last shift of the incoming operator...). More precise dialogues analyses show, in some cases, the construction by the operators of a shared functional representation. They consequently emphasize the importance of these exchanges for collective work. The results point out that these exchanges during shift changeover are not only an information transfer allowing actions related to the production process to be continued. They also allow cooperative problem solving and improvement of operators' expertise. On this basis, propositions related to the improvement of this work phase are made. (authors)

  20. Bioreactor design and implementation strategies for the cultivation of filamentous fungi and the production of fungal metabolites: from traditional methods to engineered systems

    Musoni, M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of fungal metabolites and conidia at an industrial scale requires an adequate yield at relatively low cost. To this end, many factors are examined and the design of the bioreactor to be used for the selected product takes a predominant place in the analysis. One approach to addressing the issue is to integrate the scaling-up procedure according to the biological characteristics of the microorganism considered, i.e. in our case filamentous fungi. Indeed, the scaling-up procedure is considered as one of the major bottlenecks in fermentation technology, mainly due to the near impossibility of reproducing the ideal conditions obtained in small reactors designed for research purposes when transposing them to a much larger production scale. The present review seeks to make the point regarding the bioreactor design and its implementation for cultivation of filamentous fungi and the production of fungal metabolites according to different developmental stages of fungi of industrial interest. Solid-state (semi-solid, submerged, fermentation and biofilm reactors are analyzed. The different bioreactor designs used for these three processes are also described at the technological level.

  1. Cultivation and uses of cucurbits

    Cultivated cucurbits have spread through trade and exploration from their respective Old and New World centers of origin to the six arable continents and are important in local, regional and world trade. Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), melon (Cucumis melo L.), pumpkin, squash and gourd (Cucurbita spp...

  2. Cultivating Audiences: Taming, Teaching, Transforming

    Nicolucci, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    Satisfying and successful school concerts require an active, empathic, and cooperative partnership between performers and audience members. As music educators work to prepare artful, dignified, and confident performers, "audiences" for these performers must be cultivated just as purposefully. Concertgoers can be motivated to consume school…

  3. Continuous cultivation of photosynthetic microorganisms: Approaches, applications and future trends.

    Fernandes, Bruno D; Mota, Andre; Teixeira, Jose A; Vicente, Antonio A

    2015-11-01

    The possibility of using photosynthetic microorganisms, such as cyanobacteria and microalgae, for converting light and carbon dioxide into valuable biochemical products has raised the need for new cost-efficient processes ensuring a constant product quality. Food, feed, biofuels, cosmetics and pharmaceutics are among the sectors that can profit from the application of photosynthetic microorganisms. Biomass growth in a photobioreactor is a complex process influenced by multiple parameters, such as photosynthetic light capture and attenuation, nutrient uptake, photobioreactor hydrodynamics and gas-liquid mass transfer. In order to optimize productivity while keeping a standard product quality, a permanent control of the main cultivation parameters is necessary, where the continuous cultivation has shown to be the best option. However it is of utmost importance to recognize the singularity of continuous cultivation of cyanobacteria and microalgae due to their dependence on light availability and intensity. In this sense, this review provides comprehensive information on recent breakthroughs and possible future trends regarding technological and process improvements in continuous cultivation systems of microalgae and cyanobacteria, that will directly affect cost-effectiveness and product quality standardization. An overview of the various applications, techniques and equipment (with special emphasis on photobioreactors) in continuous cultivation of microalgae and cyanobacteria are presented. Additionally, mathematical modeling, feasibility, economics as well as the applicability of continuous cultivation into large-scale operation, are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Establishing Comprehensive Experiment System of Microbiological Technologies and Cultivating Undergraduate' s Professional Scientific Literacy%构建微生物学技术综合实验体系 培养大学生科研素养

    韩国民; 沈玲; 张明; 徐世红(编、校)

    2012-01-01

    为了培养学生实验设计能力,提高学生的实验基本功,以学生感兴趣的酒精制作工艺的各个环节为实验内容,构建了微生物学技术综合实验体系。在项目实施过程中将酒精制作工艺分解成酵母菌筛选、菌种鉴定、细胞固定化及酒精发酵等4个模块,在各个模块中融入多种基本实验技术,形成一个系统的综合性实验项目。本项目的实施有利于培养学生实验设计能力、数据分析能力和论文写作能力,以提高学生的科研素养。%In order to cultivate student' s ability of design experiment and enhance their techniques, we selected the manufacture craft of alcohol which was favored by students as the contents of experiment to establish comprehensive experiment system of microbiological technology. The manufacture craft was divided into four parts, i.e. selection of yeasts, identification, immobilization of cells and alcoholic fermentation. A large number of basic techniques were integrated into the four parts and formed a comprehensive experiment system. The experiment system is beneficial to cultivate student' s ability of design experiment, data analytical ability and academic writing capacity for cuhivating and enhancing students' professional scientific literacy.

  5. The case for small-scale domestic cannabis cultivation.

    Decorte, Tom

    2010-07-01

    The shift to (inter)regional production, trade and domestic cultivation has become an irreversible international trend. Until now, the focus of most empirical work has been on large-scale, commercially oriented and professionally organized segments of the cannabis industry, often based on police data and on the perspective of law enforcement agencies. This paper offers a review of recent Dutch-language research that focuses on cannabis cultivation. Empirical studies were identified through literature searches using relevant search terms and Web of Science, Elin, Social Science Research Network and Elsevier ScienceDirect. The paper presents the main findings of Dutch and Belgian empirical work on the factors that stimulated the import substitution process on the cannabis market, aspects related to quality and potency issues, typologies of cannabis growers, and (unintended) effects of pursued policies. In the light of this (selective) review the author offers some commentary and analysis concerning the claims made by different stakeholders, and concludes with some reflections on future research and on policy implications. The author outlines the importance of small-scale, independent or ideologically oriented cannabis cultivation as an under-researched market segment. The author also makes a case for greater toleration of small-scale cannabis cultivation, to secure the least worst of cannabis markets. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Cultivating the Glocal Garden

    Matthijs Hisschemoller

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the question under which conditions small-scale urban agriculture (UA initiatives can accelerate a sustainability transition of the global food system. It develops the notion of a glocal garden, a large number of likeminded local initiatives with a global impact and forms of worldwide collaboration. Taking a transition perspective, the glocal garden, producing vegetables and fruits, is a niche that has to overcome barriers to compete with the dominant food regime. Since a sustainability transition restructures (policy sectors, institutional domains including knowledge systems, the paper explores which innovations are needed for the glocal garden to succeed. It discusses the glocal garden as an environmental, a social, an economic and a global project. As an environmental project, the glocal garden will link sustainable production of food with renewable energy production. As a social project, it will be organized into a consumers’ cooperative. As an economic project, it will strive for profit, increasing the yield in a sustainable manner. As a global project, it will enhance collaboration between local cooperatives in the North and the South, as well as with rural agriculture. Under these conditions, the glocal garden can develop into a power, able to resist a possible future food regime that splits societies, in terms of quality standards and food products, into haves and have-nots.

  7. Stochastic modelling of shifts in allele frequencies reveals a strongly polygynous mating system in the re-introduced Asiatic wild ass.

    Renan, Sharon; Greenbaum, Gili; Shahar, Naama; Templeton, Alan R; Bouskila, Amos; Bar-David, Shirli

    2015-04-01

    Small populations are prone to loss of genetic variation and hence to a reduction in their evolutionary potential. Therefore, studying the mating system of small populations and its potential effects on genetic drift and genetic diversity is of high importance for their viability assessments. The traditional method for studying genetic mating systems is paternity analysis. Yet, as small populations are often rare and elusive, the genetic data required for paternity analysis are frequently unavailable. The endangered Asiatic wild ass (Equus hemionus), like all equids, displays a behaviourally polygynous mating system; however, the level of polygyny has never been measured genetically in wild equids. Combining noninvasive genetic data with stochastic modelling of shifts in allele frequencies, we developed an alternative approach to paternity analysis for studying the genetic mating system of the re-introduced Asiatic wild ass in the Negev Desert, Israel. We compared the shifts in allele frequencies (as a measure of genetic drift) that have occurred in the wild ass population since re-introduction onset to simulated scenarios under different proportions of mating males. We revealed a strongly polygynous mating system in which less than 25% of all males participate in the mating process each generation. This strongly polygynous mating system and its potential effect on the re-introduced population's genetic diversity could have significant consequences for the long-term persistence of the population in the Negev. The stochastic modelling approach and the use of allele-frequency shifts can be further applied to systems that are affected by genetic drift and for which genetic data are limited. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Early decline in glucose transport and metabolism precedes shift to ketogenic system in female aging and Alzheimer's mouse brain: implication for bioenergetic intervention.

