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Sample records for shift experiments demonstrated

  1. Status of the Majorana Demonstrator experiment

    Martin, R. D.; Abgrall, N.; Aguayo, E.; Avignone, F. T., III; Barabash, A. S.; Bertrand, F. E.; Boswell, M.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, M.; Caldwell, A. S.; Chan, Y.-D.; Christofferson, C. D.; Combs, D. C.; Detwiler, J. A.; Doe, P. J.; Efremenko, Yu.; Egorov, V.; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, S. R.; Esterline, J.; Fast, J. E.; Finnerty, P.; Fraenkle, F. M.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Goett, J.; Green, M. P.; Gruszko, J.; Guiseppe, V. E.; Gusev, K.; Hallin, A. L.; Hazama, R.; Hegai, A.; Henning, R.; Hoppe, E. W.; Howard, S.; Howe, M. A.; Keeter, K. J.; Kidd, M. F.; Kochetov, O.; Konovalov, S. I.; Kouzes, R. T.; LaFerriere, B. D.; Leon, J.; Leviner, L. E.; Loach, J. C.; MacMullin, J.; MacMullin, S.; Mertens, S.; Mizouni, L.; Nomachi, M.; Orrell, J. L.; O'Shaughnessy, C.; Overman, N. R.; Phillips, D. G., II; Poon, A. W. P.; Pushkin, K.; Radford, D. C.; Rielage, K.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Romero-Romero, E.; Ronquest, M. C.; Schubert, A. G.; Shanks, B.; Shima, T.; Shirchenko, M.; Snavely, K. J.; Snyder, N.; Soin, A.; Suriano, A. M.; Thompson, J.; Timkin, V.; Tornow, W.; Varner, R. L.; Vasilyev, S.; Vetter, K.; Vorren, K.; White, B. R.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Xu, W.; Yakushev, E.; Young, A. R.; Yu, C.-H.; Yumatov, V.

    2014-06-01

    The Majorana Demonstrator neutrinoless double beta-decay experiment is currently under construction at the Sanford Underground Research Facility in South Dakota, USA. An overview and status of the experiment are given.

  2. Experience with the shift technical advisor position

    Melber, B.D.; Olson, J.; Schreiber, R.E.; Winges, L.

    1984-03-01

    The provision of engineering expertise on shift at commercial nuclear power plants has mainly taken the form of the Shift Technical Advisor (STA). This person, acting in a capacity that is part engineer and part operator, is expected to advise the operations crew in the event of an emergency and review plant operating experience during normal circumstances. The position was mandated by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission following the incident at Three Mile Island. This report expands on a growing body of knowledge regarding the effectiveness of the STA. The new data presented here come from interviews with plant personnel and utility officials from nine sites. Researchers from the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) interviewed plant personnel, including the STA and immediate management, the shift supervisor and management, the training department, and ancillary staff, all of whom affect the intended performance of the STA. The conclusions of the report are that the design of the STA position results in limited contribution during emergencies; more comprehensive ways should be sought to provide the variety and specificity of engineering expertise needed during such times

  3. Experience with the shift technical advisor position

    Melber, B.D.; Olson, J.; Schreiber, R.E.; Winges, L.

    1984-03-01

    The provision of engineering expertise on shift at commercial nuclear power plants has mainly taken the form of the Shift Technical Advisor (STA). This person, acting in a capacity that is part engineer and part operator, is expected to advise the operations crew in the event of an emergency and review plant operating experience during normal circumstances. The position was mandated by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission following the incident at Three Mile Island. This report expands on a growing body of knowledge regarding the effectiveness of the STA. The new data presented here come from interviews with plant personnel and utility officials from nine sites. Researchers from the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) interviewed plant personnel, including the STA and immediate management, the shift supervisor and management, the training department, and ancillary staff, all of whom affect the intended performance of the STA. The conclusions of the report are that the design of the STA position results in limited contribution during emergencies; more comprehensive ways should be sought to provide the variety and specificity of engineering expertise needed during such times.

  4. Experiments to Demonstrate Piezoelectric and Pyroelectric Effects

    Erhart, Jirí

    2013-01-01

    Piezoelectric and pyroelectric materials are used in many current applications. The purpose of this paper is to explain the basic properties of pyroelectric and piezoelectric effects and demonstrate them in simple experiments. Pyroelectricity is presented on lead zirconium titanate (PZT) ceramics as an electric charge generated by the temperature…

  5. Technologies of democracy: experiments and demonstrations.

    Laurent, Brice

    2011-12-01

    Technologies of democracy are instruments based on material apparatus, social practices and expert knowledge that organize the participation of various publics in the definition and treatment of public problems. Using three examples related to the engagement of publics in nanotechnology in France (a citizen conference, a series of public meetings, and an industrial design process), the paper argues that Science and Technology Studies provide useful tools and methods for the analysis of technologies of democracy. Operations of experiments and public demonstrations can be described, as well as controversies about technologies of democracy giving rise to counter-experiments and counter-demonstrations. The political value of the analysis of public engagement lies in the description of processes of stabilization of democratic orders and in the display of potential alternative political arrangements.

  6. Experimental demonstration of 360 tunable RF phase shift using slow and fast light effects

    Xue, Weiqi; Sales, Salvador; Capmany, Jose

    2009-01-01

    A microwave photonic phase shifter realizing 360º phase shift over a RF bandwidth of more than 10 GHz is demonstrated using optical filtering assisted slow and fast light effects in a cascaded structure of semiconductor optical amplifiers....

  7. Experimental Demonstration of Capacity-Achieving Phase-Shifted Superposition Modulation

    Estaran Tolosa, Jose Manuel; Zibar, Darko; Caballero Jambrina, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    We report on the first experimental demonstration of phase-shifted superposition modulation (PSM) for optical links. Successful demodulation and decoding is obtained after 240 km transmission for 16-, 32- and 64-PSM.......We report on the first experimental demonstration of phase-shifted superposition modulation (PSM) for optical links. Successful demodulation and decoding is obtained after 240 km transmission for 16-, 32- and 64-PSM....

  8. Students' educational experiences and interaction with residents on night shifts.

    Schiller, Jocelyn; Sokoloff, Max; Tendhar, Chosang; Schmidt, John; Christner, Jennifer

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to investigate whether increased night shifts for students on paediatric rotations had any negative impact on their overall quality of educational experiences in light of the implementation of duty-hour restrictions. Both quantitative and qualitative data were collected from 30 students on paediatric rotations during the academic year 2011/12. Students completed two questionnaires, one in response to their experiences during the day shifts and another in response to their experiences during the night shifts. Only 25 cases were retained for the final analyses. The non-parametric Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to analyse the quantitative data, and constant comparative thematic analyses, as described by Creswell, were used to analyse the qualitative data. [Do] increased nights shifts for students … [have] any negative impact on their overall quality of educational experiences[?] RESULTS: The results indicated that students' perceived quality of experiences during the night shifts was greater, compared with their day shifts. Students reported having more time to socialise during the night shifts. They further reported that informal ways of learning, such as impromptu teaching and spontaneous discussions on clinical problems, were more beneficial, and these often occurred in abundance during the night shifts as opposed to the scheduled didactic teaching sessions that occur during the day shifts. This study documented many unanticipated benefits of night shifts. The feeling of cohesiveness of the night team deserves further exploration, as this can be linked to better performance outcomes. More consideration should be given to implementing night shifts as a regular feature of clerkships. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and The Association for the Study of Medical Education.

  9. Some simple demonstration experiments involving homopolar motors

    Stewart, Seán M.

    2007-01-01

    The ready availability of very strong permanent magnets in the form of rare-earth magnetic alloys such as neodymium-iron-boron has lead to renewed interest in one of the oldest types of electric motors - the homopolar motor. The ease with which a demonstration homopolar motor can now be built and operated when neodymium magnets are used is quite remarkable. In this paper some simple homopolar motors employing neodymium magnets suitable for demonstrational purposes are described and discussed....

  10. Some simple demonstration experiments involving homopolar motors

    Stewart,Seán M.

    2007-01-01

    The ready availability of very strong permanent magnets in the form of rare-earth magnetic alloys such as neodymium-iron-boron has lead to renewed interest in one of the oldest types of electric motors - the homopolar motor. The ease with which a demonstration homopolar motor can now be built and operated when neodymium magnets are used is quite remarkable. In this paper some simple homopolar motors employing neodymium magnets suitable for demonstrational purposes are described and discussed.

  11. Demonstrating Interactions of Transcription Factors with DNA by Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay.

    Yousaf, Nasim; Gould, David

    2017-01-01

    Confirming the binding of a transcription factor with a particular DNA sequence may be important in characterizing interactions with a synthetic promoter. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay is a powerful approach to demonstrate the specific DNA sequence that is bound by a transcription factor and also to confirm the specific transcription factor involved in the interaction. In this chapter we describe a method we have successfully used to demonstrate interactions of endogenous transcription factors with sequences derived from endogenous and synthetic promoters.

  12. Demonstration Experiments with a Stirling Engine.

    Deacon, Christopher G.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Describes an investigation with the primary purpose of allowing students to generate and interpret a pressure/volume diagram of a Stirling engine. Explains how the Stirling engine can be used to demonstrate the principles of operation of a refrigerator and a heat pump. (DDR)

  13. Lorentz invariance and the rotor Doppler shift experiments

    Rodrigues Junior, W.A.; Tiomno, J.

    1984-01-01

    It is shown that 'Rotor Doppler shift Experiments' provide a way to distinguish Einstein's Special Relativity (SR) from Lorentz's Aether Theory (LAT). Misconceptions in previous papers involving the Doppler shift experiments are examined. The theoretical and experimental data available on rotor Doppler shift experiments are analysed. Two models of SR violating theories are used to predict the output of a recently proposed experiment by Torr and Kolen. The first one corresponds to (strict) LAT and the other to an extended form of LAT Contrary to the first, the second theory leads to results in agreement with the preliminary experimental data of Torr et al indicating a breakdown both of SR and strict LAT. (Author) [pt

  14. Lorentz invariance and the rotor Doppler shift experiments

    Rodrigues Junior, W.A.; Tiomno, J.

    1984-01-01

    It is shown that 'Rotor Doppler shift Experiments' provide a way to distinguish Einstein's Special Relativity (SR) from Lorentz's Aether Theory (LAT). Misconceptions in previous papers involving the Doppler shift experiments are examined. The theoretical and experimental data available on rotor Doppler shift experiments are analysed. Two models of SR violating theories are used to predict the output of a recently proposed experiment by Torr and Kolen. The first one corresponds to (strict) LAT and the other to an extended form of LAT. Contrary to the first, the second theory leads to results in agreement with the preliminary experimental data of Torr et al indicating a breakdown both of SR and strict LAT. (Author) [pt

  15. A Simple Ultrasonic Experiment Using a Phase Shift Detection Technique.

    Yunus, W. Mahmood Mat; Ahmad, Maulana

    1996-01-01

    Describes a simple ultrasonic experiment that can be used to measure the purity of liquid samples by detecting variations in the velocity of sound. Uses a phase shift detection technique that incorporates the use of logic gates and a piezoelectric transducer. (JRH)

  16. Shifting standards experiments in particle physics in the twentieth century

    Franklin, Allan

    2013-01-01

    In Shifting Standards, Allan Franklin provides an overview of notable experiments in particle physics. Using papers published in Physical Review, the journal of the American Physical Society, as his basis, Franklin details the experiments themselves, their data collection, the events witnessed, and the interpretation of results. From these papers, he distills the dramatic changes to particle physics experimentation from 1894 through 2009.Franklin develops a framework for his analysis, viewing each example according to exclusion and selection of data; possible experimenter bias; details of the experimental apparatus; size of the data set, apparatus, and number of authors; rates of data taking along with analysis and reduction; distinction between ideal and actual experiments; historical accounts of previous experiments; and personal comments and style.From Millikan’s tabletop oil-drop experiment to the Compact Muon Solenoid apparatus measuring approximately 4,000 cubic meters (not including accelerators) and...

  17. The Lamb-shift experiment in Muonic helium

    Nebel, T., E-mail: tbn@mpq.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik (Germany); Amaro, F. D. [Universidade de Coimbra, Departamento de Fisica (Portugal); Antognini, A. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule Zuerich, Institut fuer Teilchenphysik (Switzerland); Biraben, F. [CNRS and Universite P. et M. Curie, Laboratoire Kastler Brossel, Ecole Normale Superieure (France); Cardoso, J. M. R. [Universidade de Coimbra, Departamento de Fisica (Portugal); Covita, D. S. [Universidade de Aveiro, I3N, Departamento de Fisica (Portugal); Dax, A. [University of Tokyo, Department of Physics (Japan); Fernandes, L. M. P.; Gouvea, A. L. [Universidade de Coimbra, Departamento de Fisica (Portugal); Graf, T. [Universitaet Stuttgart, Institut fuer Strahlwerkzeuge (Germany); Haensch, T. W. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik (Germany); Hildebrandt, M. [Paul Scherrer Institut (Switzerland); Indelicato, P.; Julien, L. [CNRS and Universite P. et M. Curie, Laboratoire Kastler Brossel, Ecole Normale Superieure (France); Kirch, K.; Kottmann, F. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule Zuerich, Institut fuer Teilchenphysik (Switzerland); Liu, Y.-W. [National Tsing Hua University, Physics Department (China); Monteiro, C. M. B. [Universidade de Coimbra, Departamento de Fisica (Portugal); and others

    2012-12-15

    We propose to measure several transition frequencies between the 2S and the 2P states (Lamb shift) in muonic helium ions ({mu}{sup 4}He{sup + } and {mu}{sup 3}He{sup + }) by means of laser spectroscopy, in order to determine the alpha-particle and helion root-mean-square (rms) charge radius. In addition, the fine and hyperfine structure components will be revealed, and the magnetic moment distribution radius will be determined. The contribution of the finite size effect to the Lamb shift (2S - 2P energy difference) in {mu}He{sup + } is as high as 20 %. Therefore a measurement of the transition frequencies with a moderate (for laser spectroscopy) precision of 50 ppm (corresponding to 1/20 of the linewidth) will lead to a determination of the nuclear rms charge radii with a relative accuracy of 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup - 4} (equivalent to 0.0005 fm). The limiting factor for the extraction of the radii from the Lamb shift measurements is given by the uncertainty of the nuclear polarizability contribution. Combined with an ongoing experiment at MPQ aiming to measure the 1S - 2S transition frequency in the helium ion, the Lamb shift measurement in {mu}He{sup + } will lead to a sensitive test of problematic and challenging bound-state QED terms. This measurement will also help to clarify the discrepancy found in our previous {mu}{sub p} experiment. Additionally, a precise knowledge of the absolute nuclear radii of the He isotopes and the hyperfine splitting of {mu}{sup 3}He{sup + } provide a relevant test of few-nucleon theories.

  18. Chemical shift-dependent apparent scalar couplings: An alternative concept of chemical shift monitoring in multi-dimensional NMR experiments

    Kwiatkowski, Witek; Riek, Roland

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents an alternative technique for chemical shift monitoring in a multi-dimensional NMR experiment. The monitored chemical shift is coded in the line-shape of a cross-peak through an apparent residual scalar coupling active during an established evolution period or acquisition. The size of the apparent scalar coupling is manipulated with an off-resonance radio-frequency pulse in order to correlate the size of the coupling with the position of the additional chemical shift. The strength of this concept is that chemical shift information is added without an additional evolution period and accompanying polarization transfer periods. This concept was incorporated into the three-dimensional triple-resonance experiment HNCA, adding the information of 1 H α chemical shifts. The experiment is called HNCA coded HA, since the chemical shift of 1 H α is coded in the line-shape of the cross-peak along the 13 C α dimension

  19. A demonstration experiment for studying the properties of saturated vapor

    Grebenev, Igor V.; Lebedeva, Olga V.; Polushkina, Svetlana V.

    2017-11-01

    The paper proposes an important demonstration experiment that can be used at secondary schools in physics. The described experiment helps students learn the main concepts of the topic ‘saturated vapor’, namely, evaporation, condensation, dynamic equilibrium, saturation vapor, partial pressure, and the dependence of saturated vapor pressure on temperature.

  20. Shift in social order – shift in gender roles? Migration experience and gender roles

    Tetiana Havlin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Does gender matter in the context of immigration? What significance does it gain through time? Does transition from one gender role to another result in redistribution of family roles? These are the main questions which this paper addresses through scientific discourse and empiric research. In particular the paper deals with the question whether the transition from one gender role to another in the course of immigration triggers the liberalization of gender roles in the families of East-European immigrants (from Ukraine, Russia, Kazakhstan, and Armenia in Germany. This is investigated through semi-structured biographical interviews with female immigrants to Germany conducted by the author in 2012-2014. The findings illustrate a specific shift of gender roles in the context of migration. On the one hand, willingly or through circumstances, immigrant women are more likely to be involved in the decision-making process, to adapt to a breadwinner role, and to undertake the communication functions with official institutions (often due to better language proficiency. On the other hand, men are more likely to be more engaged in the caregiver roles for offspring, to maintain native language in communication with children (from mother tongue to ‘father tongue’, and to fulfill housekeeping duties. These patterns are rather untypical for post-soviet gender roles, with their increasing tendency to the renaissance of traditional gender roles. The question of whether a shift in gender roles related to migration from one country to another leads towards the greater liberalization of gender roles still remains debatable. But migration experience reinforces the transformation of gender roles which initially are not only distinct but also unequal. Thus, migration can accelerate restructuring of the gender relationship. In turn, a new social order imposes – on immigrants – a demand for greater flexibility of gender roles in the family and for diversity in

  1. CBET Experiments with Wavelength Shifting at the Nike Laser

    Weaver, James; McKenty, P.; Bates, J.; Myatt, J.; Shaw, J.; Obenschain, K.; Oh, J.; Kehne, D.; Obenschain, S.; Lehmberg, R. H.; Tsung, F.; Schmitt, A. J.; Serlin, V.

    2016-10-01

    Studies conducted at NRL during 2015 searched for cross-beam energy transport (CBET) in small-scale plastic targets with strong gradients in planar, cylindrical, and spherical geometries. The targets were irradiated by two widely separated beam arrays in a geometry similar to polar direct drive. Data from these shots will be presented that show a lack of a clear CBET signature even with wavelength shifting of one set of beams. This poster will discuss the next campaign being planned, in part, with modelling codes developed at LLE. The next experiments will use a target configuration optimized to create stronger SBS growth. The primary path under consideration is to increase scale lengths 5-10x over the previous study by using exploding foils or low density foams. In addition to simulations, the presentation will also discuss improvements to the diagnostic suite and laser operations; for example, a new set of etalons will be available for the next campaign that should double the range of wavelength shifting between the two beam arrays. Work supported by DoE/NNSA.

  2. Demonstration of entanglement assisted invariance on IBM's quantum experience.

    Deffner, Sebastian

    2017-11-01

    Quantum entanglement is among the most fundamental, yet from classical intuition also most surprising properties of the fully quantum nature of physical reality. We report several experiments performed on IBM's Quantum Experience demonstrating envariance - entanglement assisted invariance. Envariance is a recently discovered symmetry of composite quantum systems, which is at the foundational origin of physics and a quantum phenomenon of pure states. These very easily reproducible and freely accessible experiments on Quantum Experience provide simple tools to study the properties of envariance, and we illustrate this for several cases with "quantum universes" consisting of up to five qubits.

  3. Use of demonstrations and experiments in teaching business statistics

    Johnson, D. G.; John, J. A.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of a business statistics course should be to help students think statistically and to interpret and understand data, rather than to focus on mathematical detail and computation. To achieve this students must be thoroughly involved in the learning process, and encouraged to discover for themselves the meaning, importance and relevance of statistical concepts. In this paper we advocate the use of experiments and demonstrations as aids to achieving these goals. A number of demonstrations...

  4. Body size distribution demonstrates flexible habitat shift of green turtle (Chelonia mydas

    Ryota Hayashi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Green turtles (Chelonia mydas, listed as Endangered on the IUCN redlist, have a broad migration area and undergo a habitat shift from the pelagic (hatchling to neritic (growth zones. We studied habitat utilisation of the coastal feeding grounds around Okinawajima Island, Japan, in 103 green turtles. The western and eastern turtle aggregations off Okinawa had homogeneous genetic compositions, but different body size distributions. The western coastal feeding ground supported larger individuals than the eastern coastal feeding ground. Thus, green turtles appear to prefer different feeding grounds during their growth, and have a flexible habitat shift including a secondary habitat shift from east to west around Okinawajima Island after they are recruited to the coastal habitats. This study suggests maintaining coastal habitat diversity is important for green turtle conservation.

  5. An analysis of clock-shift experiments: is scatter increased and deflection reduced in clock-shifted homing pigeons?

    Chappell

    1997-01-01

    Clock-shifting (altering the phase of the internal clock) in homing pigeons leads to a deflection in the vanishing bearing of the clock-shifted group relative to controls. However, two unexplained phenomena are common in clock-shift experiments: the vanishing bearings of the clock-shifted group are often more scattered (with a shorter vector length) than those of the control group, and the deflection of the mean bearing of the clock-shifted group from that of the controls is often smaller than expected theoretically. Here, an analysis of 55 clock-shift experiments performed in four countries over 21 years is reported. The bearings of the clock-shifted groups were significantly more scattered than those of controls and less deflected than expected, but these effects were not significantly different at familiar and unfamiliar sites. The possible causes of the effects are discussed and evaluated with reference to this analysis and other experiments. The most likely causes appear to be conflict between the directions indicated by the sun compass and either unshifted familiar visual landmarks (at familiar sites only) or the unshifted magnetic compass (possible at both familiar and unfamiliar sites).

  6. Demonstration of biased membrane static figure mapping by optical beam subpixel centroid shift

    Pinto, Fabrizio, E-mail: fpinto@jazanu.edu.sa [Laboratory for Quantum Vacuum Applications, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Jazan University, P.O. Box 114, Gizan 45142 (Saudi Arabia)

    2016-06-10

    The measurement of Casimir forces by means of condenser microphones has been shown to be quite promising since its early introduction almost half-a-century ago. However, unlike the remarkable progress achieved in characterizing the vibrating membrane in the dynamical case, the accurate determination of the membrane static figure under electrostatic bias remains a challenge. In this paper, we discuss our first data obtained by measuring the centroid shift of an optical beam with subpixel accuracy by charge coupled device (CCD) and by an extensive analysis of noise sources present in the experimental setup.

  7. Decommissioning experience of the Japan power demonstration reactor

    Hoshi, T.; Yanagihara, S.; Tachibana, M.; Momma, T.

    1992-01-01

    Actual dismantling of the Japan Power Demonstration Reactor (JPDR) has been progressing since 1986 aiming to make stage 3 condition as the final goal. Such highly activated components as the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) and the inner portion of biological shield concrete close to the RPV have removed using the remotely operated cutting machines. Useful data on the dismantling techniques and their safety as well as the manpower expenditure and radiation exposure of workers have been obtained. Experiences gained through the dismantling works are described in this paper. (author)

  8. The RERTR demonstration experiments program at the Ford Nuclear Reactor

    Wehe, D K; King, J S [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of Michigan (United States)

    1983-08-01

    The purpose of this paper is to highlight a major part of the experimental work which is being carried out at the Ford Nuclear Reactor (FNR) in conjunction with the RERTR program. A demonstration experiments program has been developed to: 1) characterize the FNR in sufficient detail to discern and quantify neutronic differences between the high and low enriched cores; 2) provide the theoretical group with measurements to benchmark their calculations. As with any experimental program associated with a reactor, stringent constraints limit the experiments which can be performed. Some experiments are performed routinely on the FNR (such as control rod calibrations), and much data is already available. Unfortunately, the accuracy we demand precludes using much of this earlier data. And in many cases, the requirement of precise (and copious) data has led to either developing new techniques (as in the case of rhodium mapping and neutron diffraction) or to further refinements on existing methods (as in the case of spectral unfolding). Nevertheless, we have tried to stay within the realm of recognized, well-established experimental methods in order to assuage any doubts about measured differences between HEU and LEU core parameters. This paper describes the principal results of the experiments performed so far.

  9. FNR demonstration experiments Part II: Subcadmium neutron flux measurements

    Wehe, D.K.; King, J.S.

    1983-01-01

    The FNR HEU-LEU Demonstration Experiments include a comprehensive set of experiments to identify and quantify significant operational differences between two nuclear fuel enrichments. One aspect of these measurements, the subcadmium flux profiling, is the subject of this paper. The flux profiling effort has been accomplished through foil and wire activations, and by rhodium self-powered neutron detector (SPND) mappings. Within the experimental limitations discussed, the program to measure subcadmium flux profiles, lead to the following conclusions: (1) Replacement of a single fresh HEU element by a fresh LEU element at the center of an equilibrium HEU core produces a local flux depression. The ratio of HEU to LEU local flux is 1.19 ± .036, which is, well within experimental uncertainty, equal to the inverse of the U-235 masses for the two elements. (2) Whole core replacement of a large 38 element equilibrium HEU core by a fresh or nearly unburned LEU core reduces the core flux and raises the flux in both D 2 O and H 2 O reflectors. The reduction in the central core region is 40% to 10.0% for the small fresh 29 element LEU core, and 16% to 18% for a 31 element LEU core 482) with low average burnup 2 O reflector fluxes relative to core fluxes as measured by SPND with a fixed value of sensitivity, are in gross disagreement with the same flux ratios measured by Fe and Rh wire activations. Space dependent refinements of S are calculated to give some improvement in the discrepancy but the major part of the correction remains to be resolved

  10. Nulling interferometry for the darwin mission: laboratory demonstration experiment

    Ollivier, Marc; Léger, Alain; Sekulic, Predrag; Labèque, Alain; Michel, Guy

    2017-11-01

    The DARWIN mission is a project of the European Space Agency that should allow around 2012 the search for extrasolar planets and a spectral analysis of their potential atmosphere in order to evidence gases and particularly tracers of life. The principle of the instrument is based on the Bracewell nulling interferometer. It allows high angular resolution and high dynamic range. However, this concept, proposed more than 20 years ago, has never been experimentally demonstrated in the thermal infrared with high levels of extinction. We present here a laboratory monochromatic experiment dedicated to this goal. A theoretical and numerical approach of the question highlights a strong difficulty: the need for very clean and homogeneous wavefronts, in terms of intensity, phase and polarisation distribution. A classical interferometric approach appears to be insufficient to reach our goals. We have shown theoretically then numerically that this difficulty can be surpassed if we perform an optical filtering of the interfering beams. This technique allows us to decrease strongly the optical requirements and to view very high interferometric contrast measurements with commercial optical pieces. We present here a laboratory interferometer working at 10,6 microns, and implementing several techniques of optical filtering (pinholes and single-mode waveguides), its realisation, and its first promising results. We particularly present measurements that exhibit stable visibility levels better than 99,9% that is to say extinction levels better than 1000.

  11. First demonstration of the fast-to-slow corrector current shift in the NSLS-II storage ring

    Yang, Xi; Tian, Yuke; Yu, Li Hua; Smaluk, Victor

    2018-04-01

    To realize the full benefits of the high brightness and ultra-small beam sizes of NSLS-II, it is essential that the photon beams are exceedingly stable. In the circumstances of implementing local bumps, changing ID gaps, and long term drifting, the fast orbit feedback (FOFB) requires shifting the fast corrector strengths to the slow correctors to prevent the fast corrector saturation and to make the beam orbit stable in the sub-micron level. As the result, a reliable and precise technique of fast-to-slow corrector strength shift has been developed and tested at NSLS-II. This technique is based on the fast corrector response to the slow corrector change when the FOFB is on. In this article, the shift technique is described and the result of proof-of-principle experiment carried out at NSLS-II is presented. The maximum fast corrector current was reduced from greater than 0.45 A to less than 0.04 A with the orbit perturbation within ±1 μm.

  12. Rocket Experiment Demonstration of a Soft X-ray Polarimeter

    Marshall, Herman

    This proposal is the lead proposal. Boston University will submit, via NSPIRES, a Co-I proposal, per instructions for Suborbital proposals for multiple-award. Our scientific goal of the Rocket Experiment Demonstration of a Soft X-ray Polarimeter (REDSoX Polarimeter) is to make the first measurement of the linear X-ray polarization of an extragalactic source in the 0.2-0.8 keV band. The first flight of the REDSoX Polarimeter would target Mk 421, which is commonly modeled as a highly relativistic jet aimed nearly along the line of sight. Such sources are likely to be polarized at a level of 30-60%, so the goal is to obtain a significant detection even if it is as low as 10%. Significant revisions to the models of jets emanating from black holes at the cores of active galaxies would be required if the polarization fraction lower than 10%. We employ multilayer-coated mirrors as Bragg reflectors at the Brewster angle. By matching to the dispersion of a spectrometer, one may take advantage of high multilayer reflectivities and achieve polarization modulation factors over 90%. Using replicated foil mirrors from MSFC and gratings made at MIT, we construct a spectrometer that disperses to three laterally graded multilayer mirrors (LGMLs). The lateral grading changes the wavelength of the Bragg peak for 45 degree reflections linearly across the mirror, matching the dispersion of the spectrometer. By dividing the entrance aperture into six equal sectors, pairs of blazed gratings from opposite sectors are oriented to disperse to the same LGML. The position angles for the LGMLs are 120 degrees to each other. CCD detectors then measure the intensities of the dispersed spectra after reflection and polarizing by the LGMLs, giving the three Stokes parameters needed to determine the source polarization. We will rely on components whose performance has been verified in the laboratory or in space. The CCD detectors are based on Chandra and Suzaku heritage. The mirror fabrication team

  13. The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR Neutrinoless Double-Beta Decay Experiment

    N. Abgrall

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Majorana Demonstrator will search for the neutrinoless double-beta (ββ0ν decay of the isotope Ge with a mixed array of enriched and natural germanium detectors. The observation of this rare decay would indicate that the neutrino is its own antiparticle, demonstrate that lepton number is not conserved, and provide information on the absolute mass scale of the neutrino. The Demonstrator is being assembled at the 4850-foot level of the Sanford Underground Research Facility in Lead, South Dakota. The array will be situated in a low-background environment and surrounded by passive and active shielding. Here we describe the science goals of the Demonstrator and the details of its design.

  14. Performance demonstration experience for reactor pressure vessel shell ultrasonic testing

    Zado, V.

    1998-01-01

    The most ultrasonic testing techniques used by many vendors for pressurized water reactor (PWR) examinations were based on American Society of Mechanical Engineers 'Boiler and Pressurized Vessel Code' (ASME B and PV Code) Sections XI and V. The Addenda of ASME B and PV Code Section XI, Edition 1989 introduced Appendix VIII - 'Performance Demonstration for Ultrasonic Examination Systems'. In an effort to increase confidence in performance of ultrasonic testing of the operating nuclear power plants in United States, the ultrasonic testing performance demonstration examination of reactor vessel welds is performed in accordance with Performance Demonstration Initiative (PDI) program which is based on ASME Code Section XI, Appendix VIII requirements. This article provides information regarding extensive qualification preparation works performed prior EPRI guided performance demonstration exam of reactor vessel shell welds accomplished in January 1997 for the scope of Appendix VIII, Supplements IV and VI. Additionally, an overview of the procedures based on requirements of ASME Code Section XI and V in comparison to procedure prepared for Appendix VIII examination is given and discussed. The samples of ultrasonic signals obtained from artificial flaws implanted in vessel material are presented and results of ultrasonic testing are compared to actual flaw sizes. (author)

  15. The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle Demonstrated with An Electron Diffraction Experiment

    Matteucci, Giorgio; Ferrari, Loris; Migliori, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    An experiment analogous to the classical diffraction of light from a circular aperture has been realized with electrons. The results are used to introduce undergraduate students to the wave behaviour of electrons. The diffraction fringes produced by the circular aperture are compared to those predicted by quantum mechanics and are exploited to…

  16. A Simple Experiment to Demonstrate the Effects of Greenhouse Gases

    Keating, C. F.

    2007-01-01

    The role of greenhouse gases in our atmosphere is the subject of considerable discussion and debate. Global warming is well-documented, as is the continually increasing amount of greenhouse gases that human activity puts in the air. Is there a relationship between the two? The simple experiment described in this paper provides a good demonstration…

  17. Demonstration of thermonuclear conditions in magnetized liner inertial fusion experiments

    Gomez, M. R.; Slutz, S. A.; Sefkow, A. B.; Hahn, K. D.; Hansen, S. B.; Knapp, P. F.; Schmit, P. F.; Ruiz, C. L.; Sinars, D. B.; Harding, E. C.; Jennings, C. A.; Awe, T. J.; Geissel, M.; Rovang, D. C.; Smith, I. C.; Chandler, G. A.; Cooper, G. W.; Cuneo, M. E.; Harvey-Thompson, A. J.; Hess, M. H.

    2015-01-01

    The magnetized liner inertial fusion concept [S. A. Slutz et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 056303 (2010)] utilizes a magnetic field and laser heating to relax the pressure requirements of inertial confinement fusion. The first experiments to test the concept [M. R. Gomez et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 155003 (2014)] were conducted utilizing the 19 MA, 100 ns Z machine, the 2.5 kJ, 1 TW Z Beamlet laser, and the 10 T Applied B-field on Z system. Despite an estimated implosion velocity of only 70 km/s in these experiments, electron and ion temperatures at stagnation were as high as 3 keV, and thermonuclear deuterium-deuterium neutron yields up to 2 × 10 12 have been produced. X-ray emission from the fuel at stagnation had widths ranging from 50 to 110 μm over a roughly 80% of the axial extent of the target (6–8 mm) and lasted approximately 2 ns. X-ray yields from these experiments are consistent with a stagnation density of the hot fuel equal to 0.2–0.4 g/cm 3 . In these experiments, up to 5 × 10 10 secondary deuterium-tritium neutrons were produced. Given that the areal density of the plasma was approximately 1–2 mg/cm 2 , this indicates the stagnation plasma was significantly magnetized, which is consistent with the anisotropy observed in the deuterium-tritium neutron spectra. Control experiments where the laser and/or magnetic field were not utilized failed to produce stagnation temperatures greater than 1 keV and primary deuterium-deuterium yields greater than 10 10 . An additional control experiment where the fuel contained a sufficient dopant fraction to substantially increase radiative losses also failed to produce a relevant stagnation temperature. The results of these experiments are consistent with a thermonuclear neutron source

  18. IRPHE/B and W-SS-LATTICE, Spectral Shift Reactor Lattice Experiments

    2003-01-01

    Description: B and W has performed and analysed a series of physics experiments basically concerned with the technology of heterogeneous reactors moderated and cooled by a variable mixture of heavy and light water. A reactor so moderated is termed Spectral Shift Control Reactor (S SCR). In the practical application of this concept, the moderator mixture is rich in heavy water at the beginning of core life, so a relatively large fraction of the neutrons are epithermal and are absorbed in the fertile material. As fuel is consumed, the moderator is diluted with light water. In this way the neutron spectrum is shifted, thereby increasing the proportion of thermal neutrons and the reactivity of the system. The general objective of the S SCR Basic Physics Program was to study the nuclear properties of rod lattices moderated by D 2 O-H 2 O mixtures. The volume ratio of moderator to non-moderator in all lattices was approximately 1.0, and the fuel was either 4%-enriched UO 2 clad in stainless steel or 93%-enriched UO 2 -ThO 2 (Nth/N 15) pellets clad in aluminum. The D 2 O concentration in the moderator ranged from zero to about 90 mole %. The experimental program includes critical experiments with both types of fuel, exponential experiments at room temperature with both types of fuel, exponential experiments at elevated temperatures with the 4%-enriched UO 2 fuel, and neutron age measurements in ThO 2 lattices. The theoretical program included the development of calculation methods applicable to these systems, and the analysis and correlation of the experimental data. A first report provides the results of critical experiments performed under the Spectral Shift Control Reactor Basic Physics Program. A second report documents experimental results and theoretical interpretation of a series of twenty uniform lattice critical experiments in which the neutron spectrum is varied over a fairly broad range. A third report addresses issues that bear on the problems associated with

  19. Arduino-based experiment demonstrating Malus’s law

    Freitas, W. P. S.; Cena, C. R.; Alves, D. C. B.; Goncalves, A. M. B.

    2018-05-01

    Malus’s law states that the intensity of light after passing through two polarizers is proportional to the square of the cosine of the angle between the polarizers. We present a simple setup demonstrating this law. The novelty of our work is that we use a multi-turn potentiometer mechanically linked to one of the polarizers to measure the polarizer’s rotation angle while keeping the other polarizer fixed. Both the potentiometer and light sensor used to measure the transmitted light intensity are connected to an Arduino board so that the intensity of light is measured as a function of the rotation angle.

  20. A Detector Scenario for a Muon Cooling Demonstration Experiment

    McDonald, Kirk T.; Lu, Changguo; Prebys, Eric J.

    1998-04-01

    As a verification of the concept of ionization cooling of a muon beam, the Muon Collider Collaboration is planning an experiment to cool the 6-dimensional normalized emittance by a factor of two. We have designed a princeton.edu/mumu/mumu-97-8.ps>detector system to measure the 6-dimensional emittance before and after the cooling apparatus. To avoid the cost associated with preparation of a muon beam bunched at 800 MHz, the nominal frequency of the RF in the muon cooler, we propose to use an unbunched muon beam. Muons will be measured in the detector individually, and a subset chosen corresponding to an ideal input bunch. The muons are remeasured after the cooling apparatus and the output bunch emittance calculated to show the expected reduction in phase-space volume. The technique of tracing individual muons will reproduce all effects encountered by a bunch except for space-charge.

  1. The experience of being a shift-leader in a hospital ward.

    Goldblatt, Hadass; Granot, Michal; Admi, Hanna; Drach-Zahavy, Anat

    2008-07-01

    This paper is a report of a study to explore the experience of being a shift-leader, and how these nurses view the management of their shift. Professional demands on skilled and capable shift-leaders, who competently handle multi-disciplinary staff and patients, as well as operations and information, call for the development of efficient nursing leadership roles. Nevertheless, knowledge of shift-leaders' perspectives concerning their task management and leadership styles is relatively limited. Twenty-eight Registered Nurses working in an Israeli medical centre participated in this qualitative study. Data were gathered through in-depth interviews conducted in two phases between February and October 2005: three focus group interviews (phase 1) followed by seven individual interviews (phase 2). Content analysis revealed two major themes which constitute the essence of being a shift-leader: (1) a burden of responsibility, where the shift-leader moves between positions of maximum control and delegating some responsibility to other nurses; (2) the role's temporal dimension, expressed as a strong desire to reach the end of the shift safely, and taking managerial perspectives beyond the boundaries of the specific shift. The core of the shift-leader's position is an immense sense of responsibility. However, this managerial role is transient and therefore lacks an established authority. A two-dimensional taxonomy of these themes reveals four types of potential and actual coping among shift-leaders, indicating the need to train them in leadership skills and systemic thinking. Interventions to limit the potential stress hazards should be focused simultaneously on shift-leaders themselves and on job restructuring.

  2. Biomethanization of tannery waste: An industrial experiment: Demonstration project. Biomethanisation de residus de tannerie: Une experience industrielle: Projet de demonstration

    Aloy, M.; Mermet, R.; Sanejouand, J.

    1988-01-01

    The tanning and leather dressing industry produces large amounts of waste products including which can be placed in three categories: unrtanned waste, tanned waste, and liquid waste. Both untanned and liquid waste have a high organic content (proteins and fats) and their humidity levels are such that they are readily degraded by methanic fermentation. The results of the experiments confirm the technical feasibility of the project and indicate the economic limits of this type of plant. 14 figs.

  3. Experience on the demonstration of safety for older reactors

    Facer, R.

    2001-01-01

    The UK's oldest reactors are still operating. Built during the 1950's and commissioned between 1956 and 1960, eight reactors continue to provide electricity and process steam. It is still economically justified to keep them running. In addition to the economic considerations it is also necessary to justify that they can still continue to operate safely. This paper provides a brief review of how the Operator of these stations has justified the safety of operation to date and how they expect to continue to justify their operation for several more years. It is appropriate to consider why the Operator wishes to keep the plant operating. Among the most important reasons are that: The plant is built and paid for, Running costs are relatively low process steam is available for the adjacent sites It is a commercially viable electricity producer It is a reliable electricity source The operators have developed programmes for safety review of the plant and introduced a Continuing Operation Programme which had two main requirements which were, the demonstration of continuing acceptable safety the ensurance of commercial viability. (author)

  4. Nurses aged over 50 years and their experiences of shift work.

    Clendon, Jill; Walker, Leonie

    2013-10-01

    The Late Career Nurse project examined views and characteristics of nurses working in New Zealand who were born before 1960. This paper focuses on the experiences of such nurses who undertake shift work. The mean age of registered nurses in New Zealand has been rising steadily, and 40% are now aged 50 years or over. While there is substantial literature on the phenomenon and consequences of the ageing nursing workforce, little is known of the particular experiences of nurses aged over 50 years who work shifts. An anonymous online survey was emailed to eligible nurse New Zealand Nurses Organisation members aged over 50 years in February 2012. Quantitative and qualitative analyses of the 3273 responses received were undertaken. Over 45% of respondents worked shifts or flexible hours. While shift work suited many, others noted deleterious effects on family and social relationships, physical and mental health (notably sleep patterns and fatigue), and decreasing tolerance for shift work as they age. Poor scheduling practices were particularly detrimental. Worldwide, workforce ageing means strategies are required to retain older nurses in the workforce. Improved scheduling practices including increasing access to flexible and part time work hours, and development of resources on coping with shift work are recommended. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Preparation of a Cobalt(II) Cage: An Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment That Produces a ParaSHIFT Agent for Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    Burns, Patrick J.; Tsitovich, Pavel B.; Morrow, Janet R.

    2016-01-01

    Laboratory experiments that demonstrate the effect of paramagnetic complexes on chemical shifts and relaxation times of protons are a useful way to introduce magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) probes or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents. In this undergraduate inorganic chemistry experiment, a paramagnetic Co(II) cage complex is…

  6. Joint DIII-D/EAST Experiments Toward Steady State AT Demonstration

    Garofalo, A. M.; Meneghini, O.; Staebler, G. M.; van Zeeland, M. A.; Gong, X.; Ding, S.; Qian, J.; Ren, Q.; Xu, G.; Grierson, B. A.; Solomon, W. M.; Holcomb, C. T.

    2015-11-01

    Joint DIII-D/EAST experiments on fully noninductive operation at high poloidal beta have demonstrated several attractive features of this regime for a steady-state fusion reactor. Very large bootstrap fraction (>80 %) is desirable because it reduces the demands on external noninductive current drive. High bootstrap fraction with an H-mode edge results in a broad current profile and internal transport barriers (ITBs) at large minor radius, leading to high normalized energy confinement and high MHD stability limits. The ITB radius expands with higher normalized beta, further improving both stability and confinement. Electron density ITB and large Shafranov shift lead to low AE activity in the plasma core and low anomalous fast ion losses. Both the ITB and the current profile show remarkable robustness against perturbations, without external control. Supported by US DOE under DE-FC02-04ER54698, DE-AC02-09CH11466 & DE-AC52-07NA27344 & by NMCFSP under contracts 2015GB102000 and 2015GB110001.

  7. Project Overview of the Naval Postgraduate School Spacecraft Architecture and Technology Demonstration Experiment

    Reuer, Charles

    2001-01-01

    The Naval Postgraduate School's current attempt at getting another spacecraft into orbit is focusing on Naval Postgraduate School Spacecraft Architecture and Technology Demonstration Experiment (NPSAT1...

  8. Inseparability criteria for demonstration of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen gedanken experiment

    Reid, M. D.

    2001-01-01

    It is shown that a criterion used to demonstrate realization of the 1935 Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) gedanken experiment is sufficient to demonstrate quantum entanglement. A further set of measurable criteria sufficient to demonstrate EPR gedanken experiment is proposed, these being the set of criteria sufficient to demonstrate entanglement, by way of a measured violation of a necessary condition of separability. In this way, provided the spatial separation of systems is sufficient to ensur...

  9. ATLAS distributed computing operation shift teams experience during the discovery year and beginning of the long shutdown 1

    Sedov, Alexey; Girolamo, Alessandro Di; Negri, Guidone; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Schovancová, Jaroslava; Smirnov, Iouri; Vartapetian, Armen; Yu, Jaehoon

    2014-01-01

    ATLAS Distributed Computing Operation Shifts evolve to meet new requirements. New monitoring tools as well as operational changes lead to modifications in organization of shifts. In this paper we describe the structure of shifts, the roles of different shifts in ATLAS computing grid operation, the influence of a Higgs-like particle discovery on shift operation, the achievements in monitoring and automation that allowed extra focus on the experiment priority tasks, and the influence of the Long Shutdown 1 and operational changes related to the no beam period.

  10. Shifts of neutrino oscillation parameters in reactor antineutrino experiments with non-standard interactions

    Yu-Feng Li

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We discuss reactor antineutrino oscillations with non-standard interactions (NSIs at the neutrino production and detection processes. The neutrino oscillation probability is calculated with a parametrization of the NSI parameters by splitting them into the averages and differences of the production and detection processes respectively. The average parts induce constant shifts of the neutrino mixing angles from their true values, and the difference parts can generate the energy (and baseline dependent corrections to the initial mass-squared differences. We stress that only the shifts of mass-squared differences are measurable in reactor antineutrino experiments. Taking Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO as an example, we analyze how NSIs influence the standard neutrino measurements and to what extent we can constrain the NSI parameters.

  11. A molecular genetic time scale demonstrates Cretaceous origins and multiple diversification rate shifts within the order Galliformes (Aves).

    Stein, R Will; Brown, Joseph W; Mooers, Arne Ø

    2015-11-01

    The phylogeny of Galliformes (landfowl) has been studied extensively; however, the associated chronologies have been criticized recently due to misplaced or misidentified fossil calibrations. As a consequence, it is unclear whether any crown-group lineages arose in the Cretaceous and survived the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg; 65.5 Ma) mass extinction. Using Bayesian phylogenetic inference on an alignment spanning 14,539 bp of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequence data, four fossil calibrations, and a combination of uncorrelated lognormally distributed relaxed-clock and strict-clock models, we inferred a time-calibrated molecular phylogeny for 225 of the 291 extant Galliform taxa. These analyses suggest that crown Galliformes diversified in the Cretaceous and that three-stem lineages survived the K-Pg mass extinction. Ideally, characterizing the tempo and mode of diversification involves a taxonomically complete phylogenetic hypothesis. We used simple constraint structures to incorporate 66 data-deficient taxa and inferred the first taxon-complete phylogenetic hypothesis for the Galliformes. Diversification analyses conducted on 10,000 timetrees sampled from the posterior distribution of candidate trees show that the evolutionary history of the Galliformes is best explained by a rate-shift model including 1-3 clade-specific increases in diversification rate. We further show that the tempo and mode of diversification in the Galliformes conforms to a three-pulse model, with three-stem lineages arising in the Cretaceous and inter and intrafamilial diversification occurring after the K-Pg mass extinction, in the Paleocene-Eocene (65.5-33.9 Ma) or in association with the Eocene-Oligocene transition (33.9 Ma). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A New (?) Physiological Effect in a Demonstration Experiment in Geometrical Optics

    Ganci, S.

    2018-01-01

    A surprising phenomenology from a traditional demonstration experiment in Geometrical Optics reveals here an interesting matter of discussion and analysis. Hence, the main focus of this paper is to observe and discuss such an innovative phenomenology.

  13. 20 CFR 404.1599 - Work incentive experiments and rehabilitation demonstration projects in the disability program.

    2010-04-01

    ... the advantages and disadvantages of altering certain limitations and conditions that apply to title II... years from the start of the experiment or demonstration project). [48 FR 7575, Feb. 23, 1983, as amended...

  14. Lamb shift in muonic hydrogen-II. Analysis of the discrepancy of theory and experiment

    Jentschura, U.D.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Various theoretical explanation for the recently observed experimental-theoretical discrepancy in the muonic hydrogen Lamb shift are explored. → These include a dip in the proton form factor slope, nonperturbative vacuum polarization and millicharged virtual particles, as well as process-dependent screening corrections. → Screening corrections may need to be explored further. → The need for an alternative determination of the Rydberg constant is highlighted. - Abstract: Currently, both the g factor measurement of the muon as well as the Lamb shift 2S-2P measurement in muonic hydrogen are in disagreement with theory. Here, we investigate possible theoretical explanations, including proton structure effects and small modifications of the vacuum polarization potential. In particular, we investigate a conceivable small modification of the spectral function of vacuum polarization in between the electron and muon energy scales due to a virtual millicharged particle and due to an unstable vector boson originating from a hidden sector of an extended standard model. We find that a virtual millicharged particle which could explain the muonic Lamb shift discrepancy alters theoretical predictions for the muon anomalous magnetic moment by many standard deviations and therefore is in conflict with experiment. Also, we find no parameterizations of an unstable virtual vector boson which could simultaneously explain both 'muonic' discrepancies without significantly altering theoretical predictions for electronic hydrogen, where theory and experiment currently are in excellent agreement. A process-dependent correction involving electron screening is evaluated to have the right sign and order-of-magnitude to explain the observed effect in muonic hydrogen. Additional experimental evidence from light muonic atoms and ions is needed in order to reach further clarification.

  15. A demonstration experiment of steam-driven, high-pressure melt ejection

    Allen, M.D.; Pitch, M.; Nichols, R.T.

    1990-08-01

    A steam blowdown test was performed at the Surtsey Direct Heating Test Facility to test the steam supply system and burst diaphragm arrangement that will be used in subsequent Surtsey Direct Containment Heating (DCH) experiments. Following successful completion of the steam blowdown test, the HIPS-10S (High-Pressure Melt Streaming) experiment was conducted to demonstrate that the technology to perform steam-driven, high-pressure melt ejection (HPME) experiments has been successfully developed. In addition, the HIPS-10S experiment was used to assess techniques and instrumentation design to create the proper timing of events in HPME experiments. This document discusses the results of this test

  16. The Loss of Grammatical Gender and Case Features Between Old and Early Middle English: Its Impact on Simple Demonstratives and Topic Shift

    Jurczyk Rafał

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we examine the relation between the loss of formal gender and Case features on simple demonstratives and the topic shifting property they manifest. The examination period spans between Old English and Early Middle English. While we argue that this loss has important discourse-pragmatic and derivational effects on demonstratives, we also employ the Strong Minimalist Hypothesis approach (Chomsky 2001 and feature valuation, as defined in Pesetsky & Torrego (2007, to display how their syntactic computation and pragmatic properties have come about. To account for the above innovations yielding the Early Middle English ϸe (‘the’, we first discuss the formal properties of the Old English demonstratives which distinguish number, gender, and Case features. This inflectional variety of forms allows the Old English demonstratives to be used independently and to show the anaphoric and discourse-linking properties of topics. Crucially, the same properties characterise also German and Dutch demonstratives that manifest Case and/or gender morphology overtly, which shows that the syntactic distribution of LIs and their morphological richness should be considered as intertwined. The above properties are then confronted with the determiner system in Early Middle English, whose forms undergo inflectional levelling producing the invariant ϸe/ðe form that loses its distributional independence and acquires the article status. The levelling process in question is argued to stimulate the shift of the [+ref/spec] feature from the formal to the semantic pole. This suggests that the Early Middle English ϸe form no longer counts as an appropriate anaphor in topic shift contexts owing to its indeterminacy of Case, gender, and φ-features, which means that it cannot satisfy the Full Interpretation requirement at the interfaces.

  17. Role of Users’ Movements in Shifting the Power to the Experts by Experience

    Petra Videmšek

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Article is based on the literature review where we present development of user’s movement abroad and in Slovenia. User’s movement has key role in professionalization of social work. Methods of social work are basic tool in which the basic element are realised. Social work profession has been legitimised by changing the methods, through traditional methods (classical, landed methods towards innovative (radical methods of social work. The latter moved from elitism (professionals know the best, what is good for individual towards co-creation. With this shift, the role of exert by experience has changes from passive receiver of help towards more active participant in solution seeking for their situation.

  18. Design, construction, and operations experience with the SWSA 6 [Solid Waste Storage Area] Tumulus Disposal Demonstration

    Van Hoesen, S.D.; Van Cleve, J.E.; Wylie, A.N.; Williams, L.C.; Bolinsky, J.

    1988-01-01

    Efforts are underway at the Department of Energy facilities in Oak Ridge to improve the performance of radioactive waste disposal facilities. An engineered disposal concept demonstration involving placement of concrete encased waste on a monitored concrete pad with an earthen cover is being conducted. The design, construction, and operations experience with this project, the SWSA 6 Tumulus Disposal Demonstration, is described. 1 fig., 1 tab

  19. Exploring replay value: Shifts and continuities in user experiences between first and second exposure to an interactive story

    Roth, C.; Vermeulen, I.E.; Vorderer, P.A.; Klimmt, C.

    2012-01-01

    While replay value is a common term in interactive entertainment, psychological research on its meaning in terms of user experiences is sparse. An exploratory experiment using the interactive drama "Façade" was conducted (n=50) to examine shifts and continuities in entertainment-related user experiences between first and second exposure to the same system. A questionnaire with brief scales measuring various user-experience dimensions (interaction-related facets such as usability, flow, and pr...

  20. A mechanical model of stereocilia that demonstrates a shift in the high-sensitivity region due to the interplay of a negative stiffness and an adaptation mechanism

    Lee, Changwon; Park, Sukyung

    2012-01-01

    Stereocilia are the basic sensory units of nature's inertial sensors and are highly sensitive over broad dynamic ranges, which is a major challenge in the design of conventional engineering sensors. The high sensitivity that is maintained by stereocilia was hypothesized to exist due to a combination of adaptation and negative stiffness mechanisms, which shift the region of highest sensitivity toward the active operation range of the stereocilia bundle. To examine the adaptation hypothesis in terms of its potential applicability to future applications regarding the design of inertial sensors, we developed a mechanical mimicry of the interplay between negative stiffness and the adaptation of the stereocilia that produces spontaneous oscillation of the hair bundle. The mechanical model consists of an inverted pendulum and a fixed T-bar that mimic the interaction of two adjacent stereocilia. To focus on the interaction of one gating spring and the corresponding adaptation motor without the effect of coupling from the other gating springs attached to the neighboring stereocilia, we fixed one bar that contains the adaptation motor. To emulate the negative resistance of the tip-link due to the transient stiffness softening by the gating ion channel, a magnet pair was attached to the top of the inverted pendulum and the fixed T-bar. Readjustment of the tip-link tension by the ‘slipping down and climbing up’ motion of the adaptation molecular motors was demonstrated by the side-to-side movement of the magnet by a step motor. The negative stiffness region was observed near the equilibrium position and shifted with the activation of the adaptation motor. The temporal demonstration of the stiffness shift was measured as a spontaneous oscillation. The results showed that the interplay between the negative stiffness and the adaptation mechanism was mechanically produced by the combination of a repulsive force and its continuous readjustment and is better understood through a

  1. The "Chocolate Experiment"--A Demonstration of Radiation Absorption by Different Colored Surfaces

    Fung, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    In the typical "cookbook" experiment comparing the radiation absorption rates of different colored surfaces, students' hands are commonly used as a measurement instrument to demonstrate that dull black and silvery surfaces are good and poor absorbers of radiation, respectively. However, college students are often skeptical about using…

  2. Specific experiments carried out in Germany in order to demonstrate the safety of existing structures

    Krutzik, Norbert

    2002-01-01

    Specific experiments are carried out in Germany in order to demonstrate the safety of existing NPPs. HDR research program includes operational loads testing (pressure test, pressure and temperature test, thermal shock, fatigue); extreme loads (earthquake, aircraft crash, external explosion); internal emergency loads (blowdown, hydrogen combustion, fire, thermal shock, water hammer, condensation loads)

  3. The Effect of Group Works and Demonstrative Experiments Based on Conceptual Change Approach: Photosynthesis and Respiration

    Cibik, Ayse Sert; Diken, Emine Hatun; Darcin, Emine Selcen

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of the use of group works and demonstration experiments based on conceptual change approach in the elimination of misconception about the subject of photosynthesis and respiration in plants in pre-service science teachers. This study was conducted with 78 pre-service science teachers including…

  4. A New Version of an Old Demonstration Experiment Using the Elihu Thomson Jumping Ring Apparatus

    Foster, Theodore; Cary, Arthur; Mottmann, John; van Wyngaarden, Willem

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to make more widely known an eye-catching demonstration experiment in which a hanging conducting can is made to spin when placed near the iron core of an Elihu Thomson "jumping ring" apparatus. An explanation is given based on Faraday's law of induced voltages and the magnetic forces due to the core's fields…

  5. Debt Shifting and Thin-Capitalization Rules – German Experience and Alternative Approaches

    Ruf Martin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the general design of thin-capitalization rules and summarizes the economic effects of such rules as identified in theoretical models. We review empirical studies providing evidence on the experience with (German thin-capitalization rules as well as on the adjustment of German multinationals to foreign thin-capitalization rules. Special emphasis is given to the development in Germany, because Germany went a long way in limiting interest deductibility by enacting a drastic change in its thin-capitalization rules in 2008, and because superb German data on multinational finance allows for testing several aspects consistently. We then discuss the experience of the Nordic countries with thin-capitalization rules. Briefly reviewing potential alternatives as well, we believe that the arm’s-length principle is administratively too costly and impracticable, whereas we argue that controlled-foreign-company rules might be another promising avenue for limiting internal debt shifting. Fundamental tax reforms towards a system with either "allowance for corporate equity" (ACE or a "comprehensive business income tax" (CBIT should also eliminate any thin-capitalization incentive.

  6. A small scale accelerator driven subcritical assembly development and demonstration experiment at LAMPF

    Wender, S.A.; Venneri, F.; Bowman, C.D.; Arthur, E.D.; Heighway, E.A.; Beard, C.A.; Bracht, R.R.; Buksa, J.J.; Chavez, W.; DeVolder, B.G.

    1994-01-01

    A small scale experiment is described that will demonstrate many of the aspects of accelerator-driven transmutation technology. This experiment uses the high-power proton beam from the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility accelerator and will be located in the Area-A experimental hall. Beam currents of up to 1 mA will be used to produce neutrons with a molten lead target. The target is surrounded by a molten salt and graphite moderator blanket. Fissionable material can be added to the molten salt to demonstrate plutonium burning or transmutation of commercial spent fuel or energy production from thorium. The experiment will be operated at power levels up to 5 MW t

  7. Preparation of the PRACLAY demonstration and confirmation experiments: construction of the PRACLAY gallery

    Bastiaens, W.

