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Sample records for shien system ni

  1. Energy supply systems engineering tool (ESSE). Energy infura keikaku shien system (ESSE) ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itaya, T. (Shimizu Construction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1992-05-01

    The paper introduces the computer program software (ESSE: Eenrgy Supply Systems Engineering tool) whic can evaluate and work out comprehensivly and rapidly plans and basic programs for energy related infrastructure of districr cooling and heating facilities using municipal waste heat, cogeneration system, refuse incineration facilities, etc., in the initial stage of planning/ programming for the regiomal develpment. The program is composed roughly of two parts by function: Phase 1 and Phase 2. In the phase 1, calculated are cooling and heating load in the subject rehion of the plan, demands for electric power, gas and watre/ sewage, and municipal were heat in the areas where refuse incineration exhaust heat is utilized In Phase 2, the facility system supplying energy to the region is evaluated based of the result obtained in phase 1, in terms of annual energy consumption, degree of environmental effect and economic efficiency. Image samples of Phase 1 and Phase 2 are shown. 11 figs.

  2. Basic studies on design supporting system of offshore structure. Part 2. Implementation of structural design supporting system of offshore structures; Kaiyo kozobutsu wo taisho to shita sekkei shien system ni kansuru kisoteki kenkyu. 2. Kaiyo kozobutsu no kozo sekkei shien system no kochiku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nomoto, T.; Hamada, K.; Aoyama, K. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    In order to improve the existing design-supporting system for offshore structures, new functions are added to evaluate information of the products, especially those for structural designs. The structural analysis system should be provided with a function of design modification, to efficiently support the structural analysis of these structures. The new system adds hierarchy of various offshore structure models and three-dimensional dimensions to clarify structural and geometrical constraints and design-modification function. The design-modification function is included by use of the hierarchy. The other new functions are finite element analysis systems for the main structure and components, and rigidity calculation for the main structure. The main structure and functional element models are confirmed to be useful also for utilization of information, and provide necessary information of the product models. 11 refs., 11 figs.

  3. Fiscal 1998 research cooperation project on development of the easy-to-operate electronic design/production support system; 1998 nendo kan'i sosagata denshi sekkei seisan shien system no kaihatsu ni kansuru kenkyu kyoryoku jigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This report summarizes 'Research cooperation on the easy-to- operate electronic design/production support system' which was promoted together with Asian countries as a part of the international research projects. This project is promoted by joint research with research organizations in China, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand. The project promotes the interexchange and cooperation of researchers along the memoranda on MATIC (Manufacturing Technology International Cooperation) concluded between NEDO and research organizations every country. The project is implemented by CICC (Center of the International Cooperation for Computerization) through the contract with NEDO. CICC is promoting this project with the production system future integrated information system committee, MATIC committee, and automobile, home appliance, fiber and apparel working groups. The project has been promoted by the survey in fiscal 1994, the basic planning in fiscal 1995-1996, and development of the prototype information system in fiscal 1996-1998. The final demonstration test is scheduled in fiscal 1998. (NEDO)

  4. Research cooperation project on manufacturing technology supported by advanced and integrated information system through international cooperation (MATIC); Kan`i sosagata denshi sekkei seisan shien system no kaihatsu ni kansuru kenkyu kyoryoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    To support the advancement of basic industries including machine industry in Asian countries, research cooperation has been conducted for developing the manufacturing technology supported by advanced and integrated information system suitable for actual circumstances of individual countries. For the automotive and the parts industries, it is significant for the preparation works of manufacturing in overseas factories to possess common information between Japan and overseas factories. In this project, a system is constructed, which can be used in industries surrounding automotive industry, such as parts and facility industries, as well as in the automotive industry. In FY 1996, a primary system has been developed, and the demonstration tests were carried out. For the home electric machine and the parts industries, the technology applicable to the design of printed board circuit was developed, and the catalog of electronic parts was constructed. In FY 1996, a preliminary prototype system of the electronic parts catalog system was designed and developed. For the textile and apparel industries, the EDI, exchange system of CAD/CAM data, and construction of data bank were investigated. 87 figs., 19 tabs.

  5. FY1995 community support by mobile agents; 1995 nendo mobile agent ni yoru community keisei shien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The purpose is to develop fundamental technologies for navigation systems and mobile computing systems in museums, theme parks and cities. Concretely, we implement software agents into the mobile computing environment which consists of PHS, mobile computers and mobile robots, and realize various functions to access regional information. We have studied on Communityware which supports human activities and communities by using mobile agents implemented into mobile computers and town robots. The mobile agents, which intelligently process information obtained in physical and virtual worlds, access regional information which is omnipresent in the environment. With respect to the approach using mobile computers, we have provided one hundred mobile computers in the international conference on multiagent systems 1996 and carried out the first experimentation of mobile computing in the world. The mobile computer has two functions: Community Viewer which displays interactions between members of communities and Social Matchmaker which supports to hold meetings by searching for people who have common interests. With respect to the approach using town robots, we have developed a robot system which can robustly behave in a complex outdoor environment by using vision agents embedded in the environment. The system aims at support of people in streets. (NEDO)

  6. Achievement report for fiscal 1998 on Simple Operation Type CAD/CAM System Development through International Cooperation; 1998 nendo 'kan'i sosagata denshi sekkei seian shien system no kaihatsu ni kansru kenkyu kyoryoku' ni kansuru hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The subject project is implemented in the fields of automobiles and their parts, electrical home appliances and their parts, and textile and apparel. In the field of automobiles and their parts, a prototype is developed of an integrated information management system which is to serve between corporation head offices and assembling businesses overseas, and another prototype is developed of an inter-business technical data serving system which is to serve between overseas assembling businesses and supporting businesses, both involving Japan, Indonesia, and Thailand. In the field of electrical home appliances and their parts, a prototype is developed of an electronic catalog system in a joint endeavor with research institutes of Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, and Thailand, and a demonstration test is conducted. A design concurrent engineering system is developed by Japan and Malaysian research institutes. In the field of textile and apparel, prototypes are developed, by Japanese, Chinese, and Indonesian apparel manufactures, of an apparel manufacturing specification system, international EDI (electronic data interchange) system, translation system, and a CAD (computer-aided design)/CAM (computer-aided manufacturing) data interchange system. (NEDO)

  7. Report on simple operation type CAD/CAM system development through international cooperation. Current statuses of Asian countries; 'Kan'i sosagata denshi sekkei seisan shien system no kaihatsu ni kansuru kenkyu kyoryoku' ni kansuru hokokusho. Asia shokoku no jokyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    Information systems, mainly aided by computers, are becoming increasingly important, contributing to development of wide areas of societies and economics, to begin with. However, few developing countries have established sufficient information systems, in spite of their strong desires to do so, which will further widen the gap between them and advanced countries, where these systems are acceleratedly advancing. Given these situations, Center of International Cooperation for Computerization (CICC) has been implementing various projects for providing assistance to and cooperation with oversea countries which are trying to develop information systems. This report summarizes the project, which CICC has been commissioned by NEDO as part of the cooperation programs, for manufacturing technology supported by advanced and integrated information system through international cooperation. It outlines the research cooperation memoranda NEDO has concluded with Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand, and the authorities of China, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand. (NEDO)

  8. Fiscal 1998 report on the research cooperation on development of the easy-to-operate electronic design and production support system (Joint research cooperation); 1998 nendo 'kan'i sosagata denshi sekkei seisan shien system no kaihatsu ni kansuru kenkyu kyoryoku' ni kansuru hokokusho (kyodo kenkyu kyoryoku)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Asian countries are constructing information infrastructures actively in spite of severe financial and economic conditions in every country. For promoting advanced manufacturing industries and supporting industries of Asian countries by information technology, the research cooperation promotion project (MATIC) on the electronic design and production support system has been carried out as the joint research project of Japan, China, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand. This project started as the 5-year project in 1994, and has developed and demonstrated the prototype electronic design and production support system in 3 fields of automobile, home appliance and fiber/apparel. In the final 1998, the R and D and demonstration test were carried out, and the project results were summarized. For discussing the research cooperation concretely with overseas countries, the overseas researchers were invited to Japan for explaining the research state in Japan, confirming the promotion states of each country, and discussing the research report, while Japanese researchers visited the concerned organizations in every country. (NEDO)

  9. Report for fiscal 1995 on simple operation type CAD/CAM system development through international cooperation. Cooperation for joint researches; 1995 nendo 'kan'i sosagata denshi sekkei seisan shien system no kaihatsu ni kansuru kenkyu kyoryoku' ni kansuru hokokusho. Kyodo kenkyu kyoryoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Reported herein are the joint research results of the project (manufacturing technology supported by advanced and integrated information system through international cooperation (MATIC)), implemented in China, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand by Center of International Cooperation for Computerization, commissioned by NEDO. Japan invited researchers from each country to explain the research themes, and discussed construction of the systems in each country. Japanese experts visited the research institutes and cooperative works in these countries, to discuss the research cooperation themes, and survey the conditions and technical levels of these research institutes, and information infrastructures. The oversea researchers were invited to Japan for the MATIC international seminar, discussions for research cooperation themes, and MATIC cooperation promotion committee. Textile and apparel researchers were also invited from China. Japanese experts visited China, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand for the on-the-spot surveys for each working group. (NEDO)

  10. Report for fiscal 1997 on simple operation type CAD/CAM system development through international cooperation. Committee activity record; 1997 nendo 'kan'i sosagata denshi sekkei seisan shien system no kaihatsu ni kansuru kenkyu kyoryoku' ni kansuru hokokusho. Iinkai katsudo kiroku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This paper reports the research and development project for an electronics design and production aid system of simple operation type. The project (MATIC) has been executed to support works of Asian countries on the information society, and enhance levels of the manufacturing industries and supportive industries by utilizing the information technologies. Fiscal 1997 has entered full-fledged demonstration experiments, and decided the project directionality as a result of different committee activities as to policies, contents and promotion methods for research, development and demonstration experiments. The working group (WG) 1, composed of members having professional knowledge on automobiles and components thereof, has deliberated specific research and development items, promotion of the research and development, technical problems, promotion of joint researches with overseas countries. The WG II, composed of members having professional knowledge on household electric appliances and their parts, discussed promotion of research and development of household electric appliances and their parts. The WG III, composed of textile and apparel expertise members, made attempts in promoting the research and development of household electrid appliances and their parts. This paper describes other committee activities including promotion of operation and cooperation on production-based futuristic type integrated information system and MATIC technologies. (NEDO)

  11. Report for fiscal 1995 on simple operation type CAD/CAM system development through international cooperation. Committee activity record; 1995 nendo 'kan'i sosagata denshi sekkei seisan shien system no kaihatsu ni kansuru kenkyu kyoryoku' ni kansuru hokokusho. Iinkai katsudo kiroku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This paper reports the committee activities in fiscal 1995 on research cooperation for developing an electronics design and production aid system of simple operation type (MATIC). This fiscal year has decided the directionality of MATIC promotion by activities carried out by the different committees. These activities relate to research and development themes, the basic policies of the research and development along with the themes, research and development themes linked with overseas countries, and promotion methods. The working group (WG)I has discussed and deliberated specific research and development items to promote research and development of automobiles and components thereof as the promotion theme, promotion of the research and development, and technical problems. The committee consists of researchers at the related corporations participated in MATIC. The WGII has taken up household appliances and parts thereof, and the WGIII textiles and apparels as the research and development themes, and given specific discussions for promoting the research and development. The paper also reports the activities taken by different committees for promotion of the production-based futuristic type integrated information system, and promotion of the MATIC technologies, operation and cooperation. (NEDO)

  12. Report for fiscal 1997 on simple operation type CAD/CAM system development through international cooperation. Joint research cooperation; 1997 nendo 'kan'i sosagata denshi sekkei seisan shien system no kaihatsu ni kansuru kenkyu kyoryoku' ni kansuru hokokusho. Kyodo kenkyu kyoryoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This report describes Japan's joint researches with China, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, and Thailand under the above-named project (MATIC) which were carried out in fiscal 1997. Scientists are invited to Japan from the above-named countries, to whom Japan's status of researches is explained and with whom discussion is conducted about progress in general and system development in those countries, and about verification tests. Japanese scientists visit research institutes of those countries so as to appraise the progress of researches and technological levels and to install computers for verification tests. Scientists visiting this country upon Japan's invitation and workshop held in Japan are enumerated below. Accepted by Working Group I (automobile and parts) are scientists from Indonesia and China and workshops from two countries; accepted by Working Group II (electrical home appliance) are scientists from Malaysia and workshops from five countries and then from four countries; and accepted by Working Group III (fiber and apparel) are scientists from China. Visits are made by the Working Groups to Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, and China. (NEDO)

  13. FY 2000 report on the research cooperation project on the research cooperative follow-up for development of the manufacturing technology supported by advanced and integrated information system through cooperation; 2000 nendo kenkyu kyoryoku jigyo. 2000 nendo kan'i sosagata denshi sekkei seisan shien system no kaihatsu ni kansuru kenkyu kyoryoku follow up jigyo hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The manufacturing technology supported by advanced and integrated information system through cooperation (MATIC), that is, a project supporting the production technology including the international information system and CAD/CAM system, etc. was carried out from FY 1994 to FY 1998. From FY 1999, the follow-up project is being implemented for the spread of the MATIC results, support for the independent R and D and the technical guidance. China, Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore participated in this project, by which the support and technical guidance were given in three fields: automobiles/the parts; household electric appliances/the parts; fiber/apparel. At present, each country is continuing its own activity for using the system developed in the MATIC project in its country. In this fiscal year, researchers were sent to each country for supporting the activities. Further, the MATIC follow-up committee was established to conduct the drawing-up of a business plan, grasp of the state of the spread/R and D, discussion about problems/subjects, comprehensive evaluation of the MATIC project, etc. (NEDO)

  14. Survey report for fiscal 2000 on project for assisting introduction of environment harmonizing type coal utilization system. Green Helmet Project related to circulating fluidized bed boilers in Thailand (Operation guidance); 2000 nendo chosa hokokusho. Kankyochowagata sekitan riyo system donyu shien jigyo - Junkan ryudosho boira (Tai) ni kakawaru green herumetto jigyo (Unten shido)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    With an objective to proliferate the achievements in the 'project for assisting introduction of environment harmonizing type coal utilization system for the circulating fluidized bed boilers (Thailand)' which has been completed in fiscal 2001, technical guidance, advices and items of information have been provided. At IndoRama Chemicals (Thailand) Ltd., the state of operation of the model project facilities were surveyed, and guidance and advices were given on the operation and maintenance thereof. The education and guidance on the boiler operation included the burner operation method, the method for adjusting the operation of electric dust collectors, prevention of troubles caused by sand deposited with CCR ash, the method of treatment at abnormal in-furnace pressures, prevention of maloperation of furnace pressure detection pipes, the method for adjusting excess and insufficiency of oxygen concentration, and the method for setting the ratio of lignite/CCR mixed combustion. The education and guidance on the maintenance method were given on the items of checks internal to the burners and electric dust collectors, deposits in the combustion chamber, dust condition, furnace material condition and the methods for verification and check on nozzles. Furthermore, education was given to personnel dispatched from the Thai Industry Ministry on the operation, maintenance and checks. (NEDO)

  15. Report on investigations in fiscal 2000 on the projects to support introduction of environment friendly coal utilization system. Green helmet project for briquette production plant - Mae Moh coal mine, Thailand; 2000 nendo kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system donyu shien jigyo chosa hokokusho. Briquette seizo setsubi ni kakawaru green helmet jigyo (Thai koku Mae Moh tanko)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-06-01

    This Green Helmet Project is intended to suppress generation of environment polluting substances in association with coal utilization in Thailand by demonstrating and improving the proliferation infrastructure for the clean coal technology to be used widely in Thailand. The project is also intended to serve for stabilized assurance of energies for Japan. The demonstration project related to briquette manufacturing facilities executed as one of the 'Projects to support introduction of environment friendly coal utilization system' is intended to manufacture at low cost a briquette which is low in odor, free of smoke, and suppressed largely of sulfur oxide generation. The briquette is made by adding clayish minerals, sulfur, a fixing agent and a binder into brown coal being a low grade coal. The project implements proliferation of the technology to reduce environmental load associated with coal utilization in developing countries according to the situation and needs of the counterpart countries. The present project has performed the site surveys and guidance of operation and maintenance techniques as follow-up works of the demonstration project having been completed by cooperation between Japan and Thailand. It is considered that what had been intended in the beginning has been achieved sufficiently. (NEDO)

  16. Research report of FY 1997 on the environmentally acceptable coal utilization system introduction support project. Demonstration project of circulating fluidized bed boiler (Jinzhou Coal-Thermal Power Corporation); 1997 nendo seika hokokusho (kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system donyu shien jigyo). Junkan ryudosho boiler ni kakawaru jissho jigyo (Jinzhou netsuden sokoji)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    To verify the clean coal technology to be diffused in China and consolidate its diffusion basis, demonstration project of circulating fluidized bed boiler was conducted through the cooperation with China which is positive in its introduction. This report describes its characteristics. Coal and limestone are supplied in a lower part of combustion chamber, and are mixed with circulating ash by fluidized air for combustion. Densely fluidized bed the same as the bubbling fluidized bed is formed in the lower part of combustion chamber, which provides excellent stability in ignition and combustion. Particles including ash, char and limestone formed during the combustion are discharged into the cyclone through the convection heat transfer part at the outlet of combustion chamber with the combustion gas flow. Since the gas temperature is lowered to 400 to 500degC at the convection heat transfer part, troubles of the ash circulating system can be prevented. The combustion gas separated from ash at the cyclone is discharged through the heat exchanger and precipitator, and the collected ash is returned to the lower part of combustion chamber. In FY 1997, design, fabrication, procurement/inspection, field survey/meeting, survey of visitors/meeting, and education were carried out. 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Achievement report for fiscal 1998. Home rehabilitation system for aphasia patients; 1998 nendo seika hokokusho. Shitsugosho zaitaku rehabilitation shien system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    Development has been made on the element technologies for a home rehabilitation system for aphasia patients. First, studies were performed on an authoring procedure for aphasia patient training, and partial trial production and development were carried out on an authoring system for the training program formula. Then, studies were executed on a training simulation and analysis filter, and partial trial production and development were implemented on a home rehabilitation supporting and self-teaching system. Next, an input and output mechanism for voice signal processing was studied, and aphasia patient and caregiver human interface was partially fabricated on a trial basis. In addition, a remote rehabilitation communicating method was researched, and partial trial production was carried out on a remote rehabilitation evaluation and diagnosis support means. Finally, communication assisting means were researched, and a communication assisting system was partially produced on a trial basis. Good evaluation results were given on a demonstration system. Although partial indications were given on minute parts, practical agreement was obtained as a whole. Great expectation was given particularly on the remote rehabilitation system and the authoring system. (NEDO)

  18. Pipeline control support system, 'pipe navigation'; Kanro kanri shien system 'kannabi'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-01-10

    'Pipe navigation' is a pipeline control support system which employs GIS/GPS (geographic information system/global positioning system) technology in controlling information of water pipeline and incidental facilities, using a pen note/personal computer as the operating base. These pen computers can be carried to the spot and used in displaying pipeline/incidental equipment and retrieving related information. The main features as follows:(1) Memo preparation is possible at an arbitrary place with handwriting ease. The memo data so prepared can be taken in other terminals and shared.(2) Communication with remote places is possible by transmitting drawings, prepared memo data, etc., as in facsimile (3) Confirmation of the present position and navigation are possible (GPS function), demonstrating power in a restoration work at the time of earthquake for example.(4) Inputting and maintenance of each facility information are possible through the data input support function even by general users easily. (translated by NEDO)

  19. Achievement report for fiscal 1998. Surgery support system for brain tumors and other conditions; 1998 nendo seika hokokusho. Noshuyo nado shujutsu shien system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    Development has been made on element technologies for the surgery support system for brain tumors and other conditions. Discussions were given on principles of the function for sensing a distance from a tip of microscopic manipulator, and a prototype system was fabricated, and its principles were confirmed. In order to develop a multiple manipulator cooperative control technique, an algorithm for interference determination was structured as cooperative control function to be incorporated in the micro manipulator system. Its prototype control program was produced, and the functions thereof were confirmed. In order to develop image photographing and indication of three-dimensional high-definition surgical visions, manufacture was performed on a second prototype of a video-microscope for surgical vision photographing. A small camera was incorporated into the microscope, and given evaluation. In addition, a stereoscopic viewer was discussed for surgeons. For the purpose of developing an intraoperative positioning system for imaging instruments, discussions were given on the markers, the location pointer, and the light emitting reference for the consistency of the coordinate unification procedure. Preoperative surgical planning and intraoperative composite display technologies were developed. The prototype system was used in the operation aiding system to perform operation experiments on its operability and the function of forceps, where evaluations were given. (NEDO)

  20. Fiscal 2000 achievement report on the research and development of medical and welfare apparatus/technology. Home rehabilitation system for aphasia patients; 2000 nendo iryo fukushi kiki gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Shitsugosho zaitaku rehabilitation shien system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-05-01

    In the effort to develop an authoring system for assistance programs, a self-training system to enhance home rehabilitation, a remote rehabilitation evaluation/diagnosis supporting system, and a communication assisting system, the systems developed in the preceding fiscal years were customized and, together with their operation manuals, introduced to seven hospitals and subjected to evaluation. The results were analyzed, and improvement centering on the ease of operation was carried out. Various development efforts were exerted to improve on what were strongly demanded. As for the aphasiac/caregiver interface, it was distributed to every hospital concerned. There was a demand for immediate introduction, and then the interface was developed into a practical tool to satisfy the demand. This enabled aphasiac patients to receive training stimuli effectively through various sense organs. (NEDO)

  1. Achievement report for fiscal 1999 on research and development of technologies for medical welfare equipment. Home rehabilitation system for aphasia patients; 1999 nendo iryo fukushi kiki gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Shitsugosho zaitaku rehabilitation shien system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-05-01

    Element technologies under development involve (1) an authoring system for assistance program processing, (2) self-training system for supporting home rehabilitation, (3) human interface for aphasia patients and caregivers, (4) remote rehabilitation evaluation and diagnosis supporting system, and (5) a communication assisting system. Under item (1), a material incorporating interface, training contents layout and combination function, and general-purpose interface specifications are determined, and a one-piece system is designed and developed. Under item (2), a self-training player that behaves in compliance with the authoring specifications is designed and developed. Under item (3), a secondary unit is fabricated on the assumption of its use at an actual treatment scene. Under item (4), remotely controlled two-way face-to-face communication, camera control, shared operation of a training player, training scenario transfer component, etc., are developed and, furthermore, a one-piece system is designed and developed to support the therapist's rehabilitation assessment and diagnosis in coordination with the above-mentioned remotely controlled functions. Under item (5), a network communication component and an auxiliary function using voice synthesis are added for designing and developing a one-piece system that enables long-distance communication between the therapist and patients. (NEDO)

  2. Fiscal 1998 survey report. Welfare equipment (Development of human friendly care support intelligent equipment / Development of home welfare equipment system); 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho. Fukushi kiki (human friendly kaigo shien chino kiki kaihatsu / zaitaku fukushi kiki system kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Since disabled persons increase with a progress of an aging society, while a care power decreases with a decrease in birth rate, development and practical use of the welfare equipment contributing to self-support of aged and handicapped persons, reduction of doctors' or therapists' burdens, and as a result, reduction of medical care costs are desirable. Among them, R and D and practical use are expected of the advanced welfare equipment and system based on human engineering technology contributing to improvement of lives of aged and handicapped persons, and support of nurses and cares of disabled persons. In fiscal 1998, on both human friendly care support intelligent equipment and home welfare equipment system, this project clarified essential technical issues based on the future view, selected some themes to be newly developed in the future, and surveyed and evaluated the details of their R and D concretely. For the former, 'heart disease diagnosis and treatment total support system,' and for the latter, 'body function rehabilitation support system' were surveyed. (NEDO)

  3. Melting in the Fe-Ni system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, O. T.; Walter, M. J.; Vocadlo, L.; Wood, I. G.; Dobson, D. P.

    2012-12-01

    The melting temperature of the Fe-rich core alloy at the inner core boundary (ICB) condition of 330 GPa is a key geophysical parameter because it represents an anchor point on the geotherm. An accurate knowledge of the melting curves of candidate alloys is therefore highly desirable. In spite of this, there is still considerable uncertainty in the melting point even of pure Fe at these conditions; estimates range from as low as 4850K based on one laser heated diamond anvil cell (LHDAC) study [1] to as high as 6900K based on recent quantum Monte Carlo calculations [2]. In reality we expect that the bulk core alloy may contain 5-10 wt% Ni (based on cosmochemical and meteoritic arguments) and up to 10 wt% of an as yet undetermined mix of light elements (with Si, S, C and O being the most likely candidates). While some recent studies have looked at the effects of light elements on the melting curve of Fe [e.g.: 3,4] with some of these studies including a small amount of Ni in their starting material, to date there has been no systematic study of melting temperatures in the Fe-Ni system. To address this issue, we have embarked upon just such a study. Using the LHDAC we have determined the melting curve of the pure Ni end-member to 180 GPa, and that of pure Fe to 50 GPa, using perturbations in the power vs. temperature function as the melting criterion [5]. Ar or NaCl were employed as pressure media while temperature was measured using standard spectroradiometric techniques [6]. In the case of Ni, perturbations were observed for both the sample and the Ar medium, allowing us to determine the melting curve of Ar and Ni simultaneously. Our results thus far for Ni and Ar agree closely with all of the available data, while extending the melting curves by a factor of two in pressure. In the case of Fe, our current dataset is also in good agreement with previous studies [2,7]. The agreement of all three melting curves with the literature data as well as other materials

  4. Fiscal 1995 survey report on the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system introduction support project. Verification project on the circulating fluidized bed boiler; Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system donyu shien jigyo. Junkan ryudosho boiler ni kakawaru jissho jigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    In relation to the circulating fluidized bed boiler which reduces the amount of sulfur oxides emitted in coal utilization, a verification project was carried out on installation of the equipment and spread activity in China and the Philippines contributing to the control of environmental pollutant associated with coal utilization and the effective use of energy. At the Fanshan area, installed was a 10t/h internal circulating fluidized bed boiler. At the performance test, coal includes around 7% of impurities such as stone, and the impurities should be excluded continuously at the time of actual run. Therefore, the boiler efficiency had to be changed from 89.5% to 85.8%. Further, power generation facilities have not yet been finished, and the overall operation of boiler turbine has not been executed. At the Zibo area, a 30t/h external circulating fluidized bed boiler was installed. The boiler efficiency reached 86.1%, over the targeted value. At the Batangas area in the Philippines, a 10t/h internal circulating fluidized bed boiler was installed. The boiler efficiency reached 85.8%, over the designed value. About the coal produced in the Philippines, slagging was feared, but the combustion state was favorable. 82 figs., 21 tabs.

  5. Diffusion couple studies of the Ni-Bi-Sn system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vassilev G.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigations of Ni-Bi-Sn system were performed in order to inquire the phase diagram and to assess some diffusion kinetic parameters. For this purpose diffusion couples consisting of solid nickel (preliminary electroplated with tin and liquid Bi-Sn phase were annealed at 370 °C. Three compositions (0.8, 0.6 and 0.4 mole fractions Sn of the Bi-Sn melts were chosen. Annealing times from 24 to 216 h were applied. The phase and chemical compositions of the contact zone were determined by means of electron scanning microscope. It was confirmed that the diffusion layers consist mainly of Ni3Sn4 but other intermetallic phases grow as well. For the first time metastable Ni-Sn phases as NiSn and NiSn8 (NiSn9 were observed in metallurgical alloys (i.e. not in electroplated samples. The existence of a ternary compound previously reported in the literature was confirmed. More than one ternary Ni-Bi-Sn compounds might possibly be admitted. A growth coefficient of (2.29 ± 0.02 x 10-15 m2 s-1 was obtained. It was found that the apparent activation energy for diffusion layers growth (18 ± 8 kJ mol-1 is inferior to that one assessed at growth from solid state Bi-Sn mixtures (88 ± 12 kJ mol-1.

  6. Business process solution `Joint MEISTER`; Gyomu shien solution `Joint MEISTER`

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Y.; Ito, S. [Fuji Electric Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-12-10

    The business process solution `Joint{sub M}EISTER` can be ranked among computer systems represented by groupware and WWW applications. This paper describes its typical system, ExchangeUSE work flow solution, and the effect of its introduction, citing a concrete case. The Company A introduced the ExchangeUSE work flow for traveling expenses adjustment and attendance, and has gained a reduction of 7 man-months/month. (author)

  7. Revisiting Mg–Mg2Ni System from Electronic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Qian

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Both Mg and Mg2Ni are promising electrode materials in conversion-type secondary batteries. Earlier studies have shown their single-phase prospects in electro-devices, while in this work, we have quantitatively reported the electronic properties of their dual-phase materials, that is, Mg–Mg2Ni alloys, and analyzed the underlying reasons behind the property changes of materials. The hypoeutectic Mg–Mg2Ni alloys are found to be evidently more conductive than the hypereutectic Mg–Mg2Ni system. The density functional theory (DFT calculations give the intrinsic origin of electronic structures of both Mg2Ni and Mg. The morphology of quasi-nanoscale eutectics is another factor that can affect the electronic properties of the investigated alloy system; that is, the electrical property change of the investigated alloys system is due to a combination of the intrinsic property difference between the two constituting phases and the change of eutectic microstructures that affect electron scattering. In addition, regarding the Mg–Mg2Ni alloy design for device applications, the electronic property and mechanical aspect should be well balanced.

  8. Peculiarities of thermoelectric half-Heusler phase formation in Gd-Ni-Sb and Lu-Ni-Sb ternary systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romaka, V.V., E-mail: romakav@lp.edu.ua [Department of Applied Material Science and Materials Engineering, Lviv Polytechnic National University, Ustyyanovycha Str. 5, 79013 Lviv (Ukraine); Romaka, L.; Horyn, A. [Inorganic Chemistry Department, Ivan Franko Lviv National University, Kyryla and Mefodiya str. 6, 79005 Lviv (Ukraine); Rogl, P. [Institute of Materials Chemistry and Research, University of Vienna, Währingerstrasse 42, A-1090 Wien (Austria); Stadnyk, Yu; Melnychenko, N. [Inorganic Chemistry Department, Ivan Franko Lviv National University, Kyryla and Mefodiya str. 6, 79005 Lviv (Ukraine); Orlovskyy, M.; Krayovskyy, V. [Department of Applied Material Science and Materials Engineering, Lviv Polytechnic National University, Ustyyanovycha Str. 5, 79013 Lviv (Ukraine)

    2016-07-15

    The phase equilibria in the Gd–Ni–Sb and Lu-Ni-Sb ternary systems were studied at 873 K by X-ray and metallographic analyses in the whole concentration range. The interaction of the elements in the Gd–Ni–Sb system results the formation of five ternary compounds at investigated temperature: Gd{sub 5}Ni{sub 2}Sb (Mo{sub 5}SiB{sub 2}-type), Gd{sub 5}NiSb{sub 2} (Yb{sub 5}Sb{sub 3}-type), GdNiSb (MgAgAs-type), Gd{sub 3}Ni{sub 6}Sb{sub 5} (Y{sub 3}Ni{sub 6}Sb{sub 5}-type), and GdNi{sub 0.72}Sb{sub 2} (HfCuSi{sub 2}-type). At investigated temperature the Lu-Ni-Sb system is characterized by formation of the LuNiSb (MgAgAs-type), Lu{sub 5}Ni{sub 2}Sb (Mo{sub 5}SiB{sub 2}-type), and Lu{sub 5}Ni{sub 0.56}Sb{sub 2.44} (Yb{sub 5}Sb{sub 3}-type) compounds. The disordering in the crystal structure of half-Heusler GdNiSb and LuNiSb was revealed by EPMA and studied by means of Rietveld refinement and DFT modeling. The performed electronic structure calculations are in good agreement with electrical transport property studies. - Graphical abstract: Crystal structure model and electron localization function of Lu{sub 5}Ni{sub 2}Sb. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Gd-Ni-Sb and Lu-Ni-Sb phase diagrams were constructed at 873 K. • GdNiSb and LuNiSb are characterized by disordered crystal structure. • Crystal structure optimization with DFT calculations confirmed crystal structure disorder in GdNiSb and LuNiSb.

  9. Development of customer information service system. Part 1. Present condition of an energy control system for domestic customer and proposal of efficient electric usage supporting system; Juyoka joho service system no kaihatsu. 1. Kateiyo energy kanri gijutsu to denryoku yuko riyo shien system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshimitsu, T. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-06-01

    For the purpose of load leveling and more effective utilization of electric power, discussions have been given on developing an efficient power usage supporting system which corresponds to life patterns of general homes. Investigation was performed on trends of energy management technologies intended for general homes, being researched and developed in Japan and other countries. Such systems are being developed that solar cells and storage batteries are combined to shift daytime power usage to nighttime, or home electric appliances are operated on timer settings. However, from a viewpoint of a system which can be conveniently used by users, no systems have been developed, that corresponds to life patterns and manages the energy efficiently by utilizing external information skillfully. Development of an effective power usage supporting system is required, which can predict action patterns of family members differing by individual homes to prepare operation patterns of home electric appliances based on the prediction. An information acquisition structure combined with a power controller or a multi-media communication controller under development may also be effective for the purpose. 17 refs., 16 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Interfacial reaction of Ni{sub 3}Sn{sub 4} intermetallic compound in Ni/SnAg solder/Ni system under thermomigration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yi-Shan; Yang, Chia-Jung; Ouyang, Fan-Yi, E-mail: fyouyang@ess.nthu.edu.tw

    2016-07-25

    The growth of Ni{sub 3}Sn{sub 4} intermetallic compound (IMC) between liquid–solid interface in micro-scale Ni/SnAg/Ni system was investigated under a temperature gradient of 160 °C/cm at 260 °C on a hot plate. In contrast to a symmetrical growth of Ni{sub 3}Sn{sub 4} on both interfaces under isothermally annealed at 260 °C, the interfacial Ni{sub 3}Sn{sub 4} IMC exhibited asymmetric growth under a temperature gradient; the growth of Ni{sub 3}Sn{sub 4} at cold interface was faster than that at hot side because of temperature gradient induced mass migration of Ni atoms from the hot end toward the cold end. It was found that two-stage growth behavior of Ni{sub 3}Sn{sub 4} IMC under a temperature gradient. A growth model was established and growth kinetic analysis suggested that the chemical potential gradient controlled the growth of Ni{sub 3}Sn{sub 4} at stage I (0–120 min) whereas the dynamic equilibrium between chemical potential gradient and temperature gradient forces was attained at the hot end at stage II (120–210 min). When dynamic equilibrium was achieved at 260 °C, the critical length-temperature gradient product at the hot end was experimentally estimated to be 489.18 μm × °C/cm and the moving velocity of Ni{sub 3}Sn{sub 4} interface due to Ni consumption was calculated to be 0.134 μm/h. The molar heat of transport (Q*) of Ni atoms in molten SnAg solder was calculated to be +0.76 kJ/mol. - Highlights: • Interfacial reaction in Ni/SnAg solder/Ni system under thermal gradient. • Growth rate of Ni{sub 3}Sn{sub 4} at cold end is faster than that at hot end. • Critical length-temperature gradient product at hot end is 489.2 μm°C/cm at 260 °C. • Velocity of Ni{sub 3}Sn{sub 4} moving interface is 0.134 μm/h during dynamic equilibrium. • Molar heat of transport (Q*) of Ni in molten SnAg was +0.76 kJ/mol.

  11. NiAl-based Polyphase in situ Composites in the NiAl-Ta-X (X = Cr, Mo, or V) Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, D. R.; Oliver, B. F.; Noebe, R. D.; Whittenberger, J. D.

    1995-01-01

    Polyphase in situ composites were generated by directional solidification of ternary eutectics. This work was performed to discover if a balance of properties could be produced by combining the NiAl-Laves phase and the NiAl-refractory metal phase eutectics. The systems investigated were the Ni-Al-Ta-X (X = Cr, Mo, or V) alloys. Ternary eutectics were found in each of these systems and the eutectic composition, temperature, and morphology were determined. The ternary eutectic systems examined were the NiAl-NiAlTa-(Mo, Ta), NiAl-(Cr, Al) NiTa-Cr, and the NiAl-NiAlTa-V systems. Each eutectic consists of NiAl, a C14 Laves phase, and a refractory metal phase. Directional solidification was performed by containerless processing techniques in a levitation zone refiner to minimize alloy contamination. Room temperature fracture toughness of these materials was determined by a four-point bend test. Preliminary creep behavior was determined by compression tests at elevated temperatures, 1100-l400 K. Of the ternary eutectics, the one in the NiAl-Ta-Cr system was found to be the most promising. The fracture toughness of the NiAl-(Cr, Al)NiTa-Cr eutectic was intermediate between the values of the NiAl-NiAlTa eutectic and the NiAl-Cr eutectic. The creep strength of this ternary eutectic was similar to or greater than that of the NiAl-Cr eutectic.

  12. The phase system Fe-Ni-S at 900 degree C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karup-Møller, Sven; Makovicky, E.

    1998-01-01

    analyses on 32 binary runs. There are two important three-phase associations in the system: mss Fe48.6Ni1.1S50.3 - gamma Fe65.0Ni35.0 - melt similar to Fe42.0Ni15.0S43.0 and vaesite Ni0.91Fe0.09S2 - mss Ni0.54Fe0.33S - S Partition coefficient D-Ni (mss/melt) was determined to be equal to (at.% Ni(mss)(0...

  13. Mechanical and thermodynamic properties of intermetallic compounds in the Ni-Ti system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y. F.; Tang, S. L.; Gao, Y. M.; Ma, S. Q.; Zheng, Q. L.; Cheng, Y. H.

    2017-09-01

    The mechanical and thermodynamic properties of intermetallic compounds in the Ni-Ti system are studied by first-principles calculations. All phases show anisotropic elasticity in different crystallographic directions, in which Ni3Ti and NiTi2 are approaching the isotropy structure. The elastic moduli and Vicker’s hardness of Ni-Ti system intermetallic compounds decrease in the following order: Ni3Ti > B2_NiTi > B19‧_NiTi > NiTi2, and Ni3Ti shows the best mechanical properties. The intrinsic ductile nature of Ni-Ti compounds is confirmed by the obtained B/G ratio. The temperature dependence of linear thermal expansion coefficients (LTECs) of the compounds is estimated by the quasi-harmonic approximation (QHA) method. Ni3Ti shows the largest values among all Ni-Ti intermetallic compounds. At room temperature, the LTEC for Ni3Ti is 8.92 × 10‑6 K‑1, which falls in between the LTEC of zirconia toughened alumina (ZTA) (7.0-9.5 × 106 K‑1) and iron matrix (9.2-16.9 × 106 K‑1); i.e., the thermal matching of the ZTA/iron composite will be improved by introducing Ni3Ti intermetallic compound into their interface. Other thermodynamic properties such as sound velocity and Debye temperature are also obtained.

  14. The constitution of the ternary system Ti-Ni-C; Die Konstitution des Dreistoffes Ti-Ni-C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuster, J.C.; Du, Y. [Technische Univ., Vienna (Austria). Inst. fuer Physikalische Chemie

    1998-12-31

    The system Ti-Ni-C was completely re-examined taking a new approach applying XRD, DTA, SEM-EDX and light microscopy, for elaboration of a complete thermodynamic description of the system. The carbon solubility in the binary Ti-Ni compounds is of significance only in the Ti{sub 2}Ni phase, and was found to be 4 at% at 900 C. The thermodynamic description thus achieved enables precise determination of the solubilities of Ti and C in solid or liquid nickel. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Das System Ti-Ni-C wurde mittels XRD, DTA, SEM-EDX und Lichtmikroskopie umfassend neu untersucht mit dem Ziel, eine komplette thermodynamische Beschreibung zu ermoeglichen. Die Kohlenstoffloeslichkeit in den binaeren Ti-Ni Verbindungen ist nur fuer die Phase Ti{sub 2}Ni signifikant. Bei 900 C betrug sie 4 at% C. Die erarbeitete thermodynamische Beschreibung erlaubt eine praezise Darstellung der Ti- und C-Loeslichkeiten in festem und fluessigem Nickel. (orig.)

  15. Experimental investigation of phase equilibria in the Ni-Nb-V ternary system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xingjun; Yang, Shuiyuan; Wang, Cuiping [Xiamen Univ. (China). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Xiamen Univ. (China). Fujian Provincial Key Lab. of Materials Genome; Zhang, Xianjie; Jiang, Hengxing; Shi, Zhan [Xiamen Univ. (China). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    2017-09-15

    The phase equilibria of the Ni-Nb-V ternary system at 1000 C and 1200 C were established using electron probe microanalysis, X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry. The results of the investigation revealed that: (1) The Nb solubility in (Ni) and σ{sup '} phases was less than 10 at.%; (2) A ternary compound τ (NiNbV) was confirmed, in which V had a large solubility; (3) A new liquid region was evident at 1200 C, but was absent at 1000 C; (4) The lattice constants of Ni{sub 3}Nb and Ni{sub 6}Nb{sub 7} phase decreased with increase in V content in the Ni{sub 3}Nb and Ni{sub 6}Nb{sub 7}. The phase equilibria of the Ni-Nb-V ternary system will contribute to its thermodynamic assessment.

  16. Achievement report for fiscal 1999 on research and development of technologies for medical welfare equipment. Surgery support system for brain tumors and other conditions (Rationalization for energy profit); 1999 nendo iryo fukushi kiki gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Noshuyo nado shujutsu shien system (energy shiyo gorika)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-05-01

    In the second phase of experimental micro-manipulator fabrication, insertion parts equipped with three manipulators and operation input units are built and evaluated. The system comprises three input units and a console with a built-in controller etc., and the console is checked for shape and operability. A high resolution and high brightness stereoscopic viewer is developed for clinical use by surgical operators, and is examined for practicality. The positioning system for the intraoperative vision instrument are improved relative to its attachment method, accuracy, and sterilization tolerance. The result is evaluated, and then further improvement is made. Some functions are added to the surgical planning software program. Software programs are constructed for the real-time control and operation of the viewing system. For the micro-manipulator system to serve as a total system, the forceps are extended, tips are developed for the suction device and incision device, and their functions as members of the system are evaluated. (NEDO)

  17. Corrosion failure of Ni-resist pumping system components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatarov, A.; Gareau, F. [Skystone Engineering, Calgary, AB (Canada); Bondarchuk, D.; Cymbol, B. [Apache Canada Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This paper discussed a failure analysis conducted after the failure of a new high pressure horizontal pumping system that was installed as part of an oilfield injection system. The pump impellers failed after less than a year in service due to the corrosion and cracking. The components were constructed from Ni-Resist type 1, a commonly used material in corrosive environments, as well as a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) surface coating. A visual examination, X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and a metallographic examination did not demonstrate signs of impingement corrosion, abrasive wear, or cavitation. Results of the study showed that the root cause of the corrosion failure was the permeability of the coating, and the unprotected surfaces of the Ni-Resist material, which did not have a protective passive film. The system was found to contain an un-removed surface scale of sand and ceramics as well as materials left over from the manufacturing process. A thorough cleaning of the system's surfaces would have allowed a passive layer to form on the surface and prevented the failure from occurring. 2 refs., 5 figs.

  18. The effects of Ta on the formation of Ni-silicide in Ni{sub 0.95x}Ta{sub x0.05}/Si systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dongwon [Department of Ceramic Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Do, Kihoon [Department of Ceramic Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Dae-Hong [Department of Ceramic Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: polymetal@empal.com; Choi, Siyoung [Process Development Team, Semiconductor R and D Division, Samsung Electronics Ltd. (Korea, Republic of); Ku, Ja-Hum [Process Development Team, Semiconductor R and D Division, Samsung Electronics Ltd. (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Cheol-Woong [School of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-12-15

    We investigated a comparative study on the silicide formation in the Ni{sub 0.95}Ta{sub 0.05}/Si alloy systems and Ni/Si systems. Ni and Ni{sub 0.95}Ta{sub 0.05} films were deposited on Si(1 0 0) substrate by DC magnetron sputtering and processed at various silicidation temperatures. The sheet resistance of the silicide from the Ni{sub 0.95}Ta{sub 0.05}/Si alloy systems was obtained at lower values than those in pure Ni/Si systems at any temperature. Using RBS and TEM analyses, we confirmed the presence of a Ta rich layer at the top of the Ni-silicide layer and the presence of small amounts of Ta in the silicide layer. The stability of the silicide layer for the Ni{sub 0.95}Ta{sub 0.05} systems is explained by the presence of the Ta rich layer on top of the Ni-silicide layer, as well as by the presence of the small amount of Ta in the Ni-silicide layer. The Ni-silicide using Ni{sub 0.95}Ta{sub 0.05}/Si system displayed a stable sheet resistance value of {approx}5 {omega}/sq which was maintained during the anneal process at 600 deg. C.

  19. Ni(salen): a system that forms many solvates with interacting Ni atoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siegler, M.A.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/31411744X; Lutz, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304828971

    2009-01-01

    Recrystallization of [N,N’-Ethylene-bis(salicylideneiminato)]-nickel(II) [Ni(salen)] has been carried out from a large selection of solvents. Crystals can be either solvent free or solvates. This study is based on X-ray crystal structure determinations, which include the redetermination of Ni(salen)

  20. Achievement report for fiscal 1998. Research and development project of regional consortiums (energy field in the regional consortiums / research and development of a precise autonomous operating system for large-scale farm use (the first year)); 1998 nendo chiiki consortium energy bun'ya. Daikibo nogyo muke seimitsu jiritsu soko sagyo shien system no kenkyu kaihatsu (dai 1 nendo)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    A precise autonomous operating system is under development to commercialize new agricultural tractors that make possible the stable and safe food supply in Hokkaido in the future as the Japan's food base, and meet the regional needs. This paper describes the development achievements during fiscal 1998. A highly precise and robust automatic driving algorithm was developed by adopting RTK-GPS as a navigation sensor, optical fiber gyroscope and machine vision to have them perform active sensor fusion. Autonomous operation was possible with an error of about 15 cm at a speed as high as 3 m/s. Development and prototype fabrication were carried out on a prototype of the precision fertilizer application machine using GPS precise spatial mapping for farm fields, and a precision weeder. In developing the crawler type autonomous vehicle, the obstacle detecting method, the communication system between the base station and the mobile station, and the specifications of the working machine were established. A yield sensor, soil sensing and pasture sensing were discussed, and a method for collecting information required for precise work was proposed. Market size for agricultural machines in Hokkaido was investigated, and trends in America were analyzed. (NEDO)

  1. Experimental investigation and thermodynamic re-assessment of the Al–Mo–Ni system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Jian, E-mail: jian.peng@kit.edu [Institute for Applied Materials – Applied Materials Physics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Franke, Peter [Institute for Applied Materials – Applied Materials Physics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Manara, Dario; Watkins, Tyson; Konings, Rudy J.M. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements, P.O. Box 2340, 76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Seifert, Hans J. [Institute for Applied Materials – Applied Materials Physics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2016-07-25

    NiAl-based alloys have been investigated, because they are promising alternative materials for high temperature structural applications. Recent advancements in directional solidification offer the opportunity to manufacture metal-matrix composites of NiAl strengthened by embedded fibers of refractory metals such as Mo. The mechanical properties of these composites can be considerably improved, compared to NiAl, at least in fiber direction. The Al–Mo–Ni system has been thermodynamically assessed by several authors. However, none of them can reproduce a satisfactory description along the section NiAl–Mo. In the present work, liquidus and solidus temperatures of the NiAl–Mo system were measured by a laser heating-fast pyrometry apparatus. The results agree well with literature data. The thermodynamic descriptions of the Al–Ni and Al–Mo systems from the literature were refined and a new thermodynamic dataset of the Al–Mo–Ni system was established. The ordered B2 phase and its disordered A2 (bcc) parent phase were described by a single Gibbs energy function. Very good agreement between the calculated phase diagram and the experimental data is obtained. The description of the section NiAl–Mo is considerably improved and we conclude that this section does not represent a quasi-binary phase diagram. - Highlights: • The liquidus and solidus temperatures of the NiAl–Mo system were measured. • The Gibbs energy of vacancies in the bcc phase was considered in the modeling. • The thermodynamic descriptions of the Al–Ni and Al–Mo systems were refined. • A new thermodynamic database of the Al–Mo–Ni system was established. • The thermodynamic description of the NiAl–Mo system was considerably improved.

  2. FY 1999 report on the feasibility study on the project for assisting introduction of an environmentally-friendly coal utilization system (Green Helmet Project). Desulfurization agent added CWM for Beijing Yanshan; 1999 nendo kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system donyu shien jigyo (green helmet jigyo) chosa hokokusho. Datsuryugata CWM setsubi (Beijing Yanshan)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The Green Helmet Project is aimed at demonstration of the clean coal technologies to be disseminated in China, and controlling generation of pollutants caused by coal utilization by constructing the dissemination infrastructures. It is also aimed at promotion of stable energy supply for Japan. Described herein are the FY 1999 results of the desulfurization agent added CWM project at Beijing Yanshan Petrochemical Co., Ltd., where CWM is incorporated with finely crushed limestone as the desulfurization agent and the mixture is supplied to a boiler as the desulfurization agent added CWM. This removes/abates sulfur oxides without needing a desulfurization treatment after combustion. The Japanese engineers dispatched offer comprehensive technical guidance for design/fabrication/installation of the machines and equipment, test runs, performance tests and demonstration runs, which are completed in March 2000. The system starts the commercial operation in April. The follow-up project is implemented to confirm the results of the project, and further improve CWM burner reliability/performance and desulfurization rate. It is found that decreasing burner flame temperature is essential for increasing desulfurization rate. The combustion variables, e.g., air/fuel ratio, steam/CWM ratio and cooling by sprayed steam, are tested to increase desulfurization rate to around 50%. (NEDO)

  3. Giant magnetocaloric effect in isostructural MnNiGe-CoNiGe system by establishing a Curie-temperature window

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, E. K.

    2013-03-28

    An effective scheme of isostructural alloying was applied to establish a Curie-temperature window in isostructural MnNiGe-CoNiGe system. With the simultaneous accomplishment of decreasing structural-transition temperature and converting antiferromagnetic martensite to ferromagnetic state, a 200 K Curie-temperature window was established between Curie temperatures of austenite and martensite phases. In the window, a first-order magnetostructural transition between paramagnetic austenite and ferromagnetic martensite occurs with a sharp jump in magnetization, showing a magnetic entropy change as large as −40 J kg−1 K−1 in a 50 kOe field change. This giant magnetocaloric effect enables Mn1− x Co x NiGe to become a potential magnetic refrigerant.

  4. Fiscal 1998 survey report. Medical equipment (Development of fine sampling/analysis system for blood / Development of high-precision 3-D image diagnosis system / Development of low-invasion operation support system / Total development of artificial internal organ technologies); 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho. Iryo kiki (ketsuekinado biryo saishu, biryo bunseki system kaihatsu/koseido sanjigen eizo shindan system kaihatsu/teishinshu shujutsu shien system kaihatsu/jinko zoki gijutsu sogo kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    For efficient medical care supply systems, the R and D of advanced medical care technology and equipment largely contribute to productivity improvement for medical care services. Among them, a progress of medical care technology is becoming important for preparation of efficient and fair supply systems. MITI thus established 'Medical care and welfare equipment development project' in 1994, and has promoted the strategic long-term R and D project of medical care and welfare equipment as joint R and D project of NEDO and private enterprises. In fiscal 1998, on the development of the fine sampling/analysis system for blood, the high- precision 3-D image diagnosis system, the low-invasion operation support system, and the artificial internal organ technologies since fiscal 1996, this project clarified essential technical issues based on the future view, selected some themes to be newly developed in the future, and surveyed and evaluated the details of their R and D concretely. (NEDO)

  5. XTEM Studies of Nickel Silicide Growth on Si(100) Using a Ni/Ti Bilayer System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falke, U.; Fenske, F.; Schulze, S.; Hietschold, M.

    1997-08-01

    Using a Ni/Ti bilayer system on Si(100) substrates we found a preferential growth of epitaxial NiSi2 at reaction temperatures of about 475 °C. This is attributed to the relatively slow Ni transport rate through the Ti layer, which acts as a diffusion rate limiting barrier. Annealing temperatures of 500 °C lead to the formation of mainly orthorhombic NiSi with a small fraction of NiSi2. The silicide phases grow with well defined orientations with respect to the underlying Si lattice for annealing temperatures up to 475 °C. An einem Ni/Ti-Zweischichtsystem auf Si(100)-Substraten fanden wir ein bevorzugtes Wachstum von epitaktischem NiSi2 bei Reaktionstemperaturen von 475 °C. Das wird auf die geringe Transportrate für Ni durch die Ti-Schicht, die als Barriere zur Begrenzung der Diffusionsrate dient, zurückgeführt. Temperaturen von 500 °C führen zur Bildung von hauptsächlich orthorhombischem NiSi und, in geringem Maß, von NiSi2. Bis zu Temperaturen von 475 °C wachsen die Silicidphasen mit definierten Orientierungen in Bezug auf das darunterliegende Si-Gitter.

  6. Fabrication of Ni-Al/diamond composite based on layered and gradient structures of SHS system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Jiafeng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper layered and gradient structures of Ni-Al SHS system were adopted to manufacture Ni-Al/diamond composites. The effect of the layered and the diamond mesh gradient structures of Ni-Al/diamond on the SHS process and the microstructure of the composites were investigated. It is found that with the increasing of the number of layers, the combustion wave velocity is decreased. The combustion wave velocity for diamond mesh size gradient structure of Ni-Al SHS is faster than that for the layered structure. A well bonding can be formed between diamond and the matrix in layered and gradient structure Ni-Al/diamond composites due to the melt of Ni-Cr brazing alloy.

  7. The phase system Fe-Ni-S and 725 degree C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karup-Møller, Sven; Makovicky, E.

    1995-01-01

    The Fe-Ni-S system at 725 degrees C was studied by means of dry syntheses in evacuated silica glass tubes and microprobe/textural analyses. Contrary to previous beliefs it is dominated by an extensive solid solution field of (Ni,Fe)(3+/-x)S-2 (up to 33 at % Fe) which coexists with sulphide melt...

  8. Effect of Ni interlayer on stress level of CoSi{sub 2} films in Co/Ni/Si(1 0 0) bi-layered system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, K. [Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Feng, J.Y. [Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)]. E-mail: fengjy@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn

    2005-12-15

    The effect of Ni interlayer on stress level of cobalt silicides was investigated. The X-ray diffraction patterns (XRD) show that low temperature formation of Co{sub 1-x}Ni {sub x}Si{sub 2} solid solution was obtained while Ni interlayer was present in Co/Si system, which was confirmed by Auger electron spectrum (AES) and sheet resistance measurement. XRD was also used to measure the internal stress in CoSi{sub 2} films by a 2{theta} {sub {psi}} - sin{sup 2} {psi} method. The result shows that the tensile stress in CoSi{sub 2} films evidently decreased in Co/Ni/Si(1 0 0) system. The reduction of lattice mismatch, due to the presence of Ni in Co {sub x}Ni{sub 1-x}Si{sub 2} solid solution, is proposed to explain this phenomenon.

  9. Improved properties of the catalytic model system Ni/Ru(0001)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeberg, Rasmus; Chorkendorff, Ib

    2001-01-01

    The dissociative chemisorption of CH4 on Ni overlayers on Ru(0001) has been investigated. It is found that the initial sticking probability at T = 530 K is approximately a factor of 20-30 higher on a pseudomorphic overlayer of Ni than on Ni(111) and a factor of two higher than on Ru(0001) illustr...... of the, system depends strongly on the annealing temperature. Molecular beam experiments at high translational energy are qualitatively different from thermal data showing a monotonic decrease of the CH4 sticking probability as Ni is added.......) illustrating the unique properties of metal-on-metal systems. The effect of enhanced reactivity is primarily ascribed to electronic effects induced by a straining of the Ni overlayer. The enhanced reactivity towards CH4 is accompanied by new features in the thermal desorption spectra of CO. The reactivity...

  10. Sub-barrier fusion and transfers in the 40Ca + 58,64Ni systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bourgin D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fusion cross sections have been measured in the 40Ca + 58Ni and 40Ca + 64Ni systems at energies around and below the Coulomb barrier. The 40Ca beam was delivered by the XTU Tandem accelerator of the Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro and evaporation residues were measured at very forward angles with the LNL electrostatic beam deflector. Coupled-channels calculations were performed which highlight possible strong effects of neutron transfers on the fusion below the barrier in the 40Ca + 64Ni system. Microscopic time-dependent Hartree-Fock calculations have also been performed for both systems. Preliminary results are shown.

  11. Structural heat-resistant β-NiAl + γ'-Ni3Al alloys of the Ni-Al-Co system: I. Solidification and structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Povarova, K. B.; Drozdov, A. A.; Bazyleva, O. A.; Morozov, A. E.; Antonova, A. V.; Bondarenko, Yu. A.; Bulakhtina, M. A.; Ashmarin, A. A.; Arginbaeva, E. G.; Alad'ev, N. A.

    2017-09-01

    When analyzing the ternary Ni-Al- M phase diagrams, where M is a group VI-VIII transition metal, we chose the Ni-Al-Co system, where the γ' and γ phases are in equilibrium with the β phase, as a base for designing alloys with the following physicochemical properties: a moderate density (≤7.2 g/cm3) and satisfactory heat resistance at temperatures up to 1300°C. The structure formation in heterophase β + γ' alloys during directional solidification is studied. It is found that, in contrast to cobalt-free β + γ' alloys (where the γ'-Ni3Al aluminide forms according to the peritectic reaction L + β ⇄ γ'), the alloys with 8-10 at % Co studied in this work during directional solidification at 1370°C contain the degenerate eutectic L ⇄ β + γ. The transition from the β + γ field to the β + γ' + γ field occurs in the temperature range 1323-1334°C, and the γ' phase then forms according to the reaction β + γ ⇄ γ'.

  12. Magnetic interactions in martensitic Ni-Mn based Heusler systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aksoy, Seda

    2010-04-22

    In this work, magnetic, magnetocaloric and structural properties are investigated in Ni-Mn-based martensitic Heusler alloys with the aim to tailor these properties as well as to understand in detail the magnetic interactions in the various crystallographic states of these alloys. We choose Ni{sub 50}Mn{sub 34}In{sub 16} as a prototype which undergoes a martensitic transformation and exhibits field-induced strain and the inverse magnetocaloric effect. Using the structural phase diagram of martensitic Ni-Mn-based Heusler alloys, we substitute gallium and tin for indium to carry these effects systematically closer to room temperature by shifting the martensitic transformation. A magneto-calorimeter is designed and built to measure adiabatically the magnetocaloric effect in these alloys. The temperature dependence of strain under an external magnetic field is studied in Ni{sub 50}Mn{sub 50-x}Z{sub x} (Z: Ga, Sn, In and Sb) and Ni{sub 50}Mn{sub 34}In{sub 16-x}Z{sub x} (Z: Ga and Sn). An argument based on the effect of the applied magnetic field on martensite nucleation is adopted to extract information on the direction of the magnetization easy axis in the martensitic unit cell in Heusler alloys. Parallel to these studies, the structure in the presence of an external field is also studied by powder neutron diffraction. It is demonstrated that martensite nucleation is influenced by cooling the sample under a magnetic field such that the austenite phase is arrested within the martensitic state. The magnetic interactions in Ni{sub 50}Mn{sub 37}Sn{sub 13} and Ni{sub 50}Mn{sub 40}Sb{sub 10} are characterized by using neutron polarization analysis. Below the martensitic transformation temperature, M{sub s}, an antiferromagnetically correlated state is found. Ferromagnetic resonance experiments are carried out on Ni{sub 50}Mn{sub 37}Sn{sub 13} and Ni{sub 50}Mn{sub 34}In{sub 16} to gain more detailed information on the nature of the magnetic interactions. The experimental

  13. Supplementary X-ray studies of the Ni-Sn-Bi system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vassilev G.P.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Phase equilibria were studied in the system Ni-Sn-Bi. Special attention has been paid to the identification of the recently found ternary phase. For this purpose samples were synthesized using intimately mixed powders. After annealing and quenching, all alloys were analyzed by scanning electron microscope and by X-ray diffraction. The results give evidences about the existence of a ternary compound with approximate formula Ni6Sn2Bi to Ni7Sn2Bi. Overlapping of some neighboring diffraction peaks of this phase with NiBi and Ni3Sn_LT is the reason for the difficulties related to the X-ray diffraction identification of the ternary phase.

  14. Experimental investigation of phase equilibria in the Co-Ni-Zr ternary system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xingjun; Yang, Shuiyuan; Yu, Wenjie; Wang, Cuiping [Xiamen Univ. (China). Fujian Key Laboratory of Materials Genome; Xiong, Huaping; Cheng, Yaoyong; Wu, Xin [Beijing Institute of Aeronautical Materials (China). Div. of Welding and Forging

    2016-10-15

    The phase equilibria of the Co-Ni-Zr ternary system at 1 000 C, 1 100 C and 1 200 C were experimentally investigated by means of back-scattered electron imaging, electron probe microanalysis and X-ray diffraction on the equilibrated ternary alloys. In this study, no ternary compound is found. The (αCo, Ni) phase region extends from the Ni-rich corner to the Co-rich corner with small solubility of Zr at three sections. At 1 000 C and 1 100 C, Ni{sub 5}Zr, Co{sub 2}Zr and Ni{sub 10}Zr{sub 7} phases have large solid solution ranges, but Ni{sub 10}Zr{sub 7} phase disappears at 1 200 C. The Ni{sub 7}Zr{sub 2}, NiZr, Co{sub 11}Zr{sub 2}, Co{sub 23}Zr{sub 6} and CoZr phases exhibit nearly linear compounds in the studied sections, and have large composition ranges. Additionally, some differences in phase relationship exist among the above three isothermal sections.

  15. Phase equilibria in the ternary In-Ni-Sn system at 700 °C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmetterer, C; Zemanova, A; Flandorfer, H; Kroupa, A; Ipser, H

    2013-04-01

    The phase equilibria of the ternary system In-Ni-Sn were investigated experimentally at 700 °C using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) including electron micro probe analysis (EMPA) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). A corresponding isothermal section was established based on these results. This particular temperature was chosen because it allowed obtaining reliable results within reasonable time. The existence of the ternary phase InNi 6 Sn 5 was confirmed whereas the ternary compound In 2 NiSn, reported earlier in literature, was found to be part of a large solid solution field based on binary InNi. The ternary solubility of the binary phases was established, and continuous solid solutions were found between the isostructural phases Ni 3 Sn LT and InNi 3 as well as between Ni 3 Sn 2 HT and InNi 2 . In addition, this isothermal section could be well reproduced by CALPHAD modelling. The resulting calculated isotherm at 700 °C is presented, too, and compared with the experimental results.

  16. The Dilatometric Analysis of the High Carbon Alloys from Ni-Ta-Al-M System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bała P.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the following work presents results of high carbon alloys from the Ni-Ta-Al-M system are presented. The alloys have been designed to have a good tribological properties at elevated temperatures. Despite availability of numerous hot work tool materials there is still a growing need for new alloys showing unique properties, which could be used under heavy duty conditions, i.e. at high temperatures, in a chemically aggressive environment and under heavy wear conditions. A characteristic, coarse-grained dendritic microstructure occurs in the investigated alloys in the as-cast condition. Primary dendrites with secondary branches can be observed. Tantalum carbides of MC type and graphite precipitations are distributed in interdendritic spaces in the Ni-Ta-Al-C and Ni-Ta-Al-C-Co alloys, while Tantalum carbides of MC type and Chromium carbides of M7C3 type appeared in the Ni-Ta-Al-C-Co-Cr and Ni-Ta-Al-C-Cr alloys. In all alloys g’ phase is present, however, its volume fraction in the Ni-Ta-Al-C and Ni-Ta-Al-C-Co alloys is small.

  17. Research report of FY 1997 on the environmentally acceptable coal utilization system introduction support project. Demonstration project on simplified desulfurizers; 1997 nendo seika hokokusho. Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system donyu shien jigyo (kan`i datsuryu setsubi ni kakawaru jissho jigyo)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    To reduce SOx with coal utilization, a desulfurizer is introduced in Thailand as diffusion activities in the demonstration program. The purpose is to reduce the environmental pollutants. For this desulfurizer, lime mud mainly composed of lime stone is used as an absorber. SO2 in the flue gas is absorbed by the slurry of lime mud, to form calcium sulfite. The calcium sulfite blown in the bottom of recycling tank is oxidized by oxygen in the air, to form gypsum. The gypsum is recovered as a by-product. In this fiscal year, a feeder of lime stone, spray nozzles, and various analysis apparatuses were supplied. Supervisors for electric instrumentation/control were also dispatched as well as for main body construction, to carry out the instrumentation setting works, check of sequences, and adjustment of apparatuses. After the test operation, supervisors for the demonstration operation were dispatched up to March 1998, to conduct the cooperation works between Japan and Thailand sides. Thus, successful and successive demonstration operation was confirmed. 21 figs., 6 tabs.

  18. Study of highly efficient power generation system based on chemical-looping combustion; Chemical loop nenshoho ni yoru kokoritsu hatsuden system no kaihatsu ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishida, S.; Suzuki, T.; Yamamoto, M. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan). Research Laboratory of Resources Utilization

    1997-02-01

    This paper describes the research and development of power generation system by means of chemical-looping combustion. For this system, fuel flows in a reduction reactor and air flows in an oxidation reactor. These two flows are separated. As a result, recovery of CO2 without energy consumption, drastic improvement of power generation efficiency, and suppression of NOx emission are expected. To realize the above, two promising candidates, NiCoO2/YSZ and NiO2/NiAl2O4, have been found as recycle solid particles between the both reactors. These have excellent oxidation/reduction cycle characteristics. By these particles as well as the existing particle, NiO/YSZ, practical application of the chemical-looping combustion is realized. Besides LNG, coal and hydrogen were considered as fuels. When using coal or hydrogen, it was found that temperature of the reduction reactor should be increased the same as that of the oxidation reactor. This is a different point from a case using LNG as a fuel. 5 refs., 2 figs.

  19. Electronic and magnetic properties of the graphene/Eu/Ni(111) hybrid system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voloshina, Elena N. [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Chemie; Dedkov, Yuriy S. [SPECS Surface Nano Analysis GmbH, Berlin (Germany)

    2014-07-15

    The electronic and magnetic properties of the graphene/Eu/Ni(111) intercalation-like system are studied in the framework of the general gradient approximation with the effective Coulomb potential (GGA+U) and dispersive interactions taken into account. Intercalation of monoatomic europium layer underneath graphene on Ni(111) leads to the drastic changes of the electronic structure of graphene compared to free-standing graphene as well as graphene/Ni(111). The strong influence of the spin-polarized europium 4f states, crossing the graphene-derived π states, on magnetic properties of graphene and on spin-filtering properties of the graphene/Eu/Ni(111) trilayer is discussed. (orig.)

  20. Glass forming ability of the Al-Ce-Ni system; Avaliacao da capacidade de formacao vitrea do sistema Al-Ce-Ni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Triveno Rios, C. [Engenharia Mecanica, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, Rondonopolis, MT (Brazil)], e-mail: triveno@ufmt.br; Surinach, S.; Baro, M.D. [Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais - Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Bolfarini, C.; Botta, W.J.; Kiminami, C.S. [Departamento de Fisica da Universidade Autonoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra (Spain)

    2010-07-01

    In the present work, the glass forming ability (GFA) and its compositional dependence on Al-Ni-Ce system alloys were investigated in function of several thermal parameters. Rapidly quenched Al{sub 85}Ni{sub 15}-{sub X}Ce{sub X} (X=4,5,6,7,10), Al{sub 90}Ni{sub 5}Ce{sub 5}, Al{sub 89}Ni{sub 2}.{sub 4}Ce{sub 8}.{sub 6}, Al{sub 80}Ni{sub 15.6}Ce{sub 4}.{sub 4} and Al{sub 78}Ni{sub 18.5}Ce{sub 3.5} amorphous ribbons were produced by melt-spinning and the structural transformation during heating was studied using a combination of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The results showed that the GFA and the thermal stability in the Al-rich corner of Al- Ni-Ce system alloys were enhanced by increasing the solute content and specifically the Ce content (author)

  1. Experimental investigation of phase equilibria in the Zr-Cu-Ni ternary system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Mujin; Wang, Cuiping; Yang, Shuiyuan; Shi, Zhan; Han, Jiajia; Liu, Xingjun [Xiamen Univ. (China). College of Materials and Fujian Provincial Key Lab. of Materials Genome

    2017-08-15

    The phase equilibria in the Zr-Cu-Ni ternary system are investigated combined with X-ray diffraction, electron probe micro-analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. Two isothermal sections of the Zr-Cu-Ni ternary system at 1 000 C and 1 100 C are experimentally established. Most of the binary intermetallic compounds, e.g. Zr{sub 7}Ni{sub 10}, ZrNi, ZrNi{sub 5}, Zr{sub 14}Cu{sub 51}, and Zr{sub 2}Cu{sub 9}, show a remarkable ternary solubility. A new ternary compound named τ{sub 3} (Zr{sub 31.1-30.7} . Cu{sub 28.5-40.3}Ni{sub 40.4-29.0}) is detected at 1 000 C and dissolved at 1 020 C because the nearby large liquid phase field further expands. The newly determined phase equilibria will provide important information for both thermodynamic assessment and alloy design of Zr-based metallic glass.

  2. Low temperature diffusion coefficients in the Fe-Ni and FeNiP systems: Application to meteorite cooling rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, D. C.; Goldstein, J. I.

    1984-01-01

    The interdiffusion coefficient of FeNi in fcc taenite (gamma) of Fe-Ni and Fe-Ni-0.2 P alloys was measured as a function of temperature between 600 and 900 C. This temperature range is directly applicable to the nucleation and growth of the Widmanstatten pattern in iron meteorites and metal regions of stony and stony-iron meteorites. Diffusion couples were made from FeNi or FeNiP alloys which ensured that the couples were in the taenite phase at the diffusion temperature. The presence or absence of grain boundary diffusion was determined by measuring the Ni profile normal to the existing grain boundaries with the AEM. Ignoring any variation of interdiffusion coefficient with composition, the measured data was plotted versus the reciprocal of the diffusion temperature. The FeNi data generally follow the extrapolated Goldstein, et al. (1965) data from high temperatures. The FeNiP data indicates that small additions of P (0.2 wt%) cause a 3 to 10 fold increase in the FeNi interdifussion coefficient increasing with decreasing temperature. This increase is about the same as that predicted by Narayan and Goldstein (1983) at the Widmanstatten growth temperature.

  3. Performance of magnetoelectric PZT/Ni multiferroic system for energy harvesting application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Reema; Tomar, Monika; Kumar, Ashok; Gupta, Vinay

    2017-03-01

    Magnetoelectric (ME) coefficient of Lead Zirconium Titanate (PZT) thin films has been probed for possible energy harvesting applications. Single phase PZT thin films have been deposited on nickel substrate (PZT/Ni) using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique. The effect of PLD process parameters on the ME coupling coefficient in the prepared systems has been investigated. The as grown PZT films on Ni substrate were found to be polycrystalline with improved ferroelectric and ferromagnetic properties. The electrical switching behavior of the PZT thin films were verified using capacitance voltage measurements, where well defined butterfly loops were obtained. The ME coupling coefficient was estimated to be in the range of 94.5 V cm-1 Oe-1-130.5 V cm-1 Oe-1 for PZT/Ni system, which is large enough for harnessing electromagnetic energy for subsequent applications.