    Ding, Fan; Yao, Jia; Rettberg, Jamaica R; Chen, Shuhua; Brinton, Roberta Diaz

    2013-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that mitochondrial bioenergetic deficits in the female brain accompanied reproductive senescence and was accompanied by a shift from an aerobic glycolytic to a ketogenic phenotype. Herein, we investigated the relationship between systems of fuel supply, transport and mitochondrial metabolic enzyme expression/activity during aging (3-15 months) in the hippocampus of nontransgenic (nonTg) background and 3xTgAD female mice. Results indicate that during female brain aging, both nonTg and 3xTgAD brains undergo significant decline in glucose transport, as detected by FDG-microPET, between 6-9 months of age just prior to the transition into reproductive senescence. The deficit in brain metabolism was sustained thereafter. Decline in glucose transport coincided with significant decline in neuronal glucose transporter expression and hexokinase activity with a concomitant rise in phosphorylated/inactivated pyruvate dehydrogenase. Lactate utilization declined in parallel to the decline in glucose transport suggesting lactate did not serve as an alternative fuel. An adaptive response in the nonTg hippocampus was a shift to transport and utilization of ketone bodies as an alternative fuel. In the 3xTgAD brain, utilization of ketone bodies as an alternative fuel was evident at the earliest age investigated and declined thereafter. The 3xTgAD adaptive response was to substantially increase monocarboxylate transporters in neurons while decreasing their expression at the BBB and in astrocytes. Collectively, these data indicate that the earliest change in the metabolic system of the aging female brain is the decline in neuronal glucose transport and metabolism followed by decline in mitochondrial function. The adaptive shift to the ketogenic system as an alternative fuel coincided with decline in mitochondrial function. Translationally, these data provide insights into the earliest events in bioenergetic aging of the female brain and provide potential

  9. Early Decline in Glucose Transport and Metabolism Precedes Shift to Ketogenic System in Female Aging and Alzheimer's Mouse Brain: Implication for Bioenergetic Intervention

    Ding, Fan; Yao, Jia; Rettberg, Jamaica R.; Chen, Shuhua; Brinton, Roberta Diaz

    2013-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that mitochondrial bioenergetic deficits in the female brain accompanied reproductive senescence and was accompanied by a shift from an aerobic glycolytic to a ketogenic phenotype. Herein, we investigated the relationship between systems of fuel supply, transport and mitochondrial metabolic enzyme expression/activity during aging (3–15 months) in the hippocampus of nontransgenic (nonTg) background and 3xTgAD female mice. Results indicate that during female brain aging, both nonTg and 3xTgAD brains undergo significant decline in glucose transport, as detected by FDG-microPET, between 6–9 months of age just prior to the transition into reproductive senescence. The deficit in brain metabolism was sustained thereafter. Decline in glucose transport coincided with significant decline in neuronal glucose transporter expression and hexokinase activity with a concomitant rise in phosphorylated/inactivated pyruvate dehydrogenase. Lactate utilization declined in parallel to the decline in glucose transport suggesting lactate did not serve as an alternative fuel. An adaptive response in the nonTg hippocampus was a shift to transport and utilization of ketone bodies as an alternative fuel. In the 3xTgAD brain, utilization of ketone bodies as an alternative fuel was evident at the earliest age investigated and declined thereafter. The 3xTgAD adaptive response was to substantially increase monocarboxylate transporters in neurons while decreasing their expression at the BBB and in astrocytes. Collectively, these data indicate that the earliest change in the metabolic system of the aging female brain is the decline in neuronal glucose transport and metabolism followed by decline in mitochondrial function. The adaptive shift to the ketogenic system as an alternative fuel coincided with decline in mitochondrial function. Translationally, these data provide insights into the earliest events in bioenergetic aging of the female brain and provide potential

  10. Sustainable intensification of cultivated pastures using multiple ...

    rangeland and wildlife parks) for guidelines to implementing this approach in cultivated pasture. In rangeland or natural grassland ... Keywords: animal production, biodiversity, cultivated pastures, foraging ecology, plant–herbivore interactions ...

  11. Disponibilidade de água do solo ao milho cultivado sob sistemas de semeadura direta e preparo convencional Water availability to maize plants cultivated under no-tillage and conventional tillage systems

    Mirta Teresinha Petry

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi quantificar o armazenamento, a disponibilidade e a extração de água no solo por plantas de milho irrigadas e submetidas a déficit hídrico terminal, cultivadas sob sistema de semeadura direta e preparo convencional. Foram realizados dois experimentos durante os anos agrícolas de 1999/00 e 2000/01, em área experimental do Departamento de Engenharia Rural da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, fatorial, com quatro repetições. Foram utilizados dois manejos da água de irrigação (fator A: irrigado e déficit hídrico terminal (plantas de milho foram submetidas a déficit hídrico terminal a partir dos 27 dias após a emergência; e dois sistemas de cultivo (fator B: semeadura direta e preparo convencional. Nas parcelas irrigadas, irrigações foram feitas para elevar o conteúdo de água no solo ao limite superior de disponibilidade de água às plantas, sempre que a evapotranspiração máxima acumulada da cultura do milho atingia 25 mm. O conteúdo de água no solo foi medido em três leituras semanais, para determinação da extração de água pelas plantas e disponibilidade de água às plantas de milho. Os resultados indicaram que a disponibilidade de água às plantas de milho foi similar nos sistemas semeadura direta e preparo convencional, em ambos os anos agrícolas avaliados. Plantas de milho cultivadas em preparo convencional extraíram maior quantidade de água, em ambos os anos, em relação à semeadura direta.The aim objective of this study was to quantify the soil water storage, plant-available water and extraction of soil water by corn plants under irrigation and terminal drought. Plants were cultivated under no-tillage and conventional tillage systems. Two experiments were conducted in the 1999/00 and 2000/01 growing season on an experimental field of the Agricultural Engineering Department of the Federal University of Santa

  12. Soil carbon and nitrogen mineralization under different tillage systems and Permanent Groundcover cultivation between Orange trees Mineralização do carbono e nitrogênio sob diferentes preparos de solo e coberturas permanentes intercalares em pomar de laranjeira

    Elcio Liborio Balota

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the alterations in carbon and nitrogen mineralization due to different soil tillage systems and groundcover species for intercropped orange trees. The experiment was established in an Ultisol soil (Typic Paleudults originated from Caiuá sandstone in northwestern of the state of Paraná, Brazil, in an area previously cultivated with pasture (Brachiaria humidicola. Two soil tillage systems were evaluated: conventional tillage (CT in the entire area and strip tillage (ST with a 2-m width, each with different groundcover vegetation management systems. The citrus cultivar utilized was the 'Pera' orange (Citrus sinensis grafted onto a 'Rangpur' lime rootstock. The soil samples were collected at a 0-15-cm depth after five years of experiment development. Samples were collected from under the tree canopy and from the inter-row space after the following treatments: (1 CT and annual cover crop with the leguminous Calopogonium mucunoides; (2 CT and perennial cover crop with the leguminous peanut Arachis pintoi; (3 CT and evergreen cover crop with Bahiagrass Paspalum notatum; (4 CT and cover crop with spontaneous B. humidicola grass vegetation; and (5 ST and maintenance of the remaining grass (pasture of B. humidicola. The soil tillage systems and different groundcover vegetation influenced the C and N mineralization, both under the tree canopy and in the inter-row space. The cultivation of B. humidicola under strip tillage provided higher potential mineralization than the other treatments in the inter-row space. Strip tillage increased the C and N mineralization compared to conventional tillage. The grass cultivation increased the C and N mineralization when compared to the others treatments cultivated in the inter-row space.No presente trabalho, foi avaliada a mineralização do Carbono e Nitrogênio devido ao cultivo intercalar de diferentes coberturas permanentes em pomar de laranjeira. O experimento foi

  13. The cultivated agricultural environment

    Eriksson, Aa.

    1997-01-01

    Local agricultural practices in the Nordic countries have resulted in a great diversity in agriculture in the Nordic countries. The diversities mean that in the event of contamination of agricultural land by radioactive fallout the consequences may differ greatly from region to region. For crops and soils contaminated directly by radioactive fallout there are five primary causes for concern, namely: 1. short-term internal contamination of man and animals through ingestion of surface-contaminated mature crops; 2. internal contamination of crops through foliar intake; 3. contamination of mature crops from resuspended soil; 4. direct irradiation of agricultural workers; 5. internal irradiation from inhalation of resuspended soil particulates. In the short-term, most of the radionuclides likely to be released to the atmosphere in the event of an accident have a potential to cause problems in agriculture and many have the potential for causing long-term problems. Generally, the magnitude of the problems created will depend on the: deposition mechanism (wet or dry); radionuclide composition of the fallout; type of farming system (i.e. arable or dairy); type of soil (for instance organic soils are more sensitive than mineral soils with respect to radiocaesium); state of development of the crop which in turn is determined by the season of the year. (EG)

  14. The cultivated agricultural environment

    Eriksson, Aa [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Dept. of Radioecology (Sweden)

    1997-10-01

    Local agricultural practices in the Nordic countries have resulted in a great diversity in agriculture in the Nordic countries. The diversities mean that in the event of contamination of agricultural land by radioactive fallout the consequences may differ greatly from region to region. For crops and soils contaminated directly by radioactive fallout there are five primary causes for concern, namely: 1. short-term internal contamination of man and animals through ingestion of surface-contaminated mature crops; 2. internal contamination of crops through foliar intake; 3. contamination of mature crops from resuspended soil; 4. direct irradiation of agricultural workers; 5. internal irradiation from inhalation of resuspended soil particulates. In the short-term, most of the radionuclides likely to be released to the atmosphere in the event of an accident have a potential to cause problems in agriculture and many have the potential for causing long-term problems. Generally, the magnitude of the problems created will depend on the: deposition mechanism (wet or dry); radionuclide composition of the fallout; type of farming system (i.e. arable or dairy); type of soil (for instance organic soils are more sensitive than mineral soils with respect to radiocaesium); state of development of the crop which in turn is determined by the season of the year. (EG). 56 refs.