    2009-01-01

    The PRACLAY demonstration and confirmation experiments contribute to the Belgian research, development and demonstration programme to assess the safety and feasibility of geological disposal of radioactive waste in Boom Clay. Within this programme, the large scale PRACLAY heater experiment aims to verify that Boom Clay is suitable to host heat emitting radioactive waste. A 35 m long section of an experimental gallery in the underground research facility HADES (at 225 m depth) will be heated up to 95 degrees Celsius during ten years. The heater experiment focuses on the response of the host rock to the thermal load. The figure below shows the experimental lay-out. In 2007, an important milestone was reached with the realisation of the PRACLAY gallery (45 m long, external diameter 2.5 m)

  8. Doppler shift simulation of scattered HF signals during the Tromsø HF pumping experiment on 16 February 1996

    T. D. Borisova

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Comparisons between bistatic scatter measurements and simulation results during the Tromsø HF pumping experiment on 16 February 1996 are made. Doppler measurements of an HF diagnostic signal scattered from the field-aligned irregularities (FAIs in the auroral E-region were carried out on the London – Tromsø – St. Petersburg path at 9410 kHz from 21:00 to 22:00 UT. The scattered signals were observed both from natural and artificial ionospheric irregularities located in the vicinity of Tromsø. To simulate the Doppler frequency shifts, fd , of scattered signals, a radio channel model, named CONE, was developed. The model allows for ray tracing, group and phase paths, and Doppler frequency shift calculations. The calculated Doppler shifts were analyzed for dependence on the magnitude and direction of plasma velocities in the scattering volume. It was found that the velocity components in the north-south direction are crucial for explaining the Doppler frequency shifts of the scattered diagnostic signals. To simulate fd , real velocities obtained from the EISCAT UHF radar at an altitude of 278 km and from the digital all-sky imager during the experiment were employed. The simulation results of Doppler frequency shift variations with time are in reasonable agreement with the experimental Doppler shifts of scattered signals on the London – Tromsø – St. Petersburg path.Key words. Ionosphere (active experiments; ionospheric irregularities Radio science (ionospheric propagation

  9. Lessons from international experience for China's microgrid demonstration program

    Romankiewicz, John; Marnay, Chris; Zhou, Nan; Qu, Min

    2014-01-01

    Microgrids can provide an avenue for increasing the amount of distributed generation (DG) and delivery of electricity, where control is more dispersed and quality of service is locally tailored to end-use requirements, with applications from military bases to campuses to commercial office buildings. Many studies have been done to date on microgrid technology and operations, but fewer studies exist on demonstration programs and commercial microgrid development. As China prepares to launch the largest microgrid demonstration program in the world, we review progress made by demonstration programs across Europe, Asia, and the Americas as well as microgrid benefits and barriers. Through case studies, we highlight the difference in experience for microgrids developed under the auspices of a government-sponsored demonstration program versus those that were commercially developed. Lastly, we provide recommendations oriented towards creating a successful microgrid demonstration program. - Highlights: • We discuss major microgrid demonstration programs in the U.S., E.U., and Asia. • We identify barriers faced by microgrids to date and propose policy solutions. • Two detailed case studies of government sponsored microgrid demonstrations are provided. • We outline eight recommendations for microgrid demonstration programs, with a focus on China's upcoming program

  10. Can you see me? Experiences of nurses working night shift in Australian regional hospitals: a qualitative case study.

    Powell, Idona

    2013-10-01

    To report a study that explored the experiences of night-shift nurses, focusing on employee interrelationships and work satisfaction. Night-shift nurses are a critical component in hospital care making it essential to understand the experiences that give meaning to their work and understand how these nurses and the organization can benefit from their contribution to hospital care. A literature review revealed minimal research in this area. Qualitative case study. A qualitative case study using semi-structured interviews and self-completed diaries was conducted in 2010 in regional public hospitals in Australia. Participants were 14 nurses working nights half or more of their shifts in medical or surgical wards. Thematic analysis identified four major areas of concern: work relationships, work environment, work practices and lifestyle impact. Notably, work relationships were most meaningful for nurses on the same shift; night-shift nurses experienced working conditions inferior to their daytime counterparts including a perception of minimal leadership. Despite limited education opportunities, night shift provided opportunity for professional growth for some nurses with a slippage in skills for others; night shift provided flexibility for family and social activities, yet impeded these same activities, primarily due to pervasive fatigue. Night-shift nurses considered their role critical, yet believed that they were poorly regarded. The strong interpersonal relationships developed between night-shift workers need to be capitalized on whilst developing a more effective leadership model, improved work environment, more equitable professional development, and genuine recognition of the critical role of night nurses. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Tethered elevator and platforms as space station facilities: Systems studies and demonstrative experiments

    1986-01-01

    Several key concepts of the science and applications tethered platforms were studied. Some conclusions reached are herein listed. Tether elevator and platform could improve the space station scientific and applicative capabilities. The space elevator presents unique characteristics as microgravity facility and as a tethered platform servicing vehicle. Pointing platforms could represent a new kind of observation facility for large class of payloads. The dynamical, control and technological complexity of these concepts advised demonstrative experiments. The on-going tethered satellite system offers the opportunity to perform such experiments. And feasibility studies are in progress.

  12. Low-cost nonlinear optics experiment for undergraduate instructional laboratory and lecture demonstration

    Turchiello, Rozane de F.; Pereira, Luiz A. A.; Gómez, Sergio L.

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents a simple and affordable experiment on the thermal lens effect, suitable for an undergraduate educational laboratory or as a tabletop demonstration in a lecture on nonlinear optics. Such an experiment exploits the formation of a lens in an absorbing medium illuminated by a laser beam with a Gaussian intensity profile. As an absorber, we use a commercial soy sauce, which exhibits a strong thermal lensing effect. Additionally, we show how to measure the radius of a Gaussian beam using the knife-edge method, and how to estimate the focal length of the induced thermal lens.

  13. Lamb shifts and hyperfine structure in 6Li+ and 7Li+: Theory and experiment

    Riis, E.; Sinclair, A. G.; Poulsen, Ove

    1994-01-01

    . The accuracy of 11 parts per million is the best two-electron Lamb shift measurement in the literature, and is comparable to the accuracies achieved in hydrogen. Theoretical contributions to the two-electron Lamb shift are discussed, including terms of order (alpha Z)(4) recently obtained by Chen, Cheng...

  14. The `Chocolate Experiment' - A Demonstration of Radiation Absorption by Different Colored Surfaces

    Fung, Dennis

    2015-12-01

    In the typical "cookbook" experiment comparing the radiation absorption rates of different colored surfaces, students' hands are commonly used as a measurement instrument to demonstrate that dull black and silvery surfaces are good and poor absorbers of radiation, respectively. However, college students are often skeptical about using their bare hands in this experiment because they learned in early science lessons that skin is not a reliable detector of heat transfer. Moreover, when the experiment is conducted in a school laboratory, it is often difficult for students to perceive the slight differences in heat transfer on the dull black and silvery aluminum leaves attached to their hands. Rather than replacing students' bare hands with such sophisticated apparatus as a data logger and temperature probe, I suggest using a simple (and delicious!) low-cost instrument, i.e., chocolate, which simply melts when it receives radiation.

  15. Degradation modeling and experiment of electro-hydraulic shift valve in contamination circumstances

    Yong Liu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article, a degradation assessment model has been proposed for electro-hydraulic shift valve in power-shift steering transmission. Our work is motivated by the failure mechanism of abrasive wear with a mathematic model. Abrasive wear will consecutively enlarge the clearance between the friction pairs. It is an overwhelming wear mechanism in the degradation of shift valve within serious contaminated fluid. Herein, a mathematic model is proposed by considering particle morphology and abrasion theory. Such model has been verified for its applicability and accuracy through comparison between the theoretical and experimental results.

  16. Evaluation of the SHIFT-Depression® Inventory With a Sample of Australian Women, Demonstrating the Centrality of Gendered Role Expectations to Their Depression

    Helen C. Vidler

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available To address the double fold incidence and prevalence rates of depression in women compared to men needs more than symptom management. In primary health care where time does not normally allow for thorough assessments of what causes or maintains depression, using a brief questionnaire is warranted. A means must be found to address system level barriers to care and the poor quality of life so many women experience. Using an online survey and mixed method design, initial evaluation of a measure developed to identify individual and contextual issues connected to depression in women, examined underlying factor structure. 266 depressed women aged 18 to 85yrs also completed the Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale (CESD and provided written commentary about any further issues. The SHIFT-Depression® Inventory analysis revealed five reliable underlying factors explaining 59% of the variance. The factors identified were; 'diminished self/feels powerless/focused on other's care'; 'financial problems, lacks access to healthcare, healthy food, housing, exercise’; 'relationship difficulties, loss/betrayal/abuse’; ‘women’s problems’ and 'lack of social support/feels isolated'. Analysis of participant’s comments found four groupings similar to the identified factors. This initial evaluation of the SHIFT-Depression® Inventory showed evidence of the multiple issues impacting on depressed women spanning the physical, intrapsychic, relational, social and contextual areas. The inventory provides preliminary assessment which can identify when more extensive questioning and referrals to various services may be appropriate. It could be used in primary health care settings when consultation times are brief, or as an adjunct to assessment in the mental health setting.

  17. Engineering expertise on shift in nuclear power plants: the foreign experience

    Melber, B.D.; Schreiber, R.E.

    1983-02-01

    This report describes the practices of selected foreign countries with providing engineering expertise on shift in nuclear power plants. The extent to which engineering expertise is made available and the alternative models of providing such expertise are presented. The implications of foreign practices for US consideration of alternatives are discussed, with reference to the shift technical advisor (STA) position and to a proposed shift engineer position. The procedure used to obtain information on foreign practices was primarily a review of the literature, including publications, presentations, and government and utility reports. There are two approaches that are in use to make engineering expertise available on shift: (1) employing a graduate engineer in a line management operations position; and (2) creating a specific engineering position for the purpose of providing expertise to the operations staff

  18. Doppler shift simulation of scattered HF signals during the Tromsø HF pumping experiment on 16 February 1996

    T. D. Borisova

    Full Text Available Comparisons between bistatic scatter measurements and simulation results during the Tromsø HF pumping experiment on 16 February 1996 are made. Doppler measurements of an HF diagnostic signal scattered from the field-aligned irregularities (FAIs in the auroral E-region were carried out on the London – Tromsø – St. Petersburg path at 9410 kHz from 21:00 to 22:00 UT. The scattered signals were observed both from natural and artificial ionospheric irregularities located in the vicinity of Tromsø. To simulate the Doppler frequency shifts, fd , of scattered signals, a radio channel model, named CONE, was developed. The model allows for ray tracing, group and phase paths, and Doppler frequency shift calculations. The calculated Doppler shifts were analyzed for dependence on the magnitude and direction of plasma velocities in the scattering volume. It was found that the velocity components in the north-south direction are crucial for explaining the Doppler frequency shifts of the scattered diagnostic signals. To simulate fd , real velocities obtained from the EISCAT UHF radar at an altitude of 278 km and from the digital all-sky imager during the experiment were employed. The simulation results of Doppler frequency shift variations with time are in reasonable agreement with the experimental Doppler shifts of scattered signals on the London – Tromsø – St. Petersburg path.

    Key words. Ionosphere (active experiments; ionospheric irregularities Radio science (ionospheric propagation

  19. Experience gained with the Synroc demonstration plant at ANSTO and its relevance to plutonium immobilization

    Jostsons, A.; Ridal, A.; Mercer, D.J.; Vance, E.R.L. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Menai (Australia)

    1996-05-01

    The Synroc Demonstration Plant (SDP) was designed and constructed at Lucas Heights to demonstrate the feasibility of Synroc production on a commercial scale (10 kg/hr) with simulated Purex liquid HLW. Since commissioning of the SDP in 1987, over 6000 kg of Synroc has been fabricated with a range of feeds and waste loadings. The SDP utilises uniaxial hot-pressing to consolidate Synroc. Pressureless sintering and hot-isostatic pressing have also been studied at smaller scales. The results of this extensive process development have been incorporated in a conceptual design for a radioactive plant to condition HLW from a reprocessing plant with a capacity to treat 800 tpa of spent LWR fuel. Synroic containing TRU, including Pu, and fission products has been fabricated and characterised in a glove-box facility and hot cells, respectively. The extensive experience in processing of Synroc over the past 15 years is summarised and its relevance to immobilization of surplus plutonium is discussed.

  20. Stimulated forces demonstrated: Why the trouton-noble experiment failed and how to make it succeed

    Cornille, Patrick; Naudin, Jean-Louis; Szames, Alexandre

    1999-01-01

    At the turn of the 20th century, Frederick T. Trouton and Henry R. Noble (TN) performed a little known æther drift experiment which came to be known as the electrostatic analogue of Michelson-Morley's famous experiment. If the æther were real, they said, a capacitor charged with ``high'' voltage should exhibit a ``jerk'' and a subsequent ``spontaneous'' torque, thus demonstrating the existence of an æther wind. Trouton and Noble failed to observe the torque and paved the way to the special theory of relativity. We have replicated the TN experiment. We obtained positive results: the principle of relativity is disproved. Other TN-like experiments allowed us to observe the stimulated rotational motions (TN's long-sought effect), the stimulated translational motions (Biefeld-Brown effect), and the sustained rotation of charged, suspended capacitors. Video movies are presented at the conference. TN's failure is analyzed. The concept of stimulated forces is explained in light of its relevance to the future of space locomotion.

  1. Experiences, opportunities and challenges of implementing task shifting in underserved remote settings: the case of Kongwa district, central Tanzania

    Munga Michael A

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tanzania is experiencing acute shortages of Health Workers (HWs, a situation which has forced health managers, especially in the underserved districts, to hastily cope with health workers’ shortages by adopting task shifting. This has however been due to limited options for dealing with the crisis of health personnel. There are on-going discussions in the country on whether to scale up task shifting as one of the strategies for addressing health personnel crisis. However, these discussions are not backed up by rigorous scientific evidence. The aim of this paper is two-fold. Firstly, to describe the current situation of implementing task shifting in the context of acute shortages of health workers and, secondly, to provide a descriptive account of the potential opportunities or benefits and the likely challenges which might ensue as a result of implementing task shifting. Methods We employed in-depth interviews with informants at the district level and supplemented the information with additional interviews with informants at the national level. Interviews focussed on the informants’ practical experiences of implementing task shifting in their respective health facilities (district level and their opinions regarding opportunities and challenges which might be associated with implementation of task shifting practices. At the national level, the main focus was on policy issues related to management of health personnel in the context of implementation of task shifting, in addition to seeking their opinions and perceptions regarding opportunities and challenges of implementing task shifting if formally adopted. Results Task shifting has been in practice for many years in Tanzania and has been perceived as an inevitable coping mechanism due to limited options for addressing health personnel shortages in the country. Majority of informants had the concern that quality of services is likely to be affected if appropriate policy

  2. Demonstrating the unit hydrograph and flow routing processes involving active student participation - a university lecture experiment

    Schulz, Karsten; Burgholzer, Reinhard; Klotz, Daniel; Wesemann, Johannes; Herrnegger, Mathew

    2018-05-01

    The unit hydrograph (UH) has been one of the most widely employed hydrological modelling techniques to predict rainfall-runoff behaviour of hydrological catchments, and is still used to this day. Its concept is based on the idea that a unit of effective precipitation per time unit (e.g. mm h-1) will always lead to a specific catchment response in runoff. Given its relevance, the UH is an important topic that is addressed in most (engineering) hydrology courses at all academic levels. While the principles of the UH seem to be simple and easy to understand, teaching experiences in the past suggest strong difficulties in students' perception of the UH theory and application. In order to facilitate a deeper understanding of the theory and application of the UH for students, we developed a simple and cheap lecture theatre experiment which involved active student participation. The seating of the students in the lecture theatre represented the hydrological catchment in its size and form. A set of plastic balls, prepared with a piece of magnetic strip to be tacked to any white/black board, each represented a unit amount of effective precipitation. The balls are evenly distributed over the lecture theatre and routed by some given rules down the catchment to the catchment outlet, where the resulting hydrograph is monitored and illustrated at the black/white board. The experiment allowed an illustration of the underlying principles of the UH, including stationarity, linearity, and superposition of the generated runoff and subsequent routing. In addition, some variations of the experimental setup extended the UH concept to demonstrate the impact of elevation, different runoff regimes, and non-uniform precipitation events on the resulting hydrograph. In summary, our own experience in the classroom, a first set of student exams, as well as student feedback and formal evaluation suggest that the integration of such an experiment deepened the learning experience by active

  3. Conceptual design of a laser-plasma accelerator driven free-electron laser demonstration experiment

    Seggebrock, Thorben

    2015-01-01

    Up to now, short-wavelength free-electron lasers (FEL) have been systems on the scale of hundreds of meters up to multiple kilometers. Due to the advancements in laser-plasma acceleration in the recent years, these accelerators have become a promising candidate for driving a fifth-generation synchrotron light source - a lab-scale free-electron laser. So far, demonstration experiments have been hindered by the broad energy spread typical for this type of accelerator. This thesis addresses the most important challenges of the conceptual design for a first lab-scale FEL demonstration experiment using analytical considerations as well as simulations. The broad energy spread reduces the FEL performance directly by weakening the microbunching and indirectly via chromatic emittance growth, caused by the focusing system. Both issues can be mitigated by decompressing the electron bunch in a magnetic chicane, resulting in a sorting by energies. This reduces the local energy spread as well as the local chromatic emittance growth and also lowers performance degradations caused by the short bunch length. Moreover, the energy dependent focus position leads to a focus motion within the bunch, which can be synchronized with the radiation pulse, maximizing the current density in the interaction region. This concept is termed chromatic focus matching. A comparison shows the advantages of the longitudinal decompression concept compared to the alternative approach of transverse dispersion. When using typical laser-plasma based electron bunches, coherent synchrotron radiation and space-charge contribute in equal measure to the emittance growth during decompression. It is shown that a chicane for this purpose must not be as weak and long as affordable to reduce coherent synchrotron radiation, but that an intermediate length is required. Furthermore, the interplay of the individual concepts and components is assessed in a start-to-end simulation, confirming the feasibility of the

  4. Conceptual design of a laser-plasma accelerator driven free-electron laser demonstration experiment

    Seggebrock, Thorben

    2015-07-08

    Up to now, short-wavelength free-electron lasers (FEL) have been systems on the scale of hundreds of meters up to multiple kilometers. Due to the advancements in laser-plasma acceleration in the recent years, these accelerators have become a promising candidate for driving a fifth-generation synchrotron light source - a lab-scale free-electron laser. So far, demonstration experiments have been hindered by the broad energy spread typical for this type of accelerator. This thesis addresses the most important challenges of the conceptual design for a first lab-scale FEL demonstration experiment using analytical considerations as well as simulations. The broad energy spread reduces the FEL performance directly by weakening the microbunching and indirectly via chromatic emittance growth, caused by the focusing system. Both issues can be mitigated by decompressing the electron bunch in a magnetic chicane, resulting in a sorting by energies. This reduces the local energy spread as well as the local chromatic emittance growth and also lowers performance degradations caused by the short bunch length. Moreover, the energy dependent focus position leads to a focus motion within the bunch, which can be synchronized with the radiation pulse, maximizing the current density in the interaction region. This concept is termed chromatic focus matching. A comparison shows the advantages of the longitudinal decompression concept compared to the alternative approach of transverse dispersion. When using typical laser-plasma based electron bunches, coherent synchrotron radiation and space-charge contribute in equal measure to the emittance growth during decompression. It is shown that a chicane for this purpose must not be as weak and long as affordable to reduce coherent synchrotron radiation, but that an intermediate length is required. Furthermore, the interplay of the individual concepts and components is assessed in a start-to-end simulation, confirming the feasibility of the

  5. Instrumental Implementation of an Experiment to Demonstrate αω -dynamos in Accretion Disks

    Si, Jiahe; Sonnenfeld, Richard; Colgate, Art; Li, Hui; Nornberg, Mark

    2016-10-01

    The New Mexico Liquid Metal αω -dynamo experiment is aimed to demonstrate a galactic dynamo. Our goal is to generate the ω-effect and α-effect by two semi-coherent flows in laboratory. Two coaxial cylinders are used to generate Taylor-Couette flows to simulate the differential rotation of accretion disks. Plumes induced by jets injected into the Couette flows are expected to produce helicities necessary for the α-effect. We have demonstrated an 8-fold poloidal-to-toroidal flux amplification from differential rotation (the ω-effect) by minimizing turbulence in our apparatus. To demonstrate the α-effect, the experimental apparatus is undergoing significant upgrade. We have constructed a helicity injection facility, and are also designing and testing a new data acquisition system capable of transmitting data in a high speed rotating frame. Additional magnetic field diagnostics will also be included. The upgrade is intended to answer the question of whether a self-sustaining αω -dynamo can be constructed with a realistic fluid flow field, as well as to obtain more details to understand dynamo action in highly turbulent Couette flow.

  6. Do hospital shift charge nurses from different cultures experience similar stress? An international cross sectional study.

    Admi, Hanna; Eilon-Moshe, Yael

    2016-11-01

    There is a need to improve understanding of role stress and how it affects nurses' wellbeing, burnout and health; and hence the quality and safety of patients' care, organizational outcomes and costs. The focus is on shift charge nurses in hospitals who are accountable during a specific shift for the patients' care and staff functioning in accordance with hospital and unit policy. To compare perceptions of stress and its intensity among hospital shift charge nurses amongst three countries: Israel, USA (state of Ohio) and Thailand. A cross-sectional study was performed across three countries, focusing on a convenience sample of 2616 hospital shift charge nurses recruited from 23 general hospitals. A validated shift Charge Nurse Stress Questionnaire was used to assess impacts of four factors: patient & family complaints, lack of resources, responsibility burden and professional conflict. Descriptive statistics were used to describe demographic and professional characteristics of the participants. Chi square and the Fisher Exact Test were performed to test for demographic differences amongst the three samples. Parametric and non-parametric tests were used to compare mean stress levels amongst the study samples. The mean stress level for the total sample was 2.84 (±0.71) on a Likert scale of 1-5, implying moderate stress levels. Significant differences in stress levels were found among countries, with Thai nurses scoring the highest and Israeli nurses the lowest. Similar perceptions of stress intensity were found for all countries, with the factors "responsibility burden" and "lack of resources" considered the most stressful. Israeli and American nurses perceived similar situations as stressful and different from those perceived by Thai nurses. The findings can be partially explained by demographic, professional and cultural differences. Similarities along with differences were found in the nature and levels of stress experienced across the studied countries. A

  7. What if solar energy becomes really cheap? A thought experiment on environmental problem shifting

    Bergh, Van den Jeroen; Folke, Carl; Polasky, Stephen; Scheffer, Marten; Steffen, Will

    2015-01-01

    Solving one environmental problem may often invoke or intensify another one. Such environmental problem shifting (EPS) is a neglected topic in global sustainability research. Indeed, it is difficult to study as it requires the merging of insights from various research areas. Here we identify

  8. What if solar energy becomes really cheap? A thought experiment on environmental problem shifting

    van den Bergh, J.C.J.M.; Folke, C.; Polasky, S.; Scheffer, M.; Steffen, W.

    2015-01-01

    Solving one environmental problem may often invoke or intensify another one. Such environmental problem shifting (EPS) is a neglected topic in global sustainability research. Indeed, it is difficult to study as it requires the merging of insights from various research areas. Here we identify

  9. Task-shifting: experiences and opinions of health workers in Mozambique and Zambia

    Ferrinho Paulo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper describes the task-shifting taking place in health centres and district hospitals in Mozambique and Zambia. The objectives of this study were to identify the perceived causes and factors facilitating or impeding task-shifting, and to determine both the positive and negative consequences of task-shifting for the service users, for the services and for health workers. Methods Data collection involved individual and group interviews and focus group discussions with health workers from the civil service. Results In both the Republic of Mozambique and the Republic of Zambia, health workers have to practice beyond the traditional scope of their professional practice to cope with their daily tasks. They do so to ensure that their patients receive the level of care that they, the health workers, deem due to them, even in the absence of written instructions. The “out of professional scope” activities consume a significant amount of working time. On occasions, health workers are given on-the-job training to assume new roles, but job titles and rewards do not change, and career progression is unheard of. Ancillary staff and nurses are the two cadres assuming a greater diversity of functions as a result of improvised task-shifting. Conclusions Our observations show that the consequences of staff deficits and poor conditions of work include heavier workloads for those on duty, the closure of some services, the inability to release staff for continuing education, loss of quality, conflicts with patients, risks for patients, unsatisfied staff (with the exception of ancillary staff and hazards for health workers and managers. Task-shifting is openly acknowledged and widespread, informal and carries risks for patients, staff and management.

  10. Magnetic levitation on a type-I superconductor as a practical demonstration experiment for students

    Osorio, M R; Lahera, D E; Suderow, H

    2012-01-01

    We describe and discuss an experimental set-up which allows undergraduate and graduate students to view and study magnetic levitation on a type-I superconductor. The demonstration can be repeated many times using one readily available 25 l liquid helium dewar. We study the equilibrium position of a magnet that levitates over a lead bowl immersed in a liquid hand-held helium cryostat. We combine the measurement of the position of the magnet with simple analytical calculations. This provides a vivid visualization of magnetic levitation from the balance between pure flux expulsion and gravitation. The experiment contrasts and illustrates the case of magnetic levitation with high temperature type-II superconductors using liquid nitrogen, where levitation results from partial flux expulsion and vortex physics. (paper)

  11. Magnetic levitation on a type-I superconductor as a practical demonstration experiment for students

    Osorio, M. R.; Lahera, D. E.; Suderow, H.

    2012-09-01

    We describe and discuss an experimental set-up which allows undergraduate and graduate students to view and study magnetic levitation on a type-I superconductor. The demonstration can be repeated many times using one readily available 25 l liquid helium dewar. We study the equilibrium position of a magnet that levitates over a lead bowl immersed in a liquid hand-held helium cryostat. We combine the measurement of the position of the magnet with simple analytical calculations. This provides a vivid visualization of magnetic levitation from the balance between pure flux expulsion and gravitation. The experiment contrasts and illustrates the case of magnetic levitation with high temperature type-II superconductors using liquid nitrogen, where levitation results from partial flux expulsion and vortex physics.

  12. Operating experience, measurements, and analysis of the LEU whole core demonstration at the FNR

    Weha, D.K.; Drumm, C.R.; King, J.S.; Martin, W.R.; Lee, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    The 2-MW Ford Nuclear Reactor at the University of Michigan is serving as the demonstration reactor for the MTR-type low enrichment (LEU) fuel for the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactor program. Operational experience gained through six months of LEU core operation and seven months of mixed HEU-LEU core operation is presented. Subcadmium flux measurements performed with rhodium self-powered neutron detectors and iron wire activations are compared with calculations. Measured reactivity parameters are compared for HEU and LEU cores. Finally, the benchmark calculations for several HEU, LEU, and mixed HEU-LEU FNR cores and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) benchmark problem are presented. (author)

  13. A demonstration of a Time Multiplexed Trigger for the CMS experiment

    Frazier, R; Newbold, D [University of Bristol, H.H. Wills Physics Laboratory, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Fayer, S; Hall, G; Hunt, C; Iles, G; Rose, A [Imperial College London, Blackett Laboratory, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2BW (United Kingdom)

    2012-01-15

    A novel approach to first-level hardware triggering in the LHC experiments has been studied and a prototype system built. Calorimeter trigger primitive data ( {approx} 5 Tb/s) are re-organised and time-multiplexed so that a single processing node (FPGA) may access the data corresponding to the entire detector for a given bunch crossing. This provides maximal flexibility in the construction of new trigger algorithms, which will be an important factor in ensuring adequate trigger performance at the very high levels of background expected at the upgraded LHC. A test system that incorporates all the key technologies for a final system and demonstrates the time-multiplexing and algorithm performance is presented.

  14. Operating experience during high-level waste vitrification at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    Valenti, P.J.; Elliott, D.I.

    1999-01-01

    This report provides a summary of operational experiences, component and system performance, and lessons learned associated with the operation of the Vitrification Facility (VF) at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP). The VF was designed to convert stored high-level radioactive waste (HLW) into a stable waste form (borosilicate glass) suitable for disposal in a federal repository. Following successful completion on nonradioactive test, HLW processing began in July 1995. Completion of Phase 1 of HLW processing was reached on 10 June 1998 and represented the processing of 9.32 million curies of cesium-137 (Cs-137) and strontium-90 (Sr-90) to fill 211 canisters with over 436,000 kilograms of glass. With approximately 85% of the total estimated curie content removed from underground waste storage tanks during Phase 1, subsequent operations will focus on removal of tank heel wastes

  15. Summary of facility and operating experience on helium engineering demonstration loop (HENDEL)

    Ouchi, Yoshihiro; Fujisaki, Katsuo; Kobayashi, Toshiaki; Kato, Michio; Ota, Yukimaru; Watanabe, Syuji; Kobayashi, Hideki; Mogi, Haruyoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment

    1996-07-01

    The HENDEL is a test facility to perform full scale demonstration tests on the core internals and high temperature components for the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor(HTTR). The main systems consist of Mother(M) and Adapter(A), fuel stack Test(T{sub 1}) and in-core structure Test(T{sub 2}) sections. The (M+A) section can supply high temperature helium gas to the test section. The M+A section completed in March 1982 has been operated for about 22900 hours till February 1995. The T{sub 1} and T{sub 2} sections, completed in March 1983 and June 1986, have been operated for about 19400 and 16700 hours, respectively. In this period, a large number of tests have been conducted to verify the performance and safety features of the HTTR components. The results obtained from these tests have been effectively applied to the detailed design, licensing procedures and construction of the HTTR. The operating experience of the HENDEL for more than 10 years also brought us establishment of the technique of operation of a large scale helium gas loop, handling of helium gas and maintenance of high temperature facilities. The technique will be available for the operation of the HTTR. This paper mainly describes the summary of plant facirities, operating experience and maintenance on the HENDEL. (author)

  16. Geneva University - The AX-PET experiment : A demonstrator for an axial Positron Emission Tomography

    Université de Genève

    2012-01-01

    Geneva University École de physique Département de physique nucléaire et corspusculaire 24, quai Ernest-Ansermet 1211 Genève 4 Tél.: (022) 379 62 73 Fax: (022) 379 69 92   Wednesday 14 March 2012 SEMINAIRE DE PHYSIQUE CORPUSCULAIRE 11.15 a.m. - Science II, Auditoire 1S081, 30, quai Ernest-Ansermet, 1211 Genève 4 The AX-PET experiment : A demonstrator for an axial Positron Emission Tomography Dr Chiara CASELLA   ETH Zurich   PET (Positron Emission Tomography) is a tool for in-vivo functional imaging, successfully used since the earliest days of nuclear medicine. It is based on the detection of the two coincident 511 keV photons from the annihilation of a positron, emitted from a radiotracer injected into the body. Tomographic analysis of the coincidence data allows for a 3D reconstructed image of the source distribution. The AX-PET experiment proposes a novel geometrical approach for a PET scanner, in which l...

  17. Fluorine-fixing efficiency on calcium-based briquette: pilot experiment, demonstration and promotion.

    Yang, Jiao-lan; Chen, Dong-qing; Li, Shu-min; Yue, Yin-ling; Jin, Xin; Zhao, Bing-cheng; Ying, Bo

    2010-02-05

    The fluorosis derived from coal burning is a very serious problem in China. By using fluorine-fixing technology during coal burning we are able to reduce the release of fluorides in coal at the source in order to reduce pollution to the surrounding environment by coal burning pollutants as well as decrease the intake and accumulating amounts of fluorine in the human body. The aim of this study was to conduct a pilot experiment on calcium-based fluorine-fixing material efficiency during coal burning to demonstrate and promote the technology based on laboratory research. A proper amount of calcium-based fluorine sorbent was added into high-fluorine coal to form briquettes so that the fluorine in high-fluorine coal can be fixed in coal slag and its release into atmosphere reduced. We determined figures on various components in briquettes and fluorine in coal slag as well as the concentrations of indoor air pollutants, including fluoride, sulfur dioxide and respirable particulate matter (RPM), and evaluated the fluorine-fixing efficiency of calcium-based fluorine sorbents and the levels of indoor air pollutants. Pilot experiments on fluorine-fixing efficiency during coal burning as well as its demonstration and promotion were carried out separately in Guiding and Longli Counties of Guizhou Province, two areas with coal burning fluorosis problems. If the calcium-based fluorine sorbent mixed coal was made into honeycomb briquettes the average fluorine-fixing ratio in the pilot experiment was 71.8%. If the burning calcium-based fluorine-fixing bitumite was made into a coalball, the average of fluorine-fixing ratio was 77.3%. The concentration of fluoride, sulfur dioxide and PM10 of indoor air were decreased significantly. There was a 10% increase in the cost of briquettes due to the addition of calcium-based fluorine sorbent. The preparation process of calcium-based fluorine-fixing briquette is simple yet highly flammable and it is applicable to regions with abundant

  18. A readout system for the micro-vertex-detector demonstrator for the CBM experiment at FAIR

    Schrader, Christoph

    2011-06-09

    The Compressed Baryonic Matter Experiment (CBM) is a fixed target heavy ion experiment currently in preparation at the future FAIR accelerator complex in Darmstadt. The CBM experiment focuses on the measurements of diagnostic probes of the early and dense phase of the fireball at beam energies from 8 up to 45 AGeV. As observables, rare hadronic, leptonic and photonic probes are used, including open charm. Open charm will be identified by reconstructing the secondary decay vertex of the corresponding short lived particles. As the central component for track reconstruction, a detector system based on silicon semiconductor detectors is planned. The first three stations of the Silicon Tracking System (STS) make up the so-called Micro-Vertex-Detector (MVD) operating in moderate vacuum. Because of the well-balanced compromise between an excellent spatial resolution (few {mu}m), low material budget ({proportional_to}50 {mu}m Si), adequate radiation tolerance and readout speed, Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) based on CMOS technology are more suited than any other technology for the reconstruction of the secondary vertex in CBM. A new detector concept has to be developed. Two MVD-Demonstrator modules have been successfully tested with 120 GeV pions at the CERN-SPS. The main topic of this thesis is the development of a control and readout concept of several MVD-Demonstrator modules with a common data acquisition system. In order to achieve the required results a front-end electronics device has been developed which is capable of reading the analogue signals of two sensors on a ex-print cable. The high data rate of the MAPS sensors (1.2 Gbit per second and sensor by 50 MHz and 12 bit ADC resolution) requires a readout system which processes the data on-line in a pipeline to avoid dead times. In order to implement the pipeline processing an FPGA is used, which is located on an additional hardware platform. In order to integrate the MVD-Demonstrator readout board in the

  19. A readout system for the micro-vertex-detector demonstrator for the CBM experiment at FAIR

    Schrader, Christoph

    2011-01-01

    The Compressed Baryonic Matter Experiment (CBM) is a fixed target heavy ion experiment currently in preparation at the future FAIR accelerator complex in Darmstadt. The CBM experiment focuses on the measurements of diagnostic probes of the early and dense phase of the fireball at beam energies from 8 up to 45 AGeV. As observables, rare hadronic, leptonic and photonic probes are used, including open charm. Open charm will be identified by reconstructing the secondary decay vertex of the corresponding short lived particles. As the central component for track reconstruction, a detector system based on silicon semiconductor detectors is planned. The first three stations of the Silicon Tracking System (STS) make up the so-called Micro-Vertex-Detector (MVD) operating in moderate vacuum. Because of the well-balanced compromise between an excellent spatial resolution (few μm), low material budget (∝50 μm Si), adequate radiation tolerance and readout speed, Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) based on CMOS technology are more suited than any other technology for the reconstruction of the secondary vertex in CBM. A new detector concept has to be developed. Two MVD-Demonstrator modules have been successfully tested with 120 GeV pions at the CERN-SPS. The main topic of this thesis is the development of a control and readout concept of several MVD-Demonstrator modules with a common data acquisition system. In order to achieve the required results a front-end electronics device has been developed which is capable of reading the analogue signals of two sensors on a ex-print cable. The high data rate of the MAPS sensors (1.2 Gbit per second and sensor by 50 MHz and 12 bit ADC resolution) requires a readout system which processes the data on-line in a pipeline to avoid dead times. In order to implement the pipeline processing an FPGA is used, which is located on an additional hardware platform. In order to integrate the MVD-Demonstrator readout board in the HADES data

  20. Load shift incentives for household demand response: A model to evaluate effects from a Danish field experiment

    Katz, Jonas; Møller Andersen, Frits; Morthorst, Poul Erik

    2015-01-01

    We use a long-term electricity market equilibrium model to assess the impact of variable price products for household electricity customers. The analysed product structures resemble a rebate provided to customers within a field experiment in Southern Denmark. The developed model provides a clearer...... picture of what to expect from household demand response under spot pricing schemes as compared and simplified product schemes; it also prepares for interpreting the field experiment results. Using preliminary assumptions we estimate both short-term and long-term welfare effects of a shift of customers...

  1. R W Wood's Experiment Done Right - A Laboratory Demonstration of the Greenhouse Effect

    Halpern, J. B.

    2016-12-01

    It would not be exaggerating to say that R. W. Wood was the most respected experimental optical physicist of his time. Thus the null result of his attempt to demonstrate the greenhouse effect by comparing temperature rise in illuminated cylinders with glass or rock salt windows has echoed down through the years in climate science discussions both on the professional and public levels1. Today the web is full of videos purporting to demonstrate the greenhouse effect, but careful examination shows that they simply demonstrate heating via absorption of IR or NIR light by CO2. These experiments miss that the greenhouse effect is a result of the temperature difference between the surface and the upper troposphere as a result of which radiation from greenhouse molecules slows as the level rises. The average distance a photon emitted from a vibrationally excited CO2 molecule is about 10 m at the surface, increasing with altitude until at about 8 km the mean free path allows for radiation to space. Increasing CO2 concentrations raises this level to a higher one, which is colder, and at which the rate of radiation to space decreases. Emitting the same amount of radiation to space as before requires heating the entire system including the surface. To model the greenhouse effect we have used a 22 L bulb with a capsule heater in the center. The temperature near the heater (the surface) or above it can be monitored using a thermocouple and the CO2 mixing ratio determined using a NDIR sensor. By controlling the CO2 concentration in the bulb, the mean free path of re-radiated photons from CO2 can be controlled so that it much smaller than the bulb's diameter. We have measure rises in temperature both near the heater and at a distance from it as CO2is introduced, demonstrating the greenhouse effect. 1. R.W. Wood, London, Edinborough and Dublin Philosophical Magazine , 1909, 17, p319-320 also http://www.wmconnolley.org.uk/sci/wood_rw.1909.html

  2. FNR demonstration experiments Part I: Beam port leakage currents and spectra

    Wehe, D.K.; King, J.S.

    1983-01-01

    , unexpected changes in A-port beam geometry occurred. As a consequence G-port data is somewhat suspect, and A-port data was available for only part of the experiments. Second, the initial conversion to the LEU core was sufficiently unpredictable in reactivity that fuel element additions were necessary during the initial LEU experiments. As a consequence three LEU cores of slightly different loading geometry are reported herein. The major difference in these cores, as is evident in the figures, was a shift from east to west in the core loading pattern. This had a considerable effect, apparently, in shifting the beam port leakage pattern, is discussed. Third, the D 2 0 tank has presented several special problems. Access to the volume of the tank is very limited; it is possible to reach only the upper region of the tank, the deepest penetration being 5 in below the core fuel top level for the SPND detector and, for wire activations. This requires a large extrapolation from a position of maximum flux gradient to predict data equivalent to core midplane. In addition there is now evidence that the rhodium SPND response in the D 2 O tank does not agree with either Fe or Rh wire activations when all three measurements are normalized to measurements at the same point at the center of the core

  3. Investigating microearthquake finite source attributes with IRIS Community Wavefield Demonstration Experiment in Oklahoma

    Fan, Wenyuan; McGuire, Jeffrey J.

    2018-05-01

    An earthquake rupture process can be kinematically described by rupture velocity, duration and spatial extent. These key kinematic source parameters provide important constraints on earthquake physics and rupture dynamics. In particular, core questions in earthquake science can be addressed once these properties of small earthquakes are well resolved. However, these parameters of small earthquakes are poorly understood, often limited by available datasets and methodologies. The IRIS Community Wavefield Experiment in Oklahoma deployed ˜350 three component nodal stations within 40 km2 for a month, offering an unprecedented opportunity to test new methodologies for resolving small earthquake finite source properties in high resolution. In this study, we demonstrate the power of the nodal dataset to resolve the variations in the seismic wavefield over the focal sphere due to the finite source attributes of a M2 earthquake within the array. The dense coverage allows us to tightly constrain rupture area using the second moment method even for such a small earthquake. The M2 earthquake was a strike-slip event and unilaterally propagated towards the surface at 90 per cent local S- wave speed (2.93 km s-1). The earthquake lasted ˜0.019 s and ruptured Lc ˜70 m by Wc ˜45 m. With the resolved rupture area, the stress-drop of the earthquake is estimated as 7.3 MPa for Mw 2.3. We demonstrate that the maximum and minimum bounds on rupture area are within a factor of two, much lower than typical stress drop uncertainty, despite a suboptimal station distribution. The rupture properties suggest that there is little difference between the M2 Oklahoma earthquake and typical large earthquakes. The new three component nodal systems have great potential for improving the resolution of studies of earthquake source properties.

  4. A Technology Demonstration Experiment for Laser Cooled Atomic Clocks in Space

    Klipstein, W. M.; Kohel, J.; Seidel, D. J.; Thompson, R. J.; Maleki, L.; Gibble, K.

    2000-01-01

    We have been developing a laser-cooling apparatus for flight on the International Space Station (ISS), with the intention of demonstrating linewidths on the cesium clock transition narrower than can be realized on the ground. GLACE (the Glovebox Laser- cooled Atomic Clock Experiment) is scheduled for launch on Utilization Flight 3 (UF3) in 2002, and will be mounted in one of the ISS Glovebox platforms for an anticipated 2-3 week run. Separate flight definition projects funded at NIST and Yale by the Micro- gravity Research Division of NASA as a part of its Laser Cooling and Atomic Physics (LCAP) program will follow GLACE. Core technologies for these and other LCAP missions are being developed at JPL, with the current emphasis on developing components such as the laser and optics subsystem, and non-magnetic vacuum-compatible mechanical shutters. Significant technical challenges in developing a space qualifiable laser cooling apparatus include reducing the volume, mass, and power requirements, while increasing the ruggedness and reliability in order to both withstand typical launch conditions and achieve several months of unattended operation. This work was performed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  5. Long-term regional shifts in plant community composition are largely explained by local deer impact experiments.

    Katie Frerker

    Full Text Available The fact that herbivores and predators exert top-down effects to alter community composition and dynamics at lower trophic levels is no longer controversial, yet we still lack evidence of the full nature, extent, and longer-term effects of these impacts. Here, we use results from a set of replicated experiments on the local impacts of white-tailed deer to evaluate the extent to which such impacts could account for half-century shifts in forest plant communities across the upper Midwest, USA. We measured species' responses to deer at four sites using 10-20 year-old deer exclosures. Among common species, eight were more abundant outside the exclosures, seven were commoner inside, and 16 had similar abundances in- and outside. Deer herbivory greatly increased the abundance of ferns and graminoids and doubled the abundance of exotic plants. In contrast, deer greatly reduced tree regeneration, shrub cover (100-200 fold in two species, plant height, plant reproduction, and the abundance of forbs. None of 36 focal species increased in reproduction or grew taller in the presence of deer, contrary to expectations. We compared these results to data on 50-year regional shifts in species abundances across 62 sites. The effects of herbivory by white-tailed deer accurately account for many of the long-term regional shifts observed in species' abundances (R2 = 0.41. These results support the conjecture that deer impacts have driven many of the regional shifts in forest understory cover and composition observed in recent decades. Our ability to link results from shorter-term, local experiments to regional long-term studies of ecological change strengthens the inferences we can draw from both approaches.

  6. From OER to OEP: Shifting Practitioner Perspectives and Practices with Innovative Learning Experience Design

    Shironica Priyanthi Karunanayaka

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Like any other educational resource, the integration of OER in teaching and learning requires careful thought and support for the teaching staff. The Faculty of Education at the Open University of Sri Lanka approached this challenge with the help of a professional development course on OER-based e-Learning. ​Modules in the course ​​incorporated the use of authentic learning scenarios with learning tasks that facilitated capacity building in a collaborative manner. This paper reports the impact of this course in shifting their perspectives and practices in relation to open educational practices. ​In addition to a much richer grasp of conceptual knowledge and skills related to searching, identifying, evaluating and integrating OER, participants developed competencies in designing, developing and implementation of an OER-based e-Learning course.

  7. Prediction of the brittle-ductile transition temperature shift, from irradiation experiments obtained in France

    Miannay, D.; Dussarte, D.; Soulat, P.

    1988-10-01

    In integrety - evaluation studies of the nuclear-reactor vessel, the toughness of component materials is given by a reference curve, which represents the lowest level of the toughness possible values, as a function of the temperature. Its temperature-scale position is given by the null ductility temperature. In non-irradiated conditions, the temperature of the vessel materials is experimentally obtained. To take into account the irradiation effect, a shift of this temperature, given by the correlations where chemical composition and neutronic dose are included, is considered. Up to date correlations, settled for materials brittler than those applied in the French program, are called in question again. A correlation between results obtained in France since 1973, for base metals and welded joints is given. The behavior of CHOOZ vessel, under irradiation conditions, is discussed [fr

  8. The shifting sands of self: a framework for the experience of self in addiction.

    Gray, Mary Tod

    2005-04-01

    The self is a common yet unclear theme in addiction studies. William James's model of self provides a framework to explore the experience of self. His model details the subjective and objective constituents, the sense of self-continuity through time, and the ephemeral and plural nature of the changing self. This exploration yields insights into the self that can be usefully applied to subjective experiences with psychoactive drugs of addiction. Results of this application add depth to the common understanding of self in addiction, acknowledge the importance of feelings and choice in the sense of self created in addiction experiences, and affirm the values salient to these interior experiences in addiction. These results suggest meaning derived from those values, and provide important background knowledge for the nurse interacting with these clients.

  9. Mineral weathering experiments to explore the effects of vegetation shifts in high mountain region (Wind River Range, Wyoming, USA)

    Mavris, Christian; Furrer, Gerhard; Dahms, Dennis; Anderson, Suzanne P.; Blum, Alex; Goetze, Jens; Wells, Aaron; Egli, Markus

    2015-04-01

    Climate change influences the evolution of soil and landscape. With changing climate, both flora and fauna must adapt to new conditions. It is unknown in many respects to what extent soils will react to warming and vegetation change. The aim of this study was to identify possible consequences for soils in a dry-alpine region with respect to weathering of primary minerals and leaching of elements under expected warming climate conditions due to shifts in vegetation. To achieve this, a field empirical approach was used in combination with laboratory weathering experiments simulating several scenarios. Study sites located in Sinks Canyon and in Stough Basin of the Wind River Range, Wyoming, USA, encompass ecotones that consist of tundra, forest, or sagebrush (from moist to dry, with increasing temperature, respectively). All soils are developed on granitoid moraines. The mineralogy of the soils along the altitudinal sequence was analysed using cathodoluminescence and X-ray diffraction, and revealed clear mineral transformations: biotite and plagioclase were both weathered to smectite while plagioclase also weathered to kaolinite. Cooler, wetter, altitude-dependent conditions seemed to promote weathering of these primary minerals. To test the impact of soil solutions from different ecotones on mineral weathering, aqueous extracts from topsoils (A horizons) were reacted with subsoils (B horizons) in batch experiments. Aqueous extracts of topsoil samples were generated for all three ecotones, and these solutions were characterized. For the batch experiments, the topsoil extracts were reacted for 1800 hours with the subsoil samples of the same ecotone, or with the subsoil samples from higher altitude ecotones. Solutions collected periodically during the experiments were measured using ICP-OES and ion chromatography. Dissolved Ca, Mg and K were mainly controlled by the chemical weathering of oligoclase, K-feldspar and biotite. With increasing altitude (and consequently

  10. Use of task-shifting to rapidly scale-up HIV treatment services: experiences from Lusaka, Zambia

    Chi Harmony F

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The World Health Organization advocates task-shifting, the process of delegating clinical care functions from more specialized to less specialized health workers, as a strategy to achieve the United Nations Millennium Development Goals. However, there is a dearth of literature describing task shifting in sub-Saharan Africa, where services for antiretroviral therapy (ART have scaled up rapidly in the face of generalized human resource crises. As part of ART services expansion in Lusaka, Zambia, we implemented a comprehensive task-shifting program among existing health providers and community-based workers. Training begins with didactic sessions targeting specialized skill sets. This is followed by an intensive period of practical mentorship, where providers are paired with trainers before working independently. We provide on-going quality assessment using key indicators of clinical care quality at each site. Program performance is reviewed with clinic-based staff quarterly. When problems are identified, clinic staff members design and implement specific interventions to address targeted areas. From 2005 to 2007, we trained 516 health providers in adult HIV treatment; 270 in pediatric HIV treatment; 341 in adherence counseling; 91 in a specialty nurse "triage" course, and 93 in an intensive clinical mentorship program. On-going quality assessment demonstrated improvement across clinical care quality indicators, despite rapidly growing patient volumes. Our task-shifting strategy was designed to address current health care worker needs and to sustain ART scale-up activities. While this approach has been successful, long-term solutions to the human resource crisis are also urgently needed to expand the number of providers and to slow staff migration out of the region.

  11. Experiment and Modeling of ITER Demonstration Discharges in the DIII-D Tokamak

    Park, Jin Myung; Doyle, E. J.; Ferron, J.R.; Holcomb, C.T.; Jackson, G.L.; Lao, L.L.; Luce, T.C.; Owen, Larry W.; Murakami, Masanori; Osborne, T.H.; Politzer, P.A.; Prater, R.; Snyder, P.B.

    2011-01-01

    DIII-D is providing experimental evaluation of 4 leading ITER operational scenarios: the baseline scenario in ELMing H-mode, the advanced inductive scenario, the hybrid scenario, and the steady state scenario. The anticipated ITER shape, aspect ratio and value of I/αB were reproduced, with the size reduced by a factor of 3.7, while matching key performance targets for β N and H 98 . Since 2008, substantial experimental progress was made to improve the match to other expected ITER parameters for the baseline scenario. A lower density baseline discharge was developed with improved stationarity and density control to match the expected ITER edge pedestal collisionality (ν* e ∼ 0.1). Target values for β N and H 98 were maintained at lower collisionality (lower density) operation without loss in fusion performance but with significant change in ELM characteristics. The effects of lower plasma rotation were investigated by adding counter-neutral beam power, resulting in only a modest reduction in confinement. Robust preemptive stabilization of 2/1 NTMs was demonstrated for the first time using ECCD under ITER-like conditions. Data from these experiments were used extensively to test and develop theory and modeling for realistic ITER projection and for further development of its optimum scenarios in DIII-D. Theory-based modeling of core transport (TGLF) with an edge pedestal boundary condition provided by the EPED1 model reproduces T e and T i profiles reasonably well for the 4 ITER scenarios developed in DIII-D. Modeling of the baseline scenario for low and high rotation discharges indicates that a modest performance increase of ∼ 15% is needed to compensate for the expected lower rotation of ITER. Modeling of the steady-state scenario reproduces a strong dependence of confinement, stability, and noninductive fraction (f NI ) on q 95 , as found in the experimental I p scan, indicating that optimization of the q profile is critical to simultaneously achieving the

  12. Conceptual designs parameters for MURR LEU U-Mo fuel conversion design demonstration experiment. Revision 1

    Stillman, J.; Feldman, E.; Stevens, J.

    2013-01-01

    The design parameters for the conceptual design of a fuel assembly containing U-10Mo fuel foils with low-enriched uranium (LEU) for the University of Missouri Research Reactor (MURR) are described. The Design Demonstration Experiment (MURR-DDE) will use a prototypic MURR-LEU element manufactured according to the parameters specified here. Also provided are calculated performance parameters for the LEU element in the MURR, and a set of goals for the MURR-DDE related to those parameters. The conversion objectives are to develop a fuel element design that will ensure safe reactor operations, as well as maintaining existing performance. The element was designed by staff members of the Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) Reactor Conversion Program at the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and the MURR Facility. A set of manufacturing assumptions were provided by the Fuel Development (FD) and Fuel Fabrication Capability (FFC) pillars of the GTRI Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) program to reliably manufacture the fuel plates. The proposed LEU fuel element has an overall design and exterior dimensions that are similar to those of the current highly-enriched uranium (HEU) fuel elements. There are 23 fuel plates in the LEU design. The overall thickness of each plate is 44 mil, except for the exterior plate that is furthest from the center flux trap (plate 23), which is 49 mil thick. The proposed LEU fuel plates have U-10Mo monolithic fuel foils with a 235U enrichment of 19.75% varying from 9 mil to 20 mil thick, and clad with Al-6061 aluminum. A thin layer of zirconium exists between the fuel foils and the aluminum as a diffusion barrier. The thinnest nominal combined zirconium and aluminum clad thickness on each side of the fuel plates is 12 mil. The LEU U-10Mo monolithic fuel is not yet qualified as driver fuel in research reactors, but is under intense development under the auspices of the GTRI FD and FFC programs.

  13. An Educational Laboratory Experiment to Demonstrate the Development of Fires in a Long Enclosure

    Moinuddin, Khalid

    2013-01-01

    This paper is aimed at describing an experiment involving flame-front movement across the fuel package located within long enclosures and associated heat transfer mechanism. There is a growing interest in incorporating safety education in the chemical engineering curriculum, especially in relation to "facility siting." This experiment is…

  14. Practical experience and lessons learned through implementation of Appendix VIII performance demonstration requirements

    Ashwin, P.J.; Becker, F.L.; Latiolais, C.L.; Spanner, J.C.

    1996-01-01

    To provide the US nuclear industry with a uniform implementation of the Performance Demonstration requirements within the 1989 edition of ASME Section XI, Appendix VIII, representatives from all US nuclear utilities formed the Performance Demonstration Initiative (PDI). The PDI recognized the potential benefits that Appendix VIII offered the nuclear industry and initiated a proactive approach to implement the requirements. In doing so it was expected that performance demonstration of ultrasonic examination procedures would allow for improvement in the efficiency and credibility of inservice inspection to be realized. Explicit within the performance demonstration requirements of Appendix VIII is the need for a Performance Demonstration Administrator, a difficult requirement to fulfill. Not only must the administrator exhibit the attributes of understanding the demonstration requirements, but also have solid technical knowledge, integrity and be able to interface with the industry at all levels, from operations to regulatory. For the nuclear industry, the EPRI NDE Center is an obvious choice to fulfill this position. This paper provides a brief background of the PDI, a nuclear industry-wide initiative to implement the performance demonstration requirements of Appendix VIII. Even though the consensus approach adopted by the PDI is discussed, the paper's primary objective is to provide examples of the lessons learned by the Center through the specific requirements of Appendix VIII

  15. Physiological advantages of C4 grasses in the field: a comparative experiment demonstrating the importance of drought.

    Taylor, Samuel H; Ripley, Brad S; Martin, Tarryn; De-Wet, Leigh-Ann; Woodward, F Ian; Osborne, Colin P

    2014-06-01

    Global climate change is expected to shift regional rainfall patterns, influencing species distributions where they depend on water availability. Comparative studies have demonstrated that C4 grasses inhabit drier habitats than C3 relatives, but that both C3 and C4 photosynthesis are susceptible to drought. However, C4 plants may show advantages in hydraulic performance in dry environments. We investigated the effects of seasonal variation in water availability on leaf physiology, using a common garden experiment in the Eastern Cape of South Africa to compare 12 locally occurring grass species from C4 and C3 sister lineages. Photosynthesis was always higher in the C4 than C3 grasses across every month, but the difference was not statistically significant during the wettest months. Surprisingly, stomatal conductance was typically lower in the C3 than C4 grasses, with the peak monthly average for C3 species being similar to that of C4 leaves. In water-limited, rain-fed plots, the photosynthesis of C4 leaves was between 2.0 and 7.4 μmol m(-2) s(-1) higher, stomatal conductance almost double, and transpiration 60% higher than for C3 plants. Although C4 average instantaneous water-use efficiencies were higher (2.4-8.1 mmol mol(-1)) than C3 averages (0.7-6.8 mmol mol(-1)), differences were not as great as we expected and were statistically significant only as drought became established. Photosynthesis declined earlier during drought among C3 than C4 species, coincident with decreases in stomatal conductance and transpiration. Eventual decreases in photosynthesis among C4 plants were linked with declining midday leaf water potentials. However, during the same phase of drought, C3 species showed significant decreases in hydrodynamic gradients that suggested hydraulic failure. Thus, our results indicate that stomatal and hydraulic behaviour during drought enhances the differences in photosynthesis between C4 and C3 species. We suggest that these drought responses are

  16. Danger and dementia: caregiver experiences and shifting social roles during a highly active hurricane season.

    Christensen, Janelle J; Castañeda, Heide

    2014-01-01

    This study examined disaster preparedness and decision-making by caregivers of community-dwelling persons diagnosed with Alzheimer's or a related dementia (ADRD). Interviews were conducted with 20 caregivers in South Florida. Twelve of these interviews include caregiving experiences during the highly active 2004-2005 hurricane seasons. Results indicate that persons in earlier stages of ADRD can, and often do, remain engaged in the disaster preparation and planning process. However, during the early stages, persons may also resist evacuation, even if the caregiver felt it was necessary. During later stages of the disease, caregivers reported less resistance to disaster-related decisions, however, with the tradeoff of less ability to assist with preparation.

  17. Radiofrequency experiments in JFT-2M: Demonstration of innovative applications of a travelling wave antenna

    Ogawa, T.; Hoshino, K.; Kanazawa, S.

    2001-01-01

    Several innovative applications of a travelling wave (combline) antenna designed for fast wave current drive have been demonstrated for the first time in the JFT-2M tokamak. High energy electrons of at least 10 keV were produced in the plasma core by highly directional fast waves in electron cyclotron heated plasmas. The ponderomotive potential of the beat wave, produced by fast waves at two different frequencies, was directly measured for the first time by a heavy ion beam probe. Plasma production was demonstrated using the wave fields excited by the combline antenna over a wide range of toroidal magnetic fields (0.5-2.2 T). (author)

  18. Simulator experiments: effects of experience of senior reactor operators and of presence of a shift technical advisor on performance in a boiling water reactor control room

    Beare, A.N.; Dorris, R.E.; Gray, L.H.

    1984-12-01

    This report describes the first experiment in a Nuclear Regulatory Commission-sponsored program of training simulator experiments and field data collection to evaluate the effects of selected performance shaping factors on the performance of nuclear power plant control room operators. The factors investigated were the experience level of the Senior Reactor Operator (SRO) and the presence of a Shift Technical Advisor (STA). Data were collected from 16 two-man crews of licensed operators (one SRO and one RO). The crews were split into high and low SRO-experience groups on the basis of the years of experience of the SROs as SROs. One half (4 of the 8 crews in each group) of the high- and low-SRO experience groups were assisted by an STA or an SRO acting as an STA. The crews responded to four simulated plant casualties which ranged in severity from an uncomplicated turbine trip to an anticipated transient without scram (ATWS). No significant differences in overall performance were found between groups led by high (25 to 114 months licensed as an SRO) and low (1 to 17 months as an SRO) experience SROs. However, crews led by low experience SROs tended to have shorter task performance times than crews led by high experience SROs. Although a tendency for the STA-assisted groups to score higher on four of the five measures was observed, the presence of the STA had no statistically significant effect on overall team performance. The correlation between individual performance, as measured by four of the task performance measures, and experience, measured by months as a licensed operator, was not statistically significant, nor was the correlation between task performance and recency of simulator training. 18 references, 5 figures, 13 tables

  19. An Anesthetic Drug Demonstration and an Introductory Antioxidant Activity Experiment with "Eugene, the Sleepy Fish"

    Barcena, Homar; Chen, Peishan

    2016-01-01

    Students are introduced to spectrophotometry in comparing the antioxidant activity of pure eugenol and oil of cloves from a commercial source using a modified ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. The extraction of the essential oil from dried cloves is demonstrated to facilitate discussions on green chemistry. The anesthetic properties…

  20. Sequential-Injection Analysis: Principles, Instrument Construction, and Demonstration by a Simple Experiment

    Economou, A.; Tzanavaras, P. D.; Themelis, D. G.

    2005-01-01

    The sequential-injection analysis (SIA) is an approach to sample handling that enables the automation of manual wet-chemistry procedures in a rapid, precise and efficient manner. The experiments using SIA fits well in the course of Instrumental Chemical Analysis and especially in the section of Automatic Methods of analysis provided by chemistry…

  1. Filtrates and Residues: Optical Projection Experiments to Demonstrate New Curricula Contents.

    Perina, Ivo

    1986-01-01

    Presents background information and procedures for 12 experiments dealing with such areas as: reactivity of a homologous series of saturated monovalent alcohols; enzymatic degradation of hydrogen peroxide by catalase; effect of an activator and inhibitor on amylase activity; proving the existence of phenol in waste water; detecting common air…

  2. Experiences from Swedish demonstration projects with phosphoric acid fuel cells; Erfarenheter fraan svenska demonstrationsprojekt med fosforsyrabraensleceller

    Carlsson, Per [Sycon Energikonsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Sarkoezi, Laszlo [Vattenfall Utveckling AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1999-10-01

    In Sweden, there are today two phosphoric acid fuel cells installed, one PC25A which have been in operation in more than 4 years, and one PC25C which have been in operation for two years. The aim with this project has been two compare operation characteristics, performance, and operation experiences for these two models.