  4. Job-supporting solution, `Joint MEISTER`; Gyomu shien solution `Joint MEISTER`

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-01-10

    Effective utilization of information systems is an important point in business activities, e.g., for improvements of jobs and job efficiency. Fuji Electric has developed services to help establish systems for WWW application and groupware, aimed at information sharing and improved communication. They include services for consultation, and construction, operation and maintenance of the necessary systems. These services have the following major features. They include the consultation services, e.g., for planning environments required for introduction of the system and schedules for its introduction, and drawing standards for assessing the introduced system; basic designs for designing detailed configuration of the system to be introduced; starting up the system, e.g., system setting up and confirmation of smooth operation of the system; and question-and-answer cessions to support stable operation of the system. The company plans to start providing a platform, tentatively named `Joint MEISTER/InfoTerrace,` which will support information transmission by Web. (NEDO)

  5. Thermal Explosion in a Mechanically Activated Ti-Ni System: Mathematical Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapshin, O. V.; Shkoda, O. A.

    2017-01-01

    A mathematical model of a thermal explosion in a mechanically pre-activated Ti-Ni system is constructed in a macroscopic approximation. It is found out that preliminary mechanical activation considerably accelerates the reaction product synthesis. Using the experimental data obtained earlier, the thermal and kinetic constants of the synthesis are determined.

  6. NI Based System for Seu Testing of Memory Chips for Avionics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boruzdina Anna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of implementation of National Instrument based system for Single Event Upset testing of memory chips into neutron generator experimental facility, which used for SEU tests for avionics purposes. Basic SEU testing algorithm with error correction and constant errors detection is presented. The issues of radiation shielding of NI based system are discussed and solved. The examples of experimental results show the applicability of the presented system for SEU memory testing under neutrons influence.

  7. Thermodynamic modeling of poorly complexing metals in concentrated electrolyte solutions: an X-ray absorption and UV-Vis spectroscopic study of Ni(II) in the NiCl2-MgCl2-H2O system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ning; Brugger, Joël; Etschmann, Barbara; Ngothai, Yung; Zeng, Dewen

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of the structure and speciation of aqueous Ni(II)-chloride complexes is important for understanding Ni behavior in hydrometallurgical extraction. The effect of concentration on the first-shell structure of Ni(II) in aqueous NiCl2 and NiCl2-MgCl2 solutions was investigated by Ni K edge X-ray absorption (XAS) and UV-Vis spectroscopy at ambient conditions. Both techniques show that no large structural change (e.g., transition from octahedral to tetrahedral-like configuration) occurs. Both methods confirm that the Ni(II) aqua ion (with six coordinated water molecules at RNi-O = 2.07(2) Å) is the dominant species over the whole NiCl2 concentration range. However, XANES, EXAFS and UV-Vis data show subtle changes at high salinity (> 2 mol∙kg(-1) NiCl2), which are consistent with the formation of small amounts of the NiCl+ complex (up to 0.44(23) Cl at a Ni-Cl distance of 2.35(2) Å in 5.05 mol∙kg(-1) NiCl2) in the pure NiCl2 solutions. At high Cl:Ni ratio in the NiCl2-MgCl2-H2O solutions, small amounts of [NiCl2]0 are also present. We developed a speciation-based mixed-solvent electrolyte (MSE) model to describe activity-composition relationships in NiCl2-MgCl2-H2O solutions, and at the same time predict Ni(II) speciation that is consistent with our XAS and UV-Vis data and with existing literature data up to the solubility limit, resolving a long-standing uncertainty about the role of chloride complexing in this system.

  8. Thermodynamic Modeling of Poorly Complexing Metals in Concentrated Electrolyte Solutions: An X-Ray Absorption and UV-Vis Spectroscopic Study of Ni(II) in the NiCl2-MgCl2-H2O System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ning; Brugger, Joël; Etschmann, Barbara; Ngothai, Yung; Zeng, Dewen

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of the structure and speciation of aqueous Ni(II)-chloride complexes is important for understanding Ni behavior in hydrometallurgical extraction. The effect of concentration on the first-shell structure of Ni(II) in aqueous NiCl2 and NiCl2-MgCl2 solutions was investigated by Ni K edge X-ray absorption (XAS) and UV-Vis spectroscopy at ambient conditions. Both techniques show that no large structural change (e.g., transition from octahedral to tetrahedral-like configuration) occurs. Both methods confirm that the Ni(II) aqua ion (with six coordinated water molecules at RNi-O = 2.07(2) Å) is the dominant species over the whole NiCl2 concentration range. However, XANES, EXAFS and UV-Vis data show subtle changes at high salinity (> 2 mol∙kg-1 NiCl2), which are consistent with the formation of small amounts of the NiCl+ complex (up to 0.44(23) Cl at a Ni-Cl distance of 2.35(2) Å in 5.05 mol∙kg-1 NiCl2) in the pure NiCl2 solutions. At high Cl:Ni ratio in the NiCl2-MgCl2-H2O solutions, small amounts of [NiCl2]0 are also present. We developed a speciation-based mixed-solvent electrolyte (MSE) model to describe activity-composition relationships in NiCl2-MgCl2-H2O solutions, and at the same time predict Ni(II) speciation that is consistent with our XAS and UV-Vis data and with existing literature data up to the solubility limit, resolving a long-standing uncertainty about the role of chloride complexing in this system. PMID:25885410

  9. The Cu-Ni-S System and Its Significance in Metallurgical Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesfaye, Fiseha; Lindberg, Daniel; Taskinen, Pekka

    Due to increasing complexities of raw materials for base metals production the conventional pyrometallurgical processes are challenged. To make the appropriate modifications, thorough evaluations of the thermal stabilities of phases and phase assemblages which are commonly encountered in these processes are essential. In this work, phase relations and thermal stabilities of equilibrium phases in the Cu-Ni-S system have been reviewed. The calculated phase diagram of Cu-N system has been validated. At T > 630 K, in the N-rich corner, large scatter in data has been observed and discussed in detail. The other binary systems, Cu-S and Ni-S, have been also critically reviewed together with the ternary Cu-N-S system. The reviews were focused on compiling and discussing phase relations and thermal stabilities of the selected systems in the pyrometallurgical processes of Cu and N productions.

  10. Synthesis of FeNi-Ceramic composite by carbothermal reduction from Fe2O3-WO3-Ni system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutham Niyomwas

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available FeNi-Ceramics (Fe3W3C, Fe6W6C composite powder was synthesized by carbothermal reduction of Fe2O3-WO3-Ni mixture under argon gas atmosphere at 1200oC temperature. The standard Gibbs energy minimization method was used to calculate the equilibrium composition of the reacting species. Effects of synthesis milling time of precursors on the FeNi-Ceramics conversion were investigated. The resulted product phases and morphologies were identified using XRD and SEM methods. The synthesized products showed composite of ceramic (Fe3W3C, Fe6W6C and iron-nickel alloy (FeNi phases.

  11. Combustion synthesis in the Ni-Al-Nb ternary system: A Time-Resolved X-ray Diffraction study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sytschev, Alexander E.; Kovalev, Dmitry Yu.; Vrel, Dominique; Vadchenko, Sergey G.

    Combustion synthesis of intermetallics, using the thermal explosion mode, in the Ni-Al-Nb ternary system is presented, with a 40:40:20 atomic ratio. The kinetic pathway is determined using Time-Resolved X-ray Diffraction, with a time-step resolution of 1 s and demonstrated a first formation of the B2 NiAl structure followed by progressive dissolution of Nb to yield NiAlNb intermetallic Laves phase, representing 35 w% of the final product. SEM observations show a double dendritic (coarse and fine) microstructure, resulting from eutectic crystallization. Due to a high cooling rate, Nb dissolution is not complete at the surface, and yields slightly more complex microstructure, including the Ni2AlNb Geissler phase, the (Ni,Al)2Nb Laves phase, and (Ni, Al)7Nb6.

  12. A comprehensive study on photocatalytic activity of supported Ni/Pb sulfide and oxide systems onto natural zeolite nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babaahamdi-Milani, Majid [Department of Chemistry, Shahreza Branch, Islamic Azad University, P.O. Box 311-86145, Shahreza, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Young Researchers and Elite Club, Shahreza Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shahreza (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nezamzadeh-Ejhieh, Alireza, E-mail: arnezamzadeh@iaush.ac.ir [Department of Chemistry, Shahreza Branch, Islamic Azad University, P.O. Box 311-86145, Shahreza, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Young Researchers and Elite Club, Shahreza Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shahreza (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Razi Chemistry Research Center (RCRC), Shahreza Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Increase in photocatalytic activity of hybridized/supported PbO/NiO and PbS/NiS systems with respect to semiconductors alone. • Higher efficiency of PbO/NiO than PbS/NiS. • Positive role of p-n junction for enhancement of photocatalytic activity of the used semiconductors. - Abstract: The Ni(II)-Pb(II) exchanged clinoptilolite nanoparticles (NCP) were transformed to corresponding oxides and sulfides via calcination and sulfiding processes, respectively. The obtained catalysts were characterized by XRD, FT-IR, TEM and DRS and used in photodegradation of p-nitrophenol (4-NP) aqueous solution under Hg-lamp irradiation. Results showed considerable increase in activity of the coupled semiconductors with respect to monocomponent one. In NiO-PbO-NCP system, conduction band (CB) of NiO is enough negative for easily migration of photogenerated electrons to CB-PbO level, while such phenomena take place from more negative CB-PbS level to CB-NiS level in NiS-PbS-NCP. These phenomena significantly prevented from electron-hole recombination which increased photocatalytic activity of the coupled semiconductors. Best photodegradation activities obtained by NiO{sub 1.3%}–PbO{sub 14.7%}-NCP and NiS{sub 2.1%}–PbS{sub 10.0%}-NCP, confirming semiconductors' mass-ratio dependence of the photocatalytic process. The supported coupled semiconductors showed blue shifts in band gap energies with respect to the bulk semiconductors which confirm formation of semiconductors nanoparticles inside the zeolite framework. The highest degradation percentage of 4-NP was obtained at: 0.5 g L{sup −1} photocatalysts, 15 mg L{sup −1} 4-NP at pH 7.5.

  13. Prediction about precipitation sequence in 18Cr-8Ni steel by system free energy method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toda, Y.; Abe, F. [National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), Tsukuba (Japan)

    2008-07-01

    The applicability of theoretical energy analysis to the evolution of microstructures in heat-resistant steels was explored by using the system free energy method to predict the precipitation of M{sub 23}C{sub 6} (where M means metallic alloying element) carbide and {sigma} phase within grains in 18Cr-8Ni austenitic steels. The chemical free energy of Fe-CCr- Ni quaternary steel and the interfacial and elastic strain energies between austenitic ({gamma}) matrix and the M{sub 23}C{sub 6} and o phase were estimated for the system free energy of microstructures wherein coherent or incoherent M{sub 23}C{sub 6} and the incoherent {sigma} phase were precipitated within {gamma} grains. By identifying the minimum-energy path through a determination of system free energy hierarchies, the precipitation initiation curves of precipitates in Fe-0.07C-18.95Cr-9.57Ni steel for temperatures between 823-973 K were theoretically predicted. The calculated curves agreed well with experimental results for Type 304H austenitic steels; this suggests that the system free energy method is suitable for predicting the evolution of microstructures in heatresistant steels. (orig.)

  14. Thermodynamic properties over (Ni{sub 2}Te{sub 3}O{sub 8} + NiTe{sub 2}O{sub 5}) in the Ni-Te-O system. Transpiration thermogravimetric and Knudsen effusion mass spectrometric studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narasimhan, Tiruppatur Subramaniam Lakshmi; Nalini, Seshadreesan; Manikandan, Palraj; Trinadh, Vinjavarapu Venkata [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India). Fuel Chemistry Div.; Baba, Magapu Sai [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India). Resources Management Group

    2016-02-15

    Vaporisation studies over (Ni{sub 2}Te{sub 3}O{sub 8} + NiTe{sub 2}O{sub 5}) in the Ni-Te-O system were carried out by means of transpiration thermogravimetry (TTG) and Knudsen effusion mass spectrometry (KEMS) in the temperature ranges of 950 - 1 060 K and 850 - 950 K respectively. The transpiration measurements were performed for the first time. Comparison of total pressures obtained by TTG with that deduced using partial pressures of vaporising species from KEMS showed a good agreement providing reliable vapour pressures over this phase region. From vapour pressures, enthalpies of solid-gas and gas-phase equilibria and subsequently enthalpy and Gibbs free energies of formation of NiTe{sub 2}O{sub 5}(s) were derived. A thermochemical calculation was performed to assess the possibility of formation of the ternary NiTe{sub 2}O{sub 5}(s) phase on stainless steel clad of mixed-oxide fuelled fast breeder nuclear reactors.

  15. Thermochemical and phase diagram studies of the Sn-Zn-Ni system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gandova, V.D. [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Plovdiv, 24 Tsar Asen Str., 4000 Plovdiv (Bulgaria); Broz, P. [Masaryk University, Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, Kotlarska 2, 61137 Brno (Czech Republic); Bursik, J. [Institute of Physics of Materials, Academy of Sciences, Zizkova 22, 61662, Brno (Czech Republic); Vassilev, G.P., E-mail: gpvassilev@excite.com [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Plovdiv, 24 Tsar Asen Str., 4000 Plovdiv (Bulgaria)

    2011-09-20

    Highlights: {yields} Sn-Zn-Ni phase diagram in the vicinity of the Sn-Zn system. {yields} Unidentified compositions (UX1-UX4) are repeatedly observed. {yields} This indicates up to 6 ternary compounds in the system. {yields} A ternary eutectic reaction at around 190 {sup o}C is found. - Abstract: The phase diagram Sn-Zn-Ni was studied by means of DSC and electron microprobe analysis. The samples were positioned in three isopleth sections with nickel contents of 0.04 (section 1), 0.08 (section 2) and 0.12 (section 3) mole fractions. The mole fractions of Sn corresponding to the particular sections were as follows: from 0.230 to 0.768 (section 1), from 0.230 to 0.736 (section 2); from 0.220 to 0.704 (section 3). Mixtures of pure metals were sealed under vacuum in quartz ampoules and annealed at 350 {sup o}C. The solid phases identified in the samples were: {gamma}-(i.e. Ni{sub 5}Zn{sub 21}), (Zn) and the ternary phase T1. Unidentified compositions were observed. One of them: UX1 (X{sub Ni} = 0.071 {+-} 0.005, X{sub Sn} = 0.439 {+-} 0.009 and X{sub Zn} = 0.490 {+-} 0.010) might indicate another (stable or metastable) ternary compound (T3) in the system Sn-Zn-Ni. Considering the data obtained by combining DSC with microstructure observations, the studied alloys could be divided in two groups (A and B). A ternary eutectic reaction at around 190 {sup o}C is common for the A-group alloys. The phases taking part in this reaction are, probably, Ni{sub 5}Zn{sub 21}, (Zn), ({beta}Sn) and liquid. B-group samples do not show ternary eutectic reaction and are also characterized by the presence of the ternary compound T1 (absent in the A-group alloys). Four other groups of thermal arrests were registered (TA{sub 1}-TA{sub 4}). It was found that TA{sub 2} peaks were characteristic for most of the A-group samples, while TA{sub 1} peaks were registered with all B-group samples.

  16. Corrosion at system chimneys made of CrNi-steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pajonk, Gunther [Institute of Materials Testing of Northrhine-Westfalia, D-44285 Dortmund (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    Names like 'chimney' und 'funnel' usually identify flue gas devices made of bricks. Much less known is the fact that chimney elements are still manufactured from alloys. The following article describes the particular demands ruled by legislation on building pro-ducts, just as the consequences resulting from corrosion loads by flue gas condensates. Difficulties caused by manufacturing and construction are primarily discussed. Furthermore a test procedure is introduced that allows to catch and correlate corrosion loads and technical designs systematically to corrosion behaviour and service life of flue gas devices. For the first time a tool for active quality assurance has been given by this test rig allowing to recognize construction errors systematically. This way, manufacturers of system chimneys and flue liners are enabled to optimize their products applications going ahead to the respective requests of the market. (authors)

  17. High-Throughput Structural and Functional Characterization of the Thin Film Materials System Ni-Co-Al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Peer; Naujoks, Dennis; Langenkämper, Dennis; Somsen, Christoph; Ludwig, Alfred

    2017-10-09

    High-throughput methods were used to investigate a Ni-Co-Al thin film materials library, which is of interest for structural and functional applications (superalloys, shape memory alloys). X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements were performed to identify the phase regions of the Ni-Co-Al system in its state after annealing at 600 °C. Optical, electrical, and magneto-optical measurements were performed to map functional properties and confirm XRD results. All results and literature data were used to propose a ternary thin film phase diagram of the Ni-Co-Al thin film system.

  18. [Analysis of interappointment flare-ups after root canal preparation with Mtwo NiTi rotary system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jun-li; He, Hong; Zhu, Ya-qin

    2011-08-01

    To study the interappointment flare-ups after root canal preparation with Mtwo NiTi rotary system and explore the influence factors. Ninty-seven pulp cases caused by caries or invisible cracks which consisted of 37 males and 60 females,16 to 62 years old were selected and divided into 2 groups randomly. One group was treated with Mtwo NiTi rotary system while the other was treated with K file, the interappointment flare-ups after root canal preparation was compared between the 2 groups. The data were subjected to Mann-Whitney U test and X(2) test with SPSS13.0 software package. Less flare-ups occurred in the group of root canal preparation with NiTi rotary system, the difference was statistically significant (P=0.027). Root canal preparation with Mtwo NiTi rotary system could decrease the flare-ups after root canal therapy.

  19. Measurement of the isothermal sections at 700 and 427 C in the Al-Mg-Ni system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He Cuiyun; Du, Yong; Chen Hai-Lin; Ouyang, Hongwu [Central South Univ., Hunan, HN (China). State Key Lab. of Powder Metallurgy

    2008-08-15

    This work focuses on the experimental investigation of the ternary Al-Mg-Ni system at 700 and 427 C by means of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and electron probe microanalysis. Only one ternary phase {tau}{sub 1} (Ni{sub 2}Mg{sub 3}Al) with a composition of about 15.5 at.% Al, 49.5 at.% Mg, and 35 at.% Ni was observed at both 700 and 427 C. At 700 C, the binary NiAl phase dissolves about 17 at.% Mg and the Ni{sub 2}Mg phase dissolves up to about 10 at.% Al. At 427 C, NiAl and Ni{sub 2}Mg were found to dissolve the third element in appreciable quantities. Ni{sub 2}Al{sub 3} was also observed dissolving up to about 2.5 at.%. The isothermal sections at 700 and 427 C are presented. (orig.)

  20. NiCoBP-doped carbon nanotube hybrid: A novel oxidase mimetic system for highly efficient electrochemical immunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Bing; He, Yu; Liu, Bingqian; Tang, Dianping, E-mail: dianping.tang@fzu.edu.cn

    2014-12-03

    Highlights: • We report a new oxidase mimetic system for highly efficient electrochemical immunoassay. • NiCoBP-doped carbon nanotube hybrids were used as the nanocatalysts. • NiCoBP-doped carbon nanotube hybrids were used as the mimic oxidase. - Abstract: NiCoBP-doped multi-walled carbon nanotube (NiCoBP–MWCNT) was first synthesized by using induced electroless-plating method and functionalized with the biomolecules for highly efficient electrochemical immunoassay of prostate-specific antigen (PSA, used as a model analyte). We discovered that the as-synthesized NiCoBP–MWCNT had the ability to catalyze the glucose oxidization with a stable and well-defined redox peak. The catalytic current increased with the increment of the immobilized NiCoBP–MWCNT on the electrode. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX) were employed to characterize the as-prepared NiCoBP–MWCNT. Using the NiCoBP–MWCNT-conjugated anti-PSA antibody as the signal-transduction tag, a new enzyme-free electrochemical immunoassay protocol could be designed for the detection of target PSA on the capture antibody-functionalized immunosensing interface. Experimental results revealed that the designed immunoassay system could exhibit good electrochemical responses toward target PSA, and allowed the detection of PSA at a concentration as low as 0.035 ng mL{sup −1}. More importantly, the NiCoBP-MWCNT-based oxidase mimetic system could be further extended for the monitoring of other low-abundance proteins or disease-related biomarkers by tuning the target antibody.

  1. Bulk metallic glass formation in the Pd-Ni-P and Pd-Cu-P alloy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarz, R.B.; He, Y. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Center for Materials Science

    1996-12-11

    Bulk metallic glasses were prepared in the Pd-Ni-P and Pd-Cu-P systems using a fluxing technique. The formation of bulk amorphous Pd-Cu-P alloys was reported here for the first time. For both alloy systems, bulk glass formation requires maintaining the phosphorus content near 20 at.%. In the Pd-Ni-P system, 10-mm diameter amorphous Pd{sub x}Ni{sub 80{minus}x}P{sub 20} rods can be formed for 25 {le} x {le} 60. In the Pd-Cu-P system, 7-mm diameter amorphous Pd{sub x}Cu{sub 80{minus}x}P{sub 20} rods can be produced for 40 {le} x {le} 60. From all the ternary alloys studied, Pd{sub 40}Ni{sub 40}P{sub 20} has the highest glass formability, and 25-mm diameter amorphous cylinders, 50 mm in length, can be easily fabricated. The glass stability of the Pd-Ni-P system is wider than that of the Pd-Cu-P system. For most bulk Pd-Ni-P glasses, {Delta}T > 90 K. The {Delta}T values of bulk amorphous Pd-Cu-P alloys are considerably smaller, ranging from 27 to 73 K. The elastic constants of bulk amorphous Pd-Ni-P and Pd-Cu-P alloys were determined using a resonant ultrasound spectroscopy technique. The Pd-Ni-P glasses are slightly stiffer than the Pd-Cu-P glasses. Within each alloy system, the Young`s modulus and the bulk modulus show little change with alloy composition. Of all the bulk glass forming systems so far investigated, the ternary Pd-Ni-P system has the best glass formability. This alloy was one of the first bulk glasses discovered, yet it still remains the best in terms of glass formability. Upon replacing part of Ni by Cu, the critical cooling rates are expected to be further reduced.

  2. One-Pot Synthesis of Size- and Composition-Controlled Ni-Rich NiPt Alloy Nanoparticles in a Reverse Microemulsion System and Their Application

    KAUST Repository

    Biausque, Gregory

    2017-08-16

    Bimetallic nanoparticles have been the subject of numerous research studies in the nanotechnology field, in particular for catalytic applications. Control of the size, morphology, and composition has become a key challenge due to the relationship between these parameters and the catalytic behavior of the particles in terms of activity, selectivity, and stability. Here, we present a one-pot air synthesis of 2 nm NiPt nanoparticles with a narrow size distribution. Control of the size and composition of the alloy particles is achieved at ambient temperature, in the aqueous phase, by the simultaneous reduction of nickel and platinum precursors with hydrazine, using a reverse microemulsion system. After deposition on an alumina support, this Ni-rich nanoalloy exhibits unprecedented stability under the harsh conditions of methane dry reforming.

  3. Transfer probability measurements in the superfluid 116Sn+60Ni system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montanari D.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We measured excitation functions for the main transfer channels in the 116Sn+60Ni reaction from above to well below the Coulomb barrier. The experiment has been performed in inverse kinematics, detecting the lighter (target-like ions with the magnetic spectrometer PRISMA at very forward angles. The comparison between the data and microscopic calculations for the present case and for the previously measured 96Zr+40Ca system, namely superfluid and near closed shells nuclei, should significantly improve our understanding of nucleon-nucleon correlation properties in multinucleon transfer processes.

  4. Basic studies on computer aided concurrent engineering for hull structure design and piping design; Kakugi ittai wo koryoshita doji heikotekina sekkei no shien ni kansuru kisoteki kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoyama, K.; Sawada, K. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    Considering integrated hull and piping design in shipbuilding industry as a good example for concurrent engineering (CE), discussions were given on a computer aided method to perform integrated hull and piping design smoothly. When CE aiding by means of a computer is considered, it is important to discuss a method for information management not only for `utilization of product models`, but also for `maintaining consistency between items of product information` and `concurrent utilization and production of product information` in concurrent designs. For the CE aided information management, utilization and production of the product information is effective if restrictive relationship between items of product information, and design functions are made clear. Definitions were given on the restrictive relationship between items of product information and `restrictive relationship information` that has `decision/provisional decision`, `date and time`, `designer` and `design functions`. Furthermore, `comprehensive relationship between items of product information` that can be produced from the restrictive relationship information was defined as a `restrictive network`. Utilizing the restrictive relationship between items of product information for CE aiding is effective. 9 refs., 14 figs.

  5. Geometric analysis of root canals prepared by four rotary NiTi shaping systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashem, Ahmed Abdel Rahman; Ghoneim, Angie Galal; Lutfy, Reem Ahmed; Foda, Manar Yehia; Omar, Gihan Abdel Fatah

    2012-07-01

    A great number of nickel-titanium (NiTi) rotary systems with noncutting tips, different cross-sections, superior resistance to torsional fracture, varying tapers, and manufacturing method have been introduced to the market. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the effect of 4 rotary NiTi preparation systems, Revo-S (RS; Micro-Mega, Besancon Cedex, France), Twisted file (TF; SybronEndo, Amersfoort, The Netherlands), ProFile GT Series X (GTX; Dentsply, Tulsa Dental Specialties, Tulsa, OK), and ProTaper (PT; Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland), on volumetric changes and transportation of curved root canals. Forty mesiobuccal canals of mandibular molars with an angle of curvature ranging from 25° to 40° were divided according to the instrument used in canal preparation into 4 groups of 10 samples each: group RS, group TF, group GTX, and group PT. Canals were scanned using an i-CAT CBCT scanner (Imaging Science International, Hatfield, PA) before and after preparation to evaluate the volumetric changes. Root canal transportation and centering ratio were evaluated at 1.3, 2.6, 5.2, and 7.8 mm from the apex. The significance level was set at P ≤ .05. The PT system removed a significantly higher amount of dentin than the other systems (P = .025). At the 1.3-mm level, there was no significant difference in canal transportation and centering ratio among the groups. However, at the other levels, TF maintained the original canal curvature recording significantly the least degree of canal transportation as well as the highest mean centering ratio. The TF system showed superior shaping ability in curved canals. Revo-S and GTX were better than ProTaper regarding both canal transportation and centering ability. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. New Stable Crystal Structures for Cu-Au and Ni-Pt Alloy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanati, Mahdi; Wang, L. G.; Zunger, A.

    2003-10-01

    Cu-Au and Ni-Pt are among the best studied fcc alloy systems, exhibiting the famous L10 (AB) and L12 (A_3B) phases. We were wondering if a complete configurational search of the T=0 LDA total energies would reveal any unexpected phases. Total-energy calculations of ˜ 30 arbitrarily chosen structures were used to construct a generalized (momentum-space) Ising Hamiltonian containing ˜ 20 pair-interactions, ˜ 5-10 many-body terms, as well as the long-range strain term. This Hamiltonian was tested carefully as to its ability to predict the LDA energies of other structures. We searched the energies of all fcc configurations with 20 or less atoms per primitive cell ( ˜ 2,700,000 structures), found known L1_0, L12 as well as new, unsuspected structures. The new ground state structures are NiPt_7, Cu_2Au, and Cu_2Au_3. We also found a composition range in which there is quasicontinuum of stable, ordered structures made of (001) repeat units of simple structural motifs. This structural adaptivity is explained in terms of anisotropic, long-range strain energy.

  7. Stable Ni Isotope Fractionation In Systems Relevant To Banded Iron-Formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, H.; Spivak-Birndorf, L.; Newkirk, D.; Wasylenki, L. E.

    2013-12-01

    An important event in the evolution of life was the rise of atmospheric oxygen during the Proterozoic. Preceding the rise in O2 was a decline in atmospheric methane concentrations, likely due to decreased productivity of methanogenic Archaea. Based on Ni concentrations in banded iron formations (BIF), Konhauser et al. (2009) hypothesized that mantle cooling during the Archaean reduced the amount of Ni present in igneous rocks and in oceans, causing a Ni shortage for methanogens. Methanogens use Ni for cofactor F430, a catalyst during methanogenesis. To confirm Konhauser's hypothesis, a proxy for methanogen productivity in the rock record is necessary, in order to determine whether a decline in methanogen populations correlated with the observed decrease in maximum Ni contents in rocks from the Archaean. Ni isotope ratios recorded in BIF (oceanic sediments consisting of layered iron oxides and cherts) may provide evidence of a decline in methane production. Cameron et al. (2009) have shown that methanogens preferentially assimilate light Ni isotopes. Thus Ni isotopes in BIF have potential use as biomarkers for methanogenesis. Ferrihydrite was almost certainly the dominant Fe-oxide phase precipitating during BIF deposition. Ferrihydrite nanoparticles have large surface areas and are able to remove aqueous metals from solution through multiple sorption mechanisms. Thus we investigated experimentally the relationship between Ni isotopes in solution and Ni associated with ferrihydrite. We experimented with two different sorption mechanisms: adsorption of aqueous Ni onto surfaces of synthetic ferrihydrite and coprecipitation of aqueous Ni with ferrihydrite. Preliminary results indicate that light isotopes are preferentially associated with ferrihydrite in both adsorption and coprecipitation experiments, with an average fractionation of 0.3‰ in terms of δ60/58 Ni. Future experiments will investigate whether the observed isotope fractionations reflect kinetics or

  8. Bridging exchange bias effect in NiO and Ni(core)@NiO(shell) nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinaldi-Montes, Natalia, E-mail: nataliarin@gmail.com [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Oviedo, E-33007 Oviedo (Spain); Gorria, Pedro [Departamento de Física & IUTA, EPI, Universidad de Oviedo, E-33203 Gijón (Spain); Martínez-Blanco, David [Servicios Científico-Técnicos, Universidad de Oviedo, E-33006 Oviedo (Spain); Fuertes, Antonio B. [Instituto Nacional del Carbón, CSIC, E-33080 Oviedo (Spain); Fernández Barquín, Luis [CITIMAC, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Cantabria, E-39005 Santander (Spain); Puente-Orench, Inés [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragón, CSIC-Universidad de Zaragoza and Institut Laue-Langevin, BP 156, F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Blanco, Jesús A. [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Oviedo, E-33007 Oviedo (Spain)

    2016-02-15

    Among all bi-magnetic core(transition metal)@shell(transition metal oxide) nanoparticles (NPs), Ni@NiO ones show an onset temperature for the exchange bias (EB) effect far below the Néel temperature of bulk antiferromagnetic NiO. In this framework, the role played by the magnetism of NiO at the nanoscale is investigated by comparing the microstructure and magnetic properties of NiO and Ni@NiO NPs. With the aim of bridging the two systems, the diameter of the NiO NPs (~4 nm) is chosen to be comparable to the shell thickness of Ni@NiO ones (~2 nm). The EB effect in Ni@NiO NPs is attributed to the exchange coupling between the core and the shell, with an interfacial exchange energy of ΔE~0.06 erg cm{sup −2}, thus comparable to previous reports on Ni/NiO interfaces both in thin film and NP morphologies. In contrast, the EB detected in NiO NPs is explained in a picture where uncompensated spins located on a magnetically disordered surface shell are exchange coupled to the antiferromagnetic core. In all the studied NPs, the variation of the EB field as a function of temperature is described according to a negative exponential law with a similar decay constant, yielding a vanishing EB effect around T~40–50 K. In addition, the onset temperature for the EB effect in both NiO and Ni@NiO NPs seems to follow a universal dependence with the NiO crystallite size. - Highlights: • Comparison of the exchange bias effect in NiO and Ni(core)@NiO(shell) nanoparticles. • Universal temperature dependence of the exchange bias effect. • Suggested similar physical origin of the effect in both systems. • Size and crystallinity of the NiO shell hold the key for exchange bias properties.

  9. Thermodynamic Property Study of Nanostructured Mg-H, Mg-Ni-H, and Mg-Cu-H Systems by High Pressure DSC Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaiyu Shao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mg, Ni, and Cu nanoparticles were synthesized by hydrogen plasma metal reaction method. Preparation of Mg2Ni and Mg2Cu alloys from these Mg, Ni, and Cu nanoparticles has been successfully achieved in convenient conditions. High pressure differential scanning calorimetry (DSC technique in hydrogen atmosphere was applied to study the synthesis and thermodynamic properties of the hydrogen absorption/desorption processes of nanostructured Mg-H, Mg-Ni-H, and Mg-Cu-H systems. Van’t Hoff equation of Mg-Ni-H system as well as formation enthalpy and entropy of Mg2NiH4 was obtained by high pressure DSC method. The results agree with the ones by pressure-composition isotherm (PCT methods in our previous work and the ones in literature.

  10. Immune system responses and fitness costs associated with consumption of bacteria in larvae of Trichoplusia ni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heckel David G

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insects helped pioneer, and persist as model organisms for, the study of specific aspects of immunity. Although they lack an adaptive immune system, insects possess an innate immune system that recognizes and destroys intruding microorganisms. Its operation under natural conditions has not been well studied, as most studies have introduced microbes to laboratory-reared insects via artificial mechanical wounding. One of the most common routes of natural exposure and infection, however, is via food; thus, the role of dietary microbial communities in herbivorous insect immune system evolution invites study. Here, we examine the immune system response and consequences of exposing a lepidopteran agricultural pest to non-infectious microorganisms via simple oral consumption. Results Immune system response was compared between Trichoplusia ni larvae reared on diets with or without non-pathogenic bacteria (Escherichia coli and Micrococcus luteus. Two major immune response-related enzymatic activities responded to diets differently – phenoloxidase activity was inhibited in the bacteria-fed larvae, whereas general antibacterial activity was enhanced. Eight proteins were highly expressed in the hemolymph of the bacteria fed larvae, among them immune response related proteins arylphorin, apolipophorin III and gloverin. Expression response among 25 putative immune response-related genes were assayed via RT-qPCR. Seven showed more than fivefold up regulation in the presence of bacterial diet, with 22 in total being differentially expressed, among them apolipophorin III, cecropin, gallerimycin, gloverin, lysozyme, and phenoloxidase inhibiting enzyme. Finally, potential life-history trade-offs were studied, with pupation time and pupal mass being negatively affected in bacteria fed larvae. Conclusion The presence of bacteria in food, even if non-pathogenic, can trigger an immune response cascade with life history tradeoffs. Trichoplusia ni

  11. A three-dimensional analysis of the endolymph drainage system in Ménière disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsanto, Rafael da Costa; Pauna, Henrique F; Kwon, Geeyoun; Schachern, Patricia A; Tsuprun, Vladimir; Paparella, Michael M; Cureoglu, Sebahattin

    2017-05-01

    To measure the volume of the endolymph drainage system in temporal bone specimens with Ménière disease, as compared with specimens with endolymphatic hydrops without vestibular symptoms and with nondiseased specimens STUDY DESIGN: Comparative human temporal bone analysis. We generated three-dimensional models of the vestibular aqueduct, endolymphatic sinus and duct, and intratemporal portion of the endolymphatic sac and calculated the volume of those structures. We also measured the internal and external aperture of the vestibular aqueduct, as well as the opening (if present) of the utriculoendolymphatic (Bast's) valve and compared the measurements in our three study groups. The volume of the vestibular aqueduct and of the endolymphatic sinus, duct, and intratemporal endolymphatic sac was significantly lower in the Ménière disease group than in the endolymphatic hydrops group (P <.05). The external aperture of the vestibular aqueduct was also smaller in the Ménière disease group. Bast's valve was open only in some specimens in the Ménière disease group. In temporal bones with Ménière disease, the volume of the vestibular aqueduct, endolymphatic duct, and intratemporal endolymphatic sac was lower, and the external aperture of the vestibular aqueduct was smaller as compared with bones from donors who had endolymphatic hydrops without vestibular symptoms and with nondiseased bones. The open status of the Bast's valve in the Ménière disease group could be secondary to higher retrograde endolymph pressures caused by smaller drainage systems. These anatomic findings could correlate with the reason that some patients with hydrops develop clinical symptoms, whereas others do not. N/A Laryngoscope, 127:E170-E175, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  12. Combustion synthesis in the Ni–Al–Nb ternary system: A Time-Resolved X-ray Diffraction study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander E. Sytschev

    Full Text Available Combustion synthesis of intermetallics, using the thermal explosion mode, in the Ni-Al-Nb ternary system is presented, with a 40:40:20 atomic ratio. The kinetic pathway is determined using Time-Resolved X-ray Diffraction, with a time-step resolution of 1 s and demonstrated a first formation of the B2 NiAl structure followed by progressive dissolution of Nb to yield NiAlNb intermetallic Laves phase, representing 35 w% of the final product. SEM observations show a double dendritic (coarse and fine microstructure, resulting from eutectic crystallization. Due to a high cooling rate, Nb dissolution is not complete at the surface, and yields slightly more complex microstructure, including the Ni2AlNb Geissler phase, the (Ni,Al2Nb Laves phase, and (Ni, Al7Nb6.

  13. Thermodynamic Property Study of Nanostructured Mg-H, Mg-Ni-H, and Mg-Cu-H Systems by High Pressure DSC Method

    OpenAIRE

    Huaiyu Shao; Gongbiao Xin; Xingguo Li; Etsuo Akiba

    2013-01-01

    Mg, Ni, and Cu nanoparticles were synthesized by hydrogen plasma metal reaction method. Preparation of Mg2Ni and Mg2Cu alloys from these Mg, Ni, and Cu nanoparticles has been successfully achieved in convenient conditions. High pressure differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) technique in hydrogen atmosphere was applied to study the synthesis and thermodynamic properties of the hydrogen absorption/desorption processes of nanostructured Mg-H, Mg-Ni-H, and Mg-Cu-H systems. Van’t Hoff equation o...

  14. Thermodynamic Description Of Ternary Fe-B-X Systems. Part 2: Fe-B-Ni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miettinen J.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Przedstawiono termodynamiczny opis trójskładnikowego układu Fe-B-Ni w kontekście nowej bazy danych dla układów Fe-B-X (X = Cr, Ni, Mn, Si, Ti, V, C. Parametry termodynamiczne dwuskładnikowych stopów Fe-B. Fe-Ni i B-Ni zostały są zaczerpnięte z wcześniejszych opracowań, przy tym opis B-Ni został nieznacznie zmodyfikowany. Parametry dla układu Fe-B-Ni zostały zoptymalizowane w tej pracy w oparciu o eksperymentalne równowagi fazowe i dane termodynamiczne zaczerpnięte z literatury. Roztwory stałe w układzie Fe-B-Ni opisano przy użyciu modelu roztworu substytucyjnego, a borki traktowane są jako fazy stechiometryczne lub półstechiometryczne typu (A.BpCq opisane przy użyciu modelu dwu podsieci.

  15. A Combined Brazing and Aluminizing Process for Repairing Turbine Blades by Thermal Spraying Using the Coating System NiCrSi/NiCoCrAlY/Al

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolaus, M.; Möhwald, K.; Maier, H. J.

    2017-10-01

    The repair and maintenance of components in the aerospace industry play an increasingly important role due to rising manufacturing costs. Besides welding, vacuum brazing is a well-established repair process for turbine blades made of nickel-based alloys. After the coating of the worn turbine blade has been removed, the manual application of the nickel-based filler metal follows. Subsequently, the hot gas corrosion-protective coating is applied by thermal spraying. The brazed turbine blade is aluminized to increase the hot gas corrosion resistance. The thermal spray technology is used to develop a two-stage hybrid technology that allows shortening the process chain for repair brazing turbine blades and is described in the present paper. In the first step, the coating is applied on the base material. Specifically, the coating system employed here is a layer system consisting of nickel filler metal, NiCoCrAlY and aluminum. The second step represents the combination of brazing and aluminizing of the coating system which is subjected to a heat treatment. The microstructure, which results from the combined brazing and aluminizing process, is characterized and the relevant diffusion processes in the coating system are illustrated. The properties of the coating and the ramifications with respect to actual applications will be discussed.

  16. On the near-barrier fusion of the proton-halo {sup 8}B + {sup 58}Ni system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rangel, J.; Lubian, J.; Gomes, P.R.S. [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Instituto de Fisica, Gragoata, Niteroi, R.J. (Brazil); Carlson, B.V. [Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica, Departamento de Fisica, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Chamon, L.C. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Instituto de Fisica, CP 66318, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Gomez Camacho, A. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones, Departamento de Aceleradores, Apartado Postal 18-1027, C.P. 11801, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2013-05-15

    We have performed two independent calculations, without any free parameter, to predict the near-barrier fusion cross section for the proton-halo {sup 8}B + {sup 58}Ni system, for which data were recently reported. Standard coupled channel calculations predict fusion cross sections smaller than the data, while CDCC calculations for the absorption cross section (fusion + transfer + inelastic cross sections) agree with the data above the barrier, although transfer cross sections are calculated to have non-negligible cross section at this energy regime. At sub-barrier energies, region where transfer cross sections are particularly important, the CDCC calculations overpredict the data. The fusion data of the {sup 8}B + {sup 58}Ni system fail to follow the systematics of other weakly bound nuclei and the UFF curve and do not agree with the fusion data of the {sup 8}B + {sup 28}Si system. We try to explain this anomalous behaviour. (orig.)

  17. Job-supporting solution, 'Joint MEISTER'. Gyomu shien solution 'Joint MEISTER'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-01-10

    Effective utilization of information systems is an important point in business activities, e.g., for improvements of jobs and job efficiency. Fuji Electric has developed services to help establish systems for WWW application and groupware, aimed at information sharing and improved communication. They include services for consultation, and construction, operation and maintenance of the necessary systems. These services have the following major features. They include the consultation services, e.g., for planning environments required for introduction of the system and schedules for its introduction, and drawing standards for assessing the introduced system; basic designs for designing detailed configuration of the system to be introduced; starting up the system, e.g., system setting up and confirmation of smooth operation of the system; and question-and-answer cessions to support stable operation of the system. The company plans to start providing a platform, tentatively named 'Joint MEISTER/InfoTerrace,' which will support information transmission by Web. (NEDO)

  18. Fabrication and Characterization of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube (MWCNT) and Ni-Coated Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube (Ni-MWCNT) Repair Patches for Carbon Fiber Reinforced Composite Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Brienne; Caraccio, Anne; Tate, LaNetra; Jackson, Dionne

    2011-01-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)/epoxy and nickel-coated multi-walled carbon nanotube (Ni-MWCNT)/epoxy systems were fabricated into carbon fiber composite repair patches via vacuum resin infusion. Two 4 ply patches were manufactured with fiber orientations of [90/ 90/ 4590] and [0/90/ +45/ -45]. Prior to resin infusion, the MWCNT/Epoxy system and NiMWCNT/ epoxy systems were optimized for dispersion quality. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical microscopy (OM) were used to determine the presence ofcarbon nanotubes and assess dispersion quality. Decomposition temperatures were determined via thermogravametric analysis (TGA). SEM and TGA were also used to evaluate the composite repair patches.

  19. Microstructures of a Pt/Ni/C multilayer system: an X-ray reflectivity and ion scattering study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Sumalay; Bera, S; Dev, B N

    2007-06-01

    Microstructural characterization of a synthetic periodic and graded Pt/Ni/C multilayer system by X-ray reflectivity and ion scattering techniques is presented. The experimental reflectivity data are fitted with a theoretical multi-trilayer model with graded periodicity which increases from substrate to film surface along the surface normal direction. The increase in periodicity is found to be due to a linear increase in C-layer thickness from the bottom to the top, with a change of slope nearly at the middle of the multilayer stack. The thicknesses of Pt and Ni layers, the variation of C-layer thickness with depth, interface roughness of Pt/Ni, Ni/C, C/Pt interfaces are determined from the analysis of the reflectivity data. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry measurements were also made on the same sample. Simulated Rutherford back scattering spectrometry data using the parameters obtained from the analysis of the X-ray reflectivity data agree well with the measured Rutherford backscattering spectrum.

  20. Microstructure Characterization and Wear-Resistant Properties Evaluation of an Intermetallic Composite in Ni-Mo-Si System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Boyuan; Song, Chunyan; Liu, Yang; Gui, Yongliang

    2017-02-04

    Intermetallic compounds have been studied for their potential application as structural wear materials or coatings on engineering steels. In the present work, a newly designed intermetallic composite in a Ni-Mo-Si system was fabricated by arc-melting process with commercially pure metal powders as starting materials. The chemical composition of this intermetallic composite is 45Ni-40Mo-15Si (at %), selected according to the ternary alloy diagram. The microstructure was characterized using optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and the wear-resistant properties at room temperature were evaluated under different wear test conditions. Microstructure characterization showed that the composite has a dense and uniform microstructure. XRD results showed that the intermetallic composite is constituted by a binary intermetallic compound NiMo and a ternary Mo₂Ni₃Si metal silicide phase. Wear test results indicated that the intermetallic composite has an excellent wear-resistance at room-temperature, which is attributed to the high hardness and strong atomic bonding of constituent phases NiMo and Mo₂Ni₃Si.

  1. Carbon tolerance of Ni-Cu and Ni-Cu/YSZ sub-μm sized SOFC thin film model systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Götsch, Thomas; Schachinger, Thomas; Stöger-Pollach, Michael; Kaindl, Reinhard; Penner, Simon

    2017-04-01

    Thin films of YSZ, unsupported Ni-Cu 1:1 alloy phases and YSZ-supported Ni-Cu 1:1 alloy solutions have been reproducibly prepared by magnetron sputter deposition on Si wafers and NaCl(001) single crystal facets at two selected substrate temperatures of 298 K and 873 K. Subsequently, the layer properties of the resulting sub-μm thick thin films as well as the tendency towards carbon deposition following treatment in pure methane at 1073 K has been tested comparatively. Well-crystallized structures of cubic YSZ, cubic NiCu and cubic NiCu/YSZ have been obtained following deposition at 873 K on both substrates. Carbon is deposited on all samples following the trend Ni-Cu (1:1) = Ni-Cu (1:1)/YSZ > pure YSZ, indicating that at least the 1:1 composition of layered Ni-Cu alloy phases is not able to suppress the carbon deposition completely, rendering it unfavorable for usage as anode component in sub-μm sized fuel cells. It is shown that surfaces with a high Cu/Ni ratio nevertheless prohibit any carbon deposition.

  2. Experimental and Thermodynamic Study of Selected in-Situ Composites from the Fe-Cr-Ni-Mo-C System

    OpenAIRE

    Wieczerzak K.; Bala P.; Dziurka R.; Stepien M.; Tokarski T.; Cios G.; Gorecki K.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to synthesize and characterize the selected in-situ composites from the Fe-Cr-Ni-Mo-C system, additionally strengthened by intermetallic compounds. The project of the alloys was supported by thermodynamic simulations using Calculation of Phase Diagram approach via Thermo-Calc. Selected alloys were synthesized in an arc furnace in a high purity argon atmosphere using a suction casting unit. The studies involved a range of experimental techniques to characterize the all...

  3. Magneto-heat capacity study on Kondo lattice system Ce(Ni1−xCux ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Heat capacity studies on the Kondo lattice system Ce(Ni1−xCux)2Al3, in the presence of magnetic fields, were reported for x = 0.0−0.4. The physical properties of the intermediate compositions like x = 0.3 and 0.4 were known for their enhanced thermoelectric power and hence have been analysed with an extra ...

  4. Mathematical structure of ocean container transport systems; Kaiyo container yuso system no suriteki kozo ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinkai, A. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Chikushi, Y. [Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Mathematical structure of a vessel arrangement program was discussed in order to learn roles of container ships in ocean transport systems among China, NIES/ASEAN countries and Japan. Formulation is possible on a mathematical handling method for sailing route connection diagrams between ports, a transport network to indicate container movements, a service network to indicate sailing routes, and a network generalizing them. This paper describes an analysis made on the container transport system between Japan and China, taken as an example. Four ports were selected each from Japan and China, and the statistical database for fiscals 1996 and 1994 was utilized to set models for: (a) the liner network system with transshipment at the port of Shanghai and (b) the cruising route system going through the ports of Yokohama, Nagoya and Kobe. A hypothesis was set that a consortium (coordinated ship allocation) can be implemented ideally and completely. The transport network (a) is lower by 10% in total cost than the transport network (b), resulting in 1.6 times greater productivity. Actual service network is closer to the network (b), but the system can be utilized for discussing guidelines on vessel arrangement programs with which shipping companies pursue better management efficiency under a condition that the consortium can be formed. 10 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Atomistic modeling to investigate the favored composition for metallic glass formation in the Ca-Mg-Ni ternary system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, S; Li, J H; An, S M; Li, S N; Liu, B X

    2017-05-17

    A realistic interatomic potential was first constructed for the Ca-Mg-Ni system and then applied to Monte Carlo simulations to predict the favored composition for metallic glass formation in the ternary system. The simulations not only predict a hexagonal composition region, within which the Ca-Mg-Ni metallic glass formation is energetically favored, but also pinpoint an optimized sub-region within which the amorphization driving force, i.e. the energy difference between the solid solution and disordered phase, is larger than that outside. The simulations further reveal that the physical origin of glass formation is the solid solution collapsing when the solute atom exceeds the critical solid solubility. Further structural analysis indicates that the pentagonal bi-pyramids dominate in the optimized sub-region. The large atomic size difference between Ca, Mg and Ni extends the short-range landscape and facilitates the development of a hybridized packing model in the medium-range, and eventually enhancing the glass formation in the system. The predictions are well supported by the experimental observations reported so far, and could be of help for designing the ternary glass formation.

  6. Sensitivity to N/ Z ratio in fragment productions for the isobaric systems 124 Xe + 64 Zn, 64 Ni and 124 Sn + 64 Ni at E/A = 35 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Filippo, E.; Pagano, A.; Russotto, P.; Acosta, L.; Auditore, L.; Baran, V.; Cap, T.; Cardella, G.; Colonna, M.; Dell'Aquila, D.; De Luca, S.; Francalanza, L.; Gnoffo, B.; Lanzalone, G.; Lombardo, I.; Maiolino, C.; Martorana, N. S.; Minniti, T.; Norella, S.; Pagano, E. V.; Papa, M.; Piasecki, E.; Pirrone, S.; Politi, G.; Porto, F.; Quattrocchi, L.; Rizzo, F.; Rosato, E.; Siwek-Wilczyńska, K.; Trifirò, A.; Trimarchi, M.; Verde, G.; Vigilante, M.; Wilczyński, J.

    2017-11-01

    Intermediate-Mass Fragments (IMF) statistical and dynamical emission probabilities were examinated in dissipative collisions of ^{124}{Xe} + ^{64}{Zn} and ^{64}{Ni} at beam energy of 35 A MeV and compared with previous studies of the ^{124}{Sn} + ^{64}{Ni} reaction. For these isobaric systems the probability of dynamical emission enhances with increasing of the N/ Z asymmetry of the entrance channel, while the cross section of statistical emission is independent from the neutron richness of the system. Therefore, the dynamical component of the IMF emission cross section shows a strong sensitivity on the isospin of the entrance channel.

  7. Biphasic thermoelectric materials derived from the half-Heusler/full-Heusler system Ti-Ni-Sn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Jason Everett

    Among the possible avenues for increasing the efficiency of global energy usage, thermoelectrics are an exciting, solid-state option. Thermoelectric materials, which convert an internal temperature gradient into a voltage and vice versa, have found applications in refrigeration as well as power generation from waste heat. TiNiSn, a semiconductor of the half-Heusler (hH) crystal structure, is of particular interest due to its very favorable electronic transport properties, conductivity (sigma) and Seebeck coefficient ( S), at relevant temperature regimes (between 600 K and 900 K). Unfortunately, its overall efficiency is hampered by a comparatively high thermal conductivity (kappa). In the design of thermoelectric materials, a number of approaches have been taken to increase the thermoelectric figure of merit, ZT = ( S2sigma/kappa)T, where T is temperature. In this work we examine how microstructure can be used to alter these thermoelectric propertiesin a biphasic Ti-Ni-Sn materials containing full-Heusler (fH) TiNi2Sn embedded within hH thermoelectric TiNiSn. We explored a wide range of Ni compositions in TiNi1+xSn--from stoichiometric TiNiSn to high Heusler volume fraction, TiNi1.25Sn--materials prepared by levitation induction melting followed by annealing. Phase distributions and microstructure were characterized using synchrotron x-ray diffraction and optical and electron microscopy. In a sample of the nominal composition TiNi1.15Sn, a significant decrease in thermal conductivity (about 30%) is observed for the biphasic material despite the metallic second-phase particles existing at the micrometer scale; a 50% increase in the electrical conductivity is also measured. These result in a maximum figure of merit, ZT, of 0.44 at 800 K, which is 25% greater than is observed for the x = 0 sample. Density functional theory calculations using hybrid functionals were performed to determine band alignments between the half- and full-Heusler compounds, as well as

  8. Stress and toxicity of biologically important transition metals (Co, Ni, Cu and Zn) on phytoplankton in a tropical freshwater system: An investigation with pigment analysis by HPLC

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chakraborty, P.; Babu, P.V.R.; Acharyya, T.; Bandyopadhyay, D.

    Stress and toxicity of four biologically important transition metals (Co, Ni, Cu and Zn) on phytoplankton in Godavari River (a tropical freshwater system) were studied to understand the fate of phytoplankton of freshwater if it receives metal...

  9. Berthing control with multi-agent system; Multi agent system ni yoru chakusan seigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, H. [Tokyo Univ. (Japan)

    1998-12-31

    The berthing of a ship is a kind of control operations of position, speed and direction of a ship in order to bring a ship alongside a quay. Berthing control is accompanied with a hard problem in which the 6 freedoms of position and speed in 3 directions such as fore and behind, right and left and a revolution must be controlled. In this study, a concept of the agent was introduced as a means of berthing. The agent is a computer program which can be worked in a person`s place. If an autonomous intelligence is carried on each element such as a tugboat or a propeller of ship, the element is able to act based on judgement decided by itself without an instruction from a control center. Thereby, the berthing control system as a multi-agent system having an adaptability and a cooperativeness will be realized. Then the multi-agent system to help berthing was constructed by applying the Muller`s three phase model as a cooperative autonomous agent and by sharing the role of each phase. 8 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Blanch Resistant and Thermal Barrier NiAl Coating Systems for Advanced Copper Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Sai V. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A method of forming an environmental resistant thermal barrier coating on a copper alloy is disclosed. The steps include cleansing a surface of a copper alloy, depositing a bond coat on the cleansed surface of the copper alloy, depositing a NiAl top coat on the bond coat and consolidating the bond coat and the NiAl top coat to form the thermal barrier coating. The bond coat may be a nickel layer or a layer composed of at least one of copper and chromium-copper alloy and either the bond coat or the NiAl top coat or both may be deposited using a low pressure or vacuum plasma spray.

  11. In vitro substance loss due to galvanic corrosion in Ti implant/Ni-Cr supraconstruction systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geis-Gerstorfer, J; Weber, H; Sauer, K H

    1989-01-01

    To characterize the galvanic corrosion of supraconstructions consisting of Ni-Cr alloys that come in contact with titanium implants, the resultant substance loss was determined. The measurement of the released substance masses was conducted by analysis of the electrolyte solutions with the aid of atomic absorption spectrometry and by approximate calculation using current density time curves, according to Faraday's law. The results of this study show that both methods allow a clear differentiation of the corrosion behavior of various Ni-Cr alloys that come in contact with titanium.

  12. Elastic scattering and total reaction cross section for the {sup 6}He+{sup 58}Ni system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morcelle, V. [Instituto de Física - Universidade Federal Fluminense, 24210-346, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil and Universidade Federal de Itajubá, 35900-030, Itabira (Brazil); Lichtenthäler, R.; Lépine-Szily, A.; Guimarães, V.; Gasques, L.; Scarduelli, V.; Condori, R. Pampa; Leistenschneider, E. [Depto de Física Nuclear, Universidade de São Paulo, C.P. 66318, 05389-970, São Paulo (Brazil); Mendes Jr, D. R.; Faria, P. N. de [Instituto de Física - Universidade Federal Fluminense, 24210-346, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Pires, K. C. C. [Universidade Tecnológica Federal do Paraná, 86300-000, Cornélio Procópio (Brazil); Barioni, A. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal da Bahia, 40210-340, Bahia (Brazil); Morais, M. C. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas, 22290-180, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Shorto, J. M. B. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares- IPEN, 05508-000, São Paulo (Brazil); Zamora, J. C. [Departament of Physics, Technische Universität Darmstadt (Germany)

    2014-11-11

    Elastic scattering measurements of {sup 6}He + {sup 58}Ni system have been performed at the laboratory energy of 21.7 MeV. The {sup 6}He secondary beam was produced by a transfer reaction {sup 9}Be ({sup 7}Li, {sup 6}He) and impinged on {sup 58}Ni and {sup 197}Au targets, using the Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) facility, RIBRAS, installed in the Pelletron Laboratory of the Institute of Physics of the University of São Paulo, Brazil. The elastic angular distribution was obtained in the angular range from 15° to 80° in the center of mass frame. Optical model calculations have been performed using a hybrid potential to fit the experimental data. The total reaction cross section was derived.

  13. The system Pd-Fe-Ni-S at 900 and 725 degree C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makovicky, E.; Karup-Møller, Sven

    1995-01-01

    /Fe ratio in the melt changes regularly against that in mss with increasing S fugacity and Pd contents in these two phases. (Ni,Fe)(3+/-x)S-2 and Pd4S play important roles at 725 degrees C. The data offer an array of distribution coefficients and solubility values suitable for geological interpretations....

  14. THE Pd-Ni-Fe-S PHASE SYSTEM AT 550 AND 400 degrees C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makovicky, Emil; Karup-Møller, Sven

    2016-01-01

    , i.e., it is metal-rich. Retreat of the melt field at 550 degrees C results in a plethora of phase associations in its place. Compositional fields of alloys associated with melt and of those associated with similar to(Ni,Fe)(3 +/- x)S-2 extend to high Pd contents. Several sulfur-poor associations...... with mss, Pd is concentrated in the sulfide melt, especially at a low temperature. At low temperatures or high S fugacities, nickel prefers mss but pentlandite and similar to(Ni,Fe)(3 +/- x)S-2 complicate this simple scheme. For mineral associations with elevated sulfur fugacities, pyrrhotite (mss) appears...... to be a principal solid-state collector of Pd at high temperatures, with its gradual release on cooling, making it available for subsequent reactions. At low sulfur fugacities Pd concentrates in its Fe-Ni alloys. Because of the inverse relationship between Ni solubility in PdS and the temperature of formation...

  15. Ni foam-immobilized MIL-101(Cr) nanocrystals toward system integration for hydrogen storage

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ren, Jianwei

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available nanocrystals, as an example, were prepared and immobilized on Ni foam as multi-layers. The hydrogen storage properties of individual and hybrid materials were assessed and compared. The hybrid material with 81 wt.% loading of MIL-101(Cr) nanocrystals exhibited...

  16. Multiparticle states in the S = 1 chain system CsNiCl3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kenzelmann, M.; Cowley, R.A.; Buyers, W.J.L.

    2001-01-01

    A continuum of magnetic states has been observed by neutron scattering from the spin-1 chain compound CsNiCl3 in its disordered gapped one-dimensional phase. Results using both triple-axis and time-of-flight spectrometers show that around the antiferromagnetic point Q(c) = pi, the continuum lies ...

  17. Removal of Pb2+ and Ni2+ by bio-sludge in sequencing batch reactor (SBR) and granular activated carbon-SBR (GAC-SBR) systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirianuntapiboon, Suntud; Ungkaprasatcha, Ongorn

    2007-10-01

    Living bio-sludge from domestic wastewater treatment plant was used as adsorbent of heavy metals (Pb(2+), Ni(2+)) and its adsorption capacity was about 10-30% reduced by autoclaving at 110 degrees C for 10 min. The living bio-sludge acclimatized in synthetic industrial estate wastewater (SIEWW) without heavy metals showed the highest Pb(2+) and Ni(2+) adsorption capacities at 840+/-20 and 720+/-10 mg/g bio-sludge, respectively. The adsorbed Pb(2+) and Ni(2+) were easily eluted (70-77%) from bio-sludge by washing with 0.1 mol/l HNO(3) solution. The heavy metals (Pb(2+), Ni(2+)) removal efficiency of both SBR and GAC-SBR systems were increased with the increase of hydraulic retention time (HRT), or the decrease of organic loading. The SBR system showed higher heavy metals removal efficiency than GAC-SBR system at the same organic loading or HRT. The Pb(2+), Ni(2+), BOD(5), COD and TKN removal efficiencies of GAC-SBR system were 88.6+/-0.9%, 94.6+/-0.1%, 91.3+/-1.0%, 81.9+/-1.0% and 62.9+/-0.5%, respectively with industrial estate wastewater (IEWW) with 410 mg/l glucose, 5 mg/l Pb(2+) and 5 mg/l Ni(2+) under organic loading of 1.25 kg BOD(5)/m(3) d (HRT of 3 days). The bio-sludge quality (sludge volume index: SVI) of the system was less than 80 ml/g. The excess sludge from both SBR and GAC-SBR systems with SIEWW under the organic loading of 1.25-2.50 kg BOD(5)/m(3) d contained Pb(2+) and Ni(2+) at concentrations of 240-250 mg Pb(2+)/g bio-sludge and 180-210 mg Ni(2+)/g bio-sludge, respectively.

  18. Typical failures of CuNi 90/10 seawater tubing systems and how to avoid them

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleich, Wilhelm [Technical Advisory Service, KM Europa Metal AG, Klosterstr. 29, 49074 Osnabrueck (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    For many decades, copper-nickel alloy CuNi 90/10 (UNS C70600) has extensively been used as a piping material for seawater systems in shipbuilding, offshore, and desalination industries. Attractive characteristics of this alloy combine excellent resistance to uniform corrosion, remarkable resistance to localised corrosion in chlorinated seawater, and higher erosion resistance than other copper alloys and steel. Furthermore, CuNi 90/10 is resistant to biofouling providing various economic benefits. In spite of the appropriate properties of the alloy, instances of failure have been experienced in practice. The reasons are mostly attributed to the composition and production of CuNi 90/10 products compounds, occurrence of erosion-corrosion and corrosion damage in polluted waters. This paper covers important areas which have to be considered to ensure successful application of the alloy for seawater tubing. For this purpose, the optimum and critical operating conditions are evaluated. It includes metallurgical, design and fabrication considerations. For the prevention of erosion-corrosion, the importance of hydrodynamics is demonstrated. In addition, commissioning, shut-down and start-up measures are compiled that are necessary for the establishment and re-establishment of the protective layer. (author)

  19. Competing Jahn Teller distortions and ferrimagnetic ordering in the geometrically frustrated system Ni1 xCuxCr2O4

    OpenAIRE

    Reehuis, M.; Tovar, M.; Többens, D. M.; Pattison, P; Hoser, A.; Lake, B.

    2015-01-01

    Competing Jahn Teller distortions combined with geometrical frustration give rise to a rich phase diagram as a function of x Cu and temperature in the spinel system Ni1 xCuxCr2O4. The Jahn Teller distortion of the end members acts in opposite ways, with an elongation of the NiO4 tetrahedra resulting in a structural transition at TS1 317K in NiCr2O4, but a flattening in the CuO4 tetrahedra at TS1 846K in CuCr2O4. In both cases the symmetry is lowered from cubic Fd 3m to tetragonal I41 ...

  20. Ni-Based Catalysts for Low Temperature Methane Steam Reforming: Recent Results on Ni-Au and Comparison with Other Bi-Metallic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M. Venezia

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Steam reforming of light hydrocarbons provides a promising method for hydrogen production. Ni-based catalysts are so far the best and the most commonly used catalysts for steam reforming because of their acceptably high activity and significantly lower cost in comparison with alternative precious metal-based catalysts. However, nickel catalysts are susceptible to deactivation from the deposition of carbon, even when operating at steam-to-carbon ratios predicted to be thermodynamically outside of the carbon-forming regime. Reactivity and deactivation by carbon formation can be tuned by modifying Ni surfaces with a second metal, such as Au through alloy formation. In the present review, we summarize the very recent progress in the design, synthesis, and characterization of supported bimetallic Ni-based catalysts for steam reforming. The progress in the modification of Ni with noble metals (such as Au and Ag is discussed in terms of preparation, characterization and pretreatment methods. Moreover, the comparison with the effects of other metals (such as Sn, Cu, Co, Mo, Fe, Gd and B is addressed. The differences of catalytic activity, thermal stability and carbon species between bimetallic and monometallic Ni-based catalysts are also briefly shown.

  1. Ab initio study of the compound-energy modeling of multisublattice structures: The (hP6) Ni{sub 2}In-type intermetallics of the Ni–In–Sn system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos de Debiaggi, S., E-mail: susana.ramos@fain.uncoma.edu.ar [Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Nacional del Comahue, Buenos Aires 1400, 8300 Neuquén (Argentina); Instituto de Investigación y Desarrollo en Ingeniería de Procesos, Biotecnología y Energías Alternativas – CONICET-UNCo (Argentina); González Lemus, N.V. [Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Nacional del Comahue, Buenos Aires 1400, 8300 Neuquén (Argentina); Deluque Toro, C. [Grupo de Nuevos Materiales, Universidad de la Guajira, Riohacha (Colombia); Fernández Guillermet, A. [CONICET - Instituto Balseiro, Centro Atómico Bariloche, Avda. Bustillo 9500, 8400 Bariloche (Argentina)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • A DFT study of the compounds involved in CALPHAD modeling of the Ni–In–Sn (hP6) phase. • Several three-sublattice compounds of Ni, In, Sn and vacancies are studied ab initio. • Structural, cohesive and thermodynamic properties and the electronic DOS are reported. • Trends in calculated properties are correlated with changes in electronic structure. • A picture of the chemical bonding trends for these s-p/d type compounds is discussed. - Abstract: The thermodynamic modeling of non-stoichiometric, multisublattice intermetallic phases using the Compound-Energy Formalism (CEF) involves the determination of parameters representing the Gibbs energy (G{sub m}) of binary compounds, the so-called “end-member compounds” (EMCs), which are often metastable or hypothetical. In current CALPHAD (i.e., “Calculation of Phase Diagrams”) work, these quantities are treated as free parameters to be determined by searching for the best fit to the available information in the optimization procedure. The general purpose of this paper is to propose a theoretical approach to the study of the EMCs which makes use of density-functional-theory (DFT) ab initio calculations. The present method is applied to the EMCs involved in the CEF modeling of the non-stoichiometric (hP6) Ni{sub 2}In-structure type phase of the Ni–In and Ni–In–Sn systems using the three-sublattice models (Ni){sub 1}(Ni,Va){sub 1}(In,Ni){sub 1} and (Ni,Va){sub 1}(Ni,Va){sub 1}(In,Ni,Sn){sub 1}, respectively. By means of systematic ab initio projected augmented waves (PAW) calculations using the VASP code we study the EMCs involved in the CEF formulations of the G{sub m} for this phase in the binary and the ternary systems. Specifically, we study the twelve EMCs corresponding to the following sublattice occupations: (Ni){sub 1}(Ni){sub 1}(In){sub 1}, which is usually described as Ni:Ni:In (i.e., a compound with formula “Ni{sub 2}In”), Ni:Ni:Ni (i.e., “Ni{sub 3}”), Ni:Ni:Sn (“Ni

  2. Nuclear fragmentation in central collisions: Ni + Au from 32 to 90 A*MeV; Fragmentation dans les collisions centrales du systeme Ni + Au de 32 a 90 A MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellaize, N

    2000-11-03

    Heavy ion collisions are one of tools for studying nuclear system far away from its equilibrium state. This work concerns the most violent collisions in the Ni + Au system for incident energies ranging from 32 up to 90 AMeV. These events were detected with the multidetector INDRA and selected by the Principal Component Analysis (multidimensional analysis). This method classifies the events according their detection features and their degree of dissipation. We observed two deexcitation mechanisms: a fusion/fission - evaporation process and a multifragmentation process. Those two coexist from 32 to 52 AMeV whereas only one subsists at 90 AMeV. For those two mechanisms, an component was observed which seems to be linked to the initial phase of the reaction. The energy fluctuations of this component leads to variations in the energy deposit which determines the deexcitation of the system. The experimental multifragmentation data of the Ni + Au system (52 and 90 AMeV) were compared to the predictions of a statistical model and to the experimental data of the system Xe + Sn at 50 AMeV (also detected with INDRA). These comparisons show the lack of collective radial energy for fragments (Z{>=}10) in the Ni + Au system, and show that the degree of multifragmentation depends of the thermal excitation energy. Mean kinetic energies of particles and lights fragments (Z{>=}10) are larger in the Ni + Au system than the Xe + Sn system. This observation shows that these particles are more sensitive to the entrance channel for an asymmetric system than for a symmetric system (for the same number of nucleons). (author)

  3. Influence of static and dynamic dipolar fields in bulk YIG/thin film NiFe systems probed via spin rectification effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soh, Wee Tee, E-mail: a0046479@u.nus.edu [Center for Superconducting and Magnetic Materials, Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117551 (Singapore); Tay, Z.J. [Center for Superconducting and Magnetic Materials, Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117551 (Singapore); Yakovlev, N.L. [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, A*STAR (Agency for Science, Technology and Research), 3 Research Link, Singapore 117602 (Singapore); Peng, Bin [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Ong, C.K. [Center for Superconducting and Magnetic Materials, Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117551 (Singapore); Temasek Laboratories, National University of Singapore, 5A Engineering Drive 2, Singapore 117411 (Singapore)

    2017-03-15

    The characteristics of the static and dynamic components of the dipolar fields originating from a bulk polycrystalline yttrium iron garnet (YIG) substrate are probed by depositing a NiFe (Permalloy) layer on it, which acts as a detector. By measuring dc voltages generated via spin rectification effect (SRE) within the NiFe layer under microwave excitation, we characterize the influence of dipolar fields from bulk YIG on the NiFe layer. It is found that the dynamic YIG dipolar fields modify the self-SRE of NiFe, driving its own rectification voltages within the NiFe layer, an effect we term as non-local SRE. This non-local SRE only occurs near the simultaneous resonance of both YIG and NiFe. On the other hand, the static dipolar field from YIG manifests itself as a negative anisotropy in the NiFe layer which shifts the latter’s ferromagnetic resonance frequency. - Highlights: • We demonstrate the quantification of both the static and dynamic components of the dipolar fields due to a YIG slab. • The detection and characterisation of such dipolar fields are important in many magnetic applications such as magnonics. • The dipolar fields can pose potential pitfalls if not properly considered in certain spin-electronics systems.

  4. Low-density open-cell foams in the NiTi system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grummon, David S.; Shaw, John A.; Gremillet, Antoine

    2003-04-01

    It is shown that open-cell metallic foams having very low density, and that display martensite transformations required for shape memory and superelastic behavior, can be fabricated using a powder-metallurgy technique. Results are presented on experiments in which a polymeric precursor foam was coated with an equiatomic NiTi powder slurry and subsequently sintered to yield foams with relative densities as low as 0.039. Although contaminated with interstitial impurities, they displayed unambiguous calorimetric signature of the B2→B19' transformation. The results are of considerable significance to potential applications requiring ultralightweight structures with the unusual dissipative and strain-recovery properties of NiTi shape-memory materials.

