WorldWideScience

Sample records for shifting cultivation landscapes

  1. Spatial patterns and processes for shifting cultivation landscape in Garo Hills, India.

    Ashish Kumar; Bruce G. Marcot; P.S. Roy

    2006-01-01

    We analyzed a few spatial patterns and processes of a shifting cultivation landscape in the Garo Hills of Meghalaya state in North East India, where about 85% of land belongs to native community. The landscape comprised 2459 km2 of land with forest cover and shifting cultivation patches over 69% and 7% area of landscape, respectively. The mean...

  2. Socio-economic perspectives on shifting cultivation landscapes in Northern Laos

    Heinimann, Andreas; Hett, Cornelia; Hurni, Kaspar

    2013-01-01

    Despite the rapid agricultural transition that has occurred in the past decade, shifting cultivation remains a widespread agricultural practice in the northern uplands of Lao PDR. Little information is available on the basic socio-economic situation and respective possible patterns in shifting cu...... minorities, pointing to multi-dimensional marginality of these areas. We discuss whether economic growth and increased market accessibility are sufficient to lift these landscapes out of poverty....

  3. Balancing shifting cultivation and forest conservation: lessons from a "sustainable landscape" in southeastern Mexico.

    Dalle, Sarah Paule; Pulido, María T; de Blois, Sylvie

    2011-07-01

    Shifting cultivation is often perceived to be a threat to forests, but it is also central to the culture and livelihoods of millions of people worldwide. Balancing agriculture and forest conservation requires knowledge of how agricultural land uses evolve in landscapes with forest conservation initiatives. Based on a case study from Quintana Roo, Mexico, and remote sensing data, we investigated land use and land cover change (LUCC) in relation to accessibility (from main settlement and road) in search of evidence for agricultural expansion and/or intensification after the initiation of a community forestry program in 1986. Intensification was through a shortening of the fallow period. Defining the sampling space as a function of human needs and accessibility to agricultural resources was critical to ensure a user-centered perspective of the landscape. The composition of the accessible landscape changed substantially between 1976 and 1997. Over the 21-year period studied, the local population saw the accessible landscape transformed from a heterogeneous array of different successional stages including mature forests to a landscape dominated by young fallows. We detected a dynamic characterized by intensification of shifting cultivation in the most accessible areas with milpas being felled more and more from young fallows in spite of a preference for felling secondary forests. We argue that the resulting landscape provides a poorer resource base for sustaining agricultural livelihoods and discuss ways in which agricultural change could be better addressed through participatory land use planning. Balancing agricultural production and forest conservation will become even more important in a context of intense negotiations for carbon credits, an emerging market that is likely to drive future land changes worldwide.

  4. Forests as landscapes of social inequality: tropical forest cover and land distribution among shifting cultivators

    Oliver T. Coomes

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Can social inequality be seen imprinted in a forest landscape? We studied the relationship between land holding, land use, and inequality in a peasant community in the Peruvian Amazon where farmers practice swidden-fallow cultivation. Longitudinal data on land holding, land use, and land cover were gathered through field-level surveys (n = 316 and household interviews (n = 51 in 1994/1995 and 2007. Forest cover change between 1965 and 2007 was documented through interpretation of air photos and satellite imagery. We introduce the concept of "land use inequality" to capture differences across households in the distribution of forest fallowing and orchard raising as key land uses that affect household welfare and the sustainability of swidden-fallow agriculture. We find that land holding, land use, and forest cover distribution are correlated and that the forest today reflects social inequality a decade prior. Although initially land-poor households may catch up in terms of land holdings, their use and land cover remain impoverished. Differential land use investment through time links social inequality and forest cover. Implications are discussed for the study of forests as landscapes of inequality, the relationship between social inequality and forest composition, and the forest-poverty nexus.

  5. The shifting beverage landscape.

    Storey, Maureen

    2010-04-26

    STOREY, M.L. The shifting beverage landscape. PHYSIOL BEHAV, 2010. - Simultaneous lifestyle changes have occurred in the last few decades, creating an imbalance in energy intake and energy expenditure that has led to overweight and obesity. Trends in the food supply show that total daily calories available per capita increased 28% since 1970. Total energy intake among men and women has also increased dramatically since that time. Some have suggested that intake of beverages has had a disproportional impact on obesity. Data collected by the Beverage Marketing Corporation between 1988-2008 demonstrate that, in reality, fewer calories per ounce are being produced by the beverage industry. Moreover, data from the National Cancer Institute show that soft drink intake represents 5.5% of daily calories. Data from NHANES 1999-2003 vs. 2003-06 may demonstrate a shift in beverage consumption for age/gender groups, ages 6 to>60years. The beverages provided in schools have significantly changed since 2006 when the beverage industry implemented School Beverage Guidelines. This voluntary action has removed full-calorie soft drinks from participating schools across the country. This shift to lower-calorie and smaller-portion beverages in school has led to a significant decrease in total beverage calories in schools. These data support the concept that to prevent and treat obesity, public health efforts should focus on energy balance and that a narrow focus on sweetened beverages is unlikely to have any meaningful impact on this complex problem. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Co-benefits of biodiversity and carbon from regenerating secondary forests after shifting cultivation in the upland Philippines: implications for forest landscape restoration

    Mukul, S. A.; Herbohn, J.; Firn, J.; Gregorio, N.

    2017-12-01

    Shifting cultivation is a widespread practice in tropical forest agriculture frontiers that policy makers often regard as the major driver of forest loss and degradation. Secondary forests regrowing after shifting cultivation are generally not viewed as suitable option for biodiversity conservation and carbon retention. Drawing upon our research in the Philippines and other relevant case studies, we compared the biodiversity and carbon sequestration benefits in recovering secondary forests after shifting cultivation to other land uses that commonly follow shifting cultivation. Regenerating secondary forests had higher biodiversity than fast growing timber plantations and other restoration options available in the area. Some old plantations, however, provided carbon benefits comparable the old growth forest, although their biodiversity was less than that of the regenerating forests. Our study demonstrates that secondary forests regrowing after shifting cultivation have a high potential for biodiversity and carbon sequestration co-benefits, representing an effective strategy for forest management and restoration in countries where they are common and where the forest is an integral part of rural people's livelihoods. We discuss the issues and potential mechanisms through which such dynamic land use can be incorporated into development projects that are currently financing the sustainable management, conservation, and restoration of tropical forests.

  7. Shifting Cultivation : Promoting Innovative Policy and Development ...

    Shifting Cultivation : Promoting Innovative Policy and Development Options in the Eastern Himalayas. Shifting ... pressure and market forces. The idea is to share good policies and practices related to shifting cultivation and alternative options through regional exchange. ... Les chaînes de valeur comme leviers stratégiques.

  8. The Third Perspective on Shifting Cultivation

    Sukanya Sharma

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT There are two perspectives in which the understanding of food sustainability in the world is entangled. The first perspective which believes that food sustainability can be achieved by technology presents shifting cultivation as a reflection of a lower state of cultural evolution in comparison with more sophisticated societies (O’Brien 2002.The second perspective which believes in culture, in the ‘way of life’ paradigm valorise shifting cultivation as a form of indigenous genius, representing the indigenous people as perhaps the original environmentalist (Bandy et al.1993; Conklin 1957; Grandstaff 1981; Hong 1987. The biasness of both the perspectives is well visible. The task now is to document and evaluate indigenous strategies of shifting cultivation through a process of research and development. This process involves identification of promising indigenous practices, characterization of the practices, validation of the utility of the practice for other communities, extrapolation to other locations, verification with key farmers, and wide-scale extension. This can be treated as the third perspective available to the policy makers. By this, the detrimental effects of shifting cultivation can be mitigated and productivity increased (Mali 2003.

  9. Estimating the Consequences of Fire Exclusion for Food Crop Production, Soil Fertility, and Fallow Recovery in Shifting Cultivation Landscapes in the Humid Tropics

    Norgrove, Lindsey; Hauser, Stefan

    2015-03-01

    In the Congo Basin, smallholder farmers practice slash-and-burn shifting cultivation. Yet, deliberate burning might no longer be sustainable under reduced fallow scenarios. We synthesized data from the Forest Margins Benchmark Area (FMBA), comprising 1.54 million hectares (ha), in southern Cameroon and assessed the impact of fire exclusion on yield, labor inputs, soil fertility, ecosystem carbon stocks, and fallow recovery indicators in two common field types (plantain and maize) under both current and reduced fallow scenarios. While we could not distinguish between impacts of standard farmer burning practice and fire exclusion treatments for the current fallow scenario, we concluded that fire exclusion would lead to higher yields, higher ecosystem carbon stocks as well as potentially faster fallow recovery under the reduced fallow scenario. While its implementation would increase labor requirements, we estimated increased revenues of 421 and 388 US ha-1 for plantain and maize, respectively. Applied to the FMBA, and assuming a 6-year reduced fallow scenario, fire exclusion in plantain fields would potentially retain 240,464 Mg more ecosystem carbon, comprising topsoil carbon plus tree biomass carbon, than standard farmer practice. Results demonstrate a potential "win-win scenario" where yield benefits, albeit modest, and conservation benefits can be obtained simultaneously. This could be considered as a transitional phase towards higher input use and thus higher yielding systems.

  10. A global view of shifting cultivation: Recent, current, and future extent.

    Andreas Heinimann

    Full Text Available Mosaic landscapes under shifting cultivation, with their dynamic mix of managed and natural land covers, often fall through the cracks in remote sensing-based land cover and land use classifications, as these are unable to adequately capture such landscapes' dynamic nature and complex spectral and spatial signatures. But information about such landscapes is urgently needed to improve the outcomes of global earth system modelling and large-scale carbon and greenhouse gas accounting. This study combines existing global Landsat-based deforestation data covering the years 2000 to 2014 with very high-resolution satellite imagery to visually detect the specific spatio-temporal pattern of shifting cultivation at a one-degree cell resolution worldwide. The accuracy levels of our classification were high with an overall accuracy above 87%. We estimate the current global extent of shifting cultivation and compare it to other current global mapping endeavors as well as results of literature searches. Based on an expert survey, we make a first attempt at estimating past trends as well as possible future trends in the global distribution of shifting cultivation until the end of the 21st century. With 62% of the investigated one-degree cells in the humid and sub-humid tropics currently showing signs of shifting cultivation-the majority in the Americas (41% and Africa (37%-this form of cultivation remains widespread, and it would be wrong to speak of its general global demise in the last decades. We estimate that shifting cultivation landscapes currently cover roughly 280 million hectares worldwide, including both cultivated fields and fallows. While only an approximation, this estimate is clearly smaller than the areas mentioned in the literature which range up to 1,000 million hectares. Based on our expert survey and historical trends we estimate a possible strong decrease in shifting cultivation over the next decades, raising issues of livelihood security

  11. Improving Former Shifted Cultivation Land Using Wetland Cultivation in Kapuas District, Central Kalimantan

    Wahyudi Wahyudi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Degraded forest area in Kalimantan could be caused by shifted cultivation activity that be conducted by local peoples in the surrounding forest areas. Efforts to improve the former shifted cultivation area (non productive land is developing the settled cultivation by use of irrigation system, better paddy seed, land processing, fertilizing, spraying pesticide, weeding, and better acces to the market.  Local peoples, especially in Kalimantan, has been depended their food on the shifted cultivation pattern since the long time ago.  This tradition could cause forest damage, forest fire, forest degradation, deforestation, and lose out of children education because they were following shifted cultivation activity although itsspace is very far from their home.  This research was aimed to improve former shifted cultivation lands using wetland cultivation in order to improve land productivity and to support food securityin the local community. This research was administratively located in Tanjung Rendan Village, Kapuas Hulu Sub-Ddistrict, Kapuas District, Central Kalimantan Province, Indonesia.  Data of rice yield from settled cultivation and shifted cultivation were got from 15 households that was taking by random at 2010 to 2011. Homogeneity test, analysis of variants, and least significant different (LSD test using SPSS 15.0 for Windows. Result of this research showed that     paddy yield at settled cultivation was significantly differentand better than shifted cultivation at 0.05 level. LSD test also indicated that all paddy yields from settled cultivation were significantly different compare to shifted cultivation at the 0.05 level.  The community in Tanjung Rendan Villages preferred settled cultivation than shifted cultivation, especially due to higher paddy production. Profit for settled cultivation was IDR10.95 million ha-1, meanwhile profit for shifted cultivation was just IDR 2.81 million ha-1 only.  Settled cultivation pattern could

  12. Energy forest cultivation and the landscape

    Bell, Simon

    1994-01-01

    The place of energy forestry in the landscape is discussed, principally with reference to Britain and Europe. The importance of design as a means of ensuring an attractive appearance, while meeting functional and economic requirements, is stressed. Simple design principles which help energy forests, mainly short rotation arable coppice, to fit into the landscape are suggested. (author)

  13. Shifting Cultivation : Promoting Innovative Policy and Development ...

    ... if improved and rationalized as an agroforestry system, has high potential for poverty ... with the livelihood issues of the cultivators and the health of the ecosystem, and assess the ... International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development.

  14. Agent-based modelling of shifting cultivation field patterns, Vietnam

    Jepsen, Martin Rudbeck; Leisz, S.; Rasmussen, K.

    2006-01-01

    Shifting cultivation in the Nghe An Province of Vietnam's Northern Mountain Region produces a characteristic land-cover pattern of small and larger fields. The pattern is the result of farmers cultivating either individually or in spatially clustered groups. Using spatially explicit agent...

  15. Changes in shifting cultivation systems on small Pacific islands

    Mertz, Ole; Birch-Thomsen, Torben; Elberling, Bo

    2012-01-01

    The limited information on change in shifting cultivation systems of small islands of the Pacific stands in contrast to increasing evidence of this farming system's demise in other parts of the tropics. Here, we assess changes in agricultural activities during the past 40 years of Bellona Island......, Solomon Islands, where shifting cultivation is still maintained in the traditional way. Fallow length has increased despite population growth due to redistribution of the cultivated area, migration-induced extensification and changes in crops. Productivity of the farming system remains high although...

  16. Trends in shifting cultivation and the REDD mechanism

    Mertz, Ole

    2009-01-01

    of the transitions taking place. The proposed mechanism for reduced greenhouse gas emissions from deforestation and degradation (REDD) can be both a challenge and opportunity for shifting cultivators. Very limited literature is available on this dilemma, but a few sources point to benefits from ‘compensated...

  17. Tropical secondary forests regenerating after shifting cultivation in the Philippines uplands are important carbon sinks.

    Mukul, Sharif A; Herbohn, John; Firn, Jennifer

    2016-03-08

    In the tropics, shifting cultivation has long been attributed to large scale forest degradation, and remains a major source of uncertainty in forest carbon accounting. In the Philippines, shifting cultivation, locally known as kaingin, is a major land-use in upland areas. We measured the distribution and recovery of aboveground biomass carbon along a fallow gradient in post-kaingin secondary forests in an upland area in the Philippines. We found significantly higher carbon in the aboveground total biomass and living woody biomass in old-growth forest, while coarse dead wood biomass carbon was higher in the new fallow sites. For young through to the oldest fallow secondary forests, there was a progressive recovery of biomass carbon evident. Multivariate analysis indicates patch size as an influential factor in explaining the variation in biomass carbon recovery in secondary forests after shifting cultivation. Our study indicates secondary forests after shifting cultivation are substantial carbon sinks and that this capacity to store carbon increases with abandonment age. Large trees contribute most to aboveground biomass. A better understanding of the relative contribution of different biomass sources in aboveground total forest biomass, however, is necessary to fully capture the value of such landscapes from forest management, restoration and conservation perspectives.

  18. The shifting demographic landscape of pandemic influenza.

    Shweta Bansal

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available As Pandemic (H1N1 2009 influenza spreads around the globe, it strikes school-age children more often than adults. Although there is some evidence of pre-existing immunity among older adults, this alone may not explain the significant gap in age-specific infection rates.Based on a retrospective analysis of pandemic strains of influenza from the last century, we show that school-age children typically experience the highest attack rates in primarily naive populations, with the burden shifting to adults during the subsequent season. Using a parsimonious network-based mathematical model which incorporates the changing distribution of contacts in the susceptible population, we demonstrate that new pandemic strains of influenza are expected to shift the epidemiological landscape in exactly this way.Our analysis provides a simple demographic explanation for the age bias observed for H1N1/09 attack rates, and suggests that this bias may shift in coming months. These results have significant implications for the allocation of public health resources for H1N1/09 and future influenza pandemics.

  19. The shifting cross-media news landscape

    Schrøder, Kim Christian; Steeg Larsen, Bent

    2010-01-01

    and lifestyles. Theoretically the study is anchored in Habermas’s notion of the public sphere, and its recent reconceptualizations in theories of ‘cultural citizenship’, 'civic agency' and 'public connection'. The project operationalizes these theories through the concept of users' perceived “worthwhileness......The article offers new insights for democracy and for news producers by mapping the use and users of today’s cross-media news landscape, as the everyday consumption of news across the range of available news media and formats is shifting as a result of transformations of technology, culture......” of news media, a user-anchored concept which incorporates the different functionalities of the situational cross-media use of news by citizen/consumers in everyday life. Empirically the article presents the findings of a large-scale survey that traces the imminent challenges facing players in the news...

  20. Geospatial Modeling To Assess Geomorphological Risk For Relentless Shifting Cultivation In Garo Hills Of Meghalaya, North East India

    Pramod Kumar Yadav

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to shifting cultivation, the overall structure and composition of ecological condition is affected, hence landscape study becomes important for maintaining ecological diversity and appropriate scientific planning of any area. Garo hills region of northeast India is suffering from Geomorphological risk like sheet erosion, landslide etc. due to the age old tradition of shifting cultivation in the fragile hill slopes aided by other anthropogenic activities. The present study was conducted to examine the role of shifting cultivation for deforestation and degradation with variant of slope and elevation to relate vegetation cover with slope and elevation in the Garo Hills landscape of Meghalaya using temporal remote sensing data of 1991, 2001 and 2010. It revealed that there is decrease in dense forest and open forest during the 1st decade while areas under dense forest and non-forest increased in 2nd decade. This increased forest area is confined in the high slopes, which are inaccessible. The study shows increase in shifting cultivation near-about double fold in high slope and more than a double fold in the high altitudinal area in last decade, which is negative sign in terms of Geomorphological protection. International Journal of Environment, Volume-2, Issue-1, Sep-Nov 2013, Pages 91-104 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v2i1.9212

  1. Intensification of Shifting Cultivation in Tanzania: Degree, Drivers and Effects on Vegetation and Soils

    Kilawe, Charles Joseph

    The aim of the present study was to provide a better understanding of the degree and drivers of intensification of shifting cultivation and its effects on vegetation and soils. The study was conducted in uplands and low lands agro-ecological zones of Kilosa District, eastern central Tanzania. Data...... and intensive short fallow systems. They also adopted intensive land preparation methods that involved deep cultivation and burying of vegetation. Intensification in upland was driven by adoption and enforcement of land tenure policies which restrict shifting cultivation whereas in the lowlands, it was driven...... that sustainable intensification of shifting cultivation be sought to prevent further adverse effects on the environment. The present restrictive policy driven approach of intensification of shifting cultivation seems to cause more negative environmental consequences. I recommend development and promotion...

  2. Intensively Cultivated Landscape and Varroa Mite Infestation Are Associated with Reduced Honey Bee Nutritional State.

    Dolezal, Adam G; Carrillo-Tripp, Jimena; Miller, W Allen; Bonning, Bryony C; Toth, Amy L

    2016-01-01

    As key pollinators, honey bees are crucial to many natural and agricultural ecosystems. An important factor in the health of honey bees is the availability of diverse floral resources. However, in many parts of the world, high-intensity agriculture could result in a reduction in honey bee forage. Previous studies have investigated how the landscape surrounding honey bee hives affects some aspects of honey bee health, but to our knowledge there have been no investigations of the effects of intensively cultivated landscapes on indicators of individual bee health such as nutritional physiology and pathogen loads. Furthermore, agricultural landscapes in different regions vary greatly in forage and land management, indicating a need for additional information on the relationship between honey bee health and landscape cultivation. Here, we add to this growing body of information by investigating differences in nutritional physiology between honey bees kept in areas of comparatively low and high cultivation in an area generally high agricultural intensity in the Midwestern United States. We focused on bees collected directly before winter, because overwintering stress poses one of the most serious problems for honey bees in temperate climates. We found that honey bees kept in areas of lower cultivation exhibited higher lipid levels than those kept in areas of high cultivation, but this effect was observed only in colonies that were free of Varroa mites. Furthermore, we found that the presence of mites was associated with lower lipid levels and higher titers of deformed wing virus (DWV), as well as a non-significant trend towards higher overwinter losses. Overall, these results show that mite infestation interacts with landscape, obscuring the effects of landscape alone and suggesting that the benefits of improved foraging landscape could be lost without adequate control of mite infestations.

  3. Intensively Cultivated Landscape and Varroa Mite Infestation Are Associated with Reduced Honey Bee Nutritional State.

    Adam G Dolezal

    Full Text Available As key pollinators, honey bees are crucial to many natural and agricultural ecosystems. An important factor in the health of honey bees is the availability of diverse floral resources. However, in many parts of the world, high-intensity agriculture could result in a reduction in honey bee forage. Previous studies have investigated how the landscape surrounding honey bee hives affects some aspects of honey bee health, but to our knowledge there have been no investigations of the effects of intensively cultivated landscapes on indicators of individual bee health such as nutritional physiology and pathogen loads. Furthermore, agricultural landscapes in different regions vary greatly in forage and land management, indicating a need for additional information on the relationship between honey bee health and landscape cultivation. Here, we add to this growing body of information by investigating differences in nutritional physiology between honey bees kept in areas of comparatively low and high cultivation in an area generally high agricultural intensity in the Midwestern United States. We focused on bees collected directly before winter, because overwintering stress poses one of the most serious problems for honey bees in temperate climates. We found that honey bees kept in areas of lower cultivation exhibited higher lipid levels than those kept in areas of high cultivation, but this effect was observed only in colonies that were free of Varroa mites. Furthermore, we found that the presence of mites was associated with lower lipid levels and higher titers of deformed wing virus (DWV, as well as a non-significant trend towards higher overwinter losses. Overall, these results show that mite infestation interacts with landscape, obscuring the effects of landscape alone and suggesting that the benefits of improved foraging landscape could be lost without adequate control of mite infestations.

  4. Influence of shifting cultivation practices on soil-plant-beetle interactions.

    Ibrahim, Kalibulla Syed; Momin, Marcy D; Lalrotluanga, R; Rosangliana, David; Ghatak, Souvik; Zothansanga, R; Kumar, Nachimuthu Senthil; Gurusubramanian, Guruswami

    2016-08-01

    Shifting cultivation (jhum) is a major land use practice in Mizoram. It was considered as an eco-friendly and efficient method when the cycle duration was long (15-30 years), but it poses the problem of land degradation and threat to ecology when shortened (4-5 years) due to increased intensification of farming systems. Studying beetle community structure is very helpful in understanding how shifting cultivation affects the biodiversity features compared to natural forest system. The present study examines the beetle species diversity and estimates the effects of shifting cultivation practices on the beetle assemblages in relation to change in tree species composition and soil nutrients. Scarabaeidae and Carabidae were observed to be the dominant families in the land use systems studied. Shifting cultivation practice significantly (P PERMANOVA), permutational multivariate analysis of dispersion (PERMDISP)) statistical analyses. Besides changing the tree species composition and affecting the soil fertility, shifting cultivation provides less suitable habitat conditions for the beetle species. Bioindicator analysis categorized the beetle species into forest specialists, anthropogenic specialists (shifting cultivation habitat specialist), and habitat generalists. Molecular analysis of bioindicator beetle species was done using mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) marker to validate the beetle species and describe genetic variation among them in relation to heterogeneity, transition/transversion bias, codon usage bias, evolutionary distance, and substitution pattern. The present study revealed the fact that shifting cultivation practice significantly affects the beetle species in terms of biodiversity pattern as well as evolutionary features. Spatiotemporal assessment of soil-plant-beetle interactions in shifting cultivation system and their influence in land degradation and ecology will be helpful in making biodiversity conservation decisions in the

  5. Recovery of Biomass Following Shifting Cultivation in Dry Tropical Forests of the Yucatan

    Read, L; Lawrence, Deborah; Foster, David Russell

    2003-01-01

    Land-use change in the tropics is creating secondary forest at an unprecedented rate. In the tropical Americas, mature dry tropical forest is rapidly being converted to secondary forest during the fallow period of shifting cultivation. This study addresses changes in forest biomass during forest recovery following shifting cultivation of maize (corn) in the Southern Yucatan Peninsular Region (SYPR), Mexico. We sampled stems .1 cm diameter at breast height at 36 study sites in t...

  6. Chinantec shifting cultivation : InTERAcTIVE landuse : a case-study in the Chinantla, Mexico, on secondary vegetation, soils and crop performance under indigenous shifting cultivation

    Wal, van der H.

    1999-01-01

    The development of secondary vegetation, soils and crop performance was studied in local variants of shifting cultivation in two villages in the Chinantla, Mexico. In Chapter 1, the institutional, social and political context of the research are presented and the reader is advertised that

  7. Shifting cultivation effects on creek water quality around Barkal Upazila in Chittagong Hill Tracts, Bangladesh

    Shyamal Karmakar; S.M.Sirajul Haque; M.Mozaffar Hossain; Sohag Miah

    2012-01-01

    We report the effects of shifting cultivation on water quality in 16 creeks investigated once in 2007 and twice in 2008 in 16 apparently similar small neighboring watersheds,each of 3 to 5 ha,at four locations around Barkal sub-district under Rangamati District of Chittagong Hill Tracts in Bangladesh.Concentrations of SO42-and K+,and pH in creek water were lower,and NO3-N and Na+ concentrations were higher in shifting-cultivation land compared to land with either plantation or natural forest or a combination of these cover types.Shifting cultivation effects on some water quality parameters were not significant due to change in land cover of the watershed between two sampling periods either through introduction of planted tree species or naturally regenerated vegetation.Conductivity and concentrations of HCO3-.PO43-,Ca2+ and Mg2+ in creek water showed no definite trend between shifting cultivation and the other land cover types.At one area near the Forest Range Office of Barkal,creek water pH was 5.8 under land cover with a combination of shifting cultivation and plantation.At this area Na+ concentration in shifting-cultivation land ranged from 32.33 to 33.00 mg·L-1 and in vegetated area from 25.00 to 30.50 mg·L-1 in 2007.At another area,Chaliatali Chara,SO42-concentration in a shifting-cultivation watershed ranged from 4.46 to 10.51 mg·L-1,lower than in a vegetated watershed that ranged from 11.69 to 19.98 mg·L-1 in 2007.SO42-concentration in this shifting-cultivation area ranged from 1.28 to 1.37 mg·L-1 and in the vegetated area from 1.37 to 3.50 mg·L-1 in 2008.

  8. Evaluating lek occupancy of greater sage-grouse in relation to landscape cultivation in the Dakotas

    Smith, Joe T.; Flake, Lester D.; Higgins, Kenneth F.; Kobriger, Gerald D.; Homer, Collin G.

    2005-01-01

    Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) have been declining in many states and provinces of North America, and North and South Dakota hold no exception to these declines. We studied effects of cultivated land on Greater Sage-Grouse lek abandonment in North and South Dakota. Landscape-level data were assessed using satellite imagery within a geographic information system. Comparisons were made of 1972-1976 and 1999-2000 percent cultivated and noncultivated land. These comparisons were made between land uses surrounding active leks versus inactive leks, active leks versus random locations, and abandoned regions versus active regions. The 1999-2000 imagery illustrated that percent cultivated land was greater near abandoned leks (4-km buffers) than near active leks in North Dakota or random sites, but this did not hold true in South Dakota. Comparison of an extensive region of abandoned leks with a region of active leks in North Dakota illustrated a similar increase as well as dispersion of cultivation within the abandoned region. However, 1972-1976 imagery revealed that this relationship between percentage of cultivated land and lek activity in North Dakota has been static over the last 30 years. Thus, if the decline of Greater Sage-Grouse is the result of cultivated land infringements, it occurred prior to 1972 in North Dakota.

  9. Variation in soil fertility influences cycle dynamics and crop diversity in shifting cultivation systems

    Braga Junqueira, A.; Stomph, T.J.; Clement, C.R.; Struik, P.C.

    2016-01-01

    Smallholder farming in Amazonia is practised mostly through shifting cultivation, which under low population pressure is well adapted to the low-fertility soils that predominate in uplands and to the lack of external inputs. In this paper we investigate the effects of soil heterogeneity (in terms of

  10. Carbon emissions from dryland shifting cultivation : a case study of Mexican tropical dry forest

    Salinas Melgoza, Miguel Angel; Skutsch, Margaret; Lovett, Jonathan Cranidge; Borrego, Armonia

    2017-01-01

    The article considers the relation of shifting cultivation to deforestation and degradation, and hence its impacts in terms of carbon emissions and sequestration potential. There is a need to understand these relationships better in the context of international policy on Reduced Emissions from

  11. The role of Amazonian anthropogenic soils in shifting cultivation: learning from farmers’ rationales

    Braga Junqueira, A.; Almekinders, C.J.M.; Stomph, T.J.; Clement, C.R.; Struik, P.C.

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated farmers’ rationales to understand their decision making in relation to the use of fertile anthropogenic soils, i.e., Amazonian dark earths (ADE), and for dealing with changes in shifting cultivation in Central Amazonia. We analyzed qualitative information from 196 interviews with

  12. Shifting agriculture: the main cause of landscape degradation in the Central Spanish Pyrenees

    Lasanta, Teodoro; Nadal-Romero, Estela; Errea, Paz

    2017-04-01

    Cereal agriculture occupied large areas in the Spanish Pyrenees to feed the population in a socio-economic system of limited exchanges with the outside. In the Western valleys, shifting agriculture constitutes the dominant field pattern, representing almost three-quarters of the traditional agricultural space (Lasanta et al., in press). These were cultivated at times of heavy population growth, necessitating steep and stony hillsides with poor soil to be tilled, or the ones that were far away from the village. The fields were created by clearing the vegetation from a slope, then burning it to use the ash as a fertilizer. Cereal was grown for 3-4 years, after which they were abandoned for 20-30 years to recover fertility, and the cycle was repeated. Almost all the fields (99%) using shifting agriculture had been abandoned by the 1950s. This study analyzes the role of the shifting agriculture in soil erosion and landscape degradation. For this purpose, (i) experimental plots, which reproduce the traditional agriculture in the Pyrenees and the abandonment processes, and (ii) the cartography made from the SIOSE (2009), which shows the present land cover 50 years after cropland abandonment, were used. The results show that shifting agriculture caused higher soil losses than other agricultural uses (1.36 kg m-2 yr-1): fallow land (0.87 kg m-2 yr-1), chemically fertilized cereal (0.86 kg m-2 yr-1) and meadow (0.14 kg m-2 yr-1). Also, after land abandonment, soil losses are higher in shifting agriculture (0.78 kg m-2 yr-1) than cereal lands (0.73 kg m-2 yr-1). The burning of the shrub cover and the use of ashes as fertilizer did not contribute to improve the soil quality, which explains both the higher soil losses during the cultivated period and after the abandonment, since slower plant succession occurs. The results obtained from the SIOSE confirm that the change from meadows to shrubland is relatively fast, as a consequence of the low relationship with livestock

  13. Unintended cultivation, shifting baselines, and conflict between objectives for fisheries and conservation.

    Brown, Christopher J; Trebilco, Rowan

    2014-06-01

    The effects of fisheries on marine ecosystems, and their capacity to drive shifts in ecosystem states, have been widely documented. Less well appreciated is that some commercially valuable species respond positively to fishing-induced ecosystem change and can become important fisheries resources in modified ecosystems. Thus, the ecological effects of one fishery can unintentionally increase the abundance and productivity of other fished species (i.e., cultivate). We reviewed examples of this effect in the peer-reviewed literature. We found 2 underlying ecosystem drivers of the effect: trophic release of prey species when predators are overfished and habitat change. Key ecological, social, and economic conditions required for one fishery to unintentionally cultivate another include strong top-down control of prey by predators, the value of the new fishery, and the capacity of fishers to adapt to a new fishery. These unintended cultivation effects imply strong trade-offs between short-term fishery success and conservation efforts to restore ecosystems toward baseline conditions because goals for fisheries and conservation may be incompatible. Conflicts are likely to be exacerbated if fisheries baselines shift relative to conservation baselines and there is investment in the new fishery. However, in the long-term, restoration toward ecosystem baselines may often benefit both fishery and conservation goals. Unintended cultivation can be identified and predicted using a combination of time-series data, dietary studies, models of food webs, and socioeconomic data. Identifying unintended cultivation is necessary for management to set compatible goals for fisheries and conservation. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  14. Shorter Fallow Cycles Affect the Availability of Noncrop Plant Resources in a Shifting Cultivation System

    Sarah Paule. Dalle

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Shifting cultivation systems, one of the most widely distributed forms of agriculture in the tropics, provide not only crops of cultural significance, but also medicinal, edible, ritual, fuel, and forage resources, which contribute to the livelihoods, health, and cultural identity of local people. In many regions across the globe, shifting cultivation systems are undergoing important changes, one of the most pervasive being a shortening of the fallow cycle. Although there has been much attention drawn to declines in crop yields in conjunction with reductions in fallow times, little if any research has focused on the dynamics of noncrop plant resources. In this paper, we use a data set of 26 fields of the same age, i.e., ~1.5 yr, but differing in the length and frequency of past fallow cycles, to examine the impact of shorter fallow periods on the availability of noncrop plant resources. The resources examined are collected in shifting cultivation fields by the Yucatec Maya in Quintana Roo, Mexico. These included firewood, which is cut from remnant trees and stumps spared at the time of felling, and 17 forage species that form part of the weed vegetation. Firewood showed an overall decrease in basal area with shorter fallow cycles, which was mostly related to the smaller diameter of the spared stumps and trees in short-fallow milpas. In contrast, forage species showed a mixed response. Species increasing in abundance in short-fallow milpas tended to be short-lived herbs and shrubs often with weedy habits, whereas those declining in abundance were predominantly pioneer trees and animal-dispersed species. Coppicing tree species showed a neutral response to fallow intensity. Within the cultural and ecological context of our study area, we expect that declines in firewood availability will be most significant for livelihoods because of the high reliance on firewood for local fuel needs and the fact that the main alternative source of firewood, forest

  15. The role of Amazonian anthropogenic soils in shifting cultivation: learning from farmers' rationales

    André B. Junqueira

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated farmers' rationales to understand their decision making in relation to the use of fertile anthropogenic soils, i.e., Amazonian dark earths (ADE, and for dealing with changes in shifting cultivation in Central Amazonia. We analyzed qualitative information from 196 interviews with farmers in 21 riverine villages along the Madeira River. In order to decide about crop management options to attain their livelihood objectives, farmers rely on an integrated and dynamic understanding of their biophysical and social environment. Farmers associate fallow development with higher crop yields and lower weed pressure, but ADE is always associated with high yields and high weeding requirements. Amazonian dark earths are also seen as an opportunity to grow different crops and/or grow crops in more intensified management systems. However, farmers often maintain simultaneously intensive swiddens on ADE and extensive swiddens on nonanthropogenic soils. Farmers acknowledge numerous changes in their socioeconomic environment that affect their shifting cultivation systems, particularly their growing interaction with market economies and the incorporation of modern agricultural practices. Farmers considered that shifting cultivation systems on ADE tend to be more prone to changes leading to intensification, and we identified cases, e.g., swiddens used for watermelon cultivation, in which market demand led to overintensification and resulted in ADE degradation. This shows that increasing intensification can be a potential threat to ADE and can undermine the importance of these soils for agricultural production, for the conservation of agrobiodiversity, and for local livelihoods. Given that farmers have an integrated knowledge of their context and respond to socioeconomic and agro-ecological changes in their environment, we argue that understanding farmers' knowledge and rationales is crucial to identify sustainable pathways for the future of ADE and of

  16. Duty hour reform in a shifting medical landscape.

    Jena, Anupam B; Prasad, Vinay

    2013-09-01

    The circumstances that led to the death of Libby Zion in 1984 prompted national discussions about the impact of resident fatigue on patient outcomes. Nearly 30 years later, national duty hour reforms largely motivated by patient safety concerns have demonstrated a negligible impact of duty hour reductions on patient mortality. We suggest that the lack of an impact of duty hour reforms on patient mortality is due to a different medical landscape today than existed in 1984. Improvements in quality of care made possible by computerized order entry, automated medication checks, inpatient pharmacists, and increased resident supervision have, among other systemic changes, diminished the adverse impact that resident fatigue is able to have on patient outcomes. Given this new medical landscape, advocacy towards current and future duty hour reforms may be best justified by evidence of the impact of duty hour reform on resident wellbeing, education, and burnout.

  17. Implications of changes in tropical shifting cultivation intensification on land productivity and GHG-related biogeochemistry

    Bustier, Bernard; Ngoy, Alfred; Pietsch, Stephan; Mosnier, Aline

    2017-04-01

    Traditional shifting cultivation used to be a sustainable type of land use for the subsistence of populations in tropical rainforests. The vast resource of moist tropical forests together with low population densities allowed for long fallow periods on sparsely distributed slash and burn parcels with large areas of untouched forest in between. Population growth and concomitant increase in land demand for subsistence as well as increasing infrastructure development for commercial forestry, cash crops and mining, however, altered the picture over recent decades. As a result, fallow periods were reduced due to lack of pristine land. In this study we use field data and modeling results from the Congo Basin to assess the impacts of reduced fallow periods on Carbon sequestration dynamics using a BGC model calibrated and validated with > 150 research plots distributed over the western Congo Basin and representing different management and land use histories. We find that the average carbon sequestration rate reduces over the number of cultivation cycles and that a reduction of the fallow from 10 years to 7 years reduce the average carbon sequestration between 13 and 21% and from 7 years to 4 years between 23 and 29% depending on soil fertility. Results will be discussed in the context of population growth and changes in environmetal conditions.

  18. Soil erosion from shifting cultivation and other smallholder land use in Sarawak, Malaysia

    Neergaard, Andreas de; Magid, Jakob; Mertz, Ole

    2008-01-01

    to compare soil erosion from three land use types in a shifting cultivation system, namely upland rice, pepper gardens and native forest. We used two sample sites within the humid tropical lowland zone in Sarawak, Malaysia. Both areas had steep slopes between 25° and 50°, and were characterised by a mosaic...... land use of native forest, secondary re-growth, upland rice fields and pepper gardens. Soil samples were collected to 90 cm depth from all three land use types, and analysed for various chemical parameters, including texture, total organic matter and 137Cs content. 137Cs is a radioactive isotope...... in the upper soil layers, are unlikely to change the carbon inventory dramatically. 137Cs content in the soil profile indicated largest retention of original topsoil in the native forest plots, and a loss of 18 and 35% of topsoil from upland rice and pepper gardens, respectively, over the past 40 years. When...

  19. Beyond the fragmentation threshold hypothesis: regime shifts in biodiversity across fragmented landscapes.

    Renata Pardini

    Full Text Available Ecological systems are vulnerable to irreversible change when key system properties are pushed over thresholds, resulting in the loss of resilience and the precipitation of a regime shift. Perhaps the most important of such properties in human-modified landscapes is the total amount of remnant native vegetation. In a seminal study Andrén proposed the existence of a fragmentation threshold in the total amount of remnant vegetation, below which landscape-scale connectivity is eroded and local species richness and abundance become dependent on patch size. Despite the fact that species patch-area effects have been a mainstay of conservation science there has yet to be a robust empirical evaluation of this hypothesis. Here we present and test a new conceptual model describing the mechanisms and consequences of biodiversity change in fragmented landscapes, identifying the fragmentation threshold as a first step in a positive feedback mechanism that has the capacity to impair ecological resilience, and drive a regime shift in biodiversity. The model considers that local extinction risk is defined by patch size, and immigration rates by landscape vegetation cover, and that the recovery from local species losses depends upon the landscape species pool. Using a unique dataset on the distribution of non-volant small mammals across replicate landscapes in the Atlantic forest of Brazil, we found strong evidence for our model predictions--that patch-area effects are evident only at intermediate levels of total forest cover, where landscape diversity is still high and opportunities for enhancing biodiversity through local management are greatest. Furthermore, high levels of forest loss can push native biota through an extinction filter, and result in the abrupt, landscape-wide loss of forest-specialist taxa, ecological resilience and management effectiveness. The proposed model links hitherto distinct theoretical approaches within a single framework

  20. The shifting landscape of latent print testimony: an american perspective

    Heidi Eldridge

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Friction ridge comparison testimony in the United States has long been characterized by speaking in absolutes: fingerprints are unique, the Analysis, Comparison, Evaluation, and Verification methodology has a zero-error rate, and the testimony presented by the expert should be regarded as an incontrovertible fact. Once the National Research Council released their watershed report in 2009, questioning and criticizing these clear overstatements of the strength of the evidence, many commentators and professional organizations recommended that the friction ridge community rethink the way their evidence was presented in reports and in court. Yet, change has been slow to come. While some agencies have begun a shift in the way they present their findings, many others still testify the same way they always have. This paper presents the historical context of where American friction ridge testimony has been, lays out the arguments for why it needs to change, describes some recent efforts to improve, and highlights some likely directions for the future of friction ridge reporting and testimony in the United States.

  1. Effects on watershed hydrology after rainforest conversion to shifting cultivation and agroforestry in Sabah, Malaysia

    Fagerberg, Nils

    1998-07-01

    A paired catchment study was conducted in Mendolong, Sabah, Malaysia, to monitor the hydrological effects from conversion of secondary rain forest to shifting cultivation and agroforestry land-uses. Four different treatments were investigated: (1.) Agroforestry with initial burning and planting of fast-growing trees (Acacia mangium) and one rotation of hill rice, (2.) Agroforestry treatment as in no. 1, but without burning, (3.) Shifting cultivation with burning and one rotation of hill rice and (4.) No burning and one rotation of hill rice. A fifth catchment was used as untreated control. Waterflow was continuously measured in the streams during 41 months, between May 1994 to November 1997. 11 months were used as a calibration period before clear-felling and treatments. The data were used to determine water budgets (precipitation, runoff and evapotranspiration), runoff increases after clear-felling and changes in streamflow regimes. Regression analyses on runoff from each catchment versus the control catchment during the calibration period were used to determine the increase in runoff after clear-felling. Some unexpected losses and gains of water across the borders of the divided catchments were detected in three of the five catchments. The estimated transferred water volumes under forest cover range between 10 % and 22 % of total runoff. After clear-felling the losses and gains of water across the borders increased. The water transfer did mainly occur as sub-surface flow, probably in more permeable parts in the lower soil profile like cracks in the bedrock. Generally, the risk of deep leakage seams to increase with distance from the ridge. Hydrological effects could still be calculated through amalgamation of two of the catchments, and since the third catchment had a stable level of water gain due to unchanged conditions in the surrounding catchments. The mean areal rainfall during the period was higher than earlier measurements in the area, 4061 mm. The mean

  2. Effects on watershed hydrology after rain forest conversion to shifting cultivation and agroforestry in Sabah, Malaysia

    Fagerberg, Nils

    1998-12-31

    A paired catchment study was conducted in Mendolong, Sabah, Malaysia, to monitor the hydrological effects from conversion of secondary rain forest to shifting cultivation and agroforestry land-uses. Four different treatments were investigated: (1.) Agroforestry with initial burning and planting of fast-growing trees (Acacia mangium) and one rotation of hill rice, (2.) Agroforestry treatment as in no. 1, but without burning, (3.) Shifting cultivation with burning and one rotation of hill rice and (4.) No burning and one rotation of hill rice. A fifth catchment was used as untreated control. Waterflow was continuously measured in the streams during 41 months, between May 1994 to November 1997. 11 months were used as a calibration period before clear-felling and treatments. The data were used to determine water budgets (precipitation, runoff and evapotranspiration), runoff increases after clear-felling and changes in streamflow regimes. Regression analyses on runoff from each catchment versus the control catchment during the calibration period were used to determine the increase in runoff after clear-felling. Some unexpected losses and gains of water across the borders of the divided catchments were detected in three of the five catchments. The estimated transferred water volumes under forest cover range between 10 % and 22 % of total runoff. After clear-felling the losses and gains of water across the borders increased. The water transfer did mainly occur as sub-surface flow, probably in more permeable parts in the lower soil profile like cracks in the bedrock. Generally, the risk of deep leakage seams to increase with distance from the ridge. Hydrological effects could still be calculated through amalgamation of two of the catchments, and since the third catchment had a stable level of water gain due to unchanged conditions in the surrounding catchments. The mean areal rainfall during the period was higher than earlier measurements in the area, 4061 mm. The mean

  3. Effects on watershed hydrology after rainforest conversion to shifting cultivation and agroforestry in Sabah, Malaysia

    Fagerberg, Nils

    1998-01-01

    A paired catchment study was conducted in Mendolong, Sabah, Malaysia, to monitor the hydrological effects from conversion of secondary rain forest to shifting cultivation and agroforestry land-uses. Four different treatments were investigated: (1.) Agroforestry with initial burning and planting of fast-growing trees (Acacia mangium) and one rotation of hill rice, (2.) Agroforestry treatment as in no. 1, but without burning, (3.) Shifting cultivation with burning and one rotation of hill rice and (4.) No burning and one rotation of hill rice. A fifth catchment was used as untreated control. Waterflow was continuously measured in the streams during 41 months, between May 1994 to November 1997. 11 months were used as a calibration period before clear-felling and treatments. The data were used to determine water budgets (precipitation, runoff and evapotranspiration), runoff increases after clear-felling and changes in streamflow regimes. Regression analyses on runoff from each catchment versus the control catchment during the calibration period were used to determine the increase in runoff after clear-felling. Some unexpected losses and gains of water across the borders of the divided catchments were detected in three of the five catchments. The estimated transferred water volumes under forest cover range between 10 % and 22 % of total runoff. After clear-felling the losses and gains of water across the borders increased. The water transfer did mainly occur as sub-surface flow, probably in more permeable parts in the lower soil profile like cracks in the bedrock. Generally, the risk of deep leakage seams to increase with distance from the ridge. Hydrological effects could still be calculated through amalgamation of two of the catchments, and since the third catchment had a stable level of water gain due to unchanged conditions in the surrounding catchments. The mean areal rainfall during the period was higher than earlier measurements in the area, 4061 mm. The mean

  4. Agroforestry leads to shifts within the gammaproteobacterial microbiome of banana plants cultivated in Central America.

    Köberl, Martina; Dita, Miguel; Martinuz, Alfonso; Staver, Charles; Berg, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Bananas (Musa spp.) belong to the most important global food commodities, and their cultivation represents the world's largest monoculture. Although the plant-associated microbiome has substantial influence on plant growth and health, there is a lack of knowledge of the banana microbiome and its influencing factors. We studied the impact of (i) biogeography, and (ii) agroforestry on the banana-associated gammaproteobacterial microbiome analyzing plants grown in smallholder farms in Nicaragua and Costa Rica. Profiles of 16S rRNA genes revealed high abundances of Pseudomonadales, Enterobacteriales, Xanthomonadales, and Legionellales. An extraordinary high diversity of the gammaproteobacterial microbiota was observed within the endophytic microenvironments (endorhiza and pseudostem), which was similar in both countries. Enterobacteria were identified as dominant group of above-ground plant parts (pseudostem and leaves). Neither biogeography nor agroforestry showed a statistically significant impact on the gammaproteobacterial banana microbiome in general. However, indicator species for each microenvironment and country, as well as for plants grown in Coffea intercropping systems with and without agri-silvicultural production of different Fabaceae trees (Inga spp. in Nicaragua and Erythrina poeppigiana in Costa Rica) could be identified. For example, banana plants grown in agroforestry systems were characterized by an increase of potential plant-beneficial bacteria, like Pseudomonas and Stenotrophomonas, and on the other side by a decrease of Erwinia. Hence, this study could show that as a result of legume-based agroforestry the indigenous banana-associated gammaproteobacterial community noticeably shifted.

  5. Review: Biodiversity conservation strategy in a native perspective; case study of shifting cultivation at the Dayaks of Kalimantan

    AHMAD DWI SETYAWAN

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Setyawan AD. 2010. Biodiversity conservation strategy in a native perspective; case study of shifting cultivation at the Dayaks of Kalimantan. Nusantara Bioscience 2: 97-108. Native tribes generally are original conservationists; they build genuine conservation strategy of natural resources and environment for sustainable living. Dayak is a native tribe of Kalimantan that has been living for thousands of years; they use shifting cultivation to manage the communal forest lands due to Kalimantan’s poor soil of minerals and nutrients, where the presence of phosphorus becomes a limiting factor for crops cultivation. In tropical forests, phosphorus mostly stored in the trees, so to remove it, the forest burning is carried out. Nutrients released into the soil can be used for upland rice (gogo cultivation, until depleted; after that, cultivators need to open a forest, while the old land was abandoned (fallow until it becomes forest again (for 20-25 years. The consecutive land clearing causes the formation of mosaics land with different succession ages and diverse biodiversity. This process is often combined with agroforestry systems (multicultural forest gardens, where the will-be-abandoned fields are planted with a variety of useful trees that can be integrated in forest ecosystems, especially rubber and fruits. These systems of shifting cultivation are often blamed as the main factor of forest degradation and fires, but in the last 300 years, this system has little impact on forest degradation. But, this is relatively low in productivity and subsistent, so it is not suitable for the modern agriculture which demands high productivity and measurable, mass and continuous yield, as well as related to the market. The increased population and industrial development of forestry, plantation, mining, etc. make the communal forest become narrower, so the fallow periods are shortened (5-15 years and the lands are degraded into grasslands. In the future

  6. Bacterial Diversity and Community Structure in Korean Ginseng Field Soil Are Shifted by Cultivation Time.

    Nguyen, Ngoc-Lan; Kim, Yeon-Ju; Hoang, Van-An; Subramaniyam, Sathiyamoorthy; Kang, Jong-Pyo; Kang, Chang Ho; Yang, Deok-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Traditional molecular methods have been used to examine bacterial communities in ginseng-cultivated soil samples in a time-dependent manner. Despite these efforts, our understanding of the bacterial community is still inadequate. Therefore, in this study, a high-throughput sequencing approach was employed to investigate bacterial diversity in various ginseng field soil samples over cultivation times of 2, 4, and 6 years in the first and second rounds of cultivation. We used non-cultivated soil samples to perform a comparative study. Moreover, this study assessed changes in the bacterial community associated with soil depth and the health state of the ginseng. Bacterial richness decreased through years of cultivation. This study detected differences in relative abundance of bacterial populations between the first and second rounds of cultivation, years of cultivation, and health states of ginseng. These bacterial populations were mainly distributed in the classes Acidobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Sphingobacteria. In addition, we found that pH, available phosphorus, and exchangeable Ca+ seemed to have high correlations with bacterial class in ginseng cultivated soil.

  7. Shifting Restoration Policy to Address Landscape Change, Novel Ecosystems, and Monitoring

    Joy B. Zedler

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Policy to guide ecological restoration needs to aim toward minimizing the causes of ecosystem degradation; where causes cannot be eliminated or minimized, policy needs to shift toward accommodating irreversible landscape alterations brought about by climate change, nitrogen deposition, altered hydrology, degraded soil, and declining biodiversity. The degree to which lost diversity and ecosystem services can be recovered depends on the extent and nature of landscape change. For wetlands that occur at the base of watersheds that have been developed for agriculture or urban centers, the inflows of excess water, sediment, and nutrients can be permanent and can severely challenge efforts to restore historical services, including biodiversity support. In such cases, the historical state of downstream wetlands will not be completely restorable. Wetland restoration policy should promote watershed planning, wherein wetland and upland restoration is prioritized to achieve multiple, specific ecosystem services. For downstream wetlands, it is realistic to aim to enhance nitrogen removal and to establish native plants that are matrix dominants, namely, those that facilitate rather than displace other natives. More ambitious objectives such as maximizing diversity would be suitable for less-altered, upstream wetlands. Policy should also call for adaptive restoration and long-term assessments. For large sites and multiple sites of a given wetland type within a region, experimental tests can determine a wetland's ability to support high levels of ecosystem services. Once projects are underway, long-term monitoring of structural and functional indicators can characterize progress toward each objective. Managers can then learn which targets are unachievable based on data, not just opinion. Where an experimental treatment shows limited progress, practitioners would shift to more promising treatments and targets, thereby adapting restoration efforts to changing

  8. Evolving technology, shifting expectations : cultivating pedagogy for a rapidly changing GIS landscape

    Ricker, Britta; Thatcher, Jim

    2017-01-01

    AbstractAs humans and natural processes continuously reshape the surface of the Earth, there is an unceasing need to document and analyze them through the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS). The public is gaining more access to spatial technologies that were once only available to highly

  9. Evolving Technology, Shifting Expectations: Cultivating Pedagogy for a Rapidly Changing GIS Landscape

    Ricker, Britta; Thatcher, Jim

    2017-01-01

    As humans and natural processes continuously reshape the surface of the Earth, there is an unceasing need to document and analyze them through the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS). The public is gaining more access to spatial technologies that were once only available to highly trained professionals. With technological evolution comes a…

  10. Habitat relationships of Asian elephants in shifting-cultivation landscapes of Meghalaya, Northeast India

    Bruce G. Marcot; Ashish Kumar; G. Talukdar; A.K. Srivastava

    2011-01-01

    In Asia and India, Asian elephants (Elaphas maximus) attain their highest densities and numbers in Meghalaya, particularly in Garo Hills, of northeast India. Little quantitative work has been done on elephant-habitat relationships in this region where the species' distribution is known to be highly fragmented. If elephants and their habitat...

  11. Bacterial diversity and community structure in lettuce soil are shifted by cultivation time

    Liu, Yiqian; Chang, Qing; Guo, Xu; Yi, Xinxin

    2017-08-01

    Compared with cereal production, vegetable production usually requires a greater degree of management and larger input of nutrients and irrigation, but these systems are not sustainable in the long term. This study aimed to what extent lettuce determine the bacterial community composition in the soil, during lettuce cultivation, pesticides and fertilizers were not apply to soil. Soil samples were collected from depths of 0-20cm and 20-40cm. A highthroughput sequencing approach was employed to investigate bacterial communities in lettuce-cultivated soil samples in a time-dependent manner. The dominant bacteria in the lettuce soil samples were mainly Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Chloroflexi, Nitrospirae, Firmicutes, Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Verrucomicrobia, Planctomycetes, Gemmatimo nadetes, Cyanobacteria. Proteobacteria was the most abundant phylum in the 6 soil samples. The relative abundance of Acidobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Verrucomicrobia and Cyanobacteria decreased through time of lettuce cultivation, but the relative abundance of Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Gemmatimonadetes, Chloroflexi, Planctomycetes and Nitrospirae increased over time. In the 0-20cm depth group and the 20-40cm depth soil, a similar pattern was observed that the percentage number of only shared OTUs between the early and late stage was lower than that between the early and middle stage soil, the result showed that lettuce growth can affect structure of soil bacterial communities.

  12. Transition of shifting cultivation and its impact on people’s livelihoods in the Miombo Woodlands of Northern Zambia and South-Western Tanzania

    Grogan, Kenneth Joseph; Birch-Thomsen, Torben; Lyimo, James

    2013-01-01

    population, government policies, and an increasing commercialization/market integration. Questionnaires, focus group meetings, and in-depth interviews reveal that despite the breakdown of the traditional shifting cultivation practices, a general improvement of livelihoods has taken place. This has happened...... through adaptation and diversification in both agricultural practices and livelihood activities. However, it is also seen that because of the often rapidly changing external factors (market conditions and policies), life in the shifting cultivation communities involves a continual shift of emphasis among...... a variety of livelihood strategies....

  13. Effects of Interannual Climate Variability on Water Availability and Productivity in Capoeira and Crops Under Traditional and Alternative Shifting Cultivation

    Guild, Liane S.; Sa, Tatiana D. A.; Carvalho, Claudio J. R.; Potter, Christopher S.; Wickel, Albert J.; Brienza, Silvio, Jr.; Kato, Maria doSocorro A.; Kato, Osvaldo; Brass, James (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Regenerating forests play an important role in long-term carbon sequestration and sustainable landuse as they act as potentially important carbon and nutrient sinks during the shifting agriculture fallow period. The long-term functioning of capoeira. is increasingly threatened by a shortening fallow period during shifting cultivation due to demographic pressures and associated increased vulnerability to severe climatic events. Declining productivity and functioning of fallow forests of shifting cultivation combined with progressive loss of nutrients by successive burning and cropping activities has resulted in declining agricultural productivity. In addition to the effects of intense land use practices, droughts associated with El Nino events are becoming more frequent and severe in moist tropical forests and negative effects on capoeira productivity could be considerable. In Igarape-Acu (near Belem, Para), we hypothesize that experimental alternative landuse/clearing practices (mulching and fallow vegetation improvement by planting with fast-growing leguminous tree species) may make capoeira and agriculture more resilient to the effects of agricultural pressures and drought through (1) increased biomass, soil organic matter and associated increase in soil water storage, and nutrient retention and (2) greater rooting depth of trees planted for fallow improvement. This experimental practice (moto mechanized chop-and-mulch with fallow improvement) has resulted increased soil moisture during the cropping phase, reduced loss of nutrients and organic matter, and higher rates of secondary-forest biomass accumulation. We present preliminary data on water relations during the dry season of 2001 in capoeira and crops for both traditional slash-and-burn and alternative chop-and-mulch practices. These data will be used to test IKONOS data for the detection of moisture status differences. The principal goal of the research is to determine the extent to which capoeira and

  14. Atrazine in a corn cultivated area and its relation with the landscape position

    Regimeire Freitas Aquino

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Atrazine is still being used in no-till corn production in Brazil. This herbicide can be moved by overland flow and leached in the soil profile. In both ways, it can pollute water, either by reaching the groundwater or lakes and streams close to the crop field. This study evaluated the presence of atrazine in a dystrophic Yellow-Red Argisol and a dystrophic Melanic Gleisol in a corn field, where atrazine has been applied for 11 years. Overland flow was the main process of atrazine transport on hillslope and leaching was the most important process in the floodplain. Frequency and location of atrazine application in the landscape define this herbicide contamination process.