  3. Experience with an ultrasonic sealing system for nuclear safeguards in irradiated fuel bay demonstrations

    White, B.F.; Smith, M.T.

    1985-07-01

    The development of the irradiated fuel safeguards containment assembly for CANDU nuclear generating stations has stimulated the development of the AECL Random Coil Sealing System. The ARC seal combines the identity and integrity elements in an ultrasonically-determined signature. This is verified in situ, in real time with the seal reading system. The maturation of this technology has been facilitated with demonstration trials in the NRU and NPD irradiated fuel bays. The NPD demonstration includes operation of the systems tooling by Ontario Hydro staff. It provides the opportunity for IAEA inspectors from Toronto and Vienna to direct the operational procedures and to perform the data acquisition. The procedures and systems developed in these trials are reviewed. The estimation of the system performance characteristics from the observations is presented. A minimum frequency of reading for individual seals is recommended to be once per annum following initial deployment

  4. Shifting gears higher - digital slides in graduate education - 4 years experience at Semmelweis University

    Molnár Béla

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The spreading of whole slide imaging or digital slide systems in pathology as an innovative technique seems to be unstoppable. Successful introduction of digital slides in education has played a crucial role to reach this level of acceptance. Practically speaking there is no university institute where digital materials are not built into pathology education. At the 1st. Department of Pathology and Experimental Cancer Research, Semmelweis University optical microscopes have been replaced and for four years only digital slides have been used in education. The aim of this paper is to summarize our experiences gathered with the installation of a fully digitized histology lab for graduate education. Methods We have installed a digital histology lab with 40 PCs, two slide servers - one for internal use and one with external internet access. We have digitized hundreds of slides and after 4 years we use a set of 126 slides during the pathology course. A Student satisfaction questionnaire and a Tutor satisfaction questionnaire have been designed, both to be completed voluntarily to have feed back from the users. The page load statistics of the external slide server were evaluated. Results The digital histology lab served ~900 students and ~1600 hours of histology practice. The questionnaires revealed high satisfaction with digital slides. The results also emphasize the importance of the tutors' attitude towards digital microscopy as a factor influencing the students' satisfaction. The constantly growing number of page downloads from the external server confirms this satisfaction and the acceptance of digital slides. Conclusions We are confident, and have showed as well, that digital slides have got numerous advantages over optical slides and are more suitable in education.

  5. Magnetic levitation on a type-I superconductor as a practical demonstration experiment for students

    Osorio, M. R.; Lahera, D. E.; Suderow, H.

    2012-01-01

    We describe and discuss an experimental set-up which allows undergraduate and graduate students to view and study magnetic levitation on a type-I superconductor. The demonstration can be repeated many times using one readily available 25 liter liquid helium dewar. We study the equilibrium position of a magnet that levitates over a lead bowl immersed in a liquid hand-held helium cryostat. We combine the measurement of the position of the magnet with simple analytical calculations. This provide...

  6. Possible Experiment for the Demonstration of Neutron Waves Interaction with Spatially Oscillating Potential

    Miloi Mădălina Mihaela

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A wide range of problems in neutron optics is well described by a theory based on application of the effective potential model. It was assumed that the concept of the effective potential in neutron optics have a limited region of validity and ceases to be correct in the case of the giant acceleration of a matter. To test this hypothesis a new Ultra Cold neutron experiment for the observation neutron interaction with potential structure oscillating in space was proposed. The report is focused on the model calculations of the topography of sample surface that oscillate in space. These calculations are necessary to find an optimal parameters and geometry of the planned experiment.

  7. TEACHING PHYSICS: An experiment to demonstrate the principles and processes involved in medical Doppler ultrasound

    Andrews, D. G. H.

    2000-09-01

    Doppler ultrasound is widely used in medicine for measuring blood velocity. This paper describes an experiment illustrating the principles of medical Doppler ultrasound. It is designed with A-level/undergraduate physics students in mind. Ultrasound is transmitted in air and reflected from a moving target. The return signal is processed using a series of modules, so that students can discover for themselves how each stage in the instrument works. They can also obtain a quantitative value of the speed of the target.

  8. Measurements of relative chemical shift tensor orientations in solid-state NMR: new slow magic angle spinning dipolar recoupling experiments.

    Jurd, Andrew P S; Titman, Jeremy J

    2009-08-28

    Solid-state NMR experiments can be used to determine conformational parameters, such as interatomic distances and torsion angles. The latter can be obtained from measurements of the relative orientation of two chemical shift tensors, if the orientation of these with respect to the surrounding bonds is known. In this paper, a new rotor-synchronized magic angle spinning (MAS) dipolar correlation experiment is described which can be used in this way. Because the experiment requires slow MAS rates, a novel recoupling sequence, designed using symmetry principles, is incorporated into the mixing period. This recoupling sequence is based in turn on a new composite cyclic pulse referred to as COAST (for combined offset and anisotropy stabilization). The new COAST-C7(2)(1) sequence is shown to give good theoretical and experimental recoupling efficiency, even when the CSA far exceeds the MAS rate. In this regime, previous recoupling sequences, such as POST-C7(2)(1), exhibit poor recoupling performance. The effectiveness of the new method has been explored by a study of the dipeptide L-phenylalanyl-L-phenylalanine.

  9. ISAAC: A REXUS Student Experiment to Demonstrate an Ejection System with Predefined Direction

    Balmer, G.; Berquand, A.; Company-Vallet, E.; Granberg, V.; Grigore, V.; Ivchenko, N.; Kevorkov, R.; Lundkvist, E.; Olentsenko, G.; Pacheco-Labrador, J.; Tibert, G.; Yuan, Y.

    2015-09-01

    ISAAC Infrared Spectroscopy to Analyse the middle Atmosphere Composition — was a student experiment launched from SSC's Esrange Space Centre, Sweden, on 29th May 2014, on board the sounding rocket REXUS 15 in the frame of the REXUS/BEXUS programme. The main focus of the experiment was to implement an ejection system for two large Free Falling Units (FFUs) (240 mm x 80 mm) to be ejected from a spinning rocket into a predefined direction. The system design relied on a spring-based ejection system. Sun and angular rate sensors were used to control and time the ejection. The flight data includes telemetry from the Rocket Mounted Unit (RMU), received and saved during flight, as well as video footage from the GoPro camera mounted inside the RMU and recovered after the flight. The FFUs' direction, speed and spin frequency as well as the rocket spin frequency were determined by analyzing the video footage. The FFU-Rocket-Sun angles were 64.3° and 104.3°, within the required margins of 90°+45°. The FFU speeds were 3.98 mIs and 3.74 mIs, lower than the expected 5± 1 mIs. The FFUs' spin frequencies were 1 .38 Hz and 1 .60 Hz, approximately half the rocket's spin frequency. The rocket spin rate slightly changed from 3. 163 Hz before the ejection to 3.1 17 Hz after the ejection of the two FFUs. The angular rate, sun sensor data and temperature on the inside of the rocket module skin were also recorded. The experiment design and results of the data analysis are presented in this paper.

  10. Z -Pinch-Generated X Rays Demonstrate Potential for Indirect-Drive ICF Experiments

    Sanford, T. W. L.; Olson, R. E.; Bowers, R. L.; Chandler, G. A.; Derzon, M. S.; Hebron, D. E.; Leeper, R. J.; Mock, R. C.; Nash, T. J.; Peterson, D. L.

    1999-01-01

    Hohlraums measuring 6 mm in diameter by 7 mm in height have been heated by x rays from a Z pinch. Over the measured x-ray input powers P of 0.7 to 13 TW, the hohlraum radiation temperature T increases from ∼55 to ∼130 eV , and is in agreement with the Planckian relation T∼P 1/4 . The results suggest that indirect-drive inertial-confinement-fusion experiments involving National Ignition Facility relevant pulse shapes and <2 mm diameter capsules can be studied using this arrangement. (c) 1999 The American Physical Society

  11. Evaluation of Smart Grid Technologies Employed for System Reliability Improvement: Pacific Northwest Smart Grid Demonstration Experience

    Agalgaonkar, Yashodhan P.; Hammerstrom, Donald J.

    2017-06-01

    The Pacific Northwest Smart Grid Demonstration (PNWSGD) was a smart grid technology performance evaluation project that included multiple U.S. states and cooperation from multiple electric utilities in the northwest region. One of the local objectives for the project was to achieve improved distribution system reliability. Toward this end, some PNWSGD utilities automated their distribution systems, including the application of fault detection, isolation, and restoration and advanced metering infrastructure. In light of this investment, a major challenge was to establish a correlation between implementation of these smart grid technologies and actual improvements of distribution system reliability. This paper proposes using Welch’s t-test to objectively determine and quantify whether distribution system reliability is improving over time. The proposed methodology is generic, and it can be implemented by any utility after calculation of the standard reliability indices. The effectiveness of the proposed hypothesis testing approach is demonstrated through comprehensive practical results. It is believed that wider adoption of the proposed approach can help utilities to evaluate a realistic long-term performance of smart grid technologies.

  12. Integrated laboratory scale demonstration experiment of the hybrid sulphur cycle and preliminary scale-up

    Leybros, J.; Rivalier, P.; Saturnin, A.; Charton, S.

    2010-01-01

    The hybrid sulphur cycle is today one of the most promising processes to produce hydrogen on a massive scale within the scope of high temperature nuclear reactors development. Thus, the Fuel Cycle Technology Department at CEA Marcoule is involved in studying the hybrid sulphur process from a technical and economical performance standpoint. Based on mass and energy balance calculations, a ProsimPlus TM flow sheet and a commercial plant design were prepared. This work includes a study on sizing of the main equipment. The capital cost has been estimated using the major characteristics of main equipment based upon formulae and charts published in literature. A specific approach has been developed for electrolysers. Operational costs are also proposed for a plant producing 1000 mol/s H 2 . Bench scale and pilot experiments must focus on the electrochemical step due to limited experimental data. Thus, a pilot plant with a hydrogen capacity of 100 NL/h was built with the aim of acquiring technical and technological data for electrolysis. This pilot plant was designed to cover a wide range of operating conditions: sulphuric acid concentrations up to 60 wt.%, temperatures up to 100 deg. C and pressures up to 10 bar. New materials and structures recently developed for fuel cells, which are expected to yield significant performance improvements when applied to classical electrochemical processes, will be tested. All experiments will be coupled with phenomenological simulation tools developed jointly with the experimental programme. (authors)

  13. A 3-MA compact-toroid-plasma-flow-switched plasma focus demonstration experiment on Shiva Star

    Kiuttu, G F; Degnan, J H [Phillips Lab., Kirtland AFB, NM (United States). High Energy Sources Div.; Graham, J D [Maxwell Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); and others

    1997-12-31

    A novel dense plasma focus experiment using the Shiva Star capacitor bank is described. The experiment uses a compact toroid (CT) magnetized plasma flow switch (PFS) to initiate the focus implosion. The CT armature stably and reproducibly translates up to 3 MA from the vacuum feed region through coaxial electrodes to the gas puff central load. The inertia of the 1 mg CT and the work that must be done in compressing the internal magnetic fields during the translation provide a delay in current delivery to the pinch of 5 - 10 {mu}s, which matches the bank quarter cycle time relatively well. Effectiveness of the current delivery was monitored primarily by inductive probes in the PFS region, fast photography of the focus, and x-ray and neutron measurements of the pinch. K shell x-ray yields using neon gas were as high as 1 kJ, and 10{sup 8} neutrons were produced in a deuterium gas focus. (author). 4 figs., 10 refs.

  14. A 3-MA compact-toroid-plasma-flow-switched plasma focus demonstration experiment on Shiva Star

    Kiuttu, G.F.; Degnan, J.H.

    1996-01-01

    A novel dense plasma focus experiment using the Shiva Star capacitor bank is described. The experiment uses a compact toroid (CT) magnetized plasma flow switch (PFS) to initiate the focus implosion. The CT armature stably and reproducibly translates up to 3 MA from the vacuum feed region through coaxial electrodes to the gas puff central load. The inertia of the 1 mg CT and the work that must be done in compressing the internal magnetic fields during the translation provide a delay in current delivery to the pinch of 5 - 10 μs, which matches the bank quarter cycle time relatively well. Effectiveness of the current delivery was monitored primarily by inductive probes in the PFS region, fast photography of the focus, and x-ray and neutron measurements of the pinch. K shell x-ray yields using neon gas were as high as 1 kJ, and 10 8 neutrons were produced in a deuterium gas focus. (author). 4 figs., 10 refs

  15. Tilt shift determinations with spatial-carrier phase-shift method in temporal phase-shift interferometry

    Liu, Qian; Wang, Yang; He, Jianguo; Ji, Fang; Wang, Baorui

    2014-01-01

    An algorithm is proposed to deal with tilt-shift errors in temporal phase-shift interferometry (PSI). In the algorithm, the tilt shifts are detected with the spatial-carrier phase-shift (SCPS) method and then the tilt shifts are applied as priori information to the least-squares fittings of phase retrieval. The algorithm combines the best features of the SCPS and the temporal PSI. The algorithm could be applied to interferograms of arbitrary aperture without data extrapolation for the Fourier transform is not involved. Simulations and experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of the algorithm. The statistics of simulation results show a satisfied accuracy in detecting tilt-shift errors. Comparisons of the measurements with and without environmental vibration show that the proposed algorithm could compensate tilt-shift errors and retrieve wavefront phase accurately. The algorithm provides an approach to retrieve wavefront phase for the temporal PSI in vibrating environment. (paper)

  16. Experiences of operational costs of HPV vaccine delivery strategies in Gavi-supported demonstration projects

    Holroyd, Taylor; Nanda, Shreya; Bloem, Paul; Griffiths, Ulla K.; Sidibe, Anissa; Hutubessy, Raymond C. W.

    2017-01-01

    From 2012 to 2016, Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance, provided support for countries to conduct small-scale demonstration projects for the introduction of the human papillomavirus vaccine, with the aim of determining which human papillomavirus vaccine delivery strategies might be effective and sustainable upon national scale-up. This study reports on the operational costs and cost determinants of different vaccination delivery strategies within these projects across twelve countries using a standardized micro-costing tool. The World Health Organization Cervical Cancer Prevention and Control Costing Tool was used to collect costing data, which were then aggregated and analyzed to assess the costs and cost determinants of vaccination. Across the one-year demonstration projects, the average economic and financial costs per dose amounted to US$19.98 (standard deviation ±12.5) and US$8.74 (standard deviation ±5.8), respectively. The greatest activities representing the greatest share of financial costs were social mobilization at approximately 30% (range, 6–67%) and service delivery at about 25% (range, 3–46%). Districts implemented varying combinations of school-based, facility-based, or outreach delivery strategies and experienced wide variation in vaccine coverage, drop-out rates, and service delivery costs, including transportation costs and per diems. Size of target population, number of students per school, and average length of time to reach an outreach post influenced cost per dose. Although the operational costs from demonstration projects are much higher than those of other routine vaccine immunization programs, findings from our analysis suggest that HPV vaccination operational costs will decrease substantially for national introduction. Vaccination costs may be decreased further by annual vaccination, high initial investment in social mobilization, or introducing/strengthening school health programs. Our analysis shows that drivers of cost are dependent on

  17. Demonstration experience with an abrasive blasting technique for decontaminating concrete pads

    Devgun, J.S.; Land, R.R.; Doane, R.W.

    1990-01-01

    A demonstration was performed for decontaminating a radioactivity contaminated concrete pad with a portable abrasive blasting system. The system utilizes a rotating blast wheel that scours the concrete surface with metal abrasive. The metal abrasive, pulverized concrete dust, and contaminants rebound into a separator chamber. The reusable metal abrasive is recycled, and the pulverized media are removed to an integral dust collection system. The exhaust is HEPA filtered to minimize release of airborne contaminants. However, the technique had limited success in reducing contamination around the cracks and seams in the concrete where the higher activity levels of contamination were detected during the radiological survey before the cleanup. The technique can be successful and cost-effective in decontaminating large areas of low contamination; however, careful characterization and planning are necessary. 3 refs., 3 figs., 1 tabs

  18. Low-Level Legacy Waste Processing Experience at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    Valenti, P.J.; Rowell, L.E.; Kurasch, D.H.; Moore, H.R.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents detailed results and lessons learned from the very challenging and highly successful 2005 low level radioactive waste sorting, packaging, and shipping campaign that removed over 95% of the available inventory of 350,000 ft 3 of legacy low level waste at the West Valley Demonstration Project near West Valley, New York. First some programmatic perspective and site history is provided to provide pertinent context for DOE's waste disposal mandates at the site. This is followed by a detailed description of the waste types, the storage locations, the containers, and the varied sorting and packaging facilities used to accomplish the campaign. The overall sorting and packaging protocols for this inventory of wastes are defined. This is followed by detailed sorting data and results concluding with lessons learned. (authors)

  19. SEASAT demonstration experiments with the offshore oil, gas and mining industries

    Mourad, A. G.; Robinson, A. C.; Balon, J. E.

    1979-01-01

    Despite its failure, SEASAT-1 acquired a reasonable volume of data that can be used by industrial participants on a non-real-time basis to prove the concept of microwave sensing of the world's oceans from a satellite platform. The amended version of 8 experimental plans are presented, along with a description of the satellite, its instruments, and the data available. Case studies are summarized for the following experiments: (1) Beaufort Sea oil, gas, and Arctic operations; (2) Labrador Sea oil, gas, and sea ice; (3) Gulf of Mexico pipelines; (4) U.S. East Coast offshore oil and gas; (5) worldwide offshore drilling and production operations; (6) Equatorial East Pacific Ocean mining; (7) Bering Sea ice project; and (8) North Sea oil and gas.

  20. Light and Plants. A Series of Experiments Demonstrating Light Effects on Seed Germination, Plant Growth, and Plant Development.

    Downs, R. J.; And Others

    A brief summary of the effects of light on plant germination, growth and development, including photoperiodism and pigment formation, introduces 18 experiments and demonstrations which illustrate aspects of these effects. Detailed procedures for each exercise are given, the expected results outlined, and possible sources of difficulty discussed.…

  1. Investigating the Inverse Square Law with the Timepix Hybrid Silicon Pixel Detector: A CERN [at] School Demonstration Experiment

    Whyntie, T.; Parker, B.

    2013-01-01

    The Timepix hybrid silicon pixel detector has been used to investigate the inverse square law of radiation from a point source as a demonstration of the CERN [at] school detector kit capabilities. The experiment described uses a Timepix detector to detect the gamma rays emitted by an [superscript 241]Am radioactive source at a number of different…

  2. The Voice/Data Communications system in the Health, Education, Telecommunications Experiments. Satellite Technology Demonstration, Technical Report No. 0417.

    Janky, James M.; And Others

    The diligent use of two-way voice links via satellites substantially improves the quality and the availability of health care and educational services in remote areas. This improvement was demonstrated in several experiments that were sponsored by the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare and the National Aeronautics and Space…

  3. Ground Testing a Nuclear Thermal Rocket: Design of a sub-scale demonstration experiment

    David Bedsun; Debra Lee; Margaret Townsend; Clay A. Cooper; Jennifer Chapman; Ronald Samborsky; Mel Bulman; Daniel Brasuell; Stanley K. Borowski

    2012-07-01

    In 2008, the NASA Mars Architecture Team found that the Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) was the preferred propulsion system out of all the combinations of chemical propulsion, solar electric, nuclear electric, aerobrake, and NTR studied. Recently, the National Research Council committee reviewing the NASA Technology Roadmaps recommended the NTR as one of the top 16 technologies that should be pursued by NASA. One of the main issues with developing a NTR for future missions is the ability to economically test the full system on the ground. In the late 1990s, the Sub-surface Active Filtering of Exhaust (SAFE) concept was first proposed by Howe as a method to test NTRs at full power and full duration. The concept relied on firing the NTR into one of the test holes at the Nevada Test Site which had been constructed to test nuclear weapons. In 2011, the cost of testing a NTR and the cost of performing a proof of concept experiment were evaluated.

  4. (¹⁵N ± ¹³C') edited (4, 3)D-H(CC)CONH TOCSY and (4, 3)D-NOESY HNCO experiments for unambiguous side chain and NOE assignments of proteins with high shift degeneracy.

    Kumar, Dinesh; Arora, Ashish

    2011-11-01

    Well-resolved and unambiguous through-bond correlations and NOE data are crucial for high-quality protein structure determination by NMR. In this context, we present here (4, 3)D reduced dimensionality (RD) experiments: H(CC)CONH TOCSY and NOESY HNCO--which instead of (15)N shifts exploit the linear combination of (15)N(i) and (13)C'(i-1) shifts (where i is a residue number) to resolve the through-bond (1)H-(1)H correlations and through-space (1)H-(1)H NOEs. The strategy makes use of the fact that (15)N and (13)C' chemical shifts when combined linearly provide a dispersion which is better compared to those of the individual chemical shifts. The extended dispersion thus available in these experiments will help to obtain the unambiguous side chain and accurate NOE assignments especially for medium-sized alpha-helical or partially unstructured proteins [molecular weight (MW) between 12-15 kDa] as well as higher MW (between 15-25 kDa) folded proteins where spectral overlap renders inaccurate and ambiguous NOEs. Further, these reduced dimensionality experiments in combination with routinely used (15)N and (13)C' edited TOCSY and NOESY experiments will provide an alternative way for high-quality NMR structure determination of large unstable proteins (with very high shift degeneracy), which are not at all amenable to 4D NMR. The utility of these experiments has been demonstrated here using (13)C/(15)N labeled ubiquitin (76 aa) protein. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Mitigating Agricultural Diffuse Pollution: Learning from The River Eden Demonstration Test Catchment Experiments

    Reaney, S. M.; Barker, P. A.; Haygarth, P.; Quinn, P. F.; Aftab, A.; Barber, N.; Burke, S.; Cleasby, W.; Jonczyk, J. C.; Owen, G. J.; Perks, M. T.; Snell, M. A.; Surridge, B.

    2016-12-01

    Freshwater systems continue to fail to achieve their ecological potential and provide associated ecological services due to poor water quality. A key driver of the failure to achieve good status under the EU Water Framework Directive derives from non-point (diffuse) pollution of sediment, phosphorus and nitrogen from agricultural landscapes. While many mitigation options exist, a framework is lacking which provides a holistic understanding of the impact of mitigation scheme design on catchment function and agronomics. The River Eden Demonstration Test Catchment project (2009-2017) in NW England uses an interdisciplinary approach including catchment hydrology, sediment-nutrient fluxes and farmer attitudes, to understand ecological function and diffuse pollution mitigation feature performance. Water flow (both surface and groundwater) and quality monitoring focused on three ca. 10km2 catchments with N and P measurements every 30 minutes. Ecological status was determined by monthly diatom community analysis and supplemented by macrophyte, macroinvertebrate and fish surveys. Changes in erosion potential and hydrological connectivity were monitored using extensive Landsat images and detailed UAV monitoring. Simulation modelling work utilised hydrological simulation models (CRAFT, CRUM3 and HBV-Light) and SCIMAP based risk mapping. Farmer behaviour and attitudes have been assessed with surveys, interviews and diaries. A suite of mitigation features have been installed including changes to land management - e.g. aeriation, storage features within a `treatment train', riparian fencing and woodland creation. A detailed dataset of the integrated catchment hydrological, water quality and ecological behaviour over multiple years, including a drought period and an extreme rainfall event, highlights the interaction between ecology, hydrological and nutrient dynamics that are driven by sediment and nutrients exported within a small number of high magnitude storm events. Hence

  6. Uptake of uranium in Atlantic salmon gills following exposure experiments demonstrated by SR-XRF tomography

    Lind, O.C.; Cagno, S.; Brit Salbu, H.C.T. [Centre of Excellence in Environmental Radioactivity - CERAD, Norwegian University of Life Sciences - UMB (Norway); Vanmeert, F.; Nuyts, G.; Janssens, K. [University of Antwerp (Belgium); Alfeld, M.; Falkenberg, G. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron - DESY (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    Uranium is a naturally occurring radionuclide as well as a heavy metal that can be found in elevated concentrations (mg/L) in the aquatic environment and therefore may pose a risk to aquatic organisms including fish. The major challenges in monitoring the fate of U in complex media, such as soils, sediments and water are to identify mobile and bioavailable U species, interactions with environmental components, transfer to organisms via sorption to surfaces and across membranes, and the internal distribution of target organs. As part of a larger study, U accumulation in gills and internal organs (e.g. liver) as well as mortality of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) were studied as a function of U concentration as well as pH of the exposure water. As Atlantic salmon does not ingest freshwater, the major pathway for uptake of U in the liver is hypothesized to be by transfer across the gills. However, to our best knowledge, active uptake of U within gill filaments has never been proven. In the present work, we demonstrate that following 96 hours exposure of 6 mg U/l in freshwater at pH 7 and 1 mg U/l at pH 5, U was actively taken up in the Atlantic Salmon gill filaments. The internal distribution of U within exposed organisms was visualized using μXRF/μXRD two-dimensional scanning and XRF/XRD tomography at the microprobe end-station of the PETRA III P06 beamline. The recently developed and highly efficient Maia detector array was successfully employed to record extended high-resolution element-specific maps of the tissue samples. First, conventional 2D μXRF/μXRD mapping allowed to identify the axial planes in the samples actually containing U. On the same samples, higher resolution virtual cross-sections were obtained (18 keV, 0.6 μm beam size) by means of μXRF/μXRD tomography of the planes in which U was encountered. The results proved that U not only adheres to the external boundary of the fish gills, but it is also taken up via gills. The results of this work

  7. A carbohydrate pulse experiment to demonstrate the sugar metabolization by S. mutans

    T.P. Paulino

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus mutans is a fast growing organism, of low cost and easily prepared culture medium. It has been  related  primarily to  an  elevated risk  of dental cavity development  in the host due  to the  acid-induced tooth demineralization. To prevent this disease, addition of fluoride can be required, promoting the mouth  hygiene. The  main  objective  of  this  experiment  is  to  show  the  influence  of  the  carbon  source  and fluoride on the acidogenic capacity of S.  mutans. The strain was cultivated in microaerophilia, at 37ºC for 12  hours  in  complete  medium  (stationary  phase.  The  cells  were  harvested  by  centrifugation  at  room temperature,  washed  with  saline  solution  and  suspended  in  the  same  solution.  The  absorbance  was adjusted  to  1  and  the  pH  to  7.3  using  0,1  mol/L  KOH  solution.  To  10  mL  of  the  cell  suspension,  distinct carbohydrates  (glucose,  xilose,  sucrose,  fructose  or  maltose  were  added,  enough  to  establish  a  50 mMol/L final concentration. Fluoride was added (1 mmol/L final concentration and the pH was monitored during  2 hours. In this  incubation  period,  the  suspension  was  kept  at  room  temperature  with  slow  stirring and  the  pH  was  monitored  each  7  minutes.  In  the  20  initial  minutes  of  incubation  with  glucose,  fructose, maltose  and  sucrose,  an  intense  and  very  similar  pH  decrease  (2.5  units  can  be  observed.  This acidification reflects both the sugar uptake and anaerobic metabolization. After this initial acid liberation, a phase of slow pH decrease is observed, continuing up to 120 minutes of incubation. In presence of xilose, the  acidification  is  less  intense  and  reaches  a  similar  value  to  that  of  the  control  without

  8. Reacceleration experiment to demonstrate the concept of efficiency enhancement in a relativistic klystron two-beam accelerator

    Westenskow, G.A.; Houck, T.L.

    1993-05-01

    High conversion efficiency of electro beam energy to rf energy can be achieved in two-beam accelerators using reacceleration of the bunched drive beam. To study issues with these designs we are planning a demonstration in which a modulated beam's energy is boosted as it passes through induction accelerator cells. For this experiment we will use the front end of the Choppertron to modulate a 5 MeV electron beam at 11.4 GHz. We have now tested the 5-MeV Choppertron and are reporting on the results. For the reacceleration experiment we plan to use three stages of rf power extraction interspersed with two stages of reacceleration

  9. Shift Colors

    Publications & News Shift Colors Pages default Sign In NPC Logo Banner : Shift Colors Search Navy Personnel Command > Reference Library > Publications & News > Shift Colors Top Link Bar Navy Personnel Library Expand Reference Library Quick Launch Shift Colors Shift Colors Archives Mailing Address How to

  10. Design of a K/Q-Band Beacon Receiver for the Alphasat Technology Demonstration Payload (TDP) #5 Experiment

    Morse, Jacquelynne R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the design and performance of a coherent KQ-band (2040 GHz) beacon receiver developed at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) that will be installed at the Politecnico di Milano (POLIMI) for use in the Alphasat Technology Demonstration Payload 5 (TDP5) beacon experiment. The goal of this experiment is to characterize rain fade attenuation at 40 GHz to improve the performance of existing statistical rain attenuation models in the Q-band. The ground terminal developed by NASA GRC utilizes an FFT-based frequency estimation receiver capable of characterizing total path attenuation effects due to gaseous absorption, clouds, rain, and scintillation. The receiver system has been characterized in the lab and demonstrates a system dynamic range performance of better than 58 dB at 1 Hz and better than 48 dB at 10 Hz rates.

  11. DEMONSTRATION IN THE DIII-D TOKAMAK OF AN ALTERNATE BASELINE SCENARIO FOR ITER AND OTHER BURNING PLASMA EXPERIMENTS

    LUCE, T.C.; WADE, M.R.; FERRON, J.R.; HYATT, A.W.; KELLMAN, A.G.; KINSEY, J.E.; LAHAY, R.J.; LASNIER, C.J.; MURAKAMI, M.; POLITZER, P.A.; SCOVILLE, J.T.

    2002-01-01

    OAK A271 DEMONSTRATION IN THE DIII-D TOKAMAK OF AN ALTERNATE BASELINE SCENARIO FOR ITER AND OTHER BURNING PLASMA EXPERIMENTS. Discharges which can satisfy the high gain goals of burning plasma experiments have been demonstrated in the DIII-D tokamak in stationary conditions with relatively low plasma current (q 95 > 4). A figure of merit for fusion gain Β N H 89 /q 95 2 has been maintained at values corresponding to Q = 10 operation in a burning plasma for > 6 s or 36 τ E and 2 τ R . The key element is the relaxation of the current profile to a stationary state with q min > 1, which allows stable operation up to the no-wall ideal β limit. These plasmas maintain particle balance by active pumping rather than transient wall conditions. The reduced current lessens significantly the potential for structural damage in the event of a major disruption

  12. Results of a demonstration experiment: Hydrogenation of pyrolysis oils from biomass; Ergebnisse eines Demonstrationsversuchs zur Hydrierung von Pyrolyseoelen aus Biomassen

    Kaiser, M [DMT-Gesellschaft fuer Forschung und Pruefung mbH, Essen (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    Sump phase hydrogenation is a technique specially developed for coal liquefaction; it provides a possibility of processing the liquid products of biomass pyrolyis into high-grade carburettor fuels. A demonstration experiment was carried out at the hydrogenation plant of DMT. The plant has a capacity of 10 kg/h. The technical feasibility of hydrogenation of biomass oils was demonstrated in a continuous experiment. The contribution describes the experimental conditions, yields, and product qualities. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die fuer die Kohleverfluessigung entwickelte Sumpfphasenhydrierung bietet die Moeglichkeit, die Fluessigprodukte der Pyrolyse von Biomassen zu hochwertigen Vergaserkraftstoffen zu veredeln. Im Hydriertechnikum der DMT wurde hierzu ein Demonstrationsversuch durchgefuehrt. Die Anlage ist fuer einen Kohledurchsatz von 10 kg/h ausgelegt. In einem kontinuierlichen Versuchslauf wurde mit dieser Anlage die technische Machbarkeit der Hydrierung von Bio-Oelen demonstriert. In dem vorliegenden Beitrag werden die Versuchsbedingungen, Ausbeuten und Produktqualitaeten vorgestellt. (orig.)

  13. Student learning or the student experience: the shift from traditional to non-traditional faculty in higher education

    Carlos Tasso Eira de Aquino

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Trends in higher education indicate transformations from teachers to facilitators, mentors, or coaches. New classroom management requires diverse teaching methods for a changing population. Non-traditional students require non-traditional faculty. Higher education operates similar to a traditional corporation, but competes for students, faculty, and funding to sustain daily operations and improve academic ranking among peers (Pak, 2013. This growing phenomenon suggests the need for faculty to transform the existing educational culture, ensuring the ability to attract and retain students. Transitions from student learning to the student experience and increasing student satisfaction scores are influencing facilitation in the classroom. On-line facilitation methods are transforming to include teamwork, interactive tutorials, media, and extending beyond group discussion. Faculty should be required to provide more facilitation, coaching, and mentoring with the shifting roles resulting in transitions from traditional faculty to faculty-coach and faculty mentor. The non-traditional adult student may require a more hands on guidance approach and may not be as self-directed as the adult learning theory proposes. This topic is important to individuals that support creation of new knowledge related to non-traditional adult learning models.

  14. Adaptation to shift work: physiologically based modeling of the effects of lighting and shifts' start time.

    Svetlana Postnova

    Full Text Available Shift work has become an integral part of our life with almost 20% of the population being involved in different shift schedules in developed countries. However, the atypical work times, especially the night shifts, are associated with reduced quality and quantity of sleep that leads to increase of sleepiness often culminating in accidents. It has been demonstrated that shift workers' sleepiness can be improved by a proper scheduling of light exposure and optimizing shifts timing. Here, an integrated physiologically-based model of sleep-wake cycles is used to predict adaptation to shift work in different light conditions and for different shift start times for a schedule of four consecutive days of work. The integrated model combines a model of the ascending arousal system in the brain that controls the sleep-wake switch and a human circadian pacemaker model. To validate the application of the integrated model and demonstrate its utility, its dynamics are adjusted to achieve a fit to published experimental results showing adaptation of night shift workers (n = 8 in conditions of either bright or regular lighting. Further, the model is used to predict the shift workers' adaptation to the same shift schedule, but for conditions not considered in the experiment. The model demonstrates that the intensity of shift light can be reduced fourfold from that used in the experiment and still produce good adaptation to night work. The model predicts that sleepiness of the workers during night shifts on a protocol with either bright or regular lighting can be significantly improved by starting the shift earlier in the night, e.g.; at 21:00 instead of 00:00. Finally, the study predicts that people of the same chronotype, i.e. with identical sleep times in normal conditions, can have drastically different responses to shift work depending on their intrinsic circadian and homeostatic parameters.

  15. Adaptation to shift work: physiologically based modeling of the effects of lighting and shifts' start time.

    Postnova, Svetlana; Robinson, Peter A; Postnov, Dmitry D

    2013-01-01

    Shift work has become an integral part of our life with almost 20% of the population being involved in different shift schedules in developed countries. However, the atypical work times, especially the night shifts, are associated with reduced quality and quantity of sleep that leads to increase of sleepiness often culminating in accidents. It has been demonstrated that shift workers' sleepiness can be improved by a proper scheduling of light exposure and optimizing shifts timing. Here, an integrated physiologically-based model of sleep-wake cycles is used to predict adaptation to shift work in different light conditions and for different shift start times for a schedule of four consecutive days of work. The integrated model combines a model of the ascending arousal system in the brain that controls the sleep-wake switch and a human circadian pacemaker model. To validate the application of the integrated model and demonstrate its utility, its dynamics are adjusted to achieve a fit to published experimental results showing adaptation of night shift workers (n = 8) in conditions of either bright or regular lighting. Further, the model is used to predict the shift workers' adaptation to the same shift schedule, but for conditions not considered in the experiment. The model demonstrates that the intensity of shift light can be reduced fourfold from that used in the experiment and still produce good adaptation to night work. The model predicts that sleepiness of the workers during night shifts on a protocol with either bright or regular lighting can be significantly improved by starting the shift earlier in the night, e.g.; at 21:00 instead of 00:00. Finally, the study predicts that people of the same chronotype, i.e. with identical sleep times in normal conditions, can have drastically different responses to shift work depending on their intrinsic circadian and homeostatic parameters.

  16. Demonstration of surface plasmons in metal island films and the effect of the surrounding medium--An undergraduate experiment

    Orfanides, P. [Department of Physics, The University of Memphis, Memphis, Tennessee 38152 (United States); Buckner, T. F. [Department of Physics, The University of Memphis, Memphis, Tennessee 38152 (United States); Buncick, M. C. [Department of Physics, The University of Memphis, Memphis, Tennessee 38152 (United States); Meriaudeau, F. [LE21, 12 rue de la fonderie, 71200 Le Creusot, (France); Ferrell, T. L. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)

    2000-10-01

    We present a demonstration of the surface plasmon phenomenon as it occurs in thin metal island films. The metal films are deposited on glass microscope slides. The effect of the surface plasmon resonance may be observed visually on the slide without further apparatus. Heating the film changes the shape of the islands and therefore the resonant frequency of the surface plasmon and changes the color of the film. Placing the film in a dielectric medium changes the resonance condition for the surface plasmon again and changes the color again. We show this by coating the slides with commercially available liquids with different indices of refraction. We present a theoretical model that assumes the islands are oblate spheroids. There are enough details given so that the equations can be programed and the theoretical optical absorbance can be reproduced. We also present a modification to the theory so that the shift in resonant frequency can be calculated when the spheroids are immersed in the index fluids. We describe our apparatus for making thin films and our optical spectrometer system. We then present optical absorbance measurements of thin films of both Ag and Au in air and in two liquids with different indices of refraction. (c) 2000 American Association of Physics Teachers.

  17. Using Angle calculations to demonstrate vowel shifts

    Fabricius, Anne

    2008-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the long-term trends of diachronic changes evident within the short vowel system of RP during the 20th century. more specifically, it focusses on changing juxtapositions of the TRAP, STRUT and LOT, FOOT vowel centroid positions. The paper uses geometric calculation...

  18. Integrated ergonomics approach toward designing night and shift work in developing countries based on experiences in Bali, Indonesia.

    Manuaba, A

    2001-12-01

    Recently, the effort in carrying out an integrated ergonomics approach known as "SHIP" (systemic, holistic, interdisciplinary and participatory) approach has been intensively undertaken in Bali with the aim of sustaining improvements being done. The People's Consultative Assembly of the Republic of Indonesia issued for the 1999-2004 period a "SHIP" Act on the Macro Guidelines of Tourism Development in which ergonomics and other factors must be considered comprehensively to attain sustainable development in tourism. Therefore the night and shift work that is recently increasingly applied in the tourism industry must also be designed and organized through this approach. In fact, however, economic factors have still been the predominant reason for workers to accept any type of night and shift work decided by the management, without taking into account possible impacts and consequences. For example, rapid forward rotation schemes seem more adapted to the hotel industry instead of traditional 6-6-6 rotation. Further, inter-city bus drivers are approved to work a 24-hour shift followed by one day off. These drivers often work an additional risky night shift after two consecutive night shifts so as to meet needed expenses for the family. Cultural or religious activities still presented constraints for workers as they carried out subsequently the night work. Therefore, proactive steps should be taken in a timely manner through the integrated SHIP approach in designing night and shift work so as to achieve work schedules compatible with both social life of shiftworkers and business concerns.

  19. Basis to demonstrate compliance with the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for the Stand-off Experiments Range

    Michael Sandvig

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide the basis and the documentation to demonstrate general compliance with the National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPS) 40 CFR 61 Subpart H, “National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other Than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities,” (the Standard) for outdoor linear accelerator operations at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Stand-off Experiments Range (SOX). The intent of this report is to inform and gain acceptance of this methodology from the governmental bodies regulating the INL.

  20. $\\pi \\pi$ phase-shift analysis from an experiment $\\pi^{-}p \\rightarrow \\pi^{-} \\pi^{+} n$ at 17.2 GeV/c

    Grayer, G; Dietl, H; Hyams, Bernard David; Jones, C; Koch, W; Lorenz, E; Lütjens, G; Männer, W; Meissburger, J; Ochs, W; Schlein, P E; Stierlin, U; Weilhammer, P

    1972-01-01

    The pi pi phase-shifts have been determined by a Chew-Low extrapolation in the pi pi mass region from 500 to 1500 MeV using data of a spark chamber experiment on pi /sup -/p to pi /sup -/ pi /sup +/n at 17.2 GeV/c, which yielded 318000 events. The authors find an I=0 s- wave phase shift which increases slowly, passing through 90 degrees near 900 MeV, and then rises very rapidly. The old 'up' solution is eliminated on the basis of fits in the mass region from 900-1000 MeV. (13 refs).

  1. [Experiences in short-term dialyses with 2 capillary dialyzers in parallel and serial circuit in 2 and 3 shift operations].

    Gerhardt, W; Krohs, G

    1976-02-01

    It is reported on experiences made in 200 short-term dialyses with every 2 capillary dialysators. 167 dialyses of which 112 were performed by means of parallel arrangement and 55 by means of serial arrangement of the dialysators are analysed in detail. In their effectivity of dialysis the two variants proved to be nearly equivalent, in which cases the series-connection is of practical advantage. In two shifts of nurses up to 3 shifts of patients could be treated. In the large area dialysis an adaptation of the dialysate and a more intensive control of the patients must be performed. Advantages and disadvantages of this method are discussed.

  2. Demonstration of a Rocket-Borne Fiber-Optic Measurement System: The FOVS Experiment of REXUS 15

    Rossner, M. R.; Benes, N.; Grubler, T.; Plamauer, S.; Koch, A. W.

    2015-09-01

    As an in-flight experiment in the REXUS 15 programme, the “Fiber-Optic Vibration Sensing Experiment (FOVS)” aimed at the application of so-called fiber Bragg grating sensors. Fiber Bragg gratings are optical gratings inscribed into the core of an optical fiber. They allow for entirely optical measurements of temperatures, mechanical strain and of deduced quantities, such as vibration. Due to their properties - mechanical robustness, high dynamic range etc. - fiber Bragg gratings are particularly suited for withstanding the harsh environmental conditions in a rocket vehicle (very high and very low temperatures, intense vibrations, presence of flammable propellants, etc.). Measurement systems based on fiber Bragg gratings have the potential to contribute to emerging technologies in the commercial launcher segment. Particularly, large sets of measurement data can be acquired with minor mass contribution. This can be applied to techniques such as structural health monitoring, active vibration damping, and actuator monitoring, enabling lighter structures without compromising on reliability. The FOVS experiment demonstrated a fiber-optic vibration and temperature measurement system in an actual flight, and evaluated its benefits compared to conventional electrical sensing in the challenging launcher environment. As a side product, measurements regarding the environmental conditions on the REXUS platform have been acquired.

  3. Fluid Shifts

    Stenger, M. B.; Hargens, A. R.; Dulchavsky, S. A.; Arbeille, P.; Danielson, R. W.; Ebert, D. J.; Garcia, K. M.; Johnston, S. L.; Laurie, S. S.; Lee, S. M. C.; hide

    2017-01-01

    pulsatility); (5) ocular measures (optical coherence tomography; intraocular pressure; 2-dimensional ultrasound including optic nerve sheath diameter, globe flattening, and retina-choroid thickness; Doppler ultrasound of ophthalmic and retinal arteries and veins); (6) cardiac variables by ultrasound (inferior vena cava, tricuspid flow and tissue Doppler, pulmonic valve, stroke volume, right heart dimensions and function, four-chamber views); and (7) ICP measures (tympanic membrane displacement, otoacoustic emissions). Pre- and post-flight, acute head-down tilt will induce cephalad fluid shifts, whereas lower body negative pressure will oppose these shifts. Controlled Mueller maneuvers will manipulate cardiovascular variables. Through interventions applied before, during, and after flight, we intend to fully evaluate the relationship between fluid shifts and the VIIP syndrome. Discussion. Ten subjects have consented to participate in this experiment, including the recent One-Year Mission crewmembers, who have recently completed R plus180 testing; all other subjects have completed pre-flight testing. Preliminary results from the One-Year Mission crewmembers will be presented, including measures of ocular structure and function, vascular dimensions, fluid distribution, and non-invasive estimates of intracranial pressure.

  4. NMR relaxation rates and Knight shifts in MgB2 and AlB2: theory versus experiments

    Pavarini, E; Baek, S H; Suh, B J; Borsa, F; Bud'ko, S L; Canfield, P C

    2003-01-01

    We have performed 11 B NMR measurements in 11 B enriched MgB 2 powder sample in the normal phase. The Knight shift was accurately determined by using the magic angle spinning technique. Results for 11 B and 27 Al Knight shifts (K) and relaxation rates (1/T 1 ) are also reported for AlB 2 . The data show a dramatic decrease of both K and 1/T 1 for 11 B in AlB 2 with respect to MgB 2 . We compare experimental results with ab initio calculated NMR relaxation rates and Knight shifts. The experimental values for 1/T 1 and K are in most cases in good agreement with the theoretical results. We show that the decrease of K and 1/T 1 for 11 B is consistent with a drastic drop of the density of states at the boron site in AlB 2 with respect to MgB 2

  5. Review: Ina-Maria Greverus, Sharon MacDonald, Regina Romhild, Gisela Welz & Helena Wullf (Eds. (2002. Stability Upon Shifting Ground: Review Note of Shifting Grounds: Experiments in Doing Ethnography

    Robin M. Boylorn

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available This review is written in response to "Shifting Grounds: Experiments in Doing Ethno­graphy," a volume of the Anthropological Journal on European Cultures. This review cites the history and implications of ethnography as a methodology within various academic disciplines while praising the authors within this text for their contributions to various ways of "doing ethnography." By investi­gating and considering the body as an ethno­graphic site where life and stories are performed and em­bodied, this article considers the varying ways the authors respond to experimental and performative ethnography while applying it to relevant and current issues within anthropology. By engaging both the anthropological and historical turn of ethnography, this book thematically discusses the mobility of fieldwork, time, space, multi-locality, tour­ism, and tradition/culture. Shifting Grounds does not only offer experiments in doing ethnography, it also offers alternatives for doing ethnography. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0503175

  6. Towards a conceptual framework for the study of shifts in modes of environmental governance : experiences form the Netherlands

    Driessen, P.P.J.; Dieperink, C.; Laerhoven, F.S.J. van; Runhaar, H.A.C.; Vermeulen, W.J.V.

    2012-01-01

    In the last decade, many authors have observed shifts from government to governance in the environmental policy domain. However, a clear conceptual framework to differentiate between modes of environmental governance is lacking and our understanding of when, how and why environmental governance

  7. Demonstration in the DIII-D tokamak of an alternate baseline scenario for ITER and other burning plasma experiments

    Luce, T.C.; Ferron, J.R.; Wade, M.R.

    2003-01-01

    Discharges which can satisfy the high gain goals of burning plasma experiments have been demonstrated in the DIII-D tokamak in stationary conditions with relatively low plasma current (q 95 > 4). A figure of merit for fusion gain β N H 89 / q 95 2 2 has been maintained at values corresponding to Q = 10 operation in a burning plasma for >6 s or 36 τ E and 2 τ R . The key element is the relaxation of the current profile to a stationary state with q min > 1, which allows stable operation up to the no-wall ideal β limit. These plasmas maintain particle balance by active pumping rather than transient wall conditioning. The reduced current lessens significantly the potential for structural damage in the event of a major disruption. (author)

  8. Paradigm shifts and the development of the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: past experiences and future aspirations.

    First, Michael B

    2010-11-01

    Work is currently under way on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), Fifth Edition, due to be published by the American Psychiatric Association in 2013. Dissatisfaction with the current categorical descriptive approach has led to aspirations for a paradigm shift for DSM-5. A historical review of past revisions of the DSM was performed. Efforts undertaken before the start of the DSM-5 development process to conduct a state-of-the science review and set a research agenda were examined to determine if results supported a paradigm shift for DSM-5. Proposals to supplement DSM-5 categorical diagnosis with dimensional assessments are reviewed and critiqued. DSM revisions have alternated between paradigm shifts (the first edition of the DSM in 1952 and DSM-III in 1980) and incremental improvements (DSM-II in 1968, DSM-III-R in 1987, and DSM-IV in 1994). The results of the review of the DSM-5 research planning initiatives suggest that despite the scientific advances that have occurred since the descriptive approach was first introduced in 1980, the field lacks a sufficiently deep understanding of mental disorders to justify abandoning the descriptive approach in favour of a more etiologically based alternative. Proposals to add severity and cross-cutting dimensions throughout DSM-5 are neither paradigm shifting, given that simpler versions of such dimensions are already a component of DSM-IV, nor likely to be used by busy clinicians without evidence that they improve clinical outcomes. Despite initial aspirations that DSM would undergo a paradigm shift with this revision, DSM-5 will continue to adopt a descriptive categorical approach, albeit with a greatly expanded dimensional component.

  9. Choice Shifts in Groups

    Kfir Eliaz; Debraj Ray

    2004-01-01

    The phenomenon of "choice shifts" in group decision-making is fairly ubiquitous in the social psychology literature. Faced with a choice between a ``safe" and ``risky" decision, group members appear to move to one extreme or the other, relative to the choices each member might have made on her own. Both risky and cautious shifts have been identified in different situations. This paper demonstrates that from an individual decision-making perspective, choice shifts may be viewed as a systematic...

  10. Plant diversity induces a shift of DOC concentration over time - results from long term and large scale experiment

    Lange, Markus; Gleixner, Gerd

    2016-04-01

    Plant diversity has been demonstrated as a crucial factor for soil organic carbon (SOC) storage. The horizontal SOC formation in turn is strongly impacted by the relative small but consistent flow of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in soils. In this process, pore water leaches plant material and already stored SOC while simultaneously these leachates are transported downwards. However, there is a big uncertainty about the drivers of DOC flux; in particular about the importance of biological processes. We investigated the impact of plant diversity and other biotic drivers on DOC concentrations and total DOC fluxes (concentration × sampled water amount). In addition, we considered abiotic factors such as weather and soil conditions to assess the relative importance of biotic and abiotic drivers and how their importance changes over time. We used a comprehensive data set, gathered in the frame of the long-term biodiversity experiment "The Jena Experiment". Permanent monitoring started directly after establishment of the field site in 2002 and is still running. This enabled us to trace the impact of plant communities with their increasing establishment over the time on DOC concentration. We found the amount of sampled pore water best explained by rainfall, while it was not related to plant associated variables. Directly after establishing the experimental site, DOC concentrations were highest and then decreasing with time. In the first period of the experiment plant diversity had no or even a slightly negative impact on DOC concentrations. The direction of the plant diversity effect on DOC concentrations changed over time; namely in later phases we observed highest DOC concentrations on plots with high plant diversity. Moreover, DOC concentrations were negatively affected by increased amounts of sampled pore water indicating a dilution effect. Even though this impact was highly significant; its effect size was even less pronounced at later time points. In summary

  11. Hardware Demonstrator of a Level-1 Track Finding Algorithm with FPGAs for the Phase II CMS Experiment

    Cieri, D.

    2016-01-01

    At the HL-LHC, proton bunches collide every 25 ns, producing an average of 140 pp interactions per bunch crossing. To operate in such an environment, the CMS experiment will need a Level-1 (L1) hardware trigger, able to identify interesting events within a latency of 12.5 μs. This novel L1 trigger will make use of data coming from the silicon tracker to constrain the trigger rate . Goal of this new track trigger will be to build L1 tracks from the tracker information. The architecture that will be implemented in future to process tracker data is still under discussion. One possibility is to adopt a system entirely based on FPGA electronic. The proposed track finding algorithm is based on the Hough transform method. The algorithm has been tested using simulated pp collision data and it is currently being demonstrated in hardware, using the “MP7”, which is a μTCA board with a powerful FPGA capable of handling data rates approaching 1 Tb/s. Two different implementations of the Hough transform technique are currently under investigation: one utilizes a systolic array to represent the Hough space, while the other exploits a pipelined approach. (paper)

  12. Hardware Demonstrator of a Level-1 Track Finding Algorithm with FPGAs for the Phase II CMS Experiment

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2090481

    2016-01-01

    At the HL-LHC, proton bunches collide every 25\\,ns, producing an average of 140 pp interactions per bunch crossing. To operate in such an environment, the CMS experiment will need a Level-1 (L1) hardware trigger, able to identify interesting events within a latency of 12.5\\,$\\mu$s. This novel L1 trigger will make use of data coming from the silicon tracker to constrain the trigger rate. Goal of this new \\textit{track trigger} will be to build L1 tracks from the tracker information. The architecture that will be implemented in future to process tracker data is still under discussion. One possibility is to adopt a system entirely based on FPGA electronic. The proposed track finding algorithm is based on the Hough transform method. The algorithm has been tested using simulated pp collision data and it is currently being demonstrated in hardware, using the ``MP7'', which is a $\\mu$TCA board with a powerful FPGA capable of handling data rates approaching 1 Tb/s. Two different implementations of the Hough tran...

  13. A field experiment demonstrating plant life-history evolution and its eco-evolutionary feedback to seed predator populations.

    Agrawal, Anurag A; Johnson, Marc T J; Hastings, Amy P; Maron, John L

    2013-05-01

    The extent to which evolutionary change occurs in a predictable manner under field conditions and how evolutionary changes feed back to influence ecological dynamics are fundamental, yet unresolved, questions. To address these issues, we established eight replicate populations of native common evening primrose (Oenothera biennis). Each population was planted with 18 genotypes in identical frequency. By tracking genotype frequencies with microsatellite DNA markers over the subsequent three years (up to three generations, ≈5,000 genotyped plants), we show rapid and consistent evolution of two heritable plant life-history traits (shorter life span and later flowering time). This rapid evolution was only partially the result of differential seed production; genotypic variation in seed germination also contributed to the observed evolutionary response. Since evening primrose genotypes exhibited heritable variation for resistance to insect herbivores, which was related to flowering time, we predicted that evolutionary changes in genotype frequencies would feed back to influence populations of a seed predator moth that specializes on O. biennis. By the conclusion of the experiment, variation in the genotypic composition among our eight replicate field populations was highly predictive of moth abundance. These results demonstrate how rapid evolution in field populations of a native plant can influence ecological interactions.

  14. Accuracy of chemical shift MR imaging in diagnosing indeterminate bone marrow lesions in the pelvis: review of a single institution's experience

    Kohl, Chad A.; Chivers, F.S.; Lorans, Roxanne; Roberts, Catherine C.; Kransdorf, Mark J.

    2014-01-01

    To re-assess the accuracy of chemical shift imaging in diagnosing indeterminate bone marrow lesions as benign or malignant. We retrospectively reviewed our experience with MR imaging of the pelvis to assess the accuracy of chemical shift imaging in distinguishing benign from malignant bone lesions. Two musculoskeletal radiologists retrospectively reviewed all osseous lesions biopsied since 2006, when chemical shift imaging was added to our routine pelvic imaging protocol. Study inclusion criteria required (1) MR imaging of an indeterminate bone marrow lesion about the pelvis and (2) subsequent histologic confirmation. The study group included 50 patients (29 male, 21 female) with an average age of 67 years (range, 41-89 years). MR imaging results were evaluated using biopsy results as the ''gold standard.'' There were 27 malignant and 23 benign lesions. Chemical shift imaging using an opposed-phase signal loss criteria of less than 20 % to indicate a malignant lesion, correctly diagnosed 27/27 malignant lesions and 14/23 benign lesions, yielding a 100 % sensitivity, 61 % specificity, 75 % PPV, 100 % NPV, and 82 % accuracy. The area under the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve was 0.88. The inter-rater and intra-rater agreement K values were both 1.0. Chemical shift imaging is a useful adjunct MR technique to characterize focal and diffuse marrow abnormalities on routine non-contrast pelvic imaging. It is highly sensitive in identifying malignant disease. Despite its lower specificity, the need for biopsy could be eliminated in more than 60 % of patients with benign disease. (orig.)

  15. Shifting Attention

    Ingram, Jenni

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the shifts in attention and focus as one teacher introduces and explains an image that represents the processes involved in a numeric problem that his students have been working on. This paper takes a micro-analytic approach to examine how the focus of attention shifts through what the teacher and students do and say in the…

  16. Homogeneous Reactor Experiment (HRE) Pond cryogenic barrier technology demonstration: Pre-barrier subsurface hydrology and contaminant transport investigation

    Moline, G.R.

    1998-03-01

    The Homogeneous Reactor Experiment (HRE) Pond is the site of a former impoundment for radioactive wastes that has since been drained, filled with soil, and covered with an asphalt cap. The site is bordered to the east and south by a tributary that empties into Melton Branch Creek and that contains significant concentrations of radioactive contaminants, primarily 90 Sr. Because of the proximity of the tributary to the HRE disposal site and the probable flow of groundwater from the site to the tributary, it is hypothesized that the HRE Pond is a source of contamination to he creek. As a means for temporary containment of contaminants within the impoundment, a cryogenic barrier technology demonstration was initiated in FY96 with a background hydrologic investigation that continued through FY97. Cryogenic equipment installation was completed in FY97, and freezing was initiated in September of 1997. This report documents the results of a hydrologic and geologic investigation of the HRE Pond/cryogenic barrier site. The purpose of this investigation is to evaluate the hydrologic conditions within and around the impoundment in order to meet the following objectives: (1) to provide a pre-barrier subsurface hydrologic baseline for post-barrier performance assessment; (2) to confirm that the impoundment is hydraulically connected to the surrounding sediments; and (3) to determine the likely contaminant exit pathways from the impoundment. The methods of investigation included water level and temperature monitoring in a network of wells and standpipes in and surrounding the impoundment, a helium tracer test conducted under ambient flow conditions, and geologic logging during the drilling of boreholes for installation of cryogenic probes and temperature monitoring wells

  17. Demonstrating the reliability of transdiagnostic mHealth Routine Outcome Monitoring in mental health services using experience sampling technology.

    Simone J W Verhagen

    Full Text Available Routine Outcome Monitoring (ROM should provide a dynamic, within-treatment forward feedback loop to guide individual treatment decisions across diagnostic categories. It has been suggested that the Experience Sampling Method (ESM, capturing the film of daily life adaptive processes, offers a flexible, personalised and transdiagnostic feedback system for monitoring and adapting treatment strategies. This is the first study that uses an ESM application (the PsyMate™ as a routine mobile-ROM (mROM tool in an ambulatory mental health setting.To demonstrate adequate psychometric properties of the PsyMate™ app assessing both symptom severity levels as well as daily life functioning.In a transdiagnostic sample of 64 outpatients, an mROM protocol (ESM for 6 days, at 10 semi-random moments a day and a standard ROM instrument (HADS were administered at baseline and at three-month follow-up. We measured positive affect (PA, negative affect (NA, quality of sleep, positive social interaction, activity-related stress, tiredness, and feeling unwell.Subjects completed 53% of the measurements at baseline (N = 64 and 48% at follow-up (N = 29. Factor analysis and subsequent reliability analysis of PA and NA confirmed the two constructs. Significant and meaningful correlations were found between PA, NA and HADS scores (ranging from r = .4 to r = .7. Multilevel analyses yielded significant change scores for all measures.The ESM-based, transdiagnostic mROM tool can be used reliably in clinical settings: it shows adequate psychometric properties, as well as concurrent validity and sensitivity to change over time with respect to relevant ROM constructs. Person-tailored items can be added. In addition, mROM offers added value over standard symptom-based ROM, as it provides information on adaptive functioning in the daily environment of patients.