  5. Dose integration and dose rate characteristics of a NiPAM polymer gel MRI dosimeter system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldenberg, C.; Karlsson Hauer, A.; Gustafsson, C.; Ceberg, S.

    2017-05-01

    The normoxic polymer gel dosimeter based on N-isopropyl acrylamide (NiPAM) is a promising full 3D-dosimeter with high spatial resolution and near tissue equivalency. NiPAM gel samples were irradiated to different doses using a linear accelerator. The absorbed dose was evaluated using MRI and statistical significance of the analysed data was calculated. The analysis was carried out using an in-house developed software. It was found that the gel dosimeter responded linearly to the absorbed dose. The gel exhibited a dose rate dependence, as well as a dependence on the sequential beam irradiation scheme. A higher dose rate, as well as a higher dose per sequential beam, resulted in a lower dose response.

  6. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy Investigation of the Anodic Functionalities and Processes in LSCM-CGO-Ni Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Boulfrad, Samir

    2015-07-17

    Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was used to characterize anode compositions made of (La0.75Sr0.25)0.97Cr0.5Mn0.5O3 (LSCM) and gadolinia doped ceria (CGO) with and without additional submicron Ni, or exsoluted Ni nanoparticles. In addition, the effects of the anode gas flow rate and the working temperature were investigated. Higher content of the ionic conductor leads to a decrease of the impedance in the frequency range from 100 Hz to 10 Hz. The effect of the catalyst component was investigated while keeping the electronic conductivity unchanged in the tested materials. Enhanced catalytic activity was demonstrated to considerably decrease the impedance especially in the frequency range between 100 Hz to 1 Hz. The change in the gas flow rate affects mainly the impedance bellow 1 Hz. © The Electrochemical Society.

  7. Performance of the Prognocean Plus system during the El Niño 2015/2016: predictions of sea level anomalies as tools for forecasting El Niño

    Science.gov (United States)

    Świerczyńska-Chlaściak, Małgorzata; Niedzielski, Tomasz; Miziński, Bartłomiej

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the performance of the Prognocean Plus system, which produces long-term predictions of sea level anomalies, during the El Niño 2015/2016. The main objective of work is to identify such ocean areas in which long-term forecasts of sea level anomalies during El Niño 2015/2016 reveal a considerable accuracy. At present, the system produces prognoses using four data-based models and their combinations: polynomial-harmonic model, autoregressive model, threshold autoregressive model and multivariate autoregressive model. The system offers weekly forecasts, with lead time up to 12 weeks. Several statistics that describe the efficiency of the available prediction models in four seasons used for estimating Oceanic Niño index (ONI) are calculated. The accuracies/skills of the predicting models were computed in the specific locations in the equatorial Pacific, namely the geometrically-determined central points of all Niño regions. For the said locations, we focused on the forecasts which targeted at the local maximum of sea level, driven by the El Niño 2015/2016. As a result, a series of the "spaghetti" graphs (for each point, season and model) as well as plots presenting the prognostic performance of every model - for all lead times, seasons and locations - were created. It is found that the Prognocean Plus system has a potential to become a new solution which may enhance the diagnostic discussions on the El Niño development. The forecasts produced by the threshold autoregressive model, for lead times of 5-6 weeks and 9 weeks, within the Niño1+2 region for the November-to-January (NDJ) season anticipated the culmination of the El Niño 2015/2016. The longest forecasts (8-12 weeks) were found to be the most accurate in the phase of transition from El Niño to normal conditions (the multivariate autoregressive model, central point of Niño1+2 region, the December-to-February season). The study was conducted to verify the ability and

  8. Sustainability assessment and comparison of waste management systems: The Cities of Sofia and Niš case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milutinović, Biljana; Stefanović, Gordana; Kyoseva, Vanya; Yordanova, Dilyana; Dombalov, Ivan

    2016-09-01

    Sustainability assessment of a waste management system is a very complex problem for numerous reasons. Firstly, it is a problem of environmental assessment, economic viability and social acceptability, and also a choice of the most practical waste treatment technique, taking into account all the specific areas in which a waste management system is implemented. For these reasons, among others, it is very important to benchmark, cooperate and exchange experiences in areas with similar characteristics. In this study, a comparison of waste management scenarios in the Cities of Niš and Sofia was performed. Based on the amount and composition of municipal solid waste, and taking into account local specifics (economic conditions, social acceptance, etc.), different scenarios were developed: landfilling without energy recovery, landfilling with energy recovery, mechanical-biological treatment, anaerobic digestion with biogas utilization and incineration with energy recovery. Scenario ranking was done using multi-criteria analysis and 12 indicators were chosen as the criteria. The obtained results show that the most sustainable scenario in both case studies is the mechanical-biological treatment (recycling, composting and Refuse Derived Fuel production). Having in mind that this scenario is the current waste management system in Sofia, these results can help decision-makers in the City of Niš in choosing a successful and sustainable waste management system. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. Evaporation of the {sup 36} Ar + {sup 58} Ni system studied with the 4{pi} INDRA detector; Vaporisation du systeme {sup 36} Ar + {sup 58} Ni etudie avec le detecteur 4{pi} INDRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouatizerga, A.

    1995-03-01

    With the capabilities of the INDRA 4{pi} detector, vaporization of the {sup 36}Ar + {sup 58}Ni system has been detected permitting thus first studies. This phenomenon which corresponds to a total disintegration of the total nuclear system into neutrons and isotopes of H is expected for very high excitation energies induced in-nucleus collisions at intermediate energies. The onset of vaporization was determined, it is found at 52 MeV per nucleon, which corresponds to an available energy per nucleon into the system of 12.3 MeV. Temperature at which vaporization occurs is a crucial parameter to describe the phenomenon. Upper limits for temperature have been deduced within two frameworks (complete surface evaporation or calculation within the free gas limit) and lead to values in the range 7-10 MeV. (author). 43 refs.

  10. Experiments on Lunar Core Composition: Phase Equilibrium Analysis of A Multi-Element (Fe-Ni-S-C) System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, B. M.; Righter, K.; Danielson, L.; Pando, K.

    2015-01-01

    Previous geochemical and geophysical experiments have proposed the presence of a small, metallic lunar core, but its composition is still being investigated. Knowledge of core composition can have a significant effect on understanding the thermal history of the Moon, the conditions surrounding the liquid-solid or liquid-liquid field, and siderophile element partitioning between mantle and core. However, experiments on complex bulk core compositions are very limited. One limitation comes from numerous studies that have only considered two or three element systems such as Fe-S or Fe-C, which do not supply a comprehensive understanding for complex systems such as Fe-Ni-S-Si-C. Recent geophysical data suggests the presence of up to 6% lighter elements. Reassessments of Apollo seismological analyses and samples have also shown the need to acquire more data for a broader range of pressures, temperatures, and compositions. This study considers a complex multi-element system (Fe-Ni-S-C) for a relevant pressure and temperature range to the Moon's core conditions.

  11. Phase separation in ternary system of Ni{sub 3}Mn{sub x}Al{sub 1−x} alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkova, N.V., E-mail: nvolkova@imp.uran.ru [M.N. Miheev Institute of Metal Physics, Ural Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. S. Kovalevskoi 18, Ekaterinburg 620137 (Russian Federation); Kourov, N.I. [M.N. Miheev Institute of Metal Physics, Ural Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. S. Kovalevskoi 18, Ekaterinburg 620137 (Russian Federation); Marchenkov, V.V. [M.N. Miheev Institute of Metal Physics, Ural Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. S. Kovalevskoi 18, Ekaterinburg 620137 (Russian Federation); Ural Federal University, 620002 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2016-03-01

    The concentration dependence of the resistance of the alloys of Ni{sub 3}Mn{sub x}Al{sub 1−x} system is described in the framework of the percolation theory in the model of an effective medium. The regions corresponding to the alloys of terminal compositions are present in the entire volume of the samples. The formation of an infinite cluster occurs near the percolation threshold x=0.3 for the phase of the Ni{sub 3}Al and x=0.7 for the phase of the Ni{sub 3}Mn type. This makes it possible to suppose that in the ternary Ni{sub 3}Mn{sub x}Al{sub 1−x} alloys in the intermediate region of concentrations there is realized an inhomogeneous heterophase structure.

  12. Study of transient phenomena using NI-USB data acquisition systems in Matlab-Simulink medium on 64 bit operating systems

    OpenAIRE

    Niculescu Titu

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents a new and modern method for study the transient phenomena appeared to connect the capacitive charges to an AC power source, using the MATLAB-SIMULINK software package. It is known that NI-USB data-acquisition systems manufactured by National Instruments are not seen by Simulink software package in 64-bit systems. For this is obligatory for use a 32-bit system. From this point of view, the article presents a method by which this disadvantage is eliminated, making possible th...

  13. Thermochemical and phase diagram studies of the Bi-Ni-Sn system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milcheva, N. [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Plovdiv, 24 Tsar Asen str., 4000 Plovdiv (Bulgaria); Broz, P. [Masaryk University, Faculty of Science, Kotlarska 2, 61137 Brno (Czech Republic); Masaryk University, Central European Institute of Technology, CEITEC, Kamenice 753/5, 625 00, Brno (Czech Republic); Bursik, J. [Institute of Physics of Materials, Academy of Sciences, Zizkova 22, 61662 Brno (Czech Republic); Vassilev, G.P., E-mail: gpvassilev@uni.plovdiv.bg [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Plovdiv, 24 Tsar Asen str., 4000 Plovdiv (Bulgaria)

    2012-04-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We study the phase diagram Bi-Ni-Sn by using scanning electron microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The samples are positioned in 3 isopleths with constant Ni contents of 0.05, 0.10 and 0.15 mol fraction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It has been confirmed that a ternary eutectic reaction appears at around 116-129 Degree-Sign C. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Experimental liquidus temperatures were obtained and compared to calculated ones. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Six groups of thermal arrests were registered (except the eutectic and liquidus related peaks). - Abstract: The phase diagram Bi-Ni-Sn was studied by means of SEM (scanning electron microscopy)/EDS (energy-dispersive solid state spectrometry), by DSC (differential scanning calorimetry) and RT-XRD (room temperature X-Ray diffraction) in order to attain more information about this ternary phase diagram. The samples were positioned in three isopleths with nickel contents of: 0.05 (section 1), 0.10 (section 2) and 0.15 (section 3) mole fractions, respectively. The mole fractions of Sn corresponding to the particular sections were as follows: from 0.19 to 0.76 (section 1), from 0.18 to 0.72 (section 2); from 0.17 to 0.68 (section 3). Mixtures of pure metals were sealed under vacuum in amorphous silica ampoules and annealed at 350 Degree-Sign C. A binary Bi-Sn eutectic sample was synthesized and used as internal standard. The existence of a previously reported ternary eutectic reaction was confirmed. Liquidus temperatures were identified and the results were compared to CALPHAD-type calculations. It was found that ternary samples' liquidus temperatures were higher than the calculated ones. Six more groups of thermal arrests were registered except the eutectic and liquidus related peaks.

  14. Welding of aluminum alloys through thermite like reactions in Al-CuO-Ni system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahrami Motlagh, Ehsan, E-mail: ehsan.bahramimotlagh@stu-mail.um.ac.ir [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Engineering Faculty, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, P.O. Box 9177948944, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Vahdati Khaki, Jalil; Haddad Sabzevar, Mohsen [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Engineering Faculty, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, P.O. Box 9177948944, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-04-16

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Combustion synthesis reactions were utilized for welding of aluminum alloys. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A composite joint reinforced by different intermetallic compounds was obtained. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Using metal oxides as a part of raw materials makes the welding process economical. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Furthermore, this process introduces new applications for thermite reactions. - Abstract: In this work, first, a metastable composite powder of '14Al-3CuO-Ni' with a decreased ignition temperature was obtained via Arrested Reactive Milling (ARM), then this exothermic blend was used for welding of 1100 Aluminum alloy. The reactive media and the weld zones were investigated using scanning electron microscope. X-ray diffraction experiment and morphological investigations accompanied with the EDS analyses were carried out in order to evaluate the reactions' products. Vickers microhardness profile across the joint and the shear strength of the joints were determined. The weld zone thickness in each of the parent alloys was measured to be 750 {mu}m, approximately. Results showed that different reactions occurring during the process lead to the in situ formation of different intermetallic compounds such as Al{sub 3}Ni{sub 2} and Al{sub 7}Cu{sub 4}Ni as well as Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles at the interface. Thus, this area has the maximum hardness (80-90 VHN) and the minimum hardness of 35 VHN belongs to the parent alloys. The mean shear strength of the obtained joints was 27 MPa.

  15. Effect of bio-sludge concentration on the efficiency of sequencing batch reactor (SBR) system to treat wastewater containing Pb{sup 2+}and Ni{sup 2+}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirianuntapiboon, Suntud, E-mail: suntud.sir@kmutt.ac.th [Department of Environmental Technology, School of Energy Environment and Materials, King-Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi (KMUTT), Thonkru, Bangmod, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand); Boonchupleing, Methinee [Department of Environmental Technology, School of Energy Environment and Materials, King-Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi (KMUTT), Thonkru, Bangmod, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand)

    2009-07-15

    The removal efficiency of sequencing batch reactor (SBR) system with synthetic industrial estate wastewater (SIEWW) containing Ni{sup 2+} or Pb{sup 2+} was increased with the increase of mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS). But, the sludge volume index (SVI) of the system was increased up to higher than 100 mL/g under MLSS of up to 4000 mg/L. Also, the effluent NO{sub 3}{sup -} was decreased with the increase of MLSS. The heavy metals (Ni{sup 2+} or Pb{sup 2+}), BOD{sub 5}, COD and TKN removal efficiencies of SBR system with SIEWW containing 5 mg/L heavy metal (Ni{sup 2+} or Pb{sup 2+}) under MLSS of 3000 mg/L were 83-85%, 96-97%, 95-96% and 83-94%, respectively. The increase of heavy metal (Ni{sup 2+} or Pb{sup 2+}) concentrations of SIEWW from 5 to 50 mg/L were not significantly effected to both COD and BOD{sub 5} removal efficiencies (they were reduced by only 4-5%), but they were strongly effected to both TKN and heavy metals removal efficiencies (they were reduced by 15 and 20-30%, respectively). Both Ni{sup 2+} and Pb{sup 2+} could repress the growth of both nitrification and denitrification bacteria. And Ni{sup 2+} was more effective than Pb{sup 2+} to reduce the heavy metals removal efficiency. The SBR system could be applied to treat the industrial estate wastewater (IEWW) containing both Pb{sup 2+} and Ni{sup 2+} even the heavy metals concentrations was up to 5 mg/L, but the removal efficiency was quite low and excess bio-sludge did not produce. However, the system efficiency could be increased with the increase of BOD{sub 5} concentration of the wastewater. The Pb{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, COD, BOD{sub 5} and TKN removal efficiencies of the system with IEWW containing 500 mg/L BOD{sub 5}, 5 mg/L Ni{sup 2+} and 5 mg/L Pb{sup 2+} under HRT of 3 days were 85.68 {+-} 0.31%, 87.03 {+-} 0.21%, 86.0 {+-} 0.5%, 94.04 {+-} 0.4% and 90.5 {+-} 0.9%, respectively. And the effluent SRT, SS and SVI of the system were 44.7 {+-} 0.6 days, 150 {+-} 6 mg/L and 100 m

  16. Effect of C particle size on the mechanism of self-propagation high-temperature synthesis in the Ni-Ti-C system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Y.F., E-mail: y.yang6@uq.edu.au [University of Queensland, School of Mechanical and Mining Engineering, ARC Centre of Excellence for Design in Light Metals, Brisbane, QLD 4072 (Australia); Wang, H.Y.; Wang, J.G. [Key Laboratory of Automobile Materials of Ministry of Education, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Jilin University, Nanling Campus, Changchun 130025 (China); Jiang, Q.C., E-mail: jqc@jlu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Automobile Materials of Ministry of Education, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Jilin University, Nanling Campus, Changchun 130025 (China)

    2011-06-23

    Highlights: > We investigated the effect of C particle size on the self-propagating high temperature reaction mechanism. > Coarse C particle size (>38 {mu}m) resulted in the formation of prior TiC{sub x} layer between Ti and C. > Prior TiC{sub x} layer control the whole reaction of Ni-Ti-C and domain the reaction kinetics. > The selection of C particle size is the most important factor to fabricate TiC/Ni composite using Ti, C and Ni mixtures. - Abstract: Effect of C particle size on the mechanism of self-propagation high-temperature synthesis (SHS) in the Ni-Ti-C system was investigated. Fine C particle resulted in a traditional mechanism of dissolution-precipitation while coarse C particle made the reaction be controlled by a mechanism of the diffusion of C through the TiC{sub x} layer. The whole process can be described: C atoms diffusing through the TiC{sub x} layer dissolved into the Ni-Ti liquid and TiC were formed once the liquid became supersaturated. Simultaneously, the heat generated from the TiC formation made the unstable TiC{sub x} layer break up. However, with the spread of Ti-Ni liquid, a new TiC{sub x} layer was formed again at the interface between spreading liquid and C particle. This process cannot stop until all the C particles are consumed completely.

  17. Study of the Isothermal Oxidation Process and Phase Transformations in B2-(Ni,Pt)Al/RENE-N5 System

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Alberto Cáceres-Díaz; Juan Manuel Alvarado-Orozco; Haidee Ruiz-Luna; John Edison García-Herrera; Alma Gabriela Mora-García; Gerardo Trápaga-Martínez; Raymundo Arroyave; Juan Muñoz-Saldaña

    2016-01-01

    Changes in composition, crystal structure and phase transformations of B2-(Ni,Pt)Al coatings upon isothermal oxidation experiments (natural and scale free oxidation) at 1100 °C, as a function of time beyond their martensitic transformation, are reported. Specifically, the analysis of lattice parameter and composition are performed to identify changes in the B2-(Ni,Pt)Al phase upon the chemically-driven L10-(Ni,Pt)Al and L12-(Ni,Pt)3Al transformations. The B2-(Ni,Pt)Al phase was found to disor...

  18. On the muscle activity control in the hierarchy motor systems. Hierarchy undo system ni okeru kin no kassei seigyo ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akiba, M.; Miyamoto, Y. (Osaka Industrial University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)

    1991-10-31

    Excitory impulses for motor systems are controlled by the psychophysiological nervous systems in the body either autonomically or voluntarily. Involved in the voluntary control loop are motor cortex, basal gangalia, thalamus, cerebellum, etc. The purpose of this study is to confirm whether it is possible to reduce or emphasize the muscle contraction voluntarily through electromyogram (EMG) feedback training. EMG can indicate the excitory impulses of motor units. In the experiments, electrodes were placed on the skin above muscles. A significant reduction effect was observed for subjects trained in relaxation of the forehead musculature through EMG feedback. Results of the experiments suggested that biofeedback training for relaxation of the forehead tensional muscle might be effective in eliminating muscle contraction, and that feedback training for activation of damaged muscles might be effective in emphasizing muscle contraction. 4 refs., 9 figs.

  19. A charge transfer ionic-embedded atom method potential for the O-Al-Ni-Co-Fe system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Xiaowang; Wadley, Haydn N G [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, 116 Engineer' s Way, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4745 (United States)

    2005-06-15

    Magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) require the growth of a thin ({approx}20 A) dielectric metal oxide layer, such as Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, on a ferromagnetic metal layer, such as Co, CoFe, or CoNiFe. The atomic assembly mechanisms that combine to form a uniformly thin metal oxide layer on these metal surfaces are not well understood. The application of molecular dynamics simulations to the growth of metal and metal oxide multilayers that involve more than one metal element has not been possible using the conventional interatomic potentials. A recently proposed modified charge transfer ionic-embedded atom method potential appears to correctly enable the charge transfer between oxygen and numerous metal elements to be modelled in a format amenable for molecular dynamics studies. Here we parametrize this charge transfer ionic-embedded atom method potential for the quinternary O-Al-Ni-Co-Fe system so that a direct molecular dynamics simulation of the growth of the tunnelling magnetoresistive multilayers can be realized.

  20. Study of fatigue and fracture behavior of NbCr{sub 2}-based alloys: Phase stability in Nb-Cr-Ni ternary system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, J.H.; Liaw, P.K. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Liu, C.T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Metals and Ceramics Div.

    1997-12-01

    Phase stability in a ternary Nb-Cr-Ni Laves phase system was studied in this paper. Their previous study in NbCr{sub 2}-based transition-metal Laves phases has shown that the average electron concentration factor, e/a, is the dominating factor in controlling the phase stability of NbCr{sub 2}-based Laves phases when the atomic size ratios are kept identical. Since Ni has ten out-shell electrons, the substitution of Ni for Cr in NbCr{sub 2} will increase the average electron concentration of the alloy, thus leading to the change of the crystal structures from C15 to C14. In this paper, a number of pseudo-binary Nb(Cr,Ni){sub 2} alloys were prepared, and the crystal structures of the alloys after a long heat-treatment at 1000 C as a function of the Ni content were determined by the X-ray diffraction technique. The boundaries of the C15/C14 transition were determined and compared to their previous predictions. It was found that the electron concentration and phase stability correlation is obeyed in the Nb-Cr-Ni system. However, the e/a ratio corresponding to the C15/C14 phase transition was found to move to a higher value than the predicted one. The changes in the lattice constant, Vickers hardness and fracture toughness were also determined as a function of the Ni content, which were discussed in light of the phase stability difference of the alloys.

  1. Quality of Metal Deposited Flux Cored Wire With the System Fe-C-Si-Mn-Cr-Mo-Ni-V-Co

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusev, Aleksander I.; Kozyrev, Nikolay A.; Osetkovskiy, Ivan V.; Kryukov, Roman E.; Kozyreva, Olga A.

    2017-10-01

    Studied the effect of the introduction of vanadium and cobalt into the charge powder fused wire system Fe-C-Si-Mn-Cr-Ni-Mo-V, used in cladding assemblies and equipment parts and mechanisms operating under abrasive and abrasive shock loads. the cored wires samples were manufactured in the laboratory conditions and using appropriate powder materials and as a carbonfluoride contained material were used the dust from gas purification of aluminum production, with the following components composition, %: Al2O3 = 21-46.23; F = 18-27; Na2O = 8-15; K2O = 0.4-6; CaO = 0.7-2.3; Si2O = 0.5-2.48; Fe2O3 = 2.1-3.27; C = 12.5-30.2; MnO = 0.07-0.9; MgO = 0.06-0.9; S = 0.09-0.19; P = 0.1-0.18. Surfacing was produced on the St3 metal plates in 6 layers under the AN-26C flux by welding truck ASAW-1250. Cutting and preparation of samples for research had been implemented. The chemical composition and the hydrogen content of the weld metal were determined by modern methods. The hardness and abrasion rate of weld metal had been measured. Conducted metallographic studies of weld metal: estimated microstructure, grain size, contamination of oxide non-metallic inclusions. Metallographic studies showed that the microstructure of the surfaced layer by cored wire system Fe-C-Si-Mn-Cr-Mo-Ni-V-Co is uniform, thin dendrite branches are observed. The microstructure consists of martensite, which is formed inside the borders of the former austenite grain retained austenite present in small amounts in the form of separate islands, and thin layers of δ-ferrite, which is located on the borders of the former austenite grains. Carried out an assessment the effect of the chemical composition of the deposited metal on the hardness and wear and hydrogen content. In consequence of multivariate correlation analysis, it was determined dependence to the hardness of the deposited layer and the wear resistance of the mass fraction of the elements included in the flux-cored wires of the system Fe-C-Si-Mn-Cr-Mo-Ni

  2. Study on solar and human power hybrid drive system applied to electric wheelchair; Dendosha isu ni tekiyosuru taiyo denchi jinriki hybrid kudo system ni kansuru ichikosatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueda, Y.; Uchijima, T.; Saijo, T. [Shibaura Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-08

    In order to control, with high efficiency, the solar and human power hybrid drive system, the solar cell capacity and condenser capacitance were studied for the brushless DC motor. As an energy storage source, condensers were used in parallel in lieu of battery. In the steady state, the energy generated by the solar cells is used for the driving, while its shortage is compensated from the condensers against the start-up and other cases of much energy required. If the condenser capacitance is small, the start-up is delayed. If it is extremely large, the required time is prolonged for the charging and discharging, the weight increases, and the follow-up performance falls. Judging from the working points (voltage and current) required for the solar cells during the rated operation, 13 modules gave an appropriate capacity, while the appropriate condenser capacitance was 2424 micron F. When a rotational frequency of 2500rpm was inputted, sufficiently smooth torque characteristics were given as start-up characteristics with a good follow-up performance and appropriate condenser capacitance. Judging from the working points during the rated operation, the solar cell capacity was also appropriate. 2 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Ni-based electrocatalyst for water oxidation developed In-situ in a HCO3 -/CO2 system at near-neutral pH

    KAUST Repository

    Joya, Khurram Saleem

    2014-03-10

    Electrochemically generated NiOx nanoworms from a neutral bicarbonate system split water into dioxygen and protons with tremendous efficiency and stability. The NiOx electrocatalyst follows a pH-potential dependence, revealing a PCET (proton coupled electron transfer) mechanism of one electron and one proton oxidation. It does not require proton abstracting phosphate or borate buffers for electrogeneration and catalysis, and shows promising activity for anodic oxidation of water in phosphate, borate, and carbonate buffers. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. In situ spectroscopic detection of SMSI effect in a Ni/CeO2 system: hydrogen-induced burial and dig out of metallic nickel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, Alfonso; Holgado, Juan P; Gonzalez-delaCruz, Victor M; Habas, Susan E; Herranz, Tirma; Salmeron, Miquel

    2010-02-21

    In situ APPES technique demonstrates that the strong metal support interaction effect (SMSI) in the Ni-ceria system is associated with the decoration and burial of metallic particles by the partially reduced support, a phenomenon reversible by evacuation at high temperature of the previously absorbed hydrogen.

  5. In situ spectroscopic detection of SMSI effect in a Ni/CeO2 system: hydrogen-induced burial and dig out of metallic nickel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caballero, Alfonso; Holgado, Juan P.; Gonzalez-delaCruz, Victor M.; Habas, Susan e.; Herranz, Tirma; Salmeron, Miquel

    2010-06-29

    In situ APPES technique demonstrates that the strong metal support interaction effect (SMSI) in the Ni-ceria system is associated with the decoration and burial of metallic particles by the partially reduced support, a phenomenon reversible by evacuation at high temperature of the previously absorbed hydrogen.

  6. Two magnetic orderings and a spin-flop transition in spin-1 system SrNi2(PO4)2

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhangzhen; Chen, S. C.; Lue, C. S.; Cheng, Wendan; Ueda, Yutaka

    2008-12-01

    Magnetic properties of SrNi2(PO4)2 are investigated by means of susceptibility, magnetization, heat-capacity, and P31 NMR measurements. Our experimental results show that SrNi2(PO4)2 is a three-dimensional antiferromagnet with two magnetic orderings at ˜23 and ˜10K . It is suggested that canted antiferromagnetic ordering at ˜23K may correspond to a Néel noncollinear spin arrangements of Ni2+ ions, and such noncollinear spin arrangements further induce spin rotations into a steady collinear antiferromagnetic phase below ˜10K with decreasing temperature. Also, spin-flop transition is observed at a critical field below ˜10K , showing magnetic anisotropy in the system.

  7. Exchange bias in sputtered FeNi/FeMn systems: Effect of short low-temperature heat treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savin, Peter, E-mail: peter.savin@urfu.ru [Department of Magnetism and Magnetic Nanomaterials, Laboratory of Magnetic Sensors, Ural Federal University, 620002 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Guzmán, Jorge [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid-CSIC, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Lepalovskij, Vladimir [Department of Magnetism and Magnetic Nanomaterials, Laboratory of Magnetic Sensors, Ural Federal University, 620002 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Svalov, Andrey; Kurlyandskaya, Galina [Department of Magnetism and Magnetic Nanomaterials, Laboratory of Magnetic Sensors, Ural Federal University, 620002 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Departamento de Electricidad y Electrónica, Universidad del País Vasco (UPV/EHU), 48940 Leioa, Vizcaya (Spain); Asenjo, Agustina [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid-CSIC, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Vas’kovskiy, Vladimir [Department of Magnetism and Magnetic Nanomaterials, Laboratory of Magnetic Sensors, Ural Federal University, 620002 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Vazquez, Manuel [Department of Magnetism and Magnetic Nanomaterials, Laboratory of Magnetic Sensors, Ural Federal University, 620002 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid-CSIC, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2016-03-15

    Short (5 min) post-deposition thermal treatments under magnetic field at low temperature (up to 200 °C) performed in exchange-coupled FeNi(40 nm)/FeMn(20 nm) bilayer thin films prepared by magnetron sputtering are shown to be effective to significantly modify their exchange field (from around 40 Oe down to 27 Oe) between FeNi and FeMn layers. A similar exchange field decrease was observed for the first deposited FeNi layer of the FeNi(40 nm)/FeMn(20 nm)/FeNi(40 nm) trilayer films after the same thermal treatments. The exchange field value for the second FeNi layer was not substantially changed. The X-ray diffraction patterns indicates that such a heat treatment has no effect on the grain size and crystalline texture of the films, while atomic force microscope studies reveal an increase of the surface roughness after the treatment which is more noticeable in the case of the trilayer film. Analysis of the experimental results leads us to conclude that the variations of the exchange field after heat treatment are likely caused by a modification of interfacial roughness and/or interfacial magnetic structure, but unlikely by the changes in the microstructure and/or changes of composition of the antiferromagnetic FeMn layer. - Highlights: • FeNi/FeMn bilayers and FeNi/FeMn/FeNi trilayers were prepared by magnetron sputtering. • Post-deposition heat treatments at the temperatures below 200 °C during 5 min were made. • Annealing reduces the exchange field for the first FeNi layer in trilayers. • The exchange field value for the second FeNi layer was not substantially changed. • Exchange field changes are most likely caused by a modification of interface roughness.

  8. Influence of NiTi alloy on the root canal shaping capabilities of the ProTaper Universal and ProTaper Gold rotary instrument systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jussaro Alves DUQUE

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective This study aimed to evaluate the influence of the NiTi wire in Conventional NiTi (ProTaper Universal PTU and Controlled Memory NiTi (ProTaper Gold PTG instrument systems on the quality of root canal preparation. Material and Methods Twelve mandibular molars with separate mesial canals were scanned using a high-definition microcomputed tomography system. The PTU and PTG instruments were used to shape twelve mesial canals each. The canals were scanned after preparation with F2 and F3 instruments of the PTU and PTG systems. The analyzed parameters included the remaining dentin thickness at the apical and cervical levels, root canal volume and untouched canal walls. Data was analyzed for statistical significance by the Friedman and Dunn’s tests. For the comparison of data between groups, the Mann-Whitney test was used. Results In the pre-operative analysis, there were no statistically significant differences between the groups in terms of the area and volume of root canals (P>.05. There was also no statistically significant difference between the systems with respect to root canal volume after use of the F2 and F3 instruments. There was no statistical difference in the dentin thickness at the first apical level between, before and after instrumentation for both systems. At the 3 cervical levels, the PTG maintained centralization of the preparation on the transition between the F2 and F3 instruments, which did not occur with the PTU. Conclusion The Conventional NiTi (PTU and Controlled Memory NiTi (PTG instruments displayed comparable capabilities for shaping the straight mesial root canals of mandibular molars, although the PTG was better than the PTU at maintaining the centralization of the shape in the cervical portion.

  9. Adsorption of Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn in tropical soils under competitive and non-competitive systems Adsorção de Cd, Cu, Ni e Zn em solos tropicais em sistemas competitivo e não-competitivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy Silva Moreira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The adsorption of heavy metals in soils affects their behavior in the environment and their bioavailability to plants. The knowledge of the adsorption mechanisms in competitive systems allows a more realistic evaluation of the metals' behavior in the soil than the single metal adsorption. The objectives of this study were (i to evaluate Cd, Cu, Ni, and Zn adsorption in 14 surface samples (0-0.2 m of representative soils of the Brazilian humid-tropical region, in competitive and non-competitive systems, and (ii to establish metal affinity sequences for each soil, based in the maximum adsorption capacity (MAC estimated by the Langmuir model. The Rhodic Eutrudox, the Kandiudalf Eutrudox, the Arenic Hapludalf, the Arenic Hapludult and the Typic Argiudoll had the highest metals' adsorption capacity, whereas the Typic Quartzipsamment and the sandy-textured Arenic Hapludult had the lowest values. In general, the MAC values for metals were lower in the competitive than in the non-competitive system. In the non-competitive system, the most common affinity sequence was Cu > Zn > Ni > Cd, whereas the most common sequence was Cu > Cd > Zn > Ni in the competitive system. In general, the Langmuir model fitted well the adsorption data of metals on the studied soils.A adsorção de metais pesados em solos afeta seu comportamento e biodisponibilidade às plantas. O conhecimento dos mecanismos de adsorção em sistemas competitivos permite uma avaliação mais realista do comportamento dos metais no solo do que estudos com adsorção de cada metal, isoladamente. Os objetivos desse trabalho foram: (i avaliar a adsorção de Cd, Cu, Ni e Zn em amostras superficiais (0-0,2 m de 14 solos representativos da região tropical úmida, em sistema competitivo e não-competitivo, e (ii estabelecer sequências de afinidade metálica para cada solo, com base nos valores de capacidade máxima de adsorção (CMA dos metais estimados por meio do modelo de Langmuir. O Rhodic

  10. Study on the optimal control of the ground thermal storage system in the greenhouse. Part 4; Onshitsu ni okeru taiyo energy dochu chikunetsu system ni okeru saiteki seigyo ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, M. [Sanko Air Conditioning Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan); Nakahara, N. [Kanagawa University, Yokohama (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    Three types of weight in both energy saving and optimum room temperature environment were changed to obtain the optimal control solution of the ground thermal storage system in a greenhouse. The relation diagram between the optimal solution of a performance function, and the state constraints and control function constraints was created in consideration of the energy term in a control function value area and the room temperature environment. As a result, the whole image of the performance function could be grasped in consideration of the energy term with inequality constraints and the room temperature environmental term in this study. The rate of a weighting factor in the performance function significantly influences the optimal solution. The influence on the optimal solution also changes when the optimal room temperature schedule differs. The influence that three types of rising algorithm exert on the convergence and converging speed was investigated. Superiority or inferiority occurs according to the space properties of a performance function. A zigzag method is most disadvantageous. The constraints can be converged to the optimal solution using an SUMT outer point method irrespective of the initial value. 6 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Study of the Isothermal Oxidation Process and Phase Transformations in B2-(Ni,PtAl/RENE-N5 System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Alberto Cáceres-Díaz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Changes in composition, crystal structure and phase transformations of B2-(Ni,PtAl coatings upon isothermal oxidation experiments (natural and scale free oxidation at 1100 °C, as a function of time beyond their martensitic transformation, are reported. Specifically, the analysis of lattice parameter and composition are performed to identify changes in the B2-(Ni,PtAl phase upon the chemically-driven L10-(Ni,PtAl and L12-(Ni,Pt3Al transformations. The B2-(Ni,PtAl phase was found to disorder and transform the martensite during the heat treatments for both oxidation experiments at approximately 36.3 and 40.9 at. % of Al, 47.7 and 42.9 at. % of Ni, 6.2 and 8.5 at. % of Pt, 4.2 and 2.9 at. % of Cr and 4.4 and 3.8 at. % of Co. The lattice constant and the long-range order parameter of the B2-(Ni,PtAl phase decreased linearly as a function of the elemental content irrespective of the nature of the oxidation experiments.

  12. Copper-based alloys, crystallographic and crystallochemical parameters of alloys in binary systems Cu-Me (Me=Co, Rh, Ir, Cu, Ag, Au, Ni, Pd, Pt)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porobova, Svetlana; Markova, Tat'jana; Klopotov, Vladimir; Klopotov, Anatoliy; Loskutov, Oleg; Vlasov, Viktor

    2016-01-01

    The article presents the results of the analysis of phase equilibrium of ordered phases in binary systems based on copper Cu- Me (where Me - Co, Rh, Ir, Ag, Au, Ni, Pd, Pt) to find correlations of crystallochemical and crystallographic factors. It is established that the packing index in disordered solid solutions in binary systems based on copper is close to the value of 0.74 against the background of an insignificant deviation of atomic volumes from the Zen's law.

  13. Mechanical intermixing of components in (CoMoNi)-based systems and the formation of (CoMoNi)/WC nanocomposite layers on Ti sheets under ball collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romankov, S.; Park, Y. C.; Shchetinin, I. V.

    2017-11-01

    Cobalt (Co), molybdenum (Mo), and nickel (Ni) components were simultaneously introduced onto titanium (Ti) surfaces from a composed target using ball collisions. Tungsten carbide (WC) balls were selected for processing as the source of a cemented carbide reinforcement phase. During processing, ball collisions continuously introduced components from the target and the grinding media onto the Ti surface and induced mechanical intermixing of the elements, resulting in formation of a complex nanocomposite structure onto the Ti surface. The as-fabricated microstructure consisted of uniformly dispersed WC particles embedded within an integrated metallic matrix composed of an amorphous phase with nanocrystalline grains. The phase composition of the alloyed layers, atomic reactions, and the matrix grain sizes depended on the combination of components introduced onto the Ti surface during milling. The as-fabricated layer exhibited a very high hardness compared to industrial metallic alloys and tool steel materials. This approach could be used for the manufacture of both cemented carbides and amorphous matrix composite layers.

  14. Systematic analysis on mooring systems of floating structures; Futai keiryuho ni kansuru keitoteki kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, K.; Suzuki, H.; Ide, T. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    Discussed herein are mooring performance requirements of the new types of marine structures now proposed, and characteristic ranges and future expansion potential of the existing mooring systems. The mooring systems studied for floating structures are catenary, single point (multi-leg and single-leg types), fixed structure with fender and tension leg mooring systems. The studied items include extraction of the elements that constitute rigidity of the spring for horizontal mooring, survey on and data collection for each element, determination of element ranges, programs for mooring analysis, assessment of mooring characteristic ranges, and potential development of the characteristic ranges. It is concluded that the existing systems with their current characteristic ranges and future possibility are insufficient for the future marine structures. It is therefore necessary to develop new mooring concepts, instead of expanding the current concepts, in order to meet the mooring performance requirements for the new marine structures. 14 refs., 9 figs., 11 tabs.

  15. Combinatorial Study of the Li-Ni-Mn-Co Oxide Pseudoquaternary System for Use in Li-Ion Battery Materials Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Colby R; McCalla, Eric; Watson, Cody; Dahn, J R

    2015-06-08

    Combinatorial synthesis has proven extremely effective in screening for new battery materials for Li-ion battery electrodes. Here, a study in the Li-Ni-Mn-Co-O system is presented, wherein samples with nearly 800 distinct compositions were prepared using a combinatorial and high-throughput method to screen for single-phase materials of high interest as next generation positive electrode materials. X-ray diffraction is used to determine the crystal structure of each sample. The Gibbs' pyramid representing the pseudoquaternary system was studied by making samples within three distinct pseudoternary planes defined at fractional cobalt metal contents of 10%, 20%, and 30% within the Li-Ni-Mn-Co-O system. Two large single-phase regions were observed in the system: the layered region (ordered rocksalt) and cubic spinel region; both of which are of interest for next-generation positive electrodes in lithium-ion batteries. These regions were each found to stretch over a wide range of compositions within the Li-Ni-Mn-Co-O pseudoquaternary system and had complex coexistence regions existing between them. The sample cooling rate was found to have a significant effect on the position of the phase boundaries of the single-phase regions. The results of this work are intended to guide further research by narrowing the composition ranges worthy of study and to illustrate the broad range of applications where solution-based combinatorial synthesis can have significant impact.

  16. Experimental and Thermodynamic Study of Selected in-Situ Composites from the Fe-Cr-Ni-Mo-C System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wieczerzak K.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to synthesize and characterize the selected in-situ composites from the Fe-Cr-Ni-Mo-C system, additionally strengthened by intermetallic compounds. The project of the alloys was supported by thermodynamic simulations using Calculation of Phase Diagram approach via Thermo-Calc. Selected alloys were synthesized in an arc furnace in a high purity argon atmosphere using a suction casting unit. The studies involved a range of experimental techniques to characterize the alloys in the as-cast state, including optical emission spectrometry, light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, electron microprobe analysis, X-ray diffraction and microhardness tests. These experimental studies were compared with the Thermo-Calc data and high resolution dilatometry. The results of investigations presented in this paper showed that there is a possibility to introduce intermetallic compounds, such as χ and σ, through modification of the chemical composition of the alloy with respect to Nieq and Creq. It was found that the place of intermetallic compounds precipitation strongly depends on matrix nature. Results presented in this paper may be successfully used to build a systematic knowledge about the group of alloys with a high volume fraction of complex carbides, and high physicochemical properties, additionally strengthened by intermetallic compounds.

  17. Implementation of a real-time automatic onset time detection for surface electromyography measurement systems using NI myRIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lersviriyanantakul Chaiwat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For using surface electromyography (sEMG in various applications, the process consists of three parts: an onset time detection for detecting the first point of movement signals, a feature extraction for extracting the signal attribution, and a feature classification for classifying the sEMG signals. The first and the most significant part that influences the accuracy of other parts is the onset time detection, particularly for automatic systems. In this paper, an automatic and simple algorithm for the real-time onset time detection is presented. There are two main processes in the proposed algorithm; a smoothing process for reducing the noise of the measured sEMG signals and an automatic threshold calculation process for determining the onset time. The results from the algorithm analysis demonstrate the performance of the proposed algorithm to detect the sEMG onset time in various smoothing-threshold equations. Our findings reveal that using a simple square integral (SSI as the smoothing-threshold equation with the given sEMG signals gives the best performance for the onset time detection. Additionally, our proposed algorithm is also implemented on a real hardware platform, namely NI myRIO. Using the real-time simulated sEMG data, the experimental results guarantee that the proposed algorithm can properly detect the onset time in the real-time manner.

  18. Spectroscopic features of Ni(2+) ion in PbO-Bi2O3-SiO2 glass system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, B; Srinivasa Reddy, M; Siva Sesha Reddy, A; Gandhi, Y; Ravi Kumar, V; Veeraiah, N

    2015-04-15

    Glasses of the composition (30-x)PbO-5Bi2O3-65SiO2: xNiO (with x ranging from 0 to 1.0 mol%) were synthesized. A variety of spectroscopic studies, viz., IR, Raman optical absorption and luminescence properties of these glasses have been carried out as a function of NiO concentration. The analysis of results of all these studies has indicated that the nickel ions occupy both octahedral and tetrahedral positions. However, with the increase of NiO concentration the octahedral occupancy of Ni(2+) ions prevailed over the tetrahedral ions. The luminescence spectra of these glasses have exhibited a broad NIR emission band in region 1100-1500 nm. This band is identified as being due to (3)T2(3F)→(3)A2(3F) octahedral transition of Ni(2+) ions. The luminescence efficiency and cross section have been found to be the highest for the glass containing the highest concentration of NiO. The reasons for such high luminescence efficiency have been discussed in the light of structural variations taking place in the host glass network. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Reduction of , -Unsaturated Ketones Using a Zn/NiCl System in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NJD

    system in H2O or H2O/EtOH media in the absence or presence of anionic and cationic surfactants have been investigated and have ... Zinc/nickel chloride/H2O, reduction, hydrogenation, surfactants, sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS), cetyltrimethylammonium ..... cooled to room temperature, saturated with NaCl solution.

  20. Evaluation of apical transportation and centring ability of five thermally treated NiTi rotary systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, S R; Alcalde, M P; Vivacqua-Gomes, N; Bramante, C M; Vivan, R R; Duarte, M A H; Vasconcelos, B C

    2017-11-27

    To evaluate apical transportation and centring ability during root canal preparation in mesial root canals of mandibular molars associated with ProTaper Gold (PTG), ProDesign S (PDS), Hyflex CM (HCM), Hyflex EDM and ProDesign Logic (PDL). Sixty mandibular first molars with two separate canals in the mesial root were selected after root anatomy pairing by microcomputed tomography (microCT). The teeth were randomly divided into five groups (n = 24); the root canal volume was calculated to ensure sample homogeneity. All the root canals were prepared up to size 25 in accordance with the instructions of each rotary system manufacturer. After root canal preparation, the teeth were scanned by microCT to analyse apical transportation, root canal centralization and the pre- and post-preparation root canal volume at the apical and cervical levels. Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests were used for comparisons amongst groups for transportation values. For volume changes, the parametric ANOVA and Tukey's tests were used RESULTS: There were no significant differences in apical transportation amongst the rotary systems (P > 0.05). All the systems created apical transportation; values ranging from 0.031 mm (PDL) to 0.072 mm (PTG), and enlargements between 39% (HCM) and 91.1% (PDS) were observed. In relative to cervical transportation, significant differences were observed amongst the systems (P Hyflex CM and Prodesign Logic systems were associated with more centred preparations. © 2017 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Solar-Driven Reduction of Aqueous Protons Coupled to Selective Alcohol Oxidation with a Carbon Nitride-Molecular Ni Catalyst System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasap, Hatice; Caputo, Christine A; Martindale, Benjamin C M; Godin, Robert; Lau, Vincent Wing-Hei; Lotsch, Bettina V; Durrant, James R; Reisner, Erwin

    2016-07-27

    Solar water-splitting represents an important strategy toward production of the storable and renewable fuel hydrogen. The water oxidation half-reaction typically proceeds with poor efficiency and produces the unprofitable and often damaging product, O2. Herein, we demonstrate an alternative approach and couple solar H2 generation with value-added organic substrate oxidation. Solar irradiation of a cyanamide surface-functionalized melon-type carbon nitride ((NCN)CNx) and a molecular nickel(II) bis(diphosphine) H2-evolution catalyst (NiP) enabled the production of H2 with concomitant selective oxidation of benzylic alcohols to aldehydes in high yield under purely aqueous conditions, at room temperature and ambient pressure. This one-pot system maintained its activity over 24 h, generating products in 1:1 stoichiometry, separated in the gas and solution phases. The (NCN)CNx-NiP system showed an activity of 763 μmol (g CNx)(-1) h(-1) toward H2 and aldehyde production, a Ni-based turnover frequency of 76 h(-1), and an external quantum efficiency of 15% (λ = 360 ± 10 nm). This precious metal-free and nontoxic photocatalytic system displays better performance than an analogous system containing platinum instead of NiP. Transient absorption spectroscopy revealed that the photoactivity of (NCN)CNx is due to efficient substrate oxidation of the material, which outweighs possible charge recombination compared to the nonfunctionalized melon-type carbon nitride. Photoexcited (NCN)CNx in the presence of an organic substrate can accumulate ultralong-lived "trapped electrons", which allow for fuel generation in the dark. The artificial photosynthetic system thereby catalyzes a closed redox cycle showing 100% atom economy and generates two value-added products, a solar chemical, and solar fuel.

  2. From One Extreme to Another: Tsunami, Hurricane, and El Niño Observations from the NDBC Ocean Observing Systems of Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, R. H.; Henderson, D.; Locke, L.

    2008-05-01

    NOAA`s National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) operates a system of ocean observing systems (NOOSS) to provide critical information in real-time during extreme events, such as tsunamis, hurricanes, and El Niños. NDBC recently completed the 39-station array of tsunameters that employ the second-generation Deep-ocean and Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis (DART II) technology. The tsunameter array spans the Pacific Ocean and the western Atlantic Ocean providing real-time water-level measurements and tsunami detection times. At depths down to 6000 meters the tsunameters can send information in less than 3 minutes to the Tsunami Warning Centers in Hawaii and Alaska and to the international tsunami community. The tsunameters have provided data for the Kuril tsunamis of November 2006 and January 2007, the Peru tsunamis of August and September 2007, and the southern Sumatra tsunami of September 2007. In 2006, NDBC assumed operations of the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean Array (TAO), the "crown jewel" of the Global Climate Observation System. TAO provides real-time data for improved detection, understanding, and prediction of El Niño and La Niña. The 55-buoy TAO array spans the central and eastern equatorial Pacific. Real-time and post-deployment recovery data support climate analysis and forecasts. For more than 30 years, NDBC has operated a system of buoys and coastal automated stations for meteorological and oceanographic observations that support real-time weather analysis, forecasting, and warnings. These "traditional" NDBC stations measure winds, waves, temperature, and humidity routinely. Some stations are augmented with ocean current and temperature and salinity (conductivity) sensors. In recent years, among the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean hurricanes passing in proximity to NDBC stations include Ivan in 2004, Cindy, Emily, Dennis, Katrina, Rita, and Wilma in 2005, Ernesto in 2006, and Dean and Felix in 2007 as well as numerous tropical storms. Not confined to tropical

  3. Chemical system integrated on micro-chip. Effects expected for liquid phase micro-space; Maikuro chippu ni shusekikashita kagaku shisutemu. ekiso bisho kukan ni kitaisuru koka toha?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    hisamoto, H.; Kitamori, T. [The Univ. of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-11-01

    Integrated chemical system is a system that integrates units required for transportation, reaction, separation, analysis, which are important for chemical experiment, on a glass substrate in a similar way as semiconductor device. Among it, a system to integrate analysis system is called system>, and is attracting worldwide attention for DNA electrophoresis analysis. Integrated chemical system has merits such as reduction in waste and high speed reaction, which can be expected from micronization, as well as short molecular diffusion distance, large relative interface surface, and small heat capacity, which are large advantages for high-efficient chemical reaction. The authors, with paying attention this technology, have realized analysis devices such as gene diagnosis, cancer immunity analysis, and environmental analysis, which are difficult by conventional analyzers. On the other hand, this technology is hopeful for organic synthesis and is expected as a technology to invite a large renovation in the chemical technology in the 21st century. (NEDO)

  4. Isotopic dependence of the ion-ion potential in the systems {sup 16}O+{sup 58,60,62,64}Ni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamon, L.C. [Sao Paulo Univ. (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Pereira, D. [Sao Paulo Univ. (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Rossi, E.S. Jr. [Sao Paulo Univ. (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Silva, C.P. [Sao Paulo Univ. (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Dias, H. [Sao Paulo Univ. (Brazil). Grupo de Fisica Nuclear Teorica e Fenomenologia de Particulas Elementares; Losano, L. [Sao Paulo Univ. (Brazil). Grupo de Fisica Nuclear Teorica e Fenomenologia de Particulas Elementares; Ceneviva, C.A.P. [Sao Paulo Univ. (Brazil). Grupo de Fisica Nuclear Teorica e Fenomenologia de Particulas Elementares

    1996-01-29

    Precise measurements of the elastic and inelastic scattering cross sections for the systems {sup 16}O+{sup 58,60,62,64}Ni at the sub-barrier energies were made. Coupled-channel analysis were performed. The isotopic dependence of the resulting ion-ion potentials is compared with theoretical calculations using the double-folding method with the M3Y as the nucleon-nucleon interaction and shell-model densities. (orig.).

  5. FY1995 dynamically up-gradable machine based on right quality control and its life cycle support; 1995 nendo tekisei hinshitsu seigyo ni motozuku doteki seicho kikai to sono lifecycle shien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    A method for determining part re-use and recycling strategy in product design is considered for optimal design of total product life cycle based on the concept of Right Quality Products. For this purpose, it is important to be able to estimate part deterioration status under various product usage conditions. For supporting product designers' decision making about the product life cycle in preliminary design phase, the deterioration estimation is not required to be very exact, but to generate every possible deterioration modes qualitatively. Then, based on these deterioration modes, functional behaviour of target products is simulated, and possible product failure modes can be generated. By utilizing the FMEA (Failure Mode and Effect Analysis) method, the effects of failure modes are evaluated, and the results are fed back to product designers for confirming their design in terms of total product life cycle optimization. A basic methodology is considered, and case study has been done for a mechanical assembly of a one-time use camera. The assembly consists of injection molded parts. Various CAE methods have been used for predicting possible part failures due to initial residual stress, warp, fatigue, creep, and wear. Then kinematic and dynamic analysis of mechanical assembly has been done for detecting the effect of part deterioration on mechanism movements. Several critical failure modes have been detected, and the effects of those failures have been checked by the FMEA method. (NEDO)

  6. Computer graphics of numerical simulation of siltation using a three-dimensional display system. Computer graphics ni yoru siltation suchi keisan kekka no sanjigen hyoji ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuruya, H.; Yoshinaga, H. (Port and Harbour Research Institute, Kanagawa (Japan))

    1992-12-01

    A three-dimensional display system of siltation developed for estimating the mud sedimentation at the route and the roadstead from the multi-layer level model was reported. The system aimed at displaying rapidly and clearly the massive calculation results. The system is now working on the Sun SPARC station, displaying in color the topography, flow rate vector, particle trace, mud density, water level, and sedimentation. The siltation program can calculate the multi-layer part in detailed grids. It consists of calculation of flow field, wave field, and sedimentation. The input data of the display system are the results of calculation of siltation program. It includes the area data, grid data, layer thickness data, and water depth data. It was confirmed that the efficient calculation was possible because of easiness of displaying the calculation results in the course of calculation by preparing the display example of topography etc. 4 refs., 17 figs.

  7. Competitive adsorption of Cd(II), Zn(II) and Ni(II) from their binary and ternary acidic systems using tourmaline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haibin; Wang, Cuiping; Liu, Jingting; Wang, Baolin; Sun, Hongwen

    2013-10-15

    The adsorption of Cd(II), Zn(II) and Ni(II) from aqueous solutions in binary and ternary component systems by tourmaline was investigated. Kinetic data were accurately fitted to pseudo-second order and internal diffusion models, which indicated that the adsorption of heavy metals occurred on the interior surface of the sorbent and internal diffusion was the controlling mechanism during heavy metal ion adsorption but was not the only rate-controlling step. Additionally, tourmaline had a very good adsorption capacity for Cd(II), Zn(II) and Ni(II) in multi-component aqueous solutions at strongly acidic pH values (in contrast to industrial wastewater pH values). This good adsorption capacity is attributed to the fact that tourmaline can automatically adjust the pH values of acidic (except pH 2.0 and 3.0), neutral or alkaline aqueous solutions to 6.0. Adsorption isotherms and separation factors showed that tourmaline displays a high selectivity toward one metal in a two-component or a three-component system with an affinity order of Cd(II) > Zn(II) > Ni(II). Thermodynamic parameters indicated that heavy metal adsorption was feasible, spontaneous, and endothermic. Therefore, tourmaline should be explored as a material for removing pollutants from the strongly acidic wastewater. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Results of photovoltaic power generation system operation in Tokyo Electric Power Company; Tokyo Denryoku ni okeru taiyoko hatsuden setsubi no unten jisseki ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, H.; Itokawa, K. [Tokyo Electric Power Co. Inc., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    A report was made on the measurement of data and the results of the analysis at 14 sites of photovoltaic power generation facilities operated under system interconnection by Tokyo Electric Power Company. This type of system is provided in 40 sites as of the end of fiscal 1995, generating 479kw. The items measured were the generated electric energy at all 14 sites, and the quantity of solar radiation, outside air temperature, panel temperature, etc., at limited sites; and the capacity of each equipment, azimuth and inclination of the panel were also recorded simultaneously. Hourly values were used for the analysis. Five minute values were utilized, however, in the examination of the cause of lowered output and in the situation recognition of the influence of the shade or the change of weather. The utilization factor of the facilities was in the average 10.8% in fiscal 1994 and 10.7% in fiscal 1995. The factor decreased slightly unless the panel azimuth faced due south. The utilization factor at the panel inclination of 35 degrees and 45 degrees showed both 10.4% through the year making no difference. The system seemed to show no overwhelming possibilities in coping with electric power demand. The reason was that deviation existed for 2 hours or so in the peak and that reliability was low as basic power facilities. However, it was determined that the system be continuously examined in future. 9 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Material properties of perovskites in the quasi-ternary system LaFeO3-LaCoO3-LaNiO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tietz, F.; Arul Raj, I.; Ma, Q.; Baumann, S.; Mahmoud, A.; Hermann, R. P.

    2016-05-01

    An overview is presented on the variation of electrical conductivity, oxygen permeation, and thermal expansion coefficient as a function of the composition of perovskites in the quasi-ternary system LaFeO3-LaCoO3-LaNiO3. Powders of thirteen nominal perovskite compositions were synthesized under identical conditions by the Pechini method. The powder X-ray diffraction data of two series, namely La(Ni0.5Fe0.5)1-xCoxO3 and LaNi0.5-xFexCo0.5O3, are presented after the powders had been sintered at 1100 °C for 6 h in air. The measurements revealed a rhombohedral structure for all compositions except LaNi0.5Fe0.5O3 for which 60% rhombohedral and 40% orthorhombic phase was found. The maximum DC electrical conductivity value of the perovskites at 800 °C was 1229 S cm-1 for the composition LaCoO3 and the minimum was 91 S cm-1 for the composition LaCo0.5Fe0.5O3. The oxygen permeation of samples with promising conductivities at 800 °C was one order of magnitude lower than that of La0.6Sr0.4Co0.8Fe0.2O3 (LSCF). The highest value of 0.017 ml cm-2 min-1 at 950 °C was obtained with LaNi0.5Co0.5O3. The coefficients of thermal expansion varied in the range of 13.2×10-6 K-1 and 21.9×10-6 K-1 for LaNi0.5Fe0.5O3 and LaCoO3, respectively. 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy was used as probe for the oxidation states, local environment and magnetic properties of iron ions as a function of chemical composition. The substitution had a great influence on the chemical properties of the materials.

  10. Demonstrative study for the wind and solar hybrid power system. 2; Furyoku taiyoko hybrid hatsuden system ni kansuru jissho kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, Y.; Sakuma, H.; Ushiyama, I. [Ashikaga Institute of Technology, Tochigi (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    In order to verify the complementary relationship between wind and solar energy, the long-term field test of the hybrid power system was conducted at the natural energy square of Ashikaga Institute of Technology. The solar cell blade windmill composed of a Savonius windmill and flexible solar cells applied to swept buckets was also prepared. As a result, the wind power generation was promising mainly in the winter period including the late fall and early spring, while solar one was stable all the year through although it was slightly poor in winter. Stable power generation was thus achieved by combining wind energy with solar energy. As the whole data of other wind and solar power generation systems at the square were analyzed for every month, the same conclusion as the solar cell blade windmill was obtained as follows: the wind power generation in Ashikaga area is promising in Nov.-March from the field test result for 16 months, solar power generation is stable all the year through, the hybrid power system is effective in Nov.-April, and the solar cell blade windmill is equivalent to the hybrid power system. 3 refs., 5 figs.

  11. Magnetic properties of the ternary alloy system (FexNi1-x)11Se8 for 0.042

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Y. K.

    1990-07-01

    The ternary alloy system (FexNi1-x)11Se8 for 0.042system.

  12. The Thermodynamic Characterization of ZrCo–H, HfCo−H, HfNi−H and Zr{sub 1–x}HfxNi(Co) Alloy–H Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flanagan, Ted B., E-mail: ted.flanagan@uvm.edu; Noh, Hak; Luo, Suifang

    2016-08-25

    ZrCo and HfCo intermetallic compounds have the same cubic (CsCl-type) structure and their ternary (Zr{sub 1−x}Hf{sub x})Co alloys are also cubic. ZrNi and HfNi intermetallic compounds have the orthorhombic structure (CrB-type) and the ternary (Zr{sub 1−x}Hf{sub x})Ni alloys also have this structure. Thermodynamic data for hydride formation and decomposition in ZrCo, HfCo and HfNi intermetallic compounds have been determined from reaction calorimetry and from pressure-composition isotherms. Thermodynamic data have been determined for the three ternary alloys: (Zr{sub 0.75}Hf{sub 0.25})Co, (Zr{sub 0.50}Hf{sub 0.50})Co, and (Zr{sub 0.25}Hf{sub 0.75})Co and the four ternary alloys: (Zr{sub 0.875}Hf{sub 0.125})Ni, (Zr{sub 0.75}Hf{sub 0.25})Ni, (Zr{sub 0.50}Hf{sub 0.50})Ni, and (Zr{sub 0.25}Hf{sub 0.75})Ni. This offers the opportunity to learn how the thermodynamic properties of the ternary alloy-H systems change with the stoichiometry of alloys with the same structure. - Highlights: • Calorimetric enthalpies determined for H absorption by ZrCo, HfCo, HfNi are determined. • Ternary alloys, e.g., Zr{sub 1−x}Hf{sub x}Ni, prepared and characterized by x-ray diffraction. • Isotherms for the ternary alloys give thermodynamic parameters for H solution.

  13. A novel asymmetric di-Ni(II) system as a highly efficient functional model for phosphodiesterase: synthesis, structures, physicochemical properties and catalytic kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yan-wei; Lu, Jia-xian; Cai, Bo-wei; Shi, Da-bin; Jiang, Huan-feng; Chen, Jun; Zheng, De; Liu, Bin

    2011-02-14

    A novel asymmetric phenol-based 'end-off' dinucleating ligand 2-{[(2-piperidylmethyl)amino]methyl}-4-bromo-6-[(1-methylhomopiperazine-4-yl)methyl]phenol (HL) and three dinuclear nickel(II) complexes, [Ni₂L(μ-OH)] (ClO₄)₂ (1), [Ni₂L(DNBA)₂(CH₃CN)₂]BPh₄ (2) and [Ni₂L(BPP)₂(CH₃CN)₂]BPh₄ (3) have been synthesized and characterized by a variety of techniques including: NMR, infrared and UV-vis spectroscopies, mass spectrometry, elemental analysis, molar conductivity, thermal analysis, magnetochemistry and single-crystal X-ray diffractometry. The UV-vis spectrum of complex 1 exhibits a strong peak at 510 nm, a characteristic absorption of a d-d transition of the square-planar four-coordinated Ni(II) center. Utilizing this feature, the stepwise formation of mono- and dinickel centers in solution can be monitored. Phosphodiesterase activity of a dinuclear Ni(II) system (complex 1), formed in situ by a 2 : 1 mixture of Ni(2+) ions and the ligand HL, was investigated using bis(4-nitrophenyl)phosphate (BNPP) as the substrate. The pH dependence of the BNPP cleavage in water-ethanol (1 : 1, v/v) reveals a bell-shaped pH-k(obs) profile with an optimum at about pH 8.3 which is parallel to the formation of the dinuclear species [Ni₂L(μ-OH)](2+), according to the increase of the peak at 510 nm in the UV-vis absorption spectrum . These studies reveal that the di-Ni(II) system shows the highest catalytic activity reported so far, with an acceleration rate 1.28 × 10⁷ times faster than the uncatalyzed reaction. The bridging hydroxyl group in [Ni₂L(μ-OH)](2+) is responsible for the hydrolysis reaction. The possible mechanism for the BNPP cleavage promoted by di-Ni(II) system is proposed on the basis of kinetic and spectral analyses. This study provides a less common example of the asymmetric phosphodiesterase model, which is like the active sites of most native metallohydrolases.

  14. Ni hombres ni mujeres providenciales

    OpenAIRE

    Montaño Virreira, Sonia

    2000-01-01

    Debo advertir a la y el lector de este texto que lo que a continuación se presenta no es, ni de lejos, una propuesta realista, si por ella entendemos la traducción, enclave mujer, de las actuales tendencias de liderazgo político vigentes en la región. Por el contrario, intento argumentaren favor de un liderazgo que supere el caudillismo como estilo y se aproxime al máximo hacia el respeto de las formas, entendiendo que sin ellas no es posible construir la democracia. Para hacerlo reviso rápid...

  15. Role of ventilation systems in the prevention of hospital infection; Innai kansen boshi ni okeru kanki system no yakuwari

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayliffe, G.

    1996-05-05

    This paper investigates and considers the actual state of hospital infection. The 80% or more of surgical wound infection is self-infection, for which the factor is the microorganisms that exist in a surgical wound at the completion of an operation. Airborne infection is generally due to staphylococcus aureus. There rarely is a bacteria carrier, and the germ is dispersed from him in some instances. Staphylococcus epidermis sticks to prosthesis, propagates and causes wound infection in rare occasions. Clostridium perfringens and escherichia coli also sometimes cause self-infection from wound. An ordinary plenum ventilation system is less effective for the prevention of wound infection. A remarkable example for reduction in infection is the employment of an ultra clean air system in joint replacement operations, showing reduction in joint septicemic infection from 1.5 to 0.3%. A vertical air flow system may be effectively employed in an operation room for the purpose of improving the air stream. No interrelation exists between the total number of indoor bacteria and infection without staphylococcus aureus. A person infected by methicillin-resistant staphylococcus has to be isolated into a unit. 13 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  16. Exclusive study of Ni+Ni and Ni+Au central collisions: phase coexistence and spinodal decomposition; Etude exclusive des collisions centrales Ni+Ni et Ni+Au: coexistence de phase et decomposition spinodale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guiot, B

    2002-12-01

    The INDRA multidetector allowed us to study the Ni+Ni collisions at 32A MeV and the Ni+Au collisions at 52,4 MeV. Central collisions leading to 'quasi-fused' systems were isolated using multidimensional analysis techniques: the Discriminant Analysis and the Principal Component Analysis. Comparison with a statistical model shows that the selected events are compatible with thermodynamical equilibrium. The average thermal excitation energy is 5A MeV for both systems. Calculations of heat capacities show that the deexcitation of the hot sources are akin to a liquid-gas phase transition of nuclear matter. Indeed heat capacities exhibit a negative branch as expected for a phase transition of a finite system. The dynamics of this phase transition has been investigated by applying the charge correlation method. An enhanced production of events with equal-sized fragments has been evidenced for Ni+Au at 52A MeV. No signal was found for Ni+Ni at 32A MeV. Finally this method was improved by taking into account the total charge conservation. The signal is seen more clearly for Ni+Au at 52A MeV, but is ambiguous for Ni+Ni at 32A MeV. The path followed in the state diagram, or the involved time scales, seem to be different for these systems. (authors)

  17. Comportamento tribocorrosivo de sistemas metalocerâmicos odontológicos de Ni-Cr/porcelana e Ni-Cr/Ti/porcelana Tribocorrosive behavior of odontological Ni-Cr/porcelain and Ni-Cr/Ti/porcelain metal-ceramic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. A. de Araújo

    2012-06-01

    ânio, comparando-as com o sistema metalocerâmico convencional, sem titânio. O sistema modificado por titânio apresentou melhor comportamento, caracterizando-se pelo menor número de traços de fratura superficial adjacentes à área do ensaio tribocorrosivo.Partial fixed prosthodontic restoration is used to rehabilitate both the form and function of partial or total compromised teeth and must remain permanently joined to the remaining teeth. The most useful material in prosthodontics is feldspar porcelain, commercialized as aluminosilicate powders. Dental porcelains depict limited mechanical strength to rehabilitate extensive spaces. The association of porcelain with Ni-Cr metallic infrastructures allows the metallic component to compensate for the brittle nature of porcelain, thus preserving the thermal insulation, aesthetics and, most important, reducing the possibility of cracking during mastication efforts. Cohesive flaws caused by low mechanical strength connect the metallic substructure to the oral environment, characterized by the presence of an electrolytic solution (saliva, aggressive temperature and pH cycles as well as mechanical demand. As a result, ions are released and can promote allergic or inflammatory responses, in addition to clinical degradation of the prosthodontic system. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of an intermediate titanium layer on the behavior of Ni-Cr/porcelain systems. Plasma deposition of titanium films were also carried out to create barrier layers capable of isolating the metallic substrate from the hazardous effects of the oral environment. Tribocorrosion tests were performed to simulate the oral environment and corresponding wear, making it possible to early detect crack formation and growth on metal-ceramic systems and estimate the adherence between the metal and ceramic components. Plain samples consisting of dental feldspar porcelain deposited onto metallic substrates coated or not with titanium were fired

  18. Solubility Modeling of the Systems Ni(NO3)2–H2O and Fe(NO3)3Ni(NO3)2–H2O with the Extended Universal Quasichemical (UNIQUAC) Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arrad, Mouad; Kaddami, Mohammed; El Goundali, Bahija

    2017-01-01

    Thermodynamic modeling of the binary systems Ni(NO3)2–H2O and Ni(NO3)2–H2O and of the ternary system of Fe(NO3)3–Ni(NO3)2–H2O along the 30 °C isotherm are presented. The extended UNIQUAC model was applied for the thermodynamic assessment of the investigated systems, the model parameters were regr...... are presented. Based on this set of parameters, the equilibrium constants of hydrates were determined. The model represents the experimental data with good accuracy from the freezing point region to the boiling points of the solutions....

  19. Assessing the Effects of Radiation Damage on Ni-base Alloys for the Prometheus Space Reactor System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T Angeliu; J Ward; J Witter

    2006-04-04

    Ni-base alloys were considered for the Prometheus space reactor pressure vessel with operational parameters of {approx}900 K for 15 years and fluences up to 160 x 10{sup 20} n/cm{sup 2} (E > 0.1 MeV). This paper reviews the effects of irradiation on the behavior of Ni-base alloys and shows that radiation-induced swelling and creep are minor considerations compared to significant embrittlement with neutron exposure. While the mechanism responsible for radiation-induced embrittlement is not fully understood, it is likely a combination of helium embrittlement and solute segregation that can be highly dependent on the alloy composition and exposure conditions. Transmutation calculations show that detrimental helium levels would be expected at the end of life for the inner safety rod vessel (thimble) and possibly the outer pressure vessel, primarily from high energy (E > 1 MeV) n,{alpha} reactions with {sup 58}Ni. Helium from {sup 10}B is significant only for the outer vessel due to the proximity of the outer vessel to the BeO control elements. Recommendations for further assessments of the material behavior and methods to minimize the effects of radiation damage through alloy design are provided.

  20. Assessing the Effects of Radiation Damage on Ni-base Alloys for the Prometheus Space Reactor System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Angeliu

    2006-01-19

    Ni-base alloys were considered for the Prometheus space reactor pressure vessel with operational parameters of {approx}900 K for 15 years and fluences up to 160 x 10{sup 20} n/cm{sup 2} (E > 0.1 MeV). This paper reviews the effects of irradiation on the behavior of Ni-base alloys and shows that radiation-induced swelling and creep are minor considerations compared to significant embrittlement with neutron ,exposure. While the mechanism responsible for radiation-induced embrittlement is not fully understood, it is likely a combination of helium embrittlement and solute segregation that can be highly dependent on the alloy composition and exposure conditions. Transmutation calculations show that detrimental helium levels would be expected at the end of life for the inner safety rod vessel (thimble) and possibly the outer pressure vessel, primarily from high energy (E > 1 MeV) n,{alpha} reactions with {sup 58}Ni. Helium from {sup 10}B is significant only for the outer vessel due to the proximity of the outer vessel to the Be0 control elements. Recommendations for further assessments of the material behavior and methods to minimize the effects of radiation damage through alloy design are provided.