  15. Crystal identification for a dual-layer-offset LYSO based PET system via Lu-176 background radiation and mean shift algorithm

    Wei, Qingyang; Ma, Tianyu; Xu, Tianpeng; Zeng, Ming; Gu, Yu; Dai, Tiantian; Liu, Yaqiang

    2018-01-01

    Modern positron emission tomography (PET) detectors are made from pixelated scintillation crystal arrays and readout by Anger logic. The interaction position of the gamma-ray should be assigned to a crystal using a crystal position map or look-up table. Crystal identification is a critical procedure for pixelated PET systems. In this paper, we propose a novel crystal identification method for a dual-layer-offset LYSO based animal PET system via Lu-176 background radiation and mean shift algorithm. Single photon event data of the Lu-176 background radiation are acquired in list-mode for 3 h to generate a single photon flood map (SPFM). Coincidence events are obtained from the same data using time information to generate a coincidence flood map (CFM). The CFM is used to identify the peaks of the inner layer using the mean shift algorithm. The response of the inner layer is deducted from the SPFM by subtracting CFM. Then, the peaks of the outer layer are also identified using the mean shift algorithm. The automatically identified peaks are manually inspected by a graphical user interface program. Finally, a crystal position map is generated using a distance criterion based on these peaks. The proposed method is verified on the animal PET system with 48 detector blocks on a laptop with an Intel i7-5500U processor. The total runtime for whole system peak identification is 67.9 s. Results show that the automatic crystal identification has 99.98% and 99.09% accuracy for the peaks of the inner and outer layers of the whole system respectively. In conclusion, the proposed method is suitable for the dual-layer-offset lutetium based PET system to perform crystal identification instead of external radiation sources.

  16. Uranium uptake by hydroponically cultivated crop plants

    Soudek, Petr; Petrova, Sarka [Laboratory of Plant Biotechnologies, Joint Laboratory of Institute of Experimental Botany AS CR, v.v.i. and Crop Research Institute, v.v.i., Rozvojova 263, 162 05 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Benesova, Dagmar [Laboratory of Plant Biotechnologies, Joint Laboratory of Institute of Experimental Botany AS CR, v.v.i. and Crop Research Institute, v.v.i., Rozvojova 263, 162 05 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Faculty of Environment Technology, Institute of Chemical Technology, Technicka 5, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Dvorakova, Marcela [Laboratory of Plant Biotechnologies, Joint Laboratory of Institute of Experimental Botany AS CR, v.v.i. and Crop Research Institute, v.v.i., Rozvojova 263, 162 05 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Vanek, Tomas, E-mail: vanek@ueb.cas.cz [Laboratory of Plant Biotechnologies, Joint Laboratory of Institute of Experimental Botany AS CR, v.v.i. and Crop Research Institute, v.v.i., Rozvojova 263, 162 05 Prague 6 (Czech Republic)

    2011-06-15

    Hydroponicaly cultivated plants were grown on medium containing uranium. The appropriate concentrations of uranium for the experiments were selected on the basis of a standard ecotoxicity test. The most sensitive plant species was determined to be Lactuca sativa with an EC{sub 50} value about 0.1 mM. Cucumis sativa represented the most resistant plant to uranium (EC{sub 50} = 0.71 mM). Therefore, we used the uranium in a concentration range from 0.1 to 1 mM. Twenty different plant species were tested in hydroponic solution supplemented by 0.1 mM or 0.5 mM uranium concentration. The uranium accumulation of these plants varied from 0.16 mg/g DW to 0.011 mg/g DW. The highest uranium uptake was determined for Zea mays and the lowest for Arabidopsis thaliana. The amount of accumulated uranium was strongly influenced by uranium concentration in the cultivation medium. Autoradiography showed that uranium is mainly localized in the root system of the plants tested. Additional experiments demonstrated the possibility of influencing the uranium uptake from the cultivation medium by amendments. Tartaric acid was able to increase uranium uptake by Brassica oleracea and Sinapis alba up to 2.8 times or 1.9 times, respectively. Phosphate deficiency increased uranium uptake up to 4.5 times or 3.9 times, respectively, by Brassica oleracea and S. alba. In the case of deficiency of iron or presence of cadmium ions we did not find any increase in uranium accumulation. - Highlights: > The uranium accumulation in twenty different plant species varied from 0.160 to 0.011 mg/g DW. > Uranium is mainly localized in the root system. > Tartaric acid was able to increase uranium uptake by Brassica oleracea and Sinapis alba. > The phosphates deficiency increase the uranium uptake.

  17. Uranium uptake by hydroponically cultivated crop plants

    Soudek, Petr; Petrova, Sarka; Benesova, Dagmar; Dvorakova, Marcela; Vanek, Tomas

    2011-01-01

    Hydroponicaly cultivated plants were grown on medium containing uranium. The appropriate concentrations of uranium for the experiments were selected on the basis of a standard ecotoxicity test. The most sensitive plant species was determined to be Lactuca sativa with an EC 50 value about 0.1 mM. Cucumis sativa represented the most resistant plant to uranium (EC 50 = 0.71 mM). Therefore, we used the uranium in a concentration range from 0.1 to 1 mM. Twenty different plant species were tested in hydroponic solution supplemented by 0.1 mM or 0.5 mM uranium concentration. The uranium accumulation of these plants varied from 0.16 mg/g DW to 0.011 mg/g DW. The highest uranium uptake was determined for Zea mays and the lowest for Arabidopsis thaliana. The amount of accumulated uranium was strongly influenced by uranium concentration in the cultivation medium. Autoradiography showed that uranium is mainly localized in the root system of the plants tested. Additional experiments demonstrated the possibility of influencing the uranium uptake from the cultivation medium by amendments. Tartaric acid was able to increase uranium uptake by Brassica oleracea and Sinapis alba up to 2.8 times or 1.9 times, respectively. Phosphate deficiency increased uranium uptake up to 4.5 times or 3.9 times, respectively, by Brassica oleracea and S. alba. In the case of deficiency of iron or presence of cadmium ions we did not find any increase in uranium accumulation. - Highlights: → The uranium accumulation in twenty different plant species varied from 0.160 to 0.011 mg/g DW. → Uranium is mainly localized in the root system. → Tartaric acid was able to increase uranium uptake by Brassica oleracea and Sinapis alba. → The phosphates deficiency increase the uranium uptake.

  18. Three-dimensional motion-picture imaging of dynamic object by parallel-phase-shifting digital holographic microscopy using an inverted magnification optical system

    Fukuda, Takahito; Shinomura, Masato; Xia, Peng; Awatsuji, Yasuhiro; Nishio, Kenzo; Matoba, Osamu

    2017-04-01

    We constructed a parallel-phase-shifting digital holographic microscopy (PPSDHM) system using an inverted magnification optical system, and succeeded in three-dimensional (3D) motion-picture imaging for 3D displacement of a microscopic object. In the PPSDHM system, the inverted and afocal magnification optical system consisted of a microscope objective (16.56 mm focal length and 0.25 numerical aperture) and a convex lens (300 mm focal length and 82 mm aperture diameter). A polarization-imaging camera was used to record multiple phase-shifted holograms with a single-shot exposure. We recorded an alum crystal, sinking down in aqueous solution of alum, by the constructed PPSDHM system at 60 frames/s for about 20 s and reconstructed high-quality 3D motion-picture image of the crystal. Then, we calculated amounts of displacement of the crystal from the amounts in the focus plane and the magnifications of the magnification optical system, and obtained the 3D trajectory of the crystal by that amounts.