  18. Few multiyear precipitation-reduction experiments find a shift in the productivity-precipitation relationship.

    Estiarte, Marc; Vicca, Sara; Peñuelas, Josep; Bahn, Michael; Beier, Claus; Emmett, Bridget A; Fay, Philip A; Hanson, Paul J; Hasibeder, Roland; Kigel, Jaime; Kröel-Dulay, Gyorgy; Larsen, Klaus Steenberg; Lellei-Kovács, Eszter; Limousin, Jean-Marc; Ogaya, Romà; Ourcival, Jean-Marc; Reinsch, Sabine; Sala, Osvaldo E; Schmidt, Inger Kappel; Sternberg, Marcelo; Tielbörger, Katja; Tietema, Albert; Janssens, Ivan A

    2016-07-01

    Well-defined productivity-precipitation relationships of ecosystems are needed as benchmarks for the validation of land models used for future projections. The productivity-precipitation relationship may be studied in two ways: the spatial approach relates differences in productivity to those in precipitation among sites along a precipitation gradient (the spatial fit, with a steeper slope); the temporal approach relates interannual productivity changes to variation in precipitation within sites (the temporal fits, with flatter slopes). Precipitation-reduction experiments in natural ecosystems represent a complement to the fits, because they can reduce precipitation below the natural range and are thus well suited to study potential effects of climate drying. Here, we analyse the effects of dry treatments in eleven multiyear precipitation-manipulation experiments, focusing on changes in the temporal fit. We expected that structural changes in the dry treatments would occur in some experiments, thereby reducing the intercept of the temporal fit and displacing the productivity-precipitation relationship downward the spatial fit. The majority of experiments (72%) showed that dry treatments did not alter the temporal fit. This implies that current temporal fits are to be preferred over the spatial fit to benchmark land-model projections of productivity under future climate within the precipitation ranges covered by the experiments. Moreover, in two experiments, the intercept of the temporal fit unexpectedly increased due to mechanisms that reduced either water loss or nutrient loss. The expected decrease of the intercept was observed in only one experiment, and only when distinguishing between the late and the early phases of the experiment. This implies that we currently do not know at which precipitation-reduction level or at which experimental duration structural changes will start to alter ecosystem productivity. Our study highlights the need for experiments with

  19. Design, construction and operating experience of demonstration LMFBRs. The application of core and fuel performance experience in British reactors to commercial fast reactor design

    Bagley, K.Q.

    1978-01-01

    The Prototype Fast Reactor (PFR) sub-assembly design is described with particular emphasis on the choice of factors that are important in determining satisfactory performance. Reasons for the adoption of specific clad and fuel design details are given in their historical context, and irradiation experience - mostly from the Dounreay Fast Reactor (DFR) - in support of the choices is described. The implications of factors that are now better understood than when the PFR fuel was designed, notably neutron-induced void swelling and irradiation creep, are then considered. It is shown that the 'free-standing' core design used in PFR, in which the sub-assembly is unsupported above the level of the lower axial breeder, relies on the availability of low-swelling, preferably irradiation-creep-resistant alloys as sub-assembly structural materials in order to achieve the prescribed burn-up target. The advantages of a 'restrained core', which makes use of irradiation creep to redress the effects of material swelling, are noted briefly, and the application of this concept to the Commercial Demonstration Fast Reactor (CDFR) core design is described. Probable future trends in pin and sub-assembly design are reviewed and the scope of associated irradiation testing programmes defined. Arrangements for monitoring and evaluating fuel performance, both in reactor and post-irradiation, are outlined and the provisions for endorsement of CDFR pin, sub-assembly and core design details in PFR are indicated. (author)

  20. Technology policy for energy and climate change. Lessons from a retrospective of thirty years on research, development, and demonstration experiences

    Marlay, R.C.; Koske, B.H. [Office of Policy and International Affairs, U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    2005-08-15

    Increasing accumulations of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and other greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the Earth atmosphere have raised concerns about the potential for climate change and related consequences. These concerns have heightened attention to GHG emissions and the various means for their mitigation. If substantial reductions in anthropogenic emissions of GHGs were to be required over the course of the 21 Century, fundamental changes would need to take place in the way the world produces and uses energy, as well as in many other GHG-emitting aspects of industry, agriculture, land management and use, and other activities associated with modern civilization. New and advanced technologies could enable and facilitate a gradual, long-term transformation to a future society characterized by significantly lower GHG emissions. Progress could be made by providing improved and less costly means for reducing, avoiding, capturing and sequestering GHG emissions, while also providing the energy and other services needed to sustain expanding economic activity and serve the rising aspirations of a growing world population. It is generally agreed that certain policies aimed at stimulating technological innovation toward this end, including investment in research, development and demonstration (RD and D), constitute an important component of any long-term strategy aimed at addressing climate change. Beyond RD and D, however, there appears to be little agreement as to the answers to two key questions. Might augmenting policies, beyond RD and D, be justified today to spur technology development and adoption? If so, what does history suggest about the kinds of policies that might be most appropriate, and to what extent would they be applicable? This paper attempts to provide insights to the answers to these two questions. It notes in passing the current state of climate change science and its uncertainties, which suggests the potential efficacy of so-called hedging strategies to reduce

  1. Toward Elimination of Dog-Mediated Human Rabies: Experiences from Implementing a Large-scale Demonstration Project in Southern Tanzania.

    Mpolya, Emmanuel Abraham; Lembo, Tiziana; Lushasi, Kennedy; Mancy, Rebecca; Mbunda, Eberhard M; Makungu, Selemani; Maziku, Matthew; Sikana, Lwitiko; Jaswant, Gurdeep; Townsend, Sunny; Meslin, François-Xavier; Abela-Ridder, Bernadette; Ngeleja, Chanasa; Changalucha, Joel; Mtema, Zacharia; Sambo, Maganga; Mchau, Geofrey; Rysava, Kristyna; Nanai, Alphoncina; Kazwala, Rudovick; Cleaveland, Sarah; Hampson, Katie

    2017-01-01

    A Rabies Elimination Demonstration Project was implemented in Tanzania from 2010 through to 2015, bringing together government ministries from the health and veterinary sectors, the World Health Organization, and national and international research institutions. Detailed data on mass dog vaccination campaigns, bite exposures, use of post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP), and human rabies deaths were collected throughout the project duration and project areas. Despite no previous experience in dog vaccination within the project areas, district veterinary officers were able to implement district-wide vaccination campaigns that, for most part, progressively increased the numbers of dogs vaccinated with each phase of the project. Bite exposures declined, particularly in the southernmost districts with the smallest dog populations, and health workers successfully transitioned from primarily intramuscular administration of PEP to intradermal administration, resulting in major cost savings. However, even with improved PEP provision, vaccine shortages still occurred in some districts. In laboratory diagnosis, there were several logistical challenges in sample handling and submission but compared to the situation before the project started, there was a moderate increase in the number of laboratory samples submitted and tested for rabies in the project areas with a decrease in the proportion of rabies-positive samples over time. The project had a major impact on public health policy and practice with the formation of a One Health Coordination Unit at the Prime Minister's Office and development of the Tanzania National Rabies Control Strategy, which lays a roadmap for elimination of rabies in Tanzania by 2030 by following the Stepwise Approach towards Rabies Elimination (SARE). Overall, the project generated many important lessons relevant to rabies prevention and control in particular and disease surveillance in general. Lessons include the need for (1) a specific unit in the

  2. Technology policy for energy and climate change. Lessons from a retrospective of thirty years on research, development, and demonstration experiences

    Marlay, R.C.; Koske, B.H.

    2005-08-01

    Increasing accumulations of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and other greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the Earth atmosphere have raised concerns about the potential for climate change and related consequences. These concerns have heightened attention to GHG emissions and the various means for their mitigation. If substantial reductions in anthropogenic emissions of GHGs were to be required over the course of the 21 Century, fundamental changes would need to take place in the way the world produces and uses energy, as well as in many other GHG-emitting aspects of industry, agriculture, land management and use, and other activities associated with modern civilization. New and advanced technologies could enable and facilitate a gradual, long-term transformation to a future society characterized by significantly lower GHG emissions. Progress could be made by providing improved and less costly means for reducing, avoiding, capturing and sequestering GHG emissions, while also providing the energy and other services needed to sustain expanding economic activity and serve the rising aspirations of a growing world population. It is generally agreed that certain policies aimed at stimulating technological innovation toward this end, including investment in research, development and demonstration (RD and D), constitute an important component of any long-term strategy aimed at addressing climate change. Beyond RD and D, however, there appears to be little agreement as to the answers to two key questions. Might augmenting policies, beyond RD and D, be justified today to spur technology development and adoption? If so, what does history suggest about the kinds of policies that might be most appropriate, and to what extent would they be applicable? This paper attempts to provide insights to the answers to these two questions. It notes in passing the current state of climate change science and its uncertainties, which suggests the potential efficacy of so-called hedging strategies to reduce risk

  3. Do Relocated Villages Experience More Forest Cover Change? Resettlements, Shifting Cultivation and Forests in the Lao PDR

    Sébastien Boillat

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the relationships between forest cover change and the village resettlement and land planning policies implemented in Laos, which have led to the relocation of remote and dispersed populations into clustered villages with easier access to state services and market facilities. We used the Global Forest Cover Change (2000–2012 and the most recent Lao Agricultural Census (2011 datasets to assess forest cover change in resettled and non-resettled villages throughout the country. We also reviewed a set of six case studies and performed an original case study in two villages of Luang Prabang province with 55 households, inquiring about relocation, land losses and intensification options. Our results show that resettled villages have greater baseline forest cover and total forest loss than most villages in Laos but not significant forest loss relative to that baseline. Resettled villages are consistently associated with forested areas, minority groups, and intermediate accessibility. The case studies highlight that resettlement coupled with land use planning does not necessarily lead to the abandonment of shifting cultivation or affect forest loss but lead to a re-spatialization of land use. This includes clustering of forest clearings, which might lead to fallow shortening and land degradation while limited intensification options exist in the resettled villages. This study provides a contribution to studying relationships between migration, forest cover change, livelihood strategies, land governance and agricultural practices in tropical forest environments.

  4. A Laboratory Experiment to Demonstrate the Principles of Sedimentation in a Centrifuge: Estimation of Radius and Settling Velocity of Bacteria

    Riley, Erin; Felse, P. Arthur

    2017-01-01

    Centrifugation is a major unit operation in chemical and biotechnology industries. Here we present a simple, hands-on laboratory experiment to teach the basic principles of centrifugation and to explore the shear effects of centrifugation using bacterial cells as model particles. This experiment provides training in the use of a bench-top…

  5. Degrees of Change: Understanding Academics Experiences with a Shift to Flexible Technology- Enhanced Learning in Initial Teacher Education

    Kehrwald, Benjamin A.; McCallum, Faye

    2015-01-01

    The implementation of technology enhanced learning in higher education is often associated with changes to academic work. This article reports on a study of staff experiences with curriculum development and teaching in multiple modes of blended and online learning in a Bachelor of Education degree. The findings indicate that the changes…

  6. A novel femtosecond-gated, high-resolution, frequency-shifted shearing interferometry technique for probing pre-plasma expansion in ultra-intense laser experiments

    Feister, S., E-mail: feister.7@osu.edu; Orban, C. [Department of Physics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Innovative Scientific Solutions, Inc., Dayton, Ohio 45459 (United States); Nees, J. A. [Innovative Scientific Solutions, Inc., Dayton, Ohio 45459 (United States); Center for Ultra-Fast Optical Science, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Morrison, J. T. [Fellow, National Research Council, Washington, D.C. 20001 (United States); Frische, K. D. [Innovative Scientific Solutions, Inc., Dayton, Ohio 45459 (United States); Chowdhury, E. A. [Department of Physics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Intense Energy Solutions, LLC., Plain City, Ohio 43064 (United States); Roquemore, W. M. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Dayton, Ohio 45433 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    Ultra-intense laser-matter interaction experiments (>10{sup 18} W/cm{sup 2}) with dense targets are highly sensitive to the effect of laser “noise” (in the form of pre-pulses) preceding the main ultra-intense pulse. These system-dependent pre-pulses in the nanosecond and/or picosecond regimes are often intense enough to modify the target significantly by ionizing and forming a plasma layer in front of the target before the arrival of the main pulse. Time resolved interferometry offers a robust way to characterize the expanding plasma during this period. We have developed a novel pump-probe interferometry system for an ultra-intense laser experiment that uses two short-pulse amplifiers synchronized by one ultra-fast seed oscillator to achieve 40-fs time resolution over hundreds of nanoseconds, using a variable delay line and other techniques. The first of these amplifiers acts as the pump and delivers maximal energy to the interaction region. The second amplifier is frequency shifted and then frequency doubled to generate the femtosecond probe pulse. After passing through the laser-target interaction region, the probe pulse is split and recombined in a laterally sheared Michelson interferometer. Importantly, the frequency shift in the probe allows strong plasma self-emission at the second harmonic of the pump to be filtered out, allowing plasma expansion near the critical surface and elsewhere to be clearly visible in the interferograms. To aid in the reconstruction of phase dependent imagery from fringe shifts, three separate 120° phase-shifted (temporally sheared) interferograms are acquired for each probe delay. Three-phase reconstructions of the electron densities are then inferred by Abel inversion. This interferometric system delivers precise measurements of pre-plasma expansion that can identify the condition of the target at the moment that the ultra-intense pulse arrives. Such measurements are indispensable for correlating laser pre-pulse measurements

  7. Reduction of Mental Distress in the Dissection Course by Introducing the Body Donor Experience through Anatomical Demonstrations of Organ Systems

    Bockers, Anja; Baader, Christoph; Fassnacht, Ulrich Kai; Ochsner, Wolfgang; Bockers, Tobias Maria

    2012-01-01

    The practice of dissection teaches students not only the foundations of anatomical knowledge but also encourages the development of professional competencies. Yet, the dissection of cadavers in the gross anatomy course can be a stress factor for medical students. There are a minor proportion of students who demonstrate strong emotional reactions…

  8. A Course at the Master Level Demonstrating Quality Assurance by Spectrophotometric Determination of Iron in two experiments

    In two experiments, the first a batch determination of iron, and the second determination of iron by flow injection analysis, the students perform a number of repetitions. The measurements were repeated until it became possible to estimate which one of the two methods exhibited the better perform...

  9. A Classroom Experiment Demonstrating the Generation of a Market Demand Function and the Determination of Equilibrium Price

    Weidenaar, Dennis J.

    1972-01-01

    The simple game and discussion experiment encourages learning at the behavioral levels of application, analysis, and synthesis as well as the knowledge level. It has wide applicability in college principles of economics, advanced microeconomics courses, or high school economics. (Author/SE)

  10. Market shifting

    Forst, Michael

    2013-11-01

    After years of oversupply and artificially low module pricing, market analysts believe that the solar industry will begin to stabilize by 2017. While the market activities are shifting from Europe to the Asia Pacific region and the United States, the solar shakeout continues to be in full swing including solar cell and module manufacturing. (orig.)

  11. Tough Shift

    Brewer, Robert S.; Verdezoto, Nervo; Holst, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    people to change their behavior at home. Leveraging prior research on encouraging reductions in residential energy use through game play, we introduce ShareBuddy: a casual mobile game intended to encourage players not only to reduce, but also to shift their electricity use. We conducted two field studies...... real-world resource use into a game....

  12. Detailed discussion of a linear electric field frequency shift induced in confined gases by a magnetic field gradient: Implications for neutron electric-dipole-moment experiments

    Lamoreaux, S.K.; Golub, R.

    2005-01-01

    The search for particle electric dipole moments (EDM's) is one of the best places to look for physics beyond the standard model of electroweak interaction because the size of time reversal violation predicted by the standard model is incompatible with present ideas concerning the creation of the baryon-antibaryon asymmetry. As the sensitivity of these EDM searches increases more subtle systematic effects become important. We develop a general analytical approach to describe a systematic effect recently observed in an electric dipole moment experiment using stored particles [J. M. Pendlebury et al., Phys. Rev. A 70, 032102 (2004)]. Our approach is based on the relationship between the systematic frequency shift and the velocity autocorrelation function of the resonating particles. Our results, when applied to well-known limiting forms of the correlation function, are in good agreement with both the limiting cases studied in recent work that employed a numerical and heuristic analysis. Our general approach explains some of the surprising results observed in that work and displays the rich behavior of the shift for intermediate frequencies, which has not been studied previously

  13. Nurses', midwives' and key stakeholders' experiences and perceptions on requirements to demonstrate the maintenance of professional competence.

    Casey, Mary; Cooney, Adeline; O'Connell, Rhona; Hegarty, Josephine; Brady, Anne-Marie; O'Reilly, Pauline; Kennedy, Catriona; Heffernan, Elizabeth; Fealy, Gerard; Mcnamara, Martin; O'Connor, Laserina

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To present the qualitative findings from a study on the development of scheme(s) to give evidence of maintenance of professional competence for nurses and midwives. Background: Key issues in maintenance of professional competence include notions of self- assessment, verification of engagement and practice hours, provision of an evidential record, the role of the employer and articulation of possible consequences for non-adherence with the requirements. Schemes to demonstrate the maintena...

  14. Supine Craniospinal Irradiation Using Intrafractional Junction Shifts and Field-in-Field Dose Shaping: Early Experience at Methodist Hospital

    South, Michael C.; Chiu, J. Kam; Teh, Bin S.; Bloch, Charles; Schroeder, Thomas M.; Paulino, Arnold C.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To describe our preliminary experience with supine craniospinal irradiation. The advantages of the supine position for craniospinal irradiation include patient comfort, easier access to maintain an airway for anesthesia, and reduced variability of the head tilt in the face mask. Methods and Materials: The cranial fields were treated with near lateral fields and a table angle to match their divergence to the superior edge of the spinal field. The collimator was rotated to match the divergence from the superior spinal field. The spinal fields were treated using a source to surface distance (SSD) technique with the couch top at 100 cm. When a second spinal field was required, the table and collimator were rotated 90 o to allow for the use of the multileaf collimator and so the gantry could be rotated to match the divergence of the superior spinal field. The multileaf collimator was used for daily dynamic featherings and field-in-field dose control. Results: With a median follow-up of 20.2 months, five documented failures and no cases of radiation myelitis occurred in 23 consecutive patients. No failures occurred in the junctions of the spine-spine or brain-spine fields. Two failures occurred in the primary site alone, two in the spinal axis alone, and one primary site failure plus distant metastasis. The median time to recurrence was 17 months. Conclusion: The results of our study have shown that supine approach for delivering craniospinal irradiation is not associated with increased relapses at the field junctions. To date, no cases of radiation myelitis have developed

  15. Visible Spectrometer at the Compact Toroid Injection Experiment, the Sustained Spheromak Plasma Experiment and the Alcator C-Mod Tokamak for Doppler Width and Shift Measurements

    Graf, A; Howard, S; Horton, R; Hwang, D; May, M; Beiersdorfer, P; McLean, H; Terry, J

    2006-05-15

    A novel Doppler spectrometer is currently being used for ion or neutral velocity and temperature measurements on the Alcator C-Mod Tokamak. The spectrometer has an f/No. of {approx}3.1 and is appropriate for visible light (3500-6700 {angstrom}). The full width at half maximum from a line emitting calibration source has been measured to be as small as 0.4 {angstrom}. The ultimate time resolution is line brightness light limited and on the order of ms. A new photon efficient detector is being used for the setup at C-Mod. Time resolution is achieved by moving the camera during a plasma discharge in a perpendicular direction through the dispersion plane of the spectrometer causing a vertical streaking across the camera face. Initial results from C-Mod as well as previous measurements from the Compact Toroid Injection Experiment (CTIX) and the Sustained Spheromak Plasma Experiment (SSPX) are presented.

  16. Rapid separation of pure 144Ce fraction from fuel dissolver solution for demonstration experiment on secular equilibrium

    Ashok Kumar, G.V.S.; Kumar, R.; Venkata Subramani, C.R.

    2015-01-01

    Radioactive equilibrium is a condition in which the activity ratio of parent to its daughter is maintained constant with time which occurs only when the parent half-life is greater than daughter half-life. It is transient equilibrium in the case of the ratio of their half-lives of parent to daughter being less than an order whereas it becomes secular equilibrium when it is more than an order. In the case of secular equilibrium, the ratio of the activities becomes unity whereas the same depends on the decay constants of the parent and daughter nuclide for the transient equilibrium. 144 Ce- 144 Pr pair is a good example for the demonstration of secular equilibrium

  17. Nurses', midwives' and key stakeholders' experiences and perceptions on requirements to demonstrate the maintenance of professional competence.

    Casey, Mary; Cooney, Adeline; O' Connell, Rhona; Hegarty, Josephine-Mary; Brady, Anne-Marie; O' Reilly, Pauline; Kennedy, Catriona; Heffernan, Elizabeth; Fealy, Gerard; McNamara, Martin; O' Connor, Laserina

    2017-03-01

    To present the qualitative findings from a study on the development of scheme(s) to give evidence of maintenance of professional competence for nurses and midwives. Key issues in maintenance of professional competence include notions of self- assessment, verification of engagement and practice hours, provision of an evidential record, the role of the employer and articulation of possible consequences for non-adherence with the requirements. Schemes to demonstrate the maintenance of professional competence have application to nurses, midwives and regulatory bodies and healthcare employers worldwide. A mixed methods approach was used. This included an online survey of nurses and midwives and focus groups with nurses and midwives and other key stakeholders. The qualitative data are reported in this study. Focus groups were conducted among a purposive sample of nurses, midwives and key stakeholders from January-May 2015. A total of 13 focus groups with 91 participants contributed to the study. Four major themes were identified: Definitions and Characteristics of Competence; Continuing Professional Development and Demonstrating Competence; Assessment of Competence; The Nursing and Midwifery Board of Ireland and employers as regulators and enablers of maintaining professional competence. Competence incorporates knowledge, skills, attitudes, professionalism, application of evidence and translating learning into practice. It is specific to the nurse's/midwife's role, organizational needs, patient's needs and the individual nurse's/midwife's learning needs. Competencies develop over time and change as nurses and midwives work in different practice areas. Thus, role-specific competence is linked to recent engagement in practice. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Experimental demonstration of tokamak inductive flux saving by transient coaxial helicity injection on national spherical torus experiment

    Raman, R.; Jarboe, T. R.; Nelson, B. A. [University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Mueller, D.; Bell, M. G.; Gerhardt, S.; LeBlanc, B.; Menard, J.; Ono, M.; Roquemore, L. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Soukhanovskii, V. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States)

    2011-09-15

    Discharges initiated by transient coaxial helicity injection in National Spherical Torus Experiment have attained peak toroidal plasma currents up to 300 kA. When induction from the central solenoid is then applied, these discharges develop up to 300 kA additional current compared to discharges initiated by induction only. CHI initiated discharges in NSTX have achieved 1 MA of plasma current using only 258 mWb of solenoid flux whereas standard induction-only discharges require about 50% more solenoid flux to reach 1 MA. In addition, the CHI-initiated discharge has lower plasma density and a low normalized internal plasma inductance of 0.35, as needed for achieving advanced scenarios in NSTX.

  19. Introduction of a Simple Experiment for the Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory Demonstrating the Lewis Acid and Shape-Selective Properties of Zeolite Na-Y

    Maloney, Vincent; Szczepanski, Zach

    2017-01-01

    A simple, inexpensive, discovery-based experiment for undergraduate organic laboratories has been developed that demonstrates the Lewis acid and shape-selective properties of zeolites. Calcined zeolite Na-Y promotes the electrophilic aromatic bromination of toluene with a significantly higher para/ortho ratio than observed under conventional…

  20. An evaluation capacity building toolkit for principal investigators of undergraduate research experiences: A demonstration of transforming theory into practice.

    Rorrer, Audrey S

    2016-04-01

    This paper describes the approach and process undertaken to develop evaluation capacity among the leaders of a federally funded undergraduate research program. An evaluation toolkit was developed for Computer and Information Sciences and Engineering(1) Research Experiences for Undergraduates(2) (CISE REU) programs to address the ongoing need for evaluation capacity among principal investigators who manage program evaluation. The toolkit was the result of collaboration within the CISE REU community with the purpose being to provide targeted instructional resources and tools for quality program evaluation. Challenges were to balance the desire for standardized assessment with the responsibility to account for individual program contexts. Toolkit contents included instructional materials about evaluation practice, a standardized applicant management tool, and a modulated outcomes measure. Resulting benefits from toolkit deployment were having cost effective, sustainable evaluation tools, a community evaluation forum, and aggregate measurement of key program outcomes for the national program. Lessons learned included the imperative of understanding the evaluation context, engaging stakeholders, and building stakeholder trust. Results from project measures are presented along with a discussion of guidelines for facilitating evaluation capacity building that will serve a variety of contexts. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Influence of visual experience on developmental shift from long-term depression to long-term potentiation in the rat medial vestibular nuclei.

    Grassi, Silvarosa; Dieni, Cristina; Frondaroli, Adele; Pettorossi, Vito Enrico

    2004-11-01

    The influence of visual experience deprivation on changes in synaptic plasticity during postnatal development was studied in the ventral part of the rat medial vestibular nuclei (vMVN). We analysed the differences in the occurrence, expressed as a percentage, of long-term depression (LTD) and long-term potentiation (LTP) induced by high frequency stimulation (HFS) of the primary vestibular afferents in rats reared in the light (LR) and those in the dark (DR). In LR rats, HFS only induced LTD in the early stages of development, but the occurrence of LTD progressively decreased to zero before their eyes opened, while that of LTP enhanced from zero to about 50%. Once the rats' eyes had opened, LTD was no longer inducible while LTP occurrence gradually reached the normal adult value (70%). In DR rats, a similar shift from LTD to LTP was observed before their eyes opened, showing only a slightly slower LTD decay and LTP growth, and the LTD annulment was delayed by 1 day. By contrast, the time courses of LTD and LTP development in DR and LR rats showed remarkable differences following eye opening. In fact, LTD occurrence increased to about 50% in a short period of time and remained high until the adult stage. In addition, the occurrence of LTP slowly decreased to less than 20%. The effect of light-deprivation was reversible, since the exposure of DR rats to light, 5 days after eye opening, caused a sudden disappearance of LTD and a partial recover of LTP occurrence. In addition, we observed that a week of light deprivation in LR adult rats did not affect the normal adult LTP occurrence. These results provide evidence that in a critical period of development visual input plays a crucial role in shaping synaptic plasticity of the vMVN, and suggest that the visual guided shift from LTD to LTP during development may be necessary to refine and consolidate vestibular circuitry.

  2. Lanthanide shift reagents, binding, shift mechanisms and exchange

    Boer, J.W.M. de

    1977-01-01

    Paramagnetic lanthanide shift reagents, when added to a solution of a substrate, induce shifts in the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrum of the substrate molecules. The induced shifts contain information about the structure of the shift reagent substrate complex. The structural information, however, may be difficult to extract because of the following effects: (1) different complexes between shift reagent and substrate may be present in solution, e.g. 1:1 and 1:2 complexes, and the shift observed is a weighed average of the shifts of the substrate nuclei in the different complexes; (2) the Fermi contact interaction, arising from the spin density at the nucleus, contributes to the induced shift; (3) chemical exchange effects may complicate the NMR spectrum. In this thesis, the results of an investigation into the influence of these effects on the NMR spectra of solutions containing a substrate and LSR are presented. The equations describing the pseudo contact and the Fermi contact shift are derived. In addition, it is shown how the modified Bloch equations describing the effect of the chemical exchange processes occurring in the systems studied can be reduced to the familiar equations for a two-site exchange case. The binding of mono- and bifunctional ethers to the shift reagent are reported. An analysis of the induced shifts is given. Finally, the results of the experiments performed to study the exchange behavior of dimethoxyethane and heptafluorodimethyloctanedionato ligands are presented

  3. 12-hour-shift plant schedule improves operator productivity

    Gould, S.

    1989-01-01

    Twelve-hour scheduling has been a mainstay of the petrochemical industry, is common in the papermill industry, and is relatively new to the nuclear utility industry. A review of industry experiences, research, and a federal Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) study of the 12-hour shift (NUREG/CR-4248) demonstrate that the advantages outweigh the disadvantages. The primary advantages are greater job satisfaction, fewer errors, and the better communications inherent in two shift turnovers versus three. Several companies that implemented the 12-hour shift found an increase in employee morale, no adverse effect on worker health, and no decline in safety. They experienced greater productivity, fewer operator errors, and better communication

  4. Synthesis and Computational Studies Demonstrate the Utility of an Intramolecular Styryl Diels-Alder Reaction and Di-t-butylhydroxytoluene Assisted [1,3]-Shift to Construct Anticancer dl-Deoxypodophyllotoxin.

    Saavedra, Diana I; Rencher, Benjamin D; Kwon, Doo-Hyun; Smith, Stacey J; Ess, Daniel H; Andrus, Merritt B

    2018-02-16

    Deoxypodophyllotoxin is a secondary metabolite lignan possessing potent anticancer activity with potential as a precursor for known anticancer drugs, but its use is limited by scarcity from natural sources. We here report the total synthesis of racemic deoxypodophyllotoxin in seven steps using an intramolecular styryl Diels-Alder reaction strategy uniquely suited to assemble the deoxypodophyllotoxin core. Density functional theory was used to analyze concerted, polar, and singlet-open-shell diradical reaction pathways, which identified a low-energy concerted [4 + 2] Diels-Alder pathway followed by a faster di-t-butylhydroxytoluene assisted [1,3]-formal hydrogen shift.

  5. What does the literature tell us about health workers' experiences of task-shifting projects in sub-Saharan Africa? A systematic, qualitative review.

    Mijovic, Hana; McKnight, Jacob; English, Mike

    2016-08-01

    To review systematically, qualitative literature covering the implementation of task shifting in sub-Saharan Africa to address the growing interest in interventions of this kind. This review aims to distil the key practical findings to both guide a specific project aiming to improve the quality of neonatal care in Kenya and to contribute to the broader literature. Task-shifting programmes aim to improve access to healthcare by delegating specific tasks from higher to lower skilled health workers. Evidence suggests that task-shifting programmes in sub-Saharan Africa may improve patient outcomes, but they have also been criticised for providing fragmented, unsustainable services. This systematic review of qualitative literature summarises factors affecting implementation of task shifting and how such interventions in sub-Saharan Africa may have affected health workers' feelings about their own positions and their ability to provide care. Following literature search, a modified Critical Appraisal Skills Program (CASP) framework was used to assess quality. Thereafter, analysis adopted a thematic synthesis approach. A systematic literature search identified qualitative studies examining task -shifting interventions in sub-Saharan Africa. Thematic synthesis was used to identify overarching themes arising from across the studies and infer how task-shifting interventions may impact on the health workers from whom tasks are being shifted. From the 230 studies screened, 13 met the inclusion criteria. Overarching themes identified showed that task shifting has been associated with jurisdictional debates linked to new cadres working beyond their scope of practice, and tension around compensation and career development for those taking on tasks that were being delegated. Based on the qualitative data available, it appears that task shifting may negatively impact the sense of agency and the ability to perform of health workers' from whom tasks are shifted. The potential

  6. Laboratory experiment demonstrating the way in which a steam barrier prevents the dissolution of salt buried in a flooded packed bed

    Taylor, R.W.; Bowen, D.

    1977-01-01

    We have conducted a laboratory experiment to demonstrate a way in which a solid material can be prevented from dissolving in water. The differential solubility of salt (NaCl) in steam vs water is exploited. As long as the temperature of the area and water surrounding the salt is maintained above the boiling point of water, the salt cannot dissolve. This phenomenon, known as the thermal barrier, has far-reaching implications for preventing the dispersal of contaminants present near groundwater sources

  7. Experiments Demonstrate Geothermal Heating Process

    Roman, Harry T.

    2012-01-01

    When engineers design heat-pump-based geothermal heating systems for homes and other buildings, they can use coil loops buried around the perimeter of the structure to gather low-grade heat from the earth. As an alternative approach, they can drill well casings and store the summer's heat deep in the earth, then bring it back in the winter to warm…

  8. Main outcomes from in situ thermo-hydro-mechanical experiments programme to demonstrate feasibility of radioactive high-level waste disposal in the Callovo-Oxfordian claystone

    G. Armand

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the context of radioactive waste disposal, an underground research laboratory (URL is a facility in which experiments are conducted to demonstrate the feasibility of constructing and operating a radioactive waste disposal facility within a geological formation. The Meuse/Haute-Marne URL is a site-specific facility planned to study the feasibility of a radioactive waste disposal in the Callovo-Oxfordian (COx claystone. The thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM behaviour of the host rock is significant for the design of the underground nuclear waste disposal facility and for its long-term safety. The French National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (Andra has begun a research programme aiming to demonstrate the relevancy of the French high-level waste (HLW concept. This paper presents the programme implemented from small-scale (small diameter boreholes to full-scale demonstration experiments to study the THM effects of the thermal transient on the COx claystone and the strategy implemented in this new programme to demonstrate and optimise current disposal facility components for HLW. It shows that the French high-level waste concept is feasible and working in the COx claystone. It also exhibits that, as for other plastic clay or claystone, heating-induced pore pressure increases and that the THM behaviour is anisotropic.

  9. When teams shift among processes: insights from simulation and optimization.

    Kennedy, Deanna M; McComb, Sara A

    2014-09-01

    This article introduces process shifts to study the temporal interplay among transition and action processes espoused in the recurring phase model proposed by Marks, Mathieu, and Zacarro (2001). Process shifts are those points in time when teams complete a focal process and change to another process. By using team communication patterns to measure process shifts, this research explores (a) when teams shift among different transition processes and initiate action processes and (b) the potential of different interventions, such as communication directives, to manipulate process shift timing and order and, ultimately, team performance. Virtual experiments are employed to compare data from observed laboratory teams not receiving interventions, simulated teams receiving interventions, and optimal simulated teams generated using genetic algorithm procedures. Our results offer insights about the potential for different interventions to affect team performance. Moreover, certain interventions may promote discussions about key issues (e.g., tactical strategies) and facilitate shifting among transition processes in a manner that emulates optimal simulated teams' communication patterns. Thus, we contribute to theory regarding team processes in 2 important ways. First, we present process shifts as a way to explore the timing of when teams shift from transition to action processes. Second, we use virtual experimentation to identify those interventions with the greatest potential to affect performance by changing when teams shift among processes. Additionally, we employ computational methods including neural networks, simulation, and optimization, thereby demonstrating their applicability in conducting team research. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. Shifting Sugars and Shifting Paradigms

    Siegal, Mark L.

    2015-01-01

    No organism lives in a constant environment. Based on classical studies in molecular biology, many have viewed microbes as following strict rules for shifting their metabolic activities when prevailing conditions change. For example, students learn that the bacterium Escherichia coli makes proteins for digesting lactose only when lactose is available and glucose, a better sugar, is not. However, recent studies, including three PLOS Biology papers examining sugar utilization in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, show that considerable heterogeneity in response to complex environments exists within and between populations. These results join similar recent results in other organisms that suggest that microbial populations anticipate predictable environmental changes and hedge their bets against unpredictable ones. The classical view therefore represents but one special case in a range of evolutionary adaptations to environmental changes that all organisms face. PMID:25688600

  11. Shifting sugars and shifting paradigms.

    Mark L Siegal

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available No organism lives in a constant environment. Based on classical studies in molecular biology, many have viewed microbes as following strict rules for shifting their metabolic activities when prevailing conditions change. For example, students learn that the bacterium Escherichia coli makes proteins for digesting lactose only when lactose is available and glucose, a better sugar, is not. However, recent studies, including three PLOS Biology papers examining sugar utilization in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, show that considerable heterogeneity in response to complex environments exists within and between populations. These results join similar recent results in other organisms that suggest that microbial populations anticipate predictable environmental changes and hedge their bets against unpredictable ones. The classical view therefore represents but one special case in a range of evolutionary adaptations to environmental changes that all organisms face.

  12. Quantized beam shifts in graphene

    de Melo Kort-Kamp, Wilton Junior [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Sinitsyn, Nikolai [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dalvit, Diego Alejandro Roberto [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-10-08

    We predict the existence of quantized Imbert-Fedorov, Goos-Hanchen, and photonic spin Hall shifts for light beams impinging on a graphene-on-substrate system in an external magnetic field. In the quantum Hall regime the Imbert-Fedorov and photonic spin Hall shifts are quantized in integer multiples of the fine structure constant α, while the Goos-Hanchen ones in multiples of α2. We investigate the influence on these shifts of magnetic field, temperature, and material dispersion and dissipation. An experimental demonstration of quantized beam shifts could be achieved at terahertz frequencies for moderate values of the magnetic field.

  13. Shifting Blame?

    Garofalo, Orsola; Rott, Christina

    2017-01-01

    Decision makers frequently have a spokesperson communicate their decisions. In this paper, we address two questions. First, does it matter who communicates an unfair decision? Second, does it matter how the unfair decision is communicated? We conduct a modified dictator game experiment in which e...

  14. We demonstrate liquid core waveguides defined by UV to enable selective water infiltration in nanoporous polymers, creating an effective refractive index shift Δn=0.13. The mode confinement and propagation loss in these waveguides are presented

    Lassen, Mikael Østergaard; Madsen, Lars Skovgaard; Sabuncu, M.

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate an averaging process, corresponding to the harmonic-mean, that average quantum noise sources better than the basic arithmetic-mean strategy. Using simple linear optics, homodyne detection and feedforward, and it is tested on squeezed states....

  15. The Majorana Demonstrator: Progress towards showing the feasibility of a tonne-scale 76Ge neutrinoless double-beta decay experiment

    Finnerty, P.; Aguayo, E.; Amman, M.; Avignone, F. T., Iii; Barabash, A. S.; Barton, P. J.; Beene, J. R.; Bertrand, F. E.; Boswell, M.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, M.; Chan, Y.-D.; Christofferson, C. D.; Collar, J. I.; Combs, D. C.; Cooper, R. J.; Detwiler, J. A.; Doe, P. J.; Efremenko, Yu; Egorov, V.; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, S. R.; Esterline, J.; Fast, J. E.; Fields, N.; Fraenkle, F. M.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Gehman, V. M.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Green, M. P.; Guiseppe, V. E.; Gusey, K.; Hallin, A. L.; Hazama, R.; Henning, R.; Hoppe, E. W.; Horton, M.; Howard, S.; Howe, M. A.; Johnson, R. A.; Keeter, K. J.; Kidd, M. F.; Knecht, A.; Kochetov, O.; Konovalov, S. I.; Kouzes, R. T.; LaFerriere, B. D.; Leon, J.; Leviner, L. E.; Loach, J. C.; Luke, P. N.; MacMullin, S.; Marino, M. G.; Martin, R. D.; Merriman, J. H.; Miller, M. L.; Mizouni, L.; Nomachi, M.; Orrell, J. L.; Overman, N. R.; Perumpilly, G.; Phillips, D. G., Ii; Poon, A. W. P.; Radford, D. C.; Rielage, K.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Ronquest, M. C.; Schubert, A. G.; Shima, T.; Shirchenko, M.; Snavely, K. J.; Steele, D.; Strain, J.; Timkin, V.; Tornow, W.; Varner, R. L.; Vetter, K.; Vorren, K.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Yakushev, E.; Yaver, H.; Young, A. R.; Yu, C.-H.; Yumatov, V.; Majorana Collaboration

    2014-03-01

    The Majorana Demonstrator will search for the neutrinoless double-beta decay (0vββ) of the 76Ge isotope with a mixed array of enriched and natural germanium detectors. The observation of this rare decay would indicate the neutrino is its own anti-particle, demonstrate that lepton number is not conserved, and provide information on the absolute mass-scale of the neutrino. The Demonstrator is being assembled at the 4850 foot level of the Sanford Underground Research Facility in Lead, South Dakota. The array will be contained in a low-background environment and surrounded by passive and active shielding. The goals for the Demonstrator are: demonstrating a background rate less than 3 t-1 y-1 in the 4 keV region of interest (ROI) surrounding the 2039 keV 76Ge endpoint energy; establishing the technology required to build a tonne-scale germanium based double-beta decay experiment; testing the recent claim of observation of 0vββ [1]; and performing a direct search for light WIMPs (3-10 GeV/c2).

  16. Chemical shift imaging: a review

    Brateman, L.

    1986-01-01

    Chemical shift is the phenomenon that is seen when an isotope possessing a nuclear magnetic dipole moment resonates at a spectrum of resonance frequencies in a given magnetic field. These resonance frequencies, or chemical shifts, depend on the chemical environments of particular nuclei. Mapping the spatial distribution of nuclei associated with a particular chemical shift (e.g., hydrogen nuclei associated with water molecules or with lipid groups) is called chemical shift imaging. Several techniques of proton chemical shift imaging that have been applied in vivo are presented, and their clinical findings are reported and summarized. Acquiring high-resolution spectra for large numbers of volume elements in two or three dimensions may be prohibitive because of time constraints, but other methods of imaging lipid of water distributions (i.e., selective excitation, selective saturation, or variations in conventional magnetic resonance imaging pulse sequences) can provide chemical shift information. These techniques require less time, but they lack spectral information. Since fat deposition seen by chemical shift imaging may not be demonstrated by conventional magnetic resonance imaging, certain applications of chemical shift imaging, such as in the determination of fatty liver disease, have greater diagnostic utility than conventional magnetic resonance imaging. Furthermore, edge artifacts caused by chemical shift effects can be eliminated by certain selective methods of data acquisition employed in chemical shift imaging

  17. Adaptation to Shift Work: Physiologically Based Modeling of the Effects of Lighting and Shifts’ Start Time

    Postnova, Svetlana; Robinson, Peter A.; Postnov, Dmitry D.

    2013-01-01

    Shift work has become an integral part of our life with almost 20% of the population being involved in different shift schedules in developed countries. However, the atypical work times, especially the night shifts, are associated with reduced quality and quantity of sleep that leads to increase of sleepiness often culminating in accidents. It has been demonstrated that shift workers’ sleepiness can be improved by a proper scheduling of light exposure and optimizing shifts timing. Here, an integrated physiologically-based model of sleep-wake cycles is used to predict adaptation to shift work in different light conditions and for different shift start times for a schedule of four consecutive days of work. The integrated model combines a model of the ascending arousal system in the brain that controls the sleep-wake switch and a human circadian pacemaker model. To validate the application of the integrated model and demonstrate its utility, its dynamics are adjusted to achieve a fit to published experimental results showing adaptation of night shift workers (n = 8) in conditions of either bright or regular lighting. Further, the model is used to predict the shift workers’ adaptation to the same shift schedule, but for conditions not considered in the experiment. The model demonstrates that the intensity of shift light can be reduced fourfold from that used in the experiment and still produce good adaptation to night work. The model predicts that sleepiness of the workers during night shifts on a protocol with either bright or regular lighting can be significantly improved by starting the shift earlier in the night, e.g.; at 21∶00 instead of 00∶00. Finally, the study predicts that people of the same chronotype, i.e. with identical sleep times in normal conditions, can have drastically different responses to shift work depending on their intrinsic circadian and homeostatic parameters. PMID:23308206

  18. Thought about Strategic Demonstration Simulation Warfare Experiment%关于战略级推演模拟型作战实验的思考

    周绍亮; 李雄; 董斐; 付佳

    2011-01-01

    Abstract:Based on classification of warfare experiments, the concept of strategic demonstration simulation warfare experiment is defined. From the standpoint of establishment of national strategic goals, grasping of international situation and education of joint operation command talents, the function and signification of strategic demonstration simulation warfare experiment are discussed. The basic requirements on military strategic policy, coordinated development of army construction and military operations, warfare lab and warfare experiment technologies are analyzed. The strategic demonstration simulation warfare lab is designed by presenting its functional framework, logic concept framework and running mode. The research results provide theoretical reference to promoting innovation development of warfare experiment.%摘要:在划分作战实验类别的基础上,界定了战略级推演模拟型作战实验的基本概念;从国家战略目标确立、国际局势把握、联合作战指挥人才培养的角度,阐述了战略级推演模拟型作战实验的作用及意义;从以军事战略方针为指导、与军队建设和军事作战协调发展、以作战实验机构为依托、以作战实验技术手段为支撑的角度,分析了战略级推演模拟型作战实验的基本要求;从功能结构、逻辑概念结构、运行模式的角度,进行了战略级推演模拟型作战实验室的初步设计。研究结果可为推动作战实验的创新发展提供理论参考。

  19. Stowage Planning in Multiple Ports with Shifting Fee Minimization

    E. Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the problem of stowage planning within a vessel bay in a multiple port transportation route, aiming at minimizing the total container shifting fee. Since the access to containers is in the top-to-bottom order for each stack, reshuffle operations occur when a target container to be unloaded at its destination port is not stowed on the top of a stack at the time. Each container shift via a quay crane induces one unit of shifting fee that depends on the charge policy of the local container port. Previous studies assume that each container shift consumes a uniform cost in all ports and thus focus on minimizing the total number of shifts or the turnaround time of the vessel. Motivated by the observation that different ports are of nonuniform fee for each container shift, we propose a mixed integer programming (MIP model for the problem to produce an optimal stowage planning with minimum total shifting fee in this work. Moreover, as the considered problem is NP-hard due to the NP-hardness of its counterpart with uniform unit shifting fee, we propose an improved genetic algorithm to solve the problem. The efficiency of the proposed algorithm is demonstrated via numerical experiments.

  20. Proposal on experience learning of a nuclear reactor for children in future. A basic concept on a nuclear reactor facility for demonstration and education

    Murata, Takashi; Yoshiki, Nobuya; Kinehara, Yoshiki; Nakagawa, Haruo

    2001-01-01

    The Science Council of Japan indicates in a proposal on R and D on nuclear energy forward the 21st Century that it is important to expand the educational object on nuclear energy from colleges and gradual schools to elementary, middle high schools. And, the Committee of Japan Nuclear Energy Industries also proposed that as an effort forward security of reliability and popularization of knowledge, completeness of learning chance on energy and nuclear energy in education such as usage of general learning time, concept on establishment of educational reactor for demonstration and experience, is essential. Here was described on a concept on establishment of nuclear reactor for demonstration and experience at objectives of common national peoples, which was based on results of searches and investigations carried out by authors and aimed to supply to a field to grow up a literary adequately and widely capable of judging various information on the peoples by focusing to effectiveness of empirical learning as a method of promoting corrective understanding of common citizens on high class technical system and by establishment of the reactor aiming at general education on nuclear energy at a place easily accessible by common citizens, such as large city. (G.K.)

  1. Proposal on experience learning of a nuclear reactor for children in future. A basic concept on a nuclear reactor facility for demonstration and education

    Murata, Takashi [Kyoto Univ., Graduate School of Energy Science, Kyoto (Japan); Yoshiki, Nobuya; Kinehara, Yoshiki; Nakagawa, Haruo

    2001-12-01

    The Science Council of Japan indicates in a proposal on R and D on nuclear energy forward the 21st Century that it is important to expand the educational object on nuclear energy from colleges and gradual schools to elementary, middle high schools. And, the Committee of Japan Nuclear Energy Industries also proposed that as an effort forward security of reliability and popularization of knowledge, completeness of learning chance on energy and nuclear energy in education such as usage of general learning time, concept on establishment of educational reactor for demonstration and experience, is essential. Here was described on a concept on establishment of nuclear reactor for demonstration and experience at objectives of common national peoples, which was based on results of searches and investigations carried out by authors and aimed to supply to a field to grow up a literary adequately and widely capable of judging various information on the peoples by focusing to effectiveness of empirical learning as a method of promoting corrective understanding of common citizens on high class technical system and by establishment of the reactor aiming at general education on nuclear energy at a place easily accessible by common citizens, such as large city. (G.K.)

  2. Tested Demonstrations.

    Gilbert, George L.

    1983-01-01

    An apparatus is described in which effects of pressure, volume, and temperature changes on a gas can be observed simultaneously. Includes use of the apparatus in demonstrating Boyle's, Gay-Lussac's, and Charles' Laws, attractive forces, Dalton's Law of Partial pressures, and in illustrating measurable vapor pressures of liquids and some solids.…

  3. Tested Demonstrations.

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Describes two demonstrations to illustrate characteristics of substances. Outlines a method to detect the changes in pH levels during the electrolysis of water. Uses water pistols, one filled with methane gas and the other filled with water, to illustrate the differences in these two substances. (TW)

  4. Making the Shift: A Phenomenological Study of Teachers' Experiences in a Student-Centered, 21st Century Laptop Program

    Rizzo, Susan Kay

    2013-01-01

    As one-to-one laptop environments are becoming more commonplace in the educational system, teachers are often expected to provide a student-centered environment that incorporates 21st century skills in effort to better prepare students for the future. Teaching in this type of environment is a difficult pedagogical shift for classroom educators.…

  5. Inexpensive Ultrasound Demonstrations as Analogs of Radio Diffraction in the field : Huygens Probe Bistatic experiment on Titan and the Sea Interferometer (Invited)

    Lorenz, R. D.

    2013-12-01

    The wave nature of electromagnetic radiation can be exploited in a number of astronomical and remote sensing methods, but is often challenging to visualize in the classroom. One approach with conveniently-inexpensive components is to use sound as an analog. Readily-available ultrasonic transducers at 40 kHz can be driven with a 555 oscillator and received intensity detected with an op-amp and visualized with a digital voltmeter, a lightbulb, or even acoustically. The wavelength of 9mm is convenient for tabletop experiments, with a relevant example being Lloyds Mirror, the interference of a direct wave from a source just above a surface with the reflected wave. As a distant receiver moves in angle through this interference pattern, a series of peaks and nulls in recorded intensity can be interpreted as the height of the transmitter and the reflectivity (i.e. with some assumptions, the roughness) of the reflecting surface. This $10 experiment will be demonstrated at the poster. Such an observation was (serendipitously) made in 2005 after the landing of the Huygens probe on the surface of Titan, where the radio signal measured by Cassini as it set on the horizon as seen from the probe underwent sharp dips in strength that were inverted into a precise measurement of the post-impact probe height. A similar technique in reverse was applied a half century earlier in early Australian radio astronomy to measure the position and width of astrophysical sources from a single clifftop antenna. Ultrasound can be convenient to emulate other radio work, exploiting Doppler effects and (for pulsed sources, like those used in rangers for amateur robotics) propagation time rather than diffraction. Some experiments on tracking Frisbees as an analog for measuring planetary winds by tracking descent probes, and on bistatic delay/Doppler scatterometry as in the CYGNSS GPS-based experiment to measure hurricane winds via sea state, will also be discussed. Huygens probe on the surface of

  6. Spacecraft Fire Safety Demonstration

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of the Spacecraft Fire Safety Demonstration project is to develop and conduct large-scale fire safety experiments on an International Space Station...

  7. Experience gained from shifting a PK-19 boiler to operate with increased superheating and with a load higher than its rated value

    Kholshchev, V. V.

    2011-08-01

    Failures of steam superheater tubes occurred after the boiler was shifted to operate with a steam temperature of 540°C. The operation of the steam superheater became more reliable after it had been subjected to retrofitting. The modernization scheme is described. An estimate is given to the temperature operating conditions of tubes taking into account the thermal-hydraulic nonuniformity of their heating.

  8. The shifting beverage landscape.

    Storey, Maureen

    2010-04-26

    STOREY, M.L. The shifting beverage landscape. PHYSIOL BEHAV, 2010. - Simultaneous lifestyle changes have occurred in the last few decades, creating an imbalance in energy intake and energy expenditure that has led to overweight and obesity. Trends in the food supply show that total daily calories available per capita increased 28% since 1970. Total energy intake among men and women has also increased dramatically since that time. Some have suggested that intake of beverages has had a disproportional impact on obesity. Data collected by the Beverage Marketing Corporation between 1988-2008 demonstrate that, in reality, fewer calories per ounce are being produced by the beverage industry. Moreover, data from the National Cancer Institute show that soft drink intake represents 5.5% of daily calories. Data from NHANES 1999-2003 vs. 2003-06 may demonstrate a shift in beverage consumption for age/gender groups, ages 6 to>60years. The beverages provided in schools have significantly changed since 2006 when the beverage industry implemented School Beverage Guidelines. This voluntary action has removed full-calorie soft drinks from participating schools across the country. This shift to lower-calorie and smaller-portion beverages in school has led to a significant decrease in total beverage calories in schools. These data support the concept that to prevent and treat obesity, public health efforts should focus on energy balance and that a narrow focus on sweetened beverages is unlikely to have any meaningful impact on this complex problem. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Smart grid demonstrators and experiments in France: Economic assessments of smart grids. Challenges, methods, progress status and demonstrators; Contribution of 'smart grid' demonstrators to electricity transport and market architectures; Challenges and contributions of smart grid demonstrators to the distribution network. Focus on the integration of decentralised production; Challenges and contributions of smart grid demonstrators to the evolution of providing-related professions and to consumption practices

    Sudret, Thierry; Belhomme, Regine; Nekrassov, Andrei; Chartres, Sophie; Chiappini, Florent; Drouineau, Mathilde; Hadjsaid, Nouredine; Leonard, Cedric; Bena, Michel; Buhagiar, Thierry; Lemaitre, Christian; Janssen, Tanguy; Guedou, Benjamin; Viana, Maria Sebastian; Malarange, Gilles; Hadjsaid, Nouredine; Petit, Marc; Lehec, Guillaume; Jahn, Rafael; Gehain, Etienne

    2015-01-01

    This publication proposes a set of four articles which give an overview of challenges and contributions of smart grid demonstrators for the French electricity system according to different perspectives and different stakeholders. These articles present the first lessons learned from these demonstrators in terms of technical and technological innovations, of business and regulation models, and of customer behaviour and acceptance. More precisely, the authors discuss economic assessments of smart grids with an overview of challenges, methods, progress status and existing smart grid programs in the World, comment the importance of the introduction of intelligence at hardware, software and market level, highlight the challenges and contributions of smart grids for the integration of decentralised production, and discuss how smart grid demonstrators impact providing-related professions and customer consumption practices

  10. Representational shifts made visible: Movement away from the prototype in memory for hue

    Laura Jane Kelly

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In four experiments, a total of 205 participants studied individual color patches and were given an old-new recognition test after a brief retention interval (0.5 or 5.0 s. The pattern of false alarms revealed hue memory shifting away from the prototype of the hue’s basic color category. The shifts demonstrate that hue memory is influenced by categorization early in processing. The shifts did not depend on intentional categorization; the shifts were found even when participants made preference ratings at encoding rather than labeling judgments. Overall, we found that categorization and memory are deeply intertwined from perception onward. We discuss the impact of the results on theories of memory and categorization, including the effects of category labels on memory (e.g., Lupyan, 2008. We also put forward the hypothesis that atypical shifts in hue are related to atypical shifts that have previously observed in face recognition (Rhodes et al., 1987.

  11. A visão do estudante de enfermagem sobre o desenvolvimento do estágio curricular no período noturno The view of the college students nursing about the development of the curriculary experience on the night shift

    Isabel Cristina dos Santos Oliveira

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Estudo preliminar baseado no método qualitativo visando conhecer a opinião dos estudantes de Enfermagem do 7º período sobre o desenvolvimento do estágio no período noturno. Foram identificados nos trinta relatos os seguintes aspectos: importância da experiência; participação da enfermeira e da equipe de saúde; e diferença entre o período diurno e noturno. A maioria dos relatos demonstrou que a experiência foi válida devido apenas ao relacionamento da enfermeira e da equipe de saúde, e que não houve uma contribuição efetiva no aprendizado. Os relatos destacaram a diferença entre a assistência de enfermagem nos dois períodos. Concluiu-se que é necessário um debate amplo do corpo docente e discente sobre os objetivos do estágio no período noturno como uma das experiências curriculares para a formação profissional.This preliminary work was based in the qualitative method, about the opinion of the College students nursing in the seventh (7h stage of the course about the development of the curriculary experience on the night shift. Thirty (30 relates were identifyed in the respective aspects: importance of the experiences, relationship between overseer nurse and multidisciplinary health care team; difference between day shift and night shift. The most part of the related demonstrates that it's been valided and they've given emphasis, only, in relationship between overseer nurse and multidisciplinary health care team, without emphasizing the effective contribution on the practice knowledge. The relatings emphasized the difference among the shifts. It follows that is necessary an extense discussion of the teachers, nursing body and college students nursing body, under the effective objectives of the practice curriculary experience for professional qualification.

  12. The processing of enriched germanium for the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR and R&D for a next generation double-beta decay experiment

    Abgrall, N.; Arnquist, I. J.; Avignone, F. T., III; Barabash, A. S.; Bertrand, F. E.; Bradley, A. W.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, M.; Buuck, M.; Caja, J.; Caja, M.; Caldwell, T. S.; Christofferson, C. D.; Chu, P.-H.; Cuesta, C.; Detwiler, J. A.; Dunagan, C.; Dunstan, D. T.; Efremenko, Yu.; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, S. R.; Gilliss, T.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Goett, J.; Green, M. P.; Gruszko, J.; Guinn, I. S.; Guiseppe, V. E.; Haufe, C. R. S.; Henning, R.; Hoppe, E. W.; Jasinski, B. R.; Kidd, M. F.; Konovalov, S. I.; Kouzes, R. T.; Lopez, A. M.; MacMullin, J.; Martin, R. D.; Massarczyk, R.; Meijer, S. J.; Mertens, S.; Meyer, J. H.; Myslik, J.; O'Shaughnessy, C.; Poon, A. W. P.; Radford, D. C.; Rager, J.; Reine, A. L.; Reising, J. A.; Rielage, K.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Shanks, B.; Shirchenko, M.; Suriano, A. M.; Tedeschi, D.; Toth, L. M.; Trimble, J. E.; Varner, R. L.; Vasilyev, S.; Vetter, K.; Vorren, K.; White, B. R.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wiseman, C.; Xu, W.; Yakushev, E.; Yu, C.-H.; Yumatov, V.; Zhitnikov, I.; Zhu, B. X.

    2018-01-01

    The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR is an array of point-contact Ge detectors fabricated from Ge isotopically enriched to 88% in 76 Ge to search for neutrinoless double beta decay. The processing of Ge for germanium detectors is a well-known technology. However, because of the high cost of Ge enriched in 76 Ge special procedures were required to maximize the yield of detector mass and to minimize exposure to cosmic rays. These procedures include careful accounting for the material; shielding it to reduce cosmogenic generation of radioactive isotopes; and development of special reprocessing techniques for contaminated solid germanium, shavings, grindings, acid etchant and cutting fluids from detector fabrication. Processing procedures were developed that resulted in a total yield in detector mass of 70%. However, none of the acid-etch solution and only 50% of the cutting fluids from detector fabrication were reprocessed. Had they been processed, the projections for the recovery yield would be between 80% and 85%. Maximizing yield is critical to justify a possible future ton-scale experiment. A process for recovery of germanium from the acid-etch solution was developed with yield of about 90%. All material was shielded or stored underground whenever possible to minimize the formation of 68Ge by cosmic rays, which contributes background in the double-beta decay region of interest and cannot be removed by zone refinement and crystal growth. Formation of 68Ge was reduced by a significant factor over that in natural abundance detectors not protected from cosmic rays.

  13. Study on the stability of a single-phase natural circulation flow in a closed loop. Demonstrative experiments on the higher-mode density wave oscillation

    Nishihara, Takashi

    1997-01-01

    Single-phase natural circulation loops are very important systems driven by the density variation generated thermally and have various applications in energy systems. Many theoretical and experimental works have been carried out on them and it has been known that the oscillatory instability can occur under some conditions. Most of the works on the oscillatory instability have been limited to specific geometry of the loops and they have paid attention only to the instability of fundamental mode, which has the period approximately equal to the item that the fluid goes round the loop, hereinafter referred to as the typical period. The author had applied the linear stability analysis to the simplified rectangular loop to investigate the basic stability characteristics of a natural circulation flow in a closed loop. The results indicate that various higher-mode oscillatory instabilities can be caused with a period approximately equal to one nth of the typical period according to parameters such as the pressure loss coefficient, the locations of a heat source and a heat sink, and so on. In this report, experimental tests were carried out and it was demonstrated that the higher-mode oscillatory instability can be caused with features as predicted in the analysis. The stability analysis was applied to the geometry of the experimental apparatus. The analytical results and those of experiments were compared with regard to the mode and the region of the parameters to be unstable and they have a good agreement qualitatively. (author)

  14. Phase shift extraction and wavefront retrieval from interferograms with background and contrast fluctuations

    Liu, Qian; Wang, Yang; He, Jianguo; Ji, Fang

    2015-01-01

    The fluctuations of background and contrast cause measurement errors in the phase-shifting technique. To extract the phase shifts from interferograms with background and contrast fluctuations, an iterative algorithm is represented. The phase shifts and wavefront phase are calculated in two individual steps with the least-squares method. The fluctuation factors are determined when the phase shifts are calculated, and the fluctuations are compensated when the wavefront phase is calculated. The advantage of the algorithm lies in its ability to extract phase shifts from interferograms with background and contrast fluctuations converging stably and rapidly. Simulations and experiments verify the effectiveness and reliability of the proposed algorithm. The convergence accuracy and speed are demonstrated by the simulation results. The experiment results show its ability for suppressing phase retrieval errors. (paper)

  15. Shift work and cognitive aging: a longitudinal study.

    Bokenberger, Kathleen; Ström, Peter; Dahl Aslan, Anna K; Åkerstedt, Torbjörn; Pedersen, Nancy L

    2017-09-01

    Objectives The few studies of shift work and late life cognitive functioning have yielded mixed findings. The aim of the present study is to estimate the association between shift-work experience and change in cognitive performance before and after retirement age among older adults who were gainfully employed. Methods Five hundred and ninety five participants with no dementia were followed up for a mean of 17.6 standard deviation (SD) 8.8 years from a Swedish population-based sample. Participants had self-reported information on any type of shift-work experience (ever/never) in 1984 and measures of cognitive performance (verbal, spatial, memory, processing speed, and general cognitive ability) from up to 9 waves of cognitive assessments during 1986-2012. Night work history (ever/never) from 1998-2002 was available from a subsample (N=320). Early adult cognitive test scores were available for 77 men. Results In latent growth curve modeling, there were no main effects of "any-type" or night shift work on the mean scores or rate of change in any of the cognitive domains. An interaction effect between any-type shift work and education on cognitive performance at retirement was noted. Lower-educated shift workers performed better on cognitive tests than lower-educated day workers at retirement. Sensitivity analyses, however, indicated that the interactions appeared to be driven by selection effects. Lower-educated day workers demonstrated poorer cognitive ability in early adulthood than lower-educated shift workers, who may have selected jobs entailing higher cognitive demand. Conclusion There was no difference in late-life cognitive aging between individuals with a history of working shifts compared to those who had typical day work schedules during midlife.