  1. Influence of material and testing parameters on the lifetime of TBC systems with MCrAlY and NiPtAl bondcoats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Peng

    2012-08-31

    The oxidation behavior of the bond coat is an important factor determining the lifetime of thermal barrier coatings (TBC) in the advanced gas turbine components. In the present work, the effect of various testing parameters, such as hot/cold dwell time, heating/cooling rate, atmosphere composition on the bondcoat oxidation and associated TBC lifetime has been investigated. The range of coating systems included Electron Beam - Physical Vapor Deposited (EB-PVD) and Air Plasma Sprayed (APS) TBC's with MCrAlY (M = Ni, Co) and NiPtAl-bondcoats of various compositions. The effect of the testing parameters strongly depended on the type and properties of the studied system. The lifetime of EB-PVD TBC systems with conventional MCrAlY and NiPtAl bondcoats forming uniform, flat alumina scales was found to be limited by critical scale thickness, upon which a rapid crack propagation at the scale/bondcoat interface results in macroscopic failure. The lifetime of such systems was found to be affected by factors, which influence the scale growth rate and adherence (in particular by oxygen partial pressure (pO{sub 2}) and water vapor content in the test gas in the case of MCrAlY), whereas the temperature cyclic frequency showed no significant effect. NiPtAl bondcoats showed a superior behavior than the conventional MCrAlY-bondcoats due to slower scale growth rate and better scale adherence. For EB-PVD TBC systems with Zr-doped MCrAlYbondcoats the lifetime is mainly determined by the crack growth rate in the inhomogeneous inwardly growing oxide scales, whereas the lifetime is not dependent on the pO{sub 2} but rather on the cyclic frequency. For APS TBC systems the bondcoat oxidation is only one of several factors determining the ceramic topcoat lifetime. Therefore the oxide scale adherence is of less importance for lifetime of APS TBCs as compared to EBPVD TBCs. For the former systems, the cracks initiated at the convex asperities of the rough oxide scale / bondcoat interface

  2. Microstructural evolution of the system Ni-ZrO{sub 2}-SiO{sub 2} synthesized by the sol-gel process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Murillo, A., E-mail: angarciam@ipn.m [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, CICATA Unidad Altamira, Km. 14.5, Carretera Tampico-Puerto Industrial Altamira, C.P. 89600 Altamira, Tamaulipas (Mexico); Instituto Politecnico Nacional, CIITEC, Cerrada CECATI S/N Col. Sta. Catarina, Del. Azcapotzalco, Mexico D.F. 02250 (Mexico); Carrillo Romo, F. de J. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, CICATA Unidad Altamira, Km. 14.5, Carretera Tampico-Puerto Industrial Altamira, C.P. 89600 Altamira, Tamaulipas (Mexico); Instituto Politecnico Nacional, CIITEC, Cerrada CECATI S/N Col. Sta. Catarina, Del. Azcapotzalco, Mexico D.F. 02250 (Mexico); Torres Huerta, A.M.; Dominguez Crespo, M.A.; Ramirez Meneses, E. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, CICATA Unidad Altamira, Km. 14.5, Carretera Tampico-Puerto Industrial Altamira, C.P. 89600 Altamira, Tamaulipas (Mexico); Terrones, H. [Instituto Potosino de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica, Camino a la Presa San Jose 2055. Colonia Lomas 4 seccion S.L.P. (Mexico); Flores Vela, A. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, CICATA Unidad Altamira, Km. 14.5, Carretera Tampico-Puerto Industrial Altamira, C.P. 89600 Altamira, Tamaulipas (Mexico)

    2010-04-16

    The analysis of the structural changes corresponding with composition and temperature is fundamental for understanding the applications of ceramic glass. In particular, the system ZrO{sub 2}-SiO{sub 2} is commonly used in the ceramic industry due to the high chemical stability and superior resistance for dissolution during firing in glazes. This work is focused on the synthesis of Ni doped ZrO{sub 2}-SiO{sub 2} powders with different Zr:Si molar ratios (20:80, 50:50 and 70:30) by sol-gel process. For purposes of comparison, un-doped ZrO{sub 2}-SiO{sub 2} systems were also prepared. TEOS, zirconium propoxide and nickel chloride hexahydrate were used as precursors of the SiO{sub 2}, ZrO{sub 2} and ion dopant, respectively. The obtained xerogels were thermally treated from 300 to 1300 {sup o}C in order to follow their structural evolution. FT-IR results show the corresponding bands of the M-O bonds related to the formation of zircon at high temperatures, while XRD analyses display t-ZrO{sub 2} with traces of m-ZrO{sub 2} at the evaluated temperatures; also, between 1200 and 1300 {sup o}C, the zircon compound (ZrSiO{sub 4}) was detected. It was observed that inserting nickel as a dopant has a significant effect on the structural and morphological characteristics. From the comparison of the doped and un-doped specimens, we hypothesize that the presence of Ni and the heat treatment promote the stabilization and crystallization of the zircon phase at molar ratios higher than 50Zr:50Si, or Ni is incorporating into the ZrO{sub 2} phase, provoking oxygen vacancies and leading to tetragonal phase stabilization.

  3. Effects of alloying and local order in AuNi contacts for Ohmic radio frequency micro electro mechanical systems switches via multi-scale simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaddy, Benjamin E.; Kingon, Angus I.; Irving, Douglas L.

    2013-05-01

    Ohmic RF-MEMS switches hold much promise for low power wireless communication, but long-term degradation currently plagues their reliable use. Failure in these devices occurs at the contact and is complicated by the fact that the same asperities that bear the mechanical load are also important to the flow of electrical current needed for signal processing. Materials selection holds the key to overcoming the barriers that prevent widespread use. Current efforts in materials selection have been based on the material's (or alloy's) ability to resist oxidation as well as its room-temperature properties, such as hardness and electrical conductivity. No ideal solution has yet been found via this route. This may be due, in part, to the fact that the in-use changes to the local environment of the asperity are not included in the selection criteria. For example, Joule heating would be expected to raise the local temperature of the asperity and impose a non-equilibrium thermal gradient in the same region expected to respond to mechanical actuation. We propose that these conditions should be considered in the selection process, as they would be expected to alter mechanical, electrical, and chemical mechanisms in the vicinity of the surface. To this end, we simulate the actuation of an Ohmic radio frequency micro electro mechanical systems switch by using a multi-scale method to model a current-carrying asperity in contact with a polycrystalline substrate. Our method couples continuum solutions of electrical and thermal transport equations to an underlying molecular dynamics simulation. We present simulations of gold-nickel asperities and substrates in order to evaluate the influence of alloying and local order on the early stages of contact actuation. The room temperature response of these materials is compared to the response of the material when a voltage is applied. Au-Ni interactions are accounted for through modification of the existing Zhou embedded atom method

  4. Hydrogenation of Amorphous and Crystalline RE-Ni Alloys

    OpenAIRE

    AOKI, Kiyoshi; Shirakawa, Kiwamu; MASUMOTO, Tsuyoshi

    1985-01-01

    Amorphous alloys with the combination of a rare earth metal(RE=Y, La, Ce, Pr and Sm) and nickel were prepared around the composition at an eutectic point by the melt-quenching technique. Amorphous Y-Ni and Sm-Ni alloys absorbed a large amount of hydrogen even in the amorphous state, while the the other alloys in La-Ni, Ce-Ni and Pr-Ni systems were decomposed to a mixture of crystalline phase and hydride during hydrogenation at 323 K. An amorphous SmNi_2 phase was also synthesized by reaction ...

  5. The influence of the concentration of components in magnetic layers on the magnetoresistive properties of three-layer film systems based on FexNi1-x and Cu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkurdoda, Yu. O.; Chornous, A. M.; Shabelnyk, Yu. M.; Loboda, V. B.

    2017-12-01

    Structural-phase composition and magnetoresistive properties of as-deposited three-layer film systems based on ferromagnetic alloy FexNi100-x (F-layers) and Cu (N-layer) obtained by the method of layer-by-layer condensation are studied. It is shown that spin-dependent electron scattering occurs in the layer thickness range of dN = 5-15 nm and dF = 25-40 nm (cNi temperature is observed for three-layer Fe50Ni50/Cu/Fe50Ni50/S films with dF ≈ 30 nm and dN ≈ 6 nm that corresponds to the minimum concentration of Ni in magnetic layers, at which their phase composition conforms to the fcc-FeNi. With decreasing sample temperature from 293 K to 120 K, the value of the isotropic magnetoresistance increases 1.2-2.2 times depending on the concentration of components in magnetic layers.

  6. Nitriding behavior of Ni and Ni-based binary alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonovic, Matej

    2015-01-15

    precipitate-free microstructure known as expanded austenite or S-phase, which can enhance surface hardness, fatigue properties and corrosion properties.Nitriding of multicomponent Ni-based alloys is usually applied in the industry. Nevertheless, the understanding of nitriding is mostly based on phenomenological research and experience. Thereby there is still absence of complete understanding of nitriding of Ni-based alloys, which requires further detailed investigations. Since studying the nitrided multicomponent alloys is complicated, in this thesis fundamental investigations were performed on pure nickel and binary Ni-based model alloys.This thesis focuses on the nitriding behavior of pure nickel, which will result with an thermodynamic evaluation of the Ni-N system. Furthermore, deeper insights in the nitriding behavior of the binary Ni-based alloys is obtained upon nitriding Ni-4 wt.% Ti and Ni-2 wt.% Ti (Ni-5 at.% Ti and Ni-2.5 at.% Ti) alloys. Thereby, the development of large residual macrostresses parallel to the surface of the specimen is related with the N concentration gradient in the nitrided zone.

  7. Dielectric and magnetic characterization of the mixed system (BaTiO3)x(NiFe2O4)1-x

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riesco, R.; Peiteado, M.; Bernardo-Maestro, B.; Caballero, A. C.; Cebollada, F.; de Frutos, J.; Gonzalo, J. A.; Aragó, C.

    2015-10-01

    Ceramic composites of the mixed system (BaTiO3)x(NiFe2O4)1-x (x = 1, 0.8, 0.65, 0.6, 0.5, 0.2, 0) have been prepared by hydrothermal synthesis and characterized through dielectric and magnetic measurements. It is shown that, when compared with the first-order phase transition of pure BaTiO3, the ferroelectric response of this mixed system is dramatically smeared by the presence of ferrite and eventually disappears around x ≈ 0.65. The peak of the dielectric constant becomes increasingly smoothed with composition, also diminishing its maximum value as the frequency increases. Moreover, the magnetic behavior is not suppressed by the presence of the ferroelectric perovskite and just qualitative changes occur in the hysteresis parameters on the whole compositional range.

  8. Effects of PEG-Induced Water Deficit in Solanum nigrum on Zn and Ni Uptake and Translocation in Split Root Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urs Feller

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Drought strongly influences root activities in crop plants and weeds. This paper is focused on the performance of the heavy metal accumulator Solanum nigrum, a plant which might be helpful for phytoremediation. The water potential in a split root system was decreased by the addition of polyethylene glycol (PEG 6000. Rubidium, strontium and radionuclides of heavy metals were used as markers to investigate the uptake into roots, the release to the shoot via the xylem, and finally the basipetal transport via the phloem to unlabeled roots. The uptake into the roots (total contents in the plant was for most makers more severely decreased than the transport to the shoot or the export from the shoot to the unlabeled roots via the phloem. Regardless of the water potential in the labeling solution, 63Ni and 65Zn were selectively redistributed within the plant. From autoradiographs, it became evident that 65Zn accumulated in root tips, in the apical shoot meristem and in axillary buds, while 63Ni accumulated in young expanded leaves and roots but not in the meristems. Since both radionuclides are mobile in the phloem and are, therefore, well redistributed within the plant, the unequal transfer to shoot and root apical meristems is most likely caused by differences in the cell-to-cell transport in differentiation zones without functional phloem (immature sieve tubes.

  9. LDA-Prediction of New Stable Crystal Structures within=0A= the Cu-Au and Ni-Pt Alloy Systems.^*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanati, M.; Wang, L.; Zunger, Alex

    2002-03-01

    Cu-Au and Ni-Pt are among the best studied fcc alloy systems, exhibiting the famous L10 (AB) and L12 (A_3B) phases. We were wondering if a complete configurational search of the T=3D0 LDA total energies would reveal any unexpected phases. Total-energy calculations of ~ 30 arbitrarily chosen structures were used to construct a generalized (momentum-space) Ising Hamiltonian containing ~ 20 pair-interactions, ~ 5-10 many-body terms, as well as the long-range strain term. This Hamiltonian was tested carefully as to its ability to predict the LDA energies of other structures. Once accuracy is established, we searched the energies of all fcc configurations with 20 or less atoms per primitive cell ( ~ 2,700,000 structures), finding the known L1_0, L12 plus new, unsuspected structures. The new ground state structures are NiPt_7, Cu_2Au, and Cu_2Au_3. We find that LDA calculations of these structures confirm that they are ground states. We describe the band structure and other properties of these new structures. ^* Supported by DOE, SC-BES-DMS. abstract.

  10. Effect of DC current polarization on the electrochemical behaviour of La{sub 2}NiO{sub 4+{delta}} and La{sub 3}Ni{sub 2}O{sub 7+{delta}}-based systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Coll, D.; Aguadero, A.; Escudero, M.J. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT), Av. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Daza, L. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT), Av. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Catalisis y Petroleoquimica (CSIC), C/ Marie Curie 2, Campus Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2009-07-01

    The electrode performance of La{sub 2}NiO{sub 4} and La{sub 3}Ni{sub 2}O{sub 7} as cathode materials for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) was analyzed. The study was focused on the electrode polarization resistance of the interfaces formed by the cathodes with Ce{sub 0.8}Sm{sub 0.2}O{sub 2-{delta}} + 2%Co electrolyte. The study was extended to cathodes based on La{sub 2}NiO{sub 4}-Ce{sub 0.8}Sm{sub 0.2}O{sub 2-{delta}} composite and Pt to analyze the effect of changing the electronic and/or ionic transport properties on the electrode interface resistance. The electrode performance was studied in open circuit conditions and with DC current polarization. Important differences in the performance of the pure cathode materials were obtained as function of DC current flux. However, in La{sub 2}NiO{sub 4}-Ce{sub 0.8}Sm{sub 0.2}O{sub 2-{delta}} composite the DC current flux produces minor changes in the electrode polarization resistance. The aging process also affects the OCV electrode performance of cathodes based on Pt and pure ceramics, whereas the effect is practically invaluable in La{sub 2}NiO{sub 4}-Ce{sub 0.8}Sm{sub 0.2}O{sub 2-{delta}} composite. The electrode performance is higher for the composite cathode compared to pure ceramic electrodes for OCV or for low values of DC polarization. However, the important decrease in the interface resistance obtained for high values of DC current flux for La{sub 2}NiO{sub 4} and La{sub 3}Ni{sub 2}O{sub 7} cathodes increases their electrode performances to values close to those obtained in La{sub 2}NiO{sub 4}-Ce{sub 0.8}Sm{sub 0.2}O{sub 2-{delta}} composite. This retains the cathode overpotential with values as low as 140 mV at 750 C for values of current load of 530 mA cm{sup -2} for both pure and composite La{sub 2}NiO{sub 4}-based cathodes. The low cathode overpotential allows to estimate values of power density between 300 and 350 mW cm{sup -2} at 750 C for La{sub 2}NiO{sub 4}, La{sub 3}Ni{sub 2}O{sub 7} and La{sub 2}Ni

  11. Application of microstructure-selection maps to droplet solidification: A case study of the Ni-Cu system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norman, A.F.; Gaertner, F.; Greer, A.L. [Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom). Dept. of Materials Science and Metallurgy; Eckler, K.; Moir, S.A.; Herlach, D.M. [DLR, Koeln (Germany). Inst. fuer Raumsimulation; Zambon, A.; Ramous, E. [Univ. di Padova (Italy). Dept. di Innovazione Meccanica e Gestionale

    1998-06-12

    Ni-Cu droplets were processed by electromagnetic levitation, in a drop-tube and by atomization. The droplet diameters varied from 20 {micro}m to 7 mm, and the entire composition range was studied. Most microstructures observed were coarse-dendritic or refined-equiaxed. Microstructure-selection maps have been constructed for the drop-tube and atomization techniques showing the predominant microstructure as a function of composition and droplet size. From the results on levitated droplets, a selection map has been constructed which relates the microstructure to the composition and the melt undercooling reached prior to nucleation. The results are analyzed within a recently developed model for grain refinement which is based upon the fragmentation of primary dendrites. The influence of impurities on the microstructure formation in material of commercial purity is investigated.

  12. Microfabrication of magnetostrictive beams based on NiFe film doped with B and Mo for integrated sensor systems

    KAUST Repository

    Alfadhel, Ahmed

    2012-03-09

    This paper reports the development of integrated micro-sensors consisting of 1 -µm-thick magnetostrictive cantilevers or bridges with 500 µm in length and conducting interrogation elements. The thin films are fabricated by sputter deposition of NiFe doped with B and Mo, and the magnetic properties are enhanced by field annealing, resulting in a coercivity of 2.4 Oe. In operation, an alternating current applied to the interrogation elements magnetizes the magnetostrictive structures. The longitudinal resonant frequency is detected as an impedance change of the interrogation elements. The magnetostrictive micro-beams provide high resonant frequencies—2.95 MHz for the cantilever and 5.46 MHz for the bridge—which can be exploited to develop sensors of high sensitivity.

  13. Uva "Niágara Rosada" cultivada no sistema orgânico e armazenada em diferentes temperaturas "Niágara Rosada" grapes cultivated under organic system and stored at different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra M. Detoni

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available O sistema de cultivo, as cultivares, as condições de colheita e pós-colheita têm efeito direto na conservação e qualidade das uvas. Diante disso, este trabalho objetivou avaliar o efeito do tempo (0, 7, 14, 21, 28 e 35 dias e da temperatura de armazenamento (1, 14 e 24ºC na qualidade pós-colheita da uva "Niágara Rosada" cultivada no sistema orgânico. O fator limitante para o armazenamento foi o elevado índice de degrana, porém, as uvas ainda possuíam qualidade para o consumo, por observar a manutenção do teor de sólidos solúveis totais, acidez total titulável e pH. Dentre as avaliações químicas, o teor de sólidos solúveis totais, a acidez total titulável e o teor de vitamina C foram as únicas variáveis que apresentaram diminuição acentuada para as frutas armazenadas a 24ºC, resultando em um curto período de armazenamento. As frutas armazenadas a 14ºC não apresentaram grandes variações nas características químicas, mantendo uma boa qualidade para o consumo por até 28 dias de armazenamento. A melhor temperatura para a conservação das frutas foi 1ºC, em que as uvas alcançaram 35 dias de armazenamento sem grande variação na qualidade para o consumo.The cultivation system, the cultivars, the crop conditions and post harvest, can effect the conservation and quality of the grapes. This work aimed the evaluation of the affect of the time of storage (0, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35 days and the storage temperature (1, 14 and 24ºC in the quality of the grape "Niágara Rosada" pots harvest cultivated in the organic system. The limiting point for the storage was the high number of free berries observed, however the grapes still have quality for consumption, because observing without modification in the tenor of total soluble, the total titratable acidity and pH. Among the chemical assay, the determination of the tenor of total soluble solids, the total titratable acidity and the vitamin tenor C were the only ones which

  14. Magnetic properties of the Kagome staircase mixed system (Co{sub x}Ni{sub 1-x}){sub 3}V{sub 2}O{sub 8}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qureshi, Navid

    2008-09-26

    The orthooxovanadates of the 3d transition metals M{sub 3}V{sub 2}O{sub 8}, known as Kagome staircase systems, reveal interesting magnetic properties due to their crystal structure. Although these compounds are isostructural for M=Co,Ni,Mn,Cu, they differ considerably with respect to their magnetic phase transitions and magnetic structures. As the magnetic ions are situated on corners of cornersharing triangles, geometric frustration plays an important role in this system. This is not only confined to the fact, that the antiferromagnetic structures exhibit reduced magnetic moments, but apparently also to the ferromagnetic structure of Co{sub 3}V{sub 2}O{sub 8}, which exhibits a strongly reduced Co moment of 1.54 Bohr magnetons. Within this work precisely this ferromagnetic structure has been investigated in detail and it could be shown that the relatively weak magnetic moment does not result from frustration, but is a consequence of the strong hybridization effects between the cobalt and oxygen orbitals. The pronounced covalent character of this Co ion leads to the fact that due to the charge transfer the oxygen ions significantly contribute to the bulk magnetization when applying an external magnetic field. The second part of the presented work deals with the systematic investigation of the mixed system (Co{sub x}Ni{sub 1-x})3V{sub 2}O{sub 8}. A detailed magnetic phase diagram could be drawn, in which the temperature and composition dependent magnetic phase transitions have been pinpointed. Furthermore, an interesting magnetic structure of a chosen composition of x=0.5 has been observed, which differs considerably from those of the end members. (orig.)

  15. Experiments on multi-nucleon transfer reactions with the systems {sup 58,64}Ni+{sup 207}Pb at SHIP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandovich Comas Lijachev, Victor

    2012-07-01

    This work presents experimental results on multi-nucleon transfer reactions in the collision systems {sup 58}Ni+{sup 207}Pb and {sup 64}Ni+{sup 207}Pb which were measured at the velocity filter SHIP at GSI. The reactions were performed at beam energies below and up to 10% above the Coulomb barrier. The work was motivated by theoretical predictions to apply multi-nucleon transfer reactions in heavy systems to synthesize new neutron-rich isotopes in the region of superheavy nuclei with Z>100 and in the region of the closed neutron shell N=126. The expected cross-sections for the production of these nuclei in transfer reactions are small and reach typically nanobarn and below. Therefore, efficient separation techniques have to be applied and the detection system must allow for the identification of single nuclei. A dedicated experimental setup to study such rare transfer products does not exist presently. But already existing facilities which are used for the synthesis of superheavy fusion products meet the requirements for the detection of rare reaction products. In this context, the velocity filter SHIP offers the possibility to separate heavy target-like transfer products from projectiles and projectile-like reaction products before they reach the detection system where the particles are identified by their alpha-decay properties. At SHIP, a cross-section limit of 10 pb can be reached at usual beam intensities. In the present work on collisions of {sup 58,64}Ni+{sup 207}Pb the influence of the projectile neutron number on the cross-sections, isotopic distributions and excitation energies of the transfer products was studied. Especially with the more neutron-rich {sup 64}Ni projectiles a transfer of up to seven protons and eight neutrons to the target nucleus was observed. The largest cross-sections for the most neutron-rich isotopes were reached at the beam energies around the Coulomb barrier. The transfer was accompanied by the full dissipation of the available

  16. Engineering NiS/Ni2P Heterostructures for Efficient Electrocatalytic Water Splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xin; Huang, Dekang; Fu, Yongqing; Wen, Ming; Jiang, Xingxing; Lv, Xiaowei; Li, Man; Gao, Lin; Liu, Shuangshuang; Wang, Mingkui; Zhao, Chuan; Shen, Yan

    2018-01-23

    Developing high-active and low-cost bifunctional materials for catalyzing the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) holds a pivotal role in water splitting. Therefore, we present a new strategy to form NiS/Ni2P heterostructures. The as-obtained NiS/Ni2P/carbon cloth (CC) requires overpotentials of 111 mV for the HER and 265 mV for the OER to reach a current density of 20 mA cm-2, outperforming their counterparts such as NiS and Ni2P under the same conditions. Additionally, the NiS/Ni2P/CC electrode requires a 1.67 V cell voltage to deliver 10 mA cm-2 in a two-electrode electrolysis system, which is comparable to the cell using the benchmark Pt/C||RuO2 electrode. Detailed characterizations reveal that strong electronic interactions between NiS and Ni2P, abundant active sites, and smaller charge-transfer resistance contribute to the improved HER and OER activity.

  17. Effect of W additions on the structural and magnetic properties of Ni{sub 50}Ti{sub 50−x}W{sub x} and Ti{sub 50}Ni{sub 50−x}W{sub x} systems obtained by mechanical alloying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jara, Angelica; Arjona, Jose David; Bautista, Pedro; Gonzalez, Gema, E-mail: gemagonz@ivic.gob.ve

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • W additions strongly affect the magnetic and structural properties of Ni-Ti. • The saturation magnetization and magnetic remanence decreases with W addition. • W additions induces amophization of Ni-Ti. - Abstract: The effect of tungsten (W{sub x}) additions (x = 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 at.%), on the structural and magnetic properties of the binary systems Ni{sub 50}Ti{sub 50−x} and Ti{sub 50}Ni{sub 50−x} obtained by mechanical alloying was studied. The elementary powders were milled in a Spex 8000 horizontal mill, under N{sub 2} atmosphere, for 5 and 20 h. After 20 h of milling a homogenous microstructure was observed, particularly for small W additions. For this milling time a mixed of nanocrystalline and amorphous structure was obtained. As W concentration increases (1, 1.5 and 2 at.%), in both systems, the presence of small β-W reflections and the presence of very small peaks corresponding to the formation of an incipient new phase, identified as a NiTi(W) solid solution was observed, especially evident for 2 at.%W. The saturation magnetization and magnetic remanence decreases with the addition of W down to a minimum value at 1.5 at.%W, for both systems. The samples were characterized by SEM, EDS, XRD and magnetic measurements by VSM. The structural and magnetic behavior for both ternary alloys was very similar with the W additions.

  18. Capture of Hydrogen Using ZrNi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Lisa; Wales, Joshua; Lynch, David; Parrish, Clyde

    2005-01-01

    Water, as ice, is thought to reside in craters at the lunar poles along with CH4 and H2 . A proposed robotic mission for 2012 will utilize metal/metal hydrides for H2 recovery. Specifications are 99% capture of H2 initially at 5 bar and 100C (or greater), and degassing completely at 300C. Of 47-systems examined using the van't Hoff equation, 4 systems, Mg/MgH2, Mg2Ni/Mg2NiH4, ZrNi/ZrNiH2.8, and Pd/PdH0.77, were considered likely candidates for further examination. It is essential, when selecting a system, to also examine questions regarding activation, kinetics, cyclic stability, and gas impurity effects. After considering those issues, ZrN1 was selected as the most promising candidate, as it is easily activated and rapidly forms ZrNiH 2.8 . In addition, it resists oxide poisoning by CO2, and H2O, while some oxidation by O2 is recommended for improved activation . The presence of hydrogen in the as received Zr-Ni alloy from Alfa Aesar posed additional technical problems. X-ray diffraction of the Zr-Ni powder (-325 mesh), with a Zr:Ni wt% ratio of 70:30, was found to consist of ZrH2, ZrNiH2.8, and ZrNi. ZrH2 in the alloy presented the risk that after degassing that both Zr and ZrNi would be present, and thus lead to erroneous results regarding the reactivity of ZrNi with H2 . Fortunately, ZrH2 is a highly stable hydride that does not degas H2 to any significant extent at temperatures below 300C. Based on equilibrium calculations for the decomposition of ZrH2, only 1 millionth of the hydride decomposed at 300C under a N2 atmosphere flowing at 25 ccm for 64 hours, the longest time for pretreatment employed in the investigation. It was possible, from the X-ray results and knowledge of the Zr:Ni ratio, to compute the composition of a pretreated specimen as being 76 wt% ZrNi and the balance ZrH2.

  19. Morphological control of Ni/NiO core/shell nanoparticles and production of hollow NiO nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chopra, Nitin [University of Alabama, Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Center for Materials for Information Technology (MINT) (United States); Claypoole, Leslie [Fairmont State University (United States); Bachas, Leonidas G., E-mail: bachas@uky.ed [University of Kentucky, Department of Chemistry (United States)

    2010-10-15

    Chemical synthesis coupled with a microwave irradiation process allowed for the control of size (6-40 nm), shape, and shell thickness of Ni/NiO core/shell nanoparticles. In this unique synthetic route, the size of Ni nanoparticles (NiNPs) was strongly influenced by the nickel salt-to-stabilizer ratio and the amount of the stabilizer. Interestingly, it was observed that the shape of the nanoparticles was altered by varying the reaction time, where longer reaction times resulted in annealing effects and rupture of the stabilizer micelle leading to distinct shapes of Ni/NiO core/shell nanostructures. Product cooling rate was another important parameter identified in this study that not only affected the shape, but also the crystal structure of the core/shell nanoparticles. In addition, a simple and cost-effective method of microwave irradiation of NiNPs led to the formation of distinctly shaped hollow NiO nanoparticles. These high surface area core/shell nanoparticles with well-controlled morphologies are important and can lead to significant advancement in the design of improved fuel cells, electrochromic display devices, and catalysis systems.

  20. Reactivity and wettability of SiC by Ni and Ni-Si alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rado, C. [INPG, 38 - Saint Martin d`Heres (France). LTPCM; Kalogeropoulou, S. [INPG, 38 - Saint Martin d`Heres (France). LTPCM; Eustathopoulos, N. [INPG, 38 - Saint Martin d`Heres (France). LTPCM

    1996-08-01

    Wettability of SiC by Ni and Ni-Si alloys was studied at 1633K by the sessile drop technique under high vacuum or pure He. It is shown that reactivity in this system can be controlled and even nearly suppressed while obtaining good wetting and strong interface. (orig.)

  1. Composition Dependence of Phase Stability, Deformation Mechanisms, and Mechanical Properties of the CoCrFeMnNi High-Entropy Alloy System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasan, C. C.; Deng, Y.; Pradeep, K. G.; Yao, M. J.; Springer, H.; Raabe, D.

    2014-10-01

    The proposal of configurational entropy maximization to produce massive solid-solution (SS)-strengthened, single-phase high-entropy alloy (HEA) systems has gained much scientific interest. Although most of this interest focuses on the basic role of configurational entropy in SS formability, setting future research directions also requires the overall property benefits of massive SS strengthening to be carefully investigated. To this end, taking the most promising CoCrFeMnNi HEA system as the starting point, we investigate SS formability, deformation mechanisms, and the achievable mechanical property ranges of different compositions and microstructural states. A comparative assessment of the results with respect to room temperature behavior of binary Fe-Mn alloys reveals only limited benefits of massive SS formation. Nevertheless, the results also clarify that the compositional requirements in this alloy system to stabilize the face-centered cubic (fcc) SS are sufficiently relaxed to allow considering nonequiatomic compositions and exploring improved strength-ductility combinations at reduced alloying costs.

  2. Solid-state reactions during mechanical alloying of ternary Fe–Al–X (X=Ni, Mn, Cu, Ti, Cr, B, Si) systems: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadef, Fatma, E-mail: hadef77@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire de Recherche sur la Physico-Chimie des Surfaces et Interfaces, LRPCSI, Université 20 Août 1955, BP 26, Route d’El-Haddaiek, Skikda 21000 (Algeria); Département de Physique, Faculté des Sciences, Université 20 Août 1955, BP 26, Route d’El-Haddaiek, Skikda 21000 (Algeria)

    2016-12-01

    The last decade has witnessed an intensive research in the field of nanocrystalline materials due to their enhanced properties. A lot of processing techniques were developed in order to synthesis these novel materials, among them mechanical alloying or high-energy ball milling. In fact, mechanical alloying is one of the most common operations in the processing of solids. It can be used to quickly and easily synthesize a variety of technologically useful materials which are very difficult to manufacture by other techniques. One advantage of MA over many other techniques is that is a solid state technique and consequently problems associated with melting and solidification are bypassed. Special attention is being paid to the synthesis of alloys through reactions mainly occurring in solid state in many metallic ternary Fe–Al–X systems, in order to improve mainly Fe–Al structural and mechanical properties. The results show that nanocrystallization is the common result occurring in all systems during MA process. The aim of this work is to illustrate the uniqueness of MA process to induce phase transformation in metallic Fe–Al–X (X=Ni, Mn, Cu, Ti, Cr, B, Si) systems. - Highlights: • A review of state of the art on binary Fe–Al alloys was presented. • Structural and microstructural properties of MA ternary Fe–Al–X alloys were summerized. • MA process is a powerful tool for producing metallic alloys at the nanometer scale.

  3. PRINCEPS: A Computer-Based Approach to the Structural Description and Recognition of Trends within Structural Databases, and Its Application to the Ce-Ni-Si System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiming Guo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Intermetallic crystal structures offer an enormous structural diversity, with an endless array of structural motifs whose connection to stability and physical properties are often mysterious. Making sense of the often complex crystal structures that arise here, developing a clear structural description, and identifying connections to other phases can be laborious and require an encyclopedic knowledge of structure types. In this Article, we present PRINCEPS, an algorithm based on a new coordination environment projection scheme that facilitates the structural analysis and comparison of such crystal structures. We demonstrate the potential of this approach by applying it to the complex Ce-Ni-Si ternary system, whose 17 binary and 21 ternary phases would present a daunting challenge to one seeking to understand the system by manual inspection (but has nonetheless been well-described through the heroic efforts of previous researchers. With the help of PRINCEPS, most of the ternary phases in this system can be rationalized as intergrowths of simple structural fragments, and grouped into a handful of structural series (with some outliers. These results illustrate how the PRINCEPS approach can be used to organize a vast collection of crystal structures into structurally meaningful families, and guide the description of complex atomic arrangements.

  4. Oxidation behaviour at 1123 K of AISI 304-Ni/Al-Al2O3/TiO2 multilayer system deposited by flame spray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cervera, I.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The oxidation behaviour of alumina/titania (97/3, 87/13 and 60/40 ceramic coatings using a Ni-Al coupling layer was studied in a thermobalance. Both layers were deposited on an AISI 304 stainless steel base metal by the flame spray technique. The coated steel was heated from room temperature to 1,123 K at 40 K min –1, oxidized in air for 50 h, and then cooled to room temperature at 40 K min–1. The mass gain was mainly attributed to the oxidation of Ni-Al coupling layer. Kinetic laws, DW·S –1 (mg.mm–2 vs. time (hours were close to a parabolic plot for each sample. Surface composition of ceramic top layer and the cross section of multilayer system were analysed using a wide range of experimental techniques including Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, equipped with a link energy dispersive X-Ray spectroscopy (EDX and X-Ray diffraction (XRD before and after the oxidation process. Coatings 97/3 and 87/13 presented a stable structure after flame spray deposition and they did not evolve with the oxidation process, while most of the 60/40 coating changed to a metastable structure after deposition and to a more stable structure after oxidation with high micro-cracks content. SEM and EDX microanalysis of the cross-sections showed that significant oxidation and a weak intergranular precipitation had been produced in the coupling layer and on the stainless steel base metal, respectively.El comportamiento a oxidación de recubrimientos cerámicos alúmina/titania (97/3, 87/13, 60/40 usando una capa de anclaje Ni-Al se ha estudiado mediante una termobalanza. Ambas capas se han depositado sobre un acero inoxidable AISI 304 utilizando la técnica de proyección llama (FS. El acero recubierto se ha calentado desde la temperatura ambiente hasta 1.123 K a 40 K min–1, se ha oxidado al aire durante 50 h, y luego se ha enfriado hasta la temperatura ambiente a 40 K min–1. La ganancia en masa se atribuye a la oxidación de la capa de enganche Ni-Al. La cin

  5. Effect of finishing instrumentation using NiTi hand files on volume, surface area and uninstrumented surfaces in C-shaped root canal systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoroso-Silva, P; Alcalde, M P; Hungaro Duarte, M A; De-Deus, G; Ordinola-Zapata, R; Freire, L G; Cavenago, B C; De Moraes, I G

    2017-06-01

    To assess the effect of 90°-oscillatory instrumentation with hand files on several morphological parameters (volume, surface area and uninstrumented surface) in C-shaped root canals after instrumentation using a single-file reciprocation system (Reciproc; VDW, Munich, Germany) and a Self-Adjusting File System (SAF; ReDent Nova, Ra'anana, Israel). Twenty mandibular second molars with C-shaped canals and C1 canal configurations were divided into two groups (n = 10) and instrumented with Reciproc and SAF instruments. A size 30 NiTi hand K-file attached to a 90°-oscillatory motion handpiece was used as final instrumentation in both groups. The specimens were scanned using micro-computed tomography after all procedures. Volume, surface area increase and uninstrumented root canal surface were analysed using CTAn software (Bruker-microCT, Kontich, Belgium). Also, the uninstrumented root canal surface was calculated for each canal third. All values were compared between groups using the Mann-Whitney test and within groups using the Wilcoxon's signed-rank test. Instrumentation with Reciproc significantly increased canal volume compared with instrumentation with SAF. Additionally, the canal volumes were significantly increased after 90°-oscillatory instrumentation (between and within group comparison; (P instrumentation protocols, statistical analysis only revealed significant differences in the within groups comparison (P instrumentation yielded an uninstrumented root canal surface of 28% and 34%, respectively, which was not significantly different (P > 0.05). Final oscillatory instrumentation significantly reduced the uninstrumented root canal surface from 28% to 9% (Reciproc) and from 34% to 15% (SAF; P instrumentation that was significantly reduced after oscillatory instrumentation (P instrumentation of mandibular second molars with C-shaped canals except for a higher canal volume increase in the Reciproc group compared to the SAF. Furthermore, the final use

  6. Evolution of Ni nanofilaments and electromagnetic coupling in the resistive switching of NiO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yuxiang; Zhao, Diyang; Zhao, Yonggang; Chiang, Fu-Kuo; Chen, Pengcheng; Guo, Minghua; Luo, Nannan; Jiang, Xingli; Miao, Peixian; Sun, Ying; Chen, Aitian; Lin, Zhu; Li, Jianqi; Duan, Wenhui; Cai, Jianwang; Wang, Yayu

    2014-12-01

    Resistive switching effect in conductor/insulator/conductor thin-film stacks is promising for resistance random access memory with high-density, fast speed, low power dissipation and high endurance, as well as novel computer logic architectures. NiO is a model system for the resistive switching effect and the formation/rupture of Ni nanofilaments is considered to be essential. However, it is not clear how the nanofilaments evolve in the switching process. Moreover, since Ni nanofilaments should be ferromagnetic, it provides an opportunity to explore the electromagnetic coupling in this system. Here, we report a direct observation of Ni nanofilaments and their specific evolution process for the first time by a combination of various measurements and theoretical calculations. We found that multi-nanofilaments are involved in the low resistance state and the nanofilaments become thin and rupture separately in the RESET process with subsequent increase of the rupture gaps. Theoretical calculations reveal the role of oxygen vacancy amount in the evolution of Ni nanofilaments. We also demonstrate electromagnetic coupling in this system, which opens a new avenue for multifunctional devices.Resistive switching effect in conductor/insulator/conductor thin-film stacks is promising for resistance random access memory with high-density, fast speed, low power dissipation and high endurance, as well as novel computer logic architectures. NiO is a model system for the resistive switching effect and the formation/rupture of Ni nanofilaments is considered to be essential. However, it is not clear how the nanofilaments evolve in the switching process. Moreover, since Ni nanofilaments should be ferromagnetic, it provides an opportunity to explore the electromagnetic coupling in this system. Here, we report a direct observation of Ni nanofilaments and their specific evolution process for the first time by a combination of various measurements and theoretical calculations. We found

  7. Evaluation of reduction in environmental burden and accumulation of impurities in material recycle system; Sozai recycle system ni okeru kankyo fuka sakugen to sozai no shitsuteki rekka no model ni motozuku hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toi, A.; Sato, J. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-01-05

    Recycle of materials is expected to reduce the environmental burden caused by their production process. However, recycle may also lead to the accumulation of impurities and other effects which usually lower social utility of the use of materials. To evaluate these effects totally, we have constructed analytical models of recycle system and proposed formulas to estimate CO2 emission, impurity concentration, etc. in the recycle system. In this report, by using our models and formulas, we evaluated the influences of change in recovery ratio and life expectancy of steel products on the environmental burden as CO2 emission and the quality of materials as accumulation of Cu element. The result shows that change in each parameter has different influences and that appropriate combination of the parameters can lead to reduction in CO2 emission and improvement of material qualities simultaneously. 8 refs., 12 figs.

  8. Anomalous transport properties of a two-phase system of HTSC + NiTiO sub 3 paramagnetics, forming the net of random Josephson junctions

    CERN Document Server

    Petrov, M I; Shajkhutdinov, K A; Popkov, S I

    2002-01-01

    The magnetoresistive properties of the 92.5 at % Y sub 3 sub / sub 4 Lu sub 1 sub / sub 4 Ba sub 2 Cu sub 3 O sub 7 + 7.5 at % NiTiO sub 3 composites, representing the net of random tunnel transitions of the Josephson type, are synthesized and studied. The area, whereon R does not depend on the j-current and slightly depends on the H magnetic field is identified on the temperature dependences of the electric resistance R(T) of the composites with the NiTiO sub 3 paramagnetic compound below the temperature of the HTSC T sub c transition. The anomalous behavior of the HTSC + NiTiO sub 3 composites is explained by the effect of the Ni atoms magnetic moments in the dielectric barriers on the current transport

  9. Study on automatic tuning of ship`s PID regulators; Hakuyo seigyo system no gain jido chosei ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakatani, T. [Toyama Mercantile Marine College, Toyama (Japan); Otsu, K.; Moriyoshi, N. [Tokyo Univ. of Mercantile Marine, Tokyo (Japan); Okazaki, T. [Nagoya Institute of Technology, Nagoya (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    Proportional, integral and derivative (PID) controls are used for a steering system and a main engine control unit installed in a vessel. Among them, this paper describes effectiveness of a PID gain tuning method using a limit cycle by means of relay control which is safer and simpler than conventional limit sensitivity methods. The present method was applied to an actual marine control system to conduct an actual vessel experiment. As a result of applying the method to a bow azimuth control system using a rudder, a new azimuth setting was set with an overshoot of 1.6 degrees in a ten-degree azimuth changing experiment. With respect to direction maintaining steering performance, the present method was capable of controlling the direction at a speed loss to about 80% of the ship`s autopilot. As a result of applying the method to a bow azimuth control system using a bow thruster, direction maintaining and changing control was realized in a low speed range in which rudder effect is lost. As a result of applying it to a main engine governor system and performing control of main engine rotation speed, it was found possible to derive control gains in a safe state without applying an excessive load to the main engine both under load and no load conditions. 14 refs., 8 figs., 11 tabs.

  10. Study of the central collisions in the reactions Ni + Al and Ni + Ni at 28 A.MeV; Etude des collisions centrales dans les reactions Ni + Al et Ni + Ni a 28 A.MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebreton, L.

    1995-12-01

    The work is in characterisation of mechanisms in the energy range of onset of multifragmentation (excitation energy of composed nucleus around 4 - 5 AMeV). This work focused on an experiment performed at the SARA facility, in Grenoble, using the AMPHORA multi detection array. I have been particularly interested in central collisions in the Ni + Al and Ni + Ni systems. The possibility to detect complete events for Ni + Al, and quasi-complete events for the Ni + Ni case, is the reason of this choice. Furthermore Ni + Ni presents the interest of a symmetrical system, for which the excitation energy per nucleon is maximum. The study of these reactions has been focused on the quasi-complete events (events for which at least 80 % of the total charge has been detected). Heavy ions produced in peripheral collisions are very likely emitted along the beam line or stopped in the plastic detectors, energy thresholds are too high for the quasi-target products detection, consequently by requiring complete or quasi-complete measurement of the total charge, we are able to detect mostly central events. The knowledge of informations like charge, energy or detection angles allows to isolate the source(s) and to reconstruct the size and the excitation energy of the source(s). Comparisons with simulations like sequential emission (GEMINI code), very deep inelastic collision or instantaneous emission (Berliner code) allows to characterise the first stage of the collision (binary collisions or central collisions) and the type of deexcitation of the source(s). Some calculations was also performed with the statistical model code MODGAN. Indeed azimuthal correlations seem to be a good tool in getting more information about involved reaction mechanisms. Comparisons with MODGAN provide information about angular momentum of the source and time delay between emissions of the two particles (separation between sequential or instantaneous process). (author). 69 refs.

  11. High-field magnetostriction in CeNiSn{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x} (0<=x<=1) strongly correlated systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moral, A. del, E-mail: delmoral@unizar.e [Laboratorio de Magnetismo de Solidos, Departamento de Fisica de Materia Condensada and ICMA, Universidad de Zaragoza and CSIC, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Fuente, C. de la [Laboratorio de Magnetismo de Solidos, Departamento de Fisica de Materia Condensada and ICMA, Universidad de Zaragoza and CSIC, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2010-05-15

    Magnetization (down to 1.8 K and up to 9 T) and magnetostriction (down to 4.2 K and up to 30 T) measurements have been performed in the series of polycrystalline intermetallics CeNiSn{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x} (0<=x<=1), which show a crossover from Kondo-lattice to fluctuating valence behaviors with x increase. Magnetostriction observed can be denominated as 'colossal' for a paramagnet (up to 0.68% at 150 K and 30 T), with no sign of saturation. Field, H, induced metamagnetic transitions associated to a change in Ce valence are observed. Three kinds of analysis of magnetostriction have been performed to ascertain the magnetostriction origin. At relatively low field and low temperatures these systems follow well the standard theory of magnetostriction (STM), revealing single-ion crystal field and exchange origins, and a determination of the alpha-symmetry microscopic magnetoelastic parameters have been performed. The valence transition is well explained in terms of the interconfigurational model, which needs an extension up to power H{sup 4}. Application of the scaling (thermodynamics corresponding low states) allows the obtainment of the Grueneisen constant, which increases with x. Needed elastic constants measurements are also reported.

  12. The strongly correlated electron systems CeNi sub 2 Ge sub 2 and Sr sub 2 RuO sub 4

    CERN Document Server

    Diver, A J

    1996-01-01

    susceptibility and magnetoresistance on a single crystal CeNi sub 2 Ge sub 2 sample are discussed. The low temperature resistivity is found to show non-Fermi liquid behaviour both at low field and at 16 T. Chapter four is concerned with the layered perovskite superconductor Sr sub 2 RuO sub 4 which has a very similar structure to the La sub 2 sub - sub x Sr sub x CuO sub 4 family of high-T sub c superconductors. De Haas-van Alphen oscillations were detected allowing a study in which all of the Fermi surface sheets were detected. These oscillations are analysed and shown to obey the form expected for a conventional Fermi liquid. The results are compared with the predictions of recent band structure calculations. Measurements of the Hall effect and upper critical field for superconductivity are explained in terms of the measured Fermi surface. Strongly correlated electron systems provide many challenges for condensed matter physics which attempts to find new ways to understand the behaviour of vast numbers of p...

  13. Large single crystal diamond grown in FeNiMnCo-S-C system under high pressure and high temperature conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, He; Li, Shangsheng; Su, Taichao; Hu, Meihua; Li, Guanghui; Ma, Hongan; Jia, Xiaopeng

    2016-11-01

    Large diamonds have successfully been synthesized from FeNiMnCo-S-C system at temperatures of 1255-1393 °C and pressures of 5.3-5.5 GPa. Because of the presence of sulfur additive, the morphology and color of the large diamond crystals change obviously. The content and shape of inclusions change with increasing sulfur additive. It is found that the pressure and temperature conditions required for the synthesis decrease to some extent with the increase of S additive, which results in left down of the V-shape region. The Raman spectra show that the introduction of additive sulfur reduces the quality of the large diamond crystals. The x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) spectra show the presence of S in the diamonds. Furthermore, the electrical properties of the large diamond crystals are tested by a four-point probe and the Hall effect method. When sulfur in the cell of diamond is up to 4.0 wt.%, the resistance of the diamond is 9.628×105 Ω·cm. It is shown that the large single crystal samples are n type semiconductors. This work is helpful for the further research and application of sulfur-doped semiconductor large diamond. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51172089), the Education Department of Henan Province, China (Grant No. 12A430010), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Universities of Henan Province, China (Grant No. NSFRF140110).

  14. Phase Equilibrium Experiments on Potential Lunar Core Compositions: Extension of Current Knowledge to Multi-Component (Fe-Ni-Si-S-C) Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righter, K.; Pando, K.; Danielson, L.

    2014-01-01

    Numerous geophysical and geochemical studies have suggested the existence of a small metallic lunar core, but the composition of that core is not known. Knowledge of the composition can have a large impact on the thermal evolution of the core, its possible early dynamo creation, and its overall size and fraction of solid and liquid. Thermal models predict that the current temperature at the core-mantle boundary of the Moon is near 1650 K. Re-evaluation of Apollo seismic data has highlighted the need for new data in a broader range of bulk core compositions in the PT range of the lunar core. Geochemical measurements have suggested a more volatile-rich Moon than previously thought. And GRAIL mission data may allow much better constraints on the physical nature of the lunar core. All of these factors have led us to determine new phase equilibria experimental studies in the Fe-Ni-S-C-Si system in the relevant PT range of the lunar core that will help constrain the composition of Moon's core.

  15. Researches regarding a constructing problem of a PV system. Part 1. Conscious investigation by means of a questionnaire survey; Taiyoko hatsuden system ni okeru kenchikuteki shomondai no kenkyu. 1. Anketo chosa ni yoru ishiki chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, Y.; Yamazaki, R.; Kuroki, T. [Kogakuin University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    The installation and introduction of photovoltaic power generation systems (PVS) in buildings are growingly expected in the construction field from now, coupled with the marketing of a solar cell module as a product for a construction material in the form of an external wall or a roof material for example. For this purpose, it is necessary at first to summarize problems that may arise at the time of or after the installation of PVS as a product. This paper examines an opinion poll, degree of recognition, current problems, etc., of PVS as a result of a questionnaire survey given to engineers and architects engaged in the actual construction business. The degree of recognition and interest was very high. Consultation or request for PVS installation was much more than predicted in numbers. Roughly 50% of the respondents reacted positively for the future installation request of PVS and, combined with the respondents who answered to look into the installation tentatively, not less than 90% were of a forward-looking opinion. The 85% of the respondents was not aware of the monitor business system for residential PVS. Further, the survey clearly brought out the importance of cost problems. 1 ref., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Study on heat collector of the solar system utilizing outdoor air. Experimental results in cases of cold and warm regions; Gaiki donyushiki solar system no shunetsubu ni kansuru kenkyu. Kanreichi to ondanchi ni okeru shunetsu jikken to kosatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komano, S.; Ebara, Y. [OM Solar Association, Shizuoka (Japan); Wada, H. [Wada Building Constructors Co. Ltd., Hokkaido (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    An experiment on heat collection was made in the heat collector of a solar system utilizing outdoor air in cold and warm regions. In this system, outdoor air is heated by the air circulation layer on the roof exposed to solar radiation. The heated air is supplied to the object space for heating and ventilation. In the experiment in a cold region, the heat collection characteristics can be adjusted by putting a baffle plate in the air duct according to the experiment of a glass heat collector. The heat collecting air layer on only the iron roof may leak or freeze in the region subject to coldness or heavy snowfall. Therefore, preheat forms the space of a garret, and the preheat temperature comparatively becomes low. The data in which the heat collection characteristics can be adjusted using only a glass heat collector is required corresponding to the regional situation. In the experiment in a warm region, an experiment was made inclusive of the preheat for which outdoor air is absorbed at the eaves. As a result, the heat collection characteristics of preheat were improved. Moreover, a heat collection temperature of about 60{degree}C was obtained on the heat collection surface including the preheat. 1 ref., 12 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. A High Frame Rate Test System for the HEPS-BPIX Based on NI-sbRIO Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jingzi; Zhang, Jie; Wei, Wei; Ning, Zhe; Li, Zhenjie; Jiang, Xiaoshan; Fan, Lei; Shen, Wei; Ren, Jiayi; Ji, Xiaolu; Lan, Allan K.; Lu, Yunpeng; Ouyang, Qun; Liu, Peng; Zhu, Kejun; Wang, Zheng

    2017-06-01

    HEPS-BPIX is a silicon pixel detector designed for the future large scientific facility, high-energy photon sources (HEPS) in Beijing, China. It is a high frame rate hybrid pixel detector which works in the single-photon-counting mode. High frame rate leads to much higher readout data bandwidth than former systems, which is also the difficulty of the design. Aiming to test and calibrate the pixel detector, a test system based on the National Instruments single-board RIO 9626 and LabVIEW program environment has been designed. A series of tests has been carried out with X-ray machine as well as on the Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility 1W2B beamline. The test results show that the threshold uniformity is better than 60 electrons and the equivalent noise charge is less than 120 electrons. Besides, the required highest frame rate of 1.2 kHz has been realized. This paper will elaborate the test system design and present the latest testing results of the HEPS-BPIX system.

  18. Heterospin systems constructed from [Cu2Ln]3+ and [Ni(mnt)2]1-,2- Tectons: First 3p-3d-4f complexes (mnt = maleonitriledithiolato).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madalan, Augustin M; Avarvari, Narcis; Fourmigué, Marc; Clérac, Rodolphe; Chibotaru, Liviu F; Clima, Sergiu; Andruh, Marius

    2008-02-04

    New heterospin complexes have been obtained by combining the binuclear complexes [{Cu(H(2)O)L(1)}Ln(O(2)NO)(3)] or [{CuL(2)}Ln(O(2)NO)(3)] (L(1) = N,N'-propylene-di(3-methoxysalicylideneiminato); L(2) = N,N'-ethylene-di(3-methoxysalicylideneiminato); Ln = Gd(3+), Sm(3+), Tb(3+)), with the mononuclear [CuL(1)(2)] and the nickel dithiolene complexes [Ni(mnt)(2)](q)- (q = 1, 2; mnt = maleonitriledithiolate), as follows: (1)infinity[{CuL(1)}(2)Ln(O(2)NO){Ni(mnt)(2)}].Solv.CH(3)CN (Ln = Gd(3+), Solv = CH(3)OH (1), Ln = Sm(3+), Solv = CH(3)CN (2)) and [{(CH(3)OH)CuL(2)}(2)Sm(O(2)NO)][Ni(mnt)(2)] (3) with [Ni(mnt)2]2-, [{(CH(3)CN)CuL(1)}(2)Ln(H(2)O)][Ni(mnt)(2)]3.2CH(3)CN (Ln = Gd(3+) (4), Sm(3+) (5), Tb(3+) (6)), and [{(CH(3)OH)CuL(2)}{CuL(2)}Gd(O(2)NO){Ni(mnt)(2)}][Ni(mnt)(2)].CH(2)Cl(2) (7) with [Ni(mnt))(2]*-. Trinuclear, almost linear, [CuLnCu] motifs are found in all the compounds. In the isostructural 1 and 2, two trans cyano groups from a [Ni(mnt)2]2- unit bridge two trimetallic nodes through axial coordination to the Cu centers, thus leading to the establishment of infinite chains. 3 is an ionic compound, containing discrete [{(CH(3)OH)CuL(2)}(2)Sm(O(2)NO)](2+) cations and [Ni(mnt)(2)](2-) anions. Within the series 4-6, layers of discrete [CuLnCu](3+) motifs alternate with stacks of interacting [Ni(mnt)(2)](*-) radical anions, for which two overlap modes, providing two different types of stacks, can be disclosed. The strength of the intermolecular interactions between the open-shell species is estimated through extended Hückel calculations. In compound 7, [Ni(mnt)(2)](*-) radical anions coordinate group one of the Cu centers of a trinuclear [Cu(2)Gd] motif through a CN, while discrete [Ni(mnt)(2)](*-) units are also present, overlapping in between, but also with the coordinated ones. Furthermore, the [Cu(2)Gd] moieties dimerize each other upon linkage by two nitrato groups, both acting as chelate toward the gadolinium ion from one unit and monodentate toward a

  19. TMN-based network management systems for utility telecommunication networks. Pt. 7. Flexible information model for requirement acquisition; TMN ni motozuku denryoku tsushinmo no kanri system. 7. Un'yosha no yokyu wo junan ni torikomu joho model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otani, T.; Yusa, H.; Yamaoka, K.

    2000-05-01

    The standardization organization is specifying objects solving the knowledge gap that causes system constructions more expensive and time consuming. Although these objects provide general functions, specific requirements are hardly satisfied. In this paper, we propose a flexible information model for requirement acquisition without effects on the standard objects. The proposed information model enables that (1) a process according to a requirement is easy to be added and/or modified, (2) status invoking the process is set, and (3) additional attributes and/or methods are added without modification of other objects. We have constructed the model-based program that reschedules task order and measured its properties using software metrics. The results shows the proposed information model makes existing objects reuse possible and facilitates satisfaction of specific requirements. (author)

  20. Eutectic superalloys strengthened by delta Ni3Cb lamellae, and gamma prime, Ni3Al precipitates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemkey, F. D.; Thompson, E. R.

    1972-01-01

    Bivariant eutectic alloys, located on a liquidus surface within the Ni-Cb-Cr-Al quaternary, were identified which permitted the production of aligned delta Ni3Cb lamellae within a nichrome matrix containing the fcc precipitate gamma prime Ni3Al. The volume fraction of delta and gamma prime could be varied significantly by compositional changes. After directional solidification certain alloys possessed improved ductility and corrosion resistance with respect to the Ni3Al-Ni3Cb eutectic, while their values of tensile and creep strength approached or exceeded those for the Ni3Al-Ni3Cb pseudobinary system. The mechanical properties of the directionally solidified alloy, Ni-19.7 wt % Cb-6.0 wt % Cr-2.5 wt % Al, were evaluated. Its longitudinal strength in tension and creep was found to be superior to all advanced nickel base superalloys. It is thus demonstrated that useful properties for gas turbine airfoil applications can be achieved by reinforcing a strong and tough gamma nichrome matrix containing precipitated gamma prime by a strong lamellar intermetallic compound having greater strength at elevated temperature.

  1. Enhanced Electrocatalytic Activity for Water Splitting on NiO/Ni/Carbon Fiber Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruoyu Zhang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale growth of low-cost, efficient, and durable non-noble metal-based electrocatalysts for water splitting is crucial for future renewable energy systems. Atomic layer deposition (ALD provides a promising route for depositing uniform thin coatings of electrocatalysts, which are useful in many technologies, including the splitting of water. In this communication, we report the growth of a NiO/Ni catalyst directly on carbon fiber paper by atomic layer deposition and report subsequent reduction and oxidation annealing treatments. The 10–20 nm NiO/Ni nanoparticle catalysts can reach a current density of 10 mA·cm−2 at an overpotential of 189 mV for hydrogen evolution reactions and 257 mV for oxygen evolution reactions with high stability. We further successfully achieved a water splitting current density of 10 mA·cm−2 at 1.78 V using a typical NiO/Ni coated carbon fiber paper two-electrode setup. The results suggest that nanoparticulate NiO/Ni is an active, stable, and noble-metal-free electrocatalyst, which facilitates a method for future water splitting applications.

  2. Implementation of a real-time automatic onset time detection for surface electromyography measurement systems using NI myRIO

    OpenAIRE

    Lersviriyanantakul Chaiwat; Booranawong Apidet; Sengchuai Kiattisak; Phukpattaranont Pornchai; Wongkittisuksa Booncharoen; Jindapetch Nattha

    2016-01-01

    For using surface electromyography (sEMG) in various applications, the process consists of three parts: an onset time detection for detecting the first point of movement signals, a feature extraction for extracting the signal attribution, and a feature classification for classifying the sEMG signals. The first and the most significant part that influences the accuracy of other parts is the onset time detection, particularly for automatic systems. In this pa...

  3. Remote reference processing in MT survey using GPS clock; MT ho ni okeru GPS wo mochiita jikoku doki system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamane, K.; Inoue, J.; Takasugi, S. [Geothermal Energy Research and Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Kosuge, S. [DRICO Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    A report is given about the application of a synchronizing system using clock signals from GPS satellites to a remote reference method which is a technique to reject noise from the MT method. This system uses the C/A code out of the L1 band waves from NAVSTAR/GPS satellites. The new system was operated in MT method-using investigations conducted at China Peninsula, Aichi Prefecture, and Izu Peninsula, Shizuoka Prefecture, with the reference points placed several 100km away in Iwate Prefecture on both occasions. It was found as the result that it is basically possible to catch signals from the GPS at any place, that the signals are accurate enough to be applied to time synchronization for the MT method, and that the signals assure a far remote reference method with a separation of several 100km between the sites involved. The referencing process at high frequencies whose feasibility had been doubted proved a success when highly correlated signals were exchanged between two stations over a distance of several 100km. 5 refs., 9 figs.

  4. Gas purging system at emergency stop of a fuel cell. Nenryo denchi no kinkyu teishiji ni okeru gas purge hoshiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, Hirotoshi.

    1989-12-01

    This invention aims to provide a gas purging system wherein an external inactive gas is introduced into the cell body for replacing the reaction gas at an emergency stop of a control power source, without requiring any auxiliary batteries. For this purpose, in this invention, an inactive gas supply line is connected, via a gas purging electromagnetic valve, to a reaction gas supply line which goes to the main fuel cell body; the driving coil of the electromagnetic valve is connected between the terminals of the fuel cell through the intermediary of a contact point of a relay for detection of extinction of the control power source. At the emergency stop of above accident, the residual electric energy of the fuel cell itself opens the electromagnetic valve, thus introducing the inactive gas into the main fuel cell body. The result is that the gas purging is conducted without any trouble, without requiring any auxiliary batteries as in the conventional system; the protection of the fuel cell is thus attained. 2 figs.

  5. Fundamental characteristics on electric system of solar electric vehicle; Solar car no denki keito ni kansuru kiso tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, S.; Sasaki, M.; Kaga, T.; Koyama, N. [Hachinohe Institute of Technology, Aomori (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    The electric system of a solar vehicle was removed and the fundamental characteristics examined in order to carry out a basic experiment on the electric system. Using a basic circuit with panels, batteries and loads connected, the voltage and current were measured in the presence/absence of the trackers, batteries, etc., and then, their effects were examined. Simultaneously, the quantity of solar radiation was also measured. The lowering of the output voltage was somewhat relaxed with the use of the trackers. Further, with the trackers used, the output voltage of the panel was small in spite of a large quantity of solar radiation compared to the case without the trackers, which was due to the restriction of the output voltage by the trackers. When measured without batteries, the output voltage of the panel was such that the load current was also influenced by the variation of insolation, so that, with a large decrease in insolation, the load current was decreased with the supply of current suspended from the panel. 7 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Feasibility study on introducing new energy systems into Asian villages; Asia sonraku ni okeru shin energy donyu kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    For improvement of living standards in unelectrified areas of Asia, the feasibility of new energy power generation systems was surveyed. The degree of electrification of local areas is different every country, and Thailand is ahead of other countries, while Laos and Cambodia are most unelectrified. Power supply of 100W/house seems to be adequate for local areas because of weather condition, housing situation and life-style. Economic support and education on electricity are necessary for poor areas. Although needs for new energy is increasing, the priority is given to industrial and urbanized areas because of cost and investment effects, and remote areas are dependent on grant- in-aid. Resources of photovoltaic, wind power and micro- hydraulic energies are abundant, however, selection of energy and verification of its usability are important, and the local energy density maps were thus prepared. In introduction of new energy, after selection of energy suitable for an area concerned, such geographical and social conditions should be surveyed as road condition, water rights, land utilization, economic support system, policy and intention of inhabitants. 76 refs., 68 figs., 91 tabs.

  7. ZnNi data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    information only) BE AMERICA’S BEST STRENGTH AND HONOR Additional LHE Zn-Ni Hydrogen Re-Embrittlement Testing  The original LHE Zn-Ni test...follows:  LHE Zn-Ni tank contamination • Spring ‘09 Lab analysis showed organic contamination • The PVC tank liner had begun to break down and had...to be replaced in the Summer ‘09 with a more robust grade of PVC liner • Two years operating with new liner with no problems  Inconsistent plating

  8. OpenNI cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Falahati, Soroush

    2013-01-01

    This is a Cookbook with plenty of practical recipes enriched with explained code and relevant screenshots to ease your learning curve. If you are a beginner or a professional in NIUI and want to write serious applications or games, then this book is for you. Even OpenNI 1 and OpenNI 1.x programmers who want to move to new versions of OpenNI can use this book as a starting point. This book uses C++ as the primary language but there are some examples in C# and Java too, so you need to have about a basic working knowledge of C or C++ for most cases.

  9. Determination of 63Ni and 59Ni in spent ion-exchange resin and activated charcoal from the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taddei, M H T; Macacini, J F; Vicente, R; Marumo, J T; Sakata, S K; Terremoto, L A A

    2013-07-01

    A radiochemical method has been adapted to determine (59)Ni and (63)Ni in samples of radioactive wastes from the water cleanup system of the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor. The process includes extraction chromatographic resin with dimethylglyoxime (DMG) as a functional group. Activity concentrations of (59)Ni and (63)Ni were measured, respectively, by X-ray spectrometry and liquid scintillation counting, whereas the chemical yield was determined by ICP-OES. The average ratio of measured activity concentrations of (63)Ni and (59)Ni agree well with theory. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Design and model experiments on thruster assisted mooring system; Futaishiki kaiyo kozobutsu no thruster ni yoru choshuki doyo seigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, M.; Koterayama, W. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics; Kajiwara, H. [Kyushu Institute of Technology, Kitakyushu (Japan). Faculty of Computer Science and System Engineering; Hyakudome, T. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    Described herein are dynamics and model experiments of the system in which positioning of a floating marine structure by mooring is combined with thruster-controlled positioning. Coefficients of dynamic forces acting on a floating structure model are determined experimentally and by the three-dimensional singularity distribution method, and the controller is designed by the PID, LQI and H{infinity} control theories. A model having a scale ratio of 1/100 was used for the experiments, where 2 thrusters were arranged in a diagonal line, one on the X-axis. It is found that the LQI and H{infinity} controllers of the thruster can control long-cycle rolling of the floating structure. They allow thruster control which is insensitive to wave cycle motion, and efficiently reduce positioning energy. The H{infinity} control regulates frequency characteristics of a closed loop more finely than the LQI control, and exhibits better controllability. 25 refs., 25 figs.

  11. Study on molecular controlled mining system of methane hydrate; Methane hydrate no bunshi seigyo mining ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuriyagawa, M.; Saito, T.; Kobayashi, H.; Karasawa, H.; Kiyono , F.; Nagaoki, R.; Yamamoto, Y.; Komai, T.; Haneda, H.; Takahashi, Y. [National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan); Nada, H. [Science and Technology Agency, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    Basic studies are conducted for the collection of methane from the methane hydrate that exists at levels deeper than 500m in the sea. The relationship between the hydrate generation mechanism and water cluster structure is examined by use of mass spectronomy. It is found that, among the stable liquid phase clusters, the (H2O)21H{sup +} cluster is the most stable. Stable hydrate clusters are in presence in quantities, and participate in the formation of hydrate crystal nuclei. For the elucidation of the nucleus formation mechanism, a kinetic simulation is conducted of molecules in the cohesion system consisting of water and methane molecules. Water molecules that array near methane molecules at the normal pressure is disarrayed under a higher pressure for rearray into a hydrate structure. Hydrate formation and breakdown in the three-phase equilibrium state of H2O, CH4, and CO2 at a low temperature and high pressure are tested, which discloses that supercooling is required for formation, that it is possible to extract CH4 first for replacement by guest molecule CO2 since CO2 is stabler than CH4 at a lower pressure or higher temperature, and that formation is easier to take place when the grain diameter is larger at the formation point since larger grain diameters result in a higher formation temperature. 3 figs.

  12. Timed-release system for periosteal expansion osteogenesis using NiTi mesh and absorbable material in the rabbit calvaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Kensuke; Nogami, Shinnosuke; Martinez-de la Cruz, Gerardo; Hirayama, Bunichi; Shimizu, Yoshinaka; Kumamoto, Hiroyuki; Lethaus, Bernd; Kessler, Peter; Takahashi, Tetsu

    2016-09-01

    This study aimed to improve bone regeneration using a timed-release system for periosteal expansion osteogenesis (TIME-PEO) using a shape memory alloy (SMA) mesh device and absorbable thread in a rabbit model. Twelve rabbits were used in this study. The device was inserted under the periosteum at the forehead, then pushed, bent, and attached to the bone surface and fixed with an absorbable thread. Rabbits were divided into groups C1 (5 weeks postoperatively without dynamic elevation), C2 (8 weeks postoperatively without dynamic elevation), T1 (5 weeks postoperatively from TIME-PEO), and T2 (8 weeks postoperatively from TIME-PEO). Newly formed bone was evaluated histologically and radiographically. The newly formed bone volume to elevated bone volume ratio was 6.1% in C1, 21.9% in T1 15.5% in C2 and 36.0% in T2. These quantitative data indicate that TIME-PEO group had a significantly higher volume than that of the control group (P < 0.05). Histologically, multiple dome-shaped bones, outlined by thin and scattered trabeculae, over the original bone surface were evident in the T group. This technique appears to be a promising clinical alternative for alveolar bone augmentation and introduces the new concept of "dynamic guided bone regeneration" for atrophic alveolar bone. Copyright © 2016 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Fiscal 1998 achievement report. Coal liquefaction technology development - Bituminous coal liquefaction technology development - Study for supporting pilot plant - Study using 1t/d PSU (Study of operation using PSU); 1998 nendo seika hokokusho. Sekitan ekika gijutsu kaihatsu - Rekiseitan ekika gijutsu no kaihatsu - Pilot plant no shien kenkyu - 1t/d process support unit (PSU) ni yoru kenkyu (PSU ni yoru unten kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    The operation of a 1t/d PSU (process support unit) was studied for the NEDOL coal liquefaction process. For the modification of facilities, product oil reforming facilities were installed. In the coal injection operation, a 59-day slurry operation was carried out using Tanito Harum coal, which was for the evaluation of the reforming effect under the product reforming conditions, operationality, and liquefaction characteristics. A 37-day slurry operation was also performed using Chinese coal, which was intended to pursue improved cost performance and to collect the light oil fraction in the flow of reforming operation. In the operation for maintenance, investigations were conducted into conditions for hydrogenation in a 1-through operation involving the solvent hydrogenation process and the normal pressure distillation facilities and into the effect of pre-hydrogenation solvent properties, which aimed at grasping the effect of product oil reforming measures and their influence on operationality. In the survey of environments, the properties of wastewater from the liquefaction process using Tanito Harum coal were studied and toxicity evaluation tests were conducted for activated sludge. (NEDO)

  14. Fiscal 1997 achievement report. Coal liquefaction technology development - Bituminous coal liquefaction technology development - Study for supporting pilot plant - Study using 1t/d PSU (Study of operation using PSU); 1997 nendo seika hokokusho. Sekitan ekika gijutsu kaihatsu - Rekiseitan ekika gijutsu no kaihatsu - Pilot plant no shien kenkyu - 1t/d process support unit (PSU) ni yoru kenkyu (PSU ni yoru unten kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The operation of a 1t/d PSU (process support unit) was studied for the NEDOL coal liquefaction process. In the modification of facilities, equipment and devices were procured for the product oil reforming facilities and their installation was partly accomplished. In the coal injection operation, a 60-day slurry operation was conducted, using coal types of the upper limit and lower limit qualities, for expanding the scope of coal types applicable to the NEDOL process and for exploring optimum conditions, and another operation of 37 days was conducted using Chinese coal and Chinese-prepared liquefaction catalysts, and the two operations were studied for difference in yields and in operationality. Characteristics of the liquefaction reactors were investigated and basic studies were made relative to the physical property of the yielded coal oil. In the operation for maintenance, the 1st liquefaction reactor was singly operated for an 8-day slurry operation, which was to check the progress of liquefaction in a 1-reactor setup. Concerning the reforming of the product oil, the hydrogenation reactors were checked for their response to temperature control. Moreover, hydrogenation solvents were produced for the PSU and for China. (NEDO)

  15. Processing and Mechanical Properties of NiAl-Based In-Situ Composites. Ph.D. Thesis Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, David Ray

    1994-01-01

    In-situ composites based on the NiAl-Cr eutectic system were successfully produced by containerless processing and evaluated. The NiAl-Cr alloys had a fibrous microstructure while the NiAl-(Cr,Mo) alloys containing 1 at. percent or more molybdenum exhibited a lamellar structure. The NiAl-28Cr-6Mo eutectic displays promising high temperature strength while still maintaining a reasonable room temperature fracture toughness when compared to other NiAl-based materials. The Laves phase NiAlTa was used to strengthen NiAl and very promising creep strengths were found for the directionally solidified NiAl-NiAlTa eutectic. The eutectic composition was found to be near NiAl-15.5Ta (at. percent) and well aligned microstructures were produced at this composition. An off-eutectic composition of NiAl-14.5Ta was also processed, consisting of NiAl dendrites surrounded by aligned eutectic regions. The room temperature toughness of these two phase alloys was similar to that of polycrystalline NiAl even with the presence of the brittle Laves phase NiAlTa. Polyphase in-situ composites were generated by directional solidification of ternary eutectics. The systems investigated were the Ni-Al-Ta-X (X=Cr, Mo, or V) alloys. Ternary eutectics were found in each of these systems and both the eutectic composition and temperature were determined. Of these ternary eutectics, the one in the NiAl-Ta-Cr system was found to be the most promising. The fracture toughness of the NiAl-(Cr,Al)NiTa-Cr eutectic was intermediate between those of the NiAl-NiAlTa eutectic and the NiAl-Cr eutectic. The creep strength of this ternary eutectic was similar to or greater than that of the NiAl-Cr eutectic.