  19. Theoretical analysis of a biogas-fed PEMFC system with different hydrogen purifications: Conventional and membrane-based water gas shift processes

    Authayanun, Suthida; Aunsup, Pounyaporn; Patcharavorachot, Yaneeporn; Arpornwichanop, Amornchai

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermodynamic analysis of the biogas-fed PEMFC system is performed. • Conventional and membrane-based WGS processes for H 2 purification are studied. • A flowsheet model of the PEMFC system is developed. • Effect of key parameters on yields of H 2 and carbon in the biogas reformer is shown. • Performance of PEMFC systems with different H 2 purification processes is analyzed. - Abstract: This study presents a thermodynamic analysis of biogas reforming and proton electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) integrated process with different hydrogen purifications: conventional and membrane-based water gas shift processes. The aim is to determine the optimal reforming process for hydrogen production from biogas in the PEMFC system. The formation of carbon is concerned in the hydrogen production. The simulation results show that increases in the steam-to-methane ratio and reformer temperature can improve the hydrogen yield and reduce the carbon formation. From the performance analysis, it is found that when the PEMFC is operated at high temperature and fuel utilization, the overall system efficiency enhances. The performance of the PEMFC system with the installation of a water gas shift membrane unit in the hydrogen purification step is slightly increased, compared with a conventional process

  20. Interaction potential of the H-He system and the hyperfine frequency shift of H in He buffer gas

    Tang, K.T.; Yang, X.D.

    1990-01-01

    The van der Waals potential of the H-He interaction and the hyperfine frequency shift of H in He are predicted using the Tang-Toennies model. This model damps the long-range ab initio dispersion terms individually using a universal damping function and adds to this a simple Born-Mayer repulsive term. The Born-Mayer parameters are derived from self-consistent-field calculations. The resulting potential is found to be in good agreement with two molecular-beam experiments and its well parameters, in excellent agreement with the complete configuration-interaction calculation. In order to compare with experiment, the hyperfine frequency shift is thermally averaged over the potential both quantum mechanically and classically. The thermally averaged results are in excellent agreement with experiment in the high-temperature range but there are some discrepancies with the measurements at 0.5 and at 1.15 K. These discrepancies may be due to the fact that the long-range coefficient K 10 used is too small. The quantum and classical results are practically identical for temperature above 40 K. The classical statistics fails completely only for temperature below 5 K. Also in the quantum calculation, the isotope effect between 3 He and 4 He is found to show up only for temperature below 10 K. The theoretical isotope effect is in qualitative agreement with experiment

  1. Effects of different cultivation techniques on vineyard fauna

    Mikulas, J.; Kutasi, Cs.; Mark, V.; Balog, A.

    2002-01-01

    Green covering compared to soil cultivation enhanced the number of individuals of Araneae living on or near soil. No differences between the different soil management systems were found for the number of individuals of Staphylinidae and Carabidae. The typical main species of the two systems were different for all groups analyzed (Araneae, Staphylinidae and Carabidae).

  2. Circadian rhythmicity of the urinary excretion of mercury, potassium and catecholamines in unconventional shift-work systems.

    Vokac, Z; Gundersen, N; Magnus, P; Jebens, E; Bakka, T

    1980-09-01

    The round the clock urinary excretion rates of mercury were assessed for two series of unconventional patterns of activity and sleep in subjects who were not exposed to occupational, medical, or other obvious sources of mercury. In the first series the urine was collected in 3-h periods from six subjects during the first and last 2 d of a four-week, continuous 6-h shift (car ferry, watches either 0800--1400 and 2000--0200 or 1400--2000 and 0200--0800). In the second series the urine was collected in 4-h periods from five subjects working an 8-h experimental rotation shift compressed into 5 d (work two mornings--8-h interval--work two nights--8-h interval--work two afternoons). The mean daily excretion rate of the 11 subjects (48 investigation days, 334 urine samples) was 14.5 pmol of mercury/min (range 5.5--24.4 pmol of mercury/min). The mercury excretion oscillated regularly during 24 h by +/- 20--25% of the individual's daily mean excretion rates. The peak excretion rates were found at 0652 in the first and 0642 in the second series (cosinor treatment). Due to the circadian rhythm the mean 24-h excretion rates were best represented (correlation coefficient 0.92) by analyses of urine produced around noon (spot samples, collection periods 1100--1400 and 1000-1400, respectively). The circadian oscillations of mercury excretion were not influenced by the widely different and varying activity-sleep patterns of the two series. The rhythmicity of potassium excretion (peaks at around 1400) was more irregular. The stable oscillations of mercury excretion contrasted most with the excretion of adrenaline and noradrenaline, which, without losing the basic 24-h rhythmicity, closely followed the unconventional patterns of activity and sleep.

  3. Production of deuterated switchgrass by hydroponic cultivation.

    Evans, Barbara R; Bali, Garima; Foston, Marcus; Ragauskas, Arthur J; O'Neill, Hugh M; Shah, Riddhi; McGaughey, Joseph; Reeves, David; Rempe, Caroline S; Davison, Brian H

    2015-07-01

    The bioenergy crop switchgrass was grown hydroponically from tiller cuttings in 50 % D 2 O to obtain biomass with 34 % deuterium substitution and physicochemical properties similar to those of H 2 O-grown switchgrass controls. Deuterium enrichment of biological materials can potentially enable expanded experimental use of small angle neutron scattering (SANS) to investigate molecular structural transitions of complex systems such as plant cell walls. Two key advances have been made that facilitate cultivation of switchgrass, an important forage and biofuel crop, for controlled isotopic enrichment: (1) perfusion system with individual chambers and (2) hydroponic growth from tiller cuttings. Plants were grown and maintained for several months with periodic harvest. Photosynthetic activity was monitored by measurement of CO2 in outflow from the growth chambers. Plant morphology and composition appeared normal compared to matched controls grown with H2O. Using this improved method, gram quantities of switchgrass leaves and stems were produced by continuous hydroponic cultivation using growth medium consisting of basal mineral salts in 50 % D2O. Deuterium incorporation was confirmed by detection of the O-D and C-D stretching peaks with FTIR and quantified by (1)H- and (2)H-NMR. This capability to produce deuterated lignocellulosic biomass under controlled conditions will enhance investigation of cell wall structure and its deconstruction by neutron scattering and NMR techniques.

  4. Effects of long working hours and the night shift on severe sleepiness among workers with 12-hour shift systems for 5 to 7 consecutive days in the automobile factories of Korea.

    Son, Mia; Kong, Jeong-Ok; Koh, Sang-Baek; Kim, Jaeyoung; Härmä, Mikko

    2008-12-01

    We investigated the effects of 12-hour shift work for five to seven consecutive days and overtime on the prevalence of severe sleepiness in the automobile industry in Korea. [Correction added after online publication 28 Nov: Opening sentence of the summary has been rephrased for better clarity.] A total of 288 randomly selected male workers from two automobile factories were selected and investigated using questionnaires and sleep-wake diaries in South Korea. The prevalence of severe sleepiness at work [i.e. Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS) score of 7 or higher] was modeled using marginal logistic regression and included theoretical risk factors related to working hours and potential confounding factors related to socio-economic status, work demands, and health behaviors. Factors related to working hours increased the risk for severe sleepiness at the end of the shift in the following order: the night shift [odds ratio (OR): 4.7; 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.6-6.0)], daily overtime (OR: 2.2; 95% CI: 1.7-2.9), weekly overtime (OR: 1.6; 95% CI: 1.0-2.6), and night overtime (OR: 1.6; 95% CI: 0.8-3.0). Long working hours and shift work had a significant interactive effect for severe sleepiness at work. Night shift workers who worked for 12 h or more a day were exposed to a risk of severe sleepiness that was 7.5 times greater than day shift workers who worked less than 11 h. Night shifts and long working hours were the main risk factors for severe sleepiness among automobile factory workers in Korea. Night shifts and long working hours have a high degree of interactive effects resulting in severe sleepiness at work, which highlight the need for immediate measures to address these characteristics among South Korean labor force patterns.

  5. New Aspects of Field Entropy Squeezing as an Indicator for Mixed State Entanglement in an Effective Two-Level System with Stark Shift

    S.Abdel-Khalek; M.M.A.Ahmed; A-S F.Obada

    2011-01-01

    We present an effective two-level system in interaction through two-photon processes with a single mode quantized electromagnetic field,initially prepared in a coherent state.Field entropy squeezing as an indicator of the entanglement in a mixed state system is suggested.The temporal evolution of the negativity,Wehrl entropy,Wehrl phase distribution and field entropy squeezing are investigated.The results highlight the important roles played by both the Stark shift parameters and the mixed state setting in the dynamics of the Wehrl entropy,Wehrl phase distribution and field entropy squeezing.%We present an effective two-level system in interaction through two-photon processes with a single mode quantized electromagnetic Reid, initially prepared in a coherent state. Field entropy squeezing as an indicator of the entanglement in a mixed state system is suggested. The temporal evolution of the negativity, Wehrl entropy, Wehrl phase distribution and field entropy squeezing are investigated. The results highlight the important roles played by both the Stark shift parameters and the mixed state setting in the dynamics of the Wehrl entropy, Wehrl phase distribution and field entropy squeezing.

  6. [Dynamics of Amomum villosum growth and its fruit yield cultivated under tropical forests].