  16. Ontogenetic shifts of heart position in snakes.

    Lillywhite, Harvey B; Lillywhite, Steven M

    2017-08-01

    Heart position relative to total body length (TL) varies among snakes, with anterior hearts in arboreal species and more centrally located hearts in aquatic or ground-dwelling species. Anterior hearts decrease the cardiac work associated with cranial blood flow and minimize drops in cranial pressure and flow during head-up climbing. Here, we investigate whether heart position shifts intraspecifically during ontogenetic increases in TL. Insular Florida cottonmouth snakes, Agkistrodon conanti, are entirely ground-dwelling and have a mean heart position that is 33.32% TL from the head. In contrast, arboreal rat snakes, Pantherophis obsoleta, of similar lengths have a mean heart position that is 17.35% TL from the head. In both species, relative heart position shifts craniad during ontogeny, with negative slopes = -.035 and -.021% TL/cm TL in Agkistrodon and Pantherophis, respectively. Using a large morphometric data set available for Agkistrodon (N = 192 individuals, 23-140 cm TL), we demonstrate there is an anterior ontogenetic shift of the heart position within the trunk (= 4.56% trunk length from base of head to cloacal vent), independent of head and tail allometry which are both negative. However, in longer snakes > 100 cm, the heart position reverses and shifts caudally in longer Agkistrodon but continues toward the head in longer individuals of Pantherophis. Examination of data sets for two independent lineages of fully marine snakes (Acrochordus granulatus and Hydrophis platurus), which do not naturally experience postural gravity stress, demonstrate both ontogenetic patterns for heart position that are seen in the terrestrial snakes. The anterior migration of the heart is greater in the terrestrial species, even if TL is standardized to that of the longer P. obsoleta, and compensates for about 5 mmHg gravitational pressure head if they are fully upright. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Report of experiments and evidence for ASC L2 milestone 4467 : demonstration of a legacy application's path to exascale.

    Curry, Matthew L.; Ferreira, Kurt Brian; Pedretti, Kevin Thomas Tauke; Leung, Vitus Joseph; Moreland, Kenneth D.; Lofstead, Gerald Fredrick, II; Gentile, Ann C. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Klundt, Ruth Ann; Ward, H. Lee; Laros, James H., III; Hemmert, Karl Scott; Fabian, Nathan D.; Levenhagen, Michael J.; Barrett, Brian W.; Brightwell, Ronald Brian; Barrett, Richard; Wheeler, Kyle Bruce; Kelly, Suzanne Marie; Rodrigues, Arun F.; Brandt, James M. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Thompson, David (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); VanDyke, John P.; Oldfield, Ron A.; Tucker, Thomas (Open Grid Computing, Inc., Austin, TX); Vaughan, Courtenay Thomas

    2012-03-01

    This report documents thirteen of Sandia's contributions to the Computational Systems and Software Environment (CSSE) within the Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) program between fiscal years 2009 and 2012. It describes their impact on ASC applications. Most contributions are implemented in lower software levels allowing for application improvement without source code changes. Improvements are identified in such areas as reduced run time, characterizing power usage, and Input/Output (I/O). Other experiments are more forward looking, demonstrating potential bottlenecks using mini-application versions of the legacy codes and simulating their network activity on Exascale-class hardware. The purpose of this report is to prove that the team has completed milestone 4467-Demonstration of a Legacy Application's Path to Exascale. Cielo is expected to be the last capability system on which existing ASC codes can run without significant modifications. This assertion will be tested to determine where the breaking point is for an existing highly scalable application. The goal is to stretch the performance boundaries of the application by applying recent CSSE RD in areas such as resilience, power, I/O, visualization services, SMARTMAP, lightweight LWKs, virtualization, simulation, and feedback loops. Dedicated system time reservations and/or CCC allocations will be used to quantify the impact of system-level changes to extend the life and performance of the ASC code base. Finally, a simulation of anticipated exascale-class hardware will be performed using SST to supplement the calculations. Determine where the breaking point is for an existing highly scalable application: Chapter 15 presented the CSSE work that sought to identify the breaking point in two ASC legacy applications-Charon and CTH. Their mini-app versions were also employed to complete the task. There is no single breaking point as more than one issue was found with the two codes. The results were

  18. Latina/o Undergraduate Students Mentoring Latina/o Elementary Students: A Borderlands Analysis of Shifting Identities and First-Year Experiences

    Bernal, Dolores Delgado; Aleman, Enrique, Jr.; Garavito, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the experiences of first-year Latina/o undergraduates at a predominantly white institution. Through a borderlands analysis, the authors explore how these students describe their experiences participating in an ethnic studies course and mentoring Latina/o elementary schoolchildren. The authors find that these experiences…

  19. On the energy shift the ECC cusp. Does the shift really exist?

    Sarkadi, L.; Barrachina, R.O.

    2004-01-01

    The cusplike 'electron capture to the continuum' (ECC) peak appearing in the spectrum of the forward emitted electrons in ion-atom collisions are generally thought to be a divergence. Recently Shah et al., however, claimed that 'the ECC cusp is indeed a cusp, and not a divergence smoothed by the experiment'. These authors measured the ECC cusp for collisions of 10- and 20-keV protons with H 2 and He, and found that the peak was shifted to lower velocity than its expected position. We also carried out CTMC calculations (for the case of 20-keV protons on He) by which we demonstrated that the shift really exists but its value depends on the angular window of the electron detection. (K.A.)

  20. Repetition and Translation Shifts

    Simon Zupan

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Repetition manifests itself in different ways and at different levels of the text. The first basic type of repetition involves complete recurrences; in which a particular textual feature repeats in its entirety. The second type involves partial recurrences; in which the second repetition of the same textual feature includes certain modifications to the first occurrence. In the article; repetitive patterns in Edgar Allan Poe’s short story “The Fall of the House of Usher” and its Slovene translation; “Konec Usherjeve hiše”; are compared. The author examines different kinds of repetitive patterns. Repetitions are compared at both the micro- and macrostructural levels. As detailed analyses have shown; considerable microstructural translation shifts occur in certain types of repetitive patterns. Since these are not only occasional; sporadic phenomena; but are of a relatively high frequency; they reduce the translated text’s potential for achieving some of the gothic effects. The macrostructural textual property particularly affected by these shifts is the narrator’s experience as described by the narrative; which suffers a reduction in intensity.

  1. The shifting demographic landscape of pandemic influenza.

    Shweta Bansal

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available As Pandemic (H1N1 2009 influenza spreads around the globe, it strikes school-age children more often than adults. Although there is some evidence of pre-existing immunity among older adults, this alone may not explain the significant gap in age-specific infection rates.Based on a retrospective analysis of pandemic strains of influenza from the last century, we show that school-age children typically experience the highest attack rates in primarily naive populations, with the burden shifting to adults during the subsequent season. Using a parsimonious network-based mathematical model which incorporates the changing distribution of contacts in the susceptible population, we demonstrate that new pandemic strains of influenza are expected to shift the epidemiological landscape in exactly this way.Our analysis provides a simple demographic explanation for the age bias observed for H1N1/09 attack rates, and suggests that this bias may shift in coming months. These results have significant implications for the allocation of public health resources for H1N1/09 and future influenza pandemics.

  2. A Space Experiment to Measure the Atomic Oxygen Erosion of Polymers and Demonstrate a Technique to Identify Sources of Silicone Contamination

    Banks, Bruce A.; deGroh, Kim K.; Baney-Barton, Elyse; Sechkar, Edward A.; Hunt, Patricia K.; Willoughby, Alan; Bemer, Meagan; Hope, Stephanie; Koo, Julie; Kaminski, Carolyn; hide

    1999-01-01

    A low Earth orbital space experiment entitled, "Polymers Erosion And Contamination Experiment", (PEACE) has been designed as a Get-Away Special (GAS Can) experiment to be accommodated as a Shuttle in-bay environmental exposure experiment. The first objective is to measure the atomic oxygen erosion yields of approximately 40 different polymeric materials by mass loss and erosion measurements using atomic force microscopy. The second objective is to evaluate the capability of identifying sources of silicone contamination through the use of a pin-hole contamination camera which utilizes environmental atomic oxygen to produce a contaminant source image on an optical substrate.

  3. Observation of the Goos-Haenchen Shift with Neutrons

    Haan, Victor-O. de; Plomp, Jeroen; Rekveldt, Theo M.; Kraan, Wicher H.; Well, Ad A. van; Dalgliesh, Robert M.; Langridge, Sean

    2010-01-01

    The Goos-Haenchen effect is a spatial shift along an interface resulting from an interference effect that occurs for total internal reflection. This phenomenon was suggested by Sir Isaac Newton, but it was not until 1947 that the effect was experimentally observed by Goos and Haenchen. We provide the first direct, absolute, experimental determination of the Goos-Haenchen shift for a particle experiencing a potential well as required by quantum mechanics: namely, wave-particle duality. Here, the particle is a spin-polarized neutron reflecting from a film of magnetized material. We detect the effect through a subtle change in polarization of the neutron. Here, we demonstrate, through experiment and theory, that neutrons do exhibit the Goos-Haenchen effect and postulate that the associated time shift should also be observable.

  4. Observation of the Goos-Hänchen shift with neutrons.

    de Haan, Victor-O; Plomp, Jeroen; Rekveldt, Theo M; Kraan, Wicher H; van Well, Ad A; Dalgliesh, Robert M; Langridge, Sean

    2010-01-08

    The Goos-Hänchen effect is a spatial shift along an interface resulting from an interference effect that occurs for total internal reflection. This phenomenon was suggested by Sir Isaac Newton, but it was not until 1947 that the effect was experimentally observed by Goos and Hänchen. We provide the first direct, absolute, experimental determination of the Goos-Hänchen shift for a particle experiencing a potential well as required by quantum mechanics: namely, wave-particle duality. Here, the particle is a spin-polarized neutron reflecting from a film of magnetized material. We detect the effect through a subtle change in polarization of the neutron. Here, we demonstrate, through experiment and theory, that neutrons do exhibit the Goos-Hänchen effect and postulate that the associated time shift should also be observable.

  5. Micropatch Antenna Phase Shifting

    Thursby, Michael

    2000-01-01

    .... We have been looking at the ability of embedded element to adjust the phase shift seen by the element with the goal of being able to remove the phase shifting devices from the antenna and replace...

  6. Micropatch Antenna Phase Shifting

    Thursby, Michael

    1999-01-01

    .... We have been looking at the ability of embedded element to adjust the phase shift seen by the element wit the goal of being able to remove the phase shifting devices from the antenna and replace...

  7. OpenShift Workshop

    CERN. Geneva; Rodriguez Peon, Alberto

    2017-01-01

    Workshop to introduce developers to the OpenShift platform available at CERN. Several use cases will be shown, including deploying an existing application into OpenShift. We expect attendees to realize about OpenShift features and general architecture of the service.

  8. Inseparable Phone Books Demonstration

    Balta, Nuri; Çetin, Ali

    2017-01-01

    This study is aimed at first introducing a well-known discrepant event; inseparable phone books and second, turning it into an experiment for high school or middle school students. This discrepant event could be used especially to indicate how friction force can be effective in producing an unexpected result. Demonstration, discussion, explanation…

  9. Waste and Disposal: Demonstration

    Neerdael, B.; Buyens, M.; De Bruyn, D.; Volckaert, G.

    2002-01-01

    Within the Belgian R and D programme on geological disposal, demonstration experiments have become increasingly important. In this contribution to the scientific report 2001, an overview is given of SCK-CEN's activities and achievements in the field of large-scale demonstration experiments. In 2001, main emphasis was on the PRACLAY project, which is a large-scale experiment to demonstrate the construction and the operation of a gallery for the disposal of HLW in a clay formation. The PRACLAY experiment will contribute to enhance understanding of water flow and mass transport in dense clay-based materials as well as to improve the design of the reference disposal concept. In the context of PRACLAY, a surface experiment (OPHELIE) has been developed to prepare and to complement PRACLAY-related experimental work in the HADES Underground Research Laboratory. In 2001, efforts were focussed on the operation of the OPHELIE mock-up. SCK-CEN also contributed to the SELFRAC roject which studies the self-healing of fractures in a clay formation

  10. Calibrated Phase-Shifting Digital Holographic Microscope Using a Sampling Moiré Technique

    Peng Xia

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available A calibrated phase-shifting digital holographic microscope system capable of improving the quality of reconstructed images is proposed. Phase-shifting errors are introduced in phase-shifted holograms for numerous reasons, such as the non-linearity of piezoelectric transducers (PZTs, wavelength fluctuations in lasers, and environmental disturbances, leading to poor-quality reconstructions. In our system, in addition to the camera used to record object information, an extra camera is used to record interferograms, which are used to analyze phase-shifting errors using a sampling Moiré technique. The quality of the reconstructed object images can be improved by the phase-shifting error compensation algorithm. Both the numerical simulation and experiment demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed system.

  11. SAT in shift manager training

    Lecuyer, F.

    1995-01-01

    EDF has improved the organization of the operation shift teams with the replacement of shift supervisor in shift manager function. The shift manager is not only responsible for tasks associated to plant operation (production), but he is also responsible for safety of these tasks and for management of shift team members. A job analysis of this new job position has been performed in order to design the training programme. It resulted in a 10-month training programme that includes 8 weeks in safety-related topics and 12 weeks in soft-skills related topics. The safety related training courses are mandatory, the other courses are optional courses depending on individual trainee needs. The training also includes the development of management competencies. During the 10 month period, each trainee develops an individual project that is evaluated by NPP manager. As well, as group project is undertaken by the trainees and overseen by a steering committee. The steering committee participates in the evaluation process and provides operational experience feedback to the trainee groups and to the overall programme

  12. Hippocampal theta frequency shifts and operant behaviour

    Lopes da Silva, F.H.; Kamp, A.

    1. 1. A shift of hippocampal dominant theta frequency to 6 c/sec has been demonstrated in the post-reward period in two dogs, which occurs consistently related in time to a well defined behavioural pattern in the course of an operant conditioning paradigm. 2. 2. The frequency shift was detected and

  13. Lambda shifted photonic crystal cavity laser

    Schubert, Martin; Skovgård, Troels Suhr; Ek, Sara

    2010-01-01

    We propose and demonstrate an alternative type of photonic crystal laser design that shifts all the holes in the lattice by a fixed fraction of the targeted emission wavelength. The structures are realized in InGaAsP =1.15 with InGaAsP quantum wells =1.52 as gain material. Cavities with shifts of...

  14. Reduced Tolerance to Night Shift in Chronic Shift Workers: Insight From Fractal Regulation.

    Li, Peng; Morris, Christopher J; Patxot, Melissa; Yugay, Tatiana; Mistretta, Joseph; Purvis, Taylor E; Scheer, Frank A J L; Hu, Kun

    2017-07-01

    Healthy physiology is characterized by fractal regulation (FR) that generates similar structures in the fluctuations of physiological outputs at different time scales. Perturbed FR is associated with aging and age-related pathological conditions. Shift work, involving repeated and chronic exposure to misaligned environmental and behavioral cycles, disrupts circadian coordination. We tested whether night shifts perturb FR in motor activity and whether night shifts affect FR in chronic shift workers and non-shift workers differently. We studied 13 chronic shift workers and 14 non-shift workers as controls using both field and in-laboratory experiments. In the in-laboratory study, simulated night shifts were used to induce a misalignment between the endogenous circadian pacemaker and the sleep-wake cycles (ie, circadian misalignment) while environmental conditions and food intake were controlled. In the field study, we found that FR was robust in controls but broke down in shift workers during night shifts, leading to more random activity fluctuations as observed in patients with dementia. The night shift effect was present even 2 days after ending night shifts. The in-laboratory study confirmed that night shifts perturbed FR in chronic shift workers and showed that FR in controls was more resilience to the circadian misalignment. Moreover, FR during real and simulated night shifts was more perturbed in those who started shift work at older ages. Chronic shift work causes night shift intolerance, which is probably linked to the degraded plasticity of the circadian control system. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. The Development of a Field Services Network for a Satellite-Based Educational Telecommunications Experiment. Satellite Technology Demonstration, Technical Report No. 0333.

    Anderson, Frank; And Others

    The Satellite Technology Demonstration (STD) of the Federation of Rocky Mountain States (FRMS) employed a technical delivery system to merge effectively hardware and software, products and services. It also needed a nontechnical component to insure product and service acceptance. Accordingly, the STD's Utilization Component was responsible for…

  16. The Development of a Materials Distribution Service for a Satellite-Based Educational Telecommunications Experiment. Satellite Technology Demonstration, Technical Report No. 0501.

    Lonsdale, Helen C.

    Because 16mm film programs for classroom use are expensive and distribution is unpredictable, the Satellite Technology Demonstration (STD) established a Materials Distribution Service (MDS) to transmit material via satellite to rural sites in the Rocky Mountains. The STD leased 300 programs from Encyclopedia Britannica Educational Corporation and…

  17. Shifting schedules: the health effects of reorganizing shift work.

    Bambra, Clare L; Whitehead, Margaret M; Sowden, Amanda J; Akers, Joanne; Petticrew, Mark P

    2008-05-01

    Approximately one fifth of workers are engaged in some kind of shift work. The harmful effects of shift work on the health and work-life balance of employees are well known. A range of organizational interventions has been suggested to address these negative effects. This study undertook the systematic review (following Quality Of Reporting Of Meta [QUORUM] analyses guidelines) of experimental and quasi-experimental studies, from any country (in any language) that evaluated the effects on health and work-life balance of organizational-level interventions that redesign shift work schedules. Twenty-seven electronic databases (medical, social science, economic) were searched. Data extraction and quality appraisal were carried out by two independent reviewers. Narrative synthesis was performed. The review was conducted between October 2005 and November 2006. Twenty-six studies were found relating to a variety of organizational interventions. No one type of intervention was found to be consistently harmful to workers. However, three types were found to have beneficial effects on health and work-life balance: (1) switching from slow to fast rotation, (2) changing from backward to forward rotation, and (3) self-scheduling of shifts. Improvements were usually at little or no direct organizational cost. However, there were concerns about the generalizability of the evidence, and no studies reported on impacts on health inequalities. This review reinforces the findings of epidemiologic and laboratory-based research by suggesting that certain organizational-level interventions can improve the health of shift workers, their work-life balance, or both. This evidence could be useful when designing interventions to improve the experience of shift work.

  18. Shift in the species composition of the diatom community in the eutrophic Mauritanian coastal upwelling: Results from a multi-year sediment trap experiment (2003-2010)

    Romero, Oscar E.; Fischer, Gerhard

    2017-12-01

    A multiannual, continuous sediment trap experiment was conducted at the mooring site CBeu (Cape Blanc eutrophic, ca. 20 °N, ca. 18 °W; trap depth = 1256-1296 m) in the high-productive Mauritanian coastal upwelling. Here we present fluxes and the species-specific composition of the diatom assemblage, and fluxes of biogenic silica (BSi, opal) and total organic carbon (TOC) for the time interval June 2003-Feb 2010. Flux ranges of studied parameters are (i) total diatoms = 1.2 ∗ 108-4.7 ∗ 104 valves m-2 d-1 (average = 5.9 × 106 valves ± 1.4 × 107); (ii) BSi = 296-0.5 mg m-2 d-1 (average = 41.1 ± 53.5 mg m-2 d-1), and (iii) TOC = 97-1 mg m-2 d-1 (average = 20.5 ± 17.8 mg m-2 d-1). Throughout the experiment, the overall good match of total diatom, BSi and TOC fluxes is reasonably consistent and reflects well the temporal occurrence of the main Mauritanian upwelling season. Spring and summer are the most favorable seasons for diatom production and sedimentation: out of the recorded 14 diatom maxima of different magnitude, six occurred in spring and four in summer. The diverse diatom community at site CBeu is composed of four main assemblages: benthic, coastal upwelling, coastal planktonic and open-ocean diatoms, reflecting different productivity conditions and water masses. A striking feature of the temporal variability of the diatom populations is the persistent pattern of seasonal groups' contribution: benthic and coastal upwelling taxa dominated during the main upwelling season in spring, while open-ocean diatoms were more abundant in fall and winter, when the upper water column becomes stratified, upwelling relaxes and productivity decreases. The relative abundance of benthic diatoms strongly increased after 2006, yet their spring-summer contribution remained high until the end of the trap experiment. The occurrence of large populations of benthic diatoms at the hemipelagic CBeu site is interpreted to indicate transport from shallow waters via nepheloid

  19. Shifting Perspectives and Practices: Teacher Candidates’ Experiences of a First Nation, Métis, and Inuit Infusion in Mainstream Teacher Education

    Melissa Marilyn Fern Blimkie

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This exploratory case study shares teacher candidates’ perspectives and experiences of the First Nation, Métis, and Inuit Infusion at ABC University’s Faculty of Education field site in XYZ, Ontario. For this initiative, Aboriginal content and pedagogies were infused throughout placements and courses of the mainstream teacher education program. Teacher candidates shared that the Infusion prepared them to teach Aboriginal content in culturally respectful and meaningful ways by providing them with a foundation to build on and helping them to develop teaching practices inclusive of diverse ways of knowing and being in the world. These findings may be useful to other educators developing and implementing their own infusion initiatives.

  20. Lamb shifts and fine-structure splittings for the muonic ions μ--Li, μ--Be, and μ--B: A proposed experiment

    Drake, G.W.F.; Byer, L.L.

    1985-01-01

    Detailed calculations are presented for the energy splittings of the states 2s/sub 1/2/-2p/sub 1/2/ and 2s/sub 1/2/-2p/sub 3/2/ for the muonic ions μ - -Li, μ - -Be, and μ - -B obtained by numerical integration of the Dirac equation. It is shown that there is severe cancellation between the vacuum polarization and finite nuclear size contributions to the energy differences, leading to transition frequencies which lie in the visible region of the spectrum. As a consequence of the cancellation, a measurement of the transition frequency would provide a sensitive probe of nuclear size and structure. The system μ - - 7 Li appears to offer particularly good possibilities for performing such an experiment

  1. Research and Implementation of Tractor Power Shift Clutch Control System

    Li Chengjun; Ke Meicong; Wu Youyu

    2018-01-01

    Applying power shift control technology on tractor can improve the power, economy and driving comfort of tractor. The separation and engagement control of clutch in tractor power shift transmission system is the key factor to optimize the quality of shift. Through many experiments and tests, an electronic control unit based on MC9S12 was developed, and an effective clutch control strategy was put forward, which improved the jerk of power shift and shortened the gear shift time.

  2. Implementing OpenShift

    Miller, Adam

    2013-01-01

    A standard tutorial-based approach to using OpenShift and deploying custom or pre-built web applications to the OpenShift Online cloud.This book is for software developers and DevOps alike who are interested in learning how to use the OpenShift Platform-as-a-Service for developing and deploying applications, how the environment works on the back end, and how to deploy their very own open source Platform-as-a-Service based on the upstream OpenShift Origin project.

  3. Insomnia in shift work.

    Vallières, Annie; Azaiez, Aïda; Moreau, Vincent; LeBlanc, Mélanie; Morin, Charles M

    2014-12-01

    Shift work disorder involves insomnia and/or excessive sleepiness associated with the work schedule. The present study examined the impact of insomnia on the perceived physical and psychological health of adults working on night and rotating shift schedules compared to day workers. A total of 418 adults (51% women, mean age 41.4 years), including 51 night workers, 158 rotating shift workers, and 209 day workers were selected from an epidemiological study. An algorithm was used to classify each participant of the two groups (working night or rotating shifts) according to the presence or absence of insomnia symptoms. Each of these individuals was paired with a day worker according to gender, age, and income. Participants completed several questionnaires measuring sleep, health, and psychological variables. Night and rotating shift workers with insomnia presented a sleep profile similar to that of day workers with insomnia. Sleep time was more strongly related to insomnia than to shift work per se. Participants with insomnia in the three groups complained of anxiety, depression, and fatigue, and reported consuming equal amounts of sleep-aid medication. Insomnia also contributed to chronic pain and otorhinolaryngology problems, especially among rotating shift workers. Work productivity and absenteeism were more strongly related to insomnia. The present study highlights insomnia as an important component of the sleep difficulties experienced by shift workers. Insomnia may exacerbate certain physical and mental health problems of shift workers, and impair their quality of life. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. P1-9: Relationship between Color Shifts in Land's Two-Color Method and Higher- and Lower-Level Visual Information

    Saki Iwaida

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Land's two-color method gives rise to apparent full-color perception, even though only two colors (e.g., red and gray are used. Previous studies indicate that chromatic adaptation, color memory, and inductive effects contribute to the shifts of color perception from real to illusory colors (e.g., Kuriki, 2006 Vision Research 46 3055–3066. This paper investigates the relationship between the color shifts induced by Land images and the skewness of the luminance histogram. In Experiment 1, several Land images are created based on a yellow ball, and the magnitude of the color shifts of the images are measured. The results of Experiment 1 show a significant correlation between the magnitude of the color shifts and skewness, suggesting that skewness is critical for the color shifts. In Experiment 2, we test the hypothesis that color shifts depends on just skewness; the color shifts should be invariant even if the Land images are scrambled. However, the results of Experiment 2 demonstrate that scrambled Land images exhibit less intense color shifts, suggesting that color shifts are determined by the object's overall shape or surface gloss, not just skewness. Taken together, we conclude that both low-level visual processes, such as those associated with luminance histogram skew, and high-level cognitive functions, such as object interpretation or understanding of surface gloss, are involved in the color shift of Land images.

  5. Design and characterization of the SiPM tracking system of NEXT-DEMO, a demonstrator prototype of the NEXT-100 experiment

    Álvarez, V; Ball, M; Cárcel, S; Cervera, A; Díaz, J; Ferrario, P; Borges, F I G; Conde, C A N; Dias, T H V T; Fernandes, L M P; Freitas, E D C; Garcia, A N C; Castel, J; Cebrián, S; Dafni, T; Egorov, M; Gehman, V M; Esteve, R; Evtoukhovitch, P; Ferreira, A L

    2013-01-01

    NEXT-100 experiment aims at searching the neutrinoless double-beta decay of the 136 Xe isotope using a TPC filled with a 100 kg of high-pressure gaseous xenon, with 90% isotopic enrichment. The experiment will take place at the Laboratorio Subterr and apos;aneo de Canfranc (LSC), Spain. NEXT-100 uses electroluminescence (EL) technology for energy measurement with a resolution better than 1% FWHM. The gaseous xenon in the TPC additionally allows the tracks of the two beta particles to be recorded, which are expected to have a length of up to 30 cm at 10 bar pressure. The ability to record the topological signature of the ββ0ν events provides a powerful background rejection factor for the ββ experiment. In this paper, we present a novel 3D imaging concept using SiPMs coated with tetraphenyl butadiene (TPB) for the EL read out and its first implementation in NEXT-DEMO, a large-scale prototype of the NEXT-100 experiment. The design and the first characterization measurements of the NEXT-DEMO SiPM tracking system are presented. The SiPM response uniformity over the tracking plane drawn from its gain map is shown to be better than 4%. An automated active control system for the stabilization of the SiPMs gain was developed, based on the voltage supply compensation of the gain drifts. The gain is shown to be stabilized within 0.2% relative variation around its nominal value, provided by Hamamatsu, in a temperature range of 10°C. The noise level from the electronics and the SiPM dark noise is shown to lay typically below the level of 10 photoelectrons (pe) in the ADC. Hence, a detection threshold at 10 pe is set for the acquisition of the tracking signals. The ADC full dynamic range (4096 channels) is shown to be adequate for signal levels of up to 200 pe/μs, which enables recording most of the tracking signals.

  6. The Majorana Demonstrator

    Aguayo, Estanislao; Fast, James E.; Hoppe, Eric W.; Keillor, Martin E.; Kephart, Jeremy D.; Kouzes, Richard T.; LaFerriere, Brian D.; Merriman, Jason H.; Orrell, John L.; Overman, Nicole R.; Avignone, Frank T.; Back, Henning O.; Combs, Dustin C.; Leviner, L.; Young, A.; Barabash, Alexander S.; Konovalov, S.; Vanyushin, I.; Yumatov, Vladimir; Bergevin, M.; Chan, Yuen-Dat; Detwiler, Jason A.; Loach, J. C.; Martin, R. D.; Poon, Alan; Prior, Gersende; Vetter, Kai; Bertrand, F.; Cooper, R. J.; Radford, D. C.; Varner, R. L.; Yu, Chang-Hong; Boswell, M.; Elliott, S.; Gehman, Victor M.; Hime, Andrew; Kidd, M. F.; LaRoque, B. H.; Rielage, Keith; Ronquest, M. C.; Steele, David; Brudanin, V.; Egorov, Viatcheslav; Gusey, K.; Kochetov, Oleg; Shirchenko, M.; Timkin, V.; Yakushev, E.; Busch, Matthew; Esterline, James H.; Tornow, Werner; Christofferson, Cabot-Ann; Horton, Mark; Howard, S.; Sobolev, V.; Collar, J. I.; Fields, N.; Creswick, R.; Doe, Peter J.; Johnson, R. A.; Knecht, A.; Leon, Jonathan D.; Marino, Michael G.; Miller, M. L.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Schubert, Alexis G.; Wolfe, B. A.; Efremenko, Yuri; Ejiri, H.; Hazama, R.; Nomachi, Masaharu; Shima, T.; Finnerty, P.; Fraenkle, Florian; Giovanetti, G. K.; Green, M.; Henning, Reyco; Howe, M. A.; MacMullin, S.; Phillips, D.; Snavely, Kyle J.; Strain, J.; Vorren, Kris R.; Guiseppe, Vincente; Keller, C.; Mei, Dong-Ming; Perumpilly, Gopakumar; Thomas, K.; Zhang, C.; Hallin, A. L.; Keeter, K.; Mizouni, Leila; Wilkerson, J. F.

    2011-09-03

    A brief review of the history and neutrino physics of double beta decay is given. A description of the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR research and development program, including background reduction techniques, is presented in some detail. The application of point contact (PC) detectors to the experiment is discussed, including the effectiveness of pulse shape analysis. The predicted sensitivity of a PC detector array enriched to 86% to 76Ge is given.

  7. Shifting the Arctic Carbon Balance: Effects of a Long-Term Fertilization Experiment and Anomalously Warm Temperatures on Net Ecosystem Exchange in the Alaskan Tundra

    Ludwig, S.; Natali, S.; Rastetter, E. B.; Shaver, G. R.; Graham, L. M.; Jastrow, J. D.

    2017-12-01

    The arctic is warming at an accelerated rate relative to the globe. Among the predicted consequences of warming temperatures in the arctic are increased gross primary productivity (GPP), ecosystem respiration (ER), and nutrient availability. The net effect of these changes on the carbon (C) cycle and resulting C balance and feedback to climate change remain unclear. Historically the Arctic has been a C sink, but evidence from recent years suggests some regions in the Arctic are becoming C sources. To predict the role of the Arctic in global C cycling, the mechanisms affecting arctic C balances need to be better resolved. We measured net ecosystem exchange (NEE) in a long-term, multi-level, fertilization experiment at Toolik Lake, AK during an anomalously warm summer. We modeled NEE, ER, and GPP using a Bayesian network model. The best-fit model included Q10 temperature functions and linear fertilization functions for both ER and GPP. ER was more strongly affected by temperature and GPP was driven more by fertilization level. As a result, fertilization increased the C sink capacity, but only at moderate and low temperatures. At high temperatures (>28 °C) the NEE modeled for the highest level of fertilization was not significantly different from zero. In contrast, at ambient nutrient levels modeled NEE was significantly below zero (net uptake) until 35 °C, when it becomes neutral. Regardless of the level of fertilization, NEE never decreased with warming. Temperature in low ranges (5-15°C) had no net effect on NEE, whereas NEE began to increase exponentially with temperature after a threshold of 15°C until becoming a net source to the atmosphere at 37°C. Our results indicate that the C sink strength of tundra ecosystems can be increased with small increases in nutrient availability, but that large increase in nutrient availability can switch tundra ecosystems into C sources under warm conditions. Warming temperatures in tundra ecosystems will only decrease C

  8. Demonstrating Heisenberg-limited unambiguous phase estimation without adaptive measurements

    Higgins, B L; Wiseman, H M; Pryde, G J; Berry, D W; Bartlett, S D; Mitchell, M W

    2009-01-01

    We derive, and experimentally demonstrate, an interferometric scheme for unambiguous phase estimation with precision scaling at the Heisenberg limit that does not require adaptive measurements. That is, with no prior knowledge of the phase, we can obtain an estimate of the phase with a standard deviation that is only a small constant factor larger than the minimum physically allowed value. Our scheme resolves the phase ambiguity that exists when multiple passes through a phase shift, or NOON states, are used to obtain improved phase resolution. Like a recently introduced adaptive technique (Higgins et al 2007 Nature 450 393), our experiment uses multiple applications of the phase shift on single photons. By not requiring adaptive measurements, but rather using a predetermined measurement sequence, the present scheme is both conceptually simpler and significantly easier to implement. Additionally, we demonstrate a simplified adaptive scheme that also surpasses the standard quantum limit for single passes.

  9. Shifted Independent Component Analysis

    Mørup, Morten; Madsen, Kristoffer Hougaard; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2007-01-01

    Delayed mixing is a problem of theoretical interest and practical importance, e.g., in speech processing, bio-medical signal analysis and financial data modelling. Most previous analyses have been based on models with integer shifts, i.e., shifts by a number of samples, and have often been carried...

  10. Homogeneous bilateral block shifts

    Douglas class were classified in [3]; they are unilateral block shifts of arbitrary block size (i.e. dim H(n) can be anything). However, no examples of irreducible homogeneous bilateral block shifts of block size larger than 1 were known until now.

  11. OpenShift cookbook

    Gulati, Shekhar

    2014-01-01

    If you are a web application developer who wants to use the OpenShift platform to host your next big idea but are looking for guidance on how to achieve this, then this book is the first step you need to take. This is a very accessible cookbook where no previous knowledge of OpenShift is needed.

  12. Josephson shift registers

    Przybysz, J.X.

    1989-01-01

    This paper gives a review of Josephson shift register circuits that were designed, fabricated, or tested, with emphasis on work in the 1980s. Operating speed is most important, since it often limits system performance. Older designs used square-wave clocks, but most modern designs use offset sine waves, with either two or three phases. Operating margins and gate bias uniformity are key concerns. The fastest measured Josephson shift register operated at 2.3 GHz, which compares well with a GaAs shift register that consumes 250 times more power. The difficulties of high-speed testing have prevented many Josephson shift registers from being operated at their highest speeds. Computer simulations suggest that 30-GHz operation is possible with current Nb/Al 2 O 3 /Nb technology. Junctions with critical current densities near 10 kA/cm 2 would make 100-GHz shift registers feasible

  13. Optics Demonstrations Using Cylindrical Lenses

    Ivanov, Dragia; Nikolov, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we consider the main properties of cylindrical lenses and propose several demonstrational experiments that can be performed with them. Specifically we use simple glasses full of water to demonstrate some basic geometrical optics principles and phenomena. We also present some less standard experiments that can be performed with such…

  14. Astronomy LITE Demonstrations

    Brecher, Kenneth

    2006-12-01

    Project LITE (Light Inquiry Through Experiments) is a materials, software, and curriculum development project. It focuses on light, optics, color and visual perception. According to two recent surveys of college astronomy faculty members, these are among the topics most often included in the large introductory astronomy courses. The project has aimed largely at the design and implementation of hands-on experiences for students. However, it has also included the development of lecture demonstrations that employ novel light sources and materials. In this presentation, we will show some of our new lecture demonstrations concerning geometrical and physical optics, fluorescence, phosphorescence and polarization. We have developed over 200 Flash and Java applets that can be used either by teachers in lecture settings or by students at home. They are all posted on the web at http://lite.bu.edu. For either purpose they can be downloaded directly to the user's computer or run off line. In lecture demonstrations, some of these applets can be used to control the light emitted by video projectors to produce physical effects in materials (e.g. fluorescence). Other applets can be used, for example, to demonstrate that the human percept of color does not have a simple relationship with the physical frequency of the stimulating source of light. Project LITE is supported by Grant #DUE-0125992 from the NSF Division of Undergraduate Education.

  15. Study on thermalhydraulics of natural circulation decay heat removal in FBR. Experiment with water of typical reactor trip in the demonstration FBR

    Koga, Tomonari; Murakami, Takahiro; Eguchi, Yuzuru

    2010-01-01

    Intending to enhance safety and to reduce costs, an FBR plant is being developed in Japan. In relies solely on natural circulation of the primary cooling loop to remove a decay heat of the core after reactor trips. A water test was carried out to advance the development. The test used a 1/10 reduced scale model simulating the core and cooling systems. The experiments simulated representative accidents from steady state to decay heat removal through reactor trip and clarified thermal-hydraulic issues on the thermal circulation performance. Some modifications of the system design were proposed for solving serious problems of natural circulation. An improved design complying with the suggestions will make it possible for natural circulation of the cooling systems to remove the decay heat of the core without causing and unstable or unpredictable change. (author)

  16. Asymmetrical effects of adaptation to left- and right-shifting prisms depends on pre-existing attentional biases.

    Goedert, Kelly M; Leblanc, Andrew; Tsai, Sen-Wei; Barrett, Anna M

    2010-09-01

    Proposals that adaptation with left-shifting prisms induces neglect-like symptoms in normal individuals rely on a dissociation between the postadaptation performance of individuals trained with left- versus right-shifting prisms (e.g., Colent, Pisella, & Rossetti, 2000). A potential problem with this evidence is that normal young adults have an a priori leftward bias (e.g., Jewell & McCourt, 2000). In Experiment 1, we compared the line bisection performance of young adults to that of aged adults, who as a group may lack a leftward bias in line bisection. Participants trained with both left- and right-shifting prisms. Consistent with our hypothesis, while young adults demonstrated aftereffects for left, but not right prisms, aged adults demonstrated reliable aftereffects for both prisms. In Experiment 2, we recruited a larger sample of young adults, some of whom were right-biased at baseline. We observed an interaction between baseline bias and prism-shift, consistent with the results of Experiment 1: Left-biased individuals showed a reduced aftereffect when training with right-shifting prisms and right-biased individuals showed a reduced aftereffect when training with left-shifting prisms. These results suggest that previous failures to find generalizable aftereffects with right-shifting prisms may be driven by participants' baseline biases rather than specific effects of the prism itself.

  17. Species invasion shifts the importance of predator dependence.

    Griffen, Blaine D; Delaney, David G

    2007-12-01

    The strength of interference between foraging individuals can influence per capita consumption rates, with important consequences for predator and prey populations and system stability. Here we demonstrate how the replacement of a previously established invader, the predatory crab Carcinus maenas, by the recently invading predatory crab Hemigrapsus sanguineus shifts predation from a species that experiences strong predator interference (strong predator dependence) to one that experiences weak predator interference (weak predator dependence). We demonstrate using field experiments that differences in the strength of predator dependence persist for these species both when they forage on a single focal prey species only (the mussel Mytilus edulis) and when they forage more broadly across the entire prey community. This shift in predator dependence with species replacement may be altering the biomass across trophic levels, consistent with theoretical predictions, as we show that H. sanguineus populations are much larger than C. maenas populations throughout their invaded ranges. Our study highlights that predator dependence may differ among predator species and demonstrates that different predatory impacts of two conspicuous invasive predators may be explained at least in part by different strengths of predator dependence.

  18. Selection of the situations taken into account for the safety demonstration of a repository in deep geological formations - French regulatory guidance and IPSN modelling experience

    Escalier des Orres, P.; Greneche, D.

    1993-01-01

    A regulatory guidance has been recently set up in France for the safety assessment of radwaste deep geological disposal: the present paper deals with the methodology related to the safety demonstration of such a disposal, particularly the situations to be taken into account to address the potential evolution of the repository under natural or human induced events. This approach, based on a selection of events considered as reasonably envisageable, relies on a reference scenario characterized by a great stability of the geological formation and on hypothetical situations corresponding to the occurrence of random events of natural origin or of conventional nature. The implementation of this methodology within the framework of the IPSN (Protection and Nuclear Safety Institute, CEA) participation in the CEC EVEREST project is addressed. This programme consists in the evaluation of the sensitivity of the radiological consequences associated to deep radwaste disposal systems to the different elements of the performance assessment (scenario characteristics, phenomena, physico-chemical parameters) in three types of geological formations (granite, salt and clay).(author). 11 refs., 3 tabs

  19. Licensing experiences, risk assessment, demonstration test on nuclear fuel packages and design criteria for sea going vessel carrying spent fuel in Japan

    Aoki, S.; Ikeda, K.

    1978-01-01

    In Japan spent fuels from nuclear power plants shall be shipped to reprocessing plants by sea-going vessels. Atomic Energy Committee has initiated a board of experts to implement the assessment of environmental safety for sea transport. As a part of the assessment a study has been conducted by Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry under sponsorship of Nuclear Safety Bureau, which is intended to guarantee the safety of sea transport. Nuclear Safety Bureau also has a program to carry out a long term demonstration test on spent fuel package using full scale package models. The test consists of drop, heat transfer, fire, collapse under high external pressure, immersion, shielding and subcritical test. The purpose of this test is to obtain the public acceptance and also to verify the adequacy of the safety analysis for nuclear fuel packages. In order to secure the safety of sea transport, the Ministry of Transportation has provided for the design criteria for sea-going vessel in the case of full load shipping, which aims to make minimum the probability of sinking at collision, grounding and other unforeseen accidents on the sea and also to retain the radiation exposure to crews as low as possible. The design criteria consists of the following items: (1) structural strength of vessel, (2) collision protective structure, (3) arrangement of holds, (4) stability after damage, (5) grounding protective structure, (6) cooling system, (7) tie-down equipment, (8) radiation inspection apparatus, (9) decontamination facilities, (10) emergency water flooding equipment for ship fire, (11) emergency electric sources, etc. Based on the design criteria a sea-going vessel names HINOURA-MARU has been reconstructed to transport spent fuel packages from nuclear power stations to the reprocessing plant

  20. Portable shift register

    Halbig, J.K.; Bourret, S.C.; Hansen, W.J.; Hicks, D.V.; Klosterbuer, S.F.; Krick, M.S.

    1994-01-01

    An electronics package for a small, battery-operated, self-contained, neutron coincidence counter based on a portable shift-register (PSR) has been developed. The counter was developed for applications not adequately addressed by commercial packages, including in-plant measurements to demonstrate compliance with regulations (domestic and international), in-plant process control, and in-field measurements (environmental monitoring or safeguards). Our package's features, which address these applications, include the following: Small size for portability and ease of installation;battery or mains operation; a built-in battery to power the unit and a typical detector such as a small sample counter, for over 6 h if power lines are bad or noisy, if there is a temporary absence of power, or if portability is desired; complete support, including bias, for standard neutron detectors; a powerful communications package to easily facilitate robust external control over a serial port; and a C-library to simplify creating external control programs in computers or other controllers. Whereas the PSR specifically addresses the applications mentioned above, it also performs all the measurements made by previous electronics packages for neutron coincidence counters developed at Los Alamos and commercialized. The PSR electronics package, exclusive of carrying handle, is 8 by 10 by 20 cm; it contains the circuit boards, battery, and bias supply and weighs less than 2 kg. This instrument package is the second in an emerging family of portable measurement instruments being developed; the first was the Miniature and Modular Multichannel Analyzer (M 3 CA). The PSR makes extensive use of hardware and software developed for the M 3 CA; like the M 3 CA, it is intended primarily for use with an external controller interfaced over a serial channel

  1. Nurses' shift reports

    Buus, Niels; Hoeck, Bente; Hamilton, Bridget Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To identify reporting practices that feature in studies of nurses' shift reports across diverse nursing specialities. The objectives were to perform an exhaustive systematic literature search and to critically review the quality and findings of qualitative field studies...... of nurses' shift reports. BACKGROUND: Nurses' shift reports are routine occurrences in healthcare organisations that are viewed as crucial for patient outcomes, patient safety and continuity of care. Studies of communication between nurses attend primarily to 1:1 communication and analyse the adequacy...... and accuracy of patient information and feature handovers at the bedside. Still, verbal reports between groups of nurses about patients are commonplace. Shift reports are obvious sites for studying the situated accomplishment of professional nursing at the group level. This review is focused exclusively...

  2. Shift Verification and Validation

    Pandya, Tara M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Evans, Thomas M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Davidson, Gregory G [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Johnson, Seth R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Godfrey, Andrew T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-09-07

    This documentation outlines the verification and validation of Shift for the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL). Five main types of problems were used for validation: small criticality benchmark problems; full-core reactor benchmarks for light water reactors; fixed-source coupled neutron-photon dosimetry benchmarks; depletion/burnup benchmarks; and full-core reactor performance benchmarks. We compared Shift results to measured data and other simulated Monte Carlo radiation transport code results, and found very good agreement in a variety of comparison measures. These include prediction of critical eigenvalue, radial and axial pin power distributions, rod worth, leakage spectra, and nuclide inventories over a burn cycle. Based on this validation of Shift, we are confident in Shift to provide reference results for CASL benchmarking.

  3. Narcisismo reativo e experiência religiosa contemporânea: culpa substituída pela vergonha? Reactive narcissism and contemporary religious experience: a shift from guilt to shame?

    Mary Rute Gomes Esperandio

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available O texto apresenta um recorte da reflexão desenvolvida na tese de doutorado: "Narcisismo e sacrifício: Modo de subjetivação e religiosidade contemporânea" (Esperandio, 2006. Trata-se de uma análise da experiência religiosa promovida pela Igreja Universal do Reino de Deus (IURD a partir da sua proposta de sacrifício. A abordagem trabalha com a concepção de narcisismo ativo e reativo e defende a idéia de que a prática do sacrifício, tal como proposta pela IURD, articula elementos do narcisismo reativo e estabelece-se como uma tecnologia do eu, usada como remédio para lidar com a experiência contemporânea da vergonha.This text presents part of the reflection developed in my Doctoral Thesis on "Narcissism and sacrifice: Mode of subjectivation and contemporary religiosity" (Esperandio, 2006. It analyses the religious experience supported by the Universal Church of the Kingdom of God (UCKG on its proposal of sacrifice. This approach sustains the conception of active and reactive narcissism and defends the idea that such practice of sacrifice proposed by UCKG relates some elements of reactive narcissism and establishes itself as a Technology of Self used as a remedy to deal with the contemporary experience of shame.

  4. Molecular Electronic Shift Registers

    Beratan, David N.; Onuchic, Jose N.

    1990-01-01

    Molecular-scale shift registers eventually constructed as parts of high-density integrated memory circuits. In principle, variety of organic molecules makes possible large number of different configurations and modes of operation for such shift-register devices. Several classes of devices and implementations in some specific types of molecules proposed. All based on transfer of electrons or holes along chains of repeating molecular units.

  5. Photovoltaic demonstration projects

    Kaut, W [Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium); Gillett, W B; Hacker, R J [Halcrow Gilbert Associates Ltd., Swindon (GB)

    1992-12-31

    This publication, comprising the proceedings of the fifth contractor`s meeting organized by the Commission of the European Communities, Directorate-General for Energy, provides an overview of the photovoltaic demonstration projects which have been supported in the framework of the energy demonstration programme since 1983. It includes reports by each of the contractors who submitted proposals in 1987 and 1988, describing progress within their projects. Projects accepted from earlier calls for proposals and not yet completed were reviewed by a rapporteur and are discussed in the summary section. The results of the performance monitoring of all projects and the lessons drawn from the practical experience of the projects are also presented in the summaries and conclusions. Contractors whose projects were submitted in 1989 were also present at the meeting and contributed to the reported discussions. This proceeding is divided into four sessions (General, Housing, technical presentations, other applications) and 24 papers are offered.

  6. Teleoperation for learning by demonstration

    Kukliński, Kamil; Fischer, Kerstin; Marhenke, Ilka

    2014-01-01

    Learning by demonstration is a useful technique to augment a robot's behavioral inventory, and teleoperation allows lay users to demonstrate novel behaviors intuitively to the robot. In this paper, we compare two modes of teleoperation of an industrial robot, the demonstration by means of a data...... glove and by means of a control object (peg). Experiments with 16 lay users, performing assembly task on the Cranfield benchmark objects, show that the control peg leads to more success, more efficient demonstration and fewer errors....

  7. Measurement of the Lamb shift in heliumlike uranium (U90+)

    Gould, H.; Munger, C.T.

    1987-01-01

    The production in 1983 of a beam of bare U 92+ at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Bevalac, the Bevatron and Super-HILAC operating in tandem, demonstrated the feasibility of experiments using few-electron uranium. In 1984 x rays from radiative electron capture into the K shell of uranium was observed by Anholt et. al., and in the same year x rays from n = 2 → n = 1 transitions in hydrogenlike uranium (U 91+ ) and heliumlike uranium (U 90+ ) were observed by Munger and Gould. In this article the authors discuss their recent measurement of the Lamb shift in heliumlike uranium. Their value of 70.4 (8.1) eV for the one-electron Lamb shift in uranium is in agreement with the theoretical value of 75.3 (0.4) eV. 20 refs.; 5 figs

  8. Characterizing recovery of sleep after four successive night shifts.

    Kubo, Tomohide; Takahashi, Masaya; Tachi, Norihide; Takeyama, Hidemaro; Ebara, Takeshi; Inoue, Tatsuki; Takanishi, Toshimasa; Murasaki, Gen-i; Itani, Toru

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the recovery pattern of sleep following simulated, four successive night shifts in ten healthy men (22.9 + or - 3.2 yr). Poor sleep was defined as sleep efficiency of 80% or lower as determined actigraphically. The results showed that four (rapid, slow, pseudo, and incomplete) patterns of sleep recovery were observed over three recovery sleep periods. The rapid and slow recovery pattern represented immediate and slow return to baseline level prior to the nightshifts, respectively. The pseudo recovery pattern demonstrated poor sleep at the 3rd recovery sleep period, despite transient recovery at the 2nd sleep period. The incomplete recovery pattern was characterized by consistently poorer sleep during the entire recovery period. The correlation analysis indicated that sleep habits (bed time and variation of wake time) prior to the experiment were significantly related to the recovery patterns, rather than performance and alertness during the night shifts.

  9. Search for Higgs shifts in white dwarfs

    Onofrio, Roberto [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia " Galileo Galilei," Università di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Wegner, Gary A., E-mail: onofrior@gmail.com, E-mail: gary.a.wegner@dartmouth.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, 6127 Wilder Laboratory, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States)

    2014-08-20

    We report on a search for differential shifts between electronic and vibronic transitions in carbon-rich white dwarfs BPM 27606 and Procyon B. The absence of differential shifts within the spectral resolution and taking into account systematic effects such as space motion and pressure shifts allows us to set the first upper bound of astrophysical origin on the coupling between the Higgs field and the Kreschmann curvature invariant. Our analysis provides the basis for a more general methodology to derive bounds to the coupling of long-range scalar fields to curvature invariants in an astrophysical setting complementary to the ones available from high-energy physics or table-top experiments.

  10. Differential-phase-shift quantum key distribution using coherent light

    Inoue, K.; Waks, E.; Yamamoto, Y.

    2003-01-01

    Differential-phase-shift quantum key distribution based on two nonorthogonal states is described. A weak coherent pulse train is sent from Alice to Bob, in which the phase of each pulse is randomly modulated by {0,π}. Bob measures the differential phase by a one-bit delay circuit. The system has a simple configuration without the need for an interferometer and a bright reference pulse in Alice's site, unlike the conventional QKD system based on two nonorthogonal states, and has an advantage of improved communication efficiency. The principle of the operation is successfully demonstrated in experiments

  11. PSYCHE Pure Shift NMR Spectroscopy.

    Foroozandeh, Mohammadali; Morris, Gareth; Nilsson, Mathias

    2018-03-13

    Broadband homodecoupling techniques in NMR, also known as "pure shift" methods, aim to enhance spectral resolution by suppressing the effects of homonuclear coupling interactions to turn multiplet signals into singlets. Such techniques typically work by selecting a subset of "active" nuclear spins to observe, and selectively inverting the remaining, "passive", spins to reverse the effects of coupling. Pure Shift Yielded by Chirp Excitation (PSYCHE) is one such method; it is relatively recent, but has already been successfully implemented in a range of different NMR experiments. Paradoxically, PSYCHE is one of the trickiest of pure shift NMR techniques to understand but one of the easiest to use. Here we offer some insights into theoretical and practical aspects of the method, and into the effects and importance of the experimental parameters. Some recent improvements that enhance the spectral purity of PSYCHE spectra will be presented, and some experimental frameworks including examples in 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, for the implementation of PSYCHE will be introduced. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Strength cues and blocking at test promote reliable within-list criterion shifts in recognition memory.

    Hicks, Jason L; Starns, Jeffrey J

    2014-07-01

    In seven experiments, we explored the potential for strength-based, within-list criterion shifts in recognition memory. People studied a mix of target words, some presented four times (strong) and others studied once (weak). In Experiments 1, 2, 4A, and 4B, the test was organized into alternating blocks of 10, 20, or 40 trials. Each block contained lures intermixed with strong targets only or weak targets only. In strength-cued conditions, test probes appeared in a unique font color for strong and weak blocks. In the uncued conditions of Experiments 1 and 2, similar strength blocks were tested, but strength was not cued with font color. False alarms to lures were lower in blocks containing strong target words, as compared with lures in blocks containing weak targets, but only when strength was cued with font color. Providing test feedback in Experiment 2 did not alter these results. In Experiments 3A-3C, test items were presented in a random order (i.e., not blocked by strength). Of these three experiments, only one demonstrated a significant shift even though strength cues were provided. Overall, the criterion shift was larger and more reliable as block size increased, and the shift occurred only when strength was cued with font color. These results clarify the factors that affect participants' willingness to change their response criterion within a test list.

  13. Body position-dependent shift in odor percept present only for perithreshold odors.

    Lundström, Johan N; Boyle, Julie A; Jones-Gotman, Marilyn

    2008-01-01

    We recently demonstrated that a supine position causes a decrease in olfactory sensitivity compared with an upright position. We pursued that initial finding in 3 separate experiments in which we explored the extent of, and mechanism underlying, this phenomenon. In Experiment 1, we replicated the decrease in olfactory sensitivity when in a supine compared with an upright position. In Experiment 2, we measured body position-dependent shifts in physiological variables and sniff measures while smelling suprathreshold odorants and performing a perithreshold odor intensity discrimination task. Olfactory performances were reduced while supine. However, no relationships between the shift in olfactory performances and either the physiological variables or sniff measures were found. In Experiment 3, we determined that there were no position-dependent shifts in ability to discriminate or identify suprathreshold odors or rate them for pleasantness, intensity, or familiarity. However, a drop in scores was observed, and performance was slowed, on a cognitive skill while supine. These results demonstrate a body position-dependent shift in olfactory sensitivity only for perithreshold odors that appears to be mediated by cognitive rather than physiological factors. Implications for olfactory imaging studies are discussed.

  14. DYMAC demonstration program: Phase I experience

    Augustson, R.H.

    1978-02-01

    The DYnamic MAterials Control (DYMAC) project tested a prototype system at the DP Site LASL plutonium facility, which consisted of a computerized accounting system based on material balancing by unit process. Transactions were written to describe the movement of material from one unit process to another. In the DYMAC prototype a specially designed computer program handled transactions that operators entered into the system via a terminal in the processing area. The transactions contained the same information that is used in the present LASL paper accounting system to create an inventory. During a 6-week period the DYMAC system operated in parallel with the paper system. At the end of the period results showed the DYMAC system was able to keep an accurate and timely inventory. Concurrent with testing the transaction-handling program, the project operated several nondestructive assay instruments in a glovebox environment, specifically the electronic balance, solution assay instrument, and thermal-neutron coincidence counter. From the instrument operation logs, project personnel were able to identify operational problems and incorporate design changes in the instrumentation for the new facility

  15. IGCC technology and demonstration

    Palonen, J [A. Ahlstrom Corporation, Karhula (Finland). Hans Ahlstrom Lab.; Lundqvist, R G [A. Ahlstrom Corporation, Helsinki (Finland); Staahl, K [Sydkraft AB, Malmoe (Sweden)

    1997-12-31

    Future energy production will be performed by advanced technologies that are more efficient, more environmentally friendly and less expensive than current technologies. Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants have been proposed as one of these systems. Utilising biofuels in future energy production will also be emphasised since this lowers substantially carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere due to the fact that biomass is a renewable form of energy. Combining advanced technology and biomass utilisation is for this reason something that should and will be encouraged. A. Ahlstrom Corporation of Finland and Sydkraft AB of Sweden have as one part of company strategies adopted this approach for the future. The companies have joined their resources in developing a biomass-based IGCC system with the gasification part based on pressurised circulating fluidized-bed technology. With this kind of technology electrical efficiency can be substantially increased compared to conventional power plants. As a first concrete step, a decision has been made to build a demonstration plant. This plant, located in Vaernamo, Sweden, has already been built and is now in commissioning and demonstration stage. The system comprises a fuel drying plant, a pressurised CFB gasifier with gas cooling and cleaning, a gas turbine, a waste heat recovery unit and a steam turbine. The plant is the first in the world where the integration of a pressurised gasifier with a gas turbine will be realised utilising a low calorific gas produced from biomass. The capacity of the Vaernamo plant is 6 MW of electricity and 9 MW of district heating. Technology development is in progress for design of plants of sizes from 20 to 120 MWe. The paper describes the Bioflow IGCC system, the Vaernamo demonstration plant and experiences from the commissioning and demonstration stages. (orig.)

  16. IGCC technology and demonstration

    Palonen, J. [A. Ahlstrom Corporation, Karhula (Finland). Hans Ahlstrom Lab.; Lundqvist, R.G. [A. Ahlstrom Corporation, Helsinki (Finland); Staahl, K. [Sydkraft AB, Malmoe (Sweden)

    1996-12-31

    Future energy production will be performed by advanced technologies that are more efficient, more environmentally friendly and less expensive than current technologies. Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants have been proposed as one of these systems. Utilising biofuels in future energy production will also be emphasised since this lowers substantially carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere due to the fact that biomass is a renewable form of energy. Combining advanced technology and biomass utilisation is for this reason something that should and will be encouraged. A. Ahlstrom Corporation of Finland and Sydkraft AB of Sweden have as one part of company strategies adopted this approach for the future. The companies have joined their resources in developing a biomass-based IGCC system with the gasification part based on pressurised circulating fluidized-bed technology. With this kind of technology electrical efficiency can be substantially increased compared to conventional power plants. As a first concrete step, a decision has been made to build a demonstration plant. This plant, located in Vaernamo, Sweden, has already been built and is now in commissioning and demonstration stage. The system comprises a fuel drying plant, a pressurised CFB gasifier with gas cooling and cleaning, a gas turbine, a waste heat recovery unit and a steam turbine. The plant is the first in the world where the integration of a pressurised gasifier with a gas turbine will be realised utilising a low calorific gas produced from biomass. The capacity of the Vaernamo plant is 6 MW of electricity and 9 MW of district heating. Technology development is in progress for design of plants of sizes from 20 to 120 MWe. The paper describes the Bioflow IGCC system, the Vaernamo demonstration plant and experiences from the commissioning and demonstration stages. (orig.)