  16. Effects of multiple root canal usage on the surface topography and fracture of two different Ni-Ti rotary file systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jojo Kottoor

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of multiple root canal usage on the surface topography and fracture of Twisted File (TF and ProTaper (PT rotary Ni-Ti file systems, using scanning electron microscope (SEM. Materials and Methods: Ten sets of PT and TF instruments were used to prepare the mesial canals of mandibular first molars. TF 25, 0.06 taper and PT F1 instruments were analyzed by SEM when new and thereafter every three root canal usages. This sequence was repeated for both the TF and PT groups until 12 uses. Two images of the instrument were recorded, one of the instrument tip and the other 5 mm from the tip, both at ×100 magnification. The sequential use was continued till the instrument fractured and the number of root canal usages for the file to fracture was noted. All fracture surfaces were examined under the SEM. Results: Fresh TF instruments showed no surface wear when compared to PT instruments (P 0.05, while at the 9 th usage TF showed a steep increase in the spiral distortion score when compared to PT (P < 0.05. PT instruments fractured at a mean root canal usage of 17.4, while TF instruments showed a mean root canal usage of 11.8. Fractographically, all the TF instruments failed due to torsion, while all the PT instruments failed because of cyclic fatigue. Conclusion: PT instruments showed more resistance to fracture than TF instruments.

  17. Hydride Reactivity of Ni-II-X-Ni-II Entities : Mixed-Valent Hydrido Complexes and Reversible Metal Reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gehring, Henrike; Metzinger, Ramona; Herwig, Christian; Intemann, Julia; Harder, Sjoerd; Limberg, Christian

    After the lithiation of PYR-H2 (PYR2-=[{NC(Me)C(H)C(Me)NC6H3(iPr)2}2(C5H3N)]2-), which is the precursor of an expanded beta-diketiminato ligand system with two binding pockets, its reaction with [NiBr2(dme)] led to a dinuclear nickel(II)bromide complex, [(PYR)Ni(mu-Br)NiBr] (1). The bridging bromide

  18. Determination of Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy or Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry after On-line Preconcentration and Solvent Extraction by Flow Injection System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortoli; Gerotto; Marchiori; Mariconti; Palonta; Troncon

    1996-11-01

    The concentrations of Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn in natural and sea waters are too low to be directly determined with by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) or graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). Specific sample preparations are requested that make possible the determination of these analytes by preconcentration or extraction. These techniques are affected by severe problems of sample contamination. In this work Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) or by atomic absorption spectrometry, in fresh and seawater samples, after on-line preconcentration and following solvent elution with a flow injection system. Bonded silica with octadecyl functional group C18, packed in a microcolumn of 100-μl capacity, was used to collect diethyldithiocarbamate complexes of the heavy metals in aqueous solutions. The metals are complexed with a chelating agent, adsorbed on the C18 column, and eluted with methanol directly in the flow injection system. The methanolic stream can be addressed to FAAS for direct determination of Cu, Ni, and Zn, or collected in a vial for successive analysis by GFAAS. The eluted samples can be also dried in a vacuum container and restored to a little volume with concentrated HNO3 and Milli-Q water for analysis by ICP-MS or GFAAS.

  19. Euhedral metallic-Fe-Ni grains in extraterrestrial samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Alan E.

    1993-01-01

    Metallic Fe-Ni is rare in terrestrial rocks, being largely restricted to serpentinized peridotites and volcanic rocks that assimilated carbonaceous material. In contrast, metallic Fe-Ni is nearly ubiquitous among extraterrestrial samples (i.e., meteorites, lunar rocks, and interplanetary dust particles). Anhedral grains are common. For example, in eucrites and lunar basalts, most of the metallic Fe-Ni occurs interstitially between silicate grains and thus tends to have irregular morphologies. In many porphyritic chondrules, metallic Fe-Ni and troilite form rounded blebs in the mesostasis because their precursors were immiscible droplets. In metamorphosed ordinary chondrites, metallic Fe-Ni and troilite form coarse anhedral grains. Some of the metallic Fe-Ni and troilite grains has also been mobilized and injected into fractures in adjacent silicate grains where local shock-reheating temperatures reached the Fe-FeS eutectic (988 C). In interplanetary dust particles metallic Fe-Ni most commonly occurs along with sulfide as spheroids and fragments. Euhedral metallic Fe-Ni grains are extremely rare. Several conditions must be met before such grains can form: (1) grain growth must occur at free surfaces, restricting euhedral metallic Fe-Ni grains to systems that are igneous or undergoing vapor-deposition; (2) the metal (+/-) sulfide assemblage must have an appropriate bulk composition so that taenite is the liquidus phase in igneous systems or the stable condensate phase in vapor-deposition systems; and (3) metallic Fe-Ni grains must remain underformed during subsequent compaction, thermal metamorphism, and shock. Because of these restrictions, the occurrence of euhedral metallic Fe-Ni grains in an object can potentially provide important petrogenetic information. Despite its rarity, euhedral metallic Fe-Ni occurs in a wide variety of extraterrestrial materials. Some of these materials formed in the solar nebula; others formed on parent body surfaces by meteoroid

  20. Application of photovoltaic generating system to electric power in large ship; Taiyoko hatsuden system no ogata senpaku eno oyo ni kansuru kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katagi, T.; Ogawa, S.; Nishikawa, E.; Hashimoto, T. [Kobe University of Mercantile Marine, Kobe (Japan); Ishida, K.

    1996-10-27

    This paper describes the design of electric power system in a ship with photovoltaic power generating system, to examine applicability of the photovoltaic power generating system to the inboard power source. It also discusses effectiveness of the system for sea environment. At first, the actual route of a car carrier, meteorological data, and quantity of power consumption were picked up from the deck logbook and engine logbook. Then, the installation area of photovoltaic arrays, the quantity of photovoltaic power generation derived from the quantity of solar radiation, and the capacities of batteries and inverters were calculated, to design the electric power system in the ship with photovoltaic power generation system. Moreover, the NOx and SOx emissions were compared between the present power system and the usual power system using diesel power generator, to discuss the effectiveness of the present system for sea environment. Consequently, it was found that the emission of NOx was reduced by about 33% and the emission of SOx was reduced by about 28% compared to the usual power system. The effectiveness for sea environment was confirmed. 9 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. Evaluation report on research and development of a subsea petroleum production system; Kaitei sekiyu seisan system no kenkyu kaihatsu ni kansuru hyoka hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1985-03-01

    In order to assure stable supply of oil and natural gas resources, and achieve enhancement in ocean development technologies in general, development has been made on the subsea petroleum production system (SBPPS), which is effective in ocean floor petroleum production from oil fields at great depths (300 m or deeper), and can be applicable to continental shelves and continental slopes around Japan. The SBPPS consists of four sub-systems of shafts, pipelines, manifolds, and riser and oil storage, whose basic development targets were established for the total system. The system was given a conceptual design for the total system, and the above four sub-systems were designed according to the conceptual design. The experimenting devices of each system were fabricated on a trial basis while fundamental studies are being made on component technologies, and experiments were performed to verify basic functions of the sub-systems. Developments were made on such operation technologies as the system operation technology, production control technology, safety control technology, and maintenance and repair technology required to operate the SBPPS. On-shore and general off-shore experiments were carried out to verify the functions of the experimenting devices of each system, the comprehensive functions and the operation technology. Comprehensive evaluation was given on the above achievements from the technical, economic and social viewpoints. (NEDO)

  2. Critical behavior and magnetocaloric effect in Co{sub 50−x}Ni{sub x}Cr{sub 25}Al{sub 25} (x = 0 and 5) full Heusler alloy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panda, J.; Saha, S.N.; Nath, T.K., E-mail: tnath@phy.iitkgp.ernet.in

    2015-09-25

    Highlights: • The Curie temperature of alloy series of Co{sub 50−x}Ni{sub x}Cr{sub 25}Al{sub 25} decreases with increasing x. • The critical exponents behavior and scaling relation of the alloy series have been investigated. • Using M–H data, employing Modified Arrott plot and Kouvel–Fisher plot exponents are estimated. • The estimated critical exponent values match very well with the mean field theory. • Under a magnetic field maximum up to 5 T, normal magnetocaloric effect has been observed. - Abstract: This work reports the investigation of critical behavior of Co{sub 50−x}Ni{sub x}Cr{sub 25}Al{sub 25} (x = 0 and 5) and magneto caloric effect (MCE) of bulk Co{sub 2}CrAl full Heusler alloy system. The alloy series of Co{sub 50−x}Ni{sub x}Cr{sub 25}Al{sub 25} (x = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5) have been prepared using arc melting technique. The magnetic properties of all the samples have been studied in the temperature range of 5–300 K. The value of Curie temperature (T{sub C}) is found to decrease with increasing doping concentration of the Ni (substitution of Ni at Co site). The critical exponents behavior and scaling relation have been investigated using magnetic isotherms in Co{sub 50−x}Ni{sub x}Cr{sub 25}Al{sub 25} (x = 0 and 5) alloys. The critical exponents are estimated by various techniques such as, Modified Arrott plot, Kouvel–Fisher plot and critical isotherm technique. The value of critical exponents vicinity to the second order magnetic phase transition of Co{sub 50}Cr{sub 25}Al{sub 25} were found to be β = 0.488 (7), γ = 1.144 (16) and δ = 3.336 (5) with T{sub C} = 328.64 (5) K whereas for Co{sub 50}Ni{sub 5}Cr{sub 25}Al{sub 25} the values are β = 0.522 (13), γ = 1.014 (6) and δ = 3.043 (7) with T{sub C} = 285.71 (11). The critical exponent values for both the samples are almost similar to the value as predicted by mean field theory. This has been best explained by long range mean field like ferromagnetic interaction in the

  3. Evaluation of the performance in the solar assisted heat pump system; Taiyonetsu riyo heat pump system no seino hyoka ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Y. [Osaka Institute of Technology, Osaka (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    Performance of a solar heating system with a hydrothermal source heat pump was evaluated and compared with that of a direct solar heating system. The sun-dependency rates ({Sigma}D and {Sigma}H)of the direct system and heat pump (HP)-provided system were expressed as a function of the rate ({alpha}) of the auxiliary heat against the collected heat and as a function of the performance coefficient and {alpha}, respectively. When the sun-dependency rates are compared, it is found that the HP-provided system is the more advantageous when {Sigma}H/{Sigma}D>1. The relationship between the {alpha}`s of the two systems was clarified and computation was performed to compare the sun-dependency rates on condition that the two are equal in the heat collecting area. Although the sun-dependence rate cannot be elevated to 100% in the HP-provided system, it achieves a sun-dependency rate higher than that of the direct system even when the heat collecting area is small. In cases where the building is economically limited, for instance, with respect to the area for solar collector installation, it is advantageous to employ the HP-provided system. 5 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Effect of Ni interlayer on diffusion bonding of a W alloy and a Ta alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jian; Liu, Ruxia; Wei, Qinqin; Luo, Guoqiang; Shen, Qiang; Zhang, Lianmeng [Wuhan Univ. of Technology (China). The State Key Lab. of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing

    2017-11-01

    The combination of W and Ta is expected to be highly beneficial for many applications from aerospace, weapons, military and nuclear industry. In this paper, W and Ta alloys were successfully diffusion bonded with Ni interlayer. The process of the formation of W/Ni/Ta diffusion bonded joints was investigated by means of scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction system, electron probe micro-analyzer, energy dispersive spectrometry and shear strength measurement. The results show that the shear strength increases when the bonding temperature increases and exhibits a maximum value of 244 MPa at 930 C. The bonding of W/Ni can be attributed to the bonding of Ni to tungsten grains and the bonding of Ni to a Ni-Fe-binder mainly by elemental diffusion. The fracture takes place in the Ni/Ta interface and Ni{sub 3}Ta and Ni{sub 2}Ta intermetallic compounds are formed on the fracture surfaces.

  5. [NiFeSe]-hydrogenase chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wombwell, Claire; Caputo, Christine A; Reisner, Erwin

    2015-11-17

    The development of technology for the inexpensive generation of the renewable energy vector H2 through water splitting is of immediate economic, ecological, and humanitarian interest. Recent interest in hydrogenases has been fueled by their exceptionally high catalytic rates for H2 production at a marginal overpotential, which is presently only matched by the nonscalable noble metal platinum. The mechanistic understanding of hydrogenase function guides the design of synthetic catalysts, and selection of a suitable hydrogenase enables direct applications in electro- and photocatalysis. [FeFe]-hydrogenases display excellent H2 evolution activity, but they are irreversibly damaged upon exposure to O2, which currently prevents their use in full water splitting systems. O2-tolerant [NiFe]-hydrogenases are known, but they are typically strongly biased toward H2 oxidation, while H2 production by [NiFe]-hydrogenases is often product (H2) inhibited. [NiFeSe]-hydrogenases are a subclass of [NiFe]-hydrogenases with a selenocysteine residue coordinated to the active site nickel center in place of a cysteine. They exhibit a combination of unique properties that are highly advantageous for applications in water splitting compared with other hydrogenases. They display a high H2 evolution rate with marginal inhibition by H2 and tolerance to O2. [NiFeSe]-hydrogenases are therefore one of the most active molecular H2 evolution catalysts applicable in water splitting. Herein, we summarize our recent progress in exploring the unique chemistry of [NiFeSe]-hydrogenases through biomimetic model chemistry and the chemistry with [NiFeSe]-hydrogenases in semiartificial photosynthetic systems. We gain perspective from the structural, spectroscopic, and electrochemical properties of the [NiFeSe]-hydrogenases and compare them with the chemistry of synthetic models of this hydrogenase active site. Our synthetic models give insight into the effects on the electronic properties and reactivity of

  6. Equilibrium ion exchange studies of Ni2+ on homoionic forms of clinoptilolite

    OpenAIRE

    Joshua Gorimbo; Blessing Taenzana; Kutemba Kapanji; Linda L. Jewell

    2014-01-01

    A natural zeolite (clinoptilolite) that is mined in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, was evaluated for the removal of Ni2+ from wastewater. In particular, the effect of zeolite modification on Ni2+ removal from synthetic wastewater was investigated. The natural clinoptilolite was pretreated with 2 M metal chlorides for 24 h to yield near homoionic Na+, K+ and Ca2+ forms. A comparison of the isotherms for the Na+-Ni2+, K+-Ni2+, Ca2+-Ni2+ and natural-Ni2+ systems gave insight into how the displaced...

  7. R and D contract management systems in the USA (Attachment); Beikoku ni okeru R and D contract kanri system (tenpu shiryohen)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-02-01

    Presented herein is the attachment for 'R and D contract management systems in the USA'. The major contents include regulations governing the R and D contracts, procedures for the R and D contracts, financial procedures for the R and D contracts, procedures for the alternative R and D contracts, financial management of the R and D contracts, and activities for the management of the contract processes by electronic systems. (NEDO)

  8. Dye-sensitized MIL-101 metal organic frameworks loaded with Ni/NiOx nanoparticles for efficient visible-light-driven hydrogen generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Ling Liu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Ni/NiOx particles were in situ photodeposited on MIL-101 metal organic frameworks as catalysts for boosting H2 generation from Erythrosin B dye sensitization under visible-light irradiation. The highest H2 production rate of 125 μmol h−1 was achieved from the system containing 5 wt. % Ni-loaded MIL-101 (20 mg and 30 mg Erythrosin B dye. Moreover, the Ni/NiOx catalysts show excellent stability for long-term photocatalytic reaction. The enhancement on H2 generation is attributed to the efficient charge transfer from photoexcited dye to the Ni catalyst via MIL-101. Our results demonstrate that the economical Ni/NiOx particles are durable and active catalysts for photocatalytic H2 generation.

  9. Dye-sensitized MIL-101 metal organic frameworks loaded with Ni/NiO{sub x} nanoparticles for efficient visible-light-driven hydrogen generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xin-Ling; Wang, Rong; Yuan, Yu-Peng, E-mail: yupengyuan@ahu.edu.cn, E-mail: cxue@ntu.edu.sg [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, and Innovation Lab for Clean Energy and Green Catalysis, Anhui University, Hefei 230036 (China); Zhang, Ming-Yi [Key Laboratory for Photonic and Electronic Bandgap Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Harbin Normal University, Harbin 150025 (China); Xue, Can, E-mail: yupengyuan@ahu.edu.cn, E-mail: cxue@ntu.edu.sg [Solar Fuels Lab, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2015-10-01

    The Ni/NiO{sub x} particles were in situ photodeposited on MIL-101 metal organic frameworks as catalysts for boosting H{sub 2} generation from Erythrosin B dye sensitization under visible-light irradiation. The highest H{sub 2} production rate of 125 μmol h{sup −1} was achieved from the system containing 5 wt. % Ni-loaded MIL-101 (20 mg) and 30 mg Erythrosin B dye. Moreover, the Ni/NiO{sub x} catalysts show excellent stability for long-term photocatalytic reaction. The enhancement on H{sub 2} generation is attributed to the efficient charge transfer from photoexcited dye to the Ni catalyst via MIL-101. Our results demonstrate that the economical Ni/NiO{sub x} particles are durable and active catalysts for photocatalytic H{sub 2} generation.

  10. RESISTENCIA CHIMILA: NI ANIQUILADOS, NI VENCIDOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Rey Sinning

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se examina de forma sucinta la respuesta que los Chimilas dieron al proceso de usurpación de su territorio, mostrando cómo lograron resistir y lucharon por recuperar su espacio social, al tiempo que se señalan los efectos que tuvo sobre ellos el último proceso de ocupación territorial que, con fines capitalistas, el Estado colombiano y las economías privadas llevaron a cabo, pese al cual no fueron “ni aniquilados ni vencidos”. Finalizaremos este artículo señalando las características de las últimas fundaciones en territorio Chimila y su lucha por la supervivencia. Para su elaboración se reunió una variada información, a partir de diversos documentos históricos recolectados en archivos nacionales y regionales, diarios, cartas y crónicas de viajeros, además de las diversas reflexiones que han elaborado, antropólogos, sociólogos e historiadores sobre la temática.

  11. Development of power transmission tower monitoring system. Landslide detection by GPS carrier sensor; Soden tetto ijo kanshi system no kaihatsu. GPS carrier sensor ni yoru jisuberi kenshutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    In order to reduce labor required for monitoring, patrolling, and checking anomalies in power transmission towers, a development has been made on a remotely controlled monitoring system that can detect landslides easily by detecting carrier waves from the global positioning system (GPS) in combination with use of cellular phones. The present system does not use code signals from the GPS, but receives carrier waves used for its transmission at two locations, measures precisely the phase difference therein, and calculates a very small change in the distance between two points from difference in arrival time of the waves. Receivers are placed at base points (substations) and GPS measuring points (transmission towers). Pocket bells are called from a personal computer at the maintenance location (a power center) during observation, and power is supplied into the receivers from solar cells. The data of GPS carrier waves received at both locations are transmitted to the power center through a cellular phone. The phase difference is calculated and the amount of movement is displayed on the personal computer screen to carry out remote surveillance. A measurement of accuracy of about 1 cm may be realized. Demonstration tests have begun in 1995 at towers installed in the Shiga plateau district where landslide occurs frequently, and the feasibility of the system was verified. 5 figs.

  12. NiCo2S4@NiMoO4 Core-Shell Heterostructure Nanotube Arrays Grown on Ni Foam as a Binder-Free Electrode Displayed High Electrochemical Performance with High Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Xu, Jie; Zheng, Yayun; Zhang, Yingjiu; Hu, Xing; Xu, Tingting

    2017-06-01

    Core-shell-structured system has been proved as one of the best architecture for clean energy products owing to its inherited superiorities from both the core and the shell part, which can provide better conductivity and high surface area. Herein, a hierarchical core-shell NiCo2S4@NiMoO4 heterostructure nanotube array on Ni foam (NF) (NiCo2S4@NiMoO4/NF) has been successfully fabricated. Because of its novel heterostructure, the capacitive performance has been enhanced. A specific capacitance up to 2006 F g-1 was obtained at a current density of 5 mA cm-2, which was far higher than that of pristine NiCo2S4 nanotube arrays (about 1264 F g-1). More importantly, NiCo2S4@NiMoO4/NF and active carbon (AC) were congregated as positive electrode and negative electrode in an asymmetric supercapacitor. As-fabricated NiCo2S4@NiMoO4/NF//AC device has a good cyclic behavior with 78% capacitance retention over 2000 cycles, and exhibits a high energy density of 21.4 Wh kg-1 and power density of 58 W kg-1 at 2 mA cm-2. As displayed, the NiCo2S4@NiMoO4/NF core-shell herterostructure holds great promise for supercapacitors in energy storage.

  13. LaNi5-Assisted Hydrogenation of MgNi2 in the Hybrid Structures of La1.09Mg1.91Ni9D9.5 and La0.91Mg2.09Ni9D9.4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman V. Denys

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This work focused on the high pressure PCT and in situ neutron powder diffraction studies of the LaMg2Ni9-H2 (D2 system at pressures up to 1,000 bar. LaMg2Ni9 alloy was prepared by a powder metallurgy route from the LaNi9 alloy precursor and Mg powder. Two La3−xMgxNi9 samples with slightly different La/Mg ratios were studied, La1.1Mg1.9Ni9 (sample 1 and La0.9Mg2.1Ni9 (sample 2. In situ neutron powder diffraction studies of the La1.09Mg1.91Ni9D9.5 (1 and La0.91Mg2.09Ni9D9.4 (2 deuterides were performed at 25 bar D2 (1 and 918 bar D2 (2. The hydrogenation properties of the (1 and (2 are dramatically different from those for LaNi3. The Mg-containing intermetallics reversibly form hydrides with DHdes = 24.0 kJ/molH2 and an equilibrium pressure of H2 desorption of 18 bar at 20 °C (La1.09Mg1.91Ni9. A pronounced hysteresis of H2 absorption and desorption, ~100 bar, is observed. The studies showed that LaNi5-assisted hydrogenation of MgNi2 in the LaMg2Ni9 hybrid structure takes place. In the La1.09Mg1.91Ni9D9.5 (1 and La0.91Mg2.09Ni9D9.4 (2 (a = 5.263/5.212; c = 25.803/25.71 Å D atoms are accommodated in both Laves and CaCu5-type slabs. In the LaNi5 CaCu5-type layer, D atoms fill three types of interstices; a deformed octahedron [La2Ni4], and [La(Mg2Ni2] and [Ni4] tetrahedra. The overall chemical compositions can be presented as LaNi5H5.6/5.0 + 2*MgNi2H1.95/2.2 showing that the hydrogenation of the MgNi2 slab proceeds at mild H2/D2 pressure of just 20 bar. A partial filling by D of the four types of the tetrahedral interstices in the MgNi2 slab takes place, including [MgNi3] and [Mg2Ni2] tetrahedra.

  14. Integrated interpretation of AE clusters and fracture system in Hijiori HDR artificial reservoir; Hijiori koon gantai jinko choryuso no AE cluster to kiretsu system ni kansuru togoteki kaishaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tezuka, K. [Japan Petroleum Exploration Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Niitsuma, H. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    With regard to a fracture system in the Hijiori hot dry rock artificial reservoir, an attempt was made on an interpretation which integrates different data. Major factors that characterize development and performance of an artificial reservoir are composed of a fracture system in rocks, which acts as circulating water paths, a heat exchange face and a reservoir space. The system relates not only with crack density distribution, but also with cracks activated by water pressure fracturing, cracks generating acoustic emission (AE), and cracks working as major flow paths, all of which are characterized by having respective behaviors and roles. Characteristics are shown on AE cluster distribution, crack distribution, production zone and estimated stress fields. Mutual relationship among these elements was discussed based on the Coulomb`s theory. The most important paths are characterized by distribution of slippery cracks. Directions and appearance frequencies of the slippery cracks affect strongly directionality of the paths, which are governed by distribution of the cracks (weak face) and stress field. Among the slippery cracks, cracks that generate AE are cracks that release large energy when a slip occurs. Evaluation on slippery crack distribution is important. 7 refs., 8 figs.

  15. Surface properties of nanostructured NiO undergoing electrochemical oxidation in 3-methoxy-propionitrile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonomo, Matteo [Department of Chemistry, University of Rome “La Sapienza”, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome (Italy); Marrani, Andrea Giacomo, E-mail: andrea.marrani@uniroma1.it [Department of Chemistry, University of Rome “La Sapienza”, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome (Italy); Novelli, Vittoria [Department of Chemistry, University of Rome “La Sapienza”, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome (Italy); Awais, Muhammad [Department of Industrial Engineering, “King Abdulaziz” University, Rabigh (Saudi Arabia); Solar Energy Conversion Strategic Research Cluster, University College Dublin (UCD), Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Dowling, Denis P. [Solar Energy Conversion Strategic Research Cluster, University College Dublin (UCD), Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, University College Dublin (UCD), Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Vos, Johannes G. [School of Chemical Sciences, Dublin City University (DCU), Glasnevin, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Dini, Danilo [Department of Chemistry, University of Rome “La Sapienza”, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome (Italy); Solar Energy Conversion Strategic Research Cluster, University College Dublin (UCD), Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland)

    2017-05-01

    Highlights: • NiO porous thin films were prepared via RDS technique. • NiO electrodes were characterized in a nitrile based electrochemical cell. • NiO electrodes were studied by means of XPS. • The XP spectra excluded the formation of phases other than NiO. • The presence of ClO{sub 4}{sup −} as charge balancing species was evidenced. - Abstract: Nanostructured nickel oxide (NiO) was deposited in the configuration of thin film (thickness, l = 2–6 μm) onto fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates via plasma-assisted rapid discharge sintering (RDS). Electrochemical cycling of RDS NiO in 3-methoxy-propionitrile (3-MPN) revealed two characteristic peaks of NiO oxidation which were associated to the surface-confined redox processes Ni(II) → Ni(III) and Ni(III) → Ni(IV). Grazing angle X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was conducted ex-situ on NiO electrodes in both pristine and oxidized states. Oxidized NiO samples for XPS experiments were obtained in the potentiostatic mode through the polarization of NiO at its two characteristic potentials of oxidation. The XPS analysis allowed to ascertain the electronic structure of the nanoporous NiO framework, and verify the adsorption of perchlorate and chloride anions onto NiO surface due to the compensation of the charge stored in oxidized NiO. XPS also revealed that the spectrum within the region characteristic of Ni 2p ionization does not vary considerably with the state of charge of the nickel centres. This finding is in evident contrast to what has been observed for the same system when it undergoes electrochemical oxidation in aqueous electrolyte.

  16. Dissociative chemisorption of methane on Ni(111)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krishna Mohan, Gangadharan Prasanna

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis we attempt to understand several aspects of the gas-surface physics/chemistry of (a) the dissociative chemisorption of CH4 on the Ni(111) surface and (b) N2 dissociation over the Ru(0001) surface. Apart from their industrial importance, these systems are regarded as prototypes for

  17. and ni(ii)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    userpc

    with nickel(II) and cobalt(II) chloride in 2:1 mole ratio yielded Ni(II) and Co(II) complexes respectively. The synthesized compounds were characterized based on melting point/decomposition temperature, solubility, molar conductance, magnetic susceptibility and infrared spectral analyses. The complexes have low molar ...

  18. Neutron enrichment at midrapidity in {sup 58}Ni + {sup 58}Ni at 52 MeV/u

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theriault, D.; Vallee, A.; Gingras, L.; Larochelle, Y.; Roy, R.; April, A.; Beaulieu, L.; Grenier, F.; Lemieux, F.; Moisan, J.; Samri, M.; Saint-Pierre, C.; Turbide, S. [Laval Univ., Lab. de Physique Nucleaire, Dept. de Physique, Quebec City, PQ (Canada); Yennello, S.J.; Martin, E.; Winchester, E. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Cyclotron Inst.

    2003-07-01

    By combining data from a charged particle {sup 58}Ni + {sup 58}Ni experiment at 52 MeV/u with an {sup 36}Ar + {sup 58}Ni experiment at 50 MeV/u for which free neutrons have been detected, an increase in the neutron to proton ratio of the whole nuclear material at midrapidity has been experimentally observed in the reaction {sup 58}Ni + {sup 58}Ni at 52 MeV/u. The neutron to proton ratio is measured above the initial neutron to proton ratio of the system. Neutron to proton ratio of the quasi-projectile emission is analysed for the same reactions and is seen to decrease below the ratio of the initial system. (authors)

  19. Development of the electromagnetic tomography system. Sensitivity study of anomalous body by model studies; EM tomography system no kaihatsu. Model kaiseki ni yoru ijotai no kando chosa kekka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumekawa, Y.; Miura, Y.; Takasugi, S. [Geothermal Energy Research and Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Arai, E. [Metal Mining Agency of Japan, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    An examination was made by a model analysis on sensitivity and the like against a resistive anomalous body, in connection with an electromagnetic tomography system with surface earthquake sources and underground receiver arrangements. A resistivity model was of a three-dimensional structure, and built with a 5 ohm{center_dot}m low resistivity anomalous body assembled in a 100 ohm{center_dot}m homogeneous medium. As a result of the examination, it was shown that the size limitation of an analyzable anomalous body was 50{times}50{times}20m at a frequency of 8 to 10kHz and that a system with high precision in a high frequency range was necessary. The examination of effects under a shallow anomalous body revealed, for example, that the fluctuation of a low frequency response was large compared with a deep anomalous body and that, where a second anomalous body existed under it, the effect also appeared with a surface earthquake source positioned in the opposite side from the anomalous body. The examination of effects under the three dimensional structure revealed, for example, that a remarkable change appeared in the data with the change in the inclined angle of the transmission line against the strike of the anomalous body. 4 refs., 7 figs.

  20. Survey report on an environmental harmony type production system of chemical products; Kankyo chowagata kagaku seihin seizo system ni kansuru chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    As part of establishing an environmental harmony type production system of chemical products, study and survey were made on PET bottles. Using the life cycle analysis method (LCA), a study was made for proposing a material recycle (MR) method which is environmentally and economically excellent in the stage of recycling waste PET bottles. The total cost of recycling can be reduced by 34% supported by a decrease in equipment cost and improvement in yield if there is no mixture of foreign substances such as aluminum caps and PVC bottles. However, the ratio of the amount obtained from the reduction to the total production cost is small, and it is necessary to take measures from a viewpoint of the cost in a total production process and environmental loads. In a survey in Kawaguchi city, PET bottles discharged from the business sector occupied 41% of all the discharge amount. In a survey in Yokohama city, very important data were obtained on PET bottles appointed as the second type under the recycle law. The quality of PET bottles to be brought to the recycling plant is important for effectively processing PET bottles in MR method. For achievement of MR which is low in cost and small in environmental load, needed were cooperation by citizens, the shipping management system in autonomous government, and changes in design and material quality to be made by the industrial circle. 8 refs., 64 figs., 68 tabs.

  1. Development of melting system using oxy-coal combustion; Sekitan chokusetsu riyo kinzoku yoyu system gijutsu (NSR) (pilot setsubi unten jokyo ni tsuite)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugiyama, T. [Center for Coal Utilization, Japan, Tokyo (Japan); Suwa, T.; Kobayashi, N.; Iino, K.; Yamamoto, Y.; Igarashi, H. [Nippon Sanso K.K., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-09-01

    This metal melting system is a process to efficiently melt and regenerate scraps of aluminum, copper and iron by utilizing high-temperature energy obtained from pulverized coal-oxygen combustion. The process is intended to utilize coal in place of petroleum for reduced fuel cost. Joint studies have been carried out as a subsidy operation of the Agency of Natural Resources and Energy with a schedule of six years starting fiscal 1992. Development tests are being performed using a 5-ton/ch pilot plant facility since fiscal 1995 after having gone through experiments using a 1-ton/ch bench scale furnace. This paper reports the results obtained to date. Using the pilot plant facility, fiscal 1995 has achieved the initial target values, such as thermal efficiency of 55% or higher, and yield of 96% or higher for non-ferrous metals and 94% or higher for iron. The melting behavior in the furnace has improved the thermal efficiency as a whole by retaining the conditions in the preheating step for an extended period of time. The thermal efficiency has been improved better than with the bench furnace as a result of upscaling effect. 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Control system for platooning. Comparison between sliding control and PID control; Jidosha unten seigyo system ni kansuru kenkyu. Sliding to PID control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujioka, T.; Banba, J. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-04-20

    The difference in result of control by the control system was studied by designing the vehicle follow-up control for the platooning of automobile. A comparison was made between the sliding control based on the non-linear control theory, and PID control which is judged to be the most primitive. A two-wheel model of four-wheel vehicle was used as a vehicle model, while the automobile model was composed of non-linear factors, which were an engine, torque converter, gear shift map and tires. When the initial figure of both distance between and speed of vehicles is close to their target figure (less than {plus_minus}8m and {plus_minus}5km/h, respectively), a good result of control can be given by both the sliding control and PID control, so that the former control was known to be as very effective as the latter control. When the initial figure of both distance between cars and speed of vehicles is less close to their target figure (less than {plus_minus}20m and {plus_minus}5km/h, respectively), the sliding control is higher in convergency than the PID control. It was thus known that the former control gives an effective result of control even if the inititial value is far. 6 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Development of the electromagnetic tomography system. Field test results using existing equipment; EM tomography system no kaihatsu. Kison sochi ni yoru test sokutei kekka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumekawa, Y.; Miura, Y.; Takasugi, S. [Geothermal Energy Research and Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Arai, E. [Metal Mining Agency of Japan, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    With the purpose of developing an electromagnetic tomography system, an observation was carried out with existing equipment combined, and the data was analyzed. The measuring equipment consisted of existing borehole vertical magnetic field sensors as the sensor part, MT method receivers as the receiving device, and existing CSMT method transmitters as the transmitting device. The measuring was performed at the Richmond Field Station which was abundant in existing data and which had a comparatively simple resistivity structure. The borehole vertical magnetic field sensors were lowered inside the borehole, and signal sources were arranged at 10m apart on the traverse line in the direction from northeast to southwest with the borehole as the center. The analysis of the data was made with the use of EM1D by three models, namely, 10 ohm{center_dot}m homogeneous earth model, 100 ohm{center_dot}m homogeneous earth model, and horizontal 7 layer model prepared on the basis of electric logging results; and a comparative examination was made against the measured data. As a result, it was demonstrated that the test measurement agreed very well with the model from the electric logging results and that it was the data reflecting a resistivity structure. 8 refs., 6 figs.

  4. Evaluation report on research and development of an ultra-advanced processing system. 3; Chosentan kako system no kenkyu kaihatsu ni kansuru hyoka hokokusho. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-08-01

    This paper describes comprehensive evaluation on the following technologies as the ultra-advanced processing system: (1) large output excimer laser, (2) high-density ion beam, (3) an ultra-precision machining device, (4) ultra-advanced processing, (5) measurement and evaluation, and (6) comprehensive test. In the item (1), research and development was performed on such technologies as output increasing, output stabilization and beam formation, having achieved the targets. In the item (2), research and development was performed on such technologies as beam convergence, plasma control, ion transportation, high-frequency quadruple pole acceleration, and large-capacity class ion beam, having achieved the targets. In the item (3), research and development was performed on form creation and ultra-precision machining, having achieved the targets. In the item (4), research and development was performed on formation of high function thin films to apply the laser abrasion process to large area, ion surface modification, wide band area optics, high reflectance optics, ion injection, dynamic mixing, and modification of ultra high-grade metal surface, having achieved the targets. In the item (5), research and development was performed on high-accuracy roughness measurement, shape measurement, optical property evaluation, a wavelength meter, ultra advanced processing standard measurement, and environment correction technology, having achieved the targets. In the item (6), comprehensive demonstration was carried out on the component technologies. (NEDO)

  5. Proposal of control system of surface brightness of rolled sheet in cold rolling. Reikan atsuen ni okeru ita hyomen kotaku no seigyo system no teian

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azushima, A.; Iyanagi, Y.; Degawa, H.; Noro, K. (Yokohama National Univ., Yokohama, (Japan). Faculty of Engineering Daido Chemical Industry Co. Ltd., Tokyo, (Japan))

    1990-04-01

    The relation was systematically examined between the surface quality of a rolled sheet in cold rolling and tribological factors (rolling speed, reduction, viscosity of lubricant, surface roughnesses of a roll and sheet). In the case where the surface roughnesses of rolls and sheets were smooth, the surface brightness decreased with an increase in rolling speed and viscosity, resulting in rough surfaces. The dependence of the rolling speed, viscosity and roughness on the brightness was equal to that on an oil film thickness, and the brightness of rolled sheets could be thus expressed as the function of only the oil film thickness. In the case those were rough, the roughness had a great influence on the surface quality of rolled sheets, and the brightness could be expressed as the function of the oil film thickness and roughnesses of rolls and sheets before rolling. Based on these relations, the system was proposed capable of estimating and controlling the brightness of rolled sheets from/by conditions before rolling. 13 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Especially the research-biochemistry engineering bioprocess system the research various new development research; Seibutsu kagau kogaku ni kansuru kenkyu-tokuni baio purosesu shisutemu no chinoka ni kansuru kenkyu oyobi shujuno shinki baio riakuta no kaihatsu kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endo, Isamu [The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-03-05

    The biochemistry engineering, especially research on the intellectualisation of the bioprocess system and development researches of various new bioreactors, is done, and the achievement, which it is very much excellent, is being held. And, function and structure of the new photoreaction enzyme were clarified, and the way of the new sensor development was shown. The achievement can be divided roughly into next three. The research on the intellectualisation of the bioprocess system: Various metabolism activity shown at cellular level of the industry microorganism was estimated in on-line real time, and the computer control system which controlled the process based on physical state of the microorganism was developed. Microorganism concentration laser turbidity sensor, substrate using the ceramic sampler and metabolism product concentration measurements systems, sample liquid automatic transfer line system have been used practically even in the inside in laboratory, factory. In addition, this system developed, and anomaly diagnosis system by the expert system was constructed. And, the maintenance system of next generation bio plant which introduced group intelligent robot is being developed. The development of the new bioreactor: The conventional agitation tank type bioreactor developed, and what is called various new separate type bioreactors in which the biological response could also process the separation of the purpose product simultaneously and concurrently by the identical container were developed. It is a fluidized-bedding bioreactor that the microorganism is made to adhere to porous tube type bioreactor and die child state polyurethane foam which constitute the ceramic filter tube center and that the flow makes it react, and as, drums solid culture reactor-using the polyurethane foam, etc. are them. The utilization is respectively examined these and new bioreactor for apple wine and antibiotics, production of the industrial use enzyme. The research on the

  7. Mechanism of the α-to-β phase transformation in the LaNi5-H2 system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, E. MacA.; Blach, T. P.; Pitt, M. P.; Cookson, D. J. [Griffith U; (ASRP)

    2014-09-24

    High-energy synchrotron in situ X-ray powder diffraction has been used to elucidate the mechanism of the hydriding phase transformation in a LaNi5 model hydrogen storage intermetallic in real time. The transformation proceeds at 10 ºC via the transient growth of an interfacial phase, the {gamma} phase, with lattice parameters intermediate between those of the α (dilute solid solution) and β (concentrated hydride) phases. The γ phase forms to partially accommodate the 24% change in unit cell volume between the α and β phases during hydriding and dehydriding. The α, γ and β phases coexist at the nanoscopic level.

  8. Chemical bonding and charge redistribution - Valence band and core level correlations for the Ni/Si, Pd/Si, and Pt/Si systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunthaner, P. J.; Grunthaner, F. J.; Madhukar, A.

    1982-01-01

    Via a systematic study of the correlation between the core and valence level X-ray photoemission spectra, the nature of the chemical bonding and charge redistribution for bulk transition metal silicides has been examined. Particular emphasis is placed on Pt2Si and PtSi. It is observed that the strength of the metal (d)-silicon (p) interaction increases in the order Ni2Si, Pd2Si, Pt2Si. It is also observed that both the metal and silicon core lines shift to higher binding energy as the silicides are formed. The notion of charge redistribution for metallic bonds is invoked to explain these data.

  9. Simultaneous Speciation, Structure, and Equilibrium Constant Determination in the Ni2+-EDTA-CN-Ternary System via High-Resolution Laboratory X-ray Absorption Fine Structure Spectroscopy and Theoretical Calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajnóczi, Éva G; Németh, Zoltán; Vankó, György

    2017-11-20

    Even quite simple chemical systems can involve many components and chemical states, and sometimes it can be very difficult to differentiate them by their hardly separable physical-chemical properties. The Ni II -EDTA-CN - (EDTA = ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) ternary system is a good example for this problem where, in spite of its fairly simple components and numerous investigations, several molecular combinations can exist, all of them not having been identified unambiguously yet. In order to achieve a detailed understanding of the reaction steps and chemical equilibria, methods are required in which the structural transitions in the different reaction steps can be followed via element-selective complex spectral feature sets. With the help of our recently developed von Hámos type high-resolution laboratory X-ray absorption spectrometer, both the structural variations and stability constants of the forming complexes were determined from the same measurement series, proving that X-ray absorption spectroscopy can be considered as a multifaced, table-top tool in coordination chemistry. Furthermore, with the help of theoretical calculations, independent structural evidence was also given for the formation of the [NiEDTA(CN)] 3- mixed complex.

  10. Evaluation of structure and mechanical properties of Ni-rich NiTi/Kapton composite film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohri, Maryam [Institute of Nanotechnology (INT), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany); School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nili-Ahmadabadi, Mahmoud [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); PouryazdanPanah, Mohsen; Hahn, Horst [Institute of Nanotechnology (INT), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany); Joint Research Labaratory Nanomaterials, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2016-06-21

    NiTi thin films are usually sputtered on silicon wafers by magnetron sputtering. But the systems composed of thin film on flexible polymeric substrate are used in many applications such as micro electro-mechanical systems (MEMS). Investigation on mechanical properties of thin films has attracted much attention due to their widespread applications. In this paper, the mechanical properties of 1 µm-thick crystallized Ni-49.2 at%Ti thin film alloy deposited by DC magnetron sputtering on Kapton substrate are investigated by using tensile test. The as-deposited thin films are in amorphous state, then for crystallization, the thin film was annealed at 450 °C for 30 min. Formation of the austenite phase after annealing was confirmed by X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The surface morphology of as deposited and crystallized thin films were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Stress-strain curves of the NiTi alloy thin film were obtained by subtracting of the stress-strain Kapton curves from the corresponding curves of the NiTi/Kapton composite. The XRD results revealed that the NiTi thin film deposited on the Kapton is austenitic and presents super-elastic effect at room temperature. This pseudo elastic effect leads to more recoverable strain in NiTi/Kapton composite film compared with Kapton foils on loading/unloading test. Furthermore, it was concluded that nanostructure of the NiTi thin film is responsible for remarkable improvement of ultimate tensile strength (1.4 GPa) at a strain of 30% compared with the bulk material.

  11. Effectiveness of aquatic microcosm system containing material cycle as method of toxicity and ecological assessment; Microcosm ni okeru busshitsu junkan to sono dokusei oyobi seitaikei eikyo hyoka shiken ni okeru yukosei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inamori, Y. [National Inst. for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba (Japan); Takamatsu, Y. [University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1995-08-10

    The microcosm has its etymology in the `small outer space`, which is a system that groups or clusters of solid substances are cultivated in a certain container. The system has been prepared to elucidate the ecology and interactions of microorganisms and their structures. This paper describes analysis and assessment on the system based on the results of past studies thereof with an intention to utilize it as a model aquatic ecosystem for a test to assess influence on the ecosystem. It is necessary that, in the case of evaluating the influence on chemical substances, an elucidation be made on a concentration at which clusters of living organisms are not affected even if such chemical substances exist in the environment for a long period of time. In the case of an exotic microorganism, an elucidation should also be given on a concentration that does not affect the environment as seen from the survivability of the microorganism in the environment and its interactions with other microorganisms. A large number of examples of experiments shows that a microcosm test contains material cycle and interactions in multiple kinds of living organism systems, and has high reproducibility and stability. A discussion should now be required that the above test method be positioned as an ecosystem assessment method. 19 refs., 3 figs.

  12. SOVRAŽNI GOVOR

    OpenAIRE

    Ajtnik, Mojca

    2015-01-01

    Pojem sovražnega govora izhaja iz anglosaškega sveta in temelji na prepričanju o manjvrednosti nekaterih ljudi, zaradi njihove pripadnosti določeni skupini. Sovražni govor je eden ključnih trenutkov v vzbujanju sovraštva do določenih skupin ljudi. Takšen govor je neizogibno povezan s predsodki, diskriminacijo in stereotipi. Je stalni spremljevalec človeške družbe, vedno večja prisotnost sovražnega govora v današnji družbi pa je posledica potrošniško in kapitalistično naravnane družbe. Na pora...

  13. Ni landsbyer i Danmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jacob Norvig

    Denne rapport beskriver en evaluering af statsstøttede forsøg med at styrke og udvikle mindre lokalsamfund. Forsøgene er gennemført i ni kommuner. Da der i disse år er stor opmærksomhed om de små byers og samfunds udviklingsmuligheder, har erfaringerne fra forsøgsprojekterne bred interesse. Forsø...

  14. Exchange bias coupling in NiO/Ni bilayer tubular nanostructures synthetized by electrodeposition and thermal oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, T., E-mail: work_tian@scu.edu.cn [College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Zhang, Z.W.; Xu, Y.H. [College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Liu, Y. [Analytical & Testing Center, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Li, W.J. [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Nie, Y.; Zhang, X. [College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Xiang, G., E-mail: gxiang@scu.edu.cn [College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China)

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, we reported the synthesis of NiO/Ni bilayer nanotubes by electrodeposition and thermal oxidation using anodic aluminum oxide templates. The morphology, structure, chemical composition and magnetic properties, especially magnetic exchange bias induced by subsequent magnetic field cooling, in this one-dimensional antiferromagnetic/ferromagnetic hybrid system were investigated. It was found that the effect of the annealing temperature, which mainly dominated the thickness of the NiO layer, and the annealing time, which mainly dominated the grain size of the NiO, on the exchange bias field showed competitive relationship. The optimized exchange bias field was achieved by the combination of the shorter annealing time and higher annealing temperature. - Highlights: • NiO-Ni bilayer tubular nanotubes were fabricated by electrodeposition and thermal oxidation. • The exchange bias effect in NiO-Ni nanotubes was induced by magnetic field cooling. • The competitive effect of annealing temperature and annealing time on the exchange bias coupling was analyzed.

  15. MEMS-based Ni-B probe with enhanced mechanical properties for fine pitch testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyongtae; Kwon, Hong-Beom; Ahn, Hye-Rin; Kim, Yong-Jun

    2017-12-01

    We fabricated and characterized microelectromechanical systems (MEMS)-based Ni-B probes with enhanced mechanical properties for fine pitch testing. The Ni-B micro-probes were compared with conventional Ni-Co micro-probes in terms of the mechanical performance and thermal effect. The elastic modulus and hardness of Ni-B were found to be 240.4 and 10.9 GPa, respectively, which surpass those of Ni-Co. The Ni-B micro-probes had a higher contact force than the Ni-Co micro-probes by an average of 41.38% owing to the higher elastic modulus. The Ni-B micro-probes had a lower average permanent deformation than the Ni-Co micro-probes after the same overdrive was applied for 1 h by 56.58 µm. The temperature was found to have a negligible effect on the Ni-B micro-probes. These results show that Ni-B micro-probes are useful for fine pitch testing and a potential candidate for replacing conventional Ni-Co micro-probes owing to their advanced mechanical and thermal characteristics.

  16. Modeling and Characterization of Cyclic Shape Memory Behaviors of the Binary Ni49.9Ti50.1 Material System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleeb, A. F.; Natsheh, S. H.; Owusu-Danquah, J. S.; Dhakal, B.

    2017-05-01

    In this work, we address two of the main challenges encountered in constitutive modeling of the thermomechanical behaviors of actuation-based shape memory alloys. Firstly, the complexity of behavior under cyclic thermomechanical loading is properly handled, particularly with regard to assessing the long-term dimensional stability. Secondly, we consider the marked differences in behavior distinguishing virgin-versus-trained SMA material. To this end, we utilize a set of experimental data comprehensive in scope to cover all the anticipated operational conditions for one and same SMA alloy, having a specific chemical composition with fixed heat treatment. More specifically, this includes twenty-four different tests from the recent SMA experimental literature for the Ni49.9Ti50.1 material having austenite finish temperature above 100 °C. Under all the different conditions investigated, the model results were found to be in very good agreement with the experimental measurements.

  17. Field-dependent magneto-optical Kerr effect spectroscopy applied to the magnetic component diagnosis of a rubrene/Ni system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen; Fronk, Michael; Albrecht, Manfred; Franke, Mechthild; Zahn, Dietrich R T; Salvan, Georgeta

    2014-07-28

    Polar magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE) spectroscopy in the energy range from 1.75 eV to 5 eV at different magnetic field strength was applied to study Ni nanostructures formed on rubrene nanoislands. The magnetic hysteresis curves measured by MOKE change the shape depending on the photon energy and therefore deviate from those measured by superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometry. Similar optical effects were previously observed in inorganic heterostructures. Our observations show that it correlates to the change in lineshape of the MOKE rotation and ellipticity spectra as a function of magnetic field strength. We show that this spectral dependence on magnetic field can be exploited to separate the contributions of two magnetic components to the magneto-optical spectra and hysteresis. The proposed model does not require the a priori knowledge of the (magneto-)optical constants of the heterostructure and its components.

  18. Dechlorination of pentachlorophenol using nanoscale Fe/Ni particles: role of nano-Ni and its size effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Rong; Zhou, Wei; Wang, Jian-Long; Qi, Daoduo; Guo, Lin; Zhang, Wei-Xian; Qian, Yi

    2010-08-15

    The dechlorination of pentachlorophenol (PCP) using nano-Fe together with different size of nano-Ni particles (30, 50, 80, and 100nm) was investigated. The results indicated that nano-Ni particles could improve the dechlorination of PCP. The X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) analysis suggested that nano-Ni particles might serve as catalyst for dechlorination. The decrease of nano-Ni particle size resulted in the increase of PCP transformation and chloride release. The accumulation of several intermediates, such as phenol, 2-chlorophenol, 3-chlorophenol and 4-chlorophenol indicated the probable changes of the reaction pathway for PCP dechlorination. The corrosion products of Fe were detected using XRD analysis. In the system without nano-Ni particles, they were lepidocrocite (gamma-FeOOH) and magnetite (Fe(3)O(4)) and/or maghemite (Fe(2)O(3)), however, in the systems with nano-Ni particles, they were still magnetite/maghemite but no lepidocrocite existed. The size of nano-Ni particles might affect the crystallization of corrosion products of Fe, but did not affect the species distribution of corrosion products. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of Phosphine Doping and the Surface Metal State of Ni on the Catalytic Performance of Ni/Al2O3 Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoru Li

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Ni-based catalysts as replacement for noble metal catalysts are of particular interest in the catalytic conversion of biomass due to their cheap and satisfactory catalytic activity. The Ni/SiO2 catalyst has been studied for the hydrogenolysis of glycerol, and doping with phosphorus (P found to improve the catalytic performance significantly because of the formation of Ni2P alloys. However, in the present work we disclose a different catalytic phenomenon for the P-doped Ni/Al2O3 catalyst. We found that doping with P has a significant effect on the state of the active Ni species, and thus improves the selectivity to 1,2-propanediol (1,2-PDO significantly in the hydrogenolysis of glycerol, although Ni-P alloys were not observed in our catalytic system. The structure and selectivity correlations were determined from the experimental data, combining the results of X-ray diffraction (XRD, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, hydrogen temperature-programmed reduction (H2-TPR and ammonia temperature-programmed desorption (NH3-TPD. The presence of NiO species, formed from P-doped Ni/Al2O3 catalyst, was shown to benefit the formation of 1,2-PDO. This was supported by the results of the Ni/Al2O3 catalyst containing NiO species with incomplete reduction. Furthermore, the role the NiO species played in the reaction and the potential reaction mechanism over the P-doped Ni/Al2O3 catalyst is discussed. The new findings in the present work open a new vision for Ni catalysis and will benefit researchers in designing Ni-based catalysts.

  20. Submicron particles of Co, Ni and Co–Ni alloys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 24; Issue 5 ... Magnetic Materials Volume 24 Issue 5 October 2001 pp 515-521 ... Magnetic sub-micron sized particles (with diameters in the range 100–600 nm) of Co, Ni and Co–Ni alloys, protected with polyvinylpyrrolidone have been prepared in gram quantities ...

  1. Automatic construction of menus using a general thesaurus for novice users; Han`yo thesaurus wo riyoshita bunken kensaku menu jido kochiku (funarena bun`ya no bunsho kensaku shien)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Y. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    A new menu system for automatic retrieval has been proposed for novice users. This is to automatically establish menus using a general thesaurus for documents and manuals (approximately 4000 important words are contained). Hierarchy and taxonomic items of the thesaurus are directly presented as those for the menu, and important words automatically extracted from a document are allocated to the menu for automatic retrieval. The direct presentation method is modified to include priority presentation, for users unable to select proper menu items. The comparison tests have indicated that the proposed menu system gets a higher rate of finding right answers than the conventional keywords-inputting system, 96% versus 52% on the average, and so does the modified system with priority presentation than the direct presentation, 14 versus 10 on the average as the number of times of selecting wrong items. 11 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. FY 1998 Report on development of large-scale wind power generation systems. Research on the future prospects of wind power generation systems; 1998 nendo ogata furyoku hatsuden system kaihatsu. Furyoku hatsuden system no shorai tenbo ni kansuru chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Current status of wind power generation in Japan and situations in foreign countries ahead of Japan are surveyed, in order to clarify the prospects for the future diffusion and expansion of wind power generation systems in Japan. The surveyed trends of wind power generation in Japan include those related to mandatory laws and regulations, e.g., the Electricity Enterprises Act, introductory and operation situations in local autonomies and electric power companies, and R and D efforts by academic and research organizations. The surveyed wind power generation situations in foreign countries include trends of international standardization for wind power generation, and global situations of introducing these systems. The on-the-spot oversea surveys include location/wind conditions in Greece's islands, cyclone-caused damages in India, World Renewable Energy Congress in Perth and advanced technologies in Europe for wind power generation systems, and the survey results are reported in detail. The surveyed R and D projects in Japan include the basic technological R and D plans (draft) for, e.g., wind power generation systems for isolated islands. (NEDO)

  3. Kinetics of Oxidation and Reduction of Ni/YSZ Cermet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fouquet, D.; Mueller, A.; Weber, A.; Ivers-Tiffee, E.

    2002-06-01

    A cyclic reduction and oxidation of Ni/YSZ-cermet anodes for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) resulted in an increase of the polarization resistance. Therefore, investigations concerning kinetics of oxidation/reduction and the impact of redox cycles on the microstructure of Ni/YSZ bulk ceramics were made. The reaction process of the basic system Ni/NiO was compared with cermet bulk samples and the influence of NiO and YSZ particle sizes and sintering temperatures on kinetics and microstructure was studied using thermogravimetry and dilatometry. The investigations on bulk ceramics indicated that no length change occurred during reduction, whereas reoxidation led to an increase in the length of the samples which strongly depended on the microstructure. It was shown that bulk samples sintered at temperatures below 1300{sup o}C can withstand redox cycles much better than those sintered at higher temperatures. Furthermore, it was found that by decreasing the NiO particle size and using a NiO/YSZ particle size ratio of approximately 3:2, a smaller length increase after reoxidation was achieved. An increase of the polarization resistance could be ascribed to the formation of cracks within the bulk sample which interrupt current paths and therefore reduce the amount of the active triple phase boundary. (author)

  4. Detection of {sup 59}Ni by accelerator mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, Per; Erlandsson, Bengt; Freimann, K.; Hellborg, R.; Stenstroem, K. [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Nuclear Physics; Larsson, Ragnar [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Chemical Engineering II; Skog, G. [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Quaternary Geology

    1999-02-01

    The aims of this project were to develop a method to measure the amount of {sup 59}Ni in stainless steel and to determine the detection limit for this method. {sup 59}Ni is produced by neutron activation in the construction material close to the core in a nuclear reactor and it is important to know the amount of {sup 59}Ni present as it governs the classification of the waste. If the amount of {sup 59}Ni is known at different locations in relation to the core, it is also possible to refine the calculation models of the neutron flux in the reactor. Accelerator mass spectrometry, an ultra-sensitive method for measuring small concentrations of radionuclides as well as stable nuclides, has been used in this investigation to determine the concentration of {sup 59}Ni (and thereby the activity) in stainless steel. As the cobalt content in stainless steel is the main contributor to the background in a measurement of {sup 59}Ni, a method for the chemical extraction of nickel from stainless steel, including a purification step to reduce the cobalt content in the sample, has been developed. The detection limit for {sup 59}Ni has been determined to 100{+-}30 Bq per gram nickel (100{+-}30 Bq/g) with the present status of the system 14 refs, 6 figs, 3 tabs

  5. Ni-cd Battery Life Expectancy in Geosynchronous Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broderick, R. J.

    1984-01-01

    The feasibility of using nickel cadmium batteries as an alternate if flight qualified NiH2 batteries are not available is explored. Battery life expectancy data being a key element of power system design, an attempt is made to review the literature, life test data and in orbit performance data to develop an up to date estimate of life expectancy for NiCd batteries in a geosynchronous orbit.

  6. Thermodynamic and structural study of the Zr-Ni-Cr ternary system (Zr<50 at%) and of its equilibria with hydrogen: electrochemical application; Etude thermodynamique et structurale du systeme ternaire Zr-Ni-Cr (Zr<50at%) et de ses equilibres avec l`hydrogene: application electrochimique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joubert, J.M.

    1995-07-12

    In the frame of the research on intermetallic compounds for nickel-hydride battery application, attention is focused on AB{sub 2} alloys so called Laves phases. ZrCr{sub 2}, for example, exhibits a large hydrogen capacity but a too low hydride formation equilibrium pressure for practical application. Moreover, the electrolyte (concentrated potassium hydroxide) involves surface passivation through blocking electrochemical mechanisms. First, the study is devoted to the adjustment of the hydride thermodynamic properties regarded to electrochemical application. This was achieved on ZrCr{sub 2} by substitution of chromium by nickel. In a second part surface properties are modified by the precipitation of secondary phases in equilibrium with the Laves phase. The Zr-Ni-Cr phase diagram has been determined at 1000 deg C in the ZrCr{sub 2}-ZrNi-Ni-Cr region and has revealed large solubility of nickel in C14 and C15 Laves phases as well as equilibrium of these phases with three Zr-Ni intermetallic compounds. The knowledge of this diagram has allowed the synthesis of biphasic alloys where the Laves phase of constant composition is in equilibrium with a secondary phase at variable rate. The study of hydrogenation properties of Laves phases has shown the possibility of adjusting the equilibrium pressure of its hydrides to electrochemical application keeping high hydrogen capacity. The hydrogenation properties of secondary phases were also characterized. Finally, it appeared that secondary phases precipitation with increasing rate in the Laves phase matrix produces a spectacular increase of electrochemical capacities. Such an effect of hydrogen by the modification of the surface in contact with electrolyte and by the diffusion of hydrogen from electrolyte to the Laves through the secondary phase when present. (author)

  7. Niños investigadores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfred Liebel

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available EN LA SOCIOLOGÍA INFANTIL, EL PRINCIPIO DE HACER PARTICIPAR A NIÑAS Y NIÑOS en los procesos de investigación está ampliamente reconocido. Tomando como punto de partida ese principio de participación, el presente aporte analiza la pregunta de en qué medida y de qué manera los niños mismos pueden actuar como investigadores. A fin de apreciar en lo justo la perspectiva de los niños, el presente trabajo aboga por que –con el debido acompañamiento de personas adultas– la investigación esté en manos de los niños. Por medio de varios ejemplos de países del Sur, se muestra cómo poner en práctica esta forma de investigación encabezada por niños. Tomando en cuenta la desigualdad en las relaciones entre niñas, niños y personas adultas, el trabajo hace referencia a problemas de ética y práctica investigativa que surgen en el proceso de investigación y también en el tema del uso de los resultados. Finalmente, se explican los beneficios que niñas y niños pueden obtener de sus propias investigaciones.

  8. Multifunction of Ni/Ag Nanocompound Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mu-Jung Kao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An arc-submerged nanoparticle synthesis system (ASNSS is proposed and developed for fabricating Ni/Ag nanocompound fluid. In the development process, the positive and negative electrodes in the system are Ni and Ag, respectively. Applied electrical energy then produces heating source by generating an adequate arc with a high temperature that can melt and vaporize the two electrodes. The nanocompound fluid that is generated by the synthesis system is analyzed by morphological analysis, Zeta potential analysis, heat conductivity analysis, magnetic characteristic analysis, and UV-Vis absorption spectra analysis. Experimental results show that increasing the concentration of added particles and the higher temperature can be helpful to the enhancement of thermal conductivity. The Ni/Ag nanofluid not only preserves the magnetic character of the nickel and the ability of silver to absorb visible light but also enhances the thermal conductivity. The absorption occurs at 406 nm wavelength (redshift from 396 nm to 406 nm, which means that, under the excitement of visible light range (400~700 nm, it can let more easy electrons jump to the conductivity zone from the valence electron zone.

  9. Synthesis, characterization and catalytic activity of nanosized Ni complexed aminoclay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranchani, A. Amala Jeya; Parthasarathy, V.; Devi, A. Anitha; Meenarathi, B.; Anbarasan, R.

    2017-11-01

    A novel Ni complexed aminoclay (AC) catalyst was prepared by complexation method followed by reduction reaction. Various analytical techniques such as FTIR spectroscopy, UV-visible spectroscopy, DSC, TGA, SEM, HRTEM, EDX, XPS and WCA measurement are used to characterize the synthesized material. The AC-Ni catalyst system exhibited improved thermal stability and fiber-like morphology. The XPS results declared the formation of Ni nanoparticles. Thus, synthesized catalyst was tested towards the Schiff base formation reaction between various bio-medical polymers and aniline under air atmosphere at 85 °C for 24 h. The catalytic activity of the catalyst was studied by varying the % weight loading of the AC-Ni system towards the Schiff base formation. The Schiff base formation was quantitatively calculated by the 1H-NMR spectroscopy. While increasing the % weight loading of the AC-Ni catalyst, the % yield of Schiff base was also increased. The k app and Ti values were determined for the reduction of indole and α-terpineol in the presence of AC-Ni catalyst system. The experimental results were compared with the literature report.

  10. Introduction of the information system research and development department at Kansai Electric Power Company. Company uses the latest information processing technology to respond to customers' needs to structure an information system; Kanden joho system no kenkyu kaihatsu bumon no shokai. Saishin no joho shori gijutsu ni yori, okyakusama no joho system ka no needs ni okotaeshimasu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashida, Y. [Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc., Osaka (Japan)

    1998-12-10

    This paper introduces the research and development on the information processing technology at the Kansai Electric Power Company. In the research of a system development technology utilizing the object orientation, works are being made on the Java language drawing attention as an intranet development environment and the common object request broker architecture (CORBA). In the research of a technology to operate and control a large-scale network, basing on the current status of the KIND net of the Kansai Electric Power Company, discussions are being given on expanding and improving the functions of system tools made by Hitachi, Ltd. with an intention of achieving unified operation and control of the networks including not only the CSS system, but the host system. In the investigations and researches on different kinds of tools intended for data warehouse structuring, products are investigated and methods are discussed, such as the data extracting and editing tools to structure databases, and the on-line analysis processing (OLAP) tool to retrieve and analyze a great quantity of data. Researches are being made on application of the visual private office (VPO) service on the Internet, and on applicability evaluation for the individual certification technology. Investigations are being made on applicability of the enterprise resource planning (ERP) package. (NEDO)

  11. Pressure-induced development of bonding in NiAs type compounds and polymorphism of NiP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dera, Przemyslaw; Lazarz, John D.; Lavina, Barbara (UC); (UNLV)

    2016-07-29

    A reversible, displacive, pressure-induced structural phase transition has been found to occur in nickel monophosphide NiP at approximately 3.5 GPa by means of in situ synchrotron single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The new phase, with Pearson symbol oC56, assumes an orthorhombic structure with Cmc2{sub 1} space group and unit cell parameters a=23.801(2) {angstrom}, b=5.9238(6) {angstrom}, and c=4.8479(4) {angstrom} at 5.79 GPa. The high-pressure phase is a superstructure of the ambient, oP16 phase with multiplicity of 3.5. The phosphorous sublattice gradually converts from the net of isolated P{sub 2} dimers found in the ambient NiP, towards zig-zag polymeric P{infinity} chains found in MnP-type structures. The transformation involves development of triatomic phosphorous clusters and interconnected Ni slabs with diamondoid topology. The high-pressure phase, which represents intermediate polymerization step, is a commensurately modulated superstructure of the NiAs aristotype. The phase transformation in NiP bears resemblance to the effect of successive substitution of Si or Ge in place of P found in the series of stoichiometric inhomogeneous linear structures in ternary NiP{sub 1-x}Si{sub x} and NiP{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x} systems.

  12. In situ60Fe-60Ni systematics of chondrules from unequilibrated ordinary chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telus, Myriam; Huss, Gary R.; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Ogliore, Ryan C.; Tachibana, Shogo

    2018-01-01

    The initial 60Fe/56Fe of chondrules from unequilibrated ordinary chondrites (UOCs) can potentially constrain the stellar source of short-lived radionuclides and develop the 60Fe-60Ni (t1/2 = 2.6 Ma) system for early solar system chronology. However, progress with the 60Fe-60Ni system has been hindered by discrepancies between initial ratios inferred from bulk and in situ Fe-Ni analyses. Telus et al. (2016) show that discrepancies between these different techniques stem from late-stage open-system Fe-Ni mobilization. Here, we report in situ analyses of the Fe-Ni isotopic composition of ferromagnesian silicates in chondrules from UOCs using the ion microprobe. Of the 24 chondrules analyzed for this study, a few chondrules have resolved excesses in 60Ni of up to 70‰; however, the correlations with Fe/Ni are weak. Although complications from Fe-Ni redistribution make it difficult to interpret the data, we show that the initial 60Fe/56Fe for UOC chondrules is between 5 × 10-8 and 3.0 × 10-7. This is consistent with a late supernova source for 60Fe, but self-enrichment of the molecular cloud is another possible mechanism for incorporating 60Fe in the solar system. Discrepancies between bulk and in situ analyses remain, but likely stem from late-stage open-system Fe-Ni mobilization.

  13. Characterization of NiFe oxyhydroxide electrocatalysts by integrated electronic structure calculations and spectroelectrochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldsmith, Zachary K.; Harshan, Aparna K.; Gerken, James B.; Vörös, Márton; Galli, Giulia; Stahl, Shannon S.; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon

    2017-03-06

    NiFe oxyhydroxide materials are highly active electrocatalysts for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER), an important process for carbon-neutral energy storage. Recent spectroscopic and computational studies increasingly support iron as the site of catalytic activity but differ with respect to the relevant iron redox state. A combination of hybrid periodic density functional theory calculations and spectroelectrochemical experiments elucidate the electronic structure and redox thermodynamics of Ni-only and mixed NiFe oxyhydroxide thin-film electrocatalysts. The UV/visible light absorbance of the Ni-only catalyst depends on the applied potential as metal ions in the film are oxidized before the onset of OER activity. In contrast, absorbance changes are negligible in a 25% Fe-doped catalyst up to the onset of OER activity. First-principles calculations of proton-coupled redox potentials and magnetizations reveal that the Ni-only system features oxidation of Ni2+ to Ni3+, followed by oxidation to a mixed Ni3+/4+ state at a potential coincident with the onset of OER activity. Calculations on the 25% Fedoped system show the catalyst is redox inert before the onset of catalysis, which coincides with the formation of Fe4+ and mixed Ni oxidation states. The calculations indicate that introduction of Fe dopants changes the character of the conduction band minimum from Ni-oxide in the Ni-only to predominantly Fe-oxide in the NiFe electrocatalyst. These findings provide a unified experimental and theoretical description of the electrochemical and optical properties of Ni and NiFe oxyhydroxide electrocatalysts and serve as an important benchmark for computational characterization of mixedmetal oxidation states in heterogeneous catalysts.

  14. Control of branch formation in ethylene polymerization by a [Ni(h3-2-MeC3H4(diimine] PF6 / DEAC catalyst system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Escher Fernanda F. N.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The polymerization of ethylene mediated by [Ni(eta³-2-MeC3H4{ArN=C(HC(H=NAr}] PF6, Ar = 2,6-C6H3iPr2 /DEAC catalyst precursor under mild reaction conditions (reaction temperature between -10 ºC and 25 ºC and ethylene pressure between 109 and 1520 kPa yields high molecular weight branched polyethylene. The degree of branching was modulated by a careful choice of reaction conditions. Thus, at 0 ºC and 109 kPa, the branching degree was 17 branches/1000 backbone carbon atoms and at 25 ºC, it went up to 90 branches/1000 backbone carbon atoms. The nature of the observed branches (methyl, ethyl and longer, their quantity and distribution along the polymer backbone chain can be rationalized in terms of a chain walking process and control of the extend of isomerization by the steric hindrance of the growing chain.

  15. Directionally solidified pseudo-binary eutectics of Ni-Cr-(Hf, Zr)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y. G.; Ashbrook, R. L.

    1975-01-01

    A pseudo-binary eutectic, in which the intermetallic Ni7Hf2 reinforces the Ni-Cr solid solution phase, was previously predicted in the Ni-Cr-Hf system by a computer analysis. The experimental determination of pseudo binary eutectic compositions and the directional solidification of the Ni-Cr-Hf, Zr, and Ni-Cr-Zr eutectic alloys are discussed. To determine unknown eutectics, chemical analyses were made of material bled from near eutectic ingots during incipient melting. Nominal compositions in weight percent of Ni-18.6Cr-24.0HF, Ni19.6Cr-12.8Zr-2.8Hf, and Ni-19.2Cr-14.8Zr formed aligned pseudo-binary eutectic structures. The melting points were about 1270 C. The reinforcing intermetallic phases were identified as noncubic (Ni,Cr)7Hf2 and (Ni,Cr)7(Hf,Zr)2, and face centered cubic (Ni,Cr)5Zr. The volume fraction of the reinforcing phases were about 0.5.