    Zheng, Zheng; Gan, Jianmin; Feng, Zhili; Meng, Ying

    2004-01-01

    Investigations on the dynamics of Amomum villosum growth and its fruit yield cultivated under tropical ravine rainforest and secondary forest at different elevations in Xishuangbanna showed that the yield of A. villosum was influenced by the site age, sun light level of understorey, and water stress in dry season. The fruit yield and mature plant density decreased with increasing age of the A. villosum site. The fruit yield increased with sun light level when the light level in understorey was under 35% of full sun light (P forest was not significant. Planned cultivation of A. villosum in the secondary forest of the shifting cultivation land by ravine from 800-1000 m elevation instead of customary cultivation in the ravine rainforest, could not only resolve the problem of the effect of light deficiency in understorey and water stress in the dry season on A. villosum fruit yield, but also be useful to protect the tropical ravine rain forest.

  7. Cultivating gratitude and giving through experiential consumption.

    Walker, Jesse; Kumar, Amit; Gilovich, Thomas

    2016-12-01

    Gratitude promotes well-being and prompts prosocial behavior. Here, we examine a novel way to cultivate this beneficial emotion. We demonstrate that 2 different types of consumption-material consumption (buying for the sake of having) and experiential consumption (buying for the sake of doing)-differentially foster gratitude and giving. In 6 studies we show that reflecting on experiential purchases (e.g., travel, meals out, tickets to events) inspires more gratitude than reflecting on material purchases (e.g., clothing, jewelry, furniture), and that thinking about experiences leads to more subsequent altruistic behavior than thinking about possessions. In Studies 1-2b, we use within-subject and between-subjects designs to test our main hypothesis: that people are more grateful for what they've done than what they have. Study 3 finds evidence for this effect in the real-world setting of online customer reviews: Consumers are more likely to spontaneously mention feeling grateful for experiences they have bought than for material goods they have bought. In our final 2 studies, we show that experiential consumption also makes people more likely to be generous to others. Participants who contemplated a significant experiential purchase behaved more generously toward anonymous others in an economic game than those who contemplated a significant material purchase. It thus appears that shifting spending toward experiential consumption can improve people's everyday lives as well as the lives of those around them. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Indicadores de qualidade do solo em sistemas de cultivo orgânico e convencional no semi-árido cearense Soil quality indicators in organic and conventional cultivation systems in the semi arid areas of Ceara - Brazil

    Herdjania Veras de Lima

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available A qualidade do solo pode mudar com o passar do tempo, em decorrência de eventos naturais ou ações antrópicas. A adoção de práticas de cultivo orgânico reduz o revolvimento do solo, favorecendo a recuperação de suas propriedades físicas e químicas. Este trabalho teve como objetivo comparar propriedades físicas, químicas e biológicas de solos cultivados com algodão em bases orgânicas e no sistema convencional, assim como identificar as que possam ser utilizadas como indicadores de qualidade do solo. Selecionaram-se seis áreas submetidas ao cultivo orgânico e três ao cultivo convencional para coleta de amostras de solo deformadas e indeformadas, nas camadas de 0-10, 10-20 e 20-30 cm. Técnicas de estatística univariada e multivariada foram utilizadas para análise dos dados. Os resultados mostraram que os indicadores físicos e químicos testados individualmente não foram sensíveis para diferenciar as áreas sob sistema de cultivo orgânico daquelas sob cultivo convencional. No entanto, a aplicação de técnicas de análise multivariada - no caso, componentes principais e a discriminante de Anderson - permitiu a distinção entre algumas áreas cultivadas sob cultivo orgânico comparativamente às convencionais, até mesmo as que estavam em transição. Dos indicadores biológicos, a fauna edáfica mostrou-se mais precisa na avaliação da qualidade do solo, distinguindo de forma satisfatória as áreas sob sistema de cultivo orgânico das que estavam sob sistema convencional.Soil quality can change along the time due to natural events or anthropic activities. The use of organic management practices reduces soil tillage and favors the recovery of soil physical and chemical properties. The objective of this study was to compare the physical, chemical and biological properties of cultivated soils under organic system or conventional tillage system. Six organic and three conventional cultivated areas were selected and soil

  9. Using electrophoretic mobility shift assays to measure equilibrium dissociation constants: GAL4-p53 binding DNA as a model system.

    Heffler, Michael A; Walters, Ryan D; Kugel, Jennifer F

    2012-01-01

    An undergraduate biochemistry laboratory experiment is described that will teach students the practical and theoretical considerations for measuring the equilibrium dissociation constant (K(D) ) for a protein/DNA interaction using electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs). An EMSA monitors the migration of DNA through a native gel; the DNA migrates more slowly when bound to a protein. To determine a K(D) the amount of unbound and protein-bound DNA in the gel is measured as the protein concentration increases. By performing this experiment, students will be introduced to making affinity measurements and gain experience in performing quantitative EMSAs. The experiment describes measuring the K(D) for the interaction between the chimeric protein GAL4-p53 and its DNA recognition site; however, the techniques are adaptable to other DNA binding proteins. In addition, the basic experiment described can be easily expanded to include additional inquiry-driven experimentation. © 2012 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Photobioreactor cultivation strategies for microalgae and cyanobacteria.

    Johnson, Tylor J; Katuwal, Sarmila; Anderson, Gary A; Gu, Liping; Zhou, Ruanbao; Gibbons, William R

    2018-03-08

    The current burden on fossil-derived chemicals and fuels combined with the rapidly increasing global population has led to a crucial need to develop renewable and sustainable sources of chemicals and biofuels. Photoautotrophic microorganisms, including cyanobacteria and microalgae, have garnered a great deal of attention for their capability to produce these chemicals from carbon dioxide, mineralized water, and solar energy. While there have been substantial amounts of research directed at scaling-up production from these microorganisms, several factors have proven difficult to overcome, including high costs associated with cultivation, photobioreactor construction, and artificial lighting. Decreasing these costs will substantially increase the economic feasibility of these production processes. Thus, the purpose of this review is to describe various photobioreactor designs, and then provide an overview on lighting systems, mixing, gas transfer, and the hydrodynamics of bubbles. These factors must be considered when the goal of a production process is economic feasibility. Targets for improving microalgae and cyanobacteria cultivation media, including water reduction strategies will also be described. As fossil fuel reserves continue to be depleted and the world population continues to increase, it is imperative that renewable chemical and biofuel production processes be developed toward becoming economically feasible. Thus, it is essential that future research is directed toward improving these processes. © 2018 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 2018. © 2018 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  11. From Socialisation to Internalisation: Cultivating Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge through Problem-Based Learning

    Tee, Meng Yew; Lee, Shuh Shing

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies on technology have shifted from the emphasis on technology skills alone to integrating pedagogy and content with technology--what Mishra and Koehler (2005) call technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK). Deeper understanding on how TPACK can be cultivated is needed. This design-based research explored how an improvised,…

  12. Systems thinking perspectives applied to healthcare transition for youth with disabilities: a paradigm shift for practice, policy and research.

    Hamdani, Y; Jetha, A; Norman, C

    2011-11-01

    Healthcare transition (HCT) for youth with disabilities is a complex phenomenon influenced by multiple interacting factors, including health, personal and environmental factors. Current research on the transition to adulthood for disabled youth has primarily focused on identifying these multilevel factors to guide the development of interventions to improve the HCT process. However, little is known about how this complex array of factors interacts and contributes to successful HCT. Systems thinking provides a theoretically informed perspective that accounts for complexity and can contribute to enhanced understanding of the interactions among HCT factors. The objective of this paper is to introduce general concepts of systems thinking as applied to HCT practice and research. Several systems thinking concepts and principles are introduced and a discussion of HCT as a complex system is provided. Systems dynamics methodology is described as one systems method for conceptualizing HCT. A preliminary systems dynamics model is presented to facilitate discourse on the application of systems thinking principles to HCT practice, policy and research. An understanding of the complex interactions and patterns of relationships in HCT can assist health policy makers and practitioners in determining key areas of intervention, the impact of these interventions on the system and the potential intended and unintended consequences of change. This paper provides initial examination of applying systems thinking to inform future research and practice on HCT. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. 3.375-Gb/s RGB-LED based WDM visible light communication system employing PAM-8 modulation with phase shifted Manchester coding.

    Chi, Nan; Zhang, Mengjie; Zhou, Yingjun; Zhao, Jiaqi

    2016-09-19

    Optical background noise and second-order nonlinear distortions are two main challenges faced by indoor high-speed VLC system. In this paper, a novel phase shifted Manchester (PS-Manchester) coding based on PAM-8 is proposed and experimentally demonstrated to mitigate these noise and distortions. With the aid of PS-Manchester coding and WDM, a total data rate of 3.375-Gb/s can be successfully achieved in the RGB-LED based VLC system. The BER is under 7% HD-FEC limit of 3.8x10-3 after 1-m indoor free space transmission. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest data rate ever achieved in PAM VLC systems.

