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Sample records for shield integral experiment

  1. ORNL fusion reactor shielding integral experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santoro, R.T.; Alsmiller, R.G. Jr.; Barnes, J.M.; Chapman, G.T.

    1980-01-01

    Integral experiments that measure the neutron and gamma-ray energy spectra resulting from the attenuation of approx. 14 MeV T(D,n) 4 He reaction neutrons in laminated slabs of stainless steel type 304, borated polyethylene, and a tungsten alloy (Hevimet) and from neutrons streaming through a 30-cm-diameter iron duct (L/D = 3) imbedded in a concrete shield have been performed. The facility, the NE-213 liquid scintillator detector system, and the experimental techniques used to obtain the measured data are described. The two-dimensional discrete ordinates radiation transport codes, calculational models, and nuclear data used in the analysis of the experiments are reviewed

  2. Shielding experiments for accelerator facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakashima, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Susumu; Sakamoto, Yukio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment] [and others

    2000-06-01

    A series of shielding experiments was carried out by using AVF cyclotron accelerator of TIARA at JAERI in order to validate shielding design methods for accelerator facilities in intermediate energy region. In this paper neutron transmission experiment through thick shields and radiation streaming experiment through a labyrinth are reported. (author)

  3. Shielding experiments for accelerator facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakashima, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Susumu; Sakamoto, Yukio

    2000-01-01

    A series of shielding experiments was carried out by using AVF cyclotron accelerator of TIARA at JAERI in order to validate shielding design methods for accelerator facilities in intermediate energy region. In this paper neutron transmission experiment through thick shields and radiation streaming experiment through a labyrinth are reported. (author)

  4. Design experience: CRBRP radiation shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disney, R.K.; Chan, T.C.; Gallo, F.G.; Hedgecock, L.R.; McGinnis, C.A.; Wrights, G.N.

    1978-11-01

    The Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) is being designed as a fast breeder demonstration project in the U.S. Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) program. Radiation shielding design of the facility consists of a comprehensive design approach to assure compliance with design and government regulatory requirements. Studies conducted during the CRBRP design process involved the aspects of radiation shielding dealing with protection of components, systems, and personnel from radiation exposure. Achievement of feasible designs, while considering the mechanical, structural, nuclear, and thermal performance of the component or system, has required judicious trade-offs in radiation shielding performance. Specific design problems which have been addressed are in-vessel radial shielding to protect permanent core support structures, flux monitor system shielding to isolate flux monitoring systems for extraneous background sources, reactor vessel support shielding to allow personnel access to the closure head during full power operation, and primary heat transport system pipe chaseway shielding to limit intermediate heat transport system sodium system coolant activation. The shielding design solutions to these problems defined a need for prototypic or benchmark experiments to provide assurance of the predicted shielding performance of selected design solutions and the verification of design methodology. Design activities of CRBRP plant components an systems, which have the potential for radiation exposure of plant personnel during operation or maintenance, are controlled by a design review process related to radiation shielding. The program implements design objectives, design requirements, and cost/benefit guidelines to assure that radiation exposures will be ''as low as reasonably achievable''

  5. Evaluation of the shielding integrity of end-shields in PHWR type NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sah, B.M.L.; Ramamirtham, B.; Kutty, B.S.

    1996-01-01

    In the new plants (Narora Atomic Power Plants (NAPP) onwards) relatively higher radiation fields exist on the north and south fuelling machine (FM) vault walls of the E1 100m accessible area passages. These fields were first noticed at NAPS-1 and subsequently at NAPS-2 and KAPS-1. Such surveys done at RAPS have indicated that the fields on these walls would come out to be quite low (only 1-2 mR/h) from sources other than that arising from 41 Ar contamination. RAPS/MAPS experience pointed to adequacy of shielding of the FM vault walls and sufficient overall shielding thickness of the end-shields. Further, radiometry tests of end-shields carried out at Kaiga and RAPP 3 and 4 indicated fairly satisfactory and uniform filling of balls. Hence, incomplete filling of water column of the end-shields due to any venting problem was suspected to be one possible reason for the observed high fields in NAPS and Kakrapar Atomic Power Station (KAPS). Since the presence of high radiation fields, both neutron and gamma, is of long-term concern, a special study/measurement of radiation levels on reactor face during high power operation was undertaken. In order to compare the shielding integrity of the older (RAPS/MAPS solid plate type shielding) and newer (NAPS/KAPS steel ball-filled type) end shields, these experiments were done at MAPS-2 and NAPS-2. (author). 2 refs., 2 tabs

  6. Parameters calculation of shielding experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavazza, S.

    1986-02-01

    The radiation transport methodology comparing the calculated reactions and dose rates for neutrons and gama-rays, with experimental measurements obtained on iron shield, irradiated in the YAYOI reactor is evaluated. The ENDF/B-IV and VITAMIN-C libraries and the AMPX-II modular system, for cross sections generation collapsed by the ANISN code were used. The transport calculations were made using the DOT 3.5 code, adjusting the boundary iron shield source spectrum to the reactions and dose rates, measured at the beginning of shield. The neutron and gamma ray distributions calculated on the iron shield presented reasonable agreement with experimental measurements. An experimental arrangement using the IEA-R1 reactor to determine a shielding benchmark is proposed. (Author) [pt

  7. Neutron integral test of graphite cross sections in MeV energy region for the JENDL-3T through an analysis of WINFRITH shielding experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueki, Kohtaro; Sakurai, Kiyoshi.

    1988-01-01

    The neutron integral tests of graphite cross sections in MeV neutron energy region for the ENDF/B-IV, JENDL-2, JENDL-3PR1 and -3T were performed through the Monte Carlo analysis of the graphite shielding experiment at the WINFRITH. The measured values were on the reaction rates of 115 In(n,n') 115m In, 27 Al(n,α) 24 Na, 32 S(n,p) 32 P, and 103 Rh(n,n') 103m Rh threshold detectors located in the graphite slabs, so that the experiment on the graphite was good at the integral test of neutron cross sections in MeV energy resion. (author)

  8. SINBAD: Shielding integral benchmark archive and database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, H.T.; Ingersoll, D.T.; Roussin, R.W.

    1996-01-01

    SINBAD is a new electronic database developed to store a variety of radiation shielding benchmark data so that users can easily retrieve and incorporate the data into their calculations. SINBAD is an excellent data source for users who require the quality assurance necessary in developing cross-section libraries or radiation transport codes. The future needs of the scientific community are best served by the electronic database format of SINBAD and its user-friendly interface, combined with its data accuracy and integrity

  9. Integral data test of HENDL1.0/MG and visualBUS with neutronics shielding experiments. Pt.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Chunjing; Deng Tieru; Xu Dezheng; Li Jingjing; Wu Yican

    2004-01-01

    HENDL1.0/MG, a multi-group working library of the Hybrid Evaluated Nuclear Data Library, was home-developed by the FDS Team of ASIPP (Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences) on the basis of several national data libraries. To validate and qualify the process of producing HENDL1.0/MG, simulating calculations of a series of existent spherical shell benchmark experiments (Al, Mo, Co, Ti, Mn, W, Be and V) have been performed with HENDL1.0/MG and the multifunctional neutronics code system named VisualBUS home-developed also by FDS Team. (authors)

  10. The TPC shielding of the CAST experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruz, J; Luzon, G; Beltran, B; Carmona, J M; Cebrian, S; Gomez, H; Irastorza, I G; Morales, J; Ortiz de Solorzano, A; RodrIguez, A; Villar, J A

    2006-01-01

    Sunset solar axions traversing the intense magnetic field of the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) experiment may be detected in a TPC detector, placed at one side of the magnet, as point-like X-rays signals. This signal could be masked, however, by the inhomogeneous radioactive background of materials and experimental site. Here we present the shielding built to reduce and homogenize the radioactive background levels of the TPC detector

  11. Calculation of the BREN house shielding experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woolson, William A.; Gritzner, Michael L.

    1987-01-01

    The BREN house transmission experiments provide an excellent set of measurements to validate the calculational procedures that will be used to derive house shielding estimates for the revised dosimetry of the survivors of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki A-bombs. The BREN experiments were performed in realistic full scale models of Japanese residences. Although the radiation spectra and relative intensities of neutrons and gamma rays incident on the houses from the HPRR and the 60 Co source are not appropriate for direct application to the A-bomb survivors, they cover the full energy range of importance. The codes and calculations required to compare with BREN experiments are the same as those needed for the A-bomb dosimetry. They consist of a two-dimensional discrete-ordinates calculation of the free field coupled to an adjoint Monte Carlo calculation in detailed house geometry. The agreement obtained between calculations and the experiments is excellent for neutrons and 60 Co gamma rays. Every house transmission calculation spanning simple to complex configurations and detector locations for the 60 Co and HPRR was within an acceptable margin of error. The gamma-ray TF calculations for the reactor source did not agree well with the experiments. Analysis of this discrepancy, however, strongly indicates that the problem probably does not reside in the calculational procedure but in the measurements themselves. In conclusion, it is believed that the excellent agreement of our calculations with the BREN experiments validates the calculational procedure which is planed to be applied o estimating the house shielding for survivors of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki A-bombs. Certainly, the calculations for Hiroshima and Nagasaki will involve modifications to the code used for the computations reported here, but to the extent that these modifications involve increased calculational complexity to treat more realistic materials and configurations, the benchmark established by these

  12. Latest experiences in inspecting the inside of BWR vessel shields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberdi, R.; Gonzalez, E.

    2001-07-01

    In the last few years, the owners of BWR nuclear power plants have been forced to address new fuel shield inspection requirements, TECNATOM has responded to this situation by launching the TEIDE projects, which include development of an inspection machine and the corresponding Non-Destructive Tests to examine the inside of this shield. With these projects, TECNATOM has performed more than 12 fuel shield inspections in different countries. This article describes the experience gained in the last three years. (Author)

  13. Pre-evaluation of fusion shielding benchmark experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, K.; Handa, H.; Konno, C.

    1994-01-01

    Shielding benchmark experiment is very useful to test the design code and nuclear data for fusion devices. There are many types of benchmark experiments that should be done in fusion shielding problems, but time and budget are limited. Therefore it will be important to select and determine the effective experimental configurations by precalculation before the experiment. The authors did three types of pre-evaluation to determine the experimental assembly configurations of shielding benchmark experiments planned in FNS, JAERI. (1) Void Effect Experiment - The purpose of this experiment is to measure the local increase of dose and nuclear heating behind small void(s) in shield material. Dimension of the voids and its arrangements were decided as follows. Dose and nuclear heating were calculated both for with and without void(s). Minimum size of the void was determined so that the ratio of these two results may be larger than error of the measurement system. (2) Auxiliary Shield Experiment - The purpose of this experiment is to measure shielding properties of B 4 C, Pb, W, and dose around superconducting magnet (SCM). Thickness of B 4 C, Pb, W and their arrangement including multilayer configuration were determined. (3) SCM Nuclear Heating Experiment - The purpose of this experiment is to measure nuclear heating and dose distribution in SCM material. Because it is difficult to use liquid helium as a part of SCM mock up material, material composition of SCM mock up are surveyed to have similar nuclear heating property of real SCM composition

  14. Technical experience of the Belgian regulatory body regarding shielded cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortenbosch, G.; Degreef, G.; Noterman, N.; Mommaert, C.; Smidts, O.; Hasendonck, M. van; Drymael, H.; Schmitz, F.; Kennes, C.; Carlier, P.

    2010-01-01

    Radiation protection and nuclear safety are of paramount importance when operating shielded cells in hot labs and using remote handling tools. Therefore, various aspects should be ensured throughout the lifecycle of nuclear installations disposing of such type of equipment. The presented aspects are the results of the regulatory body experience with this kind of installations (licensing, operations, operating experience, events). This paper will deal with safety considerations such as filtration, fire protection, shielding, ventilation, waste management, separation of the product fluxes, leak tightness, introduction of equipment, interlocks, failsafe components, piloting software, monitoring and education/training. (orig.)

  15. Analysis of the JASPER Program Radial Shield Attenuation Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slater, C.O.

    1993-01-01

    The results of the analysis of the JASPER Program Radial Shield Attenuation Experiment are presented. The experiment was performed in 1986 at the ORNL Tower Shielding Facility. It is the first of six experiments in this cooperative Japanese and American program in support of shielding designs for advanced sodium-cooled reactors. Six different shielding configurations and subconfigurations thereof were studied. The configurations were calculated with the DOT-IV two-dimensional discrete ordinates radiation transport computer code using the R-Z geometry option, a symmetric S{sub 12} quadrature (96 directions), and cross sections from ENDF/B versions IV and V in either a 51- or 61-group structure. Auxiliary codes were used to compute detector responses and prepare cross sections and source input for the DOT-IV calculations. Calculated detector responses were compared with measured responses and the agreement was good to excellent in many cases. However, the agreement for configurations having thick steel or B{sub 4}C regions or for some very large configurations was fair to poor. The disagreement was attributed to cross-section data, broad-group structure, or high background in the measurements. In particular, it is shown that two cross-section sets for ``B give very different results for neutron transmission through the thick B{sub 4}C regions used in one set of experimental configurations. Implications for design calculations are given.

  16. Integral data testing of JENDL-3.2 for fusion reactor and shielding applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyama, Yukio

    1995-01-01

    Integral data testing of JENDL-3.2 is being performed in the activities of two working groups of the Japanese Nuclear Data Committee. The continuous and group-wise libraries prepared from JENDL-3.2 are planned to be tested by the working groups. In this paper, the continuous library FSXLIB-J3R2 processed from JENDL-3.2 for MCNP was tested for fission and fusion neutrons using data of integral experiments and compared to the results of JENDL-3.1. The results of integral data testing of JENDL-3.2 for fusion and shielding application are reviewed. (author)

  17. Engineering Physics Division integral experiments and their analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    Integral experiments are performed as part of the Engineering Physics Division's on-going research in the development and application of radiation shielding methods. Integral experiments performed at the Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator (ORELA) under the Division's Magnetic Fusion program are designed to provide data against which ORNL and all other organizations involved in shielding calculations for fusion devices can test their calculational methods and interaction data. The Tower Shielding Facility (TSF) continues to be the primary source of integral data for fission reactor shielding design. The experiments performed at the TSF during the last few years have been sponsored by the Gas Cooled Fast Reactor (GCFR) program. During this report period final documentation was also prepared for the remaining LMFBR shielding experiments, including an examination of streaming through annular slits and measurement of secondary gamma-ray production in reinforced concrete

  18. Experiment on thermal insulation and sodium deposition of shield plug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashiguchi, K.; Honda, M.; Shiratori, H.; Ozaki, O.; Suzuki, M.

    1986-01-01

    A series of experiments on temperature distribution and thermal insulation characteristics was conducted using a reduced scale model of LMFBR shield plug. Observation and measurement of sodium deposition were also conducted on the model after the experiment. The effect of annulus natural convection was clarified for temperature and the thermal insulation characteristics from evaluating the result. Temperature distribution analysis was conducted successfully by combining the general purpose structural analysis program NASTRAN and vertical annulus natural convection analysis program VANAC. Moreover, significant effect was substantiated for the annulus convection barrier to increase the thermal insulation performance, narrow horizontal gap structure to prevent sodium deposition and thermal insulation plates. (author)

  19. Shielding of the GERDA experiment against external gamma background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barabanov, I.; Bezrukov, L.; Demidova, E.; Gurentsov, V.; Kianovsky, S.; Knoepfle, K.T.; Kornouhkov, V.; Schwingenheuer, B.; Vasenko, A.

    2009-01-01

    The GERmanium Detector Array (GERDA) experiment will search for neutrinoless double beta decay of 76 Ge and is currently under construction at the INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS) in Italy. The basic design of GERDA is the use of cryogenic liquid and water of high purity as a superior shield against the hitherto dominant background from external gamma radiation. In this paper we show by Monte Carlo simulations and analytical calculations how GERDA was designed to suppress this background at Q ββ ( 76 Ge)=2039keV to a level of about 10 -4 cts/(keVkgy).

  20. Optimization of Photovoltaic Performance Through the Integration of Electrodynamic Dust Shield Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nason, Steven; Davis, Kris; Hickman, Nicoleta; McFall, Judith; Arens, Ellen; Calle, Carlos

    2009-01-01

    The viability of photovoltaics on the Lunar and Martian surfaces may be determined by their ability to withstand significant degradation in the Lunar and Martian environments. One of the greatest threats is posed by fine dust particles which are continually blown about the surfaces. In an effort to determine the extent of the threat, and to investigate some abatement strategies, a series of experiments were conducted outdoors and in the Moon and Mars environmental chamber at the Florida Solar Energy Center. Electrodynamic dust shield prototypes based on the electric curtain concept have been developed by our collaborators at the Kennedy Space Center [1]. These thin film layers can remove dust from surfaces and prevent dust accumulation. Several types of dust shields were designed, built and tested under high vacuum conditions and simulated lunar gravity to validate the technology for lunar exploration applications. Gallium arsenide, single crystal and polycrystalline silicon photovoltaic integrated devices were designed, built and tested under Moon and Mars environmental conditions as well as under ambient conditions. Photovoltaic efficiency measurements were performed on each individual cell with the following configurations; without an encapsulation layer, with a glass covering, and with various thin film dust shields. It was found that the PV efficiency of the hybrid systems was unaffected by these various thin film dust shields, proving that the optical transmission of light through the device is virtually uninhibited by these layers. The future goal of this project is to incorporate a photovoltaic cell as the power source for the electrodynamic dust shield system, and experimentally show the effective removal of dust obstructing any light incident on the cell, thus insuring power production is maximized over time.

  1. Improving electrical equipment and control systems for shield integrated mining systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabinovich, Z.M.; Starikov, B.Ya.; Kibrik, I.S.

    1984-06-01

    The design and operation are discussed for electrical equipment and control systems for the 1AShchM, the ANShch and the 2ANShch shield integrated face systems consisting of shield supports, coal plow and chain conveyor. The shield system is used for mining inclined and steep coal seams endangered by coal dust explosions, methane or rock bursts. Control and electrical system for 3 types of shield face mining systems is similar. It cuts energy supply when methane content at working faces exceeds the maximum permissible level, controls haulage rate and cutting rate of a coal plow, controls operation of shield supports (using the Sirena system), controls dust suppression system and its water consumption. The system is also equipped with communications equipment. Tests of the control and electrical system for the integrated shield system carried out in the im. Gagarin mine in the Ukraine are described. The VAUS III control system developed by Dongiprouglemash was tested.

  2. Annotated references on shielding experiment and calculation of high energy particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirayama, H.; Ban, S.; Nakamura, T.

    1990-12-01

    The literature on shielding experiment and calculation of high energy particles above 20 MeV has been surveyed. The survey covers thirteen journals, from 1965 up to 1989. For each paper, applicable information is listed on type and energy of the projectile, the accelerator used, composition and thickness of the target and shielding materials, shielding geometry, the experimental and calculational methods, and the quantities obtained. The references on shielding experiment and on shielding calculation are accessed through two indices which list the projectile-target and shielding material combination, shielding geometry and the projectile energy range. The literature on neutron, photon and hadron production from thick target bombarded by charged particles has been surveyed mainly from 1984 as a complement of the previous work. (author)

  3. Calculation of parameters for an iron shield experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavazza, S.

    1986-01-01

    In this text is carreid out the evaluation of radiation transport methodology, comparying the calculated reactions and dose rates, for neutrons and gama-rays, with the experimental measurements obtained on iron shield, irradiated in YAYOI reactor. Were employed the ENDF/B-IV and VITAMIN-C libraries and the AMPX-II modular system for generation of cross sections, collapsed by the ANISN code. The tranpsort calculations were made by using the DOT 3.5 code, adjusting the spectrum of the iron shield boundary source to the reaction and doses rates, measured at the beginning of shield. The distributions calculated for neutrons and gamma-rays, on iron shield, presented reasonable concordance with the experimental measurements. Finally, is presented a proposal for setting up of an experimental arrangement, using the IEA-R1 reactor, with the purpose of lay down a shielding benchmark. (Author) [pt

  4. Review of ORNL-TSF shielding experiments for the gas-cooled Fast Breeder Reactor Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, L.S.; Ingersoll, D.T.; Muckenthaler, F.J.; Slater, C.O.

    1982-01-01

    During the period between 1975 and 1980 a series of experiments was performed at the ORNL Tower Shielding Facility in support of the shield design for a 300-MW(e) Gas Cooled Fast Breeder Demonstration Plant. This report reviews the experiments and calculations, which included studies of: (1) neutron streaming in the helium coolant passageways in the GCFR core; (2) the effectiveness of the shield designed to protect the reactor grid plate from radiation damage; (3) the adequacy of the radial shield in protecting the PCRV (prestressed concrete reactor vessel) from radiation damage; (4) neutron streaming between abutting sections of the radial shield; and (5) the effectiveness of the exit shield in reducing the neutron fluxes in the upper plenum region of the reactor

  5. Shielding experiments in different materials with 252Cf neutron spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathian, Deepa; Marathe, P.K.; Pal, Rupali; Jayalakshmi, V.; Chourasiya, G.; Mayya, Y.S.

    2008-01-01

    Adequate shielding for neutron sources can be determined using analytical method or by actually measuring the attenuation for the target configuration. This paper describes the measurement of Half Value Thickness (HVT), Tenth Value Thickness (TVT), Σ values for four different shielding materials, using a standard 252 Cf neutron source and comparing with the values calculated using an empirical relationship. BF 3 based REM-counter is used for measurement of neutron dose equivalent, against different thickness of the shielding material. The experimental HVT and S values are in good agreement with the calculated values. From this study, it is concluded that, among the four materials studied, high density polyethylene (HDPE) is best suitable for the shielding of a 252 Cf neutron source. (author)

  6. U.S. integral and benchmark experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maienschein, F.C.

    1978-01-01

    Verification of methods for analysis of radiation-transport (shielding) problems in Liquid-Metal Fast Breeder Reactors has required a series of experiments that can be classified as benchmark, parametric, or design-confirmation experiments. These experiments, performed at the Oak Ridge Tower Shielding Facility, have included measurements of neutron transport in bulk shields of sodium, steel, and inconel and in configurations that simulate lower axial shields, pipe chases, and top-head shields. They have also included measurements of the effects of fuel stored within the reactor vessel and of gamma-ray energy deposition (heating). The paper consists of brief comments on these experiments, and also on a recent experiment in which neutron streaming problems in a Gas-Cooled Fast Breeder Reactor were studied. The need for additional experiments for a few areas of LMFBR shielding is also cited

  7. Shielding estimation for nuclear medicine therapy ward: our experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skopljak-Beganovic, A.; Kucukalic-Selimovic, E.; Beganovic, A.; Drljevic, A.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The aim of this study was to calculate and estimate the shielding thickness for a new Nuclear Medicine Therapy Ward. Parameters available for shielding calculation were: ground plan of the ward, radionuclides planned for use, maximum administered activity of I-131, maximum delivered activity of I-131 to the ward per week, average time spent in the hospital after the treatment. The most hazardous and most commonly used radioisotope is I-131. The target dose that needs to be met for occupationally exposed workers is 0.3 mSv per year. There are several factors that could be changed in order to achieve this value: distance from the source, shielding thickness, angle of incidence, occupational and usage factors. The maximum dose rate at 1 meter from the thyroid gland of the patient was considered to be 100 mSv/h. The distances and incidence angles could not be changed since these vales were predetermined in the ground plan. Different usage and occupational factors were used for different rooms in the ward. We used occupational factor 1 for the bed and 1/6 for the bathroom, and usage factor 1 for nurses' room and patient room and 1/6 for the corridors, etc. The easiest way of calculating dose attenuation in material was by introducing the HVL and TVL for broad beams. TVL and HVL were taken from the graph.The results show that shielding thickness should be in the range of 3 mmPb for room doors to 30 mmPb for the wall adjacent to the nurse's office. Most of the walls are 20 mmPb thick. These values were calculated using conservative assumptions and are more then enough to protect staff, patients and public from external radiation. If the construction cannot support the weight of lead some rearrangements regarding patient positions could be made. (author)

  8. Calculation of neutron and gamma ray energy spectra for fusion reactor shield design: comparison with experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santoro, R.T.; Alsmiller, R.G. Jr.; Barnes, J.M.; Chapman, G.T.

    1980-08-01

    Integral experiments that measure the transport of approx. 14 MeV D-T neutrons through laminated slabs of proposed fusion reactor shield materials have been carried out. Measured and calculated neutron and gamma ray energy spectra are compared as a function of the thickness and composition of stainless steel type 304, borated polyethylene, and Hevimet (a tungsten alloy), and as a function of detector position behind these materials. The measured data were obtained using a NE-213 liquid scintillator using pulse-shape discrimination methods to resolve neutron and gamma ray pulse height data and spectral unfolding methods to convert these data to energy spectra. The calculated data were obtained using two-dimensional discrete ordinates radiation transport methods in a complex calculational network that takes into account the energy-angle dependence of the D-T neutrons and the nonphysical anomalies of the S/sub n/ method

  9. Ice shielding in the large scale GENIUS experiment for double beta decay and dark matter search

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, H.V.; Zdesenko, Yu.G.

    1998-01-01

    We suggest here the use of ice as shielding material in the large scale GENIUS experiment for the ultimate sensitive double beta decay and dark matter search. The idea is to pack a working volume of several tons of liquid nitrogen, which contains the ''naked'' Ge detectors, inside an ice shielding. Very thin plastic foil would be used in order to prevent leakage of the liquid nitrogen. Due to the excellent advantages of ice shielding (high purity and low cost, self-supporting ability, thermo-isolation and optical properties, safety) this could be another possible way of realization of the GENIUS project. (orig.)

  10. Study and application of high-density concrete in radiation-shielding experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Chongming; Ding Dexin; Xiao Xuefu; Wang Shaolin; Lin Xingjun; Shen Yuanyuan

    2008-01-01

    According to the demand for research and construction project, a series of systematic experiments and studies on shielding γ-ray radiation concrete with the density of 4.60 t/m 3 were made in such aspects as mix ratio design, construction technology, uniformly shielding etc. Such issues as uniformity in the construction and compactness were solved. The ray test method for uniformly shielding concrete was presented and some technical steps for this high-density concrete used in the process of test design or construction were summed up. A series of tests and practical applications show that this technology of mix ratio design and construction is feasible. (authors)

  11. Integrated evaluation of the geology, aerogammaspectrometry and aeromagnetometry of the Sul-Riograndense Shield, southernmost Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Léo A; Lopes, William R; Savian, Jairo F

    2016-03-01

    An integrated evaluation of geology, aerogammaspectrometry and aeromagnetometry of the Sul-Riogran-dense Shield is permitted by the advanced stage of understanding of the geology and geochronology of the southern Brazilian Shield and a 2010 airborne geophysical survey. Gamma rays are registered from the rocks near the surface and thus describe the distribution of major units in the shield, such as the Pelotas batholith, the juvenile São Gabriel terrane, the granulite-amphibolite facies Taquarembó terrane and the numerous granite intrusions in the foreland. Major structures are also observed, e.g., the Dorsal de Canguçu shear. Magnetic signals register near surface crustal compositions (analytic signal) and total crust composition (total magnetic signal), so their variation as measured indicates either shallow or whole crustal structures. The Caçapava shear is outstanding on the images as is the magnetic low along the N-S central portion of the shield. These integrated observations lead to the deepening of the understanding of the largest and even detailed structures of the Sul-Riograndense Shield, some to be correlated to field geology in future studies. Most significant is the presence of different provinces and their limits depending on the method used for data acquisition - geology, aerogammaspectrometry or aeromagnetometry.

  12. Experiment and analysis of CASTOR type model cask for verification of radiation shielding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hattori, Seiichi; Ueki, Kohtaro.

    1988-08-01

    The radiation shielding system of CASTOR type cask is composed of the graphite cast iron and the polyethylene lod. The former fomes the cylndrical body of the cask to shield gamma rays and the latter is embeded in the body to shield neutrons. Characteristic of radiation shielding of CASTOR type cask is that zigzag arrangement of the polyethylene lod is adopted to unify the penetrating dose rate. It is necessary to use the three-dimensional analysis code to analyse the shielding performance of the cask with the complicated shielding system precisely. However, it takes too much time as well as too much cost. Therefore, the two-dimensional analysis is usually applied, in which the three-dimensional model is equivalently transformed into the two-dimensional calculation. The reseach study was conducted to verify the application of the two-dimensional analysis, in which the experiment and the analysis using CASTOR type model cask was perfomed. The model cask was manufactured by GNS campany in West Germany and the shielding ability test facilities in CRIEPI were used. It was judged from the study that the two-dimensional analysis is useful means for the practical use.

  13. Some experience of shielding calculations by combinatorial method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korobejnikov, V.V.; Oussanov, V.I.

    1996-01-01

    Some aspects of the compound systems shielding calculations by a combinatorial approach are discussed. The effectiveness of such an approach is based on the fundamental characteristic of a compound system: if some element of the system have in itself mathematical or physical properties favorable for calculation, these properties may be used in a combinatorial approach and are lost when the system is being calculated in the whole by a direct approach. The combinatorial technique applied is well known. A compound system are being splitting for two or more auxiliary subsystems (so that calculation each of them is a more simple problem than calculation of the original problem (or at last is a soluble problem if original one is not). Calculation of every subsystem are carried out by suitable method and code, the coupling being made through boundary conditions or boundary source. The special consideration in the paper is given to a fast reactor shielding combinatorial analysis and to the testing of the results received. (author)

  14. Effect of neutrons scattered from boundary of neutron field on shielding experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Tatsuhiko; Abe, Takuya; Kosako, Toshiso; Iimoto, Takeshi

    2009-01-01

    Neutron shielding experiment with 49 cm-thick ordinary concrete was carried out at the reactor 'Yayoi' The University of Tokyo. System of this experiment is enclosed by heavy concrete where neutrons backscattered from heavy concrete likely affected neutron flux on the back surface of shielding concrete. Reaction rate of 197 Au(n, γ), cadmium covered 197 Au(n, γ) and 115 In(n, n') in the shielding concrete was measured using foil activation method. Neutron transport calculation was carried out in order to simulate reaction rate by calculating neutron spectra and convoluting with neutron capture cross-section in neutron shielding concrete. Comparison was made between calculated reaction rate and experimental one, and almost satisfactory agreement was found except for the back surface of shielding. To compose adequate simulation model, description of heavy concrete behind the shielding was thought to be of importance. For example, disregarding neutrons backscattered from heavy concrete, calculation underestimated reaction rate by the factor of 10. In another example, assuming that chemical composition of heavy concrete is equal to the composition adopted from a literature, the reaction rate was overestimated by factor of 5. By making the composition of heavy concrete equal to that based on facility design, overestimation was found to be the factor of 2. Therefore, adequate description of chemical composition of heavy concrete is found to be of importance in order to simulate neutron induced reaction rate on the back surface of neutron shielding concrete in shielding experiment performed in a system enclosed by heavy concrete. (author)

  15. Shielding analysis of the LMR in-vessel fuel storage experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bucholz, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    The In-Vessel Fuel Storage (IVFS) experiments analyzed in this paper were conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Tower Shielding Reactor (TSR) as part of the Japanese-American Shielding Program for Experimental Research (JASPER). These IVFS experiments were designed to study source multiplication and three-dimensional effects related to in-vessel storage of spent fuel elements in liquid metal reactor (LMR) systems. The present paper describes the 2- and 3-D calculations and results corresponding to a limited subset of those IVFS experiments in which the US LMR program had a particular interest

  16. Progress on establishing guidelines for National Ignition Facility (NIF) experiments to extend debris shield lifetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobin, M.; Eder, D.; Braun, D.; MacGowan, B.

    2002-01-01

    The survivability of the debris shields on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) are a key factor for the affordable operation of the facility. The improvements required over Nova debris shields are described. Estimates of debris shield lifetimes in the presence of target emissions with 4-8 J/cm 2 laser fluences indicate lifetimes that may contribute unacceptably to operations costs for NIF. We are developing detailed suggested guidance for target and experiment designers for NIF to assist in minimizing the damage to, and therefore the cost of, maintaining NIF debris shields. The guidance suggests a target mass quantity that as particulate on the debris shields (300 mg) may be within current operating budgets. It also suggests the amount of material that should become shrapnel on a shot (10 mg). Finally, it suggests the level of non-volatile residue (NVR) that would threaten the sol-gel coatings on the debris shields (1 μg/cm 2 ). We review the experimentation on the Nova chamber that included measuring quantities of particulate on debris shields by element and capturing shrapnel pieces in aerogel samples mounted in the chamber. We also describe computations of X-ray emissions from a likely NIF target and the associated ablation expected from this X-ray exposure on supporting target hardware. We describe progress in assessing the benefits of a pre-shield and the possible impact on the guidance for target experiments on NIF. Plans for possible experimentation on Omega and other facilities to improve our understanding of target emissions and their impacts are discussed. Our discussion of planned future work provides a forum to invite possible collaboration with the IFE community

  17. Fusion Ignition Research Experiment System Integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, T.

    1999-01-01

    The FIRE (Fusion Ignition Research Experiment) configuration has been designed to meet the physics objectives and subsystem requirements in an arrangement that allows remote maintenance of in-vessel components and hands-on maintenance of components outside the TF (toroidal-field) boundary. The general arrangement consists of sixteen wedged-shaped TF coils that surround a free-standing central solenoid (CS), a double-wall vacuum vessel and internal plasma-facing components. A center tie rod is used to help support the vertical magnetic loads and a compression ring is used to maintain wedge pressure in the inboard corners of the TF coils. The magnets are liquid nitrogen cooled and the entire device is surrounded by a thermal enclosure. The double-wall vacuum vessel integrates cooling and shielding in a shape that maximizes shielding of ex-vessel components. The FIRE configuration development and integration process has evolved from an early stage of concept selection to a higher level of machine definition and component details. This paper describes the status of the configuration development and the integration of the major subsystem components

  18. Mock-up experiment and analysis for the primary shield of the N.S. MUTSU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyasaka, S.; Asaoka, T.; Taji, Y.; Ise, T.; Koyama, K.; Tsutsui, T.; Takeuchi, M.; Fuse, T.; Miura, T.; Yamaji, Y.

    1977-01-01

    A series of shielding mock-up experiments was performed at JRR-4, a swimming pool type reactor, of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) to obtain the necessary experimental data and the sufficiently accurate method of calculation adopted for the modification of the MUTSU primary shield. Analyses for the experiments were carried out by using of the Ssub(n) codes, ANISN and TWOTRAN. The two dimensional calculations were performed with the P 1 -S 8 approximation. The neutron streaming through the annular gap between the pressure vessel and the primary shield has been confirmed to be estimated from the present method of calculation. The agreement between the calculated and the measured values is generally in about a factor of 2 to 4. (orig.) [de

  19. Electrodynamic Dust Shield for Lunar/ISS Experiment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Electrostatics and Surface Physics Laboratory at Kennedy Space Center is developing a dust mitigation experiment and testing it on the lunar surface and on the...

  20. On active shieldings in (ββ)0ν 76Ge decay experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, E.; Morales, A.; Morales, J.; Nunez-Lagos, R.; Ortiz de Solorzano, A.; Puimedon, J.; Saenz, C.; Salinas, A.; Sarsa, M.L.; Villar, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    The sensitivity of an ultra low background Ge detector for the (ββ) 0ν decay of 76 Ge is estimated in two different experimental set-ups. The main difference between them is the inclusion or not of an active NaI shielding. We find that sensitivity of the Ge detector is not improved by this active shielding either for the O + -->O + or the O + -->2 + (ββ) 0ν transitions. Our results provide a valuable information for future 76 Ge enriched experiments. (orig.)

  1. Shielding plugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makishima, Kenji.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: In shielding plugs of an LMFBR type reactor, to restrain natural convection of heat in an annular space between a thermal shield layer and a shield shell, to prevent the lowering of heat-insulation performance, and to alleviate a thermal stress in a reactor container and the shield shell. Constitution: A ring-like leaf spring split in the direction of height is disposed in an annular space between a thermal shield layer and a shield shell. In consequence, the space is partitioned in the direction of height and, therefore, if axial temperature conditions and space width are the same and the space is low, the natural convection is hard to occur. Thus the rise of upper surface temperature of the shielding plugs can prevent the lowering of the heat insulation performance which will result in the increment of shielding plug cooling capacity, thereby improving reliability. In the meantime, since there is mounted an earthquake-resisting support, the thermal shield layer will move for a slight gap in case of an earthquake, being supported by the earthquake-resisting support, and the movement of the thermal shield layer is restricted, thereby maintaining integrity without increasing the stroke of the ring-like spring. (Kawakami, Y.)

  2. Discrete nodal integral transport-theory method for multidimensional reactor physics and shielding calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, R.D.; Dorning, J.J.

    1980-01-01

    A coarse-mesh discrete nodal integral transport theory method has been developed for the efficient numerical solution of multidimensional transport problems of interest in reactor physics and shielding applications. The method, which is the discrete transport theory analogue and logical extension of the nodal Green's function method previously developed for multidimensional neutron diffusion problems, utilizes the same transverse integration procedure to reduce the multidimensional equations to coupled one-dimensional equations. This is followed by the conversion of the differential equations to local, one-dimensional, in-node integral equations by integrating back along neutron flight paths. One-dimensional and two-dimensional transport theory test problems have been systematically studied to verify the superior computational efficiency of the new method

  3. Assessment of shielding integrity of Co-60 gamma irradiation-ray scanner at Aflao Border, Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agbemafo, Edwin Capacity

    2016-07-01

    This study examines the current state of the shielding integrity of the 38.7 TBq Co-60 gamma ray scanner with an average energy of 1.25 MeV operated by NICK TC Scan Limited, which has been in use for destination inspection at Aflao Border of Ghana, for the past six years, (2010-2016). The facility uses a high energy ionizing radiation in its operation; therefore continuous adequacy of the installed biological shielding is critical to the protection and safety of the workers and the general public. The workload of the facility has increased since its commissioning, requiring the review of the status of the installed shielding. Theoretical calculations for dose rates and barrier thicknesses based on tenth – value layer (TVL) concept and NCRP 151, 2005 recommendations, were done around the scanning facility using the current operational data. The results were then compared with the measured dose rates and the shielding thickness constituted during the commissioning stage, and international standards. Calculated dose rate at commissioning state ranges from 0.6μSv/hr to 2.4μSv/hr with an average dose rate of 1.43μSv/hr and that of the current operational state ranges from 1.1μSv/hr to 2.6μSv/hr with an average dose rate of 1.54μSv/hr, indicating an increase of 7.9%. Even though the dose rates were all below the recommended dose limit of 20μSvh"-"1 by NCRP, there has been an increase in dose to the staff and the general public. It has been observed that, the workload has increased three-fold from the commissioning stage to current operational state over the past six years. The assessment done on the installed shielding using the current operational data indicates that the shielding is inadequate in providing protection for the general public and the workers against X-ray radiation source of energy of at least 6MeV, and therefore the facility in its current state cannot be used to house a linear accelerator of energy up to 10MeV. (au)

  4. Bench-mark experiments to study the neutron distribution in a heterogeneous reactor shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolyatko, V.V.; Vyrskij, M.Yu.; Mashkovich, V.P.; Nagaev, R.Kh.; Prit'mov, A.P.; Sakharov, V.K.; Troshin, V.S.; Tikhonov, E.G.

    1981-01-01

    The bench-mark experiments performed at the B-2 facility of the BR-10 reactor to investigate the spatial and energy neutron distributions are described. The experimental facility includes the neutron beam channel with a slide, a mo shielding composition investigated consisted of sequential layers of steel (1KH18N9T) and graphite slabs. The neutron spectra were measured by activation method, a set of treshold and resonance detectors having been used. The detectors made it possible to obtain the absolute neutron spectra in the 1.4 eV-10 MeV range. The comparison of calculations with the results of the bench-mark experiments made it possible to prove the neutron transport calculational model realized in the ROZ-9 and ARAMAKO-2F computer codes and evaluate the validity of the ARAMAKO constants for the class of shielding compositions in question [ru

  5. Monte Carlo-based development of a shield and total background estimation for the COBRA experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidrich, Nadine

    2014-11-01

    The COBRA experiment aims for the measurement of the neutrinoless double beta decay and thus for the determination the effective Majorana mass of the neutrino. To be competitive with other next-generation experiments the background rate has to be in the order of 10 -3 counts/kg/keV/yr, which is a challenging criterion. This thesis deals with the development of a shield design and the calculation of the expected total background rate for the large scale COBRA experiment containing 13824 6 cm 3 CdZnTe detectors. For the development of a shield single-layer and multi-layer shields were investigated and a shield design was optimized concerning high-energy muon-induced neutrons. As the best design the combination of 10 cm boron doped polyethylene as outermost layer, 20 cm lead and 10 cm copper as innermost layer were determined. It showed the best performance regarding neutron attenuation as well as (n, γ) self-shielding effects leading to a negligible background rate of less than 2.10 -6 counts/kg/keV/yr. Additionally. the shield with a thickness of 40 cm is compact and costeffective. In the next step the expected total background rate was computed taking into account individual setup parts and various background sources including natural and man-made radioactivity, cosmic ray-induced background and thermal neutrons. Furthermore, a comparison of measured data from the COBRA demonstrator setup with Monte Carlo data was used to calculate reliable contamination levels of the single setup parts. The calculation was performed conservatively to prevent an underestimation. In addition, the contribution to the total background rate regarding the individual detector parts and background sources was investigated. The main portion arise from the Delrin support structure, the Glyptal lacquer followed by the circuit board of the high voltage supply. Most background events originate from particles with a quantity of 99 % in total. Regarding surface events a contribution of 26

  6. Monte Carlo-based development of a shield and total background estimation for the COBRA experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heidrich, Nadine

    2014-11-15

    The COBRA experiment aims for the measurement of the neutrinoless double beta decay and thus for the determination the effective Majorana mass of the neutrino. To be competitive with other next-generation experiments the background rate has to be in the order of 10{sup -3} counts/kg/keV/yr, which is a challenging criterion. This thesis deals with the development of a shield design and the calculation of the expected total background rate for the large scale COBRA experiment containing 13824 6 cm{sup 3} CdZnTe detectors. For the development of a shield single-layer and multi-layer shields were investigated and a shield design was optimized concerning high-energy muon-induced neutrons. As the best design the combination of 10 cm boron doped polyethylene as outermost layer, 20 cm lead and 10 cm copper as innermost layer were determined. It showed the best performance regarding neutron attenuation as well as (n, γ) self-shielding effects leading to a negligible background rate of less than 2.10{sup -6} counts/kg/keV/yr. Additionally. the shield with a thickness of 40 cm is compact and costeffective. In the next step the expected total background rate was computed taking into account individual setup parts and various background sources including natural and man-made radioactivity, cosmic ray-induced background and thermal neutrons. Furthermore, a comparison of measured data from the COBRA demonstrator setup with Monte Carlo data was used to calculate reliable contamination levels of the single setup parts. The calculation was performed conservatively to prevent an underestimation. In addition, the contribution to the total background rate regarding the individual detector parts and background sources was investigated. The main portion arise from the Delrin support structure, the Glyptal lacquer followed by the circuit board of the high voltage supply. Most background events originate from particles with a quantity of 99 % in total. Regarding surface events a

  7. Technology Integration Experiences of Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çoklar, Ahmet Naci; Yurdakul, Isil Kabakçi

    2017-01-01

    Teachers are important providers of educational sustainability. Teachers' ability to adapt themselves to rapidly developing technologies applicable to learning environments is connected with technology integration. The purpose of this study is to investigate teachers' technology integration experiences in the course of learning and teaching…

  8. Hybrid Active-Passive Radiation Shielding System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A radiation shielding system is proposed that integrates active magnetic fields with passive shielding materials. The objective is to increase the shielding...

  9. Design of an integral missile shield in integrated head assembly for pressurized water reactor at commercial nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baliga, Ravi; Watts, Tom Neal; Kamath, Harish

    2015-01-01

    In ICONE22, the authors presented the Integrated Head Assembly (IHA) design concept implemented at Callaway Nuclear Power Plant in Missouri, USA. The IHA concept is implemented to reduce the outage duration and the associated radiation exposure to the workers by reducing critical path time during Plant Refueling Outage. One of the head area components in the IHA is a steel missile shield designed to protect the Control Rod Drive Mechanism (CRDM) assembly from damaging other safety-related components in the vicinity in the Containment. Per Federally implemented General Design Criteria for commercial nuclear plants in the USA, the design of Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) must provide protection from the damages caused by a postulated event of CRDM housing units and their associated parts disengaging from the reactor vessel assembly. This event is considered as a Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) and assumes that once the CRDM housing unit and their associated parts disengage from the reactor vessel internals assembly, they travel upward by the water jet with the following sequence of events: Per Reference 1, the drive shaft and control rod cluster are forced out of the reactor core by the differential pressure across the drive shaft with the assumption that the drive shaft and control rod cluster, latched together, are fully inserted when the accident occurs. After the travel, the rod cluster control spider will impact the lower side of the upper support plate inside the reactor vessel fracturing the flexure arms in the joint freeing the drive shaft from the control rod cluster. The control rod cluster is stopped by the upper support plate and will remain below the upper support plate during this accident. However, the drive shaft will continue to accelerate in the upward direction until it is stopped by a safety feature in the IHA. The integral missile shield as a safety feature in the IHA is designed to stop the CRDM drive shaft from moving further up in the

  10. Nuclear data for radiation shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyasaka, Shunichi; Takahashi, Hiroshi.

    1976-01-01

    The third shielding expert conference was convened in Paris in Oct. 1975 for exchanging informations about the sensitivity evaluation of nuclear data in shielding calculation and integral bench mark experiment. The requirements about nuclear data presented at present from the field of nuclear design do not reflect sufficiently the requirements of shielding design, therefore it was the object to gather the requirements about nuclear data from the field of shielding. The nuclides used for shielding are numerous, and the nuclear data on these isotopes are required. Some of them cannot be ignored as the source of secondary γ-ray or in view of the radioactivation of materials. The requirements for the nuclear data of neutrons in the field of shielding are those concerning the reaction cross sections producing secondary γ-ray, the reaction cross sections including the production of secondary neutrons, elastic scattering cross sections, and total cross sections. The topics in the Paris conference about neutron shielding data are described, such as the methodology of sensitivity evaluation, the standardization of group constant libraries, the bench mark experiment on iron and sodium, and the cross section of γ-ray production. In the shielding of nuclear fission reactors, the γ-ray production owing to nuclear fission reaction is also important. In (d, t) fusion reactors, high energy neutrons are generated, and high energy γ-ray is emitted through giant E1 resonance. (Kako, I.)

  11. Characterisation of superconducting capillaries for magnetic shielding of twisted-wire pairs in a neutron electric dipole moment experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry, S., E-mail: s.henry@physics.ox.ac.uk; Pipe, M.; Cottle, A.; Clarke, C.; Divakar, U.; Lynch, A.

    2014-11-01

    The cryoEDM neutron electric dipole moment experiment requires a SQUID magnetometry system with pick-up loops inside a magnetically shielded volume connected to SQUID sensors by long (up to 2 m) twisted-wire pairs (TWPs). These wires run outside the main shield, and therefore must run through superconducting capillaries to screen unwanted magnetic pick-up. We show that the average measured transverse magnetic pick-up of a set of lengths of TWPs is equivalent to a loop area of 5.0×10{sup −6} m{sup 2}/m, or 14 twists per metre. From this we set the requirement that the magnetic shielding factor of the superconducting capillaries used in the cryoEDM system must be greater than 8.0×10{sup 4}. The shielding factor—the ratio of the signal picked-up by an unshielded TWP to that induced in a shielded TWP—was measured for a selection of superconducting capillaries made from solder wire. We conclude the transverse shielding factor of a uniform capillary is greater than 10{sup 7}. The measured pick-up was equal to, or less than that due to direct coupling to the SQUID sensor (measured without any TWP attached). We show that discontinuities in the capillaries substantially impair the magnetic shielding, yet if suitably repaired, this can be restored to the shielding factor of an unbroken capillary. We have constructed shielding assemblies for cryoEDM made from lengths of single core and triple core solder capillaries, joined by a shielded Pb cylinder, incorporating a heater to heat the wires above the superconducting transition as required.

  12. The trade experiment: Shielding calculations for the building hosting the subcritical system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burn, K. W.; Carta, M.; Casalini, L.; Kadi, Y.; Monti, S.; Nava, E.; Palomba, M.; Petrovich, C.; Picardi, L.; Rubbia, C.; Troiani, F.

    2005-01-01

    The TRADE project (TRIGA Accelerator Driven Experiment), to be performed at the existing TRIGA reactor at ENEA Casaccia, has been proposed as a validation of the accelerator-driven system (ADS) concept. TRADE will be the first experiment in which the three main components of an ADS-the accelerator, spallation target and sub-critical blanket-are coupled at a power level sufficient to encounter reactivity feedback effects. As such, TRADE represents the necessary intermediate step in the development of hybrid transmutation systems, its expected outcomes being considered crucial-in terms of proof of stability of operation, dynamic behaviour and licensing issues-for the subsequent realisation of an ADS Transmutation Demonstrator. An essential role in the feasibility study of the experiment is played by radioprotection calculations. Such a system exhibits new characteristics with respect to a traditional reactor, owing to the presence of the proton accelerator. As beam losses always occur under normal operating conditions of an accelerator, shielding studies need to be performed not only around the reactor but also along the beam line from the accelerator to the spallation target. This paper illustrates a preliminary evaluation, using Monte Carlo methods, of the additional shielding to be located around the reactor structures, the beam transport line and the existing reactor building to allow access into the reactor hall and to restrict the doses outside to their legal limits. (authors)

  13. The stainless steel bulk shielding benchmark experiment at the Frascati Neutron Generator (FNG)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batistoni, P.; Angelone, M.; Martone, M.; Petrizzi, L.; Pillon, M.; Rado, V.; Santamarina, A.; Abidi, I.; Gastaldi, G.; Joyer, P.; Marquette, J.P.; Martini, M.

    1994-01-01

    In the framework of the European Technology Program for NET/ITER, ENEA (Ente Nazionale per le Nuove Tecnologie, l'Energia e l'Ambiente), Frascati and CEA (Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique), Cadarache, are collaborating on a bulk shielding benchmark experiment using the 14 MeV Frascati Neutron Generator (FNG). The aim of the experiment is to obtain accurate experimental data for improving the nuclear database and methods used in the shielding designs, through a rigorous analysis of the results. The experiment consists of the irradiation of a stainless steel block by 14 MeV neutrons. The neutron flux and spectra at different depths, up to 65 cm inside the block, are measured by fission chambers and activation foils characterized by different energy response ranges. The γ-ray dose measurements are performed with ionization chambers and thermo-luminescent dosimeters (TLD). The first results are presented, as well as the comparison with calculations using the cross section library EFF (European Fusion File). ((orig.))

  14. The Benchmark experiment on stainless steel bulk shielding at the Frascati neutron generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batistoni, P.; Angelone, M.; Martone, M.; Pillon, M.; Rado, V.

    1994-11-01

    In the framework of the European Technology Program for NET/ITER, ENEA (Italian Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Environment) - Frascati and CEA (Commissariat a L'Energie Atomique) - Cadarache collaborated on a Bulk Shield Benchmark Experiment using the 14-MeV Frascati Neutron Generator (FNG). The aim of the experiment was to obtain accurate experimental data for improving the nuclear database and methods used in shielding designs, through a rigorous analysis of the results. The experiment consisted of the irradiation of a stainless steel block by 14-MeV neutrons. The neutron reaction rates at different depths inside the block were measured by fission chambers and activation foils characterized by different energy response ranges. The experimental results have been compared with numerical results calculated using both S N and Monte Carlo transport codes and as transport cross section library the European Fusion File (EFF). In particular, the present report describes the experimental and numerical activity, including neutron measurements and Monte Carlo calculations, carried out by the ENEA Italian Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Environment) team

  15. Integrated evaluation of the geology, aero gamma spectrometry and aero magnetometry of the Sul-Riograndense Shield, southernmost Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann, Leo A.; Savian, Jairo F., E-mail: leo.hartmann@ufrgs.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Instituto de Geociencias; Lopes, William R. [Servico Geologico do Brasil (CPRM), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Gerencia de Geologia e Mineracao

    2016-03-15

    An integrated evaluation of geology, aero gamma spectrometry and aero magnetometry of the Sul-Riograndense Shield is permitted by the advanced stage of understanding of the geology and geochronology of the southern Brazilian Shield and a 2010 airborne geophysical survey. Gamma rays are registered from the rocks near the surface and thus describe the distribution of major units in the shield, such as the Pelotas batholith, the juvenile São Gabriel terrane, the granulite-amphibolite facies Taquarembo terrane and the numerous granite intrusions in the foreland. Major structures are also observed, e.g., the Dorsal de Cangucu shear. Magnetic signals register near surface crustal compositions (analytic signal) and total crust composition (total magnetic signal), so their variation as measured indicates either shallow or whole crustal structures. The Cacapava shear is outstanding on the images as is the magnetic low along the N-S central portion of the shield. These integrated observations lead to the deepening of the understanding of the largest and even detailed structures of the Sul-Riograndense Shield, some to be correlated to field geology in future studies. Most significant is the presence of different provinces and their limits depending on the method used for data acquisition - geology, aero gamma spectrometry or aero magnetometry. (author)

  16. Development of a shield based on Monte-Carlo studies for the COBRA experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heidrich, Nadine [Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Collaboration: COBRA-Collaboration

    2013-07-01

    COBRA is a next-generation experiment searching for neutrinoless double beta decay using CdZnTe semiconductor detectors. The main focus is on {sup 116}Cd, with a decay energy of 2813.5 keV well above the highest naturally occurring gamma lines. The concept for a large scale set-up consists of an array of CdZnTe detectors with a total mass of 420 kg enriched in {sup 116}Cd up to 90 %. With a background rate in the order of 10{sup -3} counts/keV/kg/year, the experiment would be sensitive to a half-life larger than 10{sup 26} years, corresponding to a Majorana mass term m{sub ββ} smaller than 50 meV. To achieve the background level, an appropriate shield is necessary. The shield is developed based on Monte-Carlo simulations. For that, different materials and configurations are tested. In the talk the current status of the Monte-Carlo survey is presented and discussed.

  17. A novel optically transparent RF shielding for fully integrated PET/MRI systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parl, C.; Kolb, A.; Schmid, A. M.; Wehrl, H. F.; Disselhorst, J. A.; Soubiran, P. D.; Stricker-Shaver, D.; Pichler, B. J.

    2017-09-01

    Preclinical imaging benefits from simultaneous acquisition of high-resolution anatomical and molecular data. Additionally, PET/MRI systems can provide functional PET and functional MRI data. To optimize PET sensitivity, we propose a system design that fully integrates the MRI coil into the PET system. This allows positioning the scintillators near the object but requires an optimized design of the MRI coil and PET detector. It further requires a new approach in realizing the radiofrequency (RF) shielding. Thus, we propose the use of an optically transparent RF shielding material between the PET scintillator and the light sensor, suppressing the interference between both systems. We evaluated two conductive foils (ITO, 9900) and a wire mesh. The PET performance was tested on a dual-layer scintillator consisting of 12  ×  12 LSO matrices, shifted by half a pitch. The pixel size was 0.9  ×  0.9 mm2 the lengths were 10.0 mm and 5.0 mm, respectively. For a light sensor, we used a 4  ×  4 SiPM array. The RF attenuation was measured from 320 kHz to 420 MHz using two pick-up coils. MRI-compatibility and shielding effect of the materials were evaluated with an MRI system. The average FWHM energy resolution at 511 keV of all 144 crystals of the layer next to the SiPM was deteriorated from 15.73  ±  0.24% to 16.32  ±  0.13%, 16.60  ±  0.25%, and 19.16  ±  0.21% by the ITO foil, 9900 foil, mesh material, respectively. The average peak-to-valley ratio of the PET detector changed from 5.77  ±  0.29 to 4.50  ±  0.39, 4.78  ±  0.48, 3.62  ±  0.16, respectively. The ITO, 9900, mesh attenuated the scintillation light by 11.3  ±  1.6%, 11.0  ±  1.8%, 54.3  ±  0.4%, respectively. To attenuate the RF from 20 MHz to 200 MHz, mesh performed better than copper. The results show that an RF shielding material that is sufficiently transparent for

  18. Shielding benchmark problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Shun-ichi; Sasamoto, Nobuo; Oka, Yoshiaki; Kawai, Masayoshi; Nakazawa, Masaharu.

    1978-09-01

    Shielding benchmark problems were prepared by the Working Group of Assessment of Shielding Experiments in the Research Comittee on Shielding Design of the Atomic Energy Society of Japan, and compiled by the Shielding Laboratory of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. Twenty-one kinds of shielding benchmark problems are presented for evaluating the calculational algorithm and the accuracy of computer codes based on the discrete ordinates method and the Monte Carlo method and for evaluating the nuclear data used in the codes. (author)

  19. Radiation shielding lead shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dei, Shoichi.

    1991-01-01

    The present invention concerns lead shields for radiation shielding. Shield boxes are disposed so as to surround a pipeline through which radioactive liquids, mists or like other objects are passed. Flanges are formed to each of the end edges of the shield boxes and the shield boxes are connected to each other by the flanges. Upon installation, empty shield boxes not charged with lead particles and iron plate shields are secured at first at the periphery of the pipeline. Then, lead particles are charged into the shield boxes. This attains a state as if lead plate corresponding to the depth of the box is disposed. Accordingly, operations for installation, dismantling and restoration can be conducted in an empty state with reduced weight to facilitate the operations. (I.S.)

  20. Fabrication and electromagnetic interference shielding performance of open-cell foam of a Cu–Ni alloy integrated with CNTs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Keju; Zhao, Huihui; Zhang, Jun; Chen, Jia; Dai, Zhendong, E-mail: zddai@nuaa.edu.cn

    2014-08-30

    Highlights: • Cu–Ni alloy open-cell foam integrated with CNTs was used for EMI shielding. • The composite was prepared by electroless, electro-, and electrophoretic deposition. • The main shielding mechanism was multiple reflections and absorptions of microwaves. • The composite had a porous structure, large surface area, and inherent permeability. - Abstract: A lightweight multi-layered electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding material made of open-cell foam of a Cu–Ni alloy integrated with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) was prepared by electroless copper plating, then nickel electroplating, and finally electrophoretic deposition of CNTs. The foamed Cu–Ni–CNT composite comprises, from inside to outside, Cu, Ni, and CNT layers. Scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and EMI tests were employed to characterize the morphology, composition, and EMI performance of the composite, respectively. The results indicated that the shielding effectiveness (SE) of the composite increased with increasing pore density (indicated as pores per inch (PPI)) and increasing thickness. A specimen with a PPI of 110 and a 1.5-mm thickness had a maximum SE of up to 54.6 dB, and a SE as high as 47.5 dB on average in the 8–12 GHz range. Integrating the inherent superiority of Cu, Ni, and CNTs, the porous structure of the composite can attenuate the incident electromagnetic microwaves by reflecting, scattering, and absorbing them between the metallic skeleton and the CNT layer. The multiple reflections and absorptions make it difficult for the microwaves to escape from the composite before being absorbed, thereby making the composite a potential shielding material.