  17. Mechanical spectral shift reactor

    Sherwood, D.G.; Wilson, J.F.; Salton, R.B.; Fensterer, H.F.

    1981-01-01

    A mechanical spectral shift reactor comprises apparatus for inserting and withdrawing water displacer elements from the reactor core for selectively changing the water-moderator volume in the core thereby changing the reactivity of the core. The apparatus includes drivemechanisms for moving the displacer elements relative to the core and guide mechanisms for guiding the displayer rods through the reactor vessel

  18. Mechanical spectral shift reactor

    Sherwood, D.G.; Wilson, J.F.; Salton, R.B.; Fensterer, H.F.

    1982-01-01

    A mechanical spectral shift reactor comprises apparatus for inserting and withdrawing water displacer elements from the reactor core for selectively changing the water-moderator volume in the core thereby changing the reactivity of the core. The apparatus includes drive mechanisms for moving the displacer elements relative to the core and guide mechanisms for guiding the displacer rods through the reactor vessel. (author)

  19. Reordering Ranganathan: Shifting User Behaviors, Shifting Priorities

    Connaway, Lynn Silipigni; Faniel, Ixchel M.

    2014-01-01

    This report suggests that Shiyali Ramamrita Ranganathan's "Five Laws of Library Science" can be reordered and reinterpreted to reflect today's library resources and services, as well as the behaviors that people demonstrate when engaging with them. Although authors Senior Research Scientist Lynn Silipigni Connaway and Associate Research…

  20. Shifting Roles, Shifting Contexts, Maintaining Identity

    Clift, Renee Tipton

    2011-01-01

    This self-study describes the ways in which a move to a different state, university, and academic role has shaped my sense of self as a scholar, teacher educator, and college administrator. I draw from role theory and from conceptions of habitus and field to provide a conceptual lens for interpreting the data and my experiences. I then address two…

  1. Diaryl-substituted norbornadienes with red-shifted absorption for molecular solar thermal energy storage.

    Gray, Victor; Lennartson, Anders; Ratanalert, Phasin; Börjesson, Karl; Moth-Poulsen, Kasper

    2014-05-25

    Red-shifting the absorption of norbornadienes (NBDs), into the visible region, enables the photo-isomerization of NBDs to quadricyclanes (QCs) to be driven by sunlight. This is necessary in order to utilize the NBD-QC system for molecular solar thermal (MOST) energy storage. Reported here is a study on five diaryl-substituted norbornadienes. The introduced aryl-groups induce a significant red-shift of the UV/vis absorption spectrum of the norbornadienes, and device experiments using a solar-simulator set-up demonstrate the potential use of these compounds for MOST energy storage.

  2. Measuring proton shift tensors with ultrafast MAS NMR.

    Miah, Habeeba K; Bennett, David A; Iuga, Dinu; Titman, Jeremy J

    2013-10-01

    A new proton anisotropic-isotropic shift correlation experiment is described which operates with ultrafast MAS, resulting in good resolution of isotropic proton shifts in the detection dimension. The new experiment makes use of a recoupling sequence designed using symmetry principles which reintroduces the proton chemical shift anisotropy in the indirect dimension. The experiment has been used to measure the proton shift tensor parameters for the OH hydrogen-bonded protons in tyrosine·HCl and citric acid at Larmor frequencies of up to 850 MHz. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Speed of light demonstration using Doppler beat

    Bernal, Luis; Bilbao, Luis

    2018-05-01

    From an apparatus previously designed for measuring the Doppler shift using a rotating mirror, an improved, versatile version was developed for speed of light demonstrations in a classroom or a teaching laboratory. By adding a second detector and adequate beam-splitter and mirrors, three different configurations are easily assembled. One configuration is used for time-of-flight measurements between a near and a far detector, allowing one to measure the speed of light provided that the path length between detectors is known. Another variation is the interferometric method obtained by superposing the far and near signals in such a way that a minimum of the combined signal is obtained when the time delay makes the signals arrive out of phase by π radians. Finally, the standard Doppler configuration allows the measurement of the frequency beat as a function of the rotation frequency. The main advantages of the apparatus are (a) the experimental setup is simple and completely accessible to undergraduate students, (b) the light is visible, students can see the rays, which, with the use of appropriate screens, can be blocked at any point along their paths, (c) the experiment can take place entirely within the teaching laboratory or demonstration room (using the interferometric method, the shortest distance to the far mirror was as small as 0.5 m), and (d) different configurations can be built, including some economical setups within the budget of teaching laboratories.

  4. Mechanical spectral shift reactor

    Wilson, J.F.; Sherwood, D.G.

    1982-01-01

    A mechanical spectral shift reactor comprises a reactive core having fuel assemblies accommodating both water displacer elements and neutron absorbing control rods for selectively changing the volume of water-moderator in the core. The fuel assemblies with displacer and control rods are arranged in alternating fashion so that one displacer element drive mechanism may move displacer elements in more than one fuel assembly without interfering with the movement of control rods of a corresponding control rod drive mechanisms. (author)

  5. Calculation of 125Te NMR Chemical Shifts at the Full Four-Component Relativistic Level with Taking into Account Solvent and Vibrational Corrections: A Gateway to Better Agreement with Experiment.

    Rusakova, Irina L; Rusakov, Yuriy Yu; Krivdin, Leonid B

    2017-06-29

    Four-component relativistic calculations of 125 Te NMR chemical shifts were performed in the series of 13 organotellurium compounds, potential precursors of the biologically active species, at the density functional theory level under the nonrelativistic and four-component fully relativistic conditions using locally dense basis set scheme derived from relativistic Dyall's basis sets. The relativistic effects in tellurium chemical shifts were found to be of as much as 20-25% of the total calculated values. The vibrational and solvent corrections to 125 Te NMR chemical shifts are about, accordingly, 6 and 8% of their total values. The PBE0 exchange-correlation functional turned out to give the best agreement of calculated tellurium shifts with their experimental values giving the mean absolute percentage error of 4% in the range of ∼1000 ppm, provided all corrections are taken into account.

  6. Associations between number of consecutive night shifts and impairment of neurobehavioral performance during a subsequent simulated night shift.

    Magee, Michelle; Sletten, Tracey L; Ferguson, Sally A; Grunstein, Ronald R; Anderson, Clare; Kennaway, David J; Lockley, Steven W; Rajaratnam, Shantha Mw

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to investigate sleep and circadian phase in the relationships between neurobehavioral performance and the number of consecutive shifts worked. Thirty-four shift workers [20 men, mean age 31.8 (SD 10.9) years] worked 2-7 consecutive night shifts immediately prior to a laboratory-based, simulated night shift. For 7 days prior, participants worked their usual shift sequence, and sleep was assessed with logs and actigraphy. Participants completed a 10-minute auditory psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) at the start (~21:00 hours) and end (~07:00 hours) of the simulated night shift. Mean reaction times (RT), number of lapses and RT distribution was compared between those who worked 2-3 consecutive night shifts versus those who worked 4-7 shifts. Following 4-7 shifts, night shift workers had significantly longer mean RT at the start and end of shift, compared to those who worked 2-3 shifts. The slowest and fastest 10% RT were significantly slower at the start, but not end, of shift among participants who worked 4-7 nights. Those working 4-7 nights also demonstrated a broader RT distribution at the start and end of shift and had significantly slower RT based on cumulative distribution analysis (5 (th), 25 (th), 50 (th), 75 (th)percentiles at the start of shift; 75th percentile at the end of shift). No group differences in sleep parameters were found for 7 days and 24 hours prior to the simulated night shift. A greater number of consecutive night shifts has a negative impact on neurobehavioral performance, likely due to cognitive slowing.

  7. Cortisol shifts financial risk preferences.

    Kandasamy, Narayanan; Hardy, Ben; Page, Lionel; Schaffner, Markus; Graggaber, Johann; Powlson, Andrew S; Fletcher, Paul C; Gurnell, Mark; Coates, John

    2014-03-04

    Risk taking is central to human activity. Consequently, it lies at the focal point of behavioral sciences such as neuroscience, economics, and finance. Many influential models from these sciences assume that financial risk preferences form a stable trait. Is this assumption justified and, if not, what causes the appetite for risk to fluctuate? We have previously found that traders experience a sustained increase in the stress hormone cortisol when the amount of uncertainty, in the form of market volatility, increases. Here we ask whether these elevated cortisol levels shift risk preferences. Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over protocol we raised cortisol levels in volunteers over 8 d to the same extent previously observed in traders. We then tested for the utility and probability weighting functions underlying their risk taking and found that participants became more risk-averse. We also observed that the weighting of probabilities became more distorted among men relative to women. These results suggest that risk preferences are highly dynamic. Specifically, the stress response calibrates risk taking to our circumstances, reducing it in times of prolonged uncertainty, such as a financial crisis. Physiology-induced shifts in risk preferences may thus be an underappreciated cause of market instability.

  8. Cortisol shifts financial risk preferences

    Kandasamy, Narayanan; Hardy, Ben; Page, Lionel; Schaffner, Markus; Graggaber, Johann; Powlson, Andrew S.; Fletcher, Paul C.; Gurnell, Mark; Coates, John

    2014-01-01

    Risk taking is central to human activity. Consequently, it lies at the focal point of behavioral sciences such as neuroscience, economics, and finance. Many influential models from these sciences assume that financial risk preferences form a stable trait. Is this assumption justified and, if not, what causes the appetite for risk to fluctuate? We have previously found that traders experience a sustained increase in the stress hormone cortisol when the amount of uncertainty, in the form of market volatility, increases. Here we ask whether these elevated cortisol levels shift risk preferences. Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over protocol we raised cortisol levels in volunteers over 8 d to the same extent previously observed in traders. We then tested for the utility and probability weighting functions underlying their risk taking and found that participants became more risk-averse. We also observed that the weighting of probabilities became more distorted among men relative to women. These results suggest that risk preferences are highly dynamic. Specifically, the stress response calibrates risk taking to our circumstances, reducing it in times of prolonged uncertainty, such as a financial crisis. Physiology-induced shifts in risk preferences may thus be an underappreciated cause of market instability. PMID:24550472

  9. Hemiparetic stepping to the beat: asymmetric response to metronome phase shift during treadmill gait.

    Pelton, Trudy A; Johannsen, Leif; Huiya Chen; Wing, Alan M

    2010-06-01

    Walking in time with a metronome is associated with improved spatiotemporal parameters in hemiparetic gait; however, the mechanism linking auditory and motor systems is poorly understood. Hemiparetic cadence control with metronome synchronization was examined to determine specific influences of metronome timing on treadmill walking. A within-participant experiment examined correction processes used to maintain heel strike synchrony with the beat by applying perturbations to the timing of a metronome. Eight chronic hemiparetic participants (mean age = 70 years; standard deviation = 12) were required to synchronize heel strikes with metronome pulses set according to each individual's comfortable speed (mean 0.4 m/s). During five 100-pulse trials, a fixed-phase baseline was followed by 4 unpredictable metronome phase shifts (20% of the interpulse interval), which amounted to 10 phase shifts on each foot. Infrared cameras recorded the motion of bilateral heel markers at 120 Hz. Relative asynchrony between heel strike responses and metronome pulses was used to index compensation for metronome phase shifts. Participants demonstrated compensation for phase shifts with convergence back to pre-phase shift asynchrony. This was significantly slower when the error occurred on the nonparetic side (requiring initial correction with the paretic limb) compared with when the error occurred on the paretic side (requiring initial nonparetic correction). Although phase correction of gait is slowed when the phase shift is delivered to the nonparetic side compared with the paretic side, phase correction is still present. This may underlie the utility of rhythmic auditory cueing in hemiparetic gait rehabilitation.

  10. Pupillary correlates of covert shifts of attention during working memory maintenance.

    Unsworth, Nash; Robison, Matthew K

    2017-04-01

    The pupillary light reflex (PLR) was used to track covert shifts of attention to items maintained in visual working memory (VWM). In three experiments, participants performed a change detection task in which rectangles appeared on either side of fixation and at test participants indicated if the cued rectangle changed its orientation. Prior to presentation or during the delay, participants were cued to the light or dark side of the screen. When cued to the light side, the pupil constricted, and when cued to the dark side, the pupil dilated, suggesting that the PLR tracked covert shifts of attention. Similar covert shifts of attention were seen when the target stimuli remained onscreen and during a blank delay period, suggesting similar effects for attention to perceptual stimuli and attention to stimuli maintained in VWM. Furthermore, similar effects were demonstrated when participants were pre-cued or retro-cued to the prioritized location, suggesting that shifts of covert attention can occur both before and after target presentation. These results are consistent with prior research, suggesting an important role of covert shifts of attention during VWM maintenance and that the PLR can be used to track these covert shifts of attention.

  11. Fuel Cell Demonstration Program

    Gerald Brun

    2006-09-15

    In an effort to promote clean energy projects and aid in the commercialization of new fuel cell technologies the Long Island Power Authority (LIPA) initiated a Fuel Cell Demonstration Program in 1999 with six month deployments of Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) non-commercial Beta model systems at partnering sites throughout Long Island. These projects facilitated significant developments in the technology, providing operating experience that allowed the manufacturer to produce fuel cells that were half the size of the Beta units and suitable for outdoor installations. In 2001, LIPA embarked on a large-scale effort to identify and develop measures that could improve the reliability and performance of future fuel cell technologies for electric utility applications and the concept to establish a fuel cell farm (Farm) of 75 units was developed. By the end of October of 2001, 75 Lorax 2.0 fuel cells had been installed at the West Babylon substation on Long Island, making it the first fuel cell demonstration of its kind and size anywhere in the world at the time. Designed to help LIPA study the feasibility of using fuel cells to operate in parallel with LIPA's electric grid system, the Farm operated 120 fuel cells over its lifetime of over 3 years including 3 generations of Plug Power fuel cells (Lorax 2.0, Lorax 3.0, Lorax 4.5). Of these 120 fuel cells, 20 Lorax 3.0 units operated under this Award from June 2002 to September 2004. In parallel with the operation of the Farm, LIPA recruited government and commercial/industrial customers to demonstrate fuel cells as on-site distributed generation. From December 2002 to February 2005, 17 fuel cells were tested and monitored at various customer sites throughout Long Island. The 37 fuel cells operated under this Award produced a total of 712,635 kWh. As fuel cell technology became more mature, performance improvements included a 1% increase in system efficiency. Including equipment, design, fuel, maintenance

  12. Mechanical spectral shift reactor

    Doshi, P.K.; George, R.A.; Dollard, W.J.

    1982-01-01

    A mechanical spectral shift arrangement for controlling a nuclear reactor includes a plurality of reactor coolant displacer members which are inserted into a reactor core at the beginning of the core life to reduce the volume of reactor coolant-moderator in the core at start-up. However, as the reactivity of the core declines with fuel depletion, selected displacer members are withdrawn from the core at selected time intervals to increase core moderation at a time when fuel reactivity is declining. (author)

  13. Spectral shift reactor

    Carlson, W.R.; Piplica, E.J.

    1982-01-01

    A spectral shift pressurized water reactor comprising apparatus for inserting and withdrawing water displacer elements having differing neutron absorbing capabilities for selectively changing the water-moderator volume in the core thereby changing the reactivity of the core. The displacer elements comprise substantially hollow cylindrical low neutron absorbing rods and substantially hollow cylindrical thick walled stainless rods. Since the stainless steel displacer rods have greater neutron absorbing capability, they can effect greater reactivity change per rod. However, by arranging fewer stainless steel displacer rods in a cluster, the reactivity worth of the stainless steel displacer rod cluster can be less than a low neutron absorbing displacer rod cluster. (author)

  14. Evidence of circadian and extended shift effects on reactor transient frequency

    Maloney, S.

    1992-01-01

    An extensive body of knowledge exists documenting the significant swings in error rates, perception, judgment, and overall alertness levels in the course of a day. The literature also demonstrates pronounced differences in performance levels whereby night workers routinely underperform day workers in any set of tasks. The performance split widens with task complexity. Rotating shift workers, such as nuclear power plant operators, have been shown to experience performance problems comparable to straight night workers. Finally, sleep research also documents that extended hours, such as the so-called 4-day work week, can undermine alertness levels, particularly in the last 2 to 3 h of a daily shift. These issues suggest that cyclical performance by shift workers may be evident in nuclear plant operators. This paper seeks evidence of such cyclical performance by examining operating transients at nuclear power plants involving human error

  15. Observation of Atom Wave Phase Shifts Induced by Van Der Waals Atom-Surface Interactions

    Perreault, John D.; Cronin, Alexander D.

    2005-01-01

    The development of nanotechnology and atom optics relies on understanding how atoms behave and interact with their environment. Isolated atoms can exhibit wavelike (coherent) behavior with a corresponding de Broglie wavelength and phase which can be affected by nearby surfaces. Here an atom interferometer is used to measure the phase shift of Na atom waves induced by the walls of a 50 nm wide cavity. To our knowledge this is the first direct measurement of the de Broglie wave phase shift caused by atom-surface interactions. The magnitude of the phase shift is in agreement with that predicted by Lifshitz theory for a nonretarded van der Waals interaction. This experiment also demonstrates that atom waves can retain their coherence even when atom-surface distances are as small as 10 nm

  16. Systemic range shift lags among a pollinator species assemblage following rapid climate change

    Bedford, Felicity E.; Whittaker, Robert J.; Kerr, Jeremy T.

    2012-01-01

    Contemporary climate change is driving widespread geographical range shifts among many species. If species are tracking changing climate successfully, then leading populations should experience similar climatic conditions through time as new populations establish beyond historical range margins....... Here, we investigate geographical range shifts relative to changing climatic conditions among a particularly well-sampled assemblage of butterflies in Canada. We assembled observations of 81 species and measured their latitudinal displacement between two periods: 1960–1975 (a period of little climate...... change) and 1990–2005 (a period with large climate change). We find an unexpected trend for species’ northern borders to shift progressively less relative to increasing minimum winter temperatures in northern Canada. This study demonstrates a novel, systemic latitudinal gradient in lags among a large...

  17. Correction of phase-shifting error in wavelength scanning digital holographic microscopy

    Zhang, Xiaolei; Wang, Jie; Zhang, Xiangchao; Xu, Min; Zhang, Hao; Jiang, Xiangqian

    2018-05-01

    Digital holographic microscopy is a promising method for measuring complex micro-structures with high slopes. A quasi-common path interferometric apparatus is adopted to overcome environmental disturbances, and an acousto-optic tunable filter is used to obtain multi-wavelength holograms. However, the phase shifting error caused by the acousto-optic tunable filter reduces the measurement accuracy and, in turn, the reconstructed topographies are erroneous. In this paper, an accurate reconstruction approach is proposed. It corrects the phase-shifting errors by minimizing the difference between the ideal interferograms and the recorded ones. The restriction on the step number and uniformity of the phase shifting is relaxed in the interferometry, and the measurement accuracy for complex surfaces can also be improved. The universality and superiority of the proposed method are demonstrated by practical experiments and comparison to other measurement methods.

  18. Shift Work: Improving Daytime Sleep

    ... night. Good daytime sleep is possible, though, if shift work is a necessary part of your work life. ... mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/adult-health/expert-answers/shift-work/faq-20057991 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and ...

  19. Sleep, immunity and shift workers: A review

    Carlos Mauricio Oliveira de Almeida

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available To date, shift workers represent between 15% and 25% of the modern day workforce. Work time poses a great challenge to workers as it requires that they balance productivity and sleep time between shifts. As a result, these workers experience chronic sleep deprivation with increased fatigue and drowsiness due to this sleep deprivation. The impact of this kind of work on the immune system is not yet known. We conducted a literature review with the aim of evaluating articles on this specific type of work's effects on sleep and immunity.

  20. Measurement of Critical Contact Angle in a Microgravity Space Experiment

    Concus, P.; Finn, R.; Weislogel, M.

    1998-01-01

    Mathematical theory predicts that small changes in container shape or in contact angle can give rise to large shifts of liquid in a microgravity environment. This phenomenon was investigated in the Interface Configuration Experiment on board the USMT,2 Space Shuttle flight. The experiment's "double proboscis" containers were designed to strike a balance between conflicting requirements of sizable volume of liquid shift (for ease of observation) and abruptness of the shift (for accurate determination of critical contact angle). The experimental results support the classical concept of macroscopic contact angle and demonstrate the role of hysteresis in impeding orientation toward equilibrium.

  1. Faktor Dan Penjadualan Shift Kerja

    Maurits, Lientje Setyawati; Widodo, Imam Djati

    2008-01-01

    Work shift has negative effect in physical and mental health, work performance and job accident. Disturbance of circadian rhythms is indicated as source of the problems. This article explores some researches related to the impacts of work shift and establishes basic principles of work shift scheduling that considers human need and limitation.

  2. Isotope shifting capacity of rock

    Blattner, P.; Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, Lower Hutt

    1980-01-01

    Any oxygen isotope shifted rock volume exactly defines a past throughput of water. An expression is derived that relates the throughput of an open system to the isotope shift of reservoir rock and present-day output. The small isotope shift of Ngawha reservoir rock and the small, high delta oxygen-18 output are best accounted for by a magmatic water source

  3. The shift in windpower

    Gipe, P.

    1992-01-01

    Despite new production records, the near-term market for new windpower projects in the US remains bleak. Congressional incentives and project proposals in the mid-1990s offer promise, but for now most development has shifted to Europe. During 1992 and 1993 the largest wind projects developed by US companies will not be in the US, but in the United Kingdom and Spain. Indeed, most of the US's windpower industry is going abroad, establishing offices overseas. This move toward Europe comes as little surprise. New project development for US firms has faltered at home while the European market has burgeoned. The topics of the article include the move to Europe, a reduction in California's share of producing wind power plants, a rise in Europe's share of producing wind power plants, the future market for wind power in the US, and reawakening California's market

  4. Biodiesel Mass Transit Demonstration

    2010-04-01

    The Biodiesel Mass Transit Demonstration report is intended for mass transit decision makers and fleet managers considering biodiesel use. This is the final report for the demonstration project implemented by the National Biodiesel Board under a gran...

  5. Authoring Effective Demonstrations

    Fu, Dan; Jensen, Randy; Salas, Eduardo; Rosen, Michael A; Ramachandran, Sowmya; Upshaw, Christin L; Hinkelman, Elizabeth; Lampton, Don

    2007-01-01

    ... or human role-players for each training event. We report our ongoing efforts to (1) research the nature and purpose of demonstration, articulating guidelines for effective demonstration within a training context, and (2...

  6. Comparing Demonstratives in Kwa

    This paper is a comparative study of demonstrative forms in three K wa languages, ... relative distance from the deictic centre, such as English this and that, here and there. ... Mostly, the referents of demonstratives are 'activated' or at least.

  7. Polarized Light Corridor Demonstrations.

    Davies, G. R.

    1990-01-01

    Eleven demonstrations of light polarization are presented. Each includes a brief description of the apparatus and the effect demonstrated. Illustrated are strain patterns, reflection, scattering, the Faraday Effect, interference, double refraction, the polarizing microscope, and optical activity. (CW)

  8. Impact of 12h shift patterns in nursing: a scoping review.

    Harris, Ruth; Sims, Sarah; Parr, Jenny; Davies, Nigel

    2015-02-01

    To provide a comprehensive scoping review of evidence of the impact and effectiveness of 12h shifts in the international nursing literature, supplemented by a review of evidence in other, non-nursing related industries. A search of the academic literature was undertaken in electronic databases (AMED, MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsychInfo, Scopus, HMIC, the Cochrane Library, Business Source Premier, Econ Lit, ASSIA and Social Policy and Practice). A total of 158 potentially relevant nursing research papers and reviews were published between 1973 and 2014. Two reviewers independently reviewed the articles, leaving 85 primary research studies and 10 review papers in the nursing field to be included in the scoping review. Thirty-one relevant primary research papers and reviews were also identified in the non-nursing related industries literature. Research into 12h nursing shifts fell within five broad themes: 'risks to patients', 'patient experience', 'risks to staff', 'staff experience' and 'impact on the organisation of work'. There was inconclusive evidence of the effects of 12h shift patterns in all five themes, with some studies demonstrating positive impacts and others negative or no impacts. This also mirrors the evidence in other, non-nursing related industries. The quality of research reviewed is generally weak and most studies focus on the risks, experience and work/life balance for staff, with few addressing the impact on patient outcomes and experience of care or work productivity. There is insufficient evidence to justify the widespread implementation or withdrawal of 12h shifts in nursing. It is not clearly understood where there are real benefits and where there are real and unacceptable risks to patients and staff. More research focusing on the impact of 12h nursing shifts on patient safety and experience of care and on the long term impact on staff and work organisation is required. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Demonstrating Fermat's Principle in Optics

    Paleiov, Orr; Pupko, Ofir; Lipson, S. G.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate Fermat's principle in optics by a simple experiment using reflection from an arbitrarily shaped one-dimensional reflector. We investigated a range of possible light paths from a lamp to a fixed slit by reflection in a curved reflector and showed by direct measurement that the paths along which light is concentrated have either…

  10. The affective shift model of work engagement.

    Bledow, Ronald; Schmitt, Antje; Frese, Michael; Kühnel, Jana

    2011-11-01

    On the basis of self-regulation theories, the authors develop an affective shift model of work engagement according to which work engagement emerges from the dynamic interplay of positive and negative affect. The affective shift model posits that negative affect is positively related to work engagement if negative affect is followed by positive affect. The authors applied experience sampling methodology to test the model. Data on affective events, mood, and work engagement was collected twice a day over 9 working days among 55 software developers. In support of the affective shift model, negative mood and negative events experienced in the morning of a working day were positively related to work engagement in the afternoon if positive mood in the time interval between morning and afternoon was high. Individual differences in positive affectivity moderated within-person relationships. The authors discuss how work engagement can be fostered through affect regulation. (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. Special offer for early shift takers!

    Muriel

    Peter Jenni, spokesperson of the ATLAS collaboration, just made the following announcement. "Despite the few problems that we are encountering, which of course are unavoidable in such a large project, I am very pleased with the way the ATLAS experiment is taking shape. With the imminence of data taking, I would like to make a special gesture as a thank you to all of you who are working so hard for ATLAS to meet its many deadlines. The first 100 ATLAS members who will sign up for shifts will receive twice the standard OTSMOU credit." You can sign up for shifts as of April 1st by sending an e-mail to Atlas.Shifts@cern.ch.

  12. Application of the power-shift transformation

    Beauchamp, J.J.; Kane, V.E.

    1984-01-01

    Some of the practical consequences of entertaining the power-shift transformation are examined for both analysis of variance and simple random sampling data. The appropriateness of different procedures for estimating the transformation parameters is also considered. Standard maximum likelihood (ml) estimation is shown not to be feasible for the joint estimation of the power-shift parameters. However, it is possible to compute local ml estimates for some problems, but special estimation methods may be necessary. An alternative weighted order statistic (wos) estimator is shown to be useful in some situations. Characteristics of ml and wos estimation for the power-shift transformation are examined by a Monte Carlo experiment. A Box and Cox (1964) example and several other data sets are used to illustrate the estimation procedures. 46 references, 5 figures, 1 table.

  13. Strategy Guideline: Demonstration Home

    Savage, C.; Hunt, A.

    2012-12-01

    This guideline will provide a general overview of the different kinds of demonstration home projects, a basic understanding of the different roles and responsibilities involved in the successful completion of a demonstration home, and an introduction into some of the lessons learned from actual demonstration home projects. Also, this guideline will specifically look at the communication methods employed during demonstration home projects. And lastly, we will focus on how to best create a communication plan for including an energy efficient message in a demonstration home project and carry that message to successful completion.

  14. Strategy Guideline. Demonstration Home

    Hunt, A.; Savage, C.

    2012-12-01

    This guideline will provide a general overview of the different kinds of demonstration home projects, a basic understanding of the different roles and responsibilities involved in the successful completion of a demonstration home, and an introduction into some of the lessons learned from actual demonstration home projects. Also, this guideline will specifically look at the communication methods employed during demonstration home projects. And lastly, we will focus on how to best create a communication plan for including an energy efficient message in a demonstration home project and carry that message to successful completion.

  15. Staffing, overtime, and shift scheduling project

    Lewis, P.M.

    1989-01-01

    Recent events at the Peach Bottom nuclear power plant have demonstrated the need to establish a quantifiable basis for assessing the safety significance of long work hours on nuclear power plant operators. The incidents at TMI-2, Chernobyl, and Bhopal, which all occurred during the late evening/night shift, further highlight the importance of the relationship between shift scheduling and performance. The objective of this project is to estimate, using statistical analysis on data from the nuclear industry, the effects on safety of staffing levels, overtime, and shift scheduling for operators and maintenance personnel. Regarding staffing levels, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) currently has no explicit regulation concerning the minimum acceptable levels of staffing in a plant that has an operating license. The NRC has no systematic method for collecting data on the number of licensed operators on the operating crews. In 1982 the NRC recommended that plants write into their technical specifications a model policy on overtime. Currently, 77 nuclear power plant units have the model policy or a modification of it written into their technical specifications; 33 units have no policy on overtime. The model policy sets limits on overtime for safety related personnel, although these limits can be exceeded with plant manger approval. The US nuclear power industry has three types of shift schedules: (1) forward-rotating 8-hour/day shift schedules, (2) backward-rotating 8-hour/day schedules, and (3) 12-hour/day schedules

  16. Choice Shift in Opinion Network Dynamics

    Gabbay, Michael

    Choice shift is a phenomenon associated with small group dynamics whereby group discussion causes group members to shift their opinions in a more extreme direction so that the mean post-discussion opinion exceeds the mean pre-discussion opinion. Also known as group polarization, choice shift is a robust experimental phenomenon and has been well-studied within social psychology. In opinion network models, shifts toward extremism are typically produced by the presence of stubborn agents at the extremes of the opinion axis, whose opinions are much more resistant to change than moderate agents. However, we present a model in which choice shift can arise without the assumption of stubborn agents; the model evolves member opinions and uncertainties using coupled nonlinear differential equations. In addition, we briefly describe the results of a recent experiment conducted involving online group discussion concerning the outcome of National Football League games are described. The model predictions concerning the effects of network structure, disagreement level, and team choice (favorite or underdog) are in accord with the experimental results. This research was funded by the Office of Naval Research and the Defense Threat Reduction Agency.

  17. Individual vulnerability to insomnia, excessive sleepiness and shift work disorder amongst healthcare shift workers. A systematic review.

    Booker, Lauren A; Magee, Michelle; Rajaratnam, Shantha M W; Sletten, Tracey L; Howard, Mark E

    2018-03-27

    Shift workers often experience reduced sleep quality, duration and/or excessive sleepiness due to the imposed conflict between work and their circadian system. About 20-30% of shift workers experience prominent insomnia symptoms and excessive daytime sleepiness consistent with the circadian rhythm sleep disorder known as shift work disorder. Individual factors may influence this vulnerability to shift work disorder or sleep-related impairment associated with shift work. This paper was registered with Prospero and was conducted using recommended standards for systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Published literature that measured sleep-related impairment associated with shift work including reduced sleep quality and duration and increased daytime sleepiness amongst healthcare shift workers and explored characteristics associated with individual variability were reviewed. Fifty-eight studies were included. Older age, morning-type, circadian flexibility, being married or having children, increased caffeine intake, higher scores on neuroticism and lower on hardiness were related to a higher risk of sleep-related impairment in response to shift work, whereas physical activity was a protective factor. The review highlights the diverse range of measurement tools used to evaluate the impact of shift work on sleep. Use of standardised and validated tools would enable cross-study comparisons. Longitudinal studies are required to establish causal relationships between individual factors and the development of shift work disorder. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Short-term Memory as a Processing Shift

    Lewis-Smith, Marion Quinn

    1975-01-01

    The series of experiments described here examined the predictions for free recall from sequential models and the shift formulation, focusing on the roles of short- and long-term memory in the primacy/recency shift and on the effects of expectancies on short- and long-term memory. (Author/RK)

  19. Phase-shift interferometry with a digital photocamera

    Vannoni, Maurizio; Trivi, Marcelo; Molesini, Giuseppe

    2007-01-01

    A phase-shift interferometry experiment is proposed, working on a Twyman-Green optical configuration with additional polarization components. A guideline is provided to modern phase-shift interferometry, using concepts and laboratory equipment at the level of undergraduate optics courses

  20. Electro-optical frequency shifting of lasers for plasma diagnostics

    Forman, P.R.

    1977-07-01

    An electro-optical frequency shifting device is proposed as an aid for plasma physics heterodyne interferometry and heterodyne scattering experiments. The method has the advantage over other electro-optic shifters, that a pure separable frequency shifted beam can be obtained even when less than half wave voltage is applied. (orig.) [de

  1. Challenge: Getting Residential Users to Shift Their Electricity Usage Patterns

    Brewer, Robert S.; Verdezoto, Nervo; Rasmussen, Mia Kruse

    2015-01-01

    electricity use from the less desirable times to more desirable times, including: feedback technology, pricing incentives, smart appliances, and energy storage. Based on our experience in this area, we present three challenges for residential shifting: getting users to understand the concept of shifting...

  2. Spin-echo based diagonal peak suppression in solid-state MAS NMR homonuclear chemical shift correlation spectra

    Wang, Kaiyu; Zhang, Zhiyong; Ding, Xiaoyan; Tian, Fang; Huang, Yuqing; Chen, Zhong; Fu, Riqiang

    2018-02-01

    The feasibility of using the spin-echo based diagonal peak suppression method in solid-state MAS NMR homonuclear chemical shift correlation experiments is demonstrated. A complete phase cycling is designed in such a way that in the indirect dimension only the spin diffused signals are evolved, while all signals not involved in polarization transfer are refocused for cancellation. A data processing procedure is further introduced to reconstruct this acquired spectrum into a conventional two-dimensional homonuclear chemical shift correlation spectrum. A uniformly 13C, 15N labeled Fmoc-valine sample and the transmembrane domain of a human protein, LR11 (sorLA), in native Escherichia coli membranes have been used to illustrate the capability of the proposed method in comparison with standard 13C-13C chemical shift correlation experiments.

  3. Demonstrating quantum random with single photons

    Bronner, Patrick; Strunz, Andreas; Meyn, Jan-Peter; Silberhorn, Christine

    2009-01-01

    We present an experiment for education which demonstrates random transmission or reflection of heralded single photons on beam splitters. With our set-up, we can realize different quantum random experiments by appropriate settings of polarization rotators. The concept of entanglement is motivated by correlated randomness. The experiments are suitable for undergraduate education and are available as interactive screen experiments.

  4. Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The U.S. Department of Energy Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) provides a collaborative, shared infrastructure to...

  5. Task Shifting in Dermatology: A Call to Action.

    Brown, Danielle N; Langan, Sinéad M; Freeman, Esther E

    2017-11-01

    Can task shifting be used to improve the delivery of dermatologic care in resource-poor settings worldwide? Task shifting is a means of redistributing available resources, whereby highly trained individuals train an available workforce to provide necessary care in low-resource settings. Limited evidence exists for task shifting in dermatology; however, studies from psychiatry demonstrate its efficacy. In the field of dermatology there is a need for high-quality evidence including randomized clinical trials to validate the implementation of task shifting in low-resource settings globally.

  6. Chemical shift homology in proteins

    Potts, Barbara C.M.; Chazin, Walter J.

    1998-01-01

    The degree of chemical shift similarity for homologous proteins has been determined from a chemical shift database of over 50 proteins representing a variety of families and folds, and spanning a wide range of sequence homologies. After sequence alignment, the similarity of the secondary chemical shifts of C α protons was examined as a function of amino acid sequence identity for 37 pairs of structurally homologous proteins. A correlation between sequence identity and secondary chemical shift rmsd was observed. Important insights are provided by examining the sequence identity of homologous proteins versus percentage of secondary chemical shifts that fall within 0.1 and 0.3 ppm thresholds. These results begin to establish practical guidelines for the extent of chemical shift similarity to expect among structurally homologous proteins

  7. Shifted-modified Chebyshev filters

    ŞENGÜL, Metin

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces a new type of filter approximation method that utilizes shifted-modified Chebyshev filters. Construction of the new filters involves the use of shifted-modified Chebyshev polynomials that are formed using the roots of conventional Chebyshev polynomials. The study also includes 2 tables containing the shifted-modified Chebyshev polynomials and the normalized element values for the low-pass prototype filters up to degree 6. The transducer power gain, group dela...

  8. De novo protein structure generation from incomplete chemical shift assignments

    Shen Yang [National Institutes of Health, Laboratory of Chemical Physics, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (United States); Vernon, Robert; Baker, David [University of Washington, Department of Biochemistry and Howard Hughes Medical Institute (United States); Bax, Ad [National Institutes of Health, Laboratory of Chemical Physics, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (United States)], E-mail: bax@nih.gov

    2009-02-15

    NMR chemical shifts provide important local structural information for proteins. Consistent structure generation from NMR chemical shift data has recently become feasible for proteins with sizes of up to 130 residues, and such structures are of a quality comparable to those obtained with the standard NMR protocol. This study investigates the influence of the completeness of chemical shift assignments on structures generated from chemical shifts. The Chemical-Shift-Rosetta (CS-Rosetta) protocol was used for de novo protein structure generation with various degrees of completeness of the chemical shift assignment, simulated by omission of entries in the experimental chemical shift data previously used for the initial demonstration of the CS-Rosetta approach. In addition, a new CS-Rosetta protocol is described that improves robustness of the method for proteins with missing or erroneous NMR chemical shift input data. This strategy, which uses traditional Rosetta for pre-filtering of the fragment selection process, is demonstrated for two paramagnetic proteins and also for two proteins with solid-state NMR chemical shift assignments.

  9. European Researchers Night, Students on Shift at ALICE

    Fons Rademakers

    2010-01-01

    During European Researchers' Night, on Friday 24 September 2010, from 17:00 to 24:00, pupils from French and Swiss schools visited ALICE and took shifts in the control room, helping the ALICE physicists run the experiment.

  10. Charge sniffer for electrostatics demonstrations

    Dinca, Mihai P.

    2011-02-01

    An electronic electroscope with a special design for demonstrations and experiments on static electricity is described. It operates as an electric charge sniffer by detecting slightly charged objects when they are brought to the front of its sensing electrode. The sniffer has the advantage of combining high directional sensitivity with a logarithmic bar display. It allows for the identification of electric charge polarity during charge separation by friction, peeling, electrostatic induction, batteries, or secondary coils of power transformers. Other experiments in electrostatics, such as observing the electric field of an oscillating dipole and the distance dependence of the electric field generated by simple charge configurations, are also described.

  11. Noninvasive optical inhibition with a red-shifted microbial rhodopsin

    Chuong, Amy S; Miri, Mitra L; Busskamp, Volker

    2014-01-01

    Optogenetic inhibition of the electrical activity of neurons enables the causal assessment of their contributions to brain functions. Red light penetrates deeper into tissue than other visible wavelengths. We present a red-shifted cruxhalorhodopsin, Jaws, derived from Haloarcula (Halobacterium......) salinarum (strain Shark) and engineered to result in red light-induced photocurrents three times those of earlier silencers. Jaws exhibits robust inhibition of sensory-evoked neural activity in the cortex and results in strong light responses when used in retinas of retinitis pigmentosa model mice. We also...... demonstrate that Jaws can noninvasively mediate transcranial optical inhibition of neurons deep in the brains of awake mice. The noninvasive optogenetic inhibition opened up by Jaws enables a variety of important neuroscience experiments and offers a powerful general-use chloride pump for basic and applied...

  12. Age differences in strategy shift: retrieval avoidance or general shift reluctance?

    Frank, David J; Touron, Dayna R; Hertzog, Christopher

    2013-09-01

    Previous studies of metacognitive age differences in skill acquisition strategies have relied exclusively on tasks with a processing shift from an algorithm to retrieval strategy. Older adults' demonstrated reluctance to shift strategies in such tasks could reflect either a specific aversion to a memory retrieval strategy or a general, inertial resistance to strategy change. Haider and Frensch's (1999) alphabet verification task (AVT) affords a non-retrieval-based strategy shift. Participants verify the continuation of alphabet strings such as D E F G [4] L, with the bracketed digit indicating a number of letters to be skipped. When all deviations are restricted to the letter-digit-letter portion, participants can speed their responses by selectively attending to only that part of the stimulus. We adapted the AVT to include conditions that promoted shift to a retrieval strategy, a selective attention strategy, or both strategies. Item-level strategy reports were validated by eye movement data. Older adults shifted more slowly to the retrieval strategy but more quickly to the selective attention strategy than young adults, indicating a retrieval-strategy avoidance. Strategy confidence and perceived strategy difficulty correlated with shift to the two strategies in both age groups. Perceived speed of responses with each strategy specifically correlated with older adults' strategy choices, suggesting that some older adults avoid retrieval because they do not appreciate its efficiency benefits.

  13. Age Differences in Strategy Shift: Retrieval Avoidance or General Shift Reluctance?

    Frank, David J.; Touron, Dayna R.; Hertzog, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies of metacognitive age differences in skill acquisition strategies have relied exclusively on tasks with a processing shift from an algorithm to retrieval strategy. Older adults’ demonstrated reluctance to shift strategies in such tasks could reflect either a specific aversion to a memory retrieval strategy or a general, inertial resistance to strategy change. Haider and Frensch’s (1999) alphabet verification task (AVT) affords a non-retrieval-based strategy shift. Participants verify the continuation of alphabet strings such as D E F G [4] L, with the bracketed digit indicating a number of letters to be skipped. When all deviations are restricted to the letter-digit-letter portion, participants can speed their responses by selectively attend only to that part of the stimulus. We adapted the AVT to include conditions which promoted shift to a retrieval strategy, a selective attention strategy, or both strategies. Item-level strategy reports were validated by eye movement data. Older adults shifted more slowly to the retrieval strategy but more quickly to the selective attention strategy than young adults, indicating a retrieval-strategy avoidance. Strategy confidence and perceived strategy difficulty correlated with shift to the two strategies in both age groups. Perceived speed of responses with each strategy specifically correlated with older adults’ strategy choices, suggesting that some older adults avoid retrieval because they do not appreciate its efficiency benefits. PMID:23088195

  14. Body Size Shifts in Philippine Reef Fishes: Interfamilial Variation in Responses to Protection

    Robert Y. Fidler

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available As a consequence of intense fishing pressure, fished populations experience reduced population sizes and shifts in body size toward the predominance of smaller and early maturing individuals. Small, early-maturing fish exhibit significantly reduced reproductive output and, ultimately, reduced fitness. As part of resource management and biodiversity conservation programs worldwide, no-take marine protected areas (MPAs are expected to ameliorate the adverse effects of fishing pressure. In an attempt to advance our understanding of how coral reef MPAs meet their long-term goals, this study used visual census data from 23 MPAs and fished reefs in the Philippines to address three questions: (1 Do MPAs promote shifts in fish body size frequency distribution towards larger body sizes when compared to fished reefs? (2 Do MPA size and (3 age contribute to the efficacy of MPAs in promoting such shifts? This study revealed that across all MPAs surveyed, the distribution of fishes between MPAs and fished reefs were similar; however, large-bodied fish were more abundant within MPAs, along with small, young-of-the-year individuals. Additionally, there was a significant shift in body size frequency distribution towards larger body sizes in 12 of 23 individual reef sites surveyed. Of 22 fish families, eleven demonstrated significantly different body size frequency distributions between MPAs and fished reefs, indicating that shifts in the size spectrum of fishes in response to protection are family-specific. Family-level shifts demonstrated a significant, positive correlation with MPA age, indicating that MPAs become more effective at increasing the density of large-bodied fish within their boundaries over time.

  15. Red Shifts and Existing Speculations

    Aisenberg, Sol

    2009-03-01

    There are many current flaws, mysteries, and errors in the standard model of the universe - all based upon speculative interpretation of many excellent and verified observations. The most serious cause of some errors is the speculation about the meaning of the redshifts observed in the 1930s by Hubble. He ascribed the redshifts as due to ``an apparent Doppler effect''. This led to speculation that the remote stars were receding, and the universe was expanding -- although without observational proof of the actual receding velocity of the stars. The age of the universe, based upon the Hubble constant is pure speculation because of lack of velocity demonstration. The belief in expansion, the big bang, and of inflation should be reexamined. Also, the redshift cannot always be used as a distance measure, particularly for photons from quasars containing massive black holes that can reduce photon energy through gravitational attraction. If the linear Hubble constant is extrapolated to the most remote super novae and beyond, it would eventually require that the corresponding photon energy go to zero or become negative -- according to Hubble linear relationship. This should require a reexamination of the meaning of the red shift and the speculative consequences and give a model with fewer mysteries.

  16. Innovative technology demonstration

    Anderson, D.B.; Luttrell, S.P.; Hartley, J.N.; Hinchee, R.

    1992-04-01

    The Innovative Technology Demonstration (ITD) program at Tinker Air Force Base (TAFB), Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, will demonstrate the overall utility and effectiveness of innovative technologies for site characterization, monitoring, and remediation of selected contaminated test sites. The current demonstration test sites include a CERCLA site on the NPL list, located under a building (Building 3001) that houses a large active industrial complex used for rebuilding military aircraft, and a site beneath and surrounding an abandoned underground tank vault used for storage of jet fuels and solvents. The site under Building 3001 (the NW Test Site) is contaminated with TCE and Cr +6 ; the site with the fuel storage vault (the SW Tanks Site) is contaminated with fuels, BTEX and TCE. These sites and others have been identified for cleanup under the Air Force's Installation Restoration Program (IRP). This document describes the demonstrations that have been conducted or are planned for the TAFB

  17. Laser Communications Relay Demonstration

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — LCRD is a minimum two year flight demonstration in geosynchronous Earth orbit to advance optical communications technology toward infusion into Deep Space and Near...

  18. Education Payload Operation - Demonstrations

    Keil, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    Education Payload Operation - Demonstrations (EPO-Demos) are recorded video education demonstrations performed on the International Space Station (ISS) by crewmembers using hardware already onboard the ISS. EPO-Demos are videotaped, edited, and used to enhance existing NASA education resources and programs for educators and students in grades K-12. EPO-Demos are designed to support the NASA mission to inspire the next generation of explorers.

  19. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration

    1994-03-01

    The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) supports the applied research, development, demonstration, and evaluation of a suite of advanced technologies that offer promising solutions to the problems associated with the remediation of buried waste. BWID addresses the difficult remediation problems associated with DOE complex-wide buried waste, particularly transuranic (TRU) contaminated buried waste. BWID has implemented a systems approach to the development and demonstration of technologies that will characterize, retrieve, treat, and dispose of DOE buried wastes. This approach encompasses the entire remediation process from characterization to post-monitoring. The development and demonstration of the technology is predicated on how a technology fits into the total remediation process. To address all of these technological issues, BWID has enlisted scientific expertise of individuals and groups from within the DOE Complex, as well as experts from universities and private industry. The BWID mission is to support development and demonstration of a suite of technologies that, when integrated with commercially-available technologies, forms a comprehensive, remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste throughout the DOE Complex. BWID will evaluate and validate demonstrated technologies and transfer this information and equipment to private industry to support the Office of Environmental Restoration (ER), Office of Waste Management (WM), and Office of Facility Transition (FT) remediation planning and implementation activities

  20. Phase-shift calculation using continuum-discretized states

    Suzuki, Y.; Horiuchi, W.; Arai, K.

    2009-01-01

    We present a method for calculating scattering phase shifts which utilizes continuum-discretized states obtained in a bound-state type calculation. The wrong asymptotic behavior of the discretized state is remedied by means of the Green's function formalism. Test examples confirm the accuracy of the method. The α+n scattering is described using realistic nucleon-nucleon potentials. The 3/2 - and 1/2 - phase shifts obtained in a single-channel calculation are too small in comparison with experiment. The 1/2 + phase shifts are in reasonable agreement with experiment, and gain contributions both from the tensor and central components of the nucleon-nucleon potential.

  1. On the energy shift of the ECC cusp. Does the shift really exist?

    Barrachina, R.O.; Sarkadi, L.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The cusplike 'electron capture to the continuum' (ECC) peak appearing in the spectrum of the forward emitted electrons in ion-atom collisions is generally thought to be a divergence. The peak is centered at electron velocity that matches that of the projectile. Recently Illescas et al. [1] claimed, however, that 'the cusp is not a divergence smoothed by the experiment, and is slightly shifted from the impact-velocity value'. In a subsequent work Shah et al. [2] measured the ECC cusp for collisions of 10- and 20- keV protons with H2 and He, and found that the peak was indeed shifted to a velocity below its expected position. Their classical trajectory Monte Carlo (CTMC) calculations reproduced the observation well. In the present work we demonstrate by our CTMC calculations (made for the case of 20-keV protons on He) that the intensity, width and position of the ECC cusp do depend on the experimental conditions by which the electrons are detected (first of all, the acceptance angle of the electron spectrometer). We also present experimental data for this collision system. While the latter data are well reproduced by our CTMC calculations, neither the theoretical results, nor the experimental data of the present work support of the findings of Shah et al. [2]. At the same time, analyzing the problem in the framework of the general final-state interaction theory of cusp formation [3], we concluded that 'rigorously' speaking Shah et al. [2] are right when they state that the ECC cusp is not a divergence. The divergence is smeared out by the scattering of the projectile. However, this effect is negligibly small at the lowest energy that was considered in their paper, 10 keV. At this impact energy the projectile motion is smeared within an angular region Δθ th ∼ 0.06 deg, which is much smaller than the acceptance angle of the experiment, Δθ exp ∼ 1.5 deg

  2. The Simplest Demonstration on Acoustic Beats

    Ganci, Alessio; Ganci, Salvatore

    2015-01-01

    The classical demonstration experiment on acoustic beats using two signal generators and a dual trace oscilloscope is an important ingredient in teaching the subject. This short laboratory note aims to point out what may be the simplest demonstrative experiment on acoustic beats to carry out in a classroom without employing any lab apparatus.

  3. Work shifts in Emergency Medicine

    Roberto Recupero

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Emergency Medicine is known as a high stress specialty. The adverse effect of constantly rotating shifts is the single most important reason given for premature attrition from the field. In this work problems tied with night shift work will be taken into account and some solutions to reduce the impact of night work on the emergency physicians will be proposed.

  4. Flexible Schedules and Shift Work.

    Beers, Thomas M.

    2000-01-01

    Flexible work hours have gained prominence, as more than 25 million workers (27.6% of all full-time workers) can now vary their schedules. However, there has been little change since the mid-1980s in the proportion who work a shift other than a regular daytime shift. (JOW)

  5. Josephson shift register design and layout

    Przybysz, J.X.; Buttyan, J.; Blaugher, R.D.

    1989-01-01

    Integrated circuit chips were designed and fabricated, based on Josephson shift register circuit that simulated operation at 25 GHz using the SPICE program. The 6.25 mm square chip featured a twelve-gate, four-stage shift register fabricated with Nb/AlO/sub x//Nb Josephson junctions with a design value of 2000 A/cm/sup 2/ critical current density. SUPERCOMPACT, a general program for the design of monolithic microwave integrated circuits, was used to model the effects of layout geometry on the uniformity and phase coherence of logic gate bias currents. Gate bias resistors were treated as resistive transmission lines. A layout geometry for the superconductive transmission lines and thin film bias resistors was developed. The original SPICE-designed circuit was modified as a result of these calculations. Modeling indicated that bias current variations could be limited to 3% for all possible logic states of the shift register, and phase coherence of the gates could be maintained to within 2 degrees of 10 Ghz. The fundamental soundness of the circuit design was demonstrated by the proper operation of fabricated shift registers

  6. Enabling Global Observations of Clouds and Precipitation on Fine Spatio-Temporal Scales from CubeSat Constellations: Temporal Experiment for Storms and Tropical Systems Technology Demonstration (TEMPEST-D)

    Reising, S. C.; Todd, G.; Padmanabhan, S.; Lim, B.; Heneghan, C.; Kummerow, C.; Chandra, C. V.; Berg, W. K.; Brown, S. T.; Pallas, M.; Radhakrishnan, C.

    2017-12-01

    The Temporal Experiment for Storms and Tropical Systems (TEMPEST) mission concept consists of a constellation of 5 identical 6U-Class satellites observing storms at 5 millimeter-wave frequencies with 5-10 minute temporal sampling to observe the time evolution of clouds and their transition to precipitation. Such a small satellite mission would enable the first global measurements of clouds and precipitation on the time scale of tens of minutes and the corresponding spatial scale of a few km. TEMPEST is designed to improve the understanding of cloud processes by providing critical information on temporal signatures of precipitation and helping to constrain one of the largest sources of uncertainty in cloud models. TEMPEST millimeter-wave radiometers are able to perform remote observations of the cloud interior to observe microphysical changes as the cloud begins to precipitate or ice accumulates inside the storm. The TEMPEST technology demonstration (TEMPEST-D) mission is in progress to raise the TRL of the instrument and spacecraft systems from 6 to 9 as well as to demonstrate radiometer measurement and differential drag capabilities required to deploy a constellation of 6U-Class satellites in a single orbital plane. The TEMPEST-D millimeter-wave radiometer instrument provides observations at 89, 165, 176, 180 and 182 GHz using a single compact instrument designed for 6U-Class satellites. The direct-detection topology of the radiometer receiver substantially reduces both its power consumption and design complexity compared to heterodyne receivers. The TEMPEST-D instrument performs precise, end-to-end calibration using a cross-track scanning reflector to view an ambient blackbody calibration target and cosmic microwave background every scan period. The TEMPEST-D radiometer instrument has been fabricated and successfully tested under environmental conditions (vibration, thermal cycling and vacuum) expected in low-Earth orbit. TEMPEST-D began in Aug. 2015, with a

  7. The ALICE Glance Shift Accounting Management System (SAMS)

    Martins Silva, H.; Abreu Da Silva, I.; Ronchetti, F.; Telesca, A.; Maidantchik, C.

    2015-12-01

    ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) is an experiment at the CERN LHC (Large Hadron Collider) studying the physics of strongly interacting matter and the quark-gluon plasma. The experiment operation requires a 24 hours a day and 7 days a week shift crew at the experimental site, composed by the ALICE collaboration members. Shift duties are calculated for each institute according to their correlated members. In order to ensure the full coverage of the experiment operation as well as its good quality, the ALICE Shift Accounting Management System (SAMS) is used to manage the shift bookings as well as the needed training. ALICE SAMS is the result of a joint effort between the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ) and the ALICE Collaboration. The Glance technology, developed by the UFRJ and the ATLAS experiment, sits at the basis of the system as an intermediate layer isolating the particularities of the databases. In this paper, we describe the ALICE SAMS development process and functionalities. The database has been modelled according to the collaboration needs and is fully integrated with the ALICE Collaboration repository to access members information and respectively roles and activities. Run, period and training coordinators can manage their subsystem operation and ensure an efficient personnel management. Members of the ALICE collaboration can book shifts and on-call according to pre-defined rights. ALICE SAMS features a user profile containing all the statistics and user contact information as well as the Institutes profile. Both the user and institute profiles are public (within the scope of the collaboration) and show the credit balance in real time. A shift calendar allows the Run Coordinator to plan data taking periods in terms of which subsystems shifts are enabled or disabled and on-call responsible people and slots. An overview display presents the shift crew present in the control room and allows the Run Coordination team to confirm the presence

  8. Learning From Demonstration?

    Koch, Christian; Bertelsen, Niels Haldor

    2014-01-01

    Demonstration projects are often used in the building sector to provide a basis for using new processes and/or products. The climate change agenda implies that construction is not only required to deliver value for the customer, cost reductions and efficiency but also sustainable buildings....... This paper reports on an early demonstration project, the Building of a passive house dormitory in the Central Region of Denmark in 2006-2009. The project was supposed to deliver value, lean design, prefabrication, quality in sustainability, certification according to German standards for passive houses......, and micro combined heat and power using hydrogen. Using sociological and business economic theories of innovation, the paper discusses how early movers of innovation tend to obtain only partial success when demonstrating their products and often feel obstructed by minor details. The empirical work...

  9. Solar renovation demonstration projects

    Bruun Joergensen, O [ed.

    1998-10-01

    In the framework of the IEA SHC Programme, a Task on building renovation was initiated, `Task 20, Solar Energy in Building Renovation`. In a part of the task, Subtask C `Design of Solar Renovation Projects`, different solar renovation demonstration projects were developed. The objective of Subtask C was to demonstrate the application of advanced solar renovation concepts on real buildings. This report documents 16 different solar renovation demonstration projects including the design processes of the projects. The projects include the renovation of houses, schools, laboratories, and factories. Several solar techniques were used: building integrated solar collectors, glazed balconies, ventilated solar walls, transparent insulation, second skin facades, daylight elements and photovoltaic systems. These techniques are used in several simple as well as more complex system designs. (au)

  10. Biodenitrification demonstration test report

    Benear, A.K.; Murray, S.J.; Lahoda, E.J.; Leslie, J.W.; Patton, J.B.; Menako, C.R.

    1987-08-01

    A two-column biodenitrification (BDN) facility was constructed at the Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC) in 1985 and 1986 to test the feasibility of biological treatment for industrial nitrate-bearing waste water generated at FMPC. This demonstration facility comprises one-half of the proposed four-column production facility. A demonstration test was conducted over a four month period in 1987. The results indicate the proposed BDN production facility can process FMPC industrial wastewater in a continuous manner while maintaining an effluent that will consistently meet the proposed NPDES limits for combined nitrate nitrogen (NO 3 -N) and nitrite nitrogen (NO 2 -N). The proposed NPDES limits are 62 kg/day average and 124 kg/day maximum. These limits were proportioned to determine that the two-column demonstration facility should meet the limits of 31 kg/day average and 62 kg/day maximum

  11. Distributed picture compilation demonstration

    Alexander, Richard; Anderson, John; Leal, Jeff; Mullin, David; Nicholson, David; Watson, Graham

    2004-08-01

    A physical demonstration of distributed surveillance and tracking is described. The demonstration environment is an outdoor car park overlooked by a system of four rooftop cameras. The cameras extract moving objects from the scene, and these objects are tracked in a decentralized way, over a real communication network, using the information form of the standard Kalman filter. Each node therefore has timely access to the complete global picture and because there is no single point of failure in the system, it is robust. The demonstration system and its main components are described here, with an emphasis on some of the lessons we have learned as a result of applying a corpus of distributed data fusion theory and algorithms in practice. Initial results are presented and future plans to scale up the network are also outlined.

  12. Photovoltaic demonstration projects

    Gillett, W B; Hacker, R J; Kaut, W [eds.

    1991-01-01

    This book, the proceedings of the fourth PV-Contractors' Meeting organized by the Commission of the European Communities, Directorate-General for Energy, held at Brussels on 21 and 22 November 1989, provides an overview of the photovoltaic demonstration projects which have been supported in the framework of the Energy Demonstration Program since 1983. It includes reports by each of the contractors who submitted proposals in 1983, 1984, 1985 and 1986, describing progress with their projects. Summaries of the discussions held at the meeting, which included contractors whose projects were submitted in 1987, are also presented. The different technologies which are being demonstrated concern the modules, the cabling of the array, structure design, storage strategy and power conditioning. The various applications include desalination, communications, dairy farms, water pumping, and warning systems. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  13. Electric vehicle demonstration

    Ouellet, M. [National Centre for Advanced Transportation, Saint-Jerome, PQ (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    The desirable characteristics of Canadian projects that demonstrate vehicle use in real-world operation and the appropriate mechanism to collect and disseminate the monitoring data were discussed in this presentation. The scope of the project was on passenger cars and light duty trucks operating in plug-in electric vehicle (PHEV) or battery electric vehicle modes. The presentation also discussed the funding, stakeholders involved, Canadian travel pattern analysis, regulatory framework, current and recent electric vehicle demonstration projects, and project guidelines. It was concluded that some demonstration project activities may have been duplicated as communication between the proponents was insufficient. It was recommended that data monitoring using automatic data logging with minimum reliance on logbooks and other user entry should be emphasized. figs.