  14. Site-specific cultivation systems for energy plants. Results of the joint project ''Development and comparison of optimized cultivation systems for the agricultural production of energy plants at different site-specific conditions in the Federal Republic of Germany, EVA I''. 3. rev. and enl. ed.; Standortangepasste Anbausysteme fuer Energiepflanzen. Ergebnisse des Verbundprojektes ''Entwicklung und Vergleich von optimierten Anbausystemen fuer die landwirtschaftliche Produktion von Energiepflanzen unter den verschiedenen Standortbedingungen Deutschlands, EVA I''

    NONE

    2010-03-15

    With respect to the estimations of the Agency for Renewable Ressources (Guelzow, Federal Republic of Germany), nearly 2 millions ha of the area of arable land in Germany were used for the production of renewable raw materials in the last years. The production of vegetable energy sources only was limited on few cultural species. This led to criticism by organisations of nature protection and environmental protection. The joint project 'Development and comparison of optimized cultivation system for the agricultural production of energy plants at different site specific conditions in the Federal Republic of Germany' was one of the most extensive national agrarian research projects of the past years. This joint project offers practice-relevant knowledge to efficient and sustainable cultivation systems of energy plants. The brochure under consideration reports on the results of the first project phase of this joint project.

  15. Produção hidropônica de morangueiro em sistema de colunas verticais, sob cultivo protegido Hydroponic strawberry production in vertical columns system under protected cultivation

    Eunice Oliveira Calvete

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O cultivo do morangueiro fora do solo possibilita a eliminação do uso de produtos para desinfecção, reduzindo o consumo de frutos contaminados e a agressão ao meio ambiente, além de proporcionar melhor aproveitamento da área e maior facilidade de manejo da cultura. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar, em ambiente protegido e colunas verticais, dois sistemas de irrigação: gotejamento por estacas (externo e autocompensante (interno; dois tipos de substratos: Horta 2 e Tabaco 1; com e sem drenagem. A cultivar utilizada foi a Oso Grande. O delineamento foi em blocos casualizados, com os tratamentos dispostos em parcela subsubdividida, com três repetições. Com base nos rendimentos obtidos nos terços superior, médio e inferior das colunas, o sistema de irrigação mais indicado é o gotejamento por estacas (externo, com drenagem na extremidade inferior da coluna. Os substratos não diferem quanto à produção, mas Horta 2 incrementa o teor de antocianina nos frutos.Since strawberry cultivation in soil less system does not needs disinfection products, it decreases fruits and environmental contamination. Besides it provides a better utilization of the area and makes easy the management of the culture. The objective of this work was to evaluate two irrigation systems: dripping for props (outside and self compensate (inside; and two types of substrates: Horta 2 and Tabaco 1; with or without draining, on the cultivar Oso Grande of strawberry. The experiment was carried out under protected cultivation and in vertical columns conditions. The experimental design was randomized blocks, with three replications, and the treatments were arranged in a split-plot. The strawberry yield found in the upper, medium, and lower positions of the columns indicates that the dripping for props (outside is the most efficient irrigation system, since drainage is used in the lower extremity of the column. Although there were no differences substrates, Horta

  16. Plants cultivation in controlled containments

    2000-01-01

    The plants cultivation in controlled containments permits to the - Departement d'Ecophysiologie Vegetale et de Microbiologie (DVEM) - of the CEA to lead several topics of research. The works of DVEM which are based on the molecular labelling, technique adapted to plants, contribute to understand the plant - soil relationships and the plant growth process. In addition, the staff of DVEM study the impact of pollutant heavy metals, existing in the soil, on plants and the plant stress induced by oxygen, light, ionizing radiations,... and defence mechanisms of plants (F. M.)

  17. Graphical coding data and operational guidance for implementation or modification of a LabVIEW®-based pHstat system for the cultivation of microalgae.

    Golda, Rachel L; Golda, Mark D; Peterson, Tawnya D; Needoba, Joseph A

    2017-06-01

    The influence of pH on phytoplankton physiology is an important facet of the body of research on ocean acidification. We provide data developed during the design and implementation of a novel pHstat system capable of maintaining both static and dynamic pH environments in a laboratory setting. These data both help improve functionality of the system, and provide specific coding blocks for controlling the pHstat using a LabVIEW® virtual instrument (VI). The data in this paper support the research article "Development of an economical, autonomous pHstat system for culturing phytoplankton under steady state or dynamic conditions" (Golda et al. [2]). These data will be of interest to researchers studying the effects of changing pH on phytoplankton in a laboratory context, and to those desiring to build their own pHstat system(s). These data can also be used to facilitate modification of the pHstat system to control salinity, temperature, or other environmental factors.

  18. Aggregate Stability of Tropical Soils Under Long-Term Eucalyptus Cultivation

    Eucalyptus cultivation has increased in all Brazilian regions. Despite the large amount of cultivated area, little is known about how this kind of management system affects soil properties, mainly the aggregate stability. Aggregate stability analyses have proved to be a sensitive tool to measure soi...

  19. Sequencing of a Cultivated Diploid Cotton Genome-Gossypium arboreum

    WILKINS; Thea; A

    2008-01-01

    Sequencing the genomes of crop species and model systems contributes significantly to our understanding of the organization,structure and function of plant genomes.In a `white paper' published in 2007,the cotton community set forth a strategic plan for sequencing the AD genome of cultivated upland cotton that initially targets less complex diploid genomes.This strategy banks on the high degree

  20. Shifting paradigm of maternal and perinatal death review system in Bangladesh: A real time approach to address sustainable developmental goal 3 by 2030 [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Animesh Biswas

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Recently, Bangladesh has made remarkable progress in reducing maternal and neonatal morality, even though the millennium developmental goal to reduce maternal and neonatal mortality was not achieved. Sustainable Developmental Goal (SDG 3 has already been set for a new target to reduce maternal and neonatal deaths by 2030. The country takes this timely initiative to introduce a maternal and perinatal death review system. This review will discuss the shifting paradigm of the maternal and perinatal death review system in Bangladesh and its challenges in reaching the SDG on time. This review uses existing literature on the maternal and perinatal death review system in Bangladesh, and other systems in similar settings, as well as reports, case studies, news, government letters and meeting minutes. Bangladesh introduced the maternal and perinatal death review system in 2010. Prior to this there was no such comprehensive death review system practiced in Bangladesh. The system was established within the government health system and has brought about positive effects and outcomes. Therefore, the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare of Bangladesh gradually scaled up the maternal and perinatal death review system nationwide in 2016 within the government health system. The present death review system highlighted real-time data use, using the district health information software(DHIS-2. Health mangers are able to take remedial action plans and implement strategies based on findings in DHIS-2. Therefore, effective utilization of data can play a pivotal role in the reduction of maternal and perinatal deaths in Bangladesh. Overall, the maternal and perinatal death review system provides a great opportunity to achieve the SDG 3 on time. However, the system needs continuous monitoring at different levels to ensure its quality and validity of information, as well as effective utilization of findings for planning and implementation under a measureable

  1. Transport-induced shifts in condensate dew-point and composition in multicomponent systems with chemical reaction

    Rosner, D. E.; Nagarajan, R.

    1985-01-01

    Partial heterogeneous condensation phenomena in multicomponent reacting systems are analyzed taking into consideration the chemical element transport phenomena. It is demonstrated that the dew-point surface temperature in chemically reactive systems is not a purely thermodynamic quantity, but is influenced by the multicomponent diffusion and Soret-mass diffusion phenomena. Several distinct dew-points are shown to exist in such systems and, as a result of transport constraints, the 'sharp' locus between two chemically distinct condensates is systematically moved to a difference mainstream composition.

  2. Significance, progress and prospects for research in simplified cultivation technologies for rice in China.

    Huang, M; Ibrahim, Md; Xia, B; Zou, Y

    2011-08-01

    Simplified cultivation technologies for rice have become increasingly attractive in recent years in China because of their social, economical and environmental benefits. To date, several simplified cultivation technologies, such as conventional tillage and seedling throwing (CTST), conventional tillage and direct seeding (CTDS), no-tillage and seedling throwing (NTST), no-tillage and direct seeding (NTDS) and no-tillage and transplanting (NTTP), have been developed in China. Most studies have shown that rice grown under each of these simplified cultivation technologies can produce a grain yield equal to or higher than traditional cultivation (conventional tillage and transplanting). Studies that have described the influences of agronomic practices on yield formation of rice under simplified cultivation have demonstrated that optimizing agronomy practices would increase the efficiencies of simplified cultivation systems. Further research is needed to optimize the management strategies for CTST, CTDS and NTST rice which have developed quickly in recent years, to strengthen basic research for those simplified cultivation technologies that are rarely used at present (such as NTTP and NTDS), to select and breed cultivars suitable for simplified cultivation and to compare the practicability and effectiveness of different simplified cultivation technologies in different rice production regions.