  15. Shifts of microbial communities of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivation in a closed artificial ecosystem.

    Qin, Youcai; Fu, Yuming; Dong, Chen; Jia, Nannan; Liu, Hong

    2016-05-01

    The microbial communities of plant ecosystems are in relation to plant growing environment, but the alteration in biodiversity of rhizosphere and phyllosphere microbial communities in closed and controlled environments is unknown. The purpose of this study is to analyze the change regularity of microbial communities with wheat plants dependent-cultivated in a closed artificial ecosystem. The microbial community structures in closed-environment treatment plants were investigated by a culture-dependent approach, polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE), and Illumina Miseq high-throughput sequencing. The results indicated that the number of microbes decreased along with time, and the magnitude of bacteria, fungi, and actinomycetes were 10(7)-10(8), 10(5), and 10(3)-10(4) CFU/g (dry weight), respectively. The analysis of PCR-DGGE and Illumina Miseq revealed that the wheat leaf surface and near-root substrate had different microbial communities at different periods of wheat ecosystem development and showed that the relative highest diversity of microbial communities appeared at late and middle periods of the plant ecosystem, respectively. The results also indicated that the wheat leaf and substrate had different microbial community compositions, and the wheat substrate had higher richness of microbial community than the leaf. Flavobacterium, Pseudomonas, Paenibacillus, Enterobacter, Penicillium, Rhodotorula, Acremonium, and Alternaria were dominant in the wheat leaf samples, and Pedobacter, Flavobacterium, Halomonas, Marinobacter, Salinimicrobium, Lysobacter, Pseudomonas, Halobacillus, Xanthomonas, Acremonium, Monographella, and Penicillium were dominant populations in the wheat near-root substrate samples.

  16. Functional Group of Spiders in Cultivated Landscape Dominated by Paddy Fields in West Java, Indonesia

    I WAYAN SUANA

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Distribution of spiders in all colonized environments is limited by biotic and abiotic factors requiring adaptations with respect to, for example microhabitat choice and hunting behavior. These two factors were frequently used to group spiders into functional groups. In this study our objectives were to (i group of genera of spiders into functional group based on their microhabitat specificity, hunting behavior, and daily activity; and (ii compare the number and composition of functional group of spider at each habitat type and period of paddy growth. The study was conducted at a landscape dominated by paddy fields in Cianjur Watershed for a period of 9 months. Four different habitat types (paddy, vegetable, non-crop, and mixed garden, were sampled using five trapping techniques (pitfall traps, farmcop suction, sweep netting, yellow-pan traps, and sticky traps. The Unweighted Pair-Group Average and the Euclidean Distances were used to generate dendrogram of functional group of spider. We found 14 functional groups of spider at genus level. The number of functional group of spider at four habitat types was differing, but the composition was similar, because all habitats were closed to each other. Habitat structure diversity and disturbance level influenced the number of functional group of spider. Different architecture of vegetation and availability of differ prey during paddy growth, causing the composition of functional group of spider in each period of paddy growth was changed, although its number was unchanged.

  17. Impacts of the cultivation of energy crops for generation of biogas on the landscape structure and avifauna; Auswirkungen des Energiepflanzenanbaus zur Biogaserzeugung auf Landschaftsstruktur und Avifauna

    Ruehmkorf, Hilke

    2011-07-01

    In its effort to implement new climate and energy policies, Germany has been heavily promoting the adoption of renewable energies. This has brought about a dramatic change in the use of arable land during the last years. The primary objective of this study was therefore to assess the effect of energy cropping on existing landscape structures in intensively cultivated regions in the course of the year. According to the available structural parameters an investigation was conducted to ascertain the fallout of energy plant cultivation on both migratory and overwintering birds. The period covered entailed the winter months. Both the advent of the energy crops as well as the associated biogas facilities that sprang up outside built-in areas seem to have reshaped the existing agricultural landscape. Hence, an additional aim of this study was to identify birds that use biogas plants for breeding or as a feeding habitat in winter. In conclusion, it can be asserted that energy crops can definitely contribute to the expansion of structural diversity in the agricultural landscape provided those energy crops were not cultivated on a large scale prior to the advent of the biogas facilities. Hence, there is still room for further energy crop diversification as its potential has not been exhausted. During the winter months mostly common species such as the carrion crow or the wood pigeon consider the maize fields as a viable source of nutrition. Cranes are seen as newcomers, as they probably started resting in the 'Boerde' precisely due to the advent of energy maize cultivation. And more availability of nourishment when the ground is covered by snow is another benefit the avifauna reaps from biogas plants. However, for endangered farmland birds this type of nutrition is a rarely used source, as it runs counter to their escape strategies and food preferences. For these species the habitat function and the food availability depends especially on how the land is managed (e

  18. Indigenous systems of forest classification: understanding land use patterns and the role of NTFPs in shifting cultivators' subsistence economies.

    Delang, Claudio O

    2006-04-01

    This article discusses the system of classification of forest types used by the Pwo Karen in Thung Yai Naresuan Wildlife Sanctuary in western Thailand and the role of nontimber forest products (NTFPs), focusing on wild food plants, in Karen livelihoods. The article argues that the Pwo Karen have two methods of forest classification, closely related to their swidden farming practices. The first is used for forest land that has been, or can be, swiddened, and classifies forest types according to growth conditions. The second system is used for land that is not suitable for cultivation and looks at soil properties and slope. The article estimates the relative importance of each forest type in what concerns the collection of wild food plants. A total of 134 wild food plant species were recorded in December 2004. They account for some 80-90% of the amount of edible plants consumed by the Pwo Karen, and have a base value of Baht 11,505 per year, comparable to the cash incomes of many households. The article argues that the Pwo Karen reliance on NTFPs has influenced their land-use and forest management practices. However, by restricting the length of the fallow period, the Thai government has caused ecological changes that are challenging the ability of the Karen to remain subsistence oriented. By ignoring shifting cultivators' dependence on such products, the involvement of governments in forest management, especially through restrictions imposed on swidden farming practices, is likely to have a considerable impact on the livelihood strategies of these communities.

  19. Land-use poverty traps identified in shifting cultivation systems shape long-term tropical forest cover

    Coomes, Oliver T.; Takasaki, Yoshito; Rhemtulla, Jeanine M.

    2011-01-01

    In this article we illustrate how fine-grained longitudinal analyses of land holding and land use among forest peasant households in an Amazonian village can enrich our understanding of the poverty/land cover nexus. We examine the dynamic links in shifting cultivation systems among asset poverty, land use, and land cover in a community where poverty is persistent and primary forests have been replaced over time—with community enclosure—by secondary forests (i.e., fallows), orchards, and crop land. Land cover change is assessed using aerial photographs/satellite imagery from 1965 to 2007. Household and plot level data are used to track land holding, portfolios, and use as well as land cover over the past 30 y, with particular attention to forest status (type and age). Our analyses find evidence for two important types of “land-use” poverty traps—a “subsistence crop” trap and a “short fallow” trap—and indicate that the initial conditions of land holding by forest peasants have long-term effects on future forest cover and household welfare. These findings suggest a new mechanism driving poverty traps: insufficient initial land holdings induce land use patterns that trap households in low agricultural productivity. Path dependency in the evolution of household land portfolios and land use strategies strongly influences not only the wellbeing of forest people but also the dynamics of tropical deforestation and secondary forest regrowth. PMID:21873179

  20. Do Relocated Villages Experience More Forest Cover Change? Resettlements, Shifting Cultivation and Forests in the Lao PDR

    Sébastien Boillat

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the relationships between forest cover change and the village resettlement and land planning policies implemented in Laos, which have led to the relocation of remote and dispersed populations into clustered villages with easier access to state services and market facilities. We used the Global Forest Cover Change (2000–2012 and the most recent Lao Agricultural Census (2011 datasets to assess forest cover change in resettled and non-resettled villages throughout the country. We also reviewed a set of six case studies and performed an original case study in two villages of Luang Prabang province with 55 households, inquiring about relocation, land losses and intensification options. Our results show that resettled villages have greater baseline forest cover and total forest loss than most villages in Laos but not significant forest loss relative to that baseline. Resettled villages are consistently associated with forested areas, minority groups, and intermediate accessibility. The case studies highlight that resettlement coupled with land use planning does not necessarily lead to the abandonment of shifting cultivation or affect forest loss but lead to a re-spatialization of land use. This includes clustering of forest clearings, which might lead to fallow shortening and land degradation while limited intensification options exist in the resettled villages. This study provides a contribution to studying relationships between migration, forest cover change, livelihood strategies, land governance and agricultural practices in tropical forest environments.

  1. Socioeconomic dimensions of changes in the agricultural landscape of the Mediterranean basin: a case study of the abandonment of cultivation terraces on Nisyros Island, Greece.

    Petanidou, Theodora; Kizos, Thanasis; Soulakellis, Nikolaos

    2008-02-01

    Agricultural landscapes illustrate the impact of human actions on physical settings, and differential human pressures cause these landscapes to change with time. Our study explored changes in the terraced landscapes of Nisyros Island, Greece, focusing on the socioeconomic aspects during two time periods using field data, cadastral research, local documents, and published literature, as well as surveys of the islanders. Population increases during the late 19th to early 20th centuries marked a significant escalation of terrace and dry stone wall construction, which facilitated cultivation on 58.4% of the island. By the mid-20th century, the economic collapse of agricultural activities and consequent emigration caused the abandonment of cultivated land and traditional management practices, dramatically reducing farm and field numbers. Terrace abandonment continued in recent decades, with increased livestock grazing becoming the main land management tool; as a result, both farm and pasture sizes increased. Neglect and changing land use has led to deterioration and destruction of many terraces on the island. We discuss the socioeconomic and political backgrounds responsible for the land-use change before World War II (annexation of Nisyros Island by the Ottoman Empire, Italy, and Greece; overseas migration opportunities; and world transportation changes) and after the war (social changes in peasant societies; worldwide changes in agricultural production practices). The adverse landscape changes documented for Nisyros Island appear to be inevitable for modern Mediterranean rural societies, including those on other islands in this region. The island's unique terraced landscapes may qualify Nisyros to become an archive or repository of old agricultural management techniques to be used by future generations and a living resource for sustainable management.

  2. Socioeconomic Dimensions of Changes in the Agricultural Landscape of the Mediterranean Basin: A Case Study of the Abandonment of Cultivation Terraces on Nisyros Island, Greece

    Petanidou, Theodora; Kizos, Thanasis; Soulakellis, Nikolaos

    2008-02-01

    Agricultural landscapes illustrate the impact of human actions on physical settings, and differential human pressures cause these landscapes to change with time. Our study explored changes in the terraced landscapes of Nisyros Island, Greece, focusing on the socioeconomic aspects during two time periods using field data, cadastral research, local documents, and published literature, as well as surveys of the islanders. Population increases during the late 19th to early 20th centuries marked a significant escalation of terrace and dry stone wall construction, which facilitated cultivation on 58.4% of the island. By the mid-20th century, the economic collapse of agricultural activities and consequent emigration caused the abandonment of cultivated land and traditional management practices, dramatically reducing farm and field numbers. Terrace abandonment continued in recent decades, with increased livestock grazing becoming the main land management tool; as a result, both farm and pasture sizes increased. Neglect and changing land use has led to deterioration and destruction of many terraces on the island. We discuss the socioeconomic and political backgrounds responsible for the land-use change before World War II (annexation of Nisyros Island by the Ottoman Empire, Italy, and Greece; overseas migration opportunities; and world transportation changes) and after the war (social changes in peasant societies; worldwide changes in agricultural production practices). The adverse landscape changes documented for Nisyros Island appear to be inevitable for modern Mediterranean rural societies, including those on other islands in this region. The island’s unique terraced landscapes may qualify Nisyros to become an archive or repository of old agricultural management techniques to be used by future generations and a living resource for sustainable management.

  3. A northward colonisation of the Andes by the potato cyst nematode during geological times suggests multiple host-shifts from wild to cultivated potatoes.

    Picard, Damien; Sempere, Thierry; Plantard, Olivier

    2007-02-01

    The cyst nematode Globodera pallida is a major pest of potato in South America where this specialist parasite is native. To investigate its phylogeography, we have genotyped individuals from 42 Peruvian populations using mitochondrial and nuclear molecular markers. A clear south-to-north phylogeographical pattern was revealed with five well-supported clades. The clade containing the southern populations is genetically more diverse and forms the most basal branch. The large divergence among cytochrome b haplotypes suggests that they diverged before human domestication of potato. As the nematodes studied have been sampled on cultivated potato, multiple host-shifts from wild to cultivated potatoes must have occurred independently in each clade. We hypothesise that this south-to-north pattern took place during the uplift of the Andes beginning 20 My ago and following the same direction. To our knowledge, this is the first study of a plant parasite sampled on cultivated plants revealing an ancient phylogeographical pattern.

  4. Requirements for the retrofitting an extension of the maximum voltage power grid from the point of view of environmental protection and cultivated landscape work

    2013-01-01

    The project on the requirements for the retrofitting an extension of the maximum voltage power grid from the point of view of environmental protection and cultivated landscape work includes contributions on the following topics: the development of the European transmission grid, the grid extension law, restrictions for the power grid and their infrastructure, requirements for the regulations concerning the realization of the transnational grid extension, inclusion of the public - public acceptance - communication, requirements concerning the environmental compensation law, overhead line - underground cable - health hazards, ecological effects of overhead lines and underground cables, infrastructural projects, power supply in the future, structural relief by photovoltaics.

  5. Transcriptional landscape estimation from tiling array data using a model of signal shift and drift

    Rasmussen, Simon; Jarmer, Hanne Østergaard; Nicolas, P

    2009-01-01

    MOTIVATION: High-density oligonucleotide tiling array technology holds the promise of a better description of the complexity and the dynamics of transcriptional landscapes. In organisms such as bacteria and yeasts, transcription can be measured on a genome-wide scale with a resolution >25 bp...

  6. Landscape Change in Mediterranean Farmlands: Impacts of Land Abandonment on Cultivation Terraces in Portofino (Italy and Lesvos (Greece

    Sluis Theo Van Der

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean landscape has been rapidly changing over the past decades. Many regions saw a population decline, which resulted in changing land use, abandonment of marginal lands and colonisation by shrubs and tree species. Typical features like farming terraces, olive yards, and upland grasslands have been decreasing over the past 50 years. This results in a declining biodiversity and loss of traditional Mediterranean landscapes. In this paper we assess the landscape changes that took place in two areas, in Portofino, on the Italian Riviera, and Lesvos, a Greek island near the Turkish coast. We compared land use maps and aerial photographs over the past decades to quantify the land use changes in these two areas. Additional information was acquired from farmers’ interviews and literature. We found that changes are related to societal changes in the appraisal of agricultural land uses, and to the urban expansion, tourism and recreation. These diffuse processes are a result of policy measures and autonomous societal transformations. This is confirmed by the results of two interview surveys: between 1999 and 2012 agricultural land use in Portofino regional Park and buffer zone further marginalised, and the associated landscape changes are perceived as a substantial loss of character and identity. This problem is emblematic for large parts of the Mediterranean. Comparing different landscapes reveal similar processes of landscape change, which can be related to similar driving forces. Based on such comparisons, we learn about possible trajectories of change, and ask for a comprehensive approach to land use management.

  7. Monitoring shifts in plant diversity in response to climate change: A method for landscapes

    Stohlgren, T.J.; Owen, A.J.; Lee, M.

    2000-01-01

    Improved sampling designs are needed to detect, monitor, and predict plant migrations and plant diversity changes caused by climate change and other human activities. We propose a methodology based on multi-scale vegetation plots established across forest ecotones which provide baseline data on patterns of plant diversity, invasions of exotic plant species, and plant migrations at landscape scales in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, USA. We established forty two 1000-m2 plots in relatively homogeneous forest types and the ecotones between them on 14 vegetation transects. We found that 64% of the variance in understory species distributions at landscape scales were described generally by gradients of elevation and under-canopy solar radiation. Superimposed on broad-scale climatic gradients are small-scale gradients characterized by patches of light, pockets of fertile soil, and zones of high soil moisture. Eighteen of the 42 plots contained at least one exotic species; monitoring exotic plant invasions provides a means to assess changes in native plant diversity and plant migrations. Plant species showed weak affinities to overstory vegetation types, with 43% of the plant species found in three or more vegetation types. Replicate transects along several environmental gradients may provide the means to monitor plant diversity and species migrations at landscape scales because: (1) ecotones may play crucial roles in expanding the geophysiological ranges of many plant species; (2) low affinities of understory species to overstory forest types may predispose vegetation types to be resilient to rapid environmental change; and (3) ecotones may help buffer plant species from extirpation and extinction.

  8. Landscape change in mediterranean farmlands: impacts of land abandonment on cultivation terraces in portofino (italy) and lesvos (greece)

    Sluis, van der T.; Kizos, T.; Pedroli, G.B.M.

    2014-01-01

    The Mediterranean landscape has been rapidly changing over the past decades. Many regions saw a population decline, which resulted in changing land use, abandonment of marginal lands and colonisation by shrubs and tree species. Typical features like farming terraces, olive yards, and upland

  9. Changing Landscapes, Shifting Identities in Higher Education: Narratives of Academics in the UK

    Trahar, Sheila

    2011-01-01

    Students and academics have always used different sources of knowledge to generate and to interpret academic and social behaviours, but it is asserted that the increasingly diverse environments of 21st century higher education lead to greater levels of complexity in learning, teaching and assessment and to a consequent shift in the ways in which…

  10. Habitat shifts in the evolutionary history of a Neotropical flycatcher lineage from forest and open landscapes

    Christidis Les

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the role ecological shifts play in the evolution of Neotropical radiations that have colonized a variety of environments. We here examine habitat shifts in the evolutionary history of Elaenia flycatchers, a Neotropical bird lineage that lives in a range of forest and open habitats. We evaluate phylogenetic relationships within the genus based on mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequence data, and then employ parsimony-based and Bayesian methods to reconstruct preferences for a number of habitat types and migratory behaviour throughout the evolutionary history of the genus. Using a molecular clock approach, we date the most important habitat shifts. Results Our analyses resolve phylogenetic relationships among Elaenia species and confirm several species associations predicted by morphology while furnishing support for other taxon placements that are in conflict with traditional classification, such as the elevation of various Elaenia taxa to species level. While savannah specialism is restricted to one basal clade within the genus, montane forest was invaded from open habitat only on a limited number of occasions. Riparian growth may have been favoured early on in the evolution of the main Elaenia clade and subsequently been deserted on several occasions. Austral long-distance migratory behaviour evolved on several occasions. Conclusion Ancestral reconstructions of habitat preferences reveal pronounced differences not only in the timing of the emergence of certain habitat preferences, but also in the frequency of habitat shifts. The early origin of savannah specialism in Elaenia highlights the importance of this habitat in Neotropical Pliocene and late Miocene biogeography. While forest in old mountain ranges such as the Tepuis and the Brazilian Shield was colonized early on, the most important colonization event of montane forest was in conjunction with Pliocene Andean uplift. Riparian habitats may have

  11. Resource manager information needs regarding hydrologic regime shifts for the North Pacific Landscape Conservation

    Woodward, Andrea; Jenni, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Landscape Conservation Cooperatives (LCCs) are a network of 22 public-private partnerships, defined by ecoregion, that share and provide science to ensure the sustainability of land, water, wildlife, and cultural resources in North America. LCCs were established by the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI) in recognition of the fact that response to climate change must be coordinated on a landscape-level basis because important resources, ecosystem processes, and resource management challenges extend beyond most of the boundaries considered in current natural resource management. The North Pacific LCC (NPLCC) covers the range of the Pacific coastal temperate rainforest, including an area of 528,360 km2 spanning 22 degrees of latitude from the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska, to Bodega Bay, California. The coverage area includes parts of four States, two Canadian provinces, and more than 100 Tribes and First Nation language groups. It extends from alpine areas at the crest of coastal mountains across subalpine, montane, and lowland forests to the nearshore marine environment. This wide range of latitudes and elevation zones; terrestrial, freshwater, and marine habitats; and complex jurisdictional boundaries hosts a diversity of natural resources and their corresponding management issues are equally diverse. As evidenced by the Science and Traditional Ecological Knowledge (S-TEK) Strategy guiding principles, identifying and responding to the needs of resource managers is key to the success of the NPLCC. To help achieve this goal of the NPLCC, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has organized several workshops with resource managers and resource scientists to identify management information needs relevant to the priority topics identified in the S-TEK Strategy. Here, we detail the results from a first workshop to address the effects of changes in hydrologic regime on rivers, streams, and riparian corridors. The workshop focused on a subset of the full NPLCC geography and was

  12. The impact of distance and a shifting temperature gradient on genetic connectivity across a heterogeneous landscape

    Offord Catherine A

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inter-population distance and differences in breeding times are barriers to reproduction that can contribute to genotypic differentiation between populations. Temporal changes in environmental conditions and local selective processes can further contribute to the establishment of reproductive barriers. Telopea speciosissima (Proteaceae is an excellent subject for studying the effect of geographic, edaphic and phenological heterogeneity on genotypic differentiation because previous studies show that these factors are correlated with morphological variation. Molecular, morphological and environmental datasets were combined to characterise the relative influence of these factors on inter-population differentiation, and Bayesian analyses were used to investigate current levels of admixture between differentiated genomes. Results A landscape genetic approach involving molecular and morphological analyses identified three endpoints of differentiated population groups: coastal, upland and southern. The southern populations, isolated from the other populations by an edaphic barrier, show low migration and no evidence of admixture with other populations. Amongst the northern populations, coastal and upland populations are connected along a skewed altitudinal gradient by genetically intermediate populations. The strong association between temperature and flowering time in Telopea speciosissima was shown to maintain a temporally unstable reproductive barrier between coastal and upland populations. Conclusions Substrate-mediated allopatry appears to be responsible for long-term genetic isolation of the southern populations. However, the temperature-dependent reproductive barrier between upland and coastal populations bears the genetic signature of temporal adjustments. The extreme climatic events of the last glacial maximum are likely to have caused more complete allochronic isolation between upland and coastal populations, as well as

  13. Impacts of energy crop cultivation on nature and landscape. Development and application of an evaluation method; Auswirkungen des Energiepflanzenanbaus auf Natur und Landschaft. Entwicklung und Anwendung einer Bewertungsmethode

    Wiehe, Julia

    2011-08-15

    For long-term planning, knowledge about the interrelationship of effects of the cultivation method and the sensitivity of ecological balance is essential. Hence, the objective of this thesis is the development of a method for the evaluation of the impacts of bioenergy crop production for biogas use on the natural environment. The developed method is in alignment with existing methods. It is also in alignment with those methods used within the practice of landscape planning, so that the method as well as the derived conclusions can be implemented into landscape planning practice in the future. The evaluation method has been applied in the three model regions Hildesheim, Soltau-Fallingbostel and Emsland. These test areas represent different physical regions in Lower Saxony and typical agricultural production conditions. On the basis of these results, general statements on the impact of bioenergy crop production on the ecological balance of the area can be made. [German] Grundlage fuer eine vorausschauende Steuerung des Ausbaus erneuerbarer Energien ist die Kenntnis der Zusammenhaenge der Wirkung des Energiepflanzenanbaus und der Empfindlichkeit des Naturhaushaltes. Ziel der Arbeit ist daher die Erarbeitung einer Methode zur umfassenden Bewertung dieser Auswirkungen auf den Naturhaushalt. Die Methode orientiert sich an bereits bestehenden und in der Praxis der Landschaftsplanung angewendeten Bewertungsmethoden, so dass sie ebenso wie die daraus abgeleiteten Schlussfolgerungen zukuenftig Eingang in die Planungspraxis finden kann. Die Bewertungsmethode wird in den drei Modellregionen Hildesheim, Soltau-Fallingbostel und Emsland angewendet, mit denen die verschiedenen Naturraeume und fuer Niedersachsen typischen landwirtschaftlichen Produktionsbedingungen abgebildet werden. Auf Grundlage dieser Ergebnisse koennen dann allgemeine Aussagen zu den Auswirkungen des Energiepflanzenanbaus auf den Naturhaushalt gemacht werden.

  14. Thresholds for Coral Bleaching: Are Synergistic Factors and Shifting Thresholds Changing the Landscape for Management? (Invited)

    Eakin, C.; Donner, S. D.; Logan, C. A.; Gledhill, D. K.; Liu, G.; Heron, S. F.; Christensen, T.; Rauenzahn, J.; Morgan, J.; Parker, B. A.; Hoegh-Guldberg, O.; Skirving, W. J.; Strong, A. E.

    2010-12-01

    As carbon dioxide rises in the atmosphere, climate change and ocean acidification are modifying important physical and chemical parameters in the oceans with resulting impacts on coral reef ecosystems. Rising CO2 is warming the world’s oceans and causing corals to bleach, with both alarming frequency and severity. The frequent return of stressful temperatures has already resulted in major damage to many of the world’s coral reefs and is expected to continue in the foreseeable future. Warmer oceans also have contributed to a rise in coral infectious diseases. Both bleaching and infectious disease can result in coral mortality and threaten one of the most diverse ecosystems on Earth and the important ecosystem services they provide. Additionally, ocean acidification from rising CO2 is reducing the availability of carbonate ions needed by corals to build their skeletons and perhaps depressing the threshold for bleaching. While thresholds vary among species and locations, it is clear that corals around the world are already experiencing anomalous temperatures that are too high, too often, and that warming is exceeding the rate at which corals can adapt. This is despite a complex adaptive capacity that involves both the coral host and the zooxanthellae, including changes in the relative abundance of the latter in their coral hosts. The safe upper limit for atmospheric CO2 is probably somewhere below 350ppm, a level we passed decades ago, and for temperature is a sustained global temperature increase of less than 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels. How much can corals acclimate and/or adapt to the unprecedented fast changing environmental conditions? Any change in the threshold for coral bleaching as the result of acclimation and/or adaption may help corals to survive in the future but adaptation to one stress may be maladaptive to another. There also is evidence that ocean acidification and nutrient enrichment modify this threshold. What do shifting thresholds mean

  15. A multi-species modelling approach to examine the impact of alternative climate change adaptation strategies on range shifting ability in a fragmented landscape

    Synes, Nicholas W.; Watts, Kevin; Palmer, Stephen C.F.; Bocedi, Greta; Bartoń, Kamil A.; Osborne, Patrick E.; Travis, Justin M.J.

    2015-01-01

    An individual-based model of animal dispersal and population dynamics was used to test the effects of different climate change adaptation strategies on species range shifting ability, namely the improvement of existing habitat, restoration of low quality habitat and creation of new habitat. These strategies were implemented on a landscape typical of fragmentation in the United Kingdom using spatial rules to differentiate between the allocation of strategies adjacent to or away from existing h...

  16. Simulation of climate-tick-host-landscape interactions: Effects of shifts in the seasonality of host population fluctuations on tick densities.

    Wang, Hsiao-Hsuan; Grant, W E; Teel, P D; Hamer, S A

    2015-12-01

    Tick vector systems are comprised of complex climate-tick-host-landscape interactions that are difficult to identify and estimate from empirical observations alone. We developed a spatially-explicit, individual-based model, parameterized to represent ecological conditions typical of the south-central United States, to examine effects of shifts in the seasonal occurrence of fluctuations of host densities on tick densities. Simulated shifts in the seasonal occurrence of periods of high and low host densities affected both the magnitude of unfed tick densities and the seasonality of tick development. When shifting the seasonal densities of all size classes of hosts (small, medium, and large) synchronously, densities of nymphs were affected more by smaller shifts away from the baseline host seasonality than were densities of larval and adult life stages. When shifting the seasonal densities of only a single size-class of hosts while holding other size classes at their baseline levels, densities of larval, nymph, and adult life stages responded differently. Shifting seasonal densities of any single host-class earlier resulted in a greater increase in adult tick density than when seasonal densities of all host classes were shifted earlier simultaneously. The mean densities of tick life stages associated with shifts in host densities resulted from system-level interactions of host availability with tick phenology. For example, shifting the seasonality of all hosts ten weeks earlier resulted in an approximately 30% increase in the relative degree of temporal co-occurrence of actively host-seeking ticks and hosts compared to baseline, whereas shifting the seasonality of all hosts ten weeks later resulted in an approximately 70% decrease compared to baseline. Differences among scenarios in the overall presence of active host-seeking ticks in the system were due primarily to the degree of co-occurrence of periods of high densities of unfed ticks and periods of high densities

  17. Forest cover dynamics of shifting cultivation in the Democratic Republic of Congo: a remote sensing-based assessment for 2000-2010

    Molinario, G.; Hansen, M. C.; Potapov, P. V.

    2015-09-01

    Shifting cultivation has traditionally been practiced in the Democratic Republic of Congo by carving agricultural fields out of primary and secondary forest, resulting in the rural complex: a characteristic land cover mosaic of roads, villages, active and fallow fields and secondary forest. Forest clearing has varying impacts depending on where it occurs relative to this area: whether inside it, along its primary forest interface, or in more isolated primary forest areas. The spatial contextualization of forest cover loss is therefore necessary to understand its impacts and plan its management. We characterized forest clearing using spatial models in a Geographical Information System, applying morphological image processing to the Forets d’Afrique Central Evaluee par Teledetection product. This process allowed us to create forest fragmentation maps for 2000, 2005 and 2010, classifying previously homogenous primary forest into separate patch, edge, perforated, fragmented and core forest subtypes. Subsequently we used spatial rules to map the established rural complex separately from isolated forest perforations, tracking the growth of these areas in time. Results confirm that the expansion of the rural complex and forest perforations has high variance throughout the country, with consequent differences in local impacts on forest ecology and habitat fragmentation. Between 2000 and 2010 the rural complex grew by 10.2% (46 182 ha), increasing from 11.9% to 13.1% of the total land area (1.2% change) while perforated forest grew by 74.4% (23 856 ha), from 0.8% to 1.5%. Core forest decreased by 3.8% (54 852 ha), from 38% to 36.6% of the 2010 land area. Of particular concern is the nearly doubling of perforated forest, a land dynamic that represents greater spatial intrusion of forest clearing within core forest areas and a move away from the established rural complex.

  18. Requirements for the retrofitting an extension of the maximum voltage power grid from the point of view of environmental protection and cultivated landscape work; Anforderungen an den Um- und Ausbau des Hoechstspannungsstromnetzes. Aus der Sicht von Naturschutz und Kulturlandschaftspflege

    NONE

    2013-06-15

    The project on the requirements for the retrofitting an extension of the maximum voltage power grid from the point of view of environmental protection and cultivated landscape work includes contributions on the following topics: the development of the European transmission grid, the grid extension law, restrictions for the power grid and their infrastructure, requirements for the regulations concerning the realization of the transnational grid extension, inclusion of the public - public acceptance - communication, requirements concerning the environmental compensation law, overhead line - underground cable - health hazards, ecological effects of overhead lines and underground cables, infrastructural projects, power supply in the future, structural relief by photovoltaics.

  19. Predicting aboveground forest biomass with topographic variables in human-impacted tropical dry forest landscapes

    Salinas-Melgoza, Miguel A.; Skutsch, Margaret; Lovett, Jon C.

    2018-01-01

    Topographic variables such as slope and elevation partially explain spatial variations in aboveground biomass (AGB) within landscapes. Human activities that impact vegetation, such as cattle grazing and shifting cultivation, often follow topographic features and also play a key role in determining

  20. Industrious Landscaping

    Brichet, Nathalia Sofie; Hastrup, Frida

    2018-01-01

    This article has a twofold ambition. It offers a history of landscaping at Søby brown coal beds—a former mining site in western Denmark—and a methodological discussion of how to write such a study. Exploring this specific industrial landscape through a series of projects that have made different...... natural resources appear, we show that even what is recognized as resources shifts over time according to radically different and unpredictable agendas. This indicates that the Søby landscape is fundamentally volatile, as its resourcefulness has been seen interchangeably to shift between the brown coal...... business, inexpensive estates for practically savvy people, pasture for grazing, and recreational forest, among other things. We discuss these rifts in landscape history, motivated by what we refer to as industriousness, to show that, at sites such as Søby, both natural resources and historical...

  1. Increasing tree cover in degrading landscapes

    Rahman, Syed Ajijur; Rahman, Md Faizar; Sunderland, Terry

    2014-01-01

    -functionality’. Two agroforestry models suitable for adoption by farmers have been identified. Multi-strata agroforestry, based on a fruit and timber tree canopy with vegetables and tuber species in the understorey, can be practiced in the shifting cultivation fields near settlements. Fruit and timber tree......Research was conducted in Alutilla Valley in eastern Bangladesh to identify the nature of existing agroforestry systems and to identify potential agroforestry models that could ameliorate currently degrading forest resources Data were collected through farmer participatory research and a structured......-based conservation agroforestry is well suited to manage large-scale biologically depleted landscapes. Both systems yield early financial returns, facilitating the change from shifting cultivation to multi-strata agroforestry or fruit and tree-based conservation agroforestry....

  2. Paris in the spring: A review of the trade, conservation and opportunities in the shift from wild harvest to cultivation of Paris polyphylla (Trilliaceae).

    Cunningham, A B; Brinckmann, J A; Bi, Y-F; Pei, S-J; Schippmann, U; Luo, P

    2018-08-10

    P. polyphylla Smith is used in traditional medicine in China, India and Nepal and is likely to be similarly used through most of its geographic range. China is at the centre of demand for P. polyphylla where it is used as an ingredient in several very successful Chinese medicinal herbal formulations. The Chinese e-commerce platform 'alibaba.com', for example, lists 97 P. polyphylla items offered by 46 Asian suppliers, of which 21 are situated in the Chinese mainland, 12 in Nepal, 7 in India, 2 in Pakistan, and 1 each in Bhutan, Hong Kong, Thailand, and Vietnam. Products offered include the crude drug (dried whole or cut rhizomes), extracts and formulations containing this herbal drug. The aims of this review were to assess the scale of the P. polyphylla trade, reviewing evidence on the impacts of wild harvest on P. polyphylla populations and on the role of cultivation as an alternative to wild harvest. Firstly, we reviewed published information on Paris population biology and studies on impacts of wild P. polyphylla harvest from across the geographic range of this species. Secondly, global trade data for P. polyphylla were analysed. Thirdly, we reviewed published information on P. polyphylla cultivation and made field visits to P. polyphylla cultivation areas in Yunnan and Sichuan. Since the 1980s, there has been a 400-fold increase in the market price paid in China for P. polyphylla rhizomes, from 2.7 Chinese Yuan (CNY) per kg in the 1980s to market prices up to 1100 CNY per kg in 2017. Cross-border trade in dried P. polyphylla rhizomes occurs at three different scales. Firstly, an internal, national trade of P. polyphylla rhizomes within countries (such as India, Nepal and China). Secondly, trade in P. polyphylla rhizomes from Nepal (and possibly from Bhutan) to the two range states that have the largest traditional medicine trade in the world: China and India. Thirdly, trade in processed herbal products. In China, for example, P. polyphylla is widely used as

  3. From universal health insurance to universal healthcare? The shifting health policy landscape in Ireland since the economic crisis.

    Burke, Sara Ann; Normand, Charles; Barry, Sarah; Thomas, Steve

    2016-03-01

    Ireland experienced one of the most severe economic crises of any OECD country. In 2011, a new government came to power amidst unprecedented health budget cuts. Despite a retrenchment in the ability of health resources to meet growing need, the government promised a universal, single-tiered health system, with access based solely on medical need. Key to this was introducing universal free GP care by 2015 and Universal Health Insurance from 2016 onwards. Delays in delivering universal access and a new health minister in 2014 resulted in a shift in language from 'universal health insurance' to 'universal healthcare'. During 2014 and 2015, there was an absence of clarity on what government meant by universal healthcare and divergence in policy measures from their initial intent of universalism. Despite the rhetoric of universal healthcare, years of austerity resulted in poorer access to essential healthcare and little extension of population coverage. The Irish health system is at a critical juncture in 2015, veering between a potential path to universal healthcare and a system, overwhelmed by years of austerity, which maintains the status quo. This papers assesses the gap between policy intent and practice and the difficulties in implementing major health system reform especially while emerging from an economic crisis. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Modelling the Distribution of Forest-Dependent Species in Human-Dominated Landscapes: Patterns for the Pine Marten in Intensively Cultivated Lowlands.

    Alessandro Balestrieri

    Full Text Available In recent years, the "forest-specialist" pine marten Martes martes has been reported to also occur also in largely fragmented, lowland landscapes of north-western Italy. The colonization of such an apparently unsuitable area provided the opportunity for investigating pine marten ecological requirements and predicting its potential south- and eastwards expansion. We collected available pine marten occurrence data in the flood plain of the River Po (N Italy and relate them to 11 environmental variables by developing nine Species Distribution Models. To account for inter-model variability we used average ensemble predictions (EP. EP predicted a total of 482 suitable patches (8.31% of the total study area for the pine marten. The main factors driving pine marten occurrence in the western River Po plain were the distance from watercourses and the distance from woods. EP suggested that the pine marten may further expand in the western lowland, whilst the negligible residual wood cover of large areas in the central and eastern plain makes the habitat unsuitable for the pine marten, except for some riparian corridors and the pine wood patches bordering the Adriatic coast. Based on our results, conservation strategies should seek to preserve remnant forest patches and enhance the functional connectivity provided by riparian corridors.

  5. Landscape-and regional-scale shifts in forest composition under climate change in the Central Hardwood Region of the United States

    Wen J. Wang; Hong S. He; Frank R. Thompson; Jacob S. Fraser; William D. Dijak

    2016-01-01

    Tree species distribution and abundance are affected by forces operating at multiple scales. Niche and biophysical process models have been commonly used to predict climate change effects at regional scales, however, these models have limited capability to include site-scale population dynamics and landscape- scale disturbance and dispersal. We applied a landscape...

  6. Population structure and fruit availability of the babassu palm ( Attalea speciosa Mart. ex Spreng in human-dominated landscapes of the Northeast Region of Brazil

    Juliana Loureiro Almeida Campos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We studied the population structure and fruit availability of the babassu palm, Attalea speciosa, in three human-dominated landscapes located near a rural community in the region of Araripe, in the Northeast Region of Brazil, that were under intense fruit harvest. Fifty 10 x 10 m plots were randomly established in each of the three landscapes, and all individuals of A. speciosa within the plots were classified as seedlings, juveniles or adults, with the height of all adult individuals being measured. An additional 20 individuals were marked in each landscape, and the number of total bunches, fruits per bunch and bunches per palm tree were recorded. The populations of A. speciosa in the three landscapes exhibited an inverted J-shape plot, but pasture and shifting cultivation possessed a significantly higher number of individuals, seedlings and adults than the seasonal semideciduous forest, plus they possessed a greater seedling/adult ratio. Shifting cultivation was found to be favorable for fructification. The present study found that shifting cultivation and pastures are landscape practices that can contribute to the rapid expansion and establishment of A. speciosa, which can become a dominant species in the region of Araripe.

  7. Disponibilidade hídrica e distinção de ambientes para cultivo de cafeeiros Water availability and landscape distinction for coffee cultivation

    Milson E. Serafim

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi realizado nos municípios de São Roque de Minas e Vargem Bonita, MG, com o objetivo de distinguir ambientes cultivados com cafeeiros quanto à disponibilidade hídrica para a cultura. A umidade de oito glebas de cafeeiro foi monitorada e em cinco delas determinadas a disponibilidade de água para as plantas e a densidade do solo. As glebas estão situadas em áreas de Latossolo e Cambissolo e em uma gleba de cada classe foi realizado estudo da distribuição do sistema radicular do café no perfil do solo. A umidade foi monitorada no período de abril de 2008 a fevereiro de 2009, com frequência de 30 a 40 dias, amostradas as profundidades de 0,2; 0,4; 0,8; 1,2 e 1,6 m nas posições linha e entrelinha da cultura. Observou-se que a umidade do solo é menor na linha da cultura em relação à entrelinha. A classe de solo e a idade da lavoura também influenciaram a umidade do solo e a disponibilidade de água para as plantas. O sistema radicular do cafeeiro atingiu a camada de 1,5 a 1,7 m de profundidade de ambas as classes de solo estudadas. Por meio da análise de componentes principais separaram-se os 50 tratamentos em 4 grupos referentes à classe de solo e ao manejo.This study was conducted in the districts of São Roque de Minas and Vargem Bonita, MG, with the aim to distinguish landscapes for coffee growing, with higher water available to the crop. Soil moisture was monitored in eight plots of coffee, and in five of them being also determined water availability for plants and soil bulk density. The plots are located in areas of Latosols and Cambisols. In one plot of each soil class, the distribution of the root system of coffee in the soil profile was studied. Soil moisture was monitored from April 2008 to February 2009, in the interval of 30 to 40 days. The soil depths of 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, 1.2 and 1.6 m were sampled, in line and between the lines of the coffee. The combination of the five plots, two sampling positions (line

  8. Challenges and opportunities for large landscape-scale management in a shifting climate: The importance of nested adaptation responses across geospatial and temporal scales

    Gary M. Tabor; Anne Carlson; Travis Belote

    2014-01-01

    The Yellowstone to Yukon Conservation Initiative (Y2Y) was established over 20 years ago as an experiment in large landscape conservation. Initially, Y2Y emerged as a response to large scale habitat fragmentation by advancing ecological connectivity. It also laid the foundation for large scale multi-stakeholder conservation collaboration with almost 200 non-...

  9. Land-use changes in a small watershed in the Mediterranean landscape (SE Spain): environmental implications of a shift towards subtropical crops

    Duran Zuazo, V.H.; Rodriguez Pleguezuelo, C.R.; Francia Martinez, J.R.; Martin Peinado, F.J.; Graaff, de J.

    2013-01-01

    Resource use and watershed management have become an increasingly important issue, stressing the need to find appropriate management approaches for improving agricultural landscapes. We analysed land-use changes from 1978 to 2007 in a representative watershed of Almuñécar (SE Spain). In 1978 the

  10. Landscape Studio

    Hansen, Peter Lundsgaard

    2017-01-01

    Landscape studio documents is the biography of the method 'design conversation' and contributes to the way we work with landscapes. The blog communicates renewed landscape didactics and leads to the innovation of design practices.......Landscape studio documents is the biography of the method 'design conversation' and contributes to the way we work with landscapes. The blog communicates renewed landscape didactics and leads to the innovation of design practices....

  11. Landscape anthropogenic disturbance in the Mediterranean ecosystem: is the current landscape sustainable?

    Biondi, Guido; D'Andrea, Mirko; Fiorucci, Paolo; Franciosi, Chiara; Lima, Marco

    2013-04-01

    Mediterranean landscape during the last centuries has been subject to strong anthropogenic disturbances who shifted natural vegetation cover in a cultural landscape. Most of the natural forest were destroyed in order to allow cultivation and grazing activities. In the last century, fast growing conifer plantations were introduced in order to increase timber production replacing slow growing natural forests. In addition, after the Second World War most of the grazing areas were changed in unmanaged mediterranean conifer forest frequently spread by fires. In the last decades radical socio economic changes lead to a dramatic abandonment of the cultural landscape. One of the most relevant result of these human disturbances, and in particular the replacement of deciduous forests with coniferous forests, has been the increasing in the number of forest fires, mainly human caused. The presence of conifers and shrubs, more prone to fire, triggered a feedback mechanism that makes difficult to return to the stage of potential vegetation causing huge economic, social and environmental damages. The aim of this work is to investigate the sustainability of the current landscape. A future landscape scenario has been simulated considering the natural succession in absence of human intervention assuming the current fire regime will be unaltered. To this end, a new model has been defined, implementing an ecological succession model coupled with a simply Forest Fire Model. The ecological succession model simulates the vegetation dynamics using a rule-based approach discrete in space and time. In this model Plant Functional Types (PFTs) are used to describe the landscape. Wildfires are randomly ignited on the landscape, and their propagation is simulated using a stochastic cellular automata model. The results show that the success of the natural succession toward a potential vegetation cover is prevented by the frequency of fire spreading. The actual landscape is then unsustainable

  12. Raiders of the lost bark: orangutan foraging strategies in a degraded landscape.

    Gail Campbell-Smith

    Full Text Available Deforestation is rapidly transforming primary forests across the tropics into human-dominated landscapes. Consequently, conservationists need to understand how different taxa respond and adapt to these changes in order to develop appropriate management strategies. Our two year study seeks to determine how wild Sumatran orangutans (Pongo abelii adapt to living in an isolated agroforest landscape by investigating the sex of crop-raiders related to population demographics, and their temporal variations in feeding behaviour and dietary composition. From focal animal sampling we found that nine identified females raided cultivated fruits more than the four males. Seasonal adaptations were shown through orangutan feeding habits that shifted from being predominantly fruit-based (56% of the total feeding time, then 22% on bark to the fallback food of bark (44%, then 35% on fruits, when key cultivated resources such as jackfruit (Artocarpus integer, were unavailable. Cultivated fruits were mostly consumed in the afternoon and evening, when farmers had returned home. The finding that females take greater crop-raiding risks than males differs from previous human-primate conflict studies, probably because of the low risks associated (as farmers rarely retaliated and low intraspecific competition between males. Thus, the behavioral ecology of orangutans living in this human-dominated landscape differs markedly from that in primary forest, where orangutans have a strictly wild food diet, even where primary rainforests directly borders farmland. The importance of wild food availability was clearly illustrated in this study with 21% of the total orangutan feeding time being allocated to feeding on cultivated fruits. As forests are increasingly converted to cultivation, humans and orangutans are predicted to come into conflict more frequently. This study reveals orangutan adaptations for coexisting with humans, e.g. changes in temporal foraging patterns, which

  13. Cultivating Discontinuity: Pentecostal Pedagogies of Yielding and Control

    Brahinsky, Josh

    2013-01-01

    Exploring missionary study at an Assemblies of God Bible college through ethnography and training manuals demonstrates systematic pedagogies that cultivate sensory capabilities encouraging yielding, opening to rupture, and constraint. Ritual theory and the Anthropology of Christianity shift analytic scales to include "cultivation," a…

  14. Landscape Ecology

    Christensen, Andreas Aagaard; Brandt, Jesper; Svenningsen, Stig Roar

    2017-01-01

    Landscape ecology is an interdisciplinary field of research and practice that deals with the mutual association between the spatial configuration and ecological functioning of landscapes, exploring and describing processes involved in the differentiation of spaces within landscapes......, and the ecological significance of the patterns which are generated by such processes. In landscape ecology, perspectives drawn from existing academic disciplines are integrated based on a common, spatially explicit mode of analysis developed from classical holistic geography, emphasizing spatial and landscape...... pattern analysis and ecological interaction of land units. The landscape is seen as a holon: an assemblage of interrelated phenomena, both cultural and biophysical, that together form a complex whole. Enduring challenges to landscape ecology include the need to develop a systematic approach able...

  15. Cultivating the Deep Subsurface Microbiome

    Casar, C. P.; Osburn, M. R.; Flynn, T. M.; Masterson, A.; Kruger, B.

    2017-12-01

    Subterranean ecosystems are poorly understood because many microbes detected in metagenomic surveys are only distantly related to characterized isolates. Cultivating microorganisms from the deep subsurface is challenging due to its inaccessibility and potential for contamination. The Deep Mine Microbial Observatory (DeMMO) in Lead, SD however, offers access to deep microbial life via pristine fracture fluids in bedrock to a depth of 1478 m. The metabolic landscape of DeMMO was previously characterized via thermodynamic modeling coupled with genomic data, illustrating the potential for microbial inhabitants of DeMMO to utilize mineral substrates as energy sources. Here, we employ field and lab based cultivation approaches with pure minerals to link phylogeny to metabolism at DeMMO. Fracture fluids were directed through reactors filled with Fe3O4, Fe2O3, FeS2, MnO2, and FeCO3 at two sites (610 m and 1478 m) for 2 months prior to harvesting for subsequent analyses. We examined mineralogical, geochemical, and microbiological composition of the reactors via DNA sequencing, microscopy, lipid biomarker characterization, and bulk C and N isotope ratios to determine the influence of mineralogy on biofilm community development. Pre-characterized mineral chips were imaged via SEM to assay microbial growth; preliminary results suggest MnO2, Fe3O4, and Fe2O3 were most conducive to colonization. Solid materials from reactors were used as inoculum for batch cultivation experiments. Media designed to mimic fracture fluid chemistry was supplemented with mineral substrates targeting metal reducers. DNA sequences and microscopy of iron oxide-rich biofilms and fracture fluids suggest iron oxidation is a major energy source at redox transition zones where anaerobic fluids meet more oxidizing conditions. We utilized these biofilms and fluids as inoculum in gradient cultivation experiments targeting microaerophilic iron oxidizers. Cultivation of microbes endemic to DeMMO, a system

  16. Shift Colors

    Publications & News Shift Colors Pages default Sign In NPC Logo Banner : Shift Colors Search Navy Personnel Command > Reference Library > Publications & News > Shift Colors Top Link Bar Navy Personnel Library Expand Reference Library Quick Launch Shift Colors Shift Colors Archives Mailing Address How to

  17. Outdoor recreation in a shifting societal landscape

    H. Ken Cordell; Carter J. Betz; Shela H. Mou

    2013-01-01

    Key FindingsPopulationThe South grew considerably faster (32.5 percent) in total population in the 18 years between 1990 and 2008 than the Nation as a whole (22.2 percent). The region has just over half of the country’s non-Hispanic African American population (18.9 million) and is a close second to the Rocky Mountains in both...

  18. Landscape Ecology

    Christensen, Andreas Aagaard; Brandt, Jesper; Svenningsen, Stig Roar

    2017-01-01

    , and the ecological significance of the patterns which are generated by such processes. In landscape ecology, perspectives drawn from existing academic disciplines are integrated based on a common, spatially explicit mode of analysis developed from classical holistic geography, emphasizing spatial and landscape...... to translate positivist readings of the environment and hermeneutical perspectives on socioecological interaction into a common framework or terminology....

  19. The art of cultivation (på kinesisk)

    Hauxner, Malene

    2007-01-01

     All art forms have their own language. As music has its sound language, ballet has its step language and film has its film language, landscape architecture also has its specific language. As an art of cultivation it has two, which I call an agricultural and a pastoral language corresponding to two...

  20. Electromagnetic Landscape

    Cermak, Daniel; Okutsu, Ayaka; Jørgensen, Stina Marie Hasse

    2015-01-01

    Daniel Cermak-Sassenrath, Ayaka Okutsu, Stina Hasse. Electromagnetic Landscape - In-between Signal, Noise and Environment. Installation and artist talk. 21th International Symposium on Electronic Art (ISEA) 2015, Vancouver, CAN, Aug 14-18, 2015.......Daniel Cermak-Sassenrath, Ayaka Okutsu, Stina Hasse. Electromagnetic Landscape - In-between Signal, Noise and Environment. Installation and artist talk. 21th International Symposium on Electronic Art (ISEA) 2015, Vancouver, CAN, Aug 14-18, 2015....

  1. Nordic Landscape

    Hjortshøj, Rasmus

    2017-01-01

    This Box Set NORDIC LANDSCAPE presents Nordic Territories, a project by Rasmus Hjortshøj, exploring the man-made landscapes of the coastal territories and the entanglement of society and nature in times where it is no longer merely mankind subjected to nature, but where nature is equally being...... territories is not only their transient nature, but also the warm currents of the Gulf Stream making these northern shorelines habitable for human settlements....

  2. Changing Landscapes, Changing Landscape's Story

    Lapka, Miloslav; Cudlínová, Eva

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 3 (2003), s. 323-328 ISSN 0142-6397. [Symposium on Sustainable Landscapes in an Enlarged Europe. Nové Hrady, 12.09.2001-14.09.2001] R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 530 Grant - others:GA-(XE) QLK5-CT-2000-01211-SPRITE Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5039906 Keywords : Landscape stability * narrative approach * socio-economic typology Subject RIV: DO - Wilderness Conservation

  3. Landscapes of the Anthropocene

    Pawson, Eric; Christensen, Andreas Aagaard

    2014-01-01

    since the 1840s, when indigenous forests were transformed into improved landscapes of sown grass. The chapter is shaped by a broad question. What can be learned from this place about the ways in which people have exercised and are coming to terms with what Gibson-Graham and Roelvink describe as our...... of the shifting balance of ecological agency in favour of humans during the Anthropocene. Banks Peninsula on the east coast of New Zealand’s South Island was first settled by Polynesian peoples within the last few hundred years. The nature of their footprint contrasts with the dramatic change wrought by Europeans...

  4. Contemporary danish landscape research

    Vejre, H.; Brandt, J.

    2004-01-01

    Danish landscape research blossomed during the 1990’ies thanks to several transdisciplinary research programmes involving several institutions. The main themes of the programmes encompassed Landscape change, landscape and biological diversity, nature and landscape management, use and monitoring...

  5. Electromagnetic Landscape

    Cermak, Daniel; Okutsu, Ayaka; Hasse, Stina

    2015-01-01

    Electromagnetic Landscape demonstrates in direct, tangible and immediate ways effects of the disruption of the familiar. An ubiquitous technological medium, FM radio, is turned into an alien and unfamiliar one. Audience participation, the environment, radio signals and noise create a site...

  6. Changing Landscape

    Tunby Gulbrandsen, Ib; Kamstrup, Andreas; Koed Madsen, Anders

    with an analysis of the changing organizational landscape created by new ICT’s like Google, Facebook, Wikipedia, iPods, smart phones and Wi-Fi. Based on five netno- and ethno-graphic investigations of the intertwinement of ICT’s and organizational work, we point to three features that have changed the scene: new...

  7. Disposable Landscapes

    Kevin T. Smith

    2008-01-01

    Whether we are a traditionalist or on the cutting edge of landscape care, we need to take a deep breath and think about what we are trying to achieve, before we select a specific treatment or practice for tree care. We should measure that treatment or practice against what we know about the tree system. I say "system" because the recent years of Modern...

  8. Shifting Attention

    Ingram, Jenni

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the shifts in attention and focus as one teacher introduces and explains an image that represents the processes involved in a numeric problem that his students have been working on. This paper takes a micro-analytic approach to examine how the focus of attention shifts through what the teacher and students do and say in the…

  9. Cultivated Land Changes and Agricultural Potential Productivity in Mainland China

    Linlin Xiao

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available With rapid and continuous population growth and the associated declining quality of cultivated land, food security in China has been attracting the attention of scholars both domestically and internationally. In recent decades, the implications of the cultivated land balance policy have promoted spatial changes of cultivated land. Estimating the agricultural potential productivity and assessing its response to cultivated land changes could provide a scientific basis for strategic decision-making concerning grain production and thus guarantee food security. In the present study, the Agro-Ecological Zone (AEZ model was applied to estimate the agricultural potential productivity. Data from the second national land survey were first applied to characterize the changes of cultivated land (by comparing the cultivated land in 2009 with that in 2012 and their influence on potential productivity in Mainland China. We propose a utilization degree of total potential productivity (UTP and its ratio coefficient (RUTP to reveal the utilization status of potential productivity and its change characteristics at the provincial level. It was found that there was a trend for cultivated land to be shifted away from cities, and the average productive capability per hectare of cultivated land declined from 7386.5 kg/ha to 6955.2 kg/ha by occupying highly productive cultivated land generally near the cities and compensating less productive cultivated land in remote areas. UTPs and RUTPs indicate a significant difference in the utilization status of potential productivity among the 31 provinces of Mainland China. Grain production with the aim of sustainable development should be strategized according to the particular facts of each province. The methods we applied can mine the impacts of cultivated land changes on potential productivity and the utilization of potential productivity effectively.

  10. Isolation and Cultivation of Anaerobes

    Aragao Börner, Rosa

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobic microorganisms play important roles in different biotechnological processes. Their complex metabolism and special cultivation requirements have led to less isolated representatives in comparison to their aerobic counterparts.In view of that, the isolation and cultivation of anaerobic...

  11. The footprint of marginal agriculture in the Mediterranean mountain landscape: An analysis of the Central Spanish Pyrenees.