  1. Shield calculation of project for instrument calibration integrated laboratory of IPEN-Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros, Gustavo A.S.J.; Caldas, Linda V.E.

    2009-01-01

    This work performed the shield calculation of the future rooms walls of the five X-ray equipment of the Instrument Calibration Laboratory of the IPEN, Sao Paulo, Brazil, which will be constructed in project of laboratory enlargement. The obtained results by application of a calculation methodology from an international regulation have shown that the largest thickness of shielding (25.7 cm of concrete or 7.1 mm of lead) will be of the wall which will receive the primary beam of the equipment with a 320 kV voltage. The cost/benefit analysis indicated the concrete as the best material option for the shielding

  2. Comparative evaluation of structural integrity for ITER blanket shield block based on SDC-IC and ASME code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shim, Hee-Jin [ITER Korea, National Fusion Research Institute, 169-148 Gwahak-Ro, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Min-Su, E-mail: msha12@nfri.re.kr [ITER Korea, National Fusion Research Institute, 169-148 Gwahak-Ro, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sa-Woong; Jung, Hun-Chea [ITER Korea, National Fusion Research Institute, 169-148 Gwahak-Ro, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Duck-Hoi [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon - CS 90046, 13067 Sant Paul Lez Durance (France)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • The procedure of structural integrity and fatigue assessment was described. • Case studies were performed according to both SDC-IC and ASME Sec. • III codes The conservatism of the ASME code was demonstrated. • The study only covers the specifically comparable case about fatigue usage factor. - Abstract: The ITER blanket Shield Block is a bulk structure to absorb radiation and to provide thermal shielding to vacuum vessel and external vessel components, therefore the most significant load for Shield Block is the thermal load. In the previous study, the thermo-mechanical analysis has been performed under the inductive operation as representative loading condition. And the fatigue evaluations were conducted to assure structural integrity for Shield Block according to Structural Design Criteria for In-vessel Components (SDC-IC) which provided by ITER Organization (IO) based on the code of RCC-MR. Generally, ASME code (especially, B&PV Sec. III) is widely applied for design of nuclear components, and is usually well known as more conservative than other specific codes. For the view point of the fatigue assessment, ASME code is very conservative compared with SDC-IC in terms of the reflected K{sub e} factor, design fatigue curve and other factors. Therefore, an accurate fatigue assessment comparison is needed to measure of conservatism. The purpose of this study is to provide the fatigue usage comparison resulting from the specified operating conditions shall be evaluated for Shield Block based on both SDC-IC and ASME code, and to discuss the conservatism of the results.

  3. Comparative evaluation of structural integrity for ITER blanket shield block based on SDC-IC and ASME code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shim, Hee-Jin; Ha, Min-Su; Kim, Sa-Woong; Jung, Hun-Chea; Kim, Duck-Hoi

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The procedure of structural integrity and fatigue assessment was described. • Case studies were performed according to both SDC-IC and ASME Sec. • III codes The conservatism of the ASME code was demonstrated. • The study only covers the specifically comparable case about fatigue usage factor. - Abstract: The ITER blanket Shield Block is a bulk structure to absorb radiation and to provide thermal shielding to vacuum vessel and external vessel components, therefore the most significant load for Shield Block is the thermal load. In the previous study, the thermo-mechanical analysis has been performed under the inductive operation as representative loading condition. And the fatigue evaluations were conducted to assure structural integrity for Shield Block according to Structural Design Criteria for In-vessel Components (SDC-IC) which provided by ITER Organization (IO) based on the code of RCC-MR. Generally, ASME code (especially, B&PV Sec. III) is widely applied for design of nuclear components, and is usually well known as more conservative than other specific codes. For the view point of the fatigue assessment, ASME code is very conservative compared with SDC-IC in terms of the reflected K_e factor, design fatigue curve and other factors. Therefore, an accurate fatigue assessment comparison is needed to measure of conservatism. The purpose of this study is to provide the fatigue usage comparison resulting from the specified operating conditions shall be evaluated for Shield Block based on both SDC-IC and ASME code, and to discuss the conservatism of the results.

  4. Assessment of the integrity of structural shielding of four computed tomography facilities in the greater Accra region of Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nkansah, A.; Schandorf, C.; Boadu, M.; Fletcher, J. J.

    2013-01-01

    The structural shielding thicknesses of the walls of four computed tomography (CT) facilities in Ghana were re-evaluated to verify the shielding integrity using the new shielding design methods recommended by the National Council on Radiological Protection and Measurements (NCRP). The shielding thickness obtained ranged from 120 to 155 mm using default DLP values proposed by the European Commission and 110 to 168 mm using derived DLP values from the four CT manufacturers. These values are within the accepted standard concrete wall thickness ranging from 102 to 152 mm prescribed by the NCRP. The ultrasonic pulse testing of all walls indicated that these are of good quality and free of voids since pulse velocities estimated were within the range of 3.496±0.005 km s -1 . An average dose equivalent rate estimated for supervised areas is 3.4±0.27 μSv week -1 and that for the controlled area is 18.0±0.15 μSv week -1 , which are within acceptable values. (authors)

  5. Jendl-3.1 iron validation on the PCA-REPLICA (H2O/Fe) shielding benchmark experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pescarini, M.; Borgia, M. G.

    1997-03-01

    The PCA-REPLICA (H 2 O/Fe) neutron shielding benchmarks experiment is analysed using the SN 2-D DOT 3.5-E code and the 3-D-equivalent flux synthesis method. This engineering benchmark reproduces the ex-core radial geometry of a PWR, including a mild steel reactor pressure vessel (RPV) simulator, and is designed to test the accuracy of the calculation of the in-vessel neutron exposure parameters. This accuracy is strongly dependent on the quality of the iron neutron cross sections used to describe the nuclear reactions within the RPV simulator. In particular, in this report, the cross sections based on the JENDL-3.1 iron data files are tested, through a comparison of the calculated integral and spectral results with the corresponding experimental data. In addition, the present results are compared, on the same benchmark experiment, with those of a preceding ENEA-Bologna validation of the ENDF/B VI iron cross sections. The integral result comparison indicates that, for all the threshold detectors considered (Rh-103 (n, n') Rh-103m, In-115 (n, n') In-115m and S-32 (n, p) P-32), the JENDL-3.1 natural iron data produce satisfactory results similar to those obtained with the ENDF/B VI iron data. On the contrary, when the JENDL/3.1 Fe-56 data file is used, strongly underestimated results are obtained for the lower energy threshold detectors, Rh-103 and In-115. This fact, in particular, becomes more evident with increasing the neutron penetration depth in the RPV simulator

  6. Large-scale experiment with laying shielding concrete at Dukovany nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoenig, A.; Svoboda, R.; Rosa, J.

    1984-01-01

    In some places the concrete walls of the biological shielding are so thin that it is not possible to control the density of the deposited concrete. An experiment was therefore carried out which was to demonstrate that concrete may be deposited by sinking through concrete tubes or by a concrete pump from a height of 8 metres. Two test walls A and B were concreted using the non-standardized method and the third wall was used as the standard. The following tests were conducted on the two non-standardized walls: test of miscibility of extra-heavy concrete, ultrasonic test of homogeneity, and samples were taken for tests of density. Density was determined radiometrically using a narrow gamma beam. Statistical evaluation of the results showed that the homogeneity of density of the concrete was the best in the standard wall, in walls A and B the variation coefficient did not exceed 8 per mille. An exception was made to the rule and concrete with a max. 16 mm grain size was deposited from the height of 8 m on condition of strict observance of production technology. (J.P.)

  7. Parameters calculation of a shielding experiment and evaluation of calculation methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavazza, S.; Otto, A.C.; Gomes, I.C.; Maiorino, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    In this text is carried out the evaluation of radiation transport methodology, comparying the calculated reactions and dose rates, for neutrons and gamma-rays, with the experimental measurements obtained on iron shield, irradiated in YAYOI reactor. Were employed the ENDF/B-IV and VITAMIN-C libraries and the AMPX-II modular system for generation of cross sections, collapsed by the ANISN code. The transport calculation were made by using the DOT 3.5 code, adjusting the spectrum of the iron shield boundary source to the reactions and dose rates, measured at the beginning of shield. The distributions calculated for neutrons and gamma-rays, on iron shield, presented coherence with the experimental measurements. (Author) [pt

  8. Fusion Ignition Research Experiment System Integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, T.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the current status of the FIRE configuration and the integration of the major subsystem components. FIRE has a major radius of 2 m, a field on axis of 10T, a plasma current of 6.4 MA. It is capable of 18 second pulses when operated with DT and 26 s when operated with DD. The general arrangement consists of sixteen wedged TF coils that surround a free standing central solenoid, a double wall vacuum vessel and internal plasma facing components that are segmented for maintenance through horizontal ports. Large rings located outside the TF coils are used to obtain a load balance between wedging of the intercoil case structure and wedging at the upper/lower inboard corners of the TF coil winding. The magnets are liquid nitrogen cooled and the entire device is surrounded by a thermal enclosure. The double wall vacuum vessel integrates cooling and shielding in a shape that maximizes shielding of ex-vessel components. Within the vacuum vessel, plasma-facing components frame the plasma. First wall tiles are attached directly to inboard and outboard vacuum vessel walls. The divertor is designed for a high triangularity, double-null plasma with a short inner null point-to-wall distance and near vertical outer divertor flux line. The FIRE configuration has been developed to meet the physics objectives and subsystem requirements in an arrangement that allows remote maintenance of in-vessel components and hands-on maintenance of components outside the TF boundary

  9. Assessment of the structural shielding integrity of some selected computed tomography facilities in the Greater Accra Region of Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nkansah, A.

    2010-01-01

    The structural shielding integrity was assessed for four of the CT facilities at Trust Hospital, Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital, the 37 Military Hospital and Medical Imaging Ghana Ltd. in the Greater Accra Region of Ghana. From the shielding calculations, the concrete wall thickness computed are 120, 145, 140 and 155mm, for Medical Imaging Ghana Ltd. 37 Military, Trust Hospital and Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital respectively using Default DLP values. The wall thickness using Derived DLP values are 110, 110, 120 and 168mm for Medical Imaging Ghana Ltd, 37 Military Hospital, Trust Hospital and Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital respectively. These values are within the accepted standard concrete thickness of 102- 152mm prescribed by the National Council of Radiological Protection and measurement. The ultrasonic pulse testing indicated that all the sandcrete walls are of good quality and free of voids since pulse velocities estimated were approximately equal to 3.45km/s. an average dose rate measurement for supervised areas is 3.4 μSv/wk and controlled areas is 18.0 μSv/wk. These dose rates were below the acceptable levels of 100 μSv per week for the occupationally exposed and 20 μSv per week for members of the public provided by the ICRU. The results mean that the structural shielding thickness are adequate to protect members of the public and occupationally exposed workers (au).

  10. Shielding benchmark problems, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Shun-ichi; Sasamoto, Nobuo; Oka, Yoshiaki; Shin, Kazuo; Tada, Keiko.

    1980-02-01

    Shielding benchmark problems prepared by Working Group of Assessment of Shielding Experiments in the Research Committee on Shielding Design in the Atomic Energy Society of Japan were compiled by Shielding Laboratory in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. Fourteen shielding benchmark problems are presented newly in addition to twenty-one problems proposed already, for evaluating the calculational algorithm and accuracy of computer codes based on discrete ordinates method and Monte Carlo method and for evaluating the nuclear data used in codes. The present benchmark problems are principally for investigating the backscattering and the streaming of neutrons and gamma rays in two- and three-dimensional configurations. (author)

  11. Integrating Army Aviation into the Combined Arms Team: Operational Art in Desert Shield and Desert Storm

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-25

    King of Saudi Arabia. The conversation took place prior to an Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) meeting of Arab Gulf members...Blumberg and Christopher C. French, eds., The Persian Gulf War: Views from the Social and Behavioral Sciences (Lanham, MD: University Press of America...1994), 17. 72 Blumberg and French, The Persian Gulf War, 29. 20 building up forces in northeast Saudi Arabia during Operation Desert Shield, in

  12. Calculation of self–shielding factor for neutron activation experiments using GEANT4 and MCNP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero–Barrientos, Jaime, E-mail: jaromero@ing.uchile.cl [Comisión Chilena de Energía Nuclear, Nueva Bilbao 12501, Las Condes, Santiago (Chile); Universidad de Chile, DFI, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas Y Matemáticas, Avenida Blanco Encalada 2008, Santiago (Chile); Molina, F. [Comisión Chilena de Energía Nuclear, Nueva Bilbao 12501, Las Condes, Santiago (Chile); Aguilera, Pablo [Comisión Chilena de Energía Nuclear, Nueva Bilbao 12501, Las Condes, Santiago (Chile); Universidad de Chile, Depto. de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Las Palmeras 3425, Ñuñoa, Santiago (Chile); Arellano, H. F. [Universidad de Chile, DFI, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas Y Matemáticas, Avenida Blanco Encalada 2008, Santiago (Chile)

    2016-07-07

    The neutron self–shielding factor G as a function of the neutron energy was obtained for 14 pure metallic samples in 1000 isolethargic energy bins from 1·10{sup −5}eV to 2·10{sup 7}eV using Monte Carlo simulations in GEANT4 and MCNP6. The comparison of these two Monte Carlo codes shows small differences in the final self–shielding factor mostly due to the different cross section databases that each program uses.

  13. ENDF/B VI iron validation onpca-replica (H2O/FE) shielding benchmark experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pescarini, M. [ENEA, Bologna (Italy). Centro Ricerche Energia `E. Clementel` - Area Energia e Innovazione

    1994-05-01

    The PCA-REPLICA (H2O/Fe) neutron shielding benchmark experiment is analysed using the SN 2-D DOT 3.5 code and the 3-D-equivalent flux synthesis method. This engineering benchmark reproduces the ex-core radial geometry of a PWR, including a mild steel reactor pressure vessel (RPV) simulator, and is dsigned to test the accuracy of the calculation of the in-vessel neutron exposure parameters (fast fluence and iron displacement rates). This accuracy is strongly dependent on the quality of the iron neutron cross section used to describe the nuclear reactions within the RPV simulator. In particular, in this report, the cross sections based on the ENDF/B VI iron data files are tested, through a comparison of the calculated integral and spectral results with the corresponding experimental data. In addition, the present results are compared, on the same benchmark experiment, with those of a preceding ENEA (Italian Agency for Energy, New Technologies and Environment)-Bologna validation of the JEF-2.1 iron cross sections. The integral result comparison indicates that, for all the thresold detectors considered (Rh-103 (n,n) Rh-103m, In-115 (n,n) In-115 (n,n) In-115m and S-32 (n.p) P-32), the ENDF/B VI iron data produce better results than the JEF-2.1 iron data. In particular, in the ENDF/B VI calcultaions, an improvement of the in-vessel C/E (Calculated/Experimental) activity ratios for the lower energy threshold detectors, Rh-103 and In-115, is observed. This improvement becomes more evident with increasing neutron penetration depth in the vessel. This is probably attributable to the fact that the inelastic scattering cross section values of the ENDF/B VI Fe-56 data file, approximately in the 0.86 - 1.5 MeV energy range, are lower then the corresponding values of the JEF-2.1 data file.

  14. Characterization of Magnetic Field Immersed Photomultipliers from Double Chooz Experiment. Design and Construction of their Magnetic Shields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdivia Valero, F. J.

    2007-01-01

    Flavour oscillations of neutrinos are a quantum-mechanical effect widely demonstrated. It is explained through interferences of their mass eigenstates, therefore, belonging to the physical area beyond the Standard Model. This work deals with the CIEMAT collaboration in the neutrino experiment Double Chooz. Such an experiment aims to measure the mixture angle θ 1 3, one of the PMNS leptonic mixture matrix, with a un reached-before sensibility by decrease of systematic errors. For this, two identical scintillator detectors, equipped with PMT's, will be sited at different distances from two reactors located in the nuclear power plant CHOOZ B (France). The electronic neutrino flux from these reactors will be compared, explaining its deficit by flavour oscillations of these particles. The identity of both detectors will be diminished by the magnetic field effects on the PMT's response. Therefore, this study serves as for quantifying such an effects as for fitting the magnetic shields design that minimize them. Shielding measurements and final design of magnetic shields as much as the effect these ones cause in the PMT's response immersed in a monitored magnetic field are presented. (Author) 85 refs

  15. Multicurie, transportable, integrally shielded 123Xe → 123I generator and processing system for high-purity iodine-123 production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagunas-Solar, M.C.; Thibeau, H.L.; Goodart, C.E.; Little, F.E.; Navarro, N.J.; Hartnett, D.E.

    1985-01-01

    An integrally shielded 123 Xe → 123 I generator system has been designed and tested under production conditions for its suitability as a multicurie handling device from which to produce radiopharmaceutical-quality high-purity no-carrier-added (NCA) 123 I. The 123 Xe → 123 I generator system is expected to provide an alternative to current techniques and to increase the availability and reliability of high-purity 123 I made via the 127 I(p,5n) 123 Xe → 123 I nuclear reaction. The generator system is based on the Crocker Nuclear Laboratory's continuous-flow production system which has been operating since 1974 for the multicurie production of 123 I. The generator system, which consists of an integrally shielded xenon trap and separate loading and processing apparatuses, is simple and reliable to operate, can be adapted to computerized control, and provides a safe working environment for the repeated handling of multicurie amounts of Xe-I radioactivities

  16. A microwave paraphoton and axion detection experiment with 300 dB electromagnetic shielding at 3 GHz

    CERN Document Server

    Betz, M

    2012-01-01

    For the microwave equivalent of “light shining through the wall” (LSW) experiments, a sensitive microwave detector and very high electromagnetic shielding is required. The screening attenuation between the axion generating cavity and the nearby detection cavity should be greater than 300 dB, in order to improve over presently existing exclusion limits. To achieve these goals in practice, a “box in a box” concept was utilized for shielding the detection cavity, while a vector signal analyzer was used as a microwave receiver with a very narrow resolution bandwidth in the order of a few micro-Hz. This contribution will present the experimental layout and the results to date.

  17. Integrating geological and geophysical data to improve probabilistic hazard forecasting of Arabian Shield volcanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runge, Melody G.; Bebbington, Mark S.; Cronin, Shane J.; Lindsay, Jan M.; Moufti, Mohammed R.

    2016-02-01

    During probabilistic volcanic hazard analysis of volcanic fields, a greater variety of spatial data on crustal features should help improve forecasts of future vent locations. Without further examination, however, geophysical estimations of crustal or other features may be non-informative. Here, we present a new, robust, non-parametric method to quantitatively determine the existence of any relationship between natural phenomena (e.g., volcanic eruptions) and a variety of geophysical data. This provides a new validation tool for incorporating a range of potentially hazard-diagnostic observable data into recurrence rate estimates and hazard analyses. Through this study it is shown that the location of Cenozoic volcanic fields across the Arabian Shield appear to be related to locations of major and minor faults, at higher elevations, and regions where gravity anomaly values were between - 125 mGal and 0 mGal. These findings support earlier hypotheses that the western shield uplift was related to Cenozoic volcanism. At the harrat (volcanic field)-scale, higher vent density regions are related to both elevation and gravity anomaly values. A by-product of this work is the collection of existing data on the volcanism across Saudi Arabia, with all vent locations provided herein, as well as updated maps for Harrats Kura, Khaybar, Ithnayn, Kishb, and Rahat. This work also highlights the potential dangers of assuming relationships between observed data and the occurrence of a natural phenomenon without quantitative assessment or proper consideration of the effects of data resolution.

  18. Performance of overlapped shield tunneling through an integrated physical model tests, numerical simulations and real-time field monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junlong Yang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, deformations and internal forces of an existing tunnel subjected to a closely overlapped shield tunneling are monitored and analyzed using a series of physical model experiments and numerical simulations. Effects of different excavation sequences and speeds are explicitly considered in the analysis. The results of the physical model experiments show that the bottom-up tunneling procedure is better than the top-down tunneling procedure. The incurred deformations and internal forces of the existing tunnel increase with the excavation speed and the range of influence areas also increase accordingly. For construction process control, real-time monitoring of the power tunnel is used. The monitoring processes feature full automation, adjustable frequency, real-time monitor and dynamic feedback, which are used to guide the construction to achieve micro-disturbance control. In accordance with the situation of crossing construction, a numerical study on the performance of power tunnel is carried out. Construction control measures are given for the undercrossing construction, which helps to accomplish the desired result and meet protection requirements of the existing tunnel structure. Finally, monitoring data and numerical results are compared, and the displacement and joint fracture change models in the power tunnel subject to the overlapped shield tunnel construction are analyzed. Keywords: Overlapped tunnel, Automatic monitoring, Micro-disturbance control

  19. GPFS HPSS Integration: Implementation Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazen, Damian; Hick, Jason

    2008-08-12

    In 2005 NERSC and IBM Global Services Federal began work to develop an integrated HSM solution using the GPFS file system and the HPSS hierarchical storage system. It was foreseen that this solution would play a key role in data management at NERSC, and fill a market niche for IBM. As with many large and complex software projects, there were a number of unforeseen difficulties encountered during implementation. As the effort progressed, it became apparent that DMAPI alone could not be used to tie two distributed, high performance systems together without serious impact on performance. This document discusses the evolution of the development effort, from one which attempted to synchronize the GPFS and HPSS name spaces relying solely on GPFS?s implementation of the DMAPI specification, to one with a more traditional HSM functionality that had no synchronized namespace in HPSS, and finally to an effort, still underway, which will provide traditional HSM functionality, but requires features from the GPFS Information Lifecycle Management (ILM) to fully achieve this goal in a way which is scalable and meets the needs of sites with aggressive performance requirements. The last approach makes concessions to portability by using file system features such as ILM and snapshotting in order to achieve a scalable design.

  20. Integrated thermal analysis of top-shield and reactor vault of Indian FBR-600

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajendrakumar, M.; Velusamy, K.; Selvaraj, P.

    2015-01-01

    The design for next generation fast breeder reactors (FBR-600) has been commenced with enhanced safety and improved economy as the main targets. The Top Shield (TS) of Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) is a box type structure consisting of Roof Slab (RS), Small Rotatable Plug (SRP), and Large Rotatable Plug (LRP). The large box type structure with many penetrations posed difficulties during manufacturing. Because of the required high load carrying capabilities, a dome shaped thick plate roof slab is conceived for FBR-600. Main Vessel (MV) which holds the primary sodium and associated components is welded to the RS through a triple joint. Reactor vault (RV) is a thick concrete structure which supports MV and Safety Vessel (SV). The temperature of RV concrete has to be less than 338 K (65°C) under normal operating heat loads (full and part load conditions) and less than 363 K (90°C) under Safety Grade Decay Heat Removal (SGDHR) conditions with one cooling loop in service. The temperature in the component penetrations of the RS should be greater than 120°C to avoid sodium aerosol deposition. Similarly, the temperature of the LRP and SRP has to be ∼120°C to protect the elastomeric seals provided to these structures. Further, the heat load to RV transferred by direct conduction by roof slab support has to be minimum. To meet these conflicting thermal requirements, detailed multi-physics CFD calculations have been performed to finalize, (i) the insulation requirements on the top of roof slab, (ii) number and position of reflective insulation plates below the bottom plate of roof slab/rotating plugs, (iii) air flow rate for various zones of the top shield and (iv) water flow rate and pitch of water cooling pipes for the reactor vault. (author)

  1. Radiation shielding quality assurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Um, Dallsun

    For the radiation shielding quality assurance, the validity and reliability of the neutron transport code MCNP, which is now one of the most widely used radiation shielding analysis codes, were checked with lot of benchmark experiments. And also as a practical example, follows were performed in this thesis. One integral neutron transport experiment to measure the effect of neutron streaming in iron and void was performed with Dog-Legged Void Assembly in Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory in 1991. Neutron flux was measured six different places with the methane detectors and a BF-3 detector. The main purpose of the measurements was to provide benchmark against which various neutron transport calculation tools could be compared. Those data were used in verification of Monte Carlo Neutron & Photon Transport Code, MCNP, with the modeling for that. Experimental results and calculation results were compared in both ways, as the total integrated value of neutron fluxes along neutron energy range from 10 KeV to 2 MeV and as the neutron spectrum along with neutron energy range. Both results are well matched with the statistical error +/-20%. MCNP results were also compared with those of TORT, a three dimensional discrete ordinates code which was developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. MCNP results are superior to the TORT results at all detector places except one. This means that MCNP is proved as a very powerful tool for the analysis of neutron transport through iron & air and further it could be used as a powerful tool for the radiation shielding analysis. For one application of the analysis of variance (ANOVA) to neutron and gamma transport problems, uncertainties for the calculated values of critical K were evaluated as in the ANOVA on statistical data.

  2. Three-Dimensional (X,Y,Z) Deterministic Analysis of the PCA-Replica Neutron Shielding Benchmark Experiment using the TORT-3.2 Code and Group Cross Section Libraries for LWR Shielding and Pressure Vessel Dosimetry

    OpenAIRE

    Pescarini Massimo; Orsi Roberto; Frisoni Manuela

    2016-01-01

    The PCA-Replica 12/13 (H2O/Fe) neutron shielding benchmark experiment was analysed using the ORNL TORT-3.2 3D SN code. PCA-Replica, specifically conceived to test the accuracy of nuclear data and transport codes employed in LWR shielding and radiation damage calculations, reproduces a PWR ex-core radial geometry with alternate layers of water and steel including a PWR pressure vessel simulator. Three broad-group coupled neutron/photon working cross section libraries in FIDO-ANISN format with ...

  3. The shield of professional status: Comparing internationally educated nurses' and international medical graduates' experiences of discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiterman, Elena; Bourgeault, Ivy Lynn

    2015-11-01

    This article examines the intersecting roles of gender, ethnicity, and professional status in shaping the experiences of internationally educated health professionals in Canada. The article is based on 140 semi-structured qualitative interviews with internationally trained nurses and physicians who came to Canada within past 10 years with the intention to practice their profession. Describing the challenging process of professional integration in Canada, our participants highlighted incidents of discrimination they experienced along the way. Although some of the participants from both professional groups experienced racial discrimination, the context of those experiences differed. Physicians rarely reported instances of discrimination in communication with patients or nurses. Instead, they were concerned with instances of discrimination within their own professional group. Nurses, on the other hand, reported discrimination at the hands of patients and their families as well as racialization by physicians, management, and other nurses. We conclude our article with a reflection on the role that gender and professional status play in shaping the experiences of ethnic discrimination of internationally educated health professionals. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Shielding practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauermann, P.F.

    1985-08-01

    The basis of shielding practice against external irradiation is shown in a simple way. For most sources of radiation (point sources) occurring in shielding practice, the basic data are given, mainly in the form of tables, which are required to solve the shielding problems. The application of these data is explained and discussed using practical examples. Thickness of shielding panes of glove boxes for α and β radiation; shielding of sealed γ-radiography sources; shielding of a Co-60 radiation source, and of the manipulator panels for hot cells; damping factors for γ radiation and neutrons; shielding of fast and thermal neutrons, and of bremsstrahlung (X-ray tubes, Kr-85 pressure gas cylinders, 42 MeV betatrons, 20 MeV linacs); two-fold shielding (lead glass windows for hot cells, 14 MeV neutron generators); shielding against scattered radiation. (orig./HP) [de

  5. Fundamental Experiments at Liquid Helium Temperatures (Low Temperature Studies of Anomalous Surface Shielding and Related Phenomena).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-09-30

    study of the copper surface indicated that the copper oxide layer was approximately 20 Angstroms thick. Hanni and Madey 3 2 have evaluated the...REFERENCES 1. John Bardeen, "Comments on Shielding by Surface States," in Near Zero: New Frontiers of Physics, to be published. 2. R. S. Hanni and...Michel, H. E. Rorschach, and G. T. Trammel, Phys. Rev. 168 (1968), 737. 31. C. Herring, Phys. Rev. 171 (1968), 1361. 32. R. S. Hanni and J.M.J. Madey

  6. Experiment of enhancing critical current in Bi-2223/Ag tape by means of ferromagnetic shielding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alamgir, A.K.M. [Applied Superconductivity Research Center, Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)]. E-mail: alam643@hotmail.com; Gu, C. [Applied Superconductivity Research Center, Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Han, Z. [Applied Superconductivity Research Center, Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2005-11-15

    Critical current in multifilamentary Ag-sheath Bi-2223 tape is enhanced to some extent by means of thin and narrow coating of pure nickel. The concept of enhancing critical current is based on the magnetic shielding effect resulting in redirection of self-field flux lines. The Ni coating was introduced at the edge regime of the tape in order to redirect the perpendicular component of self-field lines which is severe at the edges. Critical current in a typical Ag-sheath Bi-2223 tape was enhanced up to {approx}11% by 50 {mu}m thick and 0.4 mm long Ni coating without any change of self-field loss. This fact reveals that additional ferromagnetic loss could be compensated by the shielding effect and increased critical current of the tape. The degree of enhancement in critical current as well as ferromagnetic impact on ac losses depend on the length and thickness of ferromagnetic coating introduced. Therefore, it is very important to control the geometry of ferromagnetic coating in order to balance the critical current and ac loss for optimum superconductor performance. Introduction of ferromagnetic coating and its effect on electromagnetic properties in multifilamentary Bi-2223/Ag tape will be reported in this article.

  7. Experiment of enhancing critical current in Bi-2223/Ag tape by means of ferromagnetic shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alamgir, A.K.M.; Gu, C.; Han, Z.

    2005-01-01

    Critical current in multifilamentary Ag-sheath Bi-2223 tape is enhanced to some extent by means of thin and narrow coating of pure nickel. The concept of enhancing critical current is based on the magnetic shielding effect resulting in redirection of self-field flux lines. The Ni coating was introduced at the edge regime of the tape in order to redirect the perpendicular component of self-field lines which is severe at the edges. Critical current in a typical Ag-sheath Bi-2223 tape was enhanced up to ∼11% by 50 μm thick and 0.4 mm long Ni coating without any change of self-field loss. This fact reveals that additional ferromagnetic loss could be compensated by the shielding effect and increased critical current of the tape. The degree of enhancement in critical current as well as ferromagnetic impact on ac losses depend on the length and thickness of ferromagnetic coating introduced. Therefore, it is very important to control the geometry of ferromagnetic coating in order to balance the critical current and ac loss for optimum superconductor performance. Introduction of ferromagnetic coating and its effect on electromagnetic properties in multifilamentary Bi-2223/Ag tape will be reported in this article

  8. Shielding experiments with high-energy heavy ions for spaceflight applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeitlin, C; Guetersloh, S; Heilbronn, L; Miller, J; Elkhayari, N; Empl, A; LeBourgeois, M; Mayes, B W; Pinsky, L; Christl, M; Kuznetsov, E

    2008-01-01

    Mitigation of radiation exposures received by astronauts on deep-space missions must be considered in the design of future spacecraft. The galactic cosmic rays (GCR) include high-energy heavy ions, many of which have ranges that exceed the depth of shielding that can be launched in realistic scenarios. Some of these ions are highly ionizing (producing a high dose per particle) and for some biological endpoints are more damaging per unit dose than sparsely ionizing radiation. The principal physical mechanism by which the dose and dose equivalent delivered by these particles can be reduced is nuclear fragmentation, the result of inelastic collisions between nuclei in the hull of the spacecraft and/or other materials. These interactions break the incident ions into lighter, less ionizing and less biologically effective particles. We have previously reported the tests of shielding effectiveness using many materials in a 1 GeV nucleon -1 56 Fe beam, and also reported results using a single polyethylene (CH 2 ) target in a variety of beam ions and energies up to 1 GeV nucleon -1 . An important, but tentative, conclusion of those studies was that the average behavior of heavy ions in the GCR would be better simulated by heavy beams at energies above 1 GeV nucleon -1 . Following up on that work, we report new results using beams of 12 C, 28 Si and 56 Fe, each at three energies, 3, 5 and 10 GeV nucleon -1 , on carbon, polyethylene, aluminium and iron targets

  9. Electromagnetic shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzeng, Wen-Shian V.

    1991-01-01

    Electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding materials are well known in the art in forms such as gaskets, caulking compounds, adhesives, coatings and the like for a variety of EMI shielding purposes. In the past, where high shielding performance is necessary, EMI shielding has tended to use silver particles or silver coated copper particles dispersed in a resin binder. More recently, aluminum core silver coated particles have been used to reduce costs while maintaining good electrical and physical properties. (author). 8 figs

  10. Shielding modefication and safety review on Mutsu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osanai, Masao

    1978-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Commission requests strongly to repair the shielding and make general safety inspection on Mutsu after an accident of radiation leakage from the reactor. The content and procedure of this repair of shielding and general safety inspection are outlined. The neutron leakage location in the reactor proper, technical shielding investigation, conceptual design of relating shielding repair, the mock up test of the shielding on the neutron streaming, the final conceptual design of repair, the relating research and development experiment and the detailed basic design of repair are explained, comparing the original design and the modified one. The modified design depends on the experimental results of neutron streaming test between the reactor vessel and the primary shield. As for the general safety inspection, the functional test of control rod driving mechanism and other main components, the flaw detection for heat transfer tubes of the steam generator and primary cooling pipings are carried out in hardwares, and the integrity analysis of fuel assemblies, stress corrosion cracking of fuel claddings and primary cooling pipings, the natural circulation analysis of primary cooling system, and integrity check of the heat transfer tubes of steam generator are carried out in softwares. The burst test and the strength test after high temperature oxidation for fuel claddings made of stainless steel were carried out. (Nakai, Y.)

  11. Radiation shielding calculation using MCNP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masukawa, Fumihiro

    2001-01-01

    To verify the Monte Carlo code MCNP4A as a tool to generate the reference data in the shielding designs and the safety evaluations, various shielding benchmark experiments were analyzed using this code. These experiments were categorized in three types of the shielding subjects; bulk shielding, streaming, and skyshine. For the variance reduction technique, which is indispensable to get meaningful results with the Monte Carlo shielding calculation, we mainly used the weight window, the energy dependent Russian roulette and spitting. As a whole, our analyses performed enough small statistical errors and showed good agreements with these experiments. (author)

  12. Iterative resonance self-shielding methods using resonance integral table in heterogeneous transport lattice calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Ser Gi; Kim, Kang-Seog

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the iteration methods using resonance integral tables to estimate the effective resonance cross sections in heterogeneous transport lattice calculations. Basically, these methods have been devised to reduce an effort to convert resonance integral table into subgroup data to be used in the physical subgroup method. Since these methods do not use subgroup data but only use resonance integral tables directly, these methods do not include an error in converting resonance integral into subgroup data. The effective resonance cross sections are estimated iteratively for each resonance nuclide through the heterogeneous fixed source calculations for the whole problem domain to obtain the background cross sections. These methods have been implemented in the transport lattice code KARMA which uses the method of characteristics (MOC) to solve the transport equation. The computational results show that these iteration methods are quite promising in the practical transport lattice calculations.

  13. Optimized radiation of pelvic volumes in the clinical setting by using a novel bellyboard with integrated gonadal shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollenhorst, Helmut; Schaffer, Moshe; Romano, Mario; Reiner, Michael; Siefert, Axel; Schaffer, Pamela; Quanz, Anton; Duehmke, Eckhart

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of a custom-made, modified bellyboard to reduce radiotherapy side effects on small bowel, bladder, skin, and male gonads. Two groups of 10 consecutive patients each were treated from January 2003 through April 2003 with neoadjuvant (45 Gy) or adjuvant (54 Gy) radio(chemo)therapy in single fractions of 5 days a week 1.8 Gy for rectal carcinoma, using a photon energy of 15 MV. One group was positioned in a prone position without an immobilization device, the other group was positioned on our bellyboard. Treatment planning was calculated by using a 4- and a 3-field box technique. Differences in the dose of organs of risk were calculated. For 1 male patient, a gonadal shielding was developed and integrated. All patients examined with the bellyboard demonstrated an anterior and cranial dislocation of the small bowel. Using a 4-field box, the mean dose to the small bowel of patients treated on our bellyboard was 56.5% as compared to 63.1% when treated without the bellyboard. When a 3-field box was used, the mean dose to the small bowel was 52.4% when the bellyboard was used, as compared to a mean dose of 63.1% without the bellyboard. Regarding the dose volume effects to the bladder, the mean dose for patients treated with a 4-field box was about 14.5% higher as compared to patients treated with a 3-field box. The mean dose to the hip joints and skin also depended on the radiation technique. The patient who received gonadal shielding received a maximal total gonadal dose of about 75.0 cGy in single fractions of maximal 3.0 cGy (TL-dosimeters). Daily setup variations evaluated by a beam's-eye view were similar in both groups and ranged from 0.5 cm 1.0 cm. For daily use, our bellyboard appears to be an ideal compromise due to effectiveness, its easy handling, and reproductive positioning; moreover, it can also be used in combination with gonadal shielding

  14. Matrix viscoplasticity and its shielding by active mechanics in microtissue models: experiments and mathematical modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Alan S.; Wang, Hailong; Copeland, Craig R.; Chen, Christopher S.; Shenoy, Vivek B.; Reich, Daniel H.

    2016-01-01

    The biomechanical behavior of tissues under mechanical stimulation is critically important to physiological function. We report a combined experimental and modeling study of bioengineered 3D smooth muscle microtissues that reveals a previously unappreciated interaction between active cell mechanics and the viscoplastic properties of the extracellular matrix. The microtissues’ response to stretch/unstretch actuations, as probed by microcantilever force sensors, was dominated by cellular actomyosin dynamics. However, cell lysis revealed a viscoplastic response of the underlying model collagen/fibrin matrix. A model coupling Hill-type actomyosin dynamics with a plastic perfectly viscoplastic description of the matrix quantitatively accounts for the microtissue dynamics, including notably the cells’ shielding of the matrix plasticity. Stretch measurements of single cells confirmed the active cell dynamics, and were well described by a single-cell version of our model. These results reveal the need for new focus on matrix plasticity and its interactions with active cell mechanics in describing tissue dynamics. PMID:27671239

  15. Shielding experiments with high-energy heavy ions for spaceflight applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeitlin, C; Guetersloh, S; Heilbronn, L; Miller, J [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Elkhayari, N; Empl, A; LeBourgeois, M; Mayes, B W; Pinsky, L [Physics Department, University of Houston, Houston, TX (United States); Christl, M [NASA Marshall Spaceflight Center, Huntsville, AL (United States); Kuznetsov, E [Physics Department, University of Alabama, Huntsville, AL (United States)], E-mail: cjzeitlin@lbl.gov

    2008-07-15

    Mitigation of radiation exposures received by astronauts on deep-space missions must be considered in the design of future spacecraft. The galactic cosmic rays (GCR) include high-energy heavy ions, many of which have ranges that exceed the depth of shielding that can be launched in realistic scenarios. Some of these ions are highly ionizing (producing a high dose per particle) and for some biological endpoints are more damaging per unit dose than sparsely ionizing radiation. The principal physical mechanism by which the dose and dose equivalent delivered by these particles can be reduced is nuclear fragmentation, the result of inelastic collisions between nuclei in the hull of the spacecraft and/or other materials. These interactions break the incident ions into lighter, less ionizing and less biologically effective particles. We have previously reported the tests of shielding effectiveness using many materials in a 1 GeV nucleon{sup -1} {sup 56}Fe beam, and also reported results using a single polyethylene (CH{sub 2}) target in a variety of beam ions and energies up to 1 GeV nucleon{sup -1}. An important, but tentative, conclusion of those studies was that the average behavior of heavy ions in the GCR would be better simulated by heavy beams at energies above 1 GeV nucleon{sup -1}. Following up on that work, we report new results using beams of {sup 12}C, {sup 28}Si and {sup 56}Fe, each at three energies, 3, 5 and 10 GeV nucleon{sup -1}, on carbon, polyethylene, aluminium and iron targets.

  16. Gas shielded metal arc welding with fusible electrode wire. First returns on experience and opportunities in nuclear maintenance and fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huguet, Fr.; Joly, P.; Leconte, F.; Baritaux, S.; Prin, C.

    2013-06-01

    In a brief text and a Power Point Presentation, the authors report a return on experience for the implementation of two applications using gas shielded metal arc welding process (GMAW): the on-site welding of the final joint of steam generators, and the coating of a tubing flare. In the first case, the authors analyze not only the compliance with specified technical requirements, but also outline the need to support the process with new verification methods in real time, associated development and validation efforts, and organisational and decisional measures to guarantee a good implementation of the process on site. In the second case, they analyze the process ability to meet technical specifications requiring dilution control, a perfect reproducibility, as well a good control of the welding bath. The authors outline that these two applications which are both using the same term (gas shielded metal arc welding with fusible electrode wire), implement two different transfer regimes and processes. They also discuss operational constraints, and technical opportunities and constraints of fusible electrode wire

  17. Evaluation of the concrete shield compositions from the 2010 criticality accident alarm system benchmark experiments at the CEA Valduc SILENE facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Thomas Martin; Celik, Cihangir; Dunn, Michael E; Wagner, John C; McMahan, Kimberly L; Authier, Nicolas; Jacquet, Xavier; Rousseau, Guillaume; Wolff, Herve; Savanier, Laurence; Baclet, Nathalie; Lee, Yi-kang; Trama, Jean-Christophe; Masse, Veronique; Gagnier, Emmanuel; Naury, Sylvie; Blanc-Tranchant, Patrick; Hunter, Richard; Kim, Soon; Dulik, George Michael; Reynolds, Kevin H.

    2015-01-01

    In October 2010, a series of benchmark experiments were conducted at the French Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA) Valduc SILENE facility. These experiments were a joint effort between the United States Department of Energy Nuclear Criticality Safety Program and the CEA. The purpose of these experiments was to create three benchmarks for the verification and validation of radiation transport codes and evaluated nuclear data used in the analysis of criticality accident alarm systems. This series of experiments consisted of three single-pulsed experiments with the SILENE reactor. For the first experiment, the reactor was bare (unshielded), whereas in the second and third experiments, it was shielded by lead and polyethylene, respectively. The polyethylene shield of the third experiment had a cadmium liner on its internal and external surfaces, which vertically was located near the fuel region of SILENE. During each experiment, several neutron activation foils and thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) were placed around the reactor. Nearly half of the foils and TLDs had additional high-density magnetite concrete, high-density barite concrete, standard concrete, and/or BoroBond shields. CEA Saclay provided all the concrete, and the US Y-12 National Security Complex provided the BoroBond. Measurement data from the experiments were published at the 2011 International Conference on Nuclear Criticality (ICNC 2011) and the 2013 Nuclear Criticality Safety Division (NCSD 2013) topical meeting. Preliminary computational results for the first experiment were presented in the ICNC 2011 paper, which showed poor agreement between the computational results and the measured values of the foils shielded by concrete. Recently the hydrogen content, boron content, and density of these concrete shields were further investigated within the constraints of the previously available data. New computational results for the first experiment are now available

  18. Design of a Laboratory Hall Thruster with Magnetically Shielded Channel Walls, Phase III: Comparison of Theory with Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Katz, Ira; Hofer, Richard R.; Goebel, Dan M.

    2012-01-01

    A proof-of-principle effort to demonstrate a technique by which erosion of the acceleration channel in Hall thrusters of the magnetic-layer type can be eliminated has been completed. The first principles of the technique, now known as "magnetic shielding," were derived based on the findings of numerical simulations in 2-D axisymmetric geometry. The simulations, in turn, guided the modification of an existing 6-kW laboratory Hall thruster. This magnetically shielded (MS) thruster was then built and tested. Because neither theory nor experiment alone can validate fully the first principles of the technique, the objective of the 2-yr effort was twofold: (1) to demonstrate in the laboratory that the erosion rates can be reduced by >order of magnitude, and (2) to demonstrate that the near-wall plasma properties can be altered according to the theoretical predictions. This paper concludes the demonstration of magnetic shielding by reporting on a wide range of comparisons between results from numerical simulations and laboratory diagnostics. Collectively, we find that the comparisons validate the theory. Near the walls of the MS thruster, theory and experiment agree: (1) the plasma potential has been sustained at values near the discharge voltage, and (2) the electron temperature has been lowered by at least 2.5-3 times compared to the unshielded (US) thruster. Also, based on carbon deposition measurements, the erosion rates at the inner and outer walls of the MS thruster are found to be lower by at least 2300 and 1875 times, respectively. Erosion was so low along these walls that the rates were below the resolution of the profilometer. Using a sputtering yield model with an energy threshold of 25 V, the simulations predict a reduction of 600 at the MS inner wall. At the outer wall ion energies are computed to be below 25 V, for which case we set the erosion to zero in the simulations. When a 50-V threshold is used the computed ion energies are below the threshold at both

  19. WE-G-17A-09: Novel Magnetic Shielding Design for Inline and Perpendicular Integrated 6 MV Linac and 1.0 T MRI Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, X; Ma, B; Kuang, Y [University of Nevada, Las Vegas, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Diao, X [Shenzhen University, Shenzhen, Guangdong (China)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: The influence of fringe magnetic fields delivered by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) on the beam generation and transportation in Linac is still a major challenge for the integration of linear accelerator and MRI (Linac-MRI). In this study, we investigated an optimal magnetic shielding design for Linac-MRI and further characterized the beam trajectory in electron gun. Methods: Both inline and perpendicular configurations were analyzed in this study. The configurations, comprising a Linac-MRI with a 100cm SAD and an open 1.0 T superconductive magnet, were simulated by the 3D finite element method (FEM). The steel shielding around the Linac was included in the 3D model, the thickness of which was varied from 1mm to 20mm, and magnetic field maps were acquired with and without additional shielding. The treatment beam trajectory in electron gun was evaluated using OPERA 3d SCALA with and without shielding cases. Results: When Linac was not shielded, the uniformity of diameter sphere volume (DSV) (30cm) was about 5 parts per million (ppm) and the fringe magnetic fields in electron gun were more than 0.3 T. With shielding, the magnetic fields in electron gun were reduced to less than 0.01 T. For the inline configuration, the radial magnetic fields in the Linac were about 0.02T. A cylinder steel shield used (5mm thick) altered the uniformity of DSV to 1000 ppm. For the perpendicular configuration, the Linac transverse magnetic fields were more than 0.3T, which altered the beam trajectory significantly. A 8mm-thick cylinder steel shield surrounding the Linac was used to compensate the output losses of Linac, which shifted the magnetic fields' uniformity of DSV to 400 ppm. Conclusion: For both configurations, the Linac shielding was used to ensure normal operation of the Linac. The effect of magnetic fields on the uniformity of DSV could be modulated by the shimming technique of the MRI magnet. NIH/NIGMS grant U54 GM104944, Lincy Endowed Assistant

  20. WE-G-17A-09: Novel Magnetic Shielding Design for Inline and Perpendicular Integrated 6 MV Linac and 1.0 T MRI Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, X; Ma, B; Kuang, Y; Diao, X

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The influence of fringe magnetic fields delivered by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) on the beam generation and transportation in Linac is still a major challenge for the integration of linear accelerator and MRI (Linac-MRI). In this study, we investigated an optimal magnetic shielding design for Linac-MRI and further characterized the beam trajectory in electron gun. Methods: Both inline and perpendicular configurations were analyzed in this study. The configurations, comprising a Linac-MRI with a 100cm SAD and an open 1.0 T superconductive magnet, were simulated by the 3D finite element method (FEM). The steel shielding around the Linac was included in the 3D model, the thickness of which was varied from 1mm to 20mm, and magnetic field maps were acquired with and without additional shielding. The treatment beam trajectory in electron gun was evaluated using OPERA 3d SCALA with and without shielding cases. Results: When Linac was not shielded, the uniformity of diameter sphere volume (DSV) (30cm) was about 5 parts per million (ppm) and the fringe magnetic fields in electron gun were more than 0.3 T. With shielding, the magnetic fields in electron gun were reduced to less than 0.01 T. For the inline configuration, the radial magnetic fields in the Linac were about 0.02T. A cylinder steel shield used (5mm thick) altered the uniformity of DSV to 1000 ppm. For the perpendicular configuration, the Linac transverse magnetic fields were more than 0.3T, which altered the beam trajectory significantly. A 8mm-thick cylinder steel shield surrounding the Linac was used to compensate the output losses of Linac, which shifted the magnetic fields' uniformity of DSV to 400 ppm. Conclusion: For both configurations, the Linac shielding was used to ensure normal operation of the Linac. The effect of magnetic fields on the uniformity of DSV could be modulated by the shimming technique of the MRI magnet. NIH/NIGMS grant U54 GM104944, Lincy Endowed Assistant

  1. INTEGRATION POLICY TOWARDS IMMIGRANTS: CURRENT EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadiia Bureiko

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In the contemporary world the intensity of the immigration movements is constantly increasing. Countries which experience great immigrant flows are facing numerous problems which should be solved. The article studies the current immigration flows in EU countries, the United States of America and Canada and presents three main models of integration policy towards immigrants – political assimilation, functional integration and multicultural model. Separate models are distinguished for the Muslims’ integration. The author examines the peculiarities of every model and examines the conclusions provided by the Migrant Integration Policy Index (MIPEX concerning the situation of the immigrants’ integration in 31 countries in 2011. Among all the policy indicators the first that are defined are as follows: political participation, education, labour market mobility and anti-discrimination. The situation with immigrants’ integration in Ukraine is also studied as it is gaining a great attention of the authorities and the public. The measures and practical steps done regarding this situation in Ukraine in recent years are analyzed using the information offered by the State Migration Service of Ukraine.

  2. Lithospheric structure of southern Indian shield and adjoining oceans: integrated modelling of topography, gravity, geoid and heat flow data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Niraj; Zeyen, H.; Singh, A. P.; Singh, B.

    2013-07-01

    For the present 2-D lithospheric density modelling, we selected three geotransects of more than 1000 km in length each crossing the southern Indian shield, south of 16°N, in N-S and E-W directions. The model is based on the assumption of local isostatic equilibrium and is constrained by the topography, gravity and geoid anomalies, by geothermal data, and where available by seismic data. Our integrated modelling approach reveals a crustal configuration with the Moho depth varying from ˜40 km beneath the Dharwar Craton, and ˜39 km beneath the Southern Granulite Terrane to about 15-20 km beneath the adjoining oceans. The lithospheric thickness varies significantly along the three profiles from ˜70-100 km under the adjoining oceans to ˜130-135 km under the southern block of Southern Granulite Terrane including Sri Lanka and increasing gradually to ˜165-180 km beneath the northern block of Southern Granulite Terrane and the Dharwar Craton. This step-like lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) structure indicates a normal lithospheric thickness beneath the adjoining oceans, the northern block of Southern Granulite Terrane and the Dharwar Craton. The thin lithosphere below the southern block of Southern Granulite Terrane including Sri Lanka is, however, atypical considering its age. Our results suggest that the southern Indian shield as a whole cannot be supported isostatically only by thickened crust; a thin and hot lithosphere beneath the southern block of Southern Granulite Terrane including Sri Lanka is required to explain the high topography, gravity, geoid and crustal temperatures. The widespread thermal perturbation during Pan-African (550 Ma) metamorphism and the breakup of Gondwana during late Cretaceous are proposed as twin cause mechanism for the stretching and/or convective removal of the lower part of lithospheric mantle and its replacement by hotter and lighter asthenosphere in the southern block of Southern Granulite Terrane including Sri Lanka

  3. Primary shield displacement and bowing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, K.V.

    1978-01-01

    The reactor primary shield is constructed of high density concrete and surrounds the reactor core. The inlet, outlet and side primary shields were constructed in-place using 2.54 cm (1 in) thick steel plates as the forms. The plates remained as an integral part of the shields. The elongation of the pressure tubes due to thermal expansion and pressurization is not moving through the inlet nozzle hardware as designed but is accommodated by outward displacement and bowing of the inlet and outlet shields. Excessive distortion of the shields may result in gas seal failures, intolerable helium gas leaks, increased argon-41 emissions, and shield cooling tube failures. The shield surveillance and testing results are presented

  4. Shielding container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darling, K.A.M.

    1981-01-01

    A shielding container incorporates a dense shield, for example of depleted uranium, cast around a tubular member of curvilinear configuration for accommodating a radiation source capsule. A lining for the tubular member, in the form of a close-coiled flexible guide, provides easy replaceability to counter wear while the container is in service. Container life is extended, and maintenance costs are reduced. (author)

  5. Benchmark analyses for the ITER bulk shield experiment with EFF-3.0, -3.1 and FENDL-1, -2 nuclear cross-section data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, U.; Wu, Y.; Hansen, W.; Richter, D.; Seidel, K.; Unholzer, S.

    1999-01-01

    The present article is part of the summary report on the Consultants' Meeting on the transport sublibrary of the Fusion Evaluated Data Library version 2.0. It reports on the comparison between benchmark experiments on a mock-up of the ITER inboard shield system at FNG, Frascati and Monte Carlo calculations, using different versions of the FENDL and EFF libraries

  6. Characterization of large-area photomultipliers under low magnetic fields: Design and performance of the magnetic shielding for the Double Chooz neutrino experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvo, E.; Cerrada, M.; Fernandez-Bedoya, C.; Gil-Botella, I.; Palomares, C.; Rodriguez, I.; Toral, F.; Verdugo, A.

    2010-01-01

    A precise quantitative measurement of the effect of low magnetic fields in Hamamatsu R7081 photomultipliers has been performed. These large-area photomultipliers will be used in the Double Chooz neutrino experiment. A magnetic shielding has been developed for these photomultipliers. Its design and performance is also reported in this paper.

  7. The Monbusho/US shielded HFIR irradiation experiment: HFIR-MFE-RB-11J and 12J (P3-3)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grossbeck, M.L.; Lenox, K.E.; Janney, M.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    This experiment is a joint project between the Japanese Monbushu, the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, and the U.S. Fusion Energy Sciences Program. It is the first of a series of experiments using europium oxide as a thermal neutron shield to minimize transmutations in vanadium alloys and ferritic/martensitic steels. The europium oxide shields were developed using ceramic processing techniques culminating in cold pressing and sintering. This experiment, which is a prototype for future fast neutron experiments in the HFIR, contains approximately 3200 specimens of 18 different types. The experiment began operating at 300 and 500{degrees}C in February 1997 and is projected to attain its goal fluence of {approximately} 5 dpa in February 1998.

  8. Shielding in experimental areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, A.; Tarnopolsky, G.; Thorndike, A.; White, S.

    1979-01-01

    The amount of shielding necessary to protect experimental detectors from various sources of background radiation is discussed. As illustrated an experiment has line of sight to sources extending approx. 90 m upstream from the intersection point. Packing a significant fraction of this space with shielding blocks would in general be unacceptable because primary access to the ring tunnel is from the experimental halls. (1) From basic machine design considerations and the inherent necessity to protect superconducting magnets it is expected that experimental areas in general will be cleaner than at any existing accelerator. (2) Even so, it will likely be necessary to have some shielding blocks available to protect experimental apparatus, and it may well be necessary to have a large amount of shielding available in the WAH. (3) Scraping will likely have some influence on all halls, and retractable apparatus may sometimes be necessary. (4) If access to any tunnel is needed to replace a magnet, one has 96 h (4 days) available to move shielding away to permit access without additional downtime. This (the amount of shielding one can shuffle about in 96 h) is a reasonable upper limit to shielding necessary in a hall

  9. Planning for an Integrated Research Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnard, J.J.; Ahle, L.E.; Bangerter, R.O.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Celata, C.M.; Faltens, A.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D.P.; Haber, I.; Henestroza, E.; Kishek, R.A.; Hoon, M.J.L. de; Karpenko, V.P.; Kwan, J.W.; Lee, E.P.; Logan, B.G.; Lund, S.M.; Meier, W.R.; Molvik, A.W.; Sangster, T.C.; Seidl, P.A.; Sharp, W.M.

    2000-01-01

    The authors describe the goals and research program leading to the Heavy Ion Integrated Research Experiment (IRE). They review the basic constraints which lead to a design and give examples of parameters and capabilities of an IRE. We also show design tradeoffs generated by the systems code IBEAM. A multi-pronged Phase 1 research effort is laying the groundwork for the Integrated Research Experiment. Experiment, technology development, theory, simulation, and systems studies are all playing major roles in this Phase I research. The key research areas are: (1) Source and injector (for investigation of a high brightness, multiple beam, low cost injector); (2) High current transport (to examine effects at full driver-scale line charge density, including the maximization of the beam filling-factor and control of electrons); (3) Enabling technology development (low cost and high performance magnetic core material, superconducting magnetic quadrupole arrays, insulators, and pulsers); and (4) Beam simulations and theory (for investigations of beam matching, specification of accelerator errors, studies of emittance growth, halo, and bunch compression, in the accelerator, and neutralization methods, stripping effects, spot size minimization in the chamber); and (5) Systems optimization (minimization of cost and maximization of pulse energy and beam intensity). They have begun the process of designing, simulating, and optimizing the next major heavy-ion induction accelerator, the IRE. This accelerator facility will, in turn, help provide the basis to proceed to the next step in the development of IFE as an attractive source of fusion energy

  10. Jendl-3.1 iron validation on the PCA-REPLICA (H{sub 2}O/Fe) shielding benchmark experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pescarini, M.; Borgia, M. G. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche ``Ezio Clementel``, Bologna (Italy). Dipt. Energia

    1997-03-01

    The PCA-REPLICA (H{sub 2}O/Fe) neutron shielding benchmarks experiment is analysed using the SN 2-D DOT 3.5-E code and the 3-D-equivalent flux synthesis method. This engineering benchmark reproduces the ex-core radial geometry of a PWR, including a mild steel reactor pressure vessel (RPV) simulator, and is designed to test the accuracy of the calculation of the in-vessel neutron exposure parameters. This accuracy is strongly dependent on the quality of the iron neutron cross sections used to describe the nuclear reactions within the RPV simulator. In particular, in this report, the cross sections based on the JENDL-3.1 iron data files are tested, through a comparison of the calculated integral and spectral results with the corresponding experimental data. In addition, the present results are compared, on the same benchmark experiment, with those of a preceding ENEA-Bologna validation of the ENDF/B VI iron cross sections. The integral result comparison indicates that, for all the threshold detectors considered (Rh-103 (n, n`) Rh-103m, In-115 (n, n`) In-115m and S-32 (n, p) P-32), the JENDL-3.1 natural iron data produce satisfactory results similar to those obtained with the ENDF/B VI iron data. On the contrary, when the JENDL/3.1 Fe-56 data file is used, strongly underestimated results are obtained for the lower energy threshold detectors, Rh-103 and In-115. This fact, in particular, becomes more evident with increasing the neutron penetration depth in the RPV simulator.

  11. Simulation of integrated beam experiment designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grote, D.P.; Sharp, W.M.