  3. Feasibility Study on Sterilization of Badge using Radiation and Cultivation by Nano-bubble Water for Matsutake Mushroom Cultivation

    Jung, Inha

    2013-12-01

    This report on the 'Sterilization of Badge using Radiation and Cultivation by Nano-bubble Water for Matsutake Mushroom Cultivation' is belonged to the final report on the preliminary study of the first subject in 2013 for civilian project. This was complimented on the responsible of the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute for 1 st of June 2013 to 30 th of November 2013. We are going to make sterilization the badge using the gamma ray and supplying the oxygen by nano-bubble oxygen rich water for cultivating the Matsutake Mushroom, instead of the conventional process of sterilization of the badge by hot steam over 120 .deg. C consuming over 8 hours and expensive ventilation system for supplying the fresh air for delivering the oxygen

  4. Feasibility Study on Sterilization of Badge using Radiation and Cultivation by Nano-bubble Water for Matsutake Mushroom Cultivation

    Jung, Inha

    2013-12-15

    This report on the 'Sterilization of Badge using Radiation and Cultivation by Nano-bubble Water for Matsutake Mushroom Cultivation' is belonged to the final report on the preliminary study of the first subject in 2013 for civilian project. This was complimented on the responsible of the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute for 1{sup st} of June 2013 to 30{sup th} of November 2013. We are going to make sterilization the badge using the gamma ray and supplying the oxygen by nano-bubble oxygen rich water for cultivating the Matsutake Mushroom, instead of the conventional process of sterilization of the badge by hot steam over 120 .deg. C consuming over 8 hours and expensive ventilation system for supplying the fresh air for delivering the oxygen.

  5. Micropatch Antenna Phase Shifting

    Thursby, Michael

    2000-01-01

    .... We have been looking at the ability of embedded element to adjust the phase shift seen by the element with the goal of being able to remove the phase shifting devices from the antenna and replace...

  6. Micropatch Antenna Phase Shifting

    Thursby, Michael

    1999-01-01

    .... We have been looking at the ability of embedded element to adjust the phase shift seen by the element wit the goal of being able to remove the phase shifting devices from the antenna and replace...

  7. Load Shifting and Storage of Cooling Energy through Ice Bank or Ice Slurry Systems: modelling and experimental analysis

    Grozdek, Marino

    2009-10-15

    Ice based Cool Thermal Energy Storage (CTES) systems have attracted much attention during last few decades. The reasons are mainly of economical and environmental nature. Compared to conventional refrigeration and air-conditioning systems without cool thermal energy storage, implementation of CTES will increase environmental standards and overall efficiency of the energy systems as it contributes to the phase-out of synthetic refrigerants and reduces peak loads in electricity grids. For the application of a cool thermal energy storages in refrigeration installations and HVAC systems in industry and building sector, it is necessary to have appropriate design tools in order to sufficiently accurate predict their performance. In this thesis theoretical and experimental investigations of two ice based cool thermal energy storage systems, namely static, indirect, external melt, ice-on-coil, i.e. ice bank system and dynamic, ice slurry cool thermal energy storage system are carried out. An ice bank storage technology for cooling purposes is known for a long time. The main drawbacks which are hindering its wider use are the system complexity, high first costs, system efficiency which is highly dependant on design, control and monitoring of the system, etc. On the other hand, ice slurry technology was not well studied until recently, while in the current scientific literature there are still differences between results and conclusions reported by different investigators. The aim of the present thesis is to extend the knowledge in the field of ice based CTES systems, thereby contributing in the development and wider utilization of those systems. In the first part of the thesis a computer application, named 'BankaLeda' is presented. It enables simulation of an ice bank system performance. In order to verify developed simulation model an experimental evaluation has been performed. Field measurements have been conducted on a two module silo which was installed as a

  8. The use of 32P Method to Evaluate the Growth of Lowland Rice Cultivated in a System of Rice Intensification (SRI

    A. Citraresmini

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A pot experiment has been conducted to evaluate the growth of the Dyah Suci, a lowland rice variety, in an SRI (System of Rice Intensification planting system. The phosphorus-32 (32P isotope technique was used to evaluate the growth of plants in relation with their phosphorus uptake. The uptake was assumed to vary in the same direction as the growth of the plant. The 32P uptake is assumed to vary in the opposite direction to the plant’s total phosphorus uptake. Here the 32P uptake is expressed in count per minutes (cpm which is then transformed to disintegration per minute (dpm. The results show that, in terms of promoting the plant’s uptake of phosphorus, the SRI planting system is superior to the conventional planting system, and it is manifested in the higher dry weight of straw and grain. From this experiment it is concluded that the 32P method can be used satisfactorily as a tool for explaining the relation between P-uptake and plant growth

  9. Climate-Adapted Soil Cultivation as an Aspect for Sustainable Farming – Task-Technology-Fit of a Decision Support System

    Welf Guenther-Lübbers

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to global climate change and its impact on local weather conditions, decision support systems are becoming more important in agriculture. Such systems allow farmers to adapt more effectively to the complex changes affecting their farms. Marginal production sites must apply new tillage strategies adapted to new climatic conditions. Information about proper strategy adjustments is often disseminated through agricultural extension services and journals. A new internet information platform, KlimaBob, which focuses on climate-flexible tillage, was established under the auspices of the Innovation Network of Climate Change Adaptation Brandenburg Berlin. Successful and permanent introduction of such a system requires analysis and verification of its acceptance among individual farmers. This study addresses this need by applying the established task-technology fit approach. A survey was conducted among farmers in the Brandenburg region. The resulting data provided the basis for a structural equation model that explains and evaluates the task-technology fit of the KlimaBob platform. The results indicate that the performance spectrum of the system exerts a strong influence on the task-technology fit when assessed by both the name characteristics of KlimaBob and the individual characteristics of users (for example, time management, technology affinity and risk attitude.

  10. The 1,5-H-shift in 1-butoxy: A case study in the rigorous implementation of transition state theory for a multirotamer system

    Vereecken, Luc; Peeters, Jozef

    2003-09-01

    The rigorous implementation of transition state theory (TST) for a reaction system with multiple reactant rotamers and multiple transition state conformers is discussed by way of a statistical rate analysis of the 1,5-H-shift in 1-butoxy radicals, a prototype reaction for the important class of H-shift reactions in atmospheric chemistry. Several approaches for deriving a multirotamer TST expression are treated: oscillator versus (hindered) internal rotor models; distinguishable versus indistinguishable atoms; and direct count methods versus degeneracy factors calculated by (simplified) direct count methods or from symmetry numbers and number of enantiomers, where applicable. It is shown that the various treatments are fully consistent, even if the TST expressions themselves appear different. The 1-butoxy H-shift reaction is characterized quantum chemically using B3LYP-DFT; the performance of this level of theory is compared to other methods. Rigorous application of the multirotamer TST methodology in an harmonic oscillator approximation based on this data yields a rate coefficient of k(298 K,1 atm)=1.4×105 s-1, and an Arrhenius expression k(T,1 atm)=1.43×1011 exp(-8.17 kcal mol-1/RT) s-1, which both closely match the experimental recommendations in the literature. The T-dependence is substantially influenced by the multirotamer treatment, as well as by the tunneling and fall-off corrections. The present results are compared to those of simplified TST calculations based solely on the properties of the lowest energy 1-butoxy rotamer.

  11. OpenShift Workshop

    CERN. Geneva; Rodriguez Peon, Alberto

    2017-01-01

    Workshop to introduce developers to the OpenShift platform available at CERN. Several use cases will be shown, including deploying an existing application into OpenShift. We expect attendees to realize about OpenShift features and general architecture of the service.

  12. Efficiency of a novel "Food to waste to food" system including anaerobic digestion of food waste and cultivation of vegetables on digestate in a bubble-insulated greenhouse.

    Stoknes, K; Scholwin, F; Krzesiński, W; Wojciechowska, E; Jasińska, A

    2016-10-01

    At urban locations certain challenges are concentrated: organic waste production, the need for waste treatment, energy demand, food demand, the need for circular economy and limited area for food production. Based on these factors the project presented here developed a novel technological approach for processing organic waste into new food. In this system, organic waste is converted into biogas and digester residue. The digester residue is being used successfully as a stand-alone fertilizer as well as main substrate component for vegetables and mushrooms for the first time - a "digeponics" system - in a closed new low energy greenhouse system with dynamic soap bubble insulation. Biogas production provides energy for the process and CO2 for the greenhouse. With very limited land use highly efficient resource recycling was established at pilot scale. In the research project it was proven that a low energy dynamic bubble insulated greenhouse can be operated continuously with 80% energy demand reduction compared to conventional greenhouses. Commercial crop yields were achieved based on fertilization with digestate; in individual cases they were even higher than the control yields of vegetables such as tomatoes, cucumber and lettuce among others. For the first time an efficient direct use of digestate as substrate and fertilizer has been developed and demonstrated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Assessing Resistance to Change during Shifting from Legacy to Open Web-Based Systems in the Air Transport Industry

    Brewer, Denise

    2012-01-01

    The air transport industry (ATI) is a dynamic, communal, international, and intercultural environment in which the daily operations of airlines, airports, and service providers are dependent on information technology (IT). Many of the IT legacy systems are more than 30 years old, and current regulations and the globally distributed workplace have…

  14. Problem shifting in transport systems. Analysing and balancing unintended consequences of CO2 emission reduction in Dutch transport.