    Lasanta, T; Nadal-Romero, E; Errea, M P

    2017-12-01

    Agriculture forms an essential part of the mountains of the Mediterranean. For centuries, large areas were cultivated to feed the local population, with highly marginal slopes being tilled at times of heavy demographic pressure, using the shifting agriculture system. A great deal of agricultural land was abandoned during the 20th century, giving rise to secondary succession processes that tend to eliminate the agricultural footprint. However, revegetation is a highly complex process leading to areas with dense, well-structured plant cover, and other open areas of scrubland. This article studies the role of traditional agriculture in the deterioration of the landscape. By using experimental plots in the Central Pyrenees to reproduce traditional agriculture and abandonment, maps of field types, and current uses and ground cover, it could be confirmed that shifting agriculture has caused very heavy soil loss, which explains the deterioration of the landscape on several slopes. Burning scrub and adding the ash to the soil as a fertilizer did not greatly help to improve soil quality, but caused high rates of erosion and a very slow process of regrowth. The average data obtained from the shifting experimental plots recorded losses of 1356kgha -1 years -1 , 1.6 times more than the plot of fertilized cereal, and 8.2 times more than the dense scrub plot. Following abandonment, losses in the shifting agriculture plot were almost three times higher than the abandoned sloping field plot. Traditional shifting agriculture in the Pyrenees is the main cause of the deterioration of the landscape 50-70years after agriculture ceased. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. [Dynamic evolution of landscape spatial pattern in Taihu Lake basin, China].

    Wang, Fang; Xie, Xiao Ping; Chen, Zhi Cong

    2017-11-01

    Based on the land-use satellite image datasets of 2000, 2010 and 2015, the landscape index, dynamic change model, landscape transfer matrix and CLUE-S model were integrated to analyze the dynamic evolution of the landscape spatial pattern of Taihu Lake basin. The results showed that the landscape type of the basin was dominated by cultivated land and construction land, and the degree of landscape fragmentation was strengthened from 2000 to 2015, and the distribution showed a uniform trend. From the point of transfer dynamic change, the cultivated land and construction land changed significantly, which was reduced by 6761 km 2 (2.1%) and increased by 6615.33 km 2 (8.4%), respectively. From the landscape transfer, it could be seen that the main change direction of the cultivated land reduction was the construction land, and the cultivated land with 7866.30 km 2 was converted into construction land, accounting for 91.6% of the cultivated land change, and the contribution to the construction land was 96.5%. The trend of dynamic changes of cultivated and construction land in the counties and cities was the same as that of the whole Taihu Lake basin. For Shanghai Central Urban, as well as Pudong District, Lin'an City, Baoshan District, Minhang District, Jiading District and Changzhou City, the area of the cultivated land and construction land changed more prominently. However, compared with the CLUE-S model for the landscape pattern change in 2030, the change of cultivated and construction lands would be the largest in the natural development scenario. Under the ecological protection scenario, the area of grassland would increase and the dynamic degree would reach 54.5%. Under the situation of cultivated land protection, the conversion of cultivated land to construction land would be decreased.

  13. [Dendrobium officinale stereoscopic cultivation method].

    Si, Jin-Ping; Dong, Hong-Xiu; Liao, Xin-Yan; Zhu, Yu-Qiu; Li, Hui

    2014-12-01

    The study is aimed to make the most of available space of Dendrobium officinale cultivation facility, reveal the yield and functional components variation of stereoscopic cultivated D. officinale, and improve quality, yield and efficiency. The agronomic traits and yield variation of stereoscopic cultivated D. officinale were studied by operating field experiment. The content of polysaccharide and extractum were determined by using phenol-sulfuric acid method and 2010 edition of "Chinese Pharmacopoeia" Appendix X A. The results showed that the land utilization of stereoscopic cultivated D. officinale increased 2.74 times, the stems, leaves and their total fresh or dry weight in unit area of stereoscopic cultivated D. officinale were all heavier than those of the ground cultivated ones. There was no significant difference in polysaccharide content between stereoscopic cultivation and ground cultivation. But the extractum content and total content of polysaccharide and extractum were significantly higher than those of the ground cultivated ones. In additional, the polysaccharide content and total content of polysaccharide and extractum from the top two levels of stereoscopic culture matrix were significantly higher than that of the ones from the other levels and ground cultivation. Steroscopic cultivation can effectively improves the utilization of space and yield, while the total content of polysaccharides and extractum were significantly higher than that of the ground cultivated ones. The significant difference in Dendrobium polysaccharides among the plants from different height of stereo- scopic culture matrix may be associated with light factor.

  14. Cultivating an entrepreneurial mindset.

    Matheson, Sandra A

    2013-01-01

    Now as never before, familiar challenges require bold, novel approaches. Registered dietitians will benefit by cultivating an entrepreneurial mindset that involves being comfortable with uncertainty, learning to take calculated risks, and daring to just try it. An entrepreneur is someone who takes risks to create something new, usually in business. But the entrepreneurial mindset is available to anyone prepared to rely only on their own abilities for their economic security and expect no opportunity without first creating value for others.

  15. Cultivating strategic thinking skills.

    Shirey, Maria R

    2012-06-01

    This department highlights change management strategies that may be successful in strategically planning and executing organizational change initiatives. With the goal of presenting practical approaches helpful to nurse leaders advancing organizational change, content includes evidence-based projects, tools, and resources that mobilize and sustain organizational change initiatives. In this article, the author presents an overview of strategic leadership and offers approaches for cultivating strategic thinking skills.

  16. [Comparition of ecological security stress effects of artificial landscapes on natural landscapes in different rapid urban sprawl areas].

    Lin, Mei Xia; Lin, Tao; Qiu, Quan Yi; Sun, Cai Ge; Deng, Fu Liang; Zhang, Guo Qin

    2017-04-18

    The expansion of built-up area will cause stress effect on the regional natural ecological security pattern during urbanization process. Taking rapid expanding regions of four inland and coastal cities as study areas, including Tongzhou in Beijing, Zhengding in Hebei, Tanggu in Tianjin and Xiamen in Fujian, we constructed regional landscape stress indexes according to the principle of landscape ecology and comparatively analyzed the landscape pattern characteristics of rapid expanding regions and the differences of stress effect of artificial landscapes on four natural landscapes ecological security pattern in the process of rapid urbanization. Results showed that landscape erosion indexes of Tongzhou, Zhengding, Tanggu and Xiamen in 2015 were 1.039, 0.996, 1.239 and 0.945, respectively, which indicated that the natural landscapes were eroded significantly. Natural landscape types of those four regions presented different threatened levels. Among all natural landscape types, unused land and waters were worst threatened in Tongzhou, Zhengding and Tanggu, while in Xiamen cultivated land and waters showed the highest threat levels. The waters threat indexes of those four areas were all more than 0.743. Landscape isolation indexes of waters and unused land of the inland cities were greater than those of coastal cities, which meant water distribution of inland cities in the space was less gathered than that of coastal cities. Besides, compared with the other natural landscape, unused land and waters suffered the largest stress from artificial landscapes.

  17. Do Specialized MBA Programs Cultivate Alumni Relationships and Donations?

    Johnson, Jennifer Wiggins; Thomas, Veronica; Peck, Joann

    2010-01-01

    A recent trend among universities shifts from traditional MBA programs to specialized MBA offerings. Specialized programs are believed to cultivate stronger relationships with students, which lead to stronger alumni relationships and increased donations. This research tests this empirically by examining relationship perceptions and donation…

  18. Cuban Landscapes

    Scarpaci, Joseph L.; Portela, Armando

    This accessible book offers a vivid geographic portrait of Cuba, exploring the island’s streetscapes, sugar cane fields, beaches, and rural settlements; its billboards, government buildings, and national landmarks. The authors illuminate how natural and built landscapes have shaped Cuban identity...... (cubanidad), and vice versa. They provide a unique perspective on Cuba’s distinct historical periods and political economies, from the colonial period through republicanism and today’s socialist era. Compelling topics include the legacies of slavery and the sugar industry, the past and future of urban...

  19. Transition in nori cultivation

    Delaney, Alyne

    2011-01-01

    . Technological change has had a profound impact on both the manner of nori production as well as the household division of labor and work and gender roles. Women play a key role in nori production today. With better understanding of such outward manifestations of culture and society we can bring the human...... of social and environmental sustainability, we must understand both society and cultural institutions. With this in mind, this article focuses on the division of labor among cultivators, particularly along gender lines and the impacts, on a cultural level, of technological change on nori production...

  20. Market shifting

    Forst, Michael

    2013-11-01

    After years of oversupply and artificially low module pricing, market analysts believe that the solar industry will begin to stabilize by 2017. While the market activities are shifting from Europe to the Asia Pacific region and the United States, the solar shakeout continues to be in full swing including solar cell and module manufacturing. (orig.)

  1. Tough Shift

    Brewer, Robert S.; Verdezoto, Nervo; Holst, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    people to change their behavior at home. Leveraging prior research on encouraging reductions in residential energy use through game play, we introduce ShareBuddy: a casual mobile game intended to encourage players not only to reduce, but also to shift their electricity use. We conducted two field studies...... real-world resource use into a game....

  2. Navigating the Interface Between Landscape Genetics and Landscape Genomics

    Andrew Storfer

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available As next-generation sequencing data become increasingly available for non-model organisms, a shift has occurred in the focus of studies of the geographic distribution of genetic variation. Whereas landscape genetics studies primarily focus on testing the effects of landscape variables on gene flow and genetic population structure, landscape genomics studies focus on detecting candidate genes under selection that indicate possible local adaptation. Navigating the transition between landscape genomics and landscape genetics can be challenging. The number of molecular markers analyzed has shifted from what used to be a few dozen loci to thousands of loci and even full genomes. Although genome scale data can be separated into sets of neutral loci for analyses of gene flow and population structure and putative loci under selection for inference of local adaptation, there are inherent differences in the questions that are addressed in the two study frameworks. We discuss these differences and their implications for study design, marker choice and downstream analysis methods. Similar to the rapid proliferation of analysis methods in the early development of landscape genetics, new analytical methods for detection of selection in landscape genomics studies are burgeoning. We focus on genome scan methods for detection of selection, and in particular, outlier differentiation methods and genetic-environment association tests because they are the most widely used. Use of genome scan methods requires an understanding of the potential mismatches between the biology of a species and assumptions inherent in analytical methods used, which can lead to high false positive rates of detected loci under selection. Key to choosing appropriate genome scan methods is an understanding of the underlying demographic structure of study populations, and such data can be obtained using neutral loci from the generated genome-wide data or prior knowledge of a species

  3. PESP Landscaping Initiative

    Landscaping practices can positively or negatively affect local environments and human health. The Landscaping Initiative seeks to enhance benefits of landscaping while reducing need for pesticides, fertilizers, etc., by working with partners.

  4. Landscape moderation of biodiversity patterns and processes - eight hypotheses.

    Tscharntke, Teja; Tylianakis, Jason M; Rand, Tatyana A; Didham, Raphael K; Fahrig, Lenore; Batáry, Péter; Bengtsson, Janne; Clough, Yann; Crist, Thomas O; Dormann, Carsten F; Ewers, Robert M; Fründ, Jochen; Holt, Robert D; Holzschuh, Andrea; Klein, Alexandra M; Kleijn, David; Kremen, Claire; Landis, Doug A; Laurance, William; Lindenmayer, David; Scherber, Christoph; Sodhi, Navjot; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Thies, Carsten; van der Putten, Wim H; Westphal, Catrin

    2012-08-01

    conservation management' includes (7) the intermediate landscape-complexity hypothesis-landscape-moderated effectiveness of local conservation management is highest in structurally simple, rather than in cleared (i.e. extremely simplified) or in complex landscapes, and (8) the landscape-moderated biodiversity versus ecosystem service management hypothesis-landscape-moderated biodiversity conservation to optimize functional diversity and related ecosystem services will not protect endangered species. Shifting our research focus from local to landscape-moderated effects on biodiversity will be critical to developing solutions for future biodiversity and ecosystem service management. © 2012 The Authors. Biological Reviews © 2012 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  5. Glass bead cultivation of fungi

    Droce, Aida; Sørensen, Jens Laurids; Giese, H.

    2013-01-01

    Production of bioactive compounds and enzymes from filamentous fungi is highly dependent on cultivation conditions. Here we present an easy way to cultivate filamentous fungi on glass beads that allow complete control of nutrient supply. Secondary metabolite production in Fusarium graminearum...... and Fusarium solani cultivated on agar plates, in shaking liquid culture or on glass beads was compared. Agar plate culture and glass bead cultivation yielded comparable results while liquid culture had lower production of secondary metabolites. RNA extraction from glass beads and liquid cultures was easier...... to specific nutrient factors. •Fungal growth on glass beads eases and improves fungal RNA extraction....

  6. Starting from grape cultivation.

    Yoshida, A

    1992-06-01

    Rapid population growth can only be stopped by lowering the fertility rate. The UNFPA recommends improving the employment opportunities for women as the single best way of achieving this reduction. An example of this phenomenon is the grape cultivation in the Nordeste (Northeastern) region of Brazil. This area is the poorest part of Brazil and has the highest proportion of indigent people. These people have been deforesting the Amazon in search of a better life. What they have done is sterilize the land and turned a tropical rain forest into a desert. In an effort to reverse this trend, grape cultivation has been introduced in an area called Petrolina. The area is very dry with less than 500 mm of precipitation annually. They do have access to a 5000 square kilometer artificial lake (the largest in the world) and the 3rd largest river in Brazil (the Sao Francisco). In an effort to avoid using agricultural medicines, the vines are fertilized with organic matter created on the farm and little or no pesticides are used since pests do not live in such an arid region. It has taken 20 years of trial and error, but the quality of the grapes is now very high and is competitive on the world market. Because of climate and location, harvesting is done year round which increases the productivity of the land. The farm managers have found that married women make the best workers and have the highest level of productivity. Age at 1st marriage averages 24-25, compared with 15-16 for unemployed women in the same area. The fertility rate averages 50% of that for unemployed women in the same area. Agricultural development offers the best opportunity for the women of developing countries. It can pay a high wage, reduce fertility, and replant desert areas.

  7. Micrometeorological principles of protected cultivation

    Protected cultivation is a broad term commonly used among producers of specialty crops. Techniques can range from complex fixed structures to field site selection, to straightforward cultural practices in the field. This introduction to the ASHS workshop "Protected cultivation for fruit crops" consi...

  8. Fluid Shifts

    Stenger, M. B.; Hargens, A. R.; Dulchavsky, S. A.; Arbeille, P.; Danielson, R. W.; Ebert, D. J.; Garcia, K. M.; Johnston, S. L.; Laurie, S. S.; Lee, S. M. C.; hide

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. NASA's Human Research Program is focused on addressing health risks associated with long-duration missions on the International Space Station (ISS) and future exploration-class missions beyond low Earth orbit. Visual acuity changes observed after short-duration missions were largely transient, but now more than 50 percent of ISS astronauts have experienced more profound, chronic changes with objective structural findings such as optic disc edema, globe flattening and choroidal folds. These structural and functional changes are referred to as the visual impairment and intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome. Development of VIIP symptoms may be related to elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) secondary to spaceflight-induced cephalad fluid shifts, but this hypothesis has not been tested. The purpose of this study is to characterize fluid distribution and compartmentalization associated with long-duration spaceflight and to determine if a relation exists with vision changes and other elements of the VIIP syndrome. We also seek to determine whether the magnitude of fluid shifts during spaceflight, as well as any VIIP-related effects of those shifts, are predicted by the crewmember's pre-flight status and responses to acute hemodynamic manipulations, specifically posture changes and lower body negative pressure. Methods. We will examine a variety of physiologic variables in 10 long-duration ISS crewmembers using the test conditions and timeline presented in the figure below. Measures include: (1) fluid compartmentalization (total body water by D2O, extracellular fluid by NaBr, intracellular fluid by calculation, plasma volume by CO rebreathe, interstitial fluid by calculation); (2) forehead/eyelids, tibia, and calcaneus tissue thickness (by ultrasound); (3) vascular dimensions by ultrasound (jugular veins, cerebral and carotid arteries, vertebral arteries and veins, portal vein); (4) vascular dynamics by MRI (head/neck blood flow, cerebrospinal fluid

  9. Researchers' experiences, positive and negative, in integrative landscape projects

    Tress, B.; Tress, G.; Fry, G.

    2005-01-01

    Integrative (interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary) landscape research projects are becoming increasingly common. As a result, researchers are spending a larger proportion of their professional careers doing integrative work, participating in shifting interdisciplinary teams, and cooperating

  10. Forma da paisagem como critério para otimização amostral de latossolos sob cultivo de cana-de-açúcar Landscape form as a criterion for sampling optimization of an oxisol under cultivation of sugar cane

    Rafael Montanari

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available O número de pontos amostrais é fundamental para estabelecer um programa de avaliação da variabilidade espacial dos atributos dos solos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi utilizar a forma da paisagem como critério auxiliar na otimização do esquema amostral na avaliação dos atributos químicos de latossolos, em áreas sob cultivo de cana-de-açúcar. Utilizou-se uma área contínua com duas pedoformas: côncava, que ocorre na posição mais elevada da área; e linear, constituída pelos segmentos escarpa, meia encosta e encosta inferior. Foi utilizado um espaçamento amostral regular de 50x50 m em uma malha de 300x3.000 m numa área total de 94 ha, com 421 pontos amostrados. Coletaram-se amostras de solo nas profundidades 0,0-0,2 m e 0,6-0,8 m, em cada ponto da malha, e determinaram-se as propriedades químicas do solo. Na pedoforma côncava, houve maior variabilidade espacial para os atributos químicos do solo. A aplicação do programa Sanos 0.1 na malha amostral (pedoforma côncava e pedoforma linear revelou que a pedoforma côncava, em ambas as profundidades, apresenta maior variabilidade espacial dos atributos químicos do que a pedoforma linear.The number of sampling points is essential to establish an evaluation program of the spatial variability of soil atribute. The objective of this work was to use the form of landscape as auxiliary criterion in the optimization of the outline sample for the estimate of chemical attributes of oxisol, in a area under sugarcane cultivation. It was possible to choose a continuous area with two landforms: concave, that occur in higher positions of the area, and linear, comprising steep, stocking leans and inferior leans. A 50x50 m spacing in a mesh of 300x3.000 m (total area 94 ha, with 421 sampling points were used. Soil sample in depths 0.0-0.2 m and 0.6-0.8 m were collected, in each point of the grid, in order to evaluate the soil chemical attributes. In the concave landform, larger space

  11. Bridging the gap between landscape ecologyand natural resource management

    Monica G. Turner; Thomas R. Crow; Jianguo Liu; Dale Rabe; Charles F. Rabeni; Patricia A. Soranno; William W. Taylor; Kristiina A. Vogt; John A. Wiens

    2002-01-01

    The challenges facing natural resource managers occur over entire landscapes and involve landscape components at many scales. Many resource managers are shifting their approach from managing resources such as fish, wildlife, and water separately to managing for the integrity of entire ecosystems (Christensen et al., 1996). Indeed, nearly all resource...

  12. Aquaphobia, Tulipmania, Biophilia: A Moral Geography of the Dutch Landscape

    Zwart, H.A.E.

    2003-01-01

    In Genesis (1:9-10) we are told that God gathered the waters into one place, in order to let the dry land appear, which He called earth, while the waters were called seas. In the Netherlands, this process took more than a single day, and it was the work of man. Gradually, a cultivated landscape

  13. Evapotranspiration of rubber ( Hevea brasiliensis ) cultivated at two plantation sites in Southeast Asia: RUBBER EVAPOTRANSPIRATION IN SE ASIA

    Giambelluca, Thomas W. [Department of Geography, University of Hawai' i at Mānoa, Honolulu Hawai' i USA; Hydrospheric Atmospheric Research Center, Nagoya University, Nagoya Japan; Mudd, Ryan G. [Department of Geography, University of Hawai' i at Mānoa, Honolulu Hawai' i USA; Liu, Wen [Department of Geography, University of Hawai' i at Mānoa, Honolulu Hawai' i USA; Ziegler, Alan D. [Department of Geography, National University of Singapore, Singapore Singapore; Kobayashi, Nakako [Hydrospheric Atmospheric Research Center, Nagoya University, Nagoya Japan; Kumagai, Tomo' omi [Hydrospheric Atmospheric Research Center, Nagoya University, Nagoya Japan; Miyazawa, Yoshiyuki [Department of Geography, University of Hawai' i at Mānoa, Honolulu Hawai' i USA; Research Institute of East Asia Environments, Kyushu University, Fukuoka Japan; Lim, Tiva Khan [Cambodian Rubber Research Institute, Phnom Penh Cambodia; Huang, Maoyi [Atmospheric Sciences and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Fox, Jefferson [East-West Center, Honolulu Hawai' i USA; Yin, Song [Cambodian Rubber Research Institute, Phnom Penh Cambodia; Mak, Sophea Veasna [Cambodian Rubber Research Institute, Phnom Penh Cambodia; Kasemsap, Poonpipope [Department of Horticulture, Kasetsart University, Bangkok Thailand

    2016-02-01

    The expansion of rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) cultivation to higher latitudes and higher elevations in southeast Asia is part of a dramatic shift in the direction of rural land cover change in the region toward more tree covered landscapes. To investigate the possible effects of increasing rubber cultivation in the region on ecosystem services including water cycling, eddy covariance towers were established to measure ecosystem fluxes within two rubber plantations, one each in Bueng Kan, northeastern Thailand, and Kampong Cham, central Cambodia. The results show that evapotranspiration (ET) at both sites is strongly related to variations in available energy and leaf area, and moderately controlled by soil moisture. Measured mean annual ET was 1128 and 1272 mm for the Thailand and Cambodia sites, respectively. After adjustment for energy closure, mean annual was estimated to be 1211 and 1459 mm yr at the Thailand and Cambodia sites, respectively. Based on these estimates and that of another site in Xishuangbanna, southwestern China, it appears that of rubber is higher than that of other tree dominated land covers in the region, including forest. While measurements by others in non rubber tropical ecosystems indicate that at high net radiation sites is at most only slightly higher than for sites with lower net radiation, mean annual rubber increases strongl with increasing net radiation across the three available rubber plantation observation sites. With the continued expansion of tree dominated land covers, including rubber cultivation, in southeast Asia, the possible association between commercially viable, fast growing tree crop species Giambelluca et al. Evapotranspiration of rubber (Havea brasiliensis) cultivated at two sites in southeast Asia and their relatively high water use raises concerns about potential effects on water and food security.

  14. [Ecological risk assessment of rural-urban ecotone based on landscape pattern: A case study in Daiyue District of Tai' an City, Shandong Province of East China].

    Shi, Hao-Peng; Yu, Kai-Qin; Feng, Yong-jun

    2013-03-01

    Based on the remote sensing data in 2000, 2005, and 2010, this paper analyzed the variation trends of the land use type and landscape pattern in Daiyue District of Tai' an City from 2000 to 2010. The ecological risk index was built, that of the District was re-sampled and spatially interpolated, and the spatiotemporal pattern of the ecological risk in the rural-urban ecotone of the District was analyzed. In 2000-2010, the main variation trend of the land use type in the District was the shift from natural landscape to artificial landscape. The intensity of human disturbance was larger in cultivated land, garden plot, and forestland than in other landscape types, while the human disturbance in water area was smaller. The ecological loss degree of cultivated land and water area decreased somewhat, while that of the other land use types presented an increasing trend. The ecological risk distribution in the District was discrete in 2000 and 2010, but most centralized in 2005. The ecological risk of each ecological risk sub-area had an increasing trend in 2000-2005, but was in adverse in 2005-2010. In 2000-2010, the ecological risk of the District was mainly at medium level. Spatially, the distribution of the ecological risk in the District had an obvious differentiation, with an overall diffusive increasing from forestland as the center to the surrounding areas. In the District, the ecological risk was mainly at medium and higher levels, the area with lower ecological risk had an obvious dynamic change, while that with the lowest and highest ecological risk had less change.

  15. Characterizing European cultural landscapes

    Tieskens, Koen F.; Schulp, Catharina J E; Levers, Christian

    2017-01-01

    intensification and land abandonment. To prevent the loss of cultural landscapes, knowledge on the location of different types of cultural landscapes is needed. In this paper, we present a characterization of European cultural landscapes based on the prevalence of three key dimensions of cultural landscapes......Almost all rural areas in Europe have been shaped or altered by humans and can be considered cultural landscapes, many of which now are considered to entail valuable cultural heritage. Current dynamics in land management have put cultural landscapes under a huge pressure of agricultural...... the three dimensions into a continuous “cultural landscape index” that allows for a characterization of Europe's rural landscapes. The characterization identifies hotspots of cultural landscapes, where all three dimensions are present, such as in the Mediterranean. On the other hand, Eastern and Northern...

  16. Shifting Sugars and Shifting Paradigms

    Siegal, Mark L.

    2015-01-01

    No organism lives in a constant environment. Based on classical studies in molecular biology, many have viewed microbes as following strict rules for shifting their metabolic activities when prevailing conditions change. For example, students learn that the bacterium Escherichia coli makes proteins for digesting lactose only when lactose is available and glucose, a better sugar, is not. However, recent studies, including three PLOS Biology papers examining sugar utilization in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, show that considerable heterogeneity in response to complex environments exists within and between populations. These results join similar recent results in other organisms that suggest that microbial populations anticipate predictable environmental changes and hedge their bets against unpredictable ones. The classical view therefore represents but one special case in a range of evolutionary adaptations to environmental changes that all organisms face. PMID:25688600

  17. Shifting sugars and shifting paradigms.

    Mark L Siegal

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available No organism lives in a constant environment. Based on classical studies in molecular biology, many have viewed microbes as following strict rules for shifting their metabolic activities when prevailing conditions change. For example, students learn that the bacterium Escherichia coli makes proteins for digesting lactose only when lactose is available and glucose, a better sugar, is not. However, recent studies, including three PLOS Biology papers examining sugar utilization in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, show that considerable heterogeneity in response to complex environments exists within and between populations. These results join similar recent results in other organisms that suggest that microbial populations anticipate predictable environmental changes and hedge their bets against unpredictable ones. The classical view therefore represents but one special case in a range of evolutionary adaptations to environmental changes that all organisms face.

  18. Research using energy landscape

    Kim, Hack Jin

    2007-01-01

    Energy landscape is a theoretical tool used for the study of systems where cooperative processes occur such as liquid, glass, clusters, and protein. Theoretical and experimental researches related to energy landscape are introduced in this review

  19. [Dynamic changes of landscape pattern and hemeroby in Ximen Island wetland, Zhejiang Province, China].

    Xiao, Cui; Xie, Xue-Fen; Wu, Tao; Jiang, Guo-Jun; Bian, Hua-Jing; Xu, Wei

    2014-11-01

    Abstract: The hemeroby type classification system of Ximen Island wetland of Zhejiang Province was established based on the multiple datasets: SOPT-5 image data with a spatial resolution of 5 m in 2007 and 2010, its wetland land cover and land use status, the National Land Use Classification (on trail), and sea area use classification of marine industry standards as well as remote sensing data features. Meanwhile, the dynamic relationship between the landscape pattern and the degree of hemeroby in Ximen Island was investigated with the landscape indices and hemeroby index (HI) derived from the landscape pattern index and GIS spatial analysis. The results showed that the wetland landscape spatial heterogeneity, fragmentation and dominance index dropped, and the landscape shape index complexity was low. The human disturbance center developed from a dispersion type to a concentration type. The landscape type of the disturbance center was bare land and settlement. The HI rose up from the sea to the land. Settlement, wharf and traffic land had the highest HI. The HI of the mudflat cultivation, mudflats and raft-cultivation dramatically changed. Marine-terrestrial interlaced zone showed a low total HI with unstable characteristics. The number of patches declined of undisturbed, partially disturbed and completely disturbed landscapes. Mean patch areas of partially disturbed and completely disturbed landscapes increased, and that of the undisturbed decreased. Mean shape index of the undisturbed landscape decreased, while the partially disturbed and completely disturbed landscapes showed a trend of shape complication.

  20. Fungal cultivation on glass-beads

    Droce, Aida; Sørensen, Jens Laurids; Giese, Henriette

    Transcription of various bioactive compounds and enzymes are dependent on fungal cultivation method. In this study we cultivate Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium solani on glass-beads with liquid media in petri dishes as an easy and inexpensive cultivation method, that resembles in secondary...... metabolite production to agar-cultivation but with an easier and more pure RNA-extraction of total fungal mycelia....

  1. Landscape planning for the future: using fossil records to independently validate potential threats, opportunities and likely future range-shifts for socio-economically valuable plant species in Europe and sub-Saharan Africa

    Macias Fauria, M.; Willis, K. J.

    2011-12-01

    Holocene, including the sharp transition from wet to dry climate about 5000 yr. B.P., of crucial importance to understand the response of the savannah/desert system to large climatic shifts over a region especially sensitive to these oscillations. Validated models were projected onto ensemble climate projections for the late 21st century, providing robust predictions of the future distribution of these key plant species.

  2. Lines of landscape organisation

    Løvschal, Mette

    2015-01-01

    This paper offers a landscape analysis of the earliest linear landscape boundaries on Skovbjerg Moraine, Denmark, during the first millennium BC. Using Delaunay triangulation as well as classic distribution analyses, it demonstrates that landscape boundaries articulated already established use-pa...

  3. Landscape value of the tea (Camellia sinensis areas

    Nilgün Güneroğlu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural fields are very effective and widespread in Turkey’s rural landscape formation. Turkey is located on transitional climatic zone on mid-latitudes which leads to diversification of agricultural plants. Accordingly, many agricultural landscape types representing diferent regions and culture were naturally formed. Agricultural lands are not only fields for harvesting crops but also areas to form natural habitats, reduce greenhouse effect and create cultural landscapes with countable value. Moreover, it is well-known that landscape value has also economic compesation as result of offered ecosystem services. Therefore this study was carried out in Rize city located on Northeastern part of Turkey and characterized by Tea (Camellia sinensis cultivation. This study was carried out in three steps. The first step is a literature search, the second one is the preparing of identity card for each survey point and the last step is based on data obtained from questionnaries and related field work to produce quantitative landscpae value map of the region by considering visual perception and tourism value of the study area. Finally, character number 2 has the highest landscape value whereas character number 4 has the lowest landscape value among previosuly determined 5 landscape characters of the study area. It is concluded that non-fragmented areas are generally more preffered as they offer integrated and perceivable landscapes to the users.

  4. Identification of Potential Wild Herbal as parts of Landscape Elements

    Sulistyantara, Bambang; Mentari, Nio

    2017-10-01

    Many landscape plants can grow on their own without cultivated by humans. They are type of plants that can be found anywhere, so they can be categorized as wild plants. The economic value of wild plants are easy to obtain and their maintenance costs are low. Because wild plants not widely known even a just a few of people that aware of their existence, it is necessary to do a study to learn the potential of the wild plants to be used as an element of landscape. This research aims to identify the species that have potential to be used in landscape design, to describe the benefits of the their implementation as a landscape element, and to recommend the wild plants that have functional value and visual. This research used a scoring method based on the functional and visual criteria, and questionnaires were conducted to 50 students of Landscape Architecture IPB who have completed Landscape Plants courses. Based on the research, there are 150 species of wild plants that found in the study site, and 60 of them are recommended as landscape elements. Then all of the species were arranged as a recommendations book so they can be used as alternative landscape plants.

  5. Flowscapes : Infrastructure as landscape, landscape as infrastructure. Graduation Lab Landscape Architecture 2012/2013

    Nijhuis, S.; Jauslin, D.; De Vries, C.

    2012-01-01

    Flowscapes explores infrastructure as a type of landscape and landscape as a type of infrastructure, and is focused on landscape architectonic design of transportation-, green- and water infrastructures. These landscape infrastructures are considered armatures for urban and rural development. With

  6. Site-adapted cultivation of bioenergy crops - a strategy towards a greener and innovative feedstock production

    Ruf, Thorsten; Emmerling, Christoph

    2017-04-01

    Cultivation of bioenergy crops is of increasing interest to produce valuable feedstocks e.g. for anaerobic digestion. In the past decade, the focus was primarily set to cultivation of the most economic viable crop, namely maize. In Germany for example, the cultivation area of maize was expanded from approx. 200,000 ha in 2006 to 800,000 ha in 2015. However, this process initiated a scientific and public discussion about the sustainability of intense maize cultivation. Concerns addressed in this context are depletion of soil organic matter, soil erosion and compaction as well as losses of (agro-)biodiversity. However, from a soil science perspective, several problems arise from not site-adapted cultivation of maize. In contrast, the cultivation of perennial bioenergy crops may provide a valuable opportunity to preserve or even enhance soil fertility and agrobiodiversity without limiting economic efficiency. Several perennial energy crops, with various requirements regarding stand conditions, allow a beneficial selection of the most suitable species for a respective location. The study aimed to provide a first step towards a more strategic planning of bioenergy crop cultivation with respect to spatial arrangement, distribution and connectivity of sites on a regional scale. The identification of pedological site characteristics is a crucial step in this process. With the study presented, we tried to derive site information that allow for an assessment of the suitability for specific energy crops. Our idea is to design a multifunctional landscape with a coexistence of sites with reduced management for soil protection and highly productive site. By a site adapted cultivation of perennial energy plants in sensitive areas, a complex, heterogeneous landscape could be reached.

  7. Vacuum selection on axionic landscapes

    Wang, Gaoyuan; Battefeld, Thorsten

    2016-01-01

    We compute the distribution of minima that are reached dynamically on multi-field axionic landscapes, both numerically and analytically. Such landscapes are well suited for inflationary model building due to the presence of shift symmetries and possible alignment effects (the KNP mechanism). The resulting distribution of dynamically reached minima differs considerably from the naive expectation based on counting all vacua. These differences are more pronounced in the presence of many fields due to dynamical selection effects: while low lying minima are preferred as fields roll down the potential, trajectories are also more likely to get trapped by one of the many nearby minima. We show that common analytic arguments based on random matrix theory in the large D-limit to estimate the distribution of minima are insufficient for quantitative arguments pertaining to the dynamically reached ones. This discrepancy is not restricted to axionic potentials. We provide an empirical expression for the expectation value of such dynamically reached minimas' height and argue that the cosmological constant problem is not alleviated in the absence of anthropic arguments. We further comment on the likelihood of inflation on axionic landscapes in the large D-limit

  8. GIS-based landscape design research: Stourhead landscape garden as a case study

    Steffen Nijhuis

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Landscape design research is important for cultivating spatial intelligence in landscape architecture. This study explores GIS (geographic information systems as a tool for landscape design research - investigating landscape designs to understand them as architectonic compositions (architectonic plan analysis. The concept ‘composition’ refers to a conceivable arrangement, an architectural expression of a mental construct that is legible and open to interpretation. Landscape architectonic compositions and their representations embody a great wealth of design knowledge as objects of our material culture and reflect the possible treatment of the ground, space, image and program as a characteristic coherence. By exploring landscape architectonic compositions with GIS, design researchers can acquire design knowledge that can be used in the creation and refinement of a design.  The research aims to identify and illustrate the potential role of GIS as a tool in landscape design research, so as to provide insight into the possibilities and limitations of using GIS in this capacity. The critical, information-oriented case of Stourhead landscape garden (Wiltshire, UK, an example of a designed landscape that covers the scope and remit of landscape architecture design, forms the heart of the study. The exploration of Stourhead by means of GIS can be understood as a plausibility probe. Here the case study is considered a form of ‘quasi-experiment’, testing the hypothesis and generating a learning process that constitutes a prerequisite for advanced understanding, while using an adjusted version of the framework for landscape design analysis by Steenbergen and Reh (2003. This is a theoretically informed analytical method based on the formal interpretation of the landscape architectonic composition addressing four landscape architectonic categories: the basic, the spatial, the symbolic and the programmatic form. This study includes new aspects to be

  9. Native species that can replace exotic species in landscaping

    Elisabeth Regina Tempel Stumpf

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Beyond aesthetics, the contemporary landscaping intends to provide other benefits for humans and environment, especially related to the environmental quality of urban spaces and conservation of the species. A trend in this direction is the reduction in the use of exotic plants in their designs, since, over time, they can become agents of replacement of native flora, as it has occurred in Rio Grande do Sul with many species introduced by settlers. However, the use of exotic species is unjustifiable, because the flora diversity of the Bioma Pampa offers many native species with appropriate features to the ornamental use. The commercial cultivation and the implantation of native species in landscaped areas constitute innovations for plant nurseries and landscapers and can provide a positive reduction in extractivism, contributing to dissemination, exploitation and preservation of native flora, and also decrease the impact of chemical products on environment. So, this work intends to identify native species of Bioma Pampa with features and uses similar to the most used exotic species at Brazilian landscaping. The species were selected from consulting books about native plants of Bioma Pampa and plants used at Brazilian landscaping, considering the similarity on habit and architecture, as well as characteristics of leafs, flowers and/or fruits and environmental conditions of occurrence and cultivation. There were identified 34 native species able to properly replace exotic species commonly used. The results show that many native species of Bioma Pampa have interesting ornamental features to landscape gardening, allowing them to replace exotic species that are traditionally cultivated.

  10. Cultivation and uses of cucurbits

    Cultivated cucurbits have spread through trade and exploration from their respective Old and New World centers of origin to the six arable continents and are important in local, regional and world trade. Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), melon (Cucumis melo L.), pumpkin, squash and gourd (Cucurbita spp...

  11. Cultivating Audiences: Taming, Teaching, Transforming

    Nicolucci, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    Satisfying and successful school concerts require an active, empathic, and cooperative partnership between performers and audience members. As music educators work to prepare artful, dignified, and confident performers, "audiences" for these performers must be cultivated just as purposefully. Concertgoers can be motivated to consume school…

  12. The case for small-scale domestic cannabis cultivation.

    Decorte, Tom

    2010-07-01

    The shift to (inter)regional production, trade and domestic cultivation has become an irreversible international trend. Until now, the focus of most empirical work has been on large-scale, commercially oriented and professionally organized segments of the cannabis industry, often based on police data and on the perspective of law enforcement agencies. This paper offers a review of recent Dutch-language research that focuses on cannabis cultivation. Empirical studies were identified through literature searches using relevant search terms and Web of Science, Elin, Social Science Research Network and Elsevier ScienceDirect. The paper presents the main findings of Dutch and Belgian empirical work on the factors that stimulated the import substitution process on the cannabis market, aspects related to quality and potency issues, typologies of cannabis growers, and (unintended) effects of pursued policies. In the light of this (selective) review the author offers some commentary and analysis concerning the claims made by different stakeholders, and concludes with some reflections on future research and on policy implications. The author outlines the importance of small-scale, independent or ideologically oriented cannabis cultivation as an under-researched market segment. The author also makes a case for greater toleration of small-scale cannabis cultivation, to secure the least worst of cannabis markets. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Why Landscape Beauty Matters

    Angelika Krebs

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This philosophical paper explores the aesthetic argument for landscape conservation. The main claim is that the experience of beautiful landscapes is an essential part of the good human life. Beautiful landscapes make us feel at home in the world. Their great and irreplaceable value lies therein. To establish this claim, the concepts of landscape and “Stimmung” are clarified. It is shown how “Stimmung” (in the sense of mood is infused into landscape (as atmosphere and how we respond to it aesthetically. We respond by resonating or feeling at home. The paper ends by indicating how art can help us to better appreciate landscape beauty. This is done by way of an example from contemporary nature poetry, Michael Donhauser’s Variationen in Prosa, which begins with “Und was da war, es nahm uns an” (“And what was there accepted us”.

  14. Condensed landscape experience

    Earon, Ofri

    2011-01-01

    ‘Re-thinking interaction between landscape and urban buildings’ participates in an interdisciplinary discourse about the theoretical and practical advantages of openly juxtaposing landscape and architecture without having one more advanced in importance. Recently, the greenification of buildings...... demands, quality of space, mixture of functions, urban complexity, public life and cultural heritage. In order to launch such an approach, an understanding of the spatial, social and environmental significance of a radical re-thinking of relationships between architecture and landscape is necessary...

  15. Sustainable intensification of cultivated pastures using multiple ...

    rangeland and wildlife parks) for guidelines to implementing this approach in cultivated pasture. In rangeland or natural grassland ... Keywords: animal production, biodiversity, cultivated pastures, foraging ecology, plant–herbivore interactions ...

  16. Propagating the Haze? Community and professional perceptions of cannabis cultivation and the impacts of prohibition.

    Beckett Wilson, Helen; Taylor, Stuart; Barrett, Giles; Jamieson, Janet; Grindrod, Lauren

    2017-10-01

    Recent decades have seen substantial changes in the UK cannabis landscape, including increased domestic production, the ascendancy of stronger strains (namely 'skunk') and the drug's reclassification under the 1971 Misuse of Drugs Act. Resultantly, cannabis retains significance in the consciousness, priorities and policy agendas of communities, drug services and criminal justice agencies. This paper presents an empirical study, which examined both perceptions and impacts of cannabis cultivation and its control within a North-West English borough. It draws on qualitative research with samples of professionals, practitioners, resident groups, cannabis users, cannabis users' families and cannabis cultivators themselves. The findings suggest that cannabis cultivation was not a uniformly familiar concept to respondents, who had limited knowledge and experience of its production. Across all participant groups, the transmission of accurate information was lacking, with individuals instead drawing on the reductionist drug discourse (Taylor, 2016) to fill knowledge deficits. Consequently, some participants conflated cannabis cultivation with wider prohibitionist constructions of drug markets, resulting in the diffusion of misinformation and an amplification of anxieties. In contrast, other participants construed cultivation as making economic sense during austerity, justifying such tolerance through inverse adherence to the same narrow socio-cultural construction of drugs i.e. that cultivation carried comparatively less harms than real drug markets. Enforcement mechanisms also drew on generic prohibitionist conceptions, assuming cultivators to be unconstrained, autonomous actors in need of punishment; a belief which lacked nuanced understanding of the local terrain where vulnerable individuals cultivating under duress played a key role in the supply chain. The paper concludes with a call for the provision of accessible information/education; the need to challenge and

  17. Written Language Shift among Norwegian Youth

    Kamil ÖZERK

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In Norway there are two written Norwegian languages, Bokmål and Nynorsk. Of these two written languages Bokmål is being used by the majority of the people, and Bokmål has the highest prestige in the society. This article is about the shift of written language from Nynorsk to Bokmål among young people in a traditional Nynorsk district in the country. Drawing on empirical data we conclude that many adolescents are experiencing written language shift. We discuss various reasons for this phenomenon in the linguistic landscape of Norway. In our discussions we emphasize the importance of the school with regard to language maintenance and language revitalization. We call for a new language policy in the educational system that can prevent language shift. Having several dialects and two officially written forms of Norwegian in the country, creates a special linguistic landscape in Norway. Despite the fact that the Norwegian language situation is in several ways unique, it’s done very little research on how the existing policy works in practice. Our research reveals that the existing language policy and practice in the school system is not powerful enough to prevent language shift and language decay among the youngsters. The school system functions like a fabric for language shift.

  18. The shifting landscape of metastatic breast cancer to the CNS.

    Quigley, Matthew R; Fukui, Olivia; Chew, Brandon; Bhatia, Sanjay; Karlovits, Steven

    2013-07-01

    The improved survival following the diagnosis of breast cancer has potentially altered the characteristics and course of patients presenting with CNS involvement. We therefore sought to define our current cohort of breast cancer patients with metastatic disease to the CNS in regard to modern biomarkers and clinical outcome. Review of clinical and radiographic records of women presenting to a tertiary medical center with the new diagnosis of CNS metastatic disease from breast cancer. This was a retrospective review from patients identities obtained from two prospective databases. There were 88 women analyzed who were treated over the period of January 2003 to February 2010, average age 56.9 years. At the time of initial presentation of CNS disease, 68 % of patients had multiple brain metastases, 17 % had a solitary metastasis, and 15 % had only leptomeningeal disease (LMD). The median survival for all patients from the time of diagnosis of breast disease was 50.0 months, and 9.7 months from diagnosis of CNS involvement. The only factor related to overall survival was estrogen receptor-positive pathology (57.6 v. 38.2 months, p = .02 log-rank); those related to survival post CNS diagnosis were presentation with LMD (p = .004, HR = 3.1, Cox regression) and triple-negative hormonal/HER2 status (p = .02, HR = 2.3, Cox regression). Patients with either had a median survival of 3.1 months (no patients in common). Of the 75 patients who initially presented with metastatic brain lesions, 20 (26 %) subsequently developed LMD in the course of their disease (median 10.4 months), following which survival was grim (1.8 months median). Symptoms of LMD were most commonly lower extremity weakness (14/33), followed by cranial nerve deficits (11/33). The recently described Graded Prognostic Assessment (GPA) tumor index stratified median survival at 2.5, 5.9, 13.1, and 21.7 months, respectively, for indices of 1-4 (p = .004, log-rank), which contrasted with the nonsignificant survival difference between Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Recursive Partitioning Analysis classes one and two. (13.1 v. 13.2, p = .8, log-rank). Treatment of patients with metastatic brain disease from breast cancer should be tailored to the patient's hormonal status and GPA index. Practitioners must be vigilant for the development of LMD, especially as it often presents with nondescript complaints such as back pain.

  19. Shifting Landscapes of Counselling Identities in Aotearoa New Zealand

    Rodgers, Neil

    2012-01-01

    The professional identity of counsellors and guidance practitioners in Aotearoa New Zealand is currently under review as a result of the passing of legislation regulating health professionals and the proposed introduction of national registration of counsellors. In this paper I explore this debate, and examine the professional identities claimed…

  20. Shifting from living labs to experiential design landscapes (EDL)

    Megens, C.J.P.G.; Peeters, M.M.R.; Hummels, C.C.M.; Brombacher, A.C.; Berlo, van A.; Heuvel, van den H.; Nap, H.H.; Bierhoff, I.; Rijnen, W.

    2012-01-01

    Innovative interventions are often needed to disrupt current situations, creating new opportunities for sustainable growth. The size and amount of computing power we carry with us is increasing everyday and thus provides new opportunities for designing disruptive and radical innovative intelligent

  1. Outdoor recreation in shifting societal and natural landscapes

    Miranda H. Mockrin; J. M.  Bowker; Katherine  Smith; Cindi  West

    2014-01-01

    Outdoor recreation contributes to public health, supports hundreds of thousands of jobs, and  provides billions of dollars annually to rural economies. Visitors to federal lands alone spent $51  billion in 2012 in nearby communities during their trips to recreate on public lands and waters  (Forest Service National Center for Natural Resources Economic Research 2014)....

  2. An Overview of GIS Applications in Landscape Planning

    Dora Tomić Reljić

    2017-06-01

    The paper also indicates that, despite signing the European Landscape Convention, via which Croatia showed interest in innovative planning, conservation and management approaches, there has still been no significant shift at the institutional level, with the occasional implementation of the landscape approaches in practice. The lack of use of GIS tools is especially evident within different sectoral instruments, at all levels of spatial thinking and decision-making.

  3. Exploring the Cultivable Ectocarpus Microbiome.

    KleinJan, Hetty; Jeanthon, Christian; Boyen, Catherine; Dittami, Simon M

    2017-01-01

    Coastal areas form the major habitat of brown macroalgae, photosynthetic multicellular eukaryotes that have great ecological value and industrial potential. Macroalgal growth, development, and physiology are influenced by the microbial community they accommodate. Studying the algal microbiome should thus increase our fundamental understanding of algal biology and may help to improve culturing efforts. Currently, a freshwater strain of the brown macroalga Ectocarpus subulatus is being developed as a model organism for brown macroalgal physiology and algal microbiome studies. It can grow in high and low salinities depending on which microbes it hosts. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in this process are still unclear. Cultivation of Ectocarpus -associated bacteria is the first step toward the development of a model system for in vitro functional studies of brown macroalgal-bacterial interactions during abiotic stress. The main aim of the present study is thus to provide an extensive collection of cultivable E . subulatus -associated bacteria. To meet the variety of metabolic demands of Ectocarpus -associated bacteria, several isolation techniques were applied, i.e., direct plating and dilution-to-extinction cultivation techniques, each with chemically defined and undefined bacterial growth media. Algal tissue and algal growth media were directly used as inoculum, or they were pretreated with antibiotics, by filtration, or by digestion of algal cell walls. In total, 388 isolates were identified falling into 33 genera (46 distinct strains), of which Halomonas ( Gammaproteobacteria ), Bosea ( Alphaproteobacteria ), and Limnobacter ( Betaproteobacteria ) were the most abundant. Comparisons with 16S rRNA gene metabarcoding data showed that culturability in this study was remarkably high (∼50%), although several cultivable strains were not detected or only present in extremely low abundance in the libraries. These undetected bacteria could be considered as part

  4. Exploring the Cultivable Ectocarpus Microbiome

    Hetty KleinJan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Coastal areas form the major habitat of brown macroalgae, photosynthetic multicellular eukaryotes that have great ecological value and industrial potential. Macroalgal growth, development, and physiology are influenced by the microbial community they accommodate. Studying the algal microbiome should thus increase our fundamental understanding of algal biology and may help to improve culturing efforts. Currently, a freshwater strain of the brown macroalga Ectocarpus subulatus is being developed as a model organism for brown macroalgal physiology and algal microbiome studies. It can grow in high and low salinities depending on which microbes it hosts. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in this process are still unclear. Cultivation of Ectocarpus-associated bacteria is the first step toward the development of a model system for in vitro functional studies of brown macroalgal–bacterial interactions during abiotic stress. The main aim of the present study is thus to provide an extensive collection of cultivable E. subulatus-associated bacteria. To meet the variety of metabolic demands of Ectocarpus-associated bacteria, several isolation techniques were applied, i.e., direct plating and dilution-to-extinction cultivation techniques, each with chemically defined and undefined bacterial growth media. Algal tissue and algal growth media were directly used as inoculum, or they were pretreated with antibiotics, by filtration, or by digestion of algal cell walls. In total, 388 isolates were identified falling into 33 genera (46 distinct strains, of which Halomonas (Gammaproteobacteria, Bosea (Alphaproteobacteria, and Limnobacter (Betaproteobacteria were the most abundant. Comparisons with 16S rRNA gene metabarcoding data showed that culturability in this study was remarkably high (∼50%, although several cultivable strains were not detected or only present in extremely low abundance in the libraries. These undetected bacteria could be considered

  5. Hydroponic cultivation of Oncidium baueri

    Daniele Brandstetter Rodrigues

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, orchid cultivation has been increasing steadily over the last few years and contributing significantly to the economy. It has been reported that several vegetable crops and ornamentals have been successfully grown by soilless cultivation. The orchid Oncidium baueri Lindl. is grown on pot substrates. Nevertheless, hydroponics is an excellent alternative, especially for the production of cut flowers and bare root plants. The objective of this study was to evaluate the development of Oncidium baueri on two soilless systems: (a pots containing Amafibra® coconut fiber, carbonized rice husk, and pine bark (1:1:1 irrigated with nutrient solution every 15 d; and (b a nutrient film technique (NFT hydroponic system irrigated with nutrient solution daily. Shoot height, pseudobulb diameter, and number of sprouts were evaluated monthly. The number of flowering plants, number of flowers, dry mass of shoots, and dry mass of roots were evaluated 11 months after onset of experiment. The pot cultivation system yielded more flowers and higher values for all vegetative parameters than the NFT hydroponic system.

  6. Landscape of Industry: Transformation of (Eco Industrial Park through history

    Archana Sharma

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The landscape of industry has been changing over time. Industry has transformed and many tangents have emerged from the sporadic home-based cottage industries to geographically scattered large manufacturing industries to co-located industrial parks to environment friendly eco-industrial parks. Curiosity about the catalysts that bring about the transformation of industrial landscape is the motivation of this article. Through the narrative on Industrial Park and the gradual shift towards Eco-Industrial Park, this article aims to shed light on the context and conditions that act as catalysts for industrial transformations, so as to serve as a reference for predicting future changes in industrial landscape.

  7. Inland drift sand landscapes

    Fanta, J.; Siepel, H.

    2010-01-01

    Man has had a complex relationship with inland drift sands through the ages. For some centuries these landscapes were seen as a threat to society, especially agriculture and housing. At present we conserve these landscapes as important Natura 2000 priority habitats. In this book you may find these

  8. Principles of landscape architecture

    Nijhuis, S.

    2013-01-01

    The Department of Urbanism at the Faculty of Architecture and Built Environment, TU Delft considers urbanism as a planning and design oriented activity towards urban and rural landscapes. It aims to enhance, restore or create landscapes from a perspective of sustainable development, so as to guide,

  9. Nature and landscape protection

    Klinda, J.; Lieskovska, Z.

    1998-01-01

    In accordance with National Council of the Slovak Republic Act N. 287/1994 Coll. on Nature and Landscape Protection, the system of complex nature landscape protection has been designed based on five levels of protection. Categories of protected areas as well as cultural monuments in the Slovak Republic are reviewed.Slovak contribution to the world heritage is included

  10. Globalization and Landscape Architecture

    Robert R. Hewitt

    2014-01-01

    The literature review examines globalization and landscape architecture as discourse, samples its various meanings, and proposes methods to identify and contextualize its specific literature. Methodologically, the review surveys published articles and books by leading authors and within the WorldCat.org Database associated with landscape architecture and globalization, analyzing survey results for comprehensive concept...

  11. Glossary on agricultural landscapes.

    Kruse, A.; Centeri, C.; Renes, J.; Roth, M.; Printsman, A.; Palang, H.; Benito Jorda, M.-D.; Verlarde, M.D.; Kruckenberg, H.

    2010-01-01

    T he following glossary of terms related to the European agricultural landscape shall serve as a common basis for all parties, working in or on agricultural landscapes. Some of the terms are quite common and sometimes used in our every day language, but they often have different meanings in

  12. Statistical topography of fitness landscapes

    Franke, Jasper

    2011-01-01

    Fitness landscapes are generalized energy landscapes that play an important conceptual role in evolutionary biology. These landscapes provide a relation between the genetic configuration of an organism and that organism’s adaptive properties. In this work, global topographical features of these fitness landscapes are investigated using theoretical models. The resulting predictions are compared to empirical landscapes. It is shown that these landscapes allow, at least with respe...

  13. Urban Landscape Perspectives

    Frederick Steiner

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Cities present significant opportunities for new landscape perspectives that can help inform conservation and development decisions. Early in the twenty-first century, the majority of the planet’s population became urban as more people lived in city-regions for the first time in our history. As the global population increases, so does this urbanization. The environmental challenges of population and urban growth are profound. Landscapes represent a synthesis of natural and cultural processes. Cities are certainly cultural phenomena. Historically, cities provided refuge from nature. The expanding field of urban ecology, coupled with landscape ecology, can enhance how the dual natural and cultural dimensions of landscapes in cities are understood. Furthermore, concepts such as ecosystem services and green infrastructure are proving useful for urban landscape planning and design. Examples from Dayton, Ohio; Brooklyn, New York; and Austin, Texas are presented.

  14. Dark matter in axion landscape

    Ryuji Daido

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available If there are a plethora of axions in nature, they may have a complicated potential and create an axion landscape. We study a possibility that one of the axions is so light that it is cosmologically stable, explaining the observed dark matter density. In particular we focus on a case in which two (or more shift-symmetry breaking terms conspire to make the axion sufficiently light at the potential minimum. In this case the axion has a flat-bottomed potential. In contrast to the case in which a single cosine term dominates the potential, the axion abundance as well as its isocurvature perturbations are significantly suppressed. This allows an axion with a rather large mass to serve as dark matter without fine-tuning of the initial misalignment, and further makes higher-scale inflation to be consistent with the scenario.

  15. Planetary Landscape Geography

    Hargitai, H.

    INTRODUCTION Landscape is one of the most often used category in physical ge- ography. The term "landshap" was introduced by Dutch painters in the 15-16th cen- tury. [1] The elements that build up a landscape (or environment) on Earth consists of natural (biogenic and abiogenic - lithologic, atmospheric, hydrologic) and artificial (antropogenic) factors. Landscape is a complex system of these different elements. The same lithology makes different landscapes under different climatic conditions. If the same conditions are present, the same landscape type will appear. Landscapes build up a hierarchic system and cover the whole surface. On Earth, landscapes can be classified and qualified according to their characteristics: relief forms (morphology), and its potential economic value. Aesthetic and subjective parameters can also be considered. Using the data from landers and data from orbiters we can now classify planetary landscapes (these can be used as geologic mapping units as well). By looking at a unknown landscape, we can determine the processes that created it and its development history. This was the case in the Pathfinder/Sojourner panoramas. [2]. DISCUSSION Planetary landscape evolution. We can draw a raw landscape develop- ment history by adding the different landscape building elements to each other. This has a strong connection with the planet's thermal evolution (age of the planet or the present surface materials) and with orbital parameters (distance from the central star, orbit excentricity etc). This way we can build a complex system in which we use differ- ent evolutional stages of lithologic, atmospheric, hydrologic and biogenic conditions which determine the given - Solar System or exoplanetary - landscape. Landscape elements. "Simple" landscapes can be found on asteroids: no linear horizon is present (not differentiated body, only impact structures), no atmosphere (therefore no atmospheric scattering - black sky as part of the landscape) and no

  16. [Dynamics of Amomum villosum growth and its fruit yield cultivated under tropical forests].