    2004-01-01

    Simulation of designs of an Integrated Beam Experiment (IBX) class accelerator have been carried out. These simulations are an important tool for validating such designs. Issues such as envelope mismatch and emittance growth can be examined in a self-consistent manner, including the details of injection, accelerator transitions, long-term transport, and longitudinal compression. The simulations are three-dimensional and time-dependent, and begin at the source. They continue up through the end of the acceleration region, at which point the data is passed on to a separate simulation of the drift compression. Results are be presented

  12. Electromagnetic shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.S.

    1987-01-01

    An electromagnetic shield is described comprising: closed, electrically-conductive rings, each having an open center; and binder means for arranging the rings in a predetermined, fixed relationship relative to each other, the so-arranged rings and binder means defining an outer surface; wherein electromagnetic energy received by the shield from a source adjacent its outer surface induces an electrical current to flow in a predetermined direction adjacent and parallel to the outer surface, through the rings; and wherein each ring is configured to cause source-induced alternating current flowing through the portion of the ring closest to the outer surface to electromagnetically induce an oppositely-directed current in the portion of the ring furthest from the surface, such oppositely-directed current bucking any source-induced current in the latter ring portion and thus reducing the magnitude of current flowing through it, whereby the electromagnetic shielding effected by the shield is enhanced

  13. Neutron shieldings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarutani, Kohei

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To decrease the stresses resulted by the core bendings to the base of an entrance nozzle. Constitution: Three types of round shielding rods of different diameter are arranged in a hexagonal tube. The hexagonal tube is provided with several spacer pads receiving the loads from the core constrain mechanism at its outer circumference, a handling head for a fuel exchanger at its top and an entrance nozzle for self-holding the neutron shieldings and flowing heat-removing coolants at its bottom. The diameters for R 1 , R 2 and R 3 for the round shielding rods are designed as: 0.1 R 1 2 1 and 0.2 R 1 2 1 . Since a plurality of shielding rods of small diameter are provided, soft structure are obtained and a plurality of coolant paths are formed. (Furukawa, Y.)

  14. Nuclear shields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linares, R.C.; Nienart, L.F.; Toelcke, G.A.

    1976-01-01

    A process is described for preparing melt-processable nuclear shielding compositions from chloro-fluoro substituted ethylene polymers, particularly PCTFE and E-CTFE, containing 1 to 75 percent by weight of a gadolinium compound. 13 claims, no drawings

  15. REACTOR SHIELD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigner, E.P.; Ohlinger, L.E.; Young, G.J.; Weinberg, A.M.

    1959-02-17

    Radiation shield construction is described for a nuclear reactor. The shield is comprised of a plurality of steel plates arranged in parallel spaced relationship within a peripheral shell. Reactor coolant inlet tubes extend at right angles through the plates and baffles are arranged between the plates at right angles thereto and extend between the tubes to create a series of zigzag channels between the plates for the circulation of coolant fluid through the shield. The shield may be divided into two main sections; an inner section adjacent the reactor container and an outer section spaced therefrom. Coolant through the first section may be circulated at a faster rate than coolant circulated through the outer section since the area closest to the reactor container is at a higher temperature and is more radioactive. The two sections may have separate cooling systems to prevent the coolant in the outer section from mixing with the more contaminated coolant in the inner section.

  16. Optimisation of beam-pipe shielding for MUCH detector of CBM experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, S.; Farooq, M.; Chattopadhyay, S.

    2014-01-01

    The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment is one of the major scientific pillars of FAIR. The main goal of the experiment is to explore the Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) phase diagram in the regions of high baryonic densities and moderate temperatures in the beam energy range of 10-45 AGeV. This includes also the search for the critical point, the first order deconfinement phase transition from the hadronic matter to the partonic matter and the study of equation-of-state of dense baryonic matter. The CBM research program comprises a comprehensive scan of observables, beam energies and collision systems. The observables includes low-mass dilepton pairs, charmonia and open charm, but also collective flow of rare and bulk particles, correlations and fluctuations. Some of the particles under study have low cross-sections (like charm) or small branching ratios (like low-mass vector mesons). Therefore, in order to compensate for the low yield the measurements have to be performed at very high reaction rates of up to about 10 MHz. These conditions demand for fast and radiation hard detectors and associated fast electronics, readout and online event reconstruction. Low material budget is required with in the detector acceptance to avoid multiple scattering which would limit high-precision measurements

  17. Analysis of mixed oxides critical experiments using the Hammer-Technion code with self-shielding treatment by Bondarenko method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Alfredo Y.; Santos, Adimir dos

    1995-01-01

    The present work summarizes the verification of the treatment of self-shielding based on Bondarenko method in HAMMER-TECHNION cell code for the Pu O 2 -U O 2 critical system using JENDL-3 nuclear data library. The results obtained are in excellent agreement with the original treatment of self-shielding employed by HAMMER-TECHNION cell code. (author). 9 refs, 1 fig, 9 tabs

  18. Environmental optimization and shielding for NMR experiments and imaging in the earth's magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favre, B; Bonche, J P; Meheir, H; Peyrin, J O

    1990-02-01

    For many years, a number of laboratories have been working on the applications of very low field NMR. In 1985, our laboratory presented the first NMR images using the earth's magnetic field. However, the use of this technique was limited by the weakness of the signal and the disturbing effects of the environment on the signal-to-noise ratio and on the homogeneity of the static magnetic field. Therefore experiments has to be performed in places with low environmental disturbances, such as open country or large parks. In 1986, we installed a new station in Lyon, in the town's hostile environment. Good NMR signals can now be obtained (with a signal-to-noise ratio better than 200 and a time constant T2 better than 3s for 200-mnl water samples and at a temperature of about 40 degrees C). We report the terrace roof of our faculty building. Gradient coils were used to correct the local inhomogeneities of the earth's magnetic field. We show FIDs and MR images of water-filled tubes made with or without these improvements.

  19. Shielding benchmark experiments and sensitivity studies in progress at some European laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hehn, G.; Mattes, M.; Matthes, W.; Nicks, R.; Rief, H.

    1975-01-01

    A 100 group standard library based on ENDF/B3 has been prepared by IKE and JRC. This library is used for the analysis of the current European and Japanese iron benchmark experiments. Further measurements are planned for checking the data sets for graphite, sodium and water. In a cooperation between the IKE and JRC groups coupled neutron-photon cross section sets will be produced. Point data are processed at IKE by the modular program system RSYST (CDC 6600) for elaborating the ENDFB data, whereas the JRC group, apart from using standard codes such as SUPERTOG 3, GAMLEG etc., has developed a series of auxiliary programs (IBM 360) for handling the DLC 2D and POPOP libraries and for producing the combined neutron-plus gamma library EL4 (119 groups). Sensitivity studies (in progress at IKE) make possible improvements in methods and optimization of calculation efforts for establishing group data. A tentative sensitivity study for a 3 dimensional MC approach is in progress at Ispra. As for nuclear data evaluation, the JRC group is calculating barium cross sections and their associated gamma spectra. 6 figures

  20. Shielding methods development in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mynatt, F.R.

    1977-01-01

    A generalized shielding methodology has been developed in the U.S.A. that is adaptable to the shielding analyses of all reactor types. Thus far used primarily for liquid-metal fast breeder reactors, the methodology includes several component activities: (1) developing methods for calculating radiation transport through reactor-shield systems; (2) processing cross-section libraries; (3) performing design calculations for specific systems; (4) performing and analyzing pertinent integral experiments; (5) performing sensitivity studies on both the design calculations and the experimental analyses; and, finally, (6) calculating shield design parameters and their uncertainties. The criteria for the methodology are a 5 to 10 percent accuracy for responses at locations near the core and a factor of 2 accuracy for responses at distant locations. The methodology has been successfully adapted to most in-vessel and ex-vessel problems encountered in the shield analyses of the Fast Flux Test Facility and the Fast Flux Test Facility and the Clinch River Breeder Reactor; however, improved techniques are needed for calculating regions in which radiation streaming is dominant. Areas of the methodology in which significant progress has recently been made are those involving the development of cross-section libraries, sensitivity analysis methods, and transport codes

  1. Integrated safeguards: Australian views and experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, J.; Bragin, V.; Leslie, R.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Australia has had a pioneering role in assisting the IAEA to develop the procedures and methods for strengthened safeguards, both before and after the conclusion of Australia's additional protocol. Australia played a key role in the negotiation of the model additional protocol, and made ratification a high priority in order to encourage early ratification by other States. Australia was the first State to ratify an additional protocol, on 10 December 1997, and was the first State in which the IAEA exercised complementary access and managed access under an additional protocol. Australia has undergone three full cycles of evaluation under strengthened safeguards measures, enabling the Agency to conclude it was appropriate to commence implementation of integrated safeguards. In January 2001 Australia became the first State in which integrated safeguards are being applied. As such, Australia's experience will be of interest to other States as they consult with the IAEA on the modalities for the introduction of integrated safeguards in their jurisdictions. The purpose of the paper is to outline Australia's experience with strengthened safeguards and Australia's views on the implementation of integrated safeguards. Australia has five Material Balance Areas (MBAs), the principal one covering the 10 MWt research reactor at Lucas Heights and the associated inventory of fresh and irradiated HEU fuel. Under classical safeguards, generally Australia was subject to annual Physical Inventory Verifications (PIVs) for the four MBAs at Lucas Heights, plus quarterly interim inspections, making a total of four inspections a year (PIVs for the different MBAs were conducted concurrently with each other or with interim inspections in other MBAs), although there was a period when the fresh fuel inventory exceeded one SQ, requiring monthly inspections. Under strengthened safeguards, this pattern of four inspections a year was maintained, with the addition of complementary

  2. Further analysis and evaluation of the results of the NATO common shield-DAT#7 experiment: defence against terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dill, Stephan; Peichl, Markus; Jirousek, Matthias; Süß, Helmut

    2009-09-01

    The contactless control of persons and the remote surveillance of sensitive infrastructures are important tasks in order to provide the required security measures to protect the human population against the threads of international terrorism. Passive microwave imaging allows a daytime independent observation and examination of objects and persons under nearly all adverse ambient conditions without artificial exposure, hence fully avoiding health risks. The penetration capability of microwaves provides the detection of objects through atmospheric obstacles like bad weather, fog or dust, vapour and smoke, as well as through thin non-metallic materials and clothing. For the latter the detection of hidden objects like weapons, explosives, and contraband is possible by monitoring dielectric anomalies. The experiment "Common Shield" is part of a perennial investigation series leaded by the "Center for Transformation of the German armed forces (Bundeswehr)". In 2008 the protection of soldiers and facilities was experimentally investigated under the aspect of a networked operational leadership. In this context as well a harbour protection trial was carried out in August/September 2008 at the naval base Eckernfoerde in Germany. This trial was part of the NATO CNADs program of work for "Defence Against Terrorism (DAT)" starting in 2003, and Germany is the lead nation for item 7 on "Technology for Intelligence, Surveillance, Reconnaissance & Target Acquisition of Terrorists (ISRTA)". One main activity in the Eckernfoerde trial was the simulation of a military entrance control facility by a tent including various imaging and a chemical sensor suite in order to provide security for a military camp. Besides commercial optical and infrared cameras various passive millimeter-wave imagers have been used from different German research institutions. The DLR Microwaves and Radar Institute, Department for Reconnaissance and Security (HR-AS), provided an imaging radiometer scanner

  3. Radiation shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aitken, D.

    1979-01-01

    Shields for equipment in which ionising radiation is associated with high electrical gradients, for example X-ray tubes and particle accelerators, incorporate a radiation-absorbing metal, as such or as a compound, and are electrically non-conducting and can be placed in the high electrical gradient region of the equipment. Substances disclosed include dispersions of lead, tungsten, uranium or oxides of these in acrylics polyesters, PVC, ABS, polyamides, PTFE, epoxy resins, glass or ceramics. The material used may constitute an evacuable enclosure of the equipment or may be an external shield thereof. (U.K.)

  4. Radiation shielding material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Akio; Isobe, Eiji.

    1976-01-01

    Purpose: To increase the shielding capacity of the radiation shielding material having an abundant flexibility. Constitution: A mat consisting of a lead or lead alloy fibrous material is covered with a cloth, and the two are made integral by sewing in a kilted fashion by using a yarn. Thereafter, the system is covered with a gas-tight film or sheet. The shielding material obtained in this way has, in addition to the above merits, advantages in that (1) it is free from restoration due to elasticity so that it can readily seal contaminants, (2) it can be used in a state consisting of a number of overlapped layers, (3) it fits the shoulder well and is readily portable and (4) it permits attachment of fasteners or the like. (Ikeda, J.)

  5. Benchmark experiments of dose distributions in phantom placed behind iron and concrete shields at the TIARA facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakane, Yoshihiro; Sakamoto, Yukio; Tsuda, Shuichi

    2004-01-01

    To verify the calculation methods used for the evaluations of neutron dose at the radiation shielding design of the high-intensity proton accelerator facility (J-PARC), dose distributions in a plastic phantom of 30x30x30 cm 3 slab placed behind iron and concrete test shields were measured by using a tissue equivalent proportional counter for 65-MeV quasi-monoenergetic neutrons generated from the 7 Li(p,n) reactions with 68-MeV protons at the TIARA facility. Dose distributions in the phantom were calculated by using the MCNPX and the NMTC/JAM-MCNP codes with the flux-to-dose conversion coefficients prepared for the shielding design of the facility. The comparison results show the calculated results were in good agreement with the measured ones within 20%. (author)

  6. Gonadal shield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdy, J A; Stiteler, R D; Glasgow, G P; Mill, W B

    1975-10-01

    A secondary gonadal shield for use in the pelvic irradiation of males was designed and built using material and apparatus available with the Cerrobend blocking system. The gonadal dose was reduced to approximately 1.5 to 2.5% of the given dose.

  7. Electrostatic shielding of transformers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Leon, Francisco

    2017-11-28

    Toroidal transformers are currently used only in low-voltage applications. There is no published experience for toroidal transformer design at distribution-level voltages. Toroidal transformers are provided with electrostatic shielding to make possible high voltage applications and withstand the impulse test.

  8. Integrating conceptualizations of experience into the interaction design process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Peter

    2010-01-01

    From a design perspective, the increasing awareness of experiential aspects of interactive systems prompts the question of how conceptualizations of experience can inform and potentially be integrated into the interaction design process. This paper presents one approach to integrating theoretical...

  9. Concrete radiation shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, M.F.

    1989-01-01

    The increased use of nuclear energy has given rise to a growth in the amount of artificially produced radiation and radioactive materials. The design and construction of shielding to protect people, equipment and structures from the effects of radiation has never been more important. Experience has shown that concrete is an effective, versatile and economical material for the construction of radiation shielding. This book provides information on the principles governing the interaction of radiation with matter and on relevant nuclear physics to give the engineer an understanding of the design and construction of concrete shielding. It covers the physical, mechanical and nuclear properties of concrete; the effects of elevated temperatures and possible damage to concrete due to radiation; basic procedures for the design of concrete radiation shields and finally the special problems associated with their construction and cost. Although written primarily for engineers concerned with the design and construction of concrete shielding, the book also reviews the widely scattered data and information available on this subject and should therefore be of interest to students and those wishing to research further in this field. (author)

  10. Fusion integral experiments and analysis and the determination of design safety factors - I: Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youssef, M.Z.; Kumar, A.; Abdou, M.A.; Oyama, Y.; Maekawa, H.

    1995-01-01

    The role of the neutronics experimentation and analysis in fusion neutronics research and development programs is discussed. A new methodology was developed to arrive at estimates to design safety factors based on the experimental and analytical results from design-oriented integral experiments. In this methodology, and for a particular nuclear response, R, a normalized density function (NDF) is constructed from the prediction uncertainties, and their associated standard deviations, as found in the various integral experiments where that response, R, is measured. Important statistical parameters are derived from the NDF, such as the global mean prediction uncertainty, and the possible spread around it. The method of deriving safety factors from many possible NDFs based on various calculational and measuring methods (among other variants) is also described. Associated with each safety factor is a confidence level, designers may choose to have, that the calculated response, R, will not exceed (or will not fall below) the actual measured value. An illustrative example is given on how to construct the NDFs. The methodology is applied in two areas, namely the line-integrated tritium production rate and bulk shielding integral experiments. Conditions under which these factors could be derived and the validity of the method are discussed. 72 refs., 17 figs., 4 tabs

  11. The Vehicle Integrated Performance Analysis Experience: Reconnecting With Technical Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGhee, D. S.

    2006-01-01

    Very early in the Space Launch Initiative program, a small team of engineers at MSFC proposed a process for performing system-level assessments of a launch vehicle. Aimed primarily at providing insight and making NASA a smart buyer, the Vehicle Integrated Performance Analysis (VIPA) team was created. The difference between the VIPA effort and previous integration attempts is that VIPA a process using experienced people from various disciplines, which focuses them on a technically integrated assessment. The foundations of VIPA s process are described. The VIPA team also recognized the need to target early detailed analysis toward identifying significant systems issues. This process is driven by the T-model for technical integration. VIPA s approach to performing system-level technical integration is discussed in detail. The VIPA process significantly enhances the development and monitoring of realizable project requirements. VIPA s assessment validates the concept s stated performance, identifies significant issues either with the concept or the requirements, and then reintegrates these issues to determine impacts. This process is discussed along with a description of how it may be integrated into a program s insight and review process. The VIPA process has gained favor with both engineering and project organizations for being responsive and insightful

  12. Mergers and integrated care: the Quebec experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demers, Louis

    2013-01-01

    As a researcher, I have studied the efforts to increase the integration of health and social services in Quebec, as well as the mergers in the Quebec healthcare system. These mergers have often been presented as a necessary transition to break down the silos that compartmentalize the services dispensed by various organisations. A review of the studies about mergers and integrated care projects in the Quebec healthcare system, since its inception, show that mergers cannot facilitate integrated care unless they are desired and represent for all of the actors involved an appropriate way to deal with service organisation problems. Otherwise, mergers impede integrated care by creating increased bureaucratisation and standardisation and by triggering conflicts and mistrust among the staff of the merged organisations. It is then preferable to let local actors select the most appropriate organisational integration model for their specific context and offer them resources and incentives to cooperate.

  13. Mergers and integrated care: the Quebec experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis Demers

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available As a researcher, I have studied the efforts to increase the integration of health and social services in Quebec, as well as the mergers in the Quebec healthcare system. These mergers have often been presented as a necessary transition to break down the silos that compartmentalize the services dispensed by various organisations. A review of the studies about mergers and integrated care projects in the Quebec healthcare system, since its inception, show that mergers cannot facilitate integrated care unless they are desired and represent for all of the actors involved an appropriate way to deal with service organisation problems. Otherwise, mergers impede integrated care by creating increased bureaucratisation and standardisation and by triggering conflicts and mistrust among the staff of the merged organisations. It is then preferable to let local actors select the most appropriate organisational integration model for their specific context and offer them resources and incentives to cooperate.

  14. Radiation shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue, D.D.

    1979-01-01

    Details are given of a cylindrical electric penetration assembly for carrying instrumentation leads, used in monitoring the performance of a nuclear reactor, through the containment wall of the reactor. Effective yet economical shielding protection against both fast neutron and high-energy gamma radiation is provided. Adequate spacing within the assembly allows excessive heat to be efficiently dissipated and means of monitoring all potential radiation and gas leakage paths are provided. (UK)

  15. Shielded container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fries, B.A.

    1978-01-01

    A shielded container for transportation of radioactive materials is disclosed in which leakage from the container is minimized due to constructional features including, inter alia, forming the container of a series of telescoping members having sliding fits between adjacent side walls and having at least two of the members including machine sealed lids and at least two of the elements including hand-tightenable caps

  16. Structural design of shield-integrated thin-wall vacuum vessel and manufacturing qualification tests for International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Katsusuke; Shibui, Masanao; Koizumi, Koichi; Kanamori, Naokazu; Nishio, Satoshi; Sasaki, Takashi; Tada, Eisuke

    1992-09-01

    Conceptual design of shield-integrated thin-wall vacuum vessel has been done for ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor). The vacuum vessel concept is based on a thin-double-wall structure, which consists of inner and outer plates and rib stiffeners. Internal shielding structures, which provide neutron irradiation shielding to protect TF coils, are set up between the inner plate and the outer plate of the vessel to avoid complexity of machine systems such as supporting systems of blanket modules. The vacuum vessel is assembled/disassembled by remote handling, so that welding joints are chosen as on-site joint method from reliability of mechanical strength. From a view point of assembling TF coils, the vacuum vessel is separated at the side of port, and is divided into 32 segments similar to the ITER-CDA reference design. Separatrix sweeping coils are located in the vacuum vessel to reduce heat fluxes onto divertor plates. Here, the coil structure and attachment to the vacuum vessel have been investigated. A sectorized saddle-loop coil is available for assembling and disassembling the coil. To support electromagnetic loads on the coils, they are attached to the groove in the vacuum vessel by welding. Flexible multi-plate supporting structure (compression-type gravity support), which was designed during CDA, is optimized by investigating buckling and frequency response properties, and concept on manufacturing and fabrication of the gravity support are proposed. Partial model of the vacuum vessel is manufactured for trial, so that fundamental data on welding and fabrication are obtained. From mechanical property tests of weldment and partial models, mechanical intensity and behaviors of the weldment are obtained. Informations on FEM-modeling are obtained by comparing analysis results with experimental results. (author)

  17. Dosimetry and shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farinelli, U.

    1977-01-01

    Today, reactor dosimetry and shielding have wide areas of overlap as concerns both problems and methods. Increased interchange of results and know-how would benefit both. The areas of common interest include calculational methods, sensitivity studies, theoretical and experimental benchmarks, cross sections and other nuclear data, multigroup libraries and procedures for their adjustment, experimental techniques and damage functions. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art and the latest development in each of these areas as far as shielding is concerned, and suggests a number of interactions that could be profitable for reactor dosimetry. Among them, re-evaluation of the potentialities of calculational methods (in view of the recent developments) in predicting radiation environments of interest; the application of sensitivity analysis to dosimetry problems; a common effort in the field of theoretical benchmarks; the use of the shielding one-material propagation experiments as reference spectra for detector cross sections; common standardization of the detector nuclear data used in both fields; the setting up of a common (or compatible) multigroup structure and library applicable to shielding, dosimetry and core physics; the exchange of information and experience in the fields of cross section errors, correlations and adjustment; and the intercomparison of experimental techniques

  18. Shielding benchmark test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, Masayoshi

    1984-01-01

    Iron data in JENDL-2 have been tested by analyzing shielding benchmark experiments for neutron transmission through iron block performed at KFK using CF-252 neutron source and at ORNL using collimated neutron beam from reactor. The analyses are made by a shielding analysis code system RADHEAT-V4 developed at JAERI. The calculated results are compared with the measured data. As for the KFK experiments, the C/E values are about 1.1. For the ORNL experiments, the calculated values agree with the measured data within an accuracy of 33% for the off-center geometry. The d-t neutron transmission measurements through carbon sphere made at LLNL are also analyzed preliminarily by using the revised JENDL data for fusion neutronics calculation. (author)

  19. Streaming experiment of gamma-ray obliquely incident on concrete shield wall with straight cylindrical ducts and verification of single scattering code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaji, Akio; Saito, Tetsuo.

    1988-01-01

    To investigate a proximity effect of ducts on shield performance against γ radiation, an experiment was performed at JRR-4 by entering the γ-ray beam into a concrete shield wall of 100 cm-thickness with 3 or 5 straight cylindrical ducts of radius of 4.45 cm placed in a straight line or crosswise at interval of 8.9 cm. The dose rates were measured using digital dosimeters on a horizontal line 20 cm apart from the rear of the wall with 0, 1, 3 and 5 ducts, and with the incident angles of 0deg, 7deg, 14deg and 20deg, respectively. The dose rate distributions depended on the number of ducts and the incident angle, and the dose rate ratios of with-three-ducts to no-duct distributed within 3.6∼12, 1.3∼5.0 and 1.1∼4.3, for the incident angles of 7deg, 14deg and 20deg, while those of with-single-duct to no-duct within 1.2∼7.1, 1.1∼2.7 and 1.0∼1.9, respectively. The experiment was analyzed using a multigroup single scattering code G33YSN able to deal with the geometry of the ducts exactly. For each incident angle, the calculation agreed with the experiment within a factor of 2. (author)

  20. Benchmarks for evaluation of shielding calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coelho, P.R.P.; Maiorino, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    The spatial-energy neutron distribution emerging from a laminated shielding (stainless, polyethylene and lead) were measured by a fast neutron spectrometer and some experimental results were compared with those calculated by a network of codes. The source neutrons incident in the shielding were 14 MeV neutrons from a H-3(d,n)He-4 reaction coming from a Van de Graaff accelerator. Experimentally was verified a good radial symmetry of neutron energy-spectrum, and also a moderation and attenuation effect for points located out of the central axis of symmetry. These results indicate that the experiment can be well modelated by R-Z geometry. A neutron-energy spectra calculated by DOT 3.5 was compared with the measured spectra, showing a good agreement in the shape and value of the spectra (12% for an integrated spectrum from 2 to 16 MeV). (author) [pt

  1. Experiences in integrated leak rate measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirk, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    During a hypothetical design basis accident for nuclear power plants, the reactor containment system is relied upon to maintain radioactive exposure limits below acceptable limits. Integrated leak rate testing is a means of verifying that the leakage of radioactivity material from the reactor containment will be below allowable limits. Leakage rate computations are based on the ideal gas law. The absolute method of leakage rate testing utilizing mass point method of data analysis is recommended. Integrated leak rate testing data is obtained from pressure, drybulb temperature, dewpoint temperature, and flow measuring systems. Test data does not support the usual leakage (flow) - pressure square root relationship. The major source of potential leakage from the reactor containment is reactor containment isolation valves

  2. Validation of Shielding Analysis Capability of SuperMC with SINBAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Chaobin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The shielding analysis capability of SuperMC was validated with the Shielding Integral Benchmark Archive Database (SINBAD. The SINBAD was compiled by RSICC and NEA, it includes numerous benchmark experiments performed with the D-T fusion neutron source facilities of OKTAVIAN, FNS, IPPE, etc. The results from SuperMC simulation were compared with experimental data and MCNP results. Very good agreement with deviation lower than 1% was achieved and it suggests that SuperMC is reliable in shielding calculation.

  3. Integrated circuits for particle physics experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Snoeys, W; Campbell, M; Cantatore, E; Faccio, F; Heijne, Erik H M; Jarron, Pierre; Kloukinas, Kostas C; Marchioro, A; Moreira, P; Toifl, Thomas H; Wyllie, Ken H

    2000-01-01

    High energy particle physics experiments investigate the nature of matter through the identification of subatomic particles produced in collisions of protons, electrons, or heavy ions which have been accelerated to very high energies. Future experiments will have hundreds of millions of detector channels to observe the interaction region where collisions take place at a 40 MHz rate. This paper gives an overview of the electronics requirements for such experiments and explains how data reduction, timing distribution, and radiation tolerance in commercial CMOS circuits are achieved for these big systems. As a detailed example, the electronics for the innermost layers of the future tracking detector, the pixel vertex detector, is discussed with special attention to system aspects. A small-scale prototype (130 channels) implemented in standard 0.25 mu m CMOS remains fully functional after a 30 Mrad(SiO/sub 2/) irradiation. A full-scale pixel readout chip containing 8000 readout channels in a 14 by 16 mm/sup 2/ ar...

  4. Integrated vector management: the Zambian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanda, Emmanuel; Masaninga, Fred; Coleman, Michael; Sikaala, Chadwick; Katebe, Cecilia; Macdonald, Michael; Baboo, Kumar S; Govere, John; Manga, Lucien

    2008-08-27

    The Zambian Malaria Control Programme with the Roll Back Malaria (RBM) partners have developed the current National Malaria Strategic Plan (NMSP 2006-2011) which focuses on prevention based on the Integrated Vector Management (IVM) strategy. The introduction and implementation of an IVM strategy was planned in accordance with the World Health Organization (WHO) steps towards IVM implementation namely Introduction Phase, Consolidation Phase and Expansion Phase. IVM has created commitment for Legal and Regulatory policy review, monitoring, Research and a strong stewardship by the chemical suppliers. It has also leveraged additional resources, improved inter-sectoral collaboration, capacity building and enhanced community participation which facilitated a steady scaling up in coverage and utilisation of key preventive interventions. Thus, markedly reducing malaria incidence and case fatalities in the country. Zambia has successfully introduced, consolidated and expanded IVM activities. Resulting in increased coverage and utilization of interventions and markedly reducing malaria-related morbidity and mortality while ensuring a better protection of the environment.

  5. Integrating mental health services: the Finnish experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ville Lehtinen

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to give a short description of the most important developments of mental health services in Finland during the 1990s, examine their influences on the organisation and provision of services, and describe shortly some national efforts to handle the new situation. The Finnish mental health service system experienced profound changes in the beginning of the 1990s. These included the integration of mental health services, being earlier under own separate administration, with other specialised health services, decentralisation of the financing of health services, and de-institutionalisation of the services. The same time Finland underwent the deepest economic recession in Western Europe, which resulted in cut-offs especially in the mental health budgets. Conducting extensive national research and development programmes in the field of mental health has been one typically Finnish way of supporting the mental health service development. The first of these national programmes was the Schizophrenia Project 1981–97, whose main aims were to decrease the incidence of new long-term patients and the prevalence of old long-stay patients by developing an integrated treatment model. The Suicide Prevention Project 1986–96 aimed at raising awareness of this special problem and decreasing by 20% the proportionally high suicide rate in Finland. The National Depression Programme 1994–98 focused at this clearly increasing public health concern by several research and development project targeted both to the general population and specifically to children, primary care and specialised services. The latest, still on-going Meaningful Life Programme 1998–2003 which main aim is, by multi-sectoral co-operation, to improve the quality of life for people suffering from or living with the threat of mental disorders. Furthermore, the government launched in 1999 a new Goal and Action Programme for Social Welfare and Health Care 2000–2003, in

  6. Integrated Networks: National and International Online Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo Muniz-Solari

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing impression among online geography educators that interaction can be developed based on specific teaching and learning methods. The authors developed a practical research study to investigate this issue. The study was based on advanced graduate courses in geography at Beijing Normal University and Texas State University. International interaction was complemented by online collaboration among the US local group. Both synchronous and asynchronous communication systems were used, which spanned two platforms. Results of this experience indicate that teaching and learning methods must be enhanced by a flexible online learning model and extensive organizational support in order to increase interaction and reach a certain level of cooperation.

  7. BWR spent fuel storage cask performance test. Volume 1. Cask handling experience and decay heat, heat transfer, and shielding data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinnon, M.A.; Doman, J.W.; Tanner, J.E.; Guenther, R.J.; Creer, J.M.; King, C.E.

    1986-02-01

    This report documents a heat transfer and shielding performance test conducted on a Ridihalgh, Eggers and Associates REA 2023 boiling water reactor (BWR) spent fuel storage cask. The testing effort consisted of three parts: pretest preparations, performance testing, and post-test activities. Pretest preparations included conducting cask handling dry runs and characterizing BWR spent fuel assemblies from Nebraska Public Power District's Cooper Nuclear Station. The performance test matrix included 14 runs consisting of two loadings, two cask orientations, and three backfill environments. Post-test activities included calorimetry and axial radiation scans of selected fuel assemblies, in-basin sipping of each assembly, crud collection, video and photographic scans, and decontamination of the cask interior and exterior

  8. Complementarity of integral and differential experiments for reactor physics purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tellier, Henry.

    1981-04-01

    In this paper, the following topics are studied: uranium 238 effective integral; thermal range uranium 238 capture cross section; Americium 242 m capture cross section. The mentioned examples show that differential and integral experiments are both useful to the reactor physicists

  9. Shielding Benchmark Computational Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, H.T.; Slater, C.O.; Holland, L.B.; Tracz, G.; Marshall, W.J.; Parsons, J.L.

    2000-01-01

    Over the past several decades, nuclear science has relied on experimental research to verify and validate information about shielding nuclear radiation for a variety of applications. These benchmarks are compared with results from computer code models and are useful for the development of more accurate cross-section libraries, computer code development of radiation transport modeling, and building accurate tests for miniature shielding mockups of new nuclear facilities. When documenting measurements, one must describe many parts of the experimental results to allow a complete computational analysis. Both old and new benchmark experiments, by any definition, must provide a sound basis for modeling more complex geometries required for quality assurance and cost savings in nuclear project development. Benchmarks may involve one or many materials and thicknesses, types of sources, and measurement techniques. In this paper the benchmark experiments of varying complexity are chosen to study the transport properties of some popular materials and thicknesses. These were analyzed using three-dimensional (3-D) models and continuous energy libraries of MCNP4B2, a Monte Carlo code developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico. A shielding benchmark library provided the experimental data and allowed a wide range of choices for source, geometry, and measurement data. The experimental data had often been used in previous analyses by reputable groups such as the Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG) and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development/Nuclear Energy Agency Nuclear Science Committee (OECD/NEANSC)

  10. Integrated vector management: The Zambian experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katebe Cecilia

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Zambian Malaria Control Programme with the Roll Back Malaria (RBM partners have developed the current National Malaria Strategic Plan (NMSP 2006–2011 which focuses on prevention based on the Integrated Vector Management (IVM strategy. The introduction and implementation of an IVM strategy was planned in accordance with the World Health Organization (WHO steps towards IVM implementation namely Introduction Phase, Consolidation Phase and Expansion Phase. Achievements IVM has created commitment for Legal and Regulatory policy review, monitoring, Research and a strong stewardship by the chemical suppliers. It has also leveraged additional resources, improved inter-sectoral collaboration, capacity building and enhanced community participation which facilitated a steady scaling up in coverage and utilisation of key preventive interventions. Thus, markedly reducing malaria incidence and case fatalities in the country. Conclusion Zambia has successfully introduced, consolidated and expanded IVM activities. Resulting in increased coverage and utilization of interventions and markedly reducing malaria-related morbidity and mortality while ensuring a better protection of the environment.

  11. The integrated project as a learning experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Angeles Antequera

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Florida is a higher education centre specialising in technical and business training. Postgraduate programs, university qualifications, vocational training, secondary education, further education, occupational training and languages are taught at Florida. An educational model in accordance with the demands of the European Higher Education Area has been designed, focussing on teaching for professional competencies. We have chosen to use a methodology which promotes the development of skills and abilities, it promotes participation and it is student-centric as s/he must look for knowledge him/herself thus connecting the educational and the real world. In the different university degrees taught in our centre, each year the student carries out a project set in a real context which integrates specific competencies from the course subject and develops transversal competencies associated with the project which are the purpose of planning and progressive learning: team work, effective communication, conflict resolution, leadership skills, innovation and creativity. The IP counts for 25% of each course in terms of objectives, scheduling and final evaluation. The project grade is an individual grade for each student and is the same for all subjects which form part of the project.

  12. Lessons learned: Experiences with Integrated Safeguards in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekse, T.; Hornkjol, S.

    2010-01-01

    Integrated safeguards (IS) was implemented in Norway in 2002 as one of the first countries in the world. The implementation of IS has provided both advantages and disadvantages for Norway. Lessons learned will be discussed. The concept of unannounced inspections under the integrated safeguards regime compared to traditional safeguards is one of the major issues. Small users with depleted uranium as shielding containers and the effort used to safeguard them is an aspect of this issue. Recently there has been an interest from the IAEA to investigate the historical boundaries between a research reactor site and a neighboring defense research site. The paper will address this issue as a part of the implementation of IS. Lately, we have seen that several commercial parties have started research on nuclear fuel cycle related projects. This raises some questions concerning what to declare under Article 2 of the Additional Protocol (AP). Today anyone with a computer connected to the internet could carry out research amenable to declaration under the AP. This paper will discuss this issue. (author)

  13. The regional energy integration: the latin-american experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The ways of the regional economic integrations are not identical and generate different repercussions on the markets and the energy industries evolution. The example of the Latin America proposes many various experiences to evaluate the stakes and the limits of each regional integrations. These limits lead to solution researches including indisputable convergencies. The first part of this document presents the genesis of these regional economic integrations experiences in Latina America, to study in the second part the energy consequences of the liberal ALENA and of the more political MERCOSUR. (A.L.B.)

  14. SNF shipping cask shielding analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.O.; Pace, J.V. III.

    1996-01-01

    The Waste Management and Remedial Action Division has planned a modification sequence for storage facility 7827 in the Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA). The modification cycle is: (1) modify an empty caisson, (2) transfer the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) of an occupied caisson to a hot cell in building 3525 for inspection and possible repackaging, and (3) return the package to the modified caisson in the SWSA. Although the SNF to be moved is in the solid form, it has different levels of activity. Thus, the following 5 shipping casks will be available for the task: the Loop Transport Carrier, the In- Pile Loop LITR HB-2 Carrier, the 6.5-inch HRLEL Carrier, the HFIR Hot Scrap Carrier, and the 10-inch ORR Experiment Removal Shield Cask. This report describes the shielding tasks for the 5 casks: determination of shielding characteristics, any streaming avenues, estimation of thermal limits, and shielding calculational uncertainty for use in the transportation plan

  15. On the feasibility to perform integral transmission experiments in the GELINA target hall at IRMM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leconte, Pierre; Jean, Cyrille De Saint; Geslot, Benoit; Plompen, Arjan; Belloni, Francesca; Nyman, Markus

    2017-09-01

    Shielding experiments are relevant to validate elastic and inelastic scattering cross sections in the fast energy range. In this paper, we are focusing on the possibility to use the pulsed white neutron time-of-flight facility GELINA to perform this kind of measurement. Several issues need to be addressed: neutron source intensity, room return effect, distance of the materials to be irradiated from the source, and the sensitivity of various reaction rate distributions through the material to different input cross sections. MCNP6 and TRIPOLI4 calculations of the outgoing neutron spectrum are compared, based on electron/positron/gamma/neutron simulations. A first guess of an integral transmission experiment through a 238U slab is considered. It shows that a 10 cm thickness of uranium is sufficient to reach a high sensitivity to the 238U inelastic scattering cross section in the [2-5 MeV] energy range, with small contributions from elastic and fission cross sections. This experiment would contribute to reduce the uncertainty on this nuclear data, which has a significant impact on the power distribution in large commercial reactors. Other materials that would be relevant for the ASTRID 4th generation prototype reactor are also tested, showing that a sufficient sensitivity to nuclear data would be obtained by using a 50 to 100cm thick slab of side 60x60cm. This study concludes on the feasibility and interest of such experiments in the target hall of the GELINA facility.

  16. Shielding benchmark tests of JENDL-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, Masayoshi; Hasegawa, Akira; Ueki, Kohtaro; Yamano, Naoki; Sasaki, Kenji; Matsumoto, Yoshihiro; Takemura, Morio; Ohtani, Nobuo; Sakurai, Kiyoshi.

    1994-03-01

    The integral test of neutron cross sections for major shielding materials in JENDL-3 has been performed by analyzing various shielding benchmark experiments. For the fission-like neutron source problem, the following experiments are analyzed: (1) ORNL Broomstick experiments for oxygen, iron and sodium, (2) ASPIS deep penetration experiments for iron, (3) ORNL neutron transmission experiments for iron, stainless steel, sodium and graphite, (4) KfK leakage spectrum measurements from iron spheres, (5) RPI angular neutron spectrum measurements in a graphite block. For D-T neutron source problem, the following two experiments are analyzed: (6) LLNL leakage spectrum measurements from spheres of iron and graphite, and (7) JAERI-FNS angular neutron spectrum measurements on beryllium and graphite slabs. Analyses have been performed using the radiation transport codes: ANISN(1D Sn), DIAC(1D Sn), DOT3.5(2D Sn) and MCNP(3D point Monte Carlo). The group cross sections for Sn transport calculations are generated with the code systems PROF-GROUCH-G/B and RADHEAT-V4. The point-wise cross sections for MCNP are produced with NJOY. For comparison, the analyses with JENDL-2 and ENDF/B-IV have been also carried out. The calculations using JENDL-3 show overall agreement with the experimental data as well as those with ENDF/B-IV. Particularly, JENDL-3 gives better results than JENDL-2 and ENDF/B-IV for sodium. It has been concluded that JENDL-3 is very applicable for fission and fusion reactor shielding analyses. (author)

  17. Analyses of iron and concrete shielding experiments at JAEA/TIARA with JENDL/HE-2007, ENDF/B-VII.1 and FENDL-3.0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konno, Chikara; Ochiai, Kentaro; Sato, Satoshi; Ohta, Masayuki

    2015-01-01

    IAEA released a new Fusion Evaluated Nuclear Data Library, FENDL-3.0, in 2012. FENDL-3.0 extends the neutron energy range from 20 MeV to greater than 60 MeV. Now there is increasing interest in nuclear data above 20 MeV. Thus we have analyzed the iron and concrete shielding experiments with the 40 and 65 MeV neutron sources at TIARA in Japan Atomic Energy Agency with the latest high-energy nuclear data libraries, JENDL/HE-2007, ENDF/B-VII.1 and FENDL-3.0. The Monte Carlo code MCNP-5 and ACE files of JENDL/HE-2007, ENDF/B-VII.1 and FENDL-3.0, which are supplied from JAEA, LANL and IAEA, respectively, were used for this analysis. The collimated neutron beam and test shields were modeled in the analysis. The measured source neutron data were adopted in the analysis. The followings are found out from the results; (1) Iron experiments: The calculation result with FENDL-3.0 agrees with the measured one best. That with JENDL/HE-2007 fairly agrees with the measured one. On the contrary that with ENDF/B-VII.1 drastically overestimates the measured one. It is confirmed that this overestimation is due to the smaller non-elastic scattering data of "5"6Fe in ENDF/B-VII.1. (2) Concrete experiments: The calculation result with ENDL/HE-2007 agrees with the measured one best, while those with FENDL-3.0 and ENDF/B-VII.1 drastically overestimate the measured one. It is confirmed that this overestimation is due to both the larger elastic and smaller non-elastic scattering data of "1"6O in FENDL-3.0 and ENDF/B-VII.1.

  18. About the Scythian Shields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    About the Scythian Shields

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Shields played major role in the armament system of the Scythians. Made from organic materials, they are poorly traced on the materials of archaeological excavations. Besides, scaly surface of shields was often perceived in practice as the remnants of the scaly armor. E. V. Chernenko was able to discern the difference between shields’ scaly plates and armor scales. The top edge of the scales was bent inwards, and shield plates had a wire fixation. These observations let significantly increase the number of shields, found in the burial complexes of the Scythians. The comparison of archaeological materials and the images of Scythian warriors allow distinguishing the main forms of Scythian shields. All shields are divided into fencing shields and cover shields. The fencing shields include round wooden shields, reinforced with bronze sheet, and round moon-shaped shields with a notch at the top, with a metal scaly surface. They came to the Scythians under the Greek influence and are known in the monuments of the 4th century BC. Oval shields with scaly surface (back cover shields were used by the Scythian cavalry. They protected the rider in case of frontal attack, and moved back in case of maneuver or closein fighting. Scythian battle tactics were based on rapid approaching the enemy and throwing spears and further rapid withdrawal. Spears stuck in the shields of enemies, forcing them to drop the shields, uncover, and in this stage of the battle the archers attacked the disorganized ranks of the enemy. That was followed by the stage of close fight. Oval form of a wooden shield with leather covering was used by the Scythian infantry and spearmen. Rectangular shields, including wooden shields and the shields pleached from rods, represented a special category. The top of such shield was made of wood, and a pleached pad on leather basis was attached to it. This shield could be a reliable protection from arrows, but it could not protect against javelins

  19. Shielding modification design of the N.S. Mutsu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaji, A.; Miyakoshi, J.; Kageyama, T.; Futamura, Y.

    1983-01-01

    Shielding modification design of the N.S. Mutsu was performed for reducing the radiation doses outside the primary and the secondary shields by providing shields for neutrons streaming through the air gap between the pressure vessel and the primary shield. This was accomplished by replacing parts of the shields and adding new shields in the upper and lower sections of both primary and secondary shields, and also replacing the thermal insulator in the gap. The shielding design calculations were made using one- and two-dimensional discrete ordinates codes and also a point kernel code. Special attention was paid to the calculations of, (1) the neutrons streaming through the gap between the pressure vessel and the primary shield, (2) the radiations transmitted through the radial shield of the core in the primary shield, (3) the radiations transmitted through the upper and lower sections of the secondary shield, and (4) the dose rate equivalent in the accommodation area. Their calculational accuracies were estimated by analyzing various experiments. To support the modification, a variety of experiments and tests were carried out, which were material tests, cooling test of the primary shield, mechanical strength test of the double bottom, trial fabrication tests of new shields, performance degradation test of heavy concrete and duct streaming experiment in the secondary shield. (author)

  20. Short-term dissolution experiments on various cement formulations in standard Canadian shield saline solution in the presence of clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heimann, R.B.; Stanchell, M.A.T.

    1986-12-01

    A commercially available sulphate-resisting portland cement (SRPC) and three cement formulations derived from it by adding 10 and 20 vol% silica fume or 35 vol% fly-ash have been leached in Standard Canadian Shield Saline Solution (SCSSS) with added calcium-montmorillonite or sodium-montmorillonite at 150 degrees C for 14 days. The leach solutions have been analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy for silicon, magensium, iron and potassium, and by inductively coupled plasma spectrometry for aluminum and phosphorous. The surfaces of the leached samples have been investigated by scanning electron microscopy in conjunction with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and by X-ray powder diffraction methods. Cumulative pore size distrubtion curves have been recorded for as-cured and leached cement samples. It has been shown that the presence of clay accelerates the rate of dissolution of the various cements, and that the pH of the leaching solutions plays a dominant role in the elemental release kinetics

  1. The regional energy integration: the latin-american experiences; L'integration energetique regionale: les experiences latino-americaines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    The ways of the regional economic integrations are not identical and generate different repercussions on the markets and the energy industries evolution. The example of the Latin America proposes many various experiences to evaluate the stakes and the limits of each regional integrations. These limits lead to solution researches including indisputable convergencies. The first part of this document presents the genesis of these regional economic integrations experiences in Latina America, to study in the second part the energy consequences of the liberal ALENA and of the more political MERCOSUR. (A.L.B.)

  2. The regional energy integration: the latin-american experiences; L'integration energetique regionale: les experiences latino-americaines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    The ways of the regional economic integrations are not identical and generate different repercussions on the markets and the energy industries evolution. The example of the Latin America proposes many various experiences to evaluate the stakes and the limits of each regional integrations. These limits lead to solution researches including indisputable convergencies. The first part of this document presents the genesis of these regional economic integrations experiences in Latina America, to study in the second part the energy consequences of the liberal ALENA and of the more political MERCOSUR. (A.L.B.)

  3. Automatic generation of 3D fine mesh geometries for the analysis of the venus-3 shielding benchmark experiment with the Tort code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pescarini, M.; Orsi, R.; Martinelli, T.

    2003-01-01

    In many practical radiation transport applications today the cost for solving refined, large size and complex multi-dimensional problems is not so much computing but is linked to the cumbersome effort required by an expert to prepare a detailed geometrical model, verify and validate that it is correct and represents, to a specified tolerance, the real design or facility. This situation is, in particular, relevant and frequent in reactor core criticality and shielding calculations, with three-dimensional (3D) general purpose radiation transport codes, requiring a very large number of meshes and high performance computers. The need for developing tools that make easier the task to the physicist or engineer, by reducing the time required, by facilitating through effective graphical display the verification of correctness and, finally, that help the interpretation of the results obtained, has clearly emerged. The paper shows the results of efforts in this field through detailed simulations of a complex shielding benchmark experiment. In the context of the activities proposed by the OECD/NEA Nuclear Science Committee (NSC) Task Force on Computing Radiation Dose and Modelling of Radiation-Induced Degradation of Reactor Components (TFRDD), the ENEA-Bologna Nuclear Data Centre contributed with an analysis of the VENUS-3 low-flux neutron shielding benchmark experiment (SCK/CEN-Mol, Belgium). One of the targets of the work was to test the BOT3P system, originally developed at the Nuclear Data Centre in ENEA-Bologna and actually released to OECD/NEA Data Bank for free distribution. BOT3P, ancillary system of the DORT (2D) and TORT (3D) SN codes, permits a flexible automatic generation of spatial mesh grids in Cartesian or cylindrical geometry, through combinatorial geometry algorithms, following a simplified user-friendly approach. This system demonstrated its validity also in core criticality analyses, as for example the Lewis MOX fuel benchmark, permitting to easily

  4. Radiation shielding device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Takahiro; Yamagami, Makoto.

    1996-01-01

    A fixed shielding member made of a radiation shielding material is constituted in perpendicular to an opening formed on radiation shielding walls. The fixed shielding member has one side opened and has other side, the upper portion and the lower portion disposed in close contact with the radiation shielding walls. Movable shielding members made of a radiation shielding material are each disposed openably on both side of the fixed shielding member. The movable shielding member has a shaft as a fulcrum on one side thereof for connecting it to the radiation shielding walls. The other side has a handle attached for opening/closing the movable shielding member. Upon access of an operator, when each one of the movable shielding members is opened/closed on every time, leakage of linear or scattered radiation can be prevented. Even when both of the movable shielding members are opened simultaneously, the fixed shielding member and the movable shielding members form labyrinth to prevent leakage of linear radioactivity. (I.N.)

  5. Design, fabrication, installation and shielding integrity testing of source storage container for automatic source movement system used in TLD calibration facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subramanian, V.; Baskar, S.; Annalakshmi, O.; Jose, M.T.; Jayshree, C.P.; Choudry, Shreelatha

    2012-01-01

    A state-of-art TLD laboratory has been commissioned in January 2000 at Radiological Safety Division of Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR). The laboratory provides personnel monitoring service to 2000 occupational workers from Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research and Bhabha Atomic Research Centre facilities. The laboratory has been accredited by the Radiation Safety Systems Division (RSSD), Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) since year 2002. The laboratory has exclusive facility for the calibration of the TLD cards. As apart of accreditation procedure and taking into account of geometry effect, the dose rate at the card position is determined by the accreditation authorities by using graphite chamber (secondary or national standard instrument) and often re estimated by a condenser R meter (M/s Victoreen, Germany) by our laboratory. As per the regulatory requirement, the exposure protocols should be automated. Towards this an automatic source movement system has been augmented in the calibration facility. By using the system, the source will be brought to the irradiation position by pneumatically and exposures will be terminated by counter, timer and triggering system. To accomplish this task a lead container has been designed, fabricated and mounted at the beneath of the calibration table for the storage of source. As per the automation process, a lead container for the source storage has been designed and installed beneath to the Calibration Table. The container was designed to hold a 3Ci 137 Cs source, but present activity of the source is 1.2Ci. Hence, the shielding integrity was tested with higher active source (1.7Ci 60 Co). The dose rate measured outside on the circumference of the container at the middle of the source is found to be the same as calculated using QAD CGGP calculations. The top plug is so designed to avoid inadvertent upward movement of the source. Though, the shielding was not adequate on top of the top plug, however it does

  6. Nuclear steam generator tubesheet shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickerson, J.H.D.; Ruhe, A.

    1982-01-01

    The invention involves improvements to a nuclear steam generator of the type in which a plurality of U-shaped tubes are connected at opposite ends to a tubesheet and extend between inlet and outlet chambers, with the steam generator including an integral preheater zone adjacent to the downflow legs of the U-shaped tubes. The improvement is a thermal shield disposed adjacent to an upper face of the tubesheet within the preheater zone, the shield including ductile cladding material applied directly to the upper face of the tubesheet, with the downflow legs of the U-shaped tubes extending through the cladding into the tubesheet

  7. ITER shielding blanket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strebkov, Yu [ENTEK, Moscow (Russian Federation); Avsjannikov, A [ENTEK, Moscow (Russian Federation); Baryshev, M [NIAT, Moscow (Russian Federation); Blinov, Yu [ENTEK, Moscow (Russian Federation); Shatalov, G [KIAE, Moscow (Russian Federation); Vasiliev, N [KIAE, Moscow (Russian Federation); Vinnikov, A [ENTEK, Moscow (Russian Federation); Chernjagin, A [DYNAMICA, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-03-01

    A reference non-breeding blanket is under development now for the ITER Basic Performance Phase for the purpose of high reliability during the first stage of ITER operation. More severe operation modes are expected in this stage with first wall (FW) local heat loads up to 100-300Wcm{sup -2}. Integration of a blanket design with protective and start limiters requires new solutions to achieve high reliability, and possible use of beryllium as a protective material leads to technologies. The rigid shielding blanket concept was developed in Russia to satisfy the above-mentioned requirements. The concept is based on a copper alloy FW, austenitic stainless steel blanket structure, water cooling. Beryllium protection is integrated in the FW design. Fabrication technology and assembly procedure are described in parallel with the equipment used. (orig.).

  8. Concrete shielding for nuclear ship 'Mutsu'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagase, Tetsuo; Nakajima, Tadao; Okumura, Tadahiko; Saito, Tetsuo

    1983-01-01

    The nuclear ship ''Mutsu'' was constructed in 1970 as the fourth in the world. On September 1, 1974, during the power raising test in the Pacific Ocean, radiation leak was detected. As the result of investigation, it was found that the cause was the fast neutrons streaming through the gap between the reactor pressure vessel and the primary shield. In order to repair the shielding facility, the Japan Nuclear Ship Research Development Agency carried out research and development and shielding design. It was decided to adopt serpentine concrete for the primary shield, which is the excellent moderator of fast neutrons even at high temperature, and heavy concrete for the secondary shield, which is effective for shielding both gamma ray and neutron beam. The repair of shielding was carried out in the Sasebo Shipyard, and completed in August, 1982. The outline of the repair work is reported. The weight increase was about 300 t. The conditions of the shielding design, the method of shielding analysis, the performance required for the shielding concrete, the preliminary experiment on heavy concrete and the construction works of serpentine concrete and heavy concrete are described. (Kako, I.)

  9. BDI: the Cadarache data bank for LMBFR integral experiment data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rimpault, G.; Reynaud, G.

    1986-09-01

    The Integral Data Bank is part of the procedure to create the so-called neutronic formulaire with which every design calculation is performed with associated uncertainty. A modern way to store the integral data has been set up in order to handle and recalculate easily with a standard procedure (fig. 1) each experimental programme. A direct access way to read the data allows an automatic way to obtain the calculation/experiment discrepancies associated with a particular data base. The BDI has proved to be fully operational and has been used with the new nuclear data file JEF1. In the present version of the BDI more than 140 experiments (critical mass, spectrum indexes, buckling, etc...) both from MASURCA and SNEAK critical experiments are documented and stored in an easy-to-retrieve from. Also included are irradiation experiments in PHENIX and the STEK fission product related experiments. Future plans of development concern reactivity measurements in critical assemblies, irradiation experiments and start-up experiments of SUPER PHENIX and ZEBRA critical experiments

  10. Proceedings of a meeting on radiation shielding and related topics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    This is a proceedings of a meeting on radiation shielding and related topics held on Feb. 22 and 23 in 1978 at Nuclear Engineering Research Laboratory of University of Tokyo. The reports includes the following items (1) studies on neutronics with accelerators (2) radiation damage (3) shielding design (4) radiation streaming (5) shielding experiments from a point of view of radiation measurements (6) shielding benchmark experiments (7) prospects on the study of neutronics. All items are written in Japanese. (auth.)

  11. Tablets in K-12 Education: Integrated Experiences and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Heejung, Ed.; Alon, Sandra, Ed.; Fuentes, David, Ed.

    2015-01-01

    The inclusion of new and emerging technologies in the education sector has been a topic of interest to researchers, educators, and software developers alike in recent years. Utilizing the proper tools in a classroom setting is a critical factor in student success. "Tablets in K-12 Education: Integrated Experiences and Implications"…

  12. Comment for nuclear data from the FNS integral experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekawa, Hiroshi

    1983-01-01

    Among the integral experiments that were carried out during last one year at FNS, the following three experimental results and their analyses are discribed. 1) Tritium production-rate distribution in a Li 2 O-C assembly, 2) Angle dependent neutron leakage spectra from Li 2 O slab assemblies, 3) Induced activity of Type 316 stainless steel. (author)

  13. Teaching with Videogames: How Experience Impacts Classroom Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Amanda; Gresalfi, Melissa

    2017-01-01

    Digital games have demonstrated great potential for supporting students' learning across disciplines. But integrating games into instruction is challenging and requires teachers to shift instructional practices. One factor that contributes to the successful use of games in a classroom is teachers' experience implementing the technologies. But how…

  14. International Students' Experiences of Integrating into the Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Sarah; Arthur, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the integration experiences of 16 international students entering the Canadian workforce using a semistructured interview and constant comparison method. The international students were pursuing immigration to Canada, despite unmet job prospects. Students recommended that employers refrain from discriminating against students…

  15. Colleges' Experiences: Integrating Support Services for Military Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karp, Melinda Mechur; Klempin, Serena

    2017-01-01

    To improve the educational experiences and outcomes of student veterans, the Kisco Foundation developed the Kohlberg Prize in 2015. Two cohorts of colleges were awarded competitive grants to enhance their veterans services. This piece examines the process of creating integrated services for student veterans through the institutionalization of…

  16. Experiences of technology integration in home care nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, K A; Valdez, R S; Casper, G R; Kossman, S P; Carayon, P; Or, C K L; Burke, L J; Brennan, P F

    2008-11-06

    The infusion of health care technologies into the home leads to substantial changes in the nature of work for home care nurses and their patients. Nurses and nursing practice must change to capitalize on these innovations. As part of a randomized field experiment evaluating web-based support for home care of patients with chronic heart disease, we engaged nine nurses in a dialogue about their experience integrating this modification of care delivery into their practice. They shared their perceptions of the work they needed to do and their perceptions and expectations for patients and themselves in using technologies to promote and manage self-care. We document three overarching themes that identify preexisting factors that influenced integration or represent the consequences of technology integration into home care: doing tasks differently, making accommodations in the home for devices and computers, and being mindful of existing expectations and skills of both nurses and patients.

  17. Problems of the power plant shield optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abagyan, A.A.; Dubinin, A.A.; Zhuravlev, V.I.; Kurachenko, Yu.A.; Petrov, Eh.E.

    1981-01-01

    General approaches to the solution of problems on the nuclear power plant radiation shield optimization are considered. The requirements to the shield parameters are formulated in a form of restrictions on a number of functionals, determined by the solution of γ quantum and neutron transport equations or dimensional and weight characteristics of shield components. Functional determined by weight-dimensional parameters (shield cost, mass and thickness) and functionals, determined by radiation fields (equivalent dose rate, produced by neutrons and γ quanta, activation functional, radiation functional, heat flux, integral heat flux in a particular part of the shield volume, total energy flux through a particular shield surface are considered. The following methods of numerical solution of simplified optimization problems are discussed: semiempirical methods using radiation transport physical leaks, numerical solution of approximate transport equations, numerical solution of transport equations for the simplest configurations making possible to decrease essentially a number of variables in the problem. The conclusion is drawn that the attained level of investigations on the problem of nuclear power plant shield optimization gives the possibility to pass on at present to the solution of problems with a more detailed account of the real shield operating conditions (shield temperature field account, its strength and other characteristics) [ru

  18. Activities of the Shielding Subcommittee of the ENDF/B Cross Section Evaluation Working Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roussin, R.W.

    1977-01-01

    The Shielding Subcommittee of the Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG) was established in 1967 to help ensure that the content of the ENDF/B cross section library was adequate for treating shielding problems. Early work of the subcommittee concentrated on devising formats for gamma-ray interaction and production data, as well as providing programs for testing the clerical and physics consistency of the files. The Radiation Shielding Information Center (RSIC) collaborated directly with evaluators on behalf of the National Neutron Cross Section Center (NNCSC) to begin testing and adding data sets to be fed into the official ENDF/B libraries. These efforts, which were sponsored by AEC-DRDT (now ERDA-DRDD), were augmented greatly through the Defense Nuclear Agency program of establishing a working cross section library in ENDF format. The effort concentrated on evaluation and testing of materials of interest to DNA programs and providing these for inclusion in the ENDF/B library. Shielding data testing efforts, as a part of the CSEWG Data Testing Program, are now also an integral part of the Shielding Subcommittee effort. Procedures for writing and approving the shielding benchmarks were devised by Shielding Subcommittee members. Data testing benchmark experiments have been documented and analyzed, and the most recent results for ENDF/B-IV are as reported as part of ENDF-230, ''Benchmark Testing of ENDF/B-IV.''