  16. The direct role of selenocysteine in [NiFeSe] hydrogenase maturation and catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Marta C; Tapia, Cristina; Gutiérrez-Sanz, Oscar; Ramos, Ana Raquel; Keller, Kimberly L; Wall, Judy D; De Lacey, Antonio L; Matias, Pedro M; Pereira, Inês A C

    2017-05-01

    Hydrogenases are highly active enzymes for hydrogen production and oxidation. [NiFeSe] hydrogenases, in which selenocysteine is a ligand to the active site Ni, have high catalytic activity and a bias for H2 production. In contrast to [NiFe] hydrogenases, they display reduced H2 inhibition and are rapidly reactivated after contact with oxygen. Here we report an expression system for production of recombinant [NiFeSe] hydrogenase from Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough and study of a selenocysteine-to-cysteine variant (Sec489Cys) in which, for the first time, a [NiFeSe] hydrogenase was converted to a [NiFe] type. This modification led to severely reduced Ni incorporation, revealing the direct involvement of this residue in the maturation process. The Ni-depleted protein could be partly reconstituted to generate an enzyme showing much lower activity and inactive states characteristic of [NiFe] hydrogenases. The Ni-Sec489Cys variant shows that selenium has a crucial role in protection against oxidative damage and the high catalytic activities of the [NiFeSe] hydrogenases.

  17. Effect of Ni, Fe and Mn in different proportions on microstructure and pollutant-catalyzed properties of Ni-Fe-Mn-O negative temperature coefficient ceramic nanocompositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lei, Yonglin, E-mail: leiyonglin@163.com [Engineering Research Center of Biomass Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010 (China); School of Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); Lin, Xiaoyan, E-mail: linxy@swust.edu.cn [Engineering Research Center of Biomass Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010 (China); Liao, Huiwei, E-mail: liaohw@swust.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010 (China)

    2017-06-15

    The effect of Ni, Fe and Mn in different proportions on microstructure and pollutant-catalyzed properties of Ni-Fe-Mn-O negative temperature coefficient ceramic nanocompositions was studied. Structural and physical characterization of all the samples was carried out by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) method, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and thermogravimetric (TG). The results revealed that the interplanar spacing decreased with increasing Fe content, the grain size decreased with increasing Ni content, the substitution of Ni{sup 2+} in the tetrahedral sites by Fe{sup 2+} increased with increasing Fe content. And increase of iron could improve Ni-Fe-Mn-O high temperature stability. The low-temperature thermal removal efficiencies of 30 mg/L methyl orange solution for NiFeMnO{sub 4}, Ni{sub 0.6}Fe{sub 0.9}Mn{sub 1.5}O{sub 4,} Ni{sub 0.6}Fe{sub 1.8}Mn{sub 0.6}O{sub 4} and Ni{sub 0.3}Fe{sub 2.1}Mn{sub 0.6}O{sub 4} systems were 83.8%, 75.2%, 78.5% and 60.3% at 2400 min, respectively. And the microwave combining with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} removal efficiencies of 30 mg/L methyl orange solution for NiFeMnO{sub 4}, Ni{sub 0.6}Fe{sub 0.9}Mn{sub 1.5}O{sub 4,} Ni{sub 0.6}Fe{sub 1.8}Mn{sub 0.6}O{sub 4} and Ni{sub 0.3}Fe{sub 2.1}Mn{sub 0.6}O{sub 4} systems were 96.5%,93.8%, 98.7% and 98% at 6.0 min, respectively. These results indicated that the Ni-Fe-Mn-O ceramics with appropriate increase of iron were useful for industrial applications on degrading organic pollute. - Highlights: • The relationship of composition and catalytic properties of Ni-Fe-Mn-O was proposed. • The interplanar spacing decreased with increasing Fe content. • The grain size decreased with increasing Ni content. • The substitution of Ni{sup 2+} in the tetrahedral site by Fe{sup 2+} with increasing Fe content.

  18. Graphene on Ni(111): Electronic Corrugation and Dynamics from Helium Atom Scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamtögl, Anton; Bahn, Emanuel; Zhu, Jianding; Fouquet, Peter; Ellis, John; Allison, William

    2015-11-19

    Using helium atom scattering, we have studied the structure and dynamics of a graphene layer prepared in situ on a Ni(111) surface. Graphene/Ni(111) exhibits a helium reflectivity of ∼20% for a thermal helium atom beam and a particularly small surface electron density corrugation ((0.06 ± 0.02) Å peak to peak height). The Debye-Waller attenuation of the elastic diffraction peaks of graphene/Ni(111) and Ni(111) was measured at surface temperatures between 150 and 740 K. A surface Debye temperature of θD = (784 ± 14) K is determined for the graphene/Ni(111) system and θD = (388 ± 7) K for Ni(111), suggesting that the interlayer interaction between graphene and the Ni substrate is intermediary between those for strongly interacting systems like graphene/Ru(0001) and weakly interacting systems like graphene/Pt(111). In addition we present measurements of low frequency surface phonon modes on graphene/Ni(111) where the phonon modes of the Ni(111) substrate can be clearly observed. The similarity of these findings with the graphene/Ru(0001) system indicates that the bonding of graphene to a metal substrate alters the dynamic properties of the graphene surface strongly and is responsible for the high helium reflectivity of these systems.

  19. Fiscal 1995 survey report on the feasibility study of the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system. Survey on the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system in the coal preparation sector in China; Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa. Chugoku no sentan bumon ni okeru kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system ni kansuru chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    Specifying the coal preparation technology among clean coal technologies (CCT) in China, the paper investigated governmental policies, plans, standards of coal preparation technology, subjects, etc. toward the introduction/spread of coal preparation technology, and studied decision, introduction and spread of the coal preparation system suitable for the coal utilization status in China. The survey was conducted in Shanxi and Henan Provinces which are main provinces of coal production, and field survey was made at some selected coal preparation plants having different operational conditions. In the field survey, problems on the operation were extracted, and points of improvement were studied at the same time. Further, to grasp the positioning of coal preparation in CCT in China, survey was carried out on laws and regulation on coal preparation in terms of energy and environmental policies. Finally, the result of the field survey was analyzed, a coal preparation system of which the introduction/spread in medium- and long-term are enabled was proposed considering the coal utilization status and economic situation in China, and how to introduce/spread it was studied. 35 figs., 42 tabs.

  20. Formation of hybrid Si-Ni nanoparticles by laser ablation and luminescence properties of such nanosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalayan, Asatur A.; Israelyan, Samvel S.; Movsesyan, Hovhannes A.

    2016-01-01

    The luminescence properties of the colloidal hybrid Si-Ni nanoparticles system fabricated in pure water by pulsed laser ablation is considered. The red-shifted photoluminescence of this system has been registered in the blue range of the spectrum because of the Stark effect in the Coulomb field of the charged Ni nanoparticles.

  1. Comparative analysis of thermal storage cooling and storage battery cooling using photovoltaic generation. Part 2. Research on architectural systematization of energy conversion devices; Taiyoko hatsuden ni yoru chikunetsu reibo to chikuden reibo ni tsuite. 2. Energy henkan no kenchiku system ka ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, N.; Kimura, G.; Fukao, S.; Shimizu, T.; Sunaga, N.; Tsunoda, M.; Muro, K.; Yamanaka, S. [Tokyo Metropolitan University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    For use in energy self-sufficient buildings, a system was studied capable of retaining for its own use the excess of power produced by a photovoltaic power generation system without releasing it to the commercial system. Summertime cooling was considered. The storage battery cooling system was provided with two solar cell systems and, in the daytime, one was used for cooling and the other for charging batteries for nighttime cooling. In the cold heat storage cooling system, cold heat accumulators (red bricks) were provided in the wall and floor, and under the floor, and the floor was a grating for proper ventilation between the room and underfloor space. With the solar cell-driven air conditioner out of operation, cold heat was fed to the room from the underfloor cold heat accumulators by a fan. In storage battery cooling, solar power covered 60% of what the air conditioner used. In the presence of sufficient power in storage, the air conditioner stayed on at night without buying commercial power, when the room temperature was 25{degree}C. In the cold heat accumulation cooling, 50% of the air conditioner power consumption was covered by solar power. It is recommended to install cold heat accumulators not in the room but in a separate space, such as the underfloor space, where they are exposed to the cooling cold air direct from an air conditioner for future retrieval of cold heat. 2 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. NiO nanoparticles induce apoptosis through repressing SIRT1 in human bronchial epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Wei-Xia; He, Min-Di; Mao, Lin [Department of Occupational Health, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Qian, Feng-Hua [Department of Hematology, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Li, Yu-Ming [Institute of Hepatobiliary Surgery, XinQiao Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Pi, Hui-Feng; Liu, Chuan; Chen, Chun-Hai; Lu, Yong-Hui; Cao, Zheng-Wang; Zhang, Lei; Yu, Zheng-Ping [Department of Occupational Health, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Zhou, Zhou, E-mail: lunazhou00@163.com [Department of Occupational Health, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China)

    2015-07-15

    With application of nano-sized nickel-containing particles (Nano-Ni) expanding, the health concerns about their adverse effects on the pulmonary system are increasing. However, the mechanisms for the pulmonary toxicity of these materials remain unclear. In the present study, we focused on the impacts of NiO nanoparticles (NiONPs) on sirtuin1 (SIRT1), a NAD-dependent deacetylase, and investigated whether SIRT1 was involved in NiONPs-induced apoptosis. Although the NiONPs tended to agglomerate in fluid medium, they still entered into the human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) and released Ni{sup 2+} inside the cells. NiONPs at doses of 5, 10, and 20 μg/cm{sup 2} inhibited the cell viability. NiONPs' produced cytotoxicity was demonstrated through an apoptotic process, indicated by increased numbers of Annexin V positive cells and caspase-3 activation. The expression of SIRT1 was markedly down-regulated by the NiONPs, accompanied by the hyperacetylation of p53 (tumor protein 53) and overexpression of Bax (Bcl-2-associated X protein). However, overexpression of SIRT1 through resveratrol treatment or transfection clearly attenuated the NiONPs-induced apoptosis and activation of p53 and Bax. Our results suggest that the repression of SIRT1 may underlie the NiONPs-induced apoptosis via p53 hyperacetylation and subsequent Bax activation. Because SIRT1 participates in multiple biologic processes by deacetylation of dozens of substrates, this knowledge of the impact of NiONPs on SIRT1 may lead to an improved understanding of the toxic mechanisms of Nano-Ni and provide a molecular target to antagonize Nano-Ni toxicity. - Highlights: • NiONPs were taken up by BEAS-2B cells and released Ni{sup 2+}. • NiONPs produced cytotoxicity was demonstrated through an apoptotic process. • NiONPs repressed SIRT1 expression and activated p53 and Bax. • Overexpression of SIRT1 attenuated NiONPs-induced apoptosis via deacetylation p53.

  3. Theoretical study on the mechanism of Ni-catalyzed alkyl-alkyl Suzuki cross-coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhe; Jiang, Yuan-Ye; Fu, Yao

    2012-04-02

    Ni-catalyzed cross-coupling of unactivated secondary alkyl halides with alkylboranes provides an efficient way to construct alkyl-alkyl bonds. The mechanism of this reaction with the Ni/L1 (L1=trans-N,N'-dimethyl-1,2-cyclohexanediamine) system was examined for the first time by using theoretical calculations. The feasible mechanism was found to involve a Ni(I)-Ni(III) catalytic cycle with three main steps: transmetalation of [Ni(I)(L1)X] (X=Cl, Br) with 9-borabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane (9-BBN)R(1) to produce [Ni(I)(L1)(R(1))], oxidative addition of R(2) X with [Ni(I)(L1)(R(1))] to produce [Ni(III)(L1)(R(1))(R(2))X] through a radical pathway, and C-C reductive elimination to generate the product and [Ni(I)(L1)X]. The transmetalation step is rate-determining for both primary and secondary alkyl bromides. KOiBu decreases the activation barrier of the transmetalation step by forming a potassium alkyl boronate salt with alkyl borane. Tertiary alkyl halides are not reactive because the activation barrier of reductive elimination is too high (+34.7 kcal mol(-1)). On the other hand, the cross-coupling of alkyl chlorides can be catalyzed by Ni/L2 (L2=trans-N,N'-dimethyl-1,2-diphenylethane-1,2-diamine) because the activation barrier of transmetalation with L2 is lower than that with L1. Importantly, the Ni(0)-Ni(II) catalytic cycle is not favored in the present systems because reductive elimination from both singlet and triplet [Ni(II)(L1)(R(1))(R(2))] is very difficult. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. The influence of Ni(II) on brushite structure stabilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-López, J. R.; Güida, J. A.; Ramos, M. A.; Punte, G.

    2017-06-01

    Brushite samples doped with Ni(II) in different concentrations, from 5% to 20%, were prepared in aqueous solution at pH = 7 and at two temperatures: 25 and 37 °C. The solid samples were characterized by chemical analysis, infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and x-ray powder diffraction (XRPD). Chemical analysis has shown Ni(II) almost complete incorporation to the solid phase up to 15%. X-ray diffraction patterns have allowed to identify brushite phase with almost no modification of the line breadth and only small shifts of lines positions with increasing Ni(II) incorporation up to 15%. For larger Ni(II) concentration, in solution, a mixture of phases has been detected. Infrared spectra have supported diffraction results. For Ni(II) 20% and over the characteristic bands of HPO42- anions tend to vanish, and the typical shaped PO43- bands are observed. These results have allowed to establish that the presence of low levels of Ni in the synthetic process not only helps brushite formation; but, also prevents brushite from apatite conversion and, in addition, preserves brushite crystallinity. According to these findings, it is possible to propose that nickel traces present in the urinary system might be a trigger to brushite stone formation and/or growth, rather than the expected brushite conversion to hydroxyapatite. This outcome would explain the recurrent detection of difficult to treat brushite stones, observed in the last three decades.

  5. Reduction of nitrate by bimetallic Fe/Ni nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Haiyan; Xiu, Zongming; Chen, Jiawei; Cao, Wenping; Guo, Yifei; Li, Tielong; Jin, Zhaohui

    2012-09-01

    Bimetallic Fe/Ni nanoparticles were synthesized and their nitrate reduction capacity was studied. Nitrate (354 mg L(-1), equal to 5.71 mmol L(-1)) reduction was performed using Fe/Ni nanoparticles with various Ni contents (1.0, 5.0, 10 and 20%) in an unbuffered condition. Optimum nitrate reduction rate (1.03 +/- 0.087 x 10(-4) mol x min(-1) x greduc(-1)) was obtained with 5.0% nano-scale Fe/Ni, while only 25% nitrate (1.05 +/- 0.091 x 10(-5) mol x min(-1) x greduc(-1)) was transformed by nano-scale Fe(0) within the same reaction time, which means that these bimetallic nanoparticles are obviously more reactive than monometallic nano-scale Fe(0). For this bimetallic system a near-neutral initial pH (6.5) is more favourable than an acidic condition (2.0 and 4.0). Relatively air-stable nano-scale Fe/Ni particles were developed by slowly aging them for 22 h and exhibited similar reactivity to freshly synthesized nano-scale Fe(0). Although undesirable transformation of nitrate (91.0 +/- 0.37%) to ammonium was observed in this study, Fe/Ni particles showed a much higher nitrate reduction rate and an optimum reduction rate at near-neutral pH, which may have important implications for nitrate-contaminated site remediation.

  6. Oxidation behavior of Ni powder and Ni powder compact; Ni fun oyobi Ni fun atsufuntai no sanka kyodo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamazaki, M.; Ochiai, S.; Watanabe, Y. [Teikyo Univ., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-09-15

    With an objective to investigate reactions of metal powder and metal powder compact having open pores with gases, their oxidation behavior was elucidated by taking Ni powder and Ni powder compact as examples. Oxidation rate of the Ni powder can be expressed by the Jander equation, and activation energy for the oxidation was 0.948 times 10 {sup 5} J/mol. Oxidation rate of the Ni powder compact is equal to that of powder not made into compact in the initial stage of the oxidation, but it decreases as time elapses because of occurrence of packing of oxide. Difference in oxidation rate inside and outside the powder compact is very little. The oxidation rate of the powder compact was analyzed by using an improved Jander model. More specifically, a model was used, in which concentration difference of diffused components in the oxides decreases with progress of the oxidation, whereas 1.113 times 10 {sup 5} J/mol was derived as the activation energy of the oxidation. The cause for the activation energy for the oxidation of the powder and powder compact being about half of that for bulk Ni is because of low temperature oxidation of the powder, and tensile stress generated between metal particles and spherical shell shaped oxides, which make production of Ni {sup 2+} more difficult. 5 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Abnormal Intermetallic Compound Evolution in Ni/Sn/Ni and Ni/Sn-9Zn/Ni Micro Solder Joints Under Thermomigration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, N.; Deng, J. F.; Zhong, Y.; Huang, M. L.; Ma, H. T.

    2017-04-01

    Interfacial reactions in Ni/Sn/Ni and Ni/Sn-9Zn/Ni micro solder joints during thermomigration (TM) have been studied by reflowing solder joints on a hot plate. Asymmetrical growth and transformation of interfacial intermetallic compounds (IMCs) were clearly observed. The growth of the Ni3Sn4 IMC in the Ni/Sn/Ni solder joints was always fast at the cold end and relatively slow at the hot end. Only asymmetrical growth of the Ni5Zn21 IMC in the Ni/Sn-9Zn/Ni solder joints occurred at the beginning because Zn was the dominant TM species; however, asymmetrical transformation of the Ni5Zn21 IMC also occurred under the combined effect of Zn depletion and Ni dissolution and migration, resulting in formation of a thin τ-phase layer at the hot end and a thick τ-phase/Ni5Zn21/τ-phase sandwich structure at the cold end. TM of Ni and Zn atoms was identified towards the cold end, being responsible for the abnormal IMC evolution. Addition of Zn was found to slow the TM-induced IMC growth and Ni dissolution.

  8. Study of the properties of flux cored wire of Fe-C-Si-Mn-Cr-Mo-Ni-V-Co system for the strengthening of nodes and parts of equipment used in the mineral mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusev, A. I.; Kozyrev, N. A.; Usoltsev, A. A.; Kryukov, R. E.; Osetkovsky, I. V.

    2017-09-01

    The effect of the introduction of vanadium and cobalt into the charge of the powder surfacing wire of Fe-C-Si-Mn-Cr-Mo-Ni system is studied. In the laboratory conditions, the samples of flux cored wires were produced. The surfacing made by the prepared wire was produced under the flux AN-26C, on the plates of steel St3 in 6 layers with the help of ASAW-1250 welding tractor. Reduction of carbon content in the deposited layer to 0.19-0.2% with simultaneous change in the content of chromium, nickel, molybdenum and other elements present in it contributes to the enlargement of the martensite needles and the increase in the size of the former austenite grain. The obtained dependences of hardness of the deposited layer and its wear resistance on the mass fraction of elements, included in the composition of powder wires of the proposed system, can be used to predict the hardness of the welded layer and its wear resistance under different operating conditions for mining equipment and coal mining equipment.

  9. Electronic structure of Ni/sub 3/Al and Ni/sub 3/Ga alloys

    CERN Document Server

    Pong, W F; Chang, Y K; Tsai, M H; Hsieh, H H; Pieh, J Y; Tseng, P K; Lee, J F; Hsu, L S

    1999-01-01

    This work investigates the charge transfer and Al(Ga) p-Ni d hybridization effects in the intermetallic Ni/sub 3/Al(Ni/sub 3/Ga) alloy using the NiL/sub 3.2/- and K-edge and Al(Ga)K X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) measurements. We find that the intensity of white-line features at the NiL/sub 3.2/-edge in the Ni/sub 3/Al(Ni /sub 3/Ga) alloy decreased in comparison with that of pure Ni, which can be attributed to the enhancement of Ni3d states filling and the depletion of the density of Ni 3d unoccupied states in the Ni/sub 3 /Al(Ni/sub 3/Ga) alloy. Two clear features are also observed in the Ni/sub 3/Al(Ni/sub 3/Ga) XANES spectrum at the Al(Ga) K-edge, which can be assigned to the Al(Ga) unoccupied 3p (4p) states and their hybridized states with the Ni 3d/4sp states above the Fermi level in Ni/sub 3/Al(Ni/sub 3/Ga). The threshold at Al K-edge XANES for Ni/sub 3/Al clearly shifts towards higher photon energies relative to that of pure Al, indicating that Al loses charges upon forming Ni/sub 3 /Al. ...

  10. Measurements of turbulent velocity profiles in combined system of polymer additives and riblets; Kobunshi tenkazai to riblet tono fukugokei ni okeru ranryu sokudo bunpu no sokutei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizunuma, H. [Tokyo Metropolitan Univ., Tokyo (Japan); Ban, T. [Hino Motors, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-03-25

    In the combined system of polymer additives and riblets, the polymer additives expand the range of non-dimensionalized riblet width s{sup +} where the riblets reduce the frictional drag. Although in the higher region of s{sup +} the riblets increase the frictional drag as the rough surface, the polymer additives thicken the wall layer, which dumps the drag increase due to riblets and then gives the benefical combined effect in this higher region of s{sup +}. Based on this scinario, the velocity profile and the pipe frictional coefficient for the combined system were derived from the velocity profile of each system. The turbulent velocity profiles were measured for the combined system using a laser Doppler velocimetry. The measured results agreed well with the derived prediction for the combined system. (author)

  11. Measurement of 59Ni and 63Ni by accelerator mass spectrometry at CIAE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoming; He, Ming; Ruan, Xiangdong; Xu, Yongning; Shen, Hongtao; Du, Liang; Xiao, Caijin; Dong, Kejun; Jiang, Shan; Yang, Xuran; Lan, Xiaoxi; Wu, Shaoyong; Zhao, Qingzhang; Cai, Li; Pang, Fangfang

    2015-10-01

    The long lived isotopes 59Ni and 63Ni can be used in many areas such as radioactive waste management, neutron dosimetry, cosmic radiation study, and so on. Based on the large accelerator and a big Q3D magnetic spectrometer, the measurement method for 59Ni and 63Ni is under development at the AMS facility at China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE). By using the ΔE-Q3D technique with the Q3D magnetic spectrometer, the isobaric interferences were greatly reduced in the measurements of 59Ni and 63Ni. A four anode gas ionization chamber was then used to further identify isobars. With these techniques, the abundance sensitivities of 59Ni and 63Ni measurements are determined as 59Ni/Ni = 1 × 10-13 and 63Ni/Ni = 2 × 10-12, respectively.

  12. Coadsorption of potassium and nitrogen on the Ni(100) surface

    CERN Document Server

    Scantlebury, M J

    1998-01-01

    R-factor analysis carried out over a wide area of parameter space has yielded structural parameters as deep as the third Ni layer. Simulations of data obtained for Ni(100)-(K+N) were not attempted due to the similarity of the PD curves with those of the Ni/N system. From the point of view of PD, there are no structural differences between the pure N and the K coadsorbed systems, in contrast to the SPA-LEED and ARUPS results. A scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) study has been performed on the Ni(100)-(K+N) system. By gradually dosing the Ni/N surface with K, it was possible to observe the K atoms initially adsorbing preferentially along [001] step edges, before forming protrusions approx 10 A in diameter on the terraces at higher coverages. The disturbance of the substrate underlying these protrusions has been imaged and suggests a local interaction of K with the surface. As the K coverage increased to 0.5 ML, the protrusions appear to coalesce. The K atoms have also been shown to be immobile on the surface...

  13. Effects of Interfacial Lattice Mismatching on Wetting of Ni-Plated Steel by Magnesium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasiri, Ali M.; Lee, Mok Y.; Weckman, David C.; Zhou, Y.

    2014-11-01

    In this study, wetting has been characterized by measuring the contact angles of AZ92 Mg alloy on Ni-electroplated steel as a function of temperature. Reactions between molten Mg and Ni led to a contact angle of about 86 deg in the temperature range of 891 K to 1023 K (618 °C to 750 °C) (denoted as Mode I) and a dramatic decrease to about 46 deg in the temperature range of 1097 K to 1293 K (824 °C to 1020 °C) (denoted as Mode II). Scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM) indicated that AlNi + Mg2Ni reaction products were produced between Mg and steel (Mg-AlNi-Mg2Ni-Ni-Fe) in Mode I, and just AlNi between Mg and steel (Mg-AlNi-Fe) in Mode II. From high resolution TEM analysis, the measured interplanar mismatches for different formed interfaces in Modes I and II were -- and -, respectively. An edge-to-edge crystallographic model analysis confirmed that Mg2Ni produced larger lattice mismatching between interfaces with calculated minimum interplanar mismatches of -- for Mode I and - for Mode II. Therefore, it is suggested that the poor wettability in Mode I was caused by the existence of Mg2Ni since AlNi was the immediate layer contacting molten Mg in both Modes I and II, and the presence of Mg2Ni increases the interfacial strain energy of the system. This study has clearly demonstrated that the lattice mismatching at the interfaces between reaction product(s) and substrate, which are not in direct contact with the liquid, can greatly influence the wetting of the liquid.

  14. Ternary Bi-Cu-Ni alloys – thermodynamics, characterization, mechanical and electrical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branislav Radomir Marković

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Bi–Cu–Ni ternary system belongs to the group of potential Cu-Ni-based advanced lead-free solder materials for high temperature application. The paper shows results of the thermodynamic calculations using general solution model along the line with the molar ratio of Cu: Ni = 1:1. The experimental part shows thermal, structural, electrical and mechanical properties based on differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM-EDS, electroconductivity and hardness measurements of the alloys selected in the section from bismuth corner with molar ratio Cu: Ni = 1:1, Cu: Ni = 3:1, and Cu: Ni = 1:3.

  15. ELECTROCHEMICAL OXIDATION OF ETHANOL USING Ni-Co-PVC COMPOSITE ELECTRODE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riyanto Riyanto

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The morphological characteristics and electrochemical behavior of nickel metal foil (Ni, nickel-polyvinyl chloride (Ni-PVC and nickel-cobalt-polyvinyl chloride (Ni-Co-PVC electrodes in alkaline solution has been investigated. The morphological characteristics of the electrode surface were studied using SEM and EDS, while the electrochemical behavior of the electrodes was studied using cyclic voltammetry (CV. It was found that composite electrodes (Ni-PVC and Ni-Co-PVC have a porous, irregular and rough surface. In situ studies using electrochemical technique using those three electrodes exhibited electrochemical activity for redox system, as well as selectivity in the electrooxidation of ethanol to acetic acid. The studies also found that an electrokinetics and electrocatalytic activity behaviors of the electrodes prepared were Ni metal foil

  16. Application of a temperature selective heat storage tank to a solar system. Part 3. Solar heat collecting system; Ondo sentaku chikunetsuso no solar system eno tekiyo. 3. Shunetsu hoshiki ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamiya, Y. [Kanto Gakuin University, Yokohama (Japan); Kanayama, K. [Kitami Institute of Technology, Hokkaido (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    The tank system and tank-less system when the temperature selective heat storage tank is applied to a solar system were considered. In the tank system, the simulation shows that the annual supplementary heat consumption is reduced as the tank capacity becomes lower. The most suitable operating time set for determining the reference time is about five hours in winter and about nine hours in summer. The annual operating time is about 6.5 hours. In the tank-less system, the most suitable minimum flow rate per solar collector area of a heating medium in Tokyo and its districts is 10 L/hm{sup 2} for both three-step flow control and constant flow control. The tank-less system is slightly lower in annual supplementary heat consumption than the tank system. For the three-step flow control, a change in the annual supplementary heat consumption is lower than that in the minimum flow rate. For the constant flow control, however, the annual supplementary heat consumption rapidly increases when the flow rate more decreases than the optimum value. The number of pump start/stop counts for the three-step flow control is less than two times as high as for the constant flow control. 4 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Structural, electronic, magnetic and optical properties of Ni,Ti/Al-based Heusler alloys. A first-principles approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adebambo, Paul O. [Univ. of Agriculture. Abeokuta (Nigeria). Dept. of Physics; McPherson Univ., Abeokuta (Nigeria). Dept. of Physical and Computer Sciences; Adetunji, Bamidele I. [Univ. of Agriculture. Abeokuta (Nigeria). Dept. of Physics; Bells Univ. of Technology, Oto (Nigeria). Dept. of Mathematics; Olowofela, Joseph A. [Univ. of Agriculture. Abeokuta (Nigeria). Dept. of Physics; Oguntuase, James A. [Univ. of Agriculture. Abeokuta (Nigeria). Dept. of Mathematics; Adebayo, Gboyega A. [Univ. of Agriculture. Abeokuta (Nigeria). Dept. of Physics; Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy)

    2016-05-01

    In this work, detailed first-principles calculations within the generalised gradient approximation (GGA) of electronic, structural, magnetic, and optical properties of Ni,Ti, and Al-based Heusler alloys are presented. The lattice parameter of C1{sub b} with space group F anti 43m (216) NiTiAl alloys is predicted and that of Ni{sub 2}TiAl is in close agreement with available results. The band dispersion along the high symmetry points W→L→Γ→X→W→K in Ni{sub 2}TiAl and NiTiAl Heusler alloys are also reported. NiTiAl alloy has a direct band gap of 1.60 eV at Γ point as a result of strong hybridization between the d state of the lower and higher valence of both the Ti and Ni atoms. The calculated real part of the dielectric function confirmed the band gap of 1.60 eV in NiTiAl alloys. The present calculations revealed the paramagnetic state of NiTiAl. From the band structure calculations, Ni{sub 2}TiAl with higher Fermi level exhibits metallic properties as in the case of both NiAl and Ni{sub 3}Al binary systems.

  18. Superconducting properties of Zr1+xNi2-xGa and Zr1-xNi2+xGa Heusler compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad Alzahrani

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The superconducting properties of a series of Zr1+xNi2-xGa and Zr1-xNi2+xGa compounds have been investigated by x-ray diffraction, electrical resistivity, dc magnetization, and ac susceptibility measurements. While the parent compound, ZrNi2Ga, exhibited the cubic L21 Heusler structure, multiple non-cubic structures formed in the Zr and Ni rich doped materials. For x ≤ 0.3, all Zr1-xNi2+xGa compounds demonstrated superconducting behavior, but no superconductivity was observed in the Zr1+xNi2-xGa alloys for x > 0.2. The magnetization data revealed that all materials in both Zr1+xNi2-xGa and Zr1-xNi2+xGa series exhibited type-II superconductivity. With increasing doping concentration x, the paramagnetic ordering were enhanced in both systems while the superconducting properties were found to weaken. The observations are discussed considering the structural disorders in the systems.

  19. Simulation of tandem hydrofoils by finite volume method with moving grid system; Henkei koshi wo tsukatta yugen taisekiho ni yoru tandem suichuyoku no simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawashima, H. [Ship Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan); Miyata, H. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-12-31

    With an objective to clarify possibility of application of time-advancing calculated fluid dynamic (CFD) simulation by using a finite volume method with moving grid system, a simulation was performed on motion of a ship with hydrofoils including the control system therein. The simulation consists of a method that couples a moving grid system technology, an equation of motion, and the control system. Complex interactions between wings and with free surface may be considered automatically by directly deriving fluid force from a flow field by using the CFD. In addition, two-dimensional flows around tandem hydrofoils were calculated to solve the motion problem within a vertical plane. As a result, the following results were obtained: a finite volume method using a dynamic moving grid system method was applied to problems in non-steady tandem hydrofoils to show its usefulness; a method that couples the CFD with the equation of motion was applied to the control problems in the tandem hydrofoils to show possibility of a new technology for simulating motions; and a simulation that considers such wing interference as wave creation, discharged vortices, and associated flows was shown useful to understand characteristics of the tandem hydrofoils. 13 refs., 14 figs.

  20. Performance analysis on utilization of sky radiation cooling energy for space cooling. Part 2; Hosha reikyaku riyo reibo system ni kansuru kenkyu. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marushima, S.; Saito, T. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    Studies have been made about a heat accumulation tank type cooling system making use of radiation cooling that is a kind of natural energy. The daily operating cycle of the cooling system is described below. A heat pump air conditioner performs cooling during the daytime and the exhaust heat is stored in a latent heat accumulation tank; the heat is then used for the bath and tapwater in the evening; at night radiation cooling is utilized to remove the heat remnant in the tank for the solidification of the phase change material (PCM); the solidified PCM serves as the cold heat source for the heat pump air conditioner to perform cooling. The new system decelerates urban area warming because it emits the cooler-generated waste heat not into the atmosphere but into space taking advantage of radiation cooling. Again, the cooler-generated waste heat may be utilized for energy saving and power levelling. For the examination of nighttime radiation cooling characteristics, CaCl2-5H2O and Na2HPO4-12H2O were tested as the PCM. Water was used as the heating medium. In the case of a PCM high in latent heat capacity, some work has to be done for insuring sufficient heat exchange for it by, for instance, rendering the flow rate low. The coefficient of performance of the system discussed here is three times higher than that of the air-cooled type heat pump system. 8 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. Study of seismic data acquisition using physical modeling system; Butsuri model jikken sochi wo mochiita data shutoku gijutsu ni kansuru kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsukui, R.; Tsuru, T. [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Technology Research Center; Matsuoka, T [Japan Petroleum Exploration Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    For the physical modeling system of Technology Research Center, Japan National Oil Corporation, data acquisition on the ocean and ground can be simulated using models. This system can provide data for verification of the data processing and elastic wave simulation algorithm. This can also provide data for decision of experiment specifications by making a model simulating the underground structure of the given test field. The model used for the physical modeling system is a gradient multilayer model with six-layer structure. Depth migration before stacking was conducted using data obtained through two acquisition methods, i.e., up-dip acquisition and down-dip acquisition. The depth migration before stacking was performed for data obtained by up-dip acquisition in addition to the records obtained by down-dip acquisition. Consequently, a definite reflection surface was observed, which has not been observed from the processing results of down-dip acquisition data. 9 figs.

  2. The chameleonic nature of French ni : negative coordination in a negative concord language

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doetjes, Jenny

    2005-01-01

    The main goal of this paper is to defend the claim that ni, the French counterpart of neither and nor is always a negative conjunction which takes part in the negative concord system of French. The interpretation one seems to get for this negative concord ni varies depending on the environment where

  3. Effects of Cr and Ni on the efficiency and performance of sequencing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-03-15

    Mar 15, 2012 ... respectively with LIWW. Cr3+ and Ni2+ strongly suppressed the growth and activity of heterotrophic bacteria. Ni2+ at 3.0 mg/L did not impact either nitrifying or denitrifying bacteria, while the growth and activity of denitrifying bacteria was suppressed at 3.0 mg/L Cr3+. The other advantage of SBR system.

  4. MgCo2-D2 and MgCoNi-D2 systems synthesized at high pressures and interaction mechanism during the HDDR processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chubin Wan

    2017-02-01

    MgCo2 is a new example of the hydrogen storage alloy, in which a successful HDDR processing results in the reversible formation of the initial intermetallic at much lower temperatures than in the equilibrium phase diagram of the Mg-Co system.

  5. Mechanical properties of NiTi and CuNiTi wires used in orthodontic treatment. Part 2: Microscopic surface appraisal and metallurgical characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Abdo Gravina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This research aimed at comparing the qualitative chemical compositions and the surface morphology of fracture regions of eight types of Nickel (Ni Titanium (Ti conventional wires, superelastic and heat-activated (GAC, TP, Ormco, Masel, Morelli and Unitek, to the wires with addition of copper (CuNiTi 27oC and 35oC, Ormco after traction test. METHODS: The analyses were performed in a scanning electronic microscope (JEOL, model JSM-5800 LV with EDS system of microanalysis (energy dispersive spectroscopy. RESULTS : The results showed that NiTi wires presented Ni and Ti as the main elements of the alloy with minimum differences in their composition. The CuNiTi wires, however, presented Ni and Ti with a significant percentage of copper (Cu. As for surface morphology, the wires that presented the lowest wire-surface roughness were the superelastic ones by Masel and Morelli, while those that presented the greatest wire-surface roughness were the CuNiTi 27oC and 35oC ones by Ormco, due to presence of microcavity formed as a result of pulling out some particles, possibly of NiTi. 4 The fracture surfaces presented characteristics of ductile fracture, with presence of microcavities. The superelastic wires by GAC and the CuNiTi 27oC and the heat-activated ones by Unitek presented the smallest microcavities and the lowest wire-surface roughness with regard to fracture, while the CuNiTi 35oC wires presented inadequate wire-surface roughness in the fracture region. CONCLUSION: CuNiTi 35oC wires did not present better morphologic characteristics in comparison to the other wires with regard to surfaces and fracture region.

  6. Detection of arcing ground fault location on a distribution network connected PV system; Hikarihatsuden renkei haidensen ni okeru koko chiryaku kukan no kenshutsuho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, M.; Iwaya, K.; Morooka, Y. [Hachinohe Institute of Technology, Aomori (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    In the near future, it is supposed that a great number of small-scale distributed power sources, such as photovoltaic power generation for general houses, will be interconnected with the ungrounded neutral distribution system in Japan. When ground fault of commercial frequency once occurs, great damage is easily guessed. This paper discusses the effect of the ground fault on the ground phase current using a 6.6 kV high-voltage model system by considering the non-linear self-inductance in the line, and by considering the non-linear relation of arcing ground fault current frequency. In the present method, the remarkable difference of series resonance frequency determined by the inductance and earth capacity between the source side and load side is utilized for the detection of high-voltage arcing ground fault location. In this method, there are some cases in which the non-linear effect obtained by measuring the inductance of sound phase including the secondary winding of transformer can not be neglected. Especially, for the actual high-voltage system, it was shown that the frequency characteristics of transformer inductance for distribution should be theoretically derived in the frequency range between 2 kHz and 6 kHz. 2 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Study of seismic data acquisition using physical modeling system; Butsuri model jikken sochi wo mochiita data shutoku gijutsu ni kansuru kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsukui, R.; Tsuru, T. [Tech. Research Center, Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Matsuoka, T. [Japan Petroleum Exploration Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    The Physical Modeling System introduced into the Technology Research Center, Japan National Oil Corporation, and data collected by use of the system are presented. The Physical Modeling System is 10,000 times smaller than the real one, comprising a water tub section, measuring device section, and control section, etc. The water tub section comprises a tub for housing the model, transducers for transmitting and receiving vibration, controllers, etc. The water tub measures 1.8{times}1.2{times}0.9m. The model used in the experiment is an `inclined multilayer model` with each of its six layers pinching out toward the top, and is usable for the comparison of various migration methods. In one case in the records, reception was made at 184 reception points deployed at intervals of 3mm, when the minimum offset was 15mm and the maximum offset 564mm. Nothing very obvious was observed when the ordinary overlapping of DMO and CDP was applied to this record, which suggests that pre-overlapping migration treatment is required. 5 figs.

  8. Fiscal 1993 study of engineering for making areas prosperous using natural energy; 1993 nendo kankyo chowagata green techno system no kokusai kyoryoku model ni kansuru chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    The paper studied the engineering for activating areas using natural energy. A system has started in which electric power companies purchase surplus electric power from the natural energy use power generation such as the wind power and photovoltaic power generation, etc., and a lot of local self-governing bodies in the country plan `projects to promote town` using the system. However, few engineers and makers can plan `a project to promote town,` making effective use of natural energy which is fickle. Therefore, first, the paper arranged the actual status mostly of the cases of `the projects` using natural energy which have been carried out in the country. Next, the trend of the natural energy utilization technology in countries including the U.S. was described. Moreover, assuming model areas in Japan for working out a concept of model projects on the natural energy utilization and town promotion, a concept was proposed making full use of the utilization technology which has now usability. Arrangement is being made for conditions for the full scale spread as seen in the subsidy system for general users. 3 refs., 176 figs., 61 tabs.

  9. Ecological effects assessment of anionic surfactant on aquatic ecosystem using microcosm system; Microcosm wo mochiita in ion kaimen kasseizai no suiken seitaikei ni oyobosu eikyo hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takamatsu, Y. [University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba (Japan); Inamori, Y. [National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba (Japan); Sudo, R. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Kurihara, Y. [Ou Univ., Fukushima (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Matsumura, M. [University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba (Japan). Institute of Applied Biochemical

    1997-11-10

    Microcosm system was applied to assess effect of anionic surfactant (LAS) on aquatic ecosystem. Anionic surfactant such as LAS was added to an flask microcosm consisting of four species of bacteria as decomposer, one species of ciliate protozoa (Cyclidium glaucoma), two rotifers (Philodina sp. and Lepadella sp.) and one aquatic oligochaete (Aeolosoma hemprichi) as predator, and a green alga (Chlorella sp.) and a filamentous blue-green alga (Tolypothrix sp.) as producer, comparing with that of an natural lake model ecosystem derived from natural lake water. In the flask microcosm system and the natural lake model ecosystem, biodegradation rates of LAS were almost same and NOECs (no observed effect concentration) of LAS were also below 1.5 mg{center_dot} l{sup -1}. It was found that flask microcosm test could provide precise ecological effect assessment of LAS on number of microorganisms because the system showed higher reproducibility and stability than natural take model ecosystem. It was suggested that flask microcosm test was useful ecological effect assessment method which can reflect natural aquatic ecosystem. 10 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. ni potni list

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Krajnc

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Decembra 1994 je bila v Rimu velika mednarodna konferenca o permanentnem ali vse življenje trajajočem izobraževanju. Široki strokovni javnosti sta bila takrat prvič predstavljena tudi dva nova pojma: osebni učni načrt in učni potni list. Pri priči sta se prijela v teoriji in praksi - očitno sta bila oba predloga odsev potreb.

  11. Magnetic properties of NI-doped ZnS: First-principles study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Hai-Qing; Tang, Li-Jun; Tang, Jun-Long; Peng, Ping

    2015-03-01

    A systematic investigation on magnetism and spin-resolved electronic properties in Ni-doped ZnS systems was performed by using the first principle plane-wave pseudo potential method. The formation energy calculation implied that Ni-doped ZnS could be realized experimentally at room temperature and ferromagnetic state was ground state in Ni-doped ZnS. Electronic structures showed Ni-doped ZnS supercell was p-type half-metallic ferromagnetic (FM) semiconductor with a total magnetic moment of 2.0 μB per Ni. Due to the neighboring S atoms around doped Ni atoms mediating the magnetic coupling by p-d hybridization, the long distance FM coupling in Ni-doped ZnS was achieved. Furthermore, high dopant concentration and not obvious clustering effect could be obtained in Ni-doped ZnS. These results imply that Ni-doped ZnS could be a promising dilute magnetic semiconductor for application in spintronic devices.

  12. Porous NiFe-Oxide Nanocubes as Bifunctional Electrocatalysts for Efficient Water-Splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashwani; Bhattacharyya, Sayan

    2017-12-06

    Electrocatalytic water-splitting, a combination of oxygen and hydrogen evolution reactions (OER and HER), is highly attractive in clean energy technologies, especially for high-purity hydrogen production, whereas developing stable, earth-abundant, bifunctional catalysts has continued to pose major challenges. Herein, a mesoporous NiFe-oxide nanocube (NiFe-NC) system is developed from a NiFe Prussian blue analog metal-organic framework as an efficient bifunctional catalyst for overall water-splitting. The NiFe-NCs with ∼200 nm side length have a Ni/Fe molar ratio of 3:2 and is a composite of NiO and α/γ-Fe 2 O 3 . The NCs demonstrate overpotentials of 271 and 197 mV for OER and HER, respectively, in 1 M KOH at 10 mA cm -2 , which outperform those of 339 and 347 mV for the spherical NiFe-oxide nanoparticles having a similar composition. The electrolyzer constructed using NiFe-NCs requires an impressive cell voltage of 1.67 V to deliver a current density of 10 mA cm -2 . Along with a mesoporous structure with a broad pore size distribution, the NiFe-NCs demonstrate the qualities of a desired corrosion-resistant water-splitting catalyst with long-term stability. The exposure of active sites at the edges and vertices of the NCs was validated to play a crucial role in their overall catalytic performance.

  13. Electrochemical transformation of thichloroethylene in groundwater by Ni-containing cathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajic, Ljiljana; Fallahpour, Noushin; Oguzie, Emeka; Alshawabkeh, Akram

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we evaluate the use of different stainless steel (SS) materials as cost-effective cathode materials for electrochemical transformation of trichloroethylene (TCE) in contaminated groundwater. Ni, which is present in certain SS, has low hydrogen overpotential that promotes fast formation of atomic hydrogen and, therefore, its content can enhance hydrodechlorination (HDC). We a flow-through electrochemical reactor with a SS cathode followed by an anode. The performance of Ni containing foam cathodes (Fe/Ni and Ni foam) was also evaluated for electrochemical transformation of TCE in groundwater. SS type 316 (12% Ni) removed 61.7% of TCE compared to 52.6% removed by SS 304 (9.25% Ni) and 37.5% removed by SS 430 (0.75% Ni). Ni foam cathode produced the highest TCE removal rate (68.4%) compared with other cathodes. The slightly lower performance of SS type 316 mesh is balanced by the reduction in treatment costs for larger-scale systems. The results prove that Ni content in SS highly influences TCE removal rate. PMID:26538681

  14. Relation between shape of Ni-particles and Ni migration in Ni-YSZ electrodes – a hypothesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg; Hauch, Anne; Sun, Xiufu

    2016-01-01

    pressure (pH2O) gradient as previously observed [1], but in the present cases Ni seems to migrate up the pH2O gradient. However, it is also observed that there is a preceding phase in this Ni-YSZ electrode degradation, namely that the Ni-particles closest to the YSZ electrolyte loose contact to each other...

  15. Comprehensive theoretical studies on the low-lying electronic states of NiF, NiCl, NiBr, and NiI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Wenli; Liu, Wenjian

    2006-04-21

    The low-lying electronic states of the nickel monohalides, i.e., NiF, NiCl, NiBr, and NiI, are investigated by using multireference second-order perturbation theory with relativistic effects taken into account. For the energetically lowest 11 lambda-S states and 26 omega states there into, the potential energy curves and corresponding spectroscopic constants (vertical and adiabatic excitation energies, equilibrium bond lengths, vibrational frequencies, and rotational constants) are reported. The calculated results are grossly in very good agreement with those solid experimental data. In particular, the ground state of NiI is shown to be different from those of NiF, NiCl, and NiBr, being in line with the recent experimental observation. Detailed analyses are provided on those states that either have not been assigned or have been incorrectly assigned by previous experiments.

  16. Isotopic Composition as a Signature for Different Processes Leading to Fragment Production in Midperipheral Ni+Al, Ni, Ag Collisions at 30 MeV/Nucleon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milazzo, P. M.; Margagliotti, G. V.; Rui, R.; Vannini, G.; Colonna, N.; Gramegna, F.; Mastinu, P. F.; Agodi, C.; Alba, R.; Bellia, G.; Coniglione, R.; Del Zoppo, A.; Finocchiaro, P.; Maiolino, C.; Migneco, E.; Piattelli, P.; Santonocito, D.; Sapienza, P.; Iori, I.; Moroni, A.

    2007-01-01

    The results of experiments performed to investigate the Ni+Al, Ni+Ni, Ni+Ag reactions at 30 MeV/nucleon are presented. From the study of dissipative midperipheral collisions, it has been possible to detect events in which Intermediate Mass Fragments (IMF) production takes place. The decay of a quasi-projectile has been identified; its excitation energy leads to a multifragmentation totally described in terms of a statistical disassembly of a thermalized system (T≃4 MeV, E* ≃4 MeV/nucleon). Moreover, for the systems Ni+Ni, Ni+Ag, in the same nuclear reaction, a source with velocity intermediate between that of the quasi-projectile and that of the quasi-target, emitting IMF, is observed. The fragments produced by this source are more neutron rich than the average matter of the overall system, and have a charge distribution different, with respect to those statistically emitted from the quasi-projectile. The above features suggest that this production comes from material which is "surface-like" (since it originates from the overlap of the two nuclei). To investigate the neutron content in both processes the 4He and 6He experimental yields were studied.

  17. CONFIGURATION-INTERACTION IN NI METAL AND NI-ALLOYS AND HIGH-ENERGY SPECTROSCOPY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    TANAKA, A; JO, T; SAWATZKY, GA

    We discuss the electronic state of Ni atoms in Ni metal and of Ni impurity in Cu and Au metals from the viewpoint of 3d configuration interaction (CI) using the Anderson impurity model including atomic multiplets. On the basis of the discussion, we give an interpretation for the Ni 2p-core X-ray

  18. Microstructure and magnetic properties of Mn-X-N (X: Ni, Zr, and B) sintered alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isogai, K. [NEC TOKIN Corporation, Sendai, Miyagi 982-8510 (Japan)]. E-mail: isogai@nec-tokin.com; Matsumoto, H. [NEC TOKIN Corporation, Sendai, Miyagi 982-8510 (Japan); Sugimoto, S. [Department of Materials Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, Aoba-yama 6-6-02, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8579 (Japan)

    2007-03-15

    Microstructure and magnetic properties of Mn-X-N (X: Ni, Zr, and B) alloy system were investigated in this study. The samples showed low remanence; however, relatively high coercivities of 0.5-4.4 kOe (40-350 kA/m) were obtained in the Mn-Ni-N system. Scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM-EDX) and transmission electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (TEM-EDX) analyses revealed that the Mn-Ni-N sample with high coercivity consists of a lamellar structure with the spacing of 0.5-2 {mu}m. It is also found that the lamellar structure is composed of two phases with composition of 97.4 at% Mn-2.6 at% Ni and 86.7 at% Mn-13.3 at% Ni.

  19. Infecciones del sistema nervioso central por enterovirus en niños atendidos en un hospital de Lima, Perú Enteroviral central nervous system infections in children treated at a hospital in Lima, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván O Espinoza

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Determinar la frecuencia y las características clínicas de las infecciones del sistema nervioso central por enterovirus en niños atendidos en el Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia de Lima, Perú. Materiales y métodos. Se realizó un estudio prospectivo y descriptivo desde abril 2008 hasta marzo 2010. Se enrolaron pacientes de un mes a 14 años con diagnóstico clínico de encefalitis o meningitis asépticas. Se investigó la presencia de enterovirus, virus herpes simple 1 (VHS-1, virus herpes simple 2 (VHS-2 y virus varicela-zoster (VZV mediante reacción en cadena de polimerasa (PCR. Resultados. Se enrolaron 97 pacientes de los cuales 69 % presentaron encefalitis aguda y 31 % meningitis aguda. Se identificó enterovirus en 52,6 % del total de infecciones agudas no bacterianas del sistema nervioso central; encontrándose en 83,3 % de las meningitis y en 38,8 % de las encefalitis. No hubo casos de infección por VHS-1, VHS-2 ni VZV. Las infecciones por enterovirus alcanzaron el 82,9 % en los meses cálidos de noviembre a enero y el 28,6 % en los meses fríos de mayo a julio. Conclusiones. Los enterovirus fueron los principales agentes etiológicos en las encefalitis y meningitis asépticas agudas en pacientes pediátricos de Lima, Perú. Los enterovirus tienen un comportamiento epidemiológico estacional con un claro aumento del número de casos en los meses de verano. Resulta útil tener disponible un método de diagnóstico rápido, como una ayuda para el manejo de las infecciones agudas del sistema nervioso.Objectives. To determine the frequency and clinical features of central nervous system infections caused by enterovirus in children treated at the Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia in Lima, Peru. Materials and methods. A prospective, descriptive study was performed from April 2008 to March 2010. Patients aged 1 month - 14 years with clinical diagnosis of encephalitis or aseptic meningitis were included. We investigated the

  20. Experimentally validated thermal model of thin film NiTi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favelukis, Jenna E.; Lavine, Adrienne S.; Carman, Gregory P.

    1999-06-01

    The primary focus of this work is to develop a new analytical approach for thermal modeling of Nickel Titanium (NiTi) shape memory alloy membranes undergoing both phase transformation and large deflections. This paper describes a thermal model of a NiTi plate or thin film, including all the modes of heat loss and latent heat dissipation during the phase transformation. This model is used to predict the NiTi temperature during cooling. The results are compared with experiments conducted on a NiTi plate and thin film (3 micrometers thick), and very good agreement is found. The thermal model is also used to predict the temperature response of a bubble actuator proposed for use in a forced flow environment. Using a 3 mm diameter, 3 micrometers thickness bubble under forced airflow conditions it is possible to achieve a frequency response faster than 300 Hz. Additional calculations were made to verify the structural stability of the actuator system. Predictions indicated that for specific geometries a pressure of at least 35 kPa can be supported by the NiTi membrane. Deflections of a bubble actuator are shown to be on the order of 10% of its diameter while the strain remains below 4%.

  1. Synthesis of Ni/Graphene Nanocomposite for Hydrogen Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chunyu; Szpunar, Jerzy A; Cui, Xiaoyu

    2016-06-22

    We have designed a Ni-graphene composite for hydrogen storage with Ni nanoparticles of 10 nm in size, uniformly dispersed over a graphene substrate. This system exhibits attractive features like high gravimetric density, ambient conditions, and low activation temperature for hydrogen release. When charged at room temperature and an atmospheric hydrogen pressure of 1 bar, it could yield a hydrogen capacity of 0.14 wt %. When hydrogen pressure increased to 60 bar, the sorbent had a hydrogen gravimetric density of 1.18 wt %. The hydrogen release could occur at an operating temperature below 150 °C and completes at 250 °C.

  2. Ternary Pt-Ru-Ni catalytic layers for methanol electrooxidation prepared by electrodeposition and galvanic replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios ePapaderakis

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Ternary Pt-Ru-Ni deposits on glassy carbon substrates, Pt-Ru(Ni/GC, have been formed by initial electrodeposition of Ni layers onto glassy carbon electrodes, followed by their partial exchange for Pt and Ru, upon their immersion into equimolar solutions containing complex ions of the precious metals. The overall morphology and composition of the deposits has been studied by SEM microscopy and EDS spectroscopy. Continuous but nodular films have been confirmed, with a Pt÷Ru÷Ni % bulk atomic composition ratio of 37÷12÷51 (and for binary Pt-Ni control systems of 47÷53. Fine topographical details as well as film thickness have been directly recorded using AFM microscopy. The composition of the outer layers as well as the interactions of the three metals present have been studied by XPS spectroscopy and a Pt÷Ru÷Ni % surface atomic composition ratio of 61÷12÷27 (and for binary Pt-Ni control systems of 85÷15 has been found, indicating the enrichment of the outer layers in Pt; a shift of the Pt binding energy peaks to higher values was only observed in the presence of Ru and points to an electronic effect of Ru on Pt. The surface electrochemistry of the thus prepared Pt-Ru(Ni/GC and Pt(Ni/GC electrodes in deaerated acid solutions (studied by cyclic voltammetry proves the existence of a shell consisting exclusively of Pt-Ru or Pt. The activity of the Pt-Ru(Ni deposits towards methanol oxidation (studied by slow potential sweep voltammetry is higher from that of the Pt(Ni deposit and of pure Pt; this enhancement is attributed both to the well-known Ru synergistic effect due to the presence of its oxides but also (based on the XPS findings to a modification effect of Pt electronic properties.

  3. Interaction of Nickel and Manganese in Accumulation and Localization in Leaves of the Ni Hyperaccumulators Alyssum murale and Alyssum corsicum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broadhurst, C.; Tappero, R; Maugel, T; Erbe, E; Sparks, D; Chaney, R

    2009-01-01

    The genus Alyssum contains >50 Ni hyperaccumulator species; many can achieve >2.5% Ni in dry leaf. In soils with normal Mn levels, Alyssum trichome bases were previously observed to accumulate Ni and Mn to high levels. Here we report concentration and localization patterns in A. murale and A. corsicum grown in soils with nonphytotoxic factorial additions of Ni and Mn salts. Four leaf type subsets based on size and age accumulated Ni and Mn similarly. The greatest Mn accumulation (10 times control) was observed in A. corsicum with 40 mmol Mn kg-1 and 40 mmol Ni kg-1 added to potting soil. Whole leaf Ni concentrations decreased as Mn increased. Synchrotron X-ray fluorescence mapping of whole fresh leaves showed localized in distinct high-concentration Mn spots associated with trichomes, Ni and Mn distributions were strongly spatially correlated. Standard X-ray fluorescence point analysis/mapping of cryofractured and freeze-dried samples found that Ni and Mn were co-located and strongly concentrated only in trichome bases and in cells adjacent to trichomes. Nickel concentration was also strongly spatially correlated with sulfur. Results indicate that maximum Ni phytoextraction by Alyssum may be reduced in soils with higher phytoavailable Mn, and suggest that Ni hyperaccumulation in Alyssum species may have developed from a Mn handling system.

  4. Laser alloyed Al-Ni-Fe coatings

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pityana, SL

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to produce crack-free thin surface layers consisting of binary (Al-Ni, Al-Fe) and ternary (Al-Ni-Fe) intermetallic phases by means of a high power laser beam. The laser surface alloying was carried out by melting Fe and Ni...

  5. Timing El Niño: analytical results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianucci, Marco

    2017-04-01

    The El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is the leading mode of interannual variability in the global climate system. A complex collection of geophysical causes contributes to it, and many efforts have been made to reduce its representation to a simple model that describes its mean features and the fluctuations. Up to now the results have mainly been on the stationary statistical properties but here, for the first time, we obtain an analytical result for the timing of El Niño events. We arrive to that introducing in this field an approach derived from the context of the foundation of Thermodynamics: the role of the "microscopic" system is played by the atmosphere, while the El Niño ocean variables play the role of the "macroscopic" system. Thus, as for Thermodynamics, El Niño emerges as a universal large scale property from a general class of complex systems. References: Bianucci, M. "Analytical probability density function for the statistics of the ENSO phenomenon: Asymmetry and power law tail". Geophysical Research Letters 43, 386-394 (2016).

  6. HYDROGENATION OF TOLUENE ON Ni-Co-Mo SUPPORTED ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    a bimetallic catalyst system; zeolite-alumina composite supported NiMo catalyst was developed and used in ..... the XRD patterns of molybdenum oxide supported over mesoporous alumina with small crystal sizes ranging ..... oil hydrocracking catalysts using amorphous silica-alumina and zeolites as catalysts supports,".

  7. Experiments with a radioactive sup 5 sup 6 Ni beam

    CERN Document Server

    Rehm, K E; Jiang, C L; Ackermann, D; Ahmad, I; Brumwell, F; Davids, C N; Decrock, P; Fischer, S M; Görres, J; Greene, J P; Hackmann, G; Harss, B; Henderson, D; Henning, W F; Janssens, R V F; McMichael, G E; Nanal, V; Nisius, D; Nolen, Jerry A; Pardo, R C; Paul, M; Reiter, P; Schiffer, J P; Seweryniak, D; Segel, R E; Wiedenhöver, I; Wiescher, M; Wuosmaa, A H

    2000-01-01

    A technique for producing a high-quality radioactive sup 5 sup 6 Ni (T sub 1 sub / sub 2 =6.1 d) beam via the two-accelerator method has been developed. Beam intensities of 2x10 sup 7 sup 5 sup 6 Ni/s were extracted from the ion source and 2x10 sup 4 sup 5 sup 6 Ni/s were delivered to the target. For a study of neutron transfer reactions in inverse kinematics, a high-efficiency detection system was built consisting of a large solid angle (2.8 sr), high-granularity Si detector array for measuring the outgoing protons in coincidence with the heavy reaction products identified with respect to mass A and nuclear charge Z in the focal plane of a recoil mass separator.

  8. Vertical vibration control system for PC cable-stayed bridge during cantilever construction; Shuketa jogedo seishin sochi ni yoru haridashi sekoji no PC shachokyo no seishin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oshio, M.; Nakano, R.; Niihara, Y.; Yano, K.; Takeda, T. [Kajima Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-12-20

    A PC cable-stayed bridge under extension construction having long span length may have long-cycle vibration generated because of wind. The vibration puts workers working on main girders into a state of seasick causing the workability to drop. Therefore, with an objective to reduce vibration occurring on the main girders during construction, discussions were given on application of an active type vertical vibration absorbing device. The vibration absorbing device is an active system that a weight is driven vertically by a hydraulic actuator. The device was developed with a target that damping ratio when a maximum extension is 120 m becomes three times that when no vibration is absorbed for a 5-span continuous PC cable-stayed bridge with a length of 675 m, a central span of 260 m, and a width of 11 m. A cage housing the weight is connected with the actuator at its top by using pins, and the weight is supported being suspended from the top of the actuator. Vibration is absorbed by utilizing reactive force generated when the weight is driven vertically by the hydraulic actuator. The hydraulic actuator contains a gas spring that supports the dead weight of the weight. Experiments have verified the effectiveness of the vertical vibration absorbing device. 4 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Measurement of nonlinear AC dissipation current waveform in oil-film composite insulating system. Abura-film fukugo zetsuenkei ni okeru hisenkei koryu sonshitsu denryuhakei no kansoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokoro, T. (Gifu National College of Technology, Gifu (Japan)); Nagao, M.; Kosaki, M. (Toyohashi University of Technology, Aichi (Japan))

    1991-01-15

    Nonlinear AC dissipation current waveforms associated with a Garton effect were observed on an oil-film composite insulating system by the previously reported measuring method of dissipation microcurrent waveforms in AC electric fields. A laminated composite of polypropylene and oxidized insulating oil was used as a specimen, and dielectric loss tangents (tan {delta}) were measured by applying AC voltage of 50-400Hz to it. The tan {delta} increased up to a peak value with the applied voltage, and its peak point shifted toward a high voltage side decreasing the peak value with an increase in frequency, indicating the influence of a Garton effect. The amplitude of AC dissipation current waveforms associated with a Garton effect increased up to a peak value with the applied voltage corresponding to the tan {delta}, and the phase of the peak point delayed with an increase in frequency. As a result, the generation behavior of nonlinear AC dissipation current could be observed through applied voltage and frequency as parameters. 5 refs., 6 figs.

  10. NiTi SMA Wires Coupled with Kevlar Fabric: a Real Application of an Innovative Aircraft LE Slat System in SMAHC Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guida, M.; Marulo, F.; Russo, S.

    2017-08-01

    This paper investigates experimentally and numerically the response of a smart hybrid thermoplastic aircraft slat system subjected to a short-duration and high-frequency event like a birdstrike. The focus of the paper is to exploit the ability that superelastic shape memory alloys have to absorb and dissipate energy compared to conventional composite structures. The final objective of the work is to develop an innovative thermoplastic wing leading edge slat able to resist to an impact of 4-lb (1.8 kg) bird at speed of 350 kts (132 m/s), as requested by the aeronautical requirements. Aircraft leading edges must be certified for a proven level of bird impact resistance. In particular, the main structural requirement is to protect the torsion box and control devices from any significant damage caused by birdstrike in order to allow the aircraft to land safely. A clear increase of the composites toughness and higher absorbed energy levels before failure were also observed. This is due to the fact that SMA wires can absorb kinetic energy during the impact due to their remarkably large failure and recoverable strain and to their superelastic and hysteretic behaviour. The activities have been performed within the European Project COALESCE "Cost Efficient Advanced Leading Edge Structure", funded by the Seventh Framework Program Theme 7 Transport (incl. Aeronautics).

  11. High-resolution aeromagnetic survey in the area of Arima-Takatsuki-Rokko active fault system; Arima Takatsuki Rokko katsudanso chiiki ni okeru komitsudo kuchu jiki tansa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakatsuka, T.; Okuma, S.; Morijiri, R.; Makino, M. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    High-resolution aeromagnetic survey was conducted in December, 1995, over the area of Arima-Takatsuki-Rokko active fault system, where the 1995 Hyogo-South (Kobe) earthquake took place. Based on the surveyed data, the magnetic anomaly distribution in the Kei-Hanshin district was illustrated. Features of magnetic anomaly observed in it were discussed. Influence of artificial structures in the coastal zone of Kobe City was tried to be removed. Distinct magnetic anomaly observed in the center of Kyoto City was located at the southern part near Shijo-Karasuma. This was mainly affected by the artificial structure. A high magnetic anomaly with a long wave length was observed in the southern part of Kyoto. There was a high magnetic anomaly in an area surrounded by central cities of Nishinomiya-Toyonaka district. At the location where positive and negative magnetic anomalies were illustrated in NEDO`s map in the coastal zone of Kobe City, the anomaly pattern was clarified. The influence of artificial structure was approximated using a point dipole. The dipole was placed in each block having a magnetic anomaly. The parameter was determined by the inverse analysis, to remove the influence. Consequently, most of magnetic anomalies due to artificial structures could be removed. 6 figs.

  12. Kinetics of Ni2Si growth from pure Ni and Ni(V) films on (111) and (100) Si

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harith, M. A.; Zhang, J. P.; Campisano, S. U.; Klaar, H.-J.

    1987-01-01

    The kinetics of Ni2Si growth from pure Ni and from Ni0.93V0.07 films on (111) and (100) silicon has been studied by the combination of He+ backscattering, x-ray diffraction, Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. The activation energies are 1.5 and 1.0 eV for pure Ni and Ni(V) films, respectively while the pre-exponential factors in Ni(V) are 4 5 orders of magnitude smaller than in the pure Ni case. The variations in the measured rates are related to the different grain size of the growing suicide layers. The vanadium is rejected from the silicide layer and piles up at the metalsilicide interface.

  13. Synthesis and catalytic performance of SiO2@Ni and hollow Ni microspheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Liu, Yanhua; Shi, Xueting; Yu, Zhengyang; Feng, Libang

    2016-11-01

    Nickel (Ni) catalyst has been widely used in catalytic reducing reactions such as catalytic hydrogenation of organic compounds and catalytic reduction of organic dyes. However, the catalytic efficiency of pure Ni is low. In order to improve the catalytic performance, Ni nanoparticle-loaded microspheres can be developed. In this study, we have prepared Ni nanoparticle-loaded microspheres (SiO2@Ni) and hollow Ni microspheres using two-step method. SiO2@Ni microspheres with raspberry-like morphology and core-shell structure are synthesized successfully using SiO2 microsphere as a template and Ni2+ ions are adsorbed onto SiO2 surfaces via electrostatic interaction and then reduced and deposited on surfaces of SiO2 microspheres. Next, the SiO2 cores are removed by NaOH etching and the hollow Ni microspheres are prepared. The NaOH etching time does no have much influence on the crystal structure, shape, and surface morphology of SiO2@Ni; however, it can change the phase composition evidently. The hollow Ni microspheres are obtained when the NaOH etching time reaches 10 h and above. The as-synthesized SiO2@Ni microspheres exhibit much higher catalytic performance than the hollow Ni microspheres and pure Ni nanoparticles in the catalytic reduction of methylene blue. Meanwhile, the SiO2@Ni catalyst has high stability and hence it can be recycled for reuse.

  14. Geographical distribution of the association between El Niño South Oscillation and dengue fever in the Americas: a continental analysis using geographical information system-based techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Marcos C

    2014-11-01

    El Niño South Oscillation (ENSO) is one climatic phenomenon related to the inter-annual variability of global meteorological patterns influencing sea surface temperature and rainfall variability. It influences human health indirectly through extreme temperature and moisture conditions that may accelerate the spread of some vector-borne viral diseases, like dengue fever (DF). This work examines the spatial distribution of association between ENSO and DF in the countries of the Americas during 1995-2004, which includes the 1997-1998 El Niño, one of the most important climatic events of 20(th) century. Data regarding the South Oscillation index (SOI), indicating El Niño-La Niña activity, were obtained from Australian Bureau of Meteorology. The annual DF incidence (AIy) by country was computed using Pan-American Health Association data. SOI and AIy values were standardised as deviations from the mean and plotted in bars-line graphics. The regression coefficient values between SOI and AIy (rSOI,AI) were calculated and spatially interpolated by an inverse distance weighted algorithm. The results indicate that among the five years registering high number of cases (1998, 2002, 2001, 2003 and 1997), four had El Niño activity. In the southern hemisphere, the annual spatial weighted mean centre of epidemics moved southward, from 6° 31' S in 1995 to 21° 12' S in 1999 and the rSOI,AI values were negative in Cuba, Belize, Guyana and Costa Rica, indicating a synchrony between higher DF incidence rates and a higher El Niño activity. The rSOI,AI map allows visualisation of a graded surface with higher values of ENSO-DF associations for Mexico, Central America, northern Caribbean islands and the extreme north-northwest of South America.

  15. Geographical distribution of the association between El Niño South Oscillation and dengue fever in the Americas: a continental analysis using geographical information system-based techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos C. Ferreira

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available El Niño South Oscillation (ENSO is one climatic phenomenon related to the inter-annual variability of global meteorological patterns influencing sea surface temperature and rainfall variability. It influences human health indirectly through extreme temperature and moisture conditions that may accelerate the spread of some vector-borne viral diseases, like dengue fever (DF. This work examines the spatial distribution of association between ENSO and DF in the countries of the Americas during 1995-2004, which includes the 1997-1998 El Niño, one of the most important climatic events of 20th century. Data regarding the South Oscillation index (SOI, indicating El Niño-La Niña activity, were obtained from Australian Bureau of Meteorology. The annual DF incidence (AIy by country was computed using Pan-American Health Association data. SOI and AIy values were standardised as deviations from the mean and plotted in bars-line graphics. The regression coefficient values between SOI and AIy (rSOI,AI were calculated and spatially interpolated by an inverse distance weighted algorithm. The results indicate that among the five years registering high number of cases (1998, 2002, 2001, 2003 and 1997, four had El Niño activity. In the southern hemisphere, the annual spatial weighted mean centre of epidemics moved southward, from 6° 31' S in 1995 to 21° 12' S in 1999 and the rSOI,AI values were negative in Cuba, Belize, Guyana and Costa Rica, indicating a synchrony between higher DF incidence rates and a higher El Niño activity. The rSOI,AI map allows visualisation of a graded surface with higher values of ENSO-DF associations for Mexico, Central America, northern Caribbean islands and the extreme north-northwest of South America.

  16. Ni-Supported Pd Nanoparticles with Ca Promoter: A New Catalyst for Low-Temperature Ammonia Cracking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslaw Polanski

    Full Text Available In this paper we report a new nanometallic, self-activating catalyst, namely, Ni-supported Pd nanoparticles (PdNPs/Ni for low temperature ammonia cracking, which was prepared using a novel approach involving the transfer of nanoparticles from the intermediate carrier, i.e. nano-spherical SiO2, to the target carrier technical grade Ni (t-Ni or high purity Ni (p-Ni grains. The method that was developed allows a uniform nanoparticle size distribution (4,4±0.8 nm to be obtained. Unexpectedly, the t-Ni-supported Pd NPs, which seemed to have a surface Ca impurity, appeared to be more active than the Ca-free (p-Ni system. A comparison of the novel PdNPs/Ni catalyst with these reported in the literature clearly indicates the much better hydrogen productivity of the new system, which seems to be a highly efficient, flexible and durable catalyst for gas-phase heterogeneous ammonia cracking in which the TOF reaches a value of 2615 mmolH2/gPd min (10,570 molNH3/molPd(NP h at 600°C under a flow of 12 dm3/h (t-Ni.