    Zheng, Zheng; Gan, Jianmin; Feng, Zhili; Meng, Ying

    2004-01-01

    Investigations on the dynamics of Amomum villosum growth and its fruit yield cultivated under tropical ravine rainforest and secondary forest at different elevations in Xishuangbanna showed that the yield of A. villosum was influenced by the site age, sun light level of understorey, and water stress in dry season. The fruit yield and mature plant density decreased with increasing age of the A. villosum site. The fruit yield increased with sun light level when the light level in understorey was under 35% of full sun light (P forest was not significant. Planned cultivation of A. villosum in the secondary forest of the shifting cultivation land by ravine from 800-1000 m elevation instead of customary cultivation in the ravine rainforest, could not only resolve the problem of the effect of light deficiency in understorey and water stress in the dry season on A. villosum fruit yield, but also be useful to protect the tropical ravine rain forest.

  17. Cultivating gratitude and giving through experiential consumption.

    Walker, Jesse; Kumar, Amit; Gilovich, Thomas

    2016-12-01

    Gratitude promotes well-being and prompts prosocial behavior. Here, we examine a novel way to cultivate this beneficial emotion. We demonstrate that 2 different types of consumption-material consumption (buying for the sake of having) and experiential consumption (buying for the sake of doing)-differentially foster gratitude and giving. In 6 studies we show that reflecting on experiential purchases (e.g., travel, meals out, tickets to events) inspires more gratitude than reflecting on material purchases (e.g., clothing, jewelry, furniture), and that thinking about experiences leads to more subsequent altruistic behavior than thinking about possessions. In Studies 1-2b, we use within-subject and between-subjects designs to test our main hypothesis: that people are more grateful for what they've done than what they have. Study 3 finds evidence for this effect in the real-world setting of online customer reviews: Consumers are more likely to spontaneously mention feeling grateful for experiences they have bought than for material goods they have bought. In our final 2 studies, we show that experiential consumption also makes people more likely to be generous to others. Participants who contemplated a significant experiential purchase behaved more generously toward anonymous others in an economic game than those who contemplated a significant material purchase. It thus appears that shifting spending toward experiential consumption can improve people's everyday lives as well as the lives of those around them. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. From Socialisation to Internalisation: Cultivating Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge through Problem-Based Learning

    Tee, Meng Yew; Lee, Shuh Shing

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies on technology have shifted from the emphasis on technology skills alone to integrating pedagogy and content with technology--what Mishra and Koehler (2005) call technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK). Deeper understanding on how TPACK can be cultivated is needed. This design-based research explored how an improvised,…

  19. Using graph approach for managing connectivity in integrative landscape modelling

    Rabotin, Michael; Fabre, Jean-Christophe; Libres, Aline; Lagacherie, Philippe; Crevoisier, David; Moussa, Roger

    2013-04-01

    In cultivated landscapes, a lot of landscape elements such as field boundaries, ditches or banks strongly impact water flows, mass and energy fluxes. At the watershed scale, these impacts are strongly conditionned by the connectivity of these landscape elements. An accurate representation of these elements and of their complex spatial arrangements is therefore of great importance for modelling and predicting these impacts.We developped in the framework of the OpenFLUID platform (Software Environment for Modelling Fluxes in Landscapes) a digital landscape representation that takes into account the spatial variabilities and connectivities of diverse landscape elements through the application of the graph theory concepts. The proposed landscape representation consider spatial units connected together to represent the flux exchanges or any other information exchanges. Each spatial unit of the landscape is represented as a node of a graph and relations between units as graph connections. The connections are of two types - parent-child connection and up/downstream connection - which allows OpenFLUID to handle hierarchical graphs. Connections can also carry informations and graph evolution during simulation is possible (connections or elements modifications). This graph approach allows a better genericity on landscape representation, a management of complex connections and facilitate development of new landscape representation algorithms. Graph management is fully operational in OpenFLUID for developers or modelers ; and several graph tools are available such as graph traversal algorithms or graph displays. Graph representation can be managed i) manually by the user (for example in simple catchments) through XML-based files in easily editable and readable format or ii) by using methods of the OpenFLUID-landr library which is an OpenFLUID library relying on common open-source spatial libraries (ogr vector, geos topologic vector and gdal raster libraries). Open

  20. A Framework for Assessing the Impact of Urbanization and Population Pressure on Garo Hills Landscape of North-East India

    Pramod Kumar YADAV

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The important factors influencing landscape changes could be climate, geology, topography, plant succession, species extinction and species evolution. Human, since time immemorial, have influenced the landscape they live in a variety of ways resulting in varied land use changes. Increase in population leads to the expansion in agriculture land, built-up areas, uncontrolled forest fires, mining of minerals, extraction of timber and permanent plantations, which in turn are responsible for habitat degradation and loss of biodiversity. Garo hills districts of Meghalaya are endowed with rich biodiversity both in terms of flora and fauna. With the increasing of population there is pressure exerted on these natural resources for the livelihood as there is hardly any alternative available. In the meantime small forest based urban centers were developed and with the expansion of these the requirement of the local people also changed. Due to urbanization and population pressure the traditional shifting cultivation (jhum, which is still the only livelihood of many areas of the Garo hills; have been converted into permanent cash crop areas. This conversion has a reverse impact on the environment. In the traditional jhumming method the native forests which were slushed and burned for agriculture purposes could revive in 18 to 20 years’ time (Jhum cycle. But due to the introduction of economically sound plantation crops like areca nut, cashew nut and tea the native diversity of the forest area is in the verse of extinction. The present study reveals that rapid population growth is the solely responsible factor for changes the landscape of Garo hills of Meghalaya.

  1. Welfare Landscape and Communities

    Braae, Ellen Marie

    2017-01-01

    Danish housing developments of the post-war era were a cornerstone in the implementation of the welfare vision and the overall urban and landscape planning in the post-war period. The new city was a horizontal city and – as it will be my primary ambition to show – a green and landscape-like city....... The landscape came, in Denmark, to play a prominent role and became synonymous with ‘The Good Life’, but it also presented a number of moral imperatives. The article concerns how communities and community feelings found their expression in the Danish ‘welfare landscapes’....

  2. Weathering and landscape evolution

    Turkington, Alice V.; Phillips, Jonathan D.; Campbell, Sean W.

    2005-04-01

    In recognition of the fundamental control exerted by weathering on landscape evolution and topographic development, the 35th Binghamton Geomorphology Symposium was convened under the theme of Weathering and Landscape Evolution. The papers and posters presented at the conference imparted the state-of-the-art in weathering geomorphology, tackled the issue of scale linkage in geomorphic studies and offered a vehicle for interdisciplinary communication on research into weathering and landscape evolution. The papers included in this special issue are encapsulated here under the general themes of weathering mantles, weathering and relative dating, weathering and denudation, weathering processes and controls and the 'big picture'.

  3. Plants cultivation in controlled containments

    2000-01-01

    The plants cultivation in controlled containments permits to the - Departement d'Ecophysiologie Vegetale et de Microbiologie (DVEM) - of the CEA to lead several topics of research. The works of DVEM which are based on the molecular labelling, technique adapted to plants, contribute to understand the plant - soil relationships and the plant growth process. In addition, the staff of DVEM study the impact of pollutant heavy metals, existing in the soil, on plants and the plant stress induced by oxygen, light, ionizing radiations,... and defence mechanisms of plants (F. M.)

  4. The impact of ancestral heath management on soils and landscapes. A reconstruction based on paleoecological analyses of soil records in the middle and southeast Netherlands.

    van Mourik, Jan; Doorenbosch, Marieke

    2016-04-01

    The evolution of heath lands during the Holocene has been registered in various soil records . Paleoecological analyses of these records enable to reconstruct the changing economic and cultural management of heaths and the consequences for landscape and soils. Heaths are characteristic components of cultural landscape mosaics on sandy soils in the Netherlands. The natural habitat of heather species was moorland. At first, natural events like forest fires and storms caused small-scale forest degradation, in addition on the forest degradation accelerated due to cultural activities like forest grazing, wood cutting and shifting cultivation. Heather plants invaded on degraded forest soils and heaths developed. People learned to use the heaths for economic and cultural purposes. The impact of the heath management on landscape and soils was registered in soil records of barrows, drift sand sequences and plaggic Anthrosols. Based on pollen diagrams of such records we could reconstruct that heaths were developed and used for cattle grazing before the Bronze Age. During the Late Neolithic, the Bronze Age and Iron Age, people created the barrow landscape on the ancestral heaths. After the Iron Age people probably continued with cattle grazing on the heaths and plaggic agriculture until the Early Middle Ages. After 1000 AD two events affected the heaths. At first deforestation for the sale of wood resulted in the first regional extension of sand drifting and heath degradation. After that the introduction of the deep stable economy and heath sods digging resulted in acceleration of the rise of plaggic horizons, severe heath degradation and the second extension of sand drifting. At the end of the 19th century the heath lost its economic value due to the introduction of chemical fertilizers. The heaths were transformed into 'new' arable fields and forests and due to deep ploughing most soil archives were destroyed. Since 1980 AD, the remaining relicts of the ancestral heaths are

  5. Clear cutting (10-13th century) and deep stable economy (18-19th century) as responsible interventions for sand drifting and plaggic deposition in cultural landscapes on aeolian sands (SE-Netherlands).

    van Mourik, Jan; Vera, Hein; Wallinga, Jakob

    2013-04-01

    The landscape in extensive areas in SE-Netherlands is underlain by coversand, deposited during the Late Glacial of the Weichselian. In the Preboreal, aeolian processes reduced soil formation. From the Preboreal to the Atlantic a deciduous climax forest developed. The geomorphology was a coversand landscape, composed of ridges (umbric podzols), coversand plains (gleyic podzols), coversand depressions (histic podzols) and small valleys (gleysols). The area was used by hunting people during the Late Paleolithic and Mesolithic. During the Bronze and Iron Ages the area was populated by people, living from forest grazing, shifting cultivation and trade. The natural deciduous forest gradually degraded into Calluna heath. The deforestation accelerated the soil acidification and affected the hydrology, which is reflected in drying out of ridges and wetting of depressions, promoting the development of histic podzols and even histosols. Aeolian erosion was during this period restricted to local, small scale sand drifting, related to natural hazards as forest fires and hurricanes and shifting cultivation. Sustainable crop productivity on chemically poor sandy substrates required application of organic fertilizers, composed of a mixture of organic litter and animal manure with a very low mineral compound, produced in shallow stables. At least since 1000 AD, heath management was regulated by a series of rules that aimed to protect the valuable heat lands against degradation. During the 11th, 12th and 13th centuries there was an increasing demand for wood and clear cutting transformed the majority of the forests in driftsand landscapes. The most important market was formed by the very wealthy Flemish cities. The exposed soil surface was subjected to wind erosion and sand drifting which endangered the Calluna heath, arable land and even farmhouses. As a consequence, umbric podzols, the natural climax soil under deciduous forests on coversand, degraded into larger scale driftsand

  6. Landscape metrics application in ecological and visual landscape assessment

    Gavrilović Suzana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of landscape-ecological approach application in spatial planning provides exact theoretical and empirical evidence for monitoring ecological consequences of natural and/or anthropogenic factors, particularly changes in spatial structures caused by them. Landscape pattern which feature diverse landscape values is the holder of the unique landscape character at different spatial levels and represents a perceptual domain for its users. Using the landscape metrics, the parameters of landscape composition and configuration are mathematical algorithms that quantify the specific spatial characteristics used for interpretation of landscape features and processes (physical and ecological aspect, as well as forms (visual aspect and the meaning (cognitive aspect of the landscape. Landscape metrics has been applied mostly in the ecological and biodiversity assessments as well as in the determination of the level of structural change of landscape, but more and more applied in the assessment of the visual character of the landscape. Based on a review of relevant literature, the aim of this work is to show the main trends of landscape metrics within the aspect of ecological and visual assessments. The research methodology is based on the analysis, classification and systematization of the research studies published from 2000 to 2016, where the landscape metrics is applied: (1 the analysis of landscape pattern and its changes, (2 the analysis of biodiversity and habitat function and (3 a visual landscape assessment. By selecting representative metric parameters for the landscape composition and configuration, for each category is formed the basis for further landscape metrics research and application for the integrated ecological and visual assessment of the landscape values. Contemporary conceptualization of the landscape is seen holistically, and the future research should be directed towards the development of integrated landscape assessment

  7. Landscape genetics and limiting factors

    Samuel A. Cushman; Andrew J. Shirk; Erin L. Landguth

    2013-01-01

    Population connectivity is mediated by the movement of organisms or propagules through landscapes. However, little is known about how variation in the pattern of landscape mosaics affects the detectability of landscape genetic relationships. The goal of this paper is to explore the impacts of limiting factors on landscape genetic processes using simulation...

  8. Adaptation approaches for conserving ecosystems services and biodiversity in dynamic landscapes caused by climate change

    Oswald J. Schmitz; Anne M. Trainor

    2014-01-01

    Climate change stands to cause animal species to shift their geographic ranges. This will cause ecosystems to become reorganized across landscapes as species migrate into and out of specific locations with attendant impacts on values and services that ecosystems provide to humans. Conservation in an era of climate change needs to ensure that landscapes are resilient by...

  9. Modeling the role of behavior in wildlife responses to landscape change

    Land-use change alters landscapes at different rates and to different degrees. Wildlife responses to shifting habitat conditions vary from species to species depending on the rate of landscape change, species’ life history traits, and aspects of behavior such as dispersal patter...

  10. Condensed landscape experience

    Earon, Ofri

    2011-01-01

    demands, quality of space, mixture of functions, urban complexity, public life and cultural heritage. In order to launch such an approach, an understanding of the spatial, social and environmental significance of a radical re-thinking of relationships between architecture and landscape is necessary...... is becoming a standard in contemporary architecture. Merging architecture and landscape has turned into a principle for an ecological / sustainable architecture. Yet, my aspiration is to achieve a wider interaction involving an application of a wider range of perspectives, such as: urban identity, social......‘Re-thinking interaction between landscape and urban buildings’ participates in an interdisciplinary discourse about the theoretical and practical advantages of openly juxtaposing landscape and architecture without having one more advanced in importance. Recently, the greenification of buildings...

  11. PNW Hydrologic Landscape Class

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Work has been done to expand the hydrologic landscapes (HLs) concept and to develop an approach for using it to address streamflow vulnerability from climate change....

  12. Appropriate complexity landscape modeling

    Larsen, Laurel G.; Eppinga, Maarten B.; Passalacqua, Paola; Getz, Wayne M.; Rose, Kenneth A.; Liang, Man

    Advances in computing technology, new and ongoing restoration initiatives, concerns about climate change's effects, and the increasing interdisciplinarity of research have encouraged the development of landscape-scale mechanistic models of coupled ecological-geophysical systems. However,

  13. Exploring Energy Landscapes

    Wales, David J.

    2018-04-01

    Recent advances in the potential energy landscapes approach are highlighted, including both theoretical and computational contributions. Treating the high dimensionality of molecular and condensed matter systems of contemporary interest is important for understanding how emergent properties are encoded in the landscape and for calculating these properties while faithfully representing barriers between different morphologies. The pathways characterized in full dimensionality, which are used to construct kinetic transition networks, may prove useful in guiding such calculations. The energy landscape perspective has also produced new procedures for structure prediction and analysis of thermodynamic properties. Basin-hopping global optimization, with alternative acceptance criteria and generalizations to multiple metric spaces, has been used to treat systems ranging from biomolecules to nanoalloy clusters and condensed matter. This review also illustrates how all this methodology, developed in the context of chemical physics, can be transferred to landscapes defined by cost functions associated with machine learning.

  14. Digital landscapes of imagination

    Starlight Vattano

    2014-01-01

    Urban landscapes that exist in the expression of an imaginative sequence define their shape through the digital representation. These hyperreal dimensions, combine imagination and representation as constituents a new reality, which follows the utopian, suprematist and constructivist theories, where the two-dimensional dynamics is transformed into an infinite space in which the imagination creates new forms. Although interpretations of the urban landscape film, put in place a correspondence be...

  15. Micropatch Antenna Phase Shifting

    Thursby, Michael

    2000-01-01

    .... We have been looking at the ability of embedded element to adjust the phase shift seen by the element with the goal of being able to remove the phase shifting devices from the antenna and replace...

  16. Micropatch Antenna Phase Shifting

    Thursby, Michael

    1999-01-01

    .... We have been looking at the ability of embedded element to adjust the phase shift seen by the element wit the goal of being able to remove the phase shifting devices from the antenna and replace...

  17. Project D.I.R.T.: A landscape architect's excavation

    Bargmann, J.

    1994-01-01

    To a landscape architect interested in the creative manipulation of the land, mineral extraction presents a massive load for design exploration. The primary goal of Project D.I.R.T., Design Investigations Reclaiming Terrain, was to unearth the possibilities for renewing the perception of mining as creatively integral with the cultural and natural evolution of the landscape. The potential collaboration and planning inherent in the multidisciplinary task of reclamation became evident on a journey to document selected mining sites around the country. Various coal, gold, copper, and taconite operations visited represent a diversity of regional landscapes with specific mining and reclamation practices. Both active and abandoned mined sites serve as case studies presented from a landscape architect's perspective. Examining the legal, social, and economic factors uncovered the frustrations with the legislation governing reclamation and the financial and ethical dilemmas of future land use for dependent communities. Reviewing the technical and ecological aspects revealed the innovations and progress of reclamation technology, but also limited application of ecological principles. These current practices of mining and reclamation illustrate a need to revise the legislation and coordinate an interdisciplinary effort to form truly productive and sustainable landscapes. Moreover, from this landscape architect's point of view, a synthetic approach guided by a broader vision of mining must lead to the creation of meaningful places that objectively reveal and celebrate the industrial heritage of the landscape. Mined lands can be an expression of a reciprocal connection between communities and individuals with the land one cultivates and all nurture. These monumental landscapes may come to represent a dynamic relationship between culture and nature for the next century

  18. ADAPTIVE ENERGY-SAVING CULTIVATOR FOR STONY SOILS CULTIVATING

    A. B. Kudzaev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Practice of cultivators operation on stony soils in RNO-Alania with high hardness and humidity indicates that traction resistance during the work varies widely, with deviation from the mean value by more than 2 times. Optimally adjust the machine to the soil background when using most modern mechanisms of regulation is not always possible. Customizing the data machine boils down to the choice of priority between the vibration of the working bodies in the soil, the maintenance of the given depth and power reserve stands required to crawl the working body of the big stones. It is very difficult to get in practice the best combination of these three factors, especially on stony soils. Therefore, the machine must be designed with the ability to quickly adjust to changing operating conditions and modes to ensure energy-saving effects and not violations of the specified soil depth of various hardness with the possibility of equipping the machine racks with different working bodies. The interrow cultivator with the possibility of the quick adjustment (including automated to varying conditions was developed. In the process of studied basic parameters of elastic composite racks and parameters of pneumatic mechanism drive to adjust the proposed section of the machine were established. The system hardiness in layouts by elastic bars with air pressure up to 0.6 MPa varies from 17.7 to 45.3 N/mm. It was received effective values of pressures 0.4-0.5 MPa in the pneumatic drive partitions of the machine when operating with universal blade and ridger body OK-3 on stony soil. As a result, traction resistance decreases by 30-35 percent.

  19. THE CONCEPT OF THE LANDSCAPE AND ITS ACCEPTANCE IN THE PRACTICE

    LÁSZLÓ MIKLÓS

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The landscape is historically perceived basically in two ways: as a tangible material reality and also as an intangible, mental and artistic experience. The basic practical policies related to the landscape ecology under the umbrella conception of the integrated land resources management are based on materialistic geocomplex/geosystem conception. In last decades a massive wave of the “friends of landscape” appeared, who shifted their attendance to the cultural-historical-value and perception based approach to the landscape. This wave is supported by the compromiss soft definition of the landscape and the wording of the European Landscape Convention. Nevertheless, the penetration of the landscape to the practical policies requires the materialistic approach and definition of the landscape.

  20. OpenShift Workshop

    CERN. Geneva; Rodriguez Peon, Alberto

    2017-01-01

    Workshop to introduce developers to the OpenShift platform available at CERN. Several use cases will be shown, including deploying an existing application into OpenShift. We expect attendees to realize about OpenShift features and general architecture of the service.

  1. Measures of safeguard and rehabilitation for landscape protection planning: a qualitative approach based on diversity indicators.

    La Rosa, Daniele; Privitera, Riccardo; Martinico, Francesco; La Greca, Paolo

    2013-09-01

    Maintaining existing levels of landscape diversity is becoming more and more important for planning considering the increasing pressures on agricultural ecosystems due to soil sealing, sprawl processes and intensive agriculture. Norms for land-use regulation and measures for landscape Safeguard and Rehabilitation have to take into consideration these threats in landscape planning. Evaluating the diversity of agricultural ecosystems is a fundamental step for proposing sound approaches to planning and managing both soil and landscape, as well as maintaining the related ecosystem services. The paper proposes a method aimed at the qualitative evaluation of spatial diversity of agricultural landscapes using a reduced set of ecological indicators based on land-use vector data. Indicators are calculated for defined landscape units characterized by landscape homogeneity. GIS geoprocessing and spatial analysis functions are employed. The study area is the Province of Enna in Sicily (Italy), which is characterized by cultivation mosaics in its southern region, cereal cultivation in the central region and prevailing natural environments in the northern region. Results from the indicator calculations are used to define measures to be included in a Landscape Protection Plan. Safeguard and Rehabilitation measures are introduced, which link indicator scores to planning protection aims. The results highlight the relevance of some agricultural mosaics in proximity to streams and seasonal fluvial environments, where some undamaged natural environments are still present. For these areas, specific landscape safeguard measures are proposed to preserve their diversity features together with their original agricultural functions. The work shows that even with a reduced number of indicators, a differentiated set of measures can be proposed for a Landscape Protection Plan. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Densification and state transition across the Missouri Ozarks landscape

    Brice B. Hanberry; John M. Kabrick; Hong S. He

    2014-01-01

    World-wide, some biomes are densifying, or increasing in dense woody vegetation, and shifting to alternative stable states. We quantified densification and state transition between forests ecosystems in historical (ca. 1815-1850) and current (2004-2008) surveys of the Missouri Ozark Highlands, a 5-million ha landscape in southern Missouri, USA. To estimate density of...

  3. New infrastructures, new landscapes

    Chiara Nifosì

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available New infrastructures, new landscapes AbstractThe paper will discuss one recent Italian project that share a common background: the relevance of the existing maritime landscape as a non negotiable value. The studies will be discussed in details a feasibility study for the new port in Monfalcone. National infrastructural policies emphasize competitiveness and connection as a central issue incultural, economic and political development of communities . Based on networks and system development along passageways that make up the European infrastructural armor; the two are considered at the meantime as cause and effect of "territorialisation”. These two views are obviously mutually dependent. It's hard to think about a strong attractiveness out of the network, and to be part of the latter encourages competitiveness. Nonetheless this has proved to be conflictual when landscape values and the related attractiveness are considered.The presented case study project, is pursuing the ambition to promote a new approach in realizing large infrastructures; its double role is to improve connectivity and to generate lasting and positive impact on the local regions. It deal with issues of inter-modality and the construction of nodes and lines which connects Europe, and its markets.Reverting the usual approach which consider landscape project as as a way to mitigate or to compensate for the infrastructure, the goal is to succeed in realizing large infrastructural works by conceiving them as an occasion to reinterpret a region or, as extraordinary opportunities, to build new landscapes.The strategy proposed consists in achieving structural images based on the reinforcement of the environmental and historical-landscape systems. Starting from the reinterpretation of local maritime context and resources it is possible not just to preserve the attractiveness of a specific landscape but also to conceive infrastructure in a more efficient way. 

  4. Semiotics in landscape design

    Karsten Jorgensen

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper claims that concepts of language can help us create better and more relevant landscape design. It is based on research undertaken by Karsten Jørgensen (1989, and subsequent studies carried out at the department of Land Use and Landscape Planning at the Agricultural University in Norway. The 'signs' that constitute the design language are categorised using the analytical vocabulary of landscape design; for example, elements, materials, effects and shapes. Studies of these signs are based on elements of semiotics and cognitive science, especially the Umwelt-theories developed by Jakob von Uexküll (Hoffmeyer 1994. We are constantly exposed to numerous signs of different kinds. Everywhere in society we see signs around us; for example, traffic signs, advertising signs and logos. It is therefore relevant to introduce the term 'semiosphere' in order to focus on the significance of semiosis at all levels of activity in the world, from cellular activities, to complex systems of development such as those found in a population. This study focuses on the semantic aspects of landscape architecture. In explaining the meaning of a statement, it is useful to have a set of rules or 'codes' to correlate a specific expression with a specific interpretation. These codes may be based on conventions, or on similarity between or stylisation of objects, such as natural or cultural landscapes. In any case, they are based on the interpreter's language and 'mind-structure'. At a general level, it is only possible to study sign content. To analyse meaning in landscape design you have to look at the context; for example, the overall composition of a garden or park and the situation, which includes the interpreter's cultural background, their experiences and so on. In other words, you have to analyse a specific case to be able to speak reasonably about meaning in landscape (designs.

  5. European landscape architecture and territorial strategies for water landscapes

    Diedrich, Lisa Babette

    2010-01-01

    This article sums up the author’s lecture at the 2009 Sydney Resilient Water Landscapes Symposium and presents a series of realized or planned European landscape architectural and urbanistic projects on water landscapes taken from the recently published book On Site/ Landscape Architecture Europe...... and accompanying reflections. The hypothesis is that further scientific research can help defining weaknesses and strengths of the existing water landscape designs in terms of resilience, extract principles and tools, improve the weak ones and communicate the strong ones and develop general quality criteria...... and tools for future resilient water landscapes....

  6. Processes and driving forces in changing cultural landscapes across Europe

    Bürgi, Matthias; Bieling, Claudia; Von Hackwitz, Kim

    2017-01-01

    Context: Cultural landscapes evolve over time. However, the rate and direction of change might not be in line with societal needs and more information on the forces driving these changes are therefore needed. Objectives: Filling the gap between single case studies and meta-analyses, we present...... perceived landscape changes, and remembered driving forces. Land cover and landscape changes were analysed regarding change, conversions and processes. For all case study areas, narratives on mapped land cover change, perceived landscape changes and driving forces were compiled. Results: Despite a very high...... diversity in extent, direction and rates of change, a few dominant processes and widespread factors driving the changes could be identified in the six case study areas, i.e. access and infrastructure, political shifts, labor market, technological innovations, and for the more recent period climate change...

  7. Evolution of livestock farming systems and landscape changes

    Giuseppe Pulina

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In the last fifty years, the rural landscape of vast areas, historically modelled by livestock farming, has experienced radical changes. The marginalisation of traditional farming systems resulted in a shift towards intensive systems in the more favourable areas, and in the abandoning of farming in the less favourable areas. Consequences of these trends are numerous: intensification and abandoning concurred in determining the disappearance of traditional architectural styles and in disrupting the historical links between local landscape, way of farming, and variety of products; intensification of farming caused local excesses of nutrients releases and/or land degradation; abandoning has permitted an extensive natural reforestation, which in turn has greatly modified the aesthetic value and biodiversity richness of landscape. Research for a sustainable “livestock farming landscape” will need the ability to integrate a systemic and geographic description of the interactions of farming systems with landscape quality and biodiversity with the definition of consequent technologies and farm management options.

  8. Geomorpho-Landscapes

    Farabollini, Piero; Lugeri, Francesca; Amadio, Vittorio

    2014-05-01

    Landscape is the object of human perceptions, being the image of spatial organization of elements and structures: mankind lives the first approach with the environment, viewing and feeling the landscape. Many definitions of landscape have been given over time: in this case we refer to the Landscape defined as the result of interaction among physical, biotic and anthropic phenomena acting in a different spatial-temporal scale (Foreman & Godron) Following an Aristotelic approach in studying nature, we can assert that " Shape is synthesis": so it is possible to read the land features as the expression of the endogenous and exogenous processes that mould earth surfaces; moreover, Landscape is the result of the interaction of natural and cultural components, and conditions the spatial-temporal development of a region. The study of the Landscape offers results useful in order to promote sustainable development, ecotourism, enhancement of natural and cultural heritage, popularization of the scientific knowledge. In Italy, a very important GIS-based tool to represent the territory is the "Carta della Natura" ("Map of Nature", presently coordinated by the ISPRA) that aims at assessing the state of the whole Italian territory, analyzing Landscape. The methodology follows a holistic approach, taking into consideration all the components of a landscape and then integrating the information. Each individual landscape, studied at different scales, shows distinctive elements: structural, which depend on physical form and specific spatial organization; functional, which depend on relationships created between biotic and abiotic elements, and dynamic, which depend on the successive evolution of the structure. The identification of the landscape units, recognized at different scales of analysis, allows an evaluation of the state of the land, referring to the dual risk/resource which characterizes the Italian country. An interesting opportunity is to discover those areas of unusual

  9. Mixotrophic cultivation of microalgae for biodiesel production: status and prospects.

    Wang, Jinghan; Yang, Haizhen; Wang, Feng

    2014-04-01

    Biodiesel from microalgae provides a promising alternative for biofuel production. Microalgae can be produced under three major cultivation modes, namely photoautotrophic cultivation, heterotrophic cultivation, and mixotrophic cultivation. Potentials and practices of biodiesel production from microalgae have been demonstrated mostly focusing on photoautotrophic cultivation; mixotrophic cultivation of microalgae for biodiesel production has rarely been reviewed. This paper summarizes the mechanisms and virtues of mixotrophic microalgae cultivation through comparison with other major cultivation modes. Influencing factors of microalgal biodiesel production under mixotrophic cultivation are presented, development of combining microalgal biodiesel production with wastewater treatment is especially reviewed, and bottlenecks and strategies for future commercial production are also identified.

  10. Letting Los Angeles Go: Lessons from Feral Landscapes

    Joan Woodward

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Los Angeles is home to numerous feral landscapes: designed gardens no longer receiving intentional care. These are cultivated gardens, usually composed of plants from myriad global climate types, which have been abandoned or neglected and have adapted to native rainfall or unintentional water sources such as broken irrigation systems. They are found in canyons and ridges swept by fire, along rights-of-way where properties were condemned for freeways, in once-glorious neighbourhoods fallen on hard times, and in places where speculation places properties on hold. They are found in all regions and are particularly vivid in Los Angeles, proclaimed as "Lurch City" by Cuff (2000, where disruptive urban convulsions are frequent. These sites are rich with information pertinent to conceivable futures in which supplemental resources and care may not be reliable. This article portrays selected feral landscapes, briefly describes their responses to pervasive urban forces over time, and extracts design attributes to consider when creating future resilient landscapes. Scrutiny of these landscapes' decline and tenacity reveals a telling view of a region's volatility and global context and reminds us to take into account probable neglect when shaping future landscapes.

  11. Experimental evidence of reorganizing landscape under changing climatic forcing

    Singh, A.; Tejedor, A.; Zaliapin, I. V.; Reinhardt, L.; Foufoula-Georgiou, E.

    2015-12-01

    Quantification of the dynamics of landscape reorganization under changing climatic forcing is important to understand geomorphic transport laws under transient conditions, assess response of landscapes to external perturbations for future predictive modeling, and for interpreting past climate from stratigraphic record. For such an analysis, however, real landscape observations are limited. To this end, a series of controlled laboratory experiments on evolving landscape were conducted at the St. Anthony Falls laboratory at the University of Minnesota. High resolution elevation data at a temporal resolution of 5 mins and spatial resolution of 0.5 mm were collected as the landscape approached steady state (constant uplift and precipitation rate) and in the transient state (under the same uplift and 5 times precipitation rate). Our results reveal rapid topographic re-organization under a five-fold increase in precipitation with the fluvial regime encroaching into the previously debris dominated regime, widening and aggradation of channels and valleys, and accelerated erosion happening at hillslope scales. To better understand the initiation of the observed reorganization, we perform a connectivity and clustering analysis of the erosional and depositional events, showing strikingly different spatial patterns on landscape evolution under steady-state (SS) and transient-state (TS), even when the time under SS is renormalized to match the total volume of eroded and deposited sediment in TS. Our results suggest a regime shift in the behavior of transport processes on the landscape at the intermediate scales i.e., from supply-limited to transport-limited.

  12. Globalization and Landscape Architecture

    Robert R. Hewitt

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The literature review examines globalization and landscape architecture as discourse, samples its various meanings, and proposes methods to identify and contextualize its specific literature. Methodologically, the review surveys published articles and books by leading authors and within the WorldCat.org Database associated with landscape architecture and globalization, analyzing survey results for comprehensive conceptual and co-relational frameworks. Three “higher order” dimensions frame the review’s conceptual organization, facilitating the organization of subordinate/subtopical areas of interest useful for comparative analysis. Comparative analysis of the literature suggests an uneven clustering of discipline-related subject matter across the literature’s “higher order” dimensions, with a much smaller body of literature related to landscape architecture confined primarily to topics associated with the dispersion of global phenomena. A subcomponent of this smaller body of literature is associated with other fields of study, but inferentially related to landscape architecture. The review offers separate references and bibliographies for globalization literature in general and globalization and landscape architecture literature, specifically.

  13. Multiple outcomes of cultivation in the Sahel

    Rasmussen, Laura Vang; Reenberg, Anette

    2015-01-01

    A default assumption about the Sahel is that farmers consider food provision for the family as the sole reason for cultivation. The degree to which this ‘cultivation for food’ assumption has been embedded in the scientific literature on land use changes is signified by the fact that hardly any...

  14. Soil organic carbon stock and distribution in cultivated land converted to grassland in a subtropical region of China.

    Zhang, J H; Li, F C; Wang, Y; Xiong, D H

    2014-02-01

    Land-use change from one type to another affects soil carbon (C) stocks which is associated with fluxes of CO2 to the atmosphere. The 10-years converted land selected from previously cultivated land in hilly areas of Sichuan, China was studied to understand the effects of land-use conversion on soil organic casrbon (SOC) sequestration under landscape position influences in a subtropical region of China. The SOC concentrations of the surface soil were greater (P\\0.001) for converted soils than those for cultivated soils but lower (P\\0.001) than those for original uncultivated soils. The SOC inventories (1.90–1.95 kg m-2) in the 0–15 cm surface soils were similar among upper, middle, and lower slope positions on the converted land, while the SOC inventories (1.41–1.65 kg m-2) in this soil layer tended to increase from upper to lower slope positions on the cultivated slope. On the whole, SOC inventories in this soil layer significantly increased following the conversion from cultivated land to grassland (P\\0.001). In the upper slope positions, converted soils (especially in 0–5 cm surface soil) exhibited a higher C/N ratio than cultivated soils (P = 0.012), implying that strong SOC sequestration characteristics exist in upper slope areas where severe soil erosion occurred before land conversion. It is suggested that landscape position impacts on the SOC spatial distribution become insignificant after the conversion of cultivated land to grassland, which is conducive to the immobilization of organic C. We speculate that the conversion of cultivated land to grassland would markedly increase SOC stocks in soil and would especially improve the potential for SOC sequestration in the surface soil over a moderate period of time (10 years).

  15. Choice Shifts in Groups

    Kfir Eliaz; Debraj Ray

    2004-01-01

    The phenomenon of "choice shifts" in group decision-making is fairly ubiquitous in the social psychology literature. Faced with a choice between a ``safe" and ``risky" decision, group members appear to move to one extreme or the other, relative to the choices each member might have made on her own. Both risky and cautious shifts have been identified in different situations. This paper demonstrates that from an individual decision-making perspective, choice shifts may be viewed as a systematic...

  16. Qualifying Urban Landscapes

    Clemmensen, Thomas Juel; Nielsen, Tom; Daugaard, Morten

    2010-01-01

    The article presents an attempt to develop alternatives to the dominant planning and design principles used in building and rebuilding the contemporary urban landscape. The basic idea is that the ‘forces of modernisation’ driving current development might result in a broader and more interesting...... for contemporary urban landscape design practice....... to the task of constructing and improving things. With this goal, a set of objectives based in important insights from recent urban theory are formulated constituting the normative spine of the analysis of a number of found situations as basis for formulating eight generic concepts of qualification...

  17. Digital landscapes of imagination

    Starlight Vattano

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Urban landscapes that exist in the expression of an imaginative sequence define their shape through the digital representation. These hyperreal dimensions, combine imagination and representation as constituents a new reality, which follows the utopian, suprematist and constructivist theories, where the two-dimensional dynamics is transformed into an infinite space in which the imagination creates new forms. Although interpretations of the urban landscape film, put in place a correspondence between reality and virtuality, into the modeling of spatial movements, from which do not arise contraries, but only interdependencies. It is a particular type of representation that takes shape via the digital in motion and provides new tools for urban representation.

  18. Imagine A Collective Landscape

    Manuela Silvia Campanini

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Iceland plays a key role in the circumpolar context. The research investigates the fields of both the icelandic cultural landscape perception and the icelandic cultural identity. It considers the book Ultima thule; or, a summer in Iceland and Ólafur Elíasson art works as two sides of a same medal: the Iceland on the brain concept (F. Burton. The transition from a cultural identity to a collective landscape identity is investigated analysing Imagine J. Lennon's song which inspired Yõko Ono's work art titled Imagine Peace Tower.

  19. Implementing OpenShift

    Miller, Adam

    2013-01-01

    A standard tutorial-based approach to using OpenShift and deploying custom or pre-built web applications to the OpenShift Online cloud.This book is for software developers and DevOps alike who are interested in learning how to use the OpenShift Platform-as-a-Service for developing and deploying applications, how the environment works on the back end, and how to deploy their very own open source Platform-as-a-Service based on the upstream OpenShift Origin project.

  20. Insomnia in shift work.

    Vallières, Annie; Azaiez, Aïda; Moreau, Vincent; LeBlanc, Mélanie; Morin, Charles M

    2014-12-01

    Shift work disorder involves insomnia and/or excessive sleepiness associated with the work schedule. The present study examined the impact of insomnia on the perceived physical and psychological health of adults working on night and rotating shift schedules compared to day workers. A total of 418 adults (51% women, mean age 41.4 years), including 51 night workers, 158 rotating shift workers, and 209 day workers were selected from an epidemiological study. An algorithm was used to classify each participant of the two groups (working night or rotating shifts) according to the presence or absence of insomnia symptoms. Each of these individuals was paired with a day worker according to gender, age, and income. Participants completed several questionnaires measuring sleep, health, and psychological variables. Night and rotating shift workers with insomnia presented a sleep profile similar to that of day workers with insomnia. Sleep time was more strongly related to insomnia than to shift work per se. Participants with insomnia in the three groups complained of anxiety, depression, and fatigue, and reported consuming equal amounts of sleep-aid medication. Insomnia also contributed to chronic pain and otorhinolaryngology problems, especially among rotating shift workers. Work productivity and absenteeism were more strongly related to insomnia. The present study highlights insomnia as an important component of the sleep difficulties experienced by shift workers. Insomnia may exacerbate certain physical and mental health problems of shift workers, and impair their quality of life. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Landscape spatial configuration is a key driver of wild bee demographics.

    Neokosmidis, Lazaros; Tscheulin, Thomas; Devalez, Jelle; Petanidou, Theodora

    2018-02-01

    The majority of studies investigating the effects of landscape composition and configuration on bee populations have been conducted in regions of intensive agricultural production, ignoring regions which are dominated by seminatural habitats, such as the islands of the Aegean Archipelago. In addition, research so far has focused on the landscape impacts on bees sampled in cropped fields while the landscape effects on bees inhabiting seminatural habitats are understudied. Here, we investigate the impact of the landscape on wild bee assemblages in 66 phryganic (low scrubland) communities on 8 Aegean islands. We computed landscape metrics (total area and total perimeter-area ratio) in 4 concentric circles (250, 500, 750, and 1000 m) around the center of each bee sampling site including 3 habitat groups (namely phrygana, cultivated land, and natural forests). We further measured the local flower cover in 25 quadrats distributed randomly at the center of each sampling site. We found that the landscape scale is more important than the local scale in shaping abundance and species richness of bees. Furthermore, habitat configuration was more important than the total area of habitats, probably because it affects bees' movement across the landscape. Phrygana and natural forests had a positive effect on bee demographics, while cultivated land had a negative effect. This demonstrates that phryganic specialists drive bee assemblages in these seminatural landscapes. This finding, together with the shown importance of landscape scale, should be considered for the management of wild bees with special emphasis placed on the spatial configuration of seminatural habitats. © 2016 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  2. Selecting Landscape Plants: Shade Trees

    Relf, Diane; Appleton, Bonnie Lee, 1948-2012; Close, David

    2015-01-01

    Because of the permanency of trees and their importance in the landscape, care must be taken to select the best species for each situation. This publication goes over how to choose landscape trees that are shade tolerant.

  3. Single-base resolution maps of cultivated and wild rice methylomes and regulatory roles of DNA methylation in plant gene expression

    Li, Xin; Zhu, Jingde; Hu, Fengyi

    2012-01-01

    DNA methylation plays important biological roles in plants and animals. To examine the rice genomic methylation landscape and assess its functional significance, we generated single-base resolution DNA methylome maps for Asian cultivated rice Oryza sativa ssp. japonica, indica and their wild rela...

  4. Regional Landscape System Protection in the Urbanising Desert Southwest: Lessons from the Phoenix Metropolitan Region, USA

    Laura Musacchio

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the late nineteenth century, landscape protection in the deserts of the Southwest, United States of America, like many places worldwide, has been driven by the conservation of landscape icons, such as unusual geological features in wilderness areas. Yet, in the past two decades, leading conservation scholars worldwide have called for a shift in this paradigm to one that emphasises landscape systems, which is based on holistic landscape ecology. The shift in emphas is to landscape systems opens new opportunities to protect desert landscape systems at the regional scale rather than just remnant patches at the local scale. In this paper, the authors present, for public consideration, a typology of the five major desert landscapes that can be used as the bas is for protecting regional landscape systems in the deserts of the Southwest. As a case study, several representative examples of recent regional open space plans from the Phoenix metropolitan area are analysed and compared with the typology in order to understand how successfully the projects have addressed protection of the regional landscape system in the Sonoran Desert.

  5. Qualifying Urban Landscapes

    Juel Clemmensen, Thomas; Daugaard, Morten; Nielsen, Tom

    This paper is based on a research project aimed at contributing to the qualification of the aesthetical value of the contemporary urban landscape. We see our work as part of a tradition within the architectural profession of making explorative projects, which combines analysis of the contemporary...

  6. A landscape analysis plan

    Nancy E. Fleenor

    2002-01-01

    A Landscape Analysis Plan (LAP) sets out broad guidelines for project development within boundaries of the Kings River Sustainable Forest Ecosystems Project. The plan must be a dynamic, living document, subject to change as new information arises over the course of this very long-term project (several decades). Two watersheds, each of 32,000 acres, were dedicated to...

  7. Ecology, recreation and landscape

    Satchell, J E

    1983-01-01

    The article is dedicated to the problems of combining mass tourism in certain countries of Western Europe and environmental protection (OOS) requirements. The ecological damage from recreation is examined and the throughput of the medium is evaluated. The author proposes development of regulable, managable and controllable recreation use of natural resources and landscapes using selective advertising of the recreation sites.

  8. Landscape Planning of Schoolyards

    Kopeva, A.; Khrapko, O.; Ivanova, O.

    2017-11-01

    The optimal landscape architecture planning of schoolyards allows for creation of favorable conditions for children personal development and physical fitness. The key principles of schoolyard landscape planning, same as for other areas intended for children, are as follows: establishment of a favorable microclimate, safety, aesthetic and educational environment. Green spaces play an essential role in this respect as they are essential to sanitary, hygienic, structural, and spatial planning performing decorative, artistic, cognitive, and educational functions in these areas. Various types of landscape plantings are used in school areas: borders, lawns, beds, vines, ornamental arrangements, and various potted plants. Children’s safety is the key principle when selecting a landscape design type and the plants’ range. Any allergenic, poisonous, thorny, strong-smelling or life-threatening plants are excluded. Plants on school grounds can serve as visual aids for studies. Drought-resistant, attractive, colorful, abundantly blooming plants with variable leaf texture are preferred. Ornamental trees and shrubs as well as perennials and annuals provide a broad plant range for school grounds.

  9. Landscape Assessment (LA)

    Carl H. Key; Nathan C. Benson

    2006-01-01

    Landscape Assessment primarily addresses the need to identify and quantify fire effects over large areas, at times involving many burns. In contrast to individual case studies, the ability to compare results is emphasized along with the capacity to aggregate information across broad regions and over time. Results show the spatial heterogeneity of burns and how fire...

  10. Landscapes in transition

    Padfield, Rory; Drew, Simon; Syayuti, Khadijah; Page, Susan; Evers, Stephanie; Campos-Arceiz, Ahimsa; Kangayatkarasu, Nagulendran; Sayok, Alex; Hansen, Sune; Schouten, Greetje; Maulidia, Martha; Papargyropoulou, Effie; Tham, Mun Hou

    2016-01-01

    The recent Southeast Asian haze crisis has generated intense public scrutiny over the rate, methods and types of landscape change in the tropics. Debate has centred on the environmental impacts of large-scale agricultural expansion, particularly the associated loss of high carbon stock forest and

  11. Shifted Independent Component Analysis

    Mørup, Morten; Madsen, Kristoffer Hougaard; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2007-01-01

    Delayed mixing is a problem of theoretical interest and practical importance, e.g., in speech processing, bio-medical signal analysis and financial data modelling. Most previous analyses have been based on models with integer shifts, i.e., shifts by a number of samples, and have often been carried...

  12. Homogeneous bilateral block shifts

    Douglas class were classified in [3]; they are unilateral block shifts of arbitrary block size (i.e. dim H(n) can be anything). However, no examples of irreducible homogeneous bilateral block shifts of block size larger than 1 were known until now.

  13. OpenShift cookbook

    Gulati, Shekhar

    2014-01-01

    If you are a web application developer who wants to use the OpenShift platform to host your next big idea but are looking for guidance on how to achieve this, then this book is the first step you need to take. This is a very accessible cookbook where no previous knowledge of OpenShift is needed.

  14. Josephson shift registers

    Przybysz, J.X.

    1989-01-01

    This paper gives a review of Josephson shift register circuits that were designed, fabricated, or tested, with emphasis on work in the 1980s. Operating speed is most important, since it often limits system performance. Older designs used square-wave clocks, but most modern designs use offset sine waves, with either two or three phases. Operating margins and gate bias uniformity are key concerns. The fastest measured Josephson shift register operated at 2.3 GHz, which compares well with a GaAs shift register that consumes 250 times more power. The difficulties of high-speed testing have prevented many Josephson shift registers from being operated at their highest speeds. Computer simulations suggest that 30-GHz operation is possible with current Nb/Al 2 O 3 /Nb technology. Junctions with critical current densities near 10 kA/cm 2 would make 100-GHz shift registers feasible

  15. Landscape Evolution Modelling-LAPSUS

    Baartman, J. E. M.; Temme, A. J. A. M.; Schoorl, J. M.; Claessens, L.; Viveen, W.; Gorp, W. van; Veldkamp, A.

    2009-07-01

    Landscape evolution modelling can make the consequences of landscape evolution hypotheses explicit and theoretically allows for their falsification and improvement. ideally, landscape evolution models (LEMs) combine the results of all relevant landscape forming processes into an ever-adapting digital landscape (e.g. DEM). These processes may act on different spatial and temporal scales. LAPSUS is such a LEM. Processes that have in different studies been included in LAPSUS are water erosion and deposition, landslide activity, creep, solidification, weathering, tectonics and tillage. Process descriptions are as simple and generic as possible, ensuring wide applicability. (Author) 25 refs.

  16. Landscape Evolution Modelling-LAPSUS

    Baartman, J. E. M.; Temme, A. J. A. M.; Schoorl, J. M.; Claessens, L.; Viveen, W.; Gorp, W. van; Veldkamp, A.

    2009-01-01

    Landscape evolution modelling can make the consequences of landscape evolution hypotheses explicit and theoretically allows for their falsification and improvement. ideally, landscape evolution models (LEMs) combine the results of all relevant landscape forming processes into an ever-adapting digital landscape (e.g. DEM). These processes may act on different spatial and temporal scales. LAPSUS is such a LEM. Processes that have in different studies been included in LAPSUS are water erosion and deposition, landslide activity, creep, solidification, weathering, tectonics and tillage. Process descriptions are as simple and generic as possible, ensuring wide applicability. (Author) 25 refs.

  17. Soilless cultivation system for functional food crops

    Ahamad Sahali Mardi; Shyful Azizi Abdul Rahman; Ahmad Nazrul Abd Wahid; Abdul Razak Ruslan; Hazlina Abdullah

    2007-01-01

    This soilless cultivation system is based on the fertigation system and cultivation technologies using Functional Plant Cultivation System (FPCS). EBARA Japan has been studying on the cultivation conditions in order to enhance the function of decease risk reduction in plants. Through the research and development activities, EBARA found the possibilities on the enhancement of functions. Quality and quantity of the products in term of bioactive compounds present in the plants may be affected by unforeseen environmental conditions, such as temperature, strong light and UV radiation. The main objective to develop this system is, to support? Functional Food Industry? as newly emerging field in agriculture business. To success the system, needs comprehensive applying agriculture biotechnologies, health biotechnologies and also information technologies, in agriculture. By this system, production of valuable bioactive compounds is an advantage, because the market size of functional food is increasing more and more in the future. (Author)

  18. Cultivation of parasitic leptospires: effect of pyruvate.

    Johnson, R C; Walby, J; Henry, R A; Auran, N E

    1973-07-01

    Sodium pyruvate (100 mug/ml) is a useful addition to the Tween 80-albumin medium for the cultivation of parasitic serotypes. It is most effective in promoting growth from small inocula and growth of the nutritionally fastidious serotypes.

  19. Advancing gut microbiome research using cultivation

    Sommer, Morten OA

    2015-01-01

    Culture-independent approaches have driven the field of microbiome research and illuminated intricate relationships between the gut microbiota and human health. However, definitively associating phenotypes to specific strains or elucidating physiological interactions is challenging for metagenomic...... approaches. Recently a number of new approaches to gut microbiota cultivation have emerged through the integration of high-throughput phylogenetic mapping and new simplified cultivation methods. These methodologies are described along with their potential use within microbiome research. Deployment of novel...... cultivation approaches should enable improved studies of xenobiotic tolerance and modification phenotypes and allow a drastic expansion of the gut microbiota reference genome catalogues. Furthermore, the new cultivation methods should facilitate systematic studies of the causal relationship between...

  20. How to Cultivate the Student's Cultural Awareness

    tian xiu ying

    2008-01-01

    Language and culture are inseparable and cultural awareness must be integrated with language teaching. How to cultivate the learners' cultural awareness is an important issue that we have to carry out in teaching practice in China.

  1. Grizzly bear diet shifting on reclaimed mines

    Bogdan Cristescu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Industrial developments and reclamation change habitat, possibly altering large carnivore food base. We monitored the diet of a low-density population of grizzly bears occupying a landscape with open-pit coal mines in Canada. During 2009–2010 we instrumented 10 bears with GPS radiocollars and compared their feeding on reclaimed coal mines and neighboring Rocky Mountains and their foothills. In addition, we compared our data with historical bear diet for the same population collected in 2001–2003, before extensive mine reclamation occurred. Diet on mines (n=331 scats was dominated by non-native forbs and graminoids, while diets in the Foothills and Mountains consisted primarily of ungulates and Hedysarum spp. roots respectively, showing diet shifting with availability. Field visitation of feeding sites (n=234 GPS relocation clusters also showed that ungulates were the main diet component in the Foothills, whereas on reclaimed mines bears were least carnivorous. These differences illustrate a shift to feeding on non-native forbs while comparisons with historical diet reveal emergence of elk as an important bear food. Food resources on reclaimed mines attract bears from wilderness areas and bears may be more adaptable to landscape change than previously thought. The grizzly bear’s ready use of mines cautions the universal view of this species as umbrella indicative of biodiversity.

  2. Effectiveness of Training Programme on Mushroom Cultivation

    Rahman, Md. Sazzadur; Hossain, Kh. Zulfikar; Ali, Md. Sekender; Afroz, Fauzia

    2017-01-01

    Effectiveness is one of the key parameters to assess success of any programs. However, the effectiveness of training programme on mushroom cultivation was not well addressed. The purposes of this study were to investigate the effectiveness of training programme on mushroom cultivation and to explore the relationships of each of the selected characteristics of the trained mushroom farmers with their effectiveness of training programme. Data were collected from the trained mushroom farmers of s...

  3. The Cultivation of Human Granulosa Cells

    Lenka Brůčková

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The major functions of granulosa cells (GCs include the production of steroids, as well as a myriad of growth factors to interact with the oocyte during its development within the ovarian follicle. Also FSH stimulates GCs to convert androgens (coming from the thecal cells to estradiol by aromatase. However, after ovulation the GCs produce progesterone that may maintain a potential pregnancy. Experiments with human GCs are mainly focused on the purification of GCs from ovarian follicular fluid followed by FACS analysis or short-term cultivation. The aim of our study was to cultivate GCs for a long period, to characterize their morphology and phenotype. Moreover, we have cultivated GCs under gonadotropin stimulation in order to simulate different pathological mechanisms during folliculogenesis (e.g. ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. GCs were harvested from women undergoing in vitro fertilization. Complex oocyte-cumulus oophorus was dissociated by hyaluronidase. The best condition for transport of GCs was optimized as short transport in follicular fluid at 37 °C. GCs expansion medium consisted of DMEM/F12, 2 % FCS, ascorbic acid, dexamethasone, L-glutamine, gentamycine, penicillin, streptomycin and growth factors (EGF, bFGF. GCs transported in follicular fluid and cultivated in 2 % FCS containing DMEM/F12 medium supplemented with follicular fluid presented increased adhesion, proliferation, viability and decreased doubling time. Cell viability was 92 % and mean cell doubling time was 52 hrs. We have optimized transport and cultivation protocols for long-term cultivation of GCs.

  4. The transformation of nitrogen in soil under Robinia Pseudacacia shelterbelt and in adjoining cultivated field

    Szajdak, L.; Gaca, W.

    2009-04-01

    The shelterbelts perform more than twenty different functions favorable to the environment, human economy, health and culture. The most important for agricultural landscape is increase of water retention, purification of ground waters and prevent of pollution spread in the landscape, restriction of wind and water erosion effects, isolation of polluting elements in the landscape, preservation of biological diversity in agricultural areas and mitigation of effects of unfavorable climatic phenomena. Denitrification is defined as the reduction of nitrate or nitrite coupled to electron transport phosphorylation resulting in gaseous N either as molecular N2 or as an oxide of N. High content of moisture, low oxygen, neutral and basic pH favour the denitrification. Nitrate reductase is an important enzyme involved in the process of denitrification. The reduction of nitrate to nitrite is catalyzed by nitrate reductase. Nitrite reductase is catalyzed reduction nitrite to nitrous oxide. The conversion of N2O to N2 is catalyzed by nitrous oxide reductase. This process leads to the lost of nitrogen in soil mainly in the form of N2 and N2O. Nitrous oxide is a greenhouse gas which cause significant depletion of the Earth's stratospheric ozone layer. The investigations were carried out in Dezydery Chlapowski Agroecological Landscape Park in Turew (40 km South-West of Poznań, West Polish Lowland). Our investigations were focused on the soils under Robinia pseudacacia shelterbelt and in adjoining cultivated field. The afforestation was created 200 years ago and it is consist of mainly Robinia pseudacacia with admixture of Quercus petraea and Quercus robur. This shelterbelt and adjoining cultivated field are located on grey-brown podzolic soil. The aim of this study is to present information on the changes of nitrate reductase activity in soil with admixture urea (organic form of nitrogen) in two different concentrations 0,25% N and 0,5% N. Our results have shown that this process

  5. Driving the Landscape

    Haff, P. K.

    2012-12-01

    Technological modification of the earth's surface (e.g., agriculture, urbanization) is an old story in human history, but what about the future? The future of landscape in an accelerating technological world, beyond a relatively short time horizon, lies hidden behind an impenetrable veil of complexity. Sufficiently complex dynamics generates not only the trajectory of a variable of interest (e.g., vegetation cover) but also the environment in which that variable evolves (e.g., background climate). There is no way to anticipate what variables will define that environment—the dynamics creates its own variables. We are always open to surprise by a change of conditions we thought or assumed were fixed or by the appearance of new phenomena of whose possible existence we had been unaware or thought unlikely. This is especially true under the influence of technology, where novelty is the rule. Lack of direct long-term predictability of landscape change does not, however, mean we cannot say anything about its future. The presence of persistence (finite time scales) in a system means that prediction by a calibrated numerical model should be good for a limited period of time barring bad luck or faulty implementation. Short-term prediction, despite its limitations, provides an option for dealing with the longer-term future. If a computer-controlled car tries to drive itself from New York to Los Angeles, no conceivable (or possible) stand-alone software can be constructed to predict a priori the space-time trajectory of the vehicle. Yet the drive is normally completed easily by most drivers. The trip is successfully completed because each in a series of very short (linear) steps can be "corrected" on the fly by the driver, who takes her cues from the environment to keep the car on the road and headed toward its destination. This metaphor differs in a fundamental way from the usual notion of predicting geomorphic change, because it involves a goal—to reach a desired

  6. Ecological Functions of Landscapes

    Kiryushin, V. I.