  14. Innovative technology demonstrations

    Anderson, D.B.; Luttrell, S.P.; Hartley, J.N.

    1992-08-01

    Environmental Management Operations (EMO) is conducting an Innovative Technology Demonstration Program for Tinker Air Force Base (TAFB). Several innovative technologies are being demonstrated to address specific problems associated with remediating two contaminated test sites at the base. Cone penetrometer testing (CPT) is a form of testing that can rapidly characterize a site. This technology was selected to evaluate its applicability in the tight clay soils and consolidated sandstone sediments found at TAFB. Directionally drilled horizontal wells was selected as a method that may be effective in accessing contamination beneath Building 3001 without disrupting the mission of the building, and in enhancing the extraction of contamination both in ground water and in soil. A soil gas extraction (SGE) demonstration, also known as soil vapor extraction, will evaluate the effectiveness of SGE in remediating fuels and TCE contamination contained in the tight clay soil formations surrounding the abandoned underground fuel storage vault located at the SW Tanks Site. In situ sensors have recently received much acclaim as a technology that can be effective in remediating hazardous waste sites. Sensors can be useful for determining real-time, in situ contaminant concentrations during the remediation process for performance monitoring and in providing feedback for controlling the remediation process. Following the SGE demonstration, the SGE system and SW Tanks test site will be modified to demonstrate bioremediation as an effective means of degrading the remaining contaminants in situ. The bioremediation demonstration will evaluate a bioventing process in which the naturally occurring consortium of soil bacteria will be stimulated to aerobically degrade soil contaminants, including fuel and TCE, in situ

  15. Innovative technology demonstrations

    Anderson, D.B.; Hartley, J.N.; Luttrell, S.P.

    1992-04-01

    Currently, several innovative technologies are being demonstrated at Tinker Air Force Base (TAFB) to address specific problems associated with remediating two contaminated test sites at the base. Cone penetrometer testing (CPT) is a form of testing that can rapidly characterize a site. This technology was selected to evaluate its applicability in the tight clay soils and consolidated sandstone sediments found at TAFB. Directionally drilled horizontal wells have been successfully installed at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Savannah River Site to test new methods of in situ remediation of soils and ground water. This emerging technology was selected as a method that may be effective in accessing contamination beneath Building 3001 without disrupting the mission of the building, and in enhancing the extraction of contamination both in ground water and in soil. A soil gas extraction (SGE) demonstration, also known as soil vapor extraction, will evaluate the effectiveness of SGE in remediating fuels and TCE contamination contained in the tight clay soil formations surrounding the abandoned underground fuel storage vault located at the SW Tanks Site. In situ sensors have recently received much acclaim as a technology that can be effective in remediating hazardous waste sites. Sensors can be useful for determining real-time, in situ contaminant concentrations during the remediation process for performance monitoring and in providing feedback for controlling the remediation process. A demonstration of two in situ sensor systems capable of providing real-time data on contamination levels will be conducted and evaluated concurrently with the SGE demonstration activities. Following the SGE demonstration, the SGE system and SW Tanks test site will be modified to demonstrate bioremediation as an effective means of degrading the remaining contaminants in situ

  16. Gigashot Optical Laser Demonstrator

    Deri, R. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-10-13

    The Gigashot Optical Laser Demonstrator (GOLD) project has demonstrated a novel optical amplifier for high energy pulsed lasers operating at high repetition rates. The amplifier stores enough pump energy to support >10 J of laser output, and employs conduction cooling for thermal management to avoid the need for expensive and bulky high-pressure helium subsystems. A prototype amplifier was fabricated, pumped with diode light at 885 nm, and characterized. Experimental results show that the amplifier provides sufficient small-signal gain and sufficiently low wavefront and birefringence impairments to prove useful in laser systems, at repetition rates up to 60 Hz.

  17. Photovoltaic demonstration projects 2

    Gillett, W B; Hacker, R J [Halcrow (William) and Partners, Swindon (UK); Kaut, W [eds.

    1989-01-01

    This book, the proceedings of the third Photovoltaic Contractors' Meeting organised by the Commission of the European Communities, Directorate-General for Energy provides an overview of the photovoltaic demonstration projects which have been supported by the Energy Directorate of the Commission of the European Communities since 1983. It includes reports by each of the contractors who submitted proposals in 1983, 1984 and 1985, describing progress with their projects. The different technologies which are being demonstrated concern the modules, the cabling of the array, structure design, storage strategy and power conditioning. The various applications include powering of houses, villages, recreation centres, water desalination, communications, dairy farms, water pumping and warning systems. (author).

  18. PHARUS ASAR demonstrator

    Smith, A.J.E.; Bree, R.J.P. van; Calkoen, C.J.; Dekker, R.J.; Otten, M.P.G.; Rossum, W.L. van

    2001-01-01

    PHARUS is a polarimetric phased array C-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), designed and built for airborne use. Advanced SAR (ASAR) data in image and alternating polarization mode have been simulated with PHARUS to demonstrate the use of Envisat for a number of typical SAR applications that are

  19. Demonstrating the Gas Laws.

    Holko, David A.

    1982-01-01

    Presents a complete computer program demonstrating the relationship between volume/pressure for Boyle's Law, volume/temperature for Charles' Law, and volume/moles of gas for Avagadro's Law. The programing reinforces students' application of gas laws and equates a simulated moving piston to theoretical values derived using the ideal gas law.…

  20. A Magnetic Circuit Demonstration.

    Vanderkooy, John; Lowe, June

    1995-01-01

    Presents a demonstration designed to illustrate Faraday's, Ampere's, and Lenz's laws and to reinforce the concepts through the analysis of a two-loop magnetic circuit. Can be made dramatic and challenging for sophisticated students but is suitable for an introductory course in electricity and magnetism. (JRH)

  1. Spacecraft Fire Safety Demonstration

    Urban, David L.; Ruff, Gary A.

    2016-01-01

    A presentation of the Saffire Experiment goals and scientific objectives for the Joint CSA/ESA/JAXA/NASA Increments 47 and 48 Science Symposium. The purpose of the presentation is to inform the ISS Cadre and the other investigators of the Saffire goals and objectives to enable them to best support a successful Saffire outcome.

  2. Global regime shift dynamics of catastrophic sea urchin overgrazing

    Ling, S. D.; Scheibling, R. E.; Rassweiler, A.; Johnson, C. R.; Shears, N.; Connell, S. D.; Salomon, A. K.; Norderhaug, K. M.; Pérez-Matus, A.; Hernández, J. C.; Clemente, S.; Blamey, L. K.; Hereu, B.; Ballesteros, E.; Sala, E.; Garrabou, J.; Cebrian, E.; Zabala, M.; Fujita, D.; Johnson, L. E.

    2015-01-01

    A pronounced, widespread and persistent regime shift among marine ecosystems is observable on temperate rocky reefs as a result of sea urchin overgrazing. Here, we empirically define regime-shift dynamics for this grazing system which transitions between productive macroalgal beds and impoverished urchin barrens. Catastrophic in nature, urchin overgrazing in a well-studied Australian system demonstrates a discontinuous regime shift, which is of particular management concern as recovery of desirable macroalgal beds requires reducing grazers to well below the initial threshold of overgrazing. Generality of this regime-shift dynamic is explored across 13 rocky reef systems (spanning 11 different regions from both hemispheres) by compiling available survey data (totalling 10 901 quadrats surveyed in situ) plus experimental regime-shift responses (observed during a total of 57 in situ manipulations). The emergent and globally coherent pattern shows urchin grazing to cause a discontinuous ‘catastrophic’ regime shift, with hysteresis effect of approximately one order of magnitude in urchin biomass between critical thresholds of overgrazing and recovery. Different life-history traits appear to create asymmetry in the pace of overgrazing versus recovery. Once shifted, strong feedback mechanisms provide resilience for each alternative state thus defining the catastrophic nature of this regime shift. Importantly, human-derived stressors can act to erode resilience of desirable macroalgal beds while strengthening resilience of urchin barrens, thus exacerbating the risk, spatial extent and irreversibility of an unwanted regime shift for marine ecosystems.

  3. Rapid and reliable protein structure determination via chemical shift threading.

    Hafsa, Noor E; Berjanskii, Mark V; Arndt, David; Wishart, David S

    2018-01-01

    Protein structure determination using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy can be both time-consuming and labor intensive. Here we demonstrate how chemical shift threading can permit rapid, robust, and accurate protein structure determination using only chemical shift data. Threading is a relatively old bioinformatics technique that uses a combination of sequence information and predicted (or experimentally acquired) low-resolution structural data to generate high-resolution 3D protein structures. The key motivations behind using NMR chemical shifts for protein threading lie in the fact that they are easy to measure, they are available prior to 3D structure determination, and they contain vital structural information. The method we have developed uses not only sequence and chemical shift similarity but also chemical shift-derived secondary structure, shift-derived super-secondary structure, and shift-derived accessible surface area to generate a high quality protein structure regardless of the sequence similarity (or lack thereof) to a known structure already in the PDB. The method (called E-Thrifty) was found to be very fast (often chemical shift refinement, these results suggest that protein structure determination, using only NMR chemical shifts, is becoming increasingly practical and reliable. E-Thrifty is available as a web server at http://ethrifty.ca .

  4. Exogenous and endogenous shifts of attention in perihand space.

    Le Bigot, Nathalie; Grosjean, Marc

    2016-07-01

    While some studies have found that attentional orienting is altered in perihand space, most have not. One reason for such discrepancies may be related to the types of cues (uninformative and informative) that have been used, as they are known to induce different types of shifts of attention (exogenous and endogenous, respectively). To systematically address this question, two experiments were performed in which an uninformative peripheral cue (Experiment 1) or an informative central cue (Experiment 2) preceded a peripheral target with a short (100-150 ms) stimulus-onset asynchrony. Participants performed the task with their left hand, right hand, both hands, or no hands near the display. Cueing effects were obtained in both experiments, but they were only modulated by hand position in Experiment 1, with larger effects observed in the right- and both-hand conditions. These findings suggest that exogenous attention shifts are affected by hand proximity, while endogenous shifts are not.

  5. Evaluating the traditional day and night shift in an acute care surgery fellowship: Is the swing shift a better choice?

    Chestovich, Paul J; McNicoll, Christopher F; Ingalls, Nichole K; Kuhls, Deborah A; Fraser, Douglas R; Morrissey, Shawna L; Fildes, John J

    2018-01-01

    Fellowship trainees in acute care surgery require experience in the management of complex and operative trauma cases. Trauma center staffing usually follows standard 12-hour or 24-hour shifts, with resident and fellow trainees following a similar schedule. Although trauma admissions can be generally unpredictable, we analyzed temporal trends of trauma patient arrival times to determine the best time frame to maximize trainee experience during each day. We reviewed 10 years (2007-2016) of trauma registry data for blunt and penetrating trauma activations. Hourly volumetric trends were observed, and three specific events were chosen for detailed analysis: (1) trauma activation with Injury Severity Score (ISS) greater than 15, (2) laparotomy for trauma, and (3) thoracotomy for trauma. A retrospective shift log was created, which included day (7:00 AM to 7:00 PM), night (7:00 PM to 7:00 AM), and swing (noon to midnight) shifts. A swing shift was chosen because it captures the peak volume for all three events. Means and 95% confidence intervals were calculated, and comparisons were made between shifts using the Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed rank test with Bonferroni correction, and p less than 0.05 considered significant. During the 10-year study period, 28,287 patients were treated at our trauma center. This included the evaluation and management of 7,874 patients with ISS greater than 15, performance of 1,766 laparotomies, and 392 thoracotomies for trauma. Swing shift was superior to both day and night shifts for ISS greater than 15 (p night shifts were superior to day shift for laparotomies (p day shift (p night shift (p = 0.031). Shifts with the highest yield of ISS greater than 15, laparotomies, and thoracotomies include night and swing shifts on Fridays and Saturdays. Projected experience of acute care surgery fellows in managing complex trauma patients increases with the integration of swing shifts into the schedule. Daily trauma volume follows a temporal pattern

  6. TIPS (trigger an IIF paradigm shift)

    Kilcup, P.E. Glen [Intel Corporation, MS: F9-016, 4100 Sara Road, Rio Rancho, NM 87124 (United States)]. E-mail: glen.w.kilcup@intel.com; Hickox, Dick [Intel Corporation, MS: F9-016, 4100 Sara Road, Rio Rancho, NM 87124 (United States); Reynaga, Adolfo [Intel Corporation, MS: F9-016, 4100 Sara Road, Rio Rancho, NM 87124 (United States)

    2007-04-11

    Challenge: New Mexico Corporate Services (NMCS) recordable injuries have been averaging 2-4 per year for the last 5 years with no statistical improvement. However, we believe all NM employees must go home incident and injury free every day and just as healthy as they came to work. In addition, we have received feedback from several sources, that indicates some employees are reluctant to report injuries. These indicators showed us that continuing our current strategies, making incremental improvement and changes, would not give us the improvement desired. We needed a paradigm shift to get everyone completely engaged in the IIF (Incident and Injury Free) culture, in order to achieve true IIF results. Methods/Strategies: We formed a small (3-person) taskforce consisting of safety representatives from EHS, Site Services and CS Operations. We reviewed 5 years worth of data to determine what was injuring our people. We also decided to review all injuries, not simply those classified as recordable by OSHA standards. First we identified the types of injury information needed to get a true picture of our safety issues. We analyzed IRB (Incident Review Board) data showing us the following factors and whether any of them contributed to the injury: - Date - Incident Description - Severity - Root Cause - Type of Injury - Season - Work Group/Shift - Area - Improper evaluation of hazard - Inadequate work procedures - Incorrect Mental Model - Inadequate PPE Requirement - Failure to Follow or Unaware of PPE Requirement - Shortcut or Schedule Pressure - Last or First Day of Shift or Adjacent to Holiday - OT - Aggravate Existing Condition - Inadequate Training or Passdown - Experience in Task - Corrective Action Taken - Overall Quality of Response. Once this information was collected for all injuries in an Excel file, we graphed it several ways to help reveal trends: - Shift 7 had double the injuries of shift 5 - Night shift injuries were relatively high but lower than Shift 7 -Shift

  7. TIPS (trigger an IIF paradigm shift)

    Kilcup, P.E. Glen; Hickox, Dick; Reynaga, Adolfo

    2007-01-01

    Challenge: New Mexico Corporate Services (NMCS) recordable injuries have been averaging 2-4 per year for the last 5 years with no statistical improvement. However, we believe all NM employees must go home incident and injury free every day and just as healthy as they came to work. In addition, we have received feedback from several sources, that indicates some employees are reluctant to report injuries. These indicators showed us that continuing our current strategies, making incremental improvement and changes, would not give us the improvement desired. We needed a paradigm shift to get everyone completely engaged in the IIF (Incident and Injury Free) culture, in order to achieve true IIF results. Methods/Strategies: We formed a small (3-person) taskforce consisting of safety representatives from EHS, Site Services and CS Operations. We reviewed 5 years worth of data to determine what was injuring our people. We also decided to review all injuries, not simply those classified as recordable by OSHA standards. First we identified the types of injury information needed to get a true picture of our safety issues. We analyzed IRB (Incident Review Board) data showing us the following factors and whether any of them contributed to the injury: - Date - Incident Description - Severity - Root Cause - Type of Injury - Season - Work Group/Shift - Area - Improper evaluation of hazard - Inadequate work procedures - Incorrect Mental Model - Inadequate PPE Requirement - Failure to Follow or Unaware of PPE Requirement - Shortcut or Schedule Pressure - Last or First Day of Shift or Adjacent to Holiday - OT - Aggravate Existing Condition - Inadequate Training or Passdown - Experience in Task - Corrective Action Taken - Overall Quality of Response. Once this information was collected for all injuries in an Excel file, we graphed it several ways to help reveal trends: - Shift 7 had double the injuries of shift 5 - Night shift injuries were relatively high but lower than Shift 7 -Shift

  8. TIPS (trigger an IIF paradigm shift).

    Kilcup P E, Glen; Hickox, Dick; Reynaga, Adolfo

    2007-04-11

    New Mexico Corporate Services (NMCS) recordable injuries have been averaging 2-4 per year for the last 5 years with no statistical improvement. However, we believe all NM employees must go home incident and injury free every day and just as healthy as they came to work. In addition, we have received feedback from several sources, that indicates some employees are reluctant to report injuries. These indicators showed us that continuing our current strategies, making incremental improvement and changes, would not give us the improvement desired. We needed a paradigm shift to get everyone completely engaged in the IIF (Incident & Injury Free) culture, in order to achieve true IIF results. We formed a small (3-person) taskforce consisting of safety representatives from EHS, Site Services and CS Operations. We reviewed 5 years worth of data to determine what was injuring our people. We also decided to review all injuries, not simply those classified as recordable by OSHA standards. First we identified the types of injury information needed to get a true picture of our safety issues. We analyzed IRB (Incident Review Board) data showing us the following factors and whether any of them contributed to the injury: - Date - Incident Description - Severity - Root Cause - Type of Injury - Season - Work Group/Shift - Area - Improper evaluation of hazard - Inadequate work procedures - Incorrect Mental Model - Inadequate PPE Requirement - Failure to Follow or Unaware of PPE Requirement - Shortcut or Schedule Pressure - Last or First Day of Shift or Adjacent to Holiday - OT - Aggravate Existing Condition - Inadequate Training or Passdown - Experience in Task - Corrective Action Taken - Overall Quality of Response. Once this information was collected for all injuries in an Excel file, we graphed it several ways to help reveal trends: Shift 7 had double the injuries of shift 5. Night shift injuries were relatively high but lower than Shift 7. Shift 5 had no severe (recordable

  9. Operator performance on the night shift: phases 1 and 2

    Morisseau, Dolores; Beere, Barnaby; Collier, Steve

    1999-04-01

    The objective of the project on operator performance on the night shift is to determine the effects of circadian rhythms on higher order cognitive processes. The project had two preliminary phases. Subjects were operators from the Halden Boiling Water Reactor, (Phase 1: 7 male operators and shift leaders, aged 26 to 35; Phase 2: 8 male operators and shift leaders, aged 26 to 53). The majority of the operators were the same for both studies. The preliminary work established that Norwegian operators' circadian rhythms fall within universal population norms and, thus, they are suitable subjects for such experiments. During Phase 1, two self-assessment instruments, the Stanford Sleepiness Scale (SSS) and the Global Vigour and Affect Scale (GVA), were administered every hour on all three shifts at the reactor. During Phase 2, three tests from the Walter Reed Performance Assessment Battery were administered at the beginning, middle, and end of each of the three shifts at the reactor. The tests (Serial Add-Subtract, Two-Column Addition, and Logical Reasoning) were administered using a hand-held computer. Both phases were conducted during regular work shifts for one complete shift rota (six weeks). ANOVA with two repeated measures showed that self-reported sleepiness on the night shift, sleepiness with respect to hours into the shift, and the interaction between them all reached statistical significance at p<.001. Data analyses (ANOVA) from Phase 2 indicate that the main effect of SHIFTNO (morning, afternoon, evening) on response times was significant (p<.002); the interaction between SHIFTNO and TINSHIFT (hours into shift) was also significant (p<.009). None of the effects on correctness of response was significant (Phase 2). While correctness of response was not significant for routine cognitive measures, the significant, progressive slowing of response times on the night shift reinforces the concern for possible performance decrements on the night shift. Thus, it

  10. Remote monitoring demonstration

    Caskey, Susan; Olsen, John

    2006-01-01

    The recently upgraded remote monitoring system at the Joyo Experimental Reactor uses a DCM-14 camera module and GEMINI software. The final data is compatible both with the IAEA-approved GARS review software and the ALIS software that was used for this demonstration. Features of the remote monitoring upgrade emphasized compatibility with IAEA practice. This presentation gives particular attention to the selection process for meeting network security considerations at the O'arai site. The Joyo system is different from the NNCA's ACPF system, in that it emphasizes use of IAEA standard camera technology and data acquisition and transmission software. In the demonstration itself, a temporary virtual private network (VPN) between the meeting room and the server at Sandia in Albuquerque allowed attendees to observe data stored from routine transmissions from the Joyo Fresh Fuel Storage to Sandia. Image files from a fuel movement earlier in the month showed Joyo workers and IAEA inspectors carrying out a transfer. (author)

  11. Commercial incineration demonstration

    Borduin, L.C.; Neuls, A.S.

    1981-01-01

    Low-level radioactive wastes (LLW) generated by nuclear utilities presently are shipped to commercial burial grounds for disposal. Substantially increasing shipping and disposal charges have sparked renewed industry interest in incineration and other advanced volume reduction techniques as potential cost-saving measures. Repeated inquiries from industry sources regarding LLW applicability of the Los Alamos controlled-air incineration (CAI) design led DOE to initiate this commercial demonstration program in FY-1980. The selected program approach to achieving CAI demonstration at a utility site is a DOE sponsored joint effort involving Los Alamos, a nuclear utility, and a liaison subcontractor. Required development tasks and responsibilities of the particpants are described. Target date for project completion is the end of FY-1985

  12. AVNG system demonstration

    Thron, Jonathan Louis [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mac Arthur, Duncan W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kondratov, Sergey [VNIIEF; Livke, Alexander [VNIIEF; Razinkov, Sergey [VNIIEF

    2010-01-01

    An attribute measurement system (AMS) measures a number of unclassified attributes of potentially classified material. By only displaying these unclassified results as red or green lights, the AMS protects potentially classified information while still generating confidence in the measurement result. The AVNG implementation that we describe is an AMS built by RFNC - VNIIEF in Sarov, Russia. To provide additional confidence, the AVNG was designed with two modes of operation. In the secure mode, potentially classified measurements can be made with only the simple red light/green light display. In the open mode, known unclassified material can be measured with complete display of the information collected from the radiation detectors. The AVNG demonstration, which occurred in Sarov, Russia in June 2009 for a joint US/Russian audience, included exercising both modes of AVNG operation using a number of multi-kg plutonium sources. In addition to describing the demonstration, we will show photographs and/or video taken of AVNG operation.

  13. Shape-shifting colloids via stimulated dewetting

    Youssef, Mena; Hueckel, Theodore; Yi, Gi-Ra; Sacanna, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    The ability to reconfigure elementary building blocks from one structure to another is key to many biological systems. Bringing the intrinsic adaptability of biological systems to traditional synthetic materials is currently one of the biggest scientific challenges in material engineering. Here we introduce a new design concept for the experimental realization of self-assembling systems with built-in shape-shifting elements. We demonstrate that dewetting forces between an oil phase and solid colloidal substrates can be exploited to engineer shape-shifting particles whose geometry can be changed on demand by a chemical or optical signal. We find this approach to be quite general and applicable to a broad spectrum of materials, including polymers, semiconductors and magnetic materials. This synthetic methodology can be further adopted as a new experimental platform for designing and rapidly prototyping functional colloids, such as reconfigurable micro swimmers, colloidal surfactants and switchable building blocks for self-assembly. PMID:27426418

  14. Cα chemical shift tensors in helical peptides by dipolar-modulated chemical shift recoupling NMR

    Yao Xiaolan; Yamaguchi, Satoru; Hong Mei

    2002-01-01

    The Cα chemical shift tensors of proteins contain information on the backbone conformation. We have determined the magnitude and orientation of the Cα chemical shift tensors of two peptides with α-helical torsion angles: the Ala residue in G*AL (φ=-65.7 deg., ψ=-40 deg.), and the Val residue in GG*V (φ=-81.5 deg., ψ=-50.7 deg.). The magnitude of the tensors was determined from quasi-static powder patterns recoupled under magic-angle spinning, while the orientation of the tensors was extracted from Cα-Hα and Cα-N dipolar modulated powder patterns. The helical Ala Cα chemical shift tensor has a span of 36 ppm and an asymmetry parameter of 0.89. Its σ 11 axis is 116 deg. ± 5 deg. from the Cα-Hα bond while the σ 22 axis is 40 deg. ± 5 deg. from the Cα-N bond. The Val tensor has an anisotropic span of 25 ppm and an asymmetry parameter of 0.33, both much smaller than the values for β-sheet Val found recently (Yao and Hong, 2002). The Val σ 33 axis is tilted by 115 deg. ± 5 deg. from the Cα-Hα bond and 98 deg. ± 5 deg. from the Cα-N bond. These represent the first completely experimentally determined Cα chemical shift tensors of helical peptides. Using an icosahedral representation, we compared the experimental chemical shift tensors with quantum chemical calculations and found overall good agreement. These solid-state chemical shift tensors confirm the observation from cross-correlated relaxation experiments that the projection of the Cα chemical shift tensor onto the Cα-Hα bond is much smaller in α-helices than in β-sheets

  15. Antares: preliminary demonstrator results

    Kouchner, A.

    2000-05-01

    The ANTARES collaboration is building an undersea neutrino telescope off Toulon (Mediterranean sea) with effective area ∼ 0.1 km 2 . An extensive study of the site properties has been achieved together with software analysis in order to optimize the performance of the detector. Results are summarized here. An instrumented line, linked to shore for first time via an electro-optical cable, has been immersed late 1999. The preliminary results of this demonstrator line are reported. (author)

  16. Plasmon Geometric Phase and Plasmon Hall Shift

    Shi, Li-kun; Song, Justin C. W.

    2018-04-01

    The collective plasmonic modes of a metal comprise a simple pattern of oscillating charge density that yields enhanced light-matter interaction. Here we unveil that beneath this familiar facade plasmons possess a hidden internal structure that fundamentally alters its dynamics. In particular, we find that metals with nonzero Hall conductivity host plasmons with an intricate current density configuration that sharply departs from that of ordinary zero Hall conductivity metals. This nontrivial internal structure dramatically enriches the dynamics of plasmon propagation, enabling plasmon wave packets to acquire geometric phases as they scatter. At boundaries, these phases accumulate allowing plasmon waves that reflect off to experience a nonreciprocal parallel shift. This plasmon Hall shift, tunable by Hall conductivity as well as plasmon wavelength, displaces the incident and reflected plasmon trajectories and can be readily probed by near-field photonics techniques. Anomalous plasmon geometric phases dramatically enrich the nanophotonics toolbox, and yield radical new means for directing plasmonic beams.

  17. Lunar Water Resource Demonstration

    Muscatello, Anthony C.

    2008-01-01

    In cooperation with the Canadian Space Agency, the Northern Centre for Advanced Technology, Inc., the Carnegie-Mellon University, JPL, and NEPTEC, NASA has undertaken the In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) project called RESOLVE. This project is a ground demonstration of a system that would be sent to explore permanently shadowed polar lunar craters, drill into the regolith, determine what volatiles are present, and quantify them in addition to recovering oxygen by hydrogen reduction. The Lunar Prospector has determined these craters contain enhanced hydrogen concentrations averaging about 0.1%. If the hydrogen is in the form of water, the water concentration would be around 1%, which would translate into billions of tons of water on the Moon, a tremendous resource. The Lunar Water Resource Demonstration (LWRD) is a part of RESOLVE designed to capture lunar water and hydrogen and quantify them as a backup to gas chromatography analysis. This presentation will briefly review the design of LWRD and some of the results of testing the subsystem. RESOLVE is to be integrated with the Scarab rover from CMIJ and the whole system demonstrated on Mauna Kea on Hawaii in November 2008. The implications of lunar water for Mars exploration are two-fold: 1) RESOLVE and LWRD could be used in a similar fashion on Mars to locate and quantify water resources, and 2) electrolysis of lunar water could provide large amounts of liquid oxygen in LEO, leading to lower costs for travel to Mars, in addition to being very useful at lunar outposts.

  18. Inequalities for scattering phase shifts

    Baumgartner, B.; Grosse, H.

    1985-01-01

    A recently developed method, which was used to derive bounds on energy levels, is applied to continuous spectra and gives relations between scattering phase shifts of various angular momenta. (Author)

  19. Isotope shifts in unstable nuclei

    Rebel, H.

    1980-05-01

    Current experimental investigations of isotope shifts in atomic spectra of unstable nuclei and the resulting information about size and shape of nuclei far off stability are discussed with reference to some representative examples. (orig.)

  20. Dynamic Characteristics Analysis of Power Shift Control Valve

    Feng Ren

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the influence that dynamic performance of shift control valve has on shifting process of construction machinery, the paper introduces working principle of the shift control valve and sets up the dynamically mathematical model and corresponding simulation model with simulation software LMS Imagine. Lab AMESim. Based on simulation, the paper analyzes the influence of pressure variation characteristics and buffering characteristics acting on vehicle performance during the process of shifting, meanwhile conducting experiments to verify the simulation. The results indicate that the simulation model is accurate and credible; the performance of the valve is satisfactory, which indeed reduces impact during shifting. Furthermore, the valve can meet the demand of other construction machineries in better degree by suitable matching between control spring stiffness and damping holes diameter.

  1. NDT performance demonstration in Spain

    Bollini, G.J.

    1994-01-01

    The experience obtained from the in-service inspection of reactor pressure vessels (RPV) of Spanish nuclear power plants and the participation in several international programs, such as PISC, has shown the need for a performance demonstration, not only for the ultrasonic inspection techniques of RPV, but also for other ISI non-destructive techniques as in the case of eddy current inspection of steam generator tubing. Section XI of the ASME Code, which is applied in Spain for ISI, has incorporated recently the Appendix VIII for performance demonstration of ultrasonic inspection techniques. As a direct consequence of this, a Spanish project for performance demonstration of ultrasonic inspection techniques has been launched recently, which includes the manufacturing of full-scale mock-ups of nozzle to vessel welds, reactor vessel welds, wrought austenitic piping welds and ferritic piping welds of PWR and BWR nuclear power plants from different suppliers. This considerable technical effort will let the different Spanish organizations which are part of the project to participate and colaborate with similar international projects and in particular with a European initiative for performance demonstration. (Author)

  2. E/Z MAS demonstration

    Boor, M.G.; Hurford, J.M.; Landry, R.P.; Martinez, B.J.; Solem, A.M.; Whiteson, R.; Zardecki, A.

    1998-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has developed E/Z MAS, a new generation nuclear material accountability application based on the latest technology and designed for facilities required to track nuclear materials with a simple-to-use interface. E/Z MAS is based on years of experience spent developing nuclear material accounting systems. E/Z MAS uses a modern relational database with a web server and enables users on a classified local area network to interact with the database with web browsers. The E/Z MAS Demonstration poster session demonstrates the E/Z MAS functions required by an operational nuclear facility to track material as it enters and leaves a facility and to account for the material as it moves through a process. The generation of internal facility reports and external reports for the Russian Federal system will be demonstrated. Bar-code readers will be used to demonstrate the ability of EZ MAS to automate certain functions, such as physical inventories at facilities

  3. Demonstration of HITEX

    Morrison, H.D.; Woodall, K.B.

    1993-01-01

    A model reactor for HITEX successfully demonstrated the concept of high-temperature isotopic exchange in a closed loop simulating the conditions for fusion fuel cleanup. The catalyst of platinum on alumina pellets provided a surface area large enough to operate the reactor at 400 degrees celsius with flow rates up to 2 L/min. A 15-L tank containing a mixture of 4% CD 4 in H 2 was depleted in deuterium within 75 minutes down to 100 ppm HD above the natural concentration of HD in the make-up hydrogen stream. The application to tritium removal from tritiated impurities in a hydrogen stream will work as well or better

  4. Visual Electricity Demonstrator

    Lincoln, James

    2017-09-01

    The Visual Electricity Demonstrator (VED) is a linear diode array that serves as a dynamic alternative to an ammeter. A string of 48 red light-emitting diodes (LEDs) blink one after another to create the illusion of a moving current. Having the current represented visually builds an intuitive and qualitative understanding about what is happening in a circuit. In this article, I describe several activities for this device and explain how using this technology in the classroom can enhance the understanding and appreciation of physics.

  5. Exploration Medical System Demonstration

    Rubin, D. A.; Watkins, S. D.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exploration class missions will present significant new challenges and hazards to the health of the astronauts. Regardless of the intended destination, beyond low Earth orbit a greater degree of crew autonomy will be required to diagnose medical conditions, develop treatment plans, and implement procedures due to limited communications with ground-based personnel. SCOPE: The Exploration Medical System Demonstration (EMSD) project will act as a test bed on the International Space Station (ISS) to demonstrate to crew and ground personnel that an end-to-end medical system can assist clinician and non-clinician crew members in optimizing medical care delivery and data management during an exploration mission. Challenges facing exploration mission medical care include limited resources, inability to evacuate to Earth during many mission phases, and potential rendering of medical care by non-clinicians. This system demonstrates the integration of medical devices and informatics tools for managing evidence and decision making and can be designed to assist crewmembers in nominal, non-emergent situations and in emergent situations when they may be suffering from performance decrements due to environmental, physiological or other factors. PROJECT OBJECTIVES: The objectives of the EMSD project are to: a. Reduce or eliminate the time required of an on-orbit crew and ground personnel to access, transfer, and manipulate medical data. b. Demonstrate that the on-orbit crew has the ability to access medical data/information via an intuitive and crew-friendly solution to aid in the treatment of a medical condition. c. Develop a common data management framework that can be ubiquitously used to automate repetitive data collection, management, and communications tasks for all activities pertaining to crew health and life sciences. d. Ensure crew access to medical data during periods of restricted ground communication. e. Develop a common data management framework that

  6. Commercial incineration demonstration

    Vavruska, J.S.; Borduin, L.C.

    1982-01-01

    Low-level radioactive wastes (LLW) generated by nuclear utilities presently are shipped to commercial burial grounds for disposal. Increasing transportation and disposal costs have caused industry to consider incineration as a cost-effective means of volume reduction of combustible LLW. Repeated inquiries from the nuclear industry regarding the applicability of the Los Alamos controlled air incineration (CAI) design led the DOE to initiate a commercial demonstration program in FY-1980. Development studies and results in support of this program involving ion exchange resin incineration and fission/activation product distributions within the Los Alamos CAI are described

  7. Demonstration tokamak power plant

    Abdou, M.; Baker, C.; Brooks, J.; Ehst, D.; Mattas, R.; Smith, D.L.; DeFreece, D.; Morgan, G.D.; Trachsel, C.

    1983-01-01

    A conceptual design for a tokamak demonstration power plant (DEMO) was developed. A large part of the study focused on examining the key issues and identifying the R and D needs for: (1) current drive for steady-state operation, (2) impurity control and exhaust, (3) tritium breeding blanket, and (4) reactor configuration and maintenance. Impurity control and exhaust will not be covered in this paper but is discussed in another paper in these proceedings, entitled Key Issues of FED/INTOR Impurity Control System

  8. Smart Grid Demonstration Project

    Miller, Craig [National Rural Electric Cooperative Association, Arlington, VA (United States); Carroll, Paul [National Rural Electric Cooperative Association, Arlington, VA (United States); Bell, Abigail [National Rural Electric Cooperative Association, Arlington, VA (United States)

    2015-03-11

    The National Rural Electric Cooperative Association (NRECA) organized the NRECA-U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Smart Grid Demonstration Project (DE-OE0000222) to install and study a broad range of advanced smart grid technologies in a demonstration that spanned 23 electric cooperatives in 12 states. More than 205,444 pieces of electronic equipment and more than 100,000 minor items (bracket, labels, mounting hardware, fiber optic cable, etc.) were installed to upgrade and enhance the efficiency, reliability, and resiliency of the power networks at the participating co-ops. The objective of this project was to build a path for other electric utilities, and particularly electrical cooperatives, to adopt emerging smart grid technology when it can improve utility operations, thus advancing the co-ops’ familiarity and comfort with such technology. Specifically, the project executed multiple subprojects employing a range of emerging smart grid technologies to test their cost-effectiveness and, where the technology demonstrated value, provided case studies that will enable other electric utilities—particularly electric cooperatives— to use these technologies. NRECA structured the project according to the following three areas: Demonstration of smart grid technology; Advancement of standards to enable the interoperability of components; and Improvement of grid cyber security. We termed these three areas Technology Deployment Study, Interoperability, and Cyber Security. Although the deployment of technology and studying the demonstration projects at coops accounted for the largest portion of the project budget by far, we see our accomplishments in each of the areas as critical to advancing the smart grid. All project deliverables have been published. Technology Deployment Study: The deliverable was a set of 11 single-topic technical reports in areas related to the listed technologies. Each of these reports has already been submitted to DOE, distributed to co-ops, and

  9. Thermal residual stress evaluation based on phase-shift lateral shearing interferometry

    Dai, Xiangjun; Yun, Hai; Shao, Xinxing; Wang, Yanxia; Zhang, Donghuan; Yang, Fujun; He, Xiaoyuan

    2018-06-01

    An interesting phase-shift lateral shearing interferometry system was proposed to evaluate the thermal residual stress distribution in transparent specimen. The phase-shift interferograms was generated by moving a parallel plane plate. Based on analyzing the fringes deflected by deformation and refractive index change, the stress distribution can be obtained. To verify the validity of the proposed method, a typical experiment was elaborately designed to determine thermal residual stresses of a transparent PMMA plate subjected to the flame of a lighter. The sum of in-plane stress distribution was demonstrated. The experimental data were compared with values measured by digital gradient sensing method. Comparison of the results reveals the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed method.

  10. Air-mass flux measurement system using Doppler-shifted filtered Rayleigh scattering

    Shirley, John A.; Winter, Michael

    1993-01-01

    An optical system has been investigated to measure mass flux distributions in the inlet of a high speed air-breathing propulsion system. Rayleigh scattered light from air is proportional to the number density of molecules and hence can be used to ascertain the gas density in a calibrated system. Velocity field measurements are achieved by spectrally filtering the elastically-scattered Doppler-shifted light with an absorbing molecular filter. A novel anamorphic optical collection system is used which allows optical rays from different scattering angles, that have different Doppler shifts, to be recorded separately. This is shown to obviate the need to tune the laser through the absorption to determine velocities, while retaining the ability to make spatially-resolved measurements along a line. By properly selecting the laser tuning and filter parameters, simultaneous density measurements can be made. These properties are discussed in the paper and experiments demonstrating the velocimetry capability are described.

  11. Electrodynamic Dust Shield Demonstrator

    Stankie, Charles G.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the project was to design and manufacture a device to demonstrate a new technology developed by NASA's Electrostatics and Surface Physics Laboratory. The technology itself is a system which uses magnetic principles to remove regolith dust from its surface. This project was to create an enclosure that will be used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the invention to The Office of the Chief Technologist. ONE of the most important challenges of space exploration is actually caused by something very small and seemingly insignificant. Dust in space, most notably on the moon and Mars, has caused many unforeseen issues. Dirt and dust on Earth, while a nuisance, can be easily cleaned and kept at bay. However, there is considerably less weathering and erosion in space. As a result, the microscopic particles are extremely rough and abrasive. They are also electrostatically charged, so they cling to everything they make contact with. This was first noted to be a major problem during the Apollo missions. Dust would stick to the spacesuits, and could not be wiped off as predicted. Dust was brought back into the spacecraft, and was even inhaled by astronauts. This is a major health hazard. Atmospheric storms and other events can also cause dust to coat surfaces of spacecraft. This can cause abrasive damage to the craft. The coating can also reduce the effectiveness of thermal insulation and solar panels.' A group of engineers at Kennedy Space Center's Electrostatics and Surface Physics Laboratory have developed a new technology, called the Electrodynamic Dust Shield, to help alleviate these problems. It is based off of the electric curtain concept developed at NASA in 1967. "The EDS is an active dust mitigation technology that uses traveling electric fields to transport electrostatically charged dust particles along surfaces. To generate the traveling electric fields, the EDS consists of a multilayer dielectric coating with an embedded thin electrode grid

  12. Survival of the Partial Reinforcement Extinction Effect after Contextual Shifts

    Boughner, Robert L.; Papini, Mauricio R.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of contextual shifts on the partial reinforcement extinction effect (PREE) were studied in autoshaping with rats. Experiment 1 established that the two contexts used subsequently were easily discriminable and equally salient. In Experiment 2, independent groups of rats received acquisition training under partial reinforcement (PRF) or…

  13. Fusion-power demonstration

    Henning, C.D.; Logan, B.G.; Carlson, G.A.; Neef, W.S.; Moir, R.W.; Campbell, R.B.; Botwin, R.; Clarkson, I.R.; Carpenter, T.J.

    1983-01-01

    As a satellite to the MARS (Mirror Advanced Reactor Study) a smaller, near-term device has been scoped, called the FPD (Fusion Power Demonstration). Envisioned as the next logical step toward a power reactor, it would advance the mirror fusion program beyond MFTF-B and provide an intermediate step toward commercial fusion power. Breakeven net electric power capability would be the goal such that no net utility power would be required to sustain the operation. A phased implementation is envisioned, with a deuterium checkout first to verify the plasma systems before significant neutron activation has occurred. Major tritium-related facilities would be installed with the second phase to produce sufficient fusion power to supply the recirculating power to maintain the neutral beams, ECRH, magnets and other auxiliary equipment

  14. Spent fuel pyroprocessing demonstration

    McFarlane, L.F.; Lineberry, M.J.

    1995-01-01

    A major element of the shutdown of the US liquid metal reactor development program is managing the sodium-bonded spent metallic fuel from the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II to meet US environmental laws. Argonne National Laboratory has refurbished and equipped an existing hot cell facility for treating the spent fuel by a high-temperature electrochemical process commonly called pyroprocessing. Four products will be produced for storage and disposal. Two high-level waste forms will be produced and qualified for disposal of the fission and activation products. Uranium and transuranium alloys will be produced for storage pending a decision by the US Department of Energy on the fate of its plutonium and enriched uranium. Together these activities will demonstrate a unique electrochemical treatment technology for spent nuclear fuel. This technology potentially has significant economic and technical advantages over either conventional reprocessing or direct disposal as a high-level waste option

  15. Industrial demonstration trials

    Gelee, M.; Fabre, C.; Villepoix, R. de; Fra, J.; Le Foulgoc, L.; Morel, Y.; Querite, P.; Roques, R.

    1975-01-01

    Prototypes of the plant components, meeting the specifications set by the process and built by industrial firms in collaboration with the supervisor and the C.E.A., are subjected to trial runs on the UF 6 test bench of the Pierrelatte testing zone. These items of equipment (diffuser, compressor, exchanger) are placed in an industrial operation context very similar to that of an enrichment plant. Their performance is measured within a broad region around the working point and their reliability observed over periods up to several tens of thousands of hours. Between 1969 and 1973 six industrial demonstration test benches have been built, marking the stages in the technical preparation of the 1973 file on the basis of which the decision of building was taken by Eurodif [fr

  16. Fusion Power Demonstration III

    Lee, J.D.

    1985-07-01

    This is the third in the series of reports covering the Fusion Power Demonstration (FPD) design study. This volume considers the FPD-III configuration that incorporates an octopole end plug. As compared with the quadrupole end-plugged designs of FPD-I and FPD-II, this octopole configuration reduces the number of end cell magnets and shortens the minimum ignition length of the central cell. The end-cell plasma length is also reduced, which in turn reduces the size and cost of the end cell magnets and shielding. As a contiuation in the series of documents covering the FPD, this report does not stand alone as a design description of FPD-III. Design details of FPD-III subsystems that do not differ significantly from those of the FPD-II configuration are not duplicated in this report

  17. TPA device for demonstration

    1980-02-01

    The TPA (torus plasma for amature) is a small race-trac type device made by the technical service division to demonstrate basic properties of plasma such as electron temperature, conductivity, effect of helical field for toroidal drift, and shape of plasma in mirror and cusp magnetic field in linear section. The plasmas are produced by RF discharge (-500W) and/or DC discharge (-30 mA) within glass discharge tube. Where major radius is 50 cm, length of linear section is 50 cm, toroidal magnetic field is 200 gauss. The device has been designed to be compact with only 100 V power source (-3.2 KW for the case without helical field) and to be full automatic sequence of operation. (author)

  18. Fusion power demonstration

    Henning, C.D.; Logan, B.G.

    1983-01-01

    As a satellite to the MARS (Mirror Advanced Reactor Study) a smaller, near-term device has been scoped, called the FPD (Fusion Power Demonstration). Envisioned as the next logical step toward a power reactor, it would advance the mirror fusion program beyond MFTF-B and provide an intermediate step toward commercial fusion power. Breakeven net electric power capability would be the goal such that no net utility power would be required to sustain the operation. A phased implementation is envisioned, with a deuterium checkout first to verify the plasma systems before significant neutron activation has occurred. Major tritium-related facilities would be installed with the second phase to produce sufficient fusion power to supply the recirculating power to maintain the neutral beams, ECRH, magnets and other auxiliary equipment

  19. Dynamic wall demonstration project

    Nakatsui, L.; Mayhew, W.

    1990-12-01

    The dynamic wall concept is a ventilation strategy that can be applied to a single family dwelling. With suitable construction, outside air can be admitted through the exterior walls of the house to the interior space to function as ventilation air. The construction and performance monitoring of a demonstration house built to test the dynamic wall concept in Sherwood Park, Alberta, is described. The project had the objectives of demonstrating and assessing the construction methods; determining the cost-effectiveness of the concept in Alberta; analyzing the operation of the dynamic wall system; and determining how other components and systems in the house interact with the dynamic wall. The exterior wall construction consisted of vinyl siding, spun-bonded polyolefin-backed (SBPO) rigid fiberglass sheathing, 38 mm by 89 mm framing, fiberglass batt insulation and 12.7 mm drywall. The mechanical system was designed to operate in the dynamic (negative pressure) mode, however flexibility was provided to allow operation in the static (balanced pressure) mode to permit monitoring of the walls as if they were in a conventional house. The house was monitored by an extensive computerized monitoring system. Dynamic wall operation was dependent on pressure and temperature differentials between indoor and outdoor as well as wind speed and direction. The degree of heat gain was found to be ca 74% of the indoor-outdoor temperature differential. Temperature of incoming dynamic air was significantly affected by solar radiation and measurement of indoor air pollutants found no significant levels. 4 refs., 34 figs., 11 tabs.

  20. A Decision-Theoretic Basis for Choice Shifts in Groups

    Eliaz, Kfir; Ray, Debraj; Razin, Ronny

    2004-01-01

    The phenomenon of choice shifts in group decision-making is fairly ubiquitous in the social psychology literature. Faced with a choice between a ‘safe’ and ‘risky’ decision, group members appear to move to one extreme or the other, relative to the choices each member might have made alone. Both risky and cautious shifts have been identified in different situations. This Paper demonstrates that from an individual decision-making perspective, choice shifts may be viewed as a systematic violatio...

  1. Choice Shifts in Groups: A Decision-Theoretic Basis

    Kfir Eliaz; Debraj Ray; Ronny Razin

    2006-01-01

    The phenomenon of choice shifts in group decision-making has received attention in the social psychology literature. Faced with a risky group decision, individuals appear to support more extreme choices relative to those they would make on their own. This paper demonstrates that from a decision-theoretic perspective, choice shifts are intimately connected to failures of expected utility theory. In the model studied here, the Allais paradox is equivalent to a well-studied configuration of choi...

  2. Dynamic shifting in thalamocortical processing during different behavioural states.

    Nicolelis, Miguel A L; Fanselow, Erika E

    2002-01-01

    Recent experiments in our laboratory have indicated that as rats shift the behavioural strategy employed to explore their surrounding environment, there is a parallel change in the physiological properties of the neuronal ensembles that define the main thalamocortical loop of the trigeminal somatosensory system. Based on experimental evidence from several laboratories, we propose that this concurrent shift in behavioural strategy and thalamocortical physiological properties provides rats with...

  3. Electronic isotope shifts, muonic atoms, and electron scattering

    Shera, E.B.

    1982-01-01

    The roles of electronic isotope shift, muonic atom, and electron scattering experiments in studying the nuclear charge distribution are discussed in terms of the potentials of each probe. Barium isotope shift data are presented as an example of a combined muonic-optical analysis and the results are compared with droplet and IBA model predictions. A survey of muonic and (e,e) results is presented with emphasis on shell-structure related features

  4. Chemical Shift Imaging (CSI) by precise object displacement

    Leclerc, Sebastien; Trausch, Gregory; Cordier, Benoit; Grandclaude, Denis; Retournard, Alain; Fraissard, Jacques; Canet, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    International audience; A mechanical device (NMR lift) has been built for displacing vertically an object (typically a NMR sample tube) inside the NMR probe with an accuracy of 1 Μm. A series of single pulse experiments are performed for incremented vertical positions of the sample. With a sufficiently spatially selective rf field, one obtains chemical shift information along the displacement direction (one dimensional Chemical Shift Imaging – CSI). Knowing the vertical radio-frequency (rf) f...

  5. Optical code division multiple access secure communications systems with rapid reconfigurable polarization shift key user code

    Gao, Kaiqiang; Wu, Chongqing; Sheng, Xinzhi; Shang, Chao; Liu, Lanlan; Wang, Jian

    2015-09-01

    An optical code division multiple access (OCDMA) secure communications system scheme with rapid reconfigurable polarization shift key (Pol-SK) bipolar user code is proposed and demonstrated. Compared to fix code OCDMA, by constantly changing the user code, the performance of anti-eavesdropping is greatly improved. The Pol-SK OCDMA experiment with a 10 Gchip/s user code and a 1.25 Gb/s user data of payload has been realized, which means this scheme has better tolerance and could be easily realized.

  6. A partial differential equation for pseudocontact shift.

    Charnock, G T P; Kuprov, Ilya

    2014-10-07

    It is demonstrated that pseudocontact shift (PCS), viewed as a scalar or a tensor field in three dimensions, obeys an elliptic partial differential equation with a source term that depends on the Hessian of the unpaired electron probability density. The equation enables straightforward PCS prediction and analysis in systems with delocalized unpaired electrons, particularly for the nuclei located in their immediate vicinity. It is also shown that the probability density of the unpaired electron may be extracted, using a regularization procedure, from PCS data.

  7. Aharonov-Bohm and gravity experiments with the very-cold-neutron interferometer

    Zouw, G V D; Felber, J; Gähler, R; Geltenbort, P; Zeilinger, Anton

    2000-01-01

    We report on the specific techniques associated with experiments with the interferometer for very-cold neutrons at the Institute Laue-Langevin (ILL). Two recent experiments are presented: one to measure the gravitational phase shift to high precision and one to demonstrate the non-dispersivity of the scalar Aharonov-Bohm effect for neutrons.

  8. Teaching with Videogames: How Experience Impacts Classroom Integration

    Bell, Amanda; Gresalfi, Melissa

    2017-01-01

    Digital games have demonstrated great potential for supporting students' learning across disciplines. But integrating games into instruction is challenging and requires teachers to shift instructional practices. One factor that contributes to the successful use of games in a classroom is teachers' experience implementing the technologies. But how…

  9. A Demonstration of Lusail

    Mansour, Essam; Abdelaziz, Ibrahim; Ouzzani, Mourad; Aboulnaga, Ashraf; Kalnis, Panos

    2017-01-01

    There has been a proliferation of datasets available as interlinked RDF data accessible through SPARQL endpoints. This has led to the emergence of various applications in life science, distributed social networks, and Internet of Things that need to integrate data from multiple endpoints. We will demonstrate Lusail; a system that supports the need of emerging applications to access tens to hundreds of geo-distributed datasets. Lusail is a geo-distributed graph engine for querying linked RDF data. Lusail delivers outstanding performance using (i) a novel locality-aware query decomposition technique that minimizes the intermediate data to be accessed by the subqueries, and (ii) selectivityawareness and parallel query execution to reduce network latency and to increase parallelism. During the demo, the audience will be able to query actually deployed RDF endpoints as well as large synthetic and real benchmarks that we have deployed in the public cloud. The demo will also show that Lusail outperforms state-of-the-art systems by orders of magnitude in terms of scalability and response time.

  10. A Demonstration of Lusail

    Mansour, Essam

    2017-05-10

    There has been a proliferation of datasets available as interlinked RDF data accessible through SPARQL endpoints. This has led to the emergence of various applications in life science, distributed social networks, and Internet of Things that need to integrate data from multiple endpoints. We will demonstrate Lusail; a system that supports the need of emerging applications to access tens to hundreds of geo-distributed datasets. Lusail is a geo-distributed graph engine for querying linked RDF data. Lusail delivers outstanding performance using (i) a novel locality-aware query decomposition technique that minimizes the intermediate data to be accessed by the subqueries, and (ii) selectivityawareness and parallel query execution to reduce network latency and to increase parallelism. During the demo, the audience will be able to query actually deployed RDF endpoints as well as large synthetic and real benchmarks that we have deployed in the public cloud. The demo will also show that Lusail outperforms state-of-the-art systems by orders of magnitude in terms of scalability and response time.

  11. Demonstration exercise 'Cavtat 09'

    Trut, D.

    2009-01-01

    The demonstration exercise is to show a terrorist attack in urban area resulting in a certain number of injured people. On 7th April 2009 a terrorist group HAL 9000 is in Cavtat and set up an explosive devices with chemical reagents in several spots with intention to activate them and cause great number of victims. On the same day, in area of the Cavtat Croatia Hotel, which is hosting the world CBMTS Congress, Cavtat Police Station notice several masked persons, in escapement. Hotel personnel alerted the County 112 Center about noticed devices placed by chlorine dioxide tanks, for water conditioning. Intervention police came to block entrance to this area and evacuate hotel's guests and congress members. An explosion and fire occurs from where the position of water-conditioning plant and chlorine dioxide tank. The 112 Center alarms fire-fighters for fight fire and decontamination action and HAZMAT Civil Support Team from Georgia (participated the congress). In the meantime, guests have been instructed not to leave their rooms and to hermetically close doors and windows with available material to keep away potential toxic fume. Decision makers form the County Protection and Rescue Headquarters monitors the situation till the end of alert for the population in the area of Cavtat.(author)

  12. Tidd PFBC demonstration project

    Marrocco, M. [American Electric Power, Columbus, OH (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The Tidd project was one of the first joint government-industry ventures to be approved by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in its Clean Coal Technology Program. In March 1987, DOE signed an agreement with the Ohio Power Company, a subsidiary of American Electric Power, to refurbish the then-idle Tidd plant on the banks of the Ohio River with advanced pressurized fluidized bed technology. Testing ended after 49 months of operation, 100 individual tests, and the generation of more than 500,000 megawatt-hours of electricity. The demonstration plant has met its objectives. The project showed that more than 95 percent of sulfur dioxide pollutants could be removed inside the advanced boiler using the advanced combustion technology, giving future power plants an attractive alternative to expensive, add-on scrubber technology. In addition to its sulfur removal effectiveness, the plant`s sustained periods of steady-state operation boosted its availability significantly above design projections, heightening confidence that pressurized fluidized bed technology will be a reliable, baseload technology for future power plants. The technology also controlled the release of nitrogen oxides to levels well below the allowable limits set by federal air quality standards. It also produced a dry waste product that is much easier to handle than wastes from conventional power plants and will likely have commercial value when produced by future power plants.

  13. Does the ARFIMA really shift?

    Monache, Davide Delle; Grassi, Stefano; Santucci de Magistris, Paolo

    Short memory models contaminated by level shifts have long-memory features similar to those associated to processes generated under fractional integration. In this paper, we propose a robust testing procedure, based on an encompassing parametric specification, that allows to disentangle the level...... the highest power compared to other existing tests for spurious long-memory. Finally, we illustrate the usefulness of the proposed approach on the daily series of bipower variation and share turnover and on the monthly inflation series of G7 countries....... shift term from the ARFIMA component. The estimation is carried out via a state-space methodology and it leads to a robust estimate of the fractional integration parameter also in presence of level shifts.The Monte Carlo simulations show that this approach produces unbiased estimates of the fractional...

  14. Paradigm Shifts in Ophthalmic Diagnostics.

    Sebag, J; Sadun, Alfredo A; Pierce, Eric A

    2016-08-01

    Future advances in ophthalmology will see a paradigm shift in diagnostics from a focus on dysfunction and disease to better measures of psychophysical function and health. Practical methods to define genotypes will be increasingly important and non-invasive nanotechnologies are needed to detect molecular changes that predate histopathology. This is not a review nor meant to be comprehensive. Specific topics have been selected to illustrate the principles of important paradigm shifts that will influence the future of ophthalmic diagnostics. It is our impression that future evaluation of vision will go beyond visual acuity to assess ocular health in terms of psychophysical function. The definition of disease will incorporate genotype into what has historically been a phenotype-centric discipline. Non-invasive nanotechnologies will enable a paradigm shift from disease detection on a cellular level to a sub-cellular molecular level. Vision can be evaluated beyond visual acuity by measuring contrast sensitivity, color vision, and macular function, as these provide better insights into the impact of aging and disease. Distortions can be quantified and the psychophysical basis of vision can be better evaluated than in the past by designing tests that assess particular macular cell function(s). Advances in our understanding of the genetic basis of eye diseases will enable better characterization of ocular health and disease. Non-invasive nanotechnologies can assess molecular changes in the lens, vitreous, and macula that predate visible pathology. Oxygen metabolism and circulatory physiology are measurable indices of ocular health that can detect variations of physiology and early disease. This overview of paradigm shifts in ophthalmology suggests that the future will see significant improvements in ophthalmic diagnostics. The selected topics illustrate the principles of these paradigm shifts and should serve as a guide to further research and development. Indeed

  15. Kinesthetic Transverse Wave Demonstration

    Pantidos, Panagiotis; Patapis, Stamatis

    2005-09-01

    This is a variation on the String and Sticky Tape demonstration "The Wave Game," suggested by Ron Edge. A group of students stand side by side, each one holding a card chest high with both hands. The teacher cues the first student to begin raising and lowering his card. When he starts lowering his card, the next student begins to raise his. As succeeding students move their cards up and down, a wave such as that shown in the figure is produced. To facilitate the process, students' motions were synchronized with the ticks of a metronome (without such synchronization it was nearly impossible to generate a satisfactory wave). Our waves typically had a frequency of about 1 Hz and a wavelength of around 3 m. We videotaped the activity so that the students could analyze the motions. The (17-year-old) students had not received any prior instruction regarding wave motion and did not know beforehand the nature of the exercise they were about to carry out. During the activity they were asked what a transverse wave is. Most of them quickly realized, without teacher input, that while the wave propagated horizontally, the only motion of the transmitting medium (them) was vertical. They located the equilibrium points of the oscillations, the crests and troughs of the waves, and identified the wavelength. The teacher defined for them the period of the oscillations of the motion of a card to be the total time for one cycle. The students measured this time and then several asserted that it was the same as the wave period. Knowing the length of the waves and the number of waves per second, the next step can easily be to find the wave speed.

  16. Morphisms Between Sofic Shift Spaces

    Nielsen, Jan Agentoft

    The lower entropy factor problem asks for necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of a factor map from a (mixing) sofic shift space onto another (mixing) sofic subshift of lower entropy. The problem was posed by Mike Boyle in 1984. It remains an open problem, but the present thesis...... gives a re-formulation which can be used to effectively decide the question for a larger class of sofic shifts than all previous results. In addition, the methods are used to make progress on the corresponding embedding problem which asks for necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence...

  17. Shift-Variant Multidimensional Systems.

    1985-05-29

    x,y;u,v) is the system response at (x,y) to an unit impulse applied at (u,v). The presence of additive noise in the preceding input-output model of a...space model developed works very effi- ciently to deblur images affected by 2-D linear shift- varying blurs, its use, in presence of noise needs to be...causal linear shift-variant (LSV) system, whose impulse res- ponse is a K-th order degenerate sequence, a K-th order state-space model was obtained

  18. Explaining (Missing) Regulator Paradigm Shifts

    Wigger, Angela; Buch-Hansen, Hubert

    2014-01-01

    The global financial and economic crisis has prompted some scholars to suggest that a fundamental regulatory shift away from neoliberalism will take place – both in general and in the field of EU competition regulation. This paper shows that so far no radical break with the neoliberal type...... regulation after the crisis in the 1970s, the paper argues that the preconditions for a fundamental shift in this issue area are not present this time around. Several reasons account for this: the current crisis has been construed by economic and political elites as a crisis within and not of neoliberal...