  17. FY 1998 annual report on the preliminary research and development of techniques for developing resources from gas-hydrate. Studies on gas-hydrate exploration, excavation techniques, methods for assessing environmental impacts, and gas hydrate handling systems; 1998 nendo gas hydrate shigenka gijutsu sendoken kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Tansanado ni kansuru kenkyu kaihatsu, kussaku gijutsu nado ni kansuru kenkyu kaihatsu, kankyo eikyo hyokaho no kenkyu kaihatsu, riyo system ni kansuru chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This R and D project is for the preliminary studies on development of the following 4 types of techniques for developing resources from gas-hydrates (GH): (1) gas-hydrate exploration, (2) excavation techniques, (3) methods for assessing environmental impacts, and (4) gas hydrate handling systems. The FY 1988 R and D results are described. For gas-hydrate exploration, the methods for analyzing inorganic ions and trace quantities of elements, which are necessary for accurately estimating the offshore GH around Japan, are established; and case studies are conducted for methods of predicting GH deposit forming mechanisms, and stability fields of GH, based on terrestrial heat flow and seismic data. For excavation techniques, GH decomposition rate is analyzed using a laboratory system which reproduces conditions of excavation of GH layers. For methods for assessing environmental impacts, a geo-hazard predicting model is established, to study ground displacement and gas leakage sensing systems and data transmission systems to cope with the hazards. For gas hydrate handling systems, an overall system is studied, and storage and transportation systems are outlined. (NEDO)

  18. Design of environment-friendly and next generation-type conversion system for unused carbon resources by developing highly functional materials; Kokino zairyo kaihatsu ni yoru kankyo chowagata jisedai miriyo tanso shigen tenkan system no kochiku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakabayashi, K.; Morooka, S.; Arai, Y. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Sakanishi, K. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Institute of Advanced Material Study

    1997-02-01

    Studies are conducted for the development of now-unused kinds of fossil carbon resources, such as low rank coal and heavy gravity crude oil, into higher-value liquid fuel. In the preliminary treatment process, the fossil carbon resources are dried by use of supercritical carbon dioxide, when it is found that the resources are disintegrated and water is desorbed. In a low rank coal liquefaction process using the NiMo/KB (Kefjen Black) catalyst, more than 60% is converted into oil, which rate is improved by use of the dual-temperature liquefaction process. This catalyst may be recovered by separation utilizing specific gravity difference. As a low temperature gasification catalyst, the alkaline carbonate-carried carbon catalyst is very quick at the initial stage of reaction. The perovskite-carried alkaline carbonate catalyst is high in carbon oxidizing/activating efficiency at low temperatures. The silica film deposited on an alumina-coated support tube is excellent in selectivity and speed as a hydrogen separating film, and a carbonized polyimide film as a carbon dioxide separating film. For the supercritical phase adsorption/separation of chemicals not to be distilled easily, the NaY-type zeolite functions effectively. Pd/ZrO2 serving as a carbon monoxide conversion catalyst enables the recovery of more MeOH when Pd grains are smaller in diameter.

  19. Ni-CeO2 Cermets Synthesis by Solid State Sintering of Ni/CeO2 Multilayer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandras ILJINAS

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Nickel and gadolinium doped cerium oxide (GDC cermet is intensively investigated for an application as an anode material for solid oxide fuel cells based on various electrolytes. The purpose of the present investigation is to analyze morphology, microstructure, and optical properties of deposited and annealed for one hour in the temperatures from 500 ºC to 900 ºC Ni/CeO2 multilayer thin films deposited by sputtering. The crystallographic structure of thin films was investigated by X-ray diffraction. The morphology of the film cross-section was investigated with scanning electron microscope. The elemental analysis of samples was investigated by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The fitting of the optical reflectance data was made using Abeles matrix method that is used for the design of interference coatings. The film cross-section of the post-annealed samples consisted of four layers. The first CeO2 layer (on Si had the same fine columnar structure with no features of Ni intermixing. The part of Ni (middle-layer after annealing was converted to NiO with grain size exceeding 100 nm. The CeO2 layer deposited on Ni was divided into two layers. Lower layer had small grains not exceeding 25 nm and consisting of NiO and CeO2 mixture. Upper layer consisted of CeO2 columns with approximate thickness of 50 nm. Ni sample annealed at 600 ºC was fully oxidized. The NiO thickness and refraction index were almost steady after annealing in various temperatures. The approximation of experimental reflectance data was successful only for the samples with one transparent homogeneous layer. The reflectance of the Ni/CeO2 samples annealed at intermediate temperatures could not be fitted using one-layer or three-layer model. That may show that a simplified model could not be implemented.  The real system has complicated distribution of refraction index. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.19.4.3073

  20. Influence of intermediate valence states of cerium on thermo-e. m. f. of Ce-Ni intermetallic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutsiv, R.V.; Koterlin, M.D.; Babich, O.I. (L' vovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (Ukrainian SSR))

    1984-06-01

    The temperature dependences of the thermo-e. m. f. coefficient of compounds of the Ce-Ni(CeNi, CeNi/sub 2/, CeNi,L3, Ce/sub 2/Ni/sub 7/ and CeNi/sub 5/) system in the intermediate valence state are investigated, as well as a series of analogous compounds with La. on the basis of estimates of splitting (..delta..) of the Ce/sup 3 +/ 4f-level in the crystal field it is shown that the abovesaid compounds realize condition ..delta.. approximately GITAHsub(f) (GITAsub(f)=hybride width of 4f-level), and thermo-e. m. f. anomalies are especially sensitive to parameters of the Ce valence instability. Possibilities of the existing theoretical models for describing thermo-e. m. f. in such systems are discussed.

  1. Formation of NiCrAlY/NiAl multi-layered coating by low pressure plasma spraying; Genatsu plasma yosha ni yoru NiCrAlY/NiAl tasomaku no seisei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takizawa, H. [Industrial Res. Inst. of Nagano Pref., Nagano (Japan).; Yonehama, K.; Sugimoto, K.; Kobayashi, M. [Shinshu Univ., Nagano (Japan). Faculty of Education

    1997-12-15

    NiCrAlY/NiAl multi-layered coating was produced on SUS310S steel by means of mutual low pressure plasma spraying of NiCrAlY and Al powders which was accompanied with self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) reaction of metal deposits. The NiAl layer contained Ni3Al particles and Cr2Al phase along the fine grain boundary. Also, Ni3Al was detected in the NiCrAlY layer with a small amount of NiAl particles. As the result, high hardness was obtained in both the layers, i.e., 650HV in NiAl layer and 450HV in NiCrAlY one at 673K. The structure of the multilayered coating changed hardly during annealing lower than 973K because enriched Cr at NiCrAlY/NiAl interface suppressed NiAl + Ni3Al{yields}Ni5Al3 peritectoid reaction. The SHS reaction time of an compressed Al droplet in diameter of 50{mu}m was calculated as 4.17times10{sup -3} second. 20 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Large spin-orbit torques in Pt/Co-Ni/W heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Jiawei; Qiu, Xuepeng; Legrand, William; Yang, Hyunsoo, E-mail: eleyang@nus.edu.sg [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576 (Singapore)

    2016-07-25

    The spin orbit torques (SOTs) in perpendicularly magnetized Co-Ni multilayers sandwiched between two heavy metals (HM) have been studied. By exploring various HM materials, we show an efficient enhancement or cancellation of the total SOT, depending on the combination of the two HM materials. The maximum SOT effective field is obtained in Pt/Co-Ni/W heterostructures. We also model our double HM system and show that the effective spin Hall angle has a peak value at certain HM thicknesses. Measuring the SOT in Pt/Co-Ni/W for various W thicknesses confirms an effective spin Hall angle up to 0.45 in our double HM system.

  3. Improved thermoelectric properties of TiNiSn through enhancing strain field fluctuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lkhagvasuren, Enkhtaivan; Fu, Chenguang; Fecher, Gerhard H.; Auffermann, Gudrun; Kreiner, Guido; Schnelle, Walter; Felser, Claudia

    2017-10-01

    MNiSn (M  =  Hf, Zr, Ti) -based half Heusler compounds have attracted extensive attention as promising materials in thermoelectric power generation. In this work, the thermoelectric properties of the cheapest composition TiNiSn from this system are investigated. Isoelectronic substitutions of Si and Ge on Sn site are employed to reduce the lattice thermal conductivity. It is found that Si substitution leads to simultaneously enhanced mass and strain field fluctuations in TiNiSn, while the strain field fluctuation dominates the decrease of thermal conductivity in Ge substituted TiNiSn. A maximum ZT of 0.48 at 740 K is obtained in TiNiSn0.975 Ge0.025 , which is a 23% increase compared to TiNiSn. This result highlights the role of strain field fluctuation in suppressing lattice thermal conductivity and improving the thermoelectric performance of half-Heusler compounds.

  4. Integration of Electrodeposited Ni-Fe in MEMS with Low-Temperature Deposition and Etch Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavone, Giuseppe; Murray, Jeremy; Perry, Richard; Mount, Andrew R; Desmulliez, Marc P Y; Walton, Anthony J

    2017-03-22

    This article presents a set of low-temperature deposition and etching processes for the integration of electrochemically deposited Ni-Fe alloys in complex magnetic microelectromechanical systems, as Ni-Fe is known to suffer from detrimental stress development when subjected to excessive thermal loads. A selective etch process is reported which enables the copper seed layer used for electrodeposition to be removed while preserving the integrity of Ni-Fe. In addition, a low temperature deposition and surface micromachining process is presented in which silicon dioxide and silicon nitride are used, respectively, as sacrificial material and structural dielectric. The sacrificial layer can be patterned and removed by wet buffered oxide etch or vapour HF etching. The reported methods limit the thermal budget and minimise the stress development in Ni-Fe. This combination of techniques represents an advance towards the reliable integration of Ni-Fe components in complex surface micromachined magnetic MEMS.

  5. Chemisorption of CO on N-doped graphene on Ni(111)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carraro, Giovanni; Celasco, Edvige; Smerieri, Marco; Savio, Letizia; Bracco, Gianangelo; Rocca, Mario; Vattuone, Luca

    2018-01-01

    The chemical reactivity of single layers of supported graphene (G) is affected by the nature of the underlying substrate: in particular CO chemisorption occurs on G/Ni(111), while graphene on Cu is inert. Here, we demonstrate experimentally that doping of the G layer with nitrogen atoms further increases the reactivity of the G/Ni(111) system towards CO. The doped layer is obtained by sputtering pristine G/Ni(111) with N2+ ions. For an ∼11% dopant concentration, an additional electron energy loss at 238 meV appears in the HREEL spectra besides the loss around 256 meV present also on pristine G/Ni(111). The new feature corresponds to a CO species with a higher desorption temperature and, consequently, a higher adsorption energy than the one forming on pristine G/Ni(111). At low coverage, the adsorption energy is estimated to be ∼ 0.85 eV/molecule.

  6. The Thermal Transformation Arrest Phenomenon in NiCoMnAl Heusler Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rie Y. Umetsu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this report, we present findings of systematic research on NiCoMnAl alloys, with the purpose of acquiring a higher thermal transformation arrest temperature (TA. By systematic research, TA in the NiCoMnAl alloy systems was raised up to 190 K, compared to the highest TA of 130 K in NiCoMnIn. For a selected alloy of Ni40Co10Mn33Al17, magnetization measurements were performed under a pulsed high magnetic field, and the critical magnetic field-temperature phase diagram was determined. The magnetic phase diagram for Ni50-xCoxMn50-yAly was also established. Moreover, from the discussion that the formerly called “kinetic arrest phenomenon” has both thermodynamic and kinetic factors, we suggest a terminology change to the “thermal transformation arrest phenomenon”.

  7. The Emergence of El-Ni\\~{n}o as an Autonomous Component in the Climate Network

    CERN Document Server

    Gozolchiani, Avi; Havlin, Shlomo

    2010-01-01

    We construct and analyze a climate network which represents the interdependent structure of the climate in different geographical zones and find that the network responds in a unique way to El-Ni\\~{n}o events. Analyzing the dynamics of the climate network shows that when El-Ni\\~{n}o events begin, the El-Ni\\~{n}o basin partially loses its influence on its surroundings. After typically three months, this influence is restored while the basin loses almost all dependence on its surroundings and becomes \\textit{autonomous}. The formation of an autonomous basin is the missing link to understand the seemingly contradicting phenomena of the afore--noticed weakening of the interdependencies in the climate network during El-Ni\\~{n}o and the known impact of the anomalies inside the El-Ni\\~{n}o basin on the global climate system.

  8. Emergence of El Niño as an Autonomous Component in the Climate Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozolchiani, A.; Havlin, S.; Yamasaki, K.

    2011-09-01

    We construct and analyze a climate network which represents the interdependent structure of the climate in different geographical zones and find that the network responds in a unique way to El Niño events. Analyzing the dynamics of the climate network shows that when El Niño events begin, the El Niño basin partially loses its influence on its surroundings. After typically three months, this influence is restored while the basin loses almost all dependence on its surroundings and becomes autonomous. The formation of an autonomous basin is the missing link to understand the seemingly contradicting phenomena of the afore-noticed weakening of the interdependencies in the climate network during El Niño and the known impact of the anomalies inside the El Niño basin on the global climate system.

  9. Formation and stability of small well-defined Cu- and Ni oxide particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thalinger, Ramona [Institute of Physical Chemistry, University of Innsbruck, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Heggen, Marc; Stroppa, Daniel G. [Ernst Ruska Zentrum und Peter Grünberg Institut, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Stöger-Pollach, Michael [University Service Facility for Transmission Electron Microscopy (USTEM), Vienna University of Technology, A-1040 Vienna (Austria); Klötzer, Bernhard [Institute of Physical Chemistry, University of Innsbruck, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Penner, Simon, E-mail: simon.penner@uibk.ac.at [Institute of Physical Chemistry, University of Innsbruck, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria)

    2013-12-16

    Well-defined and -structured Cu/Cu{sub 2}O and Ni/NiO composite nanoparticles have been prepared by physical-vapor deposition on vacuum-cleaved NaCl(001) single crystal facets. Epitaxial growth has been observed due to the close crystallographic matching of the respective cubic crystal lattices. Distinct particle morphologies have only been obtained for the Ni/NiO particles, comprising truncated half-octahedral, rhombohedral- and pentagonal-shaped outlines. Oxidation of the particles in the temperature range 473–673 K in both cases led to the formation of well-defined CuO and NiO particles with distinct morphologies. Whereas CuO possibly adopts its thermodynamical equilibrium shape, NiO formation is accompanied by entering a Kirkendall-like state, that is, a hollow core–shell structure is obtained. The difference in the formation of the oxides is also reflected by their stability under reducing conditions. CuO transforms back to a polycrystalline mixture of Cu metal, Cu{sub 2}O and CuO after reduction in hydrogen at 673 K. In contrast, as expected from theoretical stability considerations, the formation of the hollow NiO structure is reversed upon annealing in hydrogen at 673 K and moreover results in the formation of a Ni-rich silicide structure Ni{sub 3}Si{sub 2}. The discussed systems present a convenient way to tackle and investigate various problems in nanotechnology or catalysis, including phase transformations, establishing structure/activity relationships or monitoring intermetallic particles, starting from well-defined and simple models. - Highlights: • Preparation of epitaxial Cu/Cu{sub 2}O and Ni/NiO composite nanoparticles on NaCl(001). • Distinct Ni/NiO particle morphologies. • Formation of well-shaped CuO and NiO particles upon oxidation. • Reversal of Kirkendall-NiO-state upon reduction/annealing in hydrogen.

  10. Cyclic voltammetric studies of electrodeposited solid solution and composite oxide/hydroxide electrodes in 1 M KOH: the Co(OH) 2-Ni(OH) 2-MnO 2 system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, J.; Ahmed, M. F.; Vishnu Kamath, P.

    Solid solutions of the type Ni 1- xCo x(OH) 2 ( x = 0.1 to 0.9) obtained by cathodic deposition from a mixed nitrate bath show a redox behaviour that is completely different to that of the pure components. The solid obtained from a bath containing a Ni/Co ratio of 40/60 exhibits the lowest Erev and the smallest difference between the anodic and cathodic peak potentials (0.03 V). This is indicative of the high reversibility achieved at this composition. A layer-by-layer deposited composite electrode Pt/Ni(OH) 2/MnO 2 shows the migration of the active nickel oxide species from the inner layer to the surface and a marked lowering in the Erev of the nickel hydroxide reaction. By contrast, the cobalt counterpart of this electrode does not show any of these interesting features. The Pt/MnO 2/Ni(OH) 2 electrode does not hold much promise as it exhibits a markedly reduced reversibility of the nickel hydroxide reaction. In the cobalt counterpart Pt/MnO 2/Co(OH) 2, MnO 2 profoundly affects the reactions of cobalt hydroxide: first anodic reaction is suppressed and the second anodic reaction is less reversible. These observations suggest that there is a common chemical reaction mechanism for all oxide electrodes in alkaline media.

  11. The Many Faces of Graphene as Protection Barrier. Performance under Microbial Corrosion and Ni Allergy Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Parra

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work we present a study on the performance of CVD (chemical vapor deposition graphene coatings grown and transferred on Ni as protection barriers under two scenarios that lead to unwanted metal ion release, microbial corrosion and allergy test conditions. These phenomena have a strong impact in different fields considering nickel (or its alloys is one of the most widely used metals in industrial and consumer products. Microbial corrosion costs represent fractions of national gross product in different developed countries, whereas Ni allergy is one of the most prevalent allergic conditions in the western world, affecting around 10% of the population. We found that grown graphene coatings act as a protective membrane in biological environments that decreases microbial corrosion of Ni and reduces release of Ni2+ ions (source of Ni allergic contact hypersensitivity when in contact with sweat. This performance seems not to be connected to the strong orbital hybridization that Ni and graphene interface present, indicating electron transfer might not be playing a main role in the robust response of this nanostructured system. The observed protection from biological environment can be understood in terms of graphene impermeability to transfer Ni2+ ions, which is enhanced for few layers of graphene grown on Ni. We expect our work will provide a new route for application of graphene as a protection coating for metals in biological environments, where current strategies have shown short-term efficiency and have raised health concerns.

  12. Difference in charge transport properties of Ni-Nb thin films with native and artificial oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trifonov, A. S., E-mail: trifonov.artem@phys.msu.ru [Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, 1(2), Leninskie Gory, GSP-1, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Physics Faculty, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Lubenchenko, A. V. [Department of General Physics and Nuclear Fusion, National Research University ' Moscow Power Engineering Institute,' Moscow 111250 (Russian Federation); Polkin, V. I. [National University of Science and Technology “MISiS,” Moscow 119049 (Russian Federation); Pavolotsky, A. B. [Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg 41296 (Sweden); Ketov, S. V.; Louzguine-Luzgin, D. V. [WPI Advanced Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2015-03-28

    Here, we report on the properties of native and artificial oxide amorphous thin film on a surface of an amorphous Ni-Nb sample. Careful measurements of local current-voltage characteristics of the system Ni-Nb / NiNb oxide/Pt, were carried out in contact mode of an atomic force microscope. Native oxide showed n-type conductivity, while in the artificial one exhibited p-type one. The shape of current-voltage characteristic curves is unique in both cases and no analogical behavior is found in the literature. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements were used to detect chemical composition of the oxide films and the oxidation state of the alloy components. Detailed analysis of the XPS data revealed that the structure of natural Ni-Nb oxide film consists of Ni-NbO{sub x} top layer and nickel enriched bottom layer which provides n-type conductivity. In contrast, in the artificial oxide film Nb is oxidized completely to Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}, Ni atoms migrate into bulk Ni-Nb matrix. Electron depletion layer is formed at the Ni-Nb/Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} interface providing p-type conductivity.

  13. Annual cycle solar energy utilization with seasonal storage. Part 7. Examination on design and control of the system partially recovering exhaust heat of heat pump; Kisetsukan chikunetsu ni yoru nenkan cycle taiyo energy riyo system ni kansuru kenkyu. 7. Bubuntekina hainetsu kaishu wo koryoshita baai no sekkei seigyoho no kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, H.; Okumiya, M. [Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    The capacity and performance of the existing system that recovers the overall heating and cooling exhaust heat completely into a seasonal storage tank and the system that discharges the exhaust heat slightly to the outside and recovers it partially were compared and investigated. The system uses a central single-duct discharge system as an air-conditioning system. A heat pump and a flat-plate solar collector installed on the roof of a building are used as the heat source. The seasonal storage tank in the ground just under the building is a cylindrical water tank of 5 m deep with the concrete used as body. The upper surface of a storage tank is heat-insulated by a stylo-platform of 200 mm, and the lower side surface by a stylo-platform of 100 mm. Calculation when the difference in temperature used in a seasonal storage tank is set to 35{degree}C and 25{degree}C was performed for the system that has two control methods. The overall exhaust heat recovery system is almost the same in energy performance as the partial exhaust heat recovery system. The partial exhaust heat recovery system is more advantageous on the economic side. 4 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Synthesis, Characterization, and Catalytic Activities of A Nickel(II) Monoamido-Tetradentate Complex: Evidence For NiIII-Oxo and NiIV-Oxo Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bok, Kwon Hee; Lee, Myoung Mi; You, Ga Rim; Ahn, Hye Mi; Ryu, Ka Young; Kim, Sung-Jin; Kim, Youngmee; Kim, Cheal

    2017-03-02

    A new mononuclear nickel(II) complex, [Ni II (dpaq)Cl] (1), containing a tetradentate monoamido ligand, dpaq (dpaq=2-[bis(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)amino]-N-(quinolin-8-yl)acetamide), has been synthesized and characterized by IR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, and UV/Vis spectroscopy. The structure of the nickel complex has been determined by X-ray crystallography. This nonheme Ni II complex 1 catalyzed the epoxidation reaction of a wide range of olefins with meta-chloroperoxybenzoic acid (m-CPBA) under mild conditions. Olefin epoxidation using this catalytic system has been proposed to involve a new reactive Ni IV -oxo (4) species, based on the evidence from a PPAA (peroxyphenylacetic acid) probe, Hammett studies, H 2 18 O exchange experiments, and ESI mass spectroscopic analysis. Moreover, the nature of solvent significantly influenced partitioning between heterolytic and homolytic O-O bond cleavage of the Ni-acylperoxo intermediate (2). The O-O bond of 2 proceeded predominantly through heterolytic cleavage in a protic solvent, such as CH 3 OH. These results suggest that possibly a Ni IV -oxo species is a common reactive intermediate in protic solvents. The two active oxidants, namely Ni IV -oxo (3) and Ni III -oxo (4), which are responsible for stereospecific olefin epoxidation and radical-type oxidations, respectively, operate in aprotic solvents. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Report on the achievements in fiscal 1999. Technology to use gas hydrate as a resource (Research and development for exploration, research and development on drilling technologies, investigative research on an environment influence evaluation method, and investigative research on a utilization system); 1999 nendo gas hydrate shigenka gijutsu sendo kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Tansa nado ni kansuru kenkyu kaihatsu, kussaku gijutsu nado ni kansuru kenkyu kaihatsu, kankyo eikyo hyokaho no chosa kenkyu, riyo system ni kansuru chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The contents of the research and development performed in the current fiscal year are as follows: (1) research and development for exploration, (2) research and development on drilling technologies, (3) investigative research on an environment influence evaluation method, and (4) investigative research on a utilization system. In Item (1), element analysis data are used to study a method to estimate production environment of hydrate ore beds by using an inorganic ion analyzer and a trace amount element analyzer, the crust thermal flow measuring method is used to discuss a method to analyze the hydrate stability zones together with the data of sea area exploration records, and conceptual design is made on a resource potential evaluation system. In Item (2), experiments and analytical discussions are performed on decomposition control of the gas hydrate solid-liquid interface according to such conditions for the drilling fluid as temperatures and flow rates. Elucidation is given on the initial process of bubble generation for behavior of decomposed gas bubbles. Observation and elucidation are made on two-phase flow behavior of non-Newtonian fluid. In Item (3), conceptual design is carried out on a system to detect elements of shape change in each bed due to fluid movement in a gas hydrate bed and an upper bed. In Item (4), discussions are given on the optimizing conditions for generation and dissociation of gas hydrates. Investigation is made also on a possibility of the transportation and storage system. (NEDO)

  16. Oxygen vacancy induced electrical conduction and room temperature ferromagnetism in system BaSn1‑x Ni x O3 (0  ⩽  x  ⩽  0.20)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Upendra; Jawed Ansaree, Md; Verma, Atul Kumar; Upadhyay, Shail; Gupta, Govind

    2017-11-01

    Powder and ceramics of few compositions of BaSn1‑x Ni x O3 (with x  =  0, 0.05, 0.10 and 0.20) have been prepared bysolid-state reaction route. Synthesized samples have been characterized using XRD, FTIR, SEM and XPS techniques. XPS studies have shown that all samples contain a significant number of oxygen vacancies (VO), Ba is present in the Ba2+ state, Sn is present in both Sn2+ and Sn4+ states and Ni exists mainly in the Ni2+ state. The AC conductivity spectra of all compositions followed universal Johnscher’s power law and the time-temperature superposition principle (TTSP). Above 300 °C conduction in these samples is governed by long-range diffusion of doubly ionized oxygen vacancies (VO\\centerdot \\centerdot ). M-H loop at room temperature shows that undoped BaSnO3 is ferromagnetic with saturation magnetization (M s) ~ 5.46  ×  10‑3 emu g‑1 and coercive field (H c) ~ 540 Oe, due to spins of electrons trapped in oxygen vacancies (F-center) and direct interaction between F-centers. Ni-doped samples exhibit both ferromagnetic and paramagnetic behavior and paramagnetic contribution increases with doping concentration. The room temperature magnetic parameters have been extracted by fitting the experimental data to the bound magnetic polaron (BMP) model. The saturation magnetization increases whereas coercive field decrease with increasing concentration of dopant (Ni).

  17. niños preescolares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Rosario Portilla Ramírez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio explora la relación entre la escritura y la comprensión de la referencia a través de una tarea de sinonimia en niños entre 5 y 6 años de edad, de origen latinoamericano, escolarizados en Barcelona (España. Las variables relacionadas con la tarea de sinonimia fueron (a la comprensión de la entidad lingüística nombre y (b el nivel de conceptualización de la escritura de los niños y la presencia de etiquetas escritas durante la tarea. Para la tarea de sinonimia se utilizaron pares de sinónimos dialectales del español (de Latinoamérica y de la Península Ibérica. Los resultados mostraron una diferenciación en el razonamiento de los niños, la cual dependía de la comparación entre lenguaje oral y lenguaje escrito en el desarrollo de la tarea, evidenciando una mayor aceptación de la sinonimia en la modalidad de lenguaje oral que en la modalidad de lenguaje escrito.

  18. Test summary for advanced H2 cycle NI-CD cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Lee

    1987-01-01

    To improve operational tolerances and mass, the H2 gas recombination design provisions of the Ni-H2 system were incorporated into the sealed Ni-Cd system. Produced is a cell design capable of operating on the H2 cycle versus the normal O2 cycle. Three test cells have now completed approximately 4,330 LEO (90 minute) cycles at 20 percent depth of discharge (DOD). Performance remains stable although one cell exhibited a temporary pressure anomaly.

  19. Effects of Annealing on the Martensitic Transformation of Ni-Based Ferromagnetic Shape Memory Heusler Alloys and Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Fichtner

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We report on the effects of annealing on the martensitic phase transformation in the Ni-based Heusler system: Mn50Ni40Sn10 and Mn50Ni41Sn9 powder and Co50Ni21Ga32 nanoparticles. For the powdered Mn50Ni40Sn10 and Mn50Ni41Sn9 alloys, structural and magnetic measurements reveal that post-annealing decreases the martensitic transformation temperatures and increases the transition hysteresis. This might be associated with a release of stress in the Mn50Ni40Sn10 and Mn50Ni41Sn9 alloys during the annealing process. However, in the case of Co50Ni21Ga32 nanoparticles, a reverse phenomenon is observed. X-ray diffraction analysis results reveal that the as-prepared Co50Ni21Ga32 nanoparticles do not show a martensitic phase at room temperature. Post-annealing followed by ice quenching, however, is found to trigger the formation of the martensitic phase. The presence of the martensitic transition is attributed to annealing-induced particle growth and the stress introduced during quenching.

  20. Element specific electronic states and spin-flip-like behavior of Ce in (Ce0.2Gd0.8)Ni composed of heavy fermion CeNi and ferri-magnet GdNi through XMCD method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, K.; Okane, T.; Takeda, Y.; Yamagami, H.; Fujimori, A.; Nishimura, K.; Sato, K.

    2017-06-01

    The electronic states of the three constituent elements in the crystal mixed system between CeNi and GdNi, Ce0.2Gd0.8Ni, were investigated by soft X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) with the aid of sum rule analysis. Not only Gd 4f but also Ni 3d and Ce 4f electrons were magnetic and both magnetic moments of Ni and Ce were coupled anti-parallel to the direction of the Gd magnetic moment, which is in accordance with the general rule in rare earth (RE)-transition metal (TM) systems. After saturation, Ce magnetic moment decreased over 2 T and this behavior was explained by a spin-flip behavior of the Ce magnetic moment with keeping their electronic states unchanged. Furthermore, the magnetic field dependence on a part of the XAS at Ce M4,5 absorption edges, which had been observed in the Gd=0.5 disappeared in the present sample in Gd-rich content of 0.8 and this could be explained by the increase of molecular field from Gd on Ce 4f electrons. In addition, sum rule analysis has revealed that the magnetic moments of Gd 4 f and Ni 3d electrons could retain small values of angular (orbital) magnetic moments μL and this was explained consistently.

  1. Effect of air annealing on structural and magnetic properties of Ni/NiO nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadeem, K., E-mail: kashif.nadeem@iiu.edu.pk [Nanomagnetism and Nanotechnology Laboratory, International Islamic University, Islamabad (Pakistan); Ullah, Asmat; Mushtaq, M.; Kamran, M.; Hussain, S.S. [Nanomagnetism and Nanotechnology Laboratory, International Islamic University, Islamabad (Pakistan); Mumtaz, M. [Materials Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, International Islamic University, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2016-11-01

    We reported systematic study on structural and magnetic properties of nickel/nickel oxide (Ni/NiO) nanoparticles annealed under air atmosphere at different temperatures in the range 400–800 °C. The XRD spectra revealed two phases such as Ni and NiO. The average crystallite size increases with increasing annealing temperature. A phase diagram was developed between two phases versus annealing temperature using XRD analysis. At lower annealing temperatures, Ni phase is dominant which does not easily undergo oxidation to form NiO. The NiO phase increases with increasing annealing temperature. FTIR spectroscopy revealed an increase in the NiO phase content at higher annealing temperature, which is in agreement with the XRD analysis. SEM images showed that nanoparticles are well separated at lower annealing temperatures but get agglomerated at higher annealing temperatures. The ferromagnetic (FM) Ni phase content and saturation magnetization (M{sub s}) showed nearly the same trend with increasing annealing temperature. The nanoparticles annealed at 500 °C and 800 °C revealed highest and lowest M{sub s} values, respectively, which is in accordance with the XRD phase diagram. Coercivity showed an overall decreasing trend with increasing annealing temperature due to decreased concentration of FM Ni phase and increasing average crystallite size. All these measurements indicate that the structural and magnetic properties of Ni/NiO nanoparticles are strongly influenced by the annealing temperature. - Highlights: • Air annealing effects on structural and magnetic properties of Ni/NiO nanoparticles have been studied. • The XRD spectra revealed two phases such as Ni and NiO. • A phase diagram was developed between two phases versus annealing temperature using XRD analysis. • The magnetic properties are well governed by ferromagnetic Ni phase.

  2. A threonine stabilizes the NiC and NiR catalytic intermediates of [NiFe]-hydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Hamdan, Abbas; Ceccaldi, Pierre; Lebrette, Hugo; Gutiérrez-Sanz, Oscar; Richaud, Pierre; Cournac, Laurent; Guigliarelli, Bruno; De Lacey, Antonio L; Léger, Christophe; Volbeda, Anne; Burlat, Bénédicte; Dementin, Sébastien

    2015-03-27

    The heterodimeric [NiFe] hydrogenase from Desulfovibrio fructosovorans catalyzes the reversible oxidation of H2 into protons and electrons. The catalytic intermediates have been attributed to forms of the active site (NiSI, NiR, and NiC) detected using spectroscopic methods under potentiometric but non-catalytic conditions. Here, we produced variants by replacing the conserved Thr-18 residue in the small subunit with Ser, Val, Gln, Gly, or Asp, and we analyzed the effects of these mutations on the kinetic (H2 oxidation, H2 production, and H/D exchange), spectroscopic (IR, EPR), and structural properties of the enzyme. The mutations disrupt the H-bond network in the crystals and have a strong effect on H2 oxidation and H2 production turnover rates. However, the absence of correlation between activity and rate of H/D exchange in the series of variants suggests that the alcoholic group of Thr-18 is not necessarily a proton relay. Instead, the correlation between H2 oxidation and production activity and the detection of the NiC species in reduced samples confirms that NiC is a catalytic intermediate and suggests that Thr-18 is important to stabilize the local protein structure of the active site ensuring fast NiSI-NiC-NiR interconversions during H2 oxidation/production. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  3. Structural, catalytic/redox and electrical characterization of systems combining Cu-Ni with CeO{sub 2} or Ce{sub 1-x}M{sub x}O{sub 2-{delta}} (M = Gd or Tb) for direct methane oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hornes, A.; Gamarra, D.; Conesa, J.C.; Bera, P.; Martinez-Arias, A. [Instituto de Catalisis y Petroleoquimica (CSIC), C/Marie Curie 2, Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Munuera, G. [Universidad de Sevilla, C/Profesor Garcia Gonzalez s/n, Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, 41012 Sevilla (Spain); Fuerte, A.; Valenzuela, R.X.; Escudero, M.J. [CIEMAT, Avda, Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Daza, L. [Instituto de Catalisis y Petroleoquimica (CSIC), C/Marie Curie 2, Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); CIEMAT, Avda, Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2009-07-01

    The present work analyses bimetallic Cu-Ni formulations, in comparison to monometallic Cu ones, combined with CeO{sub 2} or other structurally related mixed oxides resulting from doping of the former with Gd or Tb, focusing to its possible use as anodes of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) for direct oxidation of methane. The main objective is the characterization of the various formulations at structural level as well as with regards to the redox changes taking place in the systems upon interaction with methane, in order to evaluate the effects induced by the presence of dopants. In the same sense, an analysis of thermal expansion and electrical properties of the systems is performed, considering its possible implantation in SOFC single cells. For the mentioned purposes, the systems have been analysed by means of CH{sub 4}-TPR tests subsequently followed by TPO tests, as well as by XRD, Raman and XPS, with the aim of exploring structural and redox changes produced in the systems and the formation of carbon deposits during such interactions. The results reveal significant modifications in the structural, catalytic/redox and electrical properties of the systems as a function of the presence of Ni and/or Gd and Tb dopants in the formulation. (author)

  4. Alloying effects of refractory elements in the dislocation of Ni-based single crystal superalloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiyu Ma

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The alloying effects of W, Cr and Re in the [100] (010 edge dislocation cores (EDC of Ni-based single crystal superalloys are investigated using first-principles based on the density functional theory (DFT. The binding energy, Mulliken orbital population, density of states, charge density and radial distribution functions are discussed, respectively. It is clearly demonstrated that the addition of refractory elements improves the stability of the EDC systems. In addition, they can form tougher bonds with their nearest neighbour (NN Ni atoms, which enhance the mechanical properties of the Ni-based single crystal superalloys. Through comparative analysis, Cr-doped system has lower binding energy, and Cr atom has evident effect to improve the systemic stability. However, Re atom has the stronger alloying effect in Ni-based single crystal superalloys, much more effectively hindering dislocation motion than W and Cr atoms.

  5. ACTIVITY TEST AND REGENERATION OF NiMo/Z CATALYST FOR HYDROCRACKING OF WASTE PLASTIC FRACTION TO GASOLINE FRACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodiansono Rodiansono

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Activity test and regeneration of NiMo/active natural zeolite catalyst for hydrocracking of waste plastic fraction of polyprophylene (PP type have been carried out. The catalysts was prepared by loading Mo followed by Ni Metals onto the natural zeolite (Z sample, then calcined at 500oC, oxidized and reduced at 400oC under nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen stream, respectively. The characterization of catalysts including spesific surface area, average pore radius, and total pore volume were performed by gas sorption analyzer, amount of total acid sites was determined by gas sorption method, and acid site strength was confirmed by IR spectroscopy. The hydrocracking process was carried out in a semi-flow reactor system at 360 oC and catalyst:feed ratio 0.5 under hydrogen stream (150 mL/hour. The feed was vaporized from the pyrolisis reactor into the hydrocracking reactor. A liquid product was collected and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS. The characterization results showed that spesific surface area, average pore radius, and total pore volume of the Z sample decreased after loading of the Ni and Mo metals. Amount of total acid sites of the NiMo/Z catalyst was higher than that of the Z sample. The activity of NiMo/Z catalyst decreased after several continously runs. Its regeneration produced the NiMo/Z reg catalyst with similar activity and selectivity to the fresh catalyst (NiMo/Z. The activity of catalysts at the optimum condition followed the order of NiMo/Z reg>NiMo/Z>Z (conversion of hydrocarbon C>12 and NiMo/Z reg>NiMo/Z>Z (total yield of gasoline fraction. The selectivity of catalysts for C7-C8 product followed the order of Z>NiMo/Z>NiMo/Z reg. Keywords: activity, polyprophylene, catalyst, gasoline fraction.

  6. RETRACTED ARTICLE: Microstructures and morphologies of B2-Ordered NiAl(Co) and FeAl(Co)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Chang-Sup; Han, Chang-Suk

    2013-03-01

    Fine dispersion of disordered phases is obtained in a Ni-Al-Co and Fe-Al-Co ternary system. A transmission electron microscopy investigation has been performed in the present work on the precipitation of supersaturated B2-ordered (Ni,Co)Al and α-Fe in B2-ordered FeAl(Co) with different stoichiometries. Precipitation behavior and hardening were investigated by measuring the hardness variation. The hardness of (Ni,Co)Al and B2-FeAl(Co) increased appreciably by the fine precipitation of (Ni,Co)2Al, α-Fe, and overage softening occurred after prolonged aging. In case of B2-ordered (Ni,Co)Al, the (Ni,Co)2Al phase had a hexagonal structure and took a rod-like shape with the long axis of the rod parallel to the directions of the B2 matrix. By aging at temperatures below 873 K, a long period superlattice structure appeared in the hexagonal (Ni,Co)2Al phase. The orientation relationship between the (Ni,Co)2Al precipitates and the B2-(Ni,Co)Al matrix was (0001)p//(111)B2 and [bar 12bar 10]_p //[bar 110]_{B2}, where the suffix p and B2 denote the (Ni,Co)2Al precipitate and the B2-(Ni,Co)Al matrix, respectively. (Ni,Co)Al hardened appreciably by the fine precipitation of the (Ni,Co)2Al phase. On the other hand, in case of B2-FeAl(Co), the disordered α-Fe phase was present as a precipitate in a B2-FeAl(Co) matrix and had a cubic-cubic orientation with the matrix. At the early aging periods, prismatic dislocation loops formed in the B2-FeAl(Co) matrix. B2-FeAl(Co) matrix was typically hardened by the precipitation of α-Fe.

  7. Microplasma Jet Synthesis of Ni-Fe Oxide Films for Magnetic Exchange Bias and Electrocatalytic Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pebley, Andrew Christian

    Ni-Fe oxides have received significant interest from the scientific community because they have attractive magnetic and electrochemical properties for use in next generation data storage and energy conversion technologies. For example, the NiFe2O4/NiO nanogranular system exhibits the exchange bias effect, a magnetic phenomenon occurring at the interface of a ferro- or ferrimagnet (FM or FiM) and an antiferromagnet (AFM), where the AFM acts to increase the magnetic hardness of the corresponding FM or FiM. Additionally, doping of NiO with Fe has resulted in remarkably high catalytic activities for water splitting, a potential clean energy alternative to fossil fuels. A key challenge in implementing these Ni-Fe oxides for magnetic and electrocatalytic applications is the ability to control film morphology, crystallinity, composition, chemical phase, and doping during synthesis. Moreover, how these physiochemical properties effect magnetic and electrochemical behavior in the Ni-Fe oxide system is not fully understood. This dissertation focuses on the development and use of a novel synthesis technique, known as microplasma (MP) jet-based deposition, for the fabrication of biphasic NiFe2O4 (FiM)/NiO (AFM) and Fe-doped NiO nanostructured films for fundamental studies of exchange bias and electrocatalysis, respectively. The goal of this work was to understand how MP operation and deposition conditions (e.g., precursor composition, flux, substrate temperature, and post-deposition heat treatment) influence Ni-Fe oxide growth and film microstructure. Specifically, the role of composition, phase fraction, grain size, temperature, and interfacial density on exchange bias phenomena in NiFe 2O4/NiO nanogranular films was investigated. MP jets were also used to realize metastable Fe-doped NiO films with high surface area to assess how doping affects the electrochemical properties of NiO for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER). Biphasic NiFe2O4/NiO films of different composition

  8. Thermodynamic Analysis on the Coprecipitation of Ni-Co-Mn Hydroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ling; Li, Yunjiao; Li, Lin; Chen, Nanxiong; Han, Qiang; Zhang, Xianzhen; Xu, Hu

    2017-10-01

    The thermodynamic data of various species in Ni-H2O, Co-H2O, Mn-H2O, and Ni-Co-Mn-H2O systems were obtained by thermodynamic calculation. The potential-pH diagrams for Ni-H2O, Co-H2O, and Mn-H2O systems at different ion activities at 323 K (50 °C), as well as Ni-Co-Mn-H2O complex systems at activity 1.00 at 298 K, 323 K, and 373 K (25 °C, 50 °C, and 100 °C) were constructed, respectively. The costable regions of Ni(OH)2, Co(OH)2, and Mn(OH)2 are verified to be thermodynamically stable in aqueous solution, which indicates the thermodynamic possibility of Ni-Co-Mn hydroxide coprecipitation. The potential-pH diagrams show that the temperature and ion activity have significant effects on the coprecipitation process. As the temperature increases or the ion activity decreases, the coprecipitation region of the Ni-Co-Mn hydroxide narrows. Moreover, the metal oxides, rather than the metal hydroxide, are more easily formed when the temperature increases. Experimental confirmation was performed to further verify the constructed potential-pH diagrams. The Ni-Co-Mn hydroxide with typical hexagonal CdI2 structure and quasi-spherical morphology was successfully obtained, and the SEM results show the uniform distribution of the elements Ni, Co, and Mn. The experimental results confirm the reliability of the prediction of thermodynamics analysis.

  9. Microstructural investigations of Ni and Ni2Al3 coatings exposed in biomass power plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, D. L.; Dahl, K. V.; Christiansen, T. L.

    2017-01-01

    temperature pack cementation. After exposure, microstructural investigations were performed by light optical and electron microscopy (SEM-EDS). Electroplated Ni coatings were not protective in straw firing power plants and exhibited similar corrosion morphology as uncoated tubes. For Ni2Al3 coatings......The present work investigates the corrosion resistance of Ni and Ni2Al3 coated austenitic stainless steel (TP347H) tubes, which were exposed in a biomass-fired boiler with an outlet steam temperature of 540 °C for 6757 h. The Ni2Al3 coating was produced by electroplating Ni followed by low......, the nickel aluminide layer was no longer adherent to the tube and was only found within the deposit. However, Ni2Al3 coatings had provided some protection compared to uncoated and Ni coated tubes. The formation of nickel chloride binds aggressive chlorine and slows down the active oxidation mechanism...

  10. Adherencia al tratamiento en niñas y niños con VIH

    OpenAIRE

    Ana María Ruiz Navia; Sandra Liliana Enríquez Lara; Paula Andrea Hoyos Hernández

    2009-01-01

    Este artículo describe y determina el grado de adherencia al tratamiento en niños y niñas con VIH/ SIDA teniendo en cuenta los comportamientos y las variables asociadas a ésta. La muestra estuvo conformada por 1 niño y 5 niñas, diagnosticados con VIH, y su respectivo cuidador primario, quienes respondieron a la entrevista semiestructurada de evaluación de adherencia para niños y niñas con VIH/ SIDA ad hoc y a la entrevista semiestructurada de evaluación de adherencia para niños y niñas con VI...

  11. The systemic family assessment system: its validity with asthmatic children and their families Evaluación familiar sistémica: su validez con niños asmáticos y sus familias Avaliação familiar sistêmica: sua validade com crianças asmáticas e suas famílias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dóris Lieth Peçanha

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The construct and concurrent validity of the Systemic Family Assessment (SFA system was tested. Participants were 11 asthmatic and 14 healthy Brazilian children (aged 5 to 9 along with their intact families. Measures included the SFA, the Family Colored Drawing Test with children (FCDT, and a semi-structured interview with parents (PI. Comparisons between families of asthmatic and healthy children yielded significant differences for all family dimensions of the SFA. The most affected dimensions for families of asthmatic children were the individuation process within the family, family conflicts, family integration and cohesion, roles, and quality of leadership within the family. Significative correlation between the SFA and the two independent measures were found. Results support the construct and concurrent validity of the SFA.La validez de constructo y la validad coexistente do protocolo de Evaluación Familiar Sistémica (EFS fue establecida. El estudio fue realizado en Brasil con familias intactas, y observó 11 niños con asma y 14 saludables, con edades de 5 a 9 años. Las medidas analizadas incluyeron el EFS, el Test del Dibujo Coloreado de la Familia aplicado a los niños (TDCF, y una entrevista semi-estructurada aplicada a los padres (EP. Las comparaciones entre las familias de niños asmáticos y saludables apuntaron diferencias significativas en todas las dimensiones familiares de la EFS. En las familias de niños asmáticos las dimensiones más afectadas fueron el proceso de la individuación dentro de la familia, los conflictos familiares, la integración familiar y la cohesión, los papeles y la calidad de liderazgo dentro de la familia. Se encontró una correlación significativa entre el EFS y las dos medidas independientes. Los resultados prueban la validez del constructo y la validad coexistente del EFS.Foi testada a validade de construto e a validade concorrente do protocolo de Avaliação Familiar Sistêmica (AFS. Os

  12. NiFe(C2O4)xas a heterogeneous Fenton catalyst for removal of methyl orange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yucan; Zhang, Guangming; Chong, Shan; Zhang, Nan; Chang, Huazhen; Huang, Ting; Fang, Shunyan

    2017-05-01

    This paper studies a heterogeneous Fenton catalyst NiFe(C 2 O 4 ) x , which showed better catalytic activity than Ni(C 2 O 4 ) x and better re-usability than Fe(C 2 O 4 ) x . The methyl orange removal efficiency was 98% in heterogeneous Fenton system using NiFe(C 2 O 4 ) x . The prepared NiFe(C 2 O 4 ) x had a laminated shape and the size was in the range of 2-4 μm, and Ni was doped into catalyst's structure successfully. The NiFe(C 2 O 4 ) x had a synergistic effect of catalyst of 24.7 for methyl orange removal, and the dope of Ni significantly reduced the leaching of Fe by 77%. The reaction factors and kinetics were investigated. Under the optimal conditions, 0.4 g/L of catalyst dose and 10 mmol/L of hydrogen peroxide concentration, 98% of methyl orange was removed within 20 min. Analysis showed that hydroxyl radicals and superoxide radicals participated in the reaction. With NiFe(C 2 O 4 ) x catalyst, the suitable pH range for heterogeneous Fenton system was wide from 3 to 10. The catalyst showed good efficiency after five times re-use. NiFe(C 2 O 4 ) x provided great potential in treatment of refractory wastewater with excellent property. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Experimental investigation and thermodynamic calculations of the Bi–In–Ni phase diagram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Premović, Milena [University in Priština, Faculty of Technical Science, Kosovo, Mitrovica (Serbia); Minić, Duško, E-mail: dminic65@open.telekom.rs [University in Priština, Faculty of Technical Science, Kosovo, Mitrovica (Serbia); Manasijević, Dragan [University of Belgrade, Technical Faculty, Bor (Serbia); Ćosović, Vladan [University of Belgrade, Institute of Chemistry, Technology and Metallurgy, Belgrade (Serbia); Živković, Dragana [University of Belgrade, Technical Faculty, Bor (Serbia); Dervišević, Irma [University in Priština, Faculty of Technical Science, Kosovo, Mitrovica (Serbia)

    2015-06-10

    Highlights: • Calculated constitutive binary system based on literature data. • Experimentally determined (DTA) temperatures of phase transformations compared with analytical calculation. • Definition of several vertical sections. • Calculated horizontal section, confirmed by experimental SEM–EDS and XRD method. • Calculated liquidus surface projection and determined invariant reaction occurred in ternary Bi–In–Ni system. - Abstract: Phase diagram of the Bi–In–Ni ternary system was investigated using differential thermal analysis (DTA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) analysis. Experimentally obtained results were compared with the results of thermodynamic calculation of phase equilibria based on calculation of phase diagram (CALPHAD) method and literature data. Phase transition temperatures of alloys with overall compositions along three selected vertical sections In–Bi{sub 0.8}Ni{sub 0.2}, x(Bi) = 0.6 and Bi–In{sub 0.5}Ni{sub 0.5} were measured by DTA. Liquidus temperatures were experimentally determined and compared with the results of thermodynamic calculation. Identification of coexisting phases in samples equilibrated at 100 °C, 300 °C and 350 °C was carried out using SEM–EDS and XRD methods. The obtained results were compared with the calculated isothermal sections of the Bi–In–Ni ternary system at corresponding temperatures. Calculated liquidus projection and invariant equilibria of the Bi–In–Ni ternary system were presented.

  14. Directional solidification studies in Ni-Al alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Je-hyun [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1993-05-01

    Three solid phases are involved in the phase equilibria of the intermetallic compound Ni3Al near its melting point, β, γ'(Ni3Al), and γ. The generally-accepted phase diagram involves a eutectic reaction between β' and γ, but some recent studies agree with an older diagram due to Schramm, which has a eutectic reaction between the β and γ' phases. The phase equilibria near Ni3Al compositions was evaluated using quenched directional solidification experiments, that preserve the microstructures tonned at the solidification front, and using diffusion couple experiments. These experiments show that eutectic forms between β and γ' phases, as in the Schramm diagram. Growth and phase transformations of these three phases are also studied in the directional solidification experiments. Microstructure analysis shows that etching of Ni3Al(γ') is very sensitive to small composition variations and crystallographic orientation changes. The eutectic solidification study confirms that the equilibrium eutectic is γ'+β, and that the metastable γ+β eutectic might be also produced in this system according to the impurities, solidification rates, and composition variations.

  15. The Ni-Al-Hf Multiphase Diffusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romanowska J.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The generalized Darken method was applied to simulate the diffusion between γ-Ni| γ’-Ni3Al and γ’-Ni3Al|β-NiAl interfaces. The results of calculations were compared with the experimental concentration’s profiles of nickel, aluminum and hafnium in aluminide and hafnium doped aluminide coatings deposited by the CVD and PVD methods on pure nickel. The method deals with the Wagner’s integral diffusion coefficients and thermodynamic data - activities of components. The experimental results agree with the simulated ones.

  16. Laser welding of NiTi wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gugel, H. [Institute for Materials, Materials Technology, Ruhr-University Bochum, Bochum (Germany)], E-mail: hajo.gugel@rub.de; Schuermann, A.; Theisen, W. [Institute for Materials, Materials Technology, Ruhr-University Bochum, Bochum (Germany)

    2008-05-25

    The special properties of nickel-titanium shape memory alloys are currently used in micro-engineering and medical technology. In order to integrate NiTi components into existing parts and modules, they often need to be joined to other materials. For this reason, the present contribution deals with the laser welding of thin pseudoelastic NiTi wires (100 {mu}m) with an Nd:YAG laser. Based on extensive parameter studies, faultless joints were produced. This study deals with the structural changes occurring in the fusion and heat-affected zones, the performance of the joints in static tensile tests and their functional fatigue. It can be shown that NiTi/NiTi joints reach about 75% of the ultimate tensile strength of pure NiTi wires. For welding NiTi to steel, no interlayer was used. The dissimilar NiTi/steel joints provide a bonding strength in the fusion and heat-affected zones higher than the plateau stress level. NiTi/steel joints of thin wires, as a new aspect, enable the possibility to benefit from the pseudoelastic properties of the NiTi component.

  17. Effects of Ni vacancy, Ni antisite, Cr and Pt on the third-order elastic constants and mechanical properties of NiAl

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Shaohua

    2014-12-01

    Effects of Ni vacancy, Ni antisite in Al sublattice, Cr in Al sublattice, Pt in Ni sublattice on the second-order elastic constants (SOECs) and third-order elastic constants (TOECs) of the B2 NiAl have been investigated using the first-principles methods. Lattice constant and the SOECs of NiAl are in good agreement with the previous results. The brittle/ductile transition map based on Pugh ratio G/B and Cauchy pressure Pc shows that Ni antisite, Cr, Pt and pressure can improve the ductility of NiAl, respectively. Ni vacancy and lower pressure can enhance the Vickers hardness Hv of NiAl. The density of states (DOS) and the charge density difference are also used to analysis the effects of vacancy, Ni antisite, Cr and Pt on the mechanical properties of NiAl, and the results are in consistent with the transition map. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Powder metallurgy processing of Ni-Co base electrodes for application in water electrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assis, O.B.G. [EMBRAPA Agricultural Instrumentation, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Crnkovic, F.C.; Machado, R.; Avaca, L.A.; Ferrante, M.; Machado, S.A.S.

    1999-07-01

    Electrodes of Co, Ni and Ni{sub 50}Co{sub 50} were produced by powder metallurgy techniques aiming at their application as cathodes for water electrolysis system. Sintering was carried out in vacuum/argon atmosphere at low temperature to keep some residual porosity to enhance surface electroactivity by an increase of the geometric area. The Ni-Co alloying was obtained by mechanical synthesis, making use of the appropriated route. The final electrodes presented porosity around 12% where the electrochemical tests presented increasing in the critical peak when compared with electroplated flat samples. (orig.) 11 refs.

  19. Photocatalytic Hydrogen Production using Polymeric Carbon Nitride with a Hydrogenase and a Bioinspired Synthetic Ni Catalyst**

    OpenAIRE

    Caputo, Christine Amanda; Gross, Manuela A.; Lau, Vincent W; Cavazza, Christine; Lotsch, Bettina V.; Reisner, Erwin

    2014-01-01

    Solar-light-driven H2 production in water with a [NiFeSe]-hydrogenase (H2ase) and a bioinspired synthetic nickel catalyst (NiP) in combination with a heptazine carbon nitride polymer, melon (CNx), is reported. The semibiological and purely synthetic systems show catalytic activity during solar light irradiation with turnover numbers (TONs) of more than 50 000 mol H2 (mol H2ase)?1 and approximately 155 mol H2 (mol NiP)?1 in redox-mediator-free aqueous solution at pH 6 and 4.5, respectively. Bo...

  20. Cyclic voltammetric study of Co-Ni-Fe alloys electrodeposition in sulfate medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanafi, I.; Daud, A. R.; Radiman, S.

    2013-11-01

    Electrochemical technique has been used to study the electrodeposition of cobalt, nickel, iron and Co-Ni-Fe alloy on indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass substrate. To obtain the nucleation mechanism, cyclic voltammetry is used to characterize the Co-Ni-Fe system. The scanning rate effect on the deposition process was investigated. Deposition of single metal occurs at potential values more positive than that estimated stability potential. Based on the cyclic voltammetry results, the electrodeposition of cobalt, nickel, iron and Co-Ni-Fe alloy clearly show that the process of diffusion occurs is controlled by the typical nucleation mechanism.

  1. Continuum mechanics simulations of NiO/Ni-YSZ composites during reduction and re-oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihlatie, Mikko; Frandsen, Henrik Lund; Kaiser, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    expansion, diffusional creep, grain boundary sliding (GBS) and microcracking due to excessive stress. In the Ni/NiO phase, nonelastic strains in terms of diffusional and power law creep were implemented, and additionally for NiO deformation due to microcracking and/or pseudoplasticity. Semi...

  2. Preparation and characterization of Cu(111)-Ni and Cu(110)-Ni surface alloys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geus, John W.; Mesters, C.M.A.M.; Wermer, G.; Gijzeman, O.L.J.

    1984-01-01

    The interaction of Ni(CO)4/CO gas mixtures with Cu(111) and Cu(110) single crystal surfaces has been studied with ellipsometry. Auger electron spectroscopy, LEED and argon ion depth profiling. At room temperature Ni atoms with some CO ligands remain at the surface. The amount of Ni that can be

  3. Contexto Familiar: Diferencias Conductuales entre Niños y Niñas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Aurelia Ramírez Castillo

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se investigan las diferencias por género en problemas de conducta. En una muestra de 200 sujetos (niños y niñas en tre 5 y 18 años de Granada (España, los resultados concluyen que los niños tienen más problemas de conducta delictiva que las niñas. Cuando existen conflictos matrimoniales y prácticas de crianza negativas, de nuevo los niños tienen más problemas externos que las niñas. En este trabajo se investigan las diferencias por género en problemas de conducta. En una muestra de 200 sujetos (niños y niñas en tre 5 y 18 años de Granada (España, los resultados concluyen que los niños tienen más problemas de conducta delictiva que las niñas. Cuando existen conflictos matrimoniales y prácticas de crianza negativas, de nuevo los niños tienen más problemas externos que las niñas.

  4. Structure-activity relations for Ni-containing zeolites during NO reduction. II. Role of the chemical state of Ni

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mosqueda Jimenez, B.I.; Jentys, A.; Seshan, Kulathuiyer; Lercher, J.A.

    2003-01-01

    The influence of the metal in Ni-containing zeolites used as catalysts for the reduction of NO with propane and propene was studied. In the fresh catalysts, Ni is located in ion exchange positions for Ni/MOR, Ni/ZSM-5, and Ni/MCM-22. The formation of carbonaceous deposits, the removal of Al from

  5. Reservoir operation using El Niño forecasts-case study of Daule Peripa and Baba, Ecuador

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelati, Emiliano; Madsen, Henrik; Rosbjerg, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Reservoir operation is studied for the Daule Peripa and Baba system in Ecuador, where El Niño events cause anomalously heavy precipitation. Reservoir inflow is modelled by a Markov-switching model using El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) indices as input. Inflow is forecast using 9-month lead time...

  6. Investigation of robust control for oil hydraulic servo system. Positioning control of proportional control valve-oil hydraulic cylinder system; Denki yuatsu servo kei no robust seigyo ni kansuru kenkyu. Hireiben yuatsu culiner kei no ichi seigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, Y. [Akita University, Akita (Japan). Faculty of Engineering and Resouce and Science; Nakamura, T.; Takahashi, Y. [Akita University, Akita (Japan). Faculty of System Science and Technology

    2000-03-15

    In order to eliminate the steady state tracking error, it is common to employ integral compensators in servo Systems for constant reference signals. The LQ optimization technique is extensively used for the stabilization, and the obtained feedback control system has been applied choose to an optimal servo system. However, if the dynamic response of an identical model is unequal to that of the real plant and there is disturbance to the plant, accurate control using the LQ optimization control method is difficult. In this paper, several robust control system designs for a reference model are introduced in the following and robust stability and transient behavior are considered. We propose such robust control systems based on an optimal control method that has a two-degree-of-freedom (2DOF) system. First design of the robust optimal servo system is by a 2DOF optimal control with disturbance observer. Second is designed by a 2DOF optimal control with H controller with consideration to the mixed sensitivity problem. The experiments are carried out under several conditions, and we discuss the difference of control performance by L{sub 2} norm. As a result, the 2DOF optimal control with disturbance observer has shown good control performance in the robust and stable positioning of the oil hydraulic cylinder. (author)

  7. Effects on annual cost of solar/air-heat utilization system of carbon tax and interest rate for a residential house; Jutakuyo taiyo/taikinetsu riyo system no nenkan keihi ni oyobosu tansozei kinri no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Q.; Kenmoku, Y.; Sakakibara, T. [Toyohashi University of Technology, Aichi (Japan); Nakagawa, S. [Maizuru National College of Technology, Kyoto (Japan); Kawamoto, T. [Shizuoka University, Shizuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-27

    In recent years, a system has been proposed that utilizes river heat, air-heat, exhaust heat from a cooler, etc., in addition to natural energy for the heat pump. With the introduction of such system, the amount of energy used and that of CO2 exhaust will be greatly reduced, but annual expenses will be increased as it stands. In order to improve the cost efficiency of the system, a proposal has been made for the introduction of an economic policy such as the carbon tax and a low interest financing system. With these matters in the background, the subject study predicts the production of solar cells in the future and, on the basis of this production, determines the price, conversion efficiency and equipment energy of solar cells in the future. Using these values and taking into consideration the introduction of the carbon tax and the low interest financing system, the optimum area was determined for solar cells and heat concentrators in a future residential solar/air-heat energy system. The carbon tax, being imposed on all CO2 discharges, had a large effect. Moreover, as the tax increased, annual expenses decreased for the solar/air-heat system. 3 refs., 6 figs.

  8. Evaluation of damage induced by high irradiation levels on α-Ni-Ni3Si eutectic structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho Olguin, Carlos Alberto; Garcia-Borquez, Arturo; González-Rodríguez, Carlos Alberto; Loran-Juanico, Jose Antonio; Cruz-Mejía, Hector

    2015-06-01

    Diluted alloys of the binary system Ni-Si have been used as target of beam of ions, electrons, neutrons and so on because in this kind of alloy occurs transformations order-disorder, when the temperature is raised. This fact has permitted to evaluate the phenomena associated with the damage induced by irradiation (DII). The results of these works have been employed to understand the behavior under irradiation of complex alloys and to evaluate the reliability of the results of mathematical simulation of the evolution of the DII. The interest in the alloy system Ni-Si has been reborn due to the necessity of developing materials, which have better resistance against the corrosion on more aggressive environments such as those generated on the nuclear power plants or those that exist out of the Earth's atmosphere. Now, a growing interest to use concentrated alloys of this binary system on diverse fields of the materials science has been taking place because up to determined concentration of silicon, a regular eutectic is formed, and this fact opens the possibility to develop lamellar composite material by directional solidification. However, nowadays, there is a lack of fundamental knowledge about the behavior of this type of lamellar structure under aggressive environments, like those mentioned before. Hence, the task of this work is to evaluate the effect that has the irradiation over the microstructure of the concentrated alloy Ni22at%Si. The dendritic region of the hypereutectic alloy consists of an intermetallic phase Ni3Si, whereas the interdendritic region is formed by the alternation of lamellas of solid solution α-Ni and intermetallic phase Ni3Si. Such kind of microstructure has the advantage to get information of the DII over different phases individually, and at the same time, about of the microstructure influence over the global damage in the alloy. The hypereutectic Ni22at%Si alloy was irradiated perpendicularly to its surface, with 3.66 MeV - Ni ions up

  9. Microstructural evaluation of NiTi-based films deposited by magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crăciunescu, Corneliu M., E-mail: corneliu.craciunescu@upt.ro; Mitelea, Ion, E-mail: corneliu.craciunescu@upt.ro; Budău, Victor, E-mail: corneliu.craciunescu@upt.ro [Department of Materials and Manufacturing Engineering, Politehnica University of Timisoara (Romania); Ercuţa, Aurel [Department of Materials and Manufacturing Engineering, Politehnica University of Timisoara and Department of Physics, West University Timisoara (Romania)

    2014-11-24

    Shape memory alloy films belonging to the NiTi-based systems were deposited on heated and unheated substrates, by magnetron sputtering in a custom made system, and their structure and composition was analyzed using electron microscopy. Several substrates were used for the depositions: glass, Cu-Zn-Al, Cu-Al-Ni and Ti-NiCu shape memory alloy ribbons and kapton. The composition of the Ti-Ni-Cu films showed limited differences, compared to the one of the target and the microstructure for the DC magnetron sputtering revealed crystallized structure with features determined on peel off samples from a Si wafer. Both inter and transcrystalline fractures were observed and related to the interfacial stress developed on cooling from deposition temperature.

  10. Trinocular vision system using local disparity histogram for detection of heavy machinery approaching to power transmission lines; Kyokusho shisa histogram wo mochiita sangen rippotaishi ni yoru juki kenshutsu system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayaki, Y.; Shirai, Y. [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Ishibashi, T. [Tokyo Electric Power Co. Inc., Tokyo (Japan); Uemachi, S. [Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    1997-08-20

    This paper describes a trinocular vision system to detect heavy machineries such as mobile cranes approaching power transmission lines for avoiding contact accidents. Because the monitoring area is large, a passive measuring method is desirable. We have developed trinocular vision to acquire range data more reliably than conventional binocular vision. In order to find the correspondence of features in three images, we use a disparity histogram for matching candidates in a local area. By this way, the disparities of horizontal or vertical edges can be determined as well as reliable correspondence is obtained. We apply this trinocular vision to the monitoring system which is attached to a tower for power transmission lines. The system monitors a prespecified space to detect objects approaching power transmission lines. Experiments were carried out for real situations and proved the system is satisfactory. 6 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. .';.:NI~

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    nag was die terugtog van die Skotte, oor die woestyn, vir myle sigbaar soos die een ou krok na die ander opgegaan het in ligte laaie. Geen wonder dat luisteraars die volgende aand oor. Zeesenradio gehoor het hoe 8 Leer verslaan is dat hulle, in hulle dolIe vaart na die Delta, besig was om hulle voertuie te verband.

  12. Thermal neutron capture γ-ray spectroscopy of59Ni and61Ni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harder, A.; Michaelsen, S.; Lieb, K. P.; Williams, A. P.

    1993-06-01

    The γ-radiation emitted after thermal neutron capture in isotopically enriched58Ni and60Ni was measured at the ILL high flux reactor by means of Ge/NaI detectors operated in Compton suppression and pair spectrometer mode. The neutron binding energies were determined as B n (59Ni)=8999.15(23) keV and Bn(61Ni)=7820.07(20) keV; some 95% of the total γ-ray fluxes through59,61Ni were assigned. The γ-ray strength functions of the primary transitions and the level densities are discussed.

  13. Equilibrium ion exchange studies of Ni2+ on homoionic forms of clinoptilolite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Gorimbo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A natural zeolite (clinoptilolite that is mined in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, was evaluated for the removal of Ni2+ from wastewater. In particular, the effect of zeolite modification on Ni2+ removal from synthetic wastewater was investigated. The natural clinoptilolite was pretreated with 2 M metal chlorides for 24 h to yield near homoionic Na+, K+ and Ca2+ forms. A comparison of the isotherms for the Na+-Ni2+, K+-Ni2+, Ca2+-Ni2+ and natural-Ni2+ systems gave insight into how the displaced ion affects the selectivity of the clinoptilolite for Ni2+. The Na+, K+ and natural forms show highly selective convex isotherms whereas the Ca2+ form has a concave graph suggesting that the selectivity series is Ca2+> Ni2+> (Na+, K+, natural. Thermodynamic properties revealed that the Ni2+ sorption capacity increases as the values of the equilibrium constant and Gibbs free energy increase with increasing temperature from 298.15 K to 348.15 K. The enthalpy change was positive for all forms of clinoptilolite; values of 26.00 kJ/mol, 18.72 kJ/mol and 42.05 kJ/mol were obtained for exchange of Ni2+ into Na+, K+ and Ca2+ forms, respectively. The positive changes in enthalpy provide an indication that the sorption reaction is endothermic for Ni(II. The Gibbs free energy values were all negative except for Ca2+-exchanged clinoptilolite at 298.15 K and 308.15 K, for which the values were positive 3.10 kJ/mol and 0.53 kJ/mol, respectively. The entropy values for Ni2+ sorption were also positive; values of 0.12 kJ/mol.K, 0.08 kJ/mol.K and 0.14 kJ/mol.K were obtained for the Na+, K+ and Ca2+ forms, respectively. As expected, the enthalpy obtained from the Van’t Hoff plot is dependent not only on the metal ion being adsorbed, but also on the ion being displaced. Pretreatment of the zeolite enhances the removal efficiency provided that monovalent ions are used for the pretreatment. Thus clinoptilolite is an effective low-cost absorbent for the removal of Ni2+ from

  14. Predictability of 2-year La Niña events in a coupled general circulation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiNezio, Pedro N.; Deser, Clara; Okumura, Yuko; Karspeck, Alicia

    2017-03-01

    The predictability of the duration of La Niña is assessed using the Community Earth System Model Version 1 (CESM1), a coupled climate model capable of simulating key features of the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon, including the multi-year duration of La Niña. Statistical analysis of a 1800 year long control simulation indicates that a strong thermocline discharge or a strong El Niño can lead to La Niña conditions that last 2 years (henceforth termed 2-year LN). This relationship suggest that 2-year LN maybe predictable 18 to 24 months in advance. Perfect model forecasts performed with CESM1 are used to further explore the link between 2-year LN and the "Discharge" and "Peak El Niño" predictors. Ensemble forecasts are initialized on January and July coinciding with ocean states characterized by peak El Niño amplitudes and peak thermocline discharge respectively. Three cases with different magnitudes of these predictors are considered resulting in a total of six ensembles. Each "Peak El Niño" and "Discharge" ensemble forecast consists of 30 or 20 members respectively, generated by adding a infinitesimally small perturbation to the atmospheric initial conditions unique to each member. The forecasts show that the predictability of 2-year LN, measured by the potential prediction utility (PPU) of the Niño -3.4 SST index during the second year, is related to the magnitude of the initial conditions. Forecasts initialized with strong thermocline discharge or strong peak El Niño amplitude show higher PPU than those with initial conditions of weaker magnitude. Forecasts initialized from states characterized by weaker predictors are less predictable, mainly because the ensemble-mean signal is smaller, and therefore PPU is reduced due to the influence of forecast spread. The error growth of the forecasts, measured by the spread of the Niño -3.4 SST index, is independent of the initial conditions and appears to be driven by wind variability over the

  15. Predictability of 2-year La Niña events in a coupled general circulation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiNezio, Pedro N.; Deser, Clara; Okumura, Yuko; Karspeck, Alicia

    2017-12-01

    The predictability of the duration of La Niña is assessed using the Community Earth System Model Version 1 (CESM1), a coupled climate model capable of simulating key features of the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon, including the multi-year duration of La Niña. Statistical analysis of a 1800 year long control simulation indicates that a strong thermocline discharge or a strong El Niño can lead to La Niña conditions that last 2 years (henceforth termed 2-year LN). This relationship suggest that 2-year LN maybe predictable 18 to 24 months in advance. Perfect model forecasts performed with CESM1 are used to further explore the link between 2-year LN and the "Discharge" and "Peak El Niño" predictors. Ensemble forecasts are initialized on January and July coinciding with ocean states characterized by peak El Niño amplitudes and peak thermocline discharge respectively. Three cases with different magnitudes of these predictors are considered resulting in a total of six ensembles. Each "Peak El Niño" and "Discharge" ensemble forecast consists of 30 or 20 members respectively, generated by adding a infinitesimally small perturbation to the atmospheric initial conditions unique to each member. The forecasts show that the predictability of 2-year LN, measured by the potential prediction utility (PPU) of the Niño-3.4 SST index during the second year, is related to the magnitude of the initial conditions. Forecasts initialized with strong thermocline discharge or strong peak El Niño amplitude show higher PPU than those with initial conditions of weaker magnitude. Forecasts initialized from states characterized by weaker predictors are less predictable, mainly because the ensemble-mean signal is smaller, and therefore PPU is reduced due to the influence of forecast spread. The error growth of the forecasts, measured by the spread of the Niño-3.4 SST index, is independent of the initial conditions and appears to be driven by wind variability over the

  16. Response of the tropical Pacific Ocean to El Niño versus global warming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Fukai; Luo, Yiyong; Lu, Jian; Wan, Xiuquan

    2016-04-15

    Climate models project an El Niño-like SST response in the tropical Pacific Ocean to global warming (GW). By employing the Community Earth System Model (CESM) and applying an overriding technique to its ocean component, Parallel Ocean Program version 2 (POP2), this study investigates the similarity and difference of formation mechanism for the changes in the tropical Pacific Ocean under El Niño and GW. Results show that, despite sharing some similarities between the two scenarios, there are many significant distinctions between GW and El Niño: 1) the phase locking of the seasonal cycle reduction is more notable under GW compared with El Niño, implying more extreme El Niño events in the future; 2) in contrast to the penetration of the equatorial subsurface temperature anomaly that appears to propagate in the form of an oceanic equatorial upwelling Kelvin wave during El Niño, the GW-induced subsurface temperature anomaly manifest in the form of off-equatorial upwelling Rossby waves; 3) while significant across-equator northward heat transport (NHT) is induced by the wind stress anomalies associated with El Niño, little NHT is found at the equator due to a symmetric change in the shallow meridional overturning circulation that appears to be weakened in both North and South Pacific under GW; and 4) the maintaining mechanisms for the eastern equatorial Pacific warming are also substantially different.