    2018-01-01

    Ecological functions of landscapes are considered a system of processes ensuring the development, preservation, and evolution of ecosystems and the biosphere as a whole. The concept of biogeocenosis can be considered a model that integrates biotic and environmental functions. The most general biogeocenotic functions specify the biodiversity, biotic links, self-organization, and evolution of ecosystems. Close interaction between biocenosis and the biotope (ecotope) is ensured by the continuous exchange of matter, energy, and information. Ecotope determines the biocenosis. The group of ecotopic functions includes atmospheric (gas exchange, heat exchange, hydroatmospheric, climate-forming), lithospheric (geodynamic, geophysical, and geochemical), hydrologic and hydrogeologic functions of landscape and ecotopic functions of soils. Bioecological functions emerge as a result of the biotope and ecotope interaction; these are the bioproductive, destructive, organoaccumulative, biochemical (gas, concentration, redox, biochemical, biopedological), pedogenetic, and energy functions

  7. Conceiving Landscape through Film

    Farsø, Mads; Munck Petersen, Rikke

    2015-01-01

    This article shows how the media of film can be integrated, explored and can add value to architectural design studios and practice. It elucidates how film may offer an alternative position in architecture, where landscapes and cities are thought, planned and developed in closer relation...... to their spatial and sensory effects on humans. It underscores that the film camera can work as a kind of amplifier of how we, with our bodies, perceive space and project space. In the “Landscape Film” Studio at University of Copenhagen the film medium was tested as a combined registration and design tool...... for a new Nature Park south of Copenhagen. The final studio films and designs show how resonate recordings of sound, time and a bodily presence may simulate an Einfühling that inspires an alternative architecture of relations: the ambient, the changeable and the volatile. They also emphasize that an ability...

  8. Landscape & Imagination: riflettere insieme

    Mariella Zoppi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In Paris, at La Villette University, was four-days of debate on 2-4 Mai 2013, in which faculty members of all the world discussed on methods and experiences in teaching landscape. The conference was organized in multiple sessions: history, theories, representation, process, science and governance. All the fields discussed were related to the main problem of the identity of territories in the landscape project -from the theories to the practices- and applied in a very large range of different situations: from the rural world between conservation and transformations to the coastal areas under the pressure of tourism, from the ecology in the city life renovation to the land use control and project by community and the emergency management in natural catastrophes.

  9. Energy and economic analysis of traditional versus introduced crops cultivation in the mountains of the Indian Himalayas: A case study

    Nautiyal, Sunil; Kaechele, H. [Leibniz-Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research (ZALF), Institute of Socioeconomics, Eberswalder Str. 84, 15374 Muencheberg (Germany); Rao, K.S. [Centre for Inter-disciplinary Studies of Mountain and Hill Environment, Academic Research Center, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Maikhuri, R.K. [G.B. Pant Institute of Himalayan Environment and Development, Garhwal Unit, P.O. Box 92, Srinagar (Garhwal) 246174 (India); Saxena, K.G. [School of Environmental Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110067 (India)

    2007-12-15

    This study analyzed the energy and economics associated with cultivation of traditional and introduced crops in the mountains of the Central Himalaya, India. The production cost in terms of energy for introduced crops such as tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) and bell pepper (Capsicum annuum) cultivation was 90,358-320,516 MJ ha{sup -1} as compared to between 19,814 and 42,380 MJ ha{sup -1} for traditional crops within Himalayan agroecosystems. For the introduced crops, high energy and monetary input was associated with human labor, forest resources, chemical fertilizer and pesticides. However, energy threshold/projection for farmyard manure in traditional crop cultivation was 80-90% of the total energy cost, thus traditional crop cultivation was more efficient in energy and economics. During the study, the farm productivity of introduced crops cultivation declined with increasing years of cultivation. Consequently, the energy output from the system has been declining at the rate of -y20,598 to y20,748 MJ ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} for tomato and y12,072 to y15,056 MJ ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} for bell pepper under irrigated and rain-fed land use in the mountains, respectively. The comparative analysis on this paradigm shift indicates that more research is needed to support sustainable crop cultivation in the fragile Himalayan environment. (author)

  10. Nurses' shift reports

    Buus, Niels; Hoeck, Bente; Hamilton, Bridget Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To identify reporting practices that feature in studies of nurses' shift reports across diverse nursing specialities. The objectives were to perform an exhaustive systematic literature search and to critically review the quality and findings of qualitative field studies...... of nurses' shift reports. BACKGROUND: Nurses' shift reports are routine occurrences in healthcare organisations that are viewed as crucial for patient outcomes, patient safety and continuity of care. Studies of communication between nurses attend primarily to 1:1 communication and analyse the adequacy...... and accuracy of patient information and feature handovers at the bedside. Still, verbal reports between groups of nurses about patients are commonplace. Shift reports are obvious sites for studying the situated accomplishment of professional nursing at the group level. This review is focused exclusively...

  11. Shift Verification and Validation

    Pandya, Tara M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Evans, Thomas M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Davidson, Gregory G [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Johnson, Seth R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Godfrey, Andrew T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-09-07

    This documentation outlines the verification and validation of Shift for the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL). Five main types of problems were used for validation: small criticality benchmark problems; full-core reactor benchmarks for light water reactors; fixed-source coupled neutron-photon dosimetry benchmarks; depletion/burnup benchmarks; and full-core reactor performance benchmarks. We compared Shift results to measured data and other simulated Monte Carlo radiation transport code results, and found very good agreement in a variety of comparison measures. These include prediction of critical eigenvalue, radial and axial pin power distributions, rod worth, leakage spectra, and nuclide inventories over a burn cycle. Based on this validation of Shift, we are confident in Shift to provide reference results for CASL benchmarking.

  12. Molecular Electronic Shift Registers

    Beratan, David N.; Onuchic, Jose N.

    1990-01-01

    Molecular-scale shift registers eventually constructed as parts of high-density integrated memory circuits. In principle, variety of organic molecules makes possible large number of different configurations and modes of operation for such shift-register devices. Several classes of devices and implementations in some specific types of molecules proposed. All based on transfer of electrons or holes along chains of repeating molecular units.

  13. Biodiversity conservation values of fragmented communally reserved forests, managed by indigenous people, in a human-modified landscape in Borneo.

    Takeuchi, Yayoi; Soda, Ryoji; Diway, Bibian; Kuda, Tinjan Ak; Nakagawa, Michiko; Nagamasu, Hidetoshi; Nakashizuka, Tohru

    2017-01-01

    This study explored the conservation values of communally reserved forests (CRFs), which local indigenous communities deliberately preserve within their area of shifting cultivation. In the current landscape of rural Borneo, CRFs are the only option for conservation because other forested areas have already been logged or transformed into plantations. By analyzing their alpha and beta diversity, we investigated how these forests can contribute to restore regional biodiversity. Although CRFs were fragmented and some had been disturbed in the past, their tree species diversity was high and equivalent to that of primary forests. The species composition of intact forests and forests disturbed in the past did not differ clearly, which indicates that past logging was not intensive. All CRFs contained unique and endangered species, which are on the IUCN Red List, Sarawak protected plants, or both. On the other hand, the forest size structure differed between disturbed and intact CRFs, with the disturbed CRFs consisting of relatively smaller trees. Although the beta diversity among CRFs was also high, we found a high contribution of species replacement (turnover), but not of richness difference, in the total beta diversity. This suggests that all CRFs have a conservation value for restoring the overall regional biodiversity. Therefore, for maintaining the regional species diversity and endangered species, it would be suitable to design a conservation target into all CRFs.

  14. Identification Of Minangkabau Landscape Characters

    Asrina, M.; Gunawan, A.; Aris, Munandar

    2017-10-01

    Minangkabau is one of cultures in indonesia which occupies landscape intact. Landscape of Minangkabau have a very close relationship with the culture of the people. Uniqueness of Minangkabau culture and landscape forming an inseparable characterunity. The landscape is necessarily identified to know the inherent landscape characters. The objective of this study was to identify the character of the Minangkabau landscape characterizes its uniqueness. The study was conducted by using descriptive method comprised literature review and field observasion. Observed the landscape characters comprised two main features, they were major and minor features. Indetification of the features was conducted in two original areas (darek) of the Minangkabau traditional society. The research results showed that major features or natural features of the landscape were predominantly landform, landcover, and hidrology. All luhak (districts) of Minangkabau showed similar main features such as hill, canyon, lake, valley, and forest. The existence of natural features such as hills, canyon and valleys characterizes the nature of minangkabau landscape. Minor features formed by Minangkabau cultural society were agricultural land and settlement. Rumah gadang (big house) is one of famous minor features characterizes the Minangkabau culture. In addition, several historical artefacts of building and others structure may strengthen uniqueness of the Minangkabau landscape character, such as The royal palace, inscription, and tunnels.

  15. Aspects of Landscape and Pollinators—What is Important to Bee Conservation?

    Gleiciani B. Patrício-Roberto

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Pollinators, especially bees, are essential to terrestrial ecosystems. They ensure the maintenance of certain ecological processes, like superior plants’ reproduction. In the past decades, agricultural intensification has caused extensive environmental changes, with major impacts on biodiversity, especially on the pollinators, which reflects the loss of fruits and seeds sets. Here, we review studies that elucidate the causes of decline of pollinators, consequences of landscape changes to agriculture and possibilities to bees’ conservation. Many studies have related the loss of pollinators to changes in the landscape, such as the conversion of native forests into cultivated areas, which causes loss of important elements for bees (e.g., sources of pollen, nectar and oil, as well as varied nesting sites. Studies involving landscape ecology allow us to assess the effects of different farming practices over the richness and abundance of pollinators. Among the landscape elements performing positive influence on bees, the presence of remaining forests nearby cultivated areas proved to be a very important factor. Nevertheless, studies that evaluate all ground cover with a more integrated approach are still required to assess the effects of landscape context on the diversity and on the abundance of bees related to productivity of crops. Researches like these could provide specific data that strengthen the need for the conservation of different plants and animals, and could offer subsidies to propose necessary information for the execution of public and private policies, aimed at the conservation of the biodiversity.

  16. Visualizing phylogenetic tree landscapes.

    Wilgenbusch, James C; Huang, Wen; Gallivan, Kyle A

    2017-02-02

    Genomic-scale sequence alignments are increasingly used to infer phylogenies in order to better understand the processes and patterns of evolution. Different partitions within these new alignments (e.g., genes, codon positions, and structural features) often favor hundreds if not thousands of competing phylogenies. Summarizing and comparing phylogenies obtained from multi-source data sets using current consensus tree methods discards valuable information and can disguise potential methodological problems. Discovery of efficient and accurate dimensionality reduction methods used to display at once in 2- or 3- dimensions the relationship among these competing phylogenies will help practitioners diagnose the limits of current evolutionary models and potential problems with phylogenetic reconstruction methods when analyzing large multi-source data sets. We introduce several dimensionality reduction methods to visualize in 2- and 3-dimensions the relationship among competing phylogenies obtained from gene partitions found in three mid- to large-size mitochondrial genome alignments. We test the performance of these dimensionality reduction methods by applying several goodness-of-fit measures. The intrinsic dimensionality of each data set is also estimated to determine whether projections in 2- and 3-dimensions can be expected to reveal meaningful relationships among trees from different data partitions. Several new approaches to aid in the comparison of different phylogenetic landscapes are presented. Curvilinear Components Analysis (CCA) and a stochastic gradient decent (SGD) optimization method give the best representation of the original tree-to-tree distance matrix for each of the three- mitochondrial genome alignments and greatly outperformed the method currently used to visualize tree landscapes. The CCA + SGD method converged at least as fast as previously applied methods for visualizing tree landscapes. We demonstrate for all three mtDNA alignments that 3D

  17. Incorporating Bioenergy in Sustainable Landscape Designs Workshop Two: Agricultural Landscapes

    None

    2015-08-01

    The Bioenergy Technologies Office hosted two workshops on Incorporating Bioenergy in Sustainable Landscape Designs with Oak Ridge and Argonne National Laboratories in 2014. The second workshop focused on agricultural landscapes and took place in Argonne, IL from June 24—26, 2014. The workshop brought together experts to discuss how landscape design can contribute to the deployment and assessment of sustainable bioenergy. This report summarizes the discussions that occurred at this particular workshop.

  18. Integrated landscape initiatives in Europe

    García-Martín, María; Bieling, Claudia; Hart, Abigail

    2016-01-01

    Landscapes are linked to human well-being in a multitude of ways, some of which are challenged by global market forces and traditional management approaches. In response to this situation there has been a rise in local initiatives to sustain the values of landscape. The aim of this paper is to pr......Landscapes are linked to human well-being in a multitude of ways, some of which are challenged by global market forces and traditional management approaches. In response to this situation there has been a rise in local initiatives to sustain the values of landscape. The aim of this paper...... searches and canvassing of European umbrella organisations; followed by an online survey of representatives from the identified initiatives (n??=??71). Our results show that the most relevant characteristics of integrated landscape initiatives in Europe are: a holistic approach to landscape management...

  19. Alternative substrates for higher mushrooms mycelia cultivation

    TETIANA KRUPODOROVA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cultivation of 29 species of higher mushroom mycelia on alternative substrates – wastes of Ukrainian oil-fat industry, has been investigated. The amount of mushroom mycelia obtaining on 12 investigated substrates varied significantly, from 1.0 g/L to 22.9 g/L on the 14th day of cultivation. The superficial cultivation adopted in this study allows for easy to choose appropriate medium (substrate for mycelia production. Alternative substrates (compared to glucose-peptone-yeast medium were selected for all studied species, from soybean cake – most suitable for the mycelial growth of 24 species, to walnut cake − suitable only for 2 species. The utilization of substrates has been evaluated by biological efficiency. The best index of biological efficiency varied from 19.0% to 41.6% depending on the mushroom species. It was established high biological efficiency of mycelia cultivation on substrates: wheat seed cake – Pleurotus djamor, Lyophyllum shimeji, Crinipellis schevczenkovi, Phellinus igniarius, Spongipellis litschaueri; oat seed cake – Ganoderma applanatum and G. lucidum; soybean cake – Hohenbuehelia myxotricha, Trametes versicolor, Morchella esculenta, Cordyceps sinensis, C. militaris, and Agrocybe aegerita; rape seed cake – Auriporia aurea; camelina seed cake – Fomes fomentarius. The cultivation of these species are perspective as a biotechnological process of agricultural wastes converted into mycelia, which could be used in different forms of products with therapeutic action: powder or tablets nutraceuticals or ingredients for functional foods.

  20. Environmental and nutritional requirements for tea cultivation

    Hajiboland Roghieh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Tea (Camellia sinensis is an important beverage crop cultivated in the tropics and subtropics under acid soil conditions. Increased awareness of the health-promoting properties of the tea beverage has led to an increase in its level of consumption over the last decades. Tea production contributes significantly to the economy of several tea-cultivating countries in Asia and Africa. Environmental constrains, particularly water deficiency due to inadequate and/or poorly distributed rainfall, seriously limit tea production in the majority of tea-producing countries. It is also predicted that global climate change will have a considerable adverse impact on tea production in the near future. Application of fertilizers for higher production and increased quality and quantity of tea is a common agricultural practice, but due to its environmental consequences, such as groundwater pollution, the rate of fertilizer application needs to be reconsidered. Cultivation of tea under humid conditions renders it highly susceptible to pathogens and pest attacks. Application of pesticides and fungicides adversely affects the quality of tea and increases health risks of the tea beverage. Organic cultivation as an agricultural practice without using synthetic fertilizers and other chemical additives such as pesticides and fungicides is a sustainable and eco-friendly approach to producing healthy tea. A growing number of tea-producing countries are joining organic tea cultivation programmes in order to improve the quality and to maintain the health benefits of the tea produced.

  1. Flowscapes: Designing infrastructure as landscape

    Nijhuis, S.; Jauslin, D.T.; Van der Hoeven, F.D.

    2015-01-01

    Social, cultural and technological developments of our society are demanding a fundamental review of the planning and design of its landscapes and infrastructures, in particular in relation to environmental issues and sustainability. Transportation, green and water infrastructures are important agents that facilitate processes that shape the built environment and its contemporary landscapes. With movement and flows at the core, these landscape infrastructures facilitate aesthetic, functional,...

  2. Modelling Geomorphic Systems: Landscape Evolution

    Valters, Declan

    2016-01-01

    Landscape evolution models (LEMs) present the geomorphologist with a means of investigating how landscapes evolve in response to external forcings, such as climate and tectonics, as well as internal process laws. LEMs typically incorporate a range of different geomorphic transport laws integrated in a way that simulates the evolution of a 3D terrain surface forward through time. The strengths of LEMs as research tools lie in their ability to rapidly test many different hypotheses of landscape...

  3. Energy landscape Allgaeu; Energielandschaft Allgaeu

    NONE

    2013-04-01

    In tandems with questions on the energy policy turnaround, the topics cultural landscape history, morphology, actual land use, tourism, settlement development or infrastructure are summarized in regional concepts and designs to a consistent landscape. Thus, a true integration of renewable energies in the landscape enhances existing or creates completely new landscape qualities. Energy supply shall be understood as a component of the every day life world. The energy supply shall not be hidden any more, but it rather should be communicated as the brand 'Allgaeu'.

  4. The Value of Landscape Essence

    Maria da Conceição Marques Freire

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A new approach to interpreting the landscape is examined by accepting its complexity through inductive reasoning. While attempting to identify the essence of the landscape in the city and municipality of Óbidos, Portugal, several architectural recommendations of Venturi (2004 have been adapted as a framework for understanding this landscape. These will then guide the process of landscape transformation through:•••using the concepts of closed and contained spaces and the concept of fluid space;•recognising the existence of interstitial open spaces;•using those elements which are common to the distinct typologies of space;•defining the components that should be respected and those that can be respected;•observing landscape as a whole , while emphasising the relationship between the parts and the whole; and•rejecting simplification in the landscape transformation process.valuing the ambiguity incorporating the complexity Underlying this approach is the belief that the process of transformation must be based on the essence of each landscape. This implies the use of elements and structures of the landscape which are related to ecological, morphological and cultural systems. These elements and structures represent points of reference which should be considered in the process of landscape transformation.

  5. Impressionist Landscape Cartography

    Todd, Stella W.

    2018-05-01

    Cartography helps to show us the world in which we reside by providing us a framework to explore space. We can select myriad themes to represent what is relevant to our lives: physical characteristics, human behaviors, hazards, opportunities. Themes are represented on a continuum between real-world images and pure abstractions. How we define cartography and what we expect from it changes with society and technology. We are now inundated with data but we still struggle with expressing our personal geographic experiences through cartography. In this age of information we have become more cognizant of our individual experience of place and our need to determine our own paths and therefore create our own maps. In order to reflect our journey we can add individual details to cartographic products or generalize information to concentrate on what is meaningful to us. Since time and space are interrelated we experience geography by viewing the landscape as changing scenes over time. This experience is both spatial and temporal since we experience geography by moving through space. Experiencing each scene is a separate event. This paper expands the personalization of maps to include our impressions of the travel experience. Rather than add art to cartography it provides geographic reference to art. It explores the use of a series of quick sketches drawn while traveling along roads using a single drawing pad to produce a time series of interpreted landscapes. With the use of geographic time stamps from global positioning systems these sketches are converted from a drawing to a map documenting the path of movement. Although the map scale varies between sketch entries each scene impression can be linked to one or more maps of consistent scale. The result is an artistic piece that expresses a dynamic geographic experience that can be viewed in conjunction with more traditional maps. Unlike mental maps which are constructed from memory, these maps reflect our direct impressions

  6. Phenylhydrazines in the cultivated mushroom (Agaricus bisporus)

    Andersson, H. C.; Gry, Jørn

    2004-01-01

    In 1991, the Nordic Working Group on Food Toxicology and Risk Evaluation (NNT) reviewed the available data on phenylhydrazines naturally occurring in the cultivated mushroom. It was concluded that the mushroom may contain about 500 mg of the hydrazine derivatives per kg fresh weight. The hydrazine...... derivatives as well as extracts of the cultivated mushroom were mutagenic to a variable degree in most of the reported short-term tests. The raw mushroom and several of the hydrazines induced tumours when administered to Swiss mice as reported by American scientists. However, reservations were expressed...... as to the design of the studies. Based on this review, and due to the concern expressed, a Nordic project (coordinated by Jørn Gry, Danish Veterinary and Food Administration) was initiated dealing with toxicological and chemical studies on the cultivated mushroom and its phenylhydrazine derivatives in order...

  7. Zeolites as possible biofortifiers in Maitake cultivation

    Vunduk Jovana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The levels of Ni, Cu and Mg in Grifola frondosa (also known as Maitake mushroom fruit body produced on zeolite Minazel Plus (MG-supplemented substrate were measured with inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES. Two different concentrations of MG were added to the substrate for mushroom cultivation. Levels of selected metals were measured in cultivated dry carpophores. The content of Ni increased in fruit bodies produced on supplemented substrate, while in case of Cu, a pronounced decrease was observed. When two different concentrations of MG were implemented, the Mg level showed both positive and negative trend, depending on the applied concentration of zeolite. MG in a concentration of 1% showed the strongest influence on the observed elements in the cultivated fruiting body of Maitake mushroom. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 46010

  8. Landscape encodings enhance optimization.

    Konstantin Klemm

    Full Text Available Hard combinatorial optimization problems deal with the search for the minimum cost solutions (ground states of discrete systems under strong constraints. A transformation of state variables may enhance computational tractability. It has been argued that these state encodings are to be chosen invertible to retain the original size of the state space. Here we show how redundant non-invertible encodings enhance optimization by enriching the density of low-energy states. In addition, smooth landscapes may be established on encoded state spaces to guide local search dynamics towards the ground state.

  9. The Anti-Landscape

    There have always been some uninhabitable places, but in the last century human beings have produced many more of them. These anti-landscapes have proliferated to include the sandy wastes of what was once the Aral Sea, severely polluted irrigated lands, open pit mines, blighted nuclear zones...... that no longer sustain life. This history includes T. S. Eliot’s Wasteland and Cormac McCarthy’s The Road as well as air pollution, recycled railway lines, photography and landfills. It links theories of aesthetics, politics, tourism, history, geography, and literature into the new synthesis of the environmental...

  10. Stonehenge and its Landscape

    Ruggles, Clive L. N.

    In the 1960s and 1970s, Stonehenge polarized academic opinion between those (mainly astronomers) who claimed it demonstrated great astronomical sophistication and those (mainly archaeologists) who denied it had anything to do with astronomy apart from the solstitial alignment of its main axis. Now, several decades later, links to the annual passage of the sun are generally recognized as an essential part of the function and meaning not only of Stonehenge but also of several other nearby monuments, giving us important insights into beliefs and actions relating to the seasonal cycle by the prehistoric communities who populated this chalkland landscape in the third millennium BC Links to the moon remain more debatable.

  11. Reprogramming the chromatin landscape

    Miranda, Tina B; Voss, Ty C; Sung, Myong-Hee

    2013-01-01

    , mechanistic details defining the cellular interactions between ER and GR are poorly understood. We investigated genome-wide binding profiles for ER and GR upon coactivation and characterized the status of the chromatin landscape. We describe a novel mechanism dictating the molecular interplay between ER...... and GR. Upon induction, GR modulates access of ER to specific sites in the genome by reorganization of the chromatin configuration for these elements. Binding to these newly accessible sites occurs either by direct recognition of ER response elements or indirectly through interactions with other factors...

  12. Landscape Encodings Enhance Optimization

    Klemm, Konstantin; Mehta, Anita; Stadler, Peter F.

    2012-01-01

    Hard combinatorial optimization problems deal with the search for the minimum cost solutions (ground states) of discrete systems under strong constraints. A transformation of state variables may enhance computational tractability. It has been argued that these state encodings are to be chosen invertible to retain the original size of the state space. Here we show how redundant non-invertible encodings enhance optimization by enriching the density of low-energy states. In addition, smooth landscapes may be established on encoded state spaces to guide local search dynamics towards the ground state. PMID:22496860

  13. The evolution of crop cultivation and paleoenvironment in the Longji Terraces, southern China: Organic geochemical evidence from paleosols.

    Jiang, Yongjian; Li, Shijie; Chen, Wei; Cai, Desuo; Liu, Yan

    2017-11-01

    The Longji ancient agricultural terraces in the Longji Mountain area (Guilin, southern China), which still remain in use, are famous for their magnificent terraced landscape with a mix of ecosystem and human inhabitation. Previous research has revealed the genesis and preliminary paleoenvironmental record of the agricultural terraces, but little is known about variations in crop cultivation over time. In this study, organic geochemical analyses and radiocarbon dating of an aggradational cultivated soil from a terrace profile were used to explore crop type variation and relevant paleoenvironmental change during the period of cultivation on the Longji Terraces. Hydroponic farming with rice (C 3 ) planting has been the dominant cultivation mode since the initial construction of the terraces. Warm-dry climate contributed to the growth of drought-tolerant crop (C 4 ) cultivation in the late 15th century. Temperature deterioration during the Little Ice Age had a negative impact on dry and hydroponic farming activities from the late 15th century to the late 19th century, while climate warming after the Little Ice Age promoted the redevelopment of hydroponic farming. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparing the Folding and Misfolding Energy Landscapes of Phosphoglycerate Kinase

    Agocs, Gergely; Szabo, Bence T.; Koehler, Gottfried; Osvath, Szabolcs

    2012-01-01

    Partitioning of polypeptides between protein folding and amyloid formation is of outstanding pathophysiological importance. Using yeast phosphoglycerate kinase as model, here we identify the features of the energy landscape that decide the fate of the protein: folding or amyloidogenesis. Structure formation was initiated from the acid-unfolded state, and monitored by fluorescence from 10 ms to 20 days. Solvent conditions were gradually shifted between folding and amyloidogenesis, and the prop...

  15. Pedo-environmental evolution and agricultural landscape transformation

    Gilmo Vianello

    Full Text Available Landscapes represent the stage setting of the ecosystem, the great theatre where the evolution of the environment, the changing of things and plant and animal life are played out; the diversity of landscapes derives from the combination, over time, of different environmental factors having perceptibly different roles, as in the case of climate, vegetation and human activity. Less perceptible and scarcely known is the role of soil, which has the ability not only to diversify the ecosystem’s landscapes but also to differentiate its level of productivity and liveability. The role of soil as part of the landscape is not always so evident, especially when it is covered by vegetation that precludes observation. At times, however, soils show themselves conspicuously, at least on the surface, when the colours of the epipedons invade the landscape and – in the ploughing season – dominate it. While it may be reassuring to see neatly cultivated fields and crops growing luxuriantly and homogeneously, the increasingly marked and evident signs of soil degradation or erosion are a cause for concern. In the recent past, the relationship between man and soil resources was strongly influenced by natural factors inside and outside the soil itself, socio-economic conditions and above all the labour force, i.e. the people employed in the primary sector; consequently, it was based on such factors that crop-growing choices were adapted to the different ecosystems, resulting in a diversification of rural landscapes. Starting from the second half of the twentieth century, the introduction of chemicals, mechanisation and exploitation of various forms of energy drastically transformed land use in the space of just a few years, with a logic aimed at improving the production capacity of farmland and forest land in both qualitative and quantitative terms. As a consequence, farming choices that were formerly adapted to the natural and socio-economic conditions of

  16. Pedo-environmental evolution and agricultural landscape transformation

    Gilmo Vianello

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Landscapes represent the stage setting of the ecosystem, the great theatre where the evolution of the environment, the changing of things and plant and animal life are played out; the diversity of landscapes derives from the combination, over time, of different environmental factors having perceptibly different roles, as in the case of climate, vegetation and human activity. Less perceptible and scarcely known is the role of soil, which has the ability not only to diversify the ecosystem’s landscapes but also to differentiate its level of productivity and liveability. The role of soil as part of the landscape is not always so evident, especially when it is covered by vegetation that precludes observation. At times, however, soils show themselves conspicuously, at least on the surface, when the colours of the epipedons invade the landscape and – in the ploughing season – dominate it. While it may be reassuring to see neatly cultivated fields and crops growing luxuriantly and homogeneously, the increasingly marked and evident signs of soil degradation or erosion are a cause for concern. In the recent past, the relationship between man and soil resources was strongly influenced by natural factors inside and outside the soil itself, socio-economic conditions and above all the labour force, i.e. the people employed in the primary sector; consequently, it was based on such factors that crop-growing choices were adapted to the different ecosystems, resulting in a diversification of rural landscapes. Starting from the second half of the twentieth century, the introduction of chemicals, mechanisation and exploitation of various forms of energy drastically transformed land use in the space of just a few years, with a logic aimed at improving the production capacity of farmland and forest land in both qualitative and quantitative terms. As a consequence, farming choices that were formerly adapted to the natural and socio-economic conditions of

  17. Editorial: Mapping the Intellectual Landscape of Landscape and Urban Planning

    Paul H. Gobster; Wei-Ning. Xiang

    2012-01-01

    Maps are central to our understanding of landscapes. When this Editorship began to revise the journal's Aims and Scope for presentation in a forthcoming editorial, we sought ways in which we could identify the core knowledge base and boundaries, however permeable, of what the journal community considers to be Landscape and Urban Planning (LAND). Strategically, we...

  18. Landscape Painting in Evaluation of Changes in Landscape

    Lacina, Jan; Halas, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 2 (2015), s. 60-68 ISSN 1803-2427 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : landscape painting * landscape ecology * land-use changes * biodiversity Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography http://www.degruyter.com/view/j/jlecol.2015.8.issue-2/jlecol-2015-0009/jlecol-2015-0009. xml

  19. Functional State Modelling of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cultivations

    Iasen Hristozov

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of functional state approach for modelling of yeast cultivation is considered in this paper. This concept helps in monitoring and control of complex processes such as bioprocesses. Using of functional state modelling approach for fermentation processes aims to overcome the main disadvantage of using global process model, namely complex model structure and big number of model parameters. The main advantage of functional state modelling is that the parameters of each local model can be separately estimated from other local models parameters. The results achieved from batch, as well as from fed-batch, cultivations are presented.

  20. Characterization and cultivation of Psilocybe barrerae

    E. Montiel; J. C. Barragán; I. Tello; V. M. Mora; I. León; D. Martínez

    2008-01-01

    A strain of Psilocybe barrerae (Strophariaceae) was isolated, characterized, and cultivated under laboratory conditions. Mycelial colonies were white to off-white, showing average growth rates of 3.9 mm/day on potato dextrose agar (PDA) and 3.6 mm/day on corn meal agar (CMA). The production of biomass varied from 0.2872 g dry weight/L/day (CMA) to 0.1353 g dry weight/L/day (PDA). One flush of fruit bodies, cultivated on a mixture of sand and compost as substrate, was produced reaching a biolo...

  1. Microgravity cultivation of cells and tissues

    Freed, L. E.; Pellis, N.; Searby, N.; de Luis, J.; Preda, C.; Bordonaro, J.; Vunjak-Novakovic, G.

    1999-01-01

    In vitro studies of cells and tissues in microgravity, either simulated by cultivation conditions on earth or actual, during spaceflight, are expected to help identify mechanisms underlying gravity sensing and transduction in biological organisms. In this paper, we review rotating bioreactor studies of engineered skeletal and cardiovascular tissues carried out in unit gravity, a four month long cartilage tissue engineering study carried out aboard the Mir Space Station, and the ongoing laboratory development and testing of a system for cell and tissue cultivation aboard the International Space Station.

  2. Complementary habitat use by wild bees in agro-natural landscapes.

    Mandelik, Yael; Winfree, Rachael; Neeson, Thomas; Kremen, Claire

    2012-07-01

    Human activity causes abrupt changes in resource availability across the landscape. In order to persist in human-altered landscapes organisms need to shift their habitat use accordingly. Little is known about the mechanisms by which whole communities persist in human-altered landscapes, including the role of complementary habitat use. We define complementary habitat use as the use of different habitats at different times by the same group of species during the course of their activity period. We hypothesize that complementary habitat use is a mechanism through which native bee species persist in human-altered landscapes. To test this idea, we studied wild bee communities in agro-natural landscapes and explored their community-level patterns of habitat and resource use over space and time. The study was conducted in six agro-natural landscapes in the eastern United States, each containing three main bee habitat types (natural habitat, agricultural fields, and old fields). Each of the three habitats exhibited a unique seasonal pattern in amount, diversity, and composition of floral resources, and together they created phenological complementarity in foraging resources for bees. Individual bee species as well as the bee community responded to these spatiotemporal patterns in floral availability and exhibited a parallel pattern of complementary habitat use. The majority of wild bee species, including all the main crop visitors, used fallow areas within crops early in the season, shifted to crops in mid-season, and used old-field habitats later in the season. The natural-forest habitat supported very limited number of bees, mostly visitors of non-crop plants. Old fields are thus an important feature in these arable landscapes for maintaining crop pollination services. Our study provides a detailed examination of how shifts in habitat and resource use may enable bees to persist in highly dynamic agro-natural landscapes, and points to the need for a broad cross

  3. Mechanical spectral shift reactor

    Sherwood, D.G.; Wilson, J.F.; Salton, R.B.; Fensterer, H.F.

    1981-01-01

    A mechanical spectral shift reactor comprises apparatus for inserting and withdrawing water displacer elements from the reactor core for selectively changing the water-moderator volume in the core thereby changing the reactivity of the core. The apparatus includes drivemechanisms for moving the displacer elements relative to the core and guide mechanisms for guiding the displayer rods through the reactor vessel

  4. Mechanical spectral shift reactor

    Sherwood, D.G.; Wilson, J.F.; Salton, R.B.; Fensterer, H.F.

    1982-01-01

    A mechanical spectral shift reactor comprises apparatus for inserting and withdrawing water displacer elements from the reactor core for selectively changing the water-moderator volume in the core thereby changing the reactivity of the core. The apparatus includes drive mechanisms for moving the displacer elements relative to the core and guide mechanisms for guiding the displacer rods through the reactor vessel. (author)

  5. Cultural Landscape and Migration

    Gunnar Haaland

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper focus on the way Nepalese migrants in Myanmar use features of the natural environment in their homeland in metaphoric constructions of a cultural landscape expressing ethnic identity. It is through such "symbolic work" that perceptions of "ethnoscapes" are shaped and indoctrinated. Although the appeal is to symbols that can serve to foster the importance of Nepaliness as a basis for belonging to an imagined community, this does not mean that the caste/ethnicity interaction boundaries are broken down. It does mean however that sectors of activities where such boundaries are made relevant have been changed and so has the cultural content organized through such interaction boundaries. Ethnoscapes do not exist by themselves from a 'primordial' past; they require ongoing expression and confirmation. Features of a natural environment most migrants have never seen is used as sources for spinning compelling webs of significance extolling the values of belonging to a group that shares a common past in that environment. I shall here present material of an ethnoscape very different from what is experienced in Nepal, namely Nepalese multi-caste/ethnic communities among Kachins, Shans, Burmese, Indian and Chinese traders in the Kachin state of Northern Myanmar. Keywords: Nepali migrants; Myanmar; ethnic identity; cultural landscape DOI: 10.3126/dsaj.v4i0.4515 Dhaulagiri Journal of Sociology and Anthropology Vol.4 2010 pp.99-110

  6. The Data Science Landscape

    Mentzel, C.

    2017-12-01

    Modern scientific data continue to increase in volume, variety, and velocity, and though the hype of big data has subsided, its usefulness for scientific discovery has only just begun. Harnessing these data for new insights, more efficient decision making, and other mission critical uses requires a combination of skills and expertise, often labeled data science. Data science can be thought of as a combination of statistics, computation and the domain from which the data relate, and so is a true interdisciplinary pursuit. Though it has reaped large benefits in companies able to afford the high cost of the severely limited talent pool, it suffers from lack of support in mission driven organizations. Not purely in any one historical field, data science is proving difficult to find a home in traditional university academic departments and other research organizations. The landscape of data science efforts, from academia, industry and government, can be characterized as nascent, enthusiastic, uneven, and highly competitive. Part of the challenge in documenting these trends is the lack of agreement about what data science is, and who is a data scientist. Defining these terms too closely and too early runs the risk of cutting off a tremendous amount of productive creativity, but waiting too long leaves many people without a sustainable career, and many organizations without the necessary skills to gain value from their data. This talk will explore the landscape of data science efforts in the US, including how organizations are building and sustaining data science teams.

  7. Landscape Evolution of Titan

    Moore, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Titan may have acquired its massive atmosphere relatively recently in solar system history. The warming sun may have been key to generating Titan's atmosphere over time, starting from a thin atmosphere with condensed surface volatiles like Triton, with increased luminosity releasing methane, and then large amounts of nitrogen (perhaps suddenly), into the atmosphere. This thick atmosphere, initially with much more methane than at present, resulted in global fluvial erosion that has over time retreated towards the poles with the removal of methane from the atmosphere. Basement rock, as manifested by bright, rough, ridges, scarps, crenulated blocks, or aligned massifs, mostly appears within 30 degrees of the equator. This landscape was intensely eroded by fluvial processes as evidenced by numerous valley systems, fan-like depositional features and regularly-spaced ridges (crenulated terrain). Much of this bedrock landscape, however, is mantled by dunes, suggesting that fluvial erosion no longer dominates in equatorial regions. High midlatitude regions on Titan exhibit dissected sedimentary plains at a number of localities, suggesting deposition (perhaps by sediment eroded from equatorial regions) followed by erosion. The polar regions are mainly dominated by deposits of fluvial and lacustrine sediment. Fluvial processes are active in polar areas as evidenced by alkane lakes and occasional cloud cover.

  8. Branches of the landscape

    Dine, Michael; O'Neil, Deva; Sun Zheng

    2005-01-01

    With respect to the question of supersymmetry breaking, there are three branches of the flux landscape. On one of these, if one requires small cosmological constant, supersymmetry breaking is predominantly at the fundamental scale; on another, the distribution is roughly flat on a logarithmic scale; on the third, the preponderance of vacua are at very low scale. A priori, as we will explain, one can say little about the first branch. The vast majority of these states are not accessible even to crude, approximate analysis. On the other two branches one can hope to do better. But as a result of the lack of access to branch one, and our poor understanding of cosmology, we can at best conjecture about whether string theory predicts low energy supersymmetry or not. If we hypothesize that are on branch two or three, distinctive predictions may be possible. We comment of the status of naturalness within the landscape, deriving, for example, the statistics of the first branch from simple effective field theory reasoning

  9. Urban landscape as palimpsest

    Daniel-Gabriel Vâlceanu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The current urban morphology and the identity building of the city construction can be designed as a palimpsest; the spatial development stages of urban systems represent the result of their evolution over time. The characteristics of urban palimpsest depend mainly on the emergent factors that influenced the territorial dynamics and the configuration of urban bodies. Urban life and its quality are directly influenced by spatial and temporal factors of the city evolution. For this reason the study aims to achieve a research to explain the concept of urban palimpsest and the current morphology of urban tissue because they are products of landscape transformations along the history. The current knowledge on urban palimpsest characteristics is very important and useful to plan the current and future evolution of urban systems. The case study presents a vast view on the history of spatial development and urban system as well as a dynamics of the landscape interconditioned by the elements of such development in the context of reference historical eras

  10. Norwegian millstone quarry landscapes

    Heldal, Tom; Meyer, Gurli; Grenne, Tor

    2013-04-01

    Rotary querns and millstones were used in Norway since just after the Roman Period until the last millstone was made in the 1930s. Throughout all this time millstone mining was fundamental for daily life: millstones were needed to grind grain, our most important food source. We can find millstone quarries in many places in the country from coast to mountain. Some of them cover many square kilometers and count hundreds of quarries as physical testimonies of a long and great production history. Other quarries are small and hardly visible. Some of this history is known through written and oral tradition, but most of it is hidden and must be reconstructed from the traces we can find in the landscape today. The Millstone project has put these quarry landscapes on the map, and conducted a range of case studies, including characterization of archaeological features connected to the quarrying, interpretation of quarrying techniques and evolution of such and establishing distribution and trade patterns by the aid of geological provenance. The project also turned out to be a successful cooperation between different disciplines, in particular geology and archaeology.

  11. The relationship between length of fallow and crop yields in shifting cultivation: A re-thinking

    Mertz, Ole

    2002-01-01

    farming systems modelling, government policies, land use intensification, local forest management, slash-and-burn, swidden productivity......farming systems modelling, government policies, land use intensification, local forest management, slash-and-burn, swidden productivity...

  12. Cassava in shifting cultivation : a systems approach to agricultural technology development in Africa

    Fresco, L.O.

    1986-01-01

    The background of this study forms the debate about the nature and causes of the 'African crisis', the declining food availability per head of the African population. Generalized statements on African agriculture, based on aggregated production figures, however, do not adequately reflect

  13. Shifting cultivation stability and change: Contrasting pathways of land use and livelihood change in Laos

    Vongvisouk, Thoumthone; Mertz, Ole; Tongmanivong, Sithong

    2014-01-01

    -producers. In the future, livelihood improvements in the central study site may be replicated in the northern sites, but this depends to a large extent on the economic and agricultural settings into which cash crops and other development opportunities are introduced. Moreover, the expansion of cash crops appears...

  14. Reuse of Ablution Water to Improve Peat Soil Characteristics for Ornamental Landscape Plants Cultivation

    Radin Mohamed Radin Maya Saphira

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to reuse of ablution water for washing peat soil in order to reduce the concentrations of heavy metals in these soils which might effect negatively on the plant growth. The washing process design was similar to horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands (HSSFCW consist of layers of peat and sand soil and surrounded by gravel on both sides. Strelitzia sp. was used to detect the presence negative effect of the washing process on the morphological characteristics of the plants. The physical and chemical characteristics of ablution water was examined before and after the washing process by using Inductively Couple Plasma- Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (AAS. The characteristics of peat soil before and after the washing process were examined by using X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF. The results revealed that the percentage of FeO3in peat soil reduced from 45.80 to 1.01%. The percentage of SiO2 in sand soil dropped from 87.7 to 67.10%. Parameters of ablution water resulted from the washing process which including Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD5 and heavy metals have increased but still within the standard limits for the disposal of ablution water into the environment. No atrophy was observed in Strelitzia sp. leaves, indicating the ability of plant to grow normally. It can be concluded that the utilization of ablution water in the washing of peat soil has improve the characteristics of the soil without effect on their organic constitutes.

  15. Sustainability, Smart Growth, and Landscape Architecture

    Sustainability, Smart Growth, and Landscape Architecture is an overview course for landscape architecture students interested in sustainability in landscape architecture and how it might apply to smart growth principles in urban, suburban, and rural areas

  16. Convergent Adaptations: Bitter Manioc Cultivation Systems in Fertile Anthropogenic Dark Earths and Floodplain Soils in Central Amazonia

    Fraser, James Angus; Alves-Pereira, Alessandro; Junqueira, André Braga; Peroni, Nivaldo; Clement, Charles Roland

    2012-01-01

    Shifting cultivation in the humid tropics is incredibly diverse, yet research tends to focus on one type: long-fallow shifting cultivation. While it is a typical adaptation to the highly-weathered nutrient-poor soils of the Amazonian terra firme, fertile environments in the region offer opportunities for agricultural intensification. We hypothesized that Amazonian people have developed divergent bitter manioc cultivation systems as adaptations to the properties of different soils. We compared bitter manioc cultivation in two nutrient-rich and two nutrient-poor soils, along the middle Madeira River in Central Amazonia. We interviewed 249 farmers in 6 localities, sampled their manioc fields, and carried out genetic analysis of bitter manioc landraces. While cultivation in the two richer soils at different localities was characterized by fast-maturing, low-starch manioc landraces, with shorter cropping periods and shorter fallows, the predominant manioc landraces in these soils were generally not genetically similar. Rather, predominant landraces in each of these two fertile soils have emerged from separate selective trajectories which produced landraces that converged for fast-maturing low-starch traits adapted to intensified swidden systems in fertile soils. This contrasts with the more extensive cultivation systems found in the two poorer soils at different localities, characterized by the prevalence of slow-maturing high-starch landraces, longer cropping periods and longer fallows, typical of previous studies. Farmers plant different assemblages of bitter manioc landraces in different soils and the most popular landraces were shown to exhibit significantly different yields when planted in different soils. Farmers have selected different sets of landraces with different perceived agronomic characteristics, along with different fallow lengths, as adaptations to the specific properties of each agroecological micro-environment. These findings open up new avenues for

  17. Convergent adaptations: bitter manioc cultivation systems in fertile anthropogenic dark earths and floodplain soils in Central Amazonia.

    James Angus Fraser

    Full Text Available Shifting cultivation in the humid tropics is incredibly diverse, yet research tends to focus on one type: long-fallow shifting cultivation. While it is a typical adaptation to the highly-weathered nutrient-poor soils of the Amazonian terra firme, fertile environments in the region offer opportunities for agricultural intensification. We hypothesized that Amazonian people have developed divergent bitter manioc cultivation systems as adaptations to the properties of different soils. We compared bitter manioc cultivation in two nutrient-rich and two nutrient-poor soils, along the middle Madeira River in Central Amazonia. We interviewed 249 farmers in 6 localities, sampled their manioc fields, and carried out genetic analysis of bitter manioc landraces. While cultivation in the two richer soils at different localities was characterized by fast-maturing, low-starch manioc landraces, with shorter cropping periods and shorter fallows, the predominant manioc landraces in these soils were generally not genetically similar. Rather, predominant landraces in each of these two fertile soils have emerged from separate selective trajectories which produced landraces that converged for fast-maturing low-starch traits adapted to intensified swidden systems in fertile soils. This contrasts with the more extensive cultivation systems found in the two poorer soils at different localities, characterized by the prevalence of slow-maturing high-starch landraces, longer cropping periods and longer fallows, typical of previous studies. Farmers plant different assemblages of bitter manioc landraces in different soils and the most popular landraces were shown to exhibit significantly different yields when planted in different soils. Farmers have selected different sets of landraces with different perceived agronomic characteristics, along with different fallow lengths, as adaptations to the specific properties of each agroecological micro-environment. These findings open

  18. Changing wind-power landscapes

    Möller, Bernd

    2006-01-01

    of determining the likely visual-impact on landscapes and population, taking into account that there is no clear threshold for perceived adverse visual-impact. A geographical information system (GIS) has been used to build a regional landscape model for Northern Jutland County, which is used to assess visibility...

  19. Marc Treib: Representing Landscape Architecture

    Braae, Ellen Marie

    2008-01-01

    The editor of Representing Landscape Architecture, Marc Treib, argues that there is good reason to evaluate the standard practices of representation that landscape architects have been using for so long. In the rush to the promised land of computer design these practices are now in danger of being...

  20. Caribbean landscapes and their biodiversity

    A. E. Lugo; E. H. Helmer; E. Santiago Valentín

    2012-01-01

    Both the biodiversity and the landscapes of the Caribbean have been greatly modified as a consequence of human activity. In this essay we provide an overview of the natural landscapes and biodiversity of the Caribbean and discuss how human activity has affected both. Our Caribbean geographic focus is on the insular Caribbean and the biodiversity focus is on the flora,...

  1. Future landscapes: opportunities and challenges

    John Stanturf

    2015-01-01

    The global magnitude of degraded and deforested areas is best approached by restoring landscapes. Heightened international perception of the importance of forests and trees outside forests (e.g., woodlands, on farms) demands new approaches to future landscapes. The current need for forest restoration is two billion ha; most opportunities are mosaic restoration in the...

  2. Landscape in a Lacquer Box

    Savage, Martha

    2010-01-01

    A symbolic dry landscape garden of Eastern origin holds a special fascination for the author's middle-school students, which is why the author chose to create a project exploring this view of nature. A dry landscape garden, or "karesansui," is an arrangement of rocks, worn by nature and surrounded by a "sea" of sand, raked into patterns…

  3. Contingent Diversity on Anthropic Landscapes

    William Balée

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Behaviorally modern human beings have lived in Amazonia for thousands of years. Significant dynamics in species turnovers due to human-mediated disturbance were associated with the ultimate emergence and expansion of agrarian technologies in prehistory. Such disturbances initiated primary and secondary landscape transformations in various locales of the Amazon region. Diversity in these locales can be understood by accepting the initial premise of contingency, expressed as unprecedented human agency and human history. These effects can be accessed through the archaeological record and in the study of living languages. In addition, landscape transformation can be demonstrated in the study of traditional knowledge (TK. One way of elucidating TK distinctions between anthropic and nonanthropic landscapes concerns elicitation of differential labeling of these landscapes and more significantly, elicitation of the specific contents, such as trees, occurring in these landscapes. Freelisting is a method which can be used to distinguish the differential species compositions of landscapes resulting from human-mediated disturbance vs. those which do not evince records of human agency and history. The TK of the Ka’apor Indians of Amazonian Brazil as revealed in freelisting exercises shows differentiation of anthropogenic from high forests as well as a recognition of diversity in the anthropogenic forests. This suggests that the agents of human-mediated disturbance and landscape transformation in traditional Amazonia encode diversity and contingency into their TK, which encoding reflects past cultural influence on landscape and society over time.

  4. Comparative study of potato cultivation through micropropagation ...

    A trial was carried out to evaluate the productivity of Solanum tuberosum L. cultivated through conventional farming and micropropagation method. Survival rate, biomass and tuber yield of both micropropagated and tuber propagated potatoes was evaluated. Survival percentages of potatoes were 90% for conventional ...

  5. Aggregate stability in soils cultivated with eucalyptus

    Eucalyptus cultivation has increased in many Brazilian regions. In order to recommend good management practices, it is necessary to understand changes in soil properties where eucalyptus is planted. Aggregate stability analyses have proved to be a useful tool to measure soil effects caused by change...

  6. Cultivating Visionary Leaders to Transform Our World

    Coers, Natalie J.

    2018-01-01

    Vision has long been a quality and characteristic defining leadership. To cultivate vision among undergraduate students in a course, the United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals are utilized as a foundation to inspire a vision that connects local service and personal interests to global, complex issues. Students select a goal to work with for…

  7. Cultivation of the bacterium Azotobacter chroococcum for ...

    ... increase of bioprocess efficiency parameters (yield coefficient and productivity) were observed compared with the batch cultivation. On the basis of the obtained results, repeated batch technique appeared to be the most suitable for the bacterial biomass production at industrial scale. Key words: Azotobacter chroococcum, ...

  8. Comparative study of potato cultivation through micropropagation ...

    sonu

    Comparative study of potato cultivation through micropropagation and conventional farming methods .... and Murate potash were used as fertilizer source of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, respectively (Table 1) ..... through Tissue culture- Application and Feasibility. U.S.D.A.,. Beltsville. Agric. Res. Sci. Educ. Admin.

  9. Cultivation of Parasitic Leptospires: Effect of Pyruvate

    Johnson, R. C.; Walby, J.; Henry, R. A.; Auran, N. E.

    1973-01-01

    Sodium pyruvate (100 μg/ml) is a useful addition to the Tween 80-albumin medium for the cultivation of parasitic serotypes. It is most effective in promoting growth from small inocula and growth of the nutritionally fastidious serotypes. Images PMID:4580191

  10. Cultivation Theory and Research: A Conceptual Critique.

    Potter, W. James

    1993-01-01

    Presents a critical analysis of how cultivation (long-term formation of perceptions and beliefs about the world as a result of exposure to media) has been conceptualized in theory and research. Analyses the construct of television exposure. Suggests revisions for conceptualizing the existing theory and extending it. (RS)

  11. Fitness Landscapes of Functional RNAs

    Ádám Kun

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The notion of fitness landscapes, a map between genotype and fitness, was proposed more than 80 years ago. For most of this time data was only available for a few alleles, and thus we had only a restricted view of the whole fitness landscape. Recently, advances in genetics and molecular biology allow a more detailed view of them. Here we review experimental and theoretical studies of fitness landscapes of functional RNAs, especially aptamers and ribozymes. We find that RNA structures can be divided into critical structures, connecting structures, neutral structures and forbidden structures. Such characterisation, coupled with theoretical sequence-to-structure predictions, allows us to construct the whole fitness landscape. Fitness landscapes then can be used to study evolution, and in our case the development of the RNA world.

  12. Comparison of Microalgae Cultivation in Photobioreactor, Open Raceway Pond, and a Two-Stage Hybrid System

    Narala, Rakesh R.; Garg, Sourabh; Sharma, Kalpesh K.; Thomas-Hall, Skye R.; Deme, Miklos; Li, Yan; Schenk, Peer M., E-mail: p.schenk@uq.edu.au [Algae Biotechnology Laboratory, School of Agriculture and Food Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD (Australia)

    2016-08-02

    In the wake of intensive fossil fuel usage and CO{sub 2} accumulation in the environment, research is targeted toward sustainable alternate bioenergy that can suffice the growing need for fuel and also that leaves a minimal carbon footprint. Oil production from microalgae can potentially be carried out more efficiently, leaving a smaller footprint and without competing for arable land or biodiverse landscapes. However, current algae cultivation systems and lipid induction processes must be significantly improved and are threatened by contamination with other algae or algal grazers. To address this issue, we have developed an efficient two-stage cultivation system using the marine microalga Tetraselmis sp. M8. This hybrid system combines exponential biomass production in positive pressure air lift-driven bioreactors with a separate synchronized high-lipid induction phase in nutrient deplete open raceway ponds. A comparison to either bioreactor or open raceway pond cultivation system suggests that this process potentially leads to significantly higher productivity of algal lipids. Nutrients are only added to the closed bioreactors, while open raceway ponds have turnovers of only a few days, thus reducing the issue of microalgal grazers.

  13. Comparison of microalgae cultivation in photobioreactor, open raceway pond, and a two-stage hybrid system

    Rakesh R Narala

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In the wake of intensive fossil fuel usage and CO2 accumulation in the environment, research is targeted towards sustainable alternate bioenergy that can suffice the growing need for fuel and also that leaves a minimal carbon footprint. Oil production from microalgae can potentially be carried out more efficiently, leaving a smaller footprint and without competing for arable land or biodiverse landscapes. However, current algae cultivation systems and lipid induction processes must be significantly improved and are threatened by contamination with other algae or algal grazers. To address this issue, we have developed an efficient two-stage cultivation system using the marine microalga Tetraselmis sp. M8. This hybrid system combines exponential biomass production in positive pressure air lift-driven bioreactors with a separate synchronized high-lipid induction phase in nutrient deplete open raceway ponds. A comparison to either bioreactor or open raceway pond cultivation system suggests that this process potentially leads to significantly higher productivity of algal lipids. Nutrients are only added to the closed bioreactors while open raceway ponds have turnovers of only a few days, thus reducing the issue of microalgal grazers.

  14. Comparison of Microalgae Cultivation in Photobioreactor, Open Raceway Pond, and a Two-Stage Hybrid System

    Narala, Rakesh R.; Garg, Sourabh; Sharma, Kalpesh K.; Thomas-Hall, Skye R.; Deme, Miklos; Li, Yan; Schenk, Peer M.

    2016-01-01

    In the wake of intensive fossil fuel usage and CO 2 accumulation in the environment, research is targeted toward sustainable alternate bioenergy that can suffice the growing need for fuel and also that leaves a minimal carbon footprint. Oil production from microalgae can potentially be carried out more efficiently, leaving a smaller footprint and without competing for arable land or biodiverse landscapes. However, current algae cultivation systems and lipid induction processes must be significantly improved and are threatened by contamination with other algae or algal grazers. To address this issue, we have developed an efficient two-stage cultivation system using the marine microalga Tetraselmis sp. M8. This hybrid system combines exponential biomass production in positive pressure air lift-driven bioreactors with a separate synchronized high-lipid induction phase in nutrient deplete open raceway ponds. A comparison to either bioreactor or open raceway pond cultivation system suggests that this process potentially leads to significantly higher productivity of algal lipids. Nutrients are only added to the closed bioreactors, while open raceway ponds have turnovers of only a few days, thus reducing the issue of microalgal grazers.

  15. Shifting Borderland of Technoscience

    Lindtner, Silvia; Cohn, Marisa; Leahu, Lucian

    2015-01-01

    other how to navigate changing terrains of technology research and design. To maximize in- depth collaboration between junior and senior scholars, we propose a format that includes in-depth mentoring sessions, panel presentations from junior and senior participants, group activities, and working......Since the publication of Phil Agre’s [1] seminal work on critical technical practice, the sites of intersection between computation and society have multiplied, and so too have the sociotechnical borderlands we inhabit. Critical methodologies such as “critical design” [8,6,5], “reflective design...... like big data and social computing pose new challenges. Given the fluidity of the landscape it is important for us to articulate the specificities of our scholarly borderlands. By bringing together junior and senior scholars we aim to provide a forum for researchers in this area to learn from each...