  19. OECD/NEA data bank scientific and integral experiments databases in support of knowledge preservation and transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sartori, E.; Kodeli, I.; Mompean, F.J.; Briggs, J.B.; Gado, J.; Hasegawa, A.; D'hondt, P.; Wiesenack, W.; Zaetta, A.

    2004-01-01

    The OECD/Nuclear Energy Data Bank was established by its member countries as an institution to allow effective sharing of knowledge and its basic underlying information and data in key areas of nuclear science and technology. The activities as regards preserving and transferring knowledge consist of the: 1) Acquisition of basic nuclear data, computer codes and experimental system data needed over a wide range of nuclear and radiation applications; 2) Independent verification and validation of these data using quality assurance methods, adding value through international benchmark exercises, workshops and meetings and by issuing relevant reports with conclusions and recommendations, as well as by organising training courses to ensure their qualified and competent use; 3) Dissemination of the different products to authorised establishments in member countries and collecting and integrating user feedback. Of particular importance has been the establishment of basic and integral experiments databases and the methodology developed with the aim of knowledge preservation and transfer. Databases established thus far include: 1) IRPhE - International Reactor Physics Experimental Benchmarks Evaluations, 2) SINBAD - a radiation shielding experiments database (nuclear reactors, fusion neutronics and accelerators), 3) IFPE - International Fuel Performance Benchmark Experiments Database, 4) TDB - The Thermochemical Database Project, 5) ICSBE - International Nuclear Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluations, 6) CCVM - CSNI Code Validation Matrix of Thermal-hydraulic Codes for LWR LOCA and Transients. This paper will concentrate on knowledge preservation and transfer concepts and methods related to some of the integral experiments and TDB. (author)

  20. Handout on shielding calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heilbron Filho, P.F.L.

    1991-01-01

    In order to avoid the difficulties of the radioprotection supervisors in the tasks related to shielding calculations, is presented in this paper the basic concepts of shielding theory. It also includes exercises and examples. (author)

  1. Improving the shielding effectiveness of a board-level shield by bonding it with the waveguide-below-cutoff principle

    OpenAIRE

    Degraeve, Andy; Pissoort, Davy; Armstrong, Keith

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the shielding performance or shielding effectiveness of a board-level shield in function of its bonding method. Improved shielding performance at board-level in order to harden integrated circuits against unintentional and intentional electromagnetic interference, and this under harsh environmental conditions, is getting more and more important to achieve the desired levels of functional performance and operational reliability despite an ever more aggressive electromagnet...

  2. Trends in integrated circuit design for particle physics experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkin, E V

    2017-01-01

    Integrated circuits are one of the key complex units available to designers of multichannel detector setups. A whole number of factors makes Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs) valuable for Particle Physics and Astrophysics experiments. Among them the most important ones are: integration scale, low power dissipation, radiation tolerance. In order to make possible future experiments in the intensity, cosmic, and energy frontiers today ASICs should provide new level of functionality at a new set of constraints and trade-offs, like low-noise high-dynamic range amplification and pulse shaping, high-speed waveform sampling, low power digitization, fast digital data processing, serialization and data transmission. All integrated circuits, necessary for physical instrumentation, should be radiation tolerant at an earlier not reached level (hundreds of Mrad) of total ionizing dose and allow minute almost 3D assemblies. The paper is based on literary source analysis and presents an overview of the state of the art and trends in nowadays chip design, using partially own ASIC lab experience. That shows a next stage of ising micro- and nanoelectronics in physical instrumentation. (paper)

  3. Design of emergency shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soliman, S.E.

    1993-01-01

    Manufacturing of an emergency movable shield in the hot laboratories center is urgently needed for the safety of personnel in case of accidents or spilling of radioactive materials. In this report, a full design for an emergency shield is presented and the corresponding dose rates behind the shield for different activities (from 1 mCi to 5 Ci) was calculated by using micro shield computer code. 4 figs., 1 tab

  4. Experience Supporting the Integration of LHC Experiments Software Framework with the LCG Middleware

    CERN Document Server

    Santinelli, Roberto

    2006-01-01

    The LHC experiments are currently preparing for data acquisition in 2007 and because of the large amount of required computing and storage resources, they decided to embrace the grid paradigm. The LHC Computing Project (LCG) provides and operates a computing infrastructure suitable for data handling, Monte Carlo production and analysis. While LCG offers a set of high level services, intended to be generic enough to accommodate the needs of different Virtual Organizations, the LHC experiments software framework and applications are very specific and focused on the computing and data models. The LCG Experiment Integration Support team works in close contact with the experiments, the middleware developers and the LCG certification and operations teams to integrate the underlying grid middleware with the experiment specific components. The strategical position between the experiments and the middleware suppliers allows EIS team to play a key role at communications level between the customers and the service provi...

  5. Technology choices for the Integrated Beam Experiment (IBX)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitner, M.A.; Celata, C.M.; Lee, E.P.; Sabbi, G.; Waldron, W.L.; Barnard, J.J.

    2002-10-31

    Over the next three years the research program of the Heavy Ion Fusion Virtual National Laboratory (HIF-VNL), a collaboration among LBNL, LLNL, and PPPL, is focused on separate scientific experiments in the injection, transport and focusing of intense heavy ion beams at currents from 100 mA to 1 A. As a next major step in the HIF-VNL program, we aim for a complete ''source-to-target'' experiment, the Integrated Beam Experiment (IBX). By combining the experience gained in the current separate beam experiments IBX would allow the integrated scientific study of the evolution of a single heavy ion beam at high current ({approx}1 A) through all sections of a possible heavy ion fusion accelerator: the injection, acceleration, compression, and beam focusing. This paper describes the main parameters and technology choices of the planned IBX experiment. IBX will accelerate singly charged potassium or argon ion beams up to 10 MeV final energy and a longitudinal beam compression ratio of 10, resulting in a beam current at target of more than 10 Amperes. Different accelerator cell design options are described in detail: Induction cores incorporating either room temperature pulsed focusing-magnets or superconducting magnets.

  6. Induction Accelerator Technology Choices for the Integrated Beam Experiment (IBX)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leitner, M.A.; Celata, C.M.; Lee, E.P.; Logan, B.G.; Sabbi, G.; Waldron, W.L.; Barnard, J.J.

    2003-01-01

    Over the next three years the research program of the Heavy Ion Fusion Virtual National Laboratory (HIF-VNL), a collaboration among LBNL, LLNL, and PPPL, is focused on separate scientific experiments in the injection, transport and focusing of intense heavy ion beams at currents from 100 mA to 1 A. As a next major step in the HIF-VNL program, we aim for a complete 'source-to-target' experiment, the Integrated Beam Experiment (IBX). By combining the experience gained in the current separate beam experiments IBX would allow the integrated scientific study of the evolution of a single heavy ion beam at high current (∼1 A) through all sections of a possible heavy ion fusion accelerator: the injection, acceleration, compression, and beam focusing.This paper describes the main parameters and technology choices of the planned IBX experiment. IBX will accelerate singly charged potassium or argon ion beams up to 10 MeV final energy and a longitudinal beam compression ratio of 10, resulting in a beam current at target of more than 10 Amperes. Different accelerator cell design options are described in detail: Induction cores incorporating either room temperature pulsed focusing-magnets or superconducting magnets

  7. Electromagnetically shielded building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, T.; Nakamura, M.; Yabana, Y.; Ishikawa, T.; Nagata, K.

    1992-01-01

    This invention relates to a building having an electromagnetic shield structure well-suited for application to an information network system utilizing electromagnetic waves, and more particularly to an electromagnetically shielded building for enhancing the electromagnetic shielding performance of an external wall. 6 figs

  8. Electromagnetically shielded building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, T; Nakamura, M; Yabana, Y; Ishikawa, T; Nagata, K

    1992-04-21

    This invention relates to a building having an electromagnetic shield structure well-suited for application to an information network system utilizing electromagnetic waves, and more particularly to an electromagnetically shielded building for enhancing the electromagnetic shielding performance of an external wall. 6 figs.

  9. Radiation shielding for fission reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oka, Yoshiaki [Tokyo Univ., Nuclear Engineering Research Laboratory, Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-03-01

    Radiation shielding aspects relating fission reactors have been reviewed. Domestic activities in the past five years have been mainly described concerning nuclear data, calculation methods, shielding and skyshine experiments, Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR), Advanced Pressurized Water Reactor (APWR), High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR), Experimental and Prototype Fast Reactors (JOYO, MONJU), Demonstration FBR, core shroud replacement of BWR, and spent fuel transportation cask and vessel. These studies have valuable information in safety and cost reduction issues of fission reactor design for not only existing reactors but also new reactor concepts in the next century. It has been concluded that we should maintain existing shielding technologies and improve these data and methods for coming generations in the next millennium. (author)

  10. Shield cost minimization using SWAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watkins, E.F.; Annese, C.E.; Greenspan, E.

    1993-01-01

    The common approach to the search for minimum cost shield designs is open-quotes trial-and-errorclose quotes; it proceeds as follows: 1. Based on prior experience and intuition, divide the shield into zones and assume their composition. 2. Solve the transport equation and calculate the relevant performance characteristics. 3. Change the composition or the geometry of one or a few of the zones and repeat step 2. 4. Repeat step 3 many times until the shield design appears to be optimal. 5. Select a different set of constituents and repeat steps 2,3, and 4. 6. Repeate step 5 a few or many times until the designer can point to the most cost-effective design

  11. Thermal design of top shield for PFBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gajapathy, R.; Jalaludeen, S.; Selvaraj, A.; Bhoje, S.B.

    1988-01-01

    India's Liquid Metal Cooled Fast Breeder Reactor programme started with the construction of loop type 13MW(e) Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR) which attained criticality in October 1985. With the experience of FBTR, the design work on pool type 500 MW(e) Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) which will be a forerunner for future commercial fast breeder reactors, has been started. The Top Shield forms the cover for the main vessel which contains the primary circuit. Argon cover gas separates the Top Shield from the free level of hot sodium pool (803K). The Top Shield which is of box type construction consists of control plug, two rotatable plugs and roof slab, assembled together, which provide biological shielding, thermal shielding and leak tight containment at the top of the main vessel. Heat is transferred from the sodium pool to the Top Shield through argon cover gas and through components supported by it and dipped in the sodium pool. The Top Shield should be maintained at the desired operating temperature by incorporating a cooling system inside it. Insulation may be provided below the bottom plate to reduce the heat load to the cooling system, if required. The thermal design of Top Shield consists of estimation of heat transfer to the Top Shield, selection of operating temperature, assessment of insulation requirement, design of cooling system and evaluation of transient temperature changes

  12. Passive magnetic shielding in MRI-Linac systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, Brendan; Kolling, Stefan; Oborn, Brad M.; Keall, Paul

    2018-04-01

    Passive magnetic shielding refers to the use of ferromagnetic materials to redirect magnetic field lines away from vulnerable regions. An application of particular interest to the medical physics community is shielding in MRI systems, especially integrated MRI-linear accelerator (MRI-Linac) systems. In these systems, the goal is not only to minimize the magnetic field in some volume, but also to minimize the impact of the shield on the magnetic fields within the imaging volume of the MRI scanner. In this work, finite element modelling was used to assess the shielding of a side coupled 6 MV linac and resultant heterogeneity induced within the 30 cm diameter of spherical volume (DSV) of a novel 1 Tesla split bore MRI magnet. A number of different shield parameters were investigated; distance between shield and magnet, shield shape, shield thickness, shield length, openings in the shield, number of concentric layers, spacing between each layer, and shield material. Both the in-line and perpendicular MRI-Linac configurations were studied. By modifying the shield shape around the linac from the starting design of an open ended cylinder, the shielding effect was boosted by approximately 70% whilst the impact on the magnet was simultaneously reduced by approximately 10%. Openings in the shield for the RF port and beam exit were substantial sources of field leakage; however it was demonstrated that shielding could be added around these openings to compensate for this leakage. Layering multiple concentric shield shells was highly effective in the perpendicular configuration, but less so for the in-line configuration. Cautious use of high permeability materials such as Mu-metal can greatly increase the shielding performance in some scenarios. In the perpendicular configuration, magnetic shielding was more effective and the impact on the magnet lower compared with the in-line configuration.

  13. Shield verification and validation action matrix summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boman, C.

    1992-02-01

    WSRC-RP-90-26, Certification Plan for Reactor Analysis Computer Codes, describes a series of action items to be completed for certification of reactor analysis computer codes used in Technical Specifications development and for other safety and production support calculations. Validation and verification are integral part of the certification process. This document identifies the work performed and documentation generated to satisfy these action items for the SHIELD, SHLDED, GEDIT, GENPRT, FIPROD, FPCALC, and PROCES modules of the SHIELD system, it is not certification of the complete SHIELD system. Complete certification will follow at a later date. Each action item is discussed with the justification for its completion. Specific details of the work performed are not included in this document but can be found in the references. The validation and verification effort for the SHIELD, SHLDED, GEDIT, GENPRT, FIPROD, FPCALC, and PROCES modules of the SHIELD system computer code is completed

  14. The use of nipple shields: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selina Chow

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A nipple shield is a breastfeeding aid with a nipple-shaped shield that is positioned over the nipple and areola prior to nursing. Nipple shields are usually recommended to mothers with flat nipples or in cases in which there is a failure of the baby to effectively latch onto the breast within the first two days postpartum. The use of nipple shields is a controversial topic in the field of lactation. Its use has been an issue in the clinical literature since some older studies discovered reduced breast milk transfer when using nipple shields, while more recent studies reported successful breastfeeding outcomes. The purpose of this review was to examine the evidence and outcomes with nipple shield use. Methods: A literature search was conducted in Ovid MEDLINE, OLDMEDLINE, EMBASE Classic, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and CINAHL. The primary endpoint was any breastfeeding outcome following nipple shield use. Secondary endpoints included the reasons for nipple shield use and the average/median length of use. For the analysis, we examined the effect of nipple shield use on physiological responses, premature infants, mothers’ experiences, and health professionals’ experiences. Results: The literature search yielded 261 articles, 14 of which were included in this review. Of these 14 articles, three reported on physiological responses, two reported on premature infants, eight reported on mothers’ experiences, and one reported on health professionals’ experiences. Conclusion: Through examining the use of nipple shields, further insight is provided on the advantages and disadvantages of this practice, thus allowing clinicians and researchers to address improvements on areas that will benefit mothers and infants the most.

  15. Early test facilities and analytic methods for radiation shielding: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingersoll, D.T.; Ingersoll, J.K.

    1992-11-01

    This report represents a compilation of eight papers presented at the 1992 American Nuclear Society/European Nuclear Society International Meeting. The meeting is of special significance since it commemorates the fiftieth anniversary of the first controlled nuclear chain reaction. The papers contained in this report were presented in a special session organized by the Radiation Protection and Shielding Division in keeping with the historical theme of the meeting. The paper titles are good indicators of their content and are: (1) The origin of radiation shielding research: The Oak Ridge experience, (2) Shielding research at the hanford site, (3) Aircraft shielding experiments at General Dynamics Fort Worth, 1950-1962, (4) Where have the neutrons gone?, a history of the tower shielding facility, (5) History and evolution of buildup factors, (6) Early shielding research at Bettis atomic power laboratory, (7) UK reactor shielding: then and now, (8) A very personal view of the development of radiation shielding theory

  16. Experience and Strategy of Biodiversity Data Integration in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K T Shao

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The integration of Taiwan's biodiversity databases started in 2001, the same year that Taiwan joined GBIF as an associate participant. Taiwan, hence, embarked on a decade of integrating biodiversity data. Under the support of NSC and COA, the database and websites of TaiBIF, TaiBNET (TaiCOL, TaiBOL, and TaiEOL have been established separately and collaborate with the GBIF, COL, BOL, and EOL respectively. A cross-agency committee was thus established in Academia Sinica in 2008 to formulate policies on data collection and integration as well as the mechanism to make data available to the public. Any commissioned project will hereafter be asked to include these policy requirements in its contract. So far, TaiBIF has gained recognition in Taiwan and abroad for its efforts over the past several years. It can provide its experience and insights for others to reference or replicate.

  17. Integrated multiscale biomaterials experiment and modelling: a perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehler, Markus J.; Genin, Guy M.

    2016-01-01

    Advances in multiscale models and computational power have enabled a broad toolset to predict how molecules, cells, tissues and organs behave and develop. A key theme in biological systems is the emergence of macroscale behaviour from collective behaviours across a range of length and timescales, and a key element of these models is therefore hierarchical simulation. However, this predictive capacity has far outstripped our ability to validate predictions experimentally, particularly when multiple hierarchical levels are involved. The state of the art represents careful integration of multiscale experiment and modelling, and yields not only validation, but also insights into deformation and relaxation mechanisms across scales. We present here a sampling of key results that highlight both challenges and opportunities for integrated multiscale experiment and modelling in biological systems. PMID:28981126

  18. Software for the Integration of Multiomics Experiments in Bioconductor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Marcel; Schiffer, Lucas; Re, Angela; Azhar, Rimsha; Basunia, Azfar; Rodriguez, Carmen; Chan, Tiffany; Chapman, Phil; Davis, Sean R; Gomez-Cabrero, David; Culhane, Aedin C; Haibe-Kains, Benjamin; Hansen, Kasper D; Kodali, Hanish; Louis, Marie S; Mer, Arvind S; Riester, Markus; Morgan, Martin; Carey, Vince; Waldron, Levi

    2017-11-01

    Multiomics experiments are increasingly commonplace in biomedical research and add layers of complexity to experimental design, data integration, and analysis. R and Bioconductor provide a generic framework for statistical analysis and visualization, as well as specialized data classes for a variety of high-throughput data types, but methods are lacking for integrative analysis of multiomics experiments. The MultiAssayExperiment software package, implemented in R and leveraging Bioconductor software and design principles, provides for the coordinated representation of, storage of, and operation on multiple diverse genomics data. We provide the unrestricted multiple 'omics data for each cancer tissue in The Cancer Genome Atlas as ready-to-analyze MultiAssayExperiment objects and demonstrate in these and other datasets how the software simplifies data representation, statistical analysis, and visualization. The MultiAssayExperiment Bioconductor package reduces major obstacles to efficient, scalable, and reproducible statistical analysis of multiomics data and enhances data science applications of multiple omics datasets. Cancer Res; 77(21); e39-42. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  19. Electromagnetic shielding formulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlberg, E.

    1979-02-01

    This addendum to an earlier collection of electromagnetic shielding formulae (TRITA-EPP-75-27) contains simple transfer matrices suitable for calculating the quasistatic shielding efficiency for multiple transverse-field and axial-field cylindrical and spherical shields, as well as for estimating leakage fields from long coaxial cables and the normal-incidence transmission of a plane wave through a multiple plane shield. The differences and similarities between these cases are illustrated by means of equivalent circuits and transmission line analogies. The addendum also includes a discussion of a possible heuristic improvement of some shielding formulae. (author)

  20. The Active Muon Shield

    CERN Document Server

    Bezshyiko, Iaroslava

    2016-01-01

    In the SHiP beam-dump of the order of 1011 muons will be produced per second. An active muon-shield is used to magnetically deflect these muons out of the acceptance of the spectrom- eter. This note describes how this shield is modelled and optimized. The SHiP spectrometer is being re-optimized using a conical decay-vessel, and utilizing the possibility to magnetize part of the beam-dump shielding iron. A shield adapted to these new conditions is presented which is significantly shorter and lighter than the shield used in the Technical Proposal (TP), while showing a similar performance.

  1. Analysis of OKTAVIAN Shielding Benchmark Experiments by ENDF/B-VII, JEFF-3.1, and JENDL-3.3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Do-Heon; Gil, Choong-Sup; Lee, Young-Ouk

    2007-01-01

    International collaborations for the ITER Project and other fusion-related development projects have been conducted to create a reference fusion nuclear data library such as FENDL, which was a collection of the best cross section data from national nuclear data libraries. Recent release of newly evaluated nuclear data libraries requires an extensive and intensive benchmarking of the updated transport libraries to become a candidate for the future collection. In this study, the pulsed sphere experiments for leakage neutron and gamma-ray spectra at the D-T neutron source facility of Osaka University, OKTAVIAN were employed to test the ENDF/B-VII beta 1, JEFF-3.1, and JENDL-3.3 libraries. The continuous energy Monte Carlo transport code MCNPX-2.5 was used along with the ACE format libraries processed by a modified version of the NJOY99.90 code

  2. 1 1/2 years of experience with a 10 MeV self-shielded on-line e-beam sterilization system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, Byron; Tang, Fuh-Wei; Riggs, Brian; Allen, Thomas; Williams, C.B.

    2000-01-01

    The Vascular Intervening Group of the Guidant Corporation (Guidant IV) has been operating a self-shielded, 10 MeV 4 kW, electron beam sterilization system since July of 1988. The system was designed, built and installed in a 70 square meter area in an existing Guidant manufacturing facility by Titan Scan Corporation and performance of the system was validated in conformance with 1S0-11137 standards. The goal of this on-site e-beam system was 'just in time' JIT, sterilization, i.e. the ability to manufacture, sterilize and ship, high intrinsic value medical devices in less than 24 hours. The benefits of moving from a long gas sterilization cycle of greater than one week to a JIT process were envisioned to be a) speed to market with innovated new products b) rapid response to customer requirements c) reduced inventory carrying costs and finally manufacturing and quality system efficiency. The ability of Guidant to realize these benefits depended upon the ability of the Guidant VI business units to adapt to the new sterilization modality and functionality and on the overall system reliability. This paper reviews the operating experience to date and the overall system reliability. (author)

  3. Basic data, computer codes and integral experiments: The tools for modelling in nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sartori, E.

    2001-01-01

    When studying applications in nuclear technology we need to understand and be able to predict the behavior of systems manufactured by human enterprise. First, the underlying basic physical and chemical phenomena need to be understood. We have then to predict the results from the interplay of the large number of the different basic events: i.e. the macroscopic effects. In order to be able to build confidence in our modelling capability, we need then to compare these results against measurements carried out on such systems. The different levels of modelling require the solution of different types of equations using different type of parameters. The tools required for carrying out a complete validated analysis are: - The basic nuclear or chemical data; - The computer codes, and; - The integral experiments. This article describes the role each component plays in a computational scheme designed for modelling purposes. It describes also which tools have been developed and are internationally available. The role of the OECD/NEA Data Bank, the Radiation Shielding Information Computational Center (RSICC), and the IAEA Nuclear Data Section are playing in making these elements available to the community of scientists and engineers is described. (author)

  4. Perfecting of shielding calculation technique against the gamma rays arising from a Tokamak with the TFR experience. Application to the conceptual design Tokamak TORE 2 SUPRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diop, Cheikh M'Backe.

    1980-09-01

    The conception of the necessary shielding around a conceptual design Tokamak requires to execute an estimated calculation of the doses due to the different radiation sources arising from the machine: the thermonuclear neutron source and the gamma ray source emitted during the interaction of the runaway electrons with the diaphragm. In this study, we propose a theorical method to calculate this gamma source. We tackle also the shielding problem of the conceptual design Tokamak: TORE 2 SUPRA [fr

  5. Set up of a method for the adjustment of resonance parameters on integral experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaise, P.

    1996-01-01

    Resonance parameters for actinides play a significant role in the neutronic characteristics of all reactor types. All the major integral parameters strongly depend on the nuclear data of the isotopes in the resonance-energy regions.The author sets up a method for the adjustment of resonance parameters taking into account the self-shielding effects and restricting the cross section deconvolution problem to a limited energy region. (N.T.)

  6. Wake Shield Target Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valmianski, Emanuil I.; Petzoldt, Ronald W.; Alexander, Neil B.

    2003-01-01

    The heat flux from both gas convection and chamber radiation on a direct drive target must be limited to avoid target damage from excessive D-T temperature increase. One of the possibilities of protecting the target is a wake shield flying in front of the target. A shield will also reduce drag force on the target, thereby facilitating target tracking and position prediction. A Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) code was used to calculate convection heat loads as boundary conditions input into ANSYS thermal calculations. These were used for studying the quality of target protection depending on various shapes of shields, target-shield distance, and protective properties of the shield moving relative to the target. The results show that the shield can reduce the convective heat flux by a factor of 2 to 5 depending on pressure, temperature, and velocity. The protective effect of a shield moving relative to the target is greater than the protective properties of a fixed shield. However, the protective effect of a shield moving under the drag force is not sufficient for bringing the heat load on the target down to the necessary limit. Some other ways of diminishing heat flux using a protective shield are discussed

  7. Practical radiation shielding for biomedical research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, R.C.; Reginatto, M.; Party, E.; Gershey, E.L.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on calculations which exist for estimating shielding required for radioactivity; however, they are often not applicable for the radionuclides and activities common in biomedical research. A variety of commercially available Lucite shields are being marketed to the biomedical community. Their advertisements may lead laboratory workers to expect better radiation protection than these shields can provide or to assume erroneously that very weak beta emitters require extensive shielding. The authors have conducted a series of shielding experiments designed to simulate exposures from the amounts of 32 P, 51 Cr and 125 I typically used in biomedical laboratories. For most routine work, ≥0.64 cm of Lucite covered with various thicknesses of lead will reduce whole-body occupational exposure rates of < 1mR/hr at the point of contact

  8. Radiation shielding structure for concrete structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oya, Hiroshi

    1998-01-01

    Crack inducing members for inducing cracks in a predetermined manner are buried in a concrete structure. Namely, a crack-inducing member comprises integrally a shielding plate and extended plates situated at the center of a wall and inducing plates vertically disposed to the boundary portion between them with the inducing plates being disposed each in a direction perforating the wall. There are disposed integrally a pair of the inducing plate spaced at a predetermined horizontal distance on both sides of the shielding plate so as to form a substantially crank-shaped cross section and extended plates formed in the extending direction of the shielding plate, and the inducing plates are disposed each in a direction perforating the wall. Then, cracks generated when stresses are exerted can be controlled, and generation of cracks passing through the concrete structure can be prevented reliably. The reliability of a radiation shielding effect can be enhanced remarkably. (N.H.)

  9. Shielding modification and safety review on the nuclear ship 'Mutsu'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osanai, Masao

    1978-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Commission (JAEC) called on the Japan Nuclear Ship Development Agency (JNSDA) for shielding modification and safety review on the nuclear ship ''Mutsu'', and JNSDA has conducted the research and development (R and D) to meet the request of JAEC for the above two items. Concerning the shield modification, the following matters are described: the study on the cause of radiation leakage which was concluded to the fast neutron streaming, the conceptual design for this modification, the mock up experiment for shielding utilizing JRR-4, the basic design following on the conceptual design, including the detailed drawings of the modified construction and the shielding analysis using RADHEAT-V3 code, and the relating experiments such as the heat transfer test of the primary shielding structure and the test of strength in stranding. As for the safety review, the survey of the troubles and the technical problems having been experienced in the light water reactor plants of land use, for example, fuel integrity, stress corrosion cracking and the leakage of steam generator tubes, the revision of the design so as to adapt to current safety standards and regulations, for example, in-service inspection, the setting of additional leak detectors in the primary cooling system, the modification of emergeney filters, etc., and the review of the design and construction corresponding to recent R and D works, such as re-evaluation of the core design, cooling capability of natural circulation, thermal stress analysis of main pipings, and the evaluation of ECCS performance are presented . (Nakai, Y.)

  10. Neutron shielding material based on colemanite and epoxy resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuno, K.

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a need for compact shielding design such as self-shielding of a PET cyclotron or up-gradation of radiation machinery in existing facilities. In these cases, high performance shielding materials are needed. Concrete or polyethylene have been used for a neutron shield. However, for compact shielding, they fall short in terms of performance or durability. Therefore, a new type of neutron shielding material based on epoxy resin and colemanite has been developed. Slab attenuation experiments up to 40 cm for the new shielding material were carried out using a 252 Cf neutron source. Measurement was carried out using a REM-counter, and compared with calculation. The results show that the shielding performance is better than concrete and polyethylene mixed with 10 wt% boron oxide. From the result, we confirmed that the performance of the new material is suitable for practical use. (authors)

  11. Radiation shielding concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunishima, Shigeru.

    1990-01-01

    The radiation shielding concretes comprise water, cement, fine aggregates consisting of serpentines and blown mist slags, coarse aggregates consisting of serpentines and kneading materials. Since serpentines containing a relatively great amount of water of crystallization in rocks as coarse aggregates and fine aggregates, the hydrogen content in the radiation shielding concretes is increased and the neutron shielding effect is improved. In addition, since serpentines are added as the fine aggregates and blown mists slags of a great specific gravity are used, the specific gravity of the shielding concretes is increased to improve the γ-ray shielding effect. Further, by the use of the kneading material having a water reducing effect and fluidizing effect, and by the bearing effect of the spherical blown mist slags used as the fine aggregates, concrete fluidity can be increased. Accordingly, workability of the radiation shielding concretes can be improved. (T.M.)

  12. Shielding repair of N.S. Mutsu and related safety features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishimoto, K.; Miyakoshi, J.

    1978-01-01

    The abnormal radiation level observed on the upper deck of N.S. Mutsu was caused by neutrons streaming through an annular air gap between the reactor pressure vessel and the primary shield. In order to lower this level, a modification of shielding has been planned, for which a shielding mock-up experiment was carried. The foregoing modifications brought some change to the expected behavior of the reactor plant under ship accident situations, and studies were performed to verify plant safety, such as calculations to determine containment vessel integrity and decay heat removal after sinking, and calculations supported by experiment to ascertain the structural strength of the double bottom upon stranding of the ship

  13. Experiences with integral microelectronics on smart structures for space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nye, Ted; Casteel, Scott; Navarro, Sergio A.; Kraml, Bob

    1995-05-01

    One feature of a smart structure implies that some computational and signal processing capability can be performed at a local level, perhaps integral to the controlled structure. This requires electronics with a minimal mechanical influence regarding structural stiffening, heat dissipation, weight, and electrical interface connectivity. The Advanced Controls Technology Experiment II (ACTEX II) space-flight experiments implemented such a local control electronics scheme by utilizing composite smart members with integral processing electronics. These microelectronics, tested to MIL-STD-883B levels, were fabricated with conventional thick film on ceramic multichip module techniques. Kovar housings and aluminum-kapton multilayer insulation was used to protect against harsh space radiation and thermal environments. Development and acceptance testing showed the electronics design was extremely robust, operating in vacuum and at temperature range with minimal gain variations occurring just above room temperatures. Four electronics modules, used for the flight hardware configuration, were connected by a RS-485 2 Mbit per second serial data bus. The data bus was controlled by Actel field programmable gate arrays arranged in a single master, four slave configuration. An Intel 80C196KD microprocessor was chosen as the digital compensator in each controller. It was used to apply a series of selectable biquad filters, implemented via Delta Transforms. Instability in any compensator was expected to appear as large amplitude oscillations in the deployed structure. Thus, over-vibration detection circuitry with automatic output isolation was incorporated into the design. This was not used however, since during experiment integration and test, intentionally induced compensator instabilities resulted in benign mechanical oscillation symptoms. Not too surprisingly, it was determined that instabilities were most detectable by large temperature increases in the electronics, typically

  14. Accelerator shielding benchmark problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirayama, H.; Ban, S.; Nakamura, T.

    1993-01-01

    Accelerator shielding benchmark problems prepared by Working Group of Accelerator Shielding in the Research Committee on Radiation Behavior in the Atomic Energy Society of Japan were compiled by Radiation Safety Control Center of National Laboratory for High Energy Physics. Twenty-five accelerator shielding benchmark problems are presented for evaluating the calculational algorithm, the accuracy of computer codes and the nuclear data used in codes. (author)

  15. Shielding Factor Method for producing effective cross sections: MINX/SPHINX and the CCCC interface system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacFarlane, R.E.; Weisbin, C.R.; Paik, N.C.

    1978-01-01

    The Shielding Factor Method (SFM) is an economical designer-oriented method for producing the coarse-group space and energy self-shielded cross sections needed for reactor-core analysis. Extensive experience with the ETOX/1DX and ENDRUN/TDOWN systems has made the SFM the method of choice for most US fast-reactor design activities. The MINX/SPHINX system was designed to expand upon the capabilities of the older SFM codes and to incorporate the new standard interfaces for fast-reactor cross sections specified by the Committee for Computer Code Coordination (CCCC). MINX is the cross-section processor. It generates multigroup cross sections, shielding factors, and group-to-group transfer matriccs from ENDF/B-IV and writes them out as CCCC ISOTXS and BRKOXS files. It features detailed pointwise resonance reconstruction, accurate Doppler broadening, and an efficient treatment of anisotropic scattering. SPHINX is the space-and-energy shielding code. It uses specific mixture and geometry information together with equivalence principles to construct shielded macroscopic multigroup cross sections in as many as 240 groups. It then makes a flux calculation by diffusion or transport methods and collapses to an appropriate set of cell-averaged coarse-group effective cross sections. The integration of MINX and SPHINX with the CCCC interface system provides an efficient, accurate, and convenient system for producing effective cross sections for use in fast-reactor problems. The system has also proved useful in shielding and CTR applications. 3 figures, 4 tables

  16. Vehicle Integrated Performance Analysis, the VIPA Experience: Reconnecting with Technical Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGhee, David S.

    2005-01-01

    Today's NASA is facing significant challenges and changes. The Exploration initiative indicates a large increase in projects with limited increase in budget. The Columbia report has criticized NASA for its lack of insight and technical integration impacting its ability to provide safety. The Aldridge report is advocating NASA find new ways of doing business. Very early in the Space Launch Initiative (SLI) program a small team of engineers at MSFC were asked to propose a process for performing a system level assessment of a launch vehicle. The request was aimed primarily at providing insight and making NASA a "smart buyer." Out of this effort the VIPA team was created. The difference between the VIPA effort and many integration attempts is that VIPA focuses on using experienced people from various disciplines and a process which focuses them on a technically integrated assessment. Most previous attempts have focused on developing an all encompassing software tool. In addition, VIPA anchored its process formulation in the experience of its members and in early developmental Space Shuttle experience. The primary reference for this is NASA-TP-2001-210092, "Launch Vehicle Design Process: Characterization, Technical Integration, and Lessons Learned," and discussions with its authors. The foundations of VIPA's process are described. The VIPA team also recognized the need to drive detailed analysis earlier in the design process. Analyses and techniques typically done in later design phases, are brought forward using improved computing technology. The intent is to allow the identification of significant sensitivities, trades, and design issues much earlier in the program. This process is driven by the T-model for Technical Integration described in the aforementioned reference. VIPA's approach to performing system level technical integration is discussed in detail. Proposed definitions are offered to clarify this discussion and the general systems integration dialog. VIPA

  17. Design of ITER shielding blanket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuya, Kazuyuki; Sato, Satoshi; Hatano, Toshihisa; Tokami, Ikuhide; Kitamura, Kazunori; Miura, Hidenori; Ito, Yutaka; Kuroda, Toshimasa; Takatsu, Hideyuki

    1997-05-01

    A mechanical configuration of ITER integrated primary first wall/shield blanket module were developed focusing on the welded attachment of its support leg to the back plate. A 100 mm x 150 mm space between the legs of adjacent modules was incorporated for the working space of welding/cutting tools. A concept of coolant branch pipe connection to accommodate deformation due to the leg welding and differential displacement of the module and the manifold/back plate during operation was introduced. Two-dimensional FEM analyses showed that thermal stresses in Cu-alloy (first wall) and stainless steel (first wall coolant tube and shield block) satisfied the stress criteria following ASME code for ITER BPP operation. On the other hand, three-dimensional FEM analyses for overall in-vessel structures exhibited excessive primary stresses in the back plate and its support structure to the vacuum vessel under VDE disruption load and marginal stresses in the support leg of module No.4. Fabrication procedure of the integrated primary first wall/shield blanket module was developed based on single step solid HIP for the joining of Cu-alloy/Cu-alloy, Cu-alloy/stainless steel, and stainless steel/stainless steel. (author)

  18. Radiation shielding activities at the OECD/Nuclear Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sartori, Enrico; Vaz, Pedro

    2000-01-01

    The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) has devoted considerable effort over the years to radiation shielding issues. The issues are addressed through international working groups. These activities are carried out in close co-ordination and co-operation with the Radiation Safety Information Computational Center (RSICC). The areas of work include: basic nuclear data activities in support of radiation shielding, computer codes, shipping cask shielding applications, reactor pressure vessel dosimetry, shielding experiments database. The method of work includes organising international code comparison exercises and benchmark studies. Training courses on radiation shielding computer codes are organised regularly including hands-on experience in modelling skills. The scope of the activity covers mainly reactor shields and spent fuel transportation packages, but also fusion neutronics and in particular shielding of accelerators and irradiation facilities. (author)

  19. Radiation shielding for TFTR DT diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ku, L.P.; Johnson, D.W.; Liew, S.L.

    1994-01-01

    The authors illustrate the designs of radiation shielding for the TFTR DT diagnostics using the ACX and TVTS systems as specific examples. The main emphasis here is on the radiation transport analyses carried out in support of the designs. Initial results from the DT operation indicate that the diagnostics have been functioning as anticipated and the shielding designs are satisfactory. The experience accumulated in the shielding design for the TFTR DT diagnostics should be useful and applicable to future devices, such as TPX and ITER, where many similar diagnostic systems are expected to be used

  20. Seismic proof test of shielding block walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohte, Yukio; Watanabe, Takahide; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Maruyama, Kazuhide

    1989-01-01

    Most of the shielding block walls used for building nuclear facilities are built by dry process. When a nuclear facility is designed, seismic waves specific at each site are set as input seismic motions and they are adopted in the design. Therefore, it is necessary to assure safety of the shielding block walls for earthquake by performing anti-seismic experiments under the conditions at each site. In order to establish the normal form that can be applied to various seismic conditions in various areas, Shimizu Corp. made an actual-size test samples for the shielding block wall and confirmed the safety for earthquake and validity of normalization. (author)

  1. INTOR radiation shielding for personnel access

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gohar, Y.; Abdou, M.

    1981-01-01

    The INTOR reactor shield system consists of the blanket, bulk shield, penetration shield, component shield, and biological shield. The bulk shield consists of two parts: (a) the inboard shield; and (b) the outboard shield. The distinction between the different components of the shield system is essential to satisfy the different design constraints and achieve various objectives

  2. Liquid argon as active shielding and coolant for bare germanium detectors. A novel background suppression method for the GERDA 0νββ experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peiffer, J.P.

    2007-01-01

    Two of the most important open questions in particle physics are whether neutrinos are their own anti-particles (Majorana particles) as required by most extensions of the StandardModel and the absolute values of the neutrino masses. The neutrinoless double beta (0νββ) decay, which can be investigated using 76 Ge (a double beta isotope), is the most sensitive probe for these properties. There is a claim for an evidence for the 0νββ decay in the Heidelberg-Moscow (HdM) 76 Ge experiment by a part of the HdM collaboration. The new 76 Ge experiment Gerda aims to check this claim within one year with 15 kg.y of statistics in Phase I at a background level of ≤10 -2 events/(kg.keV.y) and to go to higher sensitivity with 100 kg.y of statistics in Phase II at a background level of ≤10 -3 events/(kg.keV.y). In Gerda bare germanium semiconductor detectors (enriched in 76 Ge) will be operated in liquid argon (LAr). LAr serves as cryogenic coolant and as high purity shielding against external background. To reach the background level for Phase II, new methods are required to suppress the cosmogenic background of the diodes. The background from cosmogenically produced 60 Co is expected to be ∝2.5.10 -3 events/(kg.keV.y). LAr scintillates in UV (λ=128 nm) and a novel concept is to use this scintillation light as anti-coincidence signal for background suppression. In this work the efficiency of such a LAr scintillation veto was investigated for the first time. In a setup with 19 kg active LAr mass a suppression of a factor 3 has been achieved for 60 Co and a factor 17 for 232 Th around Q ββ = 2039 keV. This suppression will further increase for a one ton active volume (factor O(100) for 232 Th and 60 Co). LAr scintillation can also be used as a powerful tool for background diagnostics. For this purpose a new, very stable and robust wavelength shifter/reflector combination for the light detection has been developed, leading to a photo electron (pe) yield of as much as

  3. Liquid argon as active shielding and coolant for bare germanium detectors. A novel background suppression method for the GERDA 0{nu}{beta}{beta} experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peiffer, J.P.

    2007-07-25

    Two of the most important open questions in particle physics are whether neutrinos are their own anti-particles (Majorana particles) as required by most extensions of the StandardModel and the absolute values of the neutrino masses. The neutrinoless double beta (0{nu}{beta}{beta}) decay, which can be investigated using {sup 76}Ge (a double beta isotope), is the most sensitive probe for these properties. There is a claim for an evidence for the 0{nu}{beta}{beta} decay in the Heidelberg-Moscow (HdM) {sup 76}Ge experiment by a part of the HdM collaboration. The new {sup 76}Ge experiment Gerda aims to check this claim within one year with 15 kg.y of statistics in Phase I at a background level of {<=}10{sup -2} events/(kg.keV.y) and to go to higher sensitivity with 100 kg.y of statistics in Phase II at a background level of {<=}10{sup -3} events/(kg.keV.y). In Gerda bare germanium semiconductor detectors (enriched in {sup 76}Ge) will be operated in liquid argon (LAr). LAr serves as cryogenic coolant and as high purity shielding against external background. To reach the background level for Phase II, new methods are required to suppress the cosmogenic background of the diodes. The background from cosmogenically produced {sup 60}Co is expected to be {proportional_to}2.5.10{sup -3} events/(kg.keV.y). LAr scintillates in UV ({lambda}=128 nm) and a novel concept is to use this scintillation light as anti-coincidence signal for background suppression. In this work the efficiency of such a LAr scintillation veto was investigated for the first time. In a setup with 19 kg active LAr mass a suppression of a factor 3 has been achieved for {sup 60}Co and a factor 17 for {sup 232}Th around Q{sub {beta}}{sub {beta}} = 2039 keV. This suppression will further increase for a one ton active volume (factor O(100) for {sup 232}Th and {sup 60}Co). LAr scintillation can also be used as a powerful tool for background diagnostics. For this purpose a new, very stable and robust wavelength

  4. New facility shield design criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howell, W.P.

    1981-07-01

    The purpose of the criteria presented here is to provide standard guidance for the design of nuclear radiation shields thoughout new facilities. These criteria are required to assure a consistent and integrated design that can be operated safely and economically within the DOE standards. The scope of this report is confined to the consideration of radiation shielding for contained sources. The whole body dose limit established by the DOE applies to all doses which are generally distributed throughout the trunk of the body. Therefore, where the whole body is the critical organ for an internally deposited radionuclide, the whole body dose limit applies to the sum of doses received must assure control of the concentration of radionuclides in the building atmosphere and thereby limit the dose from internal sources

  5. Thermal testing of solid neutron shielding materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boonstra, R.H.

    1990-03-01

    The GA-4 and GA-9 spent fuel shipping casks employ a solid neutron shielding material. During a hypothetical thermal accident, any combustion of the neutron shield must not compromise the ability of the cask to contain the radioactive contents. A two-phase thermal testing program was carried out to assist in selecting satisfactory shielding materials. In the first phase, small-scale screening tests were performed on nine candidate materials using ASTM procedures. From these initial results, three of the nine candidates were chosen for inclusion in the second phase of testing, These materials were Bisco Products NS-4-FR, Reactor Experiments 201-1, and Reactor Experiments 207. In the second phase, each selected material was fabricated into a test article which simulated a full-scale of neutron shield from the cask. The test article was heated in an environmental prescribed by NRC regulations. Results of this second testing phase showed that all three materials are thermally acceptable

  6. Thermal testing of solid neutron shielding materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boonstra, R.N.

    1990-01-01

    The GA-4 and GA-9 spent fuel shipping casks employ a solid neutron shielding material. During a hypothetical thermal accident, any combustion of the neutron shield must not compromise the ability of the cask to contain the radioactive contents. A two-phase thermal testing program was carried out to assist in selecting satisfactory shielding materials. In the first phase, small-scale screening tests were performed on nine candidate materials using ASTM procedures. From these initial results, three of the nine candidates were chosen for inclusion in the second phase of testing. These materials were Bisco Products NS-4-FR, Reactor Experiments 201-1, and Reactor Experiments 207. In the second phase, each selected material was fabricated into a test article which simulated a full-scale section of neutron shield from the cask. The test article was heated in an environment prescribed by NRC regulations. Results of this second testing phase show that all three materials are thermally acceptable

  7. International integral experiments databases in support of nuclear data and code validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briggs, J. Blair; Gado, Janos; Hunter, Hamilton; Kodeli, Ivan; Salvatores, Massimo; Sartori, Enrico

    2002-01-01

    The OECD/NEA Nuclear Science Committee (NSC) has identified the need to establish international databases containing all the important experiments that are available for sharing among the specialists. The NSC has set up or sponsored specific activities to achieve this. The aim is to preserve them in an agreed standard format in computer accessible form, to use them for international activities involving validation of current and new calculational schemes including computer codes and nuclear data libraries, for assessing uncertainties, confidence bounds and safety margins, and to record measurement methods and techniques. The databases so far established or in preparation related to nuclear data validation cover the following areas: SINBAD - A Radiation Shielding Experiments database encompassing reactor shielding, fusion blanket neutronics, and accelerator shielding. ICSBEP - International Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments Project Handbook, with more than 2500 critical configurations with different combination of materials and spectral indices. IRPhEP - International Reactor Physics Experimental Benchmarks Evaluation Project. The different projects are described in the following including results achieved, work in progress and planned. (author)

  8. Shielded regenerative neutron detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terhune, J.H.; Neissel, J.P.

    1978-01-01

    An ion chamber type neutron detector is disclosed which has a greatly extended lifespan. The detector includes a fission chamber containing a mixture of active and breeding material and a neutron shielding material. The breeding and shielding materials are selected to have similar or substantially matching neutron capture cross-sections so that their individual effects on increased detector life are mutually enhanced

  9. Characterization of Magnetic Field Immersed Photomultipliers from Double Chooz Experiment. Design and Construction of their Magnetic Shields; Caracterizacion de los fotomultiplicadores del experimento Double Chooz bajo campo magnetico y diseno y construccion de sus blindajes magneticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valdivia Valero, F. J.

    2007-12-28

    Flavour oscillations of neutrinos are a quantum-mechanical effect widely demonstrated. It is explained through interferences of their mass eigenstates, therefore, belonging to the physical area beyond the Standard Model. This work deals with the CIEMAT collaboration in the neutrino experiment Double Chooz. Such an experiment aims to measure the mixture angle {theta}{sub 1}3, one of the PMNS leptonic mixture matrix, with a un reached-before sensibility by decrease of systematic errors. For this, two identical scintillator detectors, equipped with PMT's, will be sited at different distances from two reactors located in the nuclear power plant CHOOZ B (France). The electronic neutrino flux from these reactors will be compared, explaining its deficit by flavour oscillations of these particles. The identity of both detectors will be diminished by the magnetic field effects on the PMT's response. Therefore, this study serves as for quantifying such an effects as for fitting the magnetic shields design that minimize them. Shielding measurements and final design of magnetic shields as much as the effect these ones cause in the PMT's response immersed in a monitored magnetic field are presented. (Author) 85 refs.

  10. Characterization of Magnetic Field Immersed Photomultipliers from Double Chooz Experiment. Design and Construction of their Magnetic Shields; Caracterizacion de los fotomultiplicadores del experimento Double Chooz bajo campo magnetico y diseno y construccion de sus blindajes magneticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valdivia Valero, F J

    2007-12-28

    Flavour oscillations of neutrinos are a quantum-mechanical effect widely demonstrated. It is explained through interferences of their mass eigenstates, therefore, belonging to the physical area beyond the Standard Model. This work deals with the CIEMAT collaboration in the neutrino experiment Double Chooz. Such an experiment aims to measure the mixture angle {theta}{sub 1}3, one of the PMNS leptonic mixture matrix, with a un reached-before sensibility by decrease of systematic errors. For this, two identical scintillator detectors, equipped with PMT's, will be sited at different distances from two reactors located in the nuclear power plant CHOOZ B (France). The electronic neutrino flux from these reactors will be compared, explaining its deficit by flavour oscillations of these particles. The identity of both detectors will be diminished by the magnetic field effects on the PMT's response. Therefore, this study serves as for quantifying such an effects as for fitting the magnetic shields design that minimize them. Shielding measurements and final design of magnetic shields as much as the effect these ones cause in the PMT's response immersed in a monitored magnetic field are presented. (Author) 85 refs.

  11. Progress in heavy ion driven inertial fusion energy: From scaled experiments to the integrated research experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnard, J.J.; Ahle, L.E.; Baca, D.; Bangerter, R.O.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Celata, C.M.; Chacon-Golcher, E.; Davidson, R.C.; Faltens, A.; Friedman, A.; Franks, R.M.; Grote, D.P.; Haber, I.; Henestroza, E.; Hoon, M.J.L. de; Kaganovich, I.; Karpenko, V.P.; Kishek, R.A.; Kwan, J.W.; Lee, E.P.; Logan, B.G.; Lund, S.M.; Meier, W.R.; Molvik, A.W.; Olson, C.; Prost, L.R.; Qin, H.; Rose, D.; Sabbi, G.-L.; Sangster, T.C.; Seidl, P.A.; Sharp, W.M.; Shuman, D.; Vay, J.-L.; Waldron, W.L.; Welch, D.; Yu, S.S.

    2001-01-01

    The promise of inertial fusion energy driven by heavy ion beams requires the development of accelerators that produce ion currents (∼100's Amperes/beam) and ion energies (∼1-10 GeV) that have not been achieved simultaneously in any existing accelerator. The high currents imply high generalized perveances, large tune depressions, and high space charge potentials of the beam center relative to the beam pipe. Many of the scientific issues associated with ion beams of high perveance and large tune depression have been addressed over the last two decades on scaled experiments at Lawrence Berkeley and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories, the University of Maryland, and elsewhere. The additional requirement of high space charge potential (or equivalently high line charge density) gives rise to effects (particularly the role of electrons in beam transport) which must be understood before proceeding to a large scale accelerator. The first phase of a new series of experiments in Heavy Ion Fusion Virtual National Laboratory (HIF VNL), the High Current Experiments (HCX), is now being constructed at LBNL. The mission of the HCX will be to transport beams with driver line charge density so as to investigate the physics of this regime, including constraints on the maximum radial filling factor of the beam through the pipe. This factor is important for determining both cost and reliability of a driver scale accelerator. The HCX will provide data for design of the next steps in the sequence of experiments leading to an inertial fusion energy power plant. The focus of the program after the HCX will be on integration of all of the manipulations required for a driver. In the near term following HCX, an Integrated Beam Experiment (IBX) of the same general scale as the HCX is envisioned. The step which bridges the gap between the IBX and an engineering test facility for fusion has been designated the Integrated Research Experiment (IRE). The IRE (like the IBX) will provide an

  12. Radiation shielding plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Torakichi; Sugawara, Takeo.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To reduce the weight and stabilize the configuration of a radiation shielding plate which is used in close contact with an object to be irradiated with radiation rays. Constitution: The radiation shielding plate comprises a substrate made of lead glass and a metallic lead coating on the surface of the substrate by means of plating, vapor deposition or the like. Apertures for permeating radiation rays are formed to the radiation shielding plate. Since the shielding plate is based on a lead glass plate, a sufficient mechanical strength can be obtained with a thinner structure as compared with the conventional plate made of metallic lead. Accordingly, if the shielding plate is disposed on a soft object to be irradiated with radiation rays, the object and the plate itself less deform to obtain a radiation irradiation pattern with distinct edges. (Moriyama, K.)

  13. GumTree-An integrated scientific experiment environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, Tony; Hauser, Nick; Goetz, Andy; Hathaway, Paul; Franceschini, Fredi; Rayner, Hugh; Zhang, Lidia

    2006-01-01

    GumTree is an open source and multi-platform graphical user interface for performing neutron scattering and X-ray experiments. It handles the complete experiment life cycle from instrument calibration, data acquisition, and real time data analysis to results publication. The aim of the GumTree Project is to create a highly Integrated Scientific Experiment Environment (ISEE), allowing interconnectivity and data sharing between different distributed components such as motors, detectors, user proposal database and data analysis server. GumTree is being adapted to several instrument control server systems such as TANGO, EPICS and SICS, providing an easy-to-use front-end for users and simple-to-extend model for software developers. The design of GumTree is aimed to be reusable and configurable for any scientific instrument. GumTree will be adapted to six neutron beam instruments for the OPAL reactor at ANSTO. Other European institutes including ESRF, ILL and PSI have shown interest in using GumTree as their workbench for instrument control and data analysis

  14. GumTree - An Integrated Scientific Experiment Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, Tony; Hauser, Nick; Hathaway, Paul; Franceschini, Fredi; Rayner, Hugh; Zhang, Lidia; Goetz, Andy

    2005-01-01

    Full text: GumTree is an open source and multi-platform graphical user interface for performing neutron scattering and X-ray experiments. It handles the complete experiment life cycle from instrument calibration, data acquisition, and real time data analysis to results publication. The aim of the GumTree Project is to create a highly Integrated Scientific Experiment Environment (ISEE), allowing interconnectivity and data sharing between different distributed components such as motors, detectors, user proposal database and data analysis server. GumTree is being adapted to several instrument control server systems such as TANGO, EPICS and SICS, providing an easy-to-use front-end for users and simple-to-extend model for software developers. The design of GumTree is aimed to be reusable and configurable for any scientific instrument. GumTree will be adapted to six neutron beam instruments for the OPAL reactor at ANSTO. Other European institutes including ESRF, ILL and PSI have shown interest in using GumTree as their workbench for instrument control and data analysis. (authors)

  15. Measurement accuracy in shielded magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottauscio, Oriano; Chiampi, Mario; Crotti, Gabriella; Zucca, Mauro

    2005-01-01

    The measurement error due to both the probe size averaging effect and the coil arrangement is investigated when magnetic field measurements are performed in close proximity to different planar shields. The analysis is carried on through a hybrid FEM/BEM model which employs the 'thin shield' technique. Ferromagnetic, pure conductive and multilayer screens are taken into consideration and an estimation of the errors for concentric and non-concentric coil probes is given. The numerical results are validated by experiments

  16. Development of ITER shielding blanket prototype mockup by HIP bonding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Satoshi; Furuya, Kazuyuki; Hatano, Toshihisa; Kuroda, Toshimasa; Enoeda, Mikio; Ohara, Yoshihiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment; Takatsu, Hideyuki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Office of ITER Project Promotion, Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    minimize thermal effects on the mechanical properties and to reduce the number of fabrication steps. Based on the results of study for optimization of the simultaneous HIP bonding conditions, the HIP conditions were 1050degC, 150 MPa and holding time of 2 hours. Before this assembly for the HIP process, a deep drilling was performed for the coolant channels of the shield block from both sides of the block, then the shield block was bent by 10000-ton press machine to provide the specified curvature. During the bending, iced water was inserted into the drilled holes to prevent excessive deformation of the holes. Iced water was applied as the inserted material in this study because it was easy to remove the inserted material from the drilled holes and chemical reaction could be prevented during removal of the inserted materials. After the HIP process, the first wall surface was finally machined. The back part of the module was also machined to provide coolant manifolds, then cover plates of the manifolds were welded by TIG welding. A series of measurements and inspections was performed in the course of fabrication to make sure the dimensional accuracy and integrity of pressure boundaries. A destructive inspection was also performed with a cut specimen from the edge of the fabricated module to examine the bondability of HIPed interfaces. As a result of this fabrication experience, sufficient bonding by the single step solid HIP process has been demonstrated, and sufficient technical data base on the fabrication of the ITER shielding blanket module has been obtained. (author)

  17. ANALISIS KESELAMATAN TERMOHIDROLIK BULK SHIELDING REAKTOR KARTINI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizul Khakim

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK ANALISIS KESELAMATAN TERMOHIDROLIK BULK SHIELDING REAKTOR KARTINI. Bulk shielding merupakan fasilitas yang terintegrasi dengan reaktor Kartini yang berfungsi sebagai penyimpanan sementara bahan bakar bekas. Fasilitas ini merupakan fasilitas yang termasuk dalam struktur, sistem dan komponen (SSK yang penting bagi keselamatan. Salah satu fungsi keselamatan dari sistem penanganan dan penyimpanan bahan bakar adalah mencegah kecelakaan kekritisan yang tak terkendali dan membatasi naiknya temperatur bahan bakar. Analisis keselamatan paling kurang harus mencakup analisis keselamatan dari sisi neutronik dan termo hidrolik Bulk shielding. Analisis termo hidrolik ditujukan untuk memastikan perpindahan panas dan proses pendinginan bahan bakar bekas berjalan baik dan tidak terjadi akumulasi panas yang mengancam integritas bahan bakar. Code tervalidasi PARET/ANL digunakan untuk analisis pendinginan dengan mode konveksi alam. Hasil perhitungan menunjukkan bahwa mode pendinginan konvekasi alam cukup memadai dalam mendinginkan panas sisa tanpa mengakibatkan kenaikan temperatur bahan bakar yang signifikan. Kata kunci: Bulk shielding, bahan bakar bekas, konveksi alam, PARET.   ABSTRACT THERMAL HYDRAULIC SAFETY ANALYSIS OF BULK SHIELDING KARTINI REACTOR. Bulk shielding is an integrated facility to Kartini reactor which is used for temporary spent fuels storage. The facility is one of the structures, systems and components (SSCs important to safety. Among the safety functions of fuel handling and storage are to prevent any uncontrolable criticality accidents and to limit the fuel temperature increase. Safety analyses should, at least, cover neutronic and thermal hydraulic calculations of the bulk shielding. Thermal hydraulic analyses were intended to ensure that heat removal and the process of the spent fuels cooling takes place adequately and no heat accumulation that challenges the fuel integrity. Validated code, PARET/ANL was used for analysing the

  18. Thermal testing of solid neutron shielding materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boonstra, R.H.

    1992-09-01

    Two legal-weight truck casks the GA-4 and GA-9, will carry four PWR and nine BWR spent fuel assemblies, respectively. Each cask has a solid neutron shielding material separating the steel body and the outer steel skin. In the thermal accident specified by NRC regulations in 10CFR Part 71, the cask is subjected to an 800 degree C environment for 30 minutes. The neutron shield need not perform any shielding function during or after the thermal accident, but its behavior must not compromise the ability of the cask to contain the radioactive contents. In May-June 1989 the first series of full-scale thermal tests was performed on three shielding materials: Bisco Products NS-4-FR, and Reactor Experiments RX-201 and RX-207. The tests are described in Thermal Testing of Solid Neutron Shielding Materials, GA-AL 9897, R. H. Boonstra, General Atomics (1990), and demonstrated the acceptability of these materials in a thermal accident. Subsequent design changes to the cask rendered these materials unattractive in terms of weight or adequate service temperature margin. For the second test series, a material specification was developed for a polypropylene based neutron shield with a softening point of at least 280 degree F. The neutron shield materials tested were boronated (0.8--4.5%) polymers (polypropylene, HDPE, NS-4). The Envirotech and Bisco materials are not polypropylene, but were tested as potential backup materials in the event that a satisfactory polypropylene could not be found

  19. Heating profiles on ICRF antenna Faraday shields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, D.J.; Baity, F.W.; Hahs, C.L. Riemer, B.W.; Ryan, D.M.; Williamson, D.E.