  17. Electronic and magnetic properties of X-doped (X=Ni, Pd, Pt) WS2 monolayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xu; Xia, Congxin; Dai, Xianqi; Wang, Tianxing; Chen, Peng; Tian, Liang

    2016-09-01

    We investigate the electronic and magnetic properties of X-doped (X=Ni, Pd, Pt) WS2 monolayer using the first-principles methods based on density functional theory. The results show that WS2 monolayer doped by Ni, Pd and Pt is ferromagnetic. The impurity states near the Fermi level depend highly on the atomic size and electronegativity. For different X-doped WS2, the formation energy is lower under S-rich conditions, which indicates that it is energy favorable and relatively easier to incorporate X atom into WS2 under S-rich experimental conditions. Moreover, Ni-doped system owns the lowest formation energy compared with other atoms under S-rich experimental condition. Our studies predict X-doped (X=Ni, Pd, Pt) WS2 monolayers to be candidates for thin dilute magnetic semiconductors. Ni-doped WS2 has relatively wide half-metallic gap. So Ni-doped WS2 is the most ideal for spin injection among Ni, Pd, and Pt, which is important for application in semiconductor spintronics.

  18. Atomic mobilities, interdiffusivities and their related diffusional behaviors in fcc Co–Cr–Ni alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jie [School of Materials and Energy, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510006 (China); Liu, Yajun, E-mail: pcbook@hotmail.com [School of Materials and Energy, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510006 (China); Sheng, Guang [Scientific Forming Technologies Corporation, Columbus, OH 43235 (United States); Lei, Fuyue [School of Materials and Energy, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510006 (China); Kang, Zhitao [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States); Georgia Tech Research Institute, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States)

    2015-02-05

    Highlights: • Interdiffusion characteristics for fcc Co-Cr-Ni alloys are studied with diffusion couples. • The atomic mobilities of Co, Cr and Ni are explored in the CALPHAD framework. • This work brings forth atomic mobilities to establish Co- and Ni-based atomic databases. - Abstract: Diffusion couples for fcc Co–Cr–Ni ternary system are prepared, all of which are annealed at 1573 K for 50 h. Interdiffusion coefficients are evaluated at the intersection points of two independent diffusion paths sharing a common composition. Such main and cross interdiffusion coefficients are then used to inversely retrieve atomic mobilities of Co, Cr and Ni in fcc Co–Cr–Ni alloys, with the aid of available thermodynamic description. Further validation concerning the quality of atomic mobilities is conducted with computational simulations for diffusion couples annealed at 1573 K for 50 h, the results of which are compared with experimental data. This work contributes to the establishment of a general Co- or Ni-based kinetic database for computational design of superalloys.

  19. Microstructure Formation in Dissimilar Metal Welds: Electron Beam Welding of Ti/Ni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Subhradeep; Abinandanan, T. A.; Reddy, G. Madhusudhan; Chattopadhyay, Kamanio

    2016-02-01

    We present results for electron beam welding of a binary Ti/Ni dissimilar metal couple. The difference in physical properties of the base metals and metallurgical features (thermodynamics and kinetics) of the system influence both macroscopic transport and microstructure development in the weld. Microstructures near the fusion interfaces are markedly different from those inside the weld region. At the Ti side, Ti2Ni dendrites are observed to grow toward the fusion interface, while in the Ni side, layered growth of γ-Ni, Ni3Ti, and Ni3Ti + NiTi eutectic is observed. Different morphologies of the latter eutectic constitute the predominant microstructure inside the weld metal region. These results are compared and contrasted with those from laser welding of the same binary couple, and a scheme of solidification is proposed to explain the observations. This highlights notable departures from welding of similar and other dissimilar metals such as a significant asymmetry in heat transport that governs progress of solidification from each side of the couple, and a lack of unique liquidus isotherm characterizing the liquid-solid front.

  20. Streak Spectrograph Temperature Analysis from Electrically Exploded Ni/Al Nanolaminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Published by Elsevier B.V. 1. Introduction The nickel–aluminum (Ni/Al) intermetallic system is useful for a variety of reactive material applications...1], including the initiation of subsequent reactions, thermal batteries [2], and the localized heating required by many welding and joining...Al and possibly Ni were also present. Specifically, Fig. 4 shows the prominent doublet at 394.4/396.1 nm indicating vapor phase atomic Al, which was

  1. Search for Origin of Room Temperature Ferromagnetism Properties in Ni-Doped ZnO Nanostructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Amit Kumar; Kumar, Yogendra; Rajput, Parasmani; Jha, Shambhu Nath; Bhattacharyya, Dibyendu; Shirage, Parasharam M

    2017-03-01

    The origin of room temperature (RT) ferromagnetism (FM) in Zn1-xNixO (0ferromagnetism at RT, which rises with increasing Ni concentration. It is therefore proposed that the effect of the Ni ions as well as the inherent exchange interactions arising from VO+ assist to produce BMPs, which are accountable for the RT-FM in Zn1-xNixO (0< x < 0.125) system.

  2. Nissei incas system (FP-Plan) which databased the skilled sense and experiences in molding metal design. Kanagata sekkei ni okeru kan ya keiken wo data base kashita Nissei incas system (FP-plan)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, K. (Nissei Plastic Industrial Co. Ltd., Nagano (Japan))

    1992-01-01

    Mold System Department of Nissei Resin Industies Co. has developed NISSEI INCAS SYSTEM, which is a CAD/CAM/CAE system specially for injection metal molding. Generally, high analysis methods such as flow analysis method have been considered for CAE, though, when making it to be linked with designing works for injection molding metals, economic conditions will not make a balance. Since authors have judged that to make an accurate mold metal drawing more quickly, before adopting such kind of flow analysis, more inportant and fundamental problems might be remained, they have started to develope their own system called FP-PLAN. This system, for example, is a software, which paying mainly attention to the most important and common problems for molding metal design to be solved, such as setting of shrinking factor, gate and runner design, estimation of cavity inside pressure, etc. Specially, they have developed only small molding products (product volume shall be under 200 cm {sup 3}). In this report, outlines of FP-PLAN such as the characteristics and programs have been intrduced. 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Fabrication and thermal characterization of amorphous and nanocrystalline Al{sub 9}FeNi/Al{sub 3}Ti compound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavoosi, Majid, E-mail: ma.tavoosi@gmail.com

    2017-01-15

    In this study, the fabrication and structural characterization of amorphous/nanocrystalline Al{sub 9}FeNi/Al{sub 3}Ti phase has been performed. In this regards, milling and annealing processes were applied on Al{sub 80}Fe{sub 10}Ti{sub 5}Ni{sub 5} (at. %) powder mixture for different periods of time. The prepared samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM) and differential scanning calorimetery (DSC). According to the results, supersaturated solid solution, nanocrystalline Al{sub 9}FeNi/Al{sub 3}Ti (with average crystallite size of about 7 nm) and amorphous phases indicated three different microstructures which can be formed in Al{sub 80}Fe{sub 10}Ti{sub 5}Ni{sub 5} system during milling process. The formed supersaturated solid solution and amorphous phases were unstable and transformed to Al{sub 9}FeNi/Al{sub 3}Ti intermetallic compound during annealing process. It is shown that, Al{sub 9}FeNi phase in Al{sub 9}FeNi/Al{sub 3}Ti intermetallic compound can decompose into Al{sub 3}Ni, Al{sub 13}Fe{sub 4} and liquid phases during a reversible peritectic reaction at 809 °C. - Highlights: • We study the effect of milling process on Al{sub 80}Fe{sub 10}Ti{sub 5}Ni{sub 5} alloy. • We study the effect of annealing on Al{sub 80}Fe{sub 10}Ti{sub 5}Ni{sub 5} supersaturated solid solution phase. • We study the effect of annealing on Al{sub 80}Fe{sub 10}Ti{sub 5}Ni{sub 5} amorphous phase. • We study the thermal behaviour of Al{sub 9}FeNi/Al{sub 3}Ti compound.

  4. Effect of oxide supports in stabilizing desirable Pt-Ni bimetallic structures for hydrogenation and reforming reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tiefeng; Mpourmpakis, Giannis; Lonergan, William W; Vlachos, Dionisios G; Chen, Jingguang G

    2013-08-07

    Previous surface science studies have shown that bimetallic surfaces often show unique activity for reactions involving the consumption and production of hydrogen, such as hydrogenation and reforming reactions, respectively. These two types of reactions require different bimetallic configurations. For example, for the Pt-Ni bimetallic system, the desirable structure is Pt-terminated for hydrogenation while Ni-terminated for reforming. In the current study, 1,3-butadiene hydrogenation and ethanol reforming were used as probe reactions to investigate the effect of oxide supports (γ-Al2O3 and TiO2) on the structural and catalytic properties of Pt-Ni catalysts. The supported catalysts were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS). The reactions were carried out in a batch reactor equipped with a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer. For ethanol reforming, Pt-Ni/TiO2 showed higher activity than Pt-Ni/γ-Al2O3, and the Pt-Ni bimetallic catalyst outperformed the monometallic catalysts on TiO2 but not on γ-Al2O3. In contrast, for 1,3-butadiene hydrogenation, Pt-Ni/TiO2 showed much lower activity than Pt-Ni/γ-Al2O3. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations of Pt-Ni nanoparticles on γ-Al2O3 and TiO2 were performed to provide possible explanations for the different modification effects of the two oxide supports.

  5. 3D-nanoarchitectured Pd/Ni catalysts prepared by atomic layer deposition for the electrooxidation of formic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loïc Assaud

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensionally (3D nanoarchitectured palladium/nickel (Pd/Ni catalysts, which were prepared by atomic layer deposition (ALD on high-aspect-ratio nanoporous alumina templates are investigated with regard to the electrooxidation of formic acid in an acidic medium (0.5 M H2SO4. Both deposition processes, Ni and Pd, with various mass content ratios have been continuously monitored by using a quartz crystal microbalance. The morphology of the Pd/Ni systems has been studied by electron microscopy and shows a homogeneous deposition of granularly structured Pd onto the Ni substrate. X-ray diffraction analysis performed on Ni and NiO substrates revealed an amorphous structure, while the Pd coating crystallized into a fcc lattice with a preferential orientation along the [220]-direction. Surface chemistry analysis by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed both metallic and oxide contributions for the Ni and Pd deposits. Cyclic voltammetry of the Pd/Ni nanocatalysts revealed that the electrooxidation of HCOOH proceeds through the direct dehydrogenation mechanism with the formation of active intermediates. High catalytic activities are measured for low masses of Pd coatings that were generated by a low number of ALD cycles, probably because of the cluster size effect, electronic interactions between Pd and Ni, or diffusion effects.

  6. [UV-vis spectrometric characterization of the composition of active complex in the Ni-P plating solution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu-cheng, Wang; Wen-bin, Cai; Wei-jiang, Wang

    2004-07-01

    A strong complex agent is normally used in the alkaline chemical plating solution for Ni-P plating in order to prevent Ni ion from precipitation by hydrolysis. To keep a stable pH condition, an NH3-NH4Cl buffer system is used. Traditionally, it is considered that NH3 does not participate in the complex because of the relatively low Ni-NH3 complexing constant, but some experimental results cannot be explained reasonably. Touhami etc. have proposed a ternary Ni-citrate-NH3 complex involved in the discharge process, however they cannot give the direct support on the presence of this complex in solution. In this paper, a UV-Vis spectrometric study was carried out to identify the nickel complex in the Ni-P plating solution, and the results indicated the presence of both Ni-cit binary complex and Ni-cit-ammonia ternary complex. After the systematic investigation of the dependence of UV-Vis spectra on the two ligands (cit and ammonia), the composition of this Ni-cit-ammonia ternary complex was supposed to be Ni(II)(C6H5O(7)3-)(NH3)3.

  7. Who is El Niño?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philander, S. George

    It is a curious story, about a phenomenon we first welcomed as a blessing but now view with dismay, if not horror [Philander, 1998]. We named it El Niño for the child Jesus, provided it with relatives—La Niña and ENSO—and are devoting innumerable studies to the description and idealization of this family. These scriptures provide such a broad spectrum of historical, cultural, and scientific perspectives that there is now confusion about the identity of El Niño. Trenberth [1997] summarizes the situation as follows.The atmospheric component tied to El Niño is termed the “Southern Oscillation.” Scientists often call the phenomenon where the atmosphere and ocean collaborate ENSO, short for El Niño-Southern Oscillation. El Niño then corresponds to the warm phase of ENSO. The opposite “La Niña” (“the girl” in Spanish) phase consists of a basinwide cooling of the tropical Pacific and thus the cold phase of ENSO. However, for the public, the term for the whole phenomenon is “El Niño.”

  8. nière's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disease. Why do people get Ménière’s disease? Many theories exist about what happens to cause Ménière’s disease, ... changes. Some people claim that caffeine, chocolate, and alcohol make their symptoms worse and either avoid or ...

  9. FY 2000 report on the results of the R and D of 'frontier carbon technology.' R and D of a system to support production of undersea oil; 2000 nendo 'tansokei kokino zairyo gijutsu' no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Kaitei sekiyu seisan shien system kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-05-01

    This report summarized the results of the FY 2000 R and D of frontier carbon technology (FCT). In Chapter 1, technology of original production of substances, new carbon-base substances such as hetero-diamond and carbon nitride with high-grade and various characteristics are synthesized. And, the following are also established: method to synthesize nanotubes, etc. in quantity, technology to control interatomic bonding, technology to control hetero-element replacement, etc. BCN films were obtained by film formation by changing the gas component ratio of diborane, methane and nitrogen by the electron beam excitation CVD method. The sp{sup 3} bonding control in carbon film was advanced. By reacting benzene with raw materials using nickel phthalocyanine as catalyst, carbon nanotube with a 60nm diameter was obtained. Using ECRCVD device, carbon fiber was synthesized on Si substrate. In Chapter 2, original production process technology of mechanical high function materials, subjects are as follows: composition gradient film forming technology, complicated morphology film formation/micro processing technology, technology to apply carbon-base materials to tribology. The application of the materials to the movable part of various industrial machines is considered by making use of characteristics such as low friction and low abrasion which are expected of amorphous carbon, diamond, carbon nitride, etc. (NEDO)

  10. Effects of the partial substitution of Ni by Cr on the transport, magnetic, and magnetocaloric properties of Ni50Mn37In13

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudip Pandey

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The structural, magnetic, and magnetotransport properties of Ni50-xCrxMn37In13 Heusler alloys have been synthesized and investigated by x-ray diffraction (XRD, field and pressure dependent magnetization, and electrical resistivity measurements. The partial substitution of Ni by Cr in Ni50Mn37In13 significantly improves the magnetocaloric effect in the vicinity of the martensitic transition (TM. This system also shows a large negative entropy change at the Curie temperature (TC, making it a candidate material for application in a refrigeration cycle that exploits both positive and negative magnetic entropy changes. The refrigeration capacity (RC values at TM and TC increase significantly by more than 20 % with Cr substitution. The application of hydrostatic pressure increases the temperature stability of the martensitic phase in Ni45Cr5Mn37In13. The influence of Cr substitution on the transport properties of Ni48Cr2Mn37In13 is discussed. An asymmetric magnetoresistance, i.e., a spin-valve-like behavior, has been observed near TM for Ni48Cr2Mn37In13.

  11. Effect of heat-insulating wall on input energy of a photovoltaic/solar/air-heat system for a residence; Jutaku no kodannetsuka ni yoru taiyoko netsu/taiki netsu system no donyu energy sakugen koka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenmoku, Y.; Sakakibara, T. [Toyohashi University of Technology, Aichi (Japan); Nakagawa, S. [Maizuru College of Technology, Kyoto (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    A proposal was made to introduce a photovoltaic/solar/air-heat system which positively utilizes natural energy in order to curtail consumption of fossil energy, corroborating that the system has greatly reduced energy input in the primary energy level in a house. This paper examines the effect of curtailment of energy input in the case of reducing the load of air conditioning through the high heat insulation of a house. The energy input was evaluated by calculating additional equipment energy needed newly for the high heat insulation. The system performance and the energy load varied greatly depending on weather conditions. The subject system consisted of solar cells, inverter, heat concentrator, heat storage tank, heat pump and gas hot-water supply device. The thickening of the insulation sharply reduced heating load in the house, thereby decreasing fuel energy substantially. An insulation material of 100mm thick was capable of reducing energy input by 16-23% compared with that of 50mm thick. 5 refs., 5 figs, 3 tabs.

  12. Report on the investigative study for enregy-saving measure in hydraulic/pneumatic system in 1990 fiscal year; 1990 nendo yukuatsu system ni okeru sho energy taisaku no chosa kenkyu hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-05-01

    In hydraulic systems, material problems were investigated in addition to the problem of providing microelectronic instruments and that of working fluids. In pneumatic systems, air leakage and sealing were investigated in response to the resource-saving problem and high-pressurization for miniaturization of systems. The demonstration tests of hydraulic/pneumatic cylinders showed that the piston rod surface-treated by 20um hard chromium plating is more stable than that treated by other methods. There, however, remains the possibility of using SQP even now in hydraulic cylinders in which lubrication is assured. Stabilization of hardness and finishing precision in the SQP treatment of pneumatic cylinders must still be investigated. Concerning the quality of packings for hydraulic systems which use lubricating oil, urethane and other materials are not much different from each other in oil-resistant and wear-resistant properties. Superiority of urethane and XNBR was not apparently shown for non-lubricative pneumatic use. Totalized cost estimation in relation to durability must be regarded as important over the whole field of material, processing, transportation and use. 36 figs., 29 tabs.

  13. Fiscal 1996 report on the survey of making models for introducing petroleum substituting energy systems. 3; 1996 nendo chosa hokokusho (sekiyu daitai energy system donyu model sakusei ni kansuru chosa). 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    In the introduction of new energy and promotion of measures taken for energy conservation, it is necessary to give local governments, entrepreneurs, etc. guidance for introducing energy systems which meet with courses for how to construct infrastructures of towns or cities and features of facilities in case of regional development, arrangement of facilities, etc. In fiscal 1996, each of the petroleum substituting energy systems which were invented in fiscal 1996 was arranged, and the main systems were shown in image in pamphlets. Namely, those are related to photovoltaic power generation, use of solar energy, use of wind energy, use of geothermal energy, use of biomass energy, use of waste, use of unused energy, cogeneration, load levelling, wide-area energy supply, etc. Characteristics of each of the petroleum substituting energy systems were arranged from viewpoints of introducibility, scale, features of supply power/heat, economical efficiency and environmental characteristics, and subjects. Typical examples of the introduction in the country were outlined in terms of introduction sites, actual operational results, and effects. 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Report on achievement in the preceding research related to global industry technologies for the global industry technology research and development project. Research on gas systems substituting global warming gases such as PFC used in manufacturing semiconductors; 1998 nendo chikyu kankyo sangyo gijutsu ni kakawaru sendo kenkyu. Handotai seizo nado ni shiyosuru PFC nado no chikyu ondanka gas no daitai gas system no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The present semiconductor manufacturing process uses a great amount of PFC having large global warming coefficients and extremely long atmospheric life. A research was made particularly on reduction of its emission from etching processes. After introducing how the semiconductor industry has been working conventionally on protection of the global environment, this paper makes clear the purpose and positioning of this preceding research, as well as how it is moved forward. The paper also reports the results of analyzing and discussing the exhaust gases from etching devices using several kinds of substitute PFC gases. Survey results are reported on the possibilities of new substitute gases, plasma decomposition and treatment of exhaust gases, reaction process simulation, and in-situ analyzing and evaluating technologies. Investigations were made on the possibility of using no PFC in wiring processes which consume greater amount of PFC, as well as on wiring techniques using inter-layer insulation film with low dielectric rate, a new wiring structure forming technology, new functional elements, circuits and systems in a wide range. Proposals were given on specific research and development themes and plans that begin in fiscal 1999. (NEDO)

  15. The Chandler wobble as a trigger of the El Niño excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serykh, Ilya; Sonechkin, Dmitry

    2014-05-01

    Using data of the Met Office Hadley Centre, time series of the near surface temperature and sea-surface pressure for the period 1875-2012 are processed to compute the Oceanic Niño Index (ONI) and the Equatorial Southern Oscillation Index (ESOI). Detailed spectra of the ONI and ESOI show peaks that exist throughout the year, but the most powerful in the boreal winter months. Peak periods are consist of 29, 43 and 58 months, which is roughly equivalent to 2, 3 and 4 periods of the well-known 14-month Chandler wobble of the Earth's pole motion. A plausible physical mechanism of the Chandler wobble influence on the El Niño excitation is presented. A computation of the global fields of the spectral energy at each of the periods afore-indicated admits to identify some distinctive features of the spatial structure of the most powerful disturbances during El Niño. Detailed spectra of the El Niño Modoki Index (EMI) computed for each month separately show differences between main oscillations of El Niño Modoki and classic El Niño. Besides, computations are made of cross-correlations and lead/lag interrelations between El Niño and some other processes in the global climate system for all afore-indicated periods. Some regions are identified for which the cross-correlations are essential, but the processes being considered either lead or lag El Niño. This finding admits to suppose that there exists an external force common for both, El Niño and other macroscale climatic processes.

  16. Evaluation of the La{sub 2}Ni{sub 1} {sub -} {sub x}Cu{sub x}O{sub 4} {sub +} {sub {delta}} system as SOFC cathode material with 8YSZ and LSGM as electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguadero, A.; Escudero, M.J. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas Mediambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT), Av. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Alonso, J.A. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid (CSIC),C/Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz 3, Campus Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Daza, L. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas Mediambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT), Av. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Catalisis y Petroleoquimica,(CSIC), C/Marie Curie 2, Campus Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2008-05-31

    Materials formulated as La{sub 2}Ni{sub 1} {sub -} {sub x}Cu{sub x}O{sub 4} {sub +} {sub {delta}} (0 {<=} x {<=} 1) have been synthesised to be evaluated as possible cathode materials in SOFCs. Their crystal structures have been investigated by high-resolution neutron powder diffraction at RT so as to map out the phase diagram. The thermal expansion coefficients have been determined to be in the range of 10.8-13.0 x 10{sup -} {sup 6} K{sup -} {sup 1}. Total conductivity values are as good as 87 S cm{sup -} {sup 1} at 580 C for x = 0.4. In order to assess the performance of each oxide as cathode material, ac impedance measurements were carried out on La{sub 2}Ni{sub 1} {sub -} {sub x}Cu{sub x}O{sub 4} {sub +} {sub {delta}}/electrolyte/La{sub 2}Ni{sub 1} {sub -} {sub x}Cu{sub x}O{sub 4} {sub +} {sub {delta}} symmetrical cells with either LSGM or 8YSZ as electrolyte material. For all the electrode compositions studied, the best specific resistance (ASR) values were obtained with LSGM as electrolyte. The better performance of x = 0.4 and 0.6 (ASR {proportional_to} 1 and ohm; cm{sup 2} at 850 C) compositions has been associated with the magnitude of the total conductivity and the matching of the TEC values of the cathodes with those of the electrolytes. (author)

  17. Fiscal 1997 for the upgrading of the Asia/Pacific coal development. Survey of the optimization of the coal transportation system in Indonesia; 1997 nendo Asia Taiheiyo sekitan kaihatsu kodoka chosa. Indonesia ni okeru sekitan yuso system saitekika chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The paper summarized the results of Phase 1 and Phase 2 surveys conducted based on `Agreement on the comprehensive survey of a coal transportation system in South Sumatra` concluded between NEDO and the Ministry of Mine and Energy in Indonesia. In addition to the data collection and site surveys made in Phase 1, conducted in Phase 2 were determination of sites for harbors, determination of a scenario on coal transportation from coal mines to harbors, optimization of the coal transportation system, social/economic assessment, and proposal on the optimum transportation system. The results of the simulation were as follows: It is the most advantageous to transport coal from coal deposit area to harbor by rail and from harbor to Paiton by barge weighed over 10,000 tons. Tanjung Api Api is the most advantageous as harbor. The production scale which is profitable became more than 15 million tons. The present coal price of PTBA is $25/t arriving Suralaya. The coal in this case is said to be 5500kcal/kg in quality, and the coal of the same quality to this is only profitable. 8 refs., 68 figs., 104 tabs.

  18. Hybrid utilization of solar energy. Part 2. Performance analyses of heating system with air hybrid collector; Taiyo energy no hybrid riyo ni kansuru kenkyu. 2. Kuki shunetsu hybrid collector wo mochiita danbo system no seino hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshinaga, M.; Okumiya, M. [Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    For the effective utilization of solar energy at houses, a heating system using an air hybrid collector (capable of simultaneously performing heat collection and photovoltaic power generation). As the specimen house, a wooden house of a total floor area of 120m{sup 2} was simulated. Collected air is fanned into a crushed stone heat accumulator (capable of storing one day`s collection) or into a living room. The output of solar cell arrays is put into a heat pump (capable of handling a maximum hourly load of 36,327kJ/h) via an inverter so as to drive the fan (corresponding to average insolation on the heat collecting plate of 10.7MJ/hm{sup 2} and heat collecting efficiency of 40%), and shortage in power if any is supplied from the system interconnection. A hybrid collector, as compared with the conventional air collector, is lower in thermal efficiency but the merit that it exhibits with respect to power generation is far greater than what is needed to counterbalance the demerit. When the hybrid system is in heating operation, there is an ideal heat cycle of collection, accumulation, and radiation when the load is light, but the balance between accumulation and radiation is disturbed when the load is heavy. 4 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Study on an optimum ratio of PV output energy to WG output energy in PV/WG hybrid system; Taiyoko/furyoku hybrid hatsuden system no saiteki yoryohi ni kansuru kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishikawa, S. [Kandenko Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    A photovoltaic power (PV) and wind generated power (WG) are an unlimited clean energy source, yet their output is unstable depending on the fluctuation of weather conditions such as solar radiation and wind velocity. Consequently, a large-scale power storage equipment is necessitated leading to a high cost especially in an independent system. As a solution, a method is available in which PV and WG are combined so that the effect may be utilized for stabilizing the output of a system as a whole, at a site where a fluctuation pattern is different between photovoltaic energy and wind energy. In building a hybrid system by PV and WG, sites with such supplementary effect existing were selected from the viewpoint of stabilizing the fluctuation of the power generation in the long run; and then, an examination was made on the optimum PV capacity ratio (%Ppo) in each site. As a result, it revealed that the %Ppo had great bearing on a ratio of PV energy fluctuation to WG, which was converted to a numerical formula. A comparatively simple examination by means of meteorological data also indicated that the share ratio was possibly optimized between the quantities of PV and WG energy. 4 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Research cooperation report for fiscal 1997 on the environment-friendly system for effectively utilizing water resources; 1997 nendo kankyo taiogata mizushigen yuko riyo system ni kansuru kenkyu kyoryoku itaku gyomu hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This effort exerted in cooperation with the Philippines aims to solve problems related to water resources such as stable supply and pollution of water through developing a waste water treatment/water reuse system which is easy to operate and maintain, and low in price. The ultimate goal includes (1) the construction of a waste water treatment/water reuse system comprising an anaerobic reaction tank and activated charcoal absorption tower, easy to operate and maintain, and low in price, (2) the employment of goods procurable in the Philippines, the goods including carriers for use in the anaerobic reaction tank, microbes for use in both aerobic and anaerobic reaction tanks, and activated charcoal for use in waste water reutilization, and (3) the establishment of optimum operating conditions for the waste water treatment/water reuse system by use of a pilot plant and the transfer of operating and managing techniques to the Filipino counterpart. In this fiscal year, investigations are conducted to disclose the actualities of waste water treatment and water consumption by primary industries in the vicinity of Laguna de Bay, and the waste water to be the object of study and the place of pilot plant installation have been selected. Also conducted are investigations into the carrier, microbe, activated charcoal, etc., for use in the anaerobic reaction tank. (NEDO)

  1. Infecciones del sistema nervioso central por enterovirus en niños atendidos en un hospital de Lima, Perú Enteroviral central nervous system infections in children treated at a hospital in Lima, Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Iván O Espinoza; Theresa J Ochoa; Susan Mosquito; Francesca Barletta; Roger Hernández; María del Pilar Medina; María Luisa Stiglich; Claudia Ugarte; Daniel Guillén

    2011-01-01

    Objetivos. Determinar la frecuencia y las características clínicas de las infecciones del sistema nervioso central por enterovirus en niños atendidos en el Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia de Lima, Perú. Materiales y métodos. Se realizó un estudio prospectivo y descriptivo desde abril 2008 hasta marzo 2010. Se enrolaron pacientes de un mes a 14 años con diagnóstico clínico de encefalitis o meningitis asépticas. Se investigó la presencia de enterovirus, virus herpes simple 1 (VHS-1), virus h...

  2. Water dissociation on Ni(100), Ni(110), and Ni(111) surfaces: Reaction path approach to mode selectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seenivasan, H; Jackson, Bret; Tiwari, Ashwani K

    2017-02-21

    A comparative study of mode-selectivity of water dissociation on Ni(100), Ni(110), and Ni(111) surfaces is performed at the same level of theory using a fully quantum approach based on the reaction path Hamiltonian. Calculations show that the barrier to water dissociation on the Ni(110) surface is significantly lower compared to its close-packed counterparts. Transition states for this reaction on all three surfaces involve the elongation of one of the O-H bonds. A significant decrease in the symmetric stretching and bending mode frequencies near the transition state is observed in all three cases and in the vibrational adiabatic approximation, excitation of these softened modes results in a significant enhancement in reactivity. Inclusion of non-adiabatic couplings between modes results in the asymmetric stretching mode showing a similar enhancement of reactivity as the symmetric stretching mode. Dissociation probabilities calculated at a surface temperature of 300 K showed higher reactivity at lower collision energies compared to that of the static surface case, underlining the importance of lattice motion in enhancing reactivity. Mode selective behavior is similar on all the surfaces. Molecules with one-quantum of vibrational excitation in the symmetric stretch, at lower energies (up to ∼0.45 eV), are more reactive on Ni(110) than the Ni(100) and Ni(111) surfaces. However, the dissociation probabilities approach saturation on all the surfaces at higher incident energy values. Overall, Ni(110) is found to be highly reactive toward water dissociation among the low-index nickel surfaces owing to a low reaction barrier resulting from the openness and corrugation of the surface. These results show that the mode-selective behavior does not vary with different crystal facets of Ni qualitatively, but there is a significant quantitative effect.

  3. The Ni-YSZ interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karin Vels

    the samples with impure nickel electrodes showed an initial increase toward a high constant polarisation resistance, whereas the samples with pure nickel electrodes showed a considerable decrease to a low constant polarisation resistance with time. For both types of nickel the polarisation resistance dropped......The anode/electrolyte interface in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) is known to cause electrical losses. Geometrically simple Ni/yttria-stabilised zirconia (YSZ) interfaces were examined to gain information on the structural and chemical changes occurring during experiments at 1000°C in an atmosphere...... of 97% H2/3% H2O. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy at open circuit voltage (OCV) and at anodic and cathodic polarisations (100 mV) was performed. A correlation of the electrical data with the structure development and the chemical composition was attempted. Nickel wires with different impurity...

  4. Niño maltratado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Ivis Crespo Barrios

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan 200 niños maltratados que acuden al Hospital Pediátrico Docente "Juan Manuel Márquez" en el período comprendido de diciembre de 1990 a enero de 1992; éstos fueron seleccionados teniendo en cuenta los criterios de maltrato, y era el objetivo fundamental del estudio conocer cómo se comporta en nuestro medio. En los resultados se muestra que la forma más frecuente fue el tipo no intencional; la ingestión de tóxicos fue la forma de negligencia física más frecuente dentro del maltrato no intencional, ésta es más usual en los niños menores de 5 años; los trastornos psiquiátricos y el alcoholismo son favorecedores del maltrato intencional, la madre es la que más maltrata; la mortalidad por esta causa no fue elevada (5 fallecidos y los criterios de riesgo de maltrato tienen utilidad para su identificación.200 mistreated children who were seen at the "Juan Manual Márquez" Pediatric Teaching Hospital from December, 1990 to January, 1992, are presented. These patients were selected taking into consideration the abuse criteria. The main objective of this paper was to know how these criteria behave in our enviroment. According to the results, the most common form was the non-intentional type. The ingestion of toxic agents was the most frequent form of physical neglect within the non-intentional mistreatment, and it is the most usual among children under 5. Psychiatric disorders and alcoholism favor the intentional mistreatment, and the mother mistreats the most. Mortality due to this cause was not high (5 deaths, and the abuse risk criteria are useful for its identification.

  5. Preparation and characterization of Ni-based perovskite catalyst for steam CO2 reforming of methane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Eun-Hyeok; Kim, Sang Woo; Ahn, Byong Song; Moon, Dong Ju

    2013-06-01

    Steam CO2 reforming of methane was investigated over Ni-based perovskite catalyst to produce desired H2/CO ratio by adjusting the feed ratio of CH4, CO2 and H2O for floating GTL process application. La modified perovskites were prepared by the Pechini method and calcined in air and the Ni-based catalysts were prepared by dispersing Ni on the La modified perovskite by an incipient wetness impregnation. The catalysts before and after the reaction were characterized by N2 physisoprtion, CO chemisoprtion, XRD, TPR and SEM techniques. To control desired H2/CO ratio, simulation for SCR was carried out by Aspen plus, and product distribution for SCR was investigated in a fixed bed reactor system using feed ratio estimated by simulation. The Ni-based perovskite catalysts were found to give CH4 and CO2 conversions of up to 82% and 60% respectively to yield a H2/CO product ratio close to 2.

  6. Magnetic structures, phase diagram and spin waves of magneto-electric LiNiPO4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas Bagger Stibius

    2007-01-01

    LiNiPO4 is a magneto-electric material, having co-existing antiferromagnetic and ferroelectric phases when suitable magnetic fields are applied at low temperatures. Such systems have received growing interest in recent years, but the nature of the magneticelectric couplings is yet to be fully...... understand. Hopefully, studying LiNiPO4 will shed further light on the subject, especially since the crystal structure of LiNiPO4 is rather simple compared to most relevant multiferroic materials. Although the study of the magnetic-electric couplings is of main interest to the many scientists guiding me...... through the last three years, it is not the primary subject of this thesis. The objective of the phD project has been to provide groundwork that may be beneficiary to future studies of LiNiPO4. More specifically, we have mapped out the magnetic HT phase diagram with magnetic fields below 14.7 T applied...

  7. Nonenzymatic Glucose Sensor Based on In Situ Reduction of Ni/NiO-Graphene Nanocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohui Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Ni/NiO nanoflower modified reduced graphene oxide (rGO nanocomposite (Ni/NiO-rGO was introduced to screen printed electrode (SPE for the construction of a nonenzymatic electrochemical glucose biosensor. The Ni/NiO-rGO nanocomposite was synthesized by an in situ reduction process. Graphene oxide (GO hybrid Nafion sheets first chemical adsorbed Ni ions and assembled on the SPE. Subsequently, GO and Ni ions were reduced by hydrazine hydrate. The electrochemical properties of such a Ni/NiO-rGO modified SPE were carefully investigated. It showed a high activity for electrocatalytic oxidation of glucose in alkaline medium. The proposed nonenzymatic sensor can be utilized for quantification of glucose with a wide linear range from 29.9 μM to 6.44 mM (R = 0.9937 with a low detection limit of 1.8 μM (S/N = 3 and a high sensitivity of 1997 μA/mM∙cm−2. It also exhibited good reproducibility as well as high selectivity.

  8. Asymmetry of inter-El Niño and -La Niña diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S.; Kug, J. S.

    2016-12-01

    Over the North Pacific, there is a distinctive asymmetry of inter-El Niño and -La Niña diversity in atmospheric teleconnection patterns, indicating a strong diversity during La Niña events. Recent studies suggested that the typical patterns of the extratopical teleconnections associated with El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) are predominantly explained by the relative roles of the equatorial central Pacific (CP) and western North Pacific (WNP) precipitation anomalies. We find that the diversity of WNP precipitation anomalies is greater during La Niña events than during El Niño events. It also implies that the diversity of WNP precipitation anomalies during La Niña events is responsible for the diversity in the extratropical teleconnection. Since the relationship of anomalous sea surface temperature (SST) to precipitation is quite sensitive for SST in the range of 27-28°C, the WNP precipitation differences located over the warm pool among La Niña events lead to considerable teleconnection changes. In addition, we find here that the CMIP5 models well simulate the overall diversity in the tropical precipitation and extratropical teleconnection patterns during La Niña events, but it fails to reproduce a detailed pattern difference of atmospheric teleconnection in inter-La Niña events.

  9. Fiscal 1997 survey report. Feasibility study of the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system (survey of the coal utilization in Pakistan); 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho. Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa (Pakistan ni okeru sekitan riyo gaikyo chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This paper made a literature survey, hearing survey, site survey/study on the coal in Pakistan such as the coal utilization system and the environmental situation, etc., and aimed at pre-examination for the survey of the introduction of the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system to be planned in Pakistan in the future. The examination, data collection and preparation were conducted in terms of the following items: the structure of coal consumption in energy supply, structure of coal consumption, mainly of domestic brown coal consumption, the situation of coal utilization by industry and by region, environmental problems caused by coal utilization such as air pollution, the trend of policies of environmental regulation, etc. The literature on the following was obtained and surveyed: the situation of economy/energy in Pakistan, coal utilization technology by industrial field, and environmental protection technology. The hearing survey was made to institutions concerned, corporation groups and men of learning and experience. Site surveys were conducted for the typically selected coal utilization equipment and existing environmental protection equipment. 66 figs., 56 tabs.

  10. Stereoscopic image cutting system with reactive feeling on cutting virtual sheet object by scissors-type device; Hasamijo device ni yoru kamijo rittai kaso buttai no setsudan kankaku no jitsugen system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakamatsu, H.; Yasuna, M. [Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-09-20

    A virtual-reality system has been developed, in which a stereoscopic sheet image is cut by use of a scissor-like cutting device which creates the cutting sensation. The object of the cutting is a virtual-reality sheet of paper-like image. The image caught by the two eyes is adjusted to the binocular parallax for the synthesis of a cubic vision. Upon activation of the scissors-like cutting device by the operator, the number of pulses corresponding to the angle of rotation at the joint of the cutting device is outputted, and a power source is driven when the coordinates of the operating point calculated from the pulse number satisfies the requisites for the cutting of the virtual-reality object. The power source is connected to the electromagnetic brake provided at the cutting device joint, and feeds back the feeling of the force to the operator. When the exciting voltage for the operating point is caused to vary according to the change of its position, difference generated in the resistance that the cutting device experience because of the cutting process can be displayed. This force display system transmits to the operator the smooth and successive change in the resistance presented by the cutting action, in terms of the cutting of a virtual-reality body with scissors and the feedback of the force felt for the cutting. 15 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Application of a temperature selective storage tank solar system. Part 4. Fundamental experiment under a solar simulator; Ondo sentaku chikunetsuso no solar system eno tekiyo. 4. Solar simulator ni yoru kiso jikken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanayama, K.; Endo, N.; Baba, H.; Okamoto, A. [Kitami Institute of Technology, Hokkaido (Japan); Kamiya, Y. [Kanto Gakuin University, Yokohama (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    The storage tank is classified into a mixed type and stratified type. The stratified type is judged to be more advantageous from a viewpoint of the effective energy utilization. An experiment was made using a solar simulator to put the system, consisting of a vacuum double-glass tube collector and temperature selective storage tank, to practical use. The ejection position of the storage tank at the top is superior to that at the bottom, in the 60{degree}C layer of three layers (60, 40, and 20{degree}C). The ejection position hardly varies with the shape (straight or elbow) of an ejection port. When the temperature stratified layer is formed in two layers (40 {times} 2, 20{degree}C) to three layers (60, 40, and 20{degree}C), heat can be stably stored as the flow rate is higher. The stratified storage tank is inferior to the mixed storage tank in heat collection efficiency, but the specific exergy increases. By increasing the number of heat storage layers, the result of this experiment can also be applied to the linear temperature gradient layer obtained in the practical use. As a result of the above experiment, the basic data for an automated system design during practical application was obtained. 3 refs., 15 figs.

  12. Effect of insolation forecasting error on reduction of electricity charges for solar hot water system; Taiyonetsu kyuto system no denki ryokin sakugen koka ni oyobosu nissharyo yosoku gosa no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagawa, S. [Maizuru National College of Technology, Kyoto (Japan); Kenmoku, Y.; Sakakibara, T. [Toyohashi University of Technology, Aichi (Japan); Kawamoto, T. [Shizuoka University, Shizuoka (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    A solar hot water system can be economically operated if inexpensive midnight power is purchased to cover the shortage of solar energy predicted for the following day. Investigations were conducted because error in insolation prediction affects the system operation and electric charge reduction effect. The target temperature of the heat accumulation tank at every predetermined time point is calculated on the previous evening in consideration of predicted insolation so that the water will be as hot as prescribed at the feeding time on the following day. Midnight power is used for uniform heating to attain the target temperature for 7 o`clock on the following morning. The uniform heating continues from 8 o`clock to the feeding time, this time using solar energy and daytime power to attain the target temperature. Accordingly, the division between the midnight power and daytime power is determined in view of the target temperature for 7 o`clock on the following morning, which target temperature is so set that the charge will be the minimum by optimizing the allocation of the above-said two. When the insolation prediction error rate is beyond 30%, the electric charge grows higher as the rate rises. But, when the rate is not higher than 30%, the charge is little affected by a rise in the rate. 5 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Evaluation report on research and development of an ultra-advanced processing system. Sections 1 and 2; Chosentan kako system no kenkyu kaihatsu ni kansuru hyoka hokokusho. 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-08-01

    The ultra-advanced processing system is intended to develop an ultra-advanced processing device technology and an ultra-advanced processing technology. These technologies are indispensable to create such new processing technologies as ultra-precision and ultra-micro processing, and ultra high-grade surface modification processing, which have been impossible by the processing technologies having been available to date. It is also intended to develop a measuring and evaluating technology to support the above technologies. The intended system makes it possible to produce 21st century electronic components and ultra-high grade environment resistant materials. In order to achieve these goals, research and development has been performed on the excited beam technologies such as large output excimer laser and high-density ion beams, the ultra-precision machining device technology, the ultra-advanced processing technology using the above technologies, and the measuring and evaluating technology to assure the reliability of these technologies as the fundamental technologies. This project has begun in fiscal 1986, where fiscal 1987 has achieved development of component technologies related to the large output excimer laser and high-density ion beams, the ultra-precision machining device technology, the ultra-advanced processing technology using the above technologies, and the measuring and evaluating technology, and completed the device technology, having achieved the final target. (NEDO)

  14. Incinerators for coping with environmental issue. Gasification melting technology for municipal waste (direct melting system for municipal waste recycling); Kankyo mondai ni taiosuru shokyakuro. Ippan haikibutsu no gas ka yoyu gijutsu (chokusetsu shigenka system)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibaike, H. [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-04-01

    In the above named system, waste including incombustibles is subjected to high-temperature direct gasification and melting for the waste to be reduced in volume and rendered harmless and recyclable. The system comprises a gasification melting furnace, combustion chamber, gas treatment facility, and a melt recycling facility. Coke and coal, together with waste, are fed into the vertical shaft furnace through a port at the middle. The inside of the furnace is divided, from the top section downward, into a drying/pre-heating zone (300degC), a pyrolytic gasification zone (300-1000degC), and a combustion/melting zone (1700-1800degC). The pyrolytic gas is exhausted from the top section, led into the combustion chamber, and, after perfect combustion, forwarded into the waste heat boiler. The residual ash and inorganic matters descend together with coke to the combustion/melting zone. The coke is burnt to high temperature by oxygen-enriched air from the tuyere, and melts the ash and organic matters perfectly. The melt is then taken out of the furnace, cooled by water for conversion into granular slag and metal iron, to be magnetically separated for the collection of iron. This is attracting attention as a next-generation technology because it will facilitate the siting of ultimate disposal plants, solve environmental pollution problems, and enable the reuse of resources. 8 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Magnetic field induced strain assisted by stress in Ni-Fe-GaCo single crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chumlyakov Y.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Ferromagnetic shape memory alloys (FSMA have the possibility to induced a strain by applying a magnetic field. The main advantage of the FSMA is that the strain cycling frequency is two orders of magnitude higher than coventional shape memory alloys. The best alloy showing this effect is the Ni-Mn-Ga system, with a high mobility of its martensite variants and high magnetocrystalline anisotropy constant. Nevertheless, due to the high brittleness of this alloy, other systems (Ni-Fe-Ga, Co-Ni-Al, Co-Ni-Ga, ... are being investigated as an alternative to Ni-Mn-Ga. In the current work, Ni-Fe-Ga-Co single crystals have been studied. In spite of the formation of L10 martensite (low mobility of the variants, the [001] crystals exhibited magnetic-field-induced strains (in tension larger than 2%, under an assisting tensile stress around 16 MPa and fields below 15 kOe. In martensitic samples previously compressed, application of a constant tensile stress along the same axis together with a perpendicular magnetic field produces the elongation of the sample by variant reorientation, as one of the variants rotates its c axis from the field direction to the stress-axis direction. An estimated magnetostress of ~0.8 MPa is in good agreement with the theoretical value given by the ratio of magnetocrystalline anisotropy constant and twinning shear.

  16. Endophytic bacteria improve phytoremediation of Ni and TCE co-contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weyens, N.; van der Lelie, D.; Croes, S.; Dupae, J.; Newman, L.; Carleer, R.; Vangronsveld, J.

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate if engineered endophytes can improve phytoremediation of co-contaminations by organic pollutants and toxic metals. As a model system, yellow lupine was inoculated with the endophyte Burkholderia cepacia VM1468 possessing (a) the pTOM-Bu61 plasmid, coding for constitutive trichloroethylene (TCE) degradation, and (b) the ncc-nre Ni resistance/sequestration system. Plants were exposed to Ni and TCE and (a) Ni and TCE phytotoxicity, (b) TCE degradation and evapotranspiration, and (c) Ni concentrations in the roots and shoots were determined. Inoculation with B. cepacia VM1468 resulted in decreased Ni and TCE phytotoxicity, as measured by 30% increased root biomass and up to 50% decreased activities of enzymes involved in anti-oxidative defence in the roots. In addition, TCE evapotranspiration showed a decreasing trend and a 5 times higher Ni uptake was observed after inoculation. Engineered endophytes can improve phytoremediation of mixed contaminations via enhanced degradation of organic contaminants and improved metal uptake and translocation.

  17. High Temperature Life Testing of 80Ni-20Cr Wire in a Simulated Mars Atmosphere for the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) Instrument Suite Gas Processing System (GPS) Carbon Dioxide Scrubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Christopher; Munoz, Bruno; Gundersen, Cynthia; Thomas, Walter, III; Stephenson, Timothy

    2008-01-01

    In support of the GPS for the SAM instrument suite built by NASA/GSFC, a life test facility was developed to test the suitability of 80Ni-20Cr alloy wire, 0.0142 cm diameter, for use as a heater element for the carbon dioxide scrubber. The element would be required to operate at 1000 C in order to attain the 800 C required for regeneration of the getter. The element also would need to operate in the Mars atmosphere, which consists mostly of CO2 at pressures between 4 and 12 torr. Data on the high temperature degradation mechanism of 80Ni- 20Cr in low pressure CO2, coupled with the effects of thermal cycling, were unknown. In addition, the influence of work hardening of the wire during assembly and the potential for catastrophic grain growth also were unknown. Verification of the element reliability as defined by the mission goals required the construction of a test facility that would accurately simulate the duty cycles in a simulated Mars atmosphere. The experimental set-up, along with the test protocol and results will be described.

  18. High Temperature Life Testing of 80Ni-20Cr Wire in a Simulated Mars Atmosphere for the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) Instrument Suit Gas Processing System (GPS) Carbon Dioxide Scrubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundersen, Cynthia; Hoffman, Christopher; Munoz, Bruno; Steohenson, Timothy; Thomas, Walter

    2008-01-01

    In support of the GPS for the SAM instrument suite built by GSFC, a life test facility was developed to test the suitability of 80Ni-20Cr wire, 0.0056 inches in diameter, for use as a heater element for the carbon dioxide scrubber. The wire would be required to operate at 1000 C in order to attain the 800 C required for regeneration of the getter. The wire also would need to operate in the Mars atmosphere, which consists mostly of CO2 at pressures between 4 and 12 torr. Data on the high temperature degradation mechanism of 80Ni-20Cr in low pressure CO2, together with the effects of thermal cycling, were unknown. In addition, the influence of work hardening of the wire during assembly and the potential for catastrophic grain growth also were unknown. Verification of the wire reliability as defined by the mission goals required the construction of a test facility that would accurately simulate the duty cycles in a simulated Mars atmosphere. The experimental set-up, along with the test protocol and results will be described.

  19. Ni speciation in tea infusions by monolithic chromatography--ICP-MS and Q-TOF-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ščančar, Janez; Zuliani, Tea; Žigon, Dušan; Milačič, Radmila

    2013-02-01

    For humans, Ni is not considered to be an essential trace element. Its compounds, at levels present in foodstuffs and drinks, are generally considered to be safe for consumption, but for individuals who already suffer from contact allergy to Ni and may be subject to develop systemic reactions from its dietary ingestion, dietary exposure to Ni must be kept under control. Being the second most popular beverage, tea is a potential source of dietary Ni. Present knowledge on its speciation in tea infusions is poor. Therefore, complete speciation analysis, consisting of separation by liquid chromatography using a weak CIM DEAE-1 monolithic column, "on-line" detection by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and "off-line" identification of ligands by hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (Q-TOF MS), was implemented for the first time to study Ni speciation in tea infusions. Total concentrations of Ni in dry leaves of white, green, oolong and black tea (Camellia sinensis) and flowers of herbal chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla) and hibiscus (Hibiscus sabdariffa) tea were determined after microwave digestion by ICP-MS. They lay between 1.21 and 14.4 mg kg(-1). Good agreement between the determined and the certified values of the Ni content in the standard reference material SRM 1573a tomato leaves confirmed the accuracy of the total Ni determination. During the infusion process, up to 85 % of Ni was extracted from tea leaves or flowers. Separation of Ni species was completed in 10 min by applying aqueous linear gradient elution with 0.6 mol L(-1) NH(4)NO(3). Ni was found to be present in the chromatographic fraction in which quinic acid was identified by Q-TOF in all the tea infusions analysed, which had pH values between 5.6 and 6.0. The only exception was the infusion of hibiscus tea with a pH of 2.7, where results of speciation analysis showed that Ni is present in its divalent ionic form.

  20. Ääniä tiloissa

    OpenAIRE

    Rehn, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Opinnäytetyössäni esittelen keväällä 2013 Pop & Jazz Konservatorion lounasravintolan WC:ssä toteuttamani liveinstallaation Ääniä tiloissa. Analysoin teokseni kautta taiteen ja musiikin tekemisen motiiveja ja symboliikkaa, sekä tilan funktiota paikkana jossa toteuttaa musiikkia ja taidetta. Tavoitteenani opinnäytetyössäni oli toteuttaa performatiivinen esitys joka on vahvasti sidoksissa tiettyyn paikkaan, tilaan ja aikaan, ja jonka äänimateriaali saa muotonsa tässä nimenomaisessa tilassa ...

  1. Ni{sub 3}Al aluminide alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, C.T.

    1993-10-01

    This paper provides a brief review of the recent progress in research and development of Ni{sub 3}Al and its alloys. Emphasis has been placed on understanding low ductility and brittle fracture of Ni{sub 3}Al alloys at ambient and elevated temperatures. Recent studies have resulted in identifying both intrinsic and extrinsic factors governing the fracture behavior of Ni{sub 3}Al alloys. Parallel efforts on alloy design using physical metallurgy principles have led to properties for structural use. Industrial interest in these alloys is high, and examples of industrial involvement in processing and utilization of these alloys are briefly mentioned.

  2. New developments in Ni/Ti multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, I.; Hoghoj, P. [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1997-04-01

    It is now 20 years since super-mirrors were first used as a neutron optical element. Since then the field of multilayer neutron-optics has matured with multilayers finding their way to application in many neutron scattering instruments. However, there is still room for progress in terms of multilayer quality, performance and application. Along with work on multilayers for neutron polarisation Ni/Ti super-mirrors have been optimised. The state-of-the-art Ni/Ti super-mirror performance and the results obtained in two neutron-optics applications of Ni/Ti multilayers are presented. (author).

  3. Binary Ni-Nb bulk metallic glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, L.; Li, W. H.; Fang, S. S.; Wei, B. C.; Dong, Y. D.

    2006-01-01

    We studied the glass forming ability of Ni-Nb binary alloys and found that some of the alloys can be prepared into bulk metallic glasses by a conventional Cu-mold casting. The best glass former within the compositional range studied is off-eutectic Ni62Nb38 alloy, which is markedly different from those predicted by the multicomponent and deep eutectic rules. The glass formation mechanism for binary Ni-Nb alloys was studied from the thermodynamic point of view and a parameter γ* was proposed to approach the ability of glass formation against crystallization.

  4. Nickel Release, ROS Generation and Toxicity of Ni and NiO Micro- and Nanoparticles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siiri Latvala

    Full Text Available Occupational exposure to airborne nickel is associated with an elevated risk for respiratory tract diseases including lung cancer. Therefore, the increased production of Ni-containing nanoparticles necessitates a thorough assessment of their physical, chemical, as well as toxicological properties. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the characteristics of nickel metal (Ni and nickel oxide (NiO particles with a focus on Ni release, reactive oxygen species (ROS generation, cellular uptake, cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. Four Ni-containing particles of both nano-size (Ni-n and NiO-n and micron-size (Ni-m1 and Ni-m2 were tested. The released amount of Ni in solution was notably higher in artificial lysosomal fluid (e.g. 80-100 wt% for metallic Ni than in cell medium after 24h (ca. 1-3 wt% for all particles. Each of the particles was taken up by the cells within 4 h and they remained in the cells to a high extent after 24 h post-incubation. Thus, the high dissolution in ALF appeared not to reflect the particle dissolution in the cells. Ni-m1 showed the most pronounced effect on cell viability after 48 h (alamar blue assay whereas all particles showed increased cytotoxicity in the highest doses (20-40 μg cm2 when assessed by colony forming efficiency (CFE. Interestingly an increased CFE, suggesting higher proliferation, was observed for all particles in low doses (0.1 or 1 μg cm-2. Ni-m1 and NiO-n were the most potent in causing acellular ROS and DNA damage. However, no intracellular ROS was detected for any of the particles. Taken together, micron-sized Ni (Ni-m1 was more reactive and toxic compared to the nano-sized Ni. Furthermore, this study underlines that the low dose effect in terms of increased proliferation observed for all particles should be further investigated in future studies.

  5. Promoting a-Al2O3 layer growth upon high temperature oxidation of NiCoCrAlY alloys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijdam, T.J.

    2005-01-01

    The turbine blades in gas turbine engines need to be protected against high temperature oxidation and corrosion with a coating system. This coating system comprises of a Ni-based superalloy substrate, a NiCoCrAlY bond coating (BC) and an insulating ceramic thermal barrier coating (TBC). Good

  6. Non-contact evaluation of mechanical properties of electroplated wear resistant Ni-P layer from the velocity dispersion of laser SAW; Laser reiki Rayleigh ha no sokudo bunsan wo mochiita taimamo Ni-P mekkiso tokusei no hisesshoku hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morikawa, Y.; Cho, H.; Takemoto, M. [Aoyama Gakuin University, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Science and Engineering; Nakayama, T. [Kobe Steel Ltd., Kobe (Japan)

    1996-11-01

    We developed a new laser surface acoustic wave (SAW) system and applied this to estimate the mechanical properties of the wear-resistant Ni-P layer electroplated on a stainless steel. The velocity dispersions of Rayleigh wave of the as -plated and heat-treated Ni-P layer were obtained by the one point time domain signal processing. The Ni-P layers with excellent wear resistance produced by the heated treatment higher than 725K were found to show higher Rayleigh velocities than that of the substrate steel, while the Ni-P layer with poor wear resistance showed lower velocities. Young`s moduli of the Ni-P layer, estimated so as the computed velocity dispersion agreed with the measured one, increased with the increase of wear resistance. 10 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Ni nanoparticles prepared by simple chemical method for the synthesis of Ni/NiO-multi-layered graphene by chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mokhtar; Remalli, Nagarjuna; Gedela, Venkataramana; Padya, Balaji; Jain, Pawan Kumar; Al-Fatesh, Ahmed; Rana, Usman Ali; Srikanth, Vadali V. S. S.

    2017-02-01

    A new chemical method was used to obtain a high yield of nickel nanoparticles (Ni-NPs). The effect of solvent (distilled water, ethylene glycol, and ethanol) and surfactant (oleic acid and polyvinyl pyrrolidinone) on the morphology and crystallinity of the synthesized Ni-NPs has been investigated. The experimental results revealed that among the solvents mentioned above, ethanol gives the best results in terms of complete reduction, controlled morphology and size distribution of Ni-NPs. The surfactants played an important role in impeding the agglomeration and surface oxidation of Ni-NPs. The surfactants also affected the morphology of the Ni-NPs. The synthesized Ni-NPs are found to be quite stable in air. The best of the synthesized Ni-NPs were effectively used as catalysts for the synthesis of Ni/NiO-multi-layered graphene using catalytic chemical vapor deposition technique.

  8. Synthesis of Supported NiPt Bimetallic Nanoparticles, Methods for Controlling the Surface Coverage of Ni Nanoparticles With Pt, Methods Of Making NiPt Multilayer Core-Shell Structures and Application of the Supported Catalysts for CO2 Reforming

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Lidong

    2015-06-25

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for supported Ni/Pt bimetallic nanoparticles, compositions including supported NiPt nanoparticles, methods of making supported NiPt nanoparticles, methods of using supported NiPt nanoparticles, and the like.

  9. Contrasting the skills and biases of deterministic predictions for the two types of El Niño

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Fei; Yu, Jin-Yi

    2017-12-01

    The tropical Pacific has begun to experience a new type of El Niño, which has occurred particularly frequently during the last decade, referred to as the central Pacific (CP) El Niño. Various coupled models with different degrees of complexity have been used to make real-time El Niño predictions, but high uncertainty still exists in their forecasts. It remains unknown as to how much of this uncertainty is specifically related to the new CP-type El Niño and how much is common to both this type and the conventional Eastern Pacific (EP)-type El Niño. In this study, the deterministic performance of an El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) ensemble prediction system is examined for the two types of El Niño. Ensemble hindcasts are run for the nine EP El Niño events and twelve CP El Niño events that have occurred since 1950. The results show that (1) the skill scores for the EP events are significantly better than those for the CP events, at all lead times; (2) the systematic forecast biases come mostly from the prediction of the CP events; and (3) the systematic error is characterized by an overly warm eastern Pacific during the spring season, indicating a stronger spring prediction barrier for the CP El Niño. Further improvements to coupled atmosphere-ocean models in terms of CP El Niño prediction should be recognized as a key and high-priority task for the climate prediction community.

  10. Fine Structure in Multi-Phase Zr8Ni21-Zr7Ni10-Zr2Ni7 Alloy Revealed by Transmission Electron Microscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haoting Shen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The microstructure of an annealed alloy with a Zr8Ni21 composition was studied by both scanning electron microscopy (SEM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The presence of three phases, Zr8Ni21, Zr2Ni7, and Zr7Ni10, was confirmed by SEM/X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy compositional mapping and TEM electron diffraction. Distribution of the phases and their morphology can be linked to a multi-phase structure formed by a sequence of reactions: (1 L → Zr2Ni7 + L’; (2 peritectic Zr2Ni7 + L’ → Zr2Ni7 + Zr8Ni21 + L”; (3 eutectic L” → Zr8Ni21 + Zr7Ni10. The effect of annealing at 960 °C, which was intended to convert a cast structure into a single-phase Zr8Ni21 structure, was only moderate and the resulting alloy was still multi-phased. TEM and crystallographic analysis of the Zr2Ni7 phase show a high density of planar (001 defects that were explained as low-energy boundaries between rotational variants and stacking faults. The crystallographic features arise from the pseudo-hexagonal structure of Zr2Ni7. This highly defective Zr2Ni7 phase was identified as the source of the broad X-ray diffraction peaks at around 38.4° and 44.6° when a Cu-K was used as the radiation source.

  11. Incorporation of alumina particles into reactively sintered Ni{sub 3}Al; Hanno shoketsu ni yoru Ni{sub 3}Al eno alumina no fukugoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamazaki, M.; Ochiai, S.; Arai, T. [Teikyo Univ. of Science and Tech., Yamanashi (Japan); Sakamoto, Y. [Teikyo Univ. of Science and Tech., Yamanashi (Japan)]|[NIKKOSHI Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Koyama, M. [Japan Space Utilization Promotion Center, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-08-15

    The Ni3Al having the structure of L1{sub 2} is attracting the attention of the people. As methods for preparing it, the reactive sintering method according to which Ni powders and Al powders are mixed first and then reacted at 700 degC to prepare the Ni2Al, and the combustion composition method are expected as the hopeful method. In this study, several processes for composing alumina while preparing the Ni3Al by reactively sintering Ni powders and Al powders, are compared. While dispersing alumina powders into Ni powders beforehand by mechanical dispersing (MD), the Ni3Al can be produced under the conditions as they are. As another method for producing the Ni3Al according to which NiO powders are mixed into Ni powders to oxidize surfaces of the Ni powders and then they react with the Al powders, the reactive sintering of the Ni3Al and the alumina generation by the thermit reaction progress simultaneously, but dispersion of the alumina is the worst and the void is too much. As for the method according to which the NiO powders in the Ni powders are mechanically dispersed and then reacted with Al powders, the resultant reactions hardly occur. 9 refs., 4 figs.

  12. An Ultrastable and High-Performance Flexible Fiber-Shaped Ni-Zn Battery based on a Ni-NiO Heterostructured Nanosheet Cathode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yinxiang; Meng, Yue; Lai, Zhengzhe; Zhang, Xiyue; Yu, Minghao; Fang, Pingping; Wu, Mingmei; Tong, Yexiang; Lu, Xihong

    2017-11-01

    Currently, the main bottleneck for the widespread application of Ni-Zn batteries is their poor cycling stability as a result of the irreversibility of the Ni-based cathode and dendrite formation of the Zn anode during the charging-discharging processes. Herein, a highly rechargeable, flexible, fiber-shaped Ni-Zn battery with impressive electrochemical performance is rationally demonstrated by employing Ni-NiO heterostructured nanosheets as the cathode. Benefiting from the improved conductivity and enhanced electroactivity of the Ni-NiO heterojunction nanosheet cathode, the as-fabricated fiber-shaped Ni-NiO//Zn battery displays high capacity and admirable rate capability. More importantly, this Ni-NiO//Zn battery shows unprecedented cyclic durability both in aqueous (96.6% capacity retention after 10 000 cycles) and polymer (almost no capacity attenuation after 10 000 cycles at 22.2 A g-1 ) electrolytes. Moreover, a peak energy density of 6.6 µWh cm-2 , together with a remarkable power density of 20.2 mW cm-2 , is achieved by the flexible quasi-solid-state fiber-shaped Ni-NiO//Zn battery, outperforming most reported fiber-shaped energy-storage devices. Such a novel concept of a fiber-shaped Ni-Zn battery with impressive stability will greatly enrich the flexible energy-storage technologies for future portable/wearable electronic applications. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Achievement report for fiscal 1998 on development of wide-area energy utilization network system. Study of energy system designing technology (Research into factory area energy system); Koiki energy riyo network system kaihatsu, energy system sekkei gijutsu no kenkyu 1998 nendo seika hokokusho. Kojogun no energy system ni kansuru chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    Actualities of exhaust heat and demand for heat in the area are investigated on the result of which a wide-area energy utilization network system will be built. In fiscal 1998, further questionnaires are distributed in addition to last fiscal year's, and door-to-door visits are made on leading factories representing 10 types of industries. The result of data analysis places the nationwide total of exhaust heat at 320,000 Tcal/year including heat generated by electric power generation. When it is so defined that usable heat be above 150 degrees C for exhaust gas, above 40 degrees C for hot water, and above 200 degrees for solids, the total will be reduced to 230,000 Tcal/year. Cleaning plants (plants that treat refuse or sewage) as the sources of exhaust heat besides the factories are investigated for the amount of heat they discharge, and then it is found that the amount of heat they discharge is the fourth largest following electric power plants, iron and steel mills, and chemical plants. It is also found that most of their exhaust heat is of good quality because it is latent in steam or hot water. It is acknowledged, partly because many of such plants are situated relatively near to the urban district, that their role is important when studies are made on the utilization of exhaust heat. (NEDO)

  14. Investigation of Characteristics of Sprayed Ni-Cr and Ni-Cr-Wc Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidijus Jarašūnas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the flame sprayed Ni-Cr and Ni-Cr-WC coatings on construction S235 steel substrates. Before spraying, the surfaces of substrates were treated mechanically. Using the different chemical composition of Ni-Cr and Ni-Cr-WC spraying powder and additional substrate heating till 250–290 °C, were sprayed coatings. The microstructure, porosity, hardness, elastic modulus, wear resistance of the Ni-Cr and Ni-Cr-WC coatings were investigated in the work. The influence of the chemical composition and WC content of the coatings on the various physical and tribological properties of the coatings were evaluated. Also the dependence of these coatings characteristics was investigated.

  15. Structural analysis of Ni/NiO-water interface using X-ray reflectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Jin; Kim, Seung Hyun; Kim, Ji Hyun [Ulsan National Institute of Science and technology, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Bahn, Chi Bum [Argonne National Laboratory, Illinois (United States)

    2013-10-15

    These test revealed the epitaxial relationship between Ni substrate and the oxide layer as well as those structures. However, still the resolution of the initial structural data of interface between water and pre oxidized Ni(110) surface is not clear. Therefore, the objective in this study was to obtain detailed structural data between pre-oxidized Ni(110) and water interfaces to investigate the mechanism of growth the passive film formed on Ni(110) by In-situ high energy X-ray reflectivity study and simulated atomistic model. The surface treatment procedure to increase the surface crystallinity was developed to surface x-ray reflectivity measurement. The CTR data shows the surface pre-treatment procedure developed for Ni(110) was suitable for the surface X-ray study. Synchrotron X-ray experiments and analyses will be continued to identify the surface interface between Ni(110), water, and solution contained lead.

  16. Contexto Familiar: Diferencias Conductuales entre Niños y Niñas

    OpenAIRE

    María Aurelia Ramírez Castillo

    2005-01-01

    En este trabajo se investigan las diferencias por género en problemas de conducta. En una muestra de 200 sujetos (niños y niñas) en tre 5 y 18 años de Granada (España), los resultados concluyen que los niños tienen más problemas de conducta delictiva que las niñas. Cuando existen conflictos matrimoniales y prácticas de crianza negativas, de nuevo los niños tienen más problemas externos que las niñas. En este trabajo se investigan las diferencias por género en problemas de condu...

  17. Development of the EM tomography system. Part 2. Sensitivity studies of anomalous body by model studies; EM tomography system no kaihatsu. 2. Model kaiseki ni yoru ijotai no kando chosa kekka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumekawa, Y.; Miura, Y.; Takasugi, S. [GERD Geothermal Energy Research and Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Arai, E. [Metal Mining Agency of Japan, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    A model analysis was used to investigate sensitivity of a two-dimensional structure on a resistivity anomalous body by using an electromagnetic tomography system. The resistivity model handled a three-dimensional structure. The model was prepared as a pseudo two-dimensional model in which a low resistivity anomalous body with 1 ohm-m was incorporated that has a basic length of 1000 m in the Y-direction in a homogenous medium having 100 ohm-m. As a result of the analysis, the following matters were elucidated: if a low resistivity anomalous body is present in a shallow subsurface, its impact starts appearing from lower frequencies than when the anomalous body exists only at a greater depth; if a high resistivity anomalous body exists, the detection sensitivity is lower than for the low resistivity anomalous body, but the analysis would be possible by using the phase because the phase has made a greater change; the source TxZ shows a change from lower frequencies than for the source TxX, and the amount of change is greater, hence the detection sensitivity on an anomalous body may be said higher with the source TxZ; however, for the anomalous body in shallow subsurface, the source TxX is more effective since it is not subjected to a too great impact at a greater depth. 5 refs., 7 figs.

  18. Fiscal 1996 survey report on the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system feasibility study. Survey by region/industry in India; Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa. Indo ni okeru sekitan riyo gaikyo chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    A survey was made in India which is a coal producing/consuming country following China in Asia and where coal is used for about 60% of the primary commercial energy. The survey was conducted on coal production/distribution/utilization and environmental issues, aiming at studying feasibility of introducing the environmentally friendly coal utilization system into every industry including the residential/commercial one, and at implementing a comprehensive master plan including Japan`s international cooperation. Total power source facilities in fiscal 1995 are 83.3 million kW, 64% of which are coal thermal power facilities and generated 260 TWh, 69% of the total output energy. Main commercial energy sources are coal, oil and natural gas, and oil is self-sufficient. The survey this time did not examine very well the actual state of the environmental pollution problem caused by the coal utilization. Indian coal is high in ash content but low in sulfur content, and therefore, SOx polluting air has not been a very important problem so far, but soot/smoke is almost the problem. Further, ash treatment after combustion at boilers, etc. is expected to be a big problem in the future. 49 figs., 88 tabs.

  19. Report for fiscal 1998. Joint research of environment-friendly system