  16. Deforestation and cultivation mobilize mercury from topsoil.

    Gamby, Rebecca L; Hammerschmidt, Chad R; Costello, David M; Lamborg, Carl H; Runkle, James R

    2015-11-01

    Terrestrial biomass and soils are a primary global reservoir of mercury (Hg) derived from natural and anthropogenic sources; however, relatively little is known about the fate and stability of Hg in the surface soil reservoir and its susceptibility to change as a result of deforestation and cultivation. In southwest Ohio, we measured Hg concentrations in soils of deciduous old- and new-growth forests, as well as fallow grassland and agricultural soils that had once been forested to examine how, over decadal to century time scales, man-made deforestation and cultivation influence Hg mobility from temperate surface soils. Mercury concentrations in surficial soils were significantly greater in the old-growth than new-growth forest, and both forest soils had greater Hg concentrations than cultivated and fallow fields. Differences in Hg:lead ratios between old-growth forest and agricultural topsoils suggest that about half of the Hg lost from deforested and cultivated Ohio soils may have been volatilized and the other half eroded. The estimated mobilization potential of Hg as a result of deforestation was 4.1 mg m(-2), which was proportional to mobilization potentials measured at multiple locations in the Amazon relative to concentrations in forested surface soils. Based on this relationship and an estimate of the global average of Hg concentrations in forested soils, we approximate that about 550 M mol of Hg has been mobilized globally from soil as a result of deforestation during the past two centuries. This estimate is comparable to, if not greater than, the amount of anthropogenic Hg hypothesized by others to have been sequestered by the soil reservoir since Industrialization. Our results suggest that deforestation and soil cultivation are significant anthropogenic processes that exacerbate Hg mobilization from soil and its cycling in the environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A Classification of Landscape Services to Support Local Landscape Planning

    María Vallés-Planells

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The ecosystem services approach has been proven successful to measure the contributions of nature and greenery to human well-being. Ecosystems have an effect on quality of life, but landscapes also, as a broader concept, may contribute to people's well-being. The concept of landscape services, compared to ecosystem services, involves the social dimension of landscape and the spatial pattern resulting from both natural and human processes in the provision of benefits for human-well being. Our aim is to develop a classification for landscape services. The proposed typology of services is built on the Common International Classification of Ecosystem Services (CICES and on a critical review of existing literature on human well-being dimensions, existing ecosystem service classifications, and landscape perception. Three themes of landscape services are defined, each divided into several groups: provisioning, regulation and maintenance, cultural and social life fulfillment, with the latter focusing on health, enjoyment, and personal and social fulfillment. A special emphasis is made on cultural services, which are especially important when applied to landscape and which have received less attention.

  18. Scenic Vistas and the Changing Policy Landscape: Visualizing and Testing the Role of Visual Resources in Ecosystem Management

    Robert G. Ribe; Edward T. Armstrong; Paul H. Gobster

    2002-01-01

    The Northwest Forest Plan applies a shift in policy to national forests in the Pacific Northwest, with implications for other public landscapes. This shift offers potentially strong scenic implications for areas that have historically emphasized clearcutting with little visual impact mitigation. These areas will now emphasize biocentric concerns and harvests formed...

  19. The European nanometrology landscape.

    Leach, Richard K; Boyd, Robert; Burke, Theresa; Danzebrink, Hans-Ulrich; Dirscherl, Kai; Dziomba, Thorsten; Gee, Mark; Koenders, Ludger; Morazzani, Valérie; Pidduck, Allan; Roy, Debdulal; Unger, Wolfgang E S; Yacoot, Andrew

    2011-02-11

    This review paper summarizes the European nanometrology landscape from a technical perspective. Dimensional and chemical nanometrology are discussed first as they underpin many of the developments in other areas of nanometrology. Applications for the measurement of thin film parameters are followed by two of the most widely relevant families of functional properties: measurement of mechanical and electrical properties at the nanoscale. Nanostructured materials and surfaces, which are seen as key materials areas having specific metrology challenges, are covered next. The final section describes biological nanometrology, which is perhaps the most interdisciplinary applications area, and presents unique challenges. Within each area, a review is provided of current status, the capabilities and limitations of current techniques and instruments, and future directions being driven by emerging industrial measurement requirements. Issues of traceability, standardization, national and international programmes, regulation and skills development will be discussed in a future paper.

  20. The European nanometrology landscape

    Leach, Richard K.; Boyd, Robert; Burke, Theresa; Danzebrink, Hans-Ulrich; Dirscherl, Kai; Dziomba, Thorsten; Gee, Mark; Koenders, Ludger; Morazzani, Valérie; Pidduck, Allan; Roy, Debdulal; Unger, Wolfgang E. S.; Yacoot, Andrew

    2011-02-01

    This review paper summarizes the European nanometrology landscape from a technical perspective. Dimensional and chemical nanometrology are discussed first as they underpin many of the developments in other areas of nanometrology. Applications for the measurement of thin film parameters are followed by two of the most widely relevant families of functional properties: measurement of mechanical and electrical properties at the nanoscale. Nanostructured materials and surfaces, which are seen as key materials areas having specific metrology challenges, are covered next. The final section describes biological nanometrology, which is perhaps the most interdisciplinary applications area, and presents unique challenges. Within each area, a review is provided of current status, the capabilities and limitations of current techniques and instruments, and future directions being driven by emerging industrial measurement requirements. Issues of traceability, standardization, national and international programmes, regulation and skills development will be discussed in a future paper.

  1. The European nanometrology landscape

    Leach, Richard K; Boyd, Robert; Gee, Mark; Roy, Debdulal; Yacoot, Andrew; Burke, Theresa; Danzebrink, Hans-Ulrich; Dziomba, Thorsten; Koenders, Ludger; Dirscherl, Kai; Morazzani, Valerie; Pidduck, Allan; Unger, Wolfgang E S

    2011-01-01

    This review paper summarizes the European nanometrology landscape from a technical perspective. Dimensional and chemical nanometrology are discussed first as they underpin many of the developments in other areas of nanometrology. Applications for the measurement of thin film parameters are followed by two of the most widely relevant families of functional properties: measurement of mechanical and electrical properties at the nanoscale. Nanostructured materials and surfaces, which are seen as key materials areas having specific metrology challenges, are covered next. The final section describes biological nanometrology, which is perhaps the most interdisciplinary applications area, and presents unique challenges. Within each area, a review is provided of current status, the capabilities and limitations of current techniques and instruments, and future directions being driven by emerging industrial measurement requirements. Issues of traceability, standardization, national and international programmes, regulation and skills development will be discussed in a future paper. (topical review)

  2. The European nanometrology landscape

    Leach, Richard K; Boyd, Robert; Gee, Mark; Roy, Debdulal; Yacoot, Andrew [National Physical Laboratory (United Kingdom); Burke, Theresa [European Society for Precision Engineering and Nanotechnology (United Kingdom); Danzebrink, Hans-Ulrich; Dziomba, Thorsten; Koenders, Ludger [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (Germany); Dirscherl, Kai [Danish Fundamental Metrology (Denmark); Morazzani, Valerie [Laboratoire National de Metrologie et d' Essais (France); Pidduck, Allan [QinetiQ (United Kingdom); Unger, Wolfgang E S, E-mail: richard.leach@npl.co.uk [Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (Germany)

    2011-02-11

    This review paper summarizes the European nanometrology landscape from a technical perspective. Dimensional and chemical nanometrology are discussed first as they underpin many of the developments in other areas of nanometrology. Applications for the measurement of thin film parameters are followed by two of the most widely relevant families of functional properties: measurement of mechanical and electrical properties at the nanoscale. Nanostructured materials and surfaces, which are seen as key materials areas having specific metrology challenges, are covered next. The final section describes biological nanometrology, which is perhaps the most interdisciplinary applications area, and presents unique challenges. Within each area, a review is provided of current status, the capabilities and limitations of current techniques and instruments, and future directions being driven by emerging industrial measurement requirements. Issues of traceability, standardization, national and international programmes, regulation and skills development will be discussed in a future paper. (topical review)

  3. The medicinal Agaricus mushroom cultivated in Brazil: biology, cultivation and non-medicinal valorisation.

    Largeteau, Michèle L; Llarena-Hernández, Régulo Carlos; Regnault-Roger, Catherine; Savoie, Jean-Michel

    2011-12-01

    Sun mushroom is a cultivated mushroom extensively studied for its medicinal properties for several years and literature abounds on the topic. Besides, agronomical aspects were investigated in Brazil, the country the mushroom comes from, and some studies focus on the biology of the fungus. This review aimed to present an overview of the non-medicinal knowledge on the mushroom. Areas of commercial production and marketing trends are presented. Its specific fragrance, taste, nutritional value and potential use of extracts as food additives are compared to those of the most cultivated fungi and laboratory models. The interest of the mushroom for lignocellulosic enzyme production and source of biomolecules for the control of plant pathogens are shown. Investigation of genetic variability among cultivars is reported. Growing and storage of mycelium, as well as cultivation conditions (substrate and casing generally based on local products; indoor and outdoor cultivation; diseases and disorders) are described and compared to knowledge on Agaricus bisporus.

  4. Mechanical spectral shift reactor

    Wilson, J.F.; Sherwood, D.G.

    1982-01-01

    A mechanical spectral shift reactor comprises a reactive core having fuel assemblies accommodating both water displacer elements and neutron absorbing control rods for selectively changing the volume of water-moderator in the core. The fuel assemblies with displacer and control rods are arranged in alternating fashion so that one displacer element drive mechanism may move displacer elements in more than one fuel assembly without interfering with the movement of control rods of a corresponding control rod drive mechanisms. (author)

  5. Data anonymization patent landscape

    Mirjana Pejić Bach

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The omnipresent, unstoppable increase in digital data has led to a greater understanding of the importance of data privacy. Different approaches are used to implement data privacy. The goal of this paper is to develop a data anonymization patent landscape, by determining the following: (i the trend in data anonymization patenting, (ii the type of technical content protected in data anonymization, (iii the organizations and countries most active in patenting data anonymization know-how; and (iv the topics emerging most often in patent titles. Patents from the PatSeer database relating to data anonymization from 2001 to 2015 were analyzed. We used the longitudinal approach in combination with text mining techniques to develop a data anonymization patent landscape. The results indicated the following. The number of single patent families is growing with a high increase after 2010, thus indicating a positive trend in the area of patenting data anonymization solutions. The majority of patenting activities relate to the G Physics section. Organizations from the USA and Japan assigned the majority of patents related to data anonymization. The results of text mining indicate that the most often used word in titles of data anonymization patents are “anonym*, “method”, “data” and “system”. Several additional words that indicated the most frequent topics related to data anonymization were: “equipment”, “software”, “protection”, “identification”, or “encryption”, and specific topics such as “community”, “medical”, or “service”.

  6. Buildings Interoperability Landscape

    Hardin, Dave [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stephan, Eric G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wang, Weimin [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Corbin, Charles D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Widergren, Steven E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-31

    Through its Building Technologies Office (BTO), the United States Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (DOE-EERE) is sponsoring an effort to advance interoperability for the integration of intelligent buildings equipment and automation systems, understanding the importance of integration frameworks and product ecosystems to this cause. This is important to BTO’s mission to enhance energy efficiency and save energy for economic and environmental purposes. For connected buildings ecosystems of products and services from various manufacturers to flourish, the ICT aspects of the equipment need to integrate and operate simply and reliably. Within the concepts of interoperability lie the specification, development, and certification of equipment with standards-based interfaces that connect and work. Beyond this, a healthy community of stakeholders that contribute to and use interoperability work products must be developed. On May 1, 2014, the DOE convened a technical meeting to take stock of the current state of interoperability of connected equipment and systems in buildings. Several insights from that meeting helped facilitate a draft description of the landscape of interoperability for connected buildings, which focuses mainly on small and medium commercial buildings. This document revises the February 2015 landscape document to address reviewer comments, incorporate important insights from the Buildings Interoperability Vision technical meeting, and capture thoughts from that meeting about the topics to be addressed in a buildings interoperability vision. In particular, greater attention is paid to the state of information modeling in buildings and the great potential for near-term benefits in this area from progress and community alignment.

  7. Microbe observation and cultivation array (MOCA) for cultivating and analyzing environmental microbiota.

    Gao, Weimin; Navarroli, Dena; Naimark, Jared; Zhang, Weiwen; Chao, Shih-Hui; Meldrum, Deirdre R

    2013-01-09

    The use of culture-independent nucleic acid techniques, such as ribosomal RNA gene cloning library analysis, has unveiled the tremendous microbial diversity that exists in natural environments. In sharp contrast to this great achievement is the current difficulty in cultivating the majority of bacterial species or phylotypes revealed by molecular approaches. Although recent new technologies such as metagenomics and metatranscriptomics can provide more functionality information about the microbial communities, it is still important to develop the capacity to isolate and cultivate individual microbial species or strains in order to gain a better understanding of microbial physiology and to apply isolates for various biotechnological applications. We have developed a new system to cultivate bacteria in an array of droplets. The key component of the system is the microbe observation and cultivation array (MOCA), which consists of a Petri dish that contains an array of droplets as cultivation chambers. MOCA exploits the dominance of surface tension in small amounts of liquid to spontaneously trap cells in well-defined droplets on hydrophilic patterns. During cultivation, the growth of the bacterial cells across the droplet array can be monitored using an automated microscope, which can produce a real-time record of the growth. When bacterial cells grow to a visible microcolony level in the system, they can be transferred using a micropipette for further cultivation or analysis. MOCA is a flexible system that is easy to set up, and provides the sensitivity to monitor growth of single bacterial cells. It is a cost-efficient technical platform for bioassay screening and for cultivation and isolation of bacteria from natural environments.

  8. THE PRELIMINARY STUDY ON LANDSCAPE CULTURE ORIENTATION AND EXPLOITATION OF THE SOUTH DONGTING LAKE WETLAND

    2002-01-01

    Dongting Lake is internationally an important wetland. We studied and summarized the conception, function, classification and current situation of the wetland-landscape culture in this region. The results showed that the culture of Dongting Lake wetland was rich in diversity, which are the Rice Cultivation Culture, high-balustrade dwelling,Nuo Culture, Ship Culture, Dragon Boat Culture, Chu Culture, Ancient Architecture Landscape, Wetland Foodstuff andCuisine Culture, Civil Art, Historic Heritage and Cultural Relics, Revolutionary Sites and Ruins, and Production andLiving Culture, etc. We also evaluated the eeo-tourism value of wetland landscape culture, and analyzed its features andorientation. The results revealed that the south Dongting Lake wetland plays a key role on the Changjiang(Yangtze) Riverreaches civilization and Chinese civilization, even has great influence on the global civilization. We summarized that thesoul of the south Dongting Lake Culture was Wetland Culture, Water Culture, Rice Cultivation and Chu Culture. Thethoughts, principles and approaches of sustainable exploitation and utilization of the wetland landscape culture were formulated and suggested.

  9. Assessing the relationship between surface urban heat islands and landscape patterns across climatic zones in China.

    Yang, Qiquan; Huang, Xin; Li, Jiayi

    2017-08-24

    The urban heat island (UHI) effect exerts a great influence on the Earth's environment and human health and has been the subject of considerable attention. Landscape patterns are among the most important factors relevant to surface UHIs (SUHIs); however, the relationship between SUHIs and landscape patterns is poorly understood over large areas. In this study, the surface UHI intensity (SUHII) is defined as the temperature difference between urban and suburban areas, and the landscape patterns are quantified by the urban-suburban differences in several typical landscape metrics (ΔLMs). Temperature and land-cover classification datasets based on satellite observations were applied to analyze the relationship between SUHII and ΔLMs in 332 cities/city agglomerations distributed in different climatic zones of China. The results indicate that SUHII and its correlations with ΔLMs are profoundly influenced by seasonal, diurnal, and climatic factors. The impacts of different land-cover types on SUHIs are different, and the landscape patterns of the built-up and vegetation (including forest, grassland, and cultivated land) classes have the most significant effects on SUHIs. The results of this study will help us to gain a deeper understanding of the relationship between the SUHI effect and landscape patterns.

  10. Coupled analysis on landscape pattern and hydrological processes in Yanhe watershed of China.

    Li, J; Zhou, Z X

    2015-02-01

    As a typical experimental Soil and Water Conservation District, Yanhe watershed has long been plagued by soil erosion due to severe human disturbances. Exerting remote sensing (RS) and geographic information system (GIS) technology, this paper firstly analyzed and simulated ecological hydrological process in Yanhe watershed based on SWAT model, constructed a comprehensive landscape indices which was closely related to soil erosion, and reflected the coupling relationship between regional landscape pattern change and soil erosion. The results are as follows: (1) Areas of different land use types remained relatively stable from 1990 to 2000 and then changed drastically from 2000 to 2010, which was characterized by lawn expansion and cultivated land shrinkage. (2) In terms of the spatial heterogeneity of hydrological response unit (HRUs), the correlation coefficient of seven selected landscape indices and runoff was very small, and cannot pass all significant testing. But correlation between the indices and sediment yield except for Total Core Area (TCA) and Interspersion and Juxtaposition Index (IJI) was remarkable. (3) According to 'the source-sink' theory of soil erosion, new landscape index-slope-HRU landscape index (SHLI) was built, and reflected the relationship between landscape pattern and soil erosion processes to a certain extent. (4) Coupling relationship between SHLI in 2010 and annual sediment was very prominent. In the sub-basin scale, SHLI has obvious regional differentiation from annual sediment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Landscape planning for agridevelopment at regional scale: an example from cotton growing Yavatmal district, Maharashtra, India

    Bhaskara Phaneendra Bhaskar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The basaltic landscape planning on the hot semiarid ecosystem in cotton growing Yavatmal district, Maharashtra tends to concentrate on 52 per cent of total cultivated area with 43 per cent of rural families living below poverty line posing major problem for environmental protection and resource management. Concepts of sustainable development at regional-level planning suggested that there is a growing concern for the landscape community to develop a strategic regional agricultural planning perspective in order to assist landscape planning goals. These challenges were explored with particular reference to the cotton growing Yavatmal district in Maharashtra through baseline land resource / agronomic surveys and assessing the production potential of regional rural landscapes for crop planning. Landscape analysis, premised on the geopedological and elevation constructs, culminated in a spatial coverage of hills and ridges (12.6 per cent of total area in northern and central parts whereas plateaus (29.3 per cent in association with isolated hills, mesas and butte and escarpments (17.7 per cent, pediplains (28.8 per cent and plains (8.1 per cent in south western parts of the district. Regional level analysis revealed spatially variable soil typologies dominated by vertisols and vertic intergrades. An exploration and brief account of integration landscape planning was discussed with some reflections on the experience and highlighting some of the problems and potentials of this approach within the regional context.

  12. Influence of landscape context on the abundance and diversity of bees in Mediterranean olive groves.

    Tscheulin, T; Neokosmidis, L; Petanidou, T; Settele, J

    2011-10-01

    The diversity and abundance of wild bees ensures the delivery of pollination services and the maintenance of ecosystem diversity. As previous studies carried out in Central Europe and the US have shown, bee diversity and abundance is influenced by the structure and the composition of the surrounding landscape. Comparable studies have so far not been carried out in the Mediterranean region. The present study examines the influence of Mediterranean landscape context on the diversity and abundance of wild bees. To do this, we sampled bees in 13 sites in olive groves on Lesvos Island, Greece. Bees were assigned to five categories consisting of three body size groups (small, medium and large bees), the single most abundant bee species (Lasioglossum marginatum) and all species combined. The influence of the landscape context on bee abundance and species richness was assessed at five radii (250, 500, 750, 1000 and 1250 m) from the centre of each site. We found that the abundance within bee groups was influenced differently by different landscape parameters and land covers, whereas species richness was unaffected. Generally, smaller bees' abundance was impacted by landscape parameters at smaller scales and larger bees at larger scales. The land cover that influenced bee abundance positively was olive grove, while phrygana, conifer forest, broad-leaved forest, cultivated land, rock, urban areas and sea had mostly negative or no impact. We stress the need for a holistic approach, including all land covers, when assessing the effects of landscape context on bee diversity and abundance in the Mediterranean.

  13. [Landscape classification: research progress and development trend].

    Liang, Fa-Chao; Liu, Li-Ming

    2011-06-01

    Landscape classification is the basis of the researches on landscape structure, process, and function, and also, the prerequisite for landscape evaluation, planning, protection, and management, directly affecting the precision and practicability of landscape research. This paper reviewed the research progress on the landscape classification system, theory, and methodology, and summarized the key problems and deficiencies of current researches. Some major landscape classification systems, e. g. , LANMAP and MUFIC, were introduced and discussed. It was suggested that a qualitative and quantitative comprehensive classification based on the ideology of functional structure shape and on the integral consideration of landscape classification utility, landscape function, landscape structure, physiogeographical factors, and human disturbance intensity should be the major research directions in the future. The integration of mapping, 3S technology, quantitative mathematics modeling, computer artificial intelligence, and professional knowledge to enhance the precision of landscape classification would be the key issues and the development trend in the researches of landscape classification.

  14. Evaluation of cellulosic wastes for the cultivation of Pleurotus eryngii ...

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-05-16

    May 16, 2008 ... of plant residues, and they have been found to be nutritionally and ... In most countries, there is a well-established consumer accep- tance for cultivated ... temperature, dampness, CO2, cultivation methods and tecniques etc.

  15. Cultivating a Cross-Cultural Disposition

    Crooks, Rory A

    2007-01-01

    .... Developing the patience and inclination to work with dramatically different cultures requires PME to shift focus from the primarily cognitive domain of educational objectives to the affective domain...

  16. Landscape characterization and biodiversity research

    Dale, V.H. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Offerman, H. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States). Geography Dept.; Frohn, R. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Gardner, R.H. [Appalachian Environmental Lab., Frostburg, MD (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Rapid deforestation often produces landscape-level changes in forest characteristics and structure, including area, distribution, and forest habitat types. Changes in landscape pattern through fragmentation or aggregation of natural habitats can alter patterns of abundance for single species and entire communities. Examples of single-species effects include increased predation along the forest edge, the decline in the number of species with poor dispersal mechanisms, and the spread of exotic species that have deleterious effects (e.g., gypsy moth). A decrease in the size and number of natural habitat patches increases the probability of local extirpation and loss of diversity of native species, whereas a decline in connectivity between habitat patches can negatively affect species persistence. Thus, there is empirical justification for managing entire landscapes, not just individual habitat types, in order to insure that native plant and animal diversity is maintained. A landscape is defined as an area composed of a mosaic of interacting ecosystems, or patches, with the heterogeneity among the patches significantly affecting biotic and abiotic processes in the landscape. Patches comprising a landscape are usually composed of discrete areas of relatively homogeneous environmental conditions and must be defined in terms of the organisms of interest. A large body of theoretical work in landscape ecology has provided a wealth of methods for quantifying spatial characteristics of landscapes. Recent advances in remote sensing and geographic information systems allow these methods to be applied over large areas. The objectives of this paper are to present a brief overview of common measures of landscape characteristics, to explore the new technology available for their calculation, to provide examples of their application, and to call attention to the need for collection of spatially-explicit field data.

  17. The impact of ancestral heath management on soils and landscapes: a reconstruction based on paleoecological analyses of soil records in the central and southeastern Netherlands

    Doorenbosch, Marieke; van Mourik, Jan M.

    2016-07-01

    The evolution of heathlands during the Holocene has been registered in various soil records. Paleoecological analyses of these records enable reconstruction of the changing economic and cultural management of heaths and the consequences for landscape and soils. Heaths are characteristic components of cultural landscape mosaics on sandy soils in the Netherlands. The natural habitat of heather species was moorland. At first, natural events like forest fires and storms caused small-scale forest degradation; in addition on that, the forest degradation accelerated due to cultural activities like forest grazing, wood cutting, and shifting cultivation. Heather plants invaded degraded forest soils, and heaths developed. People learned to use the heaths for economic and cultural purposes. The impact of the heath management on landscape and soils was registered in soil records of barrows, drift sand sequences, and plaggic Anthrosols. Based on pollen diagrams of such records we could reconstruct that heaths were developed and used for cattle grazing before the Bronze Age. During the late Neolithic, the Bronze Age, and Iron Age, people created the barrow landscape on the ancestral heaths. After the Iron Age, people probably continued with cattle grazing on the heaths and plaggic agriculture until the early Middle Ages. Severe forest degradation by the production of charcoal for melting iron during the Iron Age till the 6th-7th century and during the 11th-13th century for the trade of wood resulted in extensive sand drifting, a threat to the valuable heaths. The introduction of the deep, stable economy and heath sods digging in the course of the 18th century resulted in acceleration of the rise of plaggic horizons, severe heath degradation, and again extension of sand drifting. At the end of the 19th century heath lost its economic value due to the introduction of chemical fertilizers. The heaths were transformed into "new" arable fields and forests, and due to deep ploughing

  18. Landscape services as boundary concept in landscape governance: Building social capital in collaboration and adapting the landscape

    Westerink, Judith; Opdam, Paul; Rooij, Van Sabine; Steingröver, Eveliene

    2017-01-01

    The landscape services concept provides a lens to study relations within the social-ecological networks that landscapes are, and to identify stakeholders as either providers or beneficiaries. However, landscape services can also be used as a boundary concept in collaborative landscape governance. We

  19. Multifunctional landscape practice and accessibility in manorial landscapes

    Brandt, Jesper; Svenningsen, Stig Roar; Christensen, Andreas Aagaard

    . However classical manorial estates seems to represent an opposite trend. Allthough working at the same market conditions as other large specialized holdings developed through the process of structural rationalization, they have often maintained and elaborated a land use strategy based on a multifunctional...... use of the potential ecosystem services present within their domain. The targeted combination of agriculture, forestry, hunting rents, rental housing, and a variety of recreational activities influences makes a certain public accessibility to an integrated part of this strategy, diverging from...... the multifunctional landscape strategy supporting a certain public access. A study of this thesis is presented based on an analysis of multifunctionality, landscape development and accessibility in Danish Manorial landscapes and eventual linkages between their multifunctional landscape strategy, their history...

  20. Beyond Landscape MacArchitecture: new languages, new landscapes

    Simon Rackham

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available The sine qua non of landscape architecture is respect for the genius loci, but even in the landscape, as in architecture and society more generally, a process of cultural homogenisation has been taking place. Against this process, a resurgence of interest in minority languages in Europe can be seen as an assertion of pride, and a desire to preserve difference. In Scotland, landscape architects are attempting to reinterpret Scottish and northern European urban design influences and materials: in effect to develop a new regional dialect for the new landscapes. Rooted in sound design principles and materials which respond to and reflect the climate, way of life and traditions of the place, design languages can communicate effectively about cultural values and differences.

  1. Decision making on fitness landscapes

    Arthur, R.; Sibani, P.

    2017-04-01

    We discuss fitness landscapes and how they can be modified to account for co-evolution. We are interested in using the landscape as a way to model rational decision making in a toy economic system. We develop a model very similar to the Tangled Nature Model of Christensen et al. that we call the Tangled Decision Model. This is a natural setting for our discussion of co-evolutionary fitness landscapes. We use a Monte Carlo step to simulate decision making and investigate two different decision making procedures.

  2. Studying landscape architecture in Denmark

    Braae, Ellen Marie; Hare, Richard Andrew

    2010-01-01

    s demanded large numbers of landscape architects. Today landscape architecture education addresses current challenges of climate change and the need for sustainable development where an understanding of natural systems is seen as essential for future urbanisation processes in evermore innovative......Landscape architecture is a well-established profession in Denmark. From the early 20th Century the profession developed steadily. However, it was 1960 before a separate education was established. This proved timely as the immense physical development of the Danish welfare state of the 1970s and 80...

  3. Decision Making on Fitness Landscapes

    Arthur, Rudy; Sibani, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    We discuss fitness landscapes and how they can be modified to account for co-evolution. We are interested in using the landscape as a way to model rational decision making in a toy economic system. We develop a model very similar to the Tangled Nature Model of Christensen et. al. that we call...... the Tangled Decision Model. This is a natural setting for our discussion of co-evolutionary fitness landscapes. We use a Monte Carlo step to simulate decision making and investigate two different decision making procedures....

  4. Connecting Brabant's cover sand landscapes through landscape history

    Heskes, Erik; van den Ancker, Hanneke; Jungerius, Pieter Dirk; Harthoorn, Jaap; Maes, Bert; Leenders, Karel; de Jongh, Piet; Kluiving, Sjoerd; van den Oetelaar, Ger

    2015-04-01

    Noord-Brabant has the largest variety of cover sand landscapes in The Netherlands, and probably in Western Europe. During the Last Ice Age the area was not covered by land ice and a polar desert developed in which sand dunes buried the existing river landscapes. Some of these polar dune landscapes experienced a geomorphological and soil development that remained virtually untouched up to the present day, such as the low parabolic dunes of the Strabrechtse Heide or the later and higher dunes of the Oisterwijkse Vennen. As Noord-Brabant lies on the fringe of a tectonic basin, the thickness of cover sand deposits in the Centrale Slenk, part of a rift through Europe, amounts up to 20 metres. Cover sand deposits along the fault lines cause the special phenomenon of 'wijst' to develop, in which the higher grounds are wetter than the boarding lower grounds. Since 4000 BC humans settled in these cover sand landscapes and made use of its small-scale variety. An example are the prehistoric finds on the flanks and the historic towns on top of the 'donken' in northwest Noord-Brabant, where the cover sand landscapes are buried by river and marine deposits and only the peaks of the dunes protrude as donken. Or the church of Handel that is built beside a 'wijst' source and a site of pilgrimage since living memory. Or the 'essen' and plaggen agriculture that developed along the stream valleys of Noord-Brabant from 1300 AD onwards, giving rise to geomorphological features as 'randwallen' and plaggen soils of more than a metre thickness. Each region of Brabant each has its own approach in attracting tourists and has not yet used this common landscape history to connect, manage and promote their territories. We propose a landscape-historical approach to develop a national or European Geopark Brabants' cover sand landscapes, in which each region focuses on a specific part of the landscape history of Brabant, that stretches from the Late Weichselian polar desert when the dune

  5. LANDSCAPE PLANNING IN UKRAINE: THE FIRST LANDSCAPE-PLANNING PROGRAM

    Leonid Rudenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the first, in Ukraine; project on landscape planning widely accepted in European countries. Under the project implemented in 2010–2013, a landscape-planning program has been developed for the Cherkassy oblast. This is the first document of this kind in Ukraine. The program is mainly based on the experience of the German and Russian schools of landscape planning and on research and assessment conducted by the authors, which allowed identifying approaches to landscape planning, principles of the national policy, and characteristics and potential of environmentally friendly planning in Ukraine. The paper discusses the main phases of the work on the development of the landscape program for the oblast. It also identifies the main stages and key concepts and principles of landscape planning. The paper presents the results of integrated research on the identification and classification of conflicts in land use and the integral concept of the developmental goals for the oblast. The results can be the foundation for adopting management decisions and development of action plans for the lower hierarchal branches.

  6. Mechanical spectral shift reactor

    Doshi, P.K.; George, R.A.; Dollard, W.J.

    1982-01-01

    A mechanical spectral shift arrangement for controlling a nuclear reactor includes a plurality of reactor coolant displacer members which are inserted into a reactor core at the beginning of the core life to reduce the volume of reactor coolant-moderator in the core at start-up. However, as the reactivity of the core declines with fuel depletion, selected displacer members are withdrawn from the core at selected time intervals to increase core moderation at a time when fuel reactivity is declining. (author)

  7. Spectral shift reactor

    Carlson, W.R.; Piplica, E.J.

    1982-01-01

    A spectral shift pressurized water reactor comprising apparatus for inserting and withdrawing water displacer elements having differing neutron absorbing capabilities for selectively changing the water-moderator volume in the core thereby changing the reactivity of the core. The displacer elements comprise substantially hollow cylindrical low neutron absorbing rods and substantially hollow cylindrical thick walled stainless rods. Since the stainless steel displacer rods have greater neutron absorbing capability, they can effect greater reactivity change per rod. However, by arranging fewer stainless steel displacer rods in a cluster, the reactivity worth of the stainless steel displacer rod cluster can be less than a low neutron absorbing displacer rod cluster. (author)

  8. Bioremediation of industrial waste through mushroom cultivation.

    Kulshreshtha, Shweta; Mathur, Nupur; Bhatnagar, Pradeep; Jain, B L

    2010-07-01

    Handmade paper and cardboard industries are involved in processing of cellulosic and ligno-cellulosic substances for making paper by hand or simple machinery. In the present study solid sludge and effluent of both cardboard and handmade paper industries was collected for developing a mushroom cultivation technique to achieve zero waste discharges. Findings of present research work reveals that when 50% paper industries waste is used by mixing with 50% (w/w) wheat straw, significant increase (96.38%) in biological efficiency over control of wheat straw was observed. Further, cultivated basidiocarps showed normal morphology of stipe and pileus. Cross section of lamellae did not show any abnormality in the attachment of basidiospores, hymenal trama and basidium. No toxicity was found when fruiting bodies were tested chemically.

  9. Biodiversity, evolution and adaptation of cultivated crops.

    Vigouroux, Yves; Barnaud, Adeline; Scarcelli, Nora; Thuillet, Anne-Céline

    2011-05-01

    The human diet depends on very few crops. Current diversity in these crops is the result of a long interaction between farmers and cultivated plants, and their environment. Man largely shaped crop biodiversity from the domestication period 12,000 B.P. to the development of improved varieties during the last century. We illustrate this process through a detailed analysis of the domestication and early diffusion of maize. In smallholder agricultural systems, farmers still have a major impact on crop diversity today. We review several examples of the major impact of man on current diversity. Finally, biodiversity is considered to be an asset for adaptation to current environmental changes. We describe the evolution of pearl millet in West Africa, where average rainfall has decreased over the last forty years. Diversity in cultivated varieties has certainly helped this crop to adapt to climate variation. Copyright © 2011 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Genetically modified plants: Decade of commercial cultivation

    Mladenović-Drinić Snežana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The year 2005 marks the beginning of the 10th consecutive year of commercial cultivation of genetically modified plants all around the world. The first GM variety of crops appeared on market during 1995 year and from that global area of biotech crops increased to 81 mil hectares in 2004. Genetically modified plant tolerant to herbicides, resistant to insects, improved quality have been developed. The use of GMO, their release into environment cultivation, utilization as food and feed is regulated in the EU by set of directives: 90/220, 2001/18, 2002/53, 1830/2003. Informer Yugoslavia the low about GMO was adopted in may 2001. That law consist of common regulation and it is in accordinance with EU regulation. Detection of genetic modification in seed and food could be done by PCR or ELISA methods.

  11. Resource-saving inter-row cultivator

    N. E. Rudenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Inter-row cultivators have some shortcomings: design is complicated due to placing on each section of a 4-unit (parallelogram suspension of working tools; as the copying means use wheels which are mounted at distance from working tools, in other vertical plane, and have negative effect on variability of tillage depth; working tools are V-shaped hoes with a crumbling angle not more than 16 degrees. In the operation course the parts of a leg and a hoe, moving in the soil, raise it and throw to the side, creating not aligned surface grooves are formed, imposed moist soil. These processes are exacerbated by increasing the operating speed of the cultivator. The authors offered a resource-saving inter-row cultivator with a radial suspension of working tools. A flat plate spring was used as a beam. This simplifies the design, eliminates the horizontal oscillations of the working tools, provides a constant pressing them in the process. The working tool in the form of a flat lancet plowshares with a spiral fixed on the leg was designed. Operating width of a ploughshare is of 420 mm, thickness equals 4 (5 mm. The spiral with a diameter of 50 mm is made of a carbon spring wire with a diameter of 2-3 mm. One hoe is set instead of three-five tines on each section, that significantly reduces material consumption. A plough share with a spiral form the swinging-loosening element that provides creating a fine lumpy topsoil. The ploughshare performs the copying functions therefore the additional copying wheels are not required. Tests showed that the new working tool of a cultivator allows to operate qualitatively at a speed up to 14-18 km/h.

  12. Cultivation Of Deep Subsurface Microbial Communities

    Obrzut, Natalia; Casar, Caitlin; Osburn, Magdalena R.

    2018-01-01

    The potential habitability of surface environments on other planets in our solar system is limited by exposure to extreme radiation and desiccation. In contrast, subsurface environments may offer protection from these stressors and are potential reservoirs for liquid water and energy that support microbial life (Michalski et al., 2013) and are thus of interest to the astrobiology community. The samples used in this project were extracted from the Deep Mine Microbial Observatory (DeMMO) in the former Homestake Mine at depths of 800 to 2000 feet underground (Osburn et al., 2014). Phylogenetic data from these sites indicates the lack of cultured representatives within the community. We used geochemical data to guide media design to cultivate and isolate organisms from the DeMMO communities. Media used for cultivation varied from heterotrophic with oxygen, nitrate or sulfate to autotrophic media with ammonia or ferrous iron. Environmental fluid was used as inoculum in batch cultivation and strains were isolated via serial transfers or dilution to extinction. These methods resulted in isolating aerobic heterotrophs, nitrate reducers, sulfate reducers, ammonia oxidizers, and ferric iron reducers. DNA sequencing of these strains is underway to confirm which species they belong to. This project is part of the NASA Astrobiology Institute Life Underground initiative to detect and characterize subsurface microbial life; by characterizing the intraterrestrials, the life living deep within Earth’s crust, we aim to understand the controls on how and where life survives in subsurface settings. Cultivation of terrestrial deep subsurface microbes will provide insight into the survival mechanisms of intraterrestrials guiding the search for these life forms on other planets.

  13. Soil protection through almond tree cultivation

    Garcia, C.; Hernandez, T.; Moreno, J. L.; Bastida, F.; Masciandaro, G.; Mennone, C.; Ceccanti, B.

    2009-01-01

    Most threat to soil are particularly severe in areas with steps slopes and suffering dry periods followed by heavy rain such as the Mediterranean regions. Severity is aggravated by lacking or inappropriate farming systems. Therefore the objective of this work was to demonstrate that land management based on cultivation of new varieties of local crops (almond trees) suited to these conditions may result in a sustainable system to prevent soil degradation. (Author)

  14. Energy landscapes in a crowded world

    Pasqualetti, Martin; Stremke, Sven

    2018-01-01

    One of the main drivers of landscape transformation has been our demand for energy. We refer to the results of such transformations as "energy landscapes". This paper examines the definition of energy landscapes within a conceptual framework, proposes a classification of energy landscapes, and

  15. Perspectives on landscape identity, a conceptual challenge

    Stobbelaar, D.J.; Pedroli, B.

    2011-01-01

    The concept of landscape identity is often referred to in landscape policy and planning. A clear definition of the concept is lacking however. This is problematic because the term ‘landscape identity’ can have many different meanings and thus easily lead to confusion. We define landscape identity as

  16. Bipolarity and Ambivalence in Landscape Architecture

    Koh, J.

    2010-01-01

    Our discipline of landscape architecture contains bipolarity, not only in terms of landscape and architecture but also because the idea of landscape is both aesthetic and scientific. Furthermore, within landscape architecture there is a gap between design (as implied by architecture) and planning

  17. Morphology and rheology in filamentous cultivations.

    Wucherpfennig, T; Kiep, K A; Driouch, H; Wittmann, C; Krull, R

    2010-01-01

    Because of their metabolic diversity, high production capacity, secretion efficiency, and capability of carrying out posttranslational modifications, filamentous fungi are widely exploited as efficient cell factories in the production of metabolites, bioactive substances, and native or heterologous proteins, respectively. There is, however, a complex relationship between the morphology of these microorganisms, transport phenomena, the viscosity of the cultivation broth, and related productivity. The morphological characteristics vary between freely dispersed mycelia and distinct pellets of aggregated biomass, every growth form having a distinct influence on broth rheology. Hence, the advantages and disadvantages for mycelial or pellet cultivation have to be balanced out carefully. Because of the still inadequate understanding of the morphogenesis of filamentous microorganisms, fungal morphology is often a bottleneck of productivity in industrial production. To obtain an optimized production process, it is of great importance to gain a better understanding of the molecular and cell biology of these microorganisms as well as the relevant approaches in biochemical engineering. In this chapter, morphology and growth of filamentous fungi are described, with special attention given to specific problems as they arise from fungal growth forms; growth and mass transfer in fungal biopellets are discussed as an example. To emphasize the importance of the flow behavior of filamentous cultivation broths, an introduction to rheology is also given, reviewing important rheological models and recent studies concerning rheological parameters. Furthermore, current knowledge on morphology and productivity in relation to the environom is outlined in the last section of this review. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Use of waste material in cultivation substrates

    Petr Salaš

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Gardeners' practical experience and experimental work prove the affirmation that the used substrate is a very important base for the production of quality nursery products. It is important to emphasis the complexity and synergy of all factors influencing the ecosystem and there mutual relations. Physical, chemical and biological properties do not separately affect the growth and development of plants. In addition, the relations are not statical but differ in relation with other factors changes. This article is dealing with the possibility to use waste material from timber processing in cultivation substrates. The large scale use of such substrates would enable people to reach a relative independence from peat substrates, of which the global reserve is gradually decreasing.Our research activities focus on the use of bark. The basic problems of a bark substrate are easy dehydration and unbalanced nutrition of trees and shrubs. The suggested and experimented cultivation technology solves these problems. It is based on the cultivation of woody species in bark substrates, using modern irrigation systems, slow release fertilisers (Silvamix Forte and special soil conditioners (TerraCottem. This technology was tested on the following species of trees and shrubs: Malus and Buxus.

  19. The Underlying Social Dynamics of Paradigm Shifts.

    Rodriguez-Sickert, Carlos; Cosmelli, Diego; Claro, Francisco; Fuentes, Miguel Angel

    2015-01-01

    We develop here a multi-agent model of the creation of knowledge (scientific progress or technological evolution) within a community of researchers devoted to such endeavors. In the proposed model, agents learn in a physical-technological landscape, and weight is attached to both individual search and social influence. We find that the combination of these two forces together with random experimentation can account for both i) marginal change, that is, periods of normal science or refinements on the performance of a given technology (and in which the community stays in the neighborhood of the current paradigm); and ii) radical change, which takes the form of scientific paradigm shifts (or discontinuities in the structure of performance of a technology) that is observed as a swift migration of the knowledge community towards the new and superior paradigm. The efficiency of the search process is heavily dependent on the weight that agents posit on social influence. The occurrence of a paradigm shift becomes more likely when each member of the community attaches a small but positive weight to the experience of his/her peers. For this parameter region, nevertheless, a conservative force is exerted by the representatives of the current paradigm. However, social influence is not strong enough to seriously hamper individual discovery, and can act so as to empower successful individual pioneers who have conquered the new and superior paradigm.

  20. The Underlying Social Dynamics of Paradigm Shifts.

    Carlos Rodriguez-Sickert

    Full Text Available We develop here a multi-agent model of the creation of knowledge (scientific progress or technological evolution within a community of researchers devoted to such endeavors. In the proposed model, agents learn in a physical-technological landscape, and weight is attached to both individual search and social influence. We find that the combination of these two forces together with random experimentation can account for both i marginal change, that is, periods of normal science or refinements on the performance of a given technology (and in which the community stays in the neighborhood of the current paradigm; and ii radical change, which takes the form of scientific paradigm shifts (or discontinuities in the structure of performance of a technology that is observed as a swift migration of the knowledge community towards the new and superior paradigm. The efficiency of the search process is heavily dependent on the weight that agents posit on social influence. The occurrence of a paradigm shift becomes more likely when each member of the community attaches a small but positive weight to the experience of his/her peers. For this parameter region, nevertheless, a conservative force is exerted by the representatives of the current paradigm. However, social influence is not strong enough to seriously hamper individual discovery, and can act so as to empower successful individual pioneers who have conquered the new and superior paradigm.

  1. Flowscapes : Designing infrastructure as landscape

    Nijhuis, S.; Jauslin, D.T.; Van der Hoeven, F.D.

    2015-01-01

    Social, cultural and technological developments of our society are demanding a fundamental review of the planning and design of its landscapes and infrastructures, in particular in relation to environmental issues and sustainability. Transportation, green and water infrastructures are important

  2. Qualified Health Plan (QHP) Landscape

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — QHP Landscape Files present basic information about certified Qualified Health Plans and Stand-alone Dental Plans for individuals-families and small businesses...

  3. The evolving landscape of banking

    Boot, A.W.A.; Marinč, M.

    2008-01-01

    The structure of the financial services industry is in flux. Liberalization, deregulation, and advances in information technology have changed the financial landscape dramatically. Interbank competition has heated up and banks face increasing competition from nonbanking financial institutions and

  4. Greenhouse warming and landscape care

    Kevin T. Smith

    2009-01-01

    Climate change is one of the few truly planetary processes that influence the assessments and actions of governments and of everyday citizens. Principles and practices of ecological landscaping fit well with concern about hte effects of climate change.

  5. Repetition and Translation Shifts

    Simon Zupan

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Repetition manifests itself in different ways and at different levels of the text. The first basic type of repetition involves complete recurrences; in which a particular textual feature repeats in its entirety. The second type involves partial recurrences; in which the second repetition of the same textual feature includes certain modifications to the first occurrence. In the article; repetitive patterns in Edgar Allan Poe’s short story “The Fall of the House of Usher” and its Slovene translation; “Konec Usherjeve hiše”; are compared. The author examines different kinds of repetitive patterns. Repetitions are compared at both the micro- and macrostructural levels. As detailed analyses have shown; considerable microstructural translation shifts occur in certain types of repetitive patterns. Since these are not only occasional; sporadic phenomena; but are of a relatively high frequency; they reduce the translated text’s potential for achieving some of the gothic effects. The macrostructural textual property particularly affected by these shifts is the narrator’s experience as described by the narrative; which suffers a reduction in intensity.

  6. Titan Polar Landscape Evolution

    Moore, Jeffrey M.

    2016-01-01

    With the ongoing Cassini-era observations and studies of Titan it is clear that the intensity and distribution of surface processes (particularly fluvial erosion by methane and Aeolian transport) has changed through time. Currently however, alternate hypotheses substantially differ among specific scenarios with respect to the effects of atmospheric evolution, seasonal changes, and endogenic processes. We have studied the evolution of Titan's polar region through a combination of analysis of imaging, elevation data, and geomorphic mapping, spatially explicit simulations of landform evolution, and quantitative comparison of the simulated landscapes with corresponding Titan morphology. We have quantitatively evaluated alternate scenarios for the landform evolution of Titan's polar terrain. The investigations have been guided by recent geomorphic mapping and topographic characterization of the polar regions that are used to frame hypotheses of process interactions, which have been evaluated using simulation modeling. Topographic information about Titan's polar region is be based on SAR-Topography and altimetry archived on PDS, SAR-based stereo radar-grammetry, radar-sounding lake depth measurements, and superposition relationships between geomorphologic map units, which we will use to create a generalized topographic map.

  7. PSEUDO-CODEWORD LANDSCAPE

    CHERTKOV, MICHAEL [Los Alamos National Laboratory; STEPANOV, MIKHAIL [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2007-01-10

    The authors discuss performance of Low-Density-Parity-Check (LDPC) codes decoded by Linear Programming (LP) decoding at moderate and large Signal-to-Noise-Ratios (SNR). Frame-Error-Rate (FER) dependence on SNR and the noise space landscape of the coding/decoding scheme are analyzed by a combination of the previously introduced instanton/pseudo-codeword-search method and a new 'dendro' trick. To reduce complexity of the LP decoding for a code with high-degree checks, {ge} 5, they introduce its dendro-LDPC counterpart, that is the code performing identifically to the original one under Maximum-A-Posteriori (MAP) decoding but having reduced (down to three) check connectivity degree. Analyzing number of popular LDPC codes and their dendro versions performing over the Additive-White-Gaussian-Noise (AWGN) channel, they observed two qualitatively different regimes: (i) error-floor sets early, at relatively low SNR, and (ii) FER decays with SNR increase faster at moderate SNR than at the largest SNR. They explain these regimes in terms of the pseudo-codeword spectra of the codes.

  8. Saddleworth, Responding to a Landscape

    Murray, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    Matthew Murray's Landscape publication Saddleworth, Responding To A Landscape. Forward by Martin Barnes Senior Curator of Photographs at The Victoria and Albert Museum, London, Artist Richard Billingham and Maartje van den Heuvel Curator Photography and Media Culture -Leiden Institute. \\ud \\ud ‘Every trip I have taken to Saddleworth Moor over four years has encapsulated each season, weather and cloud pattern, rain, sunshine, snow, early morning clear skies and the sense of the bitter cold of ...

  9. The Industrial Engineering publishing landscape

    Claasen, Schalk

    2012-01-01

    Looking at the Industrial Engineering publishing landscape through the window of Google Search, an interesting panorama unfolds. The view that I took is actually just a peek and therefore my description of what I saw is not meant to be comprehensive. The African landscape is empty except for the South African Journal of Industrial Engineering (SAJIE). This is an extraordinary situation if compared to the South American continent where there are Industrial Engineering journals in at least ...

  10. The landscapes of tourism space

    Włodarczyk, Bogdan

    2009-01-01

    The author attempts to define the term ‘tourism landscape’. It is treated as an important attribute of tourism space therefore, apart from its definition, the author presents its characteristic features and various types of such spaces with differing tourism landscapes. The landscapes of tourism space are treated not only as tourism assets or attractions, but also as the consequences of tourism activity on the natural and cultural environment.

  11. Shift Work: Improving Daytime Sleep

    ... night. Good daytime sleep is possible, though, if shift work is a necessary part of your work life. ... mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/adult-health/expert-answers/shift-work/faq-20057991 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and ...

  12. Lead Tolerance and Accumulation in White Poplar Cultivated In Vitro

    Branislav Kovačević

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: This paper analyses the lead tolerance and accumulation in white poplar genotypes in vitro, in order to optimize genotype evaluation and other procedures in their implementation in phytoremediation projects and landscaping in areas endangered by lead accumulation. Material and Methods: The lead tolerance and accumulation of five white poplar genotypes after 35 days in vitro cultivation on media supplemented with lead was examined. The following Pb(NO32 concentrations were used: 0, 10-6, 10-5, 10-4 and 10-3 M. Tolerance analysis (described by tolerance indices was based on morphological parameters, biomass accumulation and the content of photosynthetic pigments, while lead accumulation was described by shoot lead accumulation and shoot lead content. Results and Conclusions: The chosen lead concentrations appeared not to be lethal. Moreover, the obtained results showed that the tested lead concentrations had a positive effect on: number of formed roots, shoot moisture content and shoot height. The best differentiation among the examined genotypes was gained by the tolerance index based on the shoot height on 10-4 M Pb(NO32. The shoot lead accumulation and shoot lead content significantly increased on 10-4 and 10-3 M Pb(NO32 media. Thus, the concentration of 10-4 M Pb(NO32 is recommended for further research. Two examined genotypes of horticultural value (LCM and LBM achieved a significantly higher lead shoot content compared to the wide spread genotype “Villafranca” (almost 200% and 125% higher, respectively.

  13. Editorial: Entropy in Landscape Ecology

    Samuel A. Cushman

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Entropy and the second law of thermodynamics are the central organizing principles of nature, but the ideas and implications of the second law are poorly developed in landscape ecology. The purpose of this Special Issue “Entropy in Landscape Ecology” in Entropy is to bring together current research on applications of thermodynamics in landscape ecology, to consolidate current knowledge and identify key areas for future research. The special issue contains six articles, which cover a broad range of topics including relationships between entropy and evolution, connections between fractal geometry and entropy, new approaches to calculate configurational entropy of landscapes, example analyses of computing entropy of landscapes, and using entropy in the context of optimal landscape planning. Collectively these papers provide a broad range of contributions to the nascent field of ecological thermodynamics. Formalizing the connections between entropy and ecology are in a very early stage, and that this special issue contains papers that address several centrally important ideas, and provides seminal work that will be a foundation for the future development of ecological and evolutionary thermodynamics.

  14. Landscape Visualisation on the Internet

    Imhof, M. P.; Cox, M. T.; Harvey, D. W.; Heemskerk, G. E.; Pettit, C. J.

    2012-07-01

    The Victorian Resources Online (VRO) website (http://www.dpi.vic.gov.au/vro) is the principal means for accessing landscapebased information in Victoria. In this paper we introduce a range of online landscape visualisations that have been developed to enhance existing static web content around the nature and distribution of Victoria's landforms and soils as well as associated processes. Flash is used to develop online visualisations that include interactive landscape panoramas, animations of soil and landscape processes and videos of experts explaining features in the field as well as landscape "flyovers". The use of interactive visualisations adds rich information multimedia content to otherwise static pages and offers the potential to improve user's appreciation and understanding of soil and landscapes. Visualisation is becoming a key component of knowledge management activities associated with VRO - proving useful for both "knowledge capture" (from subject matter specialists) and "knowledge transfer" to a diverse user base. A range of useful visualisation products have been made available online, with varying degrees of interactivity and suited to a variety of users. The use of video files, animation and interactive visualisations is adding rich information content to otherwise static web pages. These information products offer new possibilities to enhance learning of landscapes and the effectiveness of these will be tested as the next phase of development.

  15. Liquidation sales: Land speculation and landscape change

    Lazarus, E.

    2012-12-01

    Large-scale land-use transitions can occur with astonishing speed, and landscape stability can change with equal suddenness: for example, the catastrophic dustbowl that paralyzed the Midwestern US in the early 1930s came barely 40 years after the derby for homestead land in Oklahoma in 1889. Some human-landscape systems, like the large prehistoric settlements in the Brazilian Amazon, persisted for centuries without environmental collapse. Others quickly exhausted all of the environmental resources available, as occurred with phosphate mining on the Pacific Island of Nauru. Although abrupt shifts from resource plenty to resource scarcity are theoretically interesting for their complexity, the very real consequences of modern social and environmental boom-bust dynamics can catalyze humanitarian crises. Drawing on historical examples and investigative reporting of current events, I explore the hypothesis that land speculation drives rapid transitions in physical landscapes at large spatial scales. "Land grabs" is one of four core environmental justice and equality issues Oxfam International is targeting in its GROW campaign, citing evidence that foreign investors are buying up vast tracts of land in developing countries, and as a consequence exacerbating food scarcity and marginalization of poor families. Al Jazeera has reported extensively on land-rights disputes in Honduras and investment deals involving foreign ownership of large areas of agricultural land in New Zealand, India, Africa, and South America. Overlapping coverage has also appeared in the New York Times, the Washington Post, the BBC News, the Guardian, and other outlets. Although land itself is only one kind of natural resource, land rights typically determine access to other natural resources (e.g. water, timber, minerals, fossil fuels). Consideration of land speculation therefore includes speculative bubbles in natural-resource markets more broadly. There are categorical commonalities in agricultural

  16. Energy crop cultivations of reed canary grass - An inferior breeding habitat for the skylark, a characteristic farmland bird species

    Vepsaelaeinen, Ville [Finnish Museum of Natural History, P.O. Box 17, University of Helsinki, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland)

    2010-07-15

    Here, I present the first comparison of the abundance of farmland birds in energy grass fields and in cereal-dominated conventionally cultivated fields (CCFs). I demonstrate that in boreal farmland, skylark (Alauda arvensis) densities were significantly lower in reed canary grass (RCG) (Phalaris arundinacea) fields than in CCFs. I found that during the early breeding season RCG fields and CCFs are equally good habitats, but over the ensuing couple of weeks RCG rapidly grows too tall and dense for field-nesting species. Consequently, RCG is an inferior habitat for skylark for laying replacement clutches (after failure of first nesting) or for a second clutch after one successful nesting. The results imply that if RCG cultivation is to be expanded, the establishment of large monocultures should be avoided in farmland landscapes; otherwise the novel habitat may affect detrimentally the seriously depleted skylark population, and probably also other field-nesting bird species with similar breeding habitats. (author)

  17. Human induced prehistoric and historical soil erosion and landscape development in Southwestern USA

    Dotterweich, Markus; Ivester, Andrew H.; Hanson, Paul R.; Daniel, Larsen; Dye, David H.; Foster, Thomas H., II

    2015-04-01

    gathered data will be used to i) compare the spatial extent of prehistoric and historic erosion and the short-term and long-term pedological and geomorphological effects of subtle soil erosion against extreme events, ii) assess the feedback-mechanisms of soil erosion on soil fertility and measurable land use changes in prehistorical and historical times, and (iii) estimate the long term effects of soil erosion and sediment deposition on archaeological features. The outcome will provide a decisive step forward to gather new qualitative and quantitative information on soil erosion during the Native American land use period to be able to achieve a better understanding of the long-term human induced landscape evolution in the uplands of the Southeastern USA and deliver data for a better predicting of landscape evolution to future climatic shifts in precipitation regimes.

  18. Colonizing Dynamic Alluvial and Coastal Landscapes in the Holocene

    Kidder, T.; Liu, X.; Ervin, K.

    2017-12-01

    Throughout the Holocene humans have had to adapt to dynamic, rapidly changing alluvial and coastal landscapes. Understanding when people inhabit a given environment is an important starting point for exploring human adaptations, but increasingly we need to consider how, and especially why certain environments are used—or not used— so we can understand the consequences of these human actions. Using four case studies—one from the Yellow River Valley, China, one from coastal Jiangsu, China, one from the Mississippi River Valley (Mississippi, USA) and one from the Mississippi River delta (Louisiana , USA)—we develop a model of how humans at various stages of cultural development colonize new environments. Using archaeological data and ecological modeling we investigate the relationship between the timing of landscape colonization and the ecological richness and predictability of any given environment. As new landscapes emerge and mature humans adopt different strategies for exploiting these novel environments that begins with episodic use and increasingly shifts to stable, long-term habitation. The early phase of landscape colonization appears to be the most significant period because it shapes human environmental practices and sets each culture on a trajectory of socio-cultural development. Thus, human-environment interaction is a critical part of the emergence of cultural patterns that shapes the past, present, and even the future.