    Gebler, Malte

    2013-01-01

    Summary Transport systems face significant input- and output-related challenges in the upcoming decades. To tackle climate change – the major output challenge - an 80% CO2 reduction has to be achieved by 2050 (base year 1990). This requires a sustainabi

  15. Development of labor saving operation technique by making large scale paddy field and direct seeding cultivation of rice in Tohoku district [Japan], 2: Development of technique for automatic precision laser-levelling system

    Kimura, S.; Imazono, S.; Yaji, Y.

    1999-01-01

    1) Preparation for large large paddy fields and utilization of direct rice seeding cultivation are expected to be the key technologies for the low cost and labor saving large farm rice cultivation. To achieve this, the technique of land leveling for field operations have to be developed. A precise land leveling operation by a wheel tractor with laser-beam emitter and recover in a wet paddy field are developed. 2) The automatic measurement system of a rice paddy field surface level by a tractor that we developed was highly practical. After measured data ate stored in a memory of hand-held computer the standard deviation of a field height value is shown on the display. Also, measured data are exported to the personal computer and by RC232C, the contour map of the paddy field is draw quickly, which is useful for the land leveling work. 3) Considering the relation between rice seed germination and water depth in the field, the preciseness of the field leveling for direct rice seeding is required to be under 1.5cm of standard deviation (s.d.). To realize this preciseness, a prototype leveling aparatus consisting a laser emitter, a laser receiver and dry land leveler pulled by a tracter, was developed and was tested the performance. The results of land leveling test at a field of 1 ha indicated that the elevation difference of the field of 16cm was improved to that of 92% of +- 2.5cm (1.58cm s.d.) after leveling work. The working efficiency was 0.57hour/10a. For a precise leveling work, the of the soil water content should be under the plastic limitation, under which less amount of soil adoheres to the blade of the leveler. The performance tests of the laser assisted leveling apparatus for a paddy harrowing work revealed that for an accurate operation only a blade should be controlled by a hydraulic cylinder according to a laser beam. Since large amount of soil can not be handled by the apparatus, the leveling for a paddy harrowing work is recommended for a fine leveling

  16. Shifting the paradigm of music instruction: Implications of embodiment stemming from an augmented reality guitar learning system

    Joseph Roland Keebler

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Musical instruction often includes materials that can act as a barrier to learning. New technologies using augmented reality may aid in reducing the initial difficulties involved in learning music by lowering these barriers characteristic of traditional instructional materials. Therefore, this set of studies examined a novel augmented reality guitar learning system (i.e., the Fretlight® guitar in regards to current theories of embodied music cognition. Specifically, we examined the effects of using this system in comparison to a standard instructional material (i.e. diagrams. First, we review major theories related to musical embodiment and specify a niche within this research space we call embodied music technology for learning. Following, we explicate two parallel experiments that were conducted to address the learning effects of this system. Experiment 1 examined short-term learning effects within one experimental session, while Experiment 2 examined both short-term and long-term effects across two sessions spaced at a two-week interval. Analyses demonstrated that, for many of our dependent variables, all participants increased in performance across time. Further, the Fretlight® condition consistently led to significantly better outcomes via interactive effects, including significantly better long term retention for the learned information across a two week time interval. These results are discussed in the context of embodied cognition theory as it relates to music. Potential limitations and avenues for future research are described.

  17. Qualidade de frutos de laranjeira Valência cultivada sob sistema tecnificado Quality of Valencia orange fruits cultivated under technified system

    Regina K. Grizotto

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se, neste estudo, o efeito de um pacote tecnológico implementado no pomar laranjeira Valência em comparação com o sistema convencional tendo-se por base a produção e a qualidade dos frutos colhidos. As tecnologias praticadas constam de adensamento, adubação na implantação e formação, tratamento fitossanitário, manejo de plantas invasoras, irrigação e poda de formação. Os resultados obtidos dos frutos da primeira colheita mostraram que o sistema tecnificado com irrigação (ST + I promoveu aumento significativo no rendimento de colheita, o qual foi maior em pomares com maior adensamento de 727 plantas ha-1 (espaçamento 5,5 x 2,5 m ou 667 plantas ha-1 (espaçamento 6,0 x 2,5 m. A irrigação em sistema tecnificado resultou em frutos com maior tamanho e, consequentemente, menor número de frutos para compor uma caixa padrão, menores teores de sólidos solúveis e acidez titulável. Não houve variação no rendimento em suco, independente do sistema de produção ou espaçamento utilizado. Conclui-se que, nesta primeira avaliação, a implementação de sistema tecnificado de manejo de pomar concomitante à irrigação (ST + I é interessante, uma vez que promove maior rendimento de colheita em comparação ao sistema convencional.The effect of a technological package implemented in a Valencia orange orchard was studied and compared with the conventional system, based on the production and quality of the fruits harvested. The technologies implemented included the densification, fertilization during implantation and training, phytosanitary treatment, weed management, irrigation and pruning. The results for the fruits from the first harvest showed that the Technified System and Irrigation (TS + I resulted in significant increase in crop yield. This increase was higher in orchards with a higher density of 727 plants ha-1 (5.5 x 2.5 m spacing or 667 plants ha-1 (6.0 x 2.5 m spacing. In general, irrigation concomitant with TS

  18. The Cultivation of Wisdom in the Classroom

    Juliane Reams

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on a research project that was designed to inquire into the cultivation of wisdom in the classroom in the context of a newly implemented school subject called Glück (English: happiness. Glück was introduced in order to make a difference in traditional mainstream schooling as a reaction to school curricula that emphasize data and knowledge transfer. It is different and new because it embraces the kind of learning that includes the senses, the mind, body, spirit and the guts. Its multidimensional approach makes an attempt to validate a renunciation of the reductionistic perspective of traditional and contemporary schooling. How it is implemented served as a transformational process through a set of experiential exercises, group discussions, contemplative practices, teamwork etc. It is my aim to give an insight into what I understood as an alternative learning arena embedded in a traditional schooling system and the implications for further development beyond the transfer of data and information in adolescents. Zooming in on Glück, I aim to provide some perspectives on how key experiences and the reflection upon them can lead to the cultivation of wisdom. The understanding of cultivating wisdom I have gained from this study is that it is a dynamic process where the creation of new structures of meaning making emerge through the interaction with others, with oneself and the reflection upon one’s own interior processes that can help unfold, know how to use and refine tacit knowledge. Part of this process is actively discovering and transforming complex information in order to embody it and make it one’s own. Due to the assumption that traditional schooling mostly puts an emphasis on conveying informational knowledge (Hart, 2009; Sternberg, 2001 (to the more or less attentive students and another assumption that wisdom is often seen in connection to age, this article makes an attempt to give an alternative perspective. In

  19. Metagenomic systems biology of the human gut microbiome reveals topological shifts associated with obesity and inflammatory bowel disease.

    Greenblum, Sharon; Turnbaugh, Peter J; Borenstein, Elhanan

    2012-01-10

    The human microbiome plays a key role in a wide range of host-related processes and has a profound effect on human health. Comparative analyses of the human microbiome have revealed substantial variation in species and gene composition associated with a variety of disease states but may fall short of providing a comprehensive understanding of the impact of this variation on the community and on the host. Here, we introduce a metagenomic systems biology computational framework, integrating metagenomic data with an in silico systems-level analysis of metabolic networks. Focusing on the gut microbiome, we analyze fecal metagenomic data from 124 unrelated individuals, as well as six monozygotic twin pairs and their mothers, and generate community-level metabolic networks of the microbiome. Placing variations in gene abundance in the context of these networks, we identify both gene-level and network-level topological differences associated with obesity and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We show that genes associated with either of these host states tend to be located at the periphery of the metabolic network and are enriched for topologically derived metabolic "inputs." These findings may indicate that lean and obese microbiomes differ primarily in their interface with the host and in the way they interact with host metabolism. We further demonstrate that obese microbiomes are less modular, a hallmark of adaptation to low-diversity environments. We additionally link these topological variations to community species composition. The system-level approach presented here lays the foundation for a unique framework for studying the human microbiome, its organization, and its impact on human health.

  20. Systemics, Communication and Knowledge: Shifts of Perspective and the Need for Requirements in Second-Order Science

    Thomas J. Marlowe

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The systemic view of second-order science emphasizes the interaction of observer and observed, but tacitly assumes a single observer, or at least a unity of observer perspective. But experience in multiple domains, including software engineering, decision science, health sciences, co-creation and Living Labs, knowledge management, community development and government policy has emphasized the multiplicity of goals and perspectives across stakeholders. We look at the issues that arise when multiple views are incorporated, and propose a toolkit for addressing those issues.