  19. Status of IFR fuel cycle demonstration

    Lineberry, M.J.; Phipps, R.D.; McFarlane, H.F.

    1993-01-01

    The next major step in Argonne's Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) Program is demonstration of the pyroprocess fuel cycle, in conjunction with continued operation of EBR-II. The Fuel Cycle Facility (FCF) is being readied for this mission. This paper will address the status of facility systems and process equipment, the initial startup experience, and plans for the demonstration program

  20. The STAR ESL, electronic shift and handover log

    Hajdu, L; Lauret, J, E-mail: lbhajdu@bnl.gov

    2008-07-01

    Keeping a clear and accurate experiment log is important for any scientific experiment. The concept is certainly not new but keeping accurate while useful records for a Nuclear Physics experiment such as the Solenoidal Tracker at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (STAR at RHIC) is not a priori a simple matter - STAR operates 24 hours a day for six months out of the year with more than 24 shift crews operating 16 different subsystems (some located remotely). To meet the challenge of not only logging the information but passing it in a concise manner from one shift to another, the STAR experiment has designed an Electronic Shift-Log (ESL), a flexible application written in Java and interfacing with the Data Acquisition tools, Quality Assurance reporting, Online shift crews or remote personnel and experts as well as including features such as shift change-over (or handover) forms, tailored to the sub-group of interest. We will present an overview of STAR's Electronic Log, a system that is clear, reliable, safe, consistent, easy to use and globally viewable in real time with secure connections.

  1. Department of Energy's solar update. Four regional conferences highlighting the objectives, plans, and experience of the National Commercial Solar Heating and Cooling Demonstration Program and the National Solar Data Program

    None

    1978-11-01

    This volume contains the entire proceedings of the solar update. All papers presented by DOE officials, DOE contractors, and demonstration site representatives are presented, as well as summaries of all workshops, comments from questionnaires, and a listing of all participants. Twenty-eight papers are included. Two were abstracted previously for EDB. Separate abstracts were prepared for twenty-six. (MHR)

  2. Challenging demonstrations in the physics classroom

    Raz, E.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text: We consider the role of classroom demonstrations in improving students understanding of physics lectures and suggest criteria to decide whether a given demonstration will be pedagogically useful. In the light of these considerations, we performed two series of related experiments before groups of high-school students. We shall perform one of them with active participation from the audience. We shall also show some challenging demonstrations performed in the final stages of the Israeli Physics Olympiad for high-school students

  3. Validity of self-reported exposure to shift work.

    Härmä, Mikko; Koskinen, Aki; Ropponen, Annina; Puttonen, Sampsa; Karhula, Kati; Vahtera, Jussi; Kivimäki, Mika

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate the validity of widely used questionnaire items on work schedule using objective registry data as reference. A cohort study of hospital employees who responded to a self-administered questionnaire on work schedule in 2008, 2012 and 2014 and were linked to individual-level pay-roll-based records on work shifts. For predictive validity, leisure-time fatigue was assessed. According to the survey data in 2014 (n=8896), 55% of the day workers had at least 1 year of earlier shift work experience. 8% of the night shift workers changed to day work during the follow-up. Using pay-roll data as reference, questions on 'shift work with night shifts' and 'permanent night work' showed high sensitivity (96% and 90%) and specificity (92% and 97%). Self-reported 'regular day work' showed moderate sensitivity (73%), but high specificity (99%) and 'shift work without night shifts' showed low sensitivity (62%) and moderate specificity (87%). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, the age-adjusted, sex-adjusted and baseline fatigue-adjusted association between 'shift work without night shifts' and leisure-time fatigue was lower for self-reported compared with objective assessment (1.30, 95% CI 0.94 to 1.82, n=1707 vs 1.89, 95% CI 1.06 to 3.39, n=1627). In contrast, shift work with night shifts, compared with permanent day work, was similarly associated with fatigue in the two assessments (2.04, 95% CI 1.62 to 2.57, n=2311 vs 1.82, 95% CI 1.28 to 2.58, n=1804). The validity of self-reported assessment of shift work varies between work schedules. Exposure misclassification in self-reported data may contribute to bias towards the null in shift work without night shifts. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  4. Leadership Shifts in Changing Field

    Zubrzycki, Jaclyn

    2013-01-01

    As groups representing local and state education players struggle to remain relevant in a policy conversation often dominated by foundations, think tanks, new advocacy groups, and political and business figures, a shift in leadership has been under way at major associations. Most of the changes have come as part of the natural churn; former…

  5. Crichton's phase-shift ambiguity

    Atkinson, D.; Johnson, P.W.; Mehta, N.; Roo, M. de

    1973-01-01

    A re-examination of the SPD phase-shift ambiguity is made with a view to understanding certain singular features of the elastic unitarity constraint. An explicit solution of Crichton's equations is presented, and certain features of this solution are displayed graphically. In particular, it is shown

  6. Environmental Protection: a shifting focus

    Dr. ir. Jan Venselaar

    2004-01-01

    The last two decades have seen a fundamental change in the way chemistry handles environmental issues. A shift in focus has occurred from 'end-of-pipe' to prevention and process integration. Presently an even more fundamental change is brought about by the need for sustainable development. It is

  7. Anthropometric changes and fluid shifts

    Thornton, W. E.; Hoffler, G. W.; Rummel, J. A.

    1974-01-01

    Several observations of body size, shape, posture, and configuration were made to document changes resulting from direct effects of weightlessness during the Skylab 4 mission. After the crewmen were placed in orbit, a number of anatomical and anthropometric changes occurred including a straightening of the thoracolumbar spine, a general decrease in truncal girth, and an increase in height. By the time of the earliest in-flight measurement on mission day 3, all crewmen had lost more than two liters of extravascular fluid from the calf and thigh. The puffy facies, the bird legs effect, the engorgement of upper body veins, and the reduced volume of lower body veins were all documented with photographs. Center-of-mass measurements confirmed a fluid shift cephalad. This shift remained throughout the mission until recovery, when a sharp reversal occurred; a major portion of the reversal was completed in a few hours. The anatomical changes are of considerable scientific interest and of import to the human factors design engineer, but the shifts of blood and extravascular fluid are of more consequence. It is hypothesized that the driving force for the fluid shift is the intrinsic and unopposed lower limb elasticity that forces venous blood and then other fluid cephalad.

  8. Anxiety about starting three-shift work among female workers: findings from the Female Shift Workers' Health Study.

    Kubo, Tatsuhiko; Maruyama, Takashi; Shirane, Kiyoyumi; Otomo, Hajime; Matsumoto, Tetsuro; Oyama, Ichiro

    2008-03-01

    In 1999, the Japanese Law on Equal Employment Opportunity and Conditions was amended and the previous prohibition of the assignment of female workers to night work was abolished. Subsequently, the number of female shift workers has been increasing in Japan, necessitating greater attention to the health care of this population. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the relationship between anxiety expressed about starting three-shift work and background characteristics among female workers who were being assigned to three-shift work for the first time. The subjects were 38 middle-aged female workers (age range: 44 to 59 years) who were working at a chemical plant. The women completed a self-administered questionnaire before starting three-shift work. Levels of anxiety about starting three-shift work were assessed by the question 'Do you feel anxious about starting three-shift work?' The available responses were: 'Very agree', 'Considerably agree', 'Rather agree', 'Slightly agree' and 'Not agree at all', and 63% of the subjects gave one of the first two answers, which were defined as indicating anxiety. We also acquired information regarding lifestyle and occupation for each subject, including the following factors: frequency of breakfast consumption, subjective sleep insufficiency, previous experience of similar work before beginning shift work, previous experience of two-shift work, and responsibility for household duties. In the study, we found a marginally statistically significant trend association between frequent breakfast consumption and anxiety about starting three-shift work (P(trend) = 0.09). Anxiety was also high among subjects with sleep disorders, especially those suffering from subjective sleep insufficiency (P = 0.08). Due to the small study population, these results should be interpreted with caution and confirmed by future studies.

  9. Anomalous output characteristic shift for the n-type lateral diffused metal-oxide-semiconductor transistor with floating P-top layer

    Liu, Siyang; Zhang, Chunwei; Sun, Weifeng; Su, Wei; Wang, Shaorong; Ma, Shulang; Huang, Yu

    2014-01-01

    Anomalous output characteristic shift of the n-type lateral diffused metal-oxide-semiconductor transistor with floating P-top layer is investigated. It shows that the linear drain current has obvious decrease when the output characteristic of fresh device is measured for two consecutive times. The charge pumping experiments demonstrate that the decrease is not from hot-carrier degradation. The reduction of cross section area for the current flowing, which results from the squeezing of the depletion region surrounding the P-top layer, is responsible for the shift. Consequently, the current capability of this special device should be evaluated by the second measured output characteristic

  10. Anomalous output characteristic shift for the n-type lateral diffused metal-oxide-semiconductor transistor with floating P-top layer

    Liu, Siyang; Zhang, Chunwei; Sun, Weifeng, E-mail: swffrog@seu.edu.cn [National ASIC System Engineering Research Center, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Su, Wei; Wang, Shaorong; Ma, Shulang; Huang, Yu [CSMC Technologies Corporation, Wuxi 214061 (China)

    2014-04-14

    Anomalous output characteristic shift of the n-type lateral diffused metal-oxide-semiconductor transistor with floating P-top layer is investigated. It shows that the linear drain current has obvious decrease when the output characteristic of fresh device is measured for two consecutive times. The charge pumping experiments demonstrate that the decrease is not from hot-carrier degradation. The reduction of cross section area for the current flowing, which results from the squeezing of the depletion region surrounding the P-top layer, is responsible for the shift. Consequently, the current capability of this special device should be evaluated by the second measured output characteristic.

  11. Screen-and-Treat Approach to Cervical Cancer Prevention Using Visual Inspection With Acetic Acid and Cryotherapy: Experiences, Perceptions, and Beliefs From Demonstration Projects in Peru, Uganda, and Vietnam

    Paul, Proma; Winkler, Jennifer L.; Bartolini, Rosario M.; Penny, Mary E.; Huong, Trinh Thu; Nga, Le Thi; Kumakech, Edward; Mugisha, Emmanuel; Jeronimo, Jose

    2013-01-01

    Government partners implemented screening and treatment with visual inspection using acetic acid (VIA) and cryotherapy at demonstration sites in Peru, Uganda, and Vietnam. Evaluations were conducted in the three countries to explore the barriers and facilitating factors for the use of services and for incorporation of screen-and-treat programs using VIA and cryotherapy into routine services. Results showed that use of VIA and cryotherapy in these settings is a feasible approach to providing c...

  12. Development and Certification of Station Development Test Objective (SDTO) Experiment # 15012-U, "Near RealTime Water Quality Monitoring Demonstration for ISS Biocides Using Colorimetric Solid Phase Extraction (CSPE)"

    Gazda, Daniel B.; Nolan, Daniel J.; Rutz, Jeffrey A.; Shcultz, John R.; Siperko, Lorraine M.; Porter, Marc D,; Lipert, Robert J.; Limardo, Jose G.; McCoy, J. Torin

    2009-01-01

    Scientists and engineers from the Wyle Integrated Science and Engineering Group are working with researchers at the University of Utah and Iowa State University to develop and certify an experimental water quality monitoring kit based on Colorimetric Solid Phase Extraction (CSPE). The kit will be launched as a Station Development Test Objective (SDTO) experiment and evaluated on the International Space Station (ISS) to determine the acceptability of CSPE technology for routine inflight water quality monitoring. Iodine and silver, the biocides used in the US and Russian on-orbit water systems, will serve as test analytes for the technology evaluation. This manuscript provides an overview of the CSPE SDTO experiment and details the development and certification of the experimental water quality monitoring kit. Initial results from reagent and standard solution stability testing and environmental testing performed on the kit hardware are also reported.

  13. Night shift decreases cognitive performance of ICU physicians.

    Maltese, François; Adda, Mélanie; Bablon, Amandine; Hraeich, Sami; Guervilly, Christophe; Lehingue, Samuel; Wiramus, Sandrine; Leone, Marc; Martin, Claude; Vialet, Renaud; Thirion, Xavier; Roch, Antoine; Forel, Jean-Marie; Papazian, Laurent

    2016-03-01

    The relationship between tiredness and the risk of medical errors is now commonly accepted. The main objective of this study was to assess the impact of an intensive care unit (ICU) night shift on the cognitive performance of a group of intensivists. The influence of professional experience and the amount of sleep on cognitive performance was also investigated. A total of 51 intensivists from three ICUs (24 seniors and 27 residents) were included. The study participants were evaluated after a night of rest and after a night shift according to a randomized order. Four cognitive skills were tested according to the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. All cognitive abilities worsened after a night shift: working memory capacity (11.3 ± 0.3 vs. 9.4 ± 0.3; p night shift. The cognitive abilities of intensivists were significantly altered following a night shift in the ICU, regardless of either the amount of professional experience or the duration of sleep during the shift. The consequences for patients' safety and physicians' health should be further evaluated.

  14. Lamb shift of energy levels in quantum rings

    Kryuchkyan, G Yu; Kyriienko, O; Shelykh, I A

    2015-01-01

    We study the vacuum radiative corrections to energy levels of a confined electron in quantum rings. The calculations are provided for the Lamb shift of energy levels in a low-momentum region of virtual photons and for both one-dimensional and two-dimensional quantum rings. We show that contrary to the well known case of a hydrogen atom the value of the Lamb shift increases with the magnetic momentum quantum number m. We also investigate the dependence of the Lamb shift on magnetic flux piercing the ring and demonstrate a presence of magnetic-flux-dependent oscillations. For a one-dimensional ring the value of the shift strongly depends on the radius of the ring. It is small for semiconductor rings but can attain measurable quantities in natural organic ring-shape molecules, such as benzene, cycloalcanes and porphyrins. (paper)

  15. Pterandra pyroidea: a case of pollination shift within Neotropical Malpighiaceae

    Cappellari, Simone C.; Haleem, Muhammad A.; Marsaioli, Anita J.; Tidon, Rosana; Simpson, Beryl B.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Most Neotropical species of Malpighiaceae produce floral fatty oils in calyx glands to attract pollinating oil-collecting bees, which depend on this resource for reproduction. This specialized type of pollination system tends to be lost in members of the family that occur outside the geographic distribution (e.g. Africa) of Neotropical oil-collecting bees. This study focused on the pollination ecology, chemical ecology and reproductive biology of an oil flower species, Pterandra pyroidea (Malpighiaceae) from the Brazilian Cerrado. Populations of this species consist of plants with oil-secreting (glandular) flowers, plants with non-oil-secreting flowers (eglandular) or a mix of both plant types. This study specifically aims to clarify the role of eglandular morphs in this species. Methods Data on pollinators were recorded by in situ observations. Breeding system experiments were conducted by isolating inflorescences and by enzymatic reactions. Floral resources, pollen and floral oils offered by this species were analysed by staining and a combination of various spectroscopic methods. Key Results Eglandular flowers of P. pyroidea do not act as mimics of their oil-producing conspecifics to attract pollinators. Instead, both oil-producing and oil-free flowers depend on pollen-collecting bees for reproduction, and their main pollinators are bumble-bees. Floral oils produced by glandular flowers are less complex than those described in closely related genera. Conclusions Eglandular flowers represent a shift in the pollination system in which oil is being lost and pollen is becoming the main reward of P. pyroidea flowers. Pollination shifts of this kind have hitherto not been demonstrated empirically within Neotropical Malpighiaceae and this species exhibits an unusual transition from a specialized towards a generalized pollination system in an area considered the hotspot of oil-collecting bee diversity in the Neotropics. Transitions of this type

  16. Discrepancy and Disliking Do Not Induce Negative Opinion Shifts

    Flache, Andreas; Mäs, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Both classical social psychological theories and recent formal models of opinion differentiation and bi-polarization assign a prominent role to negative social influence. Negative influence is defined as shifts away from the opinion of others and hypothesized to be induced by discrepancy with or disliking of the source of influence. There is strong empirical support for the presence of positive social influence (a shift towards the opinion of others), but evidence that large opinion differences or disliking could trigger negative shifts is mixed. We examine positive and negative influence with controlled exposure to opinions of other individuals in one experiment and with opinion exchange in another study. Results confirm that similarities induce attraction, but results do not support that discrepancy or disliking entails negative influence. Instead, our findings suggest a robust positive linear relationship between opinion distance and opinion shifts. PMID:27333160

  17. Improving image quality of parallel phase-shifting digital holography

    Awatsuji, Yasuhiro; Tahara, Tatsuki; Kaneko, Atsushi; Koyama, Takamasa; Nishio, Kenzo; Ura, Shogo; Kubota, Toshihiro; Matoba, Osamu

    2008-01-01

    The authors propose parallel two-step phase-shifting digital holography to improve the image quality of parallel phase-shifting digital holography. The proposed technique can increase the effective number of pixels of hologram twice in comparison to the conventional parallel four-step technique. The increase of the number of pixels makes it possible to improve the image quality of the reconstructed image of the parallel phase-shifting digital holography. Numerical simulation and preliminary experiment of the proposed technique were conducted and the effectiveness of the technique was confirmed. The proposed technique is more practical than the conventional parallel phase-shifting digital holography, because the composition of the digital holographic system based on the proposed technique is simpler.

  18. Fragment-based {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance chemical shift predictions in molecular crystals: An alternative to planewave methods

    Hartman, Joshua D.; Beran, Gregory J. O., E-mail: gregory.beran@ucr.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Riverside, California 92521 (United States); Monaco, Stephen; Schatschneider, Bohdan [The Pennsylvania State University, The Eberly Campus, 2201 University Dr, Lemont Furnace, Pennsylvania 15456 (United States)

    2015-09-14

    We assess the quality of fragment-based ab initio isotropic {sup 13}C chemical shift predictions for a collection of 25 molecular crystals with eight different density functionals. We explore the relative performance of cluster, two-body fragment, combined cluster/fragment, and the planewave gauge-including projector augmented wave (GIPAW) models relative to experiment. When electrostatic embedding is employed to capture many-body polarization effects, the simple and computationally inexpensive two-body fragment model predicts both isotropic {sup 13}C chemical shifts and the chemical shielding tensors as well as both cluster models and the GIPAW approach. Unlike the GIPAW approach, hybrid density functionals can be used readily in a fragment model, and all four hybrid functionals tested here (PBE0, B3LYP, B3PW91, and B97-2) predict chemical shifts in noticeably better agreement with experiment than the four generalized gradient approximation (GGA) functionals considered (PBE, OPBE, BLYP, and BP86). A set of recommended linear regression parameters for mapping between calculated chemical shieldings and observed chemical shifts are provided based on these benchmark calculations. Statistical cross-validation procedures are used to demonstrate the robustness of these fits.

  19. [Burden and health effects of shift work].

    Heitmann, Jörg

    2010-10-01

    In Germany aprox. 15% of all employees have irregular or flexible working hours. Disturbed sleep and/or hypersomnia are direct consequences of shift work and therefore described as shift work disorder. Beyond this, shift work can also be associated with specific pathological disorders. There are individual differences in tolerance to shift work. Optimization of both shift schedules and sleep to "non-physiological" times of the day are measures to counteract the negative effects of shift work. There is still not enough evidence to recommend drugs for routine use in shift workers. © Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Shift Work and Cognitive Flexibility: Decomposing Task Performance.

    Cheng, Philip; Tallent, Gabriel; Bender, Thomas John; Tran, Kieulinh Michelle; Drake, Christopher L

    2017-04-01

    Deficits in cognitive functioning associated with shift work are particularly relevant to occupational performance; however, few studies have examined how cognitive functioning is associated with specific components of shift work. This observational study examined how circadian phase, nocturnal sleepiness, and daytime insomnia in a sample of shift workers ( N = 30) were associated with cognitive flexibility during the night shift. Cognitive flexibility was measured using a computerized task-switching paradigm, which produces 2 indexes of flexibility: switch cost and set inhibition. Switch cost represents the additional cognitive effort required in switching to a different task and can impact performance when multitasking is involved. Set inhibition is the efficiency in returning to previously completed tasks and represents the degree of cognitive perseveration, which can lead to reduced accuracy. Circadian phase was measured via melatonin assays, nocturnal sleepiness was assessed using the Multiple Sleep Latency Test, and daytime insomnia was assessed using the Insomnia Severity Index. Results indicated that those with an earlier circadian phase, insomnia, and sleepiness exhibited reduced cognitive flexibility; however, specific components of cognitive flexibility were differentially associated with circadian phase, insomnia, and sleepiness. Individuals with an earlier circadian phase (thus more misaligned to the night shift) exhibited larger switch costs, which was also associated with reduced task efficiency. Shift workers with more daytime insomnia demonstrated difficulties with cognitive inhibition, whereas nocturnal sleepiness was associated with difficulties in reactivating previous tasks. Deficits in set inhibition were also related to reduced accuracy and increased perseverative errors. Together, this study indicates that task performance deficits in shift work are complex and are variably impacted by different mechanisms. Future research may examine

  1. Special training of shift personnel

    Martin, H.D.

    1981-01-01

    The first step of on-the-job training is practical observation phase in an operating Nuclear Plant, where the participants are assigned to shift work. The simulator training for operating personnel, for key personnel and, to some extent, also for maintenance personnel and specialists give the practical feeling for Nuclear Power Plant behaviour during normal and abnormal conditions. During the commissioning phase of the own Nuclear Power Plant, which is the most important practical training, the participants are integrated into the commissioning staff and assisted during their process of practical learning by special instructors. The preparation for the licensing exams is vitally important for shift personnel and special courses are provided after the first non-nuclear trial operation of the plant. Personnel training also includes performance of programmes and material for retraining, training of instructors and assistance in building up special training programmes and material as well as training centers. (orig./RW)

  2. Shift work as an oxidative stressor

    Pasalar Parvin; Farahani Saeed; Sharifian Akbar; Gharavi Marjan; Aminian Omid

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Some medical disorders have higher prevalence in shift workers than others. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of night-shift-working on total plasma antioxidant capacity, with respect to the causative role of oxidative stress in induction of some of these disorders. Methods Two blood samples were taken from 44 workers with a rotational shift schedule, one after their day shift and one after their night shift. The total plasma antioxidant capacity of each worke...

  3. Screen-and-Treat Approach to Cervical Cancer Prevention Using Visual Inspection With Acetic Acid and Cryotherapy: Experiences, Perceptions, and Beliefs From Demonstration Projects in Peru, Uganda, and Vietnam

    Paul, Proma; Winkler, Jennifer L.; Bartolini, Rosario M.; Penny, Mary E.; Huong, Trinh Thu; Nga, Le Thi; Kumakech, Edward; Mugisha, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    Cervical cancer is preventable but continues to cause the deaths of more than 270,000 women worldwide each year, most of them in developing countries where programs to detect and treat precancerous lesions are not affordable or available. Studies have demonstrated that screening by visual inspection of the cervix using acetic acid (VIA) is a simple, affordable, and sensitive test that can identify precancerous changes of the cervix so that treatment such as cryotherapy can be provided. Government partners implemented screening and treatment using VIA and cryotherapy at demonstration sites in Peru, Uganda, and Vietnam. Evaluations were conducted in the three countries to explore the barriers and facilitating factors for the use of services and for incorporation of screen-and-treat programs using VIA and cryotherapy into routine services. Results showed that use of VIA and cryotherapy in these settings is a feasible approach to providing cervical cancer prevention services. Activities that can help ensure successful programs include mobilizing and educating communities, organizing services to meet women's schedules and needs, and strengthening systems to track clients for follow-up. Sustainability also depends on having an adequate number of trained providers and reducing staff turnover. Although some challenges were found across all sites, others varied from country to country, suggesting that careful assessments before beginning new secondary prevention programs will optimize the probability of success. PMID:24217554

  4. Screen-and-treat approach to cervical cancer prevention using visual inspection with acetic acid and cryotherapy: experiences, perceptions, and beliefs from demonstration projects in Peru, Uganda, and Vietnam.

    Paul, Proma; Winkler, Jennifer L; Bartolini, Rosario M; Penny, Mary E; Huong, Trinh Thu; Nga, Le Thi; Kumakech, Edward; Mugisha, Emmanuel; Jeronimo, Jose

    2013-01-01

    Cervical cancer is preventable but continues to cause the deaths of more than 270,000 women worldwide each year, most of them in developing countries where programs to detect and treat precancerous lesions are not affordable or available. Studies have demonstrated that screening by visual inspection of the cervix using acetic acid (VIA) is a simple, affordable, and sensitive test that can identify precancerous changes of the cervix so that treatment such as cryotherapy can be provided. Government partners implemented screening and treatment using VIA and cryotherapy at demonstration sites in Peru, Uganda, and Vietnam. Evaluations were conducted in the three countries to explore the barriers and facilitating factors for the use of services and for incorporation of screen-and-treat programs using VIA and cryotherapy into routine services. Results showed that use of VIA and cryotherapy in these settings is a feasible approach to providing cervical cancer prevention services. Activities that can help ensure successful programs include mobilizing and educating communities, organizing services to meet women's schedules and needs, and strengthening systems to track clients for follow-up. Sustainability also depends on having an adequate number of trained providers and reducing staff turnover. Although some challenges were found across all sites, others varied from country to country, suggesting that careful assessments before beginning new secondary prevention programs will optimize the probability of success.

  5. Perihelium shifts in central potentials

    Amorim, A.E.A.; Ferreira, P.L.

    1987-01-01

    Motivated by the rigorous results on level ordering for arbitrary central potentials recently derived in the literature a classical treatment of the perihelium shifts is presented, based on the consideration of those orbits which lie in the vicinity of a circular orbit. The role played by the Laplacian of the potential is emphasized. By the same approach Bertrand's theorem is also discussed, in connection with Arnold's proof. (Author) [pt

  6. Multicolor Holography With Phase Shifting

    Vikram, Chandra S.

    1996-01-01

    Prototype apparatus constructed to test feasibility of two-color holographic interferometric scheme in which data for reconstructing holographic wavefront obtained with help of phase-shifting technique. Provides two sets of data needed to solve equations for effects of temperature and concentration. Concept extended to holography at three or more wavelengths to measure three or more phenomena associated with significant variations in index of refraction

  7. In vitro translocation experiments with RxLR-reporter fusion proteins of Avr1b from Phytophthora sojae and AVR3a from Phytophthora infestans fail to demonstrate specific autonomous uptake in plant and animal cells.

    Wawra, Stephan; Djamei, Armin; Albert, Isabell; Nürnberger, Thorsten; Kahmann, Regine; van West, Pieter

    2013-05-01

    Plant-pathogenic oomycetes have a large set of secreted effectors that can be translocated into their host cells during infection. One group of these effectors are the RxLR effectors for which it has been shown, in a few cases, that the RxLR motif is important for their translocation. It has been suggested that the RxLR-leader sequences alone are enough to translocate the respective effectors into eukaryotic cells through binding to surface-exposed phosphoinositol-3-phosphate. These conclusions were primary based on translocation experiments conducted with recombinant fusion proteins whereby the RxLR leader of RxLR effectors (i.e., Avr1b from Phytophthora sojae) were fused to the green fluorescent protein reporter-protein. However, we failed to observe specific cellular uptake for a comparable fusion protein where the RxLR leader of the P. infestans AVR3a was fused to monomeric red fluorescent protein. Therefore, we reexamined the ability of the reported P. sojae AVR1b RxLR leader to enter eukaryotic cells. Different relevant experiments were performed in three independent laboratories, using fluorescent reporter fusion constructs of AVR3a and Avr1b proteins in a side-by-side comparative study on plant tissue and human and animal cells. We report that we were unable to obtain conclusive evidence for specific RxLR-mediated translocation.

  8. Meaning shift: findings from wellness acupuncture.

    Stibich, Mark; Wissow, Lawrence

    2006-01-01

    Wellness or holistic acupuncture places an emphasis on working with and developing the patient's understanding of health and illness. This research project examines changes in meaning in 367 letters from successful wellness acupuncture. Mentions of changes of the meaning of health and illness were categorized into themes using content analysis. Five main meaning shifts were identified in the data. These shifts are (1) from a goal of fixing the problem to a goal of increasing health, (2) from symptoms as problems to symptoms as teachers, (3) from healing as passive to healing as active, (4) from being dominated by illness to moving beyond the illness, and (5) from regarding the practitioner as a technician to regarding the practitioner as a healer or friend. The shifts in meaning seen in the data illustrate a potential pathway for bringing health benefits to patients and may provide a useful strategy for healing. Narrative (defined here as "first-person accounts by respondents of their experience") is thought to play a major role in the manifestation of symptoms and the ability of patients to cope with illness. Patients suffer not only from their primary symptoms, but also from the results and effects of their illnesses, such as depression and changes in their relationships. For the patient, symptoms often hold much meaning beyond physical sensation. A recurrence of symptoms can have other unpleasant results, such as additional trips to doctors, paying for medications, time off from work, not being able to play with children, or changes in relationships with family members. In many cases, the anxiety and depression surrounding the symptoms causes suffering which are greater than the suffering caused by the physical symptoms directly. These factors also change how the ill individual interacts socially, thereby reducing both instrumental and emotional social support, resulting in a downward spiral of suffering. By interacting with narrative, a path to improved health

  9. Shift Work and Endocrine Disorders

    M. A. Ulhôa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this review was to investigate the impact of shift and night work on metabolic processes and the role of alterations in the sleep-wake cycle and feeding times and environmental changes in the occurrence of metabolic disorders. The literature review was performed by searching three electronic databases for relevant studies published in the last 10 years. The methodological quality of each study was assessed, and best-evidence synthesis was applied to draw conclusions. The literature has shown changes in concentrations of melatonin, cortisol, ghrelin, and leptin among shift workers. Melatonin has been implicated for its role in the synthesis and action of insulin. The action of this hormone also regulates the expression of transporter glucose type 4 or triggers phosphorylation of the insulin receptor. Therefore, a reduction in melatonin can be associated with an increase in insulin resistance and a propensity for the development of diabetes. Moreover, shift work can negatively affect sleep and contribute to sedentarism, unhealthy eating habits, and stress. Recent studies on metabolic processes have increasingly revealed their complexity. Physiological changes induced in workers who invert their activity-rest cycle to fulfill work hours include disruptions in metabolic processes.

  10. Information Integration Technology Demonstration (IITD)

    Loe, Richard

    2001-01-01

    The objectives of the Information Integration Technology Demonstration (IITD) were to investigate, design a software architecture and demonstrate a capability to display intelligence data from multiple disciplines...

  11. Shift work, emotional labour and psychological well-being of nursing staff

    Christel Vermaak

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the effect of emotional labour and the psychological experience of shift work on the psychological well-being at work (PWBW of long term care nursing staff (n = 206. The ‘psychological experience of shift work’ construct defines the perception of the negative effect that working shifts has on the employees’ daily life. Correlation and multiple regression analyses were conducted. Support was found for the negative relationships between the psychological experience of shift work and PWBW, as well as the emotional labour dimension of surface acting and PWBW. A hierarchical regression analysis suggested that, when controlling for the effect of emotional labour and certain demographic variables (including number of dependents, tenure and actual shift worked, a significant amount of unique variance in PWBW, could be accounted for by the psychological experience of shift work. These results indicate that the PWBW of nursing staff is not only influenced by which shift the individual is on (i.e. day or night shift, but more so by the individuals’ psychological experience of shift work.

  12. Shifting and Sharing: Academic Physicians' Strategies for Navigating Underperformance and Failure.

    LaDonna, Kori A; Ginsburg, Shiphra; Watling, Christopher

    2018-05-22

    Medical practice is uncertain and complex. Consequently, even outstanding performers will inevitably experience moments of underperformance and failure. Coping relies on insight and resilience. However, how physicians develop and use these skills to navigate struggle remains underexplored. A better understanding may reveal strategies to support both struggling learners and stressed practitioners. In 2015, 28 academic physicians were interviewed about their experiences with underperformance or failure. Constructivist grounded theory informed data collection and analysis. Participants' experiences with struggle ranged from patient errors and academic failures to frequent, smaller moments of interpersonal conflict and work-life imbalance. To buffer impact, participants sometimes shifted their focus to an aspect of their identity where they felt successful. Additionally, while participants perceived that insight develops by acknowledging and reflecting on error, they sometimes deflected blame for performance gaps. More often, participants seemed to accept personal responsibility while simultaneously sharing accountability for underperformance or failure with external forces. Paradoxically, participants perceived learners who used these strategies as lacking in insight. Participants demonstrated the protective and functional value of distributing responsibility for underperformance and failure. Shifting and sharing may be an element of reflection and resilience; recognizing external factors may provide a way to gain perspective and to preserve the self. However, this strategy challenges educators' assumptions that learners who deflect are avoiding personal responsibility. The authors' findings raise questions about what it means to be resilient, and how assumptions about learners' responses to failure may affect strategies to support underperforming learners.

  13. Shifting bone marrow edema of the knee

    Moosikasuwan, Josh B.; Schultz, Elizabeth; Miller, Theodore T.; Math, Kevin

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of our study is to describe shifting bone marrow edema in the knee as the MR imaging feature of intra-articular regional migratory osteoporosis of the knee. Five men, aged 45-73 years, were referred by orthopedic surgeons for MR imaging evaluation of knee pain, which had been present for 2 weeks to 6 months. One patient had a prior history of blunt trauma. None had risk factors for osteonecrosis. Four patients had two MR examinations and the patient with prior blunt trauma had four. Plain radiographs were obtained in all patients. In all cases, a large area of marrow edema initially involved a femoral condyle, with migration of the bone marrow edema to the other femoral condyle, tibia, and/or patella occurring over a 2- to 4-month period. Adjacent soft tissue edema was present in all five patients, while none had a joint effusion. Radiographs of two patients showed generalized osteopenia. In the absence of acute trauma or clinical suspicion of infection, a large area of bone marrow edema without a zone of demarcation may represent intra-articular regional migratory osteoporosis. Demonstration of shifting bone marrow edema on follow-up examinations suggests this diagnosis. (orig.)

  14. Language Lateralization Shifts with Learning by Adults

    Plante, Elena; Almryde, Kyle; Patterson, Dianne K.; Vance, Christopher J.; Asbjørnsen, Arve E.

    2014-01-01

    For the majority of the population, language is a left hemisphere lateralized function. During childhood, a pattern of increasing left lateralization for language has been described in brain imaging studies, suggesting this trait develops. This development could reflect change due to brain maturation or change due to skill acquisition, given that children acquire and refine language skills as they mature. We test the possibility that skill acquisition, independent of age-associated maturation can result in shifts in language lateralization in classic language cortex. We imaged adults exposed to unfamiliar language during three successive fMRI scans. Participants were then asked to identify specific words embedded in Norwegian sentences. Exposure to these sentences, relative to complex tones, resulted in consistent activation in the left and right superior temporal gyrus. Activation in this region became increasingly left lateralized with repeated exposure to the unfamiliar language. These results demonstrate that shifts in lateralization can be produced in the short-term within a learning context, independent of maturation. PMID:25285756

  15. The Underlying Social Dynamics of Paradigm Shifts.

    Rodriguez-Sickert, Carlos; Cosmelli, Diego; Claro, Francisco; Fuentes, Miguel Angel

    2015-01-01

    We develop here a multi-agent model of the creation of knowledge (scientific progress or technological evolution) within a community of researchers devoted to such endeavors. In the proposed model, agents learn in a physical-technological landscape, and weight is attached to both individual search and social influence. We find that the combination of these two forces together with random experimentation can account for both i) marginal change, that is, periods of normal science or refinements on the performance of a given technology (and in which the community stays in the neighborhood of the current paradigm); and ii) radical change, which takes the form of scientific paradigm shifts (or discontinuities in the structure of performance of a technology) that is observed as a swift migration of the knowledge community towards the new and superior paradigm. The efficiency of the search process is heavily dependent on the weight that agents posit on social influence. The occurrence of a paradigm shift becomes more likely when each member of the community attaches a small but positive weight to the experience of his/her peers. For this parameter region, nevertheless, a conservative force is exerted by the representatives of the current paradigm. However, social influence is not strong enough to seriously hamper individual discovery, and can act so as to empower successful individual pioneers who have conquered the new and superior paradigm.

  16. The Underlying Social Dynamics of Paradigm Shifts.

    Carlos Rodriguez-Sickert

    Full Text Available We develop here a multi-agent model of the creation of knowledge (scientific progress or technological evolution within a community of researchers devoted to such endeavors. In the proposed model, agents learn in a physical-technological landscape, and weight is attached to both individual search and social influence. We find that the combination of these two forces together with random experimentation can account for both i marginal change, that is, periods of normal science or refinements on the performance of a given technology (and in which the community stays in the neighborhood of the current paradigm; and ii radical change, which takes the form of scientific paradigm shifts (or discontinuities in the structure of performance of a technology that is observed as a swift migration of the knowledge community towards the new and superior paradigm. The efficiency of the search process is heavily dependent on the weight that agents posit on social influence. The occurrence of a paradigm shift becomes more likely when each member of the community attaches a small but positive weight to the experience of his/her peers. For this parameter region, nevertheless, a conservative force is exerted by the representatives of the current paradigm. However, social influence is not strong enough to seriously hamper individual discovery, and can act so as to empower successful individual pioneers who have conquered the new and superior paradigm.

  17. Theory of Lamb Shift in Muonic Hydrogen

    Karshenboim, Savely G., E-mail: savely.karshenboim@mpq.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Quantenoptik, Garching 85748, Germany and Pulkovo Observatory, St. Petersburg 196140 (Russian Federation); Korzinin, Evgeny Yu.; Shelyuto, Valery A. [D. I. Mendeleev Institute for Metrology, St. Petersburg 190005 (Russian Federation); Ivanov, Vladimir G. [Pulkovo Observatory, St. Petersburg 196140 (Russian Federation)

    2015-09-15

    There has been for a while a large discrepancy between the values of the proton charge radius measured by the Lamb shift in muonic hydrogen and by other methods. It has already been clear that theory of muonic hydrogen is reliable at the level of this discrepancy and an error there cannot be a reason for the contradiction. Still the status of theory at the level of the uncertainty of the muonic-hydrogen experiment (which is two orders of magnitude below the discrepancy level) requires an additional clarification. Here, we revisit theory of the 2p − 2s Lamb shift in muonic hydrogen. We summarize all the theoretical contributions in order α{sup 5}m, including pure quantum electrodynamics (QED) ones as well as those which involve the proton-structure effects. Certain enhanced higher-order effects are also discussed. We basically confirm former QED calculations of other authors, present a review of recent calculations of the proton-structure effects, and treat self-consistently higher-order proton-finite-size corrections. We also overview theory of the 2p states. Eventually, we derive a value of the root-mean-square proton charge radius. It is found to be 0.840 29(55) fm, which is slightly different from that previously published in the literature (0.840 87(39) fm [Antognini et al., Science 339, 417 (2013)])

  18. How to Demonstrate Microgravity in your Classroom

    DeLombard, Richard; Hall, Nancy Rabel

    2013-01-01

    Learn why zero gravity is a misnomer and learn how to demonstrate microgravity to students and the general public. In this session, a short theory segment will explain and reinforce these concepts so that you may explain to others. Session participants will also see simple equipment that demonstrates microgravity during the session and can just as well be done in the classroom or museum exhibit hall. The hands-on demonstration devices range from a leaky water bottle to an electronic drop tower with an on-board camera. The session will also include demonstration techniques for Physics, Forces & Motion, and orbits. This material is useful for middle school forces and motions instruction, high school physics instruction, public demonstrations at conferences & school open houses, travelling museum exhibits, fixed museum exhibits, and independent student projects or experiments. These activities also connect the terrestrial demonstration with planetary & moon motion, comet trajectory, and more.

  19. Attention, Exposure Duration, and Gaze Shifting in Naming Performance

    Roelofs, Ardi

    2011-01-01

    Two experiments are reported in which the role of attribute exposure duration in naming performance was examined by tracking eye movements. Participants were presented with color-word Stroop stimuli and left- or right-pointing arrows on different sides of a computer screen. They named the color attribute and shifted their gaze to the arrow to…

  20. Strong eld ionization of naphthalene: angular shifts and molecular potential

    Dimitrovski, Darko; Maurer, Jochen; Christensen, Lauge

    We analyze the photoelectron momentum distributions from strong eld ionization of xed-in-space naphthalene molecules by circularly polarized laser pulses. By direct comparison between experiment and theory, we show that the angular shifts in the photoelectron momentum distributions are very...... sensitive to the exact form of the molecular potential....

  1. Orphan Tongues and the Economics of Language Shift in Nigeria ...

    Complex experiences implicate a change in the structure of work, and consequent shift towards the functional language that expresses the new economic order. In other words, the “demand and supply” for a language directs its distribution, determines its value and creates its direct or indirect profit; and the extent a ...

  2. Paradigm shifts in orthodontic treatment with mini-implant anchorage

    Johnny Joung-Lin Liaw

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available After the applications of mini-implant anchorage, the envelope of orthodontic treatment was expanded and some treatment modes were changed because of more predictable tooth movement with empowered anchorage. The author tried to share his experience of TADs applications for clarifying the paradigm shifts of orthodontic treatment assisted with the mini-implant anchorage.

  3. Visual attention shifting in autism spectrum disorders.

    Richard, Annette E; Lajiness-O'Neill, Renee

    2015-01-01

    Abnormal visual attention has been frequently observed in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Abnormal shifting of visual attention is related to abnormal development of social cognition and has been identified as a key neuropsychological finding in ASD. Better characterizing attention shifting in ASD and its relationship with social functioning may help to identify new targets for intervention and improving social communication in these disorders. Thus, the current study investigated deficits in attention shifting in ASD as well as relationships between attention shifting and social communication in ASD and neurotypicals (NT). To investigate deficits in visual attention shifting in ASD, 20 ASD and 20 age- and gender-matched NT completed visual search (VS) and Navon tasks with attention-shifting demands as well as a set-shifting task. VS was a feature search task with targets defined in one of two dimensions; Navon required identification of a target letter presented at the global or local level. Psychomotor and processing speed were entered as covariates. Relationships between visual attention shifting, set shifting, and social functioning were also examined. ASD and NT showed comparable costs of shifting attention. However, psychomotor and processing speed were slower in ASD than in NT, and psychomotor and processing speed were positively correlated with attention-shifting costs on Navon and VS, respectively, for both groups. Attention shifting on VS and Navon were correlated among NT, while attention shifting on Navon was correlated with set shifting among ASD. Attention-shifting costs on Navon were positively correlated with restricted and repetitive behaviors among ASD. Relationships between attention shifting and psychomotor and processing speed, as well as relationships between measures of different aspects of visual attention shifting, suggest inefficient top-down influences over preattentive visual processing in ASD. Inefficient attention shifting may be

  4. From Geo-Modelling to Lecture Demonstrations to Poster Carnivals to Science-Art Crossovers to Children's Museum Exhibits to Sports Science Education to some Skateboarding Experiments for good measure (plus some other stuff)

    Lenardic, A.

    2011-12-01

    If an untenured faculty member, hired under the title of looking at mantle processes, told his/her department chair that they wanted to get involved in the projects of this abstract title, with an education/outreach focus, the department chair would likely wish them a happy career elsewhere after their tenure case was rejected. University higher-ups would echo that I suspect. I know from a bit of direct experience as I was told by one of my universities most prominent outreach advocates that if I wanted to blend outreach with my research then I should only do it after tenure. Reality is reality. The reality of a CAREER grant is that it can change this reality. Being able to show that NSF was behind the blend of research and outreach I had in mind provided the 'money were your mouth is' needed to allow a junior faculty to do scientific research and to use scientific knowledge for outreach beyond the university walls. I will review how the CAREER program allowed me to branch out beyond the traditional role junior faculty can fall into. Along the way I will highlight some of the eduction/outreach projects explored and discuss successes as well as areas that could be improved in the future.

  5. How superdiffusion gets arrested: ecological encounters explain shift from Lévy to Brownian movement.

    de Jager, Monique; Bartumeus, Frederic; Kölzsch, Andrea; Weissing, Franz J; Hengeveld, Geerten M; Nolet, Bart A; Herman, Peter M J; van de Koppel, Johan

    2014-01-07

    Ecological theory uses Brownian motion as a default template for describing ecological movement, despite limited mechanistic underpinning. The generality of Brownian motion has recently been challenged by empirical studies that highlight alternative movement patterns of animals, especially when foraging in resource-poor environments. Yet, empirical studies reveal animals moving in a Brownian fashion when resources are abundant. We demonstrate that Einstein's original theory of collision-induced Brownian motion in physics provides a parsimonious, mechanistic explanation for these observations. Here, Brownian motion results from frequent encounters between organisms in dense environments. In density-controlled experiments, movement patterns of mussels shifted from Lévy towards Brownian motion with increasing density. When the analysis was restricted to moves not truncated by encounters, this shift did not occur. Using a theoretical argument, we explain that any movement pattern approximates Brownian motion at high-resource densities, provided that movement is interrupted upon encounters. Hence, the observed shift to Brownian motion does not indicate a density-dependent change in movement strategy but rather results from frequent collisions. Our results emphasize the need for a more mechanistic use of Brownian motion in ecology, highlighting that especially in rich environments, Brownian motion emerges from ecological interactions, rather than being a default movement pattern.

  6. How superdiffusion gets arrested: ecological encounters explain shift from Lévy to Brownian movement

    de Jager, Monique; Bartumeus, Frederic; Kölzsch, Andrea; Weissing, Franz J.; Hengeveld, Geerten M.; Nolet, Bart A.; Herman, Peter M. J.; van de Koppel, Johan

    2014-01-01

    Ecological theory uses Brownian motion as a default template for describing ecological movement, despite limited mechanistic underpinning. The generality of Brownian motion has recently been challenged by empirical studies that highlight alternative movement patterns of animals, especially when foraging in resource-poor environments. Yet, empirical studies reveal animals moving in a Brownian fashion when resources are abundant. We demonstrate that Einstein's original theory of collision-induced Brownian motion in physics provides a parsimonious, mechanistic explanation for these observations. Here, Brownian motion results from frequent encounters between organisms in dense environments. In density-controlled experiments, movement patterns of mussels shifted from Lévy towards Brownian motion with increasing density. When the analysis was restricted to moves not truncated by encounters, this shift did not occur. Using a theoretical argument, we explain that any movement pattern approximates Brownian motion at high-resource densities, provided that movement is interrupted upon encounters. Hence, the observed shift to Brownian motion does not indicate a density-dependent change in movement strategy but rather results from frequent collisions. Our results emphasize the need for a more mechanistic use of Brownian motion in ecology, highlighting that especially in rich environments, Brownian motion emerges from ecological interactions, rather than being a default movement pattern. PMID:24225464

  7. A demonstrator for an incoherent Doppler wind lidar receiver

    Fabre, F.; Marini, A.; Sidler, Thomas C.; Morancais, Didier; Fongy, G.; Vidal, Ph.

    2018-04-01

    The knowledge of wind fields for a global terrestrial coverage and accurate altitude sampling is one of the main keys for improvement of meteorological predictions and general understanding of atmosphere behaviour. The best way to recover this information is remote sensing from space using low Earth orbit satellites. The measurement principle is to analyse the Doppler shift of the flux emitted by the space instrument and backscattered by the atmosphere. One of the most promising principle for Doppler shift measurement is the direct detection which does not need local oscillators. what significantly simplifies the design of such a space-borne receiver. ESA-ESTEC initiated at early 95' a programme called "lncoherent Doppler Wind Lidar (IDWL) technologies" for the study and bread-boarding phase. MMS won this contract proposing an original concept based on the use of a Fizeau high resolution interferometer working in the UV band. coupled with an intensified CCD. This concept is patented by MMS, as well as the special CCD timing sequence that will be depicted below. The programme begun by a study of the space-borne instrument in order to identify main constraints and define the receiver as could be for a flight model. A detailed performance model was established and parametric analysis allowed to optimise the concept in order to reach required performances. This study phase finally provided the definition of a bread-board for expected performances demonstration. Moreover, the Laser Signal Simulator (LSS) which is used to simulate the Lidar echo in term of amplitude as well as frequency modulation was defined at this step. The performances of this test support equipment are of main importance for the validation of the demonstrator design and performances. The second part of the study aimed at defining the derailed design of the demonstrator and associated test support equipment as well as initiating preliminary validation experiments on most critical technologies, like

  8. A Systematic Approach of Employing Quality by Design Principles: Risk Assessment and Design of Experiments to Demonstrate Process Understanding and Identify the Critical Process Parameters for Coating of the Ethylcellulose Pseudolatex Dispersion Using Non-Conventional Fluid Bed Process.

    Kothari, Bhaveshkumar H; Fahmy, Raafat; Claycamp, H Gregg; Moore, Christine M V; Chatterjee, Sharmista; Hoag, Stephen W

    2017-05-01

    The goal of this study was to utilize risk assessment techniques and statistical design of experiments (DoE) to gain process understanding and to identify critical process parameters for the manufacture of controlled release multiparticulate beads using a novel disk-jet fluid bed technology. The material attributes and process parameters were systematically assessed using the Ishikawa fish bone diagram and failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) risk assessment methods. The high risk attributes identified by the FMEA analysis were further explored using resolution V fractional factorial design. To gain an understanding of the processing parameters, a resolution V fractional factorial study was conducted. Using knowledge gained from the resolution V study, a resolution IV fractional factorial study was conducted; the purpose of this IV study was to identify the critical process parameters (CPP) that impact the critical quality attributes and understand the influence of these parameters on film formation. For both studies, the microclimate, atomization pressure, inlet air volume, product temperature (during spraying and curing), curing time, and percent solids in the coating solutions were studied. The responses evaluated were percent agglomeration, percent fines, percent yield, bead aspect ratio, median particle size diameter (d50), assay, and drug release rate. Pyrobuttons® were used to record real-time temperature and humidity changes in the fluid bed. The risk assessment methods and process analytical tools helped to understand the novel disk-jet technology and to systematically develop models of the coating process parameters like process efficiency and the extent of curing during the coating process.

  9. The relationship between quality of sleep and night shift rotation interval.

    Kim, Jae Youn; Chae, Chang Ho; Kim, Young Ouk; Son, Jun Seok; Kim, Ja Hyun; Kim, Chan Woo; Park, Hyoung Ouk; Lee, Jun Ho; Kwon, Soon Il; Kwon, Sun Il

    2015-01-01

    Shift work is closely related with workers' health. In particular, sleep is thought to be affected by shift work. In addition, shift work has been reported to be associated with the type or direction of shift rotation, number of consecutive night shifts, and number of off-duty days. We aimed to analyze the association between the night shift rotation interval and the quality of sleep reported by Korean female shift workers. In total, 2,818 female shift workers from the manufacturing industry who received an employee physical examination at a single university hospital from January to August in 2014 were included. Subjects were classified into three groups (A, B, and C) by their night shift rotation interval. The quality of sleep was measured using the Korean version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Descriptive analysis, univariate logistic regression, and multivariate logistic regression were performed. With group A as the reference, the odds ratio (OR) for having a seriously low quality of sleep was 1.456 (95% CI 1.171-1.811) and 2.348 (95% CI 1.852-2.977) for groups B and C, respectively. Thus, group C with the shortest night shift rotation interval was most likely to have a low quality of sleep. After adjustment for age, obesity, smoking status, alcohol consumption, exercise, being allowed to sleep during night shifts, work experience, and shift work experience, groups B and C had ORs of 1.419 (95% CI 1.134-1.777) and 2.238 (95% CI 1.737-2.882), respectively, compared to group A. Our data suggest that a shorter night shift rotation interval does not provide enough recovery time to adjust the circadian rhythm, resulting in a low quality of sleep. Because shift work is influenced by many different factors, future studies should aim to determine the most optimal shift work model and collect accurate, prospective data.

  10. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration lessons learned: 1993 technology demonstrations

    Kostelnik, K.M.; Owens, K.J.

    1994-01-01

    An integrated technology demonstration was conducted by the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Cold Test Pit in the summer of 1993. This program and demonstration was sponsored by the US Department of Energy Office of Technology Development. The demonstration included six technologies representing a synergistic system for the characterization and retrieval of a buried hazardous waste site. The integrated technology demonstration proved very successful and a summary of the technical accomplishments is presented. Upon completion of the integrated technology demonstration, cognizant program personnel participated in a lessons learned exercise. This exercise was conducted at the Simplot Decision Support Center at Idaho State University and lessons learned activity captured additional information relative to the integration of technologies for demonstration purposes. This information will be used by BWID to enhance program planning and strengthen future technology demonstrations

  11. SeaQuest/E906 Shift Alarm System

    Kitts, Noah

    2014-09-01

    SeaQuest, Fermilab E906, is a fixed target experiment that measures the Drell-Yan cross-section ratio of proton-proton to proton-deuterium collisions in order to extract the sea anti-quark structure of the proton. SeaQuest will extend the measurements made by E866/NuSea with greater precision at higher Bjorken-x. The continuously running experiment is always being monitored. Those on shift must keep track of all of the detector readouts in order to make sure the experiment is running correctly. As an experiment that is still in its early stages of running, an alarm system for people on shift is being created to provide warnings, such as a plot showing a detector's performance is sufficiently different to need attention. This plan involves python scripts that track live data. When the data shows a problem within the experiment, a corresponding alarm ID is sent to the MySQL database which then sets off an alarm. These alarms, which will alert the person on shift through both an audible and visual response, are important for ensuring that issues do not go unnoticed, and to help make sure the experiment is recording good data.

  12. Mode Shift Control for a Hybrid Heavy-Duty Vehicle with Power-Split Transmission

    Kun Huang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Given that power-split transmission (PST is considered to be a major powertrain technology for hybrid heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs, the development and application of PST in the HDVs make mode shift control an essential aspect of powertrain system design. This paper presents a shift schedule design and torque control strategy for a hybrid HDV with PST during mode shift, intended to reduce the output torque variation and improve the shift quality (SQ. Firstly, detailed dynamic models of the hybrid HDV are developed to analyze the mode shift characteristics. Then, a gear shift schedule calculation method including a dynamic shift schedule and an economic shift schedule is provided. Based on the dynamic models and the designed shift schedule, a mode shift performance simulator is built using MATLAB/Simulink, and simulations are carried out. Through analysis of the dynamic equations, it is seen that the inertia torques of the motor–generator lead to the occurrence of transition torque. To avoid the unwanted transition torque, we use a mode shift control strategy that coordinates the motor–generator torque to compensate for the transition torque. The simulation and experimental results demonstrate that the output torque variation during mode shift is effectively reduced by the proposed control strategy, thereby improving the SQ.

  13. Gastrointestinal complaints in shift-working and day-working nurses in Iran

    Moravveji Ali

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is evidence in the scientific literature of the adverse physiological and psychological effects of shift work. The work of nurses in hospitals is connected with shift and night work. Several publications have described gastrointestinal disturbances in shift workers. The aim of this study was to compare the frequency of gastrointestinal (GI complaints of nurses on a rotating shift with that of nurses on a regular day shift. Methods The study involved 160 nurses (133 working in shifts and at night and 27 working on day shifts in the Shahid Beheshti Hospital in Kashan, Iran. These nurses answered a Gastrointestinal Symptom Questionnaire regarding the presence of gastrointestinal symptoms (including heartburn, regurgitation, constipation, diarrhea and bloating. Positive responses required frequent symptom occurrence in the past 4 weeks. Significance of group differences was assessed by chi-square and Fisher-exact tests. Results Prevalence of GI symptoms was significantly higher (p = 0.009 in rotating-shift nurses (81.9% than in day-shift nurses (59.2%. Irregular meal consumption (p = 0.01 and GI medications (p = 0.002 were all significantly higher among the rotating shift nurses. In both groups, regurgitation was the most common symptom. Conclusion Nurses on rotating shifts in Iran experience more GI disturbances than do nurses on day shifts.

  14. Introduction to isotopic shifts and transmutations observed in LENR experiments

    Srinivasan, Mahadeva

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a brief introduction to the topic of transmutation reactions which occur in a variety of LENR configurations wherein the 'host metal' nuclei (Pd, Ni, Ti, etc.) interact with the loaded deuterium or hydrogen nuclei, resulting in the formation of new stable elements or isotopes not present in the system prior to the experimental run. (author)

  15. Tune-shift with amplitude due to nonlinear kinematic effect

    Wan, W

    1999-01-01

    Tracking studies of the Muon Collider 50 on 50 GeV collider ring show that the on-momentum dynamic aperture is limited to around 10 sigma even with the chromaticity sextupoles turned off. Numerical results from the normal form algorithm show that the tune-shift with amplitude is surprisingly large. Both analytical and numerical results are presented to show that nonlinear kinematic effect originated from the large angles of particles in the interaction region is responsible for the large tune-shift which in turn limits the dynamic aperture. A comparative study of the LHC collider ring is also presented to demonstrate the difference between the two machines. (14 refs).

  16. Optimisation of Shift Reactor Operating Conditions to Maximise Hydrogen Production

    Sanchez, J. M.; Marano, M.; Ruiz, E.

    2011-07-28

    This report compiles the results of the work conducted by CIEMAT for Task 6.5 Shift reaction of the FLEXGAS project Near Zero Emission Advanced Fluidized Bed Gasification, which has been carried out with financial support from the Research Fund for Coal and Steel, RFCR-CT-2007-00005. The activity of an iron-chromium-based catalyst for the water gas shift reaction is studied. Results about WGS experiments conducted by CIEMAT on laboratory scale under different operating conditions are presented. The influence on the activity of the catalyst of main operating parameters- temperature, pressure, excess steam, and space velocity and gas composition - is evaluated and discussed. (Author) 19 refs.

  17. Surface core-level shifts for simple metals

    Aldén, Magnus; Skriver, Hans Lomholt; Johansson, Börje

    1994-01-01

    screening, whereby a SCLS becomes equivalent to the surface segregation energy of a core-ionized atom, a quantity we obtain by separate bulk and surface impurity calculations. The results are in good agreement with experiment in most of those cases where the data originates from single-crystal measurements....... We discuss the surface shifts of the electrostatic potentials and the band centers in order to trace the microscopic origin of the SCLS in the simple metals and find that the anomalous subsurface core-level shifts in beryllium are caused by charge dipoles, which persist several layers into the bulk...

  18. Shifting and power sharing control of a novel dual input clutchless transmission for electric vehicles

    Liang, Jiejunyi; Yang, Haitao; Wu, Jinglai; Zhang, Nong; Walker, Paul D.

    2018-05-01

    To improve the overall efficiency of electric vehicles and guarantee the driving comfort and vehicle drivability under the concept of simplifying mechanism complexity and minimizing manufacturing cost, this paper proposes a novel clutchless power-shifting transmission system with shifting control strategy and power sharing control strategy. The proposed shifting strategy takes advantage of the transmission architecture to achieve power-on shifting, which greatly improves the driving comfort compared with conventional automated manual transmission, with a bump function based shifting control method. To maximize the overall efficiency, a real-time power sharing control strategy is designed to solve the power distribution problem between the two motors. Detailed mathematical model is built to verify the effectiveness of the proposed methods. The results demonstrate the proposed strategies considerably improve the overall efficiency while achieve non-interrupted power-on shifting and maintain the vehicle jerk during shifting under an acceptable threshold.

  19. Individual differences in shift work tolerance

    Lammers-van der Holst, H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Shift work is a key feature of our contemporary 24/7 society, employing several successive work teams to sustain around-the-clock operations. However, numerous studies imply that frequently shifting the periods of sleep and wakefulness poses a serious threat to the shift worker’s physical, mental

  20. Shifting Cultivation : Promoting Innovative Policy and Development ...

    Shifting Cultivation : Promoting Innovative Policy and Development Options in the Eastern Himalayas. Shifting ... pressure and market forces. The idea is to share good policies and practices related to shifting cultivation and alternative options through regional exchange. ... Les chaînes de valeur comme leviers stratégiques.