  19. Lanthanide shift reagents, binding, shift mechanisms and exchange

    Boer, J.W.M. de

    1977-01-01

    Paramagnetic lanthanide shift reagents, when added to a solution of a substrate, induce shifts in the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrum of the substrate molecules. The induced shifts contain information about the structure of the shift reagent substrate complex. The structural information, however, may be difficult to extract because of the following effects: (1) different complexes between shift reagent and substrate may be present in solution, e.g. 1:1 and 1:2 complexes, and the shift observed is a weighed average of the shifts of the substrate nuclei in the different complexes; (2) the Fermi contact interaction, arising from the spin density at the nucleus, contributes to the induced shift; (3) chemical exchange effects may complicate the NMR spectrum. In this thesis, the results of an investigation into the influence of these effects on the NMR spectra of solutions containing a substrate and LSR are presented. The equations describing the pseudo contact and the Fermi contact shift are derived. In addition, it is shown how the modified Bloch equations describing the effect of the chemical exchange processes occurring in the systems studied can be reduced to the familiar equations for a two-site exchange case. The binding of mono- and bifunctional ethers to the shift reagent are reported. An analysis of the induced shifts is given. Finally, the results of the experiments performed to study the exchange behavior of dimethoxyethane and heptafluorodimethyloctanedionato ligands are presented

  20. Faktor Dan Penjadualan Shift Kerja

    Maurits, Lientje Setyawati; Widodo, Imam Djati

    2008-01-01

    Work shift has negative effect in physical and mental health, work performance and job accident. Disturbance of circadian rhythms is indicated as source of the problems. This article explores some researches related to the impacts of work shift and establishes basic principles of work shift scheduling that considers human need and limitation.

  1. Isotope shifting capacity of rock

    Blattner, P.; Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, Lower Hutt

    1980-01-01

    Any oxygen isotope shifted rock volume exactly defines a past throughput of water. An expression is derived that relates the throughput of an open system to the isotope shift of reservoir rock and present-day output. The small isotope shift of Ngawha reservoir rock and the small, high delta oxygen-18 output are best accounted for by a magmatic water source

  2. Strawberry cultivation in Brazil | Cultivo de morangos no Brasil

    José Machado

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The strawberry is cultivated in different regions of the world. Their cultivation have shown demand larger family hand labor and highly profitable.  The strawberry is a very old fruit. Wild species existed for more 50 million years, but the specie was tamed around the XIV century A.C.  There are various types of cultivation, among them stand out traditional cultivation and organic cultivation. The more important factors affecting the strawberries are climate, pests and diseases. Know the types of cultivation and strawberry it is important for decision making in the future, such as use of lichens in cultivation. The aim of this work is to explain about conventional and organic agriculture with emphasis in lichens on strawberry crop to support scientific research in more depth character.> S

  3. Impact of Climate Variability and Landscape Patterns on Water Budget and Nutrient Loads in a Peri-urban Watershed: A Coupled Analysis Using Process-based Hydrological Model and Landscape Indices.

    Li, Chongwei; Zhang, Yajuan; Kharel, Gehendra; Zou, Chris B

    2018-06-01

    Nutrient discharge into peri-urban streams and reservoirs constitutes a significant pressure on environmental management, but quantitative assessment of non-point source pollution under climate variability in fast changing peri-urban watersheds is challenging. Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was used to simulate water budget and nutrient loads for landscape patterns representing a 30-year progression of urbanization in a peri-urban watershed near Tianjin metropolis, China. A suite of landscape pattern indices was related to nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P) loads under dry and wet climate using CANOCO redundancy analysis. The calibrated SWAT model was adequate to simulate runoff and nutrient loads for this peri-urban watershed, with Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient (NSE) and coefficient of determination (R 2 ) > 0.70 and percentage bias (PBIAS) between -7 and +18 for calibration and validation periods. With the progression of urbanization, forest remained the main "sink" landscape while cultivated and urban lands remained the main "source" landscapes with the role of orchard and grassland being uncertain and changing with time. Compared to 1984, the landscape use pattern in 2013 increased nutrient discharge by 10%. Nutrient loads modelled under wet climate were 3-4 times higher than that under dry climate for the same landscape pattern. Results indicate that climate change could impose a far greater impact on runoff and nutrient discharge in a peri-urban watershed than landscape pattern change.

  4. Impact of Climate Variability and Landscape Patterns on Water Budget and Nutrient Loads in a Peri-urban Watershed: A Coupled Analysis Using Process-based Hydrological Model and Landscape Indices

    Li, Chongwei; Zhang, Yajuan; Kharel, Gehendra; Zou, Chris B.

    2018-06-01

    Nutrient discharge into peri-urban streams and reservoirs constitutes a significant pressure on environmental management, but quantitative assessment of non-point source pollution under climate variability in fast changing peri-urban watersheds is challenging. Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was used to simulate water budget and nutrient loads for landscape patterns representing a 30-year progression of urbanization in a peri-urban watershed near Tianjin metropolis, China. A suite of landscape pattern indices was related to nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P) loads under dry and wet climate using CANOCO redundancy analysis. The calibrated SWAT model was adequate to simulate runoff and nutrient loads for this peri-urban watershed, with Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient (NSE) and coefficient of determination ( R 2) > 0.70 and percentage bias (PBIAS) between -7 and +18 for calibration and validation periods. With the progression of urbanization, forest remained the main "sink" landscape while cultivated and urban lands remained the main "source" landscapes with the role of orchard and grassland being uncertain and changing with time. Compared to 1984, the landscape use pattern in 2013 increased nutrient discharge by 10%. Nutrient loads modelled under wet climate were 3-4 times higher than that under dry climate for the same landscape pattern. Results indicate that climate change could impose a far greater impact on runoff and nutrient discharge in a peri-urban watershed than landscape pattern change.

  5. Impact of landscape characteristics on the stream carbon and nitrogen export: example of a small agricultural catchment in Denmark

    Wohlfart, T.; Exbrayat, J.F.; Schelde, Kirsten

    2012-01-01

    Agriculture plays an important role on the environment, notably the quality of water draining cultivated soils. Understanding the relationship between landscape characteristics and stream quality is crucial to sustain a good quality of water and to develop adapted policies. Therefore, this study...... point between the chemical data and landscape characteristics (e.g. topography, land-use and soil type distributions) of the corresponding contributing area. Results show that, in spite of an overall little share, the influence of organic soil types seems to impact N losses to streams stronger than...... local land use by farming....

  6. The shift in windpower

    Gipe, P.

    1992-01-01

    Despite new production records, the near-term market for new windpower projects in the US remains bleak. Congressional incentives and project proposals in the mid-1990s offer promise, but for now most development has shifted to Europe. During 1992 and 1993 the largest wind projects developed by US companies will not be in the US, but in the United Kingdom and Spain. Indeed, most of the US's windpower industry is going abroad, establishing offices overseas. This move toward Europe comes as little surprise. New project development for US firms has faltered at home while the European market has burgeoned. The topics of the article include the move to Europe, a reduction in California's share of producing wind power plants, a rise in Europe's share of producing wind power plants, the future market for wind power in the US, and reawakening California's market

  7. Potential Arctic tundra vegetation shifts in response to changing temperature, precipitation and permafrost thaw

    Kolk, van der Henk-Jan; Heijmans, M.M.P.D.; Huissteden, van J.; Pullens, J.W.M.; Berendse, F.

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decades, vegetation and climate have changed significantly in the Arctic. Deciduous shrub cover is often assumed to expand in tundra landscapes, but more frequent abrupt permafrost thaw resulting in formation of thaw ponds could lead to vegetation shifts towards graminoid-dominated

  8. The effect of heterogeneous landscape dynamics on ecotone types at two convergent semi-arid biomes

    Landscapes in biome transition zones consist of a mosaic of patches dominated or codominated by species from adjacent biomes. Shifts in the vegetation composition and dynamics of a biome transition zone depend upon the underlying patch dynamics of the ecotones between these dominant species. Landsca...

  9. Importance of ecotone type to landscape dynamics at biome transition zones

    Landscapes in biome transition zones consist of a mosaic of patches dominated or codominated by species from adjacent biomes. Shifts in the vegetation composition and dynamics of a biome transition zone depend upon the underlying patch dynamics of the ecotones between these dominant species. Landsc...

  10. Epigenetic Inheritance Across the Landscape

    Amy Vaughn Whipple

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The study of epigenomic variation at the landscape-level in plants may add important insight to studies of adaptive variation. A major goal of landscape genomic studies is to identify genomic regions contributing to adaptive variation across the landscape. Heritable variation in epigenetic marks, resulting in transgenerational plasticity, can influence fitness-related traits. Epigenetic marks are influenced by the genome, the environment, and their interaction, and can be inherited independently of the genome. Thus, epigenomic variation likely influences the heritability of many adaptive traits, but the extent of this influence remains largely unknown. Here we summarize the relevance of epigenetic inheritance to ecological and evolutionary processes, and review the literature on landscape-level patterns of epigenetic variation. Landscape-level patterns of epigenomic variation in plants generally show greater levels of isolation by distance and isolation by environment then is found for the genome, but the causes of these patterns are not yet clear. Linkage between the environment and epigenomic variation has been clearly shown within a single generation, but demonstrating transgenerational inheritance requires more complex breeding and/or experimental designs. Transgenerational epigenetic variation may alter the interpretation of landscape genomic studies that rely upon phenotypic analyses, but should have less influence on landscape genomic approaches that rely upon outlier analyses or genome-environment associations. We suggest that multi-generation common garden experiments conducted across multiple environments will allow researchers to understand which parts of the epigenome are inherited, as well as to parse out the relative contribution of heritable epigenetic variation to the phenotype.

  11. Epigenetic Inheritance across the Landscape.

    Whipple, Amy V; Holeski, Liza M

    2016-01-01

    The study of epigenomic variation at the landscape-level in plants may add important insight to studies of adaptive variation. A major goal of landscape genomic studies is to identify genomic regions contributing to adaptive variation across the landscape. Heritable variation in epigenetic marks, resulting in transgenerational plasticity, can influence fitness-related traits. Epigenetic marks are influenced by the genome, the environment, and their interaction, and can be inherited independently of the genome. Thus, epigenomic variation likely influences the heritability of many adaptive traits, but the extent of this influence remains largely unknown. Here, we summarize the relevance of epigenetic inheritance to ecological and evolutionary processes, and review the literature on landscape-level patterns of epigenetic variation. Landscape-level patterns of epigenomic variation in plants generally show greater levels of isolation by distance and isolation by environment then is found for the genome, but the causes of these patterns are not yet clear. Linkage between the environment and epigenomic variation has been clearly shown within a single generation, but demonstrating transgenerational inheritance requires more complex breeding and/or experimental designs. Transgenerational epigenetic variation may alter the interpretation of landscape genomic studies that rely upon phenotypic analyses, but should have less influence on landscape genomic approaches that rely upon outlier analyses or genome-environment associations. We suggest that multi-generation common garden experiments conducted across multiple environments will allow researchers to understand which parts of the epigenome are inherited, as well as to parse out the relative contribution of heritable epigenetic variation to the phenotype.

  12. Modelling the distribution of Aspalathus linearis’ (rooibos tea): implications of climate change for livelihoods dependent on both cultivation and harvesting from the wild

    Lötter, D

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available under future climate conditions. When these were extrapolated to a future climate (2041-70) both wild and cultivated tea exhibited substantial range contraction with some range shifts south-eastwards and upslope. Most of the areas where range expansion...

  13. Uranium uptake by hydroponically cultivated crop plants

    Soudek, Petr; Petrova, Sarka [Laboratory of Plant Biotechnologies, Joint Laboratory of Institute of Experimental Botany AS CR, v.v.i. and Crop Research Institute, v.v.i., Rozvojova 263, 162 05 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Benesova, Dagmar [Laboratory of Plant Biotechnologies, Joint Laboratory of Institute of Experimental Botany AS CR, v.v.i. and Crop Research Institute, v.v.i., Rozvojova 263, 162 05 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Faculty of Environment Technology, Institute of Chemical Technology, Technicka 5, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Dvorakova, Marcela [Laboratory of Plant Biotechnologies, Joint Laboratory of Institute of Experimental Botany AS CR, v.v.i. and Crop Research Institute, v.v.i., Rozvojova 263, 162 05 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Vanek, Tomas, E-mail: vanek@ueb.cas.cz [Laboratory of Plant Biotechnologies, Joint Laboratory of Institute of Experimental Botany AS CR, v.v.i. and Crop Research Institute, v.v.i., Rozvojova 263, 162 05 Prague 6 (Czech Republic)

    2011-06-15

    Hydroponicaly cultivated plants were grown on medium containing uranium. The appropriate concentrations of uranium for the experiments were selected on the basis of a standard ecotoxicity test. The most sensitive plant species was determined to be Lactuca sativa with an EC{sub 50} value about 0.1 mM. Cucumis sativa represented the most resistant plant to uranium (EC{sub 50} = 0.71 mM). Therefore, we used the uranium in a concentration range from 0.1 to 1 mM. Twenty different plant species were tested in hydroponic solution supplemented by 0.1 mM or 0.5 mM uranium concentration. The uranium accumulation of these plants varied from 0.16 mg/g DW to 0.011 mg/g DW. The highest uranium uptake was determined for Zea mays and the lowest for Arabidopsis thaliana. The amount of accumulated uranium was strongly influenced by uranium concentration in the cultivation medium. Autoradiography showed that uranium is mainly localized in the root system of the plants tested. Additional experiments demonstrated the possibility of influencing the uranium uptake from the cultivation medium by amendments. Tartaric acid was able to increase uranium uptake by Brassica oleracea and Sinapis alba up to 2.8 times or 1.9 times, respectively. Phosphate deficiency increased uranium uptake up to 4.5 times or 3.9 times, respectively, by Brassica oleracea and S. alba. In the case of deficiency of iron or presence of cadmium ions we did not find any increase in uranium accumulation. - Highlights: > The uranium accumulation in twenty different plant species varied from 0.160 to 0.011 mg/g DW. > Uranium is mainly localized in the root system. > Tartaric acid was able to increase uranium uptake by Brassica oleracea and Sinapis alba. > The phosphates deficiency increase the uranium uptake.

  14. Uranium uptake by hydroponically cultivated crop plants

    Soudek, Petr; Petrova, Sarka; Benesova, Dagmar; Dvorakova, Marcela; Vanek, Tomas

    2011-01-01

    Hydroponicaly cultivated plants were grown on medium containing uranium. The appropriate concentrations of uranium for the experiments were selected on the basis of a standard ecotoxicity test. The most sensitive plant species was determined to be Lactuca sativa with an EC 50 value about 0.1 mM. Cucumis sativa represented the most resistant plant to uranium (EC 50 = 0.71 mM). Therefore, we used the uranium in a concentration range from 0.1 to 1 mM. Twenty different plant species were tested in hydroponic solution supplemented by 0.1 mM or 0.5 mM uranium concentration. The uranium accumulation of these plants varied from 0.16 mg/g DW to 0.011 mg/g DW. The highest uranium uptake was determined for Zea mays and the lowest for Arabidopsis thaliana. The amount of accumulated uranium was strongly influenced by uranium concentration in the cultivation medium. Autoradiography showed that uranium is mainly localized in the root system of the plants tested. Additional experiments demonstrated the possibility of influencing the uranium uptake from the cultivation medium by amendments. Tartaric acid was able to increase uranium uptake by Brassica oleracea and Sinapis alba up to 2.8 times or 1.9 times, respectively. Phosphate deficiency increased uranium uptake up to 4.5 times or 3.9 times, respectively, by Brassica oleracea and S. alba. In the case of deficiency of iron or presence of cadmium ions we did not find any increase in uranium accumulation. - Highlights: → The uranium accumulation in twenty different plant species varied from 0.160 to 0.011 mg/g DW. → Uranium is mainly localized in the root system. → Tartaric acid was able to increase uranium uptake by Brassica oleracea and Sinapis alba. → The phosphates deficiency increase the uranium uptake.

  15. Radiocaesium - 137 in cultivated and woodland mushrooms

    Stankovic, S.; Stankovic, A.

    1997-01-01

    In the present work the results obtained for activity levels of 137 Cs in samples of cultivated mushrooms (Champignons - Agaricus Silvicola Vitt. Peck.) and woodland fruits ( Chantarelle - Cantarelus Cibarius Fr.; Bollets -Boletus Edulis. ex Fr. and Black Trumpets - Cratarelus Conucopioides) are presented. These samples were collected from 1991 to 1996. Biodiversity of the mushrooms regarding their uptake of radionuclides was found. Thus, the maximum value of 137 Cs activity was found in the sample of dry Bollets 375 Bq/kg in 1993. Moreover, the mean activity level of this species was much higher (126 + - 10 Bq/kg) in 1996. than, levels found in any samples taken from the same environment. (author)

  16. Microeconomic aspects of energy crops cultivation

    Bartolelli, V.; Mutinati, G.; Pisani, F.

    1992-01-01

    The topic of energy crops, namely of those crops designed to produce biomass to transform into ethanol, has been explored, in Italy and abroad, in all its technical and agronomical aspects. The microeconomic aspect, including the evaluation of convenience for the farmer in adopting such crops, is, on the contrary, less well researched. RENAGRI has developed a research methodology able to give information about the level of convenience of two energy crops (Sweet Sorghum and Topinambour) and has applied it to different Italian agricultural situations, in order to verify the existence of conditions favourable to the cultivation of the two crops, or to indicate the necessity of eventual subvention. (author)

  17. Cultivating nursing leadership for our envisioned future.

    Galuska, Lee A

    2012-01-01

    Nurses have been called upon to lead and partner in the transformation of health care. Leadership is a component of the scope of nursing practice; however, the optimal approach to development of leadership competency has not been established. A metasynthesis of qualitative studies on leadership development was conducted to enhance an understanding of conditions that nurses reported to support or hinder their development as leaders. Noblit and Hare's approach was used for the metasynthesis process. Three overarching themes emerged. Opportunity structure, the relationship factor, and organizational culture are essential factors contributing to the successful cultivation of leadership competencies in nurses.

  18. Incorporating Renewable Energy Science in Regional Landscape Design: Results from a Competition in The Netherlands

    Renée M. de Waal

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Energy transition is expected to make an important contribution to sustainable development. Although it is argued that landscape design could foster energy transition, there is scant empirical research on how practitioners approach this new challenge. The research question central to this study is: To what extent and how is renewable energy science incorporated in regional landscape design? To address this knowledge gap, a case study of a regional landscape design competition in the Netherlands, held from 2010–2012, is presented. Its focus was on integral, strategic landscape transformation with energy transition as a major theme. Content analysis of the 36 competition entries was supplemented and triangulated with a survey among the entrants, observation of the process and a study of the competition documents and website. Results indicated insufficient use of key-strategies elaborated by renewable energy science. If landscape design wants to adopt a supportive role towards energy transition, a well-informed and evidence-based approach is highly recommended. Nevertheless, promising strategies for addressing the complex process of ensuring sustainable energy transition also emerged. They include the careful cultivation of public support by developing inclusive and bottom-up processes, and balancing energy-conscious interventions with other land uses and interests.

  19. The view from within and the view from without: Australian landscape research.

    David Yencken

    1995-03-01

    Full Text Available THE LANDSCAPE RESEARCH TASK in Australia is one that commands our attention. The Australian landscape, compared to that of other countries, is still not well understood scientifically as a rich and diverse biome, pragmatically as a productive base, or perceptually as a source of emotional support and inspiration. Australian society is multicultural and changing rapidly. There are complex and shifting strands of interwoven relationships-involving the people and the land-among the original occupiers, the children of European and other settlers and more recent migrants. There are important forces at work which are changing the way knowledge and information are generated, interpreted, shared and disseminated. These include powerful new technologies on the one hand and new epistemologies on the other. Australian landscape practice is young, unfocused and without a distinctive style or philosophy of its own. The discipline of landscape architecture lacks the intellectual depth needed to command respect in Australian society. Only through excellent research and fine writing will the schools of landscape architecture, those now in place and those emerging, respond to these issues in thoughtful ways, prepare students adequately, support and assist those in practice and contribute properly to the intellectual life and development of the country. To explore these issues this paper examines the realm of landscape research, discusses further the distinctive aspects of the landscape research task in Australia, reviews the research so far completed and looks at the route we might take in the future to develop a rich research culture.

  20. Landscape Ecology and problems of European cultural landscapes

    Brandt, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    by practical problems of European cultural – especial agricultural – landscapes since the rise of the environmental movement. Central themes have been the consequences of technological and structural changes within European agriculture for the landscape and the development of habitats and dispersal...... Problemstellungen basieren auf multifunktionalen Nutzungskonzepten ruraler Landschaften, besonders im Hinblick auf Suburbanisierungsprozesse. Eine Anzahl untereinander vergleichbarer Projekte, mit parallelen bis ähnlichen Ausprägungen innerhalb Dänemarks und weiteerer europäischer Länder, werden exemplarisch...

  1. Chemical shift imaging: a review

    Brateman, L.

    1986-01-01

    Chemical shift is the phenomenon that is seen when an isotope possessing a nuclear magnetic dipole moment resonates at a spectrum of resonance frequencies in a given magnetic field. These resonance frequencies, or chemical shifts, depend on the chemical environments of particular nuclei. Mapping the spatial distribution of nuclei associated with a particular chemical shift (e.g., hydrogen nuclei associated with water molecules or with lipid groups) is called chemical shift imaging. Several techniques of proton chemical shift imaging that have been applied in vivo are presented, and their clinical findings are reported and summarized. Acquiring high-resolution spectra for large numbers of volume elements in two or three dimensions may be prohibitive because of time constraints, but other methods of imaging lipid of water distributions (i.e., selective excitation, selective saturation, or variations in conventional magnetic resonance imaging pulse sequences) can provide chemical shift information. These techniques require less time, but they lack spectral information. Since fat deposition seen by chemical shift imaging may not be demonstrated by conventional magnetic resonance imaging, certain applications of chemical shift imaging, such as in the determination of fatty liver disease, have greater diagnostic utility than conventional magnetic resonance imaging. Furthermore, edge artifacts caused by chemical shift effects can be eliminated by certain selective methods of data acquisition employed in chemical shift imaging

  2. Landscape structure and live fences in Andes Colombian agrosystems: upper basin of the Cane-Iguaque River.

    Otero, Javier; Onaindia, Miren

    2009-12-01

    Changes in land use have generated a new landscape configuration in the Andino orobiome (mountain range) of the tropical Andes, resulting in a mosaic of cultivation and pastures interrupted by small fragments of forest and live fences. This has resulted in an ongoing decrease in the biodiversity of this biome. In the upper basin of the Cane-Iguaque River (Villa de Levya-Boyacá, Colombia), located 2,600-3,000 m above the Cordillera Oriental, over three time periods in 1960, 1984, and 2004, we characterized the structure, patterns, and evolution of the overall landscape and of the live fences (used as tools in biodiversity conservation and considered to be desirable alternatives to nonlive fences in farming production systems) within an agricultural landscape. To do this, we interpreted high-resolution satellite images using a landscape ecology approach and applied landscape map metrics. We found that the natural forests have been transformed by pastures and cultivation, and that although live fences cover only a small portion of the total landscape (4.6%), they have an important effect on landscape structure and biodiversity. There has been an increase in live fences, especially between 1960 and 1984, as well as an increase in their density. However, there has been a reduction in the average length of live fences over the periods that we studied. This could be due in part to changes in the types of agricultural products that have been cultivated in recent years, with an increase in potatoes and a decrease in other vegetables, and also by resource extraction of timber and fuel wood. In the studied area, agricultural production was sustained while biodiversity conservation was improved by the use of live fences. Therefore, live fences should be considered not only as part of an agriculturally productive area, but also as an important element of a multi-functional landscape that contributes to the maintenance of biodiversity and provides resources of economic and

  3. Re-animated heritage. National project Nieuwe Hollandse Waterlinie (New Dutch Water Defence Line as a format for landscape policy

    Eric Luiten

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Landscape policy has always been characterized, often supported but just as often hindered by its multiple origins in both landscape protection and landscape development. Along the recalcitrant and frequently inconsistent lines of preservation of monuments, nature conservation, land use, open-air recreation and the planting of new woods and shrubs respectively, landscape protection did not develop without difficulty. On a government level landscape protection was most extensively laid down in the Structure Plan for Nature Conservation and Protection of the Countryside. In this Plan the government introduced an extensive series of landscape categories, among which National Parks, National Landscapes, Valuable Agricultural Cultural Landscapes, Natural Heritage Valuable Areas, Large Landscape Unities and Valuable Scenic and/or Historical Views. In the Green Space Structure Plan from 1994 the differentiation of landscape policy was drastically reduced to the category of Valuable Cultural Landscapes and in addition a reference was made to the intended execution of large projects, such as the Randstad Green Structure and the National Ecological Network. In the revision of this Structural Plan in 2002 the category of National Landscapes was reintroduced. From the quarter of landscape development approximately every ten years a policy document is issued. The View on Landscape Creation (dating from the seventies, the View on Landscape (eighties and the Policy Document on Landscape (nineties are to be regarded as attempts at a synthesis of the various motives behind landscape development. The gist of these policy documents shifts from manifests for national green areas towards worked-out, integral concepts and formulas for rural-area development and closes with more and more complicatedly formulated recommendations, such as in the Development-oriented Landscape Strategy. After the Policy Document on Landscape with poorly argued maps of the so

  4. Landscape-scale distribution and persistence of genetically modified oilseed rape (Brassica napus) in Manitoba, Canada.

    Knispel, Alexis L; McLachlan, Stéphane M

    2010-01-01

    Genetically modified herbicide-tolerant (GMHT) oilseed rape (OSR; Brassica napus L.) was approved for commercial cultivation in Canada in 1995 and currently represents over 95% of the OSR grown in western Canada. After a decade of widespread cultivation, GMHT volunteers represent an increasing management problem in cultivated fields and are ubiquitous in adjacent ruderal habitats, where they contribute to the spread of transgenes. However, few studies have considered escaped GMHT OSR populations in North America, and even fewer have been conducted at large spatial scales (i.e. landscape scales). In particular, the contribution of landscape structure and large-scale anthropogenic dispersal processes to the persistence and spread of escaped GMHT OSR remains poorly understood. We conducted a multi-year survey of the landscape-scale distribution of escaped OSR plants adjacent to roads and cultivated fields. Our objective was to examine the long-term dynamics of escaped OSR at large spatial scales and to assess the relative importance of landscape and localised factors to the persistence and spread of these plants outside of cultivation. From 2005 to 2007, we surveyed escaped OSR plants along roadsides and field edges at 12 locations in three agricultural landscapes in southern Manitoba where GMHT OSR is widely grown. Data were analysed to examine temporal changes at large spatial scales and to determine factors affecting the distribution of escaped OSR plants in roadside and field edge habitats within agricultural landscapes. Additionally, we assessed the potential for seed dispersal between escaped populations by comparing the relative spatial distribution of roadside and field edge OSR. Densities of escaped OSR fluctuated over space and time in both roadside and field edge habitats, though the proportion of GMHT plants was high (93-100%). Escaped OSR was positively affected by agricultural landscape (indicative of cropping intensity) and by the presence of an

  5. Optimisation of cultivation parameters in photobioreactors for microalgae cultivation using the A-stat technique

    Barbosa, M.J.; Hoogakker, J.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2003-01-01

    Light availability inside the reactor is often the bottleneck in microalgal cultivation and for this reason much attention is being given to light limited growth kinetics of microalgae, aiming at the increase of productivity in photobioreactors. Steady-state culture characteristics are commonly used

  6. Urban Landscapes and Sustainable Cities

    Erik Andersson

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Ecological research targeting sustainable urban landscapes needs to include findings and methods from many lines of ecological research, such as the link between biodiversity and ecosystem function, the role of humans in ecosystems, landscape connectivity, and resilience. This paper reviews and highlights the importance of these issues for sustainable use of ecosystem services, which is argued to be one aspect of sustainable cities. The paper stresses the need to include social and economic factors when analyzing urban landscapes. Spatially explicit data can be used to assess the roles different green areas have in providing people with ecosystem services, and whether people actually have access to the services. Such data can also be used to assess connectivity and heterogeneity, both argued to be central for continuous, long-term provision of these services, and to determine the role urban form has for sustainability.

  7. Comparison between cultivated and total bacterial communities associated with Cucurbita pepo using cultivation-dependent techniques and 454 pyrosequencing.

    Eevers, N; Beckers, B; Op de Beeck, M; White, J C; Vangronsveld, J; Weyens, N

    2016-02-01

    Endophytic bacteria often have beneficial effects on their host plants that can be exploited for bioremediation applications but, according to the literature, only 0.001-1% of all endophytic microbes should be cultivable. This study compared the cultivated endophytic communities of the roots and shoots of Cucurbita pepo with the total endophytic communities as determined by cultivation-dependent techniques and 454 pyrosequencing. The ten most abundant taxa of the total communities aligned well with the cultivated taxa; however, the abundance of these taxa in the two communities differed greatly. Enterobacter showed very low presence in the total communities, whereas they were dominantly present in the cultivated communities. Although Rhizobium dominated in total root and shoot communities, it was poorly cultivable and even then only in growth media containing plant extract. Since endophytes likely contribute to plant-growth promotion, cultivated bacterial strains were tested for their plant-growth promoting capabilities, and the results were correlated with their abundance in the total community. Bacillus and Pseudomonas showed promising results when considering cultivability, abundance in the total community and plant-growth promoting capability. This study demonstrated that, although a limited number of bacterial genera were cultivable, current cultivation-dependent techniques may be sufficient for further isolation and inoculation experiments that aim to improve phytoremediation efficiency. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Photobioreactor cultivation strategies for microalgae and cyanobacteria.

    Johnson, Tylor J; Katuwal, Sarmila; Anderson, Gary A; Gu, Liping; Zhou, Ruanbao; Gibbons, William R

    2018-03-08

    The current burden on fossil-derived chemicals and fuels combined with the rapidly increasing global population has led to a crucial need to develop renewable and sustainable sources of chemicals and biofuels. Photoautotrophic microorganisms, including cyanobacteria and microalgae, have garnered a great deal of attention for their capability to produce these chemicals from carbon dioxide, mineralized water, and solar energy. While there have been substantial amounts of research directed at scaling-up production from these microorganisms, several factors have proven difficult to overcome, including high costs associated with cultivation, photobioreactor construction, and artificial lighting. Decreasing these costs will substantially increase the economic feasibility of these production processes. Thus, the purpose of this review is to describe various photobioreactor designs, and then provide an overview on lighting systems, mixing, gas transfer, and the hydrodynamics of bubbles. These factors must be considered when the goal of a production process is economic feasibility. Targets for improving microalgae and cyanobacteria cultivation media, including water reduction strategies will also be described. As fossil fuel reserves continue to be depleted and the world population continues to increase, it is imperative that renewable chemical and biofuel production processes be developed toward becoming economically feasible. Thus, it is essential that future research is directed toward improving these processes. © 2018 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 2018. © 2018 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  9. Production of deuterated switchgrass by hydroponic cultivation.

    Evans, Barbara R; Bali, Garima; Foston, Marcus; Ragauskas, Arthur J; O'Neill, Hugh M; Shah, Riddhi; McGaughey, Joseph; Reeves, David; Rempe, Caroline S; Davison, Brian H

    2015-07-01

    The bioenergy crop switchgrass was grown hydroponically from tiller cuttings in 50 % D 2 O to obtain biomass with 34 % deuterium substitution and physicochemical properties similar to those of H 2 O-grown switchgrass controls. Deuterium enrichment of biological materials can potentially enable expanded experimental use of small angle neutron scattering (SANS) to investigate molecular structural transitions of complex systems such as plant cell walls. Two key advances have been made that facilitate cultivation of switchgrass, an important forage and biofuel crop, for controlled isotopic enrichment: (1) perfusion system with individual chambers and (2) hydroponic growth from tiller cuttings. Plants were grown and maintained for several months with periodic harvest. Photosynthetic activity was monitored by measurement of CO2 in outflow from the growth chambers. Plant morphology and composition appeared normal compared to matched controls grown with H2O. Using this improved method, gram quantities of switchgrass leaves and stems were produced by continuous hydroponic cultivation using growth medium consisting of basal mineral salts in 50 % D2O. Deuterium incorporation was confirmed by detection of the O-D and C-D stretching peaks with FTIR and quantified by (1)H- and (2)H-NMR. This capability to produce deuterated lignocellulosic biomass under controlled conditions will enhance investigation of cell wall structure and its deconstruction by neutron scattering and NMR techniques.

  10. Evidence for inflation in an axion landscape

    Nath, Pran; Piskunov, Maksim

    2018-03-01

    We discuss inflation models within supersymmetry and supergravity frameworks with a landscape of chiral superfields and one U(1) shift symmetry which is broken by non-perturbative symmetry breaking terms in the superpotential. We label the pseudo scalar component of the chiral fields axions and their real parts saxions. Thus in the models only one combination of axions will be a pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone-boson which will act as the inflaton. The proposed models constitute consistent inflation for the following reasons: the inflation potential arises dynamically with stabilized saxions, the axion decay constant can lie in the sub-Planckian region, and consistency with the Planck data is achieved. The axion landscape consisting of m axion pairs is assumed with the axions in each pair having opposite charges. A fast roll-slow roll splitting mechanism for the axion potential is proposed which is realized with a special choice of the axion basis. In this basis the 2 m coupled equations split into 2 m - 1 equations which enter in the fast roll and there is one unique linear combination of the 2 m fields which controls the slow roll and thus the power spectrum of curvature and tensor perturbations. It is shown that a significant part of the parameter space exists where inflation is successful, i.e., N pivot = [50, 60], the spectral index n s of curvature perturbations, and the ratio r of the power spectrum of tensor perturbations and curvature perturbations, lie in the experimentally allowed regions given by the Planck experiment. Further, it is shown that the model allows for a significant region of the parameter space where the effective axion decay constant can lie in the sub-Planckian domain. An analysis of the tensor spectral index n t is also given and the future experimental data which constraints n t will further narrow down the parameter space of the proposed inflationary models. Topics of further interest include implications of the model for gravitational waves

  11. Unraveling Landscape Complexity: Land Use/Land Cover Changes and Landscape Pattern Dynamics (1954-2008) in Contrasting Peri-Urban and Agro-Forest Regions of Northern Italy.

    Smiraglia, D; Ceccarelli, T; Bajocco, S; Perini, L; Salvati, L

    2015-10-01

    This study implements an exploratory data analysis of landscape metrics and a change detection analysis of land use and population density to assess landscape dynamics (1954-2008) in two physiographic zones (plain and hilly-mountain area) of Emilia Romagna, northern Italy. The two areas are characterized by different landscape types: a mixed urban-rural landscape dominated by arable land and peri-urban settlements in the plain and a traditional agro-forest landscape in the hilly-mountain area with deciduous and conifer forests, scrublands, meadows, and crop mosaic. Urbanization and, to a lesser extent, agricultural intensification were identified as the processes underlying landscape change in the plain. Land abandonment determining natural forestation and re-forestation driven by man was identified as the process of change most representative of the hilly-mountain area. Trends in landscape metrics indicate a shift toward more fragmented and convoluted patterns in both areas. Number of patches, the interspersion and juxtaposition index, and the large patch index are the metrics discriminating the two areas in terms of landscape patterns in 1954. In 2008, mean patch size, edge density, interspersion and juxtaposition index, and mean Euclidean nearest neighbor distance were the metrics with the most different spatial patterns in the two areas. The exploratory data analysis of landscape metrics contributed to link changes over time in both landscape composition and configuration providing a comprehensive picture of landscape transformations in a wealthy European region. Evidence from this study are hoped to inform sustainable land management designed for homogeneous landscape units in similar socioeconomic contexts.

  12. Legible landscapes: the use of narratives in landscape design for leisure and tourism in Dutch cultural landscapes.

    Brinkhuijsen, M.

    2007-01-01

    Nowadays, leisure and tourism have become significant factors in rural development, which is manifest in the ‘commodification’ of landscapes. However, leisure and tourist markets are very competitive and consumers increasingly demand high quality, unique and memorable experiences. Landscape

  13. Nature and culture in Amazonian landscape: a photographic experience echoing Amerindian cosmology and historical ecology

    Patrick Pardini

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available As an artistic experience, the photographic research "Arborescence - plant physiognomy in Amazonian landscape" conduces the author to discover landscape as an interpenetration of Nature and Culture (man's indirect presence; being face to face with vegetable subjects; continuity, undifferentiation and equivalence between the 'natural' (heterogeneous, spontaneous, native, rural and the 'cultural' (homogeneous, cultivated, exotic, urban in the experience of landscape; arborescence as a "cosmic image" (Gaston Bachelard, where the high (sky, light, branches, sky water and the low (earth, shade, roots, land water are equivalent and reversible poles. Such experience echoes the eco-cosmology of forest societies in Amazonia. The Amerindian cosmology is a "symbolic ecology" (Philippe Descola, that is, "a complex dynamics of social intercourse and transformations between humans and non-humans, visible and invisible subjects" (Bruce Albert; the Amerindian ecology is "a cosmology put into practice" (Kaj Århem, wherein hunted animals and cultivated plants are 'relatives' to be seduced or coerced. Such model appears to be a form of "socialization of nature" (Descola, "humanization of the forest" (Evaristo Eduardo de Miranda and "indirect anthropization" of Amazonian ecosystems (Descola which produces "cultural forests" (William Balée.

  14. Chemical shift homology in proteins

    Potts, Barbara C.M.; Chazin, Walter J.

    1998-01-01

    The degree of chemical shift similarity for homologous proteins has been determined from a chemical shift database of over 50 proteins representing a variety of families and folds, and spanning a wide range of sequence homologies. After sequence alignment, the similarity of the secondary chemical shifts of C α protons was examined as a function of amino acid sequence identity for 37 pairs of structurally homologous proteins. A correlation between sequence identity and secondary chemical shift rmsd was observed. Important insights are provided by examining the sequence identity of homologous proteins versus percentage of secondary chemical shifts that fall within 0.1 and 0.3 ppm thresholds. These results begin to establish practical guidelines for the extent of chemical shift similarity to expect among structurally homologous proteins

  15. Energy Landscape of Social Balance

    Marvel, Seth A.; Strogatz, Steven H.; Kleinberg, Jon M.

    2009-11-01

    We model a close-knit community of friends and enemies as a fully connected network with positive and negative signs on its edges. Theories from social psychology suggest that certain sign patterns are more stable than others. This notion of social “balance” allows us to define an energy landscape for such networks. Its structure is complex: numerical experiments reveal a landscape dimpled with local minima of widely varying energy levels. We derive rigorous bounds on the energies of these local minima and prove that they have a modular structure that can be used to classify them.

  16. Energy landscape of social balance.

    Marvel, Seth A; Strogatz, Steven H; Kleinberg, Jon M

    2009-11-06

    We model a close-knit community of friends and enemies as a fully connected network with positive and negative signs on its edges. Theories from social psychology suggest that certain sign patterns are more stable than others. This notion of social "balance" allows us to define an energy landscape for such networks. Its structure is complex: numerical experiments reveal a landscape dimpled with local minima of widely varying energy levels. We derive rigorous bounds on the energies of these local minima and prove that they have a modular structure that can be used to classify them.

  17. Chapter 9. The landscape sector

    Larivaille, Pierrette

    1980-01-01

    The object of this work is to examine the interactions between the activities of the electric industry (generating, transmission and distribution) and the environment, whilst showing to what extent the facilities are likely to affect it adversely and describing the measures taken to lessen the detrimental effects. The chapter devoted to the 'landscape' includes a section covering the electricity generating facilities, and among these, the nuclear power stations. The studies carried out on the main units of insertion into the site are presented, particularly the landscaping involved in setting up a power station [fr

  18. Cooling towers in the landscape

    Boernke, F.

    1977-01-01

    The cooling tower as a large technical construction is one of the most original industrial buildings. It sticks out as an outlandish element in our building landscape, a giant which cannot be compared with the traditional forms of technical buildings. If it is constructed as a reinforced-concrete hyperboloid, its shape goes beyond all limits of building construction. Judgment of these highly individual constructions is only possible by applying a novel standard breaking completely with tradition. This new scale of height and dimension in industrial construction, and in particular the modern cooling tower, requires painstaking care and design and adaptation to the landscape around it. (orig.) [de

  19. Shifted-modified Chebyshev filters

    ŞENGÜL, Metin

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces a new type of filter approximation method that utilizes shifted-modified Chebyshev filters. Construction of the new filters involves the use of shifted-modified Chebyshev polynomials that are formed using the roots of conventional Chebyshev polynomials. The study also includes 2 tables containing the shifted-modified Chebyshev polynomials and the normalized element values for the low-pass prototype filters up to degree 6. The transducer power gain, group dela...

  20. Portable shift register

    Halbig, J.K.; Bourret, S.C.; Hansen, W.J.; Hicks, D.V.; Klosterbuer, S.F.; Krick, M.S.

    1994-01-01

    An electronics package for a small, battery-operated, self-contained, neutron coincidence counter based on a portable shift-register (PSR) has been developed. The counter was developed for applications not adequately addressed by commercial packages, including in-plant measurements to demonstrate compliance with regulations (domestic and international), in-plant process control, and in-field measurements (environmental monitoring or safeguards). Our package's features, which address these applications, include the following: Small size for portability and ease of installation;battery or mains operation; a built-in battery to power the unit and a typical detector such as a small sample counter, for over 6 h if power lines are bad or noisy, if there is a temporary absence of power, or if portability is desired; complete support, including bias, for standard neutron detectors; a powerful communications package to easily facilitate robust external control over a serial port; and a C-library to simplify creating external control programs in computers or other controllers. Whereas the PSR specifically addresses the applications mentioned above, it also performs all the measurements made by previous electronics packages for neutron coincidence counters developed at Los Alamos and commercialized. The PSR electronics package, exclusive of carrying handle, is 8 by 10 by 20 cm; it contains the circuit boards, battery, and bias supply and weighs less than 2 kg. This instrument package is the second in an emerging family of portable measurement instruments being developed; the first was the Miniature and Modular Multichannel Analyzer (M 3 CA). The PSR makes extensive use of hardware and software developed for the M 3 CA; like the M 3 CA, it is intended primarily for use with an external controller interfaced over a serial channel

  1. INTENSIFICATION OF JELLY MUSHROOM CULTIVATION IN PAKEM SLEMAN

    Sulistiya; Retno Lantarsih; Titop Dwiwinarno*

    2015-01-01

    Mushroom cultivation is long enough to be a source of income for some people in Pakem, Sleman. However, cultivation techniques that do not yet meet the standards for technical, so that productivity is still low. Marketing mushrooms are limited to the traditional market. Waste mushroom has not been used well, so potentially to pollute the environment mushroom. This service activities include the provision of mushroom cultivation equipment, such as water pumps and termohygrome...

  2. Mushroom cultivation in Brazil: challenges and potential for growth

    Dias,Eustáquio Souza

    2010-01-01

    Mushroom cultivation is rapidly expanding in Brazil because Brazilians have discovered the medicinal and culinary value of mushrooms and their economic situation has improved. However, the horticultural technology for cultivating mushrooms under Brazilian conditions is lacking. For many years, the mushroom cultivation technology used in Brazil was adapted from developed countries whose materials and climate were different from those of Brazil. In order to exploit the Brazilian potential for m...

  3. ECOLOGICAL FACTOR SCORE OF THE TOBACCO CULTIVATION ON THE ENVIRONMENT

    Г. Архіпова

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The problem of the quality and safety of tobacco cultivation in Ukraine was described in the article. Asfar as the cultivation of this plant is accompanied by using of the pesticides and other hazardous chemicals,the problem requires the solution in the nearest future. The techniques of "organic" tobacco cultivation,which are used in other countries and can be adopted in Ukraine, have been considered

  4. The delicate balance between soil production and erosion, and its role on landscape evolution

    Dosseto, A., E-mail: tonyd@uow.edu.au [GeoQuEST Research Centre, School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Wollongong. Wollongong, NSW (Australia); Buss, Heather [US Geological Survey. Menlo Park, CA (United States); Suresh, P.O. [Department of Environment and Geography, Macquarie University. North Ryde, NSW (Australia)

    2011-06-15

    Highlights: > The uranium-series isotope composition of regolith material can be used to determine the soil residence time. > Soil residence times up to 30 and 90 kyr are calculated for Frogs Hollow and Bisley, respectively. > Production rates are relatively similar for granitic and shale lithologies, but much higher over volcanic parent rock. > Soil production matches erosion in soil-mantled landscapes, demonstrating quantitatively that this type of landscape results from a balance between these two processes > Soil production is up to two orders of magnitude slower than erosion in cultivated areas. - Abstract: The diversity in landscapes at the Earth's surface is the result, amongst other things, of the balance (or imbalance) between soil production and erosion. While erosion rates are well constrained, it is only recently that we have been able to quantify rates of soil production. Uranium-series isotopes have been useful to provide such estimates independently of erosion rates. In this study, new U-series isotope are presented data from weathering profiles developed over andesitic parent rock in Puerto Rico, and granitic bedrock in southeastern Australia. The site in Australia is located on a highland plateau, neighbouring a retreating escarpment where soil production rates between 10 and 50 mm/kyr have been determined. The results show that production rates are invariant in these two regions of Australia with values between 15 and 25 mm/kyr for the new site. Andesitic soils show much faster rates, about 200 mm/kyr. Overall, soil production rates determined with U-series isotopes range between 10 and 200 mm/kyr. This is comparable to erosion rates in soil-mantled landscapes, but faster than erosion in cratonic areas and slower than in alpine regions and cultivated areas. This suggests that soil-mantled landscapes maintain soil because they can: there is a balance between production and erosion. Similarly, thick weathering profiles develop in cratonic areas

  5. Landscape history and archaeology of open field landscapes in Europe

    Renes, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/071365303

    2016-01-01

    The landscapes of open fields were the grain baskets of medieval Europe. The term ‘open fields’ refers to the large arable fields that have an open character because the individual parcels of the owners were not surrounded by hedges, woodbanks, drystone walls or other visible boundaries. In this

  6. Quantized beam shifts in graphene

    de Melo Kort-Kamp, Wilton Junior [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Sinitsyn, Nikolai [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dalvit, Diego Alejandro Roberto [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-10-08

    We predict the existence of quantized Imbert-Fedorov, Goos-Hanchen, and photonic spin Hall shifts for light beams impinging on a graphene-on-substrate system in an external magnetic field. In the quantum Hall regime the Imbert-Fedorov and photonic spin Hall shifts are quantized in integer multiples of the fine structure constant α, while the Goos-Hanchen ones in multiples of α2. We investigate the influence on these shifts of magnetic field, temperature, and material dispersion and dissipation. An experimental demonstration of quantized beam shifts could be achieved at terahertz frequencies for moderate values of the magnetic field.

  7. Whose landscape? - An anthropological perspective on landscape perception in reindeer tending (In Swedish with Summary in English

    Anna Järpe

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available When we talk publicly about landscape and land use, both in legal and in popular contexts, the evaluation of our natural environment is usually based on an industrial concept of land and landscape. "Nature" is seen as a resource to be used or managed in different ways. My research originates in a questioning of this assumption: can we take for granted that the same perceptions and evaluations are shared by all concerned parties? In this article, I will use an ecologic anthropological perspective to consider the livelihood of reindeer tending and suggest an alternative to what can be called a scientific understanding of the world. I maintain that the relations that people have with their environment, and the values that they ascribe to it, are perceptions that are shaped and affected in our interactions with the surrounding world, and that these perceptions vary between different groups of people. Land use, land rights, access to fishing waters, and who gets to hunt what; these are not only questions about how we should manage the landscape, but also about whose landscape we are managing. Arguing that the reindeer tenders' landscape is a shifting mosaic of varying conditions that they must relate to rather than an object to be used and controlled by human interests, I want to show how anthropological research can provide an insight into the different perspectives and modes of understanding that we need to consider in the formulation of future policies and laws. At least if we want to resolve land use conflicts in contested areas fairly and on a sustainable long-term basis.

  8. Domestication of a Mesoamerican cultivated fruit tree, Spondias purpurea.

    Miller, Allison; Schaal, Barbara

    2005-09-06

    Contemporary patterns of genetic variation in crops reflect historical processes associated with domestication, such as the geographic origin(s) of cultivated populations. Although significant progress has been made in identifying several global centers of domestication, few studies have addressed the issue of multiple origins of cultivated plant populations from different geographic regions within a domestication center. This study investigates the domestication history of jocote (Spondias purpurea), a Mesoamerican cultivated fruit tree. Sequences of the chloroplast spacer trnG-trnS were obtained for cultivated and wild S. purpurea trees, two sympatric taxa (Spondias mombin var. mombin and Spondias radlkoferi), and two outgroups (S. mombin var. globosa and Spondias testudinus). A phylogeographic approach was used and statistically significant associations of clades and geographical location were tested with a nested clade analysis. The sequences confirm that wild populations of S. purpurea are the likely progenitors of cultivated jocote trees. This study provides phylogeographic evidence of multiple domestications of this Mesoamerican cultivated fruit tree. Haplotypes detected in S. purpurea trees form two clusters, each of which includes alleles recovered in both cultivated and wild populations from distinct geographic regions. Cultivated S. purpurea populations have fewer unique trnG-trnS alleles than wild populations; however, five haplotypes were absent in the wild. The presence of unique alleles in cultivation may reflect contemporary extinction of the tropical dry forests of Mesoamerica. These data indicate that some agricultural habitats may be functioning as reservoirs of genetic variation in S. purpurea.

  9. Cultivation of native seaweed Gracilaria domingensis (Rhodophyta in Southern Brazil

    José Pedrassoli Salles

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the cultivation of Gracilaria domingensis in a mussel farming urbanized area in Santa Catarina, Brazil. Relative growth rate was the parameter used to evaluate the cuttings attachment methods on the cultivation rope, cuttings density, cultivation period and cystocarpic versus unfertile thalli performance. The cultivation was feasible only when protected by net cages due to herbivory. The tie-tie attachment method presented the best results. No differences were observed when comparing the cuttings densities and reproductive phase. Future studies should evaluate the cost-effectiveness of producing the species in net cages and its potential as biofilter.

  10. The Representativeness of Olea Pollen from Olive Groves and the Late Holocene Landscape Reconstruction in Central Mediterranean

    Assunta Florenzano

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Modern pollen spectra are an invaluable reference tool for paleoenvironmental and cultural landscape reconstructions, but the importance of knowing the pollen rain released from orchards remains underexplored. In particular, the role of cultivated trees is in past and current agrarian landscapes has not been fully investigated. Here, we present a pollen analysis of 70 surface soil samples taken from 12 olive groves in Basilicata and Tuscany, two regions of Italy that exemplify this cultivation in the Mediterranean basin. This study was carried out to assess the representativeness of Olea pollen in modern cultivations. Although many variables can influence the amount of pollen observed in soils, it was clear that most of the pollen was deposited below the trees in the olive groves. A rapid decline in the olive pollen percentages (c. 85% on average was found when comparing samples taken from IN vs. OUT of each grove. The mean percentages of Olea pollen obtained from the archeological sites close to the studied orchards suggest that olive groves were established far from the Roman farmhouses of Tuscany. Further south, in the core of the Mediterranean basin, the cultivation of Olea trees was likely situated ~500–1,000 m from the rural sites in Basilicata, and dated from the Hellenistic to the Medieval period.

  11. The representativeness of Olea pollen from olive groves and the late Holocene landscape reconstruction in central Mediterranean

    Florenzano, Assunta; Mercuri, Anna Maria; Rinaldi, Rossella; Rattighieri, Eleonora; Fornaciari, Rita; Messora, Rita; Arru, Laura

    2017-10-01

    Modern pollen spectra are an invaluable reference tool for paleoenvironmental and cultural landscape reconstructions, but the importance of knowing the pollen rain released from orchards remains underexplored. In particular, the role of cultivated trees is in past and current agrarian landscapes has not been fully investigated. Here, we present a pollen analysis of 70 surface soil samples taken from 12 olive groves in Basilicata and Tuscany, two regions of Italy that exemplify this cultivation in the Mediterranean basin. This study was carried out to assess the representativeness of Olea pollen in modern cultivations. Although many variables can influence the amount of pollen observed in soils, it was clear that most of the pollen was deposited below the trees in the olive groves. A rapid decline in the olive pollen percentages (c. 85% on average) was found when comparing samples taken from IN vs. OUT of each grove. The mean percentages of Olea pollen obtained from the archaeological sites close to the studied orchards suggest that olive groves were established far from the Roman farmhouses of Tuscany. Further south, in the core of the Mediterranean basin, the cultivation of Olea trees was likely situated approximately 500–1000 m from the rural sites in Basilicata, and dated from the Hellenistic to the Medieval period.

  12. landscape incorporation in the environmental impact studies

    Gutierrez G, Luz Angela

    2000-01-01

    A general overview on landscape analysis showing the two principal approaches to their study, the article emphasize on the need of taking landscape in consideration on the making of the environmental impact study of any project of development

  13. Single-base resolution maps of cultivated and wild rice methylomes and regulatory roles of DNA methylation in plant gene expression

    Li Xin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA methylation plays important biological roles in plants and animals. To examine the rice genomic methylation landscape and assess its functional significance, we generated single-base resolution DNA methylome maps for Asian cultivated rice Oryza sativa ssp. japonica, indica and their wild relatives, Oryza rufipogon and Oryza nivara. Results The overall methylation level of rice genomes is four times higher than that of Arabidopsis. Consistent with the results reported for Arabidopsis, methylation in promoters represses gene expression while gene-body methylation generally appears to be positively associated with gene expression. Interestingly, we discovered that methylation in gene transcriptional termination regions (TTRs can significantly repress gene expression, and the effect is even stronger than that of promoter methylation. Through integrated analysis of genomic, DNA methylomic and transcriptomic differences between cultivated and wild rice, we found that primary DNA sequence divergence is the major determinant of methylational differences at the whole genome level, but DNA methylational difference alone can only account for limited gene expression variation between the cultivated and wild rice. Furthermore, we identified a number of genes with significant difference in methylation level between the wild and cultivated rice. Conclusions The single-base resolution methylomes of rice obtained in this study have not only broadened our understanding of the mechanism and function of DNA methylation in plant genomes, but also provided valuable data for future studies of rice epigenetics and the epigenetic differentiation between wild and cultivated rice.

  14. Life Cycle Assessment of Sago Palm, Oil Palm, and Paddy Cultivated on Peat Land

    Saptarining Wulan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The continuously increasing population growth more than food agriculture growth on the existing land, has been encouraging to this research. The land use competition for agriculture and housing purposes have caused the land use change from forest to agriculture and housing. Within forested landscapes food production, commodity agriculture, biodiversity, resource extraction and other land uses are also competing for space. The forest land use change (deforestation is one of the climate change causes. The impact of climate change among others is the uncertain climate, such as the long drought period, flood, and the extreme temperature that cause decreasing in agriculture production. Therefore, at present, many people use the marginal land, such as peat land for agriculture cultivation to increase the food agriculture production and to achieve the domestic and export demand. Indonesia has a huge peat land and the fourth biggest in the world after Rusia, Canada, and America. The focus of this study is comparing the life cycle assessment of three agriculture commodities: sago palm, oil palm, and paddy cultivated on peat land. The purpose of this research is to contribute a recommendation of the most sustainable commodity from the aspect carbon dioxide (CO2 emission among three food agriculture commodities include oil palm and paddy that currently as excellent commodities, and sago palm, the neglected indigenous plant, which are cultivated on peat land. The method applied for this research to analyze the environmental aspect using life cycle assessment (LCA started from seedling, plantation, harvesting, transportation, and production process. The analysis result reveals that sago palm is the most environmental friendly. The lowest CO2 emission (ton/ha/year is sago palm (214.75 ± 23.49 kg CO2 eq, then paddy (322.03 ± 7.57 kg CO2 eq and the highest CO2 emission (ton/ha/year is oil palm (406.88 ± 97.09 kg CO2 eq.