    1992-01-01

    Poor definition of the heating profiles that occur during normal operation of Faraday shields for ion cyclotron resonant frequency (ICRF) antennas has complicated the mechanical design of ICRF system components. This paper reports that at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Faraday shield analysis is being used in defining rf heating profiles. In recent numerical analyses of proposed hardware for the Burning Plasma Experiment (BPX) and DIII-D, rf magnetic fields at Faraday shield surfaces were calculated, providing realistic predictions of the induced skin currents flowing on the shield elements and the resulting dissipated power profile. Detailed measurements on mock-ups of the Faraday shields for DIII-D and the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) confirmed the predicted magnetic field distributions. A conceptual design for an uncooled Faraday shield for the BPX ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) antenna, which should withstand the proposed long-pulse operation, has been completed. The analytical effort is described in detail, with emphasis on the design work for the BPX ICRH antenna conceptual design and for the replacement Faraday shield for the DIII-D FWCD antenna. Results of analyses are shown, and configuration issues involved in component modeling are discussed

  20. Development of a data bank system for LWR integral experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naito, Yoshitaka; Aoyagi, Hideo

    1983-01-01

    A data bank system for LWR integral experiment has been developed for the purpose of alleviating various efforts associated with the verification of computer codes. The final aim of this system is such that the imput data for the code to be verified can be easily obtained, and the results of calculation can be obtained in the form of the comparison with measurement. Geometry and material composition as well as measured data are stored in the data bank. This data bank system is composed of four sub-programs; (1) registration program, (2) information retrieval program, (3) maintenance program, and (4) figure representation program. In this report, the structure of this data bank system and how to use the system are explained. An example of the use of this system is also included. (Aoki, K.)

  1. Dealing with scientific integrity issues: the Spanish experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puigdomènech, Pere

    2014-02-01

    Integrity has been an important matter of concern for the scientific community as it affects the basis of its activities. Most countries having a significant scientific activity have dealt with this problem by different means, including drafting specific legal or soft law regulations and the appointment of stable or ad hoc committees that take care of these questions. This has also been the case in Spain. After the period of transition between dictatorship to a democratic regime, and, particularly, after the entrance in the European Union, scientific activity has increased in the country. As it could be expected, problems of misconduct have appeared and different institutions have been dealing with these matters. One of the best examples is that of Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), the largest institution devoted to scientific research belonging to the Spanish Government. The experience of the CSIC’s Ethics Committee in dealing with conflicts related to scientific practices is discussed here.

  2. Experience with building integrated solar collectors; Erfaring med bygningsintegrerte solfangere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simonsen, Ingeborg; Time, Berit; Andresen, Inger

    2011-07-01

    The main objective of the research 'Zero Emission Buildings' ZEB is to develop products and solutions that provide buildings with zero greenhouse gas emissions associated with the production, operation and disposal. Can we make this happen must the building produce more energy than it needs to compensate for greenhouse gas emissions from the production of materials and the actual construction.To build up knowledge on experience with building integrated solar collectors in Norway, we have in this study made interviews with suppliers and manufacturers of solar collectors and some building owners. Since the focus is on climate shell, we have limited the study to include solar collectors to replace a part of the cladding or roofing. Construction upstairs roofing, outside facade or freestanding rack is not considered as building integrated in this context. The providers we have been in contact with appeals to slightly different parts of the market. This is reflected in the product's development, assembly and approach to the calculation of energy delivery. Overall, providers may offer a range of products suitable for both the professional and skilled carpenter, the interested 'man in the street' . The feedback we have received shows generally good experiences with the product and the installation. Because of the preliminary short operating periods of the investigated plants we have little data on energy supply from these plants. In summary, we can say that the knowledge and the products are available and it is up to use to use them.(Author)

  3. Students' integration of multiple representations in a titration experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunze, Nicole M.

    A complete understanding of a chemical concept is dependent upon a student's ability to understand the microscopic or particulate nature of the phenomenon and integrate the microscopic, symbolic, and macroscopic representations of the phenomenon. Acid-base chemistry is a general chemistry topic requiring students to understand the topics of chemical reactions, solutions, and equilibrium presented earlier in the course. In this study, twenty-five student volunteers from a second semester general chemistry course completed two interviews. The first interview was completed prior to any classroom instruction on acids and bases. The second interview took place after classroom instruction, a prelab activity consisting of a titration calculation worksheet, a titration computer simulation, or a microscopic level animation of a titration, and two microcomputer-based laboratory (MBL) titration experiments. During the interviews, participants were asked to define and describe acid-base concepts and in the second interview they also drew the microscopic representations of four stages in an acid-base titration. An analysis of the data showed that participants had integrated the three representations of an acid-base titration to varying degrees. While some participants showed complete understanding of acids, bases, titrations, and solution chemistry, other participants showed several alternative conceptions concerning strong acid and base dissociation, the formation of titration products, and the dissociation of soluble salts. Before instruction, participants' definitions of acid, base, and pH were brief and consisted of descriptive terms. After instruction, the definitions were more scientific and reflected the definitions presented during classroom instruction.

  4. Saudi Aramco experience towards establishing Pipelines Integrity Management Systems (PIMS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AlAhmari, Saad A. [Saudi Aramco, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    2009-12-19

    Saudi Aramco pipelines network transports hydrocarbons to export terminals, processing plants and domestic users. This network faced several safety and operational-related challenges that require having a more effective Pipelines Integrity Management System (PIMS). Therefore Saudi Aramco decided to develop its PIMS on the basis of geographical information system (GIS) support through different phases, i.e., establishing the integrity management framework, risk calculation approach, conducting a gap analysis toward the envisioned PIMS, establishing the required scope of work, screening the PIMS applications market, and selecting suitable tools that satisfy expected deliverables, and implement PIMS applications. Saudi Aramco expects great benefits from implementing PIMS, e.g., enhancing safety, enhancing pipeline network robustness, optimizing inspection and maintenance expenditures, and facilitating pipeline management and the decision-making process. Saudi Aramco's new experience in adopting PIMS includes many challenges and lessons-learned associated with all of the PIMS development phases. These challenges include performing the gap analysis, conducting QA/QC sensitivity analysis for the acquired data, establishing the scope of work, selecting the appropriate applications and implementing PIMS. (author)

  5. Saudi Aramco experience towards establishing Pipelines Integrity Management System (PIMS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Ahmari, Saad A. [Saudi Aramco, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    2009-07-01

    Saudi Aramco pipelines network transports hydrocarbons to export terminals, processing plants and domestic users. This network faced several safety and operational-related challenges that require having a more effective Pipelines Integrity Management System (PIMS). Therefore Saudi Aramco decided to develop its PIMS on the basis of geographical information system (GIS) support through different phases, i.e., establishing the integrity management framework, risk calculation approach, conducting a gap analysis toward the envisioned PIMS, establishing the required scope of work, screening the PIMS applications market, and selecting suitable tools that satisfy expected deliverables, and implement PIMS applications. Saudi Aramco expects great benefits from implementing PIMS, e.g., enhancing safety, enhancing pipeline network robustness, optimizing inspection and maintenance expenditures, and facilitating pipeline management and the decision-making process. Saudi Aramco's new experience in adopting PIMS includes many challenges and lessons-learned associated with all of the PIMS development phases. These challenges include performing the gap analysis, conducting QA/QC sensitivity analysis for the acquired data, establishing the scope of work, selecting the appropriate applications and implementing PIMS. (author)

  6. Nurse practitioner integration: Qualitative experiences of the change management process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Grainne; Plummer, Virginia; Boyd, Leanne

    2018-04-30

    The aim of this qualitative research was to explore perceptions of organisational change related to the integration of nurse practitioners from key nursing stakeholders. The ongoing delivery of effective and efficient patient services is reliant upon the development and sustainability of nurse practitioner roles. Examination of the factors contributing to the underutilization of nurse practitioner roles is crucial to inform future management policies. A change management theory is used to reveal the complexity involved. Qualitative interviews were undertaken using a purposive sampling strategy of key stakeholders. Thematic analysis was undertaken and key themes were correlated to the theoretical framework. The results confirm the benefits of nurse practitioner roles, but suggest organisational structures and embedded professional cultures present barriers to full role optimization. Complicated policy processes are creating barriers to the integration of nurse practitioner roles. The findings increase understanding of the links between strategic planning, human resource management, professional and organisational cultures, governance and politics in change management. Effective leadership drives the change process through the ability to align key components necessary for success. Sustainability of nurse practitioners relies on recognition of their full potential in the health care team. The results of this study highlight the importance of management and leadership in the promotion of advanced nursing skills and experience to better meet patient outcomes. The findings reinforce the potential of nurse practitioners to deliver patient centred, timely and efficient health care. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. From Differentiation to Concretisation: Integrative Experiments in Sustainable Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Farmer

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available It is widely recognised that the achievement of a sustainable built environment requires holistic design practices and approaches that are capable of balancing the varied, and often conflicting, demands of environmental, social and economic concerns. However, academics and practitioners have recently highlighted, and expressed concerns about the knowledge gap that currently exists within environmental policy, research and practice between understandings of the technical performance of buildings and their social meaning and relevance. This paper acknowledges these concerns and is developed from the author’s own direct experiences of practice-led research and active participation in design-build projects. It argues for a theoretically-informed and socially-engaged approach to built environment research, pedagogy and practice that seeks to encourage an integrative understanding of the design, realisation and use of sustainable architecture. The paper draws on the Philosophy of Technology and in particular the work of Andrew Feenberg to analyse the buildings and to propose an integrated and inclusive framework for understanding sustainable design that acknowledges not just what the built environment does, but also what it means. It also suggests that what a building means also informs what it can do, and for whom. Although the technical and social dimensions of design can be interpreted as distinct practices and are often institutionally separated, this paper argues that the realisation of sustainable design must seek a conscious interaction and interchange between these two differentiated dimensions.

  8. Phase 2 testing of ENDF/B-VI shielding data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingersoll, D.T.; Wright, R.Q.; Slater, C.O.

    1992-01-01

    Version 6 of the US Evaluated Nuclear Data File (ENDF/B-VI) was released in early 1990 and is currently undergoing phase 2 testing. In Phase 2 testing, the evaluated data are approximately processed and used in an integral manner to predict the solution of previously specified benchmark experiments. Results are presented for the initial testing of several light elements and structural materials which are important for shielding applications. These initial tests indicate that the relatively subtle changes made to the iron data and the major modernization of the boron-11 data in Version 6 both represent significant and positive advancements in the quality of the evaluated data files

  9. HPGe detector shielding adjustment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trnkova, L.; Rulik, P.

    2008-01-01

    Low-level background shielding of HPGe detectors is used mainly for environmental samples with very low content of radionuclides. National Radiation Protection Institute (SURO) in Prague is equipped with 14 HPGe detectors with relative efficiency up to 150%. The detectors are placed in a room built from materials with low content of natural radionuclides and equipped with a double isolation of the floor against radon. Detectors themselves are placed in lead or steel shielding. Steel shielding with one of these detectors with relative efficiency of 100% was chosen to be rebuilt to achieve lower minimum detectable activity (MDA). Additional lead and copper shielding was built up inside the original steel shielding to reduce the volume of the inner space and filled with nitrogen by means of evaporating liquid nitrogen. The additional lead and copper shielding, consequent reduction of the inner volume and supply of evaporated nitrogen, caused a decrease of the background count and accordingly MDA values as well. The effect of nitrogen evaporation on the net areas of peaks belonging to radon daughters is significant. The enhanced shielding adjustment has the biggest influence in low energy range, what can be seen in collected data. MDA values in energy range from 30 keV to 400 keV decreased to 0.65-0.85 of original value, in energy range from 400 keV to 2 MeV they fell to 0.70-0.97 of original value. (authors)

  10. 1. Introduction. 2. Laboratory experiments. 3. Field experiments. 4. Integrated field-laboratory experiments. 5. Panel recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    Some recommendations for the design of laboratory and field studies in marine radioecology are formulated. The difficulties concerning the comparability of various experimental methods used to measure the fluxes of radionuclides through marine organisms and ecosystems, and also the use of laboratory results to make predictions for the natural environment are discussed. Three working groups were established during the panel meeting, to consider laboratory experiments, field studies, and the design and execution of integrated laboratory and field studies respectively. A number of supporting papers dealing with marine radioecological experiments were presented

  11. Shielding wall for thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Takaho.

    1989-01-01

    This invention concerns shielding walls opposing to plasmas of a thermonuclear device and it is an object thereof to conduct reactor operation with no troubles even if a portion of shielding wall tiles should be damaged. That is, the shielding wall tiles are constituted as a dual layer structure in which the lower base tiles are connected by means of bolts to first walls. Further, the upper surface tiles are bolt-connected to the layer base tiles. In this structure, the plasma thermal loads are directly received by the surface layer tiles and heat is conducted by means of conduction and radiation to the underlying base tiles and the first walls. Even upon occurrence of destruction accidents to the surface layer tiles caused by incident heat or electromagnetic force upon elimination of plasmas, since the underlying base tiles remain as they are, the first walls constituted with stainless steels, etc. are not directly exposed to the plasmas. Accordingly, the integrity of the first walls having cooling channels can be maintained and sputtering intrusion of atoms of high atom number into the plasmas can be prevented. (I.S.)

  12. Experience with a servo-hydraulic mechanical testing machine installed in a new shielded active facility at Windscale Nuclear Power Development Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garlick, A.; Hindmarch, P.; Gravenor, J.G.; Rhodes, D.

    1982-03-01

    An Instron model 1273 servo-hydraulic machine has been installed within a lead-shielded cell at Windscale in order to provide a facility capable of performing a wide range of mechanical tests on nuclear reactor structural materials and fuel assembly components. This particular type of machine was chosen because it has design features associated with the load frame, location of the actuator and adjustment and clamping of the cross-head that are especially well suited to remote operation within a shielded cell. The design of the testing facility is described and the programmes of work that have been completed over the past 11/2 years of operation are reviewed. (author)

  13. Experiments on iron shield transmission of quasi-monoenergetic neutrons generated by 43- and 68-MeV protons via the 7Li(p,n) reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakashima, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Shun-ichi; Nakao, Noriaki

    1996-03-01

    In order to provide benchmark data of neutrons transmitted through iron shields in the intermediate-energy region, spatial distributions of neutron energy spectra and reaction rates behind and inside the iron shields of thickness up to 130 cm were measured for 43- and 68-MeVp- 7 Li neutrons using a quasi-monoenergetic neutron beam source at the 90-MV AVF cyclotron facility of the TLARA facility in JAERI. The measured data by five kinds of detectors: the BC501A detector, the Bonner ball counter, 238 U and 232 Th fission counters, 7 LiF and nat LiF TLDs and solid state nuclear track detector, are numerically provided in this report in the energy region between 10 -4 eV and the energy of peak neutrons generated by the 7 Li(p,n) reaction. (author)

  14. Experiments on iron shield transmission of quasi-monoenergetic neutrons generated by 43- and 68-MeV protons via the {sup 7}Li(p,n) reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakashima, Hiroshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Tanaka, Shun-ichi; Nakao, Noriaki [and others

    1996-03-01

    In order to provide benchmark data of neutrons transmitted through iron shields in the intermediate-energy region, spatial distributions of neutron energy spectra and reaction rates behind and inside the iron shields of thickness up to 130 cm were measured for 43- and 68-MeVp-{sup 7}Li neutrons using a quasi-monoenergetic neutron beam source at the 90-MV AVF cyclotron facility of the TLARA facility in JAERI. The measured data by five kinds of detectors: the BC501A detector, the Bonner ball counter, {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th fission counters, {sup 7}LiF and {sup nat}LiF TLDs and solid state nuclear track detector, are numerically provided in this report in the energy region between 10{sup -4} eV and the energy of peak neutrons generated by the {sup 7}Li(p,n) reaction. (author).

  15. Shielding member for thermonuclear device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onozuka, Masanori

    1997-06-30

    In a thermonuclear device for shielding fast neutrons by shielding members disposed in a shielding vessel (vacuum vessel and structures such as a blanket disposed in the vacuum vessel), the shielding member comprises a large number of shielding wires formed fine and short so as to have elasticity. The shielding wires are sealed in a shielding vessel together with water, and when the width of the shielding vessel is changed, the shielding wires follow after the change of the width while elastically deforming in the shielding vessel, so that great stress and deformation are not formed thereby enabling to improve reliability. In addition, the length, the diameter and the shape of each of the shielding wires can be selected in accordance with the shielding space of the shielding vessel. Even if the shape of the shielding vessel is complicated, the shielding wires can be inserted easily. Accordingly, the filling rate of the shielding members can be changed easily. It can be produced more easily compared with a conventional spherical pebbles. It can be produced more easily than existent spherical shielding pebbles thereby enabling to reduce the production cost. (N.H.)

  16. Multi-Disciplinary Research Experiences Integrated with Industry –Field Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Lunsford

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this environmentally inquiry-based lab was to allow the students to engage into real-world concepts that integrate industry setting (Ohio Aggregate Industrial Mineral Association with the academia setting. Our students are engaged into a field trip where mining occurs to start the problem based learning of how the heavy metals leak in the mining process. These heavy metals such as lead and indium in the groundwater are a serious concern for the environment (Environmental Protection Agency from the mining process. The field experiences at the mining process assist in building our students interest in developing sensors to detect heavy metals of concern such as lead and indium simultaneously by a unique electrochemistry technique called Square Wave Anodic Stripping Voltammetry (SWASV. The field experience assists building the students interest in real –world application and what qualities do they want the electrochemical sensor to possess to be successful for real world usage. During the field trip the students are engaged into learning novel instrumentation such as an SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope to study the working electrode sensor developed to understand the sensor surface morphology properties better as well. The integration of industry setting with academia has been a positive experience for our students that has allowed their understanding of real-world science research needs to succeed in an industrial setting of research.

  17. Estimating ISABELLE shielding requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, A.J.; Thorndike, A.M.

    1976-01-01

    Estimates were made of the shielding thicknesses required at various points around the ISABELLE ring. Both hadron and muon requirements are considered. Radiation levels at the outside of the shield and at the BNL site boundary are kept at or below 1000 mrem per year and 5 mrem/year respectively. Muon requirements are based on the Wang formula for pion spectra, and the hadron requirements on the hadron cascade program CYLKAZ of Ranft. A muon shield thickness of 77 meters of sand is indicated outside the ring in one area, and hadron shields equivalent to from 2.7 to 5.6 meters in thickness of sand above the ring. The suggested safety allowance would increase these values to 86 meters and 4.0 to 7.2 meters respectively. There are many uncertainties in such estimates, but these last figures are considered to be rather conservative

  18. Scintillation counter, segmented shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, R.E.; Thumim, A.D.

    1975-01-01

    A scintillation counter, particularly for counting gamma ray photons, includes a massive lead radiation shield surrounding a sample-receiving zone. The shield is disassembleable into a plurality of segments to allow facile installation and removal of a photomultiplier tube assembly, the segments being so constructed as to prevent straight-line access of external radiation through the shield into radiation-responsive areas. Provisions are made for accurately aligning the photomultiplier tube with respect to one or more sample-transmitting bores extending through the shield to the sample receiving zone. A sample elevator, used in transporting samples into the zone, is designed to provide a maximum gamma-receiving aspect to maximize the gamma detecting efficiency. (U.S.)

  19. An experimental study on a superconducting generator with dual machine shield system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishigohka, T.; Ninomiya, A.; Okada, T.; Nitta, T.; Shintani, T.; Mukai, E.

    1988-01-01

    The authors have studied the optimal machine shield system through experiments on a 20kVa superconducting generator. The first experiment is carried out on a fully iron-less aluminum-shield machine which has only an aluminum eddy current machine shield in the stator. The second experiment is carried out on a generator with a dual-shield system which has both an aluminum eddy current shield and an iron magnetic shield. From the first one, the authors have got an experimental result that the aluminum-shield machine exhibits so large eddy current loss in the shield that it would be difficult to operate the machine continuously. On the other hand, the second experiment shows that the dual-shield machine exhibits much smaller loss in the shielding system, and that it has higher output power than the aluminum-shield machine. From these experiments, it becomes clear that insertion of a very thin iron shield between the armature winding and the eddy current shield can improve the machine performance eminently without large weight increase even if the iron shield were saturated

  20. Shields for nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aspden, G.J.

    1984-01-01

    The patent concerns shields for nuclear reactors. The roof shield comprises a normally fixed radial outer portion, a radial inner portion rotatable about a vertical axis, and a connection between the inner and outer portions. In the event of hypothecal core disruption conditions, a cantilever system on the inner wall allows the upward movement of the inner wall, in order to prevent loss of containment. (UK)

  1. Radiation shielding curtain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, N.T.

    1976-01-01

    A radiation shield is described in the form of a stranded curtain made up of bead-chains whose material and geometry are selected to produce a cross-sectional density that is the equivalent of 0.25 mm or more of lead and which curtain may be mounted on various radiological devices to shield against scattered radiation while offering a minimum of obstruction to the radiologist

  2. Shielded cells transfer automation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, J.J.

    1984-01-01

    Nuclear waste from shielded cells is removed, packaged, and transferred manually in many nuclear facilities. Radiation exposure is absorbed by operators during these operations and limited only through procedural controls. Technological advances in automation using robotics have allowed a production waste removal operation to be automated to reduce radiation exposure. The robotic system bags waste containers out of glove box and transfers them to a shielded container. Operators control the system outside the system work area via television cameras. 9 figures

  3. ATLAS Award for Shield Supplier

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    ATLAS technical coordinator Dr. Marzio Nessi presents the ATLAS supplier award to Vojtech Novotny, Director General of Skoda Hute.On 3 November, the ATLAS experiment honoured one of its suppliers, Skoda Hute s.r.o., of Plzen, Czech Republic, for their work on the detector's forward shielding elements. These huge and very massive cylinders surround the beampipe at either end of the detector to block stray particles from interfering with the ATLAS's muon chambers. For the shields, Skoda Hute produced 10 cast iron pieces with a total weight of 780 tonnes at a cost of 1.4 million CHF. Although there are many iron foundries in the CERN member states, there are only a limited number that can produce castings of the necessary size: the large pieces range in weight from 59 to 89 tonnes and are up to 1.5 metres thick.The forward shielding was designed by the ATLAS Technical Coordination in close collaboration with the ATLAS groups from the Czech Technical University and Charles University in Prague. The Czech groups a...

  4. Development of Neutron Shielding Material for Cask and Accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Hee Young; Seo, Ki Seog; Lee, Byung Chul; Park, Chang Jae; Kim, Ho Dong

    2008-01-01

    The neutron shielding materials are used as a neutron shield for spent fuel shipping cask, beam accelerators and neutron generators. At early stage, the neutron attenuations of materials were evaluated with the cross sections. After that, benchmark or mock-up experiments on the multi-layer problem to confirm the shielding characteristics or to evaluate analysis accuracy were reported. Recently, the need to transport spent nuclear fuels is increasing due to the current limited storage capacity. The on-site storage capacity at some of nuclear power plants is expected to be full in near future. With a growing inventory of spent fuels at power plants, these spent fuels need to be transported to other storage facilities. Shipping casks have been developed to safely transport spent fuels that emit high neutrons and gamma-ray radiation. The external radiation level of the shipping cask from the spent fuel must be limited to meet the standards specified by the IAEA radioactive material package regulation, so it is important to develop a proper neutron shielding material for a shipping cask. Neutron shielding experiments and analyses on the shielding effects of materials have been conducted, and some experiments have been performed to examine the shielding effects of selected materials. The shielding experiments consist of evaluating not only the shielding effects of a material alone but also the effects of the material thickness. The experimental results were compared with those obtained by using the MCNP-5c code

  5. Graphene shield enhanced photocathodes and methods for making the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, Nathan Andrew

    2014-09-02

    Disclosed are graphene shield enhanced photocathodes, such as high QE photocathodes. In certain embodiments, a monolayer graphene shield membrane ruggedizes a high quantum efficiency photoemission electron source by protecting a photosensitive film of the photocathode, extending operational lifetime and simplifying its integration in practical electron sources. In certain embodiments of the disclosed graphene shield enhanced photocathodes, the graphene serves as a transparent shield that does not inhibit photon or electron transmission but isolates the photosensitive film of the photocathode from reactive gas species, preventing contamination and yielding longer lifetime.

  6. Validation of the BUGJEFF311.BOLIB, BUGENDF70.BOLIB and BUGLE-B7 broad-group libraries on the PCA-Replica (H2O/Fe) neutron shielding benchmark experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Pescarini Massimo; Orsi Roberto; Frisoni Manuela

    2016-01-01

    The PCA-Replica 12/13 (H2O/Fe) neutron shielding benchmark experiment was analysed using the TORT-3.2 3D SN code. PCA-Replica reproduces a PWR ex-core radial geometry with alternate layers of water and steel including a pressure vessel simulator. Three broad-group coupled neutron/photon working cross section libraries in FIDO-ANISN format with the same energy group structure (47 n + 20 γ) and based on different nuclear data were alternatively used: the ENEA BUGJEFF311.BOLIB (JEFF-3.1.1) and U...

  7. Researchers' experiences, positive and negative, in integrative landscape projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tress, B.; Tress, G.; Fry, G.

    2005-01-01

    Integrative (interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary) landscape research projects are becoming increasingly common. As a result, researchers are spending a larger proportion of their professional careers doing integrative work, participating in shifting interdisciplinary teams, and cooperating

  8. Nuclear data and integral experiments in reactor physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farinelli, U.

    1980-01-01

    The material given here broadly covers the content of the 10 lectures delivered at the Winter Course on Reactor Theory and Power Reactors, ICTP, Trieste (13 February - 10 March 1978). However, the parts that could easily be found in the current literature have been omitted and replaced with the appropriate references. The needs for reactor physics calculations, particularly as applicable to commercial reactors, are reviewed in the introduction. The relative merits and shortcomings of fundamental and semi-empirical methods are discussed. The relative importance of different nuclear data, the ways in which they can be measured or calculated, and the sources of information on measured and evaluated data are briefly reviewed. The various approaches to the condensation of nuclear data to multigroup cross sections are described. After some consideration to the sensitivity calculations and the evaluation of errors, some of the most important type of integral experiments in reactor physics are introduced, with a view to showing the main difficulties in the interpretation and utilization of their results and the most recent trends in experimentation. The conclusions try to assign some priorities in the implementation of experimental and calculational capabilities, especially for a developing country. (author)

  9. Validating the BISON fuel performance code to integral LWR experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williamson, R.L., E-mail: Richard.Williamson@inl.gov [Fuel Modeling and Simulation, Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-3840 (United States); Gamble, K.A., E-mail: Kyle.Gamble@inl.gov [Fuel Modeling and Simulation, Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-3840 (United States); Perez, D.M., E-mail: Danielle.Perez@inl.gov [Fuel Modeling and Simulation, Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-3840 (United States); Novascone, S.R., E-mail: Stephen.Novascone@inl.gov [Fuel Modeling and Simulation, Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-3840 (United States); Pastore, G., E-mail: Giovanni.Pastore@inl.gov [Fuel Modeling and Simulation, Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-3840 (United States); Gardner, R.J., E-mail: Russell.Gardner@inl.gov [Fuel Modeling and Simulation, Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-3840 (United States); Hales, J.D., E-mail: Jason.Hales@inl.gov [Fuel Modeling and Simulation, Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-3840 (United States); Liu, W., E-mail: Wenfeng.Liu@anatech.com [ANATECH Corporation, 5435 Oberlin Dr., San Diego, CA 92121 (United States); Mai, A., E-mail: Anh.Mai@anatech.com [ANATECH Corporation, 5435 Oberlin Dr., San Diego, CA 92121 (United States)

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • The BISON multidimensional fuel performance code is being validated to integral LWR experiments. • Code and solution verification are necessary prerequisites to validation. • Fuel centerline temperature comparisons through all phases of fuel life are very reasonable. • Accuracy in predicting fission gas release is consistent with state-of-the-art modeling and the involved uncertainties. • Rod diameter comparisons are not satisfactory and further investigation is underway. - Abstract: BISON is a modern finite element-based nuclear fuel performance code that has been under development at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) since 2009. The code is applicable to both steady and transient fuel behavior and has been used to analyze a variety of fuel forms in 1D spherical, 2D axisymmetric, or 3D geometries. Code validation is underway and is the subject of this study. A brief overview of BISON's computational framework, governing equations, and general material and behavioral models is provided. BISON code and solution verification procedures are described, followed by a summary of the experimental data used to date for validation of Light Water Reactor (LWR) fuel. Validation comparisons focus on fuel centerline temperature, fission gas release, and rod diameter both before and following fuel-clad mechanical contact. Comparisons for 35 LWR rods are consolidated to provide an overall view of how the code is predicting physical behavior, with a few select validation cases discussed in greater detail. Results demonstrate that (1) fuel centerline temperature comparisons through all phases of fuel life are very reasonable with deviations between predictions and experimental data within ±10% for early life through high burnup fuel and only slightly out of these bounds for power ramp experiments, (2) accuracy in predicting fission gas release appears to be consistent with state-of-the-art modeling and with the involved uncertainties and (3) comparison

  10. GRAB - WRS system module number 60221 for calculating gamma-ray penetration in slab shields by the method of kernel integration with build-up factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimstone, M.J.

    1978-06-01

    The WRS Modular Programming System has been developed as a means by which programmes may be more efficiently constructed, maintained and modified. In this system a module is a self-contained unit typically composed of one or more Fortran routines, and a programme is constructed from a number of such modules. This report describes one WRS module, the function of which is to calculate the gamma-ray flux, dose, or heating rate in a slab shield using the build-up factor method. The information given in this manual is of use both to the programmer wishing to incorporate the module in a programme, and to the user of such a programme. (author)

  11. Status report of shielding investigation in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shindo, M.

    1964-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) was established in 1954, and immediately proceeded with the construction of a research reactor. The first symposium in Japan on nuclear energy was held in 1957. Most of the papers presented in the field of reactor shielding were limited to shielding materials and their fabrication. In the first stage of our investigations, our efforts were devoted to practical design studies of reactor shielding. As a result of these studies, it was found that the formulae at hand for calculations were inadequate, but at that time no electronic computer was available in Japan nor were theoretical calculations very actively undertaken. Problems on nuclear ship shielding had been investigated at the Ship Research Institute, since 1956 and many fruitful results had been obtained. About that time the Japan Atomic Industry Forum started activities and took the initiative in organizing shielding research. Research workers in the shipbuilding industry in particular have been seriously studying shielding problems. Few years after the first symposium, problems concerning more fundamental studies were treated by many research workers. Shielding experiments using radioisotopes were carried out and many fruitful results were obtained. They are described in the this paper. Medium size electronic computers became available in Japan, permitting a theoretical study group to make an active contribution. They produced some codes, and their results are also described in the following sections. This constituted the second stage of our investigations. A swimming-pool reactor, JRR-4 (Japan Research Reactor-4), has been under construction at JAERI since 1962 and will become critical in autumn 1964. After characteristic tests it will be a very powerful tool for the shielding investigations. This id the beginning of the third stage of investigations

  12. The integrated circuit IC EMP transient state disturbance effect experiment method investigates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiaowei

    2004-01-01

    Transient state disturbance characteristic study on the integrated circuit, IC, need from its coupling path outset. Through cable (aerial) coupling, EMP converts to an pulse current voltage and results in the impact to the integrated circuit I/O orifice passing the cable. Aiming at the armament system construction feature, EMP effect to the integrated circuit, IC inside the system is analyzed. The integrated circuit, IC EMP effect experiment current injection method is investigated and a few experiments method is given. (authors)

  13. Integrating Renewable Generation into Grid Operations: Four International Experiences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weimar, Mark R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mylrea, Michael E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Levin, Todd [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Botterud, Audun [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); O' Shaughnessy, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-04-22

    International experiences with power sector restructuring and the resultant impacts on bulk power grid operations and planning may provide insight into policy questions for the evolving United States power grid as resource mixes are changing in response to fuel prices, an aging generation fleet and to meet climate goals. Australia, Germany, Japan and the UK were selected to represent a range in the level and attributes of electricity industry liberalization in order to draw comparisons across a variety of regions in the United States such as California, ERCOT, the Southwest Power Pool and the Southeast Reliability Region. The study draws conclusions through a literature review of the four case study countries with regards to the changing resource mix and the electricity industry sector structure and their impact on grid operations and planning. This paper derives lessons learned and synthesizes implications for the United States based on answers to the above questions and the challenges faced by the four selected countries. Each country was examined to determine the challenges to their bulk power sector based on their changing resource mix, market structure, policies driving the changing resource mix, and policies driving restructuring. Each countries’ approach to solving those changes was examined, as well as how each country’s market structure either exacerbated or mitigated the approaches to solving the challenges to their bulk power grid operations and planning. All countries’ policies encourage renewable energy generation. One significant finding included the low- to zero-marginal cost of intermittent renewables and its potential negative impact on long-term resource adequacy. No dominant solution has emerged although a capacity market was introduced in the UK and is being contemplated in Japan. Germany has proposed the Energy Market 2.0 to encourage flexible generation investment. The grid operator in Australia proposed several approaches to maintaining

  14. Neutron shielding material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nodaka, M.; Iida, T.; Taniuchi, H.; Yosimura, K.; Nagahama, H.

    1993-01-01

    From among the neutron shielding materials of the 'kobesh' series developed by Kobe Steel, Ltd. for transport and storage packagings, silicon rubber base type material has been tested for several items with a view to practical application and official authorization, and in order to determine its adaptability to actual vessels. Silicon rubber base type 'kobesh SR-T01' is a material in which, from among the silicone rubber based neutron shielding materials, the hydrogen content is highest and the boron content is most optimized. Its neutron shielding capability has been already described in the previous report (Taniuchi, 1986). The following tests were carried out to determine suitability for practical application; 1) Long-term thermal stability test 2) Pouring test on an actual-scale model 3) Fire test The experimental results showed that the silicone rubber based neutron shielding material has good neutron shielding capability and high long-term fire resistance, and that it can be applied to the advanced transport packaging. (author)

  15. Method for dismantling shields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuzawa, Rokuro; Kondo, Nobuhiro; Kamiyama, Yoshinori; Kawasato, Ken; Hiraga, Tomoaki.

    1990-01-01

    The object of the present invention is to enable operators to dismantle shieldings contaminated by radioactivity easily and in a short period of time without danger of radiation exposure. A plurality of introduction pipes are embedded previously to the shielding walls of shielding members which contain a reactor core in a state where both ends of the introduction pipes are in communication with the outside. A wire saw is inserted into the introduction pipes to cut the shieldings upon dismantling. Then, shieldings can be dismantled easily in a short period of time with no radiation exposure to operator's. Further, according to the present invention, since the wire saw can be set easily and a large area can be cut at once, operation efficiency is improved. Further, since remote control is possible, cutting can be conducted in water and complicated places of the reactor. Biting upon starting the wire saw in the introduction pipe is reduced to facilitate startup for the rotation. (I.S.)

  16. Mechanical shielded hot cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgy, H.R.; Abdel-Rassoul, A.A.

    1983-01-01

    A plan to erect a mechanical shielded hot cell in the process hall of the Radiochemical Laboratory at Inchas is described. The hot cell is designed for safe handling of spent fuel bundles, from the Inchas reactor, and for dismantling and cutting the fuel rods in preparation for subsequent treatment. The biological shielding allows for the safe handling of a total radioactivity level up to 10,000 MeV-Ci. The hot cell consists of an α-tight stainless-steel box, connected to a γ-shielded SAS, through an air-lock containing a movable carriage. The α-box is tightly connected with six dry-storage cavities for adequate storage of the spent fuel bundles. Both the α-box, with the dry-storage cavities, and the SAS are surrounded by 200-mm thick biological lead shielding. The α-box is equipped with two master-slave manipulators, a lead-glass window, a monorail crane and Padirac and Minirag systems. The SAS is equipped with a lead-glass window, tong manipulator, a shielded pit and a mechanism for the entry of the spent fuel bundle. The hot cell is served by adequate ventilation and monitoring systems. (author)

  17. Thermophysical Properties of Heat Resistant Shielding Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, W.D.

    2004-01-01

    This project was aimed at determining thermal conductivity, specific heat and thermal expansion of a heat resistant shielding material for neutron absorption applications. These data are critical in predicting the structural integrity of the shielding under thermal cycling and mechanical load. The measurements of thermal conductivity and specific heat were conducted in air at five different temperatures (-31 F, 73.4 F, 140 F, 212 F and 302 F). The transient plane source (TPS) method was used in the tests. Thermal expansion tests were conducted using push rod dilatometry over the continuous range from -40 F (-40 C) to 302 F (150 C)

  18. Evaluation of Neutron shielding efficiency of Metal hydrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Sang Hwan; Chae, San; Kim, Yong Soo [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    Neutron shielding is achieved of interaction with material by moderation and absorption. Material that contains large amounts hydrogen atoms which are almost same neutron atomic weight is suited for fast neutron shielding material. Therefore, polymers containing high density hydrogen atom are being used for fast neutron shielding. On the other hand, composite materials containing high thermal neutron absorption cross section atom (Li, B, etc) are being used for thermal neutron shielding. However, these materials have low fast neutron absorption cross section. Therefore, these materials are not suited for fast neutron shielding. Hydrogen which has outstanding neutron energy reduction ability has very low thermal neutron absorption cross section, almost cannot be used for thermal neutron shielding. In this case, a large atomic number material (Pb, U, etc.) has been used. Thus, metal hydrides are considered as complement to concrete shielding material. Because metal hydrides contain high hydrogen density and elements with high atomic number. In this research neutron shielding performance and characteristic of nuclear about metal hydrides ((TiH{sub 2}, ZrH{sub 2}, HfH{sub 2}) is evaluated by experiment and MCNPX using {sup 252}Cf neutron source as purpose development shielding material to developed shielding material

  19. Shield support frame. Schildausbaugestell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plaga, K.

    1981-09-17

    A powered shield support frame for coal sheds is described comprising of two bottom sliding shoes, a large area gob shield and a larg area roof assembly, all joined movable together. The sliding shoes and the gob shield are joined by a lemniscate guide. Two hydraulic props are arranged at the face-side at one third of the length of the sliding shoes and at the goaf-side at one third of the length of the roof assembly. A nearly horizontal lying pushing prop unit joins the bottom wall sliding shoes to the goaf-side lemniscate guide. This assembly can be applied to seams with a thickness down to 45 cm. (OGR).

  20. Hybrid Magnetic Shielding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royal, Kevin; Crawford, Christopher; Mullins, Andrew; Porter, Greg; Blanton, Hunter; Johnstone, Connor; Kistler, Ben; Olivera, Daniela

    2017-09-01

    The search for the electric dipole moment of the neutron requires the ambient magnetic field to be on the pT scale which is accomplished with large magnetic shielding rooms. These rooms are fitted with large mu-metal sheets to allow for passive cancellation of background magnetic fields. Active shielding technology cannot uniformly cancel background magnetic fields. These issues can be remedied by combining the methods into a hybrid system. The design used is composed of panels that have an active layer of cancellation between two sheets of mu-metal. The panels form a cube and draw in magnetic fields perpendicular to the surface which can then be reduced using active shielding. This work is supported by the Department of Energy under Contract DE-SC0008107.

  1. Reactor head shielding apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schukei, G.E.; Roebelen, G.J.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a nuclear reactor head shielding apparatus for mounting on spaced reactor head lifting members radially inwardly of the head bolts. It comprises a frame of sections for mounting on the lifting members and extending around the top central area of the head, mounting means for so mounting the frame sections, including downwardly projecting members on the frame sections and complementary upwardly open recessed members for fastening to the lifting members for receiving the downwardly projecting members when the frame sections are lowered thereto with lead shielding supported thereby on means for hanging lead shielding on the frame to minimize radiation exposure or personnel working with the head bolts or in the vicinity thereof

  2. Double-layer neutron shield design as neutron shielding application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sariyer, Demet; Küçer, Rahmi

    2018-02-01

    The shield design in particle accelerators and other high energy facilities are mainly connected to the high-energy neutrons. The deep penetration of neutrons through massive shield has become a very serious problem. For shielding to be efficient, most of these neutrons should be confined to the shielding volume. If the interior space will become limited, the sufficient thickness of multilayer shield must be used. Concrete and iron are widely used as a multilayer shield material. Two layers shield material was selected to guarantee radiation safety outside of the shield against neutrons generated in the interaction of the different proton energies. One of them was one meter of concrete, the other was iron-contained material (FeB, Fe2B and stainless-steel) to be determined shield thicknesses. FLUKA Monte Carlo code was used for shield design geometry and required neutron dose distributions. The resulting two layered shields are shown better performance than single used concrete, thus the shield design could leave more space in the interior shielded areas.

  3. Ten Years in the Academic Integrity Trenches: Experiences and Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Doug; Nau, S. Zaung; Symons, Christine

    2016-01-01

    In 2016, our university launched its Academic Integrity Program (AIP) in order to promote and protect academic integrity. All commencing students must complete this online AIP within 14 days of starting their course. Satisfactory completion of this module with a test score of 80% is required before students can access their course materials.…

  4. PKI, Gamma Radiation Reactor Shielding Calculation by Point-Kernel Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Chunhuai; Zhang Liwu; Zhang Yuqin; Zhang Chuanxu; Niu Xihua

    1990-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: This code calculates radiation shielding problem of gamma-ray in geometric space. 2 - Method of solution: PKI uses a point kernel integration technique, describes radiation shielding geometric space by using geometric space configuration method and coordinate conversion, and makes use of calculation result of reactor primary shielding and flow regularity in loop system for coolant

  5. Shielding research in France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lafore, P

    1964-10-01

    Shielding research as an independent subject in France dates from 1956. The importance of these studies has been reflected in the contribution which they have made to power reactor design and in the resultant savings in expenditure for civil engineering and machinery for the removal of mobile shields. The Reactor Shielding Research Division numbers approximately 60 persons and uses several experimental facilities. These include: NAIADE I, installed near the ZOE reactor and operating with a natural uranium slab 2 cm thick (an effective diameter of 60 cm is the one most commonly used); the TRITON pool-type reactor, mainly used in shielding studies, includes an active-water loop, by means of which the secondary shields required for light-water reactors can be studied; core, NEREIDE, which is situated near a 2 m x 2 m aluminium window enables a large neutron source to be placed in a compartment without water in which large-scale mock-ups can be mounted for the study, in particular, of neutron diffusion in large cavities, and of reactor shielding of greater thickness than that in NAIADE I; SAMES 600 keV accelerator is used for monoenergetic neutron studies. Instrumentation studies are an important part of the work, mainly in the measurement of fast neutrons and their spectra by activation detectors. Of late, attention has been directed towards the use of (n, n') (rhodium) reactions and of heavy detectors for low-flux measurements. The simultaneous use of a large number of detectors poses automation problems. With our installation we can count 16 detectors simultaneously. Neutron spectrum studies are conducted with nuclear emulsions and a lithium-6 semiconductor spectrometer. As to the materials used, the research carried out in France involves chiefly graphite, iron and concrete at various temperatures up to 800 deg C. Different compounds, borated and non-borated and of densities up to between 1 and 9 are under consideration. Problems connected with applications are

  6. Magnetic shielding structure optimization design for wireless power transmission coil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Zhongyu; Wang, Junhua; Long, Mengjiao; Huang, Hong; Sun, Mingui

    2017-09-01

    In order to improve the performance of the wireless power transmission (WPT) system, a novel design scheme with magnetic shielding structure on the WPT coil is presented in this paper. This new type of shielding structure has great advantages on magnetic flux leakage reduction and magnetic field concentration. On the basis of theoretical calculation of coil magnetic flux linkage and characteristic analysis as well as practical application feasibility consideration, a complete magnetic shielding structure was designed and the whole design procedure was represented in detail. The simulation results show that the coil with the designed shielding structure has the maximum energy transmission efficiency. Compared with the traditional shielding structure, the weight of the new design is significantly decreased by about 41%. Finally, according to the designed shielding structure, the corresponding experiment platform is built to verify the correctness and superiority of the proposed scheme.

  7. Development of neutron shielding material using metathesis-polymer matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakurai, Yoshinori E-mail: ysakurai@rri.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Sasaki, Akira; Kobayashi, Tooru

    2004-04-21

    A neutron shielding material using a metathesis-polymer matrix, which is a thermosetting resin, was developed. This shielding material has characteristics that can be controlled for different mixing ratios of neutron absorbers and for formation in the laboratory. Additionally, the elastic modulus can be changed at the hardening process, from a flexible elastoma to a mechanically tough solid. Experiments were performed at the Kyoto University Research Reactor in order to determine the important characteristics of this metathesis-polymer shielding material, such as neutron shielding performance, secondary gamma-ray generation and activation. The metathesis-polymer shielding material was shown to be practical and as effective as the other available shielding materials, which mainly consist of thermoplastic resin.

  8. Radiation shielding bricks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowe, G.J.W.

    1983-01-01

    A radiation shielding brick for use in building dry walls to form radiation proof enclosures and other structures is described. It is square in shape and comprises a sandwich of an inner layer of lead or similar shielding material between outer layers of plastics material, for structural stability. The ability to mechanically interlock adjacent bricks is provided by shaping the edges as cooperating external and internal V-sections. Relatively leak-free joints are ensured by enlarging the width of the inner layer in the edge region. (author)

  9. Shielding design to obtain compact marine reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaji, Akio; Sako, Kiyoshi

    1994-01-01

    The marine reactors equipped in previously constructed nuclear ships are in need of the secondary shield which is installed outside the containment vessel. Most of the weight and volume of the reactor plants are occupied by this secondary shield. An advanced marine reactor called MRX (Marine Reactor X) has been designed to obtain a more compact and lightweight marine reactor with enhanced safety. The MRX is a new type of marine reactor which is an integral PWR (The steam generator is installed in the pressure vessel.) with adopting a water-filled containment vessel and a new shielding design method of no installation of the secondary shield. As a result, MRX is considerably lighter in weight and more compact in size as compared with the reactors equipped in previously constructed nuclear ships. For instance, the plant weight and volume of the containment vessel of MRX are about 50% and 70% of those of the Nuclear Ship MUTSU, in spite of the power of MRX is 2.8 times as large as the MUTSU's reactor. The shielding design calculation was made using the ANISN, DOT3.5, QAD-CGGP2 and ORIGEN codes. The computational accuracy was confirmed by experimental analyses. (author)

  10. An investigation of strategies for integrated learning experiences ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (NCS, 2002) integrated music, dance, drama and visual arts where possible, while ... for the development of literacy skills, the latter term used by Wagner, ..... for movement ..... Qualitative investigation of young children's music preferences.

  11. Radiation shielding cloth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ijiri, Yasuo; Fujinuma, Tadashi; Tamura, Shoji.

    1989-01-01

    Radiation shielding cloth having radiation shielding layers comprising a composition of inorganic powder of high specific gravity and rubber are excellentin flexibility and comfortable to put on. However, since they are heavy in the weight, operators are tired upon putting them for a long time. In view of the above, the radiation ray shielding layers are prepared by calendering sheets obtained by preliminary molding of the composition to set the variation of the thickness within a range of +15% to -0% of prescribed thickness. Since the composition of inorganic powder at high specific gravity and rubber used for radiation ray shielding comprises a great amount of inorganic powder at high specific gravity blended therein, it is generally poor in fabricability. Therefor, it is difficult to attain fine control for the sheet thickness by merely molding a composition block at once. Then, the composition is at first preliminarily molded into a sheet-like shape which is somewhat thickener than the final thickness and then finished by calendering, by which the thickness can be reduced in average as compared with conventional products while keeping the prescribed thickness and reducing the weight reduce by so much. (N.H.)

  12. Penetration portion shielding structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Katsumi; Narita, Hitoshi; Handa, Hiroyuki; Takeuchi, Jun; Tozuka, Fumio.

    1994-01-01

    Openings of a plurality of shieldings for penetration members are aligned to each other, and penetration members are inserted from the openings. Then, the openings of the plurality of shielding members are slightly displaced with each other to make the penetration portions into a helical configuration, so that leakage of radiation is reduced. Upon removal of the members, reverse operation is conducted. When a flowable shielding material is used, the penetration portions are constituted with two plates having previously formed openings and pipes for connecting the openings with each other and a vessel covering the entire of them. After passing the penetration members such as a cable, the relative position of the two plates is changed by twisting, to form a helical configuration which reduces radiation leakage. Since they are bent into the helical configuration, shielding performance is extremely improved compared with a case that radiation leakage is caused from an opening of a straight pipe. In addition, since they can be returned to straight pipes, attachment, detachment and maintenance can be conducted easily. (N.H.)

  13. Radiation shielding glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kido, Kazuhiro; Ueda, Hajime.

    1997-01-01

    It was found that a glass composition comprising, as essential ingredients, SiO 2 , PbO, Gd 2 O 3 and alkali metal oxides can provide a shielding performance against electromagnetic waves, charged particles and neutrons. The present invention provides radiation shielding glass containing at least from 16 to 46wt% of SiO 2 , from 47 to 75wt% of PbO, from 1 to 10wt% of Gd 2 O 3 , from 0 to 3wt% of Li 2 O, from 0 to 7wt% of Na 2 O, from 0 to 7wt% of K 2 O provided that Li 2 O + Na 2 O + K 2 O is from 1 to 10wt%, B 2 O 3 is from 0 to 10wt%, CeO 2 is from 0 to 3wt%, As 2 O 3 is from 0 to 1wt% and Sb 2 O 3 is from 0 to 1wt%. Since the glass can shield electromagnetic waves, charged particles and neutrons simultaneously, radiation shielding windows can be designed and manufactured at a reduced thickness and by less constitutional numbers in a circumstance where they are present altogether. (T.M.)

  14. Summarisation of construction and commissioning experience for nuclear power integrated test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Zejun; Jia Dounan; Jiang Xulun; Chen Bingde

    2003-01-01

    Since the foundation of Nuclear Power Institute of China, it has successively designed various engineering experimental facilities, and constructed nuclear power experimental research base, and accumulated rich construction experiences of nuclear power integrated test facility. The author presents experience on design, construction and commissioning of nuclear power integrated test facility

  15. Review of recent benchmark experiments on integral test for high energy nuclear data evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakashima, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Susumu; Konno, Chikara; Fukahori, Tokio; Hayashi, Katsumi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-11-01

    A survey work of recent benchmark experiments on an integral test for high energy nuclear data evaluation was carried out as one of the work of the Task Force on JENDL High Energy File Integral Evaluation (JHEFIE). In this paper the results are compiled and the status of recent benchmark experiments is described. (author)

  16. Shielded room measurements, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanton, J.S.

    1949-02-22

    The attenuation of electro-statically and electro-magnetically shielded rooms in the ``E,`` ``R,`` ``I,`` and ``T`` Buildings was measured so that corrective measure could be taken if the attenuation was found to be low. If remedial measures could not be taken, the shortcomings of the rooms would be known. Also, the men making the measurements should oversee construction and correct errors at the time. The work was performed by measuring the attenuation at spot frequencies over the range of from 150 kilocycles to 1280 megacycles with suitable equipment mounted in small rubber-tried trucks. The attenuation was determined by ``before and after`` shielding and/or ``door open and door closed`` measurements after installation of copper shielding. In general, attenuation in the frequency range of approximately 10 to 150 mc. was good and was of the order expected. At frequencies in the range of 150 mc. to 1280 mc., the attenuation curve was more erratic; that is, at certain frequencies a severe loss of attenuation was noted, while at others, the attenuation was very good. This was mainly due to poor or faulty seals around doors and pass windows. These poor seals existed in the ``T,`` ``E,`` and ``I`` Buildings because the doors were fitted improperly and somewhat inferior material was used. By experience from these difficulties, both causes were corrected in the ``R`` Building, which resulted in the improvement of the very high frequency (v.h.f.) range in this building. In some specific cases, however, the results were about the same. For the range of frequencies below approximately 10 mc., the attenuation, in almost all cases, gradually decreased as the frequency decreased and reached a minimum at .3 to 1.0 mc. This loss of attenuation was attributed to multiple grounding caused by moisture in the insulating timbers and will gradually decrease as the wood dries out.

  17. Gonad shielding in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    The use of gonad shielding is an important radiation protection technique, intended to reduce unnecessary x-ray exposure of the gonads of patients from diagnostic x-ray procedures. The types of gonad shields in use are discussed as are the types of diagnostic examinations that should include gonad shielding. It was found that when properly used, most shields provided substantial gonad dose reductions

  18. Experience of developing an integrated nondestructive assay system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsue, S.T.; Baker, M.P.

    1987-01-01

    A consortium of laboratories is collaborating with the Savannah River Plant to develop an integrated system of state-of-the-art nondestructive assay (NDA) instrumentation to provide nuclear materials accounting and process control information for a new plutonium scrap recovery facility. Individual instruments report assay results to an instrument control computer (ICC); the ICC, in turn, is part of a larger computer network that includes computers that perform process control and materials accounting functions. The design of the integrated NDA measurement system is shown. Each NDA instrument that is part of the integrated system is microcomputer-based and thus is capable of stand-alone operation if the central computer is out of service. Certain hardware features, such as microcomputers, pulse processing modules, and multichannel analyzers, are standardized throughout the system. Another standard feature is the communication between individual NDA instruments and the ICC. The most unique phase of the project is the integral staging. The primary purpose of this phase is to check the communications between various computers and to verify the ICC software during the operation of the NDA instruments. Implementing this integrated system in a process environment represents a major step in realizing the full capabilities of modern NDA instrumentation

  19. Vertical integration of medical education: Riverland experience, South Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, D R; Worley, P S; Mugford, B; Stagg, P

    2004-01-01

    Vertical integration of medical education is currently a prominent international topic, resulting from recent strategic initiatives to improve medical education and service delivery in areas of poorly met medical need. In this article, vertical integration of medical education is defined as 'a grouping of curricular content and delivery mechanisms, traversing the traditional boundaries of undergraduate, postgraduate and continuing medical education, with the intent of enhancing the transfer of knowledge and skills between those involved in the learning-teaching process'. Educators closely involved with vertically integrated teaching in the Riverland of South Australia present an analytical description of the educational dynamics of this system. From this analysis, five elements are identified which underpin the process of successful vertical integration: (1) raised educational stakes; (2) local ownership; (3) broad university role; (4) longer attachments; and (5) shared workforce vision. Given the benefits to the Riverland medical education programs described in this paper, it is not surprising that vertical integration of medical education is a popular goal in many rural regions throughout the world. Although different contexts will result in different functional arrangements, it could be argued that the five principles outlined in this article can be applied in any region.

  20. IBERINCO in the foreign trade: the integration experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, F. J.; Sanchez Mayoral, M. L.; Garcia, P. J.

    2002-01-01

    The universal tendencies show that nations integrate into large communities to strengthen each other and to share cultures and economies. The integration goes beyond free commerce treaties, opening of the import and export trade shaping unified policies on private sector and reaches into daily life and in the practice of organisations, generating substantial changes in the way of life of people. The companies that will survive in the X XI century will not operate in isolated mood but will have to be able to integrate products and services from other sources adding in the process the value obtained from their basic skills surrounding around their products others non specific of their business and offering to their customers products and services well defined that will make them more valuable and different from their competitions. (Author)

  1. Preliminary shielding analysis of VHTR reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flaspoehler, Timothy M.; Petrovic, Bojan

    2011-01-01

    Over the last 20 years a number of methods have been established for automated variance reduction in Monte Carlo shielding simulations. Hybrid methods rely on deterministic adjoint and/or forward calculations to generate these parameters. In the present study, we use the FWCADIS method implemented in MAVRIC sequence of the SCALE6 package to perform preliminary shielding analyses of a VHTR reactor. MAVRIC has been successfully used by a number of researchers for a range of shielding applications, including modeling of LWRs, spent fuel storage, radiation field throughout a nuclear power plant, study of irradiation facilities, and others. However, experience in using MAVRIC for shielding studies of VHTRs is more limited. Thus, the objective of this work is to contribute toward validating MAVRIC for such applications, and identify areas for potential improvement. A simplified model of a prismatic VHTR has been devised, based on general features of the 600 MWt reactor considered as one of the NGNP options. Fuel elements have been homogenized, and the core region is represented as an annulus. However, the overall mix of materials and the relatively large dimensions of the spatial domain challenging the shielding simulations have been preserved. Simulations are performed to evaluate fast neutron fluence, dpa, and other parameters of interest at relevant positions. The paper will investigate and discuss both the effectiveness of the automated variance reduction, as well as applicability of physics model from the standpoint of specific VHTR features. (author)

  2. Integrated project management information systems: the French nuclear industry experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacquin, J.-C.; Caupin, G.-M.

    1990-01-01

    The article discusses the desirability of integrated project management systems within the French nuclear power industry. Change in demand for nuclear generation facilities over the last two decades has necessitated a change of policy concerning organization, cost and planning within the industry. Large corporate systems can benefit from integrating equipment and bulk materials tracking. Project management for the nuclear industry will, in future, need to incorporate computer aided design tools and project management information systems data bases as well as equipment and planning data. (UK)

  3. Integrated project management information systems: the French nuclear industry experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacquin, J.-C.; Caupin, G.-M.

    1990-03-01

    The article discusses the desirability of integrated project management systems within the French nuclear power industry. Change in demand for nuclear generation facilities over the last two decades has necessitated a change of policy concerning organization, cost and planning within the industry. Large corporate systems can benefit from integrating equipment and bulk materials tracking. Project management for the nuclear industry will, in future, need to incorporate computer aided design tools and project management information systems data bases as well as equipment and planning data. (UK).

  4. First Wall, Blanket, Shield Engineering Technology Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nygren, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    The First Wall/Blanket/Shield Engineering Technology Program sponsored by the Office of Fusion Energy of DOE has the overall objective of providing engineering data that will define performance parameters for nuclear systems in advanced fusion reactors. The program comprises testing and the development of computational tools in four areas: (1) thermomechanical and thermal-hydraulic performance of first-wall component facsimiles with emphasis on surface heat loads; (2) thermomechanical and thermal-hydraulic performance of blanket and shield component facsimiles with emphasis on bulk heating; (3) electromagnetic effects in first wall, blanket, and shield component facsimiles with emphasis on transient field penetration and eddy-current effects; (4) assembly, maintenance and repair with emphasis on remote-handling techniques. This paper will focus on elements 2 and 4 above and, in keeping with the conference participation from both fusion and fission programs, will emphasize potential interfaces between fusion technology and experience in the fission industry

  5. Shielding Design and Radiation Shielding Evaluation for LSDS System Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Younggook; Kim, Jeongdong; Lee, Yongdeok

    2015-01-01

    As the system characteristics, the target in the spectrometer emits approximately 1012 neutrons/s. To efficiently shield the neutron, the shielding door designs are proposed for the LSDS system through a comparison of the direct shield and maze designs. Hence, to guarantee the radiation safety for the facility, the door design is a compulsory course of the development of the LSDS system. To improve the shielding rates, 250x250 covering structure was added as a subsidiary around the spectrometer. In this study, the evaluations of the suggested shielding designs were conducted using MCNP code. The suggested door design and covering structures can shield the neutron efficiently, thus all evaluations of all conditions are satisfied within the public dose limits. From the Monte Carlo code simulation, Resin(Indoor type) and Tungsten(Outdoor type) were selected as the shielding door materials. From a comparative evaluation of the door thickness, In and Out door thickness was selected 50 cm

  6. A SURVEY ON INDIAN EXPERIENCE ON INTEGRATED MANAGEMENT STANDARDS (IMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Khanna

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Adoption of management systems standards is a key issue in manufacturing industry in India. Following the global trend quality and environmental issues are gaining importance. However the number of ISO 14001 certified companies are much less in India as compared to ISO 9001. The integration of ISO 14001 with ISO 9001 may help companies to sustain competitive advantage and overcome disappointments with quality standards and in turn encourage companies to adopt good environmental practices. The aim of this research is to study the implementation of integrated management standards (IMS by the manufacturing organizations in India. The different aspects of integration and benefits of IMS implementation are analyzed. This r esearch is based on empirical study carried out in Indian manufacturing firms, involving the application of a questionnaire. This questionnaire was tested on 50 manufacturing companies in India. The study reveals that focus on stakeholders; top management commitment and training are critical success factors for implementation of IMS. The main benefits of integration are discussed. The small sample size is one of the major limitations of this study. The paper informs the managers in manufacturing organizations and practitioners of management system standards especially in developing countries about IMS and will enable them to adopt IMS in future so that those organizations may not implement multiple and overlapping MSS(Management System Standards.

  7. An investigation of strategies for integrated learning experiences ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pre-determined and emergent codes based on grounded theory showed that it is possible to integrate theory with practice within one art subject by teaching theoretical work in the context of practical work, thus optimizing the limited time allocated to arts and culture education in school timetables. Keywords: arts; arts and ...

  8. Clinical experience of integrative cancer immunotherapy with GcMAF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inui, Toshio; Kuchiike, Daisuke; Kubo, Kentaro; Mette, Martin; Uto, Yoshihiro; Hori, Hitoshi; Sakamoto, Norihiro

    2013-07-01

    Immunotherapy has become an attractive new strategy in the treatment of cancer. The laboratory and clinical study of cancer immunotherapy is rapidly advancing. However, in the clinical setting, the results of cancer immunotherapy are mixed. We therefore contend that cancer immunotherapy should be customized to each patient individually based on their immune status and propose an integrative immunotherapy approach with second-generation group-specific component macrophage activating factor (GcMAF)-containing human serum. The standard protocol of our integrative cancer immunotherapy is as follows: i) 0.5 ml GcMAF-containing human serum is administered intramuscularly or subcutaneously once or twice per week for the duration of cancer therapy until all cancer cells are eradicated; ii) hyper T/natural killer (NK) cell therapy is given once per week for six weeks; iii) high-dose vitamin C is administered intravenously twice per week; iv) alpha lipoic acid (600 mg) is administered orally daily; v) vitamin D3 (5,000-10,000 IU) is administered orally daily. By March 2013, Saisei Mirai have treated over 345 patients with GcMAF. Among them we here present the cases of three patients for whom our integrative immunotherapy was remarkably effective. The results of our integrative immunotherapy seem hopeful. We also plan to conduct a comparative clinical study.>

  9. Integrated product development and experience of communication in education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Ihle; Ir. Dick van Schenk Brill; Ir. Peter van Kollenburg; Ir. H.E.V. Veenstra

    2000-01-01

    The Technical Departments at the Fontys University of Professional Education in Eindhoven, The Netherlands, offer a course which is devel-oped around the principles of Concurrent Engi-neering. Integrated Product Development (IPD) project teams are multi-disciplinary groups which develop products in

  10. Experiences with an integrated management system for aircraft maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, U.

    1993-01-01

    For 20 years, SWISSAIR has employed an integrated information system for aircraft maintenance. To date, a wide range of functions has been set up in their own development. For the future SWISSAIR is increasingly basing on the use of SAP/standard software packages. 10 figs

  11. Integrating family planning into HIV care in western Kenya: HIV care providers' perspectives and experiences one year following integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newmann, Sara J; Zakaras, Jennifer M; Tao, Amy R; Onono, Maricianah; Bukusi, Elizabeth A; Cohen, Craig R; Steinfeld, Rachel; Grossman, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    With high rates of unintended pregnancy in sub-Saharan Africa, integration of family planning (FP) into HIV care is being explored as a strategy to reduce unmet need for contraception. Perspectives and experiences of healthcare providers are critical in order to create sustainable models of integrated care. This qualitative study offers insight into how HIV care providers view and experience the benefits and challenges of providing integrated FP/HIV services in Nyanza Province, Kenya. Sixteen individual interviews were conducted among healthcare workers at six public sector HIV care facilities one year after the implementation of integrated FP and HIV services. Data were transcribed and analyzed qualitatively using grounded theory methods and Atlas.ti. Providers reported a number of benefits of integrated services that they believed increased the uptake and continuation of contraceptive methods. They felt that integrated services enabled them to reach a larger number of female and male patients and in a more efficient way for patients compared to non-integrated services. Availability of FP services in the same place as HIV care also eliminated the need for most referrals, which many providers saw as a barrier for patients seeking FP. Providers reported many challenges to providing integrated services, including the lack of space, time, and sufficient staff, inadequate training, and commodity shortages. Despite these challenges, the vast majority of providers was supportive of FP/HIV integration and found integrated services to be beneficial to HIV-infected patients. Providers' concerns relating to staffing, infrastructure, and training need to be addressed in order to create sustainable, cost-effective FP/HIV integrated service models.

  12. The Tower Shielding Facility: Its glorious past

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muckenthaler, F.J.

    1997-01-01

    The Tower Shielding Facility (TSF) is the only reactor facility in the US that was designed and built for radiation-shielding studies in which both the reactor source and shield samples could be raised into the air to allow measurements to be made without interference from ground scattering or other spurious effects. The TSF proved its usefulness as many different programs were successfully completed. It became active in work for the Defense Atomic Support Agency (DASA) Space Nuclear Auxiliary Power, Defense Nuclear Agency, Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor Program, the Gas-Cooled and High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor programs, and the Japanese-American Shielding Program of Experimental Research, just to mention a few of the more extensive ones. The history of the TSF as presented in this report describes the various experiments that were performed using the different reactors. The experiments are categorized as to the programs which they supported and placed in corresponding chapters. The experiments are described in modest detail, along with their purpose when appropriate. Discussion of the results is minimal, but references are given to more extensive topical reports

  13. The Tower Shielding Facility: Its glorious past

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muckenthaler, F.J.

    1997-05-07

    The Tower Shielding Facility (TSF) is the only reactor facility in the US that was designed and built for radiation-shielding studies in which both the reactor source and shield samples could be raised into the air to allow measurements to be made without interference from ground scattering or other spurious effects. The TSF proved its usefulness as many different programs were successfully completed. It became active in work for the Defense Atomic Support Agency (DASA) Space Nuclear Auxiliary Power, Defense Nuclear Agency, Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor Program, the Gas-Cooled and High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor programs, and the Japanese-American Shielding Program of Experimental Research, just to mention a few of the more extensive ones. The history of the TSF as presented in this report describes the various experiments that were performed using the different reactors. The experiments are categorized as to the programs which they supported and placed in corresponding chapters. The experiments are described in modest detail, along with their purpose when appropriate. Discussion of the results is minimal, but references are given to more extensive topical reports.

  14. Secondary gamma-ray data for shielding calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyasaka, Sunichi

    1979-01-01

    In deep penetration transport calculations, the integral design parameters is determined mainly by secondary particles which are produced by interactions of the primary radiation with materials. The shield thickness and the biological dose rate at a given point of a bulk shield are determined from the contribution from secondary gamma rays. The heat generation and the radiation damage in the structural and shield materials depend strongly on the secondary gamma rays. In this paper, the status of the secondary gamma ray data and its further problems are described from the viewpoint of shield design. The secondary gamma-ray data in ENDF/B-IV and POPOP4 are also discussed based on the test calculations made for several shield assemblies. (author)

  15. Analytic flux formulas and tables of shielding functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, O.J.

    1981-06-01

    Hand calculations of radiation flux and dose rates are often useful in evaluating radiation shielding and in determining the scope of a problem. The flux formulas appropriate to such calculations are almost always based on the point kernel and allow for at most the consideration of laminar slab shields. These formulas often require access to tables of values of integral functions for effective use. Flux formulas and function tables appropriate to calculations involving homogeneous source regions with the shapes of lines, disks, slabs, truncated cones, cylinders, and spheres are presented. Slab shields may be included in most of these calculations, and the effect of a cylindrical shield surrounding a cylindrical source may be estimated. Detector points may be located axially, laterally, or interior to a cylindrical source. Line sources may be tilted with respect to a slab shield. All function tables are given for a wide range of arguments

  16. TPX remote maintenance and shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rennich, M.J.; Nelson, B.E.

    1994-01-01

    The Tokamak Physics Experiment machine design incorporates comprehensive planning for efficient and safe component maintenance. Three programmatic decisions have been made to insure the successful implementation of this objective. First, the tokamak incorporates radiation shielding to reduce activation of components and limit the dose rate to personnel working on the outside of the machine. This allows most of the ex-vessel equipment to be maintained through conventional ''hands-on'' procedures. Second, to the maximum extent possible, low activation materials will be used inside the shielding volume. This resulted in the selection of Titanium (Ti-6Al-4V) for the vacuum vessel and PFC structures. The third decision stipulated that the primary in-vessel components will be replaced or repaired via remote maintenance tools specifically provided for the task. The component designers have been given the responsibility of incorporating maintenance design and for proving the maintainability of the design concepts in full-scale mockup tests prior to the initiation of final fabrication. Remote maintenance of the TPX machine is facilitated by general purpose tools provided by a special purpose design team. Major tools will include an in-vessel transporter, a vessel transfer system and a large component transfer container. In addition, tools such as manipulators and remotely operable impact wrenches will be made available to the component designers by this group. Maintenance systems will also provide the necessary controls for this equipment

  17. External dosimetry sources and shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calisto, Washington

    1994-01-01

    A definition of external dosimetry r external sources dosimetry,physical and mathematical treatment of the interaction of gamma radiation with a minimal area in that direction. Concept of attenuation coefficient, cumulated effect by polyenergetic sources, exposition rate, units, cumulated dose,shielding, foton shielding, depth calculation, materials used for shielding.Beta shielding, consideration of range and maximum β energy , low stopping radiation by use of low Z shielding. Tables for β energy of β emitters, I (tau) factor, energy-range curves for β emitters in aqueous media, gamma attenuation factors for U, W and Pb. Y factor for bone tissue,muscle and air, build-up factors

  18. Operational experience with the Sizewell B integrated plant computer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladner, J.E.J.; Alexander, N.C.; Fitzpatrick, J.A.

    1997-01-01

    The Westinghouse Integrated System for Centralised Operation (WISCO) is the primary plant control system at the Sizewell B Power Station. It comprises three subsystems; the High Integrity Control System (HICS), the Process Control System (PCS) and the Distributed Computer system (DCS). The HICS performs the control and data acquisition of nuclear safety significant plant systems. The PCS uses redundant data processing unit pairs. The workstations and servers of the DCS communicate with each other over a standard ethernet. The maintenance requirements for every plant system are covered by a Maintenance Strategy Report. The breakdown of these reports is listed. The WISCO system has performed exceptionally well. Due to the diagnostic information presented by the HICS, problems could normally be resolved within 24 hours. There have been some 200 outstanding modifications to the system. The procedure of modification is briefly described. (A.K.)

  19. Experience with Intel's Many Integrated Core Architecture in ATLAS Software

    CERN Document Server

    Fleischmann, S; The ATLAS collaboration; Lavrijsen, W; Neumann, M; Vitillo, R

    2014-01-01

    Intel recently released the first commercial boards of its Many Integrated Core (MIC) Architecture. MIC is Intel's solution for the domain of throughput computing, currently dominated by general purpose programming on graphics processors (GPGPU). MIC allows the use of the more familiar x86 programming model and supports standard technologies such as OpenMP, MPI, and Intel's Threading Building Blocks. This should make it possible to develop for both throughput and latency devices using a single code base.\

  20. Experience with Intel's Many Integrated Core Architecture in ATLAS Software

    CERN Document Server

    Fleischmann, S; The ATLAS collaboration; Lavrijsen, W; Neumann, M; Vitillo, R

    2013-01-01

    Intel recently released the first commercial boards of its Many Integrated Core (MIC) Architecture. MIC is Intel's solution for the domain of throughput computing, currently dominated by general purpose programming on graphics processors (GPGPU). MIC allows the use of the more familiar x86 programming model and supports standard technologies such as OpenMP, MPI, and Intel's Threading Building Blocks. This should make it possible to develop for both throughput and latency devices using a single code base.\

  1. Integration of microbial biopesticides in greenhouse floriculture: The Canadian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownbridge, Michael; Buitenhuis, Rose

    2017-11-28

    Historically, greenhouse floriculture has relied on synthetic insecticides to meet its pest control needs. But, growers are increasingly faced with the loss or failure of synthetic chemical pesticides, declining access to new chemistries, stricter environmental/health and safety regulations, and the need to produce plants in a manner that meets the 'sustainability' demands of a consumer driven market. In Canada, reports of thrips resistance to spinosad (Success™) within 6-12 months of its registration prompted a radical change in pest management philosophy and approach. Faced with a lack of registered chemical alternatives, growers turned to biological control out of necessity. Biological control now forms the foundation for pest management programs in Canadian floriculture greenhouses. Success in a biocontrol program is rarely achieved through the use of a single agent, though. Rather, it is realized through the concurrent use of biological, cultural and other strategies within an integrated plant production system. Microbial insecticides can play a critical supporting role in biologically-based integrated pest management (IPM) programs. They have unique modes of action and are active against a range of challenging pests. As commercial microbial insecticides have come to market, research to generate efficacy data has assisted their registration in Canada, and the development and adaptation of integrated programs has promoted uptake by floriculture growers. This review documents some of the work done to integrate microbial insecticides into chrysanthemum and poinsettia production systems, outlines current use practices, and identifies opportunities to improve efficacy in Canadian floriculture crops. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. CERCLA integration with site operations the Fernald experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coyle, S.W.; Shirley, R.S.; Varchol, B.D.

    1991-01-01

    A major transition in the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) site mission has occurred over the past few years. The production capabilities formally provided by the FEMP are being transferred to private industry through a vendor qualification program. Environmental compliance and site cleanup are now the primary focus. In line with this program, the production of uranium products at the site was suspended in July 1989 in order to concentrate resources on the environmental mission. Formal termination of the FEMP production mission was accomplished on June 19, 1991. Environmental issues such as stored inventories of process residues materials and equipment are being addressed under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). The diversity of these hazards complicates the strategic planning for an integrated site cleanup program. The FEMP is one of the first Department of Energy (DOE) facilities to transition from an active production mission guided by Defense Programs (DP) to an environmental mission guided by Environmental Management (EM) under Leo Duffy. Westinghouse Environmental Management Company of Ohio (WEMCO) has been charged with integrating all site activities to carry out the cleanup. A new management structure has been formulated, and an integration approach initiated. Analyses are under way to evaluate all site activities such as waste management, safe shutdown, product material disposition and routine environmental monitoring in view of CERCLA requirements. Site activities are being broken down into three categories: (a) CERCLA driven - restoration work required under CERCLA, (b) CERCLA covered - other environmental requirements which must be integrated with CERCLA, and (c) CERCLA exempt (if any). The approach to comply with these categorized activities must be negotiated with state and federal regulatory agencies

  3. Formulary for neutron propagation in sodium-steel media for the fast reactor shields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouteau, F.; Caumette, P.; Khairallah, A.; Oceraies, Y.; Devillers, C.

    1975-01-01

    The simplified calculational tool (''formulary'') for neutron propagation in the shields of fast reactors, being developed at CEA, has two objectives: to reduce the cost of the major part of design calculations, without a significant loss of accuracy; to facilitate the adjustment of the calculational tool with the results of the program of integral propagation experiments, which is conducted in parallel with the development of the calculational method. The version 0 (i.e. before any adjustment) of the formulary and a first test of its validity as compared to the results of integral measurements are presented [fr

  4. Neutron shielding material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Shigenori; Iimori, Hiroshi; Kobori, Junzo.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a neutron shielding material which incorporates preferable shielding capacity, heat resistance, fire resistance and workability by employing a mixture of thermosetting resin, polyethylene and aluminium hydroxide in special range ratio and curing it. Constitution: A mixture containing 20 to 60% by weight of thermosetting resin having preferable heat resistance, 10 to 40% by weight of polyethylene powder having high hydrogen atom density and 1000 to 60000 of molecular weight, and 15 to 55% by weight of Al(OH) 3 for imparting fire resistance and self-fire extinguishing property thereto is cured. At this time approx. 0.5 to 5% of curing catalyst of the thermosetting resin is contained in 100 parts by weight of the mixture. (Sekiya, K.)

  5. Radiation shielding wall structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Yoshitaka; Oka, Shinji; Kan, Toshihiko; Misato, Takeshi.

    1990-01-01

    A space between a pair of vertical steel plates laterally disposed in parallel at an optional distance has a structure of a plurality of vertically extending tranks partitioned laterally by vertically placed steel plates. Then, cements are grouted to the tranks. Strip-like steel plates each having a thickness greater than the gap between the each of the vertically placed steel plates and the cement are bonded each at the surface for each of the vertically placed steel plates opposing to the cements. A protrusion of a strip width having radiation shielding performance substantially identical with that by the thickness of the cement is disposed in the strip-like steel plates. With such a constitution, a safety radiation shielding wall structure with no worry of radiation intrusion to gaps, if formed, between the steel plates and the grouted cements due to shrinkage of the cements. (I.N.)

  6. Radiation shielding material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawakubo, Takamasa; Yamada, Fumiyuki; Nakazato, Kenjiro.

    1976-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a material, which is used for printing a samples name and date on an X-ray photographic film at the same time an X-ray radiography. Constitution: A radiation shielding material of a large mass absorption coefficient such as lead oxide, barium oxide, barium sulfate, etc. is added to a solution of a radiation permeable substance capable of imparting cold plastic fluidity (such as microcrystalline wax, paraffin, low molecular polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride, etc.). The resultant system is agitated and then cooled, and thereafter it is press fitted to or bonded to a base in the form of a film of a predetermined thickness. This radiation shielding layer is scraped off by using a writing tool to enter information to be printed in a photographic film, and then it is laid over the film and exposed to X-radiation to thereby print the information on the film. (Seki, T.)

  7. Multilayer radiation shield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbahn, John Arthur; Laskaris, Evangelos Trifon

    2009-06-16

    A power generation system including: a generator including a rotor including a superconductive rotor coil coupled to a rotatable shaft; a first prime mover drivingly coupled to the rotatable shaft; and a thermal radiation shield, partially surrounding the rotor coil, including at least a first sheet and a second sheet spaced apart from the first sheet by centripetal force produced by the rotatable shaft. A thermal radiation shield for a generator including a rotor including a super-conductive rotor coil including: a first sheet having at least one surface formed from a low emissivity material; and at least one additional sheet having at least one surface formed from a low emissivity material spaced apart from the first sheet by centripetal force produced by the rotatable shaft, wherein each successive sheet is an incrementally greater circumferential arc length and wherein the centripetal force shapes the sheets into a substantially catenary shape.

  8. Light shielding apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Richard Dean; Thom, Robert Anthony

    2017-10-10

    A light shielding apparatus for blocking light from reaching an electronic device, the light shielding apparatus including left and right support assemblies, a cross member, and an opaque shroud. The support assemblies each include primary support structure, a mounting element for removably connecting the apparatus to the electronic device, and a support member depending from the primary support structure for retaining the apparatus in an upright orientation. The cross member couples the left and right support assemblies together and spaces them apart according to the size and shape of the electronic device. The shroud may be removably and adjustably connectable to the left and right support assemblies and configured to take a cylindrical dome shape so as to form a central space covered from above. The opaque shroud prevents light from entering the central space and contacting sensitive elements of the electronic device.

  9. Integral treatment of children with dyslexia - 40 years experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stošljević Miodrag

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Dyslexia represents a significant pediatric problem requiring prompt and appropriate treatment. Objective. The aim of this study was to examine the significance of integral rehabilitation approach in treating dyslexia of children. Methods. Objectives of the study were accomplished on a sample of 300 children, aged 11-15 years, with etiologically variable dyslexia. Results. The results gained from the integral treatment of children with dyslexia were more successful than those obtained from isolated logaoedic treatment, when compared in 10-15 examined variables; replacement of graphically similar letters (p=0.000, replacement of syllables (p=0.010, replacement of words - guessing (p=0.019, structural errors - displacement or insertion (p=0.038, adding letters and syllables (p=0.001, repeating of word parts (p=0.001, reading of a word in several wrong ways (p=0.001, omission of words and whole lines (p=0.000, returning to already read line (p=0.000, level of dyslexia (p=0.000. Conclusion. Dyslexia requires a multidisciplinary therapeutic approach in which integral rehabilitation treatment has an exceptionally large significance.

  10. Shielding container for radioactive isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumi, Tetsuo; Tosa, Masayoshi; Hatogai, Tatsuaki.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To effect opening and closing bidirectional radiation used particularly for a gamma densimeter or the like by one operation. Structure: This device comprises a rotatable shielding body for receiving radioactive isotope in the central portion thereof and having at least two radiation openings through which radiation is taken out of the isotope, and a shielding container having openings corresponding to the first mentioned radiation openings, respectively. The radioactive isotope is secured to a rotational shaft of the shielding body, and the shielding body is rotated to register the openings of the shielding container with the openings of the shielding body or to shield the openings, thereby effecting radiation and cut off of gamma ray in the bidirection by one operation. (Kamimura, M.)

  11. Transmission test of the polyethylene shield against 40 and 65 MeV quasi monochrome neutron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakao, Makoto; Nakamura, Takashi; Sakuya, Yoshimasa; Nauchi, Yasushi; Nakao, Noriaki; Tanaka, Susumu; Sakamoto, Yukio; Nakajima, Hiroshi; Nakane, Yoshihiro.

    1996-01-01

    Using 40 and 65 MeV quasi monochrome neutron of the AVF cyclotron installed at Takasaki Laboratory, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, the neutron energy spectra were measured after transmitting the polyethylene shield. Results of the shielding experiments using concrete and iron recognized as main shielding material were proposed previously. As data obtained in the experiments were useful for a bench-mark experiment to investigate for shielding calculation and sectional data set, a shielding calculation simulated with new experiment to compare with and investigate for the previous experimental data. As a result, it was found that calculation result of neutron flux transmitting through the polyethylene shield showed difference with increase of the shield thickness. And, reducing distance of the peak neutron was also found to be over-estimated in its calculation value, such as three and five times on 43 MeV at 120 and 180 cm thick, respectively. (G.K.)

  12. Shielding calculations using FLUKA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Chiri; Tesch, K.; Dinter, H.

    1988-06-01

    The dose equivalent on the surface of concrete shielding has been calculated using the Monte Carlo code FLUKA86 for incident proton energies from 10 to 800 GeV. The results have been compared with some simple equations. The value of the angular dependent parameter in Moyer's equation has been calculated from the locations where the values of the maximum dose equivalent occur. (author)

  13. Muon shielding for PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, T.M.; Thomas, R.H.

    1974-01-01

    The first stage of construction of PEP will consist of electron and positron storage rings. At a later date a 200 GeV proton storage ring may be added. It is judicious therefore, to ensure that the first and second phases of construction are compatible with each other. One of several factors determining the elevation at which the storage rings will be constructed is the necessity to provide adequate radiation shielding. The overhead shielding of PEP is determined by the reproduction of neutrons in the hadron cascade generated by primary protons lost from the storage ring. The minimum overburden planned for PEP is 5.5 meters of earth (1100 gm cm/sup /minus/2/). To obtain a rough estimate of the magnitude of the muon radiation problem this note presents some preliminary calculations. Their purpose is intended merely to show that the presently proposed design for PEP will present no major shielding problems should the protons storage ring be installed. More detailed calculations will be made using muon yield computer codes developed at CERN and NAL and muon transport codes developed at SLAC, when details of the proton storage ring become settled. 9 refs., 4 figs

  14. Shielding calculations for NET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verschuur, K.A.; Hogenbirk, A.

    1991-05-01

    In the European Fusion Technology Programme there is only a small activity on research and development for fusion neutronics. Never-the-less, looking further than blanket design now, as ECN is getting involved in design of radiation shields for the coils and biological shields, it becomes apparent that fusion neutronics as a whole still needs substantial development. Existing exact codes for calculation of complex geometries like MCNP and DORT/TORT are put over the limits of their numerical capabilities, whilst approximate codes for complex geometries like FURNACE and MERCURE4 are put over the limits of their modelling capabilities. The main objective of this study is just to find out how far we can get with existing codes in obtaining reliable values for the radiation levels inside and outside the cryostat/shield during operation and after shut-down. Starting with a 1D torus model for preliminary parametric studies, more dimensional approximation of the torus or parts of it including the main heterogeneities should follow. Regular contacts with the NET-Team are kept, to be aware of main changes in NET design that might affect our calculation models. Work on the contract started 1 July 1990. The technical description of the contract is given. (author). 14 refs.; 4 figs.; 1 tab

  15. Integrative Review of Qualitative Research on the Emotional Experience of Bullying Victimization in Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutson, Elizabeth

    2018-01-01

    The emotional experience of bullying victimization in youths has been documented primarily using quantitative methods; however, qualitative methods may be better suited to examine the experience. An integrative review of the qualitative method studies addressing the emotional experience of bullying victimization was conducted. From MEDLINE,…

  16. General Corrosion and Localized Corrosion of the Drip Shield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F. Hua

    2004-09-16

    The repository design includes a drip shield (BSC 2004 [DIRS 168489]) that provides protection for the waste package both as a barrier to seepage water contact and a physical barrier to potential rockfall. The purpose of the process-level models developed in this report is to model dry oxidation, general corrosion, and localized corrosion of the drip shield plate material, which is made of Ti Grade 7. This document is prepared according to ''Technical Work Plan For: Regulatory Integration Modeling and Analysis of the Waste Form and Waste Package'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171583]). The models developed in this report are used by the waste package degradation analyses for TSPA-LA and serve as a basis to determine the performance of the drip shield. The drip shield may suffer from other forms of failure such as the hydrogen induced cracking (HIC) or stress corrosion cracking (SCC), or both. Stress corrosion cracking of the drip shield material is discussed in ''Stress Corrosion Cracking of the Drip Shield, the Waste Package Outer Barrier, and the Stainless Steel Structural Material'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169985]). Hydrogen induced cracking of the drip shield material is discussed in ''Hydrogen Induced Cracking of Drip Shield'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169847]).

  17. General Corrosion and Localized Corrosion of the Drip Shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    F. Hua

    2004-01-01

    The repository design includes a drip shield (BSC 2004 [DIRS 168489]) that provides protection for the waste package both as a barrier to seepage water contact and a physical barrier to potential rockfall. The purpose of the process-level models developed in this report is to model dry oxidation, general corrosion, and localized corrosion of the drip shield plate material, which is made of Ti Grade 7. This document is prepared according to ''Technical Work Plan For: Regulatory Integration Modeling and Analysis of the Waste Form and Waste Package'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171583]). The models developed in this report are used by the waste package degradation analyses for TSPA-LA and serve as a basis to determine the performance of the drip shield. The drip shield may suffer from other forms of failure such as the hydrogen induced cracking (HIC) or stress corrosion cracking (SCC), or both. Stress corrosion cracking of the drip shield material is discussed in ''Stress Corrosion Cracking of the Drip Shield, the Waste Package Outer Barrier, and the Stainless Steel Structural Material'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169985]). Hydrogen induced cracking of the drip shield material is discussed in ''Hydrogen Induced Cracking of Drip Shield'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169847])

  18. Enhancing user experience design with an integrated storytelling method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peng, Qiong; Matterns, Jean Bernard; Marcus, A.

    2016-01-01

    Storytelling has been known as a service design method and been used broadly not only in service design but also in the context of user experience design. However, practitioners cannot yet fully appreciate the benefits of storytelling, and often confuse storytelling with storyboarding and scenarios.

  19. An Integral, Multidisciplinary and Global Geophysical Field Experience for Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, O.; Carrillo, D. J.; Pérez-Campos, X.

    2007-05-01

    The udergraduate program of Geophysical Engineering at the School of Engineering, of the Univesidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), went through an update process that concluded in 2006. As part of the program, the student takes three geophysical prospecting courses (gravity and magnetics, electric, electromagnetics, and seismic methods). The older program required a three-week field experience for each course in order to gradute. The new program considers only one extended field experience. This work stresses the importance of international academic exchange, where undergraduate students could participate, such as the Summer of Applied Geophysical Experience (SAGE), and interaction with research programs, such as the MesoAmerican Subduction Experiment (MASE). Also, we propose a scheeme for this activity based on those examples; both of them have in common real geophysical problems, from which students could benefit. Our proposal covers academic and logistic aspects to be taken into account, enhancing the relevance of interaction between other academic institutions, industry, and UNAM, in order to obtain a broader view of geophysics.

  20. The Developmental Impact of Not Integrating Childhood Peak Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlarb, Craig W.

    2007-01-01

    Much prior groundbreaking research has been done in recent years highlighting the qualities, quantities and means children have to enter transpersonal states of awareness. As important as this precedent research has been, in many ways it has yet to fully appreciate the gravity of childhood transpersonal experiences in terms of the impact on…

  1. Verification of Small Hole Theory for Application to Wire Chaffing Resulting in Shield Faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuet, Stefan R.; Timucin, Dogan A.; Wheeler, Kevin R.

    2011-01-01

    Our work is focused upon developing methods for wire chafe fault detection through the use of reflectometry to assess shield integrity. When shielded electrical aircraft wiring first begins to chafe typically the resulting evidence is small hole(s) in the shielding. We are focused upon developing algorithms and the signal processing necessary to first detect these small holes prior to incurring damage to the inner conductors. Our approach has been to develop a first principles physics model combined with probabilistic inference, and to verify this model with laboratory experiments as well as through simulation. Previously we have presented the electromagnetic small-hole theory and how it might be applied to coaxial cable. In this presentation, we present our efforts to verify this theoretical approach with high-fidelity electromagnetic simulations (COMSOL). Laboratory observations are used to parameterize the computationally efficient theoretical model with probabilistic inference resulting in quantification of hole size and location. Our efforts in characterizing faults in coaxial cable are subsequently leading to fault detection in shielded twisted pair as well as analysis of intermittent faulty connectors using similar techniques.

  2. Thermal testing of solid neutron shielding materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boonstra, R.H.

    1993-01-01

    In May-June 1989 the first series of full-scale thermal tests was performed on three shielding materials: Bisco Products NS-4-FR, and Reactor Experiments RX-201 and RX-207. The tests are described in Thermal Testing of Solid Neutron Shielding Materials, GA-A19897, R.H. Boonstra, General Atomics (1990), and demonstrated the acceptability of these materials in a thermal accident. Subsequent design changes to the cask rendered these materials unattractive in terms of weight or adequate service temperature margin. For the second test series a material specification was developed for a polypropylene based neutron shield with a softening point of at least 280degF. Table 1 lists the neutron shield materials tested. The Envirotech and Bisco materials are not polypropylene, but were tested as potential backup materials in the event that a satisfactory polypropylene could not be found. The Bisco modified NS-4 and Reactor Experiments HMPP are both acceptable materials from a thermal accident standpoint for use in the shipping cask. Tests of the Kobe PP-R01 and Envirotech HDPE were stopped for safety reasons, due to inability to deal with the heavy smoke, before completion of the 30-minute heating phase. However these materials may prove satisfactory if they could undergo the complete heating. (J.P.N.)

  3. CERCLA integration with site operations the Fernald experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coyle, S.W.; Shirley, R.S.; Varchol, B.D.

    1991-01-01

    A major transition in the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) site mission has occurred over the past few years. The production capabilities formally provided by the FEMP are being transferred to private industry through a vendor qualification program. Environmental compliance and site cleanup are now the primary focus. In line with this program, the production of uranium products at the site was suspended in July 1989 in order to concentrate resources on the environmental mission. Formal termination of the FEMP production mission was accomplished on June 19, 1991. Environmental issues such as stored inventories of process residues materials and equipment are being addressed under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). The diversity of these hazards complicates the strategic planning for an integrated site cleanup program. This paper will discuss the programmatic approach which is being implemented to ensure activities such as waste management, site utility and support services, health and safety programs, and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) programs are being integrated with CERCLA. 6 figs., 3 tabs

  4. Experimental study on fast neutron streaming through grid-plate shield of a LMFBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oka, Yoshiaki; Wakabayashi, Hiroaki; An, Shigehiro; Suzuki, Ikunori.

    1976-01-01

    Neutron streaming through the holes penetrating the grid plate shield of a prototype LMFBR was experimentally examined. The mockups of the grid plate shield were made of iron and aluminum. Experiments were conducted at the vertical column of ''YAYOI'', the fast neutron source reactor of University of Tokyo. A He-3 spectrometer was employed in order to measure the transmitted neutron spectrum, while rhodium and indium threshold foils were for the integral flux above specific energies and their spatial distributions in the form of reaction rates. The streaming factor for usual small bended holes is 1.28+-0.04 as to the integral neutron flux above 0.1 MeV and 1.30+-0.12 as to the reaction rate of indium foil. Use were made of the one and two dimensional neutron transport code ANISN and TWOTRAN for evaluation by computation. The reaction rates calculated by infinite slab model with ANISN code agree well with the experiments when normalized at the source point where neutrons are incident on the grid plate shield. (auth.)

  5. Driving behavioural change towards ecodesign integration: Nudging experiment in industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brones, Fabien; Gyldendal Melberg, Morten; Monteiro de Carvalho, Marly

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a research study conducted at Natura, a large Brazilian cosmetic company, in order to stimulate more systematic sustainable innovation practices by means of behavioural change. Within the “soft side” of ecodesign implementation, “nudging” is a novel approach brought from soci...... systemically consider individuals’ engagement, including behavioural aspects, interaction with project teams and higher level business organisations.......This paper describes a research study conducted at Natura, a large Brazilian cosmetic company, in order to stimulate more systematic sustainable innovation practices by means of behavioural change. Within the “soft side” of ecodesign implementation, “nudging” is a novel approach brought from social...... sciences and policy making. An empirical experiment identified and tested employee motivations in combination with behavioural influences, in order to positively affect employees’ intention to practice ecodesign. This original experience of green nudging in a private company context supported the diffusion...

  6. Driving behavioural change towards ecodesign integration: Nudging experiment in industry

    OpenAIRE

    Brones, Fabien; Gyldendal Melberg, Morten; Monteiro de Carvalho, Marly; Pigosso, Daniela Cristina Antelmi; McAloone, Tim C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a research study conducted at Natura, a large Brazilian cosmetic company, in order to stimulate more systematic sustainable innovation practices by means of behavioural change. Within the “soft side” of ecodesign implementation, “nudging” is a novel approach brought from social sciences and policy making. An empirical experiment identified and tested employee motivations in combination with behavioural influences, in order to positively affect employees’ intention to prac...

  7. Tire inspection system with shielded x-ray source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heisner, D.N.; Palermo, A. Jr.; Loyer, P.K.

    1976-01-01

    An automated tire inspection system is described which employs a penetrative radiation, such as x-radiation, to inspect the integrity of portions of tires fed sequentially along a feed path through a centering station and into a shielded enclosure where an inspection station is defined. Features of the system include a continuously operating x-ray source movable between inspection and retracted positions, and an x-ray shield for covering the source when it is retracted to permit the doors of the shielded enclosure to be opened without danger from escaping radiation. 19 Claims, 38 Drawing Figures

  8. MPACT Subgroup Self-Shielding Efficiency Improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stimpson, Shane; Liu, Yuxuan; Collins, Benjamin S.; Clarno, Kevin T.

    2016-01-01

    Recent developments to improve the efficiency of the MOC solvers in MPACT have yielded effective kernels that loop over several energy groups at once, rather that looping over one group at a time. These kernels have produced roughly a 2x speedup on the MOC sweeping time during eigenvalue calculation. However, the self-shielding subgroup calculation had not been reevaluated to take advantage of these new kernels, which typically requires substantial solve time. The improvements covered in this report start by integrating the multigroup kernel concepts into the subgroup calculation, which are then used as the basis for further extensions. The next improvement that is covered is what is currently being termed as ''Lumped Parameter MOC''. Because the subgroup calculation is a purely fixed source problem and multiple sweeps are performed only to update the boundary angular fluxes, the sweep procedure can be condensed to allow for the instantaneous propagation of the flux across a spatial domain, without the need to sweep along all segments in a ray. Once the boundary angular fluxes are considered to be converged, an additional sweep that will tally the scalar flux is completed. The last improvement that is investigated is the possible reduction of the number of azimuthal angles per octant in the shielding sweep. Typically 16 azimuthal angles per octant are used for self-shielding and eigenvalue calculations, but it is possible that the self-shielding sweeps are less sensitive to the number of angles than the full eigenvalue calculation.

  9. AP1000 shield building: a constructability challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Giuseppe, Giovanni; Bonanno, Domenico

    2010-01-01

    The AP1000 Shield Building, an enhanced structure which surrounds the containment vessel, consists of standard Reinforced Concrete (RC) and composite Steel and Concrete (SC) construction. In the SC module the surface steel plates, (with attached shear studs and angles) filled with concrete, act as the steel reinforcement in concrete. This is a relatively new design technology that required the appropriate use of structural codes, supplemented with information from applicable tests on similar composite steel and concrete construction. Being a newer design concept, existing codes do not provide explicit guidance on SC construction so a review of literature and test data on composite structures similar to AP1000 shield building was done in order to confirm the technical basis for the design. The SC walls, air inlet structure and roof of the Shield Building will be constructed using modular construction practices and then transported to site and lifted into place. These modules, working also as permanent form-work, will be filled with high strength Self- Consolidating Concrete. (SCC) This paper provides a focused and integrated presentation of the enhanced shield building design methodology, testing, constructability and inspection. (authors)

  10. A Regional Integrated Virtual Learning Environment: The AOU's Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Hammad

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose to construct a Regional Integrated Virtual Learning Environment (RIVLE for the Arab Open University (AOU. AOU is a new nonprofit learning institution with branches in six Arab countries and more branches scheduled to open in the near future. The university adopts an open learning methodology. We describe the major elements of the RIVLE and their interaction. We present a generic interface between the RIVLE and the Student Information System (SIS. We focus on the characteristics of the pedagogical model in the Arab Open University context and explain why RIVLE would be a perfect fit for this model. We argue that the potential benefits of a RIVLE are realized in such a setting. We also study the possibility of extending the RIVLE to existing learning institutions in the region.

  11. Review of Integral Experiments for Minor Actinide Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil, C.S.; Glinatsis, G.; Hesketh, K.; Iwamoto, O.; Okajima, S.; Tsujimoto, K.; Jacqmin, R.; Khomyakov, Y.; Kochetkov, A.; Kormilitsyn, M.; Palmiotti, G.; Salvatores, M.; Perret, G.; Rineiski, A.; Romanello, V.; Sweet, D.

    2015-01-01

    Spent nuclear fuel contains minor actinides (MAs) such as neptunium, americium and curium, which require careful management. This becomes even more important when mixed oxide (MOX) fuel is being used on a large scale since more MAs will accumulate in the spent fuel. One way to manage these MAs is to transmute them in nuclear reactors, including in light water reactors, fast reactors or accelerator-driven subcritical systems. The transmutation of MAs, however, is not straightforward, as the loading of MAs generally affects physics parameters, such as coolant void, Doppler and burn-up reactivity. This report focuses on nuclear data requirements for minor actinide management, the review of existing integral data and the determination of required experimental work, the identification of bottlenecks and possible solutions, and the recommendation of an action programme for international co-operation. (authors)

  12. Integrating Occupational Therapy Specific Assessments in Practice: Exploring Practitioner Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Asaba

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Occupational therapists sometimes find it challenging to integrate client-centered and occupational therapy specific assessments in practice. The aim of this study was to explore the use of occupational therapy specific assessments such as the Assessment of Motor and Process Skills (AMPS among occupational therapists in Sweden and Japan. Methods. Interviews and qualitative thematic analyses were utilized. Findings. Four themes are reported: (1 use it or lose it, (2 simply no space until after hours, (3 biggest barriers can be colleagues, and (4 being more specific: communication. Conclusion. In keeping with previous studies, occupational therapists often find it challenging to implement client-centered and occupation-based assessment tools into practice. However, more work is needed to understand how best practices can be incorporated into a changing occupational therapy daily practice.

  13. A contribution to shielding effectiveness analysis of shielded tents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vranić Zoran M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of shielding effectiveness (SE of the shielded tents made of the metallised fabrics is given. First, two electromagnetic characteristic fundamental for coupling through electrically thin shield, the skin depth break frequency and the surface resistance or transfer impedance, is defined and analyzed. Then, the transfer function and the SE are analyzed regarding to the frequency range of interest to the Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC Community.

  14. Revised neutral gas shielding model for pellet ablation - combined neutral and plasma shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houlberg, W.A.; Schuresko, D.D.; Attenberger, S.E.

    1986-01-01

    The ablation and penetration of pellets in early ORMAK and ISX-A experiments were reliably predicted by the neutral gas shielding model of Milora and Foster. These experiments demonstrated that the principle components of the model - a self-generated shield which reduces the heat flux at the plasma surface - were correct. In more recent experiments with higher temperature plasmas, this model consistently predicts greater penetration than observed in the experiments. Upgarding known limitations of the original model brings the predicted and observed penetration values into agreement. These improvements include: (1) treating the incident electrons as having distribution in energy rather than being monoenergetic; (2) including the shielding effects of cold, dense plasma extending along the magnetic field outside the neutral shield; and (3) modifying the finite plasma, self-limiting incident heat flux so that it represents a collisionless plasma limit rather than a collisional limit. Comparisons are made between the models for a selection of ISX-B Alcator-C, and TFTR shots. The net effect of the changes in the model is an increase in pellet ablation rates and decrease in penetration for current and future experiments

  15. Time-integrated CP violation measurements in the B mesons system at the LHCb experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Cardinale, R

    2016-01-01

    Time-integrated CP violation measurements in the B meson system provide information for testing the CKM picture of CP violation in the Standard Model. A review of recent results from the LHCb experiment is presented.

  16. Where have the neutrons gone: A history of the Tower Shielding Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muckenthaler, F.J.

    1992-01-01

    In the early 1950's, the concept of the unit shield for the nuclear powered aircraft reactor changed to one of the divided shield concept where the reactor and crew compartment shared the shielding load. Design calculations for the divided shield were being made based on data obtained in studies for the, unit shield. It was believed that these divided shield designs were subject to error, the magnitude of which could not be estimated. This belief led to the design of the Tower Shielding Facility where divided-shield-type measurements could be made without interference from ground or structural scattering. This paper discusses that facility, its reactors, and some chosen experiments from the list of many that were performed at that facility during the past 38 years

  17. Barriers and facilitators to integrating care: experiences from the English Integrated Care Pilots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Ling

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. In 2008, the English Department of Health appointed 16 'Integrated Care Pilots' which used a range of approaches to provide better integrated care. We report qualitative analyses from a three year multi-method evaluation to identify barriers and facilitators to successful integration of care.  Theory and methods. Data were analysed from transcripts of 213 in-depth staff interviews, and from semi-structured questionnaires (the 'Living Document' completed by staff in pilot sites at six points over a two-year period. Emerging findings were therefore built from 'bottom up' and grounded in the data. However, we were then interested in how these findings compared and contrasted with more generic analyses. Therefore after our analyses were complete we then systematically compared and contrasted the findings with the analysis of barriers and facilitators to quality improvement identified in a systematic review by Kaplan et al (2010 and the analysis of more micro-level shapers of behaviour found in Normalisation Process Theory (May et al 2007. Neither of these approaches claims to be full blown theories but both claim to provide mid-range theoretical arguments which may be used to structure existing data and which can be undercut or reinforced by new data. Results and discussion. Many barriers and facilitators to integrating care are those of any large scale organisational change. These include issues relating to leadership, organisational culture, information technology, physician involvement, and availability of resources. However, activities which appear particularly important for delivering integrated care include personal relationships between leaders in different organisations, the scale of planned activities, governance and finance arrangements, support for staff in new roles, and organisational and staff stability. We illustrate our analyses with a 'routemap' which identifies questions that providers may wish to consider when

  18. Barriers and facilitators to integrating care: experiences from the English Integrated Care Pilots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Ling

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. In 2008, the English Department of Health appointed 16 'Integrated Care Pilots' which used a range of approaches to provide better integrated care. We report qualitative analyses from a three year multi-method evaluation to identify barriers and facilitators to successful integration of care. Theory and methods. Data were analysed from transcripts of 213 in-depth staff interviews, and from semi-structured questionnaires (the 'Living Document' completed by staff in pilot sites at six points over a two-year period. Emerging findings were therefore built from 'bottom up' and grounded in the data. However, we were then interested in how these findings compared and contrasted with more generic analyses. Therefore after our analyses were complete we then systematically compared and contrasted the findings with the analysis of barriers and facilitators to quality improvement identified in a systematic review by Kaplan et al (2010 and the analysis of more micro-level shapers of behaviour found in Normalisation Process Theory (May et al 2007. Neither of these approaches claims to be full blown theories but both claim to provide mid-range theoretical arguments which may be used to structure existing data and which can be undercut or reinforced by new data.Results and discussion. Many barriers and facilitators to integrating care are those of any large scale organisational change. These include issues relating to leadership, organisational culture, information technology, physician involvement, and availability of resources. However, activities which appear particularly important for delivering integrated care include personal relationships between leaders in different organisations, the scale of planned activities, governance and finance arrangements, support for staff in new roles, and organisational and staff stability. We illustrate our analyses with a 'routemap' which identifies questions that providers may wish to consider when planning

  19. Sport as a context for integration:newly arrived immigrant children in Sweden drawing sporting experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Hertting, Krister; Karlefors, Inger

    2013-01-01

    Sport is a global phenomenon, which can make sport an important arena for integration into new societies. However, sport is also an expression of national culture and identities. The aim of this study is to explore images and experiences that newly-arrived immigrant children in Sweden have about sport in their country of origin, and challenges that can arise in processes of integration through sport. We asked 20 newly arrived children aged 10 to 13 to make drawings about sporting experiences ...

  20. Having a Go: Looking at Teachers' Experience of Risk-Taking in Technology Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Sarah K.; Gigliotti, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    Risk is an integral part of change. Technology-related change in teachers' practice is guided by confidence engaging in and beliefs about integration. However, it is also affected by how teachers feel about taking risks, experimenting and change. This paper presents a theoretical framework of affect and emotion to understand how teachers…

  1. Research integrity: the experience of a doubting Thomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettinger, Thomas P

    2014-04-01

    The sensational "reactome array" paper published in Science in 2009 was investigated in Spain by the Ethics Committee of Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC) after Science issued an editorial expression of concern. The paper was retracted in 2010 because of "skepticism" due to "errors" in chemistry. The "errors" were so profound that many readers expressed doubt that they were really errors, but part of an elaborate hoax. I conducted a forensic analysis of mass spectrometry data in the paper's Supporting Online Material (SOM) and was able to prove that thousands of data values were in fact fabricated. The SOM contains signatures of improper extensive spreadsheet manipulations of incorrect atomic and molecular mass values as well as impossibly repetitive deviations of found molecular mass values from their expected values. No evidence of real mass spectrometry data was detected. Both CSIC and Science have been content to retract the paper without acknowledging the fabrications or assigning responsibility for them. Neither CSIC nor Science has expressed interest in having an independent investigation determining how the paper came to be written, reviewed and published. Their weak response to this episode is a daunting signal that there is an impending crisis in research integrity and science journalism.

  2. Integrated predictive modelling simulations of burning plasma experiment designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bateman, Glenn; Onjun, Thawatchai; Kritz, Arnold H

    2003-01-01

    Models for the height of the pedestal at the edge of H-mode plasmas (Onjun T et al 2002 Phys. Plasmas 9 5018) are used together with the Multi-Mode core transport model (Bateman G et al 1998 Phys. Plasmas 5 1793) in the BALDUR integrated predictive modelling code to predict the performance of the ITER (Aymar A et al 2002 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 44 519), FIRE (Meade D M et al 2001 Fusion Technol. 39 336), and IGNITOR (Coppi B et al 2001 Nucl. Fusion 41 1253) fusion reactor designs. The simulation protocol used in this paper is tested by comparing predicted temperature and density profiles against experimental data from 33 H-mode discharges in the JET (Rebut P H et al 1985 Nucl. Fusion 25 1011) and DIII-D (Luxon J L et al 1985 Fusion Technol. 8 441) tokamaks. The sensitivities of the predictions are evaluated for the burning plasma experimental designs by using variations of the pedestal temperature model that are one standard deviation above and below the standard model. Simulations of the fusion reactor designs are carried out for scans in which the plasma density and auxiliary heating power are varied

  3. Neutronic reactor thermal shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowe, P.E.

    1976-01-01

    A shield for a nuclear reactor includes at least two layers of alternating wide and narrow rectangular blocks so arranged that the spaces between blocks in adjacent layers are out of registry, each block having an opening therein equally spaced from the sides of the blocks and nearer the top of the block than the bottom, the distance from the top of the block to the opening in one layer being different from this distance in adjacent layers, openings in blocks in adjacent layers being in registry. 1 claim, 7 drawing figures

  4. A shield against distraction

    OpenAIRE

    Halin, N.; Marsh, J.E.; Hellman, A.; Hellstrom, I.; Sörqvist, Patrik

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we apply the basic idea of a trade-off between the level of concentration and distractibility to test whether a manipulation of task difficulty can shield against distraction. Participants read, either in quiet or with a speech noise background, texts that were displayed either in an easy-to-read or a hard-to-read font. Background speech impaired prose recall, but only when the text was displayed in the easy-to-read font. Most importantly, recall was better in the background sp...

  5. Measuring space radiation shielding effectiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Bahadori Amir; Semones Edward; Ewert Michael; Broyan James; Walker Steven

    2017-01-01

    Passive radiation shielding is one strategy to mitigate the problem of space radiation exposure. While space vehicles are constructed largely of aluminum, polyethylene has been demonstrated to have superior shielding characteristics for both galactic cosmic rays and solar particle events due to the high hydrogen content. A method to calculate the shielding effectiveness of a material relative to reference material from Bragg peak measurements performed using energetic heavy charged particles ...

  6. Selective shielding device for scintiphotography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper, J.W.; Kay, T.D.

    1976-01-01

    A selective shielding device to be used in combination with a scintillation camera is described. The shielding device is a substantially oval-shaped configuration removably secured to the scintillation camera. As a result of this combination scanning of preselected areas of a patient can be rapidly and accurately performed without the requirement of mounting any type of shielding paraphernalia on the patient. 1 claim, 2 drawing figures

  7. Tax Shield, Insolvenz und Zinsschranke

    OpenAIRE

    Arnold, Sven; Lahmann, Alexander; Schwetzler, Bernhard

    2010-01-01

    Dieser Beitrag analysiert den Wertbeitrag fremdfinanzierungsbedingter Steuervorteile (Tax Shield) unter realistischen Bedingungen (keine Negativsteuer; mögliche Insolvenz) für unterschiedliche Finanzierungspolitiken. Zusätzlich wird der Effekt der sogenannten Zinsschranke auf den Wert des Tax Shield ermittelt. Die Bewertung des Tax Shield mit und ohne Zinsschranke findet im einperiodigen Fall auf der Basis von Optionspreismodellen und im mehrperiodigen Fall auf der Basis von Monte Carlo Simul...

  8. Assessing patients’ experience of integrated care: a survey of patient views in the North West London Integrated Care Pilot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos Mastellos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Despite the importance of continuity of care and patient engagement, few studies have captured patients’ views on integrated care. This study assesses patient experience in the Integrated Care Pilot in North West London with the aim to help clinicians and policy makers understand patients’ acceptability of integrated care and design future initiatives. Methods: A survey was developed, validated and distributed to 2029 randomly selected practice patients identified as having a care plan. Results: A total of 405 questionnaires were included for analysis. Respondents identified a number of benefits associated with the pilot, including increased patient involvement in decision-making, improved patient-provider relationship, better organisation and access to care, and enhanced inter-professional communication. However, only 22.4% were aware of having a care plan, and of these only 37.9% had a copy of the care plan. Knowledge of care plans was significantly associated with a more positive experience. Conclusions: This study reinforces the view that integrated care can improve quality of care and patient experience. However, care planning was a complex and technically challenging process that occurred more slowly than planned with wide variation in quality and time of recruitment to the pilot, making it difficult to assess the sustainability of benefits.

  9. Flux trapping and shielding in irreversible superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frankel, D.J.

    1978-05-01

    Flux trappings and shielding experiments were carried out on Pb, Nb, Pb-Bi, Nb-Sn, and Nb-Ti samples of various shapes. Movable Hall probes were used to measure fields near or inside the samples as a function of position and of applied field. The trapping of transverse multipole magnetic fields in tubular samples was accomplished by cooling the samples in an applied field and then smoothly reducing the applied field to zero. Transverse quadrupole and sextupole fields with gradients of over 2000 G/cm were trapped with typical fidelity to the original impressed field of a few percent. Transverse dipole fields of up to 17 kG were also trapped with similar fidelity. Shielding experiments were carried out by cooling the samples in zero field and then gradually applying an external field. Flux trapping and shielding abilities were found to be limited by two factors, the pinning strength of the material, and the susceptibility of a sample to flux jumping. The trapping and shielding behavior of flat disk samples in axial fields and thin-walled tubular samples in transverse fields was modeled. The models, which were based on the concept of the critical state, allowed a connection to be made between the pinning strength and critical current level, and the flux trapping and shielding abilities. Adiabatic and dynamic stability theories are discussed and applied to the materials tested. Good qualitative, but limited quantitative agreement was obtained between the predictions of the theoretical stability criteria and the observed flux jumping behavior

  10. Shield calculation of project for instrument calibration integrated laboratory of IPEN-Sao Paulo, Brazil; Calculo das blindagens do projeto de um laboratorio integrado de calibracao de instrumentos no IPEN - Sao Paulo, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros, Gustavo A.S.J.; Caldas, Linda V.E., E-mail: gustavaobarros@gmail.co, E-mail: lcaldas@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This work performed the shield calculation of the future rooms walls of the five X-ray equipment of the Instrument Calibration Laboratory of the IPEN, Sao Paulo, Brazil, which will be constructed in project of laboratory enlargement. The obtained results by application of a calculation methodology from an international regulation have shown that the largest thickness of shielding (25.7 cm of concrete or 7.1 mm of lead) will be of the wall which will receive the primary beam of the equipment with a 320 kV voltage. The cost/benefit analysis indicated the concrete as the best material option for the shielding

  11. Planning for Integrated Transport in Indonesia: Some Lessons from the UK’s Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yos Sunitiyoso

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic congestion has been a major problem in many cities in Indonesia, thus requiring abetter transport policy. Many developed countries, including the United Kingdom, has beenimplementing the integrated transport policy to replace traditional transport policy that focuson only building roads to anticipate traffic demand. This paper provides a highlight on theimplementation of integrated transport policy in the United Kingdom. Some key issues thatcan be learnt by the Indonesian government from their experience are discussed. This includesthe integration within and between all types of transport, integration with land use planning,integration with environment policy and integration with policies for education, health andwealth creations. In the implementation, the policy requires continuity and stability inorganization and politics, coordination in local transport plans, more devolution on powerand revenue funding from the government in addition to capital funding.Key words: traffic congestion, integrated transport policy

  12. Comprehensive analysis of shielding effectiveness for HDPE, BPE and concrete as candidate materials for neutron shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhang, Prosenjit; Verma, Rishi; Shyam, Anurag

    2015-01-01

    In the compact accelerator based DD neutron generator, the deuterium ions generated by the ion source are accelerated after the extraction and bombarded to a deuterated titanium target. The emitted neutrons have typical energy of ∼2.45MeV. Utilization of these compact accelerator based neutron generators of yield up to 10 9 neutron/second (DD) is under active consideration in many research laboratories for conducting active neutron interrogation experiments. Requirement of an adequately shielded laboratory is mandatory for the effective and safe utilization of these generators for intended applications. In this reference, we report the comprehensive analysis of shielding effectiveness for High Density Polyethylene (HDPE), Borated Polyethylene (BPE) and Concrete as candidate materials for neutron shielding. In shielding calculations, neutron induced scattering and absorption gamma dose has also been considered along with neutron dose. Contemporarily any material with higher hydrogenous concentration is best suited for neutron shielding. Choice of shielding material is also dominated by practical issues like economic viability and availability of space. Our computational analysis results reveal that utilization of BPE sheets results in minimum wall thickness requirement for attaining similar range of attenuation in neutron and gamma dose. The added advantage of using borated polyethylene is that it reduces the effect of both neutron and gamma dose by absorbing neutron and producing lithium and alpha particle. It has also been realized that for deciding upon optimum thickness determination of any shielding material, three important factors to be necessarily considered are: use factor, occupancy factor and work load factor. (author)

  13. Data Discovery, Exploration, Integration and Delivery - a practical experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Peter; Barnes, Tim; Breen, Paul

    2010-05-01

    To fully address the questions and issues arising within Earth Systems Science; the discovery, exploration, integration, delivery and sharing of data, metadata and services across potentially many disciplines and areas of expertise is fundamental. British Antarctic Survey (BAS) collects, manages and curates data across many fields of the geophysical and biological sciences (including upper atmospheric physics, atmospheric chemistry, meteorology, glaciology, oceanography, Polar ecology and biology). BAS, through its Polar Data Centre has an interest to construct and deliver a user-friendly, informative, and administratively low overhead interface onto these data holdings. Designing effective interfaces and frameworks onto the heterogeneous datasets described above is non-trivial. We will discuss some of our approaches and implementations; particularly those addressing the following issues: How to aid and guide the user to accurate discovery of data? Many portals do not inform users clearly enough about the datasets they actually hold. As a result the search interface by which a user is meant to discover information is often inadequate and assumes prior knowledge (for example, that the dataset you are looking for actually exists; that a particular event, campaign, research cruise took place; and that you have a specialist knowledge of the terminology in a particular field), assumptions that cannot be made in multi-disciplinary topic areas. How easily is provenance, quality, and metadata information displayed and accessed? Once informed through the portal that data is available it is often extremely difficult to assess its provenance and quality information and broader documentation (including field reports, notebooks and software repositories). We shall demonstrate some simple methodologies. Can the user access summary data or visualizations of the dataset? It may be that the user is interested in some event, feature or threshold within the dataset; mechanisms need

  14. Integrated modeling of cryogenic layered highfoot experiments at the NIF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kritcher, A. L.; Hinkel, D. E.; Callahan, D. A.; Hurricane, O. A.; Clark, D.; Casey, D. T.; Dewald, E. L.; Dittrich, T. R.; Döppner, T.; Barrios Garcia, M. A.; Haan, S.; Berzak Hopkins, L. F.; Jones, O.; Landen, O.; Ma, T.; Meezan, N.; Milovich, J. L.; Pak, A. E.; Park, H.-S.; Patel, P. K. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94551-0808 (United States); and others

    2016-05-15

    Integrated radiation hydrodynamic modeling in two dimensions, including the hohlraum and capsule, of layered cryogenic HighFoot Deuterium-Tritium (DT) implosions on the NIF successfully predicts important data trends. The model consists of a semi-empirical fit to low mode asymmetries and radiation drive multipliers to match shock trajectories, one dimensional inflight radiography, and time of peak neutron production. Application of the model across the HighFoot shot series, over a range of powers, laser energies, laser wavelengths, and target thicknesses predicts the neutron yield to within a factor of two for most shots. The Deuterium-Deuterium ion temperatures and the DT down scattered ratios, ratio of (10–12)/(13–15) MeV neutrons, roughly agree with data at peak fuel velocities <340 km/s and deviate at higher peak velocities, potentially due to flows and neutron scattering differences stemming from 3D or capsule support tent effects. These calculations show a significant amount alpha heating, 1–2.5× for shots where the experimental yield is within a factor of two, which has been achieved by increasing the fuel kinetic energy. This level of alpha heating is consistent with a dynamic hot spot model that is matched to experimental data and as determined from scaling of the yield with peak fuel velocity. These calculations also show that low mode asymmetries become more important as the fuel velocity is increased, and that improving these low mode asymmetries can result in an increase in the yield by a factor of several.

  15. SHIELD verification and validation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boman, C.

    1992-02-01

    This document outlines the verification and validation effort for the SHIELD, SHLDED, GEDIT, GENPRT, FIPROD, FPCALC, and PROCES modules of the SHIELD system code. Along with its predecessors, SHIELD has been in use at the Savannah River Site (SRS) for more than ten years. During this time the code has been extensively tested and a variety of validation documents have been issued. The primary function of this report is to specify the features and capabilities for which SHIELD is to be considered validated, and to reference the documents that establish the validation

  16. Multifunctional Hot Structure Heat Shield

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project is performing preliminary development of a Multifunctional Hot Structure (HOST) heat shield for planetary entry. Results of this development will...

  17. Radiation shield for nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weissenfluh, J.A.

    1978-01-01

    A shield for use with nuclear reactor systems to attenuate radiation resulting from reactor operation is described. The shield comprises a container preferably of a thin, flexible or elastic material, which may be in the form of a bag, a mattress, a toroidal segment or toroid or the like filled with radiation attenuating liuid. Means are provided in the container for filling and draining the container in place. Due to its flexibility, the shield readily conforms to irregularities in surfaces with which it may be in contact in a shielding position

  18. Nuclear data needs for fast breeder reactor shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oblow, E.M.; Perey, F.G.

    1978-11-01

    A review of neutron and gamma-ray cross section data needs for fast reactor shielding is presented in light of the recent advances made in assessing these needs through sensitivity studies. Total and partial cross sections and energy and angular distribution data for neutrons are surveyed as well as gamma-ray production cross sections. The strengths and deficiencies of currently available benchmark-quality integral experiments are also discussed with respect to their use in creating adjusted cross section libraries for design work. The availability of first round covariance data in ENDF/B-IV and plans for ENDF/B-V are also reviewed. This latter information makes it possible to quantitatively assess the quality of current cross section data libraries and also puts adjustment and data assessment procedures on a firmer basis

  19. An integrative, experience-based theory of attentional control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder, Matthew H; Mozer, Michael C; Wickens, Christopher D

    2011-02-09

    Although diverse, theories of visual attention generally share the notion that attention is controlled by some combination of three distinct strategies: (1) exogenous cuing from locally contrasting primitive visual features, such as abrupt onsets or color singletons (e.g., L. Itti, C. Koch, & E. Neiber, 1998), (2) endogenous gain modulation of exogenous activations, used to guide attention to task-relevant features (e.g., V. Navalpakkam & L. Itti, 2007; J. Wolfe, 1994, 2007), and (3) endogenous prediction of likely locations of interest, based on task and scene gist (e.g., A. Torralba, A. Oliva, M. Castelhano, & J. Henderson, 2006). However, little work has been done to synthesize these disparate theories. In this work, we propose a unifying conceptualization in which attention is controlled along two dimensions: the degree of task focus and the contextual scale of operation. Previously proposed strategies-and their combinations-can be viewed as instances of this one mechanism. Thus, this theory serves not as a replacement for existing models but as a means of bringing them into a coherent framework. We present an implementation of this theory and demonstrate its applicability to a wide range of attentional phenomena. The model accounts for key results in visual search with synthetic images and makes reasonable predictions for human eye movements in search tasks involving real-world images. In addition, the theory offers an unusual perspective on attention that places a fundamental emphasis on the role of experience and task-related knowledge.

  20. New Toroid shielding design

    CERN Multimedia

    Hedberg V

    On the 15th of June 2001 the EB approved a new conceptual design for the toroid shield. In the old design, shown in the left part of the figure above, the moderator part of the shielding (JTV) was situated both in the warm and cold areas of the forward toroid. It consisted both of rings of polyethylene and hundreds of blocks of polyethylene (or an epoxy resin) inside the toroid vacuum vessel. In the new design, shown to the right in the figure above, only the rings remain inside the toroid. To compensate for the loss of moderator in the toroid, the copper plug (JTT) has been reduced in radius so that a layer of borated polyethylene can be placed around it (see figure below). The new design gives significant cost-savings and is easier to produce in the tight time schedule of the forward toroid. Since the amount of copper is reduced the weight that has to be carried by the toroid is also reduced. Outgassing into the toroid vacuum was a potential problem in the old design and this is now avoided. The main ...

  1. SHIELDS Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordanova, Vania Koleva [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-10-03

    Predicting variations in the near-Earth space environment that can lead to spacecraft damage and failure, i.e. “space weather”, remains a big space physics challenge. A new capability was developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to understand, model, and predict Space Hazards Induced near Earth by Large Dynamic Storms, the SHIELDS framework. This framework simulates the dynamics of the Surface Charging Environment (SCE), the hot (keV) electrons representing the source and seed populations for the radiation belts, on both macro- and micro-scale. In addition to using physics-based models (like RAM-SCB, BATS-R-US, and iPIC3D), new data assimilation techniques employing data from LANL instruments on the Van Allen Probes and geosynchronous satellites were developed. An order of magnitude improvement in the accuracy in the simulation of the spacecraft surface charging environment was thus obtained. SHIELDS also includes a post-processing tool designed to calculate the surface charging for specific spacecraft geometry using the Curvilinear Particle-In-Cell (CPIC) code and to evaluate anomalies' relation to SCE dynamics. Such diagnostics is critically important when performing forensic analyses of space-system failures.

  2. Radiation shielding analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, S.H.; Ha, C.W.; Kwon, S.K.; Lee, J.K.; Choi, H.S.

    1982-01-01

    The theoretical bases of radiation streaming analysis in power reactors, such as ducts or reactor cavity, have been investigated. Discrete ordinates-Monte Carlo or Monte Carlo-Monte Carlo coupling techniques are suggested for the streaming analysis of ducts or reactor cavity. Single albedo scattering approximation code (SINALB) has been developed for simple and quick estimation of gamma-ray ceiling scattering, where the ceiling is assumed to be semi-infinite medium. This code has been employed to calculate the gamma-ray ceiling scattering effects in the laboratory containing a Co-60 source. The SINALB is applicable to gamma-ray scattering, only where the ceiling is thicker than Σsup(-1) and the height is at least twice higher than the shield wall. This code can be used for the purpose of preliminary radiation shield design. The MORSE code has been improved to analyze the gamma-ray scattering problem with on approximation method in respect to the random walk and estimation processes. This improved MORSE code has been employed to the gamma-ray ceiling scattering problem. The results of the improved MORSE calculation are in good agreement with the SINALB and standard MORSE. (Author)

  3. Integrated Quantum Optics: Experiments towards integrated quantum-light sources and quantum-enhanced sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoff, Ulrich Busk

    The work presented in this thesis is focused on experimental application and generation of continuous variable quantum correlated states of light in integrated dielectric structures. Squeezed states are among the most exploited continuous variable optical states for free-space quantum-enhanced se...... is presented and an optimized device design is proposed. The devices have been fabricated and tested optically and preliminary interrogations of the output quantum noise have been performed....

  4. A Preliminary Shielding Study on the Integrated Operation Verification System in the Head-End Hot-Cell of the Pyro-processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jinhwam; Kim, Yewon; Park, Se-Hwan; Ahn, Seong-Kyu; Cho, Gyuseong [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Nuclear power accounts for more than 30 percent of power production in Korea. Its significance has annually been increased. Disposal spent fuel containing uranium, transuranic elements, and fission products is unavoidable byproduct of nuclear power production. it is recognized that finding appropriate sites for interim storage of disposal spent fuel is not easy because isolated sites should be required. Pyro-processing technology, Pyro-processing should be operated under high radiation environment in hot-cell structures. Because of this reason, all workers should be unauthorized to access inside the hot-cell areas under any circumstances except for acceptable dose verification and a normal operation should be remotely manipulated. For the reliable normal operation of pyroprocessing, it is noted that an evaluation of the space dose distribution in the hot-cell environments is necessary in advance in order to determine which technologies or instruments can be utilized on or near the process as the Integrated Operation Verification System (IOVS) is measured. Not like the electroreduction and electro-refining hot-cells, the head-end hot-cell equips Camera Radiation Detector (CRD) in which plutonium is securely measured and monitored for the safeguard of the pyro-processing. Results have been obtained using F2 surface tally in order to observe the magnitude of the gamma-ray and neutron flux which pass through the surface of the process cell. Furthermore, T-mesh tally has also been used to obtain the space dose distribution in the headend hot-cell. The hot-cell was divided into 7,668 cells in which each dimension was 1 x 1 x 1m for the T-mesh tally. To determine the position of the CRD and the surveillance camera, divergent approaches were required. Because the purpose of the CRD which contains a gamma-ray detector and a neutron detector is to identify the material composition as the process proceeds, the position in which detectable flux is exposed is required, whereas

  5. Report of educational experience: integral development of the child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Freitas Marchiori

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary The study was conducted at the Centre Municipal Education Child (CMEI "Sinclair Phillips," located in the city of Vitoria / ES, in the quarter Caratoíra. It is worth emphasizing the importance of believing in the potential and the knowledge that each child brings from an early age, because it is a development and be in full in terms of broadening their knowledge from the opportunities given to it, aiming to form a citizen critical. It is for the purchase of motor skills, promote health, cognitive development (intellectual, literacy and transmission of knowledge and culture / art historically constituted. The creativity and autonomy of the child always been the guiding objectives of the proposed work. He had the following objectives: to consolidate the Body of Culture Movement, working with social learning; provide social inclusion, developing the creativity; lead and supporting construction of autonomy; stimulate the initiative and diversity; provoke awareness of social rules; literacy; provide access the arts; articulate knowledge lived / worked in the school; chance rescue experiences of childhood, and transmit the culture children. The classes are not based in a single perspective, but allowed diverse forms of work, taking the child and its development as the focus of work. Another point of support was the adoption of Culture, Body Movement and Critical-emancipatory to develop intervention and that enabled a rich and varied work. The results are perceived in the day-to-day life of children, demonstrated by the actions of acceptance of others, recognition of the rules of coexistence, the materialization of learning: reading, writing and interpretation of some children's stories - this includes its production / living standalone of children, beyond access to culture and arts offered during the school year. Key Words: Children's Education, Physical Education, school practice, teaching.

  6. Electrodynamic Dust Shield for Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Paul J.; Johansen, Michael R.; Olsen, Robert C.; Raines, Matthew G.; Phillips, James R., III; Cox, Rachel E.; Hogue, Michael D.; Pollard, Jacob R. S.; Calle, Carlos I.

    2016-01-01

    Dust mitigation technology has been highlighted by NASA and the International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG) as a Global Exploration Roadmap (GER) critical technology need in order to reduce life cycle cost and risk, and increase the probability of mission success. The Electrostatics and Surface Physics Lab in Swamp Works at the Kennedy Space Center has developed an Electrodynamic Dust Shield (EDS) to remove dust from multiple surfaces, including glass shields and thermal radiators. Further development is underway to improve the operation and reliability of the EDS as well as to perform material and component testing outside of the International Space Station (ISS) on the Materials on International Space Station Experiment (MISSE). This experiment is designed to verify that the EDS can withstand the harsh environment of space and will look to closely replicate the solar environment experienced on the Moon.

  7. The Content and Integrative Component of Capstone Experiences: An Analysis of Political Science Undergraduate Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummer, Jill Abraham

    2014-01-01

    In 1991, the APSA Task Force on Political Science recommended elements of a curricular structure that would best promote student learning. The report stated that there should be a capstone experience at the end of the senior year and that the capstone should require students to integrate their whole learning experience in the major. This article…

  8. The construction of emotional experience requires the integration of implicit and explicit emotional processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirin, Markus; Lane, Richard D

    2012-06-01

    Although we agree that a constructivist approach to emotional experience makes sense, we propose that implicit (visceromotor and somatomotor) emotional processes are dissociable from explicit (attention and reflection) emotional processes, and that the conscious experience of emotion requires an integration of the two. Assessments of implicit emotion and emotional awareness can be helpful in the neuroscientific investigation of emotion.

  9. Shielding tests for a new ship for the transport of spent nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, D.; Kitano, T.; Akiyama, H.; Ueki, K.; Sanui, T.

    1998-01-01

    a new ship for the transport of spent nuclear fuels which uses serpentine concrete as its major shielding material has been constructed. The shielding calculations are based on DOT3.5 code (CCC-276) and the DLC23). Experiments with Cf-252 and Co-60 sources were carried out to confirm the validity of this method of calculating the shielding effectiveness of serpentine concrete. In these experiments, neutron and gamma-ray dose equivalent rates were measured in various arrangements to simulate the shielding structures of the ship, the calculations for each arrangement were performed by this shielding calculation method. For both neutron and gamma-rays, the calculation results agreed with the experiments very well, confirming that this calculation method used in the ship's shielding design is valid. Two kinds of on-board gamma-ray shielding tests were performed to confirm the ship's actual shielding effectiveness. In one kind of test, gamma-ray dose equivalent rates were measured for each shielding wall using Co-60 sources. In the other kind of test, gamma-ray dose equivalent rates in the ship's accommodation area were measured when a strong Co-60 source was placed in a loaded shipping cask's position. In both gamma-ray shielding tests all measured dose equivalent rates were less than the calculated values, confirming that the ship's actual shielding is sufficient to meet safety requirements. (authors)

  10. Nuclear shielding of openings in ITER Tokamak building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dammann, A., E-mail: alexis.dammann@iter.org [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Arumugam, A.P.; Beaudoin, V.; Beltran, D.; Benchikhoune, M.; Berruyer, F.; Cortes, P.; Gandini, F. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Ghirelli, N. [ASSYSTEM E.O.S, ZAC Saint Martin, 23, rue Benjamin Franklin, 84120 Pertuis (France); Gray, A.; Hurzlmeier, H.; Le Page, M. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Lemée, A. [SOGETI High Tech, 180 Rue René Descartes, 13851 Aix en Provence (France); Lentini, G.; Loughlin, M.; Mita, Y.; Patisson, L.; Rigoni, G.; Rathi, D.; Song, I. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► Establishment of a methodology to design shielded opening in external wall of the Tokamak building. ► Analysis of the shielding requirement, case by case, depending on the localization and the context. ► Implementation of an integrated solution for shielded opening. -- Abstract: The external walls of the Tokamak building, made of thick concrete, provide the nuclear shielding for operators working in adjacent buildings and for the environment. There are a series of openings to these external walls, devoted to ducts or pipes for ventilation, waveguides and transmission lines for heating systems and diagnostics, cooling pipes, cable trays or busbars. The shielding properties of the wall shall be preserved by adequate design of the openings in order not to affect the radiological zoning in adjacent areas. For some of them, shielding properties of the wall are not affected because the size of the network is quite small or the source is far from the opening. But for most of the openings, specific features shall be considered. Even if the approach is the same and the ways to shield can be standardized, specific analysis is requested in any case because the constraints are different.

  11. Shielding studies and LMFBR development achievements and future trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvatores, M.

    1990-01-01

    Shielding studies in the last decade have been performed in cooperation with several European countries. Shielding has become a mature discipline that takes advantage of improvements in data and methods and supplies the designer with a better set of tools to tackle much stricter requirements. The paper describes achievements to date and the Super Phenix start-up experiments. The present trends to design (a) reduced axial/radial shields, (b) cores that allow internal storage of irradiated sub-assemblies, and (c) cores with specific axial/radial peripheral core zone architectures to improve sodium void reactivity effects require further studies and experimental validation

  12. The design and analysis of integral assembly experiments for CTR neutronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beynon, T.D.; Curtis, R.H.; Lambert, C.

    1978-01-01

    The use of simple-geometry integral assemblies of lithium metal or lithium compounds for the study of the neutronics of various CTR designs is considered and four recent experiments are analysed. The relatively long mean free path of neutrons in these assemblies produces significantly different design problems from those encountered in similar experiments for fission reactor design. By considering sensitivity profiles for various parameters it is suggested that experiments can be designed to be optimised for data adjustments. (author)

  13. Safety analysis report for the National Low-Temperature Neutron Irradiation Facility (NLTNIF) at the ORNL Bulk Shielding Reactor (BSR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coltman, R.R. Jr.; Kerchner, H.R.; Klabunde, C.E.; Richardson, S.A.

    1986-06-01

    This report provides information concerning: the experiment facility; experiment assembly; instrumentation and controls; materials; radioactivity; shielding; thermodynamics; estimated or measured reactivity effects; procedures; hazards; and quality assurance

  14. Radiation shield for PWR reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esenov, Amra; Pustovgar, Andrey

    2013-01-01

    One of the chief structures of a reactor pit is a 'dry' shield. Setting up a 'dry' shield includes the technologically complex process of thermal processing of serpentinite concrete. Modern advances in the area of materials technology permit avoiding this complex and demanding procedure, and this significantly decreases the duration, labor intensity, and cost of setting it up. (orig.)

  15. Concrete shielding exterior to iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yurista, P.; Cossairt, D.

    1983-08-01

    A rule of thumb at Fermilab has been to use 3 feet of concrete exterior to iron shielding. A recent design of a shield with a severe dimensional constraint has prompted a re-evaluation of this rule of thumb and has led to the following calculations of the concrete thickness required to nullify this problem. 4 references, 4 figures

  16. Gonad shielding in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-06-01

    The use of gonad shielding is an important radiation protection technique, intended to reduce unnecessary x-ray exposure of the gonads of patients from diagnostic x-ray procedures. This pamphlet will provide physicians and radiologic technologists with information which will aid their appropriate use of gonad shielding

  17. The Imperial Shield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Simon Valentin

    2006-01-01

      The title of this Ph.d. dissertation is "The Imperial Shield: Imperial Overstretch, Assured Destruction, and the ban on nationwide ABM-defense with particular emphasis on the Johnson and the Nixon Administration". The dissertation set out to explain the origins of the ABM Treaty's central meaning....... Domestic spending continued to increase by more in real terms than the GDP, and the Democratically controlled Congress also made some very expensive modifications in Nixon tax bill in the fall of 1969, once again plunging the budget into the red.The economic crisis was partly caused by, and partly...... the Administration debated the deployment of new ABM-sites in early 1970, Kissinger could not prevail against these forces, but had to settle for a compromise, which he regarded as less than a definite commitment to nationwide ABM-defense.The political developments were of even greater importance. A strong link has...

  18. Shielded Canister Transporter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eidem, G.G. Jr.; Fages, R.

    1993-01-01

    The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) will produce canisters filled with high-level radioactive waste immobilized in borosilicate glass. This report discusses a Shielded Canister Transporter (SCT) which will provide the means for safe transportation and handling of the canisters from the Vitrification Building to the Canister Storage Building (CSB). The stainless steel canisters are 0.61 meters in diameter, 3.0 meters tall, and weigh approximately 2,135 kilograms, with a maximum exterior surface dose rate of 90,000 R/hr. The canisters are placed into storage tubes to a maximum of three tall (two for overpack canisters) with an impact limiter placed at the tube bottom and between each canister. A floor plug seals the top of the storage tube at the operating floor level of the CSB

  19. Welding shield for coupling heaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menotti, James Louis

    2010-03-09

    Systems for coupling end portions of two elongated heater portions and methods of using such systems to treat a subsurface formation are described herein. A system may include a holding system configured to hold end portions of the two elongated heater portions so that the end portions are abutted together or located near each other; a shield for enclosing the end portions, and one or more inert gas inlets configured to provide at least one inert gas to flush the system with inert gas during welding of the end portions. The shield may be configured to inhibit oxidation during welding that joins the end portions together. The shield may include a hinged door that, when closed, is configured to at least partially isolate the interior of the shield from the atmosphere. The hinged door, when open, is configured to allow access to the interior of the shield.

  20. Penetration shielding applications of CYLSEC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dexheimer, D.T.; Hathaway, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    Evaluation of penetration and discontinuity shielding is necessary to meet 10CFR20 regulations for ensuring personnel exposures are as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). Historically, those shielding evaluations have been done to some degree on all projects. However, many early plants used conservative methods due to lack of an economical computer code, resulting in costly penetration shielding programs. With the increased industry interest in cost effectively reducing personnel exposures to meet ALARA regulations and with the development of the CYLSEC gamma transport computer code at Bechtel, a comprehensive effort was initiated to reduce penetration and discontinuity shielding but still provide a prudent degree of protection for plant personnel from radiation streaming. This effort was more comprehensive than previous programs due to advances in shielding analysis technology and increased interest in controlling project costs while maintaining personnel exposures ALARA. Methodology and resulting cost savings are discussed

  1. Shield calculations, optimization vs. paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornejo D, N.; Hernandez S, A.; Martinez G, A.

    2006-01-01

    Many shieldings have been designed under the criteria of 'Maximum dose rates of project'. It has created the paradigm of those 'low dose rates', for the one which not few specialists would consider unacceptable levels of dose rate superior to the units of μSv.h -1 , independently of the exposure times. At the present time numerous shieldings are being designed considering dose restrictions in real times of exposure. After these new shieldings, the dose rates could be notably superior to those after traditional shieldings, without it implies inadequate designs or constructive errors. In the work significant differences in levels of dose rates and thickness of shieldings estimated by both methods for some typical facilities. It was concluded that the use of real times of exposure is more adequate for the optimization of the Radiological Protection, although this method demands bigger care in its application. (Author)

  2. Modular reactor head shielding system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobson, E. B.

    1985-01-01

    An improved modular reactor head shielding system is provided that includes a frame which is removably assembled on a reactor head such that no structural or mechanical alteration of the head is required. The shielding system also includes hanging assemblies to mount flexible shielding pads on trolleys which can be moved along the frame. The assemblies allow individual pivoting movement of the pads. The pivoting movement along with the movement allowed by the trolleys provides ease of access to any point on the reactor head. The assemblies also facilitate safe and efficient mounting of the pads directly to and from storage containers such that workers have additional shielding throughout virtually the entire installation and removal process. The flexible shielding pads are designed to interleave with one another when assembled around the reactor head for substantially improved containment of radiation leakage

  3. Detector Background Reduction by Passive and Active Shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bikit, I.; Bikit, K.; Forkapic, S.; Mrda, D.; Nikolov, J.; Slivka, J.; Todorovic, N.

    2013-01-01

    The operational problems of the gamma ray spectrometer shielded passively with 12 cm of lead and actively by five 0.5 m × 0.5 m × 0.05 m plastic veto shields are described. The active shielding effect from both environmental gamma ray, cosmic muons and neutrons was investigated. For anticoincidence gating wide range of scintillator pulses, corresponding to the energy range of 150 keV-75 MeV, were used. With the optimal set up the integral background, for the energy region of 50 - 3000 keV, of 0.31 c/s was achieved. The detector mass related background was 0.345 c/(kg s). The 511 keV annihilation line was reduced by the factor of 7 by the anticoincidence gate. It is shown that the plastic shields increase the neutron capture gamma line intensities due to neutron termalization.(author)

  4. Status of the ITER tokamak nuclear shielding and radiological protection design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leichtle, D., E-mail: dieter.leichtle@f4e.europa.eu [Fusion for Energy, Josep Pla 2, Barcelona 08019 (Spain); Chaffard, P.Y.; Izquierdo, J. [Fusion for Energy, Josep Pla 2, Barcelona 08019 (Spain); Juarez, R. [UNED, Juan del Rosal 12, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Pampin, R.; Portone, A. [Fusion for Energy, Josep Pla 2, Barcelona 08019 (Spain)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Comprehensive review of design status of the ITER tokamak regarding nuclear shielding. • Investigation of shield design options and streaming mitigation measures. • Review of state-of-the-art shutdown dose rate analyses for selected port systems. - Abstract: Nuclear shielding of the ITER tokamak encompasses several systems and interfaces in a complex radiation environment. Therefore any shielding design has to involve a series of structures, systems and components in an integrated approach. This is evident for the complex ex-vessel radiation environment with streaming and leakage of plasma neutrons and subsequent activation of ex-vessel structures which give raise to excessive shutdown dose rates in accessible areas of the cryostat. The paper reviews recent nuclear analyses related to the performance of primary shields and highlights challenges toward an integrated nuclear shielding design. The general need of propagation of shielding requirements is highlighted in the context of radiation cross talk due to penetrations. Radiation streaming through gaps and penetrations is a key problem in any efficient shield design. The impact on the evolving radiation environment due to several design options along streaming paths such as port gaps, as well as their modeling for nuclear analysis, is presented. Implications regarding design integration and compliance with integrated shielding requirements and ALARA dose are finally given.

  5. Integrating the philosophy and psychology of aesthetic experience: development of the aesthetic experience scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamatopoulou, Despina

    2004-10-01

    This study assessed the dynamic relationship between person and object in aesthetic experience. Patterns of the structure of aesthetic experience were derived from a conceptual model based on philosophical and psychological ideas. These patterns were further informed by interviewing individuals with extensive involvement in aesthetic activities and 25 secondary students. Accordingly, patterns were tested by developing a large pool of items attempting to identify measurable structural components of aesthetic experience. Refined first in a pilot study, the 36-item questionnaire was administered to 652 Greek students, aged from 13 to 15 years. Correlation matrices and exploratory factor analyses on principal components were used to examine internal structural relationships. The obliquely rotated five-factor solution of the refined instrument accounted for the 44.1% of the total variance and was combatible with the conceptual model of aesthetic experience, indicating the plausibility of both. The internal consistency of the items was adequate and external correlational analysis offered preliminary support for subsequent development of a self-report measure that serves to operationalize the major constructs of aesthetic experience in the general adolescent population. The results also raise theoretical issues for those interested in empirical aesthetics, suggesting that in experiential functioning, expressive perception and affect may play a more constructive role in cognitive processes than is generally acknowledged.

  6. SP-100 GES/NAT radiation shielding systems design and development testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disney, R.K.; Kulikowski, H.D.; McGinnis, C.A.; Reese, J.C.; Thomas, K.; Wiltshire, F.

    1991-01-01

    Advanced Energy Systems (AES) of Westinghouse Electric Corporation is under subcontract to the General Electric Company to supply nuclear radiation shielding components for the SP-100 Ground Engineering System (GES) Nuclear Assembly Test to be conducted at Westinghouse Hanford Company at Richland, Washington. The radiation shielding components are integral to the Nuclear Assembly Test (NAT) assembly and include prototypic and non-prototypic radiation shielding components which provide prototypic test conditions for the SP-100 reactor subsystem and reactor control subsystem components during the GES/NAT operations. W-AES is designing three radiation shield components for the NAT assembly; a prototypic Generic Flight System (GFS) shield, the Lower Internal Facility Shield (LIFS), and the Upper Internal Facility Shield (UIFS). This paper describes the design approach and development testing to support the design, fabrication, and assembly of these three shield components for use within the vacuum vessel of the GES/NAT. The GES/NAT shields must be designed to operate in a high vacuum which simulates space operations. The GFS shield and LIFS must provide prototypic radiation/thermal environments and mechanical interfaces for reactor system components. The NAT shields, in combination with the test facility shielding, must provide adequate radiation attenuation for overall test operations. Special design considerations account for the ground test facility effects on the prototypic GFS shield. Validation of the GFS shield design and performance will be based on detailed Monte Carlo analyses and developmental testing of design features. Full scale prototype testing of the shield subsystems is not planned

  7. Monte Carlo transport model comparison with 1A GeV accelerated iron experiment: heavy-ion shielding evaluation of NASA space flight-crew foodstuff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, D. L. Jr; Townsend, L. W.; Miller, J.; Zeitlin, C.; Heilbronn, L.

    2002-01-01

    Deep-space manned flight as a reality depends on a viable solution to the radiation problem. Both acute and chronic radiation health threats are known to exist, with solar particle events as an example of the former and galactic cosmic rays (GCR) of the latter. In this experiment Iron ions of 1A GeV are used to simulate GCR and to determine the secondary radiation field created as the GCR-like particles interact with a thick target. A NASA prepared food pantry locker was subjected to the iron beam and the secondary fluence recorded. A modified version of the Monte Carlo heavy ion transport code developed by Zeitlin at LBNL is compared with experimental fluence. The foodstuff is modeled as mixed nuts as defined by the 71st edition of the Chemical Rubber Company (CRC) Handbook of Physics and Chemistry. The results indicate a good agreement between the experimental data and the model. The agreement between model and experiment is determined using a linear fit to ordered pairs of data. The intercept is forced to zero. The slope fit is 0.825 and the R2 value is 0.429 over the resolved fluence region. The removal of an outlier, Z=14, gives values of 0.888 and 0.705 for slope and R2 respectively. c2002 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Transparent fast neutron shielding material and shielding method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nashimoto, Tetsuji; Katase, Haruhisa.

    1993-01-01

    Polyisobutylene having a viscosity average molecular weight of 20,000 to 80,000 and a hydrogen atom density of greater than 7.0 x 10 22 /cm 3 is used as a fast neutron shielding material. The shielding material is excellent in the shielding performance against fast neutrons, and there is no worry of leakage even when holes should be formed to a vessel. Further, it is excellent in fabricability, relatively safe even upon occurrence of fire and, in addition, it is transparent to enable to observe contents easily. (T.M.)

  9. Integrating experiences from operations into engineering design: modelling knowledge transfer in the offshore oil industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Souza da Conceição, Carolina; Broberg, Ole; Paravizo, Esdras

    2017-01-01

    of knowledge registered in the systems without standards to categorise and store this knowledge, to being difficult to access and retrieve the knowledge in the systems. Discussion: Transferring knowledge and experiences from users brings human factors into play and modelling the knowledge transfer process...... and workwise distance between operations and engineering design teams, integrating human factors and transferring knowledge are key aspects when designing for better performance systems. Research Objective: Based on an in-depth empirical investigation in an offshore oil company, this study aims to provide......Summative Statement: Integrating human factors and users’ experiences in design projects is a well-known challenge. This study focus on the specific challenges for transferring these experiences and how using a knowledge transfer model can help this integration on the design of high-risk productive...

  10. The Kovdor-2015 experiment: study of the parameters of a conductive layer of dilatancy-diffusion nature (DD Layer) in the Archaean crystalline basement of the Baltic Shield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhamaletdinov, A. A.; Velikhov, E. P.; Shevtsov, A. N.; Kolobov, V. V.; Kolesnikov, V. E.; Skorokhodov, A. A.; Korotkova, T. G.; Ivonin, V. V.; Ryazantsev, P. A.; Birulya, M. A.

    2017-06-01

    This paper addresses the Kovdor-2015 Experiment involving frequency electromagnetic soundings of the Archaean basement of the Earth's crust in the southwestern part of the Kola Peninsula. Eleven soundings were carried out using two transmitting arrangements, 85 km apart. Each arrangement consisted of two mutually orthogonal grounded electric dipoles of 1.5 km long. The distances between the source and the receiver were 25 and 50 km. Interpretation of the results took into account the influence of displacement currents and static distortions. It is found that there is an intermediate conductive layer of the dilatancy-diffusion nature (DD layer) with a longitudinal conductivity of about one siemens at depths ranging from 1.5-2 to 5-7 km. The results are interpreted in the terms of geodynamics.

  11. Validation of the BUGJEFF311.BOLIB, BUGENDF70.BOLIB and BUGLE-B7 broad-group libraries on the PCA-Replica (H2O/Fe neutron shielding benchmark experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pescarini Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The PCA-Replica 12/13 (H2O/Fe neutron shielding benchmark experiment was analysed using the TORT-3.2 3D SN code. PCA-Replica reproduces a PWR ex-core radial geometry with alternate layers of water and steel including a pressure vessel simulator. Three broad-group coupled neutron/photon working cross section libraries in FIDO-ANISN format with the same energy group structure (47 n + 20 γ and based on different nuclear data were alternatively used: the ENEA BUGJEFF311.BOLIB (JEFF-3.1.1 and UGENDF70.BOLIB (ENDF/B-VII.0 libraries and the ORNL BUGLE-B7 (ENDF/B-VII.0 library. Dosimeter cross sections derived from the IAEA IRDF-2002 dosimetry file were employed. The calculated reaction rates for the Rh-103(n,n′Rh-103m, In-115(n,n′In-115m and S-32(n,pP-32 threshold activation dosimeters and the calculated neutron spectra are compared with the corresponding experimental results.

  12. Validation of the BUGJEFF311.BOLIB, BUGENDF70.BOLIB and BUGLE-B7 broad-group libraries on the PCA-Replica (H2O/Fe) neutron shielding benchmark experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pescarini, Massimo; Orsi, Roberto; Frisoni, Manuela

    2016-03-01

    The PCA-Replica 12/13 (H2O/Fe) neutron shielding benchmark experiment was analysed using the TORT-3.2 3D SN code. PCA-Replica reproduces a PWR ex-core radial geometry with alternate layers of water and steel including a pressure vessel simulator. Three broad-group coupled neutron/photon working cross section libraries in FIDO-ANISN format with the same energy group structure (47 n + 20 γ) and based on different nuclear data were alternatively used: the ENEA BUGJEFF311.BOLIB (JEFF-3.1.1) and UGENDF70.BOLIB (ENDF/B-VII.0) libraries and the ORNL BUGLE-B7 (ENDF/B-VII.0) library. Dosimeter cross sections derived from the IAEA IRDF-2002 dosimetry file were employed. The calculated reaction rates for the Rh-103(n,n')Rh-103m, In-115(n,n')In-115m and S-32(n,p)P-32 threshold activation dosimeters and the calculated neutron spectra are compared with the corresponding experimental results.

  13. Implementing an integrated engineering data base system: A developer's experience and the application to IPAD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, E. A.

    1980-01-01

    The software developed by the IPAD project, a new and very powerful tool for the implementation of integrated Computer Aided Design (CAD) systems in the aerospace engineering community, is discussed. The IPAD software is a tool and, as such, can be well applied or misapplied in any particular environment. The many benefits of an integrated CAD system are well documented, but there are few such systems in existence, especially in the mechanical engineering disciplines, and therefore little available experience to guide the implementor.

  14. Assessing healthcare professionals' experiences of integrated care: do surveys tell the full story?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Matthew D; Campbell, Jared M; Lisy, Karolina; Aromataris, Edoardo C

    2017-09-01

    Integrated care is the combination of different healthcare services with the goal to provide comprehensive, seamless, effective and efficient patient care. Assessing the experiences of healthcare professionals (HCPs) is an important aspect when evaluating integrated care strategies. The aim of this rapid review was to investigate if quantitative surveys used to assess HCPs' experiences with integrated care capture all the aspects highlighted as being important in qualitative research, with a view to informing future survey development. The review considered all types of health professionals in primary care, and hospital and specialist services, with a specific focus on the provision of integrated care aimed at improving the patient journey. PubMed, CINAHL and grey literature sources were searched for relevant surveys/program evaluations and qualitative research studies. Full text articles deemed to be of relevance to the review were appraised for methodological quality using abridged critical appraisal instruments from the Joanna Briggs Institute. Data were extracted from included studies using standardized data extraction templates. Findings from included studies were grouped into domains based on similarity of meaning. Similarities and differences in the domains covered in quantitative surveys and those identified as being important in qualitative research were explored. A total of 37 studies (19 quantitative surveys, 14 qualitative studies and four mixed-method studies) were included in the review. A range of healthcare professions participated in the included studies, the majority being primary care providers. Common domains identified from quantitative surveys and qualitative studies included Communication, Agreement on Clear Roles and Responsibilities, Facilities, Information Systems, and Coordination of Care and Access. Qualitative research highlighted domains identified by HCPs as being relevant to their experiences with integrated care that have not

  15. Operating manual for the Tower Shielding Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-12-01

    This manual provides information necessary to operate and perform maintenance on the reactor systems and all equipment or systems which can affect their operation or the safety of personnel at the Tower Shielding Facility. The first four chapters consist of introductory and descriptive material of benefit to personnel in training, the qualifications required for training, the responsibilities of the personnel in the organization, and the procedures for reviewing proposed experiments. Chapter 8, Emergency Procedures, is also a necessary part of the indoctrination of personnel. The procedures for operation of the Tower Shielding Reactor (TSR-II), its water cooling system, and the main tower hoists are outlined in Chapters 5, 6, and 7. The Technical Specification surveillance requirements for the TSR-II are summarized in Chapter 9. The maintenance and calibration schedule is spelled out in Chapter 10. The procedures for assembly and disassembly of the TSR-II are outlined in Chapter 11

  16. Radiation shielding for fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santoro, R.T.

    2000-01-01

    Radiation shielding requirements for fusion reactors present different problems than those for fission reactors and accelerators. Fusion devices, particularly tokamak reactors, are complicated by geometry constraints that complicate disposition of fully effective shielding. This paper reviews some of these shielding issues and suggested solutions for optimizing the machine and biological shielding. Radiation transport calculations are essential for predicting and confirming the nuclear performance of the reactor and, as such, must be an essential part of the reactor design process. Development and optimization of reactor components from the first wall and primary shielding to the penetrations and containment shielding must be carried out in a sensible progression. Initial results from one-dimensional transport calculations are used for scoping studies and are followed by detailed two- and three-dimensional analyses to effectively characterize the overall radiation environment. These detail model calculations are essential for accounting for the radiation leakage through ports and other penetrations in the bulk shield. Careful analysis of component activation and radiation damage is cardinal for defining remote handling requirements, in-situ replacement of components, and personnel access at specific locations inside the reactor containment vessel. (author)

  17. Experimental and simulation optimization analysis of the Whipple shields against shaped charge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, G.; Hameed, A.; Horsfall, I.; Barton, P.; Malik, A. Q.

    2012-06-01

    Occasionally, the Whipple shields are used for the protection of a space station and a satellite against the meteoroids and orbital debris. In the Whipple shields each layer of the shield depletes part of high speed projectile energy either by breaking the projectile or absorbing its energy. Similarly, this investigation uses the Whipple shields against the shaped charge to protect the light armour such as infantry fighting vehicles with a little modification in their design. The unsteady multiple interactions of shaped charge jet with the Whipple shield package against the steady homogeneous target is scrutinized to optimize the shield thickness. Simulations indicate that the shield thickness of 0.75 mm offers an optimum configuration against the shaped charge. Experiments also support this evidence.

  18. SHIELD-HIT12A - a Monte Carlo particle transport program for ion therapy research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bassler, Niels; Hansen, David Christoffer; Lühr, Armin

    2014-01-01

    . We experienced that new users quickly learn to use SHIELD-HIT12A and setup new geometries. Contrary to previous versions of SHIELD-HIT, the 12A distribution comes along with easy-to-use example files and an English manual. A new implementation of Vavilov straggling resulted in a massive reduction......Abstract. Purpose: The Monte Carlo (MC) code SHIELD-HIT simulates the transport of ions through matter. Since SHIELD-HIT08 we added numerous features that improves speed, usability and underlying physics and thereby the user experience. The “-A” fork of SHIELD-HIT also aims to attach SHIELD....... It supports native formats compatible with the heavy ion treatment planning system TRiP. Stopping power files follow ICRU standard and are generated using the libdEdx library, which allows the user to choose from a multitude of stopping power tables. Results: SHIELD-HIT12A runs on Linux and Windows platforms...

  19. Shielding experiments by the JASMIN collaboration at Fermilab (II) - Radioactivity measurement induced by secondary particles from the anti-proton production target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yashima, Hiroshi; /Kyoto U., KURRI; Matsuda, Norihiro; Kasugai, Yoshimi; /JAEA, Ibaraki; Matsumura, Hiroshi; Iwase, Hiroshi; /KEK, Tsukuba; Kinoshita, Norikazu; /KEK, Tsukuba /Tsukuba U.; Boehnlein, David; Lauten, Gary; Leveling, Anthony; Mokhov, Nikolai; Vaziri, Kamran; /Fermilab /Shimizu, Tokyo /JAEA, Ibaraki

    2011-01-01

    The JASMIN Collaboration has performed an experiment to conduct measurements of nuclear reaction rates around the anti-proton production (Pbar) target at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL). At the Pbar target station, the target, consisting an Inconel 600 cylinder, was irradiated by a 120 GeV/c proton beam from the FNAL Main Injector. The beam intensity was 3.6 x 10{sub 12} protons per second. Samples of Al, Nb, Cu, and Au were placed near the target to investigate the spatial and energy distribution of secondary particles emitted from it. After irradiation, the induced activities of the samples were measured by studying their gamma ray spectra using HPGe detectors. The production rates of 30 nuclides induced in Al, Nb, Cu, Au samples were obtained. These rates increase for samples placed in a forward (small angle) position relative to the target. The angular dependence of these reaction rates becomes larger for increasing threshold energy. These experimental results are compared with Monte Carlo calculations. The calculated results generally agree with the experimental results to within a factor of 2 to 3.

  20. Morphometry of terrestrial shield volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Pablo; Kervyn, Matthieu

    2018-03-01

    Shield volcanoes are described as low-angle edifices built primarily by the accumulation of successive lava flows. This generic view of shield volcano morphology is based on a limited number of monogenetic shields from Iceland and Mexico, and a small set of large oceanic islands (Hawaii, Galápagos). Here, the morphometry of 158 monogenetic and polygenetic shield volcanoes is analyzed quantitatively from 90-meter resolution SRTM DEMs using the MORVOLC algorithm. An additional set of 24 lava-dominated 'shield-like' volcanoes, considered so far as stratovolcanoes, are documented for comparison. Results show that there is a large variation in shield size (volumes from 0.1 to > 1000 km3), profile shape (height/basal width (H/WB) ratios mostly from 0.01 to 0.1), flank slope gradients (average slopes mostly from 1° to 15°), elongation and summit truncation. Although there is no clear-cut morphometric difference between shield volcanoes and stratovolcanoes, an approximate threshold can be drawn at 12° average slope and 0.10 H/WB ratio. Principal component analysis of the obtained database enables to identify four key morphometric descriptors: size, steepness, plan shape and truncation. Hierarchical cluster analysis of these descriptors results in 12 end-member shield types, with intermediate cases defining a continuum of morphologies. The shield types can be linked in terms of growth stages and shape evolution, related to (1) magma composition and rheology, effusion rate and lava/pyroclast ratio, which will condition edifice steepness; (2) spatial distribution of vents, in turn related to the magmatic feeding system and the tectonic framework, which will control edifice plan shape; and (3) caldera formation, which will condition edifice truncation.

  1. A study of gamma shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roogtanakait, N.

    1981-01-01

    Gamma rays have high penetration power and its attenuation depends upon the thickness and the attenuation coefficient of the shield, so it is necessary to use the high density shield to attenuate the gamma rays. Heavy concrete is considered to be used for high radiation laboratory and the testing of the shielding ability and compressibility of various types of heavy concrete composed of baryte, hematite, ilmenite and galena is carried out. The results of this study show that baryte-ilmenite concrete is the most suitable for high radiation laboratory in Thailand

  2. Radiation protection/shield design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disney, R.K.

    1977-01-01

    Radiation protection/shielding design of a nuclear facility requires a coordinated effort of many engineering disciplines to meet the requirements imposed by regulations. In the following discussion, the system approach to Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) radiation protection will be described, and the program developed to implement this approach will be defined. In addition, the principal shielding design problems of LMFBR nuclear reactor systems will be discussed in realtion to LWR nuclear reactor system shielding designs. The methodology used to analyze these problems in the U.S. LMFBR program, the resultant design solutions, and the experimental verification of these designs and/or methods will be discussed. (orig.) [de

  3. Preliminary study for development of low dose radiation shielding material using liquid silicon and metallic compound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Seo Goo; Lee, Sung Soo [Dept. of Medical Science, Graduate School of Soonchunhyang University, Asan (Korea, Republic of); Han, Su Chul [Div. of Medical Radiation Equipment, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Sung Jin [SoonChunHyang University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Sung Wook [Graduate school of SeJong University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-09-15

    This study measured and compared the protective clothing using Pb used for shielding in a diagnostic X-ray energy range, and the shielding rates of X-ray fusion shielding materials using Si and TiO{sub 2}. For the experiment, a pad type shielding with a thickness of 1 mm was prepared by mixing Si-TiO{sub 2}, and the X-ray shielding rate was compared with 0.5 mmPb plate of The shielding rate of shielding of 0.5 mmPb plate 95.92%, 85.26 % based on the case of no shielding under each 60kVp, 100kVp tube voltage condition. When the shielding of Si-TiO{sub 2} pad was applied, the shielding rate equal to or greater than 0.5 mmPb plate was obtained at a thickness of 11 mm or more, and the shielding rate of 100% or more was confirmed at a thickness of 13 nn in 60kVp condition. When the shielding of Si-TiO{sub 2} pad was applied, the shielding rate equal to or greater than 0.5 mmPb plate was obtained at a thickness of 17 mm or more, and a shielding rate of 0.5 mmPb plate was observed at a thickness of 23 mm in 100kVp condition. Through the results of this study, We could confirm the possibility of manufacturing radiation protective materials that does not contain lead hazard using various metallic compound and liquid Si. This study shows that possibility of liquid Si and other metallic compound can harmonize easily. Beside, It is flexible and strong to physical stress than Pb obtained radiation protective clothes. But additional studies are needed to increase the shielding rate and reduce the weight.

  4. Neutron streaming studies along JET shielding penetrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamatelatos, Ion E.; Vasilopoulou, Theodora; Batistoni, Paola; Obryk, Barbara; Popovichev, Sergey; Naish, Jonathan

    2017-09-01

    Neutronic benchmark experiments are carried out at JET aiming to assess the neutronic codes and data used in ITER analysis. Among other activities, experiments are performed in order to validate neutron streaming simulations along long penetrations in the JET shielding configuration. In this work, neutron streaming calculations along the JET personnel entrance maze are presented. Simulations were performed using the MCNP code for Deuterium-Deuterium and Deuterium- Tritium plasma sources. The results of the simulations were compared against experimental data obtained using thermoluminescence detectors and activation foils.

  5. Shielding synchrotron light sources: Advantages of circular shield walls tunnels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, S.L. [Design and Accelerator Operations Consulting, 568 Wintergreen Ct Ridge, NY 11961 (United States); Ghosh, V.J.; Breitfeller, M. [NSLS-II, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)

    2016-08-11

    Third generation high brightness light sources are designed to have low emittance and high current beams, which contribute to higher beam loss rates that will be compensated by Top-Off injection. Shielding for these higher loss rates will be critical to protect the projected higher occupancy factors for the users. Top-Off injection requires a full energy injector, which will demand greater consideration of the potential abnormal beam miss-steering and localized losses that could occur. The high energy electron injection beam produce significantly higher neutron component dose to the experimental floor than lower energy injection and ramped operations. High energy neutrons produced in the forward direction from thin target beam losses are a major component of the dose rate outside the shield walls of the tunnel. The convention has been to provide thicker 90° ratchet walls to reduce this dose to the beam line users. We present an alternate circular shield wall design, which naturally and cost effectively increases the path length for this forward radiation in the shield wall and thereby substantially decreasing the dose rate for these beam losses. This shield wall design will greatly reduce the dose rate to the users working near the front end optical components but will challenge the beam line designers to effectively utilize the longer length of beam line penetration in the shield wall. Additional advantages of the circular shield wall tunnel are that it's simpler to construct, allows greater access to the insertion devices and the upstream in tunnel beam line components, as well as reducing the volume of concrete and therefore the cost of the shield wall.

  6. Survivor shielding. Part C. Improvements in terrain shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egbert, Stephen D.; Kaul, Dean C.; Roberts, James A.; Kerr, George D.

    2005-01-01

    A number of atomic-bomb survivors were affected by shielding provided by terrain features. These terrain features can be a small hill, affecting one or two houses, or a high mountain that shields large neighborhoods. In the survivor dosimetry system, terrain shielding can be described by a transmission factor (TF), which is the ratio between the dose with and without the terrain present. The terrain TF typically ranges between 0.1 and 1.0. After DS86 was implemented at RERF, the terrain shielding categories were examined and found to either have a bias or an excessive uncertainty that could readily be removed. In 1989, an improvement in the terrain model was implemented at RERF in the revised DS86 code, but the documentation was not published. It is now presented in this section. The solution to the terrain shielding in front of a house is described in this section. The problem of terrain shielding of survivors behind Hijiyama mountain at Hiroshima and Konpirasan mountain at Nagasaki has also been recognized, and a solution to this problem has been included in DS02. (author)

  7. Radiation shielding member

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemezawa, Isao; Kimura, Tadahiro; Mizuochi, Akira; Omori, Tetsu

    1998-01-01

    A single body of a radiation shield comprises a bag prepared by welding or bonding a polyurethane sheet which is made flat while interposing metal plates at the upper and the lower portion of the bag. Eyelet fittings are disposed to the upper and the lower portions of the bag passing through the metal plates and the flat portion of the bag. Water supplying/draining ports are disposed to two upper and lower places of the bag at a height where the metal plates are disposed. Reinforcing walls welded or bonded to the inner wall surface of the bag are elongated in vertical direction to divide the inside of the bag to a plurality of cells. The bag is suspended and supported from a frame with S-shaped hooks inserted into the eyelet fittings as connecting means. A plurality of bags are suspended and supported from the frame at a required height by way of the eyelets at the lower portion of the suspended and supported bag and the eyelet fittings at the upper portion of the bag below the intermediate connection means. (I.N.)

  8. Self-shielding factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaul, D.C.

    1982-01-01

    Throughout the last two decades many efforts have been made to estimate the effect of body self-shielding on organ doses from externally incident neutrons and gamma rays. These began with the use of simple geometry phantoms and have culminated in the use of detailed anthropomorphic phantoms. In a recent effort, adjoint Monte Carlo analysis techniques have been used to determine dose and dose equivalent to the active marrow as a function of energy and angle of neutron fluence externally incident on an anthropomorphic phantom. When combined with fluences from actual nuclear devices, these dose-to-fluence factors result in marrow dose values that demonstrate great sensitivity to variations in device type, range, and body orientation. Under a state-of-the-art radiation transport analysis demonstration program for the Japanese cities, sponsored by the Defense Nuclear Agency at the request of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements, the marrow dose study referred to above is being repeated to obtain spectral distributions within the marrow for externally incident neutrons and gamma rays of arbitrary energy and angle. This is intended to allow radiobiologists and epidemiologists to select and to modify numbers of merit for correlation with health effects and to permit a greater understanding of the relationship between human and laboratory subject dosimetry

  9. Shielding plug device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orii, Shoichi; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Makishima, Kenji.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To reduce the size of and extend the life of a revolving bearing and facilitate the laying of driving cables and duct lines, this being accomplished by providing plug raising means of a fast breeder on a stationary plug mounting base so as to prevent the shearing force of sodium from acting upon the revolving bearing. Structure: The shield plug means comprises a stationary plug secured to the open end of the reactor container, a rotary plug rotatable with respect to the stationary plug, an annular base formed on top of the stationary plug so as to cover the rotary plug, a bearing secured to the rotary plug edge lower face and upper and lower locking plates. At the time of the rotation of the rotary plug, the upper locking plate is withdrawn, the stationary plug is raised to release the seal structure, and the lower locking plate is inserted between the bearing and stationary plug. In this way, smooth rotation of the rotary plug can be obtained. (Horiuchi, T.)

  10. Findings from the Harvard Medical School Cambridge Integrated Clerkship, a Year-Long Longitudinal Psychiatry Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Elisa; Hirsh, David; Gaufberg, Elizabeth; Griswold, Todd; Wesley Boyd, J

    2018-06-01

    The Harvard Medical School Cambridge Integrated Clerkship is a longitudinal integrated clerkship that has provided an alternative clinical model for medical education in psychiatry since its inception in 2004. This study was undertaken in an effort to better understand the student experience of the Cambridge Integrated Clerkship and how it may have impacted students' perceptions of and interest in psychiatry, as well as performance. Qualitative surveys were sent via e-mail to the first 11 student cohorts who had completed the Cambridge Integrated Clerkship (from 2004 to 2014) and for whom we had e-mail addresses (N = 100), and the free-text responses were coded thematically. All available standardized scoring data and residency match data for Cambridge Integrated Clerkship graduates were obtained. From 2006 to 2014, 12 out of 73 Cambridge Integrated Clerkship students who entered the match chose a psychiatry residency (16.4%), four times more than students in traditional clerkships at Harvard Medical School (3.8% of 1355 students) or the national average (4.1% of 146,066 US applicants). Thirty of the 100 surveyed Cambridge Integrated Clerkship graduates (30%) responded to the qualitative survey with free-text remarks on a number of themes. Cambridge Integrated Clerkship students compared positively to their classmates in terms of standardized test performance. Their fourfold higher match rate into psychiatry compared to other students raises intriguing questions as to what role a longitudinal clerkship might have played in developing interest in psychiatry as a career.

  11. Nanoscale microwave microscopy using shielded cantilever probes

    KAUST Repository

    Lai, Keji; Kundhikanjana, Worasom; Kelly, Michael A.; Shen, Zhi-Xun

    2011-01-01

    Quantitative dielectric and conductivity mapping in the nanoscale is highly desirable for many research disciplines, but difficult to achieve through conventional transport or established microscopy techniques. Taking advantage of the micro-fabrication technology, we have developed cantilever-based near-field microwave probes with shielded structures. Sensitive microwave electronics and finite-element analysis modeling are also utilized for quantitative electrical imaging. The system is fully compatible with atomic force microscope platforms for convenient operation and easy integration of other modes and functions. The microscope is ideal for interdisciplinary research, with demonstrated examples in nano electronics, physics, material science, and biology.

  12. Nanoscale microwave microscopy using shielded cantilever probes

    KAUST Repository

    Lai, Keji

    2011-04-21

    Quantitative dielectric and conductivity mapping in the nanoscale is highly desirable for many research disciplines, but difficult to achieve through conventional transport or established microscopy techniques. Taking advantage of the micro-fabrication technology, we have developed cantilever-based near-field microwave probes with shielded structures. Sensitive microwave electronics and finite-element analysis modeling are also utilized for quantitative electrical imaging. The system is fully compatible with atomic force microscope platforms for convenient operation and easy integration of other modes and functions. The microscope is ideal for interdisciplinary research, with demonstrated examples in nano electronics, physics, material science, and biology.

  13. Gamma dose from activation of internal shields in IRIS reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agosteo, Stefano; Cammi, Antonio; Garlati, Luisella; Lombardi, Carlo; Padovani, Enrico

    2005-01-01

    The International Reactor Innovative and Secure is a modular pressurised water reactor with an integral design. This means that all the primary system components, such as the steam generators, pumps, pressuriser and control rod drive mechanisms, are located inside the reactor vessel, which requires a large diameter. For the sake of better reliability and safety, it is desirable to achieve the reduction of vessel embrittlement as well as the lowering of the dose beyond the vessel. The former can be easily accomplished by the presence of a wide downcomer, filled with water, which surrounds the core region, while the latter needs the presence of additional internal shields. An optimal shielding configuration is under investigation, for reducing the ex-vessel dose due to activated internals and for limiting the amount of the biological shielding. MCNP 4C calculations were performed to evaluate the neutron and the gamma dose during operation and the 60Co activation of various shields configurations. The gamma dose beyond the vessel from activation of its structural components was estimated in a shutdown condition, with the Monte Carlo code FLUKA 2002 and the MicroShield software. The results of the two codes are in agreement and show that the dose is sufficiently low, even without an additional shield.

  14. Gamma dose from activation of internal shields in IRIS reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agosteo, S.; Cammi, A.; Garlati, L.; Lombardi, C.; Padovani, E.

    2005-01-01

    The International Reactor Innovative and Secure is a modular pressurised water reactor with an integral design. This means that all the primary system components, such as the steam generators, pumps, pressurizer and control rod drive mechanisms, are located inside the reactor vessel, which requires a large diameter. For the sake of better reliability and safety, it is desirable to achieve the reduction of vessel embrittlement as well as the lowering of the dose beyond the vessel. The former can be easily accomplished by the presence of a wide downcomer, filled with water, which surrounds the core region, while the latter needs the presence of additional internal shields. An optimal shielding configuration is under investigation, for reducing the ex-vessel dose due to activated internals and for limiting the amount of the biological shielding. MCNP 4C calculations were performed to evaluate the neutron and the gamma dose during operation and the 60 Co activation of various shields configurations. The gamma dose beyond the vessel from activation of its structural components was estimated in a shutdown condition, with the Monte Carlo code FLUKA 2002 and the MicroShield software. The results of the two codes are in agreement and show that the dose is sufficiently low, even without an additional shield. (authors)

  15. Highly Efficient and Reliable Transparent Electromagnetic Interference Shielding Film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Li-Chuan; Yan, Ding-Xiang; Liu, Xiaofeng; Ma, Rujun; Wu, Hong-Yuan; Li, Zhong-Ming

    2018-04-11

    Electromagnetic protection in optoelectronic instruments such as optical windows and electronic displays is challenging because of the essential requirements of a high optical transmittance and an electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding effectiveness (SE). Herein, we demonstrate the creation of an efficient transparent EMI shielding film that is composed of calcium alginate (CA), silver nanowires (AgNWs), and polyurethane (PU), via a facile and low-cost Mayer-rod coating method. The CA/AgNW/PU film with a high optical transmittance of 92% achieves an EMI SE of 20.7 dB, which meets the requirements for commercial shielding applications. A superior EMI SE of 31.3 dB could be achieved, whereas the transparent film still maintains a transmittance of 81%. The integrated efficient EMI SE and high transmittance are superior to those of most previously reported transparent EMI shielding materials. Moreover, our transparent films exhibit a highly reliable shielding ability in a complex service environment, with 98 and 96% EMI SE retentions even after 30 min of ultrasound treatment and 5000 bending cycles (1.5 mm radius), respectively. The comprehensive performance that is associated with the facile fabrication strategy imparts the CA/AgNW/PU film with great potential as an optimized EMI shielding material in emerging optoelectronic devices, such as flexible solar cells, displays, and touch panels.

  16. Preparation of a basic data base for shielding design. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakao, Makoto; Takemura, Morio

    1999-03-01

    With use of a standard groupwise shielding design library JSSTDL produced from the latest evaluated nuclear data library JENDL-3.2, experimental analyses for the JASPER experiments were performed. In order to verify the new version of JSSTDL, whose cross sections of thermal energy region was updated, the polyethylene transmission experiments of the Special Materials Experiment was analysed again, and also zirconium transmission experiment of the Experiment was newly analysed. JSSTDL was applied to the analysis of neutron multiplicative region of the in-vessel fuel storage mockup configurations in the IVS Experiment. Also it was applied to the analyses of neutron streaming effect through the mockup of sodium window in B 4 C shield in the Flux Monitor Experiment and also the mockup of narrow gaps in thick concrete shield in the Gap streaming Experiment. The results were compared with those obtained by the same analysis method and input data using the JSDJ2 library that had been applied consistently to the JASPER experiment analyses. Although the analysis with the new version of JSSTDL resulted in a little reduction of overestimation in the polyethylene transmission configuration, the results obtained with JSSTDL are, in general, higher than those with JSDJ2 as had been found in analyses in preceding years for the Radial Shield Attenuation Experiment, the Axial Shield Experiment, the Intermediate Heat Exchanger Experiment and so on. Compilation of the input data necessary for future reanalyses of important configurations in JASPER experiments, that were selected at the first stage of this study, were continued and new data were added into the computer disk holding previously accumulated data. (author)

  17. Active Radiation Shield, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — DEC-Shield technology offers the means to generate electric power from cosmic radiation sources and fuse dissimilar systems and functionality into a structural...

  18. Gonad shielding in computerized tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rockstroh, G.

    1984-01-01

    The reduction of gonadal dose by shielding of the gonads was investigated for a Somatom 2 using an anthropomorphic phantom. For small distances from the slice examined the gonadal dose results from intracorporal secondary radiation and is only insignificantly reduced by shielding. For greater distances shielding is relatively more effective, the gonadal dose however is small because of the approximately exponential decay. Shielding of the gonads therefore does not seem adequate for the reduction of gonadal dose. From dose measurements in cylinder phantoms of several diameters it appears that no different results would be obtained for children and young adults. An effective reduction of gonadal dose is only possible with lead capsules for males. (author)

  19. Radiation shielding for neutron guides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ersez, T.; Braoudakis, G.; Osborn, J.C.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Models of the neutron guide shielding for the out of bunker guides on the thermal and cold neutron beam lines of the OPAL Reactor (ANSTO) were constructed using the Monte Carlo code MCNP 4B. The neutrons that were not reflected inside the guides but were absorbed by the supermirror (SM) layers were noted to be a significant source of gammas. Gammas also arise from neutrons absorbed by the B, Si, Na and K contained in the glass. The proposed shielding design has produced compact shielding assemblies. These arrangements are consistent with safety requirements, floor load limits, and cost constraints. To verify the design a prototype was assembled consisting of 120mm thick Pb(96%)Sb(4%) walls resting on a concrete block. There was good agreement between experimental measurements and calculated dose rates for bulk shield regions. (authors)

  20. Shielding calculations. Optimization vs. Paradigms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornejo Diaz, Nestor; Hernandez Saiz, Alejandro; Martinez Gonzalez, Alina

    2005-01-01

    Many radiation shielding barriers in Cuba have been designed according to the criterion of Maxi-mum Projected Dose Rates. This fact has created the paradigm of low dose rates. Because of this, dose rate levels greater than units of Sv.h-1 would be considered unacceptable by many specialists, regardless of the real exposure times. Nowadays many shielding barriers are being designed using dose constraints in real exposure times. Behind the new barriers, dose rates could be notably greater than those behind the traditional ones, and it does not imply inadequate designs or constructive errors. In this work were obtained significant differences in dose rate levels and shield-ing thicknesses calculated by both methods for some typical installations. The work concludes that real exposure time approach is more adequate in order to optimise Radiation Protection, although this method should be carefully applied

  1. Radiation shielding for neutron guides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ersez, T.; Braoudakis, G.; Osborn, J.C.

    2006-01-01

    Models of the neutron guide shielding for the out of bunker guides on the thermal and cold neutron beam lines of the OPAL Reactor (ANSTO) were constructed using the Monte Carlo code MCNP 4B. The neutrons that were not reflected inside the guides but were absorbed by the supermirror (SM) layers were noted to be a significant source of gammas. Gammas also arise from neutrons absorbed by the B, Si, Na and K contained in the glass. The proposed shielding design has produced compact shielding assemblies. These arrangements are consistent with safety requirements, floor load limits, and cost constraints. To verify the design a prototype was assembled consisting of 120 mm thick Pb(96%)Sb(4%) walls resting on a concrete block. There was good agreement between experimental measurements and calculated dose rates for bulk shield regions

  2. In the Service of Others: How Volunteering Is Integral to the Tribal College Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talahongva, Patty

    2016-01-01

    Today, the spirit of volunteering is very much alive at every tribal college and university (TCU). From fundraisers for food pantries to educational activities that help fellow students, TCUs help forge reciprocity among students and staff. Volunteerism is integral to the tribal college experience. Volunteerism at three tribal colleges--Cankdeska…

  3. The Audio-Tutorial Approach to Learning Through Independent Study and Integrated Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postlethwait, S. N.; And Others

    The rationale of the integrated experience approach to teaching botany at Purdue University is given and the history of the audio-tutorial course at Purdue and its present organization are described. A sample week's unit of study is given, including transcription of the tape, reproduction of printed materials and photographs of other materials…

  4. Crossing the Atlantic: Integrating Cross-Cultural Experiences into Undergraduate Business Courses Using Virtual Communities Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luethge, Denise J.; Raska, David; Greer, Bertie M.; O'Connor, Christina

    2016-01-01

    Today's business school academics are tasked with pedagogy that offers students an understanding of the globalization of markets and the cross-cultural communication skills needed in today's business environment. The authors describe how a virtual cross-cultural experience was integrated into an undergraduate business course and used as an…

  5. Information Networks and Integration: Institutional Influences on Experiences and Persistence of Beginning Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karp, Melinda Mechur; Hughes, Katherine L.

    2008-01-01

    This article uses data from a qualitative exploratory study at two urban community colleges to examine experiences of beginning students, paying close attention to the influence that institutional information networks have on students' perceptions and persistence. The authors find that students' reported integration, or sense of belonging in the…

  6. Organization of Experience among Family Members in the Immediate Present: A Gestalt/Systems Integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Marvin L.; Kaplan, Netta R.

    1982-01-01

    Outlines two formulations that generate conceptual perspectives of immediate phenomena: (1) the family system has a time-enduring stability; (2) the family system has an immediate and temporary organization. Integrates systems thinking and Gestalt Therapy while recognizing individual experience as embedded in a self-maintaining system of the…

  7. Beyond the playing field: experiences of sport, social capital and integration among Somalis in Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaaij, R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the role of recreational sport as a means and marker of social integration by analysing the lived experiences of Somali people from refugee backgrounds with sport. Drawing on a three-year multi-sided ethnography, the paper examines the extent to and ways in which participation in

  8. The BuzzFeed Marketing Challenge: An Integrative Social Media Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowley, Scott W.

    2017-01-01

    This article presents the BuzzFeed Marketing Challenge, which helps students gain integrative real-world marketing experience by selecting a target market, then creating, publishing, and promoting an article for the target market on entertainment publisher BuzzFeed.com. The challenge is for students to effectively use marketing strategy and…

  9. The Integrative Business Experience: Real Choices and Real Consequences Create Real Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCord, Mary; Houseworth, Matthew; Michaelsen, Larry K.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes an innovation called the Integrative Business Experience (IBE) that links a set of required core business courses to an entrepreneurial practicum course in which two things occur. One is that students are concurrently enrolled in the required core business courses and a practicum course while they create a start-up business…

  10. Improving the Work-Integrated Learning Experience through a Third-Party Advisory Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Denise; Ferns, Sonia; Rowbottom, David; Mclaren, Diane

    2017-01-01

    This study trialled a Work-Integrated Learning (WIL) Advisory Service, provided by the Chamber of Commerce and Industry of Western Australia (CCIWA) in collaboration with four WA universities. The service was established to broker relationships between industry and universities, support employers engaged in WIL and enhance the WIL experience for…

  11. Primary Science Teaching--Is It Integral and Deep Experience for Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timoštšuk, Inge

    2016-01-01

    Integral and deep pedagogical content knowledge can support future primary teachers' ability to follow ideas of education for sustainability in science class. Initial teacher education provides opportunity to learn what and how to teach but still the practical experiences of teaching can reveal uneven development of student teachers'…

  12. A New Approach toward Cyanotype Photography Using Tris-(Oxalato)ferrate(III): An Integrated Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorito, Pablo Alejandro; Polo, Andre´ Sarto

    2015-01-01

    This work presents an approach that integrates the preparation of a coordination compound, potassium tris- (oxalato)ferrate(III), with its photochemical behavior and provides a possible application, the printing of a photograph using the cyanotype technique. Through this experiment, students can be taught several concepts that occur in a…

  13. Shielding design of RIKEN RI Beam Factory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uwamino, Yoshitomo; Fukunishi, Nobuhisa [Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, Wako, Saitama (Japan); Oishi, Koji [Shimizu Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-03-01

    Construction of the RIKEN RI Beam Factory is started, and the phase 1 will be finished by the end of March 2003. Two ring cyclotrons including one superconducting machine and two Big RIPSs will be constructed in the phase 1. Heavy ions of proton to uranium will be accelerated up to 400 MeV/u (A<40) and 150 MeV/u for uranium at an intensity of 10{sup 13} pps. Neutron production by the 400 MeV/u {sup 20}Ne beam was measured at HIMAC of NIRS and it was used for the source term of the shielding calculations. The deep penetration of high-energy neutrons was calculated by using the ANISN code with the DLC-119/HILO86R group constants and also by using the HETC code. The ANISN results were modified by using the HETC results and the shielding experiment at ISIS, and they were fitted by a simple formula for practical use. High-energy neutron penetrations of slantwise injection and the reflection probabilities of iron slab were calculated with the HETC code, and these results were used for the estimation of the thickness for the iron local shielding of Big RIPSs. Induced radioactivity in the air, accelerator components and the building, and the skyshine effect were also estimated. (author)

  14. Measuring space radiation shielding effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahadori Amir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Passive radiation shielding is one strategy to mitigate the problem of space radiation exposure. While space vehicles are constructed largely of aluminum, polyethylene has been demonstrated to have superior shielding characteristics for both galactic cosmic rays and solar particle events due to the high hydrogen content. A method to calculate the shielding effectiveness of a material relative to reference material from Bragg peak measurements performed using energetic heavy charged particles is described. Using accelerated alpha particles at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Space Radiation Laboratory at Brookhaven National Laboratory, the method is applied to sample tiles from the Heat Melt Compactor, which were created by melting material from a simulated astronaut waste stream, consisting of materials such as trash and unconsumed food. The shielding effectiveness calculated from measurements of the Heat Melt Compactor sample tiles is about 10% less than the shielding effectiveness of polyethylene. Shielding material produced from the astronaut waste stream in the form of Heat Melt Compactor tiles is therefore found to be an attractive solution for protection against space radiation.

  15. Measuring space radiation shielding effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadori, Amir; Semones, Edward; Ewert, Michael; Broyan, James; Walker, Steven

    2017-09-01

    Passive radiation shielding is one strategy to mitigate the problem of space radiation exposure. While space vehicles are constructed largely of aluminum, polyethylene has been demonstrated to have superior shielding characteristics for both galactic cosmic rays and solar particle events due to the high hydrogen content. A method to calculate the shielding effectiveness of a material relative to reference material from Bragg peak measurements performed using energetic heavy charged particles is described. Using accelerated alpha particles at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Space Radiation Laboratory at Brookhaven National Laboratory, the method is applied to sample tiles from the Heat Melt Compactor, which were created by melting material from a simulated astronaut waste stream, consisting of materials such as trash and unconsumed food. The shielding effectiveness calculated from measurements of the Heat Melt Compactor sample tiles is about 10% less than the shielding effectiveness of polyethylene. Shielding material produced from the astronaut waste stream in the form of Heat Melt Compactor tiles is therefore found to be an attractive solution for protection against space radiation.

  16. Postnatal experiences influence how the brain integrates information from different senses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry E Stein

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Sensory Processing Disorder (SPD is characterized by anomalous reactions to, and integration of, sensory cues. Although the underlying etiology of SPD is unknown, one brain region likely to reflect these sensory and behavioral anomalies is the Superior Colliculus (SC; a structure involved in the synthesis of information from multiple sensory modalities and the control of overt orientation responses. In this review we describe normal functional properties of this structure, the manner in which its individual neurons integrate cues from different senses, and the overt SC-mediated behaviors that are believed to manifest this “multisensory integration.” Of particular interest here is how SC neurons develop their capacity to engage in multisensory integration during early postnatal life as a consequence of early sensory experience, and that it is the intimate communication between cortex and the midbrain makes this developmental process possible.

  17. Brain network segregation and integration during an epoch-related working memory fMRI experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fransson, Peter; Schiffler, Björn C; Thompson, William Hedley

    2018-05-17

    The characterization of brain subnetwork segregation and integration has previously focused on changes that are detectable at the level of entire sessions or epochs of imaging data. In this study, we applied time-varying functional connectivity analysis together with temporal network theory to calculate point-by-point estimates in subnetwork segregation and integration during an epoch-based (2-back, 0-back, baseline) working memory fMRI experiment as well as during resting-state. This approach allowed us to follow task-related changes in subnetwork segregation and integration at a high temporal resolution. At a global level, the cognitively more taxing 2-back epochs elicited an overall stronger response of integration between subnetworks compared to the 0-back epochs. Moreover, the visual, sensorimotor and fronto-parietal subnetworks displayed characteristic and distinct temporal profiles of segregation and integration during the 0- and 2-back epochs. During the interspersed epochs of baseline, several subnetworks, including the visual, fronto-parietal, cingulo-opercular and dorsal attention subnetworks showed pronounced increases in segregation. Using a drift diffusion model we show that the response time for the 2-back trials are correlated with integration for the fronto-parietal subnetwork and correlated with segregation for the visual subnetwork. Our results elucidate the fast-evolving events with regard to subnetwork integration and segregation that occur in an epoch-related task fMRI experiment. Our findings suggest that minute changes in subnetwork integration are of importance for task performance. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Overview of National Thematic Data Integration (An Experience on One Map Mangrove Sulawesi)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudiastuti, A. W.; Yuwono, D. M.; Niendyawati; Pramono, G. H.; Rahmanto, B. D.

    2016-11-01

    Playing role as coastal shield with enormous economic value and ecological functions, mangrove forest management is always challenging to be studied. As either the largest archipelagic countryor the largest mangrove forest habitat around the globe, Indonesia needs a national mangrove forest baseline data and its updating for coastal management. Many stakeholders and institutions, including Geospatial Information Agency (BIG), had conducted mangrove mapping and updating. However, in order to achieve one mangrove national data, coordination and synergy among stakeholders and institutions such as: the Ministry of Environment and Forestry as mangrove custodian, Indonesian National Institute of Aeronautics and Space, Ministry of Marine and Fisheries, and BIG aligned with the National Mangrove Working Group is needed. A fundamental step for national mangrove forest management is the establishment of National One Map Mangrove Program by means of coordination, synchronization, and integration of mangrove geospatial data from various stakeholders. This paper will discuss the technical process of data integration and field survey in order to produce One Map Mangrove Sulawesi with the same geo-reference, database, and also standard and specification. The result of One Map Mangrove Sulawesi Program comprises of information about mangrove current status, existing area, and its distribution in Sulawesi.Beside the geospatial data from Ministry of Environment and Forestry and other institutions, the primary data used to map mangrove forest in Sulawesi is SPOT 6 and SPOT 7(year 2014 - 2015) imageries yielded map scale of 1: 25,000. On screen digitation using NIR, Red and Green bands and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI)image transformation are applied for the initial canopy density classification. Field survey was doneto obtain field data forvegetation analysis, image classification andre-interpretation. In 2015, the process of producing One Map Mangrove Sulawesi has

  19. Paternal experience during the child’s first year of life: integrative review of qualitative research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Henrique Ferreira

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Social transformations have raised reflection about the paternal role and pointed to new fatherhoods, characterized by more effective involvement of the father in the family routine and in childcare. The present integrative review of qualitative studies aimed to synthetize the literature evidence about fatherhood experience throughout the first year of the child’s life, attentive to gender questions. Twenty three studies integrated this review. It was observed that fathers had positive experience with their babies and, still, craved for more time and space to dedicate to the family. However, inequality between genders, continuous requirement of financial provision at home and their inaptitude for breastfeeding moment impeded more paternal involvement. We concluded that new fatherhoods movement is present in the father experience and contemporary gender tendencies are challenges for parenting support.

  20. Real remote physics experiments across Internet-- inherent part of Integrated e-Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frantisek Lustig

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract— The implementation of the real remote experiments across the Internet into teaching process, up till now not available, enables introduction of Integrated e-Learning, composed of three components: the real remote experiments across the Internet, the simulation applets and the electronic interactive textbooks. We present here the prospective remote laboratory system with data transfer using Intelligent School Experimental System (ISES as hardware and ISES WEB Control kit as software. This approach enables the simple construction of remote experiments without building any hardware and virtually no programming, only with paste and copy approach of pre-built typical blocks as camera view, controls, graphs, displays etc. In conclusion we summarize the achieved experience with remote experiments.

  1. Semi-analytic flux formulas for shielding calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, O.J.

    1976-06-01

    A special coordinate system based on the work of H. Ono and A. Tsuro has been used to derive exact semi-analytic formulas for the flux from cylindrical, spherical, toroidal, rectangular, annular and truncated cone volume sources; from cylindrical, spherical, truncated cone, disk and rectangular surface sources; and from curved and tilted line sources. In most of the cases where the source is curved, shields of the same curvature are allowed in addition to the standard slab shields; cylindrical shields are also allowed in the rectangular volume source flux formula. An especially complete treatment of a cylindrical volume source is given, in which dose points may be arbitrarily located both within and outside the source, and a finite cylindrical shield may be considered. Detector points may also be specified as lying within spherical and annular source volumes. The integral functions encountered in these formulas require at most two-dimensional numeric integration in order to evaluate the flux values. The classic flux formulas involving only slab shields and slab, disk, line, sphere and truncated cone sources become some of the many special cases which are given in addition to the more general formulas mentioned above

  2. News from the Library: Facilitating access to a program for radiation shielding - the Library can help

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Library

    2013-01-01

    MicroShield® is a comprehensive photon/gamma ray shielding and dose assessment programme. It is widely used for designing shields, estimating source strength from radiation measurements, minimising exposure to people, and teaching shielding principles.   Integrated tools allow the graphing of results, material and source file creation, source inference with decay (dose-to-Bq calculations accounting for decay and daughter buildup), the projection of exposure rate versus time as a result of decay, access to material and nuclide data, and decay heat calculations. The latest version is able to export results using Microsoft Office (formatted and colour-coded for readability). Sixteen geometries accommodate offset dose points and as many as ten standard shields plus source self-shielding and cylinder cladding are available. The library data (radionuclides, attenuation, build-up and dose conversion) reflect standard data from ICRP 38 and 107* as well as ANSI/ANS standards and RSICC publicat...

  3. Shielding considerations for advanced fuel irradiation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Young-Hwan; Kim, Hee-Moon; Kim, Bong-Goo; Kim, Hark-Rho; Lee, Dong-Soo

    2008-01-01

    An in-pile test program for the development of a high burn-up fuel is planned for the HANARO reactor. The source term originates from a leakage of fission products from the anticipated failed fuels into the gas flow tubes and around the instrumentation and control system. In order to quantify the fuel composition in the event of a fuel failure, the isotope generation and depletion code ORIGEN 2.0 was used. The computer program Microshield 6.2 was used to calculate the doses from specific locations, where a high radioactivity is expected during an irradiation. The results indicate that the equivalent dose in the investigated working areas is less than the permitted dose rate of 6.25 μSv/hr. However, access to the area of a decay vessel may need to be limited, and the installation of a Pb wall with a 20.5 cm thickness is recommended. From the analysis of a radioactive decay with time, most of the concerned gaseous nuclides with short half-lives after 3 months, were decayed, with one exception which was Kr-85, thus it should be released in accordance with applicable government laws after measuring its activity in individual holding vessels. (author)

  4. The iso-response method: measuring neuronal stimulus integration with closed-loop experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollisch, Tim; Herz, Andreas V. M.

    2012-01-01

    Throughout the nervous system, neurons integrate high-dimensional input streams and transform them into an output of their own. This integration of incoming signals involves filtering processes and complex non-linear operations. The shapes of these filters and non-linearities determine the computational features of single neurons and their functional roles within larger networks. A detailed characterization of signal integration is thus a central ingredient to understanding information processing in neural circuits. Conventional methods for measuring single-neuron response properties, such as reverse correlation, however, are often limited by the implicit assumption that stimulus integration occurs in a linear fashion. Here, we review a conceptual and experimental alternative that is based on exploring the space of those sensory stimuli that result in the same neural output. As demonstrated by recent results in the auditory and visual system, such iso-response stimuli can be used to identify the non-linearities relevant for stimulus integration, disentangle consecutive neural processing steps, and determine their characteristics with unprecedented precision. Automated closed-loop experiments are crucial for this advance, allowing rapid search strategies for identifying iso-response stimuli during experiments. Prime targets for the method are feed-forward neural signaling chains in sensory systems, but the method has also been successfully applied to feedback systems. Depending on the specific question, “iso-response” may refer to a predefined firing rate, single-spike probability, first-spike latency, or other output measures. Examples from different studies show that substantial progress in understanding neural dynamics and coding can be achieved once rapid online data analysis and stimulus generation, adaptive sampling, and computational modeling are tightly integrated into experiments. PMID:23267315

  5. Plant integration of MITICA and SPIDER experiments with auxiliary plants and buildings on PRIMA site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fellin, Francesco, E-mail: francesco.fellin@igi.cnr.it; Boldrin, Marco; Zaccaria, Pierluigi; Agostinetti, Piero; Battistella, Manuela; Bigi, Marco; Palma, Samuele Dal Bello Mauro Dalla; Fiorentin, Aldo; Luchetta, Adriano; Maistrello, Alberto; Marcuzzi, Diego; Ocello, Edoardo; Pasqualotto, Roberto; Pavei, Mauro; Pomaro, Nicola; Rizzolo, Andrea; Toigo, Vanni; Valente, Matteo; Zanotto, Loris; Calore, Luca; and others

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Focus on plant integration work supporting the realization of SPIDER and MITICA fusion experiments hosted in PRIMA buildings complex in Padova, Italy. • Huge effort of coordination and integration among many stakeholders, taking into account several constrains coming from experiments requirements (on-going) and precise time schedule and budget on buildings construction. • The paper also deals of interfaces management, coordination and integration of many competences, problems solving to find best solution also considering other aspects like safety and maintenance. - Abstract: This paper presents a description of the PRIMA (Padova Research on ITER Megavolt Accelerator) Plant Integration work, aimed at the construction of PRIMA Buildings, which will host two nuclear fusion test facilities named SPIDER and MITICA, finalized to test and optimize the neutral beam injectors for ITER experiment. These activities are very complex: inputs coming from the experiments design are changing time to time, while the buildings construction shall fulfill precise time schedule and budget. Moreover the decision process is often very long due to the high number of stakeholders (RFX, IO, third parties, suppliers, domestic agencies from different countries). The huge effort includes: forecasting what will be necessary for the integration of many experimental plants; collecting requirements and translating into inputs; interfaces management; coordination meetings with hundreds of people with various and different competences in construction and operation of fusion facilities, thermomechanics, electrical and control, buildings design and construction (civil plants plus architectural and structural aspects), safety, maintenance and management. The paper describes these activities and also the tools created to check and to validate the building design, to manage the interfaces and the organization put in place to achieve the required targets.

  6. Plant integration of MITICA and SPIDER experiments with auxiliary plants and buildings on PRIMA site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fellin, Francesco; Boldrin, Marco; Zaccaria, Pierluigi; Agostinetti, Piero; Battistella, Manuela; Bigi, Marco; Palma, Samuele Dal Bello Mauro Dalla; Fiorentin, Aldo; Luchetta, Adriano; Maistrello, Alberto; Marcuzzi, Diego; Ocello, Edoardo; Pasqualotto, Roberto; Pavei, Mauro; Pomaro, Nicola; Rizzolo, Andrea; Toigo, Vanni; Valente, Matteo; Zanotto, Loris; Calore, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Focus on plant integration work supporting the realization of SPIDER and MITICA fusion experiments hosted in PRIMA buildings complex in Padova, Italy. • Huge effort of coordination and integration among many stakeholders, taking into account several constrains coming from experiments requirements (on-going) and precise time schedule and budget on buildings construction. • The paper also deals of interfaces management, coordination and integration of many competences, problems solving to find best solution also considering other aspects like safety and maintenance. - Abstract: This paper presents a description of the PRIMA (Padova Research on ITER Megavolt Accelerator) Plant Integration work, aimed at the construction of PRIMA Buildings, which will host two nuclear fusion test facilities named SPIDER and MITICA, finalized to test and optimize the neutral beam injectors for ITER experiment. These activities are very complex: inputs coming from the experiments design are changing time to time, while the buildings construction shall fulfill precise time schedule and budget. Moreover the decision process is often very long due to the high number of stakeholders (RFX, IO, third parties, suppliers, domestic agencies from different countries). The huge effort includes: forecasting what will be necessary for the integration of many experimental plants; collecting requirements and translating into inputs; interfaces management; coordination meetings with hundreds of people with various and different competences in construction and operation of fusion facilities, thermomechanics, electrical and control, buildings design and construction (civil plants plus architectural and structural aspects), safety, maintenance and management. The paper describes these activities and also the tools created to check and to validate the building design, to manage the interfaces and the organization put in place to achieve the required targets.

  7. Systems for neutronic, thermohydraulic and shielding calculation in personal computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villarino, E.A.; Abbate, P.; Lovotti, O.; Santini, M.

    1990-01-01

    The MTR-PC (Materials Testing Reactors-Personal Computers) system has been developed by the Nuclear Engineering Division of INVAP S.E. with the aim of providing working conditions integrated with personal computers for design and neutronic, thermohydraulic and shielding analysis for reactors employing plate type fuel. (Author) [es

  8. Electrodynamic Dust Shield Demonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankie, Charles G.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the project was to design and manufacture a device to demonstrate a new technology developed by NASA's Electrostatics and Surface Physics Laboratory. The technology itself is a system which uses magnetic principles to remove regolith dust from its surface. This project was to create an enclosure that will be used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the invention to The Office of the Chief Technologist. ONE of the most important challenges of space exploration is actually caused by something very small and seemingly insignificant. Dust in space, most notably on the moon and Mars, has caused many unforeseen issues. Dirt and dust on Earth, while a nuisance, can be easily cleaned and kept at bay. However, there is considerably less weathering and erosion in space. As a result, the microscopic particles are extremely rough and abrasive. They are also electrostatically charged, so they cling to everything they make contact with. This was first noted to be a major problem during the Apollo missions. Dust would stick to the spacesuits, and could not be wiped off as predicted. Dust was brought back into the spacecraft, and was even inhaled by astronauts. This is a major health hazard. Atmospheric storms and other events can also cause dust to coat surfaces of spacecraft. This can cause abrasive damage to the craft. The coating can also reduce the effectiveness of thermal insulation and solar panels.' A group of engineers at Kennedy Space Center's Electrostatics and Surface Physics Laboratory have developed a new technology, called the Electrodynamic Dust Shield, to help alleviate these problems. It is based off of the electric curtain concept developed at NASA in 1967. "The EDS is an active dust mitigation technology that uses traveling electric fields to transport electrostatically charged dust particles along surfaces. To generate the traveling electric fields, the EDS consists of a multilayer dielectric coating with an embedded thin electrode grid

  9. Integration of Detectors Into a Large Experiment: Examples From ATLAS and CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Froidevaux, D

    2011-01-01

    Integration of Detectors Into a Large Experiment: Examples From ATLAS andCMS, part of 'Landolt-Börnstein - Group I Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms: Numerical Data and Functional Relationships in Science and Technology, Volume 21B2: Detectors for Particles and Radiation. Part 2: Systems and Applications'. This document is part of Part 2 'Principles and Methods' of Subvolume B 'Detectors for Particles and Radiation' of Volume 21 'Elementary Particles' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I 'Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It contains the Chapter '5 Integration of Detectors Into a Large Experiment: Examples From ATLAS and CMS' with the content: 5 Integration of Detectors Into a Large Experiment: Examples From ATLAS and CMS 5.1 Introduction 5.1.1 The context 5.1.2 The main initial physics goals of ATLAS and CMS at the LHC 5.1.3 A snapshot of the current status of the ATLAS and CMS experiments 5.2 Overall detector concept and magnet systems 5.2.1 Overall detector concept 5.2.2 Magnet systems 5.2.2.1 Rad...

  10. ‘Trust and teamwork matter’: Community health workers' experiences in integrated service delivery in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Arima

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive and integrated approach to strengthen primary health care has been the major thrust of the National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) that was launched in 2005 to revamp India's rural public health system. Though the logic of horizontal and integrated health care to strengthen health systems has long been acknowledged at policy level, empirical evidence on how such integration operates is rare. Based on recent (2011–2012) ethnographic fieldwork in Odisha, India, this article discusses community health workers' experiences in integrated service delivery through village-level outreach sessions within the NRHM. It shows that for health workers, the notion of integration goes well beyond a technical lens of mixing different health services. Crucially, they perceive ‘teamwork’ and ‘building trust with the community’ (beyond trust in health services) to be critical components of their practice. However, the comprehensive NRHM primary health care ideology – which the health workers espouse – is in constant tension with the exigencies of narrow indicators of health system performance. Our ethnography shows how monitoring mechanisms, the institutionalised privileging of statistical evidence over field-based knowledge and the highly hierarchical health bureaucratic structure that rests on top-down communications mitigate efforts towards sustainable health system integration. PMID:25025872

  11. 'Trust and teamwork matter': community health workers' experiences in integrated service delivery in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Arima

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive and integrated approach to strengthen primary health care has been the major thrust of the National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) that was launched in 2005 to revamp India's rural public health system. Though the logic of horizontal and integrated health care to strengthen health systems has long been acknowledged at policy level, empirical evidence on how such integration operates is rare. Based on recent (2011-2012) ethnographic fieldwork in Odisha, India, this article discusses community health workers' experiences in integrated service delivery through village-level outreach sessions within the NRHM. It shows that for health workers, the notion of integration goes well beyond a technical lens of mixing different health services. Crucially, they perceive 'teamwork' and 'building trust with the community' (beyond trust in health services) to be critical components of their practice. However, the comprehensive NRHM primary health care ideology - which the health workers espouse - is in constant tension with the exigencies of narrow indicators of health system performance. Our ethnography shows how monitoring mechanisms, the institutionalised privileging of statistical evidence over field-based knowledge and the highly hierarchical health bureaucratic structure that rests on top-down communications mitigate efforts towards sustainable health system integration.

  12. Study on box shield tunneling method in trial field operation; Box shield koho jissho seko ni kansuru kosatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tada, K.; Taniguchi, T. [Toda Corp., Tokyo, (Japan); Furukawa, K.; Nakagawa, K. [Yamaguchi University, Yamaguchi (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-03-20

    This paper describes a rectangular section shield tunneling method as a part of developments of non-circular section shield tunneling methods. The non-circular shield is drawing attention because of need of excavation in small land available in urban areas and between congested existing structures, as well as reduction in the excavated soil amount. A full-scale machine was fabricated to perform a natural ground excavation experiment. The cutter units comprising two each of drum cutters and ring cutters were arranged above and below, by which two tunnels of 40 m long with a cross section of 2.85 m {times} 2.85 m were excavated. The natural ground was supported safely by holding mud water pressures at cutting points constant, thus stability of the cutting points was ensured. Back-filling has made complete filling of tail void (clearance between a segment and the ground) possible, resulting in suppression in conditional change of the surrounding ground. Attitude control has been performed properly as a result of correct selection of shield jacks and use of deflection jacks. Broken-type over-cutters were used to have constructed tunnels with curve radius of 80 and 100 m with high accuracy. Thrust and propulsion speed of the shield do not differ from those of circular shields. Possibilities of this construction method were verified. 8 refs., 26 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Radiation shielding in dental radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenstroem, B.; Rehnmark-Larsson, S.; Julin, P.; Richter, S.

    1983-01-01

    The protective effect in the thyroid region from different types of radiation shieldings at intraoral radiography has been studied as well as the reduction of the absorbed dose to the sternal and the gonadal regions. The shieldings tested were five different types of leaded aprons, of which three had an attached leaded collar and the other two were used in combination with separate soft leaded collars. Furthermore one of the soft leaded collars and an unflexible horizontal leaded shield were tested separately. Two dental x-ray machines of 60 and 65 kVp with rectangular and circular tube collimators were used. The exposure time corresponded to speed group E film. The absorbed doses were measured with two ionization chambers. No significant difference in the protective effect in the thyroid gland could be found between the different types of radiation shieldings. There was a dose reduction by approximately a factor of 2 to the thyroid region down to 0.08 mGy per full survey using parallelling technique, and below 0.001 mGy per single bitewing exposure. The shieldings reduced the thyroid dose using bisecting-angle technique by a factor of 5 down to 0.15 mGy per full survey (20 exposures). In the sternal region the combinations of apron and collar reduced the absorbed dose from a full survey to below 2 μGy compared with 18 μGy (parallelling) and 31 μGy (biscting-angle) without any shielding. With the horizontal leaded shield a reduction by a factor of 6 was obtained but no significant sternal dose reduction could be detected from the soft collar alone. The gonadal dose could be reduced by a factor of 10 with the horizontal leaded shield, parallelling technique and circular collimator. Using leaded aprons the gonadal dose was approximately one per cent of the dose without any shielding, i.e. below 0.01 μGy per single intraoral exposure. (Authors)

  14. Shielding features of quarry stone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez V, C.; Contreras S, H.; Hernandez A, L.; Baltazar R, A.; Escareno J, E.; Mares E, C. A.; Vega C, H. R.

    2010-10-01

    Quarry stone lineal attenuation coefficient for gamma-rays has been obtained. In Zacatecas, quarry stone is widely utilized as a decorative item in buildings, however its shielding features against gamma-rays unknown. The aim of this work is to determine the shielding properties of quarry stone against γ-rays using Monte Carlo calculations where a detailed model of a good geometry experimental setup was carried out. In the calculations 10 pieces 10 X 10 cm 2 of different thickness were utilized to evaluate the photons transmission as the quarry stone thickness is increased. It was noticed that transmitted photons decay away as the shield thickness is increased, these results were fitted to an exponential function were the linear attenuation coefficient was estimated. Also, using XCOM code the linear attenuation coefficient from several keV up to 100 MeV was estimated. From the comparison between Monte Carlo results and XCOM calculations a good agreement was found. For 0.662 MeV γ-rays the attenuation coefficient of quarry stone, whose density is 2.413 g-cm -3 , is 0.1798 cm -1 , this mean a X 1/2 = 3.9 cm, X 1/4 = 7.7 cm, X 1/10 = 12.8 cm, and X 1/100 = 25.6 cm. Having the information of quarry stone performance as shielding give the chance to use this material to shield X and γ-ray facilities. (Author)

  15. Experimental validation of thermal design of top shield for a pool type SFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aithal, Sriramachandra; Babu, V. Rajan; Balasubramaniyan, V.; Velusamy, K.; Chellapandi, P.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Overall thermal design of top shield in a SFR is experimentally verified. • Air jet cooling is effective in ensuring the temperatures limits for top shield. • Convection patterns in narrow annulus are in line with published CFD results. • Wire mesh insulation ensures gradual thermal gradient at top portion of main vessel. • Under loss of cooling scenario, sufficient time is available for corrective action. - Abstract: An Integrated Top Shield Test Facility towards validation of thermal design of top shield for a pool type SFR has been conceived, constructed & commissioned. Detailed experiments were performed in this experimental facility having full-scale features. Steady state temperature distribution within the facility is measured for various heater plate temperatures in addition to simulating different operating states of the reactor. Following are the important observations (i) jet cooling system is effective in regulating the roof slab bottom plate temperature and thermal gradient across roof slab simulating normal operation of reactor, (ii) wire mesh insulation provided in roof slab-main vessel annulus is effective in obtaining gradual thermal gradient along main vessel top portion and inhibiting the setting up of cellular convection within annulus and (iii) cellular convection with four distinct convective cells sets in the annular gap between roof slab and small rotatable plug measuring ∼ϕ4 m in diameter & gap width varying from 16 mm to 30 mm. Repeatability of results is also ensured during all the above tests. The results presented in this paper is expected to provide reference data for validation of thermal hydraulic models in addition to serving as design validation of jet cooling system for pool type SFR.

  16. Methods for U.S. shielding calculations: applications to FFTF and CRBR designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engle, W.W. Jr.; Mynatt, F.R.; Disney, R.K.

    1978-01-01

    The primary components of the U.S. reactor shielding methodology consist of: (1) computer code systems based on discrete ordinates or Monte Carlo radiation transport calculational methods; (2) a data base of neutron and gamma-ray interaction and gamma-ray-production cross sections used as input in the codes; (3) a capability for processing the cross sections into multigroup or point energy formats as required by the codes; (4) large-scale integral shielding experiments designed to test cross-section data or techniques utilized in the calculations; and (5) a ''sensitivity'' analysis capability that can identify the most important interactions in a transport calculation and assign uncertainties to the calculated result that are based on uncertainties in all of the input data. The required accuracy for the methodology is to within 5 to 10% for responses at locations near the core to within a factor of 2 for responses at distant locations. Under these criteria, the methodology has proved to be adequate for in-vessel LMFBR calculations of neutron transport through deep sodium and thick iron and stainless steel shields, of neutron streaming through lower axial coolant channels and primary pipe chaseways, and of the effects of fuel stored within the reactor vessel. For ex-vessel LMFBR problems, the methodology requires considerable improvement, the areas of concern including neutron streaming through heating and ventilation ducts, through the cavity surrounding the reactor vessel, and through gaps around rotating plugs in the reactor heat, as well as gamma-ray streaming through plant shield penetrations

  17. Integration and Testing Challenges of Small, Multiple Satellite Missions: Experiences from the Space Technology 5 Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauerwein, Timothy A.; Gostomski, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    The ST5 technology demonstration mission led by GSFC of NASA's New Millennium Program managed by JPL consisted of three micro satellites (approximately 30 kg each) deployed into orbit from the Pegasus XL launch vehicle. In order to meet the launch date schedule of ST5, a different approach was required rather than the standard I&T approach used for single, room-sized satellites. The three spacecraft were designed, integrated, and tested at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. It was determined that there was insufficient time in the schedule to perform three spacecraft I&T activities in series using standard approaches. The solution was for spacecraft #1 to undergo integration and test first, followed by spacecraft #2 and #3 simultaneously. This simultaneous integration was successful for several reasons. Each spacecraft had a Lead Test Conductor who planned and coordinated their spacecraft through its integration and test activities. One team of engineers and technicians executed the integration of all three spacecraft, learning and gaining knowledge and efficiency as spacecraft #1 integration and testing progressed. They became acutely familiar with the hardware, operation and processes for I&T, thus had the experience and knowledge to safely execute I&T for spacecraft #2 and #3. The integration team was extremely versatile; each member could perform many different activities or work any spacecraft, when needed. ST5 was successfully integrated, tested and shipped to the launch site per the I&T schedule that was planned three years previously. The I&T campaign was completed with ST5's successful launch on March 22, 2006.

  18. DABIE: a data banking system of integral experiments for reactor core characteristics computer codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Kiyoshi; Naito, Yoshitaka; Ohkubo, Shuji; Aoyanagi, Hideo.

    1987-05-01

    A data banking system of integral experiments for reactor core characteristics computer codes, DABIE, has been developed to lighten the burden on searching so many documents to obtain experiment data required for verification of reactor core characteristics computer code. This data banking system, DABIE, has capabilities of systematic classification, registration and easy retrieval of experiment data. DABIE consists of data bank and supporting programs. Supporting programs are data registration program, data reference program and maintenance program. The system is designed so that user can easily register information of experiment systems including figures as well as geometry data and measured data or obtain those data through TSS terminal interactively. This manual describes the system structure, how-to-use and sample uses of this code system. (author)

  19. Integrating Sustainability and Hawaiian Culture into the Tourism Experience of the Hawaiian Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Agrusa

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The travel industry in Hawaii has been experiencing a trend towards more authentic tourism, which reintegrates Hawaiian culture into the visitors’ experience. This study investigated the reintegration of Hawaiian culture into the tourism experience on the Hawaiian Islands by reviewing existing literature, and by analyzing primary data collected through visitor surveys. The purpose of the study was to determine whether there is a visitors’ demand for a more authentic tourism experience in Hawaii through the reintegration of Hawaiian culture, and if so, which efforts should be made or continue to be made to achieve this authenticity. Important aspects that were taken into consideration in this research effort arethe changes Hawaiian culture has experienced with the arrival of outsiders, and the authenticity of the Hawaiian tourism experience today. Further aspects that were examined include the visitors’ image of Hawaii, their expectations, their experiences and satisfaction during their stay, their interest in and understanding of Hawaiian culture, as well as the type of Hawaiian cultural experiences they are interested in. According to the findings of this study, English speaking visitors are interested in Hawaiian culture and feel that Hawaiian culture is not represented enough in the tourism experience today. The conclusion is, therefore, that efforts to integrate Hawaiian culture into the tourism experience need to be increasedbeyond what is currently being done. Ideas for reintegrating Hawaiian culture are discussed and possible solutions are provided.

  20. Resonance shielding in thermal reactor lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothenstein, W.; Taviv, E.; Aminpour, M.

    1982-01-01

    The theoretical foundations of a new methodology for the accurate treatment of resonance absorption in thermal reactor lattice analysis are presented. This methodology is based on the solution of the point-energy transport equation in its integral or integro-differential form for a heterogeneous lattice using detailed resonance cross-section profiles. The methodology is applied to LWR benchmark analysis, with emphasis on temperature dependence of resonance absorption during fuel depletion, spatial and mutual self-shielding, integral parameter analysis and treatment of cluster geometry. The capabilities of the OZMA code, which implements the new methodology are discussed. These capabilities provide a means against which simpler and more rapid resonance absorption algorithms can be checked. (author)

  1. Steam generator tube integrity requirements and operating experience in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karwoski, K.J.

    2009-01-01

    Steam generator tube integrity is important to the safe operation of pressurized-water reactors. For ensuring tube integrity, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission uses a regulatory framework that is largely performance based. This performance-based framework is supplemented with some prescriptive requirements. The framework recognizes that there are three combinations of tube materials and heat treatments currently used in the United States and that the operating experience depends, in part, on the type of material used. This paper summarizes the regulatory framework for ensuring steam generator tube integrity, it highlights the current status of steam generators, and it highlights some of the steam generator issues and challenges that exist in the United States. (author)

  2. Radiation Shielding Materials and Containers Incorporating Same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirsky, Steven M.; Krill, Stephen J.; and Murray, Alexander P.

    2005-11-01

    An improved radiation shielding material and storage systems for radioactive materials incorporating the same. The PYRolytic Uranium Compound (''PYRUC'') shielding material is preferably formed by heat and/or pressure treatment of a precursor material comprising microspheres of a uranium compound, such as uranium dioxide or uranium carbide, and a suitable binder. The PYRUC shielding material provides improved radiation shielding, thermal characteristic, cost and ease of use in comparison with other shielding materials. The shielding material can be used to form containment systems, container vessels, shielding structures, and containment storage areas, all of which can be used to house radioactive waste. The preferred shielding system is in the form of a container for storage, transportation, and disposal of radioactive waste. In addition, improved methods for preparing uranium dioxide and uranium carbide microspheres for use in the radiation shielding materials are also provided.

  3. MMW [multimegawatt] shielding design and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, A.P.

    1988-01-01

    Reactor shielding for multimegawatt (MMW) space power must satisfy a mass constraint as well as performance specifications for neutron fluence and gamma dose. A minimum mass shield is helpful in attaining the launch mass goal for the entire vehicle, because the shield comprises about 1% to 2% of the total vehicle mass. In addition, the shield internal heating must produce tolerable temperatures. The analysis of shield performance for neutrons and gamma rays is emphasized. Topics addressed include cross section preparation for multigroup 2D S/sub n/-transport analyses, and the results of parametric design studies on shadow shield performance and mass versus key shield design variables such as cone angle, number, placement, and thickness of layers of tungsten, and shield top radius. Finally, adjoint methods are applied to the shield in order to spatially map its relative contribution to dose reduction, and to provide insight into further design optimization. 7 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  4. Experience with integrated exploitation systems in narrow, very steep seams in HUNOSA. Experiencias con sistemas de explotacion integral en capas estrechas y muy inclinadas en HUNOSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ongallo Acedo, J.M.; Fernandez Villa, A.; Iglesias Alvarez, J.L. (HUNOSA, Madrid (Spain))

    1988-01-01

    This summary relates the experience in the Hunosa Pits of Polio and San Antonio with full starting mechanization in narrow coal layers of less than 2 m. and very inclined slopes of more than 40[degree]. The selection of the coal layer, the kind of infrastructure to be used, the form of the ascent channel and the design of the workshop, as well as the auxiliary services for assistance to the workshop are mentioned. The methods are not described but details about the mechanized supports according to the slopes (Asturfalia) in the Polio Pit and on the mining with descending shield (ANSHA) in the San Antonio Pit are emphasized. To conclude, the results obtained and the possibilities found in the mining systems are mentioned and commented on. 6 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Integrated, digital experiment transient control and safety protection of an in-pile test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, R.W.; Whitacre, R.F.; Klingler, W.B.

    1982-01-01

    The Sodium Loop Safety Facility experimental program has demonstrated that in-pile loop fuel failure transient tests can be digitally controlled and protected with reliability and precision. This was done in four nuclear experiments conducted in the Engineering Test Reactor operated by EG and G Idaho, Inc., at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Loop sodium flow and reactor power transients can be programmed to sponsor requirements and verified prior to the test. Each controller has redundancy, which reduces the effect of single failures occurring during test transients. Feedback and reject criteria are included in the reactor power control. Timed sequencing integrates the initiation of the controllers, programmed safety set-points, and other experiment actions (e.g., planned scram). Off-line and on-line testing is included. Loss-of-flow, loss-of-piping-integrity, boiling-window, transient-overpower, and local fault tests have been successfully run using this system

  6. Spaceflight of HUVEC: An Integrated eXperiment- SPHINX Onboard the ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versari, S.; Maier, J. A. M.; Norfini, A.; Zolesi, V.; Bradamante, S.

    2013-02-01

    The spaceflight orthostatic challenge can promote in astronauts inadequate cardiovascular responses defined as cardiovascular deconditioning. In particular, disturbance of endothelial functions are known to lead to altered vascular performances, being the endothelial cells crucial in the maintenance of the functional integrity of the vascular wall. In order to evaluate whether weightlessness affects endothelial functions, we designed, developed, and performed the experiment SPHINX - SPaceflight of HUVEC: an INtegrated eXperiment - where HUVEC (Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells) were selected as a macrovascular cell model system. SPHINX arrived at the International Space Station (ISS) onboard Progress 40P, and was processed inside Kubik 6 incubator for 7 days. At the end, all of the samples were suitably fixed and preserved at 6°C until return on Earth on Soyuz 23S.

  7. Darkened Counsel: The Problem of Evil in Bergson’s Metaphysics of Integral Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Paul Smith

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Henri Bergson's work is often presented as an optimistic philosophy. This essay presents a counter-narrative to that reading by looking to the place of the problem of evil within his integral metaphysics. For, if Bergson’s philosophy is simply optimistic, or simply derives meaning from the wholeness of experience, then it risks a theodical structure which undercuts its ability to speak to contemporary social and political problems of suffering. A theodical structure is one that, at bottom, justifies the experience of suffering by way of a concept of the whole or some concept that functions to subsume everything within it. Suffering is subsumed and given meaning by placing it within a relation, often with a telos that redeems or sublimates the experience of suffering. This takes such a singular experience such as suffering and renders it merely relative to the part it plays within the system of everything. On my reading, Bergson’s philosophy contains a supplement of what we might call pessimism or negativity inherent in his metaphysics as integral experience. This supplement undermines the theodical structure that may be assumed to undercut Bergson’s philosophy when confronted with evil or suffering and is seen most clearly in his critique of the notion of “everything.”

  8. Lattice design of the integrable optics test accelerator and optical stochastic cooling experiment at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kafka, Gene [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2015-05-01

    The Integrable Optics Test Accelerator (IOTA) storage ring at Fermilab will serve as the backbone for a broad spectrum of Advanced Accelerator R&D (AARD) experiments, and as such, must be designed with signi cant exibility in mind, but without compromising cost e ciency. The nonlinear experiments at IOTA will include: achievement of a large nonlinear tune shift/spread without degradation of dynamic aperture; suppression of strong lattice resonances; study of stability of nonlinear systems to perturbations; and studies of di erent variants of nonlinear magnet design. The ring optics control has challenging requirements that reach or exceed the present state of the art. The development of a complete self-consistent design of the IOTA ring optics, meeting the demands of all planned AARD experiments, is presented. Of particular interest are the precise control for nonlinear integrable optics experiments and the transverse-to-longitudinal coupling and phase stability for the Optical Stochastic Cooling Experiment (OSC). Since the beam time-of- ight must be tightly controlled in the OSC section, studies of second order corrections in this section are presented.

  9. The MIRAGE project: large scale radionuclide transport investigations and integral migration experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Come, B.; Bidoglio, G.; Chapman, N.

    1986-01-01

    Predictions of radionuclide migration through the geosphere must be supported by large-scale, long-term investigations. Several research areas of the MIRAGE Project are devoted to acquiring reliable data for developing and validating models. Apart from man-made migration experiments in boreholes and/or underground galleries, attention is paid to natural geological migration systems which have been active for very long time spans. The potential role of microbial activity, either resident or introduced into the host media, is also considered. In order to clarify basic mechanisms, smaller scale ''integral'' migration experiments under fully controlled laboratory conditions are also carried out using real waste forms and representative geological media. (author)

  10. Magnetic shielding for superconducting RF cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuzawa, M.; Terashima, A.; Tsuchiya, K.; Ueki, R.

    2017-03-01

    Magnetic shielding is a key technology for superconducting radio frequency (RF) cavities. There are basically two approaches for shielding: (1) surround the cavity of interest with high permeability material and divert magnetic flux around it (passive shielding); and (2) create a magnetic field using coils that cancels the ambient magnetic field in the area of interest (active shielding). The choice of approach depends on the magnitude of the ambient magnetic field, residual magnetic field tolerance, shape of the magnetic shield, usage, cost, etc. However, passive shielding is more commonly used for superconducting RF cavities. The issue with passive shielding is that as the volume to be shielded increases, the size of the shielding material increases, thereby leading to cost increase. A recent trend is to place a magnetic shield in a cryogenic environment inside a cryostat, very close to the cavities, reducing the size and volume of the magnetic shield. In this case, the shielding effectiveness at cryogenic temperatures becomes important. We measured the permeabilities of various shielding materials at both room temperature and cryogenic temperature (4 K) and studied shielding degradation at that cryogenic temperature.

  11. Superconducting magnetic shields production. Realisation d'ecrans magnetiques supraconducteurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lainee, F; Kormann, R [Thomson-CSF, Domaine de Corbeville, 91 - Orsay (FR); Lainee, F [Ecole des Mines de Paris, 91 - Evry (FR)

    1992-02-01

    Low fields and low frequency shielding properties of YBCO magnetic shields are measured at 77 K. They compare favourably with shielding properties of mumetal shields. Therefore high-T{sub c} superconducting magnetic shields can already be used to shield small volumes. The case of magnetic shields for large volumes is also discussed. 3 refs; 6 figs; 4 tabs.

  12. Experiences in applying Bayesian integrative models in interdisciplinary modeling: the computational and human challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuikka, Sakari; Haapasaari, Päivi Elisabet; Helle, Inari

    2011-01-01

    We review the experience obtained in using integrative Bayesian models in interdisciplinary analysis focusing on sustainable use of marine resources and environmental management tasks. We have applied Bayesian models to both fisheries and environmental risk analysis problems. Bayesian belief...... be time consuming and research projects can be difficult to manage due to unpredictable technical problems related to parameter estimation. Biology, sociology and environmental economics have their own scientific traditions. Bayesian models are becoming traditional tools in fisheries biology, where...

  13. Integrated IoT technology in industrial lasers for the improved user experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jianwu; Liu, Jinhui

    2018-02-01

    The end users' biggest concern for any industrial equipment is the reliability and the service down-time. This is especially true for industrial lasers as they are typically used in fully or semi- automated processes. Here we demonstrate how to use the integrated Internet of Things (IoT) technology in industrial lasers to address the reliability and the service down-time so to improve end users' experience.

  14. Characterization of the Caliban and Prospero Critical Assemblies Neutron Spectra for Integral Measurements Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casoli, P.; Authier, N.; Jacquet, X.; Cartier, J.

    2014-04-01

    Caliban and Prospero are two highly enriched uranium metallic core reactors operated on the CEA Center of Valduc. These critical assemblies are suitable for integral experiments, such as fission yields measurements or perturbation measurements, which have been carried out recently on the Caliban reactor. Different unfolding methods, based on activation foils and fission chambers measurements, are used to characterize the reactor spectra and especially the Caliban spectrum, which is very close to a pure fission spectrum.

  15. MELCOR 1.8.1 Assessment: LOFT integral experiment LP-FP-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kmetyk, L.N.

    1992-12-01

    The MELCOR code has been used to model experiment LP-FP-2, an important source of integral data for qualifying severe accident code predictive capabilities. This assessment analysis clearly demonstrates MELCOR's ability to fulfill a large part of its primary, intended use, the calculation of severe accidents from full-power steady-state initiation through primary-system thermal/hydraulic response and core damage to fission product release, transport and deposition. After a number of code errors were identified and corrected, few nonstandard inputs and no code problem-specific modifications were needed to provide reasonable agreement with test data in all areas considered. Code-to-code comparisons show that MELCOR does at least as well as other ''best-estimate'' (i.e., SCDAP/RELAP5) or integral (i.e., MAAP) codes in predicting the thermal/hydraulic and core responses in this large-scale, integral experiment; in fact, MELCOR and MAAP appear to give the best agreement with data, especially for clad temperature histories. Further, our code-to-code comparisons indicate that MELCOR does at least as well as ''best-estimate'' fission product codes in predicting the source term, with a number of such codes having to be run in tandem and driven by test data or other ''best-estimate'' thermal/hydraulic and core damage codes to provide results equivalent to a single, integrated MELCOR calculation

  16. Radiation shield for nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weissenfluh, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    A reusable radiation shield for use in a reactor installation comprises a thin-walled, flexible and resilient container, made of plastic or elastomeric material, containing a hydrogenous fluid with boron compounds in solution. The container can be filled and drained in position and the fluid can be recirculated if required. When not in use the container can be folded and stored in a small space. The invention relates to a shield to span the top of the annular space between a reactor vessel and the primary shield. For this purpose a continuous toroidal container or a series of discrete segments is used. Other forms can be employed for different purposes, e.g. mattress- or blanket-like forms can be draped over potential sources of radiation or suspended from a mobile carrier and placed between a worker and a radiation source. (author)

  17. Integration and Testing Challenges of Small Satellite Missions: Experiences from the Space Technology 5 Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauerwein, Timothy A.; Gostomski, Tom

    2007-01-01

    three spacecraft, learning and gaining knowledge and efficiency as spacecraft #1 integration and testing progressed. They became acutely familiar with the hardware, operation and processes for I&T, thus each team member had the experience and knowledge to safely execute I&T for spacecraft #2 and #3 together. The integration team was very versatile and each member could perform many different activities or work any spacecraft, when needed. Daily meetings between the three Lead TCs and technician team allowed the team to plan and implement activities efficiently. The three (3) spacecraft and PSS were successfully integrated and tested, shipped to the launch site, and ready for launch per the I&T schedule that was planned three years previously.

  18. Shielding correction to bodywork of in-situ object counting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Tiancheng; Chen Wei; Long Bin; Su Chuanying; Wu Rui; Jia Mingyan; Cheng Jianping

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the methods of experiment and calculation for shielding correction to the bodywork of in-situ object counting system (ISOCS) using a plane source of 152 Eu. The shielding correction coefficients were obtained in the conditions that the HPGe detector of BE5030 with the collimators of 50 mm-90 degree, 50 mm-30 degree or 50 mm-180 degree, and the detector distance 58.2 cm from ground surface. The relationships between the shielding correction coefficients and γ-ray energies were fitted by the least square method, for the shielding correction calculation of any energy within 122-1 408 keV by interpolation. (authors)

  19. Hydrogen-Induced Cracking of the Drip Shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    F. Hua

    2004-01-01

    Hydrogen-induced cracking is characterized by the decreased ductility and fracture toughness of a material due to the absorption of atomic hydrogen in the metal crystal lattice. Corrosion is the source of hydrogen generation. For the current design of the engineered barrier without backfill, hydrogen-induced cracking may be a concern because the titanium drip shield can be galvanically coupled to rock bolts (or wire mesh), which may fall onto the drip shield, thereby creating conditions for hydrogen production by electrochemical reaction. The purpose of this report is to analyze whether the drip shield will fail by hydrogen-induced cracking under repository conditions within 10,000 years after emplacement. Hydrogen-induced cracking is a scenario of premature failure of the drip shield. This report develops a realistic model to assess the form of hydrogen-induced cracking degradation of the drip shield under the hydrogen-induced cracking. The scope of this work covers the evaluation of hydrogen absorbed due to general corrosion and galvanic coupling to less noble metals (e.g., Stainless Steel Type 316 and carbon steels) under the repository conditions during the 10,000-year regulatory period after emplacement and whether the absorbed hydrogen content will exceed the critical hydrogen concentration value, above which the hydrogen-induced cracking is assumed to occur. This report also provides the basis for excluding the features, events, and processes (FEPs) related to hydrogen-induced cracking of the drip shield with particular emphasis on FEP 2.1.03.04.OB, hydride cracking of drip shields (DTN: M00407SEPFEPLA.000 [DIRS 170760]). This report is prepared according to ''Technical Work Plan (TWP) for: Regulatory Integration Modeling and Analysis of the Waste Form and Waste Package'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169944])

  20. Novel shielding materials for space and air travel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vana, N.; Hajek, M.; Berger, T.; Fugger, M.; Hofmann, P.

    2006-01-01

    The reduction of dose onboard spacecraft and aircraft by appropriate shielding measures plays an essential role in the future development of space exploration and air travel. The design of novel shielding strategies and materials may involve hydrogenous composites, as it is well known that liquid hydrogen is most effective in attenuating charged particle radiation. As precursor for a later flight experiment, the shielding properties of newly developed hydrogen-rich polymers and rare earth-doped high-density rubber were tested in various ground-based neutron and heavy ion fields and compared with aluminium and polyethylene as reference materials. Absorbed dose, average linear energy transfer and gamma-equivalent neutron absorbed dose were determined by means of LiF:Mg,Ti thermoluminescence dosemeters and CR-39 plastic nuclear track detectors. First results for samples of equal aerial density indicate that selected hydrogen-rich plastics and rare-earth-doped rubber may be more effective in attenuating cosmic rays by up to 10% compared with conventional aluminium shielding. The appropriate adaptation of shielding thicknesses may thus allow reducing the biologically relevant dose. Owing to the lower density of the plastic composites, mass savings shall result in a significant reduction of launch costs. The experiment was flown as part of the European Space Agency's Biopan-5 mission in May 2005. (authors)