  15. Life Cycle Assessment of Sago Palm, Oil Palm, and Paddy Cultivated on Peat Land

    Saptarining Wulan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The continuously increasing population growth more than food agriculture growth on the existing land, has been encouraging to this research. The land use competition for agriculture and housing purposes have caused the land use change from forest to agriculture and housing. Within forested landscapes food production, commodity agriculture, biodiversity, resource extraction and other land uses are also competing for space. The forest land use change (deforestation is one of the climate change causes. The impact of climate change among others is the uncertain climate, such as the long drought period, flood, and the extreme temperature that cause decreasing in agriculture production. Therefore, at present, many people use the marginal land, such as peat land for agriculture cultivation to increase the food agriculture production and to achieve the domestic and export demand. Indonesia has a huge peat land and the fourth biggest in the world after Rusia, Canada, and America. The focus of this study is comparing the life cycle assessment of three agriculture commodities: sago palm, oil palm, and paddy cultivated on peat land. The purpose of this research is to contribute a recommendation of the most sustainable commodity from the aspect carbon dioxide (CO2 emission among three food agriculture commodities include oil palm and paddy that currently as excellent commodities, and sago palm, the neglected indigenous plant, which are cultivated on peat land. The method applied for this research to analyze the environmental aspect using life cycle assessment (LCA started from seedling, plantation, harvesting, transportation, and production process. The analysis result reveals that sago palm is the most environmental friendly. The lowest CO2 emission (ton/ha/year is sago palm (214.75 ± 23.49 kg CO2 eq, then paddy (322.03 ± 7.57 kg CO2 eq and the highest CO2 emission (ton/ha/year is oil palm (406.88 ± 97.09 kg CO2 eq.

  16. Microbial Diversity of Browning Peninsula, Eastern Antarctica Revealed Using Molecular and Cultivation Methods.

    Pudasaini, Sarita; Wilson, John; Ji, Mukan; van Dorst, Josie; Snape, Ian; Palmer, Anne S; Burns, Brendan P; Ferrari, Belinda C

    2017-01-01

    Browning Peninsula is an ice-free polar desert situated in the Windmill Islands, Eastern Antarctica. The entire site is described as a barren landscape, comprised of frost boils with soils dominated by microbial life. In this study, we explored the microbial diversity and edaphic drivers of community structure across this site using traditional cultivation methods, a novel approach the soil substrate membrane system (SSMS), and culture-independent 454-tag pyrosequencing. The measured soil environmental and microphysical factors of chlorine, phosphate, aspect and elevation were found to be significant drivers of the bacterial community, while none of the soil parameters analyzed were significantly correlated to the fungal community. Overall, Browning Peninsula soil harbored a distinctive microbial community in comparison to other Antarctic soils comprised of a unique bacterial diversity and extremely limited fungal diversity. Tag pyrosequencing data revealed the bacterial community to be dominated by Actinobacteria (36%), followed by Chloroflexi (18%), Cyanobacteria (14%), and Proteobacteria (10%). For fungi, Ascomycota (97%) dominated the soil microbiome, followed by Basidiomycota. As expected the diversity recovered from culture-based techniques was lower than that detected using tag sequencing. However, in the SSMS enrichments, that mimic the natural conditions for cultivating oligophilic "k-selected" bacteria, a larger proportion of rare bacterial taxa (15%), such as Blastococcus, Devosia, Herbaspirillum, Propionibacterium and Methylocella and fungal (11%) taxa, such as Nigrospora, Exophiala, Hortaea , and Penidiella were recovered at the genus level. At phylum level, a comparison of OTU's showed that the SSMS shared 21% of Acidobacteria, 11% of Actinobacteria and 10% of Proteobacteria OTU's with soil. For fungi, the shared OTUs was 4% (Basidiomycota) and <0.5% (Ascomycota). This was the first known attempt to culture microfungi using the SSMS which resulted in

  17. The Cultivation of Wisdom in the Classroom

    Juliane Reams

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on a research project that was designed to inquire into the cultivation of wisdom in the classroom in the context of a newly implemented school subject called Glück (English: happiness. Glück was introduced in order to make a difference in traditional mainstream schooling as a reaction to school curricula that emphasize data and knowledge transfer. It is different and new because it embraces the kind of learning that includes the senses, the mind, body, spirit and the guts. Its multidimensional approach makes an attempt to validate a renunciation of the reductionistic perspective of traditional and contemporary schooling. How it is implemented served as a transformational process through a set of experiential exercises, group discussions, contemplative practices, teamwork etc. It is my aim to give an insight into what I understood as an alternative learning arena embedded in a traditional schooling system and the implications for further development beyond the transfer of data and information in adolescents. Zooming in on Glück, I aim to provide some perspectives on how key experiences and the reflection upon them can lead to the cultivation of wisdom. The understanding of cultivating wisdom I have gained from this study is that it is a dynamic process where the creation of new structures of meaning making emerge through the interaction with others, with oneself and the reflection upon one’s own interior processes that can help unfold, know how to use and refine tacit knowledge. Part of this process is actively discovering and transforming complex information in order to embody it and make it one’s own. Due to the assumption that traditional schooling mostly puts an emphasis on conveying informational knowledge (Hart, 2009; Sternberg, 2001 (to the more or less attentive students and another assumption that wisdom is often seen in connection to age, this article makes an attempt to give an alternative perspective. In

  18. [Ecological risk assessment of Taihu Lake basin based on landscape pattern].

    Xie, Xiao Ping; Chen, Zhi Cong; Wang, Fang; Bai, Mao Wei; Xu, Wen Yang

    2017-10-01

    Taihu Lake basin was selected as the study site. Based on the landscape data of 2000, 2005, 2010 and 2015, the Markov and CLUE-S models were used to simulate the landscape types with different scenarios in 2030, and landscape ecological risk index was constructed. The shift of gravity center and spatial statistics were used to reveal landscape ecological risk of Taihu Lake basin with temporal and spatial characteristics. The results showed that the ecological risk mainly was at medium and low levels in Taihu Lake basin, and the higher ecological risk areas were mainly distributed at the Taihu Lake area during 2000 to 2015, and the low ecological risk was transferred from the southwest and south of Taihu Lake to the developed areas in the northern part of Taihu Lake area. Spatial analysis showed that landscape ecological risk had negative correlation with natural factors, which was weakened gradually, while the correlation with socioeconomic factors trended to become stronger, with human disturbance affecting the landscape ecological risk significantly. The impact of socioeconomic factors on landscape ecological risks differed in different urbanization stages. In the developing area, with the economic development, the landscape was increasingly fragmented and the ecological risk was correspondingly increased. While in the developed area, with the further development of the economy, the aggregation index was increased, and fragmentation and separation indexes were decreased, ecological construction was restored, and the landscape ecological risk began to decline. CLUE-S model simulation showed that the ecological risk of Taihu Lake basin would be reduced in future, mainly on the low and relatively low levels. Taihu Lake area, both in history and the future, is a high ecological risk zone, and its management and protection should be strengthened.

  19. From Synergy to Complexity: The Trend Toward Integrated Value Chain and Landscape Governance.

    Ros-Tonen, Mirjam A F; Reed, James; Sunderland, Terry

    2018-05-30

    This Editorial introduces a special issue that illustrates a trend toward integrated landscape approaches. Whereas two papers echo older "win-win" strategies based on the trade of non-timber forest products, ten papers reflect a shift from a product to landscape perspective. However, they differ from integrated landscape approaches in that they emanate from sectorial approaches driven primarily by aims such as forest restoration, sustainable commodity sourcing, natural resource management, or carbon emission reduction. The potential of such initiatives for integrated landscape governance and achieving landscape-level outcomes has hitherto been largely unaddressed in the literature on integrated landscape approaches. This special issue addresses this gap, with a focus on actor constellations and institutional arrangements emerging in the transition from sectorial to integrated approaches. This editorial discusses the trends arising from the papers, including the need for a commonly shared concern and sense of urgency; inclusive stakeholder engagement; accommodating and coordinating polycentric governance in landscapes beset with institutional fragmentation and jurisdictional mismatches; alignment with locally embedded initiatives and governance structures; and a framework to assess and monitor the performance of integrated multi-stakeholder approaches. We conclude that, despite a growing tendency toward integrated approaches at the landscape level, inherent landscape complexity renders persistent and significant challenges such as balancing multiple objectives, equitable inclusion of all relevant stakeholders, dealing with power and gender asymmetries, adaptive management based on participatory outcome monitoring, and moving beyond existing administrative, jurisdictional, and sectorial silos. Multi-stakeholder platforms and bridging organizations and individuals are seen as key in overcoming such challenges.

  20. THE METHODOLOGY OF VALORISING AND ASSESSING LANDSCAPE

    Stanisław Jacek Bacior

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Landscape evaluation process requires access to particular information resources making it possible to regionalize (divide into zones the area under investigation. Thus, the starting point is landscape assessment and evaluation followed by regionalization. As a result of this step, we determine certain areas that are homogenous with regards to their landscape assets Keywords: assessing landscape, structure of rural areas, spatial planning of rural areas.

  1. Europe: the paradox of landscape change

    Sluis, van der, Theo

    2017-01-01

    This thesis explores the processes of change in European rural landscapes. Landscapes have evolved over millennia as a result of human influence on the physical environment. Europe has a wide variety of landscapes that can alter within a relatively short distance, and which often form part of the national cultural identity of a European country. Central to this thesis, however, are insights into the processes of landscape change. In this context, the overall objective of this thesis is: To as...

  2. Evidence and opportunities for integrating landscape ecology into natural resource planning across multiple-use landscapes

    Trammel, E. Jamie; Carter, Sarah; Haby, Travis S.; Taylor, Jason J.

    2018-01-01

    Enhancing natural resource management has been a focus of landscape ecology since its inception, but numerous authors argue that landscape ecology has not yet been effective in achieving the underlying goal of planning and designing sustainable landscapes. We developed nine questions reflecting the application of fundamental research topics in landscape ecology to the landscape planning process and reviewed two recent landscape-scale plans in western North America for evidence of these concepts in plan decisions. Both plans considered multiple resources, uses, and values, including energy development, recreation, conservation, and protection of cultural and historic resources. We found that land use change and multiscale perspectives of resource uses and values were very often apparent in planning decisions. Pattern-process relationships, connectivity and fragmentation, ecosystem services, landscape history, and climate change were reflected less frequently. Landscape sustainability was considered only once in the 295 decisions reviewed, and outputs of landscape models were not referenced. We suggest six actionable opportunities for further integrating landscape ecology concepts into landscape planning efforts: 1) use landscape sustainability as an overarching goal, 2) adopt a broad ecosystem services framework, 3) explore the role of landscape history more comprehensively, 4) regularly consider and accommodate potential effects of climate change, 5) use landscape models to support plan decisions, and 6) promote a greater presence of landscape ecologists within agencies that manage large land bases and encourage active involvement in agency planning efforts. Together these actions may improve the defensibility, durability, and sustainability of landscape plan decisions.

  3. [ACID-BASE MODULATION OF LYSOZYME ACTIVITY IN MEDIUM FOR CULTIVATION OF ENTEROBACTERIA].

    Andryuschenko, S V; Perunova, N B

    2015-01-01

    Determination of modulating effect of acid-base state of medium for cultivation of enterobacteria on activity of C-type lysozyme. Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) strain for protein expression, Escherichia coli K12 MG1655 model strain, Escherichia coli No. 242 strain, isolated from intestine biotope; 2 Klebsiella pneumoniae strains, one of those contained plasmid homologue of periplasmatic lysozyme inhibitor gene pliC; 1 typical Salmonella enterica ATCC 14028 strain and a Micrococcus luteus ATCC 15307 strain as a control--served as material for the study. The bacteria were cultivated for 24 hours in 2 ml of liquid medium LB at 37 degrees C, 250 rpm. Determination of antilysozyme activity (ALA) was carried out by a photonepehlometrical method according to O.V. Bukharin et al. (1999) with alterations. All the studied microorganisms, including Micrococcus luteus, at the specified conditions 24 hours after cultivation were established to change the pH of the liquid nutrient medium LB from the initial value of 6.6 ± 0.1 to 8.2 ± 0.2 units. ALA determination in the cultivation medium without buffer correction was accompanied by a decline of lysozyme activity at an order of magnitude. The effect was absent during ALA measurement by a standard technique. The local shift of acid-base state of biotope under the conditions of buffer system insufficiency results in a reversible alteration of antimicrobial activity of muramidase, that among other non-specific factors of the environment determines the background of interactions on the level of associative symbiosis. This aspect should be taken into consideration during development of models, that are close to real conditions of microsymbiocenotical interactions.

  4. Scale-Aware Pansharpening Algorithm for Agricultural Fragmented Landscapes

    Mario Lillo-Saavedra

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing (RS has played an important role in extensive agricultural monitoring and management for several decades. However, the current spatial resolution of satellite imagery does not have enough definition to generalize its use in highly-fragmented agricultural landscapes, which represents a significant percentage of the world’s total cultivated surface. To characterize and analyze this type of landscape, multispectral (MS images with high and very high spatial resolutions are required. Multi-source image fusion algorithms are normally used to improve the spatial resolution of images with a medium spatial resolution. In particular, pansharpening (PS methods allow one to produce high-resolution MS images through a coherent integration of spatial details from a panchromatic (PAN image with spectral information from an MS. The spectral and spatial quality of source images must be preserved to be useful in RS tasks. Different PS strategies provide different trade-offs between the spectral and the spatial quality of the fused images. Considering that agricultural landscape images contain many levels of significant structures and edges, the PS algorithms based on filtering processes must be scale-aware and able to remove different levels of detail in any input images. In this work, a new PS methodology based on a rolling guidance filter (RGF is proposed. The main contribution of this new methodology is to produce artifact-free pansharpened images, improving the MS edges with a scale-aware approach. Three images have been used, and more than 150 experiments were carried out. An objective comparison with widely-used methodologies shows the capability of the proposed method as a powerful tool to obtain pansharpened images preserving the spatial and spectral information.

  5. Flowers and Landscape by Serendipity.

    Pippin, Sandi

    2003-01-01

    Describes an art lesson in which students sketch drawings of flowers and use watercolor paper and other materials to paint a landscape. Explains that the students also learn about impressionism in this lesson. Discusses how the students prepare the paper and create their artwork. (CMK)

  6. Landscape design methods in architecture

    Jauslin, D.T.

    2012-01-01

    Landscape has been used as a metaphor or conceptual reference for an increasing amount of excellent architectural projects in the last two decades. The phenomenon seems to be a substantial innovation of architecture with an interesting potential for artistic, social and ecological gains. To be able

  7. Biography of an Industrial Landscape

    Riesto, Svava

    Biography of an Industrial Landscape tells the story of one of the most significant urban redevelopment projects in northern Europe at the turn of the century. Examining the reinvention of the Carlsberg brewery site in Copenhagen as a city district, Svava Riesto unpacks the deeper assumptions abo...

  8. Eucalyptus as a landscape tree

    W. Douglas Hamilton

    1983-01-01

    Ninety-two species of Eucalyptus were evaluated at the University of California re- search station in San Jose. The purpose: to find acceptable new street and park trees. Growth rates and horticultural characteristics were noted. Forty-three species were studied in locations statewide to evaluate site adaptation and landscape usefulness; flooded, cold, dry, saline....

  9. Dutch Architecture with Landscape Methods

    Abrami, F.; Bijster, J.; Bitarafan, N.; Cao, Z.; Cui, Y.; Liu, Y.; Ruan, L.; Maas, M.; Mayr, R.; Rozenmuller, M.; Toriano, L.; Yoshitake, M.; Jauslin, D.

    2009-01-01

    14 Project Documentations and Analysis of Dutch Architecture with Landscape Methods. MVRDV Villa VPRO, Powerhouse Company Villa 1, Herman Herzberger Coda Museum, NL Architects Basket Ba, SeARCH Posbank Pavillion, Wiel Arets Hedge House, OMA Kunsthal and Educatorium, Maaskant Johnson Wax, Diller &

  10. Language's Landscape of the Mind.

    Tracy, Janet

    2000-01-01

    Describes how the author's 6 middle school students living in a village in the Yukon, 100 miles off the road system just below the arctic circle, enthusiastically wrote stories or poems about their lives. The students shared their works via an online electronic conferencing system with students from the unimaginably different landscape of the…

  11. Selected Landscape Plants. Slide Script.

    McCann, Kevin

    This slide script, part of a series of slide scripts designed for use in vocational agriculture classes, deals with commercially important woody ornamental landscape plants. Included in the script are narrations for use with a total of 253 slides illustrating 92 different plants. Several slides are used to illustrate each plant: besides a view of…

  12. Ecological networks in urban landscapes

    Cook, E.A.

    2000-01-01

    This research focuses on the topic of ecological networks in urban landscapes. Analysis and planning of ecological networks is a relatively new phenomenon and is a response to fragmentation and deterioration of quality of natural systems. In agricultural areas and with existing nature

  13. Monarto’s Contested Landscape

    Paul Walker

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The proposal to develop a new city at Monarto in South Australia during the 1970s was an important project of the reforming government of Don Dunstan. Dunstan’s view was that Monarto would be a city environmentally suited to the tough conditions of its site, and to an ‘Australian way of life’. As planning and preliminary design proceeded from 1972 to 1975, the landscape potential of the city’s selected site became central to its conception. This paper draws on new research comprising interviews with key participants and archival material to examine four issues: the adoption of an environmental orientation in Australian urban planning and discourse in the 1970s; strategies in the design proposals that seemingly gave Monarto validity even as the demographic and political drivers for it dissolved away; the investigations that supported Monarto’s landscape strategies; and attitudes to social and cultural history that the Monarto project adopted. While ultimately the plan for Monarto was abandoned, the projected city’s landscape can be seen as a theatre for competing values in relation to natural and cultural heritage and design ambitions. The paper situates Monarto within national and international urban discourse that is more complex than has been previously acknowledged, indicative of competing values and ideologies in the planning, landscape and design discourses of the period.

  14. Surface fluxes in heterogeneous landscape

    Bay Hasager, C

    1997-01-01

    The surface fluxes in homogeneous landscapes are calculated by similarity scaling principles. The methodology is well establish. In heterogeneous landscapes with spatial changes in the micro scale range, i e from 100 m to 10 km, advective effects are significant. The present work focus on these effects in an agricultural countryside typical for the midlatitudes. Meteorological and satellite data from a highly heterogeneous landscape in the Rhine Valley, Germany was collected in the large-scale field experiment TRACT (Transport of pollutants over complex terrain) in 1992. Classified satellite images, Landsat TM and ERS SAR, are used as basis for roughness maps. The roughnesses were measured at meteorological masts in the various cover classes and assigned pixel by pixel to the images. The roughness maps are aggregated, i e spatially averaged, into so-called effective roughness lengths. This calculation is performed by a micro scale aggregation model. The model solves the linearized atmospheric flow equations by a numerical (Fast Fourier Transform) method. This model also calculate maps of friction velocity and momentum flux pixel wise in heterogeneous landscapes. It is indicated how the aggregation methodology can be used to calculate the heat fluxes based on the relevant satellite data i e temperature and soil moisture information. (au) 10 tabs., 49 ills., 223 refs.

  15. Space Strategies for the New Learning Landscape

    Dugdale, Shirley

    2009-01-01

    The Learning Landscape is the total context for students' learning experiences and the diverse landscape of learning settings available today--from specialized to multipurpose, from formal to informal, and from physical to virtual. The goal of the Learning Landscape approach is to acknowledge this richness and maximize encounters among people,…

  16. Europe: the paradox of landscape change

    Sluis, van der Theo

    2017-01-01

    This thesis explores the processes of change in European rural landscapes. Landscapes have evolved over millennia as a result of human influence on the physical environment. Europe has a wide variety of landscapes that can alter within a relatively short distance, and which often form part of the

  17. Research needs for our national landscapes

    Elwood L. Shafer

    1979-01-01

    The prevailing research problem for our national landscapes is: How shall we organize, control, and coordinate public and private development so as to protect, maintain, improve, and manage those landscape features that we value most? Research questions discussed include: environmental/political conflicts, taxation and zoning, landscape classification, public...

  18. Sustaining ecosystem services in cultural landscapes

    Tobias Plieninger

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Classical conservation approaches focus on the man-made degradation of ecosystems and tend to neglect the social-ecological values that human land uses have imprinted on many environments. Throughout the world, ingenious land-use practices have generated unique cultural landscapes, but these are under pressure from agricultural intensification, land abandonment, and urbanization. In recent years, the cultural landscapes concept has been broadly adopted in science, policy, and management. The interest in both outstanding and vernacular landscapes finds expression in the UNESCO World Heritage Convention, the European Landscape Convention, and the IUCN Protected Landscape Approach. These policies promote the protection, management, planning, and governance of cultural landscapes. The ecosystem services approach is a powerful framework to guide such efforts, but has rarely been applied in landscape research and management. With this paper, we introduce a special feature that aims to enhance the theoretical, empirical and practical knowledge of how to safeguard the resilience of ecosystem services in cultural landscapes. It concludes (1 that the usefulness of the ecosystem services approach to the analysis and management of cultural landscapes should be reviewed more critically; (2 that conventional ecosystem services assessment needs to be complemented by socio-cultural valuation; (3 that cultural landscapes are inherently changing, so that a dynamic view on ecosystem services and a focus on drivers of landscape change are needed; and (4 that managing landscapes for ecosystem services provision may benefit from a social-ecological resilience perspective.

  19. Ecosystem services in changing landscapes: An introduction

    Louis Iverson; Cristian Echeverria; Laura Nahuelhual; Sandra. Luque

    2014-01-01

    The concept of ecosystem services from landscapes is rapidly gaining momentum as a language to communicate values and benefits to scientists and lay alike. Landscape ecology has an enormous contribution to make to this field, and one could argue, uniquely so. Tools developed or adapted for landscape ecology are being increasingly used to assist with the quantification...

  20. Work shifts in Emergency Medicine

    Roberto Recupero

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Emergency Medicine is known as a high stress specialty. The adverse effect of constantly rotating shifts is the single most important reason given for premature attrition from the field. In this work problems tied with night shift work will be taken into account and some solutions to reduce the impact of night work on the emergency physicians will be proposed.

  1. Flexible Schedules and Shift Work.

    Beers, Thomas M.

    2000-01-01

    Flexible work hours have gained prominence, as more than 25 million workers (27.6% of all full-time workers) can now vary their schedules. However, there has been little change since the mid-1980s in the proportion who work a shift other than a regular daytime shift. (JOW)

  2. Microalgae: cultivation techniques and wastewater phycoremediation.

    Pacheco, Marcondes M; Hoeltz, Michele; Moraes, Maria S A; Schneider, Rosana C S

    2015-01-01

    Generation of liquid and gaseous effluents is associated with almost all anthropogenic activities. The discharge of these effluents into the environment without treatment has reduced the availability and quality of natural resources, representing a serious threat to the balance of different ecosystems and human health. Universal access to water and global warming are topics of intense concern and are listed as priorities in the vast majority of global scientific, social and political guidelines. Conventional techniques to treat liquid and gaseous effluents pose economic and/or environmental limitations that prevent their use in certain applications. The technique of phycoremediation, which uses microalgae, macroalgae, and cyanobacteria for the removal or biotransformation of pollutants, is an emerging technology that has been highlighted due to its economic viability and environmental sustainability. This literature review discusses different techniques of microalgae cultivation and their use in the phycoremediation of contaminants in wastewater.

  3. USE OF ARTIFICIAL LIGHT IN MUSHROOM CULTIVATION

    N. L. Poyedinok

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Artificial light is used in greenhouses to increase productivity and quality of agricultural and ornamental plants. Despite the awareness of the fact that light also plays important role in the life of nonhotosynthetic organisms, such as fungi, its using in their biotechnology cultivation is currently limited. Science has quite a large amount information about the influence of artificial light of different nature on morphogenesis, metabolic processes and productivity of more than 100 species of fungi, many of which are valuable producers of biologically active compounds. Themechanisms of photoreactions of various fungi, which is an integral part of a purposeful photoregulation their activity in biotechnological processes are described. The analysis of the researches and of the experience of their practical application allows predicting potential of using artificial light in mushroom growing industry, as well as in creating highly productive, environmentally clean technologies of targeted synthesis of the final product.

  4. Lisianthus cultivation using differentiated light transmission nets

    Paulo Hercilio Viegas Rodrigues

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Lisianthus stands out as one of the ten most cut flowers sold in the world. The use of meshes in a different light transmission is gaining more space in horticulture with promising results in greenhouse. The aim of this study was to evaluate the development of lisianthus grown in different light transmission meshes in blue, black, red and control treatments, which were transplanted 20 seedlings to cultivate Snow white with three replications, and therefore, 60 plants 240 plants per treatment in total. Agronomic characteristics such as plant height and length of the top pair of leaves were evaluated at 15, 38, 59, 82 and 105 days after transplanting. Other features such as early flowering, thick stem, distance between us and weight of the harvested stems were obtained at harvest stage. At the end of the evaluations, the treatment of red net was the most consistent with a significant difference in stem height and earliness in flowering.

  5. Principals, Trust, and Cultivating Vibrant Schools

    Megan Tschannen-Moran

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Although principals are ultimately held accountable to student learning in their buildings, the most consistent research results have suggested that their impact on student achievement is largely indirect. Leithwood, Patten, and Jantzi proposed four paths through which this indirect influence would flow, and the purpose of this special issue is to examine in greater depth these mediating variables. Among mediating variables, we assert that trust is key. In this paper, we explore the evidence that points to the role that faculty trust in the principal plays in student learning and how principals can cultivate trust by attending to the five facets of trust, as well as the correlates of trust that mediate student learning, including academic press, collective teacher efficacy, and teacher professionalism. We argue that trust plays a role in each of the four paths identified by Leithwood, Patten, and Jantzi. Finally, we explore possible new directions for future research.

  6. High-power LEDs for plant cultivation

    Tamulaitis, Gintautas; Duchovskis, Pavelas; Bliznikas, Zenius; Breive, Kestutis; Ulinskaite, Raimonda; Brazaityte, Ausra; Novickovas, Algirdas; Zukauskas, Arturas; Shur, Michael S.

    2004-10-01

    We report on high-power solid-state lighting facility for cultivation of greenhouse vegetables and on the results of the study of control of photosynthetic activity and growth morphology of radish and lettuce imposed by variation of the spectral composition of illumination. Experimental lighting modules (useful area of 0.22 m2) were designed based on 4 types of high-power light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with emission peaked in red at the wavelengths of 660 nm and 640 nm (predominantly absorbed by chlorophyll a and b for photosynthesis, respectively), in blue at 455 nm (phototropic function), and in far-red at 735 nm (important for photomorphology). Morphological characteristics, chlorophyll and phytohormone concentrations in radish and lettuce grown in phytotron chambers under lighting with different spectral composition of the LED-based illuminator and under illumination by high pressure sodium lamps with an equivalent photosynthetic photon flux density were compared. A well-balanced solid-state lighting was found to enhance production of green mass and to ensure healthy morphogenesis of plants compared to those grown using conventional lighting. We observed that the plant morphology and concentrations of morphologically active phytohormones is strongly affected by the spectral composition of light in the red region. Commercial application of the LED-based illumination for large-scale plant cultivation is discussed. This technology is favorable from the point of view of energy consumption, controllable growth, and food safety but is hindered by high cost of the LEDs. Large scale manufacturing of high-power red AlInGaP-based LEDs emitting at 650 nm and a further decrease of the photon price for the LEDs emitting in the vicinity of the absorption peak of chlorophylls have to be achieved to promote horticulture applications.

  7. The legacy of large regime shifts in shallow lakes.

    Ramstack Hobbs, Joy M; Hobbs, William O; Edlund, Mark B; Zimmer, Kyle D; Theissen, Kevin M; Hoidal, Natalie; Domine, Leah M; Hanson, Mark A; Herwig, Brian R; Cotner, James B

    2016-12-01

    Ecological shifts in shallow lakes from clear-water macrophyte-dominated to turbid-water phytoplankton-dominated are generally thought of as rapid short-term transitions. Diatom remains in sediment records from shallow lakes in the Prairie Pothole Region of North America provide new evidence that the long-term ecological stability of these lakes is defined by the legacy of large regime shifts. We examine the modern and historical stability of 11 shallow lakes. Currently, four of the lakes are in a clear-water state, three are consistently turbid-water, and four have been observed to change state from year to year (transitional). Lake sediment records spanning the past 150-200 yr suggest that (1) the diatom assemblage is characteristic of either clear or turbid lakes, (2) prior to significant landscape alteration, all of the lakes existed in a regime of a stable clear-water state, (3) lakes that are currently classified as turbid or transitional have experienced one strong regime shift over the past 150-200 yr and have since remained in a regime where turbid-water predominates, and (4) top-down impacts to the lake food-web from fish introductions appear to be the dominant driver of strong regime shifts and not increased nutrient availability. Based on our findings we demonstrate a method that could be used by lake managers to identify lakes that have an ecological history close to the clear-turbid regime threshold; such lakes might more easily be returned to a clear-water state through biomanipulation. The unfortunate reality is that many of these lakes are now part of a managed landscape and will likely require continued intervention. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  8. Variance as a Leading Indicator of Regime Shift in Ecosystem Services

    William A. Brock

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Many environmental conflicts involve pollutants such as greenhouse gas emissions that are dispersed through space and cause losses of ecosystem services. As pollutant emissions rise in one place, a spatial cascade of declining ecosystem services can spread across a larger landscape because of the dispersion of the pollutant. This paper considers the problem of anticipating such spatial regime shifts by monitoring time series of the pollutant or associated ecosystem services. Using such data, it is possible to construct indicators that rise sharply in advance of regime shifts. Specifically, the maximum eigenvalue of the variance-covariance matrix of the multivariate time series of pollutants and ecosystem services rises prior to the regime shift. No specific knowledge of the mechanisms underlying the regime shift is needed to construct the indicator. Such leading indicators of regime shifts could provide useful signals to management agencies or to investors in ecosystem service markets.

  9. URBAN LANDSCAPE QUALITY AND FACTORS THAT HAVE INFLUENCE ON LANDSCAPE QUALITY IN LATGALE REGION

    Matisovs, Ivars

    2005-01-01

    The paper deals with urban landscape individualities in the cities and towns of Latgale region. Also show facilities and methods of integrated assessment of urban landscape quality. Article provides information about specifics of urban landscape and factors, that have influence on landscape quality. The paper presents the results of Daugavpils and Rēzekne urban landscape quality complex assessment, that have been realised in 2003- 2005. This results don’t establish significant disparities bet...

  10. Molecular Characterization of Cultivated Pawpaw (Asimina triloba) Using RAPD Markers

    Hongwen Huang; Desmond R. Layne; Thomas L. Kubisiak

    2003-01-01

    Thirty-four extant pawpaw [Asimina triloba (L.) Dunal] cultivars and advanced selections representing a large portion of the gene pool of cultivated pawpaws were investigated using 71 randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers to establish genetic identities and evaluate genetic relatedness. All 34 cultivated pawpaws were uniquely...

  11. The complemental role of dryland cultivated pastures in market ...

    The complemental role of dryland cultivated pastures in market-related beef production from semi-arid rangeland. ... Abstract. Rangeland condition is a decisive factor in determining the income/cost ratio of production hence in the profitability of any beef production enterprise. Cultivated pastures can play an important role in ...

  12. Psychological Processes Underlying Cultivation Effects: Further Tests of Construct Accessibility.

    Shrum, L. J.

    1996-01-01

    Describes a study that tested whether the accessibility of information in memory mediates the cultivation effect (the effect of television viewing on social perceptions), consistent with the availability heuristic. Shows that heavy viewers gave higher frequency estimates (cultivation effect) and responded faster (accessibility effect) than did…

  13. Socio-Economic Determinants of Wetland Cultivation in Kemise ...

    A study of wetland use in Kemise, central Illubabor, southwestern Ethiopia, shows food shortage as the main factor behind wetland cultivation in the locality. However, discriminant analysis results indicate that it is the wealthier farmers who tend to cultivate wetlands rather than the economically less fortunate ones.

  14. Research Note Effects of previous cultivation on regeneration of ...

    We investigated the effects of previous cultivation on regeneration potential under miombo woodlands in a resettlement area, a spatial product of Zimbabwe's land reforms. We predicted that cultivation would affect population structure, regeneration, recruitment and potential grazing capacity of rangelands. Plant attributes ...

  15. Cultivation of oyster mushroom ( Pleurotus spp.) on palm oil ...

    Oyster mushroom is a popular mushroom due to its nutritional, medicinal and potential commercial value. In Malaysia, the fungus is currently cultivated on sawdust and rice husk. In this study, the efficiency of cultivating oyster mushroom was assessed using palm oil mesocarp fibre as a substrate. The experiment consisted ...

  16. Moral Self-Cultivation East and West: A Critique

    Slote, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Moral Self-Cultivation plays an important, even a central role, in the Confucian philosophical tradition, but philosophers in the West, most notably Aristotle and Kant, also hold that moral self-cultivation or self-shaping is possible and morally imperative. This paper argues that these traditions are psychologically unrealistic in what they say…

  17. Compound serum and hemin free medium for cultivation of ...

    Serum free cultivation of Leishmania is cost-effective and improves large scale production of well defined parasite material. Moreover, the production of recombinant pharmaceutical proteins requires cultivation of the host in a culture medium free of animal materials, so several culture media for Leishmania tarentolae ...

  18. Agronomic performance of five banana cultivars under protected cultivation

    Banana has been grown both in open-field and protected cultivation in Turkey. So far protected cultivation is very popular due to the high yield and quality. The objective of the study was to evaluate agronomic performance of five new banana cultivars under plastic greenhouse. ‘MA 13’, ‘Williams’, ‘...

  19. Processes and Causes of Accelerated Soil Erosion on Cultivated ...

    Processes and Causes of Accelerated Soil Erosion on Cultivated Fields of South Welo, Ethiopia. ... In most of the highlands, crop cultivation is carried out without any type of terracing, while about 74 per cent of this land requires application of contour plowing, broad-based terracing, or bench terracing. The third group of ...

  20. Health Impacts of Tobacco Cultivation in Bangladesh | IDRC ...

    ... health problems among men, women, and children in Bangladesh will examine the health and socio-economic impact of tobacco cultivation. To date, the health hazards of growing tobacco have not been documented or well researched, particularly in low-and middle-income countries with high rates of tobacco cultivation.

  1. Effect of organic cultivation of rooibos tea plants ( Aspalathus linearis )

    The shoots of rooibos (Aspalathus linearis (Burm.f.) R.Dahlgren) plants, cultivated organically by small-scale farmers in Nieuwoudtville, are harvested for the production of tea. These practices could lead to decreasing soil fertility. It was hypothesised that soil from cultivated rooibos plots will have lower nutrient ...

  2. Landscape dynamics and different climate forcings in eastern Mongolia

    Moore, N. J.; John, R.; Chen, J.

    2017-12-01

    Central and Eastern Mongolia have witnessed significant decreasing greening from the period 2000-2012. This decline may be partially, directly due to increased grazing pressure from livestock. Our study objective is to understand how landscape change may be altering heat fluxes and precipitation. Using the RAMS 6.0 regional climate model, we simulated the spatiotemporal changes in growing-season precipitation and atmospheric behavior under: (a) observed vegetation, and (b) aggressively reduced vegetation, to prognose likely locations and changes of the regional climate that might have resulted from land cover changes (2001-2010). We simulated a dzud/drought year (using forcing from 2001) and a wet year (using forcing from 2003). Our simulations show increased cloud cover and reduced daily temperature ranges for northeastern Mongolia where forest growth has expanded. Localized differences of 60 W/m2 of sensible heat flux were found when degraded landscape cover replaced older, more dense cover. More importantly, the overall trend towards reduced vegetation cover was responsible for higher screen height temperatures and reduced soil moisture throughout much of the domain, together with a shift of moisture southward of Inner Mongolia. Thus, even with improved chances for convection, soil moisture reductions of 5-10% would lead to overall even drier conditions. In the steppe regions around the Gobi desert, more complex patterns are evident and landscape drivers are less clear.

  3. Specificity of Cs-137 redistribution in toposequence of arable soils cultivated after the Chernobyl accident

    Korobova, Elena; Romanov, Sergey; Baranchukov, Vladimir; Berezkin, Victor; Moiseenko, Fedor; Kirov, Sergey

    2017-04-01

    Investigations performed after the Chernobyl accident showed high spatial variation of radionuclide contamination of the soil cover in elementary landscape geochemical systems (ELGS) that characterize catena's structure. Our studies of Cs-137 distribution along and cross the slopes of local ridges in natural forested key site revealed a cyclic character of variation of the radionuclide surface activity along the studied transections (Korobova et al, 2008; Korobova, Romanov, 2009; 2011). We hypothesized that the observed pattern reflects a specific secondary migration of Cs-137 with water, and that this process could have taken place in any ELGS. To test this hypothesis a detailed field measurement of Cs-137 surface activity was performed in ELGS in agricultural area cultivated after the Chernobyl accident but later withdrawn from land-use. In situ measurements carried out by field gamma-spectrometry were accompanied by soil core sampling at the selected points. Soil samples were taken in increments of 2 cm down to 20 cm and of 5 cm down to 40 cm. The samples were analyzed for Cs-137 in laboratory using Canberra gamma-spectrometer with HP-Ge detector. Obtained results confirmed the fact of area cultivation down to 20 cm that was clearly traced by Cs-137 profile in soil columns. At the same time, the measurements also showed a cyclic character of Cs-137 variation in a sequence of ELGS from watershed to the local depression similar to that found in woodland key site. This proved that the observed pattern is a natural process typical for matter migration in ELGS independently of the vegetation type and ploughing. Therefore, spatial aspect is believed to be an important issue for development of adequate technique for a forecast of contamination of agricultural production and remediation of the soil cover on the local scale within the contaminated areas. References Korobova, E.M., Romanov, S.L., 2009. A Chernobyl 137Cs contamination study as an example for the spatial

  4. Diversity and use of wild and non-cultivated edible plants in the Western Himalaya.

    Aryal, Kamal Prasad; Poudel, Sushmita; Chaudhary, Ram Prasad; Chettri, Nakul; Chaudhary, Pashupati; Ning, Wu; Kotru, Rajan

    2018-01-29

    Local people in the Himalayan region use a wide range of wild and non-cultivated edible plants (WNEPs) for food, spice, medicinal, and cultural purposes. However, their availability, use, status and contribution to livelihood security are poorly documented, and they have been generally overlooked in recent agro-biodiversity conservation and management programmes. The study aimed to investigate WNEP diversity and current status in a part of the Kailash Sacred Landscape-a transboundary landscape shared by Nepal, India and PR China-in terms of collection, use, management and conservation initiatives. Multiple methodologies and tools were used for data collection. A series of participatory tools (45 key informant interviews, 10 focus group discussions, a crop diversity fair, direct observation of species through a transect walk and rapid market assessments) was followed by a household survey (195 respondents) and complemented by a literature review. The study recorded 99 WNEPs belonging to 59 families of which 96 were angiosperms, one gymnosperm and two pteridophytes. Species were used for food, spice, medicine, rituals and income generation. Thirty-five species had multiple uses, including these: 40 species were used for fruit and 31 for vegetables. WNEPs contribute significantly to daily food requirements, especially the vegetables. The use value of Dryopteris cochleata was found highest (0.98) among frequently used vegetable species. The values of informant consensus factor were found maximum for worms in the stomach (0.99) and minimum for skin disease treatment (0.67). Nearly 85% of households depended exclusively on WNEPs for at least more than a month per year. Results on the importance and use of different species, gender roles in WNEP activities and conservation approaches are presented. People living in the Kailash Sacred Landscape depend significantly on WNEPs, and this is especially critical in times of food shortage. The WNEPs have considerable potential as

  5. Primavera Ring. Management perspectives on La Primavera forest buffer zone, from the cultural landscapes approach

    Pedro Alcocer Santos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The current article intends to high light the need to implement a buffer zone for La Primavera Forest,  Biosphere reserve MaB UNESCO in Guadalajara, Jalisco. The criteria to develop this transition zone is based on understanding this territory as a Cultural Landscape. Seeking common ground between Biosphere Reserves and Cultural Landscapes criteria to organize the management and development of the buffer zone. To understand the opponents of city development and forest preservation as complementary elements, a paradigm shift is needed. This is an applied research from the ITESO, and it is structured as a Think Tank that involves society, government and academy.

  6. Landscapes of the Kruger National Park

    W. P. D Gertenbach

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge on the abiotic and biotic components of the Kruger National Park (KNP system has increased to such an extent, that it was possible to zonate the KNP into landscapes. A landscape was defined as an area with a specific geomorphology, climate, soil and vegetation pattern together with the associated fauna. On this basis 35 landscapes were identified and described in terms of the components mentioned in the definition. The objective of classification is that future management should be based on these landscapes. Relevant management considerations may change, but the landscape a@ a basic functional unit should not be negotiable.

  7. Purification effects of five landscape plants on river landscape water

    Ling, Sun; Lei, Zheng; Mao, Qinqing; Ji, Qingxin

    2017-12-01

    Five species of landscape plants which are scindapsus aureus, water hyacinth, cockscomb, calendula officinalis and salvia splendens were used as experimental materials to study their removal effects on nitrogen, phosphorus, chemical oxygen demand (CODMn) and suspended solids (SS) in urban river water. The results show that the 5 landscape plants have good adaptability and vitality in water body, among them, water hyacinth had the best life signs than the other 4 plants, and its plant height and root length increased significantly. They have certain removal effects on the nitrogen, phosphorus, CODMn (Chemical Oxygen Demand) and SS (Suspended Substance) in the landscape water of Dalong Lake, Xuzhou. Scindapsus aureus, water hyacinth, cockscomb, calendula officinalis and salvia splendens on the removal rate of total nitrogen were 76.69%, 78.57%, 71.42%, 69.64%, 67.86%; the ammonia nitrogen removal rate were 71.06%, 74.28%, 67.85%, 63.02%, 59.81%;the total phosphorus removal rate were 78.70%, 81.48%, 73.15%, 72.22%, 68.52%;the orthophosphate removal rates were 78.37%, 80.77%, 75.96%, 75.96%, 71.15%;the removal rate of CODMn was 52.5%, 55.35%, 46.02%, 45.42%, 44.19%; the removal rate of SS was 81.4%, 86%, 79.1%, 76.7%, 74.42%.The purification effect of 5 kinds of landscape plants of Dalong Lake in Xuzhou City: water hyacinth> scindapsus aureus>cockscomb>calendula officinalis>salvia splendens.

  8. Functional State Modelling of Cultivation Processes: Dissolved Oxygen Limitation State

    Olympia Roeva

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A new functional state, namely dissolved oxygen limitation state for both bacteria Escherichia coli and yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae fed-batch cultivation processes is presented in this study. Functional state modelling approach is applied to cultivation processes in order to overcome the main disadvantages of using global process model, namely complex model structure and a big number of model parameters. Alongwith the newly introduced dissolved oxygen limitation state, second acetate production state and first acetate production state are recognized during the fed-batch cultivation of E. coli, while mixed oxidative state and first ethanol production state are recognized during the fed-batch cultivation of S. cerevisiae. For all mentioned above functional states both structural and parameter identification is here performed based on experimental data of E. coli and S. cerevisiae fed-batch cultivations.

  9. Economic benefit analysis of cultivating Pleurotus ostreatus with rape straw

    Guan, Qinlan; Gong, Mingfu; Tang, Mei

    2018-04-01

    The cultivation of Pleurotus ostreatus with rape straw not only can save the cultivation cost of P. ostreatus, but also can reuse the resources and protect the environment. By adding different proportion of rape straw to the cultivation material of P. ostreatus, the reasonable amount of rape straw was selected and the economic benefit of P. ostreatus cultivated with the optimum amount of rape straw was analyzed. The results showed that adding 10% to 40% rape straw to the cultivation material of P. ostreatus did not affect the yield and biological conversion rate of P. ostreatus, and the ratio of production and investment of the amount of rape straw in the range of 10% to 50% was higher than of cottonseed husk alone as the main material of the formula.

  10. Aeration strategy for biofilm cultivation of the microalga Scenedesmus dimorphus.

    Ji, Chunli; Wang, Junfeng; Liu, Tianzhong

    2015-10-01

    Biofilm cultivation of microalgae may be useful for biofuel production. However, many aspects for this cultivation method have not been well assessed. Accordingly, aeration strategy for biofilm cultivation of Scenedesmus dimorphus has been explored. Biomass, lipid and triacylglycerol (TAG) productivity in increased S. dimorphus as the CO2 concentration increased within 0.038-0.5% and kept constant with further increases. The biomass, lipid and TAG productivity increased with the speed increasing and an obvious threshold point was observed at 6.6 ml(-2) min(-1). The lipid and TAG content was unaffected by the aeration rate. Both the CO2 concentration as well as aeration speed affected the growth of S. dimorphus in biofilm cultivation. The optimized aeration strategy for biofilm cultivation was continuous air flow enriched with 1% CO2 (v/v) at 6.6 ml(-2) min(-1).

  11. The Cultivation of Cultural Awareness in English Teaching

    王宁

    2015-01-01

    As the development of the information age,the cultivation of intercultural communicative competence has been extremely important. Thus foreign language teaching lays stress on the cultivation of language comprehensive application ability. Culture awareness is an important part of language comprehensive application ability. The cultivating of students’ cultural awareness is beneficial to improve their humanistic quality,broaden their international view,strengthen their patriotism spirit and sense of national mission,and achieve their all-round development. The paper will discuss the current situation of cultural awareness cultivation in English teaching. In view of the problems and its causes existing in the cultural awareness cultivation,three count measures have been proposed.

  12. Experimental evidence of dynamic re-organization of evolving landscapes under changing climatic forcing

    Singh, Arvind; Tejedor, Alejandro; Zaliapin, Ilya; Reinhardt, Liam; Foufoula-Georgiou, Efi

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study is to better understand the dynamic re-organization of an evolving landscape under a scenario of changing climatic forcing for improving our knowledge of geomorphic transport laws under transient conditions and developing predictive models of landscape response to external perturbations. Real landscape observations for long-term analysis are limited and to this end a high resolution controlled laboratory experiment was conducted at the St. Anthony Falls laboratory at the University of Minnesota. Elevation data were collected at temporal resolution of 5 mins and spatial resolution of 0.5 mm as the landscape approached steady state (constant uplift and precipitation rate) and in the transient state (under the same uplift and 5x precipitation). The results reveal rapid topographic re-organization under a five-fold precipitation increase with the fluvial regime expanding into the previously debris dominated regime, accelerated erosion happening at hillslope scales, and rivers shifting from an erosion-limited to a transport-limited regime. From a connectivity and clustering analysis of the erosional and depositional events, we demonstrate the strikingly different spatial patterns of landscape evolution under steady-state (SS) and transient-state (TS), even when the time under SS is "stretched" compared to that under TS such as to match the total volume and PDF of erosional and depositional amounts. We quantify the spatial coupling of hillslopes and channels and demonstrate that hillslopes lead and channels follow in re-organizing the whole landscape under such an amplified precipitation regime.

  13. Green Infrastructure to Improve Ecosystem Services in the Landscape Urban Regeneration

    Semeraro, Teodoro; Aretano, Roberta; Pomes, Alessandro

    2017-10-01

    energy plants in southern Italy, especially in Apulia region, into “new urban photo-ecological gardens”. The aim of our research is to harmonise economic development and biodiversity conservation to safeguard the ecological processes that underpin human well-being, creating a strong synergism between renewable energy planning and valorisation of ecosystem services. Therefore, a new approach is proposed to manage photovoltaic solar farms, shifting from “negative vegetation management”, focused mainly at the elimination of invasive plants, to “active vegetation management”, i.e. the cultivation of plants with an economic and ecological value. This approach would offer many opportunities for integration between economic development, nature valorisation and public health promotion.

  14. Assessment of landscape diversity and determination of landscape hotspots - a case of Slovenia

    Perko, Drago; Ciglič, Rok; Hrvatin, Mauro

    2017-04-01

    Areas with high landscape diversity can be regarded as landscape hotspots, and vice versa areas with low landscape diversity can be marked as landscape coldspots. The main purpose of this paper is to use quantitative geoinformatical approach and identify parts of our test area (the country of Slovenia) that can be described as very diverse according to natural landscapes and natural elements. We used different digital raster data of natural elements and landscape classifications and defined landscape diversity and landscape hotspots. We defined diversity for each raster pixel by counting the number of different unique types of landscape elements and types of landscapes in its neighborhood. Namely, the method was used separately to define diversity according to natural elements (types of relief forms, rocks, and vegetation) and diversity according to existing geographical landscape classifications of Slovenia (types of landscapes). In both cases one-tenth of Slovenia's surface with the highest landscape diversity was defined as landscape hotspots. The same applies to the coldspots. Additionally we tested the same method of counting different types of landscapes in certain radius also for the area of Europe in order to find areas that are more diverse at continental level. By doing so we were able to find areas that have similar level of diversity as Slovenia according to different European landscape classifications. Areas with landscape diversity may have an advantage in economic development, especially in tourism. Such areas are also important for biodiversity, habitat, and species diversity. On the other hand, localities where various natural influences mix can also be areas where it is hard to transfer best practices from one place to another because of the varying responses of the landscapes to human intervention. Thus it is important to know where areas with high landscape diversity are.

  15. Competing Wind Energy Discourses, Contested Landscapes

    Antje Otto

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The impairment of landscapes is a concern constantly raised against wind energy developments in Germany as in other countries. Often, landscapes or landscape types are treated in the literature as essentialist or at least as uncontested categories. We analyse two examples of local controversies about wind energy, in which “landscape” is employed by supporters and opponents alike, from a poststructuralist and discourse theoretical angle. The aim is to identify and compare landscape constructs produced in the micro discourses of wind energy objectors and proponents at local level (a within each case, (b between the two cases and (c with landscape constructs that were previously found in macro discourses. One major finding is that several different landscapes can exist at one and the same place. Furthermore there seems to be a relatively stable set of competing landscape concepts which is reproduced in specific controversies. The paper concludes by highlighting practical consequences and by identifying promising avenues of further research.

  16. Legislative Framework for Landscape Planning in Latvia

    Nitavska, Natalija; Zigmunde, Daiga

    2017-10-01

    With the adoption and the ratification of the European Landscape Convention a legally justified need for a clear landscape policy was grounded in the European countries. It includes the elaboration of the new and the improvement of the existing legislative documents on landscape planning, protection and management. The aim of the particular study is to analyse the existing legislative documents in Latvia influencing landscape planning on different scales / and the implementation of the European Landscape Convention. The study emphasizes the complex structure of the Latvian legislative framework affected by the distribution of the normative documents under the various ministries. Therefore, the main problem is unclear responsibility levels and organizational system for solving the issues regarding landscape planning, protection and management. Thus the various discussions between the involved disciplines and responsible institutions are arising. Two groups of the legislative documents influencing the implementation of the landscape policy in Latvia are detected within the study. The first group is strategic documents determining main landscape planning principles and directions at European, national, regional and professional or sectoral level. The second group is operational documents providing a set of actions for the landscape planning, protection and management at the local or the municipality level. The study concludes that operational documents developed by the municipalities are in high importance because of their direct influence on the landscape planning in Latvia. This often leads to the different landscape planning requirements included in the normative documents of the neighbouring municipalities, although the spatial and ecological borders of the visual landscape do not fit with the formal borders of the municipalities. Thus, it is essential to develop the common principles and actions that would be incumbent on all municipalities to provide the

  17. Bio-geomorphic feedback causes alternative stable landscape states: insights from coastal marshes and tidal flats

    Temmerman, Stijn; Wang, Chen

    2014-05-01

    Many bio-geomorphic systems, such as hill slopes, river floodplains, tidal floodplains and dune areas, seem to be vulnerable to shifts between alternative bare and vegetated landscape states, and these shifts seem to be driven by bio-geomorphic feedbacks. Here we search for empirical evidence for alternative stable state behavior in intertidal flats and marshes, where bio-geomorphic interactions are known to be intense. Large-scale transitions have been reported worldwide between high-elevation vegetated marshes and low-elevation bare flats in intertidal zones of deltas, estuaries, and coastal embayments. It is of significant importance to understand and predict such transitions, because vegetated marshes provide significant services to coastal societies. Previous modeling studies suggest that the ecological theory of catastrophic shifts between alternative stable ecosystem states potentially explains the transition between bare flats and vegetated marshes. However, up to now only few empirical evidence exists. In our study, the hypothesis is empirically tested that vegetated marshes and bare tidal flats can be considered as alternative stable landscape states with rapid shifts between them. We studied historical records (1930s - 2000s) of intertidal elevation surveys and aerial pictures from the Westerschelde estuary (SW Netherlands). Our results demonstrated the existence of: (1) bimodality in the intertidal elevation distribution, i.e., the presence of two peaks in the elevation frequency distribution corresponding to a completely bare state and a densely vegetated state; (2) the relatively rapid transition in elevation when intertidal flats evolve from bare to vegetated states, with sedimentation rates that are 2 to 8 times faster than during the stable states; (3) a threshold elevation above which the shift from bare to vegetated state has a high chance to occur. Our observations demonstrate the abrupt non-linear shift between low-elevation bare flats and high

  18. Gene flow of common ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.) in a fragmented landscape.

    Semizer-Cuming, Devrim; Kjær, Erik Dahl; Finkeldey, Reiner

    2017-01-01

    Gene flow dynamics of common ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.) is affected by several human activities in Central Europe, including habitat fragmentation, agroforestry expansion, controlled and uncontrolled transfer of reproductive material, and a recently introduced emerging infectious disease, ash dieback, caused by Hymenoscyphus fraxineus. Habitat fragmentation may alter genetic connectivity and effective population size, leading to loss of genetic diversity and increased inbreeding in ash populations. Gene flow from cultivated trees in landscapes close to their native counterparts may also influence the adaptability of future generations. The devastating effects of ash dieback have already been observed in both natural and managed populations in continental Europe. However, potential long-term effects of genetic bottlenecks depend on gene flow across fragmented landscapes. For this reason, we studied the genetic connectivity of ash trees in an isolated forest patch of a fragmented landscape in Rösenbeck, Germany. We applied two approaches to parentage analysis to estimate gene flow patterns at the study site. We specifically investigated the presence of background pollination at the landscape level and the degree of genetic isolation between native and cultivated trees. Local meteorological data was utilized to understand the effect of wind on the pollen and seed dispersal patterns. Gender information of the adult trees was considered for calculating the dispersal distances. We found that the majority of the studied seeds (55-64%) and seedlings (75-98%) in the forest patch were fathered and mothered by the trees within the same patch. However, we determined a considerable amount of pollen flow (26-45%) from outside of the study site, representing background pollination at the landscape level. Limited pollen flow was observed from neighbouring cultivated trees (2%). Both pollen and seeds were dispersed in all directions in accordance with the local wind directions

  19. Gene flow of common ash (Fraxinus excelsior L. in a fragmented landscape.

    Devrim Semizer-Cuming

    Full Text Available Gene flow dynamics of common ash (Fraxinus excelsior L. is affected by several human activities in Central Europe, including habitat fragmentation, agroforestry expansion, controlled and uncontrolled transfer of reproductive material, and a recently introduced emerging infectious disease, ash dieback, caused by Hymenoscyphus fraxineus. Habitat fragmentation may alter genetic connectivity and effective population size, leading to loss of genetic diversity and increased inbreeding in ash populations. Gene flow from cultivated trees in landscapes close to their native counterparts may also influence the adaptability of future generations. The devastating effects of ash dieback have already been observed in both natural and managed populations in continental Europe. However, potential long-term effects of genetic bottlenecks depend on gene flow across fragmented landscapes. For this reason, we studied the genetic connectivity of ash trees in an isolated forest patch of a fragmented landscape in Rösenbeck, Germany. We applied two approaches to parentage analysis to estimate gene flow patterns at the study site. We specifically investigated the presence of background pollination at the landscape level and the degree of genetic isolation between native and cultivated trees. Local meteorological data was utilized to understand the effect of wind on the pollen and seed dispersal patterns. Gender information of the adult trees was considered for calculating the dispersal distances. We found that the majority of the studied seeds (55-64% and seedlings (75-98% in the forest patch were fathered and mothered by the trees within the same patch. However, we determined a considerable amount of pollen flow (26-45% from outside of the study site, representing background pollination at the landscape level. Limited pollen flow was observed from neighbouring cultivated trees (2%. Both pollen and seeds were dispersed in all directions in accordance with the local

  20. Opportunistic Market-Driven Regional Shifts of Cropping Practices Reduce Food Production Capacity of China

    Yuan, Wenping; Liu, Shuguang; Liu, Wei; Zhao, Shuqing; Dong, Wenjie; Tao, Fulu; Chen, Min; Lin, Hui

    2018-04-01

    China is facing the challenge of feeding a growing population with the declining cropland and increasing shortage of water resources under the changing climate. This study identified that the opportunistic profit-driven shifts of planting areas and crop species composition have strongly reduced the food production capacity of China. First, the regional cultivation patterns of major crops in China have substantially shifted during the past five decades. Southeast and South China, the regions with abundant water resources and fewer natural disasters, have lost large planting areas of cropland in order to pursue industry and commerce. Meanwhile, Northeast and Northwest China, the regions with low water resources and frequent natural disasters, have witnessed increases in planting areas. These macroshifts have reduced the national food production by 1.02% per year. The lost grain production would have been enough to feed 13 million people. Second, the spatial shifts have been accompanied by major changes in crop species composition, with substantial increases in planting area and production of maize, due to its low water consumption and high economic returns. Consequently, the stockpile of maize in China has accounted for more than half of global stockpile, and the stock to use ratio of maize in China has exceeded the reliable level. Market-driven regional shifts of cropping practices have resulted in larger irrigation requirements and aggravated environmental stresses. Our results highlighted the need for Chinese food policies to consider the spatial shifts in cultivation, and the planting crop compositions limited by regional water resources and